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HyperMesh 8.0 User's Guide

HyperMesh 8.0 User's Guide

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Published by: Subhash Chander on Jul 07, 2011
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Sections

  • Hardware and Operating Systems
  • Starting HyperMesh
  • Starting HyperMesh Batch Version
  • Start-up Options
  • Configuring HyperMesh
  • Configuration File Commands
  • Start-up Files
  • Specifying a Temporary File Directory
  • HyperMesh Database Design
  • Database Names
  • Using and Saving a Database
  • Nodes
  • Fixed Points
  • Free Points
  • Collectors
  • Elements
  • Lines
  • Surfaces and Faces
  • Systems
  • Loads
  • Cards
  • Vectors
  • Title
  • HyperMesh Environment
  • Pull-Down menus
  • Graphics Area
  • Toolbar Area
  • Header Bar
  • Main Menu Area
  • Page Menu
  • Tab Area
  • Model Browser
  • Include Browser
  • Modules
  • Loadsteps Browser
  • Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles
  • Panels
  • Sub-panels
  • Input Controls
  • File Browser
  • The Mouse
  • Rapid Menu
  • Keyboard
  • Secondary Menu
  • Utility Menu
  • BOM comparison tool
  • Quick TetraMesh
  • User Profiles
  • HyperMesh User Profile
  • Using HyperMesh
  • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database
  • Picking Entities on the Screen
  • Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements
  • Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu
  • Viewing Models
  • Using the disp (display) Panel
  • Setting View Options
  • Setting Tolerances
  • Setting Global Parameters
  • Importing and Exporting Data
  • Printing Screen Images
  • Using the Card Previewer
  • General Process for Building Models
  • Creating Collectors
  • Reading Geometry
  • Creating Geometry Data
  • Temporary Nodes
  • Picking Surfaces
  • Editing Surfaces
  • Associativity
  • Geometry Cleanup
  • Building Elements
  • Checking Model Quality
  • Applying Loads
  • Creating Systems
  • Automatic Mesh Generation
  • Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel
  • Mesh Generation Algorithms
  • Smoothing Algorithms
  • Element Biasing
  • Linked or Locked Edges
  • Connector Entity
  • Connector Terminology
  • Connector Definition
  • Connector Realization
  • Connector Review
  • Connectors User Control Mode
  • Master Connectors File
  • Multiple Weld File Format
  • Import Templates
  • FE Configuration File
  • FE Definition Examples
  • HyperMorph Strategies
  • The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing
  • Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains
  • Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • HyperBeam Module
  • Example of the Three-Step Process
  • Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam
  • HyperBeam Environment
  • Section Browser
  • Shell Section Graphics Pane
  • Results/Spreadsheet Pane
  • HyperBeam Menu Bar
  • HyperBeam Toolbar
  • Beam Cross Section Property Solver
  • Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements
  • Defining a Cross Section
  • Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties
  • Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver
  • Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers
  • HyperLaminate Module
  • HyperLaminate Environment
  • HyperLaminate Menus
  • HyperLaminate Toolbar
  • Laminate Browser
  • Define/Edit Pane
  • Review Pane
  • Finite Difference Module
  • Creating a Finite Difference Block
  • Creating a Structured Mesh
  • Loads on Geometry
  • Terminology and Definitions
  • Application of Loads to Geometry
  • Exporting Loads
  • Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh
  • Distributed Load Mapper
  • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results
  • Select a data type and a mapping method
  • Set the scale factor
  • Set the mapping algorithm
  • Mathematical Loading
  • Post-Processing Analysis
  • HyperMesh Results Database
  • Specifying the Results File
  • Creating Deformed Geometry Plots
  • Creating Animations
  • Creating Vector Plots
  • Creating Contour Plots
  • Creating Assigned Plots
  • Adding Plot Identification
  • Inspecting the Results
  • XY Plotting
  • XY Plots Module
  • Creating an XY Plot
  • Modifying an XY Plot
  • Working with Multiple XY Plots
  • Modifying Multiple XY Plots
  • Creating Curves on XY Plots
  • Modifying Curve Attributes
  • Displaying Selected Curves on Plots
  • Using the Curve Editor
  • AutoDV Introduction
  • Generation of Perturbation Vectors
  • Manual Perturbation
  • Polynomial Perturbation Vectors
  • Primary Domain Model
  • Primary Domain Node Sets
  • Control Perturbations
  • Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets
  • Harmonic Perturbation Vectors
  • Generation of Variable Loads
  • Running AutoDV Stand-alone
  • Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
  • To create an H3D file from HyperMesh:
  • H3D FAQ's
  • Free Body Diagrams
  • FBD Set Manager
  • FBD Displacements
  • FBD Forces
  • FBD Cross-section manager
  • FBD Resultant Force and Moment
  • FBD Results Manager
  • FBD Export Manager
  • FBD Grid Point Force Balance

HyperMesh 8.

0 User's Guide

HyperWorks

Altair Engineering Contact Information
Web site FTP site www.altair.com Address: ftp.altair.com or ftp2.altair.com or http://ftp.altair.com/ftp Login: ftp Password: <your e-mail address>

Location
North America China France Germany India

Telephone
248.614.2425 86.21.5393.0011 33.1.4133.0990 49.7031.6208.22 91.80.6629.4500 1.800.425.0234 (toll free) 39.800.905.595 81.3.5396.1341 81.3.5396.2881 82.31.716.4321 46.46.286.2052 44.1926.468.600 55.11.4223.5733 64.9.413.7981 64.9.413.7981

e-mail
hwsupport@altair.com support@altair.com.cn francesupport@altair.com hwsupport@altair.de support@india.altair.com

Italy Japan Korea Scandinavia United Kingdom Brazil Australia New Zealand

support@altairtorino.it support@altairjp.co.jp support@altair.co.kr support@altair.se support@uk.altair.com br_support@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com

The following countries have distributors for Altair Engineering: Mexico, Romania, Russia, South Korea, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan and Turkey. See www.altair.com for complete contact information. © 2007 Altair Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated to another language without the written permission of Altair Engineering, Inc. To obtain this permission, write to the attention Altair Engineering legal department at: 1820 E. Big Beaver, Troy, Michigan, USA, or call +1-248-614-2400.

Trademark and Registered Trademark Acknowledgments
Listed below are Altair HyperWorks applications. Copyright Altair Engineering Inc., All Rights Reserved for: HyperMesh 1990-2006; HyperView 1999-2006; OptiStruct 1996-2006; HyperStudy 1999-2006; ® ® ® HyperGraph 1995-2006; HyperGraph 3D 2005-2006; MotionView 1993-2006; MotionSolve 2002-2006; ® ® ® ® HyperForm 1998-2006; HyperXtrude 1999-2006; HyperOpt 1996-2006; HyperView Player 2001-2006; ® Process Manager™ 2003-2006; HyperWeb 2002-2004; Data Manager™ 2005-2006; Templex™ 19902006; Manufacturing Solutions ™ 2005-2006 All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
® ® ® ® ® ® ©

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Starting and Configuring HyperMesh
Hardware and Operating Systems ......................................................................................1 Starting HyperMesh .............................................................................................................2 Starting HyperMesh Batch Version .....................................................................................5 Start-up Options ...................................................................................................................6 Configuring HyperMesh.......................................................................................................7 Configuration File Commands .............................................................................................9 Start-up Files ......................................................................................................................21 Specifying a Temporary File Directory ..............................................................................21

HyperMesh Database and Environment
HyperMesh Database Design............................................................................................22 Database Names ...............................................................................................................22 Using and Saving a Database...........................................................................................22 Nodes .................................................................................................................................22 Fixed Points .......................................................................................................................22 Free Points .........................................................................................................................22 Collectors ...........................................................................................................................23 Elements ............................................................................................................................27 Lines ...................................................................................................................................30 Surfaces and Faces...........................................................................................................32 Systems..............................................................................................................................33 Loads..................................................................................................................................33 Cards..................................................................................................................................33 Vectors ...............................................................................................................................33 Title.....................................................................................................................................34 HyperMesh Environment ...................................................................................................35 Pull-Down menus...............................................................................................................37 Graphics Area ....................................................................................................................39 Toolbar Area ......................................................................................................................40 Header Bar .........................................................................................................................44 Main Menu Area.................................................................................................................46 Page Menu .........................................................................................................................46
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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide i

Tab Area.............................................................................................................................47 Model Browser ...................................................................................................................48 Include Browser .................................................................................................................57 Modules ..............................................................................................................................63 Loadsteps Browser............................................................................................................64 Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles ............................................................65 Panels ................................................................................................................................69 Sub-panels .........................................................................................................................70 Input Controls.....................................................................................................................71 File Browser .......................................................................................................................77 The Mouse .........................................................................................................................79 Rapid Menu ........................................................................................................................81 Keyboard ............................................................................................................................82 Secondary Menu ................................................................................................................86 Utility Menu ........................................................................................................................87 BOM comparison tool ........................................................................................................95 Quick TetraMesh..............................................................................................................112

User Profiles
User Profiles.....................................................................................................................127 HyperMesh User Profile...................................................................................................128

Using HyperMesh
Using HyperMesh ............................................................................................................128 Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database ..............................................................129 Picking Entities on the Screen .........................................................................................130 Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements .......................................................................132 Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu .....................................................................133 Viewing Models ................................................................................................................137 Using the disp (display) Panel .........................................................................................140 Setting View Options........................................................................................................142 Setting Tolerances ...........................................................................................................145 Setting Global Parameters...............................................................................................145 Importing and Exporting Data ..........................................................................................146 Printing Screen Images ...................................................................................................148 Using the Card Previewer................................................................................................150
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Building Models
General Process for Building Models ..............................................................................151 Creating Collectors ..........................................................................................................152 Reading Geometry...........................................................................................................153 Creating Geometry Data ..................................................................................................154 Temporary Nodes ............................................................................................................158 Picking Surfaces ..............................................................................................................158 Editing Surfaces ...............................................................................................................159 Associativity .....................................................................................................................161 Geometry Cleanup ...........................................................................................................162 Building Elements ............................................................................................................164 Checking Model Quality ...................................................................................................167 Applying Loads.................................................................................................................168 Creating Systems.............................................................................................................169

Automatic 2-D Mesh Generation
Automatic Mesh Generation ............................................................................................170 Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel.......................................................................172 Mesh Generation Algorithms ...........................................................................................173 Smoothing Algorithms......................................................................................................175 Element Biasing ...............................................................................................................176 Linked or Locked Edges ..................................................................................................179

Connectors
Connector Entity...............................................................................................................180 Connector Terminology ...................................................................................................181 Connector Definition ........................................................................................................185 Connector Realization......................................................................................................187 Connector Review............................................................................................................188 Connectors User Control Mode .......................................................................................188 Master Connectors File....................................................................................................189 Multiple Weld File Format ................................................................................................190 Import Templates .............................................................................................................191 FE Configuration File .......................................................................................................193 FE Definition Examples ...................................................................................................197

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide iii

HyperMorph and Morphing Strategies
HyperMorph Strategies ....................................................................................................199 The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing......................................................................201 Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains ..................................................220 Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................237 Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................263

Calculating Beam Properties
HyperBeam Module .........................................................................................................272 Example of the Three-Step Process................................................................................274 Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam ..............................................279 HyperBeam Environment.................................................................................................282 Section Browser...............................................................................................................283 Shell Section Graphics Pane...........................................................................................284 Results/Spreadsheet Pane..............................................................................................285 HyperBeam Menu Bar .....................................................................................................287 HyperBeam Toolbar .........................................................................................................294 Beam Cross Section Property Solver ..............................................................................296 Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements..................................................297 Defining a Cross Section .................................................................................................298 Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties .................300 Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver .........................................................................301 Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers ................................................................303

HyperLaminate and Composites
HyperLaminate Module....................................................................................................304 HyperLaminate Environment ...........................................................................................305 HyperLaminate Menus .....................................................................................................306 HyperLaminate Toolbar ...................................................................................................308 Laminate Browser............................................................................................................309 Define/Edit Pane ..............................................................................................................313 Review Pane ....................................................................................................................323

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Finite Difference Module
Finite Difference Module ..................................................................................................324 Creating a Finite Difference Block...................................................................................324 Creating a Structured Mesh.............................................................................................325

Boundary Conditions
Loads on Geometry .........................................................................................................327 Terminology and Definitions ............................................................................................328 Application of Loads to Geometry ...................................................................................329 Exporting Loads ...............................................................................................................330 Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh ..............................................330 Distributed Load Mapper .................................................................................................331 Load an input file containing CFD analysis results .........................................................333 Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, or ANSYS input file format) ...............................................................................................................334 Select a data type and a mapping method......................................................................334 Set the scale factor ..........................................................................................................334 Set the mapping algorithm ...............................................................................................335 Mathematical Loading......................................................................................................336

Post-Processing and XY Plots
Post-Processing Analysis ................................................................................................338 HyperMesh Results Database.........................................................................................338 Specifying the Results File ..............................................................................................339 Creating Deformed Geometry Plots ................................................................................339 Creating Animations.........................................................................................................339 Creating Vector Plots .......................................................................................................340 Creating Contour Plots.....................................................................................................340 Creating Assigned Plots ..................................................................................................340 Adding Plot Identification .................................................................................................341 Inspecting the Results......................................................................................................341 XY Plotting .......................................................................................................................342 XY Plots Module...............................................................................................................343 Creating an XY Plot .........................................................................................................344 Modifying an XY Plot........................................................................................................344 Working with Multiple XY Plots ........................................................................................344
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Modifying Multiple XY Plots .............................................................................................344 Creating Curves on XY Plots ...........................................................................................345 Modifying Curve Attributes...............................................................................................347 Displaying Selected Curves on Plots ..............................................................................347 Using the Curve Editor.....................................................................................................348

AutoDV
AutoDV Introduction .........................................................................................................351 Generation of Perturbation Vectors.................................................................................352 Manual Perturbation.........................................................................................................352 Polynomial Perturbation Vectors .....................................................................................353 Primary Domain Model ....................................................................................................353 Primary Domain Node Sets .............................................................................................354 Control Perturbations .......................................................................................................355 Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets ....................................................................357 Harmonic Perturbation Vectors .......................................................................................359 Generation of Variable Loads ..........................................................................................361 Running AutoDV Stand-alone .........................................................................................363

H3D Writer
Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh ...........................................................................365 H3D FAQ's .......................................................................................................................369

Free Body Diagrams
Free Body Diagrams........................................................................................................370 FBD Set Manager ............................................................................................................371 FBD Displacements .........................................................................................................375 FBD Forces ......................................................................................................................378 FBD Cross-section manager ...........................................................................................381 FBD Resultant Force and Moment ..................................................................................383 FBD Results Manager......................................................................................................386 FBD Export Manager .......................................................................................................388 FBD Grid Point Force Balance ........................................................................................390

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needs to be "ported" to each hardware platform on which HyperMesh runs. LINUX running RH 7. HyperMesh has an identical appearance and behavior on all platforms. 5. In general. However. Silicon Graphics family of workstations running IRIX 6.0. such as drawing a line on the screen. All UNIX ports are built around OpenGL. or information concerning future platforms. IBM running AIX 4. Some platforms may have limitations or extensions. Most of the HyperMesh source code is independent and can be compiled on various systems.3 or RH 8.2. depending on their level of sophistication.11. The following hardware platforms are currently supported: • • • • • • • Pentium-based PC or compatible running Windows WIN NT 4. or 5. HP-PARISC (HPUX) running 11.13 m. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. please contact your HyperMesh sales representative.0 User’s Guide 1 .0.23.Hardware and Operating Systems HyperMesh is not tied to a specific set of computer hardware or operating system and presents the same appearance on all platforms.1. WIN 2000/XP. a small portion of source code that controls the graphically oriented operations.5.5. This option is found in the Desktop icon in the Control Panel group. which prevents HyperMesh from redrawing immediately when a destructive windowing operation is performed. HP-ITANIUM (HPUX_IA32) running 11. Notes for PC Users If you are running Windows NT (depending on model size or processor speed) you may wish to turn the full drag option off. For more specific information concerning your hardware/software configuration. SUN workstations running Solaris 2.11 m and IRIX 6.0 or 11.3.3.8.

cfg. To start HyperMesh: 1. Starting HyperMesh in UNIX This section contains the instructions and optional arguments for starting HyperMesh on a UNIX workstation. see Configuring HyperMesh. 2 HyperMesh 8.0/altair/script/hm’ Once an alias is created. to have HyperMesh start and run according to the standards and preferences of your particular work site.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2. <altair_home>/altair/scripts/hm) and press the ENTER key. and Windows XP platforms. hm.cshrc file in the user home directory.cfg configuration file. see Start-up Files. Note: For more information about creating and using start-up files. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh.g. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. Or Create an alias for HyperMesh in the user . enter the full path of the HyperMesh script (e.alias or .. For more information about the hm.alias or .Starting HyperMesh This section explains how to start HyperMesh on UNIX. Windows 2000. enter hm at the command prompt to invoke HyperMesh. add the following line in the . You can create a start-up file or alter the HyperMesh configuration file. For example. At the operating system prompt.cshrc file: alias hm ‘/homes/applications/hm8.

4. The user profiles window is also accessible from the view pull-down menu. 2.Starting HyperMesh on PC During installation. The default working directory specified by the HyperMesh icon is the Windows default My Documents directory. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. By default. Choose the desired user profile and then click OK. From the Start menu. click Start and choose Programs. To exit HyperMesh. 5.0 User’s Guide 3 . HyperMesh starts and the main menu is displayed on the screen. Uncheck always show at startup to prevent this window from opening each time you load HyperMesh. From the Altair HyperWorks group: select HyperMesh. an Altair HyperWorks group is created in Programs on the Start menu. click quit. you may wish to change this directory. Since HyperMesh creates user files. 3. or Click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. User profiles affect the HyperMesh layout as well as features such as element quality checks. To start HyperMesh: 1. The quit button is located on the upper right-hand corner of the panel area on any of the main menu pages. a window opens prompting you to choose a user profile.

After Start in:. 4. 2. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. Select the Shortcut tab. enter the name and path of the directory in which you want to run HyperMesh. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. For example. Click Apply. The path to the HyperMesh executable displays after Target:. Your user files. Append the startup options to the path listed in Target:. 2. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. Select Properties. Select Properties. 3. 4 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select the Shortcut tab. 4.To change the working directory: 1.cmf and hmmenu. 5. command. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. 3.set. are created in this directory. if you do not want HyperMesh to write a command file. enter -nocommand after the HyperMesh path. To change/use startup options: 1.

5. To start HyperMesh batch version on UNIX: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 5 . Note: See Start-up Options for more information about the start-up arguments you can use. hmbatch terminates when it reaches the end of the command file or when it encounters *quit( ) in the command file. plot. To start HyperMesh batch version on PC: 1.cmf contains the HyperMesh commands to be executed. 4. command. Right -click on the hmbatch icon on the desktop. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh. –ccommand. the path to the hmbatch executable is displayed. 2. create.Starting HyperMesh Batch Version HyperMesh batch version (hmbatch) allows you to invoke HyperMesh in batch mode at the command line and run a command file. HyperMesh commands that require display (e. 6. 3. etc. to this path.g. After Cmd line:. 2.com) executable file in the /hm/bin directory. Append the option. fit. postscript. type hmbatch –ccommand. Select Properties.cmf and press ENTER. Since this batch version does not have graphical display.cmf.) are ignored. Click Apply. Select the programs tab. Locate and right-click on the hmbatch(. At the operating system prompt.

Print this message. The format of the command is: hm [ -version ] [-h] [-m] where: -version -h -m Display the current version. Do not prompt via a pop-up box. Set the text input field in the export panel to the specified file. Plays back the mouse commands in the mouse.res). Prevents HyperMesh from creating or writing to the command. fl. pre-set export paths.set. Causes HyperMesh to draw nodes to the PostScript file as circles. Opens the application in a window of the specified width and height in pixels (PC only). Automatically load the specified HyperMesh binary file.msf file Other options that can be specified after the start-up command allow you to specify model or results files or run command or mouse files. nodes are not drawn. Sets the global template file to the specified file.msf -nobg -nocommand -psdhm -r[filename] -rres -s<width><height> -templex -t<filename> -titlepause -u<profile> -writemastermenu 6 HyperMesh 8. Automatically run the specified command file. res (-r alone specifies the file fl. Allows Templex within command files. Write the mouse commands to a mouse.set file to replace the installed hmmenu.Start-up Options You can enter arguments after the hm command that allow you to specify which command file to run.res suffix.cmf file. Otherwise. Sets the name of the HyperMesh results file database to either the input filename with a . Forces HyperMesh to run in the foreground. Start HyperMesh under a specific user profile: for example.hm -c<filename> -continue Read the HyperMesh file. These options include: fl. or to print messages.hm. change screen resolutions. Use the results file. Causes HyperMesh to pause on the title splash screen until you press a key on the keyboard. -uAnsys to start HyperMesh under the Ansys user profile.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Allows you to write a master hmmenu. Always continue on error when processing a command file.msf file. or the specified file. -e<filename> <filename> -mmouse.

The hm. only on start -up. The commands are not sensitive to location in the file. Each of the hm. The following commands are an example of a partial hm.cfg file: *menufont(2) *titlefont(3) *graphicfont(1) Note: HyperMesh accesses the configuration file.cfg file are acknowledged.cfg file allow you to: • • • • • Specify an absolute pointing deviceabsolutepointer_configuration_command>Config Enable buttonbuttons_configuration_command>Config and dialdials_configuration_command>Config input Specify default translatorsfeinput_default_configuration_command>Config and templatesfeoutput_default_configuration_command>Config Specify the default solversregistersolver_configuration_command>Config Specify default graphicsgraphicfont_configuration_command>Config.Configuring HyperMesh HyperMesh has a default configuration file named hm. menumenufont_configuration_command>Config.cfg. HyperMesh uses the following order of precedence: PC customization path current (local) directory installation directory UNIX current (local) directory home directory installation directory All running copies of HyperMesh must be restarted before any changes to the hm. and titlestitlefont_configuration_command>Config fonts Specify the default legend colorlegendcolorfile_configuration_command>Config Specify a color to use for entities with no resultsnoresultcolor_configuration_command>Config Change cursor sizebigcursors_configuration_command>Config Turn element and geom handlesnopickhandles_configuration_command>Config off by default Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending PostScript files to a PostScript printerpostcopy_configuration_command>Config Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending black and white PostScript filespostcopyblackandwhite_configuration_command>Config to a PostScript printer • • • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.cfg file to save your preferences. with each command occupying one line. hm.cfg file controls certain aspects of how HyperMesh runs at your particular site.0 User’s Guide 7 . The commands in the hm. which is read on start-up and is located in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/ directory.cfg file exists in multiple directories.cfg commands begins with an asterisk and is followed by a set of parentheses that enclose a variable number of arguments.cfg. A command can be turned into a comment by removing the asterisk (*) preceding the command. They may begin in any column. You can edit the commands in the hm. If the hm. or all of the commands may be on one line.

recent files imported and recent files loaded.tcl file 8 HyperMesh 8.ini Fatigue.cfg file Any printer settings (which may also exist in hm. hmcustom. iges. model or include browser).tcl should not be edited and its format will change between releases. Hmsettings. Multiple paths can be specified as variable values within this variable name.ini.ini. This prevents them from being overwritten when you install a new HyperWorks update.ini files. HyperMesh uses this file to record various GUI settings for each user. in order to use configuration files stored in a different file path. However. Customization paths You can store configuration files in a file path other than the ones to which they are installed by default.g. such as tab locations (left/right/both/none). called hmsettings.set file Cadreader.cfg file hyperlaminate. such as catia.cfg file userpage. deleting this file can restore your HyperMesh settings to the default state if you encounter problems within the HyperMesh user interface that you cannot rectify by any other means.cfg file hmexec file feconfig. However. The configuration files which can be used in conjunction with customization paths are: hm.tcl.cfg). administrators must set up an environment variable called HW_CONFIG_PATH to specify the path. or ug. Set the screen size Specify the colormap version Set the default graphics simplification mode Tells HyperMesh to load the 3D Writer Specify the input translator and component format Specifies which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system Display the Utility menu when HyperMesh starts Include intermediate (not just the final choice) rotation commands There is another configuration file stored in "My Documents" on the Windows platform and in ~/.altair on Unix and Linux.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .• • • • • • • • • • • • • Note: Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending ASCII files to a PostScript printerprintfile_configuration_command>Config Specify how to create a PostScript file of the screenpostfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Specify how to create a bitmap file of the screenscreenfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Indicate to HyperMesh the method for creating bitmap files Set reverse video when your printer cannot be set to reverse black and white. HyperMesh creates this file automatically when upon exiting the program. key bindings.mac file hmmenu. tabs which are visible (e.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 9 . *boldmenufont () Description Syntax To force the menu font to bold on windows. *boldmenufont(state) state 1 = bold 0 = use current value Comments The menu system in HyperMesh. (An absolute pointer usually has six buttons. This command allows you to force the menu system to use a bold font.Configuration File Commands The following is a list of the configuration commands that you can use to control how HyperMesh runs at your particular site: *absolutepointer() Use this command if you have a digitizing tablet or any other type of absolute pointing device.) *bigcursors() Informs HyperMesh that pointing cursors should be double-sized when they are displayed on the screen. under Windows. You can also change the cursor size by selecting large or standard under cursor size: on the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text.

the following output is generated: *dynamicviewbegin() *quatrotate(-0.0. When mode is set to 1.0. *dials() This command informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with dials that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode. See *CE_FE_SetDetailsandRealize() for information on creating a coordinate system during realization. Immediate mode results in a faster initial response time.00228960797. but the operation will have a higher frame rate (faster). This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations.00170778765. Syntax Arguments Example *dynamicrotatemode(mode) mode Set to 1 or 0.000802068982.0.-5. In this case.00529684395.7397916e005. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu (See *buttons()).999985423) 10 HyperMesh 8. but a lower frame rate (slower).00785649346.*buttons() Informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with buttons that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode.0047803938.0. *dynamicrotatemode() Sets mode for output of intermediate rotation commands.0. if the *dials() command is not added to the configuration file. A value of 1 (default) to the function aligns the Y-axis of the coordinate system in the direction of FE and a value of 0 defines Xaxis and a value 2 defines Z-axis.0. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu. In this case.0. HyperMesh does not respond to dial input. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations. *ce_fe_orientaxis() This command is called from the HyperMesh configuration file to specify the axis of the system that needs to be aligned in the direction of FE during connector realization.000673180986.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . there may be a delay in the operation while the display list is being built. if the *buttons() command is not added to the configuration file. HyperMesh does not respond to button input.999937705) *quatrotate(-0.999966514) *quatrotate(0.00994070323.0. Syntax *controlkeyviewmode(mode) mode Note: 0 = immediate mode 1 = use display listing (default) When display listing is used. *controlkeyviewmode() Specify whether display listing should be done during control key assisted viewing.

reducing the size of the command file.657815.000000. 0. or a symbolic name for the translator.030465. *enablemacromenu() This specifies whether or not the macro Utility Menu should display when the program loads. 0 = off.000230328525. 0.722177.000000.0. -0. the Utility menu is displayed. 0.0. 8. The first part is the type of translator and the second part is a specific version of the translator. The symbolic name for each translator is listed below: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.00106667981.999996393) *dynamicviewend() When mode is set to 0. 0. only the finial position is output.886445. Comments 0.000395387048. *feinputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which translator in the import/CUSTOM sub-panel is the default. 1 = on (default). 0.964252.000327769044.*quatrotate(0.00100703597.000000.213868.299006. 0.761037.623743. Comments A symbolic name begins with a '#' character followed by the specification of the translator.000000. the following output is generated: *viewset(-0. -3. The specification contains two parts separated with a '\'.0.621393) 5. You can display or hide the utility menu from within HyperMesh by selecting Utility Menu from the View pull-down menu. Otherwise.0.575689. 2. 0.583235.612440. -0. 0. intermediate *quadrotate() rotation commands are output to the command file.00263644785. 0.9 99998898) *quatrotate(-0. -3.756111.0.0 User’s Guide 11 . By default. 1.485656.703590.0. When the mode is set to 1. Syntax *feinputdefault(filename) Arguments entity_type The name of any file found in the feinput directory. -8.

FE: #abaqus\abaqus #ansys\ansys #cmold\cmold #moldflow\moldflow #nastran\nastran #patran\patran #marc\marc #optistruct\optistruct #ls-dyna\dynakey #ls-dyna\\dynaseq #pamcrash\pamcrash #ideas\ideas #autodv\autodv #stl\stl #hmascii\hmascii GEOM: #catia\catia #iges\iges #ug\ug_16 #ug\ug_15 #stl\stl #vdafs\vdafs #hmascii\hmascii WELD: #spotweld\spotweld *feoutputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which template is the default. 12 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This command requires one argument which can be set to the name of any file found in the template/feoutput directory.

Syntax *graphicsimplificationmode(mode. The default simplification mode for performance graphics can also be set in the graphics subpanel in the options panel. The font size may also be changed during a HyperMesh session using the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. under Windows. This option can also be set using the engine: toggle in the graphics sub-panel of the options panel. style and curComp are not required. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. *graphicsimplificationmode() Sets the default simplification mode for performance graphics. This command allows you to force the menu system to use the historical fonts. *graphicengine() Sets the default graphics mode. and legends in the graphics area. element handles. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2).*forceoldmenufonts () To force the menu font to the old style. Syntax *graphicengine(mode) mode 0 = standard graphics 1 = performance graphics *graphicfont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display numbers. where: mode is set using view acceleration and when view acceleration is set to automatic or Ctrl-Shift. style. Syntax Note: *forceoldmenufonts() The menu system in HyperMesh. curComp) mode 0 = none 1 = automatic (default) 2 = Ctrl-Shift 0 1 2 3 4 5 = no simplification = feature lines (default) = bounding box = node cloud = element centroid = simplified shading style curComp 0 = do not simplify current component (default) 1 = simplify current component Note: If mode = 0. style is set using the simplification style switch and curComp is set using the simplify current comp check box. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text.0 User’s Guide 13 .

80. G. The font size may also be changed in the menu config sub-panel in the options panel.0.128). Syntax legendcolorfile(file) *legendsetbordercolor() Allows you to set the border color. Syntax *legendsetbordercolor(color) Comments *menufont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display the menu. *postcopy() Informs HyperMesh how to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. *nopickhandles() Informs HyperMesh that you wish to have element and geometry pick handles off by default. where R.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The command requires one parameter. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. Green and Blue. however. white (255. For example. This improves graphic performance. The color must be between 1 and 64. To circumvent this. a character string closed in double quotes "".*legendcolorfile() Informs HyperMesh which legend color file should be the default.255. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name.cfg file. 0-D elements (such as contact slave elements and mass elements) cannot be seen easily. Pick handles will be turned off when HyperMesh is started and turned off whenever a new file is loaded. This command links the PostScript capability of HyperMesh and allows plots of the currently displayed screen to be printed directly from HyperMesh. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. inclusively 14 HyperMesh 8. You can experiment with the values in the color sub-panel of the options panel. and B are the intensity values for Red. This command requires one argument that can be set to the name of any file found in the <install_directory>/hm/colors directory.G. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *postcopy() command to the operating system.255). This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2).80). The complete *postcopy() command of the above example is *postfile("postprt *filename").0. For testing purposes.100).175. black (0. *postcopy() is invoked when you press CTRL-F3. The element and geometry pick handles can be set in the modeling sub-panel of the options panel. The color assigned to these no result entities is specified in the hm. The default gray color values are *noresultcolor(80. The string is sent to the operating system and should be the standard command which you would use to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. *noresultcolor() Elements or nodes for which no results were found are assigned a color (default = gray) to distinguish them from an actual 0 result. if you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command postprt junk. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. or khaki (210. if this command is specified. then you would use *postcopy("postprt junk").0).B). you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. Other colors include: dark blue (0. The default color is specified with *noresultcolor(R. The only information unknown at startup is the name of the file. You can copy this file into your home directory and customize many of the default settings.

*rapidmenus() The rapid menu functionality for the middle mouse button may be turned off with this command.S. Syntax Argument *rapidmenus(mode) mode 0 1 Comments Disable rapid menus. "". Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. but allows you to use a different command to send a black and white PostScript file to a printer. This command is only used in the command file. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *printfile() command to the operating system. In general.0 User’s Guide 15 . If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. the string parameter required is set to a zero length string. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing./non-HyperMesh) tasks. To circumvent this. rapid menu functionality is enabled. If you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command print_it junk.dll"}."Hyper3Dwrite"."Hyper3Dwrite".g. O. *register3dwriter() Tells HyperMesh to activate the H3D writer. By default. *postfile() Sends the currently displayed screen to a PostScript file. a character string closed in double quotes. Disabling it may be desirable if you use the middle mouse button for other (e. The complete *printfile() command of the above example is *printfile("print_it *filename"). For testing purposes. use *printfile("print_it junk"). it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name.*postcopyblackandwhite() Identical to the *postcopy() command. PC Users: *register3dwriter({bin_dir+"/hm3dwriter31. *printfile() Informs HyperMesh how to send an ASCII file to a printer. Provided for consistency with the *screenfile() and *screencopy() commands. "Hyper3D") Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. The only information unknown at start-up is the name of the file. *postcopyblackandwhite() is invoked when you press CTRL-F5.1"}. For testing purposes. This command requires one parameter. Enable rapid menus. *printfile() is invoked in the summary panel on the Post page."Hyper3D") UNIX Users: *register3dwriter({bindir+"/hm3dwriter3. The string provided is sent to the operating system and should be the command which you normally use to send a file to a printer.

The status bar indicates when the screen grab is complete.fem *memory in MB."value:options") solver The name that you want to appear on the toggle in the solver panel. On UNIX platforms. "file:input". after substituting the user-input parameters. "*solver *input.sdp is created by HyperMesh. depending on the expected input. This command allows you to set up and customize the solver panel in HyperMesh. By default."outfile:output file".0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A character string that is passed to the operating system to invoke the solver. *input is replaced by the input file (the extension is always . The third parameter undergoes the substitution with the user-input values. > *output. For more information on spooling bitmapped files directly to the printer. This command takes several arguments: Syntax *registersolver({solver}. 16 HyperMesh 8.*registersolver() Informs HyperMesh which solvers are available and how to invoke them. The number of strings is identical to the substitutable fields in the third argument. Example *registersolver(OPTISTRUCT. This command is necessary only if the hard copy device on your system is not reverse video capable. *solver is replaced by the solver executable name. a site-specific operating system utility is called to create and spool the image to the printing device. the colors representing black and white should be reversed.out". The name of the solver executable file. contact your systems administrator. The solver field can be of type value or file. A maximum of six fields are allowed per solver. Reverse video can also be set in the postscript sub-panel of the options panel."{home}\ {solver}".out)."infile:input file". where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. "value:memory in MB". *screencopy() Tells HyperMesh how to create a temporary bitmap file of the screen and send it to a hard copy device. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. and one for the output file name. Functionally. "file:output") Arguments This command creates a solver panel with four user-input fields. which is a value. one for the input file name.) *memory in MB is replaced by the value."*solver *input file *output file *options". A file named sliden. *output is replaced with the user-selected output file (the extension for output file is always . Each character string represents an input field. a file is created but not spooled to the print device (the CTRL-F1 and CTRL-F2 keys function identically) and you must click the active HyperMesh window to trigger the screen capture. A character string that is of type file or value. one for the solver executable.fem. one for the memory in MB. *reversevideo() Informs HyperMesh that before the strings provided as parameters in the *screencopy() and *screenfile() commands are sent to the operating system. optistruct.

height. width). If you use a wide aspect ratio screen. *screensize(1200. The numbers are physical measurements of the display area of the screen (width. A file named sliden. Syntax *setcolor(index.30) is implemented. The first parameter is the horizontal (x) dimension of the screen. The *screensize() option changes the aspect ratio of the images drawn in the graphics area. you must select the HyperMesh window to indicate which window to capture. height). HyperMesh generates a *. When *screensize(14. The name of the file can be accessed with the characters *filename. The units used are not important but must be consistent. To determine this value. while screen resolutions are typically listed width by height. thus. The command requires two parameters in real format separated by a comma. red. On the PC.8.1920) should allow HyperMesh to render undistorted images. For example. change the two values to any numbers that have the same aspect ratio of the screen resolution that you use. On UNIX platforms.75. (1 through 64) The color’s red component. *setcolor() Set a colormap entry for each of the entity colors. Note: in some cases. even after specifying the screen measurements the display can still appear distorted. a bitmap file is generated using the utility defined in the *screenfile() function (typically xwd) and output to a unique file using the same process as above.6). For more information about creating bitmap screen images.sdf is created by HyperMesh. Remember that the command parameters represent height and width respectively. (0 through 255) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. follow the same method as described above and measure the vertical dimension of the screen. although the look of HyperMesh doesn’t change.*screenfile() Informs HyperMesh how to create a bitmap file of the screen that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device (such as a printer). (0 through 255) The color’s green component.bmp file that can be read into wordprocessing programs. blue) index red green blue Specifies the color location. (0 through 255) The color’s blue component. The second parameter is the vertical (y) dimension of the screen.g.0 User’s Guide 17 . measure the horizontal dimension of the usable portion of the screen excluding any borders in the default window that HyperMesh creates (or the entire screen if your system does not use windows). Circles may look like ovals. After you press CTRL-F2. To find this value. A message on the status bar indicates when the screen capture is complete. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. it’s important to remember to use the correct order for the command (e. Functionally. *screensize() Informs HyperMesh of the physical size of your monitor. the proportions of the objects is corrected. green. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. In such cases. the length/width ratio of the objects may be distorted. contact your system administrator. if your desktop runs at a resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels (an aspect ratio of 1.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .( ) _ = + \ | [ ] } . : ‘ / ? .*setcomponentformat() The first parameter of this command specifies which feinput translator you would like to use.0. horizontal direction of screen. Example: *setcomponentformat(ansys. This command may be used in either the hm. which represents lighting the model as you are looking at it. 0-9. while the second parameter specifies the format you want your components to follow when importing them to HyperMesh.cfg file or from a command file. Currently. y. z) x y z Comments X axis location.0. Here are some examples of what the component above will show: TYPE3-MAT2 -REAL2-ESYS2 TYPE1-MAT1 -REAL1-ESYS0 TYPE2-MAT2 -REAL3-SECID1-ESYS0 The following characters can be used to customize the name of the components: A-Z. and the following: ‘ ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * . 1. Symbols mean that everything encapsulated between the two symbols is displayed only if the element uses a section ID. Place the real number here. only the ANSYS feinput translator supports this command. Place the section ID number here. Z axis location. Syntax *setlightsource(x. Place the material number here. . "TYPE%t-MAT%m-REAL%r<-SECID%s>-ESYS%e") %t %m %r % <> %e Place the type number here. spaces. a-z. Y axis location. in/out of screen. Place the element coordinate system number here. 0. The default setting is 0.0. 18 HyperMesh 8. *setlightsource() Set direction of the global light source. vertical direction of screen.

7. 5 is the default).0) The blue component of the reflected light (range 0.5. this usually occurs in models that are large in one direction. After altering this value you must restart HyperMesh to see the changes. Raising or decreasing shading quality by 1 roughly doubles or halves the quality. Syntax *setperformancenormalmode(mode) mode Comments 0 = flat normals (default) 1 = smooth normals This command can only be used in the configuration file. however.32) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.7.0.0.1.0.0) The shininess value.7.0. that N does not need to be an integer—decimal values are acceptable. *setspecularity(0.*setperformancenormalmode() Set the performance graphics normal mode.0) The green component of the reflected light (range 0.0 – 1.0. or from a command file. the smaller and brighter the highlight (range 0 – 128) shininess Comments This command may be used in either the hm.0.5.0. The higher the value.5. Specular reflection from an object produces highlights. Add or modify the *shadingquality(N) command in the hm. green.64) Lead *shadingquality() Shaded geometry visualization sometimes does not follow the actual geometry. Example Settings may be used to simulate different materials: Glass *setspecularity(1. It is brightest along direct angle of reflection.0 User’s Guide 19 . *setspecularity() Set the global specular highlight values for performance graphics mode.cfg file.1. but small in another direction. Note.cfg file (where N is a number between 1 and 10.128) Plastic *setspecularity(0.0 – 1. Syntax *setspecularity(red.0 – 1. blue. shininess) red green blue The red component of the reflected light (range 0. The amount of specular reflection seen depends on the location of the viewpoint.

*. The X version of HyperMesh requires a 256 color palette. In general. A non-shared colormap can be used. This command requires two parameters. However. On some platforms. This program.*sharedcolormap() Informs HyperMesh which colormap method should be used in the X version. 20 HyperMesh 8. if your system is unique or if HyperMesh warns about one of the default fonts. This string may contain wild card. To assist you in determining the best X Lib font to assign to HyperMesh. displays the possible X Lib font sets interactively. the *xfontname() command must be modified. but may cause the rest of the system’s colors to change when the HyperMesh window is active and HyperMesh’s colors to change when the window is not active. some colors in HyperMesh may not be available and appear as black. With a shared colormap. This parameter may range from 1 to 4. Note that the font size may also be changed in the titles panel on the Post page. or a similar one. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). The second parameter is a string which locates the X Lib font which you want to assign to the HyperMesh font. *xfontname() Informs HyperMesh which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system. The first parameter indicates which of the four HyperMesh fonts is being assigned. the X Lib utilities are usually distributed with a program called xfontsel. the system colormap does not have 256 colors available. characters in the name. *titlefont() Informs HyperMesh which font size should be used to display titles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the configuration file should have the appropriate fonts for your system.

be aware that if you create entities in the start-up file. To avoid this problem. To create a start-up file: 1. and the directory from which HyperMesh was invoked. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 5. and then generates the same entities as specified by the command. Delete the command.hmexec on UNIX systems and hmexec on Windows systems. quit HyperMesh. Specifying a Temporary File Directory You can set the environment variable to control where temporary HyperMesh files are created. Execute any task that you want the start-up file to automatically perform when HyperMesh opens.. If the environment variable is set. the commands which were written when the start-up file was executed initially.0 User’s Guide 21 . 5. 3. To set the environment variable in UNIX: SETENV TMPDIR <directory path> To set the environment variable in Windows: 1. The file must be a HyperMesh command file and is named . Click the TMP line under User variables for . Rename command. it generates the entities specified in the start-up file. Edit the text after Value: to specify the correct path to the directory in which you want temporary files created. the directory where HyperMesh is installed. When HyperMesh is invoked. Start-up files allow you to automatically define global parameters for the current session of HyperMesh. If you rerun the command. it looks for this file and then processes the commands within the file.hmexec or hmexec. Although start-up files may contain any of the commands considered valid in a command file. you can either not generate any entities in the start-up file. or delete the start-up file commands in command. HOME).cmf file.cmf file. The directories searched include your customization path (if one is set up).cmf before you run it.. 2. Select the Environment tab. Click OK. including those generated by your start-up file.cmf. 4. double click the System folder.cmf file created during your HyperMesh session. 2. All commands executed by the HyperMesh command processor are written to the command file command. Start HyperMesh. After you have generated all of the necessary commands.cmf to the file name particular to your system. your home directory (where your home directory is assumed to be specified in the environment variable. then the temporary files are created with an HM prefix in the referenced directory.Start-up Files HyperMesh allows you to create a start-up file that can be used to either execute a series of commands or to define global parameters. if it exists. 4. 3. . problems may arise if you later want to rerun the command.cmf file when HyperMesh is started. On the Control panel.

and systems. points. lines. Nodes represent physical positions on the structure being modeled and are used by the element entity to define the location and shape of the element." 22 HyperMesh 8. Nodes The node is the most basic finite element entity. The automesher always places nodes at fixed points. HyperMesh copies the database into system memory. This allows you to select nodes and elements by surface. Fixed points are displayed in the same color as the surface to which they belong. HyperMesh automatically deletes from the database unused nodes and any loads that were attached to the unused nodes. Fixed Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. Fixed points may appear anywhere on a surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . loads. There are several types of collectors and each collector stores the model data relative to its type. However. all the changes that you have made during your work session are lost. The original database does not change until you save the model. if the current database has been modified but not saved. or are referenced by a card image. Free points are not associated with a surface and are labeled with a small "x. Free Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. or group.HyperMesh Database Design A HyperMesh database stores information about many different entity types. If you exit HyperMesh without saving the current database. Vertices along the edges of a surface are always marked by fixed points. All HyperMesh entities. This convention allows you to determine easily which of the files in a directory are HyperMesh databases. HyperMesh prompts you for confirmation before you exit. A fixed point is associated with a surface and is labeled with a small "o". Using and Saving a Database While you work on a model. elements. including nodes. Nodes are considered "used" if they are part of an element. at Altair we use the extension . Note: See Database Names for more information about naming conventions. are organized within collectors. HyperMesh entities include: Database Names There are no restrictions placed on HyperMesh database names other than those imposed by the operating system. Nodes contain a pointer to a surface and are therefore associated to a surface.hm for all HyperMesh binary databases. See Using and Saving a Database for more information about saving HyperMesh files. vector.

auto1. Operations performed on a component affect all the elements. Configurations 1-4 are created in the interfaces panel. elements. and surface data.0 User’s Guide 23 . You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information in the header bar. Entities can belong to only one collector. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. for those entities. and surfaces cannot exist unless a component collector exists. the elements are assigned properties from the property which they reference. for example. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. All entities within HyperMesh must belong to a collector. In this case. lines. Component collectors also retain property and material information about the entities that belong to it. Group Collectors Groups are collectors that are restricted to certain types of elements. You can use the collectors panel to modify the attributes of the auto1 component and the rename panel to change the name. For more information about reorganizing collectors. If you have not created a component first. line. and surfaces that belong to the component. rotated. All the elements in a component collector are assigned the same properties and materials except when the elements have a property reference.Collectors A collector gathers related data and allows you to handle the data as one unit. Configuration 5 is created in the rigid wall panel. or deleted. Note: Use the display panel to control the screen display of the collectors in your model. This restricted access lets HyperMesh translate special collections of entities as a unit and allows it to support advanced features of analysis codes. an element cannot exist in two different collectors. Lines. This allows you to organize geometry data into units that can be translated. Collectors can be modified and the entities within them can be reorganized. Component Collectors Components are collectors that contain element. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. Note: Collector names are limited to 160 characters. see the organize panel. HyperMesh automatically creates a component. assigned colors. HyperMesh automatically creates a collector for new entities if you do not create a collector first.

you can assign the specified properties to new 1-D elements by entering the collector name after property = when you create or update the elements. Block collectors contain information relating to a finite difference block. including its walls and cells.Assembly Collectors Assemblies are collectors that contain several components organized into a single logical unit. the components in the assembly are not deleted. One plot collector is created for each plot in the database. Components can belong to more than one assembly. If a model contains any non-rigid elements. Curve collectors contain information about the curves of an xy plot. 2-D or 3-D. Properties for all other element types.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . See the Finite Difference Module section for more information. Plot collectors contain pointers to curve collectors. A curve is referenced by selecting the plot collector. Operations performed on an assembly do not affect the components in the assembly. For example. Material Material collectors contain information about the materials in a HyperMesh model. A plot collector contains information associated with an xy plot. then the model should have at least one material collector. Plot Curve Block 24 HyperMesh 8. This information includes the name and color of the curve and the line style used to display the curve. You can set a component or property to the correct material collector by entering the collector name after material =. Entity Information Collectors These collectors maintain information about the entities assigned to them: Property Property collectors contain property information about 1-D elements and are required only when a model contains one or more of the following elements: bar2 bar3 gap joint masses rod spring After you create a property collector. are assigned by the component to which the elements belong. After an assembly is created. if you delete an assembly. you can select and display all the components that belong to it by selecting the assembly.

groups. then HyperMesh creates a collector called auto1. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. or components (each set can contain only one type of entity). and mbjoints entities. Hold and define rigid body properties for multi-body analysis. A load can belong to only one load collector. which allows you to access them as a unit. Output Blocks Some solvers allow you to request output results for specific nodes or elements. Multibody Collectors Setting collector type to multibodies in the collectors panel provides functionality for the creation and modification of multibody collectors. The output blocks entity is used to store these nodes. Note: A system cannot exist unless a system collector exists. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. A system can belong to only one system collector. which can be composed of specified elements. mbplanes. The method by which loads are organized may depend on the analysis code that is used to solve the problem. nodes. Typically. Load Steps The load steps entity allows you to select a set of load collectors. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of systems.0 User’s Guide 25 . the set of load collectors represents a system loading condition. elements. Multibody collectors serve multiple purposes: • • • Organizing HyperMesh’s ellipsoids. simulating a system loading condition. Note: If no collector has been created prior to the creation of vectors. a load collector contains loads that are to be applied at the same time. Additional information that can be included in sets are the name of the set and the type of entity contained within the set. which allows you to access a group of systems as a unit. systems. Typically. A system collector can hold any number of systems. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of loads. cylinders. Note: A load cannot exist unless a load collector exists. Vector Collectors Vector collectors allow you to organize vectors. Load Collectors Load collectors allow you to organize loads. Provide the rigid body reference for ellipsoids.System Collectors System collectors allow you to organize local coordinate systems. A vector collector can hold any number of vectors. components. or materials. Sets Collectors Set collectors contain lists of entity IDs. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and planes.

The types of multibody collectors available are dependent on the loaded solver interface specified as a template file in the global panel. Change. and the body’s local coordinate system.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The same fields and options available in the create sub-panel are also available in the update subpanel. use system assigns the selected system to the created body. Setting creation method: to same as assigns a copy of the card image of another multibody collector to the created collector. click on the edit button under the N1 selection box to bring up x=. center of gravity: provides an N1 node/geometry selection box to define the x. which is access through the card panel after the multibody collector has been created. location of the center of gravity. review and reset the multibody collector type. The name= text field is provided for specifying a name for the multibody collector being created and for reviewing the names of already existing multibodies. The name= field supports names up to 160 characters in length. and z. Review. Update a Multibody Collector The update sub-panel is provided to modify the body’s local coordinate system and center of gravity. creation method: assigns the multibody type specified in the card image= field. create provides four data blocks for defining: the collector’s name. duplicate system ensures a unique coordinate system is assigned to the created body by creating a duplicate of the selected coordinate system and assigning this duplicated coordinate system to the created body. For an alternative method to define the center of gravity. and Reset a Multibody Collector The card image sub-panel is used to define. drag the cursor over geometry to select it. body system assigns a copy of the local coordinate system assigned to the current multibody collector specified in the global panel. The most common type of multibody collector is a "rigid body". 26 HyperMesh 8. release the mouse button. the rename panel is available in the far left column of every HyperMesh page. click and hold left mouse button in the model window until the cursor becomes a square. and z= entry fields. change. center of gravity. Setting creation method: to no card image specifies that a multibody collector type is to be assigned at the time of creation but one can be assigned later in the card image sub-panel. Note: The element handles option in the modeling sub-panel (options panel) allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. To modify the name of a multibody collector. click anywhere on the geometry to define a location. Moments of inertia and other rigid body properties are defined in the multibody collector’s card image. Using or not using a card image has no bearing on how multibody collectors behave within HyperMesh and only effect data being exported. body local system: defines the body local coordinate system of the created body by assigning a local coordinate system entity to the multibody collector. card image type. To define a center of gravity location. If only surfaces or lines are available for selection. select a node on in the model window. There are three ways to define the body’s orientation. The N1 box contains the same functionality as the N1 selection buttons found elsewhere in HyperMesh. y. y=. Define.Create a Multibody Collector The create sub-panel is used for creating multibody collectors. The multibody types available are based on the template loaded in the global panel.

Each element has two associated variables: an element configuration and an element type.Elements Each element entity performs a specific task to facilitate a controlled and complete interface between HyperMesh and the analysis codes.. Element configurations include: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Element Configuration The element configuration defines the physical geometry (i. quad..e.0 User’s Guide 27 . HyperMesh can transfer the model to several different analysis codes. i. If a model uses only the basic element types. store. In modeling situations where specific analysis codes are used because of their unique capabilities. The element type allows you to define multiple analysis elements for each HyperMesh element. the model is not considered generic and does not transfer between analysis codes. quads.e. trias. The element configuration tells HyperMesh how to draw. and rigids. and work with the element. hex) of the element.

to distinguish between the different types. The type of the element controls the number of nodes used in the element and the permissible orientations of the element (configuration 22). Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mass Master3 Master4 Penta15 Penta6 Pyramid5 Type Name Spherical Revolute Cylindrical Planar Universal Translational Locking # nodes 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 Orientation none/systems/nodes none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems 1-noded mass element (configuration 1). A joint element does not allow types other than specified below. 6-noded wedge solid element (configuration 206). Note: For more specific information about using the HyperMesh templates. if an analysis code has two different quad elements and you wish to use both in a model. or output translator. offsets. 5-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 205). or 6-noded element with property and orientation systems or nodes. or orientation node. assign type1 to the first type of quad element and type 2 to the second type of quad element. 2-noded gap element with property reference and vector (configuration 70). For example. and pin flags (configuration 63). The template file HyperMesh uses to write the analysis deck recognizes the different element types and outputs them as configured. 4-. local vector. Supported Element Types HyperMesh supports the following element configurations: Bar2 Bar3 Gap Hex20 Hex8 Joint 2-noded bar element with property reference. and pin flags (configuration 60).Element Type Defines the category of the element. 8-noded brick solid element (configuration 208). refer to Template Design.) 15-noded wedge solid element (configuration 215). which allows the template. 28 HyperMesh 8. (Must be Type 1. local vector. or orientation node. 2-.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .) 4-noded master interface element (configuration 124). 20-noded brick solid element (configuration 220). 3-noded bar element with property reference. 3-noded master interface element (configuration 123). Examples of different types of quads within ABAQUS are S4R and S4R5. offsets. (Must be Type 1.

Multi-noded element with one independent node and a variable number of dependent nodes. 4-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 204). 10-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 210). 4-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 104). Multi-noded element with one dependent node and a variable number of independent nodes.Pyramid13 Plot Quad4 Quad8 RBE3 13-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 213) 2-noded plot element used for display purposes (configuration 2).0 User’s Guide 29 . 8-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 108). 1-noded slave interface element (configuration 135).) 3-noded slave interface element (configuration 133). (Must be Type 1. 2-noded rigid element (configuration 3).) 4-noded slave interface element (configuration 134). 3-noded triangular shell element (configuration 103). Each node contains a coefficient (weighting factor) and a user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 56). The independent node has user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 55). an orientation vector. Rigid Rigidlink Rod Slave1 Slave3 Slave4 Spring Tetra10 Tetra4 Tria3 Tria6 Weld Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2-noded beam element with property reference (configuration 61). and a property reference (configuration 21).) 2-noded spring element with user-defined degrees of freedom. 2-noded rigid element with user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 5). 6-noded triangular shell element (configuration 106). (Must be Type 1. (Must be Type 1.

