P. 1
HyperMesh 8.0 User's Guide

HyperMesh 8.0 User's Guide

|Views: 749|Likes:
Publicado porSubhash Chander

More info:

Published by: Subhash Chander on Jul 07, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/07/2013

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • Hardware and Operating Systems
  • Starting HyperMesh
  • Starting HyperMesh Batch Version
  • Start-up Options
  • Configuring HyperMesh
  • Configuration File Commands
  • Start-up Files
  • Specifying a Temporary File Directory
  • HyperMesh Database Design
  • Database Names
  • Using and Saving a Database
  • Nodes
  • Fixed Points
  • Free Points
  • Collectors
  • Elements
  • Lines
  • Surfaces and Faces
  • Systems
  • Loads
  • Cards
  • Vectors
  • Title
  • HyperMesh Environment
  • Pull-Down menus
  • Graphics Area
  • Toolbar Area
  • Header Bar
  • Main Menu Area
  • Page Menu
  • Tab Area
  • Model Browser
  • Include Browser
  • Modules
  • Loadsteps Browser
  • Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles
  • Panels
  • Sub-panels
  • Input Controls
  • File Browser
  • The Mouse
  • Rapid Menu
  • Keyboard
  • Secondary Menu
  • Utility Menu
  • BOM comparison tool
  • Quick TetraMesh
  • User Profiles
  • HyperMesh User Profile
  • Using HyperMesh
  • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database
  • Picking Entities on the Screen
  • Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements
  • Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu
  • Viewing Models
  • Using the disp (display) Panel
  • Setting View Options
  • Setting Tolerances
  • Setting Global Parameters
  • Importing and Exporting Data
  • Printing Screen Images
  • Using the Card Previewer
  • General Process for Building Models
  • Creating Collectors
  • Reading Geometry
  • Creating Geometry Data
  • Temporary Nodes
  • Picking Surfaces
  • Editing Surfaces
  • Associativity
  • Geometry Cleanup
  • Building Elements
  • Checking Model Quality
  • Applying Loads
  • Creating Systems
  • Automatic Mesh Generation
  • Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel
  • Mesh Generation Algorithms
  • Smoothing Algorithms
  • Element Biasing
  • Linked or Locked Edges
  • Connector Entity
  • Connector Terminology
  • Connector Definition
  • Connector Realization
  • Connector Review
  • Connectors User Control Mode
  • Master Connectors File
  • Multiple Weld File Format
  • Import Templates
  • FE Configuration File
  • FE Definition Examples
  • HyperMorph Strategies
  • The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing
  • Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains
  • Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • HyperBeam Module
  • Example of the Three-Step Process
  • Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam
  • HyperBeam Environment
  • Section Browser
  • Shell Section Graphics Pane
  • Results/Spreadsheet Pane
  • HyperBeam Menu Bar
  • HyperBeam Toolbar
  • Beam Cross Section Property Solver
  • Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements
  • Defining a Cross Section
  • Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties
  • Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver
  • Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers
  • HyperLaminate Module
  • HyperLaminate Environment
  • HyperLaminate Menus
  • HyperLaminate Toolbar
  • Laminate Browser
  • Define/Edit Pane
  • Review Pane
  • Finite Difference Module
  • Creating a Finite Difference Block
  • Creating a Structured Mesh
  • Loads on Geometry
  • Terminology and Definitions
  • Application of Loads to Geometry
  • Exporting Loads
  • Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh
  • Distributed Load Mapper
  • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results
  • Select a data type and a mapping method
  • Set the scale factor
  • Set the mapping algorithm
  • Mathematical Loading
  • Post-Processing Analysis
  • HyperMesh Results Database
  • Specifying the Results File
  • Creating Deformed Geometry Plots
  • Creating Animations
  • Creating Vector Plots
  • Creating Contour Plots
  • Creating Assigned Plots
  • Adding Plot Identification
  • Inspecting the Results
  • XY Plotting
  • XY Plots Module
  • Creating an XY Plot
  • Modifying an XY Plot
  • Working with Multiple XY Plots
  • Modifying Multiple XY Plots
  • Creating Curves on XY Plots
  • Modifying Curve Attributes
  • Displaying Selected Curves on Plots
  • Using the Curve Editor
  • AutoDV Introduction
  • Generation of Perturbation Vectors
  • Manual Perturbation
  • Polynomial Perturbation Vectors
  • Primary Domain Model
  • Primary Domain Node Sets
  • Control Perturbations
  • Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets
  • Harmonic Perturbation Vectors
  • Generation of Variable Loads
  • Running AutoDV Stand-alone
  • Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
  • To create an H3D file from HyperMesh:
  • H3D FAQ's
  • Free Body Diagrams
  • FBD Set Manager
  • FBD Displacements
  • FBD Forces
  • FBD Cross-section manager
  • FBD Resultant Force and Moment
  • FBD Results Manager
  • FBD Export Manager
  • FBD Grid Point Force Balance

HyperMesh 8.

0 User's Guide

HyperWorks

Altair Engineering Contact Information
Web site FTP site www.altair.com Address: ftp.altair.com or ftp2.altair.com or http://ftp.altair.com/ftp Login: ftp Password: <your e-mail address>

Location
North America China France Germany India

Telephone
248.614.2425 86.21.5393.0011 33.1.4133.0990 49.7031.6208.22 91.80.6629.4500 1.800.425.0234 (toll free) 39.800.905.595 81.3.5396.1341 81.3.5396.2881 82.31.716.4321 46.46.286.2052 44.1926.468.600 55.11.4223.5733 64.9.413.7981 64.9.413.7981

e-mail
hwsupport@altair.com support@altair.com.cn francesupport@altair.com hwsupport@altair.de support@india.altair.com

Italy Japan Korea Scandinavia United Kingdom Brazil Australia New Zealand

support@altairtorino.it support@altairjp.co.jp support@altair.co.kr support@altair.se support@uk.altair.com br_support@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com

The following countries have distributors for Altair Engineering: Mexico, Romania, Russia, South Korea, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan and Turkey. See www.altair.com for complete contact information. © 2007 Altair Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated to another language without the written permission of Altair Engineering, Inc. To obtain this permission, write to the attention Altair Engineering legal department at: 1820 E. Big Beaver, Troy, Michigan, USA, or call +1-248-614-2400.