By using elliptical segments or NURBS segments. Surface edges include: Free A free edge (displayed red) is a surface edge that belongs to a single surface which does not have other surfaces aligned with it within the specified cleanup tolerance. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number and type of line segments to represent the geometry. Used to represent lines that are not straight or elliptical. you can use surface edges as free lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or line drag panels. These edges (displayed yellow) are shared by more than two surfaces. Under certain conditions. Suppressed edges (displayed blue dotted) are the internal face edges within a surface. A shared edge cannot be changed back to a free edge. such as when you are working within the spline . and their color is determined by the status of the component. but are then less efficient. as well as many other types of curves. A joint is the common point between two line segments. A shared edge (displayed green) is a surface edge that is shared between exactly 2 surfaces. Suppressed edges allow the mesh to flow across or over these boundaries. Each line type in a line is referred to as a segment.Lines The line entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. You can use surface edges as a line in most panels. Non-manifold edges can be turned into shared edges by deleting one of the attached surfaces. NURBS can exactly represent the piecewise parametric cubic splines they replace. ruled. Line segments are maintained as a single line entity. However. In general. No nodes are placed along a suppressed edge. The end point of each line segment is connected to the first point of the next segment. A line can be composed of a single line type or multiple line types. Lines from CAD data are not attached to surfaces. An edge is a trim line of a surface. ellipse. Used to represent conics such as a circle. circles can be represented exactly in HyperMesh. A suppressed edge can be changed back to a shared edge. Shared Suppressed Non-Manifold /Duplicate 30 HyperMesh 8. All lines in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: • • • straight elliptical NURBS • • • Note: Used to represent a straight line between two points in space. or parabola. so operations performed on the line affect each segment of the line. their color is determined by the surfaces to which they belong. Nodes are placed along this edge during automeshing and recognized during meshing of bordering surfaces. These edges usually indicate a collapsed or very thin surface or a fully or partially duplicated surface. NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) may also be used to represent a straight or elliptical line.

0 User’s Guide 31 .The following panels can be used to create lines: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • circles fillets intersect lines section surface tangents The following panels can be used to change lines: delete line permute position project reflect reparam rotate scale translate Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Each face contains a mathematical surface and edges to trim the surface (if required). HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number of and type of surface faces to represent the geometry. Used to represent cylindrical or conical surfaces. A HyperMesh surface can be made of a single surface type or of multiple surface types. Multiple types are used for more complex surfaces that contain sharp corners or highly complex shapes. Used to represent a toroidal surface. All surfaces in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: plane cylinder/cone sphere torus NURBS Used to represent a planar surface. HyperMesh maintains all of the faces as a single surface entity.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In general. The following panels can be us ed to create surface entities: • • • • • • • • • • • surfaces primitives midsurface The following panels can be us ed to change surface entities: defeature permute position reflect rotate scale surface translate 32 HyperMesh 8. Used to represent surfaces which are not definable by the above surface types.Surfaces and Faces The surface entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. Surfaces define 2-D regions that may be used in automatic mesh generation. When a surface has several faces. Used to represent a spherical surface. Operations performed on the surface affect all the faces that comprise the surface. Each surface type is referred to as a face. NURBS may also be used to represent the above surface types but they are not as efficient.

By default. When you delete an analysis system. or both. or spherical. loads. Additionally. If a system does exist. you must set the proper orientation for element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom. is placed in the global system only if a system does not exist at that node. concentrated fluxes. concentrated moments. velocities. temperatures. HyperMesh does not maintain the proper orientation for the constraint when you create or delete local systems at the node where the constraint resides. For example. the orientation of the constraint is dictated by the local system. Cards The card entity allows you to create control cards such as CPU limits or Title cards. In HyperMesh. Entities that have a reference system are systems. as HyperMesh does not maintain these in the transfer from the local system to the global system. Analysis systems are typically used to transform element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom from the global system to a local system. and pressures are currently supported. a reference system is used to define the geometric positions of entities. each of these entities is defined in the global system with an ID of zero. may be rectangular. commonly called a coordinate system. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the model retains its cylindrical shape and also its location in space. Constraints. The only entity that may be defined in an analysis system is a node. Entities are always displayed in the transformed global system. and mass elements.Systems The system entity. HyperMesh allows you to modify the analysis system of an entity when you define the analysis system. cylindrical. Several systems may be nested. After a constraint has been applied. all the entities that were defined in that system are transferred to the global system. concentrated forces. accelerations. Loads are applied in the global system except when the reference system has been modified. You can use the systems panel to modify the reference coordinate system of an entity. If you delete a system. Control cards are defined within templates and are specific to one FE solver. nodal points. Loads The load entity allows you to add forces and constraints to the database. vectors can be created between two nodes and can change magnitude and direction as those nodes move through analysis. the position of the entity is maintained relative to the global system in the transformation process. When a reference system is deleted. Vectors are created in the global system unless a local coordinate system is defined. an analysis system. Vectors The vector entity allows you to define a three dimensional vector in the database. and an analysis system is used to transform the nodal coordinate system. and then delete the system in which the nodes are defined. A constraint.0 User’s Guide 33 . Vectors can be used for orientation of spring and gap elements or to specify a direction during selection. Note: A system may be a reference system. if you define a cylindrical structure in a cylindrical coordinate system. applied at a node.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and the text displayed in the title. including the name of the title. the color of the title. 34 HyperMesh 8.Title Title collectors contain title information.

0 User’s Guide 35 . It also displays the path and name of the file currently open in the active HyperMesh session.hm) file retrieved or saved in the active session FE or CAD import does not affect the current file Delete model clears the current file If no . this displays the current HyperMesh version. Use these options to access different areas of HyperMesh functionality. Like the pull-down menus in many graphical user interface applications. these menus "drop down" a list of options when clicked.hm model is retrieved or saved in the active session the current file field is empty Located just under the title bar. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.HyperMesh Environment There are several main areas in the HyperMesh window: These areas are described below: title bar Located at the top of the HyperMesh window. A current file is determined with the following rules: • • • • Pull-down menus The last HyperMesh (.

You can type HyperMesh commands directly into this text box and execute them instead of using the HyperMesh Graphical User Interface. Header bar Located between the main menu area and the toolbar area.Tab Area Located on the left. these buttons provide quick access to commonly-used functions. and model status information. or both sides of the graphics area. It displays the name of the current panel and user profile. Individual items (tabs) can be added to or removed from the Tab Area by selecting the item from the View pull-down menu. in a tabbed format. The main menu is divided into the panel area and the page list. Located across the bottom of the window. • • • Tab Area sidebars can be toggled on or off by use of the View pull-down menu. Tab Location sub-menu. Depending on your display resolution and the number of buttons. You can click-and-drag tabs to move them between the left and right Tab Area sidebars. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. Main menu Command Window secondary menu 36 HyperMesh 8. such as the Utility menu or Include browser. Located just under the graphics area. these sidebars display additional tools. right. Secondary menus can be accessed by using keyboard shortcuts. such as changing display options. Graphics area Toolbar Area Located above the tool bar(s): the graphics display area is where model geometry and mesh displays. or two toolbars stacked vertically. this area may contain one toolbar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Most menu items simply execute a command when selected. When clicked. enable access to many types of HyperMesh functionality. This approach sub-groups similar features together. Most menu options access HyperMesh panels. One example is the solver browser item found in the view menu. and helps prevent any single menu list from becoming excessively long. this is because some menu items have sub-menus of additional options. but some options perform other tasks such as configuring the layout of the HyperMesh environment. Each menu contains many different options. Selecting a submenu heading opens a sub-menu of options related to the submenu heading. Toggle Command Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and clicking on the menu name (such as File) "pulls down" a list of the options available in that menu: Notice that there are two lists of options displayed in this screen shot.0 User’s Guide 37 . This method allows similar commands to be grouped logically. rather than presenting every option in a single list (which could result in very long lists). Menu items can work in several different ways: Sub-Menu heading These items are marked with a triangular arrow. such as accessing a specific HyperMesh panel. these items are marked with a checkbox and activate or deactivate a feature. clicking it alternates between showing and hiding the solver browser in one of the Tab Area sidebars. located just beneath the title bar.Pull-Down menus The pull-down menus.

use the multiple files option in the import sub-menu. Tools for geometry editing and cleanup. HyperMesh preferences such as User Profiles. 38 HyperMesh 8. tetramesh. including element check settings. such as OptiStruct. solid map. Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu item.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . among other options. etc. or constraints. and export models and other files. Translate. Rotate. import. Reflect. among other options. Model properties such as materials. pressures. Each of the pull-down menus in HyperMesh groups certain types of functions: File Contains functions to load. To import multiple files. press the alt key to activate the menu area. or finding entities. and press enter to select a highlighted option. save. First.There are multiple ways to select a pull-down menu or a menu item within it: Mouse Keyboard (menu) Click the menu or menu item with the mouse. Morph. deleting. Meshing tools. global options. or Use the left and right arrow keys to move among the menu headings. Model quality checks. Note: To work with only one model at a time. use import. lighting. Access the on-line Help system. these keys are underlined (as the "F" in the File menu). View results of solved simulations (contour or vector plots. and keyboard configuration. Quickly access other HyperWorks programs. Boundary Conditions such as forces. for example). and the up and down arrow keys to open a menu and navigate among its options. etc. use load. element edit. Tools for creating and renaming collectors. Change the angle of view on the model. and contact surfaces. assemblies. moments. Then: Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu or item. To add extra models to your workspace. Keyboard (menu item) Menu items can be selected with the keyboard in two ways: or Use the arrow keys to move among list of options. Edit View Organize Geometry Mesh BCs Setup Checks Tools Applications Results Preferences Help Tools for masking. such as automesh. connectors. these keys are underlined (as the "O" in the Open). or Scale entities. or visibility and location of tab area items.

geometry. The graphics area dominates the HyperMesh environment and is framed by all of the other interface areas.Graphics Area The graphics area occupies the upper portion of the screen. Entities on the screen are selected for use in functions by clicking the desired entity with the mouse. Note: See Entity Selection for more information about picking entities. Models. and plots are displayed in this area. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 39 .

the two-row configuration is shown above. The toolbar buttons perform the following functions: Load. the property (PBEAM. or import files. save. thus the shell elements are colored in component color even in this mode. and edit solver-specific data. Notice that the toolbar may display in one or two rows. For example. Use this panel to individually determine how each component of your model displays its FE mesh. Access the visual attributes panel. the model elements’ colors change based on the components that contain them. but when the toolbar is too narrow to hold all of the buttons. set global modeling parameters. Edit solver-specific data in card format. if you select "by comp".Toolbar Area The functions on the toolbar allow you to manipulate the view of the model. Create or update property collectors. This button accesses the display panel.0. the property color of shell elements (quads and trias) in a NASTRAN model is the same as the component. This accesses the files panel. control which collectors are displayed in the graphics region.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to access other collector functions: Create or update material collectors. Access the collectors panel. Normally all of the buttons display on a single row. etc) is assigned directly to the element. a group of buttons automatically moves to the second row. many of these functions were contained in the permanent menu. the property assigned varies based on the solver used. Selects the element color style. Other options include: • By Prop: colors the elements based on their assigned properties. Note: In versions of HyperMesh prior to release 8. For example. The toolbar uses two different groups of visual icons to represent different HyperMesh functions. But for 1D elements such as bars and springs. Create or update load collectors. Turn the display of collectors on and off. This only applies when a valid template file has been specified in the global panel. Users already familiar with earlier HyperMesh releases will find the same functionality that the permanent menu offered now located in the toolbars. use the colors panel to change the colors of properties Note: 40 HyperMesh 8.

free edges in red. are colored according to the components that they belong to. Switches the mesh rendering mode to a shaded mode.g. geometry is colored based on topology. This helps you focus on 2D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. If geometry shading is turned on. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between skin-only and full wire frame (including internal lines). Surfaces that aren’t part of a solid are shaded in gray. 3-dimensional geometry (i.• By Mat: colors the elements based on the material assigned to the elements. bar. solid faces and their edges) is colored based on its topology. By 3D Topo: In this mode. This helps you focus on 3D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. and no lines. etc. all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology: shared edges drawn in green. etc. suppressed edges in blue. materials are assigned to elements via their components. 2-dimensional geometry (i. Note: • • . The topology of 2D geometry is ignored and drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel. use the colors panel to change the colors of materials. the faces of solids are also colored based on their topology: exterior bounding faces in transparent green. 2D shell elements in blue and 3D solid elements in red. Switches the mesh rendering mode to wire-frame mode. trias etc. feature lines. By Topo: In this mode. surface edit. etc. Determines how geometry features are colored. • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For example. The topology of 3D solid geometry is ignored (drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel). Other coloring options include: • Auto: In this mode the geometry coloring changes based on the panel you open.e. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between mesh lines. then each piece of geometry is re-colored based on the component that contains it. In most cases. 1D/2D/3D: colors 1D. lines. Some exceptions apply. if you select "by component". 2D and 3D elements differently. All the 1D elements are colored in green. By Comp: Surfaces. quad. . In the remaining panels (such as translate or delete). automesh). surfaces) that is not part of a solid is colored based on its topology. internal partition faces in yellow. . the geometry is colored based on its corresponding component.e.0 User’s Guide 41 . By Config: colors elements based on their configurationbeam. By 2D Topo: In this mode. The individual colors given to each configuration (such as spring or hexa) can be seen and changed in the element types panel. In panels geometry creation and editing panels (e.

Once active. click-and-drag in the graphics area to rotate the model. right-click and drag in the graphics area to zoom in/out.• Mixed: This mode behaves similarly to Topology mode in that all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology. right-click in the graphics area to change the graphics area center. or to alternate between two different views. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Opens the visualization pop-up panel. Click the downward arrow to choose between excluding and including surface lines. . Click the downward arrow for options: with edges or without them. or when you click either button while the pointer is in the graphics area. Right -click to activate dynamic spin mode. . (shared edges in green.) In addition. Draws model geometry as a wire-frame. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Once active. Once active. right-click to zoom out. Draws model geometry in shaded mode. Returns to the previous view. Left-click to deactivate. in shaded mode surfaces and solid faces are shaded in their components’ color. right-click in the graphics area and hold the mouse button down to make the model spin. This allows you to (for example) perform a free rotation on a model and then quickly return it to its original orientation. Left-click to deactivate. Left-click to deactivate. Right -click to deactivate. Right -clicking activates the dynamic zoom feature. left-click to zoom in. Once active. free edges in red. click-and-drag in the graphics area to pan the model view. Resizes the model view (by zooming in or out and panning the view as needed) in order to fit the model to the graphics area. Right -click to activate center mode. Circle zoom deactivates after zooming once. Pan modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate pan mode. etc. this works in one of two different ways: • Left-clicking activates the circle zoom feature. Right-click to deactivate. Rotate modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate dynamic rotate mode. Once active. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Zoom incrementally. 42 HyperMesh 8. Modal Zoom.

Click the left mouse button to rotate the model upward. and the right button to rotate it rightward.0 User’s Guide 43 . Rotate Up or Down: this is similar to pressing the up and down arrow keys on the keyboard. Open a pop-up menu used to save and retrieve user-defined or standard views. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Use spherical clipping to isolate portions of the model regardless of component or collector. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model leftward. See Keyboard for more information. You can use keyboard hot keys to access the same viewing options. Notes: See Viewing Models for more information about the viewing options available on the toolbar.Rotate Left or Right: this is similar to pressing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard. and the right button to rotate it downward Spherical clipping: accesses the spherical clipping panel.

When you are on one of the main menu pages (not within a panel). 44 HyperMesh 8. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Header Bar The header bar is located between the main menu area and the toolbar area.e. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. The header bar also displays a brief description of the panel when you hold down the left mouse button on the panel button (see below)... comp:) in the message bar. Geometry) are displayed. Panel titles display on the left side of the bar. When you are in a panel. the bar displays the current panel name on the left (in black) and the original panel name to the right (in gray). You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information (e. the header bar displays the current panel title and model status. the current include and current component (comp). Messages also appear on the header bar and temporarily override the title and status information. along with the current menu page name (i. The current component and load collector names are displayed on the right side of the bar. If you access a panel by using a function key.g. It displays information pertaining to the currently loaded model as well as descriptions of the main menu pages and panels.

These messages appear in green when using HyperMesh classic dark menu colors and they appear in gray when using Windows light menu colors Click a mouse button to remove a message from the header bar. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Messages posted on the header bar are color-coded: red green/gray Error messages. Miscellaneous messages. such as status updates or completed operations. You can also obtain a brief description of a panel’s function if you hold down the left mouse button over a panel button.0 User’s Guide 45 .

lines. Each of these pages contain panels related to the page name: Geom 1D 2D 3D Analysis Tool Post Creation and editing functions for geometry such as points. 46 HyperMesh 8. A secondary menu can be accessed by using keyboard keys. The page menu. Modules contain a collection of panels that are grouped according to functionality.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and then start HyperMesh once again. Page Menu HyperMesh panels are grouped by function on several “pages”. Model editing. HyperMesh presents these pages in the page menu. and spot welds Creation and editing functions for 2-D surfaces and elements Creation and editing functions for 3-D surfaces and elements Boundary conditions. delete the file hmmenu. Most panels are further divided into sub-panels. then the menu items described above may not appear on the appropriate pages. and load creation functions.set from the directory you are working in (provided you are not working in the directory where HyperMesh is installed). which is located on the right-hand edge of the main menu area. To correct this condition. If you are not using the default HyperMesh menu system. each containing a list of panels and modules. such as bars. model checking functions. utility functions. Post-processing and xy plotting functions. To change main menu pages: • Note: Click the radio button before the main menu page. and informational functions. coordinate system. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. masses. or surfaces 1-D element creation.Main Menu Area HyperMesh functionality is organized according into pages. quit HyperMesh.

model browser. both. To maximize available space. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. right side.Tab Area This area of the HyperMesh environment is actually two separate sidebars which flank the Graphics Area. Each Tab Area sidebar can contain multiple complex features. and/or the solver browser. or none from the Tab Locations sub-menu of the view pull-down menu.0 User’s Guide 47 . Turn the Tab Area sidebars on and off by selecting left side. However. each sidebar can be toggled on and off separately. multiple features are organized onto tabs. such as the utility menu. click a tab heading to bring it to the forefront. so you might only see one—or even none—at a time.

48 HyperMesh 8. To open the model browser: Click the model browser item located within the view pull-down menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . load collectors. properties. This screenshot shows all of the entities that can display in the browser. entity sets. The browser displays on one of the Tab Area sidebars. system collectors.Model Browser The model browser resides on a tab in a Tab Area sidebar and allows you to view the HyperMesh model structure by organizing assemblies. and beamsectcols into a tree-like display. materials. multibodies. groups. vector collectors. components.

Materials. the right-click menu contains only a single option: color. Deactivating the check box for an item does not affect the state of its parent assembly. Components. and System Collectors can all be colored individually. right-click on the current color in the model browser. so that the items related to each assembly appear within that assembly’s folder in the Assembly Hierarchy. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. properties. and beamsectcols cannot be organized into assemblies and are all placed at the top level of the tree. etc.Multiple entities of the same type are collected into folders in the tree structure. Select this to open the same color picker used throughout HyperMesh. multibodies. The following rules apply: • • • • • • • • Checked entities (components. Deactivating the check box for an item hides all of its parent assemblies. Assemblies containing components or multibodies are considered displayed only when all of the contents are displayed.) display.0 User’s Guide 49 . Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all its components and multibodies. the mouse pointer automatically moves to its center. vector cols. To change an entity’s color. the color and display style of entities also display in the model browser. and its state does not affect the state of its ancestors. system cols. groups. Load Collectors. Check Boxes Items are displayed or hidden by toggling the corresponding check boxes. In this instance. a specific component might appear under Components and again as a sub-item of a specific Assembly. When appropriate. therefore it does not have a check box. Deactivating the check box for an assembly hides all of its components and multibodies. Assemblies can also have sub-folders within the main Assembly folder. and the model browser allows you to set each entity’s color without using the color panel. for example. each in their corresponding folder (for example all sets are placed as a flat list in the Sets folder). Colors Assemblies. The currently assigned color displays in the column. Materials. Components and Assemblies may appear in multiple places in the tree. The palette automatically disappears when you move the mouse pointer beyond its boundaries. and click the desired color from the palette. unchecked entities are hidden. An empty assembly never displays. Each folder can be expanded or collapsed to display or hide its contents. load cols. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all of its contents. entity sets. Note: When the color picker palette appears. groups. Properties.

but no mesh. Multibodies. based on a combination of their elements and their geometry. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. In either case. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. and load cols have several display states. Only shaded topology displays (no mesh). Depending on which option you select. load cols. repeated clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. system cols. Click a second time to remove them. Include geometry entities in tree structure. and vector cols shown in the tree. Right -clicking opens a popup menu from which you can choose the new style. Shaded topology displays with mesh lines. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the model browser’s own toolbar. geometry entities. and Reverse Display buttons at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. or load collector. components. Shaded topology displays with feature lines. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. Click a second time to remove them. and vector cols. groups. 50 HyperMesh 8. groups. Transparent shaded topology displays without mesh. multibodies (not assemblies). You can select these display modes by right-clicking clicking the small icons in the column for each component.Display Mode Components. The first set of filters let you restrict the tree structure to display mesh entities. and vector cols have only one display state and will be shown only in element mode. load cols. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. or both: Include mesh entities in tree structure. the entity displays differently: Only a wireframe mesh displays. Global Switches The Display All . or click the ID heading to sort numerically by entity ID.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . system cols. assembly. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. multibodies. groups. Display None . assemblies. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. system cols.

then all entity types ending with “collector” will be checked and display in the list. an up-arrow button. a down-arrow button. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. and Reverse Display as described under global switches above. However. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. For example. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the model browser’s tree structure. In addition. Select None. including upper/lower case letters. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. Whole name only selects tree items whose entire name matches the specified text. typing “pillar” in the matching field when using the whole name option will not locate a component named “CH-A-PILLAR-B-I-L”. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. and Reverse Selection. Accomplish this via the matching: combo text/list box. Display None. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. In this way. click OK to close the list. composed of a combination text/list Find: box.The next filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). For example. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the model browser.0 User’s Guide 51 . Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. . and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). Fine-tune the search/selection by choosing an option from the ( • • ) button: Match case only selects tree items that match the entered text exactly. in this case they are used for Select All. Otherwise. You can also select groups of entities based on a wildcard search. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. if you type “*collector” into this combo box and press <enter>. For example. with the same buttons for Display All.

for example. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. finding match #1 again. select it again to remove the checkbox. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. for instance. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. all the items in the assembly are moved to the new location (items that are not seen in the tree due to filters are also moved). In this way. with this option active. A dragged item is added to the bottom of the list in an assembly. Drag and Drop Components. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. So. In this way you can combine the search options. multibodies. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point.To find an entity. it is highlighted in the model browser. clicking again finds match #2. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. In other words. To find entities matching your specified string and options. it is deleted in all its parent assemblies and placed at the top level of the tree. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. You can drag and drop multiple items at any time using the standard shift and ctrl keys. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). Note: If an item is dragged out of the tree and dropped onto empty space. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. To deactivate the option. For example. or “RearChassis1”. For instance. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. clicking third time finds match #3. rather than only part of the name. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. Since this function works in combination with the filters. and assemblies can be dragged and dropped with the left and right mouse button. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. type a search string into the combination box. The left mouse button allows you to move the item into another assembly. “FrontChassis”. 52 HyperMesh 8. the right mouse button activates a menu that allows you to move or copy an item to the new location. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. such as searching for whole names with matching case. If an assembly is moved or copied. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list).

Most items can be deleted. those children will be automatically moved to the top level. Components. the item is automatically assigned a unique generic name that can be changed by entering the new name in the highlighted field. and groups cannot be renamed. Properties. Option New Available for: Assemblies. Plots. load col. Options selected in an empty space apply to the entire model. property. The new name must be unique. component. Load Collectors.Context Menu Clicking the right mouse button on a folder or entity within the browser’s tree structure allows you to change a variety of options.0 User’s Guide 53 . you will be given a choice of either deleting that item from the database entirely or only removing it from the present location. material. You can cancel the rename operation by pressing ESCAPE or clicking anywhere outside the entry box before editing the existing name. properties. vector cols. system col. • If a component or multibody is present in more than one assembly in the model. or multibody can be created inside an assembly (activate the menu over an assembly). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. system cols. vector col. or beamsectcol can be created at the top level. component. sets. The options available depend on the entity that you right -click on. beamsectcols. Once created. Delete All except the top-level of Assemblies • Rename All Any item can be renamed by entering a new name in the name text box. Description A new assembly. Folders that contain materials. multibody. and that assembly has children that are not present anywhere else. group. If you want to entirely delete an assembly. A new assembly. load cols. set. All instances of the renamed item will be automatically updated. Materials.

and properties. exposing every item nested at every level. which allows you to determine what entities display in the tree as well as the columns that the browser displays. Opens all of the folders in the entire tree structure. This selects each affected item’s checkbox. system collectors. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. cards. components. materials. and properties. materials. properties. In such cases. properties. components. system collectors. plots. materials. etc.) Make Current components. Assemblies. components.g. load collectors. Opens the Model Browser’s Browser Configuration window.) Show Only Deactivates the checkboxes of all items in the entire model browser except for this single item. Closes all of the folders in the tree structure. this hides all of the items within that branch (e. multibody. components. The current component is designated with bold font. materials. plots. load collectors. Assemblies. card. system collectors. so that only the top-most level of items displays.Edit Card… All Any single item can be card edited. all groups. groups. A component. this hides everything except for the items within that branch. plots. Used to quickly and easily isolate single entities. and properties. the card editor is not invoked and the appropriate message is displayed. In such cases. components. materials. so that the item no longer displays in the graphics area. or beamsectcol can be made current using the pop-up menu. load collectors. The card image of that entity for the solver template loaded will be displayed. Configure Browser… 54 HyperMesh 8.g. multibody. groups. plots. so that only this item displays in the graphics area. If a template is not loaded or if the entity does not have any card images associated to the loaded template. beamsectcol All All Assemblies. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. Display the item in the graphics area. All Collapse all Expand all Show Hide Un-checks the item’s checkbox. all materials. materials. all materials. components. this shows all of the items within that branch (e. load collectors. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. plots. load collectors. plots. load collectors.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . all groups. In such cases. groups. properties. etc.

0 User’s Guide 55 . and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired entity type. Separate tabs organize entities and columns. select none. To select entity types manually. Entities Tab To show all of the entity types that the currently-loaded model possesses. click the Entity types: radio button. A checkmark indicates that the entity type will display in the browser. You can also use the select all. and select reverse buttons in this mode. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Model Browser Configuration window This window opens when you select the configure browser… option from the Model Browser’s context menu. Use this window to change the columns and entity types that display in the model browser. choose the radio button marked select all entity types in the current model.

56 HyperMesh 8. To select columns manually.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A checkmark indicates that the column will display in the browser. and select reverse buttons in this mode.Columns tab To show columns for all of the attributes that the currently-loaded model possesses. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired column. click one of the command buttons to close the window and return to HyperMesh: • • Click OK to keep the new settings and close the window. select none. You can also use the select all. Click Cancel to discard the changes (keeping the original settings) and close the window. Command buttons Once you finish configuring the browser. choose the radio button marked Select all column types in the current model. click the Column types: radio button.

next to which appears the total number of entities of each type. Each of the folders can be expanded to review the individual entities in that folder. The contents of each include is organized (grouped) into folders containing each type. in the above example. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.dyn contains 55 vectors. For example. 55 system collectors. Each include file is represented with an icon along with its name and internal HyperMesh ID. and update the contents of a model into various include files. 296 properties. review. organize.0 User’s Guide 57 . the include named dummy. The browser can be configured to show only specific entities of interest.Include Browser The include browser can be accessed by selecting include browser from the view pull-down menu. which does not have any references to an include file. 116 sets. An example of a model in the include browser is shown below. The Master Model is at the top level of the include browser. Data. is stored in the master model. etc. It allows you create. You can select entities (using the standard Shift and Control keys) and drag various entities between two includes or between the master model and an include. edit. Each include can be expanded to reveal its contents. 55 systems.

click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. Display None. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). . and Reverse Selection. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. system cols. load cols. click OK to close the list. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. components. Otherwise. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. For example. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. multibodies (not assemblies). a down-arrow button. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. Select None. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the include browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the browser’s own toolbar. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. multibodies. Multiple clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. 58 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. load cols. groups. Since these functions work in combination with the filters.Global Switches The Display All . Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. with the same buttons for Display All. In this way. However. and Reverse Display at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. and Reverse Display as described under Global Switches above. system cols. in this case they are used for Select All. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the include browser. The filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). only the items displayed in the tree are affected. and vector cols. groups. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. and vector cols shown in the tree. an up-arrow button. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the include browser’s tree structure. Display None . In addition.

for instance. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. To find entities matching your specified string and options. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. Since this function works in combination with the filters. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. In this way you can combine the search options. rather than only part of the name. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). finding match #1 again. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. or “RearChassis1”. “FrontChassis”. To deactivate the option. it is highlighted in the include browser. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. In other words. select it again to remove the checkbox. clicking again finds match #2. for example. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. In this way. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. type a search string into the combination box. clicking third time finds match #3. For example. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”.To find an entity. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. So.0 User’s Guide 59 . such as searching for whole names with matching case. with this option active. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. For instance. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top.

Deletes the selected include. Right click in the browser to invoke the following pop-up menu. the new include is created within it. The new include is created at the top level inside the master model when no include file is highlighted while selecting this option.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . contacts.Context Menu A context sensitive pop-up menu provides many other include browser functionalities. are automatically placed in the current include. Makes the selected include "current". If a specific include is selected (highlighted). Make current When an include is selected 60 HyperMesh 8. etc. Clicking on the selected (highlighted) include a second time also has the same effect. Delete When an include is selected • Rename When an include is selected Converts the name of the include into an editable text box ready for the new name to be entered. Thus any new entities created in HyperMesh such as new elements. Prompts the user with two choices: • Delete the include file The first option moves all the contents of the include file into its parent include and deletes the include file. components. Function New… When function is active Permanently Description Creates a new include. Delete the include file and its contents The second option deletes all the contents within the selected include along with the include itself.

The available options are: • • • name file name to be exported (absolute path or path relative to its parent include) Do not export flag (allows you to review the contents of an include but not export it).0 User’s Guide 61 . Expands all the branches of the include’s tree structure along with the various entity type folders (such as comps. For the remaining solvers this option is not available. etc. etc. Executive Control. Allows you to set the various options for a selected include. The contents of the chosen file are imported into include.). Collapses all the branches of the tree structure for the selected include. Exports the contents of the selected include into the chosen file name.Move to current When entities are selected Moves all the selected entities (individual entities. or an entire include) into the include that is marked as current. Flag representing the section of the input deck that the include belongs in. the entire set of entities of a specific type. Export an include… Export all includes Collapse Include Expand include When an include is selected Permanently Permanently Permanently Display only When an include (or master model) is selected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Exports all the includes with their corresponding content (not the master model only the includes). or Case Control. Include file options… When an include is selected • Import include… When an include is selected Imports the content of a file into the selected include. Clears the graphics region of any previous display and displays all the entities that belong to the selected include. mats. This flag is specific to some solvers such as Optistruct. which subdivide their data deck into various sections such as Bulk Data.. Option prompts you to select a name and browse for the file to be imported. Nastran. Includes that have this flag turned on display in the browser in italics.

Two options are available: • Select all entity types available in current model Displays all the entity types available in the current model (default). • User selected entity types Allows you to select the entities that you want to display in the browser. Select from a list of all entities (except nodes and elements) in HyperMesh.Configure browser Permanently Opens a window that allows you to select which types of entities should be shown in the include browser.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 62 HyperMesh 8. Allows users to enable (turn on and export) control cards that have been disabled and vice versa. Edit card Enable/Disable When a control card is selected When a control card is selected Invokes the card image of the control card in the HyperMesh window.

and are grouped to provide easy panel access without unnecessary navigational clicks. Note: HyperMesh does not make any special distinction between modules and panels. perform simple math on curves. The main difference between the module and a panel is the additional menu layer. the module.0 User’s Guide 63 . locate the module button on one of the main menu pages and click the module button. For example. contains panels that allow you to read curves. A module may contain panels that are also found on the main pages. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. edit curves.Modules Panels that are used to perform related functions are sometimes grouped together in modules. xy plots located on the Post page. and scale the axis of plots. To select a module.

You can also select individual items by clicking on them. This allows you to perform many operations inside HM without performance issues. Select it from the BCs Pull-Down menu to display its tab in the tab area. This button acts as a toggle.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and then sync the browser with one click. keeping the browser in sinc with an actions taken within the rest of HyperMesh can require considerable processing time. select none. the Sync button becomes active whenever you make changes to the current HM database.Loadsteps Browser The Loadsteps Browser is used to create. The information is arranged into a tree structure for ease of use. the display settings apply to export of loadsteps. OptiStruct (OS) and Nastran are supported within this framework. Display Options The display options lie in a toolbar at the top of the browser tab. When inactive. More profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. Note that this changes the loadsteps’ export states.0SR1 release. manage and display HyperMesh loadsteps (sub-cases) and the associated control cards. When activated. while popup forms allow you to quickly enter or select relevant information. Instead. with controls for altering the Display of the information and/or exporting it. and control the way that the data displays in HyperMesh (which is the default behavior) or exports (when the Export state button is active). Note: For the 8. the Loadstep Browser does not automatically sync itself with the HM database. but may not be active by default. including a name filter that uses HyperMesh standard filtering syntax. The Loadsteps Browser displays in its own tab in the tab area. For help specific to each profile. Each control has its own function: Select all. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. it can be turned on and off. To alleviate this. but not their visibility in the HM graphics area. 64 HyperMesh 8. A right-click menu accesses editing and advanced options. Use this feature to limit the tree to display only loadsteps whose names match a specific text string—either partly or completely. the settings apply only to the current display. or select multiple items by shiftclicking or control-clicking. reverse selection Use these to select the items in the tree. For large models. refer to the topics below: Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles Other profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. Export state Sync browser Filter The main functionality of the Loadstep Browser varies depending on the active HyperMesh User Profile.

Note: When you first open the loadstep browser. Collapses all selected folders and subfolders. Review the selected entity in the HM card editor. either from scratch or by creating an exact copy of an existing subcase.Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles The browser’s tree structure lists relevant control cards and loadstep information. Depending on the entity selected. Delete the selected entity or entities. organized into folders. This loadstep will be exported. This launches the Loads Summary utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep.0 User’s Guide 65 . or all folders if none are selected. MLOAD. This launches the BCs Contour utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. For the OptiStruct and Nastran profiles. LOAD. Rename the selected entity. This loadstep will not be exported. accessed by right-clicking on the tree background or on individual or multiple items. This option is for users who wish to have existing DLOAD. OptiStruct In addition. There are many functions available. MOTION. this will bring up an appropriate GUI for editing of the loadstep or control card information. You can click these to toggle them back and forth: The loadcols in the loadstep display in the HyperMesh graphics area. Renumber the selected entity. Opens the OptiStruct panel in HyperMesh. every loadstep listed in the tree has a small checkbox next to it as well as an export state indicator. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. MPCADD and SPCADD cards auto-managed. Expands all selected folders and subfolders. these options include: New subcase Edit options Edit card Delete Rename Renumber BCs Contour Loads Summary Collapse all/selection Expand all/selection Auto-manage load references Create a new subcase. This option creates a copy of loadcols with these card images and converts them into an auto-managed naming convention for easy editing/reviewing inside the Edit options popup. The loadcols in the loadstep do not display in the HyperMesh graphics area. all of the loadsteps in the model default to the blank (unchecked) state. or all folders if none are selected.

Type in a subcase name Select the same as option. The table on the left lists the loadcols that are valid for a particular load reference. the new subcase is an exact copy of the existing one. a warning message appears to notify you. • • • • 4. To add a loadcol to the load reference. 3. To activate an option. it is possible that the subcase may reference loadcols that have not been imported (they are in a separate include file). The popup has several tabs to gather the relevant information. check the box next to the desired option and fill in the required fields. These references are also listed in the right table with a warning message to notify you that the loadcol doesn’t exist in the database 66 HyperMesh 8. If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol does not exist in the HM database. depending on the card image or types of loads contained within. the list of appropriate Load References will change accordingly. Name filtering is available by using standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. allowing you to: • • 2. allowing you to edit the subcase. A tree structure lists the load references that are available for the selected subcase type. select the loadcol in the left table and use the right arrow to add the loadcol to the table on the right.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . a warning message appears to notify you. In order to support this. A bold reference signifies that the load reference is defined. the list will change accordingly. then pick an existing subcase to base the new one on. • • Depending on the load reference selected in the tree. Click create. and select Edit options. This allows users to modify a subcase and add in references to loadcols that do not exist in the current model. Depending on the Subcase Type. When importing a model into HyperMesh. To edit a subcase: 1. or any subfolder in the Loadstep Browser.To create a new subcase: 1. When this option is active. the Add <unavailable> load reference ID option is available. A red indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and requires attention. A green indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and is defined. 5. allowing you to edit the subcase. The table on the right lists the loadcols currently selected for that load reference. Note: This step is skipped when you create a new subcase! A popup window opens. Another pop-up window opens. Right -click on the desired subcase folder. • • If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol is not appropriate for that particular load reference. Right -click anywhere in the Loadstep Browser and select New subcase. 2. A pop-up window opens.

0 User’s Guide 67 . • • All of the loads contained in a loadcol display regardless of their relevance to the load reference they are assigned to. or edit the card of a subcase: Right click on the appropriate subcase or loadcol. 8. It is up to you to organize their loads for proper display. 2. 7. Select the desired option from the popup menu. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. use the all/none/reverse buttons where appropriate. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. renumber. 2. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. Additional control is also available at both the Global Options and Subcase Load References level: 3. To display a subcase: 1. These buttons select loadcols from the currently active table. Right -click options allow for additional functionality depending on the current selection. To select multiple loadcols. delete. Click the Display button at the bottom of the Loadstep Browser GUI. instead of clicking on a specific subcase’s folder or sub-folder. 9. You must determine the appropriate loadcols to check on/off depending on the subcase type. To edit the Global Options of a subcase: Editing Global Options works exactly like editing a subcase.6. an entry box appears so that you can enter the appropriate information in the browser. The selected utility launches with the loadcols associated with the selected subcase automatically selected. Note: To rename. For renaming and renumbering. • The Add <unavailable> load reference ID option allows you to add a reference to a loadcol ID that does not currently exist in the HM database (as described in step 5). 1. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. except that the first step is to right-click on the Global Options folder or any of its sub-folders. You can also launch the “BCs Contour” and “Loads Summary” utilities from the Loadstep Browser. Check/uncheck the display checkbox next to the subcase of interest. Global load references are not checked on/off by selecting or deselecting a subcase. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

0 (DLOAD and LOAD) 68 HyperMesh 8. nor are they always aware of their existence. The only way to modify the loadcol is via the card editor (right-click option from the editor GUI). However. If the load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images indicated above.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) The global scale factor is not 1. LOAD. In HyperMesh. MLOAD. there has traditionally only been one way to create DLOAD.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Assign that new loadcol to the original load reference.) • 2. For example. based on a fixed naming convention (auto<CARD IMAGE NAME>_#). if a load reference pointed to an SPCADD loadcol. assigning the appropriate card image. MOTION. a new copy would be created and named “autoSPCADD_1”. the Auto-manage load references option is available. Looks at each subcase and at each load reference. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has not been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. a loadcol is automatically created and assigned the correct card image when any of these conditions are met: • • • More than one loadcol is selected for the load reference One loadcol is selected and the local scale factor is not 1. many HyperMesh users do not want to be responsible for managing these load collectors. MPCADD and SPCADD loadcols: by creating a loadcol. Inside the Edit options popup. it will: • Create a copy of that loadcol and assign it a new name. the loadcol will not be expanded or editable inside the GUI. If the loadcol selected for the load reference already has the card image assigned (for users wishing to manually manage their loadcols and point to an existing loadcol with one of the card images listed above) no additional action takes place. when appropriate. This option does the following: 1. However. To satisfy both types of users. the loadcol is expanded and editable inside the GUI. and selecting the appropriate loadcols.Loadsteps: Auto-manage load references This option is recommended for all users. (The original loadcol is not deleted or modified in any way. Inside the Edit options popup.

press the "H" key or select HyperMesh and OptiStruct from the Help pull-down menu to display the help topic for the current panel. You can press the ESC key or click return to exit a panel. Each panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. thus reducing mouse movement. A description of the panel as well as instructions on how to use it display. Some panels contain several functions that perform similar tasks. Using the middle mouse button allows you to make the required selections in the graphics region. advance to the next selection. a message is displayed stating the error. Each panel has a unique title that describes the main function of the panel. Release the mouse button to access the panel. This behavior is called rapid menu. Returning out of a panel means accepting what was performed on the model while using the panel. locate and click the panel button on one of the main menu pages.0 User’s Guide 69 . Panels with multiple functions have sub-panels that display only those menu items that are relevant to the current operation. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note: Once a panel is active. If you press a function button and the data is incorrect or required information is missing. hold the mouse button down while the cursor is over the panel name. Note: To display a brief description of the function of a panel in the header bar.Panels HyperMesh panels allow you to perform specific tasks by selecting options and entering variable data. and continue selecting or complete the operation. This cannot be rejected once the panel is exited. You can also use the middle mouse click to advance through input collectors (yellow) or entry fields and then proceed to a function (green) or return (red). To select a panel.

on the collectors panel there are three sub-panels: create. and card image or dictionary.create sub-panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . update. To select a sub-panel. For example. Only one sub-panel may be selected at a time. 70 HyperMesh 8.Sub-panels Sub-panel names are listed on the left side of the panel. Each sub-panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform.card image sub-panel.update sub-panel. click the radio button next to the sub-panel name on the left side of the panel. Collectors . Collectors . Collectors .

Each panel contains input collectors. Step backward one page toward the beginning of the list. toggle switch In some cases. The green arrow buttons on the right-hand edge of the pop-up menu advance or back-track through the list of options: << < > >> Go directly to the first page of the list. Menu items include: Menu Buttons The color of the menu button corresponds to its purpose: green yellow red Functions or executable items Collectors Return or abort Toggles and Switches Toggles and switches appear on many HyperMesh panels. data entry fields. When you click a toggle.Input Controls The menu items on each panel indicate the information that is needed to correctly perform the panel’s function. When you click a switch. plane collectors. HyperMesh breaks the options up into multiple “pages” within the switch’s pop-up menu.0 User’s Guide 71 . a list of options is displayed. Advance one page toward the end of the list Go directly to the last page of the list Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the menu item following it alternates between choices. Most panels also have toggles and switches that allow you to alternate between choices or select options from a list. and function buttons. the list of options presented by a switch can be very long: In these cases.

Input Collectors Input collectors allow you to indicate which entities are to be modified when a function is performed. In addition to selecting one entity at a time on the screen. These selection options display for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. click the input collector switch to access the pop-up menu of possible data types. If you want to reset the entity selections. or by window. you can select multiple entities via quick window selection (hold down the SHIFT key and drag your mouse to create a window. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are grayed out. If you select nodes on the edges of a part. Extended entity selection window. Note: For more information about the extended entity options. The extended entity selection window opens. see Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu. The extended entity selection window allows you to choose various methods of selecting entities of a specified data type. Note: If the data type is a line list. Allows you to view the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. by list by path Allows you to pick the nodes individually from the node list. Therefore. you can click on the collector to access a pop-up with the selections by list. a data type button. An input collector contains a switch or toggle. show node order by window 72 HyperMesh 8. click the reset to deselect all selected entities. If the data type is a node list. show node order. and a reset (|< ) button. See The Mouse for more details). click the data type of the input collector to see the selected entities in the order in which they were selected. if the nodes selected are not connected by elements. this function does not apply. Input Collector To change the data type. the function tries to find the closest path along the edges of that part. by path. displaying a list of available selection methods. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). Allows you to select a few nodes that form a path and HyperMesh selects all the displayed nodes that lie in the shortest path of the nodes selected. An input collector is active when the data type button is enclosed in a blue rectangle.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and select the type you want to use. by path follows the connectivity of the elements between the nodes selected. To access the options: • Click the data type button.

only the items necessary for the current HyperMesh function will display.N2). second or third axis respectively of a coordinate system in your model. however. N2. This coordinate system may be the global coordinate system. or a local system when one can be explicitly specified. and loads as well. just as a vector can be defined with a plane (the vector is normal to the plane specified). or plane (N1. Note. N3 to define a vector (N1. Double-click a node’s button (N1. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. or N3. that not every item appears at all times. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. Plane and Vector Selector Several HyperMesh panels require that you define a plane or a vector (direction) to perform a certain function. and z-axis to define the first. The options available are: • Use x-axis. Choose vector to specify a vector entity (created in the vectors panel).The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. as needed: The Plane and vector selector. N2.N3). HyperMesh takes advantage of the following principle: a plane can be defined with a vector (the plane is normal to the vector specified). This selector is broken down into the following items.0 User’s Guide 73 . it only works with surface edges and not with free unconnected geometric lines. Either can be defined via the plane and vector selector—a group of buttons that work in concert to define planes or vectors. cylindrical or spherical. the translate panel requires that you define the direction of translation. and passes through either N1 or the base node (if one is specified). switch The switch is used to select the method for defining the plane or vector. while the reflect panel requires a plane for the creation of the mirror images of the entities selected. y-axis. For example. If you select two free (red) edges. When defining a plane. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This includes vectors defining coordinate systems. Local systems may be rectangular. or B) to type in coordinates rather than selecting existing nodes in your model. Use N1. the resulting vector is normal to this plane following the right hand rule.N2.

N1. selecting a plane of projection using the x-axis does not define the location of the plane entirely. Select the x-. reset Note: Allows you to clear your selection (vector. 4. N1 and N2. N1. For example.e. 2. The vector is the normal of the plane defi ned by the three nodes. Some selectors may resemble the plane and vector selector. arrows that represent a local coordinate system vector or load vector).B (base node) Use this selector to define the base node—the point in space where the vector or plane is located. A base node provides the extra information. 2. N1 and N2. For example. Select a model vector (i. and N3. To define a plane: 1. N2.. y-. The base node locates a plane normal to the chosen axis. The resulting plane is normal to the vector. N1. N1 (or the base node. 4. but serve a different purpose.e.N3 and base). 74 HyperMesh 8. local coordinate system vectors or load vectors). if selected) is the point on the plane through which the vector passes. To define a vector: 1.N2. N3 option. Select three nodes. The resulting plane is normal to the N1-N2 vector and passes through N1 (or the base node. Select a model vector (i. Select the x-. or z-axis and a base node. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note that when using the N1. Select two nodes. Select two nodes. if selected). y-. 3. or z-axis. N3. Select three nodes. HyperMesh uses N1 as a default base node if no other base node is specified. A parallel plane can be specified by selecting a base point elsewhere in the model. the following selector displays in the position and linear solid panels: This selector is used in these panels to map entities from one location to another. N2. N2..

Moves the cursor to the end of the input field.Input Fields Input fields are used to enter text or numerical values. You can enter characters and numbers from the keyboard to modify the value.e. In edit mode. press a right or left arrow key ( or ) before pressing any other keys.. characters can be inserted or deleted at the proper location. press the ENTER key. You can cut and paste text from one data field to another within HyperMesh and also from data fields in HyperMesh to a command window (except in OpenGL versions). After you click either the input field or the description. and BACKSPACE HOME END DELETE TAB To exit edit mode. or press a function key. the value previously assigned to the field is erased.0 User’s Guide 75 . Moves the cursor to the beginning of the input field. Deletes the character which is above the cursor. the following keys perform the corresponding functions: ESC Restores the initial text or value displayed upon entering edit mode. click the menu item or input field a second time to select the name from a list of the existing collectors. If you want to edit the existing data. title =).). and use the keyboard to enter text until the proper information is displayed. select another menu item. or click the input field a second time to access the HyperMesh calculator. The first character in a string cannot be a space. Deletes the character to the left of the cursor and moves the cursor one space to the left. and the new character is placed at the far left of the input field. click the corresponding menu item or input field (the menu item is placed in edit modea). Moves the input cursor from field to field on the panel. plot =. Press the ESC key while the field is still active to restore the initial text or value to the input field. A description of the type of input precedes the field. To cut and paste character strings. and press CTRL-v. press CTRL-c. comp =. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. Input field. Character String Input To enter a character string. After positioning the cursor in the input field. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Move the cursor in the input field to the left and right. respectively. HyperMesh removes any leading spaces contained in a character string. the text currently in the input field is highlighted. Note: If you need to specify the name of a collector for a data input field (i. signifying that the input field in ready for editing. When you type an alphanumeric character with the keyboard.

press CTRL-c.). you can either select a menu item on the pop-up menu or move the mouse outside the bounds of the menu. click the menu item or input field a second time (the first click allows you to enter edit mode. If HyperMesh expects an integer value and you enter 123. the mouse cursor is centered in the menu and the menu is made active.45. HyperMesh immediately processes the selection you have made on the pop-up menu and then waits for you to make more selections. and click exit to close the calculator. To use the calculator. HyperMesh truncates the number to eliminate the decimal point. HyperMesh automatically displays the value in scientific notation. Calculator pop-up. Some pop-up menus allow multiple selections. Some pop-ups are displayed with a border around the menu box and some have no border. and press CTRL-v. When the pop-up menu appears. If a real number contains three or more leading zeros after the decimal. Pop-ups Pop-up menus are displayed when there are seve ral options from which to choose. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. The pop-up menu remains on the screen until you move the mouse outside the bounds of the box. you must make a selection before you can proceed.000. To cut and paste numeric data. You can also use the HyperMesh calculator to enter the value. To enter numeric data. the second click gives you access to the calculator). Real numbers are displayed with a decimal point or in scientific notation. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. if you type 123e+1q1. 76 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh displays integer values without a decimal point. click numeric and function buttons on the calculator using HP-style reverse notation. In edit mode. the view pop-up menu (view on the Toolbar Area) allows you to make multiple selections. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. For example. click the corresponding menu item or input field and enter the value using the keyboard. HyperMesh interprets it as 1230.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Numeric Data Input Numerical values are specified as real numbers or integers. If the pop-up does not have a border. For example. If the pop-up menu has a border. HyperMesh discards input characters that are not valid numbers and subsequent numbers.

Lists the file name. you use the standard Windows file browser. load…. as well as the contents of the open directory. This field allows you to select the type of file you want to locate.. import…. The file browser enables you to navigate through the directories on your network to locate files. You can open new directories from this list. Click Open (or Save) to load (or save) the file shown in the File name field. File name Files of type Open (Save) Cancel Displays the folder at the previous level. Folders and/or file names within the selected directory are listed below the Look in/Save in text box. etc.File Browser When you open or save a file using save as.. Lists only the file name. Creates a new folder within the current directory. based on the search criteria used. It also displays the file that has been selected from the list.. write as…. type. Look in/Save in This drop-down menu contains the overall directory structure. and last date modified. Click Cancel to close the file browser.0 User’s Guide 77 . browse…. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This field allows you to enter the name of the file you wish to locate. retrieve….

hm6.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For Look in/Save in. type filename* where filename is any portion of the name of the file you wish to locate. Or For Files of Type. specify the directory to search. In the File name field.hm extension) in the specified directory. 3.hm searches for all the HyperMesh database files (files with an . etc.hm* for all HyperMesh database files with extensions hm4. For File name. For Look in/ Save in. hm5. All files ending with the specified extension are displayed. Type *.ext where ext is the extension of the file type you wish to locate.To search for a particular file extension: 1. 2.* to search for all files in the directory. You can also type *. select the file type from the drop-down menu. All files beginning with the specified characters are displayed in the files list. specify the search directory. 3. To search for a particular filename: 1. For example. Press ENTER. 2. Press ENTER. type *. *. 78 HyperMesh 8.

Aborts intensive processes. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Fit the displayed model to the screen.The Mouse The mouse attached to your system is integral to HyperMesh and can be used in almost every aspect of user input. Some operations require pressing a keyboard key in addition to using the mouse. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Performs selection operations on single entities. Deselects an entity in the graphics area. Selects a new center of rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. Selects a new center of rotation. Aborts graphics operations. Keyboard Left mouse Middle mouse Right mouse Single click and release. Rapid menu allows you to use the middle mouse button to quickly perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be deselected (removed from selection). thus allowing you to view the entity that will be selected. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If you release the mouse. Click and move. Click and move. Single click and release. the pre-highlighted entity is deselected. such as Penetration Checks. Single click and hold. the pre-highlighted entity is selected Dynamic rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes.0 User’s Guide 79 . CTRL Single click and release. If you release the mouse. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. Single click and release. Single click and release.

Dynamically rotates the model.quick window deselection of entities. Click and move. SHIFT Single click and release. In entity selection mode . Zooms into an area of the model. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window SHIFT Click and move. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. Click and move. Single click and release. In display panel – turn on collectors that are inside/outside the window. In entity selection mode quick window selection of entities. 80 HyperMesh 8.CTRL Click and move. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: Single click and release. Pans the model. In display panel – turn off collectors that are inside/outside the window.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click and move.

N3 vector option in the translate panel. For example. the entities in the input collector are not cleared. For example: in the hidden line panel shown below. For example in the ruled panel. In such cases. In panels where there is a defined sequence of selections (input collectors). If you click the middle mouse button after you select the required nodes. rapid menu advances to the next collector. select a few nodes for your first node list or line list. when you try to move nodes using the N1. This allows advanced users to perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Rapid Menu Rapid menu is a feature that uses the middle mouse button (a single click for each step) to move through a panel along a predetermined path. In panels that have pre-filled defaults. thus reducing "mouse miles". resulting in an error message. For example.0 User’s Guide 81 . N2 and N3 selected or may not have a magnitude value entered. The rapid menu function can also vary within a panel. the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel if the active input collector (yellow collector with a blue outline) is empty. the middle mouse button may activate a function for which there is insufficient data. N2. the middle mouse button repeats the chosen function as long as the entity collector is not reset to empty. and then click the middle mouse button to advance to the second node list so that you can begin picking more nodes. it replaces one with the other and proceeds to repeat the operation with the new selection. In panels that contain multiple function buttons. when you enter the lines panel. if you pick two nodes. an attempt to perform translate + is executed. an error message results. create becomes the rapid menu function. The function button that is assigned to rapid menu is outlined in black. in the translate or rotate panels once you selected some elements/nodes/comps and direction and distance of translation. rapid menu is assigned to the most commonly used function. using the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel. collectors/create panel with a preset collector name creates a collector when you click the middle mouse button. return is assigned to the rapid menu. in the replace panel. allowing you to use the same entities to repeat the operation. For example. In some panels. In these panels. a middle mouse click performs the operation with the defaults. Some panels do not have function buttons and are repetitive. Since you do not have N1. HyperMesh performs the fill plot action when you click the middle mouse button. But once you pick a node to create the line. In panels where there is no clear sequence of selections. For example. thus translating/rotating the same nodes again. The rapid menu function is predetermined and varies between panels. For example. clicking the middle mouse button a second time repeats the translate + or rotate + function. In most panels.

global panel Open the Help. it opens the Help’s table of contents. The secondary menu uses various combinations of the function keys. Note that "+" is actually shift = on the main keyboard.a b c <ctrl>+<c> d f g h m o p r s t <ctrl>+<t> v w z Notes: 82 HyperMesh 8. there are several keyboard hot keys that you can use to access the viewing functions available on the Toolbar Area. press the key once and wait for HyperMesh to redraw the model before pressing the key again.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and CTRL key to access panels. Press "m" again to bring the menus back. SHIFT key. options panel Plot Rotate Dynamically zooms in and out when you move the mouse up and down True view transparent components panel User View pop-up menu Windows panel Circle-zoom When you use the +. When a panel is active. You can press ESC instead of clicking return to exit a panel. this opens help for that panel. you must use the keyboard to enter new file or component names or title information. Arc rotate Return to a previous view Center (spherical) clipping panel display panel Fill/fit model to window. clockwise. Rotate by increments Ctrl Incremental counterclockwise. or arrow keys. from the main page menu. You can also use the arrow keys on the keyboard to rotate your model. Turn off the menus and display only the graphics window. and reverse view Zoom by increments.Keyboard Although most HyperMesh operations are performed with the mouse. The hot keys are the same as the letters on the menu. -. +. In addition. but simply + on the numeric keypad.

One example of this is the default mapping of the <f> key—which. zooms and pans the graphics area view to fit the currently displayed model to the screen. so that you can quickly execute tasks that you use frequently simply by pressing one or more keys on the keyboard. when pressed.Mapping Keyboard Shortcuts Keyboard shortcuts can be used to map HyperMesh functions to keys or key combinations. You can customize the default shortcut mappings to create your own shortcuts for a variety of tasks. The keyboard option opens a free-standing window with a keyboard display. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Examples include: • • • • • • • Jumping to a specific HyperMesh panel Automatically performing a task using HyperMesh *commands Executing a macro The following keys are usable when defining shortcuts: Letter and number keys ("standard" keys) <ctrl> plus another "standard" key <shift> plus another "standard" key <ctrl> plus <shift> plus another "standard" key You can assign or remove a shortcut by selecting keyboard from the Preferences pull-down menu.0 User’s Guide 83 .

Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. 84 HyperMesh 8. and some utilize functions which are only accessible via shortcut keys. • • Any HyperMesh command file commands can be mapped to a shortcut key.Keys display in the Key-Command Mappings window with colors based on their mapping: To map a function to a shortcut key. and down respectively. to enter the combine sub-panel in the element edit panel. alt. cannot be mapped. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. right. enter the appropriate command(s) and if necessary the file name (for a tcl script) in the table area of the menu located below the keyboard diagram. Ctrl + Ctrl + F1 Ctrl + F2 Ctrl + F3 Ctrl + F4 Ctrl + F5 Ctrl + F6 Incremental clockwise. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. Remapping such keys to new functionality results in loss of original functionality. ctrl. counterclockwise and reverse view Creates bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. backspace etc.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . select the appropriate key by clicking in the keyboard menu or holding down that key on your keyboard. use hm_pushpanelitem {element edit} {combine} This will take you to the last used sub-panel in the specified panel. Examples of such shortcuts are: Incremental rotate left. Those keys are identified with a different color: Use the hm_pushpanelitem command in a shortcut to jump to a specific sub-panel of a panel. Some keyboard shortcuts are mapped by default during installation. For example. Generates a *. esc. Notes • • Some special-function keys.jpg screen capture or animation file. Next. The selected key highlights in blue. shift. such as tab. Creates PostScript file of the screen and spools it to printer. up.

enter the following commands in the command field next to the key "E": *createmark elements 1 "all".shortcut mapping examples To create a shortcut key "e" that deletes all the elements in the model.7: this macro already exists in the QA page of the Utility menu. 1). *evaltclstring displayonlybeams In the file field. enter the following in the command field next to the key "J": *evaltclstring "macroElementJacobian 0. To create a shortcut key "J" that runs a macro to find all the elements with jacobian < 0.7" 0 To create a shortcut key "shift + K" that runs a macro to check whether any beam/bar elements exist in the model and display them only: Create a findbeams. *findmark elements 1 0 1 elements 0 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 1. *deletemark elements 1. click the "…" button to browse to and select the findbeams.tcl file. select shift from the Shortcut Key pull-down menu.tcl file with following commands: Proc displayonlybeams {} { *createmark elements 2 "by config" 60 63 set beams [hm_getmark elements 2] *clearmark elements 2 if { ![Null beams]} { *displaycollectorwithfilter(comps. "". To create a shortcut key "L" that accesses the lines panel.0 User’s Guide 85 . } else { hm_usermessage "No beam elements in this model" } } In the Key-Command Mappings window. To call the same macro. eval *createmark elements 1 $beams. "none". enter the following in the command field next to the key "L": hm_pushpanel {lines}. Enter the following in the command field next to the key "K".

or in combination with the SHIFT or CTRL keys.Secondary Menu The secondary menu is a list of panels that can be accessed by using the function keys F1 through F12. to continue using the initial panel. The default secondary panels are as follows: Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Note: Function key only hidden line delete replace distance mask element edit align node create node line edit check element geometry quick edit automesh plus SHIFT key color temp nodes edges translate find split project node edit surf edit normals organize smooth plus CTRL key print slide slide file print eps create eps file print b/w eps create JPEG file Function keys may be reassigned to different panels by using the build menu panel. When you use the secondary menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it interrupts the active panel and allows you to perform a function in the secondary panel. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. Entities selected while in the secondary panel are still selected when you return to the initial panel. 86 HyperMesh 8. and upon completion.

UNIX users also have the option of putting the userpage. You may also select and run a macro file after HyperMesh starts from within the options panel. HOME directory (UNIX only). which allows you to create groups of standard reusable macros.mac Populates the Display page of the utility menu.mac) controls the display and available operations of the utility menu. This file defines the attributes and contents of the User page of the utility menu. by using the arguments $1. Macros may accept variable arguments. Thus it is actually a group of menus. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.mac file in the directory from which it launches and then in the installation directory. The *callmacro() command allows you to call a macro from within another one. each dedicated to different tasks. it first looks for the userpage. The utility menu includes several pages of its own. and text that have HyperMesh-supplied and user-defined macros associated with them. it looks for a macro file named hm. If it finds this macro. The default hm. radio options. etc. Populates the QA/Model page of the utility menu.mac qamodelpage. Creates the button group that allows you to switch pages. The menu is located on a tab of the tab area pane(s). Each page is associated with a button at the bottom of the utility menu. although only one displays at a time.0 User’s Guide 87 . Only one button can be depressed at a time. A macro file (hm. similar to the way that only one radio button can be active at a time—selecting a button de-selects all of the other buttons in the group. HyperMesh runs it automatically to define the attributes and contents of the utility menu.mac file may exist in the installation directory for HyperMesh or in the directory from which HyperMesh launches. and are enclosed by the *beginmacro() and *endmacro() commands.mac file sources the following additional macro files: disppage. to specify where the arguments should be substituted.mac userpage. Attributes that you can change include: • • • • • The utility menu page on which the operations appear Text to be displayed on each control Location and size of the menu The help string to be displayed on the menu bar The macro to call when each control is used. Populates the User page of the utility menu. with optional arguments to pass The page number allows you to create multiple pages. $2.Utility Menu The utility menu allows you to customize the standard interface to include function buttons. Populates the Geom/Mesh page of the utility menu. so that you can group the macros by type of operation. When HyperMesh starts. clicking one of these buttons opens the page associated with it. and can be shown or hidden from within the view pull-down menu.mac in the current directory. passed to them from a control. When HyperMesh starts.mac geommeshpage.mac globalpage.mac file in their home directory. Macros may contain any valid command file command. or the application’s base directory. A userpage.

but you have only the left-hand pane showing in the HyperMesh environment. simply check it in the view menu. It contains page selection buttons at the bottom of the menu. that it still might not display if the tab area pane on which it resides is not active. QA/Model. To restore the utility menu. See the descriptions below for help with each type of macro. turning off the display of everything except entities of type. Note: While macros offer a great deal of flexibility. the utility menu will still be invisible even though you have it checked in the view menu. and a macro may not be called recursively. there is no way to cancel the execution or reject the results. you must remember that once a macro is executed. Then. The different pages of the utility menu are: • • • • Geom/Mesh (macros related to model geometry and FE mesh) Disp (Options related to the graphical display of entities) QA/Model (macros related to element quality and loads) User (user-created macros only) The utility menu displays by default. 88 HyperMesh 8. if that pane is open. You can also mask and unmask portions of your model. if you wish. and Disp pages contain a variety of macros that allow you to quickly perform functions which would normally take several steps. until only the desired subset of entity types displays. Note. you can turn the display of individual types back on as desired. If you want to remove the Utility menu from the default screen display. with the current page’s button depressed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if the utility menu is on the right-hand tab area pane. For example.cfg file. but display of the menu is controlled by a command in the HyperMesh Configuration. showing or hiding all 2-D elements. By combining these features. Default Utility menu The utility menu is normally located on the left side of the graphics region. and save additional model views. Chief among these is the ability to turn the display of individual entity types on and off—for example.By default. it can also be dragged-and-dropped to the right -side explorer pane. You can also isolate only a specific entity type. however. You can also turn the utility menu off by clicking the small “x” in the upper corner of the tab area when the utility menu tab is in the forefront. although it may be obscured by another tab such as the model browser or include browser. you can restrict HyperMesh to only drawing a small sub-set of the entities in your model. the Utility menu displays when HyperMesh starts. However. or even by clicking-and-dragging the tab to the HyperMesh title bar. Disp Utility menu The Disp utility menu contains a variety of macros that allow you to modify the graphical display of HyperMesh entities in several different ways. You can turn the utility menu off completely (removing its tab from the tab area) by un-checking it in the view pull-down menu. in the Tab area pane. delete the * before the *enablemacromenu() command in the hm. The Geom/Mesh.

for example. such as elements or geometry. and always include any masks that you may have applied to the model.0 User’s Guide 89 . Clicking none turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. and allow you to turn the display of different types of entities on or off. In other words. These views function in addition to the user views.2. such as 2-D elements or geometry points. Each broad category or sub-type has a text label on the menu. clicking all next to the 2-D label turns on the display of every 2-D element in your model. Broad categories. These buttons perform the actual display macro functions: All These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. For example. but does not affect the display of 0. Display macros: These controls form the bulk of the menu. and solids). or slot 3. are more restrictive. none On Off Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This enables you to turn off certain entities while retaining others. Scene (1. These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. or 3-D elements. including its boundary conditions. clicking none next to the elements label turns off the display of every element type in your model. These sub-types have buttons labeled on or off. other geometry types (such as points) do not turn off. such as 2-D elements or lines. such as elements or geometry. 3) save macros.3) Retrieve These buttons save the current view of the model in slot 1. For example. Toggling the display of these does not affect other entities within the same broad category. There are different categories of entities whose display you can turn on and off. For example. such as geometry. The All and none buttons for this category literally affect every entity in the model. This allows you to turn the display of entire classes of entity on or off in one click. Smaller sub-types of entity. 1.Scene macros: These controls allow you to save and retrieve up to three additional views of your model. even within the same broad category. clicking all next to the elements label turns on the display of every element type in your model. however. 2. These views function just like the custom views that you can save and retrieve via the user views function (accessed from the HyperMesh toolbar). Clicking Off turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. 1. if you turn off the display of lines. or isolate the display of an entity type. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. clicking none hides the entire model. So. Clicking All turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. control an array of several related entities (such as points. For example. The largest group possible is labeled Everything. clicking Off next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every 2-D element in your model. These broad categories have buttons labeled All or none. followed by 2-3 buttons. 3) Save Scene (1. Clicking On turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. slot 2. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. but does not affect the display of 0. regardless of entity type. or 3-D elements. such as 2-D elements or lines. surfs. lines. These buttons retrieve views of the model that you have previously saved via the scene (1. 2.

or isolate the surfaces touching those lines. results in only the lines (plus FE elements. Unmask All Clear Temp Nodes This macro removes any and all masks that you have applied to the model. This macro reveals one or more rows of elements adjacent to the entities currently displayed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . masking is based on entity location rather than entity type. if you isolated a model’s geometry lines. however. boundary conditions. as well as removing temporary nodes. if you choose to show only 2-D elements. Mask Out This macro automatically applies a mask to hide every entity in the model that does not currently display in the graphics area. or press the <esc> key. either by way of the mask out macro or the mask panel. the surface itself will not be unless it is completely outside of the graphics display area. For example. masking allows you to reduce the number of entities drawn onscreen. etc. however. you can then add other entities to the view by turning them On one-by-one.Only These buttons may appear for broad categories of entity or sub-types. These nodes are redundant because they must be created on existing geometry. hide. Like the display controls. Note that these functions are accumulative. This allows you to view only the adjoining mesh. refers to the text labels for boundary conditions such as pressures and forces. turning off all geometry. either click proceed again without selecting any lines. that entities can’t be partially hidden—so while some of the mesh elements on a surface may be masked out. clicking Only next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every entity in the model except for 2-D elements. Note. they should be deleted before the model is sent to a solver. such as rbe3 elements. Select the desired lines and click proceed to show. Comments Handle (located under the Elements category) refers to the text labels that appear on some elements. Labels (located under the BC’s category). Mask and Node macros: The final set of controls concern masking and unmasking entities. Similarly. so that only the specified entity type remains visible. Temporary nodes are any nodes that users create during a HyperMorph session. multiple only commands do not work accumulatively. those lines would be revealed—but only a single row of elements. For example. The only exception to this accumulative usage is repeated use of the only option: since it always hides everything except the chosen entity type. Clicking only isolates the entity type indicated by the label by hiding every other entity type in the model. The By Edge… macro (under Geometry à Surfs) allows you to turn off all surfaces attached to one or more edge lines. Show Adjacent Elems 90 HyperMesh 8. then turning on lines. so that only 2-D elements remain visible. To exit the macro. rather than all of the mesh for an entire component. Clicking one of the buttons for this option causes HyperMesh to display a lines selector. for this reason.) displaying. then clicked show adjacent elems any mesh along . Click Clear Temp Nodes to automatically remove all temporary nodes from the model.

Depending on the tolerance you specify. The other layers and thickness are then placed in a temp directory and masked. Isolates either an inner or an outer surface layer (based on the user selected surface) from a 3D model. The macro then creates a layer of washer elements around the hole and remeshes the surrounding elements to maintain mesh connectivity. as well as a set for working with FE mesh. You select a line whose length represents the solid thickness and a surface. Scales a copy of a selected circular line to 1. and then projects those points to a concentric line. You can also review the thickness as a contour plot on the elements. This macro works only on the surfaces attached to the selected surface. and displays a menu for entering the width of the washer. Two other options available are: 1) Create a rigid spider along the hole and 2) Enforce a minimum number of nodes around the hole. Places four additional fixed points on an inner line. You select a node along the hole.5 times its original size.0 User’s Guide 91 . Improves element quality by moving the mid-edge nodes of second order elements. Its primary use cases are solid parts with varying thickness. This allows a higher quality mesh around circular holes. Creates a layer of washer elements around a circular hole in the mesh. Projects free points to surface edges. Extracts a midsurface from a thin solid representation of sheet metal stamped parts. Isolate Surface ThinSolid=>Midsurf Washer Adj Circ Pts The mesh macros are: Auto Connectors Midsurf Thickness A pop-up menu that allows you to automatically create connectors and FE realize them from a master connection file. points may even project to multiple edges. This macro is intended to be used with sheet metal parts with uniform thickness and does not work for molded solid parts. etc. and then trims this new line into the surface. with ribs (T junctions). which is part of either the inner or outer side of the solid. creating a higher quality mesh. by offsetting one side surfaced to midplane.Geom/Mesh utility menu This menu contains a set of macros related to working with model geometry. Quick Tetramesh Fix 2nd Order Midnodes Add Washer Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Assigns the thickness of a midsurface geometry to FE nodes or elements. Quickly creates an automatic tetrahedral mesh while meeting the requirements for minimum element angle and element size. The geometry macros are: Preserve edges Project points Prevents specific edges from being suppressed during autocleanup or batchmeshing. This can be helpful to achieve uniform meshing with regard to weld points. the macro determines the radius of the hole. The macro also creates the corresponding property card and updates the thickness.

it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. The element quality criteria used by these tools comes directly from the values entered on the check elements panel. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the maximum internal angle. This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that fill the hole. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their aspect ratio. Trims the model along user-defined trim lines. Creates a bead of a given height and width along the selected two nodes and connects to the surrounding mesh. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. if necessary. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If any elements fail the warpage test.Trim Hole Creates a circular hole (of a given radius) in the mesh at the selected node (as the center of the hole).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Fills the selected hole and remeshes the surrounding mesh to maintain connectivity. Since the criteria on that panel are customizable. If any elements fail the criteria. This is useful for reducing the model size by taking advantage of symmetry etc. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Jacob (Jacobian) Warp (warpage) Aspect (aspect ratio) Max ang: Q (quad) 92 HyperMesh 8. If any elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their warpage. it displays a message and leaves the model display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements against the maximum Jacobian value. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Tools There are eight tools to isolate elements that fail certain element check criteria. An optional layer of washer elements can be created along with a rigid spider along the hole. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Fill Hole Box Trim Bead QA/Model Utility menu The QA utility menu contains many tools to help you quickly review and clean up the quality of a preexisting mesh. Length This macro checks all the displayed elements against the minimum length criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. the quality criteria used by these macros remains consistent with those used throughout the rest of HyperMesh—and can be indirectly adjusted by changing the settings on the check elements panel.

They only affect the report. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Min ang: Q (quad) Min ang: T (tria) You can use the following macros to quickly modify any elements that fail the element checks. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). It also displays a dialog that allows you to review the free edges of the component and any elements attached to the component. Note: Changing the criteria on this report interface does not change the settings in the check elements panel. BOM Comparison Tool Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Find Attached Remesh Smooth Quality Report Model Tour Allows you to review (tour) the selected components individually. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Each element failing this criterion is then split along its diagonal to form two tria elements instead of the original quad. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the minimum internal angle. If any elements fail the criteria. This macro displays the component name. and uses the mixed element type.Max ang: T (tria) This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the maximum internal angle. two. two. You can also export the results to a text file using save as. Split Warped Checks all displayed quad elements for warp exceeding the acceptable value. The results are shown as the number of elements and percentage of elements failing each criterion. If any elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. number of elements in that component and their ID range. Reads a generic Bill Of Materials file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM as well as the corresponding FE model. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If any elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. does not break connectivity.0 User’s Guide 93 . Allows you to apply the smoothing algorithm to the selected elements plus one. The remesh uses the current size. Brings up a user interface that allows you to set the various quality values and check the quality of all the 2D elements in the model. Finds all of the elements attached to the displayed elements. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the minimum internal angle. Allows you to remesh the selected elements plus one. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements.

If masked. and so on. If masked. Note that this only affects the graphical display of load indicators—it does not change the load magnitudes. including forces.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Automatically finds all components directly attached to any and all load indicators. 94 HyperMesh 8. these elements are un-masked. these elements are un-masked. Automatically finds all loads directly attached to a selected component. while 3 is the largest. constraints.The model tools included on this page are: Load Size These numbered buttons represent different display sizes for load indicators: 0 is the smallest. If masked. If masked. Since these buttons affect all loads. Find Elems>>Loads Find Comps>>Loads Find Loads>>Comps Find Elems>>Connectors Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all load indicators. pressures. these loads are un-masked. Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all connectors. these comps are un-masked. the numbers do not directly correspond to any specific values or ratios.

Since users in different design and analysis groups use BOM information. Radioss-Block. One BOM may contain more data than another BOM for the same program.0 User’s Guide 95 . property assignments. model comparison. see the following topics: • • • • • • • BOM Comparison Tool Graphical User Interface (GUI) BOM Comparison Tool Control Section BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section BOM Comparison Tool Master Column BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The BOM reader includes the following abilities: • • • • • Reads a generic BOM file of CSV format (comma separated values file) Provides a GUI to manipulate data in the BOM and the corresponding FE model Provides an option to update attributes in the FE model based on the data available in the BOM Provides an option to complete the existing BOM based on the data available from the model Filters out all vague information present in the BOM and provides a feature to edit the vague information into a valid data and move it back to the BOM Provides a functionality to export a new BOM file Note: The BOM Comparison Tool only applies to the Nastran. LS-Dyna. For an in-depth description of the parts that make up the BOM Comparison Tool user interface and how to use them. The HyperMesh BOM Comparison Tool focuses primarily on the Excel format. the formats and content of the BOM can vary. A BOM is often used as the master document for model meshing. BOMs usually use Microsoft Excel® format (CSV format) or XML format. and updates between design iterations as well as other CAE activities.BOM comparison tool The BOM Comparison Tool located on the QA/Model utility menu reads a generic Bill of Materials (BOM) file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM and its corresponding FE model. assembly. and Abaqus user profiles.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Contains a tree structure displaying part names and ids. Contains master column selection. part of the tree section.BOM Comparison Tool GUI The BOM Comparison Tool’s GUI consists of seven sections as shown below: Control section: Tree section: Master column: BOM display section: Metadata display section: Failed records section: Display filter section: Contains menu items and buttons to perform various operations. Displays failed records from a loaded BOM file. Contains options for metadata management. 96 HyperMesh 8. This section contains a table to display BOM info as it is seen in the actual BOM file. This section controls most tool functions. Contains filtering options for displaying tree and table info.

Part Id. or type a new header into it and Add them. click Continue to generate the new file. Save and export the current information shown in the BOM Display section as a new BOM csv file in a user selected location. Sometimes the BOM doesn’t contain all of the data you want. details populate the relevant fields in the BOM comparison tool. Update the model attributes to match the BOM. This option opens a new window listing the items to be added to the BOM file. and Gauge. File menu New Open Create a new session Browse for and load a new BOM file. If any are missing. HyperMesh checks for the standard headers Part Name. This option switches the BOM Display Section to Comparison mode if it is currently in BOM View mode (see below). Invalid records can be edited to form valid data and can be moved to the BOM Display table. Check Model Checks the model against the BOM. Material Id.0 User’s Guide 97 . Material. If the corresponding model contains the missing data. you will be prompted select the heading from the BOM file that corresponds to each standard header. You can select additional items from a combo box. You may also select items in the list and Delete them from the file. Use the Complete BOM operation to either complete an existing BOM.BOM Comparison Tool Control Section This portion of the interface contains drop-down menus and the toolbar. Show Failed Display all the invalid records that the tool encounters while reading a BOM file in a table. Only valid records from a BOM file display in the BOM Display Section’s table. you can complete the BOM data by querying the HM database and extracting the data. Once you had added or deleted all necessary entries. Close the BOM Comparison Tool. or click an item already in the list and insert the new item just above it. Save and Export Exit Edit menu Update Model Complete BOM Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or generate a new BOM by querying the HM model in current session. If all are found.

98 HyperMesh 8. Same function as Edit > Update Model. Different: components in BOM whose standard attributes differ from those in the model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In_BOM_Only: components found in BOM but not in model.View menu BOM View Compare View Display section displays BOM info as it appears in the BOM file. Categorizes BOM information into four sections: • Match: components in BOM whose standard attributes match exactly with those in the model. Same function as File > Show Failed. Same function as Edit > Check Model. Same function as Edit > Complete BOM. • • • Same function as File > Open. Same function as File >Save and Export. In_Model_Only: components found in model but not in BOM.

the tool identifies the part name and part id of all valid records. Filter options are given for displaying only the desired part info in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table. and can be used to filter the BOM info anytime in the session.0 User’s Guide 99 . Data associated with switched-on branches displays in the BOM display table Switch on only those branches in the tree (and associated data in the BOM display table) that correspond to the displayed parts in the model (Show displayed) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Apart from this there are filter buttons each one of which is explained below: (Select All) (Select None) (Reverse selection) Displays all the branches in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table Switch off all the branches in the tree and delete all the data in the BOM display table Switch on all the “off” branches in the tree and vice versa. select the desired header in the options menu. It then displays the part names. This section also includes selection and filtering controls. You can enter a string in the combo box. and press the <return> key to display the desired information in the tree and BOM display table. Each tree branch is associated with a row in the BOM display table containing all standard information for the part in the tree branch. to affect which parts display in the tree and which parts are selected or deselected.BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section When a BOM file is loaded into the tool. appended with part ids. in brackets in the form of a tree structure located on the left side of the tool window. The combo box remembers previously entered strings until you quit the tool.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . By default information displays in BOM Only view: 100 HyperMesh 8. located in the center of the tool window just below the master column section. This section allows you to select the desired master column option.e. i. The master column data is used as a key for the following operations: • • • Update model attributes as in BOM Complete BOM by querying model Check model against BOM The tool allows three master column combinations between the BOM and the model. The tool queries the data in the model based on any one of these column combinations: • • • Compare Part Id in BOM with Part Id in model: the tool compares the attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part id as the key.BOM Comparison Tool Master Column The central top portion of the tool window contains the master column section. columns containing part id. BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM info displays in a table in the BOM display section. and Comparison. The master column is the column in the BOM file whose attributes are considered as a key in comparison and validation operations. Compare by Part Number in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part number as the key. Compare by Part Name in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part name as the key. BOM info can be displayed in two different modes: BOM only. Only columns with three attributes can be used as master columns. part name and part number.

In the Different category. Update metadata updates metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. which categorizes the BOM information into four categories: • • • • Match: BOM components whose standard attributes exactly match those in the model Different: BOM components whose standard attributes differ from those in the model In_BOM_Only: components found in the BOM but not in the model In_Model_Only: components found in the model but not in the BOM The screenshot below illustrates Comparison view: Column 1 shows the category name with the number of parts falling under that category enclosed in brackets. remaining columns display the BOM info. Delete deletes the selected row in the table. Create metadata creates metadata of all the attributes of the parts in the model corresponding to the selected row in the table. mismatched attributes between BOM and the model are highlighted in light blue. Right-Click menu Right -clicking on the table opens a menu of functions: • • • • • • Display selected parts displays parts in the model corresponding to the selected rows in the BOM display table. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Use the toggle button located in the top-right portion of the GUI to switch to Comparison mode. Delete metadata deletes metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table.0 User’s Guide 101 . Display all parts will display all the parts in the model.

and then use this combo box to select the type of information displayed in the metadata display table: None Metadata related to BOM All metadata Differences between BOM/metadata clear the table if already some data exists display BOM related metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display all the metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display two rows of info in the metadata table. The tool considers the following five terms as standard attributes: • • • • • Part Name Part Id Material Material Id Gauge If at least one attribute is missing or repetitive. You have the option to edit each of those failed records to make them valid and move them to the BOM display table using the Move button. second row corresponds to metadata associated with the model BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section When a BOM file is loaded. The metadata display section contains four display options in the form of a combo box.BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section You can create. After selecting a row in the BOM Display table. Click the Show failed menu item or corresponding button in the control section to see the failed records. First row corresponds to BOM info. the tool checks for the validity of each standard attribute in a record (a record corresponds to one line of info in the BOM file). update and delete metadata using some of the menu items on the BOM display table.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Metadata information contains all the attributes for a part in the model. the whole record is considered invalid and will be stored out-of-sight. This opens a Failed records table as shown below. 102 HyperMesh 8.

Note that this will not preserve lines inside the components—only the outer boundary edge. However. When you click the preserve edges button. When active. Use the comps selector to choose the components whose boundary edges you wish preserved. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a line selector in the HyperMesh panel area.0 User’s Guide 103 . sometimes minor features are still important to your analysis. Saves the preservation state. Removes all lines from the preservation list. picking a new set of lines starts over instead of adding to the selection. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a component selector in the HyperMesh panel area. The preserve edges macro provides a way to ensure that specific components edges and feature lines do not accidentally get discarded during autocleanup or batch meshing. Click this button to highlight the lines already marked for preservation. this checkbox prevents HyperMesh auto-cleanup from equivalencing the boundaries between adjacent components. any previously stored feature lines will purge each time you click select lines or select comps. a new pop-up window opens to accept your settings: The following options are available for the Preserve Edges macro: Clear at start When this checkbox is active. so that autocleanup and batch mesher will know which lines must be preserved. Thus.Preserve Edges Both the batch mesher and the autocleanup features seek to improve mesh speed and/or quality by suppressing minor features (which are assumed to be insignificant). Use the lines selector to choose the lines you wish preserved. Select Lines Show Preserved Comps selection boundary Select comps Clear all lines Save preserved Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

The Midsurf thickness macro. the controls for this macro display in a new tab in the tab area. OK Cancel Accepts any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. if extracted using the HyperMesh midsurface function. Type a value into this field. Midsurf Thickness Geometric surfaces that represent the mid-plane of a solid part. only the visual highlighting effect is removed (until you click show preserved again). use this button to remove the highlight from the preserved lines. The thickness data can be a single value for the entire part or a varying function. Any points within this distance of the selected surfaces’ edges will be projected to those edges. using the same units as your model. When you click the Midusrf thickness… menu button. have thickness information stored in their definition. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. HyperMesh displays a target element size field.Reset highlights After clicking the show preserved button. 104 HyperMesh 8. Clicking this button opens a surfs selector in the HyperMesh panel area. Discards any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. use this to select the surfaces whose edges you wish to project points to. Project Points Use this macro to project geometric points (such as weld points) to nearby edges. allows you to transfer thickness data from surfaces to the associated nodes/elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . After selecting surfs and clicking proceed. The lines remain preserved. You can also review the contour plot of thickness data with this macro.

Refer to the User profile section for more details on the unique behavior of the Midsurf Thickness utility for each User profile.. the values will be updated on the element card for that solver. (For example. the zoffset (which is saved as part of the midsurface data) tells a solver how much of a positive-normal offset exists between the actual part surface and the midsurface: To assign Z-offset values to the element cards for supported solvers. so this value will always be populated on the element cards for any solver that supports Z-offset. For each User profile. macro: Apply thickness to You can choose to assign or view the thickness values at the nodes or on elements. 3. Assigns appropriate thickness values to the Component.0 User’s Guide 105 . check the Z-offset values checkbox. a base component named t0 must be defined. This option is only valid for OptiStruct and Nastran User profiles. the PSHELL T field will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). The nodes option is valid for only LS-DYNA and ANSYS solvers. CQUAD4 T1-T4 and Zoff fields will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Most solvers only have Z-offset defined on the element card.. Use the Nodes/Elements option to assign the thickness and Z-offset values directly to the element cards. Z-Offset Values Activate this checkbox to take z-offsets into account. (For example.The following options are available in the Midsurf thickness. then assign the thickness value to the component property card image for each User Profile. The t0 component definition will be used for all created components based on the Range Interval specified in the Component Organization Method section described below. 2. Groups the elements that have thickness values within the specified ranges into the new component based on the Range Interval or Gage File options. HyperMesh uses Z-offsets when midsurfacing parts that have variable thickness. The components option performs the following generic steps for each User profile: 1. Creates components with name “t[thickness value]” by copying the properties of the base component t0 and assigning the appropriate thickness based on the value of the Range Interval or Gage File options. Use the Components option to group elements that fall within userspecified thickness intervals into common components. In order to execute this mode.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Gauge – You must specify the thickness range intervals in a Gage File. This option is very useful for visualizing and verifying the results of the Midsurf Thickness utility before applying the midsurf thickness mapping operation. Range Interval – You must specify a thickness tolerance. If the Assigned Value is not specified. it is a review/display function only.Thickness calculation method This option is valid only while applying the thickness to elements. Click here for details on the format of the gauge file. Close 106 HyperMesh 8. Assign Contour Assigns the thickness from the surface definition to the nodes or elements chosen. n is determined by the maximum thickness in model divided by the user specified tolerance and then rounding to up to the next integer. HyperMesh groups elements having thickness values within the specified range intervals into appropriately created components with the appropriate thickness values assigned to the component. Centroid –the element’s centroid (interpolated from its nodes) Max –the maximum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. Min – the minimum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. This step does not assign the thickness to the nodes or elements. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value. The thickness assigned to each created component is n*tolerance. Component Organization method This option specifies the thickness range intervals used when grouping the elements into components based on their thickness values. You can obtain the thickness value from the surface at: Average – the average of the element’s nodes. • • • Lower limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* i ) Upper limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* (i + 1)) Assigned value = tolerance*(i+1) Where i = 0……n. Closes the tab. Creates a contour plot of the thicknesses on the selected elements/nodes. You can specify thickness range intervals by two methods: 1. Thickness range intervals are automatically generated based on the thickness tolerance using the following formula. 2.

9. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Load the desired model file. Create the base component “t0”. 6. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 5. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 4. Change to your preferred User Profile. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. 2. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. 2.To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Nodes/Elements Option: 1. Select the Components option. 5. Change to your preferred User Profile. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. 7. 6. Click the Proceed button. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. Change to your preferred User Profile. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. 3. To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Components Option: 1. 4. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping. 6. Load the desired model file. Select the Nodes/Elements option. 5. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of thickness for the Node/Element option. 3. Load the desired model file. Select a Thickness Calculation method. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping To Contour Thickness for Node/Element Option: 1. 4. 3. Select a Component Organization method and either select a file or enter a tolerance based on the method. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. 11. and enter any default values for this card. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 107 . 7. 8. 2. Pick the desired nodes. 7. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. 8. 10. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. assign the base property card image.

9. 6. 11. Click Proceed. 5. Select the Nodes/Elements option. 10. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the thickness for the components option. 7. 6. Load the desired model file. 4. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the Node/Element option. Select the desired nodes. 3. 10. 2. 8. Activate the Z-Offset check box. 5. 4. Change to your preferred User Profile. 7. Click the Proceed button. 8. 2. Change to your preferred User Profile. Load the desired model file. 3. Select the desired nodes. Change to your preferred User Profile. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the components option. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. 7. Select the Components option. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. Activate the Z-Offset check box. 6. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab.To Contour Z-offset for Node/Element Option: 1. To Contour Thickness for Components Option: 1. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. 5. 9. 108 HyperMesh 8. 8. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. Click the contour button to open the node selection panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 3. Select the desired elements. Select the Components option. Select the desired elements. Select the desired nodes. To Contour Z-offset for Components Option: 1. 4. Load the desired model file. Click the Proceed button. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 2.

Z-Offset value • Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Below is a specific example of a gauge file: Number of Gauges 4 End [max Thk] Assigned Value [Assigned Thk] Gauges Begin 0.05 0.1 0. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option.15 0.1 0. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value.05 0.05 0.0 0. 3.2 Assigned Value 0. • • • Unsupported Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”. Nodes/Elements Option • 2. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.15 0.Gauge file example The Gauge file uses the following format: Number of Gauges [Number of Gauge Data Lines] Gauges Begin [min Thk] … If the Assigned Value is not specified.2 Midsurf Utility Behavior under different user profiles Abaqus 1.1 0.0 User’s Guide 109 .15 End 0.

• Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Components Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported OptiStruct and Nastran 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Z-Offset value • If Z-Offset is checked “on” Z-offset values from the midsuface will be retrieved and assigned to the elements associated to that midsurface. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option. 1. The components option will group the elements with thickness intervals. • • • Assigns the Thickness and Z-Offset values to the Element Card based on the user selection Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”. 110 HyperMesh 8. 3. • • • • • 3. Nodes/Elements Option • 2.Ansys The only difference between the nodes/elements and components options are that the nodes/ elements option will group the elements which match only exact thickness values. Nodes/Elements • • • • 2.

Nodes/Elements • 2. • • • • • 3. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Radioss 1.Ls-Dyna 1. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported PamCrash 1. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Assigns the thickness value to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Nodes/Elements • 2.0 User’s Guide 111 . Nodes/Elements • 2. • • • • • 3. • • • 3.

Quick TetraMesh The Quick TetraMesh macro quickly creates a tetramesh of an enclosed volume defined by geometry and/or elements. the features may not be maintained as they do not pass minimum element criteria. you can select “sacred elements” so that the tetmeshing function closely follows the original geometry. This applies only to cases where you can maintain features while fixing minimum element size. The following options are available in the Quick TetraMesh macro: Volume Complist Double-click components and use the comps collector that displays in the panel area to select comps representing the geometry of the solid to be tetra meshed. and displays in a new tab in the tab area. Altair Engineering Minimum Tria Angle Maximum feature angle 112 HyperMesh 8. Click proceed to finalize the selection. Surfaces and/or elements can be used to define the volume. Use this control to limit how acute the resulting elements will be. For example. the mesh may deviate from the underlying geometry in order to maintain good quality elements. The maximum feature angle protects nodes on corners with a feature angle greater than the value specified.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . To alleviate this. if two nodes of an element share different features (as in thin steps). The surface trias from which the tetramesh will be extrapolated will be generated with angles that measure at least this many degrees. helping to better maintain the geometry. This macro is accessed on the Geom/Mesh utility menu located on the standard utility menu. During the process of quick tetramesh. Its main objective is to quickly and automatically create a tetramesh that meets the minimum interior angle and minimum element size.

but may produce lowquality elements along such locations. it gives special preference to trying to keep the nodes on a sacred surface. ignores/replaces existing elements. Note: this does not work if two adjacent surfaces are both marked as sacred! These are existing trias that you have created according to your requirements and wish to maintain while tetrameshing the part. and always uses uniform density. Tet from Mesher Perform mesh cleanup only Help Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Maximum reverse angle The maximum feature angle allowed between normals of adjacent elements. Choose floating.0 User’s Guide 113 . and edges to improve accuracy. All the cleanup steps are designed to improve the mesh quality. but only for the elements selected as sacred. This is useful in ensuring that a particular feature is captured exactly the way you want it to be. With the Mixed mesh type. or the one used by the batch mesher. splitting of elements. and projections onto the original geometry. This determines the meshing engine used: the one used by the automesh panel. but does not currently support sacred surfaces or elements. No single edge of any generated element will be shorter than this. Opens a pop-up window with basic information about each control that displays on the tab. If the feature angle exceeds the given value. even if doing so would improve element quality. in which the quick tetramesher is free to move nodes in a surface tria mesh to achieve better tetra elements based on them. Average element size of the mesh to be created. When this option is checked. in which the mesher must keep the tria mesh unchanged. Choose between chordal deviation and uniform. Note that this setting overrides the float setting in the tet from option. but requires more computing time. Uniform uses identically-sized elements throughout the mesh. Mesh size Minimum Edge Size Minimum Elem Size Sacred surface Sacred elements Mesh type Mesh Density The mesh type options are Trias Only and Mixed. Minimum allowable area for any element. When HyperMesh tries to move element nodes to improved element quality. feature lines. Chordal deviation uses smaller elements along curves. Some of the cleanup operations performed are: the suppression of free edges. correction of sliver elements. both trias and quads may be created. or fixed. no tetra elements are created and the macro simply goes through the cleanup steps for the shell mesh. Choose between automesh and batch. The Batch mesher generally produces better results. The tetramesher will not move the nodes of these elements. two adjacent elements are considered reversed and actions are performed to correct the situation.

g. After making adjustments. 5. In addition. or if mesh in certain areas is not satisfactory). Locate entities attached to the selected components. manually mesh using chordal deviation. For critical areas where you want to control the mesh such as bolt holes. Locate T-connections in the model. this persists until you exit HyperMesh. 114 HyperMesh 8. any surfaces edges that were ignored. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Run with the desired mesh size. and specify the quality constraints: Minimum Jacobian (evaluated at the corner nodes or integration points). Minimum Ratio between the minimum and maximum edge length. Select these elements as sacred elements. Close Debug Surface Mesh The Quick Tetramesh macro meshes the unmeshed surfaces in the model using chordal deviation and fixes all the elements that fail the criteria provided. 6. You can manually mesh some critical geometry and select those elements as sacred elements. This helps to obtain the desired mesh in critical areas. Launch the Quick Tetramesh macro. Locate features in the model that have feature angles greater than 150 degrees. Use the delete panel to delete the tetras then. 2. the tool heals small cracks in the model. click this to re-run the meshing operation on the same components. These sacred elements need to be trias. however. As a part of the cleanup. Re-launch the Quick Tetramesh macro and select sacred elements to protect. Fix 2nd order midnodes This macro. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . attempt to remesh using different settings if you do not like the initial results. Closes the tab.Mesh Perform the quick tetramesh with the specified settings. Note: There is no Undo function! You can. if any (e. moved midnodes lose any preexistent association with the underlying geometry. Note: Moved midnodes are saved to your save list. Load the geometry. 4. Identify problem areas. improves element quality by moving the midedge nodes of second order elements. Suggested process to effectively use quick tetramesh: 1. and Maximum angle. manually mesh problem areas. You select the elements on which you want to improve the quality. A series of tools that help you located problem areas which can cause poor meshing: Find Holes Find T-Con Dihedrals Attached Try TetraMesh Locate holes in your model.

3. Remember that this is a minimum length. but no greater than 1. while a length of 0 would mean that the shorter segment might not exist—so this value must be greater than 0. so a value of 0. you use the Fix 2 Order Midnodes utility: 1. the angle between the segments at the midnode will not exceed 180 degrees minus this value). nd Order Midnodes window. The utility will move midnodes such that the angle at the ends of each segment will not deviate from a straight line by more than this amount (thought of another way.Typical usage of this utility begins with use of the check elems panel to identify poorly-formed nd elements.5 would allow the shorter segment to be half as long as the longer segment. From that point onward. Specify a minimum Jacobian value. An element selector and proceed button display in the panel area. or longer—but not shorter than half the length of the longer segment. A value of 1 represents perfectly equal segment length. The Fix 2 Order Midnodes window opens. Click proceed. so you can click-and-drag it to any desired location.0 User’s Guide 115 Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering • • Altair Engineering . Specify a limit to the ratio of minimum and maximum length for the segments of the midnodebearing edges. HyperMesh 8. and use the radio buttons to determine whether HyperMesh should evaluate each element’s Jacobian at the corner nodes or the integration points. Click the elems selector and select retrieve to load the saved failed elements. 2. and using that panel’s save failed option. choose your element quality constraints: Choose a maximum angle. nd In the Fix 2 • Order Midnodes window. nd The Fix 2 4. See the screenshot above for an example using a value of 30 degrees. This pop-up window exists independently of the rest of the HyperMesh environment. Click the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes button on the geom/mesh Utility Menu.

Click one of the command buttons to finalize: • • • Apply tells HyperMesh to move the midnodes to try to match the criteria you specified. The images below illustrate the before-and-after state of a specific midnode and the criteria used.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When you click Apply. Close closes the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes window. Reject undoes any changes made when you pressed apply. a message displays under the Results heading to inform you of exactly what HyperMesh did to the mesh.5. as well as the overall results: Before clicking Apply After clicking Apply 116 HyperMesh 8.

This toggle only applies when the number of layers is more than zero. and specifies whether you want mesh layers to all be the same width. The number of a specific washer layer. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the table displays one row for each of the number of layers that you specified. If you chose varying width for the layers. then click proceed.Trim Hole Macro This macro.0 User’s Guide 117 . only one row displays because all layers will be set to the same values. A new window opens: The options in the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window determine the type of hole that HyperMesh creates at each chosen node: Hole radius Number of layers Uniform/Varying Each node will receive a hole of this radius. Pick nodes on your model for the centers of each hole that you wish to create. Otherwise. You can also specify a number of layers of washer elements to include. with a nodes selector and a proceed button. creates a circular hole of a given radius in the mesh at a node specifying the center of the hole. or to vary from one another. measured from the node. No. Clicking the Trim Hole button opens a special. temporary panel in the HyperMesh panel area. This is the number of layers of washer mesh elements that you want to surround each hole.

located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. so it can only undo multiple holes if they were created simultaneously during a single trim operation. Note that this only undoes a single click of the trim button. • Scale: you can specify each layer’s scale relative to the Hole radius. When you click the Fill Hole button in the utility menu. Minimum number of nodes around the hole Trim Reject This determines the mesh density around the new hole(s). Close the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click this button to create the new hole(s).Scale/Width Determines the width of the washer layers. and enables two more options: • • Choose individual rigid links to create rigid elements at each node of the new hole. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. For example. Close Fill Hole Macro This macro. a new window opens: 118 HyperMesh 8. use “0. Note: This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that currently fill the hole. • Value Create rigid spider along the hole The scale factor or width of the layer(s). if necessary. click this button to undo it. Width: specify a fixed width for each layer. Each new hole will be created with at least the number of nodes that you specify in the density field. Choose single rigid link to create one rigid element that connects to all of the nodes around the new hole.5” for a washer layer that’s half as wide as the hole radius. If you don’t like the results of the last trim operation. This checkbox tells HyperMesh to create a rigid spider in each of the new holes created. fills in one or more holes in your geometry with automatically-generated mesh. evenly spaced around its circumference.

3. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=xmin and X=value.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. Fill Reject Close Box Trim Macro The Box Trim macro. Automatic Use this option to let HyperMesh select holes automatically based on size. Click the yellow Select Nodes button. Close the Filling holes with mesh window.0 and Y=ymax. Split the model along global Y=0. Type a value into the entry field labeled Fill circular holes with radius smaller than:.0 User’s Guide 119 . Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y= ymiddle and Y=ymax. For example. The Filling holes with mesh window returns. click this button to undo it. and X=xmin and X=value. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=ymiddle. and attempt to fill them with mesh.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. whether you chose to select your holes manually or automatically. Note that this only undoes a single click of the fill button.There are two methods of filling holes: Manual Use this option to select the holes that you wish to fill: 1. Click the Fill button to fill the selected holes with mesh.0 and X=value (selected value). and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=0. The selected model can be trimmed along eight standard types: left right front rear frontleft frontright rearleft rearright Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y=ymin and Y= ymiddle (ymiddle =(ymin+ymax)/2). Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=value and X=xmax. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu.0. Click proceed in t he panel area. If you don’t like the results of the last fill operation. HyperMesh will automatically scan you model for holes smaller than this value. Split the model along global Y=0. Split the model along global Y=0. a full car model can be trimmed along the Y=0 axis to obtain the left or right side of the car. with the Select Nodes button now green to indicate that nodes have been chosen. allows you to trim the model (or selected subset) along the global axis to fit the selected 3-D box. so it can only undo multiple fills if they were created simultaneously during a single fill operation. and X=value and X=xmax.0 and Y=ymax. 4. and X=xmin and X=value. and X=value and X=xmax. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click this button to perform the fill operation. Select nodes on the edges of the holes that you wish to fill. returning you to the main HyperMesh environment with a nodes selector active in the panel area. The window temporarily minimzes.

120 HyperMesh 8. The axis directions and terminology are based on modeling standards in the automotiv industry.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .This macro is useful in applications where some types of analysis can be performed on one-half (or quarter) of the model using symmetry boundary conditions. e The model can also be trimmed using custom box by either selecting the two corner nodes or center node and dimensions. Note: This macro is for the 1st order plate elements only.

The nodes are constrained in the appropriate directions depending on the trim axes and are stored in the specified load collector (SPC collector). . click Box Trim. (Reject will undo all the above.) 5. If no elements are selected. If you select custom. 6.To box trim a model: 1. Then enter Delta X. A large hexa element that represents the box will be created for visualization in the specified collector. If you select Corners. . If no load collector is specified. the outer X.0 User’s Guide 121 . If you select a standard type. Y and Z bounds of the box. select the node/enter value for trim location. 2. You can turn on the option of creating constraints (SPCs) for all the nodes along the face of the box. and select the two corner nodes that define If you select Distance from center. Click Trim. From the Box Trim dialog. click the icon. all displayed elements are selected. 3. the constraints are created in the current load collector. Delta Y and Delta Z values which is the distance from the center node to the outer bounds of the box in global X. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and select the center node. 4. Y and Z directions. choose the appropriate option from the Box trim type: menu. define the box by either selecting two corner nodes (Corners) or selecting the center node and dimensions (Distance from center). From the Geom/Mesh utility menu. select the elements you would like to trim and click proceed or the middle mouse button. Using the extended entity selection. click the icon. You can also specify a Box collector.

Auto Connectors Macro Note: If you are unfamiliar with HyperMesh connector entities. The Auto Connectors macro automates the importation and FE realization of connectors from either a Master Connectors File or an older Master Weld File. refer to Connector Definition and Connector Realization for more information. Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog 122 HyperMesh 8. Virtually every option available for FE realization in the connectors module is also available in the Auto Connectors macro.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

This script automatically reads the default HyperMesh feconfig. The user-defined FE type definitions can be found in the appropriate feconfig.cfg file and displays a list of all the appropriate user-defined FE types (found in the feconfig.cfg file. the user-defined FE type-t o-realize is required.cfg file) in the Fe type field. Additional options are: • • • Build systems Snap to node Attach to shells Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog . The property and diameter can be specified if necessary.user-defined option Input requirements for connector entity creation and FE realization are: • • • Note: Master connectors/weld file FE config Projection tolerance In the case of a user-defined FE config.0 User’s Guide 123 .

The length of the weld element is calculated using one of the following methods: (T1+T2)/2 This creates the Hexa elements with a length equal to the average component thickness it is connecting.25:: Z 1. ACM Welds An ACM (Area Contact Method) weld is a special representation of a spot weld. This creates the Hexa elements between the component/element shell surface. The file format includes thickness range and the corresponding diameter of the weld nugget.0 Maximum thickness 1.0:: 0.0 for the thickness range of 1. Thickness Files DvsT file (diameter vs thickness ) contains a table that associates the thickness of components and the nugget diameter of the weld.4 to 1.9 3.05:: Y 2.exe feinput translator.99.25: 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .25:: 3. For additional supported formats. The nugget diameter corresponding to the minimum thickness of the connecting parts is obtained from the DvsT file. PointId 12:: 23:: 1t/2t/3t 2:: 3:: X 2.4 2. The length of the Hexa element will be equal to the actual distance between the two connecting components/elements. The weld is defined using a solid (HEXA) element whose cross-sectional area is equivalent to the area of the weld nugget. These solid elements are connected to the corresponding components using RBE3 elements.Master Weld Files The Master Weld File provides the weld location and parts to be connected.0 Nugget diameter 7 8 The nugget diameter is 7. The second figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method. The first figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method. The size of the hexa is calculated to match the cross-sectional area of the weld nugget. Minimum thickness 1.25:: PartId1 2:: 2:: PartId2 3:: 3:: 5:: PartId3 The syntax is the same as used for spotweld. T1 and T2 are the component thicknesses. The equivalent area is taken to determine the side of the hexa. Project to shell 124 HyperMesh 8. The size of the solid element is determined using the DvsT file. A format example is shown below. Diameter vs. see Spotweld Interface Overview. Th e solid element is created at the exact weld location independent of the shell elements that represent the sheet metal parts.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. ACM creation using (T1+T2)/2.0 option ACM creation using Project to Shells option The weights of the RBE3 elements are calculated based on the projection of the dependent node on the shell element.0 User’s Guide 125 . The nodes of the shell element closest to the dependent node are assigned a greater weight relative to the node that is farther away.The figures below show ACM created using the two currently available methods.

If no DvsT file is selected. they can be realized as ACM spotwelds as follows: 1. Select the connectors to be realized as ACMs in the fe realize panel of the connectors module on the 1D page. Click realize. 2. Make sure the attach to shell and snap to node options are turned off in fe options…. 4. Set the appropriate tolerance (proj tol=) value. hexas are created with weld nugget diameter =1. In addition to the creation of CWELD elements. 6. Choose custom element config and select type = Nastran 70 ACM((T1+T2)/2) or type = Nastran 71 ACM (Shell Gap) per your requirements.ACM welds can be created and managed in HyperMesh using connectors. 5. The 1D element is not connected to the shell element. Select a DvsT file. which determines the size of the hexa based on the thicknesses of the components being connected. 3. 7. a corresponding property card (PWELD) is created with an updated diameter ‘D’ attribute value. For details regarding connected shell elements or nodal information see the element card. Make sure all the connecting parts have PSHELL cards with correct thicknesses.0. Make sure that the connectors are created at each of the weld locations along with connecting parts information. 9. 126 HyperMesh 8. The appropriate property script is automatically loaded for the selected type. meshless elements. the diameter is determined from a DvsT file based on the component thickness. 8. CWELD Elements CWELD elements are created as patch-patch. Once a connector is created. For CWELD elements. Load the Nastran user profile from the user prof… panel in Geom or Tools page.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

however. and removing. and an interface customized for CFD uses. Madymo.set file keeps track of which user profile was last loaded. The configuration can include loading a specific template. removing unused panels or sub-panels. A set of standard user profiles is included in the HyperMesh installation. OptiStruct. renaming panels. Pamcrash.User Profiles The HyperMesh user interface can be configured according to your specific needs and saved as a user profile. add functions to (or remove them from) a panel. The current user profile displays on the header bar. Ansys.0 User’s Guide 127 . HyperMesh. Permas. Nastran. Select User Profiles from the Preferences pull-down menu. They may. Radioss. They include Abaqus. The hmmenu. the appropriate template and Utility menu load (you can return to the standard HyperMesh GUI by selecting the HyperMesh profile). Once you choose a standard user profile. Actran. Moldflow. loading a specific Utility menu. Note that the user profiles change the appearance of a panel . LsDyna. or renaming panel options.they do not affect the internal behavior of each function. User profiles for the following products are included: HyperMesh OptiStruct ABAQUS ACTRAN ANSYS LS-DYNA MADYMO NASTRAN PAM-CRASH & PAM-CRASH2G PERMAS RADIOSS CFD Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note: Ensure that items required for a specific function are not removed from the interface. moving.

The standard HyperMesh Utility menu (hm. the template remains the same. Utility menu: Panel changes: The standard HyperMesh Utility menu is loaded.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the template remains the same. Using HyperMesh This section explains how to use a typical HyperMesh panel by description and example. None The HyperMesh user profile does not load a template.mac) is loaded.HyperMesh User Profile Template: None/Unchanged This user profile does not load a template. It contains information about: • • • • • • • • • • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Input Collectors Viewing Models Using the Display Panel Setting View Options Setting Tolerances Setting Global Parameters Importing and Exporting Data Printing Screen Images Using the Card Previewer 128 HyperMesh 8. If a template file exists before loading the profile. If a template file exists before loading the profile.

0 User’s Guide 129 . Using the Files Panel However. and click Save. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and Save As… options located in the Files pull-down menu. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. click retrieve.Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Using the File pull-down menu The simplest way to open or save a HyperMesh model database is to use the Open... updating/overwriting its older version each time you Save. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button.. This process is familiar for users of HyperMesh 7. Open and Save As… both invoke browsers so that you can navigate to the desired file directory and either select a file to open.. Next. dialog. select a file using the Open file.. Save. click save. and then select the hm file sub-panel..0 and earlier. but can be less efficient than using the File menu. select a path and file name. and then select the hm file sub-panel. HyperMesh asks for confirmation before overwriting the file.. you can also use the hm file sub-panel on the files panel to save and retrieve HyperMesh binary databases. To save a database. Save simply saves the current model under its current name. You can also click save as. If the file being saved already exists.. and click Open. or type in a name for the file to be saved. Next. To retrieve a binary HyperMesh database.