Trademark and Registered Trademark Acknowledgments
Listed below are Altair HyperWorks applications. Copyright Altair Engineering Inc., All Rights Reserved for: HyperMesh 1990-2006; HyperView 1999-2006; OptiStruct 1996-2006; HyperStudy 1999-2006; ® ® ® HyperGraph 1995-2006; HyperGraph 3D 2005-2006; MotionView 1993-2006; MotionSolve 2002-2006; ® ® ® ® HyperForm 1998-2006; HyperXtrude 1999-2006; HyperOpt 1996-2006; HyperView Player 2001-2006; ® Process Manager™ 2003-2006; HyperWeb 2002-2004; Data Manager™ 2005-2006; Templex™ 19902006; Manufacturing Solutions ™ 2005-2006 All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
® ® ® ® ® ® ©

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Starting and Configuring HyperMesh
Hardware and Operating Systems ......................................................................................1 Starting HyperMesh .............................................................................................................2 Starting HyperMesh Batch Version .....................................................................................5 Start-up Options ...................................................................................................................6 Configuring HyperMesh.......................................................................................................7 Configuration File Commands .............................................................................................9 Start-up Files ......................................................................................................................21 Specifying a Temporary File Directory ..............................................................................21

HyperMesh Database and Environment
HyperMesh Database Design............................................................................................22 Database Names ...............................................................................................................22 Using and Saving a Database...........................................................................................22 Nodes .................................................................................................................................22 Fixed Points .......................................................................................................................22 Free Points .........................................................................................................................22 Collectors ...........................................................................................................................23 Elements ............................................................................................................................27 Lines ...................................................................................................................................30 Surfaces and Faces...........................................................................................................32 Systems..............................................................................................................................33 Loads..................................................................................................................................33 Cards..................................................................................................................................33 Vectors ...............................................................................................................................33 Title.....................................................................................................................................34 HyperMesh Environment ...................................................................................................35 Pull-Down menus...............................................................................................................37 Graphics Area ....................................................................................................................39 Toolbar Area ......................................................................................................................40 Header Bar .........................................................................................................................44 Main Menu Area.................................................................................................................46 Page Menu .........................................................................................................................46
Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide i

Tab Area.............................................................................................................................47 Model Browser ...................................................................................................................48 Include Browser .................................................................................................................57 Modules ..............................................................................................................................63 Loadsteps Browser............................................................................................................64 Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles ............................................................65 Panels ................................................................................................................................69 Sub-panels .........................................................................................................................70 Input Controls.....................................................................................................................71 File Browser .......................................................................................................................77 The Mouse .........................................................................................................................79 Rapid Menu ........................................................................................................................81 Keyboard ............................................................................................................................82 Secondary Menu ................................................................................................................86 Utility Menu ........................................................................................................................87 BOM comparison tool ........................................................................................................95 Quick TetraMesh..............................................................................................................112

User Profiles
User Profiles.....................................................................................................................127 HyperMesh User Profile...................................................................................................128

Using HyperMesh
Using HyperMesh ............................................................................................................128 Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database ..............................................................129 Picking Entities on the Screen .........................................................................................130 Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements .......................................................................132 Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu .....................................................................133 Viewing Models ................................................................................................................137 Using the disp (display) Panel .........................................................................................140 Setting View Options........................................................................................................142 Setting Tolerances ...........................................................................................................145 Setting Global Parameters...............................................................................................145 Importing and Exporting Data ..........................................................................................146 Printing Screen Images ...................................................................................................148 Using the Card Previewer................................................................................................150
ii HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Building Models
General Process for Building Models ..............................................................................151 Creating Collectors ..........................................................................................................152 Reading Geometry...........................................................................................................153 Creating Geometry Data ..................................................................................................154 Temporary Nodes ............................................................................................................158 Picking Surfaces ..............................................................................................................158 Editing Surfaces ...............................................................................................................159 Associativity .....................................................................................................................161 Geometry Cleanup ...........................................................................................................162 Building Elements ............................................................................................................164 Checking Model Quality ...................................................................................................167 Applying Loads.................................................................................................................168 Creating Systems.............................................................................................................169

Automatic 2-D Mesh Generation
Automatic Mesh Generation ............................................................................................170 Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel.......................................................................172 Mesh Generation Algorithms ...........................................................................................173 Smoothing Algorithms......................................................................................................175 Element Biasing ...............................................................................................................176 Linked or Locked Edges ..................................................................................................179

Connectors
Connector Entity...............................................................................................................180 Connector Terminology ...................................................................................................181 Connector Definition ........................................................................................................185 Connector Realization......................................................................................................187 Connector Review............................................................................................................188 Connectors User Control Mode .......................................................................................188 Master Connectors File....................................................................................................189 Multiple Weld File Format ................................................................................................190 Import Templates .............................................................................................................191 FE Configuration File .......................................................................................................193 FE Definition Examples ...................................................................................................197

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide iii

HyperMorph and Morphing Strategies
HyperMorph Strategies ....................................................................................................199 The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing......................................................................201 Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains ..................................................220 Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................237 Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................263

Calculating Beam Properties
HyperBeam Module .........................................................................................................272 Example of the Three-Step Process................................................................................274 Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam ..............................................279 HyperBeam Environment.................................................................................................282 Section Browser...............................................................................................................283 Shell Section Graphics Pane...........................................................................................284 Results/Spreadsheet Pane..............................................................................................285 HyperBeam Menu Bar .....................................................................................................287 HyperBeam Toolbar .........................................................................................................294 Beam Cross Section Property Solver ..............................................................................296 Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements..................................................297 Defining a Cross Section .................................................................................................298 Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties .................300 Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver .........................................................................301 Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers ................................................................303

HyperLaminate and Composites
HyperLaminate Module....................................................................................................304 HyperLaminate Environment ...........................................................................................305 HyperLaminate Menus .....................................................................................................306 HyperLaminate Toolbar ...................................................................................................308 Laminate Browser............................................................................................................309 Define/Edit Pane ..............................................................................................................313 Review Pane ....................................................................................................................323

iv HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Finite Difference Module
Finite Difference Module ..................................................................................................324 Creating a Finite Difference Block...................................................................................324 Creating a Structured Mesh.............................................................................................325

Boundary Conditions
Loads on Geometry .........................................................................................................327 Terminology and Definitions ............................................................................................328 Application of Loads to Geometry ...................................................................................329 Exporting Loads ...............................................................................................................330 Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh ..............................................330 Distributed Load Mapper .................................................................................................331 Load an input file containing CFD analysis results .........................................................333 Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, or ANSYS input file format) ...............................................................................................................334 Select a data type and a mapping method......................................................................334 Set the scale factor ..........................................................................................................334 Set the mapping algorithm ...............................................................................................335 Mathematical Loading......................................................................................................336

Post-Processing and XY Plots
Post-Processing Analysis ................................................................................................338 HyperMesh Results Database.........................................................................................338 Specifying the Results File ..............................................................................................339 Creating Deformed Geometry Plots ................................................................................339 Creating Animations.........................................................................................................339 Creating Vector Plots .......................................................................................................340 Creating Contour Plots.....................................................................................................340 Creating Assigned Plots ..................................................................................................340 Adding Plot Identification .................................................................................................341 Inspecting the Results......................................................................................................341 XY Plotting .......................................................................................................................342 XY Plots Module...............................................................................................................343 Creating an XY Plot .........................................................................................................344 Modifying an XY Plot........................................................................................................344 Working with Multiple XY Plots ........................................................................................344
Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide v

Modifying Multiple XY Plots .............................................................................................344 Creating Curves on XY Plots ...........................................................................................345 Modifying Curve Attributes...............................................................................................347 Displaying Selected Curves on Plots ..............................................................................347 Using the Curve Editor.....................................................................................................348

AutoDV
AutoDV Introduction .........................................................................................................351 Generation of Perturbation Vectors.................................................................................352 Manual Perturbation.........................................................................................................352 Polynomial Perturbation Vectors .....................................................................................353 Primary Domain Model ....................................................................................................353 Primary Domain Node Sets .............................................................................................354 Control Perturbations .......................................................................................................355 Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets ....................................................................357 Harmonic Perturbation Vectors .......................................................................................359 Generation of Variable Loads ..........................................................................................361 Running AutoDV Stand-alone .........................................................................................363

H3D Writer
Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh ...........................................................................365 H3D FAQ's .......................................................................................................................369

Free Body Diagrams
Free Body Diagrams........................................................................................................370 FBD Set Manager ............................................................................................................371 FBD Displacements .........................................................................................................375 FBD Forces ......................................................................................................................378 FBD Cross-section manager ...........................................................................................381 FBD Resultant Force and Moment ..................................................................................383 FBD Results Manager......................................................................................................386 FBD Export Manager .......................................................................................................388 FBD Grid Point Force Balance ........................................................................................390

vi HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

depending on their level of sophistication. The following hardware platforms are currently supported: • • • • • • • Pentium-based PC or compatible running Windows WIN NT 4. This option is found in the Desktop icon in the Control Panel group. HP-ITANIUM (HPUX_IA32) running 11. However.11.5. All UNIX ports are built around OpenGL. please contact your HyperMesh sales representative. HyperMesh has an identical appearance and behavior on all platforms. Most of the HyperMesh source code is independent and can be compiled on various systems. Some platforms may have limitations or extensions. In general. which prevents HyperMesh from redrawing immediately when a destructive windowing operation is performed. a small portion of source code that controls the graphically oriented operations. Silicon Graphics family of workstations running IRIX 6. or 5. IBM running AIX 4. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Notes for PC Users If you are running Windows NT (depending on model size or processor speed) you may wish to turn the full drag option off.2.0.3.23.1. WIN 2000/XP. LINUX running RH 7.Hardware and Operating Systems HyperMesh is not tied to a specific set of computer hardware or operating system and presents the same appearance on all platforms. or information concerning future platforms. such as drawing a line on the screen. HP-PARISC (HPUX) running 11. For more specific information concerning your hardware/software configuration.0 or 11. SUN workstations running Solaris 2.0.3 or RH 8.8.3.5. needs to be "ported" to each hardware platform on which HyperMesh runs. 5.13 m.11 m and IRIX 6.0 User’s Guide 1 .

Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use.alias or . Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh.cfg. see Configuring HyperMesh. hm. Starting HyperMesh in UNIX This section contains the instructions and optional arguments for starting HyperMesh on a UNIX workstation. For more information about the hm.. to have HyperMesh start and run according to the standards and preferences of your particular work site.cshrc file in the user home directory.alias or .cfg configuration file. For example. You can create a start-up file or alter the HyperMesh configuration file.Starting HyperMesh This section explains how to start HyperMesh on UNIX.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . At the operating system prompt. Windows 2000. <altair_home>/altair/scripts/hm) and press the ENTER key. see Start-up Files. To start HyperMesh: 1. 2 HyperMesh 8. enter the full path of the HyperMesh script (e. enter hm at the command prompt to invoke HyperMesh.0/altair/script/hm’ Once an alias is created.cshrc file: alias hm ‘/homes/applications/hm8. Note: For more information about creating and using start-up files. and Windows XP platforms. Or Create an alias for HyperMesh in the user . add the following line in the .g. 2.

Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. To start HyperMesh: 1. From the Altair HyperWorks group: select HyperMesh. you may wish to change this directory. 2. HyperMesh starts and the main menu is displayed on the screen. a window opens prompting you to choose a user profile. The quit button is located on the upper right-hand corner of the panel area on any of the main menu pages. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 4. The user profiles window is also accessible from the view pull-down menu. The default working directory specified by the HyperMesh icon is the Windows default My Documents directory. an Altair HyperWorks group is created in Programs on the Start menu.Starting HyperMesh on PC During installation. click Start and choose Programs. 3.0 User’s Guide 3 . 5. Since HyperMesh creates user files. User profiles affect the HyperMesh layout as well as features such as element quality checks. From the Start menu. By default. Choose the desired user profile and then click OK. Uncheck always show at startup to prevent this window from opening each time you load HyperMesh. To exit HyperMesh. click quit. or Click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop.

Your user files. After Start in:. 4. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. 3. command. 4 HyperMesh 8. Select the Shortcut tab. Click Apply. if you do not want HyperMesh to write a command file. Select the Shortcut tab. 4. To change/use startup options: 1. Select Properties. Append the startup options to the path listed in Target:. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. enter -nocommand after the HyperMesh path. 2. For example. 3. 5.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory.cmf and hmmenu.To change the working directory: 1. Select Properties. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. are created in this directory.set. 2. The path to the HyperMesh executable displays after Target:. enter the name and path of the directory in which you want to run HyperMesh.

plot. To start HyperMesh batch version on PC: 1. To start HyperMesh batch version on UNIX: 1. create. Append the option.cmf and press ENTER. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh.) are ignored. 2. Since this batch version does not have graphical display. Select the programs tab. to this path. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 5 . Select Properties. postscript. 6. Locate and right-click on the hmbatch(.cmf. 3.g. Click Apply. –ccommand. Note: See Start-up Options for more information about the start-up arguments you can use.cmf contains the HyperMesh commands to be executed. HyperMesh commands that require display (e. 2.Starting HyperMesh Batch Version HyperMesh batch version (hmbatch) allows you to invoke HyperMesh in batch mode at the command line and run a command file. 4. hmbatch terminates when it reaches the end of the command file or when it encounters *quit( ) in the command file. Right -click on the hmbatch icon on the desktop. type hmbatch –ccommand. the path to the hmbatch executable is displayed. After Cmd line:. etc.com) executable file in the /hm/bin directory. command. At the operating system prompt. 5. fit.

hm. or to print messages.set file to replace the installed hmmenu. Use the results file. -uAnsys to start HyperMesh under the Ansys user profile. or the specified file. -e<filename> <filename> -mmouse. Causes HyperMesh to draw nodes to the PostScript file as circles.Start-up Options You can enter arguments after the hm command that allow you to specify which command file to run. Allows Templex within command files. Always continue on error when processing a command file. Print this message. Plays back the mouse commands in the mouse.hm -c<filename> -continue Read the HyperMesh file.cmf file. Do not prompt via a pop-up box. Forces HyperMesh to run in the foreground.msf file. Write the mouse commands to a mouse. Automatically run the specified command file. Prevents HyperMesh from creating or writing to the command.set.msf file Other options that can be specified after the start-up command allow you to specify model or results files or run command or mouse files. Start HyperMesh under a specific user profile: for example. Automatically load the specified HyperMesh binary file. Causes HyperMesh to pause on the title splash screen until you press a key on the keyboard.res suffix. Set the text input field in the export panel to the specified file. fl. pre-set export paths. Opens the application in a window of the specified width and height in pixels (PC only).msf -nobg -nocommand -psdhm -r[filename] -rres -s<width><height> -templex -t<filename> -titlepause -u<profile> -writemastermenu 6 HyperMesh 8. Sets the global template file to the specified file. res (-r alone specifies the file fl. nodes are not drawn. change screen resolutions. Otherwise. The format of the command is: hm [ -version ] [-h] [-m] where: -version -h -m Display the current version. These options include: fl.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Allows you to write a master hmmenu. Sets the name of the HyperMesh results file database to either the input filename with a .res).

0 User’s Guide 7 . The hm.cfg file are acknowledged.cfg. HyperMesh uses the following order of precedence: PC customization path current (local) directory installation directory UNIX current (local) directory home directory installation directory All running copies of HyperMesh must be restarted before any changes to the hm. which is read on start-up and is located in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/ directory. only on start -up. and titlestitlefont_configuration_command>Config fonts Specify the default legend colorlegendcolorfile_configuration_command>Config Specify a color to use for entities with no resultsnoresultcolor_configuration_command>Config Change cursor sizebigcursors_configuration_command>Config Turn element and geom handlesnopickhandles_configuration_command>Config off by default Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending PostScript files to a PostScript printerpostcopy_configuration_command>Config Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending black and white PostScript filespostcopyblackandwhite_configuration_command>Config to a PostScript printer • • • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.cfg file to save your preferences. or all of the commands may be on one line. The commands in the hm. with each command occupying one line. The following commands are an example of a partial hm.cfg file controls certain aspects of how HyperMesh runs at your particular site. They may begin in any column. You can edit the commands in the hm. The commands are not sensitive to location in the file. Each of the hm.cfg.cfg file: *menufont(2) *titlefont(3) *graphicfont(1) Note: HyperMesh accesses the configuration file. If the hm.cfg commands begins with an asterisk and is followed by a set of parentheses that enclose a variable number of arguments.Configuring HyperMesh HyperMesh has a default configuration file named hm.cfg file allow you to: • • • • • Specify an absolute pointing deviceabsolutepointer_configuration_command>Config Enable buttonbuttons_configuration_command>Config and dialdials_configuration_command>Config input Specify default translatorsfeinput_default_configuration_command>Config and templatesfeoutput_default_configuration_command>Config Specify the default solversregistersolver_configuration_command>Config Specify default graphicsgraphicfont_configuration_command>Config. A command can be turned into a comment by removing the asterisk (*) preceding the command. hm. menumenufont_configuration_command>Config.cfg file exists in multiple directories.