Lines Each segment of a line has pick handles along its length. Each pick handle is displayed as a small "+. a "+" is displayed at only some of the pick handles. Surfaces can be selected along their edges or on interior UV lines (also known as surface lines). 1-D element pick handles are displayed as letters at the centroid of the elements: K M BAR2 BAR3 R RL W RBE3 J ROD GAP spring masses bar2 bar3 rigid rigid link weld rbe3 joint rod gap Click the element handles check box on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel to switch on or off the display of element handles. or surface within that component. you can use the mouse to pick the desired entities in the graphics area of the screen. Line handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. Note: For more information about picking entities. Element handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. A component can be selected by picking an element. Components do not have pick handles. Each type of entity has a pick handle that allows you to select the entity.Picking Entities on the Screen After you select the correct data type. If you need to select nodes on geometry or on an element where nodes do not currently exist. The pick handle for a coordinate system is located at the origin of the system. You can set the default mode for the graphics mode you wish to use by activating/deactivating the *graphicengine(mode) command in the hm. line.cfg command file. To select a node. Click geom handle on the modeling sub-panel on the options subpanel to switch on or off the display of line handles. move the mouse to the location on the screen where the node resides. see Entity Selection. You may need to change the command if the default has been changed by a prior user. Elements Shell and solid element pick handles are displayed as pixels at the centroid of the element. Systems 130 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . see Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements. Surfaces Components Surfaces do not have pick handles. The following list indicates the pick handle locations for each type of entity: Nodes The pick handle for a node is located at the node." If there are many pick handles.

Blocks do not have pick handles. Vector pick handles are located at the arrow tip of the vector. A plot can be selected by picking within its border. you can turn on the coincident picking option from the modeling sub-panel of the options panel (accessed from the toolbar).0 User’s Guide 131 .System Collectors Loads Load Collectors Plots Blocks System collectors do not have pick handles. Load collectors do not have pick handles. when several of them are coincident (present at the same location). A curve can be selected by clicking anywhere along the curve. To facilitate the selection of graphical entities such as nodes. simply select a load within that system collector. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or loads. To select a system collector. Titles Vectors Curves Note A title can be selected by picking within its bounding box. To select a load collector. The pick handle for a load is located at the pick handle of the entity to which the load is applied. simply select a system within that system collector. elements. Blocks are drawn in shaded mode with transparency and can be selected by picking anywhere on the entity.

4. Continue to hold the left mouse button down and use the mouse to move this special cursor box close to the desired geometry entity. To select new nodes on geometry: 1. You can create a node on geometry by holding the left mouse button down along the geometry handle until the cursor becomes a square and then selecting the geometry (lines. Move your cursor to the exact location on the element where you want to add a node and click the left mouse button. 3. surfaces) on which you would like to place a node. While the line/surface is highlighted. A temporary node is created at that location and is selected in the node collection for the panel. 132 HyperMesh 8. Position the cursor on a node and press the left mouse button. you can select nodes at the desired location(s) on the geometry. While the line or surface is highlighted in this manner. This function allows you to create welds at locations that do not have pre-existing nodes. You can create temporary nodes on an element (similar to creating a node on the fly on a line or surface). Release the left mouse button. edges.Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements Node and node list input collectors allow you to not only pick existing nodes in the model. To select new nodes on elements: 1. release the left mouse button to select it. they also allow you to create new nodes on geometry or on elements. When you are in a node collection mode.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . position the cursor on an element handle and hold the left mouse button down. The cursor becomes a small white box and the element is highlighted. Then move your cursor to the exact location on the geometry where you would like the node to be placed and click the left mouse button to place a node. This function can be accessed from any node collector in any panel. 2. 3. . Then move the cursor to the exact location on the elements of that component and click the left mouse button to place the node. You can create nodes on elements by holding the left mouse button down on an element handle until the cursor becomes a square and selecting the element. The cursor becomes a small white box 2.

the set to be added to the user mark includes entities displayed and those not displayed. loads. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are displayed in dimmed text. These selection options are displayed for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. and points by collector. lines.0 User’s Guide 133 . equations. You can then select an option from the extended entity selection menu. When you select by attached. To access the extended selection menu. the entities selected by this operation are those attached to the selected component. HyperMesh includes the entities that are adjacent to the entities already selected. When you select all. Entities that are not displayed will not be selected although they may be attached to the entity selected. coordinate systems. Input Collector Extended entity selection menu. Allows you to select entities by specifying an entity among a large group of continuously connected elements. If you select component collectors in regard to elements or lines. When you select by adjacent. When you select by collector. HyperMesh displays a list of the available collectors. Allows you to select entities by assembly. You may select multiple assemblies from this list. HyperMesh displays a list of the available assemblies. by adjacent by assems by attached by collector Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. surfaces. Extended selection techniques are described in the following table: all Allows you to select all entities of the specified type. vectors. With all other entities. Allows you to select elements. Allows you to select entities adjacent to the entities already selected. HyperMesh includes the entities currently displayed that are attached to the entities already selected. click the data type button on the current input collector. the elements or lines contained in the selected components are selected.Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu The extended entity selection menu provides a number of entity selection options. You may select multiple collectors from this list. When you select by assems.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . groups and mats within an outputblock. When you select by include. 3. You may select multiple groups from this list. adjacent surfaces or elements are progressively selected when the angle between them is less than or equal to the specified feature angle.100 by 2. Examples of valid by id expressions: 127 127 – 722 300 through 600 300 thru 600 300 t 600 1000 . Note: Includes created via the include browser are only valid for solvers that support them. 100 3. The element type is dependent on the template file specified in the global panel. or "t" may be substituted for the dash (-). "thru". that belong to selected include. You can use keywords to specify a range that determines which entities are selected.2000 b 100 You can also use a comma to separate individual entities or entity ranges. When you select by config.by config Allows you to select elements by configuration and type.2000 by 100 1000 . Output blocks are created in the output blocks panel. When you select by output block. HyperMesh displays a panel for specifying an element configuration and type for selection. When you select by group. a pop-up window prompts you to type ID numbers or ranges of ID numbers. elements. loads. Allows you to select entities by surface face. 850 1 . Allows you to select entities by group. Allows you to select entities by typing in their ID numbers. systs. comps. 400 t 500 b 3 by face by group by id by include Allows you to select FE entities such as elements. groups etc. by output block Allows you to select the nodes. and the letter "b" may be substituted for "by" when you specify the range.<end number> by <increment value> "through". 800. HyperMesh displays a list of the available groups. When you select by id. 5. The feature angle parameter in the options panel’s modeling sub-panel determines the feature lines. The standard format is: <start number> . Attached. HyperMesh displays a list of the available output blocks from which you may select. It finds surfaces and elements that are attached to each other without crossing a feature line. Examples of valid lists of by id expressions: 1. 5.10. 77. 4. 8 . HyperMesh displays a list of the available includes that you may select. 134 HyperMesh 8.

click reject entities to deselect enclosed entities that were previously highlighted. Sets are created in the entity sets panel. by path for lines uses the connectivity of surfaces/solids and thus requires the selected lines to be surface/solid edges. Similarly. Click select entities to highlight the enclosed entities. When you select by sets. Once the surfaces have been selected. and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. as shown in the global panel. Selecting by window activates the build window panel. Entities can be saved to the user mark by selecting save in this popup window. Allows you to select a group of entities whose pick handles reside on a plane. or by selecting save failed in the check elems panel. The initially selected entities are deselected when the duplicate elements are created and selected. Allows you to select the entities which are associated to a surface. When disp is selected.by path Allows you to pick multiple nodes or lines. Select original to place the new entities in the same component collectors as the original entities. a pop-up window allows you to choose a component for the newly created duplicate entities. Select points in the graphics area to define a window enclosing the pick handles of the desired entities. HyperMesh displays a list of the available sets from which you may select. When you select by surface. all entities within collectors that are active in the disp (display) panel are selected. Alternatively. Allows you to select surfaces by width. Select current to place the new entities in the currently active component collector. Allows you to duplicate the currently selected elements. the function tries to find the closest path along that free edge. Allows you to select the entities within a set. Allows you to select entities inside a user-defined multiple-sided polygon in the plane of the screen.0 User’s Guide 135 . When you select duplicate. click select and HyperMesh selects the entities which are associated to the surfaces. If you select two nodes on a free edge of some elements. either by picking a sample surface or by specifying a range of values for the width. Allows you to retrieve previously saved entities from the user mark. or points. lines. HyperMesh displays a panel from which you may select one or more surfaces. and selects all the nodes/lines that fall in the closest path connecting the selected ones. Allows you to select all of the entities currently displayed on the screen. You can associate entities to a surface in the node edit panel. This can be very useful when you use the reflect function on a model (only available for elements and lines). by sets by surface by window by width displayed duplicate on plane retrieve Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes. surfaces. This is useful when you want to apply constraints to a plane.

This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally. it only works with surface edges and not free unconnected geometric lines.reverse Allows for a Boolean "not" to be performed on the currently displayed elements. for example.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you select two nodes on the free edge of the elements. If you select two free (red) edges. The nodelist collector displays the following extended selection options: save Notes: by list by path Allows you to select nodes individually in the desired sequence. such as nodelist and linelist must remember the sequence in which the entities are selected. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. Some panels in HyperMesh require only a single entity to collect. When reverse is selected. origin in the systems panel requires only one node. The extended entity selection menu is not displayed in such situations. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. 136 HyperMesh 8. the function tries to find the closest path along the free edge. Allows you to pick nodes (two or more) and selects all the nodes that fall in the closest path connecting the selected nodes. all elements which are not on the mark and are currently active are selected. Thus their extended entity selection menu is different from that of the standard extended selection menu. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. Some collectors. all selected elements are removed from the mark. the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). Allows you to review the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. show node order by window The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. Allows you to save the currently selected entities to a holding area known as the user mark.

then click-and-drag on the model in the graphics area. identify. View pop-up menu. or rotate the model in clockwise or counterclockwise directions. Hold down the ctrl key. then click cw (clockwise) or ccw (counterclockwise). (Numeric keypad) Current Window Zoom Fit to screen Plot (refreshes the rendering in the Graphics Area).0 User’s Guide 137 . The view menu Changing the Window The window viewing options allow you to zoom in and out of the currently displayed window. The save and restore options allow you to save. specify an area to see in closer detail. and down arrow keys to rotate the model incrementally. up. right. and refresh the screen. The view commands are accessible even when you are using other panels. click-and-drag the mouse to zoom in and out. The view zooms to that circle when you release the mouse button. Using View Rotation There are multiple methods you can use to rotate a displayed model.Viewing Models The functions on the Toolbar Area allow you to control the view of your model. • • • Use the left. Click the user view button in the Toolbar Area to access the view menu. The viewing functions allow you to: Setting Basic Views The view pop-up menu allows you to display your model in several basic views. fill the window with the model. The following window viewing options are included as default keyboard shortcuts: z + and f p s Circle zoom: click-and-drag the mouse to draw a circle. Slide zoom. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and restore different views of your model. Release the mouse button to stop zooming. reverse the view.

on the numeric keypad to zoom out.CTRL . Move the mouse to the appropriate area on the screen and hold the left mouse button down. To fit the entire model on the screen: • Press F on the keyboard. To perform a circle zoom: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To zoom in and out of the current window: 1. 2. The cursor changes to dynamic center mode. 2. Simultaneously press and hold the CTRL key and the right mouse button. Press the s key. Press + on the numeric keypad to zoom in. Slide the mouse: or 4. A trailer line appears wherever the mouse is moved. Press . down to zoom in up to zoom out Release the mouse button to end the zoom function. With the mouse button still depressed. If the screen appears messy or inaccurate after entities have been plotted and erased. Use the mouse to drag the model to the desired position on the screen. 3. 138 HyperMesh 8. These two functions increase or decrease the current window by the user-defined factor specified on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel. Click and hold the mouse button. Press Z on the keyboard. Automatic full screen refreshes are kept to a minimum. To use the mouse to zoom in and out: 1. The model and/or the window are not resized when you refresh the screen. move the mouse to circle the area to be zoomed in on.right click allows you to drag the model. To drag the model: 1. HyperMesh displays a message requesting you to circle the area of the model to be more closely investigated. To refresh the screen: • Click the plot refresh toolbar button or press P on the keyboard. 2. Release the mouse button. 3. press the p key or the plot refresh toolbar button to refresh the screen. The area circled is used to recalculate the window when the mouse button is released. 2.

To change the screen center: 1. The center relocates. Move the mouse into the graphics area. by clicking the right mouse button. Press C on the keyboard.0 User’s Guide 139 . or other viewing manipulation was performed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. You can toggle between two views of a model by clicking (or pressing) repeatedly.Performing View Translation Translation of the model. also called panning. Return to the Previous View To return to the previous view of your model. is performed by selecting a new center for the current window. The current center is indicated by a small white box. This returns the screen graphic to the view before a rotation. Exit by moving the mouse into the menu area. center. 2. 4. Move the mouse to the point where you want the new center located and click the left mouse button. zoom. click the previous view button in the Toolbar Area or press b on the keyboard. or by pressing any key.

Select the type of collector you want to display.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To change to another collector type: 1. Select the type of collector you want to display. the switches (on the right-hand side of the panel) are set to comps and elems. The name and ID of the collector are displayed on the left side of the page. located on the permanent menu. The ID of the collector is displayed in parenthesis on the left side of the page. Access it by clicking the display button in the Toolbar Area or selecting Display > Collectors from the View pull-down menu. or both: 1. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel.Using the disp (display) Panel The disp (display) panel. At this setting. Use the right mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want removed. To turn all the collectors off: • Click none. Click the upper switch. Select the collector type. Collectors can also be turned off by moving the mouse to the graphics region and picking an entity which they collect. 3. 140 HyperMesh 8. The colors of each component display next to the component names. 3. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. To turn on all the collectors of a specified type: 1. To change the collector list to display names. Click the lower switch and select name (id) to display the name and the collector’s ID number. To turn a collector on: 1. 2. Click the lower switch and select name to display the collector’s name. allows you to select which components and collectors are displayed on the screen. Click all. the elements in the selected components are displayed if the component (on the left-hand side of the panel) is selected. The name of the collector is displayed on the left side of the page. In the default mode of the display panel. 3. 2. Click the lower switch and select (id) to display the collector’s ID number instead of the name. Click the upper switch. Use the left mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want added to the display. To turn a collector off: 1. Components can be turned on and off by selecting the check boxes of the components in the display list. IDs. 2. Click the upper switch. Select the type of collector you want to remove from the screen display. 2. 2.

You can use the asterisk (*) for a wildcard. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.To reverse the selection: • Click reverse to toggle between having all the selected components on or off. 2.0 User’s Guide 141 . To display geometry: • Click the toggle and select geoms to display the surfaces and lines in a component. Enter the character string to use for the filter. Click the leftmost toggle to filter =. To use a filter: 1.

in pixels. if multiple loads are detected at the same location.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The surf lines parameter specifies the default number of u-v lines to draw on new surfaces when they are created. Displaying surface lines can help you to visualize a surface better. The entities supported for coincident picking are nodes. elements. Turning off pick handles can speed up the redraw time. The element handles option also allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements.Setting View Options The modeling sub-panel on the options panel (accessible via to toolbar or the Tools pull-down menu) allows you to define several viewing options. it is easier to pick an entity. but it can slow down the redraw speed of a large model. This function is activated by turning on coincident picking in the options panel. that the cursor can be from the pick handle of a graphical entity in order to select it. The pick tolerance specifies the maximum distance. setting the rotation angle to a lower value allows a smooth transition from frame to frame. The coincident picking option allows you to graphically select a desired entity from a stack of coincident entities when there are multiple entities at the same location. The geom handles option allows you to specify whether or not to display line and surface handles. This does not affect the display of free points. Increasing or decreasing the angle makes the model appear to rotate faster or slower. The zoom factor specifies the multiplication factor that is used to increase or decrease the scale of the current view when you press the + and – keys on the numeric keypad. For example. This sub-panel also allows you to specify node and cleanup tolerances. fixed points The fixed points option allows you to specify whether or not to display fixed points. The element handles option specifies whether or not to draw element handles. for more information see Setting Tolerances. You can then pick the appropriate load. For smaller models. a circular insert pops up containing various loads displayed separately with their IDs turned on. pick tol zoom factor surf lines element handle geom handle coincident picking template labels/ HM labels 142 HyperMesh 8. When the pick tolerance is increased. Fixed points can also be turned on and off from vis opts in the geometry cleanup panel. loads and systems. This option allows you to display the element labels as template names or HyperMesh names. The number of surface lines on existing surfaces can be changed by using the surf lines panel. Viewing option settings include: rotate angle The rotate angle specifies the number of degrees that your model rotates when you use the arrow keys. An element handle is a single-pixel dot at the centroid of an element.

select the element to which the node of interest is attached. They can be applied to individual components or sets of components through the Visual Attributes panel. Hidden Line with Feature Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the "feature" edges drawn in mesh line color. Display attributes can be applied to all components by using the wireframe elements and shaded elements toolbar buttons. This feature allows you to assign a set of display attributes to each component of your model that determines how each component is displayed. Hidden Line with Mesh Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the edges drawn in mesh line color. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh selects the node closest to the point where the element was selected. The display attributes that you can assign to each component are: Wireframe Element edges display with lines. Shrinking elements is a convenient way to detect holes in a mesh and to improve wireframe element picking. Transparent The element displays as a filled transparent polygon. then selecting FE Styles. The benefit of this feature is that it allows you to create zero length elements between two coincident nodes in a mesh. The shrink value must be between 0 and 1. If a shrink value is applied. Hidden Line The element displays as a filled polygon. Another key feature in the graphics engine is the method by which nodes are selected. it is much easier to work when you are zoomed in on a particular area. To select a node. each element is drawn so that its corners directly connect to its nodes. the element is scaled by the specified value about its centroid. If no shrink is selected. Access this panel by opening the View pull-down menu. so that its corners do not appear to touch its nodes. HyperMesh allows you to select the node by picking the "node sphere" on the screen. Component Display The graphics engine treats each HyperMesh component as an independent unit.Shrink The shrink option controls the shrink factor to be used when drawing elements. as you are not required to have a pick handle on the screen in order to pick the entity. For lines and surfaces. Entity Selection The graphics engine allows you to select entities by moving the mouse anywhere along the entity of interest.0 User’s Guide 143 . For nodes that are not attached to any elements.

If you have solid elements in your model. HyperMesh graphics use some memory. or nearly the same location in space. The isosurfaces sub-panel is available on the contour and animation panels. then HyperMesh draws the whole model in hidden line. contour. When a component is set to hidden line. If this situation occurs. If you encounter this problem. To perform this task. and animation panels. the display lines which represent the edges (for example) might be partially or completely blocked out by the original entity in the database. with the elements in back eliminated from the display. since HyperMesh is creating entities that reside in the same location in space as another entity. The zbuffer allows HyperMesh to render your model in hidden line. Potential areas of zbuffer stitching are in the features. Here. If swapping occurs while you are running HyperMesh. or as a value-based surface in which you specify a value that indicates where an isosurface should be displayed. There are some limitations to using a zbuffer and some display output differences of which you should be aware. the graphics engine draws all selected or temporary nodes as spheres when one or more components are set to a display attribute other than wireframe. Cutting plane control is more interactive and is controlled by selecting any of the active planes with the mouse and then dragging the plane across the model. This can make it very difficult to see a node. If this occurs. the zbuffer may have difficulty deciding which entity to display. Isosurfaces can be displayed on a model in either a legendbased mode in which each of the legend colors generates an isosurface. and displays these instead of displaying all of the faces. The cutting plane feature can be found in the hidden line. To correct this situation. HyperMesh calculates where the external faces are in your model. you might see a "dotting" or "stitching" effect where the zbuffer considers one entity to be closer to you at one pointer. One of the optimizations is the removal of interior solid faces. In some cases. the interior is filled with solid color. edges. the graphics engine offers advanced and powerful features: Cutting plane Cutting plane functions have been expanded to allow three planes to be active simultaneously. and then another entity closer to you at another. Optimization The graphics engine optimizes the display of your finite element model. this could seriously affect performance.User Features of the Graphics engine When you are post-processing. you should obtain more system memory.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and faces panels. If one or more of the components in a model are set to a display style besides wireframe. Isosurfaces Hidden components Memory usage 144 HyperMesh 8. it may help to use the shrink option (modeling sub-panel on the options panel). HyperMesh relies on the zbuffer found on your graphics device. One problem with using the zbuffer technology is that if two entities lie in the same location in space. you can turn the zbuffer off by making all of the components in your model wireframe.

0 100. These tolerance values include: node tol Node tolerance is essentially the resolution to which HyperMesh maintains the finite element data in the model. "Cleaning up" refers to cleaning up the CAD geometry data by equivalencing edges. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 0.0 1e-4 0. and initializes the tolerances as appropriate. The global panel controls which components or collectors are active.1 1. deleting fillets. Elements are designated as first order elements by default. When you specify a node tolerance. Element size Node tolerance min max 0.1 10. any entities created are stored in the active collectors. HyperMesh considers any two nodes to be coincident if the distance between them is less than the value.1 0. Use this panel or the template sub-panel on the files panel to specify the template file you want to use.1 10. click the toggle after element order: to second..01 1e-3 0. You need to approximate the size of the elements that make up the smallest feature of importance in your model. the tolerance values are determined by the demands for that mesh. cleanup tol Since the objective is to make a finite element mesh for the geometry.0 User’s Guide 145 .Setting Tolerances The modeling sub-panel is located on the Options panel.01 1. which is accessible from the toolbar or from the Tools pull-down menu. Since you will approximate the geometry with a finite element mesh.0 Setting Global Parameters The global panel. but without additional input it uses a cautious estimate.1 0.0 10.01 1e-3 0.max 1e-4 0. and eliminating extraneous vertices. The cleanup tolerance value specifies how much HyperMesh is allowed to modify the geometry in the course of "cleaning" it.0 0.0 Cleanup tolerance min. you need to work with a cleanup tolerance that is less than the node tolerance used in the mesh generation. If you want to create second order elements. accessed by selecting Global Parameters from the Model pull-down menu. controls model parameters that are accessed by several different panels. HyperMesh attempts to make a reasonable guess at this value when you import a CAD file. This sub-tab allows you to define tolerance values. These parameters remain constant until changed.01 1..

PRO/E. Altair Engineering 9. You can also import/merge HyperMesh model files (.hm) into the current model session. You can also use the templates to perform complex editing or data manipulation tasks. HM ASCII. Patran. Ansys. VDAFS. Click the file pull-down menu. 6. Click the button to invert the selection (deselect any currently selected files and select any currently non-selected ones). and a secondary window opens to show the import progress and any errors that may occur. Browse to and select the directory that contains the models you wish to import. Select the desired files in the files to import list: • • • • Left-click to select a single file. and STEP. but not all. Cmold. This is useful in cases when you want to choose most of the files in the list. The FE formats we support are Optistruct. HyperMesh uses templates to create the analysis input decks for finite element solvers. The custom option can be used to import models using a translator provided with the HyperMesh installation but cannot be accessed via the pop-up menu. The window minimizes during the import process. and Ideas. The CAD formats currently supported are IGES. Click Import to import the selected files. Click the button to deselect all of the files in the list. Pamcrash. Radioss. 4. Ls-Dyna. 7. UG. 146 HyperMesh 8. Select the desired file extension to limit the files that display in the files to import list. The Multiple File Import window opens. • Selected files are highlighted to indicate their selection. You can modify the existing templates to support a desired feature or create a new template to support another analysis code. DXF. CATIA. Geometry data can be written in IGES format. Nastran. Moldflow. Select the desired file type. Marc. PDGS. 3. Abaqus. <ctrl>-click to select multiple files one at a time.Importing and Exporting Data The import sub-panel on the files panel allows you to input external CAD line and surface data or finite element models. 2. Click import to open the import sub-menu. Click Close to close the Multiple File Import window. To import multiple files: 1. 8. STL. you can select the ones you don’t want and then invert the selection. The HyperMesh templates can be used to create model summaries and perform some analysis calculations. The CUSTOM interface allows you to import models using your own custom-built translation package. The export sub-panel on the files panel allows you to write information from a HyperMesh database to many finite element formats. 5. Click the button to select all of the files in the list. Click multiple files. HyperMesh ascii. Click the “open folder” icon in the directory field to open a browser.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering .

4. A new input field. Select EXTERNAL. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. Click the lower switch and select layers. 4. 3. 8. click import. 3. 5. template = appears if it is not already present. Click write. 3. Click template = and specify the file name of the template file. Click filename = and enter the name of the output file. 4. and use the browser to select a file. 6.. 2. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed.. and use the browser to select the file containing the data. or layers & groups. Select the FE option. 2. Select the data format that corresponds to your input data from the pop-up menu.) To create an analysis deck via an external translator: 1. if they are not already present. 4. Click the upper switch and select the plane format of the data. Select IGES. 3. For file:.0 User’s Guide 147 . 7. Select the CUSTOM option.To read data using a standard translator: 1.. Click write. Select IGES. and enter the name of the output file or select. Click the toggle and choose either outer loop optional or outer loop mandatory. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.. click browse… and choose the translator required to read the file.. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. To write geometry data in IGES format: 1. 2. 2. click import. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. 9.. For file:. 5. (Note that the IGES interface exports geometry only. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. Click write as. A column of switches and toggles appears on the right. 6. To read data using a custom translator: 1. For translator:. groups.

Select generate bitmaps to generate a bitmap PostScript file. press the Options button in the print dialog. 3. Click page length = and enter the new size to alter the page length. Select fill model to expand the model to its maximum size within the graphics area of the PostScript page. The color checkbox is active by default. A PostScript file with the name post?. To set MS Word to send the imported file as a PostScript image to the printer. reverse video generate bitmaps fill to page fill model bitmap preview Select reverse video to indicate that your printer cannot produce reverse video images. plot optimize page length = 148 HyperMesh 8. If it is not selected. and * is an extension (either eps for a PostScript file whose destination is the hard disk. If the printer selected is capable of printing PostScript. a PostScript tab is present in the properties dialog.Printing Screen Images The postscript sub-panel on the options panel allows you to modify the default print specifications before you create a PostScript file. You can check this by selecting Print from the File menu to show the print dialog box and pressing the Properties button next to the printer name. postscript sub-panel: color checkbox Activate the color checkbox to print in color. 2.0 inches. Select fill to page to fill the PostScript image to the specified page dimensions. Open the File pull-down menu. the PostScript preview or file information is printed instead of the actual PostScript image. This requires processing time to optimize the image output. or psp for a PostScript file whose destination is the printer). Deactivate the color checkbox to print in black and white. To change PostScript settings file: 1.* is generated. To create a PostScript file: 1. The ? is a number provided for file uniqueness. Select the PostScript sub-panel. Select plot optimize to decrease the size of the PostScript file generated. Set the options to your print specifications. To print an imported encapsulated PostScript image in MS Word. The following options are available in the options panel. Select Image > PostScript. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The standard page length is 11. Select bitmap preview to generate an image that can be viewed when you view the file in another document. Select Options from the Tools pull-down menu. The generate bitmaps option must be off if you select this option. you must have a PostScript capable printer installed. Make sure the option Print PostScript over text is selected.

This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. Select print it to send a copy of the file to the printer when you generate the PostScript file. (Note: This works only in UNIX. hm. Click image size = and enter the new size to scale the image on the page to your specifications. hm.0 User’s Guide 149 . The resolution is displayed in the header bar. a slider bar is displayed. Generates a *. CTRL-F3 CTRL-F4 CTRL-F5 CTRL-F6 Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. It creates a smaller PS file.5 inches. If you select enhanced. CTRL-F1 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. please contact your systems administrator. but takes longer to generate. If the functions do not create output. Printing Screen Images Using Keyboard Commands You can also use the following function keys in combination with the CTRL key to print and/or save screen images without accessing the postscript sub-panel. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer.page width = image size = line width = print it standard/enhanced Click page width = and enter the new size to alter the page width.cfg. the default installation does not spool the bitmap file to the printer. The standard page width is 8. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. Click the toggle to standard/enhanced to change the postscript file resolution to print blended contours. On UNIX platforms. hm. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer.) Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk.cfg. In order for the functions to work correctly. The enhanced option allows you to print blended contours (not discrete). CTRL-F2 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. This command executes the operating system command in the *postcopy() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file.cfg. Select line width = and enter the new width to alter the line width. your systems administrator must configure these functions for your system.jpg screen capture or animation file. The slider controls the smoothness of the gradient fill of the blended contour.

Those control cards that are defined (green in the control card editor) are output. Any control card viewed in the card previewer is activated. 150 HyperMesh 8. the control card is not output. pick the yellow field label. The attributes for that card remain. and allows you to enter data in the field. the field label color is yellow and no data entry is allowed. the label text color changes to cyan. To override a default value field.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A default value field has two states: State Default = ON Default = OVERRIDDEN Description In this state. however. When you override a default value field. Default values for attributes are common throughout the card previewer. A card that has been defined may be disabled.Using the Card Previewer A control card may be in one of three states: State Undefined Defined (See note.) Inactive Note: Color Gray Green Red Explanation The control card was either never created or has been deleted.

0 User’s Guide 151 .General Process for Building Models This section describes how to build a finite element model in HyperMesh. or hand digitize the data Reconcile conflicts in the geometry and prepare it for use Build the model by using element-building panels Verify the quality of the model Create boundary conditions and systems Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the following building process is used: • • • • • • Create collectors Obtain line and surface geometry from an external file. In general.

5.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The collectors panel allows you to create and update collectors and assign and edit card images or dictionaries. 2. Click create. Select the collectors panel. If you are creating a component or property collector. 4. click color and select the desired color for the component from the pop-up menu. Click name = and enter a name for the collector. To create a component: 1. if desired. 7. Select the create sub-panel. Before you build a model in HyperMesh. You are not required to provide a material name when you create a component or property. 5. Click return. − − − Select no dictionary or no card image if you do not want to assign a dictionary or card image. Select the create sub-panel. Click create. 2. 7. each collector may use a dictionary or card image to define the attributes assigned to the collector. HyperMesh uses the definitions contained in the dictionaries or card image to translate models to external analysis codes. Note: For more information about the types of collectors used in HyperMesh. Click the upper switch and select comps. 6. Click the switch under creation method:. Based on the assigned template. Where available. select material = and enter a name for the material. Click name= and enter comp1. HyperMesh automatically creates a material for you and gives it the same name as the component or property. Click the switch under creation method: and select no card image. create a component collector for the lines and surfaces. 4. refer to Collectors in Database Design. Select same as and then click same as = to select the collector whose type and dictionary or card image information you want to copy from an existing collector. 3. click the switch and select the type of collector that you want to create. If you choose not to. Select dictionary or card image and then click dictionary = or card image = to select the dictionary or card image from a list. To create a collector: 1. 8. 3. Select the collectors panel.Creating Collectors All entities in a HyperMesh database are stored in collectors. 152 HyperMesh 8. For collector type:. 6.

2. select use automatic cleanup tol to use the cleanup tolerance associated with the geometry of the imported file. DXF. ACIS and STEP. When the geometry is read into the current database. 5. HyperMesh creates a new component if an active component does not already exist. 4. Parasolid.0 User’s Guide 153 . The types of geometric entities and organizational information imported vary for different formats. and point data) in the following formats: CATIA (V4 and V5). Using the toggle. To import geometry: 1. Click Open to import the model into HyperMesh. − − Using the toggle. Click import… to invoke the file browser and select the file that contains your geometry data. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. IGES. 3. surface data. Pro/E. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel.Reading Geometry HyperMesh imports CAD geometry (such as lines. VDAFS. please review the individual CAD translator topics for additional information. Select the Geom option. PDGS. or select cleanup tol and enter a tolerance value. Unigraphics. Blanked components are geometric data that exists in the CAD file but is marked as not displayed or turned on. Select the appropriate file format to be imported from the pop-up menu. select create blanked component or no blanked component.

spline/filler. Edit existing surfaces by removing individual features such as holes or fillets. knots and weights. These lines form one path because they intersect at four points. 154 HyperMesh 8. Edit existing lines in a variety of methods such as combine. you can create or edit geometry using the line and surface builders. and drag/spin sub-panels of the surfaces panel can be used to create NURBS surfaces. Add or remove nodes used only for geometry creation or editing. such as spline. or shrinking. cones. Create circles or arcs. There is no limit on the number of lines used to create a mesh/surface. Edit existing surfaces by trimming. or spin. drag. and cylinders. and at the intersection of other geometry. The ruled. surfaces creation and editing panels surfaces primitives surface edit defeature Create surfaces from existing lines or nodes by different methods. spheres. If you select a set of lines that do not form a closed loop. point/node creation and editing panels nodes temp nodes Create new nodes. including squares. Create standard shaped surfaces or solid entities. extending. The panels used in this process are listed below: lines creation and editing panels lines line edit circles Create lines in a variety of methods. The spline option creates a surface through 3-D lines. Several methods are available. Creating NURBS surfaces A NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) surface is a parametric surface defined by control points. smooth. at tangents. HyperMesh will connect the disconnected lines with straight lines. including: from points. and create a spline surface and/or mesh in the enclosed area.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Creating Geometry Data If geometry is not available from a CAD system. or extend. split.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and slows the automeshing process.These lines form more than one path and cause an error. These sharp edges are sometimes the result of data created on other CAD/CAM systems and brought into HyperMesh via a translator. The tolerance setting on the options panel is used to determine the intersections between lines. HyperMesh reports an error when you attempt to create the surface. These lines result in a more complex surface.0 User’s Guide 155 . smooth. which takes longer to create. Creating a surface with these lines results in a relatively complex surface. Lines that contain sharp edges can cause problems when you create a surface. line by using the lines panel. If the tolerance is too small and an intersection cannot be found. These lines may need to be "smoothed" by using the line edit panel or replaced with a new.

The "circular" shaped line has been replaced with a smooth line. which results in a much simpler surface. Lines used to define a skinned surface. A skinned surface created from the lines. The skin option can create a skinned surface through a set of lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In some cases the sharp edges are required to represent the model and should not be smoothed. 156 HyperMesh 8.

A ruled surface created from the lines.The ruled option can create a ruled surface between two lines.0 User’s Guide 157 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Lines used to create a ruled surface.

click anywhere on the surface to select it. Picking Surfaces In HyperMesh.Temporary Nodes A temporary node list retains nodes that are not attached to an element. you can display surfaces in wireframe mode or in shaded mode. The temp nodes panel allows you to modify the temporary node list. protecting them from automatic removal by HyperMesh’s database management (except for some panels that automatically clear all temporary nodes.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If several surfaces share an edge. In shaded mode. 158 HyperMesh 8. Release the mouse button when the desired surface is highlighted.e. and release it to confirm the selection. There may be times when you wish to use an unattached node later in the modeling process. Similar to wireframe mode. i. there are three functions: • • • add clear clear all • • • Adds selected individual nodes to the temporary node list. you can select any one of them by clicking on the edge. Removes selected individual nodes from the temporary node list. edit elements). If you use any surface edge lines in the line edit panel. In wireframe mode. where appropriate. Each surface highlights as selected. duplicates of the lines are created and the operation is applied to the duplicates. the easiest method of selecting a surface is to pick the surface near its edges or surface visualization lines. Surface edges may be used in the same way as lines in any surface creation panel. moving the mouse slightly from side to side. and while holding the mouse button down. In the temp nodes panel. edges. Removes all the temporary nodes from the database. you can hold the left mouse button down until the surface of interest is highlighted. faces..

A circle and a surface (represented with surface lines) before trimming. two new surfaces are created (shown highlighted) and the original surface is trimmed. This allows them to be meshed at the same time. The surface is trimmed by sweeping the line along the vector and intersecting the surface with the sweep. The features and automesh panels have a cleanup sub-panel. After the circle is used to trim the surface. You must select the surface and the line and specify a direction vector. to trim a surface with a line. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For example. It is usually preferable to combine multiple faces into one surface entity before you use the meshing tools.Editing Surfaces Each HyperMesh surface contains one or more faces.0 User’s Guide 159 . use the trim with line sub-panel of the surface edit panel. which contain surface editing tools. You can use the surface edit panel to modify surface geometry when it is necessary to make changes before you generate a mesh. If the sweep does not intersect the surface. the surface is not trimmed.

To trim one surface with another. use the trim with surf sub-panel. 160 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The smaller surface is split into two surfaces after it is trimmed with the larger surface. Two surfaces before trimming.

node. associativity is broken. Note: Re-associating nodes to a surface is usually a time consuming task. or element. If you transform.0 User’s Guide 161 . Associativity is also broken if you trim a surface. the nodes are automatically associated to the surface.Associativity Nodes and elements can be associated to surfaces. Associated nodes and elements can be selected by surface. such as translate. which allows you to select all the nodes and/or elements associated to a surface. you can use the smooth panel to smooth elements on the surface and the node edit panel to move the nodes along the surface. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To re-associate a node to a surface. However. the associativity is not broken. When you create a mesh with the automesher. if you transform a component that contains both a surface and its associated nodes/elements. use the node edit or project panel. a surface. When nodes are associated to a surface. Some operations break associativity.

overlaps. or other misalignments. These features can distort the elements or demand a finer mesh. their priorities are different from those of analysts trying to use the data. and prevents unnecessary artificial or accidental edges from being present in the final mesh. and autocleanup panels contain tools to help you prepare surface geometry for meshing. The initial CAD geometry often contains gaps.Geometry Cleanup When designers create CAD geometry. each a separate mathematical face. analysts need to combine a number of faces into a single smooth surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This allows the elements to be created on the entire region at once. 162 HyperMesh 8. point edit. edge edit. misalignments. The quick edit. The juncture between two surfaces often contains gaps. A single smooth surface is typically split into smaller patches. To make the geometry more appropriate for meshing. or pinholes.

you can easily build a much better mesh.With the tools of the geometry cleanup panels. you can close the gaps between surfaces.0 User’s Guide 163 . combine surfaces into large meshing regions. cleaner geometry. Using the simpler. and eliminate pinholes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

edges. Note: bar3s contain a third node designed to supported second order beams. a value of mass. Weld Note: Supports weld elements. Altair Engineering 164 HyperMesh 8. welds. Supports simple beams. Supports springs or damper. Building 1-D Elements One-dimensional elements currently supported in HyperMesh include bar2s. springs. Supports rigid elements with multiple nodes. and a property reference. Supports complex beams. rigids. Supports NASTRAN RBE3 elements. This section describes the element types and indicates which panels you can use to build the elements. plots. Building 0-D Elements The 0-D elements currently supported in HyperMesh are masses. line mesh. you can build elements directly on the geometry. Supports kinematic joint definitions supplied with Safety Analysis Codes. Purpose Supports complex beams.Building Elements After you create or obtain geometry data. rbe3s. The 1-D element-building panels are located on the 1D page of the default main menu. and joints. Supports display type elements. Supports gap elements. bar3s. Masses can be created in the masses panel. rigid links. gaps. The following list indicates the storage capabilities and purpose of each of the 1-D elements. Masses have the ability to store one node. Plot elements are generated in the edit element. 1-D Element Bar2 Stores A property reference A local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Bar3 Property reference Local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Gap Joint Property reference Property reference Optional orientation nodes or system(s) Plot RBE3 Rigid link A reference to two nodes A degree of freedom at each node Weight at each node A degree of freedom code One independent node Multiple dependent nodes Rigid Rod Spring A degree of freedom code A property reference A property reference A degree of freedom code An optional orientation vector A degree of freedom code Supports rigid elements. elem offset.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . or features panel. rods.

These two-dimensional elements can be built in any of the following panels: automesh cones drag edit element elem offset line drag planes ruled spheres spin spline torus Note: Builds elements on surfaces according to user specifications. four-noded quads. or group of elements about a vector. or two lines. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Builds elements on square or trimmed planar surfaces. Builds elements on spherical surfaces. row of nodes. Builds elements by dragging a line. Builds elements by spinning a line. and eight-noded quads can all be built in HyperMesh.Building 2-D Elements Three-noded trias. row of nodes. first order linear elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. a row of nodes and a line. Builds elements that lie on a surface defined by lines. Builds elements by offsetting a group of elements in the direction of their normals. but second order parabolic elements may be generated by changing the element order in the global panel. Builds elements by hand. Builds elements by dragging a line or group of elements along or about a control line. Builds elements between two rows of nodes. Builds elements on conic or cylindrical surfaces. or group of elements along a vector. By default. Builds elements on toroidal surfaces. six-noded trias.0 User’s Guide 165 .

Building 3-D Elements HyperMesh builds 4. Builds solid elements between a variable number of lines. Propagates split hexas. Fills with tetra elements a volume that is enclosed by tria elements or surfaces. Creates solid elements between two-dimensional elements.and 20-noded hexa elements. Builds elements by hand. By default.and 15-noded pentas. first order elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. lines. Creates solid elements by offsetting a group of two-dimensional elements normal to the surface formed by the group of two-dimensional elements. Tetras can be built in the edit element panel by hand or by using the tetramesh panel. and 8. Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a line. Pentas and hexas can be built in any of the following panels: drag edit element line drag linear solid solid map solid mesh elem offset spin split tetramesh Note: Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a vector to create solids. Spins a group of two-dimensional elements about a vector to create solids. and surfaces. Builds solid elements between nodes. 166 HyperMesh 8. 6.and 10-noded tetras.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . but second order solids may be generated by switching the element order in the global panel.

0 User’s Guide 167 . aspect ratio. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check a mesh of elements for its maximum chordal deviation from a real or inferred surface The 3-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. skew. The group sub-panel provides a tool to check for and eliminate group or interface elements whose underlying structural element has changed and left them detached.Checking Model Quality After you build your model. The user sub-panel allows you to verify element quality by using a template file that checks for userspecified conditions. The 1-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check one-dimensional elements for free ends Determine if a group of rigid elements form a loop Check weld and rigid elements for double dependency Check all elements for a minimum length of a side The 2-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. aspect ratio. skew. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and NASTRAN-style aspect ratio The time sub-panel allows you to check for elements whose small size might cause problems for an explicit solver. You can check your model for connectivity and duplicate elements. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check tetra elements for collapse. CFD-style volumetric skew. you can use the check elems panel to verify the geometric quality of the elements in the model.

The label may include the magnitude of the flux. Applies a general equation constraint between nodes. flux. with an optional label. V. Accelerations are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. Applies a concentrated moment about a user-defined vector at a node. The label may include the magnitude of the force. create a load collector. The label may include the magnitude of the moment.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Equations are displayed with the label. Applies a concentrated force along any user-defined vector at a node. Applies a pressure on an element or geometry. The label may include the magnitude of the pressure. Before you apply loads. Loads are displayed in the color assigned to the load collector. HyperMesh transforms the loads appropriately to any local nodal output coordinate system. Applies a temperature constraint at a node. T. reviewing. and updating loads and constraints. EQ. M. Applies a constraint or enforced displacement at a node. The label may also display the magnitude of the acceleration. • constraints • • • equations fluxes • • • forces • • moments • • pressures • • temperatures • • velocities • Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. Velocities are displayed as a singleheaded arrow with an optional label.Applying Loads The final step in the model building process is to apply constraints and forces and to create or assign coordinate systems. Constraints are displayed as a triangle with an optional label that displays the degrees of freedom effected by the constraint. Applies a velocity at a node. HyperMesh stores and displays all loads in the global coordinate system. Depending on the analysis code being used to calculate results. HyperMesh currently supports the following load types: • accelerations • Applies an acceleration at a node. Fluxes are displayed as a thick arrow with an optional label. Moments are displayed as a double-headed arrow with an optional label. The size of loads and constraints is based on model units and can be modified from within the boundary condition panels. A. Forces are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label F. The label may include the magnitude of the velocity. Applies a flux load at a node. Pressures are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. 168 HyperMesh 8. Temperatures are displayed as a straight line starting at the node at which the temperature is applied extending upward. P.

forces. Systems are built and referenced in the systems panel. A system collector must exist and be current in order to build a system. Reference systems transform geometric location or input vectors from the global system to a local system. and other systems are eligible entities for a reference system. cylindrical.Creating Systems Systems in HyperMesh are referred to as coordinate systems and may be rectangular. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 169 . mass elements. Nodes. HyperMesh supports reference and analysis systems. or spherical. Analysis systems transform the output system of a node entity. Note: System collectors collect system entities.

the module operates the same. or mixed and whether they should be first or second order elements. which allows you to see immediately the locations of the new nodes. you can use any of viewing tools on the visual options menu to simplify the visualization of complex structures in your model. until you are satisfied with the resulting mesh. and employ the mesh-smoothing operation to improve element quality. • If you use surfaces. You may choose from several mesh generation algorithms. HyperMesh responds with immediate feedback on the effects of the changes. You control interactively the number of elements on each edge or side and can determine immediately the nodes that are used to create the mesh. • For either method. You can adjust the node biasing on each edge to force more elements to be created near one end than near the other. depending on whether or not you use surfaces as the basis for the operation. The created mesh can be previewed. Furthermore. If you use surfaces. 170 HyperMesh 8. Most of the functions are still available and operate in the same way. You can also specify whether the new elements should be quads.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . trias. you can specify the mesh generation and visualization options to use on each individual surface. there are situations in which it is not possible or not desirable to create a surface. have more flexibility in specifying the algorithm parameters. you may choose from a greater variety of algorithms. Most of the element creation panels use this module. which allows you to evaluate it for element quality before choosing to store it in the HyperMesh database. If you do not use surfaces.Automatic Mesh Generation HyperMesh has a centralized plate and shell mesh generation tool called the automeshing secondary panel. Mesh smoothing is also available and you may select the algorithm for that operation as well. A solid model created by dragging automeshed plate elements. the meshing process is usually faster and uses less memory. which supplies as much automated assistance as possible. You can adjust interactively a wide variety of parameters and choose from a suite of algorithms. There are two approaches to the automeshing secondary panel. While you are in the meshing module.

0 User’s Guide 171 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The automeshing secondary panel can make second order elements for boundary element solutions.

Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel The functions of the automeshing secondary panel are divided into six sub-panels. smooth. reject. 172 HyperMesh 8. abort. the screen display changes to present only the information applicable to the current operation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and return functions (see Automeshing Secondary Panel in the Panels section). You can switch freely between the sub-panels. as well as the local view pop-up menu. density algorithm type biasing details checks Each automeshing sub-panel has the mesh. undo.

The surface can have interior holes or edges and any number of sides. if that is the case. HyperMesh first creates a quads mesh and then divides each element along its shortest diagonal. and chooses the algorithm that will give the best results. HyperMesh uses a single tria. If mixed is the element type. In this case. or pentagonal in shape. or Pentagon If the region is free from internal holes and the boundary is clearly triangular. a submapping algorithm is used. If there is a tight corner on the boundary that would require a poor quality quad. HyperMesh chooses a standard template based on the element densities around the perimeter of the region. HyperMesh analyzes the geometry of each face and the element densities specified for each edge. an advancing front algorithm is used. it chooses the Free algorithm. If quads or trias is the selected element type.0 User’s Guide 173 . and where applicable.Mesh Generation Algorithms The mesh generation algorithms are divided into two types: those that require the presence of a surface to provide a context of operation. Rectangle. you can usually eliminate them by changing some of the meshing parameters and then remeshing the region. the default mesh generation algorithm is Autodecide. or those working entirely from node and/or line data. Such an operation is exceedingly fast. The advancing front algorithm uses the following process: • Traverses the perimeter of the region. Each site where an element could be placed is measured and one of several possible elements is chosen. If trias is the selected element type. but there are some situations in which one or more trias are included: • • • If the total number of elements specified for the perimeter of the face is odd. Eventually the entire region is filled with elements. Applies repeatedly the selected smoothing algorithm until no node is moved farther than the specified smoothing tolerance. HyperMesh uses a streamlined version of this algorithm that is optimized for the different shape and connectivity requirements of tria elements. Map as Triangle. The Free meshing algorithm is a general-purpose formula that works for most meshing conditions. gives quality results rapidly. the best choice of algorithm is usually to map a standard mesh onto the region using transfinite interpolation. Free • • If quads is the selected element type for the current face. Sometimes two or more trias are needed because of the particular order in which the elements were generated. placing elements along the edges as it proceeds. For most configurations. rectangular. HyperMesh recognizes more than 18 different configurations requiring distinct templates. Ignoring rotations. Examines the groups of elements to see if a local change in the connectivity might improve element quality. at least one tria always needed. HyperMesh attempts to produce an all-quads mesh. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The mesh generation algorithms include: Autodecide If you are meshing a surface. To make tria elements.

If you use the spin panel. the mesh generation algorithm is decided by the tool that was used to describe the desired operation. and if you use the spheres panel.Map without Surface If you are creating a mesh entirely from line and/or node data. the algorithm is to spin. 174 HyperMesh 8. the algorithm is to map a sphere-covering mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . so that the configuration always satisfies the balancing requirements of the intended mapping. You can still use the density and biasing manipulation tools but some edges will be linked together. with no surface. the algorithm is to drag. If you use the drag panel.

HyperMesh uses a modified Laplacian over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. The shape-correcting smoothing algorithm attempts to correct the elements’ shapes. The size-corrected smoothing algorithm attempts to even out the sizes of the elements at the cost of some element quality. this choice usually gives the best results. HyperMesh uses a modified isoparametric-centroidal over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. usually in the form of worsened aspect ratios from the stretching of elements. If there is a transition from small elements to large elements in the region. this choice usually gives the best results.0 User’s Guide 175 . allowing variation in element size. Size Corrected Shape Corrected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Smoothing Algorithms There are three smoothing algorithms used by HyperMesh: Autodecide By default. If the element spacing around the perimeter is roughly uniform. HyperMesh traverses the perimeter of the region looking for variations in element edge length and choose between size-correcting and shape-correcting smoothing algorithms.

or near the middle of the edge. then: . the biasing intensity corresponds to the positive slope of a straight line over the interval [0. 176 HyperMesh 8. you may want to use biasing to improve element quality when transitioning from smaller to larger element sizes.1] of the Real Line. This interval is uniformly divided into as many subintervals as specified by the element density and they are mapped along the edge so that the length of the image interval is proportional to the height of the line over the midpoint of the source interval. Element biasing allows you to moderate the changes in aspect ratio from the start to the end. the mesh at one end could be scaled several times larger than at the other end. When you use the drag and solid offset panels. near both ends with larger intervals in the middle. Specifically. Each image interval corresponds to the side of an element. let n be the element density and let . you can use biasing to cluster several layers of elements near the surface of a solid. Within the automesher. You can designate that the smaller intervals go near the start of the edge.Element Biasing The automeshing process allows you to bias the placement of nodes so that their intervals are not uniform in size.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. If m is the slope of the line. and b is its y-intercept. near the end of the edge. There are three methods you can use to calculate the biasing of node positions: Use biasing to preserve element quality in complex regions.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Linear Biasing In linear biasing. In linear solids.

the nodes are placed according to 1 . This formula was chosen so that an intensity of zero will still represent no biasing. Thus. For this. . Let be the geometric growth factor.Using x(0) = 0. progressing along the edge.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) =1.0 plus 1/10 of the absolute value of the biasing intensity. Exponential Biasing In exponential biasing. a positiv biasing intensity puts small elements at the start of e the interval. with each successive interval being a constant factor larger than the previous. then x(s) scales them to the range of [0. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.20]. and x(1) = 1. m is the absolute value of the biasing intensity. That factor is 1. Specifically. We need a function Let then: so that: which gives the proper interval lengths. Negative biasing intensities just reverse the edge. The value used is b = 1. let n be the element density and let . and convenient values will fall in the range [0. Thus. we find: so. If the biasing intensity is negative.20].5. .0 User’s Guide 177 .x(s).1]. We can use b to scale the behavior of the function so that convenient values are in the range [0. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. the sizes of the intervals grow geometrically. placing the smaller elements at the end instead of the beginning.

nodes are distributed long the edge in a pattern that is symmetric across the midpoint of the edge. x(1) = 1. then x(s) becomes: where erf() is the statistical error function.Bellcurve Biasing In bellcurve biasing. and if it is negative. . the smaller intervals are placed at the beginning and end of the edge. We need so that takes values in [0. they are placed at the middle of the edge. Specifically.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .1] with x(0) = 0. If we use: for positive biasing intensity r. and has the behavior noted above. If the biasing intensity is positive. let n be the element density and . 178 HyperMesh 8.

Any change to one of the edges is immediately applied to all others that are linked to it. If you try to adjust the element density numbers corresponding to these locked edges.0 User’s Guide 179 . In these circumstances. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Some of the surface creation panels allow you to use a node list to define one or more sides of a surface.Linked or Locked Edges Most of the surface-less mesh generation algorithms requires that some edges have exactly the same element density and biasing values as other edges. The error message. The resulting edge is locked and you cannot change the element density or biasing. it has no effect. HyperMesh uses those nodes directly to make elements within the automeshing secondary panel. Use the automeshing secondary panel to prepare input for solid offset. "The value of this number cannot be changed" is displayed. HyperMesh automatically links those edges together so that they stay balanced.

you can create an FE weld by realizing a connector.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The characteristics of connector entities can be divided into four categories: Connector Terminology Connector Definition Connector Realization Connector Review 180 HyperMesh 8. Just as you can create an FE shell mesh by meshing a surface.Connector Entity Connectors are geometric entities (not FE) primarily used to create welds.

and density values. points. The connector is considered realized only if weld creation at the connector was successful. nodes points lines The connector is created at the node location. Only nodes. The connector is displayed in yellow. spacing.Connector Terminology Connector State The connector state is defined as one of the following types: unrealized The initial definition of the connector entity after it is created. The color code provides an easier way to visualize and filter connectors based on their state. or the weld element is deleted. The connector is displayed in red. The connector is considered failed if the weld creation at the connector was not successful. Only one connector is created for each line. The connector is displayed in green. but the line may be split into multiple projection locations as specified by the offset. a link entity is suppressed from its definition.0 User’s Guide 181 . Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. realized failed Note: Connector Location The position in space at which a connector entity is created. The connector is created at the point location. and lines can be used to define connector location. The connector location option is set in the create panel. A connector that was realized can revert back to being unrealized if. for example. The connector icon is created at the center of the selected line.

Only nodes. The connectors can hold a single entity or a combination of these entities. geom Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its geometry (connect surfaces only). The tag entity can be used to define a weld connector to either a node. and components can be added to connectors. An element facilitates a patch-patch weld connector. The following entities are supported. Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its mesh. The link entity options are set in the create and add links panels. The welds create fixed points for the mesh. elems Note: 182 HyperMesh 8. components Components can be used to connect elements or surfaces. Surfaces can be used to create welds to connect geometry before meshing. elements surfaces nodes tags Note: Link Entity State Specifies if the HyperMesh entity referenced by the link entity is meshed or unmeshed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or an element that it holds. The link entity state options are set in the create and add Links panels. A node facilitates a node-node weld connector. A part that needs to be welded is often represented as a component. The above states are applicable to only surfaces and components added to the connector entity. The surfaces can be either meshed or unmeshed. The elems option connects the mesh on the component or surface and the geom option connects the geometry on the component or surface. elements. tags.Link Entity A reference to a separate HyperMesh entity that can be added to a connector. surfaces. The HyperMesh entities to which the link entities refer are welded together during realization.