set file Cadreader. deleting this file can restore your HyperMesh settings to the default state if you encounter problems within the HyperMesh user interface that you cannot rectify by any other means.mac file hmmenu.cfg file Any printer settings (which may also exist in hm.tcl file 8 HyperMesh 8. such as catia.ini files. tabs which are visible (e. Customization paths You can store configuration files in a file path other than the ones to which they are installed by default. or ug. key bindings. in order to use configuration files stored in a different file path.ini.g. The configuration files which can be used in conjunction with customization paths are: hm.ini Fatigue.altair on Unix and Linux.tcl. model or include browser). However. Hmsettings.tcl should not be edited and its format will change between releases.cfg file hmexec file feconfig.ini.cfg file hyperlaminate. such as tab locations (left/right/both/none). Set the screen size Specify the colormap version Set the default graphics simplification mode Tells HyperMesh to load the 3D Writer Specify the input translator and component format Specifies which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system Display the Utility menu when HyperMesh starts Include intermediate (not just the final choice) rotation commands There is another configuration file stored in "My Documents" on the Windows platform and in ~/.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Note: Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending ASCII files to a PostScript printerprintfile_configuration_command>Config Specify how to create a PostScript file of the screenpostfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Specify how to create a bitmap file of the screenscreenfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Indicate to HyperMesh the method for creating bitmap files Set reverse video when your printer cannot be set to reverse black and white. However. recent files imported and recent files loaded. hmcustom. HyperMesh uses this file to record various GUI settings for each user.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .cfg). Multiple paths can be specified as variable values within this variable name. This prevents them from being overwritten when you install a new HyperWorks update.cfg file userpage. called hmsettings. HyperMesh creates this file automatically when upon exiting the program. administrators must set up an environment variable called HW_CONFIG_PATH to specify the path. iges.

uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. under Windows.Configuration File Commands The following is a list of the configuration commands that you can use to control how HyperMesh runs at your particular site: *absolutepointer() Use this command if you have a digitizing tablet or any other type of absolute pointing device. You can also change the cursor size by selecting large or standard under cursor size: on the menu config sub-panel in the options panel.) *bigcursors() Informs HyperMesh that pointing cursors should be double-sized when they are displayed on the screen. This command allows you to force the menu system to use a bold font. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. *boldmenufont(state) state 1 = bold 0 = use current value Comments The menu system in HyperMesh. *boldmenufont () Description Syntax To force the menu font to bold on windows. (An absolute pointer usually has six buttons.0 User’s Guide 9 .

but a lower frame rate (slower). but the operation will have a higher frame rate (faster).999937705) *quatrotate(-0. if the *dials() command is not added to the configuration file. *dynamicrotatemode() Sets mode for output of intermediate rotation commands.0. Immediate mode results in a faster initial response time.-5.0.00785649346. HyperMesh does not respond to button input.0.0.0047803938.0. *ce_fe_orientaxis() This command is called from the HyperMesh configuration file to specify the axis of the system that needs to be aligned in the direction of FE during connector realization.00529684395. there may be a delay in the operation while the display list is being built. In this case.00228960797. the following output is generated: *dynamicviewbegin() *quatrotate(-0.0. *controlkeyviewmode() Specify whether display listing should be done during control key assisted viewing. HyperMesh does not respond to dial input.0. In this case. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu (See *buttons()). *dials() This command informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with dials that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode.999985423) 10 HyperMesh 8. When mode is set to 1.000673180986.*buttons() Informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with buttons that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode.7397916e005. Syntax Arguments Example *dynamicrotatemode(mode) mode Set to 1 or 0. if the *buttons() command is not added to the configuration file.00170778765.0. Syntax *controlkeyviewmode(mode) mode Note: 0 = immediate mode 1 = use display listing (default) When display listing is used.00994070323. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations. See *CE_FE_SetDetailsandRealize() for information on creating a coordinate system during realization. A value of 1 (default) to the function aligns the Y-axis of the coordinate system in the direction of FE and a value of 0 defines Xaxis and a value 2 defines Z-axis.999966514) *quatrotate(0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .000802068982.

The specification contains two parts separated with a '\'.000395387048.000000.886445.000327769044. 0.756111. *feinputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which translator in the import/CUSTOM sub-panel is the default. *enablemacromenu() This specifies whether or not the macro Utility Menu should display when the program loads. You can display or hide the utility menu from within HyperMesh by selecting Utility Menu from the View pull-down menu.621393) 5.583235. intermediate *quadrotate() rotation commands are output to the command file. Otherwise.0.657815. 0 = off. -0. The symbolic name for each translator is listed below: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.00263644785. 1. 0.761037. Syntax *feinputdefault(filename) Arguments entity_type The name of any file found in the feinput directory. 0.00106667981. 0.9 99998898) *quatrotate(-0.0. 0.485656.000230328525.000000.000000. The first part is the type of translator and the second part is a specific version of the translator. only the finial position is output. 0.575689. -0. the following output is generated: *viewset(-0.*quatrotate(0.0.623743.612440. -8.213868.703590. Comments 0.999996393) *dynamicviewend() When mode is set to 0. 0.030465. reducing the size of the command file.0. 0. 0.00100703597.299006.0 User’s Guide 11 . When the mode is set to 1. Comments A symbolic name begins with a '#' character followed by the specification of the translator. 2. 1 = on (default).000000. the Utility menu is displayed.722177.0.0. -3. 8. or a symbolic name for the translator.964252. By default. -3.