Re-connect Rules
Defines how a connector should protect its link entity information. none If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity is then removed from the connector. If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity retains the ID of the HyperMesh entity. The link entity remains in the connector. Same as the by id rule except that the entity name is retained.

by id

by name Note:

These rules are useful for applications such as part replacement. A part can be added to a connector ith the use id or use name reconnect rule and can be replaced with a redesigned part with the same ID or name, without having to change the connector definition. The re-connect rule options are set in the create and add links panels.

Number of Layers
The total number of thicknesses (layers) to connect at the connector. total T Sets the number of thickness to connect (2T/3T/4T/nT). This influences the number of welds created at a connector. Sets the total number of link entities that can be added to the connector. The number of link entities added to a connector is always less than or equal to the total thickness. The number of layers option is set in the create and add links panels.

Note:

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Connector Rules
Shapes the definition of a connector entity. none The connector is created with no link entities and no thickness defined. In this state, the connector must first be updated with more information before it can be successfully realized. This option requires link entities to be specified before the connector is created. The link entities are added to the connector based on the user-supplied criteria. For this option, the connector only remembers what type of link entity it is to connect, rather than a specific link entity. During the fe realize process, the connector searches the HyperMesh database to generate the best (usually the closest) link entity it can using the supplied information.

now

at fe realize

Note:

The connector rules (connect when:) option is set in the Create and Add Links panels.

Connector Realization
Creating welds at a connector. fe realize The process of creating welds (FE) to connect the HyperMesh entities referenced by the link entities added to a connector.

Note:

The connector entity can be used to create only welds at this time.

Request for Connection
A set of parameters used during realization to create a physical connection between link entities.

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Connector Definition
The connector is simply a database of information defining a specific request for connection at a specific location. A connector definition describes the connector between multiple HyperMesh entities at a specific location. Entities that are to be connected are referred to as link entities. The connector location is defined as a node, a geometric point, or a geometric line. In the following example, there are two components (Top and Bottom) that are to be connected at the location of a point (with an id of 10). In this case, both components are considered to be link entities, since they are to be linked together. The point defines the location of the connector.

After a connector is created, the connector icon is placed at point 10, and components 1 and 2 are incorporated into the request for connection. The following diagram shows the connector after it is created (with an id of 7) at the location of point 10 (point 10 is not visible).

In this example, connector 7 has been defined and no welds have been created. The connector stores the following information: • • • Which link entities the request for connection is to connect (Comp 1 and Comp 2) The thickness of the realization (Thickness = 2) Where to connect the link entities (the connectors current location)

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HyperMesh entities currently supported as link entities include COMPS, ELEMS, SURFS, NODES, and TAGS. Any number of link entities of differing types can be added to a connector in any order. The connector sets the order of link entities during the realization process. The example above is a simple case where we have added two link entities of the same type (COMPS) to a single connector. Note: An element-to-tag-t o-component connector is possible, as is any other combination of the supported link entities.

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Connector Realization
During connector realization, welds are created using the connector definition. Note: In HyperMesh, the only form of realization currently supported is fe realization (weld creation). For successful realization, the connector must be populated with all the relevant details required for its realization type. For example, fe realization requires the connector to be populated with a projection tolerance and an FE configuration type.

The following diagram shows connector 7 realized with a valid tolerance value, and a config value of type 21 (spring).

One advantage of separating weld fe realization from the connector definition, is that a connector can be re-realized as a weld of a different configuration (or possibly, a user-defined weld) without having to redefine the connector. If you edit the connector definition (i.e. add or delete a link entity from the connector), the connector removes the welds it created, and reverts back to an unrealized state. The connector is unrealized only if its user-control mode is turned off. By default, the connector mode is off but it can be turned on by registering custom FE with a connector. Connectors store all FE information that they create, allowing advanced find, mask, delete, and organizational functionality in a number of common HyperMesh panels. If the weld creation is unsuccessful (due to low tolerance, insufficient link entities, etc.) the connector icon is displayed as failed (red). An unrealized connector is yellow, a realized connector is green, and a failed connector is red.

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Connector Review
There are many advantages to the way connectors store information. Not only does this local storage allow you to edit the connector definition, it also allows you to review connector details and the quality of the realization. There are a number of tools that can be useful in the review process. The visualization pop-up allows you to update the visual appearance of a connector based on its state, thickness (number of layers), or the component in which it is located. In addition, the vis opts panel also allows you to filter the displayed connectors by various criteria (such as thickness). This filter can then be used for “displayed” mark creation. HyperMesh includes a connector information table that creates a table of connector definitions from a mark and allows you to delete link entities. The quality panel allows you to check the quality of welds created from the connectors. The connector database can also be queried through Tcl functions.

Connectors User Control Mode
Each individual connector can be placed in a user control mode using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. This user control mode is most useful for automated Tcl scripts. Once in user control mode, the following procedures are possible for a given connector: • • • Pre-existing FE can be registered as a given connector’s realization by using the *CE_FE_Register command. Connectors can be edited without automatically unrealizing (as happens most notably when a link is added or removed from a connector, or when an FE realization entity is deleted). A connector’s state can be manually changed from realized to failed, or from failed to realized by using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. A connector’s state will not change to or from the unrealized state using this method.

Once a connector is placed into the user control mode, the user control mode remains active until an unrealize command is called (such as *CE_Unrealize), an already realized connector is rerealized, or the user control mode is manually turned off with either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. While a given connector is in user control mode, it may not behave the same as a normal connector. Specifically, there are a number of scenarios where a user-controlled connector will not auto unrealize in response to database changes that would cause a normal connector to auto unrealize. Note: It is strongly recommended that when FE is registered to a user-controlled connector, that the connector links and other necessary details should also be set with a given connector (so that the connector can properly re-realize if a user interactively requests it to). At the bare minimum, connectors should know which links they are to connect.

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Master Connectors File
Most of the information stored in the connector entity can be exported to a master connectors file. This file contains connector entity information such as location, link entity, link entity state, link entity rules (see Connector Terminology). The exported file may also contain metadata information stored in the connector. The master connectors file contains welding information at a given location and also assists in the weld automation process. An exported master connectors file can be re-imported using the connectors reader to re-create connectors. The master connectors file is exported in a single format. The outline of a generic HyperMesh master connectors file is provided below: • • Master connectors files can have comments beginning with the characters # or $, or there can be blank lines in between. The format of the file is fixed and the order of heading definitions cannot be changed. The column information is shown below:

Notes: • • • The header at the beginning of the file specifies information about the column data. Number of layers defines the thickness to connect at the specified location (X, Y, Z). The data between the brackets are repeated for each link entity. For standard HyperMesh FE types such as ACM and CWELD, the FE Config will have a number of 1001, which defines the user-defined type number specified in FE Config File. The FE Type will be the number defined in the FE Config File (for CWELD it is 72). For a detailed explanation of custom FE Configurations see FE Configuration File. The data between the brackets (link entity information) in the table are repeated for the number of links (NumLinks). The NumLinks variable must be equal to the number of link entities.

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Metadata is an attribute type that can be stored on a HyperMesh entity. User-defined information (such as Station Id or Gun Id) can be stored on the connector entity as metadata. The Metadata is defined by a name-value pair and is supported for multiple data types (int, double, string, etc.). Please see the HyperMesh on-line help for more information on Metadata. The Metadata name is written to the master connectors file in the following format ~<Sturct><DataType>Name. <Struct> represents whether the value associated is a single variable or an array. <DataType> represents the type of data stored in the value. For example, a Metadata of name Assembly containing an array of integers is written out as ~AIAssembly. The only delimiter supported in the entire file is the double semicolon “::”. The entire column of data in the file should be of the same type. The connectors reader uses the templex template to read the master connectors file. See weld templates for more information. By default, the file is read into HyperMesh through the HMIN function call, HMIN_CE_CreateDefined.

• • • •

The connector entity is created with the information specified in the master connectors file and displayed as unrealized (yellow). To realize the connectors as welds, the fe realize panel must be used.

Multiple Weld File Format
In addition to the master connectors file, the connectors reader also supports master weld file formats previously supported by the spotweld reader.

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To read in metadata. 1) } readln null } } set numrecords = num set numrequests = 9 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.cfg file must contain only the names of all the registered weld templates.375 Weld Template :: 2.4375:: 9. Each template works on only one specific format file. For custom templates. An example for a specific master weld file format is shown below: # Index::T::X::Y::Z::EID1:: EID2:: EID3:: 1:: 3:: 48. The following example shows the template for a simple format file with two semi colons as delimiters. The spotweld.cfg file under the same directory.0 User’s Guide 191 . the required headings must be added to the template requests and record blocks. a spotweld_format directory must exist in the same location as the master weld file.Import Templates Templates work with the connectors reader to import multiple file formats. The templates are stored in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/feinput/spotweld_format and are registered in the spotweld.0 :: 3:: 2:: 1:: int num header { type "CONNECTORS" set mark find "[0-9]+::" rewind set num = 0 if { do 1000000 { if { isdigit } then { set num = sum(num.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . num) do num { read constant 0 // fake EID } readln null } //T 192 HyperMesh 8.requests "ID/T/X/Y/Z/EID1/EID2/EID3/EID4" set numcomponents = 1 components "Value" } record { read request // ID qfind "::" set mark read request rewind read num qfind "::" read request // X qfind "::" read request // Y qfind "::" read request // Z do num { qfind "::" read request // EID } set num = diff(4.

marc. This is input in the fe realize template as FE Type. The FE configuration file has a pre-defined format that must be used to define different weld configurations. Supported solvers are: abaqus. etc).FE Configuration File The FE configuration file (feconfig. The weld definition in the file includes the type of weld to create and the surrounding connector to shells. optistruct.cfg) is used to define custom welds such as ACM (Area Contact Method) and other special types. ansys. The specified name is saved and displayed in the info table during connector review process. By default.). and pamcrash2g. USER_FE_TYPE USER_FE_NAME Note: This should be the first line in the user FE definition. The weld definition is solver dependant (NASTRAN. pamcrash. the feconfig.g. The data can be separated using a space.cfg file from the <install_directory>/hm/bin directory is loaded in each of the panels related to each connector type (e. Area. etc.0 User’s Guide 193 .> *style <style_type> *head <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <RIGID_FLAG> *body <BODY_FLAG> <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG> [<HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG>] *post <POST_SCRIPT_NAME> The template parameters are defined below. See FE Definition Examples for information regarding the format and options for FE definition. Spot. The user-specified name for the FE combination. dyna. SOLVER The solver template for which FE needs to be created. LSDYNA. The user-defined number for the FE combination. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. FE Definition Template The FE definition template is shown below: CFG <SOLVER> <USER_FE_TYPE> <USER_FE_NAME> *filter <filter_type1> <filter_type2> <etc. The specific solver template for the type of weld must be loaded in HyperMesh before the welds can be created using a connector entity. nastran. Seam.

HM_FE_CONFIG The config for the rigid currently supported by HyperMesh. The various types supported for rigids are equation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This option indicates that the configurations have specific behaviors associated during realization. rigidlink. etc. *style bolts 1 indicates that this is a bolt connection of type 1 that creates a specific bolted connection between the parts.*FILTER This option can be used to allow only the specified connector types to realize the configuration. For example. and that they are native types. Note: The style definition line for these configurations must not be edited. In addition. Defines how the weld node is to be connected to the surrounding shell element. equation and rbe3 do not have a type defined. If the rigid flag = 1. this option is used as a filter when displaying FE configurations in the type = field of respective realize panels. This option is not applicable to equation and rbe3. A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. *FILTER spot seam indicates that this configuration can be realized only by the spot and seam connector types. the weld node is connected to all the vertices of the shell elements using rigid to form a spider. The string head is required to specify that a rigid is to be created to connect the weld node to the surrounding shell element. For example. a zero should be input. plot. Note: *HEAD Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. If the type is not defined. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. For example. Note: *STYLE A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE HM_FE_TYPE RIGID_FLAG CONNECT_FLAG 194 HyperMesh 8. If rigid flag = 0. rbe3. the weld node is connected to only one of the shell element vertex using the rigid. so the type field should be zero.

hexa8. Starting with HyperMesh 8. If the length location flag = 1. however. If the body flag = 1. This allows HyperMesh to parse the CFG file for configuration instead of relying on metadata saved individually with each connector (as was done prior to 8. The various types supported for welds are. plot. The series weld definition has more than one weld between the link entities.tcl extension. The length location flag is used to specify if the weld created should be of type series or parallel. Note. The body flag is used to calculate the length of the weld. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG Note: *POST A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. a series weld is created. if you choose to type in a property script instead of specifying a CFG file in the connector’s generation panel. or the scripts/connectors/ directory. that metadata is still created and saved if you do not use POST to assign a property script (for example. this option can also be used to specify a property script for the configuration. and other solver specific details. but if specified it must be followed by the name (excluding path) of a valid Tcl script with a . This postscript will be automatically executed post FE realization and it can be used to edit weld properties. This Tcl script must be located in the current working directory. Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. There can be more than one weld in a series. For example.*BODY BODY_FLAG The string body is required to specify that a weld is to be created to connect the link entities added to the connector. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. attributes. The *post lines are optional. the length is calculated based on the distance between the connecting layers (link entities). spring. If the length location flag is >= 0 and < 1. etc. the length is calculated based on the average thickness of the connecting layers (link entities). The type number is defined in respective solver templates and differs.0). CBUSH is of config spring and type 6. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. The config for the weld currently supported by HyperMesh. the users home directory (UNIX only). welds are created in parallel. If the body flag = 0.0. The flag specifies the length factor to be used for series welds. based on the solver.0 User’s Guide 195 . rod.

The head and the body definition must begin with a “*” to define rigid and weld definitions.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 196 HyperMesh 8. User comments should start with a hash character “#”.5 (50%) each. Series welds are not created when the distance between the connecting link entities is zero.0 (100%). Series welds are not supported where the link entities are coincident. Hence there cannot be three welds specified in series having a length factor of 0. The total length of series welds cannot exceed 1. an ACM can have only one hexa weld element specified in the definition.FE Specification Rules • • • • • • • • Each solver will have a specific definition so the same user-defined types can be repeated for each solver. Multiple solid element combinations are not currently supported. 1D and 3D element combinations are not supported. Therefore. Series and parallel weld element combinations are not supported.

FE Definition Examples Washers CFG nastran 56 bolts *filter bolt *style bolt 0 *head rigidlink 1 1 dofs=123 rigidlink 1 3 *body 0 rigid 1 1 dofs=456 ACM Welds CFG nastran 71 acm *head rbe3 0 0 *body 1 hex8 1 1 The above definition creates ACMs with HEXA8 solid elements as welds and RBE3 elements as rigids.5 The series weld is created at the center with length equal to half the distance between the link entities. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.0 User’s Guide 197 .5 spring 6 0. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The length of the hexa is equal to the distance between the connecting shell elements.5 The two series welds are created with a length equal to half the distance between the link entities.

or "2". "1". 0-D Welds CFG pamcrash2g 1 plink (ce loc) *head plot 0 0 *body 0 mass 5 2 plot 0 1 *post prop_plink. If this 0-D element is the only config given in the *body. "1" has the same behavior as "0" except only a single 0-D element is created even if multiple bodies are created (as happens in >2T welds) and "2" places the 0-D element at the connector location.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The behavior for each value is as follows. then it is placed at the center of the proposed 1-D element path.Parallel Welds CFG dyna 101 parallel *head plot 0 0 *body 0 bar2 1 1 bar2 1 1 The bar elements are created at the same location and connect the same link entities. "0" places the 0-D element along the proposed 1-D element path.tcl Supported values for the length location flag are "0". 198 HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide 199 . Overview: The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing • The Domains and Handles Concept • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Global Domain and Global Handles Local Domains and Handles Partitioning Dependent Handles Working with Shapes Setting Up Optimization Creating morph volumes Registering nodes Altering Morph Volumes Tangency Morphing by Moving Nodes Morphing by Using Other Panels Sculpting The Domains and Handles Concept The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Space Frame Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • • Matching a Mesh or Line or Surface Data Making Parametric Changes Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Mirror Images: Using 1-Plane Symmetry Reducing 3D to 2D: Using Linear Symmetry Reducing 3D to 1D: Using Planar Symmetry Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. which can be used for subsequent design optimization studies. logical and intuitive.HyperMorph Strategies HyperMorph is a tool in HyperMesh to morph the shape of a finite element model in ways that are useful. It enables rapid shape changes on the finite element mesh without severely sacrificing the mesh quality. HyperMorph also allows the creation of shape variables. During the morphing process.

Shell Model Strategies • • • • • • Creating Handles and Domains Morphing on Local Domains Section Mapping Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing Solid Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • Viewing Solid Models Morphing on Local Domains Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing 200 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

and the freehand concept. The morph volume approach is quick and intuitive and is most useful for making large scale changes to complex meshes. The basics of the three concepts are summarized below: The Domains and Handles Concept This approach involves dividing the mesh into domains made up of elements or nodes and placing handles at the corners of those domains. angles. The domains and handles approach also allows parametric morphing of distances. which are highly deformable six-sided prisms. rotation.0 User’s Guide 201 . the nodes which will stay fixed. You are also able to turn node manipulations made in any panel. The HyperMorph Strategy Guide is intended illustrate the capabilities of HyperMorph and introduce you to both the basic and advanced functionality to help you get the most out of the tool. You define the nodes which will move. You have great flexibility in how the moving nodes are moved. and the affected elements manually. The Freehand Concept This approach involves morphing by moving the nodes directly without needing to create any HyperMorph entities. Morph volumes support tangency between adjoining edges and allow for multiple control points along the edges. and projection to geometry as well as using a "tool" to "sculpt" the mesh into the desired shape. dividing the mesh into logical domains. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A number of methods exist to create the morph volumes including single and matrix creation as well as the interactive. the morph volume concept. The Morph Volume Concept This approach involves surrounding the mesh with one or more morph volumes. into morphs using the record sub-panel. radii.The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing HyperMorph contains six exclusive entity types and a wide array of functionality. such as scaling or node projection. The freehand approach is an ideal introduction to HyperMorph since it allows morphing without the creation of new entities while implying the concepts of domains and handles. the shape of the mesh changes according to the domain boundaries. such as translation. and arc angles as well as morphing the mesh to match geometric data and other meshes. HyperMorph can do this automatically. When the handles are moved. This approach is most useful for making detailed changes to any mesh (local domains) as well as general changes to space frame type meshes (global domains). The domains and handles approach is the most difficult approach to learn but it is also the most powerful. allowing the user to do virtually any kind of morphing. Handles placed at the corners and along the edges of the morph volumes allow for the morphing of the morph volumes which in turn morph the mesh inside the morph volumes. The freehand approach also allows for "customized" morphing. or you can define your own domains and handles. on-screen method. While all the entities and functions are fully compatible and may be used in a complementary fashion they can be divided into three basic approaches to morphing: the domains and handles concept. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses when dealing with the numerous applications of morphing and you are advised to gain a basic understanding of each approach so that you can decide which approach is best for your needs. allowing for rapid changes to any mesh.

which allows you to make both large and small scale morphs and have them combine logically. 202 HyperMesh 8. The amount each node moves with respect to each handle is relative to an internally calculated influence coefficient. but when handles are moved in order to morph the model no calculations are necessary. or violet if they are dependent on other handles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The advantage of this approach is that it makes morphing an interactive process. or elements. global and local. the mesh is stretched or compressed to match the desired shape. Local handles are intended to be used to make small scale. and general domains. Global handles are the largest handles in the model and they are red if they are not dependent on other handles. It is located at the centroid of the nodes selected when you create the global domain. Each domain is associated with any number of local handles. HyperMorph spends an amount of time proportional to the size of the new or edited domains calculating the handle influences. which in turn. A model can contain both global and local handles and domains. The process for calculating the influence coefficients is somewhat time consuming. 3D. Domains consist of nodes.The Domains and Handles Concept When using the domains and handles approach. edge. 3D domains. when handles and domains are initially set up or edited. For very large domains. These local handles can only influence nodes contained in any domains that they are either associated with or are touching. but once they are calculated they can be stored and applied rapidly. When the handles are moved.000 elements (although you can change this default limit) the large domain solver is used. Global handles will only influence the nodes in the global domain to which they are associated. The local group consists of five types of local domains: 1D domains. In the areas between the handles. you can edit the color of the domains in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels. You can adjust the base size of all the handles in the model in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels or in the handles panel. parametric changes to the model. Global Domains and Global Handles Global domains are represented by a cube made up of dashed lines. in the case of 1D. The advantage of the large domain solver is that it is faster for morphing large domains but the drawback is that it must be invoked every time you wish to morph. Therefore. The nodes in each domain move as a function of the handles that are either associated with the domain or are touching the domain. but it is not necessary to have both types of domains and handles in a model. the model is divided into domains where handles are used to control its shapes. Thus. 2D. changes the positions of the nodes inside those domains. Domains and handles are divided into two basic groups. the process of calculating influences can be too slow or too memory intensive and so the large domain solver makes it possible to morph such domains. for very large domains. the actual morphing occurs quickly. even for large models. However. the shape of the domains touching those handles change. For domains that have more than 50. calculating influence coefficients is too time-consuming. edge domains. and general domains. Global handles and domains are best for making large scale shape changes to the model. thus making morphing slower. 2D domains. You cannot edit the color of the handles nor the relative size between the dependent and independent handles. During the morphing process the mesh morphs in a logical way with nodes near the moving handles moving more and nodes near the stationary handles moving less. in the case of global domains. each of which is associated with a number of global handles. The global group consists of global domains. the color indicating their level of dependency. cyan. However. Dependent global handles are also smaller than the handles on which they are dependent. The size given is used as the radius for the independent global handles as well as the diameter of the independent local handles. or yellow.

If the handles are not generated in the positions where you want them to be. HyperMorph creates a global handle at each of the eight corners of a box surrounding the model laid out along the global axes. or use the generate auto-function. These global handles are named corner followed by a number from one to eight. reposition them. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The automatic global handle generation works particularly well for space frame models such as full car models. or create new handles.When a global domain and handles are generated automatically. HyperMorph generates a number of global handles. you can always delete them. By movi ng the handles you can stretch or deform the model along all three axes. HyperMorph generally creates no more than about 30 global handles for models of any size. such as when you create a global domain with the create handles option turned on.0 User’s Guide 203 . Example of a model with a global domain and global handles Eight handles are placed at the corners of a box enclosing the model. These handles are named handle followed by a number. HyperMorph also places at least one global handle within the box in areas of peak nodal density within the model.

In the hierarchical method. In the direct method.A space frame with six manually created global handles When the handles are moved. 204 HyperMesh 8. There are subtle differences in how the global handles influence the nodes for each method with the main difference being that the parts of the model defined by local edge domains have their shape preserved when using the hierarchical method.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which in turn influence nodes. while the direct method may bend or warp these features into curved edges and elliptical holes. There are three options for determining how global handles in global domains influence the mesh: the hierarchical method. In the mixed method. Straight edges will remain straight and circular holes will remain circular for the hierarchical method. If you are willing to accept distortions in the local geometry. choose the direct method. the space frame morphs in a way such that the bars run between the handles. global handles influence the nodes in the model directly. and the mixed method. You should select which method is right for the type of morphing that you want to perform. the direct method. global handles influence the local handles found at nodes inside the global domain. global handles will influence every node inside the global domain using the hierarchical method if the node is inside a local domain. choose the hierarchical or mixed method. or the direct method if the node is not in a local domain The method used can be selected in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel and the parameters sub-panel in the domains panel with the default being the direct method. If you wish to preserve the local geometry.

Note how the straight edge remains straight and the circle remains round. which move the mesh. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. An example of global morphing using the direct method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right.0 User’s Guide 205 .An example of global morphing using the hierarchical method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. the mesh is affected directly. it moves the local handles. Note the resulting distortion of the edge and circle.

206 HyperMesh 8. The geometric method can be slow for large models or large numbers of global handles. Local Domains and Handles Local domains are represented by a single rectangle for 1D domains. The colors of the handles cannot be changed. Independent local handles are orange and have a radius of one half the value of the handle size parameter. Local domains can be created individually by selecting nodes or elements in the create sub-panel of the domains panel. The color of the domains can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. Dependent local handles are smaller than the independent local handles and are different colors depending on the level of their dependency. The placement of local handles depends on the type of domain created and the partitioning options if partitioning is selected. and a line for edge domains. but may produce more desirable influences. the angular shape of the morph becomes rounded. HyperMorph automatically places local handles at the ends of all edge domains. The geometric method is the method that was originally used for the Tcl/Tk interface of HyperMorph and HyperMesh and generates influences based on the geometric relationship between a given node or local handle and the surrounding global handles.. Both methods attempt to determine how a global handle affects nodes or local handles in the space surrounding it. a cube for 3D domains. When local domains are created. four joined rectangles for general domains.An example of global morphing using the direct method and biasing factors By increasing the biasing factor for the highlighted (white) handle.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . two joined rectangles for 2D domains. The spatial method is the default. or for the entire model by using the generate auto-function. The influences between the global handles and local handles (using the hierarchical method) or nodes (using the direct method) can be calculated using either the spatial method or the geometric method. and is the fastest and most robust method for generating global influences based on a spatial formulation for the entire model. These local handles are named local followed by a number.

These elements are placed in a component named ^morphface. while the dependent handles are smaller and green. This dependency relationship means that moving the independent handle also results in moving the dependent handles the same amount in the same direction. A higher biasing factor means that a given handle will have greater influence over the surrounding mesh than the others. the bias factors for the dependent handles for a 1D domain are given an initial value of 3. Also note that 2D domains have been created on the faces of the 3D domain and that edge domains have been create on the edges of all the 2D domains. Finally. The independent handle is larger and orange. All the dependent handles in a given 1D domain are directly dependent on the independent handle. The solid elements have been placed in a 3D domain. The higher biasing factor given to dependent handles on 1D domains is intended to prevent mesh distortion when the 1D elements connect to nodes in 2D and 3D domains. Domains made up of 1D elements. Additionally. This is done to preserve the unique relationship established for groups of 1D elements. handles have been placed at the ends of all the edge domains.0 User’s Guide 207 . the rigid elements have been placed in a 1D domain with the center node having an independent (orange) handle and the other nodes having dependent (green) handles. Note that shell elements have been created on the faces of the 3D domain. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. such as bars and rigid elements. The shell elements have been placed in two 2D domains separated at the bend line due to partitioning. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. 1D elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 1D domains. An independent local handle is placed at the centermost node of the 1D domain and dependent local handles are placed at every other node of the elements in the 1D domain. In the example above. All other handles in the model are given a biasing factor of 1.Example of a model with local domains and local handles with partitioning. are called 1D domains.

This is true even if the handle is associated with the 2D domain. The intent is to make it faster and easier for you to apply parametric changes to the model. Also. shell elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 2D domains. even though the generated local handles are associated with the edge domains. and have it influence the nodes within its domain. 208 HyperMesh 8. or create new ones. If partitioning has been selected. Local handles are placed at the ends of all the edge domains. Edge domains are placed along the edges of the 2D domains and are also partitioned.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you can delete them. such as floating in space near the domain. In general. Domains made up of shell elements are called 2D domains. By moving the orange handle. Note that it is possible to create a handle on a node that is not touching the domain to which it is associated. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. it helps to have handles already at the positions where you want them. HyperMorph tries to predict where the handles should be placed to reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare your model for morphing. A handle associated with any domain will always influence the nodes in domains that it is touching. the local handles are placed at the corners of the 2D domains and at other useful positions. This allows you to place a handle outside of a domain. edit them. Since you morph the model by moving handles. maintaining the proper shape and connectivity for the rigid spider.A rigid spider becomes a 1D domain An independent local handle (orange) is placed at the centroid of the 1D domain and dependent handles (green) are placed at each node. If the handles or domains are not laid out in the positions where you want them to be. these domains are subdivided into smaller domains along break angles and curvature changes according to the partitioning parameters. the entire spider is moved. they will influence the nodes in any domain that shares the node at which it is placed.

even at nodes not on the associated domain. Handles can be placed anywhere. A block of solid elements is made into a 3D domain The gray shell elements on the face of the 3D domain are the ^morphface component. if you do. The color of the ^morphface component can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. Note that these elements will not be written out to any FEM formatted deck since the component name begins with a “^”. However. HyperMorph will not create ^morphface elements coincident with the existing elements. In cases where shell elements that are attached to the faces of solid elements are present in the model. Domains made up of solid elements are called 3D domains. solid elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 3D domains.Two 2D domains with edge domains and handles The model on the left shows the initial handle positions. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Edge elements are placed around each 2D domain and local handles are created at the ends of each edge domain. Handles are created at the corners of the 2D domains. The model on the right shows the addition of four new handles. The elements on the face of each 3D domain are placed into a 2D domain that is then partitioned if the partitioning option is active.0 User’s Guide 209 . The ^morphface component has been partitioned into 2D domains. Elements are created on the faces of each 3D domain and placed into a component called ^morphface. It is recommended that you do not delete or edit these elements nor rename or delete the ^morphface component. these elements and their 2D domains will be regenerated the next time you enter or exit a HyperMorph panel or the delete panel. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function.

or choose to create the domain as a general domain instead. non-reflective symmetries allow the influences of handles to extend through edges and faces depending on the type of symmetry. It allows you to move handles within a 2D or 3D domain without affecting the edges. In the model at the right an edge domain has been created inside a 2D domain. Similarly. Nodes on edge domains will only move as a function of the handles touching the edge domain. it is partitioned and handles are placed at the ends and joints. and curved edges retain their curvature. only the icon for the domain remains highlighted. No other handles will affect the nodes on the edges. HyperMesh will highlight both the domain icon and the surrounding edge domains. Edge domains and 2D domains on the faces of 3D domains play an important function in determining the influences for the handles over a given domain. When creating local domains or using the generate aut o-function. This preserves the boundaries of 2D and 3D domains such that straight edges remain straight. Also.Domains made up of a list of nodes are called edge domains. When you release the mouse button. flat surfaces remain flat. Note that when an edge domain is created.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For domains that have non-reflective symmetry types. the boundaries may not be preserved during morphing. This makes it easier for you to tell which domain you are selecting. Examples of edge domains Edge domains are placed around the edges of 2D domains. edge domains are placed around the edges of all 2D domains. nodes in a 2D domain on the face of a 3D domain will only move as a function of the handles touching the 2D domain. If you do not want to have the boundaries of a domain preserved you can delete the edges for a given domain. 210 HyperMesh 8. When you are selecting domains and are holding the mouse button down while placing the mouse over the icon of a 2D or 3D domain (or an element in the domain).

0 User’s Guide 211 . However. General domains are very useful for realized connectors which are often represented as clusters of different element types. and 3D elements. Note that the edge domain remains straight. General domains are not automatically created when generating local domains or using the generate auto-function.How edge domains affect morphing In the top two frames two handles inside a 2D domain are created and moved. preserving the shape of the feature. handles on a general domain freely influence all of the nodes inside the general domain. the elements within a single general domain must touch one another. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. but the rest of the mesh (where a general domain is used) can simply follow along. two handles connected by an edge domain are created and moved. 2D. general domains respect all neighboring edge domains and 2D domains and thus if you create 2D and edge domains for your general domains they will impose restrictions on handle influences for the general domain. Like all other domains. In the bottom frames. When a general domain is created. 2D. General domains can be made up of any combination of 1D. where 1D. and 3D domains are used. Otherwise. allowing it to stretch and deform in an unbounded manner with morphing extending across differences in element type. thus no handles are created for the domain. no 2D domains are created on the faces of any 3D elements and no edge domains are created either. Another use is for meshes where precise changes are required for one section.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or where the angle between elements exceeds a certain value. partitioning is not an exact science and there will be areas where elements are not placed into the desired domains. 212 HyperMesh 8. If you are unsatisfied with the partitioning. Note how the shell elements in the general domain morph. and solid elements. two 2D domains are created for parts of two shell meshes and a general domain is creating from the remaining rigid. bounded only by the edge of the 2D domains with the other edges free to follow the handles Partitioning Partitioning can be applied directly to 2D domains and indirectly to 3D domains (3D domains are created with 2D domains on their faces). shell. You can invoke partitioning when creating 2D or 3D domains by activating the partition 2D domains check box. In the bottom frame the two handles inside the general domain are translated. or edit the domains by hand using the create and organize sub-panels in the domains panel. However. If there are no surfaces in the model. or where the domain changes from flat to curved.Example of interaction between a general domain and 2D domains In the top frame. Partitioning is a method of dividing 2D domains into smaller 2D domains at logical places. partitioning will ideally divide your model such that every radius and straight or flat section is placed into a separate domain. Partitioning allows you to prepare your model for morphing more quickly and easily since it divides your model into sections where parametric changes can be applied. you may change the partitioning parameters in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel and try again (using the redo last button). Two handles have been placed within the general domain at the ends of the rigid spiders. or the use geometry option in the partitioning sub-panel is unchecked. such as at the edges of surfaces associated with the mesh.

All other elements will be partitioned using one of the partitioning algorithms. the curve tolerance controls the angle of which values less than it are considered straight for curvature measuring purposes. so if one method is not producing the partitions that you desire. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. while the node-based algorithm works better for tria/tetra meshes. changes direction. The node based method tends to create fewer partitions than the element based method. Note how the 2D domains are divided along angle and curvature change boundaries. If the curvature changes from straight to curved. Partitioning can be angle-based or curvature-based. They are found in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is less than this value. the domain angle controls the break angle along which a partitioning break is made. otherwise they are considered to be curved. Each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. or changes curvature by more than the curvature tolerance.0 User’s Guide 213 . a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. the node based method seems to work better on first order tria and tetra meshes while the element based method seems to work better on mixed quad and tria meshes.Example of partitioning For the model on the left. These can be set individually for quad/mixed meshes and for tria/tetra meshes. the element-based algorithm works better for quad/mixed meshes and second order meshes. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. a break due to angle or curvature must be found along its entire edge. although exact performance for each method depends heavily on the features in your model. In either case. There are two algorithms you can use to partition. For the model on the right. For instance. If you have also selected add to geometry. If you have selected use geometry. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is greater than this value. When using curvature-based partitioning. domain angle and curve tolerance have a roughly similar meaning as the element based method. then any partitions created outside of the surfaces will be added to the partitions created using the surfaces if the partitioning algorithm does not find a break along the edges or the surfaces. element-based and node-based. Note that in order for a new partition to be created. Also note that the edge domains are partitioned regardless of whether the partitioning option is on or off. the 2D domain was created without partitioning. partitioning was used. There are also several parameters that govern the creation of domains for either algorithm. In general. This option is helpful when surface data is incomplete of some of the nodes have been moved away from their surfaces. they are considered flat. all elements whose nodes are associated to surfaces in the model will be partitioned along the edges of the surfaces. the other method might work better. For the node based method.

independent (orange) and dependent (green. When the handle at either end of the edge domain is moved. the dependent handle moves along as if it was not there. but dependency loops are not allowed.Dependent Handles You can make a handle dependent on one or more other handles. If a handle is dependent on only one other handle. These dependencies are calculated internally and cannot be modified manually. and then make those handles dependent on one or more other handles. • • • Handle dependencies are useful for several different applications. all local handles are dependent on global handles. This system allows you to create any number of dependency layers. A handle may be dependent on any number of handles. it will inherit a percentage of the movements applied to each higher level handle. 214 HyperMesh 8. This means that movements applied to the dependent handle are not applied to the independent handles. Global handles. When the dependent handle is moved. Handles that are dependent on other handles appear smaller and in a color different from the handles on which they are dependent. it inherits the full movement of the higher level handle. The percentage is based on the distance between the dependent and independent handles. and so on. If a handle is dependent on more than one handle. blue. independent (red) and dependent (yellow. This allows you to combine the changes easily without having to apply separate perturbations for all of the handles. • • Transparent control of domain edges and faces You can create a dependent handle on an edge domain that is dependent on the handles at the ends of the domain. and violet) Local handles. and pink) The conditions for handle dependency are as follows: • • • A handle that is dependent on another handle inherits the movements applied to the higher level handle.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Making a handle dependent has no affect on the way it influences nodes. biasing will affect them. the shape of the edge can be changed. cyan. This allows you to add the movements of dependent and independent handles in a logical manner. A dependent handle can be moved independently of the handles on which it is dependent. In the hierarchical method. The review button in the update sub-panel of the handles panel allows you to view the handles on which a specific handle is dependent.

0 User’s Guide 215 . the center handle is moved independently. in essence.example 1 The center global handle is dependent on the two outer global handles. performing localized “global” morphing.• • • Grouping features together to move as a unit You can make all the handles at one cross section of a beam dependent on a single handle. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This allows you to stretch all of the domains uniformly by moving the independent handles. Linking several domains together You can make all of the handles within several domains dependent on a few at the corners of the domain. In the lower frame. the center handle follows along. This allows you to move an entire cross section while only having to select one handle. When the highlighted handle on the left is moved (center frame). Dependencies .

The top and bottom halves of the cross sections are controlled by just two handles. The entire cross section is controlled by one handle. all of the green handles are dependent on the orange handle. Dependencies . both holes move with it. each hole can be positioned separately by moving the dependent handle associated with it. 216 HyperMesh 8. the three green handles on the top are dependent on the orange handle on the top.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The bottom has similar dependencies. Also.example 2 In the model on the left. When the independent handle is moved.example 3 An independent handle was created between the two holes and the handles governing the positions of the holes are made dependent on it. Note that the dependencies can extend beyond the 2D domain boundaries.Dependencies . In the model on the right.

the handle and/or node perturbations are stored in the new shape entity along with biasing factors for the handle perturbations and details such as the biasing style. When you create a shape. the dependent handles follow and reduce mesh distortion by spreading the morph across the entire part instead of only around the hole. node perturbations are required to fully describe the shape. those shapes do not contain node perturbations and thus vectors are not drawn at those nodes.0 User’s Guide 217 . Creating shapes allows you to generate shape variables for optimization and store model changes for parametric studies. When you create a shape using the save as shape or save shape sub-panels. The vectors are drawn the exact length of the perturbation and the vectors for the handle perturbations are drawn with thicker lines to denote that they are different from node perturbations. Working with Shapes Shapes are collections of handle and/or node perturbations. To get to the current state of the model from the initial state. HyperMorph stores the morph internally as a collection of perturbations which you can then undo or redo. For many morphing operations. vectors are drawn for each handle and node perturbation for the shape. In the case of freehand morphing. If you save the model using the save each morph step option in the shapes panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When the handle at the hole is moved downward. HyperMorph takes the difference between the initial state of the model and the current state of the model when creating a new shape. all of these shapes must be applied. When you morph your model. each morph on the undo/redo list will be saved as a separate shape. However. If you create a shape in either the morph or freehand panels. or the morph is a mapping or radius changing operation. or create a shape in the shapes panel with the save current state option turned on. the morph consists only of handle perturbations.Using dependencies to reduce mesh distortion In this example two dependent handles were created on the edges of the part near the center hole. The dependent handles were constrained along vectors parallel to the sides of the part. the morph consists only of node perturbations. if constraints are being used. Note that while shapes with handle perturbations will move nodes when they are applied.

the shape will be saved as node perturbations only. you should save shapes as node perturbations. select the morph panel.When you are saving a shape. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. If you select node perturbations. 4. 3. Click convert. optimization module. you can select whether to save it as handle perturbations or node perturbations. redone. Whenever you make a change to your model. it becomes a shape variable. Morph your model into the shape of the first shape variable. 5. Click create. Select the shapes for which you want to create shape variables. Setting Up Optimization Morphing can be used to create shape variables for optimization. or saved as part of another shape. 8. while shapes saved as handle perturbations will differ from shapes that have been saved with changes to the handle influences. Note: A shape is not a shape variable. Select the type of conversion that you wish to perform. If you plan to make changes to domains and handles. Once a shape is saved. you can apply it to your model with any given scaling factor. If you later decide that you want to change a shape from node perturbations to handle perturbations or vice versa you can do so in the convert sub-panel of the shapes panel. Select the save shape sub-panel. 2. To create shape variables for an optimization run: 1. select the shape panel. Shapes saved as node perturbations are not affected by changes to domains and handles. Select the shapes to be converted. To convert shapes saved with handle perturbations to shapes saved with node perturbations.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or vice-versa: 1. 4. 2. save shapes as handle perturbations and they will require less memory and disk space. 3. but by adding a desvar which points to the shape. select the shapes panel. the shape will be saved as either handle perturbations only. The shape is converted. 218 HyperMesh 8. or a combination of handle and node perturbations if node perturbations are required to describe the shape. If you select handle perturbations. 7. 9. The difference between the two types comes into play if you change the handles or domains in your model. From the BCs page. If not. Set the toggle to multiple desvars. 5. Select the convert sub-panel. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for each shape variable you want to create. Click undo all to return to your base model shape. HyperMorph will ask you if you want to preserve any existing shapes saved as handle perturbations by converting them to node perturbations. Save your morph as a shape. Applying a shape in this way is like any other morphing operation and can be undone. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. 10. A desvar for each shape is created with the initial value and bounds in the panel. Each desvar is given a unique name. 6.

0 User’s Guide 219 . this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Morph Volume concepts and strategies. Click animate. you can set up the rest of your optimization problem within the optimization module. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The Freehand Concept Freehand strategies are still being created. The deformed panel displays.11. Animate the shape variables: Click undo morphing if you did not click undo all after saving the last shape. allowing you to view each shape variable by animating it. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Freehand concepts and strategies. The Morph Volume Concept Morph Volume strategies are still being created. Once you have created shape variables for your shapes.

Space frame models can generally have element counts in the hundreds of thousands. You should place global handles both in areas where you want to apply perturbations and in areas that you want to stay fixed.space frame model 1. From the Tool page. these changes can be performed by placing a handle at each joint in the frame and moving those handles to the desired locations. 4.Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains Space frames are models that have a sparse distribution of elements. Select the domains panel. wider. A global domain and global handles are created at useful positions throughout the space frame. use a cluster type morph constraint. 5. In many cases. such as a car body. For these types of models. 7. all that is necessary is to create a global domain and global handles. 220 HyperMesh 8. Click create. Creating Handles and Domains . A new global handle is created at each node or at the specified xyz location. You can also use morph constraints to fix nodes in place during global morphing but if you want them to affect the surrounding mesh you must select the stretch mesh around nodes option when creating the morph constraint. 6. Select an xyz position or any number of nodes where you want global handles. such as making it smaller. but their basic structure is rather simple. Set the toggle to all nodes. Click create. Select create. In many instances. If not. these handles will be where you want them to be. Delete any unwanted handles. Set the selector to global domain. If you want a part of your model to move as a rigid body. 2. Local handles are not required since local changes to the frame components are not necessary. shorter. such as a wheel or the engine block. Since local handles and domains for large models can consume a great deal of resources.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If more than one handle is created at a time. Type in a name. select the HyperMorph module. you should avoid creating them unless it is necessary. Set the toggle to create handles. Often the desired shape changes are general. 3. or altering the basic positions of components within the frame. delete them and add global handles elsewhere: Press F2 or go to the delete panel. the handles will each be given a unique name by appending a number after the name you have given. select the handles panel. From the HyperMorph module.

so you will want to make all the changes you desire within each panel before exiting. For large models or large changes.0 User’s Guide 221 . editing. domains. if necessary. or deleting handles. The best one to use depends on the results that you want to achieve: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.A global domain and global handles for a full car model Exiting any panel in the HyperMorph module or the delete panel automatically triggers HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. makes it necessary for HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. There are many options available for moving the handles. Adding. or symmetries. this can be time consuming.

As you drag a handle across the screen and you can watch the mesh move along with it. Select the create/update sub-panel. 2. or Surface Data The basic approach for HyperMorph is to move the handles into positions that change the shape of the model to match the mesh or geometry data. select the morph panel. Change the upper middle selector to interactive. When you release the mouse button. Select the nodes on the target mesh. Switch the selector to fixed.Matching a Mesh. 3. 2. Click create. All the nodes in the target mesh are constrained to remain fixed during morphing operations as long as the constraint is active and the use constraints box is checked (see the morph options panel). Select a handle on the screen and hold the mouse button down. only the graphics for the handle are updated. To morph interactively by moving the handle and releasing the mouse button: 1. 4. repeat steps 7 through 9. the morph is applied to the model and the graphics are updated for the entire model. Change the lower middle selector from on domains to along vector. select the morph constraints panel. Change the rightmost toggle from real time to on release. Click morph. But you can still morph interactively with any size model by setting HyperMorph to perform the morphing after you move the handle and release the mouse button. If the handle position needs to be changed again. the nodes between the constrained nodes and the handles will be affected regardless of whether the mesh is continuous between them. which leaves a dark trail through the mesh. 5. Select a vector. Make sure that the stretch mesh around nodes option is unchecked. 9.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the handle follows along the selected vector. Move the handle to the new location and release the mouse button. Line. For large models it may be too slow to morph interactively in real time. One of the most enjoyable ways to morph is interactively. Note that if you check the stretch mesh around nodes option. 6. From the HyperMorph module. 4. 3. 8. 5. If you are going to match a mesh you need to make sure that the mesh does not get morphed when you are moving the handles. 222 HyperMesh 8. From the HyperMorph module. 6. As you drag the mouse. To constrain the nodes on the target mesh: 1. 7. Select move handles. This can be accomplished by constraining the nodes on the target mesh. Since on release was selected.

Move more than one handle at the same time: Before clicking morph. select several handles on the screen. Morphing to a profile line In the top frame. The result is a morphed vehicle model that closely matches the profile line. In the bottom frame the process has been repeated for the other handles on the roof. the global handles on either side of top of the windshield are selected.10. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When you release the mouse.0 User’s Guide 223 . all of the selected handles are moved the same distance in the same direction. In the middle frame they are interactively moved upwards along a vector to a point matching with the profile line. Perform steps 7 through 9.

Morphing to a profile line A handle is added to the center of the rear windshield and is moved to better match the profile line. HyperMorph will give you the option of converting existing shapes from handle perturbations to node perturbations automatically after you add. Select a node. However. 2. 2. Hold the mouse button down and drag the mouse over a line or surface until it is highlighted. 3. Select a handle. You can also select other features to drag the handle along such as a line. or delete any morphing entities. any shapes saved as handle perturbations may not yield the same morphed shape after handles have been added or deleted. If you intend to add or delete handles in your model. The handle is moved to the position where the node was prior to morphing and the rest of the mesh morphs accordingly. To create nodes on the fly on lines and surfaces: 1. Click on the line or surface where you want the node. save your shapes as node perturbations.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Altair Engineering 224 HyperMesh 8. To match a target mesh or geometric data by moving the handles to a specified node location: 1. Change the upper middle selector from interactive to move to node. edit. Handles may always be added or deleted from a model without affecting the current morphed state of the model. HyperMorph uses the position of the mouse on the screen to figure out where you want to move the handle. A node will be created and the handle will immediately be moved to the node. a plane. You can use this feature to position a handle anywhere you want line or surface data. or a surface.

If the left selector is set to hold middle. Click translate. The handles rotate about the axis the specified angle and the model morph accordingly. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. node a will not move (same for node b). both node a and node b will move the same distance. Rotate the handles. Translate the handles. Select an axis of rotation. Change the upper middle selector from move to node to translate. Set the upper left selector to distance. Select a vector and distance. Or Select the desired xyz translation. Select a few handles. 3. To translate or rotate handles: 1. Set the rotation angle. Change the distance value. select the morph panel. Select alter dimensions. Specify dimensions more precisely in the alter dimensions sub-panel.0 User’s Guide 225 . Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. Select a few handles. Click morph.Making Parametric Changes Dimensions such as distance and angle can be changed easily in HyperMorph. If the left selector is set to hold end a. From the HyperMorph module. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for node a as a group and the follower handles for node b as a group either towards each other or away from each other so that the new distance between node a and node b is equal to the specified distance. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Change the upper middle selector from translate to rotate. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. Select node a and node b at nodes whose distance you want to change. One way to do this is by translating or rotating handles. Click rotate. The handles move the specified distance in the specified direction and the model morphs accordingly.

Select node a. 4. Change the angle value. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for each end in a way so that the new angle between node a. Click morph.Morphing by altering the distance between two nodes The width of the car is found by placing node a (green dot) on the right hand door and node b (blue dot) on the left hand door. The handles on the right side of the model are selected as followers for node a and the handles on the left side of the model are selected as followers for node b. or at least get close. 7. The distance is changed and the model morphs. vertex. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. and node b are the specified angle. 2. HyperMorph will iterate to achieve the desired angle. the vertex. 3. 5. To change the angle: 1. If node a and node b are selected coincident with one of the follower handles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 6. 226 HyperMesh 8. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. If necessary. Set the upper left selector to angle. iterattion is not necessary. and node b at nodes whose angle you want to change.

In morphing this is accomplished by placing handles evenly along both sides of the mesh to be stretched. However.0 User’s Guide 227 . you will need to place several handles across both of sides of the zone of influence. you allow for even stretching to occur between each set of fingers. blue. If you place three fingers on one side and two on the other and try to stretch the sheet. Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Global morphing differs from local morphing in that there are no definite boundaries between the handles that restrict their zones of influence. selecting two handles at the front of the car as followers for node a (green). the parts of the model that are morphed are those that lie between the handles that are moving and those that are not.Morphing by altering the angle formed by three nodes The slope of the windshield is altered by defining an angle using three nodes (green. When you perform global morphing operations. and red). for cases where you are trying to morph a mesh that covers a wide area. Note that the handles on either side of the windshield were constrained to move along the x-axis (front to back) thus maintaining the height of the roof. The angle is changed from 160 degrees to 150 degrees. the space between your fingers on the two finger side will be pulled towards the three finger side. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For the general space frame cases. You can visualize the handles as places on a sheet of rubber where you are placing your fingers. By placing three fingers on each side. and selecting two handles on either side of the windshield as followers for node b (red node). positioning handles at the joints between the members of the space frame restricts the handle influences to the parts of the frame that they are touching.

Now when the handle on the roof is moved upwards.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 228 HyperMesh 8.Controlling global morphing with handles – part 1 The handle on the roof is moved upwards and the center section of the car is morphed along with it. only the part of the car between the roof and the handles along the midline of the car is stretched. Controlling global morphing with handles – part 2 A handle is added directly below the handle on the roof near the center of the car.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 229 .

Adding handles to control global morphing Using several handles on either side. Change the left toggle from approximate to enforced.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Create a system at a node where the plane of symmetry is to be located and have the x-axis pointing normal to the plane to be created. Select the system you created. select the systems panel. 6. the fender of the model is morphed. 4. 3. select the symmetry panel. 230 HyperMesh 8. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry. Return to the HyperMorph module. Also note that in cases where detailed shape changes are required. 7. 5. Enter a name. 8. morph volumes will usually yield better results. Mirror Images . Switch the selector from none to 1 plane.Using 1-Plane Symmetry If your space frame is symmetric. Select the global domain icon. you can create a plane of symmetry at the center of your space frame and have your morphs applied in a symmetric fashion. From the HyperMorph module. 9. Note that dependent handles are used to simplify the morphing operation. 2. To set up a plane of symmetry: 1.

The perturbations applied to handles on one side of the plane of symmetry will be mirrored on to the other side. yet still have symmetry active for the symmetric handles. Since enforced was selected. The symmetry will be applied to the handles and handle perturbations that will influence the mesh in a symmetric fashion. HyperMorph creates new handles that are reflections of ones that are not linked to any others and creates a symmetric link between them. When handles are created or deleted. use the approximate option instead. the model maintains symmetry across the symmetry plane. If you want to add handles to one side of the plane of symmetry and not the other. the enforced option will automatically create or delete handles on the other side of the symmetric link in order to enforce symmetry of the handles. The icon for a 1-plane symmetry is a rectangle positioned like a small mirror for the symmetry system. As a result. Click create. The mesh itself does not need to be symmetric to use the symmetry options.0 User’s Guide 231 . If you have the symmetry links check box activated. HyperMorph automatically applies the handle movements to the handles on the other side of the plane of symmetry through the symmetry link.10. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A plane of symmetry is created at the origin of the system and based perpendicular to the x-axis. System and 1-plane symmetry The plane of symmetry is positioned at the origin of the system and perpendicular to the x-axis. Now when you perform a morphing operation you only need to move the handles on one side of the plane of symmetry. HyperMorph also links any handles that it finds that are reflections of the other.

Using 1-plane symmetry Three handles on the right hand side of the roof are selected and moved towards the centerline. HyperMorph automatically moves the corresponding nodes on the left hand side of the roof in a symmetric fashion.

Reducing 3D to 2D - Using Linear Symmetry
You can use linear symmetry to apply morphs to the model in such a way that the model is essentially reduced to two dimensions. To create a linear symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be reduced. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from 1 plane to linear. Select the system you created.

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9.

Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. A linear symmetry is created along the x-axis of the system. The icon for a linear symmetry consists of two parallel lines along the dimension to be reduced. The origin of the system is irrelevant. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a line extending along the system xaxis. If two handles lie along a line parallel to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same y and z coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since linear is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others that are linked via the symmetry. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and linear symmetry The linear symmetry icon consists of two parallel lines along the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a linear symmetry system does not matter; the effect of the linear symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a linear symmetry is very useful for making profile changes to a space frame model. It does not matter where the handles are placed along the x-axis, greatly simplifying the model set up. You only need to look at the model from one view to set up the handles and to morph the model. For models with a large number of elements this can save a great deal of time.

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Using linear symmetry The handle on the rear part of the roof is selected and the entire rear portion of the roof is morphed along with it. With linear symmetry you only need to place handles on one side of the model to affect the entire profile.

Reducing 3D to 1D - Using Planar Symmetry
Planar symmetry is similar to linear symmetry accept that it reduces two dimensions instead of one. This enables you to morph your model along a single axis with only two or more handles. To create a planar symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be retained. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from linear to planar. Select the system you created. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

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11. Return to the HyperMorph module. 12. Select the symmetry panel. 13. Select update by domain. 14. Select the global domain. 15. Select the planar symmetry. 16. Click update. A planar symmetry is created and the other two symmetries from the global domain are removed. You are allowed to have any number of symmetries associated with a domain and all will apply, but combining linear and planar symmetry in the same direction results in an unrealistic situation and poor influence calculations. The planar symmetry icon is displayed as a filled-in rectangle perpendicular to the system x-axis. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a plane perpendicular to the x-axis. If two handles lie in a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same x coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since planar is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and planar symmetry The planar symmetry icon is a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a planar symmetry system does not matter, the effect of the planar symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a planar symmetry greatly simplifies a model. Essentially, it reduces the model to a lying along single axis. This symmetry type is very useful for changing dimensions along one axis through the entire model.

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Using planar symmetry The handle at the rear of the model is selected and the entire trunk of the car is morphed. With planar symmetry you only need a row of handles lying roughly along the planar symmetry system x-axis.

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Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
Shell models are models that are made up primarily of shell elements, namely, quads, and trias. In general, a shell model represents many parts, each with numerous features such as holes and edges, and connected together using 1D elements such as bars and rigids. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shapes of the shell model features. This is done using one of the following methods: • Moving the handles on the part to new locations • • Moving the global handles around the parts to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the parts, or mapping the nodes of a part to line or surface data

For most models you only need to create 2D domains for the entire part, but you can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature.

Creating Handles and Domains - shell model
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Change the toggle to all elements or select all the elements in the model. Click create. A 2D domain is created for each group of continuous shell elements. Parts joined by 1D or 3D elements are separated into different domains. If partition domains is checked, the 2D domains will be partitioned according to the settings selected in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. Once partitioned, edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. All of this is automatic, but 1D and 3D elements will not be placed into 1D and 3D domains unless you set the selector to local domains instead of 2D domains. In many cases, the domains and handles will be generated where you want them to be. If not you can always add, edit, or delete the handles and domains to meet your needs.

A shell model is partitioned into 2D domains 6. If you wish to generate a global domain as well as local domains for your model with a single button click, either change the selector to global and local and click create, or to auto functions and click generate.

In the case of the generate auto function, if there are any domains or handles in the model, HyperMorph will first ask if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. If you say “yes”, or if there are no morphing entities in the model, HyperMorph automatically generates 1D, 2D, 3D, and edge domains for the entire model and a global domain and handles as well.

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For tria meshes which lack underlying geometry, both the node-based and element based partitioning algorithms may prove unsatisfactory. In these cases you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when partitioning. To accomplish this, go to the partitioning sub-panel, select element based as the algorithm for tria/tetra meshes, and change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. HyperMorph will then only make partitions along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. You can then go in and manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should go. This method is almost mandatory for meshes that began as first order meshes but were transformed into second order meshes. For these meshes, HyperMorph will detect a curvature break at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. The result will be a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Solving the influence coefficients for 2D domains which contain more than 20,000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. In these cases you may want to divide the large domains into multiple domains or lower the limit for the large domain solver. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. However, even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid, morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming, and thus subdividing 2D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. To divide your shell model, do this: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Select the elements to be placed into a new 2D domain. Click create. When selecting the elements for the new domain you do not need to select only shell elements. HyperMorph automatically removes any other elements before creating the domain. It does not matter if the elements selected are already in a 2D domain. When the new domain is created, the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Handle influences need to be recalculated every time handles, domains, or symmetries are added, edited, or deleted. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. These calculations occur when you enter or leave any HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. Thus, for models with large domains you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. HyperMorph only recalculates the handle influences for handles in regions that have been edited. If the domains are not created exactly how you want them to be, you can edit them in the domains panel. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. The organize subpanel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split, merge, and place handles along edge domains. It is suggested that you create and edit all the 2D domains, then create and edit the edge domains. This order works better since creating or editing 2D domains will result in the regeneration of the surrounding edge domains with the previous modifications to those edge domains being discarded. Sometimes partitioning does not divide the mesh in the ways that would be most useful to you. Occasionally, elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Partitioning is not an exact science, so some cleanup is sometimes required.

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To move elements from one domain to another: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select organize. Change the selector to add nodes/elems . Change the toggle to local domain. Select the elements to be moved. Select the target domain. Click organize. This will move the elements from the domain that they are currently in to the selected domain. HyperMorph also refreshes the edge domains around both domains as well as the edge domains at the interface. New handles may also be created during this process, and if retain handles is not checked, handles may be deleted. It is suggested that you keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing.

Partitioning problems The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. For this example the retain handles option was left unchecked resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. Note that the edge domains are always partitioned for any new domain and handles are placed at the end of the edge domains. For the example above, a handle was created in a new location due to the edge partitioning being different for the two domain configurations. When you hold the mouse button down and the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D domain or over an element inside a domain, the edge domains surrounding the domain are highlighted as well. This allows you to better visualize the domain that you are selecting. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain, and some domains can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements.

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To group two or more domains together: 1. Click organize. Select organize. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. but in some cases it may not identify the proper starting and ending points. Change the selector to combine domains. 240 HyperMesh 8. 2. Select the domains to be grouped together. If you do your edge editing first. HyperMorph tries to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. You may need to correct this by hand. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. 4. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D domains. Two domains are organized into one Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. From the HyperMorph module. This is why any editing of the edge domains should come after the editing of the other domains. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. 5. select the domains panel. The selected domains are combined into a single domain and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

select the domains panel. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To merge edge domains: 1. 3. 3. 2.a circular edge domain is divided into two half circles A handle was created at the joint to allow you to manipulate the edges. select the domains panel. Click split. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. Select any number of connected edge domains. 4. 6. Splitting an edge domain .0 User’s Guide 241 . Click merge. From the HyperMorph module. Change the selector to split. From the HyperMorph module. Select edit edges. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. Select edit edges. 5. A handle is created at the selected node. 5.To split edge domains: 1. Select an edge domain. 4. Change the selector to merge. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end to end such that the resultant edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel.

4. Click create. If the domain containing the radius to be changed is very large you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change before you go into the morph panel. the handle at the joint was deleted. Change the selector to add handles. 5. This feature is quite useful for saving time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. 2. select the domains panel. 242 HyperMesh 8. Select edit edges. Select one or more domains. Since retain handles was unchecked. From the HyperMorph module. 3. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain.Merging two edge domains The two half circles are merged into a single domain. The dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. To place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

0 User’s Guide 243 . which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. It will be as if they were not there. line and surface difference. During influence calculation you might run out of available memory.When you are satisfied with your domains. In these cases you should divide large domains. or arc angle of an edge domain Mapping nodes to a line. and sculpting Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. The first is that since they are dependent.Creating handles on an edge domain A dependent handle is created on each node of the edge domain. HyperMorph calculates the influences for the handles and you are ready to begin morphing. curvature. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge will be transparently applied to the dependent handles. the influences do not need to be recalculated. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. surface. record. Morphing on Local Domains You can change the shape of a model with local domains and handles using one or more of the following methods: • • • • • • Moving the local handles Changing a distance or angle Changing the radius. plane. delete unnecessary handles. and element offset Using freehand morphing capabilities such as move nodes. click return. or mesh Using section mapping. Secondly. . This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects.

These options allow you to position handles at specific node or point locations. or place them on lines. This option allows you to position handles at specific XYZ locations or place them on lines. and move a handle by clicking on it and dragging it to a new location. or domains. surfaces. move to point 244 HyperMesh 8. If you want to move a handle a specific distance or to a specific position. it is better to use a non-interactive option.There are six ways to move handles in the move handles sub-panel of the morph panel: interactive This option allows you to move handles interactively by dragging the mouse across the screen. to orient the mouse location in 3D space. This option allows you to translate handles along a vector or element normals. translate rotate move to XYZ move to node. You select an entity such as a vector. Interactive morphing is most effective for visualizing how the mesh will react when a handle is moved and for making approximate shape changes. surfaces. surface. plane. line. This option allows you to rotate handles about an axis.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or another mesh. or another mesh.

the length of the flange is reduced.Morphing by translating handles By selecting the two handles along the edge of the flange and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section (green and blue nodes).0 User’s Guide 245 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Morphing by translating handles By selecting the three handles and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section. 246 HyperMesh 8. the width of the channel is increased. Morphing by translating handles By selecting the handles at the bottom of the part and translating them upwards. the thickness of the lower section is reduced.

Morphing by rotating handles .constant The right end of the block is given a constant rotation. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the position of the bolt boss is modified.constant By selecting all the handles at the end of the section and rotating them about a point (violet node).0 User’s Guide 247 .Morphing by translating handles By selecting all the handles around the bolt boss and translating them horizontally. the end angle of the section is modified. Morphing by rotating handles .

check the true rotation checkbox.Morphing by rotating handles . not all morphing applications are best done using true rotation. This is because the nodes have followed the handles instead of being rotated about the axis. To correct this situation.normal Although the highlighted handles are rotated. 248 HyperMesh 8. This concept comes into play when you are using the rotate function. Although it could be argued that true rotation is the "correct" way to morph via rotation of the handles. it is important to note that the nodes in the model follow the movements of the handles according to the influence coefficients. This will cause the nodes to be rotated as well as the handles with the amount of rotation being equal to the influence coefficient. Morphing by rotating handles . After rotating handles you may find areas in the model (particularly those defined by curved edges) that are not rotated the same as the neighboring handles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note how the magnitude of the twist increases linearly with the distance from the base (purple) node. the circle at the center of the model remains on the same plane as before.linear The entire block is given a linear rotation. When applying handle perturbations to your model.

The basic concept is as follows: Select two nodes (node a and node b). the following message may be displayed: “Some handles selected are dependent on others. If you click yes the given perturbation is applied to each handle and the dependent handles are not given an additional perturbation inherited from another handle. If you click no. controlling a particular dimension often involves moving more than one handle for each end.Morphing by rotating handles . Select handles corresponding to those nodes. the angle between nodes. For most cases you will want to click yes. The handles selected are the ones that will move to make the distance between node a and node b (or angle with a vertex selected) equal the specified value. This occurs when both a dependent handle and the handle on which it is dependent are selected to be morphed. The alter dimensions sub-panel of the morph panel allows you to change one of the parameters in the model. You must select at least one handle for each end and the handle may be coincident with one of the nodes. the given perturbation and any inherited perturbation is applied to each dependent node. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.true rotation During "true rotation" the nodes rotate along with the handles. Would you like to ignore dependencies for this operation?”. While morphing a model. For solid models. such as the distance between nodes. or the radius or curvature of an edge domain.0 User’s Guide 249 .

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .distance By selecting the width of the bottom of the channel as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the left (highlighted) to follow the green node and the handles on the right (shown as gray) to follow the blue node. the width of the bottom of the channel can be changed from 60 to 30 with the rest of the channel changing along with it. 250 HyperMesh 8.Morphing by altering dimensions . the thickness of the block between the radius and the back face is altered from 15 to 25 by moving the entire back face. Morphing by altering dimensions .distance By selecting the thickness of the block as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the radius (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles on the back face (highlighted) to follow the blue node.

Morphing by altering dimensions . near. and below the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. the angle is altered from 126 degrees to 90 degrees.angle By selecting the angle of the left side of the channel (green. the angle of the left side of the section is changed from 110 degrees to 90 degrees. and red nodes) and by selecting the handles at and directly below the green node (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles at.Morphing by altering dimensions . blue.angle By selecting the angle between two faces of the block (green. and red nodes) and by selecting the handle at the bottom right of the channel (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handle at the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. blue. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 251 .

or arc angle factor for them. You select any number of curved edge or 2D domains. and click morph.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . curvature multiplication. select the center calculation and style options.5 and kept in line with the edges at either end.fillet By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the fillet option. Note: Morphing by altering dimensions – radius – center By selecting the edge domain around the edge of the hole.0. Morphing by altering dimensions . and arc angle options are used as follows. curvature. the radius is changed from 5 to 2. All the domains are changed simultaneously.The radius. Making the bias factor retroactive does not work for radius changes.radius . the radius is changed from 3 to 1. Note: The curvature tool scales your radius by a factor rather than a set radius.5. set the new radius. 252 HyperMesh 8. you need to set the curve ratio to 1. The curvature tool is intended for domains that do not have constant curvature.0 to 8.6. so if you want to change a radius from 5.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold ends By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the hold ends option, the radius is changed from 5 to 10 with the ends held in place.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold end By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part, selecting the hold end option, and selecting a node at the end of the edge domain, the radius is changed from 5 to 8 while the held end remains in place.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - fillet By selecting all of the edge domains that form the fillet between the flat sections and the round section and changing them simultaneously, the fillet is reduced from 20 to 8.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius The radius is changed in three different ways. At the top right, the hold center option is used. At the lower left, the hold ends option is used. At the lower right, the fillet option is used. In all cases, both the top and bottom edge domains were selected as well as the 2D domain and the by normals option was used for center calculation. This option will directly calculate the radii for the nodes on the 2D domain instead of inferring them from the edge domains which makes this approach more accurate for 2D domains as well as more reliable for non-uniform meshes.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the mesh is changed from 60 to 90 degrees using by axis (the vertical axis and violet base node) to calculate the center of curvature.

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the fillet is changed from 90 to 180 degrees using by normals to calculate the center of curvature. There are five methods available for calculating the center of curvature for the selected domains: • by normals - this method is the default and uses the element normals to approximate where the center of curvature is for each node in the selected domains. This method is not always accurate, but often gives good results for regular meshes. by axis - you may select an axis which will serve as the center of curvature. by line - you may select a line which will serve as the center of curvature. by node - you may select a node which will serve as the center of curvature. by edges - this method uses the edge domains to calculate the center of curvature with the center lying in the plane of the edge domains. The symmetry option refers to how the morphing of the edge domains is applied to neighboring 2D domains. The auto-symmetry option was the default for HyperMorph prior to version 8.0. In 8.0 you may choose to turn off symmetry when using this option.

• • • •

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For auto-symmetry, the changes in the radii of the edge domains are applied to any 2D domain, depending on the number of edge domains you change for the 2D domains. If you change only one edge domain for a given 2D domain, the radius change will not be applied linearly across the 2D domain. If you change the radii of two edges for any given 2D domain, either a linear or planar temporary symmetry is created between the two edge domains for the 2D domain that will apply radius changes more linearly across the 2D domain. This works best if the mesh is regular. If you are changing only one edge for a 2D domain, you can increase the bias factor of any handles on an edge domain to yield a more even distribution. Mapping an edge domain to a line or a 2D mesh to a plane, surface, or mesh is done using the map to geom panel. This option is very effective for fitting a mesh to new geometric data. When mapping a domain to a geometric feature, all the nodes in neighboring domains are stretched along with it, minimizing mesh distortion. You have several options for determining how the nodes for the mapped domain are placed on the geometry. When mapping an edge domain or node list the nodes can be moved normal to the line, along a vector to the line, or distributed along the full length of the line. When mapping a 2D domain or selection of nodes to a plane, surface, or mesh, the nodes can be moved normal to the target, normal to the elements of the 2D domain or selected nodes, or along a vector. If you wish to fit a mesh to a surface, there is no option to do this automatically, however, with multiple mapping operations, or using the user control option you can fit a 2D domain to a surface. Furthermore, you have the option of creating a morph constraint between the nodes and the map target automatically after mapping. This constraint will allow you to do further morphing operations while maintaining the constrained nodes on the geometry. The map to geom panel is also effective for solid model meshing. You can create a block of solid elements roughly in the shape of the geometry that you are trying to mesh, and then use map to surface to morph the faces of the block to the geometry.

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - normal to geom The edge domain is mapped to a line by moving the nodes normal to the line.

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Morphing by mapping to line - automap - fit to line The edge domain is mapped to the line by fitting them along the line. Any proportional spacing between the nodes will be maintained after mapping.

Morphing by mapping to surface By selecting the 2D domain on the top of the solid block to be mapped to the surface, the entire solid block is morphed to match the surface.

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Morphing by mapping to surface A rectangular C-section is mapped to a curved surface.

Morphing by mapping to surface - user control This example shows the user-control approach to mapping a mesh onto a surface. The surface and 2D domain are selected and the user control button is clicked. This brings up a new panel which allows you to place handles or map edges prior to the surface mapping operation. One by one each edge domain is placed on one of the lines around the target surface using the fit to line option. This stretches the 2D domain to match the surface more closely than before. When the map button is clicked, the domain is the mapped to the surface, fitting it perfectly to the geometry.

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Morphing Global Handles
Global handles are most effective when used to make general shape changes for a model, such as changing the basic shape of a model, stretching parts of a model, or making changes that involve the movement of many local handles. There are three methods available for affecting the way global handles influence the model, the direct method, the hierarchical method, and the mixed method. The default is the direct method, where the global handles move the nodes directly. In the hierarchical method, the global handles move the local handles which in turn move the nodes, but if any nodes lie outside of local domains they will be unaffected. In the mixed method, the hierarchical method is used for all nodes in local domains and the direct method is used for all other nodes. The hierarchical method maintains the shape of edge domains in the model, but if local handles are not evenly placed throughout the model, some parts will become distorted. The direct method gives you what you expect but often distorts the shape of the edge domains. For shell and solid models, better morphing is more likely to occur if you use the hierarchical method, and place local handles in areas where there is distortion.

Using Constraints
Morph constraints are a powerful tool that can be used to restrict the movement of nodes during morphing operations. The following types of constraints can be applied to any node: fixed, cluster, along vector, on plane, along line, on surface, and on elements. Whenever a handle is moved that influences a node, which is constrained, the node is moved according to the handle perturbation and is then projected back onto the feature to which it is constrained. This allows the nodes to slide across vectors, lines, planes, surfaces, and meshes, to remain fixed when handles are moved, or to move as a cluster along with other nodes. You may also constrain nodes where handles are located which, in effect, constrains the handles. When a perturbation is applied to a constrained handle, the handle are moved along the constraint feature regardless of the applied perturbation. This means that if you apply a translation in the x direction on a handle that is constrained along a vector x - y = 0, the handle moves along both the x and y axes. There are also morph constraints that can be applied to domains, such as the smooth constraint, which applies spline-based smoothing along the constrained edge domains, and model constraints, which allow you to set a given parametric target (such as length, angle, mass, etc.) and have HyperMorph adjust the model to meet that target. These constraints as well as bounded and set distance options for the node constraints are described more fully in the panel help. Morph constraints can be very useful for morphing a mesh that has been mapped to, projected to, or created upon a surface. Note that the map to geom operation allows you to have a morph constraint automatically created after mapping. Once you have done so, the nodes will remain on the surface during morphing operations. Note: Although morph constraints can keep nodes on a curved line or surface during morphing operations, when morphs are saved as shapes and then turned into shape variables for optimization, the nodes will not stay on the line or surface during optimization. This is because optimization is a linear process and the shapes will be treated as linear, meaning that the nodes will move directly from their original point to their maximally perturbed point without moving along any constraint.

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 259

Controlling handle positions with morph constraints The angle of the lower right corner is changed from 74 to 90 degrees using the alter dimensions (angle) operation. The middle frame shows the result with no constraints. The frame on the right shows the result with the node in the upper right corner constrained to move along a vector that lies along the top edge.

Nodes tracking a line during morphing The nodes along the right edge domain are constrained to the line. When the handle is moved, it and the other constrained nodes move along the line.

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and 3. Biasing increases or decreases the influence of a handle over the nodes within its area of influence. provided both handles are global handles or they are located on edge domains. When the handles are translated. To smoothly change the shape of a domain it is recommended that you use a biasing factor of 1. Higher biasing values generate a smooth curvature near the handles. the handles were translated linearly. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.000.000 at the corners. Using Biasing Biasing allows you to control the shape of a mesh when applying handle perturbations. If the handles were also part of the map to geom operation. the nodes are moved along the surface a distance corresponding to the applied handle perturbations. HyperMorph automatically placed the handles back on the surfaces after applying the translation so that the constraint was obeyed.0 User’s Guide 261 . while lower biasing values generate harsh corners near the handles.Morphing after mapping to surface All mapped nodes are automatically constrained to the surface. In this example. 2. the morphing between the handles is linear.000 at the edges. they too will be moved along the surface regardless of the applied perturbation. which is the default value for all handles except for dependent handles on 1D domains.000 in the middle. If the biasing values for all of the handles are equal to 1.

000. and have the current list of applied morphs updated to reflect the new biasing values. This is useful in selecting a good biasing value to apply for a given morph. After applying a morph. you can change the biasing value by activating the make retroactive check box. Apply the morphs and change the biasing values retroactively until you get the shape that you want. the mesh folds over due to the influences of the other handles (middle frame).Biasing for a 2D domain The model at the upper left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 1.000.000 for the handle at the hole. Biasing can be applied retroactively after a morphing operation.000 and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 0. Biasing to reduce mesh distortion When the hole is moved downward with a biasing factor of 1.000. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. the mesh unfolds (right frame).000.500. When the biasing value of the handle at the hole is increased to 3. The model at the lower left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 2. and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 2. 262 HyperMesh 8.000.

namely. The elements in ^morphface covering each 3D domain are placed into 2D domains. Set the selector to 3D domains.solid model You can create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in a model. these 2D domains are partitioned according to the settings selected in the parameter subpanel of the domains panel. edit. This procedure is automatic. 4. From the HyperMorph module. tetras. and ribs. or delete the handles and domains to meet specific needs. The surfaces of each 3D domain are covered with shell elements that are placed in a component named ^morphface. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shape of features in a solid model. In general. In many cases. For solid models. you can add. 3. bosses. edges. edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. 5. and hexas. or manually select all of the elements in the model. the domains and handles are generated where you want them to be. This is done using one of the following methods: • • • • Moving the handles on the part to new locations Moving the global handles around the part to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the part Mapping the nodes of the part to line or surface data. a solid model represents a single part with numerous features such as holes. select the domains panel. pentas. Creating Handles and Domains . If partition 2D domains is checked. If the model is made up of more than one part. Click create. it is only necessary to create a single 3D domain for the entire part. A 3D domain is created for a solid model Note the automatic creation and partitioning of 2D domains on the face of the solid and the creation of edge domains and handles for the 2D domains. To create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in the model: 1. each part is placed in its own 3D domain. If they are not. Once partitioned.Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains Solid models are models that are made up of solid elements. flanges.0 User’s Guide 263 . 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature. Select create. Change the toggle to all elements.

1D. Select create. However. 2D. if the second order tetras are converted first order tetras and thus have no curvature. such as first order tetra meshes. Set the selector to auto functions. the node based partitioning will work better. Without handles. 3. as well as a global domain and handles. Note: The element based method sometimes works better on second order tetras since it accounts for element curvature. Be sure to try both methods of partitioning. From the HyperMorph module. which produces dependent (green) handles. 4. or if there are no morphing entities in the model. If you click yes. If there are any domains or handles in the model. element based and node based.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the 2D domain made up of the elements on the surface of the 3D domain will not have edge domains and thus no handles will be generated for it. this approach will give you a “blank slate” 2D domain that you can partition by hand. morphing cannot be performed. and 1D domain. If you do not select partition 2D domains when you generate a 3D domain. Automatic generation of domains on a solid model Note the addition of a global domain. 264 HyperMesh 8. and 3D domains are automatically generated for the entire model. you are asked if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. 2.To create a 3D domain along with a global domain and global handles to your model: 1. However. global handles. you may find it easier to start with a blank slate rather than editing the automatically created domains. Click generate. select the domains panel. For meshes on which the automatic partitioning does not work well. before deciding to partition by hand.

a curvature break is detected at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. Set the selector to 3D domains. Partitions will be made only along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. In these cases you may want to divide the domain into multiple domains using the subdivide 3D function in the update sub-panel of the domains panel. and thus subdividing 3D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. 4. When selecting elements for the new domain. Select update. Additionally. for first order tetra meshes. or lower the limit for the large domain solver. In these cases the 3D domain will be left undivided. 2. HyperMorph automatically subdivides the 3D domains into one or more 3D domains while leaving the 2D domains not selected as being divisible unchanged. if you are only going to morph a part of your 3D mesh. morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming. the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. This better accommodates the division of tetra meshes that cannot be divided along flat or curved internal faces and thus would be partitioned into many domains. 2. You can then manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should be located. Also.0 User’s Guide 265 . change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. Therefore. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. Select the 3D domains to be subdivided. This results in a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. When the new domain is created. However. 6. To do this. Select create. This method is very helpful for meshes that began as first order tetra meshes but then were then transformed into second order meshes. you only need to create domains for that part. you do not need to be concerned about selecting the morphface elements. Not that in some cases HyperMorph will not be able to subdivide a 3D domain without dividing an indivisible 2D domain. Morphface elements are placed at the internal interface between the new domain and the other domains and create a 2D domain for the interface. 5. but it will not partition the interface. you do not need to select only solid elements. select the domains panel. To divide your solid model manually: 1. it does not matter if the selected elements are already in a 3D domain. Click subdivide. Solving the influence coefficients for 3D domains which contain more than 20. Set the selector to subdivide 3D. Select any 2D domains on the surface of the 3D domain that are permissible for HyperMorph to split into more than one 2D domain. From the HyperMorph module. you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when automatically partitioning. Select the elements to be placed into a new 3D domain. other elements are automatically removed before the domain is created. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. in the parameters sub-panel.000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. Click create. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid. 5. For these meshes. To subdivide your solid model: 1. 4. From the HyperMorph module.Also. select the domains panel. 3.

You can divide your 3D domains to restrict the handle influences and control mesh distortion.Note: When you divide a 3D domain into parts. If the domains are not created exactly the way you want them. make sure that you divide it along lines where you want your 2D domains on the surface to be. you can edit them in the domains panel. Since creating or editing 3D domains results in the creation of 2D and edge domains. So when you divide your model into 3D domains. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. merge. The influences for handles are only recalculated in regions that have been edited. it has the effect of partitioning the surface of the original 3D domain along seams where the divisions were made. elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. These calculations occur when you enter or leave a HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The organize sub-panel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split. and creating or editing 2D domains results in the creation and deletion of edge domains. This is generally caused by handle influences extending too far through the 3D domain. or symmetries are added. Create and edit the 2D domains. Automatic partitioning does not always divide a mesh in the most useful ways. Dividing a 3D domain into many 3D domains can be very useful for controlling the movement of nodes within the domain when the handles on the surface are moved. 266 HyperMesh 8. the internal elements can become distorted. you should perform the tasks in the following order: Create and edit all the 3D domains that you want first. Some cleanup may be required. domains. Occasionally. When some meshes are morphed. For large models you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. edited. Create and edit the edge domains. Influences must be recalculated every time handles. or deleted. A single 3D domain is split into four 3D domains The influences of the handles will not extend across the boundaries between the domains. and place handles along edge domains.

and if retain handles is not checked. select the domains panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. handles may be deleted. Select the target domain. 5. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain. Click organize. You should keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing. Select organize. the retain handles option was left unchecked. resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. Select the elements to be moved.To move elements from one domain to another: 1. will highlight the edge domains surrounding the domain. The elements are moved from their current domain to the selected domain. From the HyperMorph module. 3. 4. and for some domains it can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes.0 User’s Guide 267 . Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements. Note: Holding the mouse button down when the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D or 3D domain or over an element inside a domain. For this example. This allows you to visualize the domain that you are selecting. 6. New handles may also be created during this process. Change the selector to add nodes/elements. The edge domains around both domains are refreshed. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. as well as the 2D domains at the interface if solid elements are being organized. 2.

Change the selector to split. but in some cases. 6. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. 3. Now the radius of each new edge domain may be modified independently of the other. 2. Select edit edges. 5. Select an edge domain. A handle is created at the selected node. 4. You will need to correct this by hand. 2. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. it will not identify the proper starting and ending points. The selected domains are combined into a single domain. From the HyperMorph module. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. 4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. To split edge domains: 1. 3. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D and 3D domains. 5. Select the domains to be grouped. Change the selector to combine domains. Select organize.To group two or more domains: 1. 268 HyperMesh 8. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. If you perform edge editing first. Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. which becomes a handle (right model). select the domains panel. Click organize. From the HyperMorph module. Click split. select the domains panel. The lower edge domain has been split at the gray node (left model). HyperMorph attempts to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. This is why you should edit the edge domains after the other domains have been edited.

Select edit edges. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Change the selector to add handles. 5. Secondly. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end-to-end such that the resultant merged edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. Dependent handles created using the handles on edge feature Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. 2. Select edit edges. To create dependent handles along an edge domain: 1. select the domains panel. 4. Click create. 5.0 User’s Guide 269 . These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. If a model is very large. Change the selector to merge. select the domains panel. 4. This feature helps save time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain.To merge edge domains: 1. 3. 2. you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish to change before you enter the morphing panel. Select one or more domains. Click merge. the influences do not need to be recalculated. 3. It will be as if they were not there. From the HyperMorph module. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. Select any number of edge domains. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge are transparently applied to the dependent handles. The first is that since they are dependent. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. Dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. From the HyperMorph module.

a full wire frame can make it very difficult to visualize the model because every element in the model is displayed. However.6. In these cases. The influences for the handles is calculated and you are ready to begin morphing. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. you will see the two sides of your model superimposed over each other. if desired (as shown). your model is displayed as a wire frame. surface-only wire frame In this default mode. 270 HyperMesh 8. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. Since HyperMorph creates a component called ^morphface. When you are satisfied with your domains. but only the surface elements are drawn because in a solid model. Note: During influence calculation for large models you might run out of available memory.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . delete unnecessary handles.solid model The HyperMesh graphics engine supports different visual options for viewing models as you work on them. Viewing Solid Models . You can still display the surface mesh. since the viewing mode is still wire frame. click return. You only see the side of the model that is facing you (as if your model was a real part). the default setting is to display only that component—thus showing only the outer surface of your model and making it easier to work on. which contains shell elements on the surface of the 3D domains. solid fill The option produces a display that is similar to what you see when you perform a fill plot in the hidden line panel. you should divide large domains.

You can also view a solid model for morphing by turning off all the components and looking at only the domains and handles. This is similar to looking at the model in a meshless wire frame mode. so by viewing only the domains you can visualize the model with minimal clutter. Partitioning generally captures all the features on the surface of a solid. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 271 .

Select the lines. Transfer the data into the HyperBeam module. Step 2: Beam Section Manipulation. Access previously defined beam cross sections for editing in the HyperBeam module. as dictated by the beam section template. and any beam section properties calculated. including splitting and joining operations Selecting vertex coordinates when the spreadsheet display is active Edit the beam section manually via dialogs and a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates. beam. surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The HyperBeam module allows you to: • • View the beam section. It is a threestep process. This data can be imported into the HyperMesh finite element pre-processor and used to create one-dimensional (bar. Beam section manipulation and property calculation takes place in the HyperBeam module. Beam section properties are imported back into HyperMesh and applied to element property cards. Step One Step Two Step Three Beam section definition from line. elements or surfaces that represent the beam cross section. Operations that can be accomplished in this way include: Hand editing of vertex coordinate geometry and connectivity Editing section thickness Creating parts Editing part to vertex associativity Parameterizing the beam section for optimization via a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates Organizing HyperBeam sections into a single level structure of HyperBeam collectors 272 HyperMesh 8. rod) element property data for an FEA model. Each step is described in more detail below.HyperBeam Module The HyperBeam module allows you to calculate general beam section properties from geometry or element data. Step 1: Beam Section Definition. and deleting vertices Editing line segments. steps one and three are performed within HyperMesh and step two is performed in the HyperBeam module. its local coordinate system. Edit the beam section graphically via mouse clicks and drags. The HyperBeam panel in HyperMesh allows you to: • • • • Define the beam cross sectional plane via the existing HyperMesh vector definition methods. Operations that can be done this way include: • Editing section thickness Creating. moving. or element data takes place in the HyperBeam panel within HyperMesh.

Step 3: Beam Property Import.0 User’s Guide 273 . The beam section characteristics are displayed in the card image of the property collector but must be edited from within the HyperBeam module. You can import beam section properties into HyperMesh that have been defined in HyperBeam by using the collectors panel with the properties entity selected. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

The purple line is a plot element created in the global y-direction. Elements or lines can be used to describe a beam section. 274 HyperMesh 8. N2 and N3 locations are selected as shown in the figure below.Example of the Three-Step Process This example illustrates how HyperBeam can be used to attach beam section properties to a OptiStruct PBAR card image. The blue lines are plot elements denoting the beam section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The shell section subpanel is selected from the HyperBeam panel. It assumes that the OptiStruct user profile is loaded. This plot element will be used to align the section within HyperBeam. And the plane base node is chosen (change option to specify node) at N1 also. project to plane is then selected under cross section plane:. N1. The selector type is set to elems and the blue plot elements are selected.

The vector created by N1 to N2 describes the local y-axis used in HyperBeam. Later we will need to know this when the beam section is aligned for bar elements. It is important to note the alignment of the local axes at this point. HyperBeam is invoked when you click create.0 User’s Guide 275 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. N3 describes the positive sense of the z-axis.

HyperBeam would yield different results as shown below. and N3 was reversed (essentially the z-direction was flipped).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .If the node selection was performed differently. 276 HyperMesh 8.

it is necessary to attach the beam section to the PBAR card image. the HyperBeam alignment axis. The figure below illustrates the alignment of the global axis. After the card image is created. This operation is performed in the bars panel. If there were a 1 within the Z comp.0 User’s Guide 277 . the z-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. This can be done in the collectors panel. the y-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. In this case. and the local bar element alignment axis. The direction specified within the bars panel defines the alignment along the y-direction. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Once HyperBeam solves the cross sectional properties. Bar element alignment using HyperBeam sections is very straightforward if the section was defined using an absolute y-direction. the PBAR card image must be attached to the 1-D element in question.

278 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This option can be found in the review sections subpanel in the HyperBeam panel.The beam cross section can also be attached to the beam to visually inspect the alignment.

This means that for the calculation of the moments and product of inertia terms of higher order of the shell thickness t are neglected. For shell sections. Thickness warping is also neglected. Area Area Moments of Inertia Area Product of Inertia Radius of Gyration Elastic Section Modulus Max Coordinate Extension Plastic Section Modulus Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The coordinate system defined by the user is called the local coordinate system. the system parallel to the local coordinate system with the origin in the centroid is called the centroidal coordinate system. only the theory of thin walled bars is used. The x axis is defined along the beam axis. the system referring to the principal bending axes is called the principal coordinate system.Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam The beam cross section is always defined in a y.0 User’s Guide 279 .z plane.

Torsional Constant Solid Shell open Shell closed Elastic Torsion Modulus Solid Shell open Shell closed Warping Constant (normalized to the shear center) Shear deformation coefficients 280 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Shear stiffness factors Shear stiffness Nastran Type Notation References W. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 1993. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 40 (1997) 211-232. A.0 User’s Guide 281 . and W. Goeldner. 1981. Schramm. 1979. Gjelsvik. Fachbuchverlag. Leipzig. FL. Structural Mechanics – Variational and Computational Methods. The Theory of Thin Walled Bars. Pilkey and W. H. ed. CRC Press. Rubenchik.D. Wiley & Sons.. Beam Stiffness Matrix based on the Elasticity Equations. Lehrbuch – Hoehere Festigkeitslehre. Pilkey. Boca Raton. Wunderlich. U. V.D.

282 HyperMesh 8. shell section graphics pane.HyperBeam Environment HyperBeam has three main panes: the section browser. and results/spreadsheet sections. and status bar. It also has a menu bar. Click each section of the HyperBeam window below to access detailed information about the menu areas.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . toolbar.

HyperBeam displays this hierarchy in a standard tree structure. choose Export Section from the pop-up menu. as listed below: Shell Solid Standard Generic You can perform the following tasks in the section browser: • • • • To rename a section or section collector. select the collector where you want the section to appear.0 User’s Guide 283 . At the highest level is the model. click once on the item to select it. select the desired sections or section collectors in the section browser (hold down the control key to select multiple items). and enter the new name. select Cut from the Edit menu. To view thumbnails of selected sections. There are two ways to "drag and drop": • Move a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. and select Paste from the Edit menu. and dragging it to the collector where you want it to be located. select Copy from the Edit menu. click again to indicate that you want to rename it. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. thumbnail images of all the sections are shown in the graphics pane. To export sections to an external file. You can also reorganize the database by moving sections between collectors. select a section by left-clicking on it. To view thumbnail images of the sections in a section collector. select the collector where you want the section to appear.bm extension to save beam section files). until you create thumbnail images for a different selection of sections. and dragging and dropping it into the collector where you want it to be located Copy a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. right-click in the section browser pane. To move a section. select the section. and renaming sections and section collectors. select the section. To copy a section. click Save. copying sections. You can use the section browser to find a particular section of your model for displaying or editing. holding down the control key. choose Create Thumbnails from the pop-up menu. select multiple sections by holding down the control key and left-clicking on multiple sections. select the collector branch in the section browser window. the thumbnail images that were just created may be viewed in the graphics pane by selecting Model in the section browser tree. Below that are all of the collectors followed by the beam sections at the lowest level. Section types are identified by icons. give a filename and location in the Save As window (it is recommended to use the .Section Browser This section browser presents a hierarchical view of all of the beam sections and section collectors on your database. right-click in the section browser pane. and select Paste from the Edit menu.

depending on if you have the toggle set on the toolbar or the view menu. The preferences dialog allows you to set the font and background color to use in the text graphics pane. The centroid appears as a plus with a circle around it. If you accidentally omit those vertices from the connectivity for a part. The shear center appears as an x with a circle around it. For shell sections.The Importance of Flanges When HyperBeam computes the properties for the section. The color of the lines for each part is selected on the section's properties dialog. Shell Section Graphics Pane The graphics pane displays a representation of the geometric layout of the section. each sheet metal part is drawn by lines connecting the dots that show the section's vertices.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if you have them enabled on the view menu. You can modify the section itself with the shell section editing tools. You have control (on the preferences dialog) over whether the z-axis points up or down. if you have them enabled on the view menu. The section axis is always drawn with its y-axis pointing to the right. The section's local coordinate system and its principle coordinate system (at its centroid) are displayed. then HyperBeam underestimates the stiffness of a section. or equivalently. separated by a colon. the metal thickness used for a flange is the sum of the thicknesses of all the parts that share it. Each vertex may or may not be labeled by its ID. 284 HyperMesh 8. Each part is also marked with a slider bar that you can use to adjust the part's thickness. if the section's x-axis points into or out of the monitor. The section's torsion and warping factor are displayed in the lower left corner of the pane. The bar is labeled with the part's number in the section and the current numerical value of the thickness.

If the results are not available. You can change the display of text and values by editing the scripts file. consult the documentation for the results output template. then the spreadsheet displays equations. You cannot edit the text in this portion of the window. You can type a new value into any of the coordinates. and background color on the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. If you select Copy from the Edit menu.Results/Spreadsheet Pane Section Properties Results Whenever HyperBeam computes the section properties of the current section.0 User’s Guide 285 . but you can select it and copy it to paste it into another application such as a word processor. "No results to display. Shell Section Spreadsheet (non-optimization version) For a shell section. then HyperBeam displays the message. and the associated vertex moves to the new location. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's vertices and their coordinates. and optimization bounds for the section. you can delete them from the template so that they are not displayed. If there are computed values that are not necessary. You can specify a new results template by selecting the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog." Standard Section Spreadsheet For a standard section. You will find controls for the actual format and layout of the text and results in two locations. then the spreadsheet additionally displays optimization bounds for each variable. To see the list of all the results available. text color. there are more results computed than are displayed in the default template. you can use the spreadsheet button on the toolbar. Also. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's variables and their current values. If this section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. You specify the text font. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. The section results pane shares screen space with the section definition spreadsheets. If the section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. it displays them in the results pane. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. to toggle between them. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. such as when you have edited the section definition and dynamic update is disabled. so you may choose to add additional values to the template. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. variables. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications.

If all three values are equal. into which you can enter the variable's name. In the equation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Next. A menu is displayed. and an upper bound. so it must be formatted as appropriate for that solver. Alternatively. with a few restrictions. To delete a variable. a lower bound. The coordinate will be set equal to the last value it had calculated. 286 HyperMesh 8. To define a variable for use in an equation.) To delete an equation. then the shell-section spreadsheet expands to display the rest of the necessary information. use the right mouse button to select the variable's section. A vertex that is defined by an equation may not appear on the right-hand side of another equation. arithmetic functions. and optimization bounds. blank spaces may be prohibited. Click the coordinate and it will appear as the dependent vertex. it is assumed the optimizer treats that coordinate as fixed. The equation is passed to the optimization solver. variables. you can use other vertex coordinates. If you choose add. A menu is displayed that allows you to choose between adding or deleting a variable. a vertex coordinate can be defined using an equation. click the vertex coordinate to make it active and delete the text of the equation. Each vertex coordinate now has three values: an initial value. or trigonometric functions. a new blank line appears. click the variable with the right mouse button. (For example. Select delete variable on the menu. click the right-hand side of the equation and enter the formula. initial value.Optimization Shell Section Spreadsheet If the shell section has been designated an optimization section on the Properties dialog.

select Preferences to display the tabs. Opens a file browser so you can export a beam cross-section. Options are provided to export all sections. Prints the currently displayed beam cross section and the section analysis results. The Graphics and Results tabs in the Preferences dialog allow you to set preferences for the section graphics window and the results/spreadsheet window. File Menu New Save Import Section Export Section Export Results Print Print Preview Print Setup Exit Create a new section collector. or generic section.0 User’s Guide 287 . Opens a file browser so you can import a beam cross-section.HyperBeam Menu Bar The HyperBeam menu bar allows you to perform a wide variety of operations using drop-down menus. standard section. There are controls for the results/spreadsheet window and controls for the section graphics window available. Some operations such as importing and exporting are accomplished only from the menu bar. From the Edit window. Edit Menu Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Delete Preferences Undo the last procedure. Redo the last procedure. Allows you to set up printer preferences. Paste the selected text or entity into the location of the cursor. On the Edit menu. Set the graphics and results preferences. Exit the HyperBeam module and return to HyperMesh. Opens a file browser so you can export the results for the selected section to a text file. Displays a print preview. Other operations can be performed using either the menu bar or the corresponding tool button. Save the beam cross-section. select Preferences. The Preferences dialog allows you to specify the appearance and behavior of HyperBeam. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Copies the selected text or entity. Delete the currently selected text or entity. Copies and removes the selected text or entity. Setting the Section Graphics Options The Graphics tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Specifies the main background color for the section graphics region. or only selected sections.

which allows you to choose which font and face to use for the results display. Allows you to specify a bitmap or second color for a gradient to display as the background of the section graphics window.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The Scale Thumbnails checkbox allows thumbnail images to be displayed. Allows you to specify whether HyperBeam should display the section with the x-axis coming out of the page (so z axis goes up) or going into the page (so the z-axis goes down). External solver for thin shell sections 288 HyperMesh 8. See the Templex Reference On-line Help for additional details. so it can display just those values known to be relevant. so that their sizes are relative to one another. You may substitute your own solver to compute values for thin Shell sections. Each section type can have its own custom script. for best formatting. Displays the font dialog box. x-axis direction Grid Thumbnails Specifying the Results/Spreadsheet Display The Results tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Font Select the background color for the results display. Contact Altair for technical details on exchange file formats and return codes. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for section graphics window.Font Background effects Displays the font dialog box. Results output templates The computed results for a section are formatted using a user-specified TEMPLEX scripts. It is recommended that you use a fixed-width font. The distance entry field allows the distance between nodes of the grid to be adjusted. such as courier. Allows you to display a grid behind the section image.

Magnifies the graphic in the graphics pane. Tools Menu Break a Segment Join Segments Create a New Part Move Vertices Reorient Shell Section. If selected. Switches the display in the Results/Spreadsheet pane. Reduces the size of the graphic in the graphics pane. Allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section.. Turns on and off the display of the Vertex IDs. Allows you to modify the properties of the beam cross-sections. Turns on and off the display of the Warping Factor.0 User’s Guide 289 . Allows you to specify the section that you want to zoom in on to examine in greater detail. Allows you to move vertices.View Menu Toolbar Status Bar Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit to screen Update Results Dynamic update Systems Torsion Factor Warping Factor Spreadsheets Vertex Ids Turns on and off the display of the toolbar. When selected.. Turns on and off the display of the system coordinate axes. Turns on and off the display of the status bar. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section.. automatically updates the display when you make changes. Scales the graphic so that it exactly fits the active window.. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Allows you to break a segment so that you can add a new vertex.. Allows you to delete a vertex to join two segments. Part Editor. updates results. Turns on and off the display of the Torsion Factor. Allows you to add a new sheet metal part to the current section. Moves the model in the selected direction.. rearrange vertices in a part. Properties.

Note that. 290 HyperMesh 8. this coordinate system does not adjust with them. if the shear center or centroid changes because of any changes to the section properties. To specify a new coordinate system. You can also move the origin by a fixed amount by defining y and z offsets. the origin will not move with it.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Reorient Shell Section The reorient shell section dialog allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. or the current centroid to be the new origin. reverse x-axis Activate the check box to flip the section over. Likewise. or the principle axes change. the current principle axes. Specifying the Origin You can designate a vertex. reflecting it about the y-axis. If you move a defi ning vertex. Specifying the y-axis You can specify the direction for the for the y-axis of the local coordinate system using vertices. if you subsequently move that vertex. you must specify the location of its origin relative to the vertices and the direction of the y-axis. or at an angle offset from the current y axis. the current shear center. the origin for the section does not follow it.

To set a new thickness. There is list of the vertex IDs at the bottom of the list. … and the connectivity of the bottom flange is 1. 15 … Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 13. 4. The part editor also allows you to review and edit part vertex connectivities. 2.) If you are currently in an optimization section. A part in this context is an individual piece of sheet metal that is typically welded to other parts along flanges.. in the section illustrated below. The part features that you need to control are its thickness and the connectivity of its vertices. For example. you can set upper and lower bounds for the optimization of the section's sheet metal thicknesses. (You can also adjust thickness by using the graphic tools. 14. the segment between vertices 1 and 2 is a flange. When you use the part editor tools for. 12. 2. the currently selected part of the section is highlighted. You can add or remove vertices to change the part. You can use the up and down arrows to review any part. To designate a segment between two vertices and a flange.. 3. so the connectivity of the top part is 1. enter a value in the appropriate field.0 User’s Guide 291 . 5.Part Editor Parts of thin-shell sections can be edited by selecting Part Editor. include those vertices in more than one part. on the Tools menu and entering data in the Edit Parts dialog.

select properties. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane.Properties Properties for beam cross-sections are specified by selecting Properties on the Tools menu and entering data in the Thin-Shell Section Properties dialog. This operation cannot be undone. You can activate this option if you need to specify optimization parameters for this section. The properties that can be specified differ for each type of section. HyperBeam recognizes four types of beam cross-sections. Fill color Choose the color to use for displaying the material portion of the section in the graphics pane. Section type 292 HyperMesh 8. On the Tools menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. See the HyperBeam panel for more information on beam cross-sections types. or vertex coordinates. or equations tying coordinates together. Torsion factor Warping Factor Line color Set the torsion factor. Standard Section Properties The Standard Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single standard section. Thin Shell Section Properties The Thin Shell Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single shell section. Optimization Solid Section Properties The Solid Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a solid section. Specify the shape out of the available choices to use for the standard section. such as upper and lower bound on thicknesses. Set the warping factor.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 293 .Generic Section Properties The Generic Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a generic section. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane.

View Controls The view controls are available on the View menu and the toolbar. To finish the part. If you want to delete a vertex. To add a new sheet metal part to the current section. Zoom out on the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. activate this tool and click at approximately the place you want it to appear. if you have turned off the auto-update of section results. Specify a new center for the graphics display.HyperBeam Toolbar The toolbar allows you to quickly access some of the more commonly used functions. Turn on and off the display of vertex IDs in shell sections. Bring the section results up to date. You can use any mixture of existing or new vertices in creating the part. Pops-up the properties dialog Shell Section Editing Tools There are five tools to modify the basic definition of a shell section: Break segment If you want to add a new vertex between two existing vertices. Join two segments/ eliminate vertex Create a new part 294 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . activate this tool and click on the vertex. They control how the section is displayed in the graphics pane and the results/spreadsheet pane. Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit Show/hide Ids Update results Show/hide spreadsheet Properties Zoom in on area of the beam section by using the mouse to draw a circle around the area of interest. activate this tool and then click in the graphics area the sequence of vertices. Enlarge the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. Alternate between displaying results or the spreadsheet. double-click the last vertex. Resize the display to fit the pane. or deactivate the tool by toggling its button on the toolbar.

activate this tool. Cut an item and hold it in memory for pasting. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition.0 User’s Guide 295 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Open the HyperBeam on-line help. Open the print dialog.Move vertex Part-editor To reposition a vertex. and click and hold on the vertex to move and drag it to its new location. General Tools There are eight tools that allow you to manage a HyperBeam session: Save Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Print On-line Help Save the session. a short description of the action performed when you click the icon is displayed in the status bar. Redo the last action performed. Status Bar The HyperBeam status bar displays messages and information about the interface. If you place the cursor over a toolbar icon. Paste a copied or cut item. rearrange vertices in a part. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. Copy an item. Undo the last action performed.

calculate its properties. principal axes. moments of inertia. and torsion and warping constants. the beam cross section functions favor NASTRAN analysis in nomenclature and bar offset calculations. 296 HyperMesh 8. shear center.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . center of gravity. The panel functions also facilitate the creation of bar2 elements. The tools on the beam xsect panel can help you complete the necessary property cards for finite element analysis using HyperMesh bar2 elements. This process is performed in the beam xsect panel. The properties that HyperMesh calculates include cross sectional area. HyperMesh uses a finite element methodology to calculate the properties for the cross section.Beam Cross Section Property Solver The beam cross section property solver allows you to define a beam cross section. Note: For design reasons. and apply those properties to a HyperMesh model.

secondary panels called define offset parameters are opened. Local Axes Many of the properties are defined relative to a local coordinate system. using NASTRAN conventions. If you do not specify a base point. offset values are calculated for you. If you are using offset sections. surfaces. If you define the base point by picking a node. If you define the plane. Axes. The save element option is located on the pick geom sub-panel on the beam xsect panel. or elements is used. your N1 and N2 selections are used to define the positive Y-axis. Save Elements Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. All properties are calculated on the plane. In all cases the planar normal is defined as the positive X axis. the Y.and Z-axes are defined to be the principal axes of the cross section. and the element order can be defined in the beam xsect panel.Describing Cross Section Planes. HyperMesh defines the plane base at the Center of Gravity of the cross section. If HyperMesh calculates the plane. the order of the selected HyperMesh element is used. the cross section must be planar. and the Z-axis is the cross product of the X and Y axis. When you pick elements. Unless you change the name of the component. you may choose to have the properties calculated using first or second order elements. These specifications are applied by using the toggles under cross section plane: or plane base node:. 1 versus 2 Order Element Analysis st nd For beam cross sections that were fully defined by lines or surfaces. These options are specified by using the toggle under plane base node:. These elements are placed in a newly created component for each calculation. The system is the same as the coordinate system for the plane. or have it calculated for you.0 User’s Guide 297 . If you use the offset lines sub-panel. This option is specified by using the toggle under analysis type: on the pick geom sub-panel. HyperMesh calculates the plane for you. and Elements The following factors relating to the cross section plane. You can also use the standard HyperMesh plane collector to define the plane. The name of the component is preceded by a caret (^). the plane is determined by a "best fit" from the data provided. these elements are not output when you use the export subpanel on the files panel. the coordinate system. Note: The save element option has no effect when you define sections by elements. Linear weighting of the points on the selected lines. If you create the bar2 element by using this method. If you use the default method. Planes In order for properties to be calculated correctly. This tells HyperMesh to ignore the contents of the component when exporting a model. this node can be referenced as an end of a bar2 element created with the panel. The save elements option allows you to save the elements defining the cross section as part of the HyperMesh model. HyperMesh uses one of two methods to define the plane. second order elements are always used. in this case. You may specify any existing HyperMesh node as the base point of the plane.

you may change any or all of the line thicknesses. Offset Sections The offset sections method is designed to support thin-walled cross sections manufactured from sheet metal. the offset direction is centered. you can also specify weld points for the cross section. HyperMesh allows this point to be chosen at any end or joint of a selected line. HyperMesh first looks for coincident node pairs to join. The line sets may be changed one at a time by selecting the graphical toggle and picking the line set or all sets may be changed at once by clicking the toggle sides button. and weld points. an offset of each line is created. You can also change the offset direction after the initial cross section definition. based upon the line data in the model. the section must be a contiguous area. 298 HyperMesh 8. Note: If you define a cross section with elements and use the intersect panel to cut elements. When you define a weld point. it is best to use fewer lines with the property calculator. Then it looks for nodes within tolerance of each other. An arrow is displayed that indicates the offset direction. By default.Defining a Cross Section There are two methods you can use to describe a cross-section for analysis: by offsetting HyperMesh lines or by selecting a fully enclosed area. provided they are used in the definition of the cross section. use the combine lines option and specify a break angle. or reverse normal to the line. The beam cross section is described by a set of lines. normal to the line. Holes are allowed in the section but all portions of it must touch all other portions. thicknesses. or by entering the desired values. If weld points are not defined for offset sections. The tolerance is defined as 15% of the largest distance between the weld areas on the lines minus the offset distances. The choices are centered. the section is considered fully open and no correlation will exist between nodes on different sets of lines. Any continuous set of HyperMesh lines (as determined by HyperMesh) is considered to be a single piece of sheet metal. The offset direction is user-specified.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When you use this method. Each HyperMesh line in the set can be assigned a thickness. Any number of lines may be selected to be part of a weld point. With either method. Although you can use the line segments option. You can change the thickness of lines interactively by using the mouse cursor or you can enter a value and apply it to specific lines or all of the lines. The weld point is located a given distance from a fixed point. with the line as the center of the sheet metal piece. After the initial cross section is defined. The thickness used is considered to be the total thickness of the sheet metal piece. When this method is used in the offset lines sub-panel of the beam xsect panel. HyperMesh attempts to join four nodes per line per weld to a corresponding set of four nodes on another line. The initial definition of the cross section uses the user-defined nominal thickness for each line. The distance from the point and the diameter of the weld may be changed graphically. you can define any or all line thicknesses using the thickness = option. After nominal = for initial thickness is defined. Weld points are used to join separate pieces of sheet metal at a point.

No alterations are made to those elements. If you select by elements. aside from projecting to a common plane. If the section is defined using elements. you can use the pick geom sub-panel of the beam xsect panel to select any set of elements. lines. HyperMesh uses the connectivity provided by the elements. When lines or surfaces are chosen.Fully Defined Sections For this method of beam cross section definition. Defining the section using lines or surfaces in this manner creates a fully closed section. the area is automeshed to generate elements for the cross section. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. those elements are considered to be the section.0 User’s Guide 299 . Note: This means that all nodes along common boundaries are taken as the same and the solver does not consider moving them independently. or surfaces that describe a fully closed area.

Otherwise. individual menu items are displayed that perform only the sub-set of desired operations. with which you can apply the calculated properties to the HyperMesh model. The following postprocessing options can be performed in any combination desired and are not exclusive of other functions. The following symbols are displayed at the Center of Gravity and the Shear Center: Center of Gravity symbol Shear Center symbol The local axes of the beam are also displayed. The post-processing panel is displayed. At any time you can click apply results to perform all the currently specified options.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The post-processing panel displays only the menu items necessary for the current operation.Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties After you select the solve function in the beam xsect panel. Temporary nodes are also created at the Center of Gravity and Shear Center. the properties are calculated. 300 HyperMesh 8.

see Save and Display Results. If you already have a card image template specified in the global panel. Izz.Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver In order to relate the calculated properties to a card for your desired output solver. The values that are saved in summary files or displayed on the screen show the factor. CENTROID. Otherwise. Itt. ABAQUS. and the modified value. Centroid x1 and x2. relate fully welded sections to partially welded sections. I22. Ist.0 warping factor modifies the Warping Constant. or PAM-CRASH. When you apply the results to the properties or components. Is. RADIOSS. If data exists. Ir A. ANSYS. SHEAR CENTER R SECTION_BEAM. For more information. Iss. I1. For more information. HyperMesh checks to see if data already exists for the currently chosen solver on that property/component. As. LS-DYNA. I2.0. no changes are made to the calculated value. N1. Display Size You can control the size of the Center of Gravity and Shear Center symbols and the local Coordinate system with the draw size = field. I12. K1. J. Iyy A. These constants provide a means to apply empirical "fudge factors" to the results. see Creating Collectors. HyperMesh material data associated with the property/component is not affected. I2. OPTISTRUCT. These factors. After you select the solver. This function does not work for dictionary solvers. use the FEA solver: switch to select the solver. I2. K2 A. MARC. CW. and the spacing between welds. independently developed over many years. Solver NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT ABAQUS Comp/Prop Property Property Component Card Name PBAR PBEAM (end A) BEAMGENERAL. that solver is automatically selected. All of the solver data of the property/component is deleted if you answer yes. Similarly non 1. Γw. you may select NASTRAN. A non unit Torsion factor will modify the value of the Torsional Constant. SA A. J. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Izz. Irr. The changes are applied to all HyperMesh properties and/or components. I12. principal Y axis unit VECTOR ANSYS LS-DYNA/ RADIOSS PAM-CRASH MARC Property Property Component Component Torsion and Warping Factors torsion factors and warping factors are the only fields common to all operations of the postprocessing panel. K2. It. If these factors remain at the default value of 1. you are prompted to confirm that you wish to overwrite the data on that property/component. elform 2 Mat’l type 202 geometry Data A. you can specify the already created HyperMesh properties or components to which to apply the results as a card image. K1. N2 A. Shear Center x1 and x2 Area. the original value. Iyy. and replaced by the newly calculated data or default data for that property/component. I1. The size determination is for user-viewing preference only and does not affect any of the actual values.0 User’s Guide 301 . J. J. I1.