12 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This command requires one argument which can be set to the name of any file found in the template/feoutput directory.FE: #abaqus\abaqus #ansys\ansys #cmold\cmold #moldflow\moldflow #nastran\nastran #patran\patran #marc\marc #optistruct\optistruct #ls-dyna\dynakey #ls-dyna\\dynaseq #pamcrash\pamcrash #ideas\ideas #autodv\autodv #stl\stl #hmascii\hmascii GEOM: #catia\catia #iges\iges #ug\ug_16 #ug\ug_15 #stl\stl #vdafs\vdafs #hmascii\hmascii WELD: #spotweld\spotweld *feoutputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which template is the default.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. element handles. style and curComp are not required. Syntax *graphicsimplificationmode(mode. under Windows. style is set using the simplification style switch and curComp is set using the simplify current comp check box. and legends in the graphics area. curComp) mode 0 = none 1 = automatic (default) 2 = Ctrl-Shift 0 1 2 3 4 5 = no simplification = feature lines (default) = bounding box = node cloud = element centroid = simplified shading style curComp 0 = do not simplify current component (default) 1 = simplify current component Note: If mode = 0. The default simplification mode for performance graphics can also be set in the graphics subpanel in the options panel. *graphicsimplificationmode() Sets the default simplification mode for performance graphics. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). The font size may also be changed during a HyperMesh session using the menu config sub-panel in the options panel.*forceoldmenufonts () To force the menu font to the old style. style. *graphicengine() Sets the default graphics mode.0 User’s Guide 13 . where: mode is set using view acceleration and when view acceleration is set to automatic or Ctrl-Shift. Syntax Note: *forceoldmenufonts() The menu system in HyperMesh. Syntax *graphicengine(mode) mode 0 = standard graphics 1 = performance graphics *graphicfont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display numbers. This command allows you to force the menu system to use the historical fonts. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. This option can also be set using the engine: toggle in the graphics sub-panel of the options panel.

175.0). HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. G. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. *nopickhandles() Informs HyperMesh that you wish to have element and geometry pick handles off by default. *noresultcolor() Elements or nodes for which no results were found are assigned a color (default = gray) to distinguish them from an actual 0 result.128). This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer.80).80. Green and Blue. For testing purposes.255). The string is sent to the operating system and should be the standard command which you would use to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. white (255. This command links the PostScript capability of HyperMesh and allows plots of the currently displayed screen to be printed directly from HyperMesh.255. a character string closed in double quotes "". This command requires one argument that can be set to the name of any file found in the <install_directory>/hm/colors directory. if this command is specified. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. Syntax *legendsetbordercolor(color) Comments *menufont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display the menu. or khaki (210. Pick handles will be turned off when HyperMesh is started and turned off whenever a new file is loaded. inclusively 14 HyperMesh 8. The element and geometry pick handles can be set in the modeling sub-panel of the options panel. however. *postcopy() Informs HyperMesh how to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer.0. Other colors include: dark blue (0. The only information unknown at startup is the name of the file. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *postcopy() command to the operating system. The complete *postcopy() command of the above example is *postfile("postprt *filename"). it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. The color must be between 1 and 64. Syntax legendcolorfile(file) *legendsetbordercolor() Allows you to set the border color. The default color is specified with *noresultcolor(R. The command requires one parameter. where R. You can copy this file into your home directory and customize many of the default settings.*legendcolorfile() Informs HyperMesh which legend color file should be the default.100). The font size may also be changed in the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. if you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command postprt junk.B). This improves graphic performance. 0-D elements (such as contact slave elements and mass elements) cannot be seen easily. The color assigned to these no result entities is specified in the hm. The default gray color values are *noresultcolor(80. *postcopy() is invoked when you press CTRL-F3. For example. and B are the intensity values for Red.G.0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . black (0. then you would use *postcopy("postprt junk").cfg file. To circumvent this. You can experiment with the values in the color sub-panel of the options panel.

If you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command print_it junk.*postcopyblackandwhite() Identical to the *postcopy() command. Syntax Argument *rapidmenus(mode) mode 0 1 Comments Disable rapid menus.1"}. *printfile() is invoked in the summary panel on the Post page. In general. Disabling it may be desirable if you use the middle mouse button for other (e. a character string closed in double quotes. The string provided is sent to the operating system and should be the command which you normally use to send a file to a printer.g. For testing purposes."Hyper3Dwrite". *postfile() Sends the currently displayed screen to a PostScript file. Enable rapid menus. *rapidmenus() The rapid menu functionality for the middle mouse button may be turned off with this command. "Hyper3D") Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *printfile() command to the operating system. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. By default. rapid menu functionality is enabled. This command requires one parameter. *register3dwriter() Tells HyperMesh to activate the H3D writer. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. PC Users: *register3dwriter({bin_dir+"/hm3dwriter31. the string parameter required is set to a zero length string./non-HyperMesh) tasks. use *printfile("print_it junk"). O. To circumvent this."Hyper3Dwrite".0 User’s Guide 15 . you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing.dll"}. *postcopyblackandwhite() is invoked when you press CTRL-F5."Hyper3D") UNIX Users: *register3dwriter({bindir+"/hm3dwriter3. The only information unknown at start-up is the name of the file. This command is only used in the command file. but allows you to use a different command to send a black and white PostScript file to a printer. "". *printfile() Informs HyperMesh how to send an ASCII file to a printer. The complete *printfile() command of the above example is *printfile("print_it *filename"). Provided for consistency with the *screenfile() and *screencopy() commands.S. For testing purposes.

contact your systems administrator. > *output.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . "*solver *input.*registersolver() Informs HyperMesh which solvers are available and how to invoke them. a file is created but not spooled to the print device (the CTRL-F1 and CTRL-F2 keys function identically) and you must click the active HyperMesh window to trigger the screen capture. it is very similar to the *printfile() command.fem *memory in MB.) *memory in MB is replaced by the value. the colors representing black and white should be reversed. This command is necessary only if the hard copy device on your system is not reverse video capable. The name of the solver executable file. optistruct."{home}\ {solver}". one for the memory in MB."value:options") solver The name that you want to appear on the toggle in the solver panel. Each character string represents an input field. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. On UNIX platforms. This command allows you to set up and customize the solver panel in HyperMesh. A character string that is passed to the operating system to invoke the solver. The number of strings is identical to the substitutable fields in the third argument. *output is replaced with the user-selected output file (the extension for output file is always . For more information on spooling bitmapped files directly to the printer. The status bar indicates when the screen grab is complete. "value:memory in MB". one for the solver executable. This command takes several arguments: Syntax *registersolver({solver}. *screencopy() Tells HyperMesh how to create a temporary bitmap file of the screen and send it to a hard copy device. Reverse video can also be set in the postscript sub-panel of the options panel. A maximum of six fields are allowed per solver. "file:output") Arguments This command creates a solver panel with four user-input fields. A file named sliden."*solver *input file *output file *options".sdp is created by HyperMesh. The third parameter undergoes the substitution with the user-input values. The solver field can be of type value or file. Example *registersolver(OPTISTRUCT. a site-specific operating system utility is called to create and spool the image to the printing device. Functionally. which is a value."infile:input file". *reversevideo() Informs HyperMesh that before the strings provided as parameters in the *screencopy() and *screenfile() commands are sent to the operating system. depending on the expected input. 16 HyperMesh 8. *input is replaced by the input file (the extension is always . A character string that is of type file or value. one for the input file name.fem."outfile:output file".out). *solver is replaced by the solver executable name. "file:input". and one for the output file name. By default. after substituting the user-input parameters.out".

bmp file that can be read into wordprocessing programs. (0 through 255) The color’s blue component. height. change the two values to any numbers that have the same aspect ratio of the screen resolution that you use.6).1920) should allow HyperMesh to render undistorted images. it’s important to remember to use the correct order for the command (e. HyperMesh generates a *. The first parameter is the horizontal (x) dimension of the screen. the length/width ratio of the objects may be distorted. although the look of HyperMesh doesn’t change. thus. The *screensize() option changes the aspect ratio of the images drawn in the graphics area. (0 through 255) The color’s green component.sdf is created by HyperMesh. For example. you must select the HyperMesh window to indicate which window to capture. height). Remember that the command parameters represent height and width respectively.*screenfile() Informs HyperMesh how to create a bitmap file of the screen that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device (such as a printer). where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. To find this value. a bitmap file is generated using the utility defined in the *screenfile() function (typically xwd) and output to a unique file using the same process as above.75. follow the same method as described above and measure the vertical dimension of the screen. (0 through 255) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. On the PC. *screensize(1200. The units used are not important but must be consistent. width).8.0 User’s Guide 17 . contact your system administrator. red. while screen resolutions are typically listed width by height.g. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. The second parameter is the vertical (y) dimension of the screen. On UNIX platforms. green. Functionally. To determine this value. (1 through 64) The color’s red component. For more information about creating bitmap screen images. The command requires two parameters in real format separated by a comma. Circles may look like ovals. Syntax *setcolor(index. A message on the status bar indicates when the screen capture is complete. blue) index red green blue Specifies the color location. *setcolor() Set a colormap entry for each of the entity colors. the proportions of the objects is corrected. If you use a wide aspect ratio screen. if your desktop runs at a resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels (an aspect ratio of 1. A file named sliden. *screensize() Informs HyperMesh of the physical size of your monitor.30) is implemented. The numbers are physical measurements of the display area of the screen (width. After you press CTRL-F2. even after specifying the screen measurements the display can still appear distorted. When *screensize(14. The name of the file can be accessed with the characters *filename. Note: in some cases. measure the horizontal dimension of the usable portion of the screen excluding any borders in the default window that HyperMesh creates (or the entire screen if your system does not use windows). In such cases.

Place the real number here. only the ANSYS feinput translator supports this command.0. 1. z) x y z Comments X axis location. Place the material number here. Z axis location.( ) _ = + \ | [ ] } . "TYPE%t-MAT%m-REAL%r<-SECID%s>-ESYS%e") %t %m %r % <> %e Place the type number here. in/out of screen.*setcomponentformat() The first parameter of this command specifies which feinput translator you would like to use. Symbols mean that everything encapsulated between the two symbols is displayed only if the element uses a section ID. spaces. a-z. Y axis location. and the following: ‘ ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * . Here are some examples of what the component above will show: TYPE3-MAT2 -REAL2-ESYS2 TYPE1-MAT1 -REAL1-ESYS0 TYPE2-MAT2 -REAL3-SECID1-ESYS0 The following characters can be used to customize the name of the components: A-Z.0. : ‘ / ? . vertical direction of screen. 18 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Syntax *setlightsource(x. while the second parameter specifies the format you want your components to follow when importing them to HyperMesh.cfg file or from a command file. *setlightsource() Set direction of the global light source. . Currently. Place the element coordinate system number here. The default setting is 0. Example: *setcomponentformat(ansys. Place the section ID number here. which represents lighting the model as you are looking at it. This command may be used in either the hm. horizontal direction of screen. y. 0.0. 0-9.

0) The blue component of the reflected light (range 0.5.0 User’s Guide 19 . or from a command file.0 – 1.0. Syntax *setspecularity(red. The amount of specular reflection seen depends on the location of the viewpoint.7.5. shininess) red green blue The red component of the reflected light (range 0. Add or modify the *shadingquality(N) command in the hm.5. It is brightest along direct angle of reflection. this usually occurs in models that are large in one direction.1.0.7.0.1.32) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Example Settings may be used to simulate different materials: Glass *setspecularity(1. but small in another direction.0. green.*setperformancenormalmode() Set the performance graphics normal mode.cfg file. After altering this value you must restart HyperMesh to see the changes. however.0. the smaller and brighter the highlight (range 0 – 128) shininess Comments This command may be used in either the hm. 5 is the default). Syntax *setperformancenormalmode(mode) mode Comments 0 = flat normals (default) 1 = smooth normals This command can only be used in the configuration file. that N does not need to be an integer—decimal values are acceptable.0.0) The shininess value. Raising or decreasing shading quality by 1 roughly doubles or halves the quality.64) Lead *shadingquality() Shaded geometry visualization sometimes does not follow the actual geometry. *setspecularity(0.cfg file (where N is a number between 1 and 10. Specular reflection from an object produces highlights. *setspecularity() Set the global specular highlight values for performance graphics mode.128) Plastic *setspecularity(0.0 – 1. The higher the value. blue. Note.0) The green component of the reflected light (range 0.0 – 1.0.7.