Manipulating them does not change the property values that may be saved and referenced by the created bar element. If only one property is selected. You are asked about each selected property until you answer "yes" to the question presented. to which the calculated properties were assigned. The cross section may be chosen as either end A or end B of the bar. you must save the results as an ASCII file.Creating a Bar Element Another option is to create a HyperMesh BAR2 element by specifying two nodes and optionally choosing a direction vector or node and property for the element. 10% of the length of the element away from the existing node. and not with summary alone. that is referenced by the bar element. The properties can also be viewed on the screen in the same manner as summary templates. if any. The node for this end of the bar is either the centroid of the section or the user-selected base node. If you want a permanent record of the calculations you have just performed. You may use the cross section’s local Y or Z axis. it applies a global unit vector to the bar created. If any properties (not components) are selected when you build a BAR2 element. you can select the summary file option and specify a file name in the field after summary file. If you use a vector orientation. to describe the bar’s orientation. You may also create a HyperMesh vector in either the local Y or Z direction of the cross section. The BAR2 element that you are creating can also be assigned an orientation. This option is provided to aid in understanding the orientation of the cross section relative to the overall model. If you use a nodal orientation. you are asked if you want each property associated with the newly created bar element. check to make sure the desired component is currently active. This feature works only with apply results.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the information includes a named list of the properties/components. that property is automatically assigned to the new BAR2 element. use the disp (display) panel to confirm that the elements of the current component are selected for display. The sign of the distance is the direction along the x axis. If you want to save these. 302 HyperMesh 8. or move the bar element to that component by using the organize panel. The other end of the bar may be defined by picking a node or specifying a distance along the x axis of the cross section. There are many properties calculated that are not assigned to solver cards. The element is created in the currently active component. Save and Display Results All of the calculated properties may be viewed or saved to an ASCII text file. The system is created identical to the one displayed on the screen. Note: If you create a BAR2 element and it does not show on the screen. either as a vector or by letting HyperMesh create a node along the axis. If the solver for which you are defining a model uses components. it creates a new node. Whether you choose to save a summary file and/or display it on the screen. Coordinate Systems/Vectors A HyperMesh coordinate system may be created to save the orientation of the cross section.

Use the line edit panel on the Geom page to either split or combine existing lines. split the HyperMesh line at the desired point and then choose the new point at the split. Select those lines as your section definition. If you need a different reference point. Each HyperMesh line has a different thickness.Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers This section provides answers for common questions about using the beam cross section process: How do I change the number of lines on which I can define a thickness? Change the number of HyperMesh lines you are selecting. How do I define a weld point at a different location? Use the graphical controls to change its location on the line. How do I obtain lines from a shell element model to use as my offset lines? Use the hidden line panel on the Post page and choose line plot as the desired output.0 User’s Guide 303 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

In support of this process certain materials and design variables are also supported by in the HyperLaminate module.HyperLaminate Module HyperLaminate is a HyperMesh module that facilitates the creation. or by selecting HyperLaminate from the Setup pull-down menu. HyperLaminate is launched from within HyperMesh either from the HyperLaminate button on the 2D page of the main menu. this is not advisable. Ansys and Abaqus user profiles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which are updated simultaneously in HyperMesh and HyperLaminate). The current HyperMesh database is only updated with information from the current HyperLaminate session on exit from HyperLaminate (an exception to this rule are Abaqus materials. 304 HyperMesh 8. Nastran. component collectors and design variables) may result in synchronization problems and loss of data. so while it is possible to work in HyperMesh while HyperLaminate is running. The HyperLaminate module is supported for the OptiStruct. Any changes made to those entities which HyperLaminate touches (materials. review and edition of composite laminates.

HyperLaminate Environment The HyperLaminate environment consists of five general areas. provides a vertical tree view of materials. and access on-line help. This is the right hand pane of the HyperLaminate module. and to cut. change views. The HyperLaminate toolbar contains five tools that allow you to generate new materials. and delete entries in text boxes. The review pane has a number of tabs that display the current state of the selected branch. laminates and size design variables in your model. edit materials. Here users may enter or change data related to a material. paste. Right clicking on a branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. laminate or design variable definition (depending on the selected branch in the laminate browser). located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window.0 User’s Guide 305 . This browser. Left clicking on an entity populates the Define/Edit and Review panes with details of that branch. Review Pane Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. laminates or design variables. laminates and design variables. Toolbar Laminate Browser Define/Edit Pane This is the central pane of the HyperLaminate module. copy. as shown here: Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus that allow you to manage files.

306 HyperMesh 8. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). Exit HyperLaminate. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. The following chart lists each menu option. Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. At this point the current HyperMesh database is updated with the information in the current HyperLaminate session.HyperLaminate Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus. Edit Cut Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. File New Export to File Exit Generates a new entity. Exports material and laminate information to a text file. This text file can be printed. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table.

Display/hide status bar. Activates the HyperLaminate on-line help.Tools Ply lay-up options Displays the Ply lay-up Options dialog. contact. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and copyright information.0 User’s Guide 307 . Allows you to select defaults for new Laminates for: • • • • • View Toolbar Status Bar Help About HyperLaminate Help Topics color convention repetitions ply thickness common thickness Display/hide toolbar. Displays version.

Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table.HyperLaminate Toolbar The HyperLaminate toolbar is located below the menu bar and its display is controlled by the Toolbar option under the View pull-down menu. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. Cut Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. The toolbar is shown and described here. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. 308 HyperMesh 8. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). Icon Name New Function Generates a new entity. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting.

At the intermediate level are the entity subtypes or card images. MAT2 and MAT8 ii. for OptiStruct and Nastran: i. These are: a.0 User’s Guide 309 . located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. Laminates: SOLIDSECTION. 2. for Ansys: i. laminate definitions and size design variables existing in the HyperMesh database. and laminates in your model. SOLID46 and SOLID 191 c. Design Variables: DESVAR b. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the browser also includes size design variables. the Laminate Browser is populated with all the relevant materials. provides a vertical tree view of the materials. Materials: MATERIAL and MPDATA ii. Materials: MAT1. Laminates: SHELL91. for Abaqus: i.Laminate Browser The Laminate browser. SHELLSECTION and SHELLGENERALSECTION Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Laminates: PCOMP and PCOMPG iii. On launching HyperLaminate. At the highest level are the entity types: Materials. for the active user profile. SHELL99. Laminates and Design Variables. Materials: ABAQUS_MATERIAL ii. The data is presented in a slightly different format for the various user profiles as shown here: OptiStruct & Nastran Ansys Abaqus The Laminate Browser is organized in a three level hierarchy: 1.

Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. At the intermediate level (entity sub-types) only one operation is available: New – which will create a new entity of the selected sub-type. Rename . The selected entity is highlighted. To review and update entities: 1. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. A new entity appears under the selected branch. At the lowest level are the entities. Left or right clicking on a branch in the browser selects that branch and it becomes highlighted. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. Duplicate – which creates a copy of the selected entity.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . At the lowest level (entities) three operations are available. . The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. 2. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. 2. It is then possible to alter and update the entity definition.which allows the entity to be renamed. Click the New icon. Right clicking on an already selected (highlighted) branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch.e. When an entity (lowest level branch in the tree hierarchy) is selected.3. Click New. displayed with the names as defined by you. Select New from the File pull-down menu. the Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. 2. Right click on selected entity sub-type. 2. a new MAT1 entity is created. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. if MAT1 is selected and we right click on it and choose New. • • At the highest level (entity types) no operations are available. Or 1. • From the Laminate Browser it is possible to: To create entities: There are three options for creating new entities in HyperLaminate: 1. i. 3. on the toolbar. 310 HyperMesh 8. Or 1. Make the desired changes to the entity definition in the Define/Edit pane and click apply or update laminate to update the entity. and Delete – which will delete the selected entity. A new entity appears under the selected branch. A new entity appears under the selected branch A default name and id are assigned to each newly created entity.

2. Click Duplicate. Click Yes. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. in the Laminate Browser. 6. Select Delete from the Edit pull-down menu. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser.0 User’s Guide 311 . 4. 3. and Delete. and Delete. The name of the selected entity. and Delete. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. A confirmation dialog is displayed. Click Delete. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. Duplicate. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. Duplicate. 7. Click Rename. Right click on the selected entity. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Click Yes. Or Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. switches to a text box. Duplicate. A duplicate of the entity is created and appears in the Laminate Browser. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. To delete entities: There are three options for deleting entities in HyperLaminate: 1. To duplicate entities: 1. Or 5. 2. 3. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it.To rename entities: 1. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. You can also rename an entity by altering the relevant field in the Define/Edit pane and then clicking on Apply or Update Laminate. 3. Right click on the selected entity. A confirmation dialog is displayed. 2. Enter the desired new name in the text box. Right click on selected entity. 4.

8. either complete their definition (by clicking Edit – which takes you to the HyperMesh material card previewer) or exit and restart HyperLaminate (in which case the undefined materials are purged). Click Yes. Note: Abaqus materials that are created but not defined (they appear in a red font in Laminate Browser) may not be deleted.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 9. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. 10. on the toolbar. . Click the Delete icon. 312 HyperMesh 8. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. as they do not really exist. To delete these undefined materials. A confirmation dialog is displayed.

The configuration of the Define/Edit pane differs for different user profiles and sub-types (card images). On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Define/Edit pane is populated with the current definitions. To reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. Below are screenshots showing the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct MAT8 definition and an Ansys MATERIAL definition: OptiStruct – Materials – MAT8 Ansys – Materials – MATERIAL Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Define/Edit Pane The Define/Edit Pane. all material property information for the selected material may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. Once the desired changes have been made. Nastran and Ansys materials. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). allows you to edit the definition of the selected entity. Materials For OptiStruct.0 User’s Guide 313 . the central pane of the HyperLaminate window.

Once you has finished reviewing/editing the material. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus SOLIDSECTION laminate is shown here: Abaqus – Laminates – SOLIDSECTION 314 HyperMesh 8. stacking sequence convention and the ply lay-up order to be edited.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .For Abaqus materials users may rename or redefine the color of the material in the Define/Edit pane. but to fully define the material properties they must click the Edit button. to reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. Clicking the Edit button takes you to the material card previewer in the HyperMesh GUI. where you can review and alter the definition of the selected material. the Define/Edit pane allows the laminate name. HyperMesh component color. This is for all supported user profiles and laminate sub-types. clicking return will return you to the HyperLaminate GUI. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus material is shown here: Abaqus – Materials – ABAQUS_MATERIAL Laminates For Laminates. As with the other user profiles.

The midlayer is not reflected. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. The number of repetitions is given by the Repetitions: field (which is activated when this Convention is chosen). b. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. Antisymmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). f. 180. 180.0 User’s Guide 315 . Antisymmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. 270 and 360 remain as 0. Due to the midlayer. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. e. Due to the midlayer. 90. 270 and 360 respectively). 270 and 360 respectively). The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table.There are a number of options for Convention for the stacking sequence: a. 90. 90. It is possible to choose between constant and variable ply thickness for certain user profiles. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. Total: The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate in its entirety. d. 270 and 360 remain as 0. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. Repeat: The Ply lay-up order table describes a single sub-laminate which is repeated a number of times. 180. Symmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. variable ply thickness allows up to 4 nodal thicknesses to be defined for each ply. The midlayer is not reflected. the total number of plies is always odd. the total number of plies is always odd. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Ansys SHELL99 laminate with variable ply thickness is shown here: Ansys – Laminates – SHELL99 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 90. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. Symmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). c. 180.

The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate from the bottom ply (most negative Z) moving upwards (increasing in positive Z direction). selecting a theory from the pull-down list and defining an Interlaminar shear allowable: value. or for all rows at once through the Output ply stress results: field under the Stress and failure theory output: heading. Select multiple rows by selecting one row and then. by clicking the Insert New Ply button. Select multiple rows as described in the previous paragraph. Rows are always pasted above the selected rows. when multiple rows are selected the clipboard contents are pasted above each selected row. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to request stress and failure theory output. It is also possible to edit multiple rows at once. pasted or deleted to/from the table. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. the Add/Update plies: fields are populated with the information common to the selected rows. Each row of the table defines the material. All fields in the Ply lay-up order table may be edited. Each row of the Ply lay-up order table has an SOUT field. Blank fields indicate that not all of the selected rows contain the same values for that field. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct PCOMPG laminate is shown below: OptiStruct – Laminates – PCOMPG 316 HyperMesh 8. or repetitions field and based on the selected Convention).It is also possible to choose a common thickness for all plies. Once one or more SOUT fields are set to YES it is possible to activate failure theory calculation. When multiple rows are selected. Rows may be inserted in the table. copied. select other rows (alternatively multiple rows may be selected with the Shift key held down. Changes can be made to the Add/Update plies: fields and Update Selection can be clicked to update the selected rows with the updated information (no changes occur to the selected rows for blank fields). with the Ctrl key held down. using the toolbar. ply thickness and ply orientation for a number of plies (defined by the No. It is possible to set the SOUT field individually for each row. either above or below selected rows (choose from the Above Selected or Below Selected radio buttons). Rows are added to the table by completing the Add/Update plies: entry fields and clicking the Add New Ply button. Ctrl+c. Rows may be cut. common thickness gives every ply in the laminate the same thickness. this will keep the current selection and add all the rows between the current selection and the newly selected row).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which when set to YES includes the plies described by that row in the stress output and the failure theory calculation. by checking the Failure Theory check-box.

the No. This field is used to assign a global ply id to a ply definition (the global ply id is a post-processing aid). c) Click New. on the toolbar. Use one of the following three methods to create a new material in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. you can click the Clear button. 2. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Click Update Laminate to apply all the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. of repetitions field is not available for PCOMPG. but this is not enforced in the GUI.The Ply lay-up order table for the OptiStruct and Nastran PCOMPG laminate sub-type is different from other laminate subtypes in that it has a GPLYID field. A new material appears under the selected branch. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to assign a design variable to a thickness or orientation field in the Ply lay-up order table. Once the desired changes have been made. Design variables may be selected in these extra fields. b) Right click on selected material sub-type. To define a new material: 1. A new material appears under the selected branch. A default name and id are assigned to newly created materials. adding extra fields to the right of the Thickness T1 and Orientation fields. All information for the selected design variable may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. Design Variables For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the DESVAR design variable card is supported in HyperLaminate. b) Click the new icon. To reset all design variable fields to their default values. As this id should not be repeated within the same laminate. The newly created material is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected material sub-type. . A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. Checking the Optimization check-box expands the Ply 0 lay-up order table.0 User’s Guide 317 . Selecting a design variable to the right of a thickness or orientation assigns the selected design variable to that thickness or orientation. A new material appears under the selected branch. For PCOMPG each row in the Ply lay-up order table should represent a single ply so only the Total stacking convention should be used for PCOMPG. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser.

Note: It is not possible to rename an Abaqus material until after it has been defined (edited). Click Apply to save the changes. 3. 2. For the Abaqus user profile: 1. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Ctrl+c. using the toolbar. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). pasted or deleted to/from the data fields.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Provide the material definition by filling in the entry fields in the Define/Edit pane. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. 3. Click on Edit and provide the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. Data may be cut. 4. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. copied. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. 5. 2. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). 2. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected material definition. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to zero. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. To review or modify an existing material: 1. The final material definition is displayed in the Review tab. Click return. 3. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. For the OptiStruct. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Select the material to be edited from the Laminate Browser.For the OptiStruct. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. Also it is not possible to create a new Abaqus material if an undefined material definition already exists (appears in a red font in Laminate Browser). 318 HyperMesh 8. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette.

4. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette.0 User’s Guide 319 . A new laminate appears under the selected branch. Use one of the following three methods to create a new laminate in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate Browser. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. 5. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. To define a new laminate: 1.For the Abaqus user profile: 1. 2. 3. For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles define the Stress and failure theory output: information as desired. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Make all desired changes to the material definition in the card previewer. on the toolbar. 6. 4. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. 3. The newly created laminate is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected laminate sub-type. b) Click the new icon. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Laminate name: field or the component color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Click Apply to save the changes. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. Click return. A default name and id are assigned to newly created laminates. . Click on Edit to see the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. c) Click New.

select one of the following stacking sequence conventions. 8. For all user profiles define the Stacking sequence convention: information. Having checked the Common Thickness box and entered a common thickness value. If rows 1 and 3 are copied and pasted at row 7. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. and what was row 7 will now be row 9. 6. Note: 7. the Ply lay-up order table includes multiple thickness columns: Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness T1 T2 T3 T4 c) For Constant ply thickness. When multiple non-sequential rows are copied and then pasted. Ctrl+c.5. row 1 will be pasted as row 7. 10. if you now uncheck the box. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to define thickness and orientation fields in the Ply lay-up order table as designable and to assign design variables to them. row 3 will be pasted as row 8. Note: Note: Rows are always pasted above selected rows. 9. a) For Convention:. This is governed by the stacking convention and the number of repetitions. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. select Constant or Variable. copied. Eg. they will be pasted as sequential rows. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. but are now editable. copied. you can check the Common Thickness box and specify a thickness to be used by all the entry rows. If Constant is selected. using the toolbar. Add/Insert rows by completing the Add/Update plies: fields and clicking Add New Ply or Insert New Ply (for Insert New Ply it is possible to choose to insert the ply above or below the selected rows). b) For Ply thickness:. 320 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the thickness fields retain the common thickness value. using the toolbar. Table rows may also be cut. the Ply lay-up order table includes a single thickness column: Thickness T1 If Variable is selected. Data may be cut. Ctrl+c. The number of rows in the table is not the number of plies. pasted or deleted. pasted or deleted to/from selected fields. Complete the Ply lay-up order table. Note: The option to switch between constant or variable thickness is only available for certain laminate sub-types. Total Symmetric Antisymmetric Symmetric-Midlayer Antisymmetric-Midlayer Repeat If you select Repeat. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. specify how many times you want to repeat the entire block of entry rows.

1. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Desvar: field. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected laminate definition. 7. To define a new design variable: Design variables are only supported for the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles.0 User’s Guide 321 . 3. (only subtype available is DESVAR). (only subtype available is DESVAR). Checking the Move limit box activates the Move limit field. Initial. where a move limit value other than the default of 0. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. lower bound and upper bound values for the design variable can be entered in the appropriate data fields. 5. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. A default name and id are assigned to newly created design variables. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. . (See To define a new laminate). on the toolbar. The newly created design variable is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration. 6.To review and modify an existing laminate: 1. The laminate definition may be modified in the Define/Edit pane in a manner similar to defining a new laminate. Checking the Ddval ID box activates the Ddval ID field. A new design varaible appears under the selected branch. A new design variable appears under the selected branch.5 may be entered. where the id of a discrete value list may be entered. 2. 2. 4. Use one of the following three methods to create a new design variable in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate Browser. b) Click the new icon. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. c) Click New. Select the laminate to be edited from the Laminate Browser. (only subtype available is DESVAR). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate).

2. The final design variable definition is displayed in the Review tab. Select the design variable to be edited from the Laminate Browser. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. copied. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. using the toolbar.To review and modify an existing design variable: 1. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected design variable definition. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Each change is reflected in the Review pane. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to their default values. Ctrl+c.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. 3. 322 HyperMesh 8. Data may be cut.

all material property information for the selected material is displayed in the Review pane. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. no information is displayed in the Review pane. the total number of plies in the laminate and the total thickness of the laminate. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. Nastran and Ansys materials. allows you to review the information pertaining to the selected entity. listing the plies in order from the bottom ply (most negative z). thickness and orientation. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Review pane is displays the current definition of that entity. Design Variables For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. the review pane has two tabs. more commonly referred to as the ABD matrices.Review Pane The Review Pane. The second set of matrices are the equivalent material matrices. these are used by many finite element solvers to represent the laminated composite as a homogenized shell. Information displayed on these tabs is only for the saved laminate definition. information for the selected design variable is displayed in the Review pane. The Review tab is headed by the laminate name. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. the right-hand pane of the HyperLaminate window. Materials For OptiStruct. For Abaqus materials. The Stiffness/Material Matrix tab provides the two sets of matrices. The first set of matrices are the composite shell stiffness matrices. Laminates For laminate definitions for all user profiles. so this information is only updated when the Update Laminates button is clicked.0 User’s Guide 323 . This is followed by a description of the laminate. a Review tab and a Stiffness/Material Matrix tab. showing a graphical representation each ply’s orientation and listing the referenced material.

the outer boundary of the volume. structured mesh in a cubic volume around your model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . three-dimensional. Otherwise. and k directions of the block. and solidification processes by creating an orthogonal. You cannot change the shape of the finite difference block after you create the structured mesh without destroying all the grid lines. After you create a finite difference block.0 and 110. 324 HyperMesh 8. Finite difference blocks are built performing the following steps: Creating a Finite Difference Block The first step in creating a finite difference block is to create the block. fluid flow. The panels in this module allow you to intersect your finite element shell model with a finite difference block. These axes serve as a reminder of the i. and dead cell information as an analysis input deck by using the HyperMesh template system. Note: The color of a block may be modified at any time by using the update function on the FD blocks panel. j. Cylindrical and spherical volumes are not supported in the current release. chemical reaction. If a finite element model is currently loaded. the block is created with the default bounds of -10. you can export the grid. the block is created with a default size of ten percent larger than the model in each direction (the size of a model is determined by its nodes). creating "dead cells. wall. and a block may contain multiple walls of dead cells. a small set of coordinate axes is displayed at the corner of the block. Always finalize the size of your block before beginning the next phase.0 in each direction. You can adjust the size of the block by using the functions on the FD blocks panel.Finite Difference Module The Finite Difference module allows you to perform heat transfer." All of these dead cells are placed in walls. When the block is displayed.

The wall functions are described below: create delete update delete all display Creates a new wall with the name and color specified in wall = and color. and k directions. j nodes. based on whether i nodes. The intersection and modification of live and dead cells is done in the FD walls panel.0 User’s Guide 325 . and k directions creates a large number of small cubic volumes called cells. After you create a mesh. each cell within a block is live. which creates dead cells wherever a one.Creating a Structured Mesh After you create a block. Note: Before any wall operation is begun. See the FD nodes panel for more information. respectively. meaning that the cell does not alter the flow being studied. j. select the desired elements and click intersect. depending upon the restrictions enforced by the analysis code being used. Updates the color of an existing wall. and displayed in the current wall color. After you create a wall. Deletes the specified wall. Intersecting Elements with Cells The intersection of grid lines in the i. or k nodes has been selected. Deletes all existing walls. All the one-and two-dimensional elements selected are intersected with the cells in the current block. Cells that alter the flow are known as dead cells. you can verify the aspect ratio or expansion ratio limits. You must create a wall before you create dead cells. To intersect the model with the cells. which also contains all the functions you can use to manipulate walls. Grid lines are created in one direction at a time. the block must be selected by using the block = menu item. Cells that intersect an element are placed into the current wall. Displays a list of all walls in the block. marked as dead. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. all or part of the finite element model may be intersected with the cells in the finite difference block. A cell may exist in only one wall. j. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Solid elements are currently not supported in the interse ction operation. HyperMesh allows you to automatically intersect a finite element model with the cells in a finite difference block. you create a structured mesh in the block by creating grid lines in the i. Initially. You may then select which walls to display and turn off by using the left or right mouse button. Asks for confirmation before proceeding.or two-dimensional element intersects any part of a cell.

the color menu items in the i. The edit cells function allows you to add individual cells to the current wall and mark them as dead. it is easier to see which cells are dead. Otherwise. use the cursor to select the cells to add or remove. and k are at their minimum values. If you change the color of a plane. Cells do not have a visible pick handle and must be selected at the corner closest to the origin of the block. all dead cells are displayed in the color of the wall to which they belong. and k directions must be modified to provide the plotting color for cells in each plane. The FD walls panel allows you to edit cells. if planar mode is used to display one or more of the planes of cells. When cells are selected. If the block is displayed in planar mode. When the entire block is plotted. by volumes. Because cells have no visible pick handle. by using the next and prev menu functions. where the block coordinate axes are located. j.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 326 HyperMesh 8. since only dead cells are plotted. plane-by-plane. or by planes. or remove cells from the current wall and mark the cells as live. It is possible to step through the model. and i. they are highlighted. After edit cells is selected. you must click hidden line again to display the new color.Modifying Cells Cells may be changed from live to dead or dead to live individually. j. then only cells in the currently displayed plane(s) may be edited. you can edit any cell in the block. Click the left mouse button to add cells and the right mouse button to remove cells from a wall. Creating Finite Difference Hidden Line Plots Hidden line plots of cells in a finite difference block are useful in the verification phase of a finite difference model. However.

One load collector stores both loads on geometry and loads on mesh. Each load type is stored in a dedicated section of the same load collector. After remeshing. The mesh (or multiple meshes) is associated with the geometrical entities to which the loads on geometry have been applied. by exporting the FE deck. See Exporting Loads for more information. These are the same panels used to apply loads to a mesh. from the display panel (accessed via the toolbar) select loadcols from the switch. loads or boundary conditions that have been applied to geometrical entities can be remapped to the new mesh. you control the display of loads applied to elements. When elems is selected.Loads on Geometry HyperMesh allows you to apply loads to geometrical entities and map them to the FE mesh using the load on geom panel on the Analysis Page. You can apply loads to geometry by using the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. moments. When geoms is selected. The disp (display) panel allows separate or simultaneous visualization of loads on mesh and loads on geometry. Comments Loads on mesh and loads on geometry can be displayed together (similar to the simultaneous display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component). and click the toggle to select elems or geoms. flux. To visualize loads on mesh and/or loads on geometry.0 User’s Guide 327 . all and reverse buttons to assist in selecting which loadcols should be displayed. velocities. Use the none. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and accels. you control the display of loads applied to geometric entities. and load collectors may contain one type or both types simultaneously. This means that you can control the display of both types of loads independently. temperatures. One advantage is that you can remesh a model without deleting complicated loads or boundary conditions. using the load on geom panel. constraints. using the files panel/export sub-panel. A geometrical entity can be associated with one mesh or multiple meshes (HyperMesh component or components) and/or with one load collector or multiple load collectors. There are two ways to map loads on geometry to the mesh associated with this geometry (loads on mesh): • • Manually. Automatically. pressures.

load mapping 328 HyperMesh 8.Terminology and Definitions geometrical entities loads on geometry or geometry loads loads on mesh or mesh loads A point. Loads applied to mesh (nodes or element). or a surface. Loads applied to geometrical entities. a line. The loads are mapped from the geometrical entities (to which the geometrical loads are applied) to the mesh that is associated with the geometrical entities. Loads can be applied directly to mesh or applied by mapping them from loads on geometry. The process of mapping geometrical loads to mesh loads.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

node). velocities. lines and surfaces.Application of Loads to Geometry You can apply loads to geometrical entities in a way similar to the manner in which loads are applied to mesh. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. moments.g. pressures. and updating loads and constraints.) located on the Analysis Page. points points points surfaces nodes on edge: lines (for 2-D solid elements) nodes on face: surfaces (for 3-D solid elements) points. lines. To apply a load to a geometrical entity. lines and surfaces. lines and surfaces. Applying loads to the geometry using one of the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. constraints. in each of the load application panels listed above. Next. forces. temperatures. and accels. HyperMesh stores the loads/boundary conditions in the database and displays them in the graphical window. 2. access a HyperMesh load panel (e. flux. temperatures velocities Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. Third. or surfaces) using the panel selection box. etc. constraints. 1. select a geometrical entity on which the loads will be applied (points.g. reviewing.0 User’s Guide 329 . Creating a load collector by using the collector panel. first create a load collector in which the loads applied to geometrical entities will be stored. The following chart specifies the geometrical entities to which loads can be applied. define the load or boundary condition parameters in the same way you would for the application of the load or boundary condition on a FE mesh entity (e. and choose the create sub-panel. The process includes two basic steps. points. lines and surfaces. and click create. Panel accels constraints flux forces moments pressures Geometrical Entities points. points.

a single arrow for each geometrical entity represents loads on geometry. Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh The disp (display) panel allows you to visualize loads on mesh and loads on geometry either individually or together by setting the collector type to loadcols and using the toggle between elems and geoms.hm file. Note: A major graphical display difference between loads on geometry and loads on mesh is the density of the arrows. elems controls the display of loads on mesh and geom controls the display of loads on geometry. When exporting the model using an export template. If displayed is selected. If all is selected. The basic length of the arrow also differs. Multiple arrows represent loads on mesh (one arrow per node or element). When saving the model as a HyperMesh database. all the displayed loads on mesh are exported. all the loads on geometry that have not been mapped (if any). For the same arrow magnitude percentage setting or uniform size setting within the load application panels. only the loads on mesh are exported.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and loads on mesh that have been mapped from loads on geometry.Exporting Loads HyperMesh sessions can contain loads on geometry. All the loads on mesh (both displayed and hidden) that are associated with the displayed loads on geometry are exported as well. or both. mapped from geometry to mesh. are mapped to loads on mesh and all the loads on mesh are exported. 330 HyperMesh 8. loads on mesh that have been applied directly to mesh. The all/displayed toggle on the export sub-panel on the file panel allows you to determine which loads are exported. If any loads on geometry are displayed and have not been mapped. an arrow that represents a load on geometry is longer than arrows representing loads on mesh. The loads on mesh that are exported may have been applied directly to mesh. they will automatically be mapped to loads on mesh and exported as well. all load types are saved and are retrieved when you open the . A simultaneous display is similar to the display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component.

in order.mac. to the next field below. dlm. or ANSYS format.0 format or at spatial coordinates is mapped to a structural analysis mesh in OPTISTRUCT. Aerodynamic pressure loading and temperatures computed in a CFD analysis and written out either in TECPLOT 4. until all data has been entered. ABAQUS. ABAQUS. The Distributed Load Mapper macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file. or ANSYS input file format) Select a data type and a mapping method Set the scale factors Set the mapping algorithm Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 331 .Distributed Load Mapper The Distributed Load Mapper (DLM) macro enables you to perform structural finite element analyses by incorporating the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis.. NASTRAN. Entering data in the Distributed Load Mapper dialog requires the following steps: • • • • • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT.. The Distributed Load Mapper dialog is displayed when you click DLM. When you enter data in the dialog you should begin with the first field and proceed. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory. NASTRAN. on the macro menu.

for example. structural_model_tecplot. A valid HyperWorks/HyperMesh license must be available on the local system or network for the DLM mapping algorithms to run. These files are always called hmimp.dat One file containing all the mapping parameters and selections detailed in the DLM interface. The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing inward from the wings outer surface. This file is related to the structural input model.dat Examples of Typical Output Files • A DLM specific file. one of the following conditions must exist: • • The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing outward from the wings outer surface. D:\dlm_map_files\structural_model. for example.dat Structural analysis model file. The element normals of both the CFD mesh and the structural analysis mesh must be consistent in that all the elements should be aligned and pointing in a common direction. Examples of Typical Input Files • • Computational fluid dynamics results database file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . structural_model_dynain • • A Tecplot 4. 332 HyperMesh 8. For instance. DLM Input and Output Files It is useful to understand the input and output files related to a DLM session. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. wing_cfd_model_dynain • A DLM specific file. if you are mapping a pressure loading on a wing structure. the CFD base model and the structural finite element model must exist in the same position in coordinate space. The only exception to this is when some of the DLM transformation functions are used correctly and appropriately through their selection in the DLM interface. This file is related to the base CFD model.0 format file related to the structural input model. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. D:\dlm_map_files\wing_cfd_model.Assumptions Regarding the DLM Interface and Mapping Process In order to map effectively.

i. followed by the pressure or temperature value each data occupying 16 characters and a space separating them.452460170E-02 1.095489740E+00 .926119655E-02 1. a DLM specific file is created so that the data being mapped can be visualized in Altair HyperView. . If the CFD file is in a Tecplot format.0 BLOCK and POINT data formats DLM specific input file format (files which end filename_dynain) Measured pressure or temperature at xyz coordinates If the selected file is not in a DLM appropriate format..098905325E+00 1. Click Open.960968852E+00 4.. . The pressure or temperature data at spatial coordinates must be distributed densely enough to have approximately one data point for each element of the structural model.105462790E+00 1.0 User’s Guide 333 . y. Note: • • • DLM accepts three input file formats: Tecplot 4. click Browse. . The file is placed in the same directory as the CFD database and takes its name from the parent file. 2. #ENDDATA Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.548135996E-01-8. filename_dynain.357369840E-01-8.960631967E+00 4.356568158E-01-8. The data must be prescribed in a fixed format.854129910E-02 1. Each row should show the x. For Computational fluid dynamics results database file:.970389962E+00 4.e. Use the browser to locate a file. a warning message is displayed. and z coordinates first.Load an input file containing CFD analysis results 1. The file also must have a header and footer as shown below: #XYZDATA #pressure 1.

000. This would ensure that the base CFD model would match and be positioned in the same Cartesian space as the structural analysis model. A DLM-specific formatted file is written out for post-processing in Altair HyperView. The mapped data written to structural analysis model files can relate to two different locations on the finite elements of the model. The default is 1. 2. For Structural analysis model file:. or ANSYS input file format) 1. and Z coordinates of all the nodal locations in the base CFD model is scaled. Note: The data from the base CFD model is superimposed onto this model through the mapping process. enter a scale factor to physically scale the base CFD analysis model. i.00 (no scaling). it is appended to the structural model input file in the form of PLOAD or TEMP cards appended to the end of the OPTISTRUCT.. For Data parameter mapped:. 334 HyperMesh 8. if dimensional reduction/scaling was used in the actual CFD analysis. The default value is 1. if the CFD result scale factor is 1. click Browse. These scaled values are output to the structural model data file in the PLOAD card section. enter a scale factor by which to increase or decrease the results. Use the browser to locate a file. Set the scale factor 1. The PLOAD card output to the structural model files is altered appropriately to the selected nodal or elemental configuration. For CFD model scaling:. 2.500. the X. The file is placed in the same directory as the structural model database and takes its name from the parent file. if the XYZ dimensions of the model were scaled to 1/200 of the actual size and submitted for analysis. NASTRAN. The data can either be mapped and related to the nodes of each element in the structural model. Click Open.e.Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. select the data type to be mapped..0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If a value of 200 is entered for CFD model scaling:. NASTRAN. or to simply investigate the effects of scaling the load upon the model. For CFD result scaling:. The data type is read from the information in the header block of the base CFD file. 3. ABAQUS. or ANSYS input deck. This could be used to apply a safety factor to the results. ABAQUS. Select a data type and a mapping method 1. The base CFD model file may contain up to seven different data types. which would leave the coordinates of the base CFD model unchanged prior to mapping. These data parameters are read into the interface when you load the base CFD model file (Load an input file containing CFD analysis results). For example. select Element nodes or Element centroids. filename_dynain. all the data mapped during the DLM session is multiplied by a factor of 1. Y. or to the element centroids of each quadrilateral or triangular element in the structural mesh. 2.500. Once the data is mapped. For example. . For Mapping method:.

Set the mapping algorithm 1. Accepts whichever is larger in magnitude. the mapping process runs. The default mapping algorithm. Maxima Minima Extrema Averaged extrema Delaunay-O’C 2. For Mapping algorithm:. The mapping algorithms are accessed. Selects the minimum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. and takes an average of these two values. select one of the following options: Averaged Takes the data and average for data points captured in the proximity of the structural data position being mapped to. Click OK. Takes the maximum and minimum of the data points captured in the proximity of the data location being mapped to. and the DLM dialog closes upon completion of the mapping process.0 User’s Guide 335 . the Modulus value of the data points captured in the vicinity of the element/nodal location being mapped to. Selects the maximum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. for instance.

This field allows you to enter an equation string using standard spreadsheet inputs for the various operators and operands. dlm.mac.Mathematical Loading Distributed pressure loads can be created at nodes via mathematical loading functions using the Mathematical Loading macro.0 10e-01 336 HyperMesh 8.0 corresponds to 1.0 Altair Engineering . The operators for which the algorithms are programmed are listed below: Programmed Operators: Unary minus ^ Power of ln Natural Log log Log to the base 10 sin sine cos cosine tan tangent asin arcsine acos arccosine atan arctangent exp Exponential / division * Multiplication + Addition Subtraction Acceptable 1 1. The Mathematical Loading macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file. on the macro menu. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory. The Mathematical Loading dialog is displayed when you click Math.z) = The browser allows you to select the structural model in NASTRAN format on which to apply a mathematical function.0 corresponds to 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering operands may be input in the following forms: corresponds to 1.. Mathematical Loading dialog The Mathematical Loading macro requires the following input: Structural analysis model file: Equation string fn(x..y.

1e+01 corresponds to 1. However unrecognized characters and functions will cause the loading to yield unacceptable results. use the Field Loads macro on the Geom/Mesh macro menu. • Note: To create pressure loads at element centroids via mathematical functions. Spaces and a mixture of uppercase and lower case letters are acceptable.0 x corresponds to the coordinate position x of the nodes of the model y corresponds to the coordinate position y of the nodes of the model z corresponds to the coordinate position z of the nodes of the model The following input rules apply: • Equation strings should always have balanced parentheses to ensure that the logic of the math expression is maintained.0.0 User’s Guide 337 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The dialog informs you when there is an error in this instance.

For example. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at a node. HyperMesh prints a message indicating that results for some of the entities requested were not found in the database. Results files can be translated into HyperMesh results databases which are then read into HyperMesh for post-processing. Each simulation stores the results for a model as it responds to a loading condition. element value complex nodal displacement complex nodal value complex element value complex nodal von Mises complex element von Mises Data types are not required to contain results for every node or element in the model. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. offset) at an element. Stores one floating point value at an element. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at an element. For example. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. If this occurs. Stores one floating point value at a node. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at an element. Each simulation in the results database is further subdivided into data types. A results database is divided into sections called simulations. A data type may contain only one type of result. if this is appropriate. Data types are one of the forms described below: nodal displacement nodal value Stores three floating point values at a node. each simulation in a results file may contain two data types: displacements and von Mises stress. If you run a nonlinear job. for more information. Each data type found in a simulation contains a group of results of the same type. phase. HyperMesh Results Database The structure of a results database allows you to access results by a method similar to that of the analysis code. and may contain a subset of the total model. and vector plots. refer to the individual translators in the Interface help system. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. deformed. This translation is done using result translators. if you run a linear statics problem and apply three different loading conditions to your model. assigned. phase. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. 338 HyperMesh 8. In order to complete the post-processing function being executed. HyperMesh sets the results values needed for that function to zero for all of the nodes or elements that are missing. This section describes the structure of a HyperMesh results database and explains how to use the post-processing functions to create contour. each load step (the response of the model to each incremental amount of load applied) translates to a simulation.Post-Processing Analysis The HyperMesh post-processing functions allow you to review the results files and databases generated by external codes. offset) at a node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the results file generated by the translator contains three simulations. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity.

Linear animation is usually selected when results are from a static analysis.. The selected simulation must have a data type in it that contains nodal displacement records. In this case. It is from the data contained with the nodal displacement records that HyperMesh is able to calculate the deformed geometry of the structure. Transient animation sequences are generated in the transient panel. Creating Animations The HyperMesh animation functions allow you to view your model structure in motion. For transient animation. to select a file using the browser. HyperMesh calculates the deformed geometry of the structure from the data contained within the nodal displacement records. each of the simulations used in the animation sequence must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. to select a file using the browser. select the results sub-panel. you must first specify the name and location of the HyperMesh results database. and for file:. in either wire frame or hidden line mode.. Modal animation is most useful for displaying mode shapes. Modal Transient The selected simulations must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records in order for HyperMesh to create an animation sequence. Creating Deformed Geometry Plots The deformed panel allows you to display the deformed geometry of your model statically.Specifying the Results File In order to perform post-processing functions. The deforming frames are calculated based on a sinusoidal function. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. modal. Linear Linear animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts with the original position of the structure and ends with the fully deformed position of the structure. The three types of animation include linear. and transient. HyperMesh uses a range of simulations. For linear and modal animation. An appropriate number of frames are linearly interpolated between the first and the last positions. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. Transient animation displays the structure in its timestep positions as calculated by the analysis code.. In the global panel. Transient animation is used to animate the transient response of a structure.. Modal animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts and ends with the original position of the structure.0 User’s Guide 339 . There are two ways to select a results file: • • From the files panel. Linear animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. for results file:. HyperMesh uses only one simulation and this simulation must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. Modal animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel.

HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the contour plot.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When a contour function is performed. The bands of color are created by calculating a value for each node in the model and then interpolating across each element. based on the values in the results file. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. When the assign function is performed. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. based on the values found in the results file. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the centroid of the elements. Vector plots are used to determine the direction of movement and allow you to verify the location of the center of rotation of a model. element values1 Creating Assigned Plots The assign function in the contour panel assigns a color to each element in the model. HyperMesh can create the contour plot without modifying any of the values in the results file. In order to accomplish this. so no further calculations are required. element values The results are already stored at the centroid of the element. This allows you to display elements that have values within a specified range. The elements are then displayed in the solid color assigned to them. The values are located at the centroid of the element. nodal values and displacements The results are stored at the nodes. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when element centroid values are used to create a contour plot. HyperMesh averages the results at the nodes to the centroid of the elements. HyperMesh averages the centroidal element values to the nodes of the elements. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when nodal values or nodal displacements are being used to create an assigned plot. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. For each element. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the nodes of the elements. Creating Contour Plots The contour function in the contour panel generates color bands on a model. this is accomplished by adding the results at each node and dividing by the number of nodes on the element. nodal values and displacements 340 HyperMesh 8.Creating Vector Plots A vector plot displays the model with a vector at each node that has a result-based direction and magnitude. In order to accomplish this. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. See the vector plot panel for more information. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the assigned plot.

click font and select the size font you want to use in the descriptor. you can select the node or element after the results-based plot has been created. change the color of the text in the legend. and relocate the legend and the descriptor. reverse the colors of the legend. Inspecting the Results A contour or assigned plot provides a fast. When you want to determine the actual value that an analysis code has calculated for a node or element. the temporary title is displayed on the upper left side of the screen. and value of the node or element are displayed in the menu area. HyperMesh plots a legend if the results-based plot created requires it. convenient way of viewing the results of a large number of elements. click color to change the color of the text of the descriptor. you can add titles. click within the descriptor to access the title edit panel. To modify a legend.Adding Plot Identification After you create a results-based plot. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. click within the displayed legend to access the legend edit panel. By default. After you enter the title and create the plot. simulation and data type. and also change the colors used in the legend that correspond to the model. the descriptor is located in the upper left-hand corner of the plot above the legend. To modify the descriptor. modify the colors used in the legend. Functions on this panel allow you to move the legend to a different location on the screen. change the font size. Temporary titles can be added to each type of plot by entering a title in the title = field in the contour panel. The ID.0 User’s Guide 341 . HyperMesh creates the "descriptor" in order to display the simulation and data type that were used to create the plot.

Plots maintain a list of pointers to curves that are to be displayed on the plot.XY Plotting The functions in the xy plots module allow you to study the relationships between data vectors in results files.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Information about curves is stored in curve collectors. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. which are referred to as plots. There is no limit to the number of plot collectors that a HyperMesh database may contain. you must assign the curve collector to a plot. Procedures for creating and editing xy plots and curves include: • • • • • • • • • • • Creating an XY Plot Modifying XY Plots Working with Multiple XY Plots Modifying Multiple XY Plots Creating Curves on XY Plots Reading Curves from an ASCII File Creating Analysis Based Curves Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions Modifying Curve Attributes Displaying Selected Curves on Plots In addition. which are referred to as curves. A curve may appear on more than one plot at a time and there is no limit to the number of curves that a HyperMesh database may contain. To display a curve. You can create standard plots or dual plots that show real /imaginary or phase/magnitude data. Information about xy plots is stored in plot collectors. The plot may contain any number of curves. 342 HyperMesh 8. This section introduces the functions that are available in the xy plots module.

and number of significant places in the labels. Creates and modifies the curves in the database. Grid labels appear along the x and y axes in the plot (tick marks). and the line style (solid. Allows you to perform simple mathematical calculations on a curve. You may also specify whether the border is displayed and the size of the margin between the border and the plot. The grid attribs panel allows you to change the color. Allows you to create an xy plot and assign curves to the xy plot. You can set the values explicitly or implicitly by using the panel functions such as find curves. thickness of the grid lines. and label. You can also change the color and font size used to display these entities. axis scaling border curve attribs edit curves grid attribs grid labels integrate legend plot titles plots query curves read curves rename results curves simple math In addition. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can also change the curve title that appears in the legend. Generates a curve from the currently-selected results file.XY Plots Module The xy plots module is a group of panels that perform operations on plots and the curves displayed on those plots. font. The xy plotting panels are described below: axis labels The axis labels panel allows you to modify the x and y axes titles and labels. marker style (used to indicate the point location). etc. thickness.0 User’s Guide 343 . This panel allows you to read data vectors from files as well as perform advanced mathematical operations on curves. Reads curves from an ASCII file. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. Allows you to rename curves. You can apply a scaling factor to the original data points. To access the xy plots module. and the margin displayed around the grid lines. The curve attribs panel allows you to change the color. circle zoom. you can change the color and font size used to display these entities. In addition. subtitle. The plot titles panel allows you to change the plot title. dashed. line style. The axis scaling panel allows you to modify the starting and ending values of the plot axes. and zoom out. Allows you to determine the coordinate values of points in a curve. The border panel allows you to change the thickness and color of the border around the plot. select xy plots on the Post page of the main menu. The grid labels panel allows you to change the color. Calculates and displays the integral of a curve.). The legend panel allows you to change the location and the font used to display the legend.

HyperMesh displays the existing values of the current xy plot (the plot listed after plot =) in the data entry fields in the panel. This process also applies to curves. Each time a panel in the xy plots module is accessed. This allows you to control multiple plots by resizing and moving plots around the screen. To modify an xy plot. and labels.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 344 HyperMesh 8. XY plot window placement is controlled with the Windows panel. the grid labels and grid attributes. After each change. select the panel that applies to the attribute you want to change. the panels in the xy plots module are updated to reflect the change. You can modify one plot so that it has the desired values. HyperMesh immediately displays the update. subtitle. the plot = field allows you to select one plot and the plots entity selector allows you to select multiple plots. or a subset of the plots. These attributes can be adjusted before or after you add curves to the plot. thickness. Working with Multiple XY Plots HyperMesh places every xy plot within a window. The first step in the process of creating an xy plot is to use the plots panel to name and create an xy plot collector. select the plot you want to change. and then apply those modifications to the other plots. you may wish to modify one of the values on all of the plots. When you modify xy plots using the panels of the xy plots module. For example. Access this panel by pressing the w key. you can change the color. or width of the border.Creating an XY Plot Each xy plot window is assigned a name when you create it. and change the attribute in the panel. HyperMesh initially assigns default values to the xy plot attributes. or add a title to the plot. Plot attributes include the title. Every time you change the current xy plot. and also the margin and border around the xy plot. in one step. you may wish to change the axis titles so that they are all the same. Modifying Multiple XY Plots When several plots are contained within a database. Modifying an XY Plot After you create an xy plot.

Examples of external filters are in the filters subdirectory that is provided when this option is selected. After this information has been supplied. . Creating Analysis-Based Curves Analysis-based curves are generated from the HyperMesh binary results file. it assumes that the format of the input file is as follows: XYDATA. Y2 . HyperMesh reads the required data from the results file and generates the appropriate curve. The block ends with an ENDDATA statement. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you can specify that the x or y values of the curve remain fixed. which define two curves. you select entities of interest in your model. the title assigned to the curve. follows on the same line. using the standard HyperMesh curve data file format. XYDATA. or export the curve. . Y1 X2. which is displayed in the legend. Analysis-based curves are generated in the results curves panel. and then select a data type for the x axis data points and a data type for the y axis data points. You can also apply external filters to curves in this panel. ENDDATA Each curve in the file is defined in a block format. Y1 X2. filters exchange data with HyperMesh. When you create an analysis curve. You can combine two curves.TITLE X1. transform a curve. Y2 . Essentially. Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Curves can be created using simple math operators in the simple math panel. . For every operation. y) data pairs on each line. there are two blocks of data. Point data follows with a set of (x.0 User’s Guide 345 . In the above example. After XYDATA.Creating Curves on XY Plots You can create curves using four different methods: • • • • Read curves from an ASCII file Extract a curve directly from a results database Create curves by using a few simple math operators Read single curves from files as well as generate curves by using mathematical expressions Reading Curves from an ASCII file When HyperMesh reads curves from an ASCII file with the read curves panel.TITLE X1. ENDDATA XYDATA. The block begins with the statement. .

The y vector can be a function of x or the x vector can be a function of y. HyperMesh recalculates the curves in the proper order.y To reference the x vector of curve 1. you must indicate the curve number and the x or y vector. For more information about math expressions. Source file data is divided into type.Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions The edit curves panel allows you to create new curves or edit existing ones. in the format curve number. and the data source for the y vector could be a math expression. New data can be selected from a source file or mathematically defined. based on what has been modified. To reference the y vector of curve 1. The data sources for the x and y vectors are displayed in the x = and y = fields.x c1. To edit the x and y vectors of a math curve. For example. After the data request set has been selected. When you modify a curve. Available data types depend on the data file. the data request set needs to be selected. request.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Type Request Component Note: Data files can consist of different types of data. 346 HyperMesh 8. and component.vector: For example: c1. Each vector of a curve can be defined using either a data vector in a data file or a math expression. refer to the Altair Math Reference. the component must be selected. Once the data type has been selected. the data source for the x vector could be a file.

To select curves for a plot. HyperMesh currently supports either thick or thin lines. The following curve attributes may be changed in the curve attribs panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Determines the markers drawn around each data point in the curve. when the curve is displayed. The color used to draw the curve. HyperMesh displays a list of the available curves in the database. This scale factor is used to scale the y values in a curve. The style of line used to draw the curve. HyperMesh currently supports circular. and four different patterns. no line at all. select the plots panel and click select curves. This scale factor is used to scale the x values in a curve. triangular. The names of the curves that are already displayed on the current xy plot are highlighted. The curve may also be displayed with no markers shown.0 User’s Guide 347 . HyperMesh currently supports a solid line. and square markers. x scale factor y scale factor Displaying Selected Curves on Plots After you have read or created curves.Modifying Curve Attributes Modifying curves is very similar to modifying plots. HyperMesh currently supports 15 standard colors. Modify the list by selecting the curves by name and removing or adding the curves to the current plot as desired and click return. you can select which curves in the database you want to display on an xy plot. The width of line used when the curve is drawn. curve title curve width curve style curve color curve marker The curve title is displayed in the legend.

It’s important to be aware that the curve editor is not completely symmetrical with HyperMesh. To quit the curve editor. The curve displays in the graph area. if you leave the curve editor open while making changes within the HyperMesh XY plotting module.Using the Curve Editor The curve editor is a pop-up window that allows you to view and modify graphed curves in a more intuitive and holistic way than the individual xy plots panels provide. outlined with colored boxes in the image below: the curve list (green). but changes made in a HyperMesh panel do not automatically get sent to the curve editor. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . click the close command button. Access the curve editor from HyperMesh’s Setup pull-down menu. and must be imported by use of the update button. Modify the curve attributes if needed. curve attributes (blue). Click the display checkbox in the curve atributes area. you must use the update button in the curve editor to import the changes. To summarize: • • Changes made in the curve editor immediately affect HyperMesh. Changes made in HyperMesh do not immediately affect the curve editor. 348 HyperMesh 8. because they are automatically applied as you make them. in the sense that changes made in the curve editor are automatically sent back to HyperMesh. graph area (red). For this reason. The curve editor contains four main areas. 2. and graph attributes (cyan). The curve’s attributes fill in the fields in the curve attributes area. Note that any changes you make in the curve editor will be retained. Click the desired curve in the curve list. To display curves in the graph area: 1.

making a finer grid. To draw the curve in a thicker line. if it is already set to Display. 2. the line’s symbol points will still display. select a symbol from the list box. Either click the curve in the curve list. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. Select a Line style to change the curve’s line from solid to dotted. 2 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. select a number from the every: list box.5). and 1. For example. pressing the <delete> key to erase the current value. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. click the desired color to select it. Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values.5.To change a curve's attributes: 1. 1. To change the graph's attributes: 1. you could change it from “Y” to “time”. To change the symbol spacing. you could change it from “X” to “Acceleration”. Or 2. In the graph attributes area. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. For example. click the thick line checkbox. Click the display checkbox to toggle the display of the curve in the graph area. Modify the fields inside the Y-axis frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s Y-axis label. modify the fields inside the X-axi s frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s X -axis label. even if your data included accelerations ranging from 0 up to 10 m/s . and then typing in a new value. you could 2 restrict the X axis to only graph accelerations from 1 to 5 m/s . For example. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. Click the curve that you wish to modify. To place a marker symbol at each point on the curve. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). Click the curve in the graph area. For example. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. For example. Make any desired changes to the curve’s attributes: Modify each X and/or Y value by clicking it.0. A list of available colors displays.0. or show no line at all. Change the Color by clicking the colored box. Note: If you choose no line. if you choose “3” then only every third point will display as a symbol.0 User’s Guide 349 . if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2.

Click the New… command button in the curve editor window. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. For example. 3. but you only wish to graph the accelerations that occur between 30 and 35 seconds.0.5). 350 HyperMesh 8. even if your data included accelerations from 0 seconds to 60 seconds. which now uses the curve’s new name. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. you cannot recover it. Click the hide checkbox to toggle the display of the legend on and off. To create a new curve: 1. Undo You cannot undo a deletion. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a new name for the chosen curve. type in the X and Y coordinates for each data point in the curve. In the curve list. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic.5. once you delete a curve. Modify the fields inside the Legends frame: Select a location to determine where the legend displays in the graph area. For example.- Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. Click Yes to confirm the deletion. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. you could restrict the range by typing “20” into the min and “35” into the max. Click proceed. 2. Click the Delete command button. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. Type in a name for the new curve. For example. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a name for the new curve. Click the desired curve in the curve list. and 1. 2. Type in a new name for the curve. To delete a curve: 1. To rename a curve: 1. Click the new curve in the curve list and modify its attributes as needed. Click proceed. - Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. click the curve that you wish to delete. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). A confirmation window displays. 2.0. 1. 4. or No to keep the curve. 3. making a finer grid. 3. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2.

The two most commonly used in commercial software packages like OptiStruct. AutoDV generates perturbation vectors. is the vector of nodal coordinates. AutoDV interfaces with HyperMesh thru the AutoDV template for export and AutoDV reader for import. In size optimization. PVi is the perturbation vector associated to the design variable DVi . and Genesis. HyperStudy. Shape Optimization The type of design variables that are used distinguishes different types of structural optimization. AutoDV can also be used to generate distributed loads. Nastran. most of AutoDV’s capability to create perturbation vectors using control perturbations is fully integrated in HyperMesh. are the basis vector approach and the perturbation vector approach. Altair OptiStruct and Altair HyperStudy use the perturbation vector approach. and spring properties are design variables. the design variables define the boundary shape of the part to be optimized. x = ∑ DVi ⋅ BVi x is the vector of nodal coordinates. In finite elements. The boundary shape changes must be translated into changes of the interior of the mesh to avoid mesh distortions due to shape changes.0 User’s Guide 351 . a more flexible tool to set-up and generate shape perturbations.0. such as beam section properties. and Templex. the shell thickness.AutoDV Introduction AutoDV is utility developed for the generation of perturbation vectors for shape optimization in optimization packages such as Altair OptiStruct. Starting with HyperWorks 6. Altair HyperStudy. Before importing AutoDV data. BVi variable DVi . a finite element model must be loaded into HyperMesh. Further. Nastran. the structural shape is defined as a linear combination of basis vectors. The perturbation vectors define changes of nodal locations with respect to the original finite element mesh. Altair HyperOpt provides both. AutoDV is now complemented by HyperMorph. In the past. the structural shape change is defined as a linear combination of perturbation vectors. The function of creating harmonic shape functions for 2D problems only works with AutoDV. In shape optimization. Using the basis vector approach. the perturbation vector approach must be selected. Genesis. The basis vectors define nodal locations. If there is a choice in the optimization code. Both approaches refer to the definition of the structural shape as a linear combination of vectors. x Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the shape of the structure is defined by the vector of nodal coordinates. HyperOpt. AutoDV has been stand-alone software. The stand-alone solver is still available and can be used for the generation of manual perturbations. x. In topology optimization. usually density-related values that define the material distribution are the design variables. where is the basis vector associated to the design Using the perturbation vector approach. Altair HyperOpt. with the perturbation vector approach as the default setting. There are different approaches used to define the shape in an optimization setup. x = x 0 + ∑ DVi ⋅ PVi where x 0 is the vector of nodal coordinates of the initial design. input parameters of a model.

Write a <prefix>. In HyperMesh. using the AutoDV template.Generation of Perturbation Vectors Perturbation vectors can be generated in one of three ways: 1. 5. Example: mymodel. 3. Polynomial perturbation vectors using design domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . move the grids to define the perturbed shape. AutoDV compares all <prefix>. retrieve the baseline HyperMesh database and complete steps 2 and 3. 2.pert file a different ID.pert006. Manual perturbation of grids in HyperMesh.pert<nnn> files that contain only the perturbed grids.pert<nnn> models with the <prefix>. Harmonic perturbation vectors using design domains. Select the solver panel.pert<nnn> files contain data only for the perturbed grid points. However. To generate another perturbation vector. Manual Perturbation To generate perturbation vectors by the manual perturbation method: 1. and generates the corresponding perturbation vector.pert<nnn>. Before these methods can be applied. where nnn is the design variable ID. 7. 352 HyperMesh 8. AutoDV requires that the <prefix>. Do not save the perturbed model. AutoDV creates condensed <prefix>. Run AutoDV through the solver panel using the appropriate options. Write out a perturbation file <prefix>. 2.base model. 4. identifies the perturbed grids. the files generated by HyperMesh contain the entire model. a finite element model representing the baseline shape of the structure must be developed. Click the switch and select AutoDV as your solver. 3. giving the *.base file using the baseline model of the structure using the OptiStruct template supplied in the distribution. 6.

On the BCs page. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. However. build a secondary domain model and define secondary node sets. Select the perturbations panel.Polynomial Perturbation Vectors To create polynomial perturbation vectors: 1. Select the domain subpanel. Assign shapes to design variables. 2. All domain elements may be organized in more than one domain component. Pick the nodes that form the domain element. Each domain element generally encompasses a large number of finite elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. DTETRA4 These element types are generated using the AutoDV template provided in the distribution. 3. It is recommended. If needed. 2. select the optimization panel. Define shapes and control perturbations. DPENTA6. 2-D elements 3-D elements DQUAD4. Select the type of domain element. Primary Domain Model This example shows how to create a primary domain model over the finite element model using the following first order 2-D and 3-D domain elements. 4. but not necessary. 6. 5. To create a domain element: 1. 4. Use the solver panel to run AutoDV. The Domain model must encompass those finite element grids of the model that need to be perturbed. 7. 3. DTRIA3 DHEXA8.0 User’s Guide 353 . that you organize 2-D and 3-D domain elements in separate components. none of the domain components should include finite elements. Define primary domain model elements and domain node sets. 5.

. 2. Select the perturbations panel. Select the nodes for the domain node set. Click add. This generally happens at the common edges and corners between domain elements. Select the domain subpanel. it is identified by AutoDV. Toggle nodeset to manual. all corner nodes of that element must belong to that node set. 8. 4. 7. select the optimization panel. 6. 3. A given node may belong to more than one node set. or they can be created manually. There should be exactly one domain element related to each node set. Select update. However. On the BCs page. To manually create a domain node set for an existing domain element: 1. This relationship is not explicitly defined by the user. Pick the domain element from the graphic display. All nodes in a given node set are perturbed using mathematical relationships based on the control perturbations applied on the Domain Model. 354 HyperMesh 8.Primary Domain Node Sets Node sets constitute the primary entities for generating perturbation vectors. Domain node sets can be created automatically when the domain element is created. i. you must implicitly ensure that relationship while creating domain elements and node sets by making sure that all the nodes that need to be perturbed as a shape variable are completely encompassed or parameterized by the domain model. 5.e.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

For corner control points. A quadratic interpolation would use the corner as well as the mid-side control perturbations. The order of interpolation is based on the presence of mid-side control perturbations. 3. Py. place the control perturbation on a mid-side node on an edge of the domain node set. the interpolation is parabolic if a mid-side control perturbation is defined. Click create vector to create the vectors. On a given edge. Enter a name (max. Click return to return to the perturbations panel. For 2-D domains. a DQUAD4 domain has 8 control points).g. In order to generate a quadratic perturbation. the interpolation function is a product of three functions: P(x.y) = Px(x) Py(y) Pz(z) where P x. A linear interpolation uses control perturbation at the corners..0 User’s Guide 355 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. AutoDV assigns a control perturbation of magnitude zero to the corner point. Control perturbations are defined by creating vectors at control points. The deformed panel is displayed so you can animate the design variable to validate your definition. − AutoDV computes perturbations of all structural grids by interpolating control perturbations. you do not need to create a second order domain element.y) = Px(x) Py(y) For 3-D domains. Instead. Create shape design variables: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. Select the perturbations panel. In either case. Animate the shape design variable: − Click animate. 2. defining a zero magnitude vector is the same as placing no vector. They are automatically added to the shape specified in shape =. Select perturbations using the toggle. and Pz are polynomial interpolation functions of up to quadratic order. That mid-side control point does not have to lie on the edge of the domain element. The interpolations are performed as follows. Click create shape. 8 characters) in shape =. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. The corner points of a domain element and mid-side nodes of the corresponding node sets constitute control points (e.Control Perturbations Perturbation vectors are generated by interpolating control perturbations defined at selected control points. the interpolation function is a product of two functions: P(x. To define control perturbations: 1. otherwise it is linear. AutoDV identifies the mid-side perturbations and internally changes the corresponding edge of a domain element from linear to quadratic (curvilinear edge element).

the presence yields a quadratic interpolation. Generates the corresponding list of grids to be perturbed in that variable.For mid-side control points. In the case of a zero magnitude mid-side perturbation. defining zero magnitude vector is not the same as placing no vector. Whereas the absence of a mid-side control perturbation yields a linear interpolation on that edge. 356 HyperMesh 8. Computes perturbation of each grid in the list by interpolation using the related control point perturbations.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . AutoDV computes the perturbation vectors for shape variables in the following order: • • • Identifies all domain elements and node sets attached to vector belonging to a given shape variable. the interpolation is quadratic with the value of zero for the mid-side node.

consider the two sheet metal components connected using gum-drops. illustrated below. With only primary domain. The gum-drops are modeled using a rigid (R1)-spring (K)-rigid (R2) representation. the perturbation vector for this model is as shown in the illustration below. Interpolating those perturbations linearly to all the grids of the secondary domain. grid points G2 and G3 are generally coincident. Move the end nodes as well as all intermediate nodes into an independent node set.0 User’s Guide 357 . Secondary domain is not required if the nodes are connected using a single 1-D element. Here. Here. This problem is solved using a secondary domain model as follows: • • Create one rigid element (type DRBE2) between the two end nodes (G1 and G4 in this example). AutoDV responds by: • • • Computing pert urbations on the primary domain model using the control perturbations. they remain unperturbed. For example. However.Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets A secondary domain model allows computation of perturbation vectors for grids on 1-D elements connecting two different components. The perturbation vectors are also shown in the illustration. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You may use the secondary domain model where two nodes belonging to the primary domain are connected using several 1-D elements in a series. the control perturbation causes grids G1 and G4 to be perturbed as shown. Identifying perturbations of the end nodes of the secondary domains. because grids G2 and G3 are not part of any node set. The domain model for each plate contains one element each.

and no control perturbations are required at the two nodes of the DRBE2 element.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note: A DRBE2 element does not have to be connected to a control point. this yields the perturbation shown below.Using the example illustrated above. 358 HyperMesh 8.

Harmonic variables are defined only on DQUAD4 domains. create a design variable using that shape. However. the harmonic component of the shape variable has a value of 1. Select the design variable in the card pre-viewer in the permanent menu. There should be no other vector in that shape. 2. In the shape panel.0 User’s Guide 359 . Each harmonic shape variable component must contain exactly four vectors. y) Where P is the polynomial function described in the previous section.Harmonic Perturbation Vectors Harmonic shape variables are defined using a process similar to that for polynomial shape variables. Y_ORDER. and T is the harmonic function given by: T(x. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. The design variable label should not have more than four characters. modeling requirements for generating harmonic variables are very stringent. 3. The orders m and n of harmonic functions are user-controlled. To define harmonic perturbation vectors: 1. Select the DQUAD4 element on which harmonic perturbation vectors are desired and create a shape with exactly four vectors .y) = P (x. 4.one at each corner control point of that element. Then the shape variable is reduced to the polynomial shape variable. one at each corner point of the DQUAD4. The harmonic shape variables are computed using a product of the following two functions: V(x. y) = Xm(x) Yn(y) Where Xm(x) = cos (m*x/2) = sin (m*x/2) =1 and Yn(x) = cos (n*y/2) = sin (n*y/2) =1 for odd values of n for even values of n for n = 0 for odd values of m for even values of m for m = 0 For m = n = 0. Generate domain elements and node sets as described in the previous section. and Y_TYPE: Card image X_ORDER Y_ORDER Symbol m n Default 0 0 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. one DQUAD4 element at a time.y) T (x. X_TYPE. These are part of the vector collector card. Edit X_ORDER.

It generates shape variable names by appending the x and y orders to the component name. Examples of the naming procedure follow: Example 1: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv01 2 0 1 dv010001 X_TYPE = all Y_TYPE = all 3 1 0 dv010100 4 1 1 dv010101 5 2 0 dv010200 6 2 1 dv010201 desvar name = dv01 Example 2: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv02 X_TYPE = even Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv020001 3 2 0 dv020200 4 2 1 dv020201 desvar name = dv02 Example 3: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv03 X_TYPE = odd Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv030001 3 1 0 dv030100 4 1 1 dv030101 desvar name = dv03 360 HyperMesh 8. even all. odd.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . modify the setting in the harmonic subpanel. Accordingly. even Default all all For given values of m and n. AutoDV generates a series of independent perturbation vectors. Card image X_TYPE Y_TYPE Options all. or even harmonics by entering the appropriate harmonics types in the vector collector. odd.You have the option of generating all. odd.

Click create. 8 characters) in desvar =. Creating control perturbations at the corner nodes of the domain element yields a linear interpolation. Select AUTODV as the solver. Apply the variable loads: − − − − − − − On the files panel. Select all the displayed nodes and set mult = to 1.animate suffix. On the Post page. Create control perturbations to define the characteristic of the variable load: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. you must write an AutoDV input deck using the AutoDV template. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click simulation = and select the variable loading condition wants to apply. A quadratic interpolation can be generated by creating control vectors either on the mid-side control points or on both. Variable loading can be generated for forces.0 User’s Guide 361 .Generation of Variable Loads Generating variable loads with AutoDV is similar to generating perturbation vectors. Click file = and enter the result file with the . Click solve to create the interpolated variable loads. AutoDV computes the variable loads on each structural grid by interpolating the control perturbations defined on control points. select the solver panel. Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. Click create to create the vectors. Enter a name (max. Select desvar using the toggle. − − − − On the BCs page. The control points can be the corner points of a domain element or the mid-side nodes along the edge of domain elements. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − − Select perturbations using the toggle. 4. Variable loads are generated by interpolating control vectors defined at selected control points. Click apply to apply the variable loads. Select the perturbations panel. Select the create load subpanel. select the apply result panel. 3. the corner and mid-side control points.dv. 2. Click name = and enter the name of the AutoDV input deck. moments and temperatures. Domain elements and domain node sets for the domain where the load is applied must be created before you can generate a variable load. select the results subpanel. Run AutoDV to generate the variable loads: Before you run AutoDV. They are automatically added to the design variable specified in desvar =. To generate a variable load: 1.

Examples: 362 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Running AutoDV Stand-alone
To run AutoDV, select AUTODV as the solver in the solver panel and then give the prefix of the input file name along with the options. The input file name should be prefix.base. autodv -file <prefix> -inp opt1 -ent opt2 -code opt3

The valid entries and default values for options are given in the following table. Note that these parameters could be given in any order. Entity <prefix> Valid Options Prefix of the input file name, or input file name. OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS, HYPERSTUDY, TEMPLEX, HYPEROPT FORC, MOMT, TEMP, LONG OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, PAMCRASH, RADIOSS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MARC, ANSYS, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT Default Value Solver Panel input file =

Opt1

analysis code =

Opt2 Opt3

NONE NONE

component = subcode type =

The interdependency of options on each other is explained in the following table. For example, for a given opt1, it gives the possible values for opt2 and opt3. Opt1 OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS HYPERSTUDY TEMPLEX Opt2 None Long Opt3 Ignored Remarks For shape optimization None – Standard format Long – Long format For variable loading

FORC, MOMT, TEMP Ignored

Ignored

OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, RADIOSS, PAMCRASH, MARC, ANSYS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT, ABAQUS, NASTRAN

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/Generic and HyperStudy

HYPEROPT

Ignored

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/OPTISTRUCT, HyperOpt/ABAQUS, and HyperOpt/NASTRAN

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After AutoDV runs, it creates the following files: prefix.dat A bulk data file that contains the DVGRID and LOAD information, respectively depending on opt2. A bulk data file for the perturbed model corresponding to the shape variable nnn. This file originally contained the manually generated perturbed file. After the program runs, this file contains only the GRID data for all perturbed grid points. This file contains the shape design variables in the HyperMesh results format. This file can be loaded to HyperMesh and results can be viewed. Note: The animation should be used only as a check for the shape of the perturbation vector. It will not display the upper and lower bounds for the shape variable. The file prefix.dat becomes part of an input file for the respective native analysis package. Note: If you create a perturbed model file, prefix.pertnnn, and also a set of control perturbations with an identical shape variable ID, nnn, the resultant perturbation vector from AutoDV is a union of the manual as well as the interpolated grid perturbations. For the common nodes in the two sets, the manual grid perturbations given in prefix.pertnnn override those generated by using interpolation. prefix.subcode.node.tpl Templex template to replace the nodal coordinates in the original input deck. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX. Contains nodal coordinates and perturbation vectors for use in the file, prefix.subcode.node.tpl. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX.

prefix.autonnn

prefix.dv.animate

prefix.shp

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Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
Using an H3D file, you can save 3-D animations from HyperMesh in the .h3d format for viewing with the HyperView Player. HyperView Player is an Internet browser plug-in for visualizing 3-D Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models and results. Using product data in Altair's compact .h3d format allows you to incorporate animated images in an HTML document for presentation or engineering reports. Simulation results can be sent by e-mail, or placed on the web for others to open and review. HyperView Player is available as a free download on Altair's Web site at http://www.altair.com. To create an H3D file from HyperMesh: 1. 2. Select one of the following panels: contour, deformed, hidden line, transient, or geom cleanup. To control the display attributes for your model: 3. Specify your desired display attributes using visual options or the visual panel.

Click the Hyper3d button or H3D>HV. Two files are created. One is an H3D file, using anim#.h3d as the file name. The symbol # is automatically assigned to the H3D file. The other is a sample HTML file including an <EMBED> statement for the corresponding H3D file. H3D>HV loads the newly created H3D file into HyperView. You can define this option in the options panel under modeling.

4.

To review the model in a web browser: Double click the HTML file to launch a browser. or Click H3D to activate the standalone HyperView Player.

You can customize the external HTML template, h3d_template.html, located in the altair/hm/html directory, to suit your needs. Note: In the HyperMesh geom cleanup panel, the Hyper3D button is displayed when you select the shaded option in the visual options subpanel.

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Embedding a HyperView Player Object in HTML Documentation The following section defines the arguments and provides an example for embedding statements in an HTML document in order to view a HyperView Player graphic object. Note the following updates to HyperView Player: Simplified HTML File Statement Since the H3D file created from HyperView, and HyperMesh includes scene information, the arguments in the old statements for model readers and result readers are no longer needed. The HTML statements have been simplified in this release. However, the HTML files created for HyperView Player 3.1 are still supported. HyperView Player only supports H3D direct readers. You can create an H3D file using: • • • • Note HyperView HyperMesh HyperMesh result translators, such as hmnast, hmnasto2, hmdyna, hmradioss, hmpam, hmansys, and hmabaqus OptiStruct You may need to modify your HTM L files created for HyperView Player 3.1 if you were using direct readers other that h3d.dll, such as adams.dll, gfile.dll, lsdyna.dll, and madymo.dll, since those readers are no longer supported in HyperView Player.

Direct Readers

To embed a HyperView Player object, the <EMBED> statement in HTML is used. All arguments are case insensitive.

General Arguments for EMBED Statements
type width/height SRC="URL" Application/x-h3d Measured in pixels The location of the plug-in data file as indicated by its URL.

Embedded Statement Example
<EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="HTTP:\\www.altair.com\h3d\bumper.h3d"> <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="../bumper.h3d">

More examples can be found in the HyperView Player demo directory, and our Web site, http://www.altair.com.

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Using an HTML File
You can use HyperView Player to share information by embedding it in an HTML file. You can use either a relative path or a standard Uniform Resource Locator (URL) to specify the path for the H3D file in the <EMBED> statement. There are three different ways to define file transfer protocol: FILE, HTTP and FTP. This section describes how to select a protocol for file transfer using files, anim1.html and anim1.h3d as examples.

Embedded Mode
FILE://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="File://c:\Altair\demos\hvp\anim1.h3d"> An absolute path is required for File:// and the H3D file must reside in the specified path. When you distribute the files, you may need to modify the HTML file for the path.

HTTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="http://www:8080/~John/anim1.h3d> Others can access your public web area on the Internet. When sharing an H3D file, you can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files in your public HTML directory and send the link to others in the company by email. The link can be, for example, http://www:8080/~John/anim1.html. By doing this, you do not need to distribute the H3D file and can guarantee the path is working correctly. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click the link in the email, the model will be displayed.

FTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="FTP://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html> You can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files on your FTP site. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click ftp://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html, the model is displayed.

Relative Path
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="../anim/.h3d> Using a relative path allows you to distribute an HTML file easily. You can create a folder with the necessary HTML and h3d files for distribution.

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Full page mode
In an HTML file, you can easily hyperlink a string to an H3D file. When you click the hyperlink, the plug-in loads a model in full-page mode.

Using E-mail
You can attach an H3D file to an email. If the recipient is using a PC, he or she can click the attachment and the H3D file will load automatically. You can also save the H3D file and at a later time, double-click the file to invoke the standalone version of HyperView Player. Another available option is to drag the H3D file and drop it into a browser to view the model in a full window.

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H3D FAQ's
How can I view a model with shaded display in HyperView Player? The model display settings are recorded during H3D creation. Set up the desired model display, with such options as mesh lines and feature lines, in the Vis panel under the Performance Graphics mode in HyperMesh.

Why doesn’t the legend setting in HyperView player reflect the setting in HyperMesh? HyperView Player only supports default settings for the legend display from HyperMesh. The specified Max and Min values in HyperMesh are not recorded in the H3D file of this version.

Can I view complex result animation in HyperView player? No, the H3D writer does not support complex result data.

What types of element are not supported in the H3D file? Second order elements, rigidlinks, and RBE3s are not supported in this version. The mid-side node of a second order element is ignored when it is read into HyperView Player.

How can I change the window size for viewing HyperView Player in the browser? You can modify the width and height values in the <EMBED> statement in the HTML file. (For example, width = 600, height = 600)

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Free Body Diagrams
HyperMesh allows you to create or edit Free Body Diagrams (FBD) using several tools that display in the tab area. Each FBD tool displays on a separate tab, which opens when you activate that tool. Location: Results menu, Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tools) Tool menu (to access the FBD Set Manager only) Tab Area (for the tools themselves)

Free Body Diagram (FBD) utilities facilitate the extraction and post-processing of Grid Point Force (GPFORCE) results. FBD utilities currently support OptiStruct and Nastran .op2 files, and are only available in the OptiStruct or Nastran user profiles. FBD extractions are typically utilized for breakout and/or sub-modeling analysis schemes, where balanced “free body” sub-cases are extracted from a coarse grid model and applied to a fine grid sub-model for eventual optimization and/or analysis. FBD is also used to extract cross-sectional resultant forces and moments (typically at the centroid of a cross-section) for use in traditional strength calculations. Each tool has a separate entry in the menu. In addition, see the overview on Grid Point Force Balance tables to gain further understanding of FBD operations within HyperMesh, while the Set Manager utility assists in generating the element and node sets which the FBD utilities analyze.

This coarse grid model is typical for FBD extractions.

Typical FBD – Forces output on a wing rib

Typical Result Force and Moment output on a floor beam

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renaming. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. Location: Tools menu (to access the Set Manager) Tab Area (to use the Set Manager) The Set Manager consists of a tree structure listing the current entity sets in the model. and changing the export state of entity sets. Nastran. creating. Nastran. The filter buttons allow for additional selection control. or Abaqus user profile. The sync button synchronizes the entity set display states with the current HyperMesh display. The selection type options allow you to control the entities (elements. and ABAQUS user profiles. deleting. 3. The Set Manager utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct.FBD Set Manager Use the Set Manager tool to automate the grouping and display of model components through HyperMesh entity set functionality. It also includes functions for displaying. See To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display for details. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The set manager displays in the tab area. along with the entity set display and export states. select Set Manager. Use the toolbar buttons in the Set Manager tab to manipulate the display options.0 User’s Guide 371 . geometry. or export state) that the filter buttons apply to. From the Tools pull-down menu. appending entities to. as desired: • • • • Use <ctrl>-click and <shift>-click to select multiple items in the tree structure. 2. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. To set display options for the Set Manager: 1.

Collapse All: Collapses all branches of the tree. The graphic above shows all of the available options. Nastran. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. From the Tools pull-down menu. Delete Reference: Removes a set reference from a entity set type of sets. or on individual or multiple items within folders. The set manager displays in the tab area. Supported entity set types are shown above. including: • • • • • • • New: Create a new entity set of the specified type. 372 HyperMesh 8. Delete: Deletes the currently selected set(s). accessed by right clicking in the background. select Set Manager.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2.To use the Set Manager right-click functionality: 1. on folders. grouped in folders by type. Multiple sets may be selected by using standard Ctrl/Shift-click functionality. Add Entities to Set: Adds entities into the currently selected set. HyperMesh prompts you to type in a name for the set or accept a default name. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to add to the set. 3. or Abaqus user profile. Rename: Rename the selected set. Right -click anywhere within the tree structure to open the right-click menu: There are many functions available. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. Expand All: Expands all branches of the tree.

• The export toggle determines whether the entity set definition is to be exported when the model deck is written.ses) containing group definitions. 3. and then displays only the currently selected set(s) in the HyperMesh display. For component sets there are two toggles: one for elements (first check box) and one for geometry (second check box). The Checked State signifies that the entity set will not be exported. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. which control the display of each of these entities separately. Show: This operation adds the entities contained in the selected set(s) to the HyperMesh display. The Blank State signifies that one or more of the entities in that entity set are not displayed. The display and export states of entity sets are controlled by clicking on/off the display and export icons located next to each entity set in the tree. Nastran. The Blank State signifies that the entity set will be exported. Available options are shown above. this information is automatically converted to the new solver format when Set Manager is opened. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. Hide: This operation removes the entities contained in the selected set(s) from the HyperMesh display. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model.0 User’s Guide 373 . select Set Manager. Import Session File: Loads a session file (. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to remove from the set. and is only available for component and element sets.• Remove Entities from Set: Removes entities from the currently selected set. The Checked State signifies that all entities in the entity set are currently displayed. From the Tools pull-down menu. The export state of each entity set is stored in the HyperMesh database. These group definitions will be converted into HyperMesh entity sets. Display Options: Determines how the sets display in the Set Manager tree. containing group definitions for the selected node or element sets. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. When switching between supported solvers.ses). or by using the display options icons in the toolbar. or Abaqus user profile. Export Session File: Saves a session file (. The set manager displays in the tab area. click the Synch toolbar button to update the HyperMesh display with the current selection. Display IDs: Displays a popup window showing the IDs of all entities contained in the selected set. to the disk. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. • • • • • • • To change the Set Manager's display and export states: 1. grouped in folders by type. Once a display toggle is changed. The display and export icons associated with each entity set are described below: • The display toggle determines whether the entities contained within the entity set are displayed in HyperMesh. Show Only: This operation turns off (masks) all currently displayed entities.

constantly synchronizing the display state of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display can introduce performance issues. but display states always default to the unchecked state on startup.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Instead. Export states synch automatically. in which case the Set Manager and the HyperMesh display are synchronized until another selection is made within the Set Manager. the Display button at the bottom of the Set Manager allows you to update HyperMesh to match the Set Manager settings. In addition. To remedy these occurrences. 374 HyperMesh 8.To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display: The Set Manager is meant to allow users to easily control the display and review of entity sets for model grouping and visualization purposes. For large models. The Synch button resides in the toolbar described by the topic To set display options for the Set Manager. the Display button can be used to update the HyperMesh display to the current Set Manager selection. while the Synch button in the Set Manager toolbar allows you to update the set manager to match the current state of the HyperMesh display. the Set Manager utility does not automatically synchronize the display states of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display.

FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility extracts displacement data for user defined node set(s). Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Displacement extractions.op2 file.op2 file changes.op2 file is required. Note: Recommended practice is to output displacement data for the node set(s) of interest only. consider using STRESS = NONE to further reduce the size of the . Additionally. Only sub-cases with displacement results from the currently selected. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. 4. a text summary table within HyperMesh. sub-case names and IDs with displacement output are saved with the rest of the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. If a new . The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUB-CASE #”. From the Results pull-down menu.LABEL(ID)”. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS io option card The FBD Displacement utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles.op2 file into the database (overwriting the previously selected one). only the LABEL is used. You can select multiple sub-cases by ctrl-clicking or shift-clicking. This procedure reduces the size of the . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. and a formatted . The tool also supports . Use the . Select a sub-case. This lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract displacement information. Location: Results menu.0 User’s Guide 375 . • • Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. select Free Body Diagram. To extract displacement data for a user-defined node set: 1. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct or Nastran user profile. The sub-case display can be switched between ID and Name (ID).op2 file: field to specify the full path and filename of the .csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. 2. 3. If no SUBTITLE exists. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. then FBD Displacements. you must load the new . all appropriate displacements and rotations are extracted. for Nastran and OptiStruct. The FBD Displacements tab displays in the tab area. Once an . Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool).op2 file is selected. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.op2 files containing displacement data from OptiStruct and Nastran. Tab Area (for the tool itself) After you define an element set with an associated node set. or if the original . The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE .op2 file display for selection.op2 file containing the displacement output for the current model.

There are several options: • The Element Set selector defines the elements that contain the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted.op2 file format. On the Setup menu. • 6. Uy. otherwise modify the value as desired. click Coordinate Systems. The Set Manager utility on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. Situations when this behavior could occur include modification of nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. • The Zero Tolerance entry defines the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero.op2 file.y. The Auto find interface nodes option automatically finds the nodes attached to elements that are not contained within the currently selected element set. The option helps to eliminate “relatively small” values from being output to the result formats. Choose Output options: The Output options section contains various options to review and display results of FBD Displacement extractions. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database does not match those used to run the analysis then the extracted values will be incorrect. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation sets the CD field on the GRID card(s).z) in the summary table and .op2 file in the output coordinate system without any further coordinate system transformations. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. and click Set Analysis. Results coordinate system transformations are not performed on displacement data.0e-6. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used for controlling the output of results to the various formats. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the extraction. This functionality allows you to verify which element and node sets are currently selected. It is assumed that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. This procedure selects the nodes interfacing with the remainder of the structure. Select entities. You will be prompted to give the newly created node set a name. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. • The Show model checkbox is a graphical review option that. If a coordinate system is not specified.csv file output options. Displacement data (Ux. • The Coordinate System selector determines the coordinate system used to display the nodal coordinates (x. If a node set is not selected. then all nodes within the element set are used. automatically displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element and node sets.5. The entity selection section allows you to select and/or create the appropriate entities required to execute the FBD Displacements utility. and toggle to the assign sub-panel. The Node Set selector defines the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. The FBD Displacement utility extracts and applies the displacement and rotation results from the . select the required nodes and a coordinate system.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . when checked. Additional nodes may be added to the node set once it is created by clicking the Node Set selector and picking additional nodes.…) is always output in the system that the results are stored with in the . 376 HyperMesh 8.

If an existing file is selected there are several items to note: If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. You may select a new file or an existing file. it will append/replace the data. it will be appended to the end of the file. is created for each sub-case. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. The load collector name format is FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp. • The Create .0 User’s Guide 377 . For example. Loads in this collector are created with the SPCD load type. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. element and node set(s). • The Show summary table option outputs the results to a popup window for instant review. you will be warned that the File already exists and asked if you want to replace it. FBDD_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Disp would be created for element set 1. node set 1 and sub-case 1. The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. but in a comma-separated file.• The Create Load Collectors option will extract the specified displacement data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window5. A sample window with partial output is shown below. node set and sub-case IDs).csv file option creates a . This collector can be referenced as the LOAD in the sub-case panel. The Create SPCD option will additionally create a load collector with the name “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD”. The loads in this load collector are created with the SPC load type. This collector can be referenced as the SPC in the sub-case panel. and detailed displacement data at each node. for the current element and node set. Selecting yes will not overwrite the file. The table contains information about the sub-cases. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. IN any case. A single load collector. If it does not exist.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table.

a text summary table within HyperMesh. only the LABEL is used. overwriting the previously selected. Additionally. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards The FBD Forces utility is broken down into three major sections.op2 file into the database. The ID option lists the sub-cases in the format SUBCASE #. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. Once you’ve selected an op2 file. each of which corresponds with the process order of using the tool.op2 file changes) you must load the new .op2 file. Multiple sub-cases can be selected via Ctrl-click or Shift-click functionality. This procedure reduces the size of the . The sub-case list can be switched between ID and Name (ID). and/or a formatted Comma-Separated Values (.op2 file are displayed for selection only. This opens the standard file selection dialog window. To select a results file: Click on the folder icon inside of the op2 file field.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 378 HyperMesh 8. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme.op2 file is required (or if the original . Location: Results menu. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . If a new . Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool).op2 file. The tool supports . sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities.csv) file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. use this to browse to and select the desired . If no SUBTITLE exists. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards.op2 files containing GPFORCE data from OptiStruct and Nastran. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. for Nastran and OptiStruct. The FBD Forces utility is currently supported by OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case in the format SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID).op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions.FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data (including forces and moments) for a user-defined element set.op2 file that contains the GPFORCE output for the current model. To select a sub-case: The Sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. The op2 file field accepts the full path and filename of the .

op2 file. the HyperMesh origin (0. results coming from. Use the FBD type selector to determine the grid point force and moment data to extract and utilize for FBD calculations for each node in the selected element set. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. or when loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. and RBAR. Applied Loads Only. Available options include All Loads. This could occur when modifying a nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and. It is also useful for calculating the result of applied or reaction forces about any node. sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation . If a node is not selected. To specify output options: 1. or output to. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. SPC. RJOINT. Reaction Loads Only extracts and utilizes only SPC and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on nodes in the selected set. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the GPFORCE data is summed for the selected element set. The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force and moment results from an . • • • All Loads extracts and utilizes all element contribution. This is useful for verifying free body behavior through zero-sum values for all force and moment components about any node. If a results system is not specified. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In addition. 4.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results.0) is used by default. and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. Rigidlink. Use the Element Set selector to define the elements that make up the free body and contain the nodes at which GPFORCE data will be extracted. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. the extracted values will be incorrect. 3.0 User’s Guide 379 . This allows you to verify which element sets is currently selected. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. applied. Applied Loads Only extracts and utilizes only the applied loads grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes.0. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point force and moment result vectors are transformed and output. result system and summation node. and Reaction Loads Only. Activate the Show Model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode while highlighting the currently selected element set. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . On the assign sub-panel. RBE3. (See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. RROD.To select entities: 1.) If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis.

3. and component Fx. This load collector is named “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” and can be referenced in the sub-case panel as the LOAD entry for the various sub-case definitions.0e-6. If an existing file is selected. In addition a load collector with the Nastran/OptiStruct LOAD card is also created. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility.2. activate the Show summary table option. To maintain floating-point precision the default is set to 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . therefore it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which FBD result must be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh 4. sub-case IDs). selecting yes will not overwrite the file—it will append/replace the data as described above. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current element set. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets. and there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. element set(s). The FBD Results Manager tool can be used to review the load collectors generated from FBD Forces utility. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. Use the Zero Tolerance entry field to define the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. For example FBDF_E(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. Altair Engineering • 380 HyperMesh 8. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. All calculations are performed with floating point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats.csv file option to create a . However. A sample window with partial output is shown below. You may select a new file or an existing file. When you save the HyperMesh database. but in a comma-separated file. all FBD Forces load collectors are saved to the database.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. This allows FBD information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. it will be appended to the end of the file. The table contains information about the sub-cases. 5. Use the Create Load Collectors option to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for visualization in the model window. This option helps to prevent relatively small values from being output to the result formats. modify the value as desired. The load collector name format is “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. Use the Create . • The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. To output the results to a popup window for instant review. it is appended to. referencing the component force and moment load collectors. sub-case 1. If it does not exist.

The mesh shouldn’t have any discontinuities (holes. which are defined by an element set. If this node is deleted from the model. This auto-create cross-section capability requires a continuous mesh with rows of nodes (of any orientation) to work properly.0 User’s Guide 381 . If a results system is not specified. The FBD Cross-section Manager interface has two creation methods available for cross-section definition: manual and (semi-) automatic. It also features semi-automatic generation of element and node sets for defining cross-sections. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This option calculates the nodal averaged centroid of the coordinates of all of the nodes in the node set and creates a temporary node at that location. summation node. Tab Area (for the tool itself) This utility contains tools for defining cross-sections. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the grid point extraction. If multiple element sets are selected. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the grid point data will be summed. The Display sections checkbox is a graphical review option that. and a local result coordinate system. when checked. Use the Node Set selector to define the nodes in each currently selected element set at which grid point data will be extracted and summed from. a temporary node is created. If multiple node sets are selected for a single element set. the loads associated with that node are also deleted. displays the element set. HyperMesh adds separate crosssection definitions to the table with the original element set and each selected node set. When using the “Centroid” option. each set is added to the table as a separate cross-section definition which can be modified later by selection. node set. Use the Element Set selector to specify the elements containing the nodes that define the crosssection. The FBD Cross-section Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. result system and summation node which define the cross-section in the graphics display area. the utility defaults to “Centroid”. 4. etc…) and must have identifiable rows of nodes. 3. If no node is selected. node set.FBD Cross-section manager The FBD Cross-section Manager (CSM) utility creates and manages cross-section definitions that are used within the Resultant Force & Moment utility. gaps. 5. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). 2. Use the Set Manager tool on the Tools menu to create the necessary node sets. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point vector results will be transformed and output. Location: Results menu. starting from the selected nodes and progressing along the length of the selected elements. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. The Advanced options section provides the means to semi-automatically create cross-section element and node sets for beam-like structures with regular meshes. To define a cross-section manually: 1.

the cross-section data is saved to the HyperMesh database. all cross-section definitions are also saved. first cross-section). Use the Nodes selector to pick nodes for the first node set (i. result system and summation node. which utilizes the cross-section definitions to perform these calculations. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode. Optional: use the filter buttons on the top of the spreadsheet to select which cross-sections are required. Type a Numbering offset into the text box. Therefore. cross-section definitions only need to be defined once and stored in the HyperMesh database. Standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality can be used to select cross-sections. 382 HyperMesh 8. you type in “ESET” each element set will be named ESET [#]. When the HyperMesh database is saved. highlighting the currently selected element set. For example. This displays the entire model in transparency mode. or deleted. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the crosssection names and the associated sets. 7. Therefore. 4. it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which cross-sections are to be retained within HyperMesh database. This allows you to verify a cross-section definition. 7. If the offset value is set to a value greater than zero.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 5. Type a prefix for the name of each generated element set into the Element set prefix field. Comments Each time a cross-section is created. For example. each element set will contain the elements from the previous set. you type in “NSET” each element set will be named NSET [#]. To define a cross-section automatically: 1. where “#” increases with each new set generated. node set. the generated set names are numbered starting from that value. If checked. 3. highlighting the currently selected elements and nodes. 6. By default. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox. Use the Elements selector to choose the elements that define the entire “beam-like” component from which cross-sections will be generated. 2. where “#” increases with each new set generated.e. or only the new “row” of elements. Selected crosssections can also be deleted from the database by using the Remove selection button on the right end of the filter buttons. Optional: activate the sets accumulate option This determines whether each progressive set also contains the elements from the previous set. Type a prefix for the name of each generated node set into the Node set prefix field. the offset value is zero and HyperMesh generates numbered set names starting with one. modified. This is the offset value for generated set names. These nodes should be at one end of the beam.6. Cross-Sections can then be accessed from within the Resultant Force and Moment utility.

When an . The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID)”.op2 file changes. If no SUBTITLE exists. Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. The tool supports .0 User’s Guide 383 . consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. To select a results file: Use the . If a new .op2 file and helps speed up the Resultant Force and Moment extractions.op2 file is selected. The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUBCASE #”.op2 file display for selection only. Additionally.op2 file into the database. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Multiple sub-cases can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking.op2 file field to specify the full path and filename of the . The Resultant Force and Moment utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. overwriting the previously selected.op2 file containing the desired GPFORCE output for the current model. Location: Results menu.FBD Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment (RF&M) utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data for user defined cross-sections created via the Cross-section Manager. To select a sub-case: Select the desired sub-case(s) from the list in the sub-case section. a text summary table within HyperMesh. only the LABEL is used. or if the original . for Nastran and OptiStruct.op2 files containing grid point force data from OptiStruct and Nastran. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. you must load the new . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This procedure reduces the size of the . Two utilities available within HyperGraph also interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. The sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The resultant force and moment utility generates input data for shear and moment (VMT) diagrams and/or to perform load-case screening with Potato plots in HyperView.op2 file. sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. The subcase list can be organized by ID or Name (ID). and/or a formatted . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards.op2 file is required. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.

RROD. 2. RBE3. Result coordinate systems for cross-sections are defined using the Cross-section Manager.op2 file. This can occur when modifying nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis. The option helps to eliminate relatively small values from being output.0e-6. 3.z) in the summary table. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats.csv file. If a coordinate system is not specified. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. sub-case 1. To specify output options: The Output Options section contains various options to review and display the results of Resultant Force and Moment extractions. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. The Cross-sections section lets you specify the cross-sections from which you wish to calculate resultant force and moment results for each selected sub-case. each made up of an element set and node set. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . Rigidlink. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current cross-section. and component Fx.y. The Resultant Force and Moment utility extracts grid point force and moment results from the .op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. node set 1. operation sets the CD field on the GRID cards). Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel.To select a cross-section: Pick the desired cross-sections from the list in the cross-sections area of the tab. Multiple cross-sections can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this . 384 HyperMesh 8. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. RJOINT.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Use the Coordinate System selector to determine the coordinate system used to output the nodal coordinates (x. results coming from or output to cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. Use the Zero Tolerance field to specify the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. Cross-sections are created using the Cross-section Manager. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided.fbd file output options. and . (On the assign sub-panel. . and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. Resultant force and moment vector results are always output in the result coordinate system defined for each cross-section. Activate the Create Load Collectors checkbox to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window. For example RF&M_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. RBAR. In addition. 1. otherwise modify the value as desired. the extracted values will be incorrect. The load collector name format is “RF&M_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_(compID)”.

csv file option to create a . You can also use the FBD Results Manager to review the load collectors generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. all resultant force and moment load collectors are saved in the database. However. Two utilities available within HyperGraph interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility: Shear and Moment Diagrams (VMT Plots) and Potato Plot. sub-case IDs). Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets and therefore it is important to not renumber any element or node sets for which resultant force and moment result are to be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh. This allows resultant force and moment information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool.fbd file. The table contains information about the sub-cases and cross-sections. it is appended to.csv file containing the same information as the summary table.0 User’s Guide 385 . there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. Activate the Show summary table option to output the results to a popup window for instant review.The “Color” option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. You may select a new file or an existing file. but in a comma separated file. These utilities are accessed from the Free Body Diagrams item within the HyperGraph Utilities menu. If an existing file is selected. it will be appended to the end of the file. 4. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. it will append/replace the data into the file as described above. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. 6. If an existing file is selected. If it does not exist. selecting ‘yes’ will not overwrite the file. You may select a new file or an existing file.csv or . it is appended to. Comments When saving over existing . When the HyperMesh database is saved. 5. Activate the Create .fbd file option to create a file that can be read into HyperGraph using the “Shear and Moment Plot” and “Potato Plot” utilities. Activate the Create . This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data.

when checked. Location: Results menu. Fy. These checkboxes are disabled for the FBD Displacements Result type. 3. and Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). You must choose an existing element set for which you wish to the review the FBD. This selector lists all of the node sets associated with the currently selected element set and sub-cases.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Multiple subcases can be selected using standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality. The Results selection section lets you select the FBD result type to review. FBD Forces (All Loads). For FBD Displacements and Resultant Force and Moment Result types. The optional Show model checkbox. displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element set. To review and manage FBD load collectors: 1. only the node sets that are common to all of them will be listed. • The Fx. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Results Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. 2. The Label loads option determines whether to display the load labels (vector magnitude values as text next to the vector). Pick the desired Results type. 4. Specify any desired Display options: The Display options section allows you to decide which force and moment components display in the graphics area for the current selection. Displacement. If multiple sub-cases are selected. Fz…checkboxes determine which component/resultant vectors display when you click the Accept button. Selecting an FBD result type scans the HyperMesh database and updates the Subcases list with available sub-cases for the currently selected element set and result type. The Load handles option determines whether to display the load handles. or Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. and Resultant Force and Moment. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.FBD Results Manager Use the FBD Results Manager to graphically review and manage the load collectors generated from all FBD and Resultant Force and Moment utilities. the Results selection interface is modified to include a Node sets selector. FBD Forces (Reaction Loads). FBD Forces (Applied Loads). Select the desired Sub-cases by clicking on them. • • 386 HyperMesh 8. Select one or more Element sets. Valid types include FBD Displacements. The Entity selection section allows you to select the element set for which to review FBD. Grayed-out checkboxes indicate force and moment components or results that can’t display for the currently selected element set/sub-case/node sets. Displacement.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. removing it from the tab area without displaying any results in the graphics area. Click one of the command buttons at the bottom of the tab: The Accept button displays the selected result vectors on in the graphics area. The Update load collector color option will recolor the load collectors associated with the current selection to the color selected in the Color option.• The Vector size option allows you to control the display size of the result vectors. The Reset button clears the graphics area of all result vectors and resets all of the FBD Results Manager entry fields. Click the Color box to pick a different color. if desired. Magnitude % or Uniform size. • 5. each of which requires a numeric value. A popup warning tells you what will be deleted and requires you to confirm the deletion. The Close button closes the FBD Results Manager.0 User’s Guide 387 . Two options are available. Note that these values do not affect the vector magnitude—only their screen size. The Delete button deletes the load collectors associated with the current selection.

After export.op2 file. In addition. highlighting the currently selected element set for review. Specify Export options:. If you choose FBD Displacements or Resultant Force and Moment as the result type. If FBD Force and FBD Displacement load collectors from the same sub-case are selected for export. Use the Element set selector to specify the set for which you wish to export data. Click the one(s) that you wish to export to highlight them. Choose the results type that you wish to export from the list box. a SUBCASE will be created with SPC = assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collector for the selected sub-case. The LOAD = will reference the newly created LOAD load collector. Displacement.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If multiple node sets are selected for export the following will occur: An SPCADD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collectors will be assigned to it. the exported data can be used for breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. Click add to export to add the highlighted results to the export batch. • • If the SPCD option was enabled when creating FBD Displacement loads. or Resultant Force & Moment collectors: 1. If the SPCD option was enabled when creating the FBD Displacement loads. 388 HyperMesh 8. This option will also create SUBTITLE and LABEL cards if they are available from the sub-case information within the currently selected . The SPC = will reference the newly created SPCADD load collector. the Results type affects how HyperMesh creates sub-cases: For FBD Forces – All Loads. If you wish to create sub-cases upon export. Displacement. For FBD Displacements. This populates the list of subcases. Select the desired node sets in the same fashion as the subcases. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Export Manager is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. use <ctrl>-click or <shift>-click to select multiple results. Optional: activate the show model checkbox to display the entire model in transparency mode. a SUBCASE will be created with LOAD = assigned to the “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” load collector which references the LOAD card pointing to each component “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)” load collector for the selected sub-case. This opens a standard file browser window that you can use to browse to the desired destination directory and either select an existing file. To export FBD. an additional list of node sets displays. 3. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). 4. LOAD = will also be assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collector for the selected sub-case. 5. and/or Resultant Force and Moment load collectors generated by other FBD utilities. Location: Results menu. or type in a name for a new one. click the Create appropriate subcases checkbox and then click the open-folder button in the Output file text box. a LOAD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collectors will be assigned to it. HyperMesh prompts you to select one or the other from which to create the sub-case. 2.FBD Export Manager The FBD Export Manager exports FBD.

meaning that clicking it: • • • • • Turns off the display of all currently displayed elements. Reset clears all of the export criteria so that you can start over. removing it from the tab area. Click the appropriate command button at the bottom of the tab: Export executes the export process. and Removes unnecessary header information from the output file.0 User’s Guide 389 . and/or Resultant Force and Moment loads are displayed. Exports the model with the “displayed” option. Close closes the tab. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.6. Displacement. Creates temporary mass elements on the nodes where the selected FBD. Deletes the temporary mass elements from the current model.

Note that for any given node within the GPFORCE table. which in turn must sum to zero for the complete GPFORCE table. including: • • • • • Applied forces and moments SPC forces and moments MPC forces and moments Element forces and moments from elements attached to the node Total summed values for each node.FBD Grid Point Force Balance The Grid Point Force Balance table. is the data around which all FBD-Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utility calculations are performed. 390 HyperMesh 8. a fixed support on the left end. output from OptiStruct and Nastran with the GPFORCE io options command. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Shown below is a sample model which will be used to demonstrate the grid point force calculations that HyperMesh FBD utilities perform. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding GPFORCE io option cards. several types of entries are possible depending on the forces acting at that node. Location: Results menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and a point load on the right end. This model cons ists of two elements. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). The complete GPFORCE table for the above cantilever beam model is presented below.

0 User’s Guide 391 .Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

for any given node. for any given node. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. 3 and 4. if all element contributions are from elements from within the defined element set. MPC loads: Zero iv. 4. Applied loads: Zero ii. SPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. For all nodes connected to elements in the element set. The following example of FBD-Forces extraction uses an element set defined with only element: The element set contains only element 1. v.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Node 2 i. Therefore. Furthermore. Fx calculation. • • 2. Total FBD Value at Node 1 = 2. looping through all the nodes attached to elements in the element set: a. SPC loads: Fx component exists (2. Applied loads: Zero ii.121e+03 392 HyperMesh 8. This information is then used to produce free bodies and/or resultant force and moments. FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility uses an element set to define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. if any element contribution is not from one of the defined elements within the element set. Node 1 i.Process The FBD Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utilities use element and node set definitions to define what information to extract and sum from the GPFORCE table. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. then the node is an “internal” node and element contributions are not extracted or utilized in FBD calculations.121e+03) and is extracted iii.121e+03) and is extracted iii. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 1 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not considered. 3. all nodes connected to the elements in the element set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. For FBD types All loads and Applied loads only. Total FBD Value at Node 2 = -2. For FBD types Applied loads only. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set will be extracted and utilized in the FBD calculations. For FBD types 2 Applied loads only. MPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. MPC loads: Zero iv. Element 1 has nodes 1. The element set serves several purposes: 1. applied loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations.121e+03 b. SPC loads: Fx component exists (-2. For FBD type Reaction loads only. then the node is an “interface” node and element contributions from the elements not a part of the element set are extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. 2. v. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 2 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not condered.

iv. This verifies that the FBD-Forces extraction is indeed a “free body”.085e+03) v. ii. Node 4 i. Mz calculations follow similar procedures. iii. is the simple sum. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. v. Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3.085e+03) Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1.0 (ie. Fy. Mx.0 User’s Guide 393 .085e+03 e. Note that the sum of the moment components (Mx. My. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. iii. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. • Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. iv. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1.c. Node 3 i. Notice that the sum of all components is zero about any point in the model. ii. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Mz) is not the direct sum of all nodes as the (rXF) terms for the force resultant vector about the sum point must also be added to each moment component appropriately. however. Fx component satisfies free body requirements) Fy. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1.085e+03 Sum all nodes in Fx = 0. The final FBD-Forces results are presented in the summary table output from the FBD-Forces utility. d. Fz) for each node. My. Fz. The sum of the forces components (Fx. illustrated in the screenshot below.

Fx calculation. Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. The following example of Resultant Force and Moment extraction uses a cross-section definition given by an element set defined with only element 1. The cross-section definition serves several purposes: 1. Sum nodes in node set in Fx = 0. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. MPC loads:Zero iv. MPC loads:Zero ix. Node 4 vi.Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment utility uses an element set and a node set (cross-section definition) define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. All nodes in the node set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force 2 and Moment calculations . 3.085e+03 c. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. a node set defined with nodes 3 and 4. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. SPC loads: Zero iii.0 Fy calculation. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. summation node set to node 3. 5. Node 3 i. All nodes in the node set must be attached to one or more elements in the element set.085e+03 b. Applied loads: Zero vii.085e+03) x. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. • 394 HyperMesh 8. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system: • • • The element set contains only element 1. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set of the cross-section definition will be extracted and utilized in the Resultant Force and Moment calculations. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. 2. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. For all nodes in the node set.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . All nodes in the node set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. All nodes in the node set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. The node set contains nodes 3 and 4. Applied loads: Zero ii. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. SPC loads: Zero viii. 4.085e+03) v. All values are zero in this model. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.

871e+00) xxv. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Total rXF Value summed at Node 3 = -1. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-1.0 User’s Guide 395 .426e+02) xv.808e+02 xxxiii. MPC loads:Zero xiv.166*1. Node 3 xxi. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (3. Total Fz Value at Node 3 = 6. Sum nodes in node set in Fz = 1.574e+02) xx. MPC loads:Zero xxiv. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Selecting node 3 as the summation node (any node in the model can be selected) and performing rXF (all element edge lengths are 0. SPC loads: Zero xiii. MPC loads:Zero xxix. MPC loads:Zero xix. My calculation. looking through all the nodes in the node set: a. Total My Value at Node 3 = -8. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4.574e+02) = -1. Applied loads: Zero xii. Node 4 xvi. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (6. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3.000e+03 (The value of the applied shear) Mx calculation.166) the following is obtained: xxxi. All values are zero in this model.574e+02 c.808e+02 d. Node 3: no additional rXF contributions since it is the sum point xxxii. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Calculate the cross-product of all the forces about the Y-axis at node 3. Applied loads: Zero xxvii. SPC loads: Zero xxiii. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = -1. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3.871e+00 b. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = 3. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Applied loads: Zero xvii. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a.• Fz calculation looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. SPC loads: Zero xviii. Sum nodes in node set and all rXF terms in My = -2.024e+00) xxx.085e+03) + (0.024e+00 c. Node 3 xi.000e+02. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-8.426e+02 b. Applied loads: Zero xxii. Node 4: rXF for My component equates to the following equation (rz*Fx) + (rx*Fz) = (-0. SPC loads: Zero xxviii. Node 4 xxvi.0*3.

op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions. The element and node sets serve several purposes: 1. FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility uses an element set and a node set to define the values to extract from the Displacement table. The final Resultant Force and Moment results are presented in the graphic below. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards.op2 file. This procedure reduces the size of the . summation node set to node 3. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system. This maintains the integrity of the calculations as well as enhances the performance of the utilities. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . Additional Information: • Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. 2. looping through all the nodes in the node set a. nodes 3 and 4 (node set). for a cross-section defined with element 1 (element set).• Mz calculation. • • 396 HyperMesh 8. for Nastran and OptiStruct. All nodes in the node set will have displacement and rotation values extracted.op2 file in float point precision in binary format. The element set is for visualization and breakout modeling purposes only. MPC forces and moments are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: o RBE2 o RBE3 o Rigidlink o RJOINT o RROD o RBAR The GPFORCE and Displacement results are extracted of the . All values are zero in this model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Additionally. which is the summary table output from the Resultant Force and Moment utility.

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