Note that the font size may also be changed in the titles panel on the Post page. the *xfontname() command must be modified. if your system is unique or if HyperMesh warns about one of the default fonts. or a similar one. With a shared colormap. displays the possible X Lib font sets interactively. the X Lib utilities are usually distributed with a program called xfontsel. *titlefont() Informs HyperMesh which font size should be used to display titles. The first parameter indicates which of the four HyperMesh fonts is being assigned.*sharedcolormap() Informs HyperMesh which colormap method should be used in the X version. *xfontname() Informs HyperMesh which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). The second parameter is a string which locates the X Lib font which you want to assign to the HyperMesh font. However. A non-shared colormap can be used. This command requires two parameters. *. On some platforms. This program.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the configuration file should have the appropriate fonts for your system. the system colormap does not have 256 colors available. characters in the name. The X version of HyperMesh requires a 256 color palette. This parameter may range from 1 to 4. but may cause the rest of the system’s colors to change when the HyperMesh window is active and HyperMesh’s colors to change when the window is not active. To assist you in determining the best X Lib font to assign to HyperMesh. some colors in HyperMesh may not be available and appear as black. 20 HyperMesh 8. This string may contain wild card. In general.

if it exists. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. 4. you can either not generate any entities in the start-up file.0 User’s Guide 21 . problems may arise if you later want to rerun the command. 2. . Edit the text after Value: to specify the correct path to the directory in which you want temporary files created. it generates the entities specified in the start-up file. On the Control panel.. Delete the command. Start-up files allow you to automatically define global parameters for the current session of HyperMesh. double click the System folder. the directory where HyperMesh is installed.cmf file created during your HyperMesh session.cmf file.cmf file when HyperMesh is started. To create a start-up file: 1. Although start-up files may contain any of the commands considered valid in a command file. The directories searched include your customization path (if one is set up). quit HyperMesh. If you rerun the command. and then generates the same entities as specified by the command. Start HyperMesh.. To set the environment variable in UNIX: SETENV TMPDIR <directory path> To set the environment variable in Windows: 1. 5.cmf to the file name particular to your system.cmf. After you have generated all of the necessary commands. Click the TMP line under User variables for . Select the Environment tab. Click OK. and the directory from which HyperMesh was invoked. When HyperMesh is invoked. Rename command. HOME). 3. Execute any task that you want the start-up file to automatically perform when HyperMesh opens. 3. To avoid this problem.hmexec on UNIX systems and hmexec on Windows systems. your home directory (where your home directory is assumed to be specified in the environment variable.hmexec or hmexec. If the environment variable is set. 5.Start-up Files HyperMesh allows you to create a start-up file that can be used to either execute a series of commands or to define global parameters.cmf file. The file must be a HyperMesh command file and is named . Specifying a Temporary File Directory You can set the environment variable to control where temporary HyperMesh files are created. it looks for this file and then processes the commands within the file. All commands executed by the HyperMesh command processor are written to the command file command. the commands which were written when the start-up file was executed initially.cmf before you run it. or delete the start-up file commands in command. then the temporary files are created with an HM prefix in the referenced directory. be aware that if you create entities in the start-up file. including those generated by your start-up file. 4.

HyperMesh entities include: Database Names There are no restrictions placed on HyperMesh database names other than those imposed by the operating system. This allows you to select nodes and elements by surface. HyperMesh copies the database into system memory. or group." 22 HyperMesh 8. Nodes are considered "used" if they are part of an element. Nodes contain a pointer to a surface and are therefore associated to a surface. If you exit HyperMesh without saving the current database.hm for all HyperMesh binary databases. Vertices along the edges of a surface are always marked by fixed points. vector. A fixed point is associated with a surface and is labeled with a small "o". Fixed points are displayed in the same color as the surface to which they belong. Nodes The node is the most basic finite element entity. Note: See Database Names for more information about naming conventions. lines. See Using and Saving a Database for more information about saving HyperMesh files. There are several types of collectors and each collector stores the model data relative to its type. Free Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. Free points are not associated with a surface and are labeled with a small "x. The automesher always places nodes at fixed points. HyperMesh prompts you for confirmation before you exit. This convention allows you to determine easily which of the files in a directory are HyperMesh databases. All HyperMesh entities. The original database does not change until you save the model. HyperMesh automatically deletes from the database unused nodes and any loads that were attached to the unused nodes. Fixed points may appear anywhere on a surface. elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or are referenced by a card image. are organized within collectors. and systems. if the current database has been modified but not saved. Nodes represent physical positions on the structure being modeled and are used by the element entity to define the location and shape of the element. at Altair we use the extension . points. all the changes that you have made during your work session are lost. including nodes.HyperMesh Database Design A HyperMesh database stores information about many different entity types. Using and Saving a Database While you work on a model. loads. However. Fixed Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity.

0 User’s Guide 23 . and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. This restricted access lets HyperMesh translate special collections of entities as a unit and allows it to support advanced features of analysis codes.Collectors A collector gathers related data and allows you to handle the data as one unit. or deleted. Configurations 1-4 are created in the interfaces panel. and surfaces cannot exist unless a component collector exists. for example. In this case. Lines. Component Collectors Components are collectors that contain element. All entities within HyperMesh must belong to a collector. Configuration 5 is created in the rigid wall panel. auto1. This allows you to organize geometry data into units that can be translated. the elements are assigned properties from the property which they reference. Note: Collector names are limited to 160 characters. line. Note: Use the display panel to control the screen display of the collectors in your model. elements. You can use the collectors panel to modify the attributes of the auto1 component and the rename panel to change the name. see the organize panel. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. Operations performed on a component affect all the elements. Group Collectors Groups are collectors that are restricted to certain types of elements. All the elements in a component collector are assigned the same properties and materials except when the elements have a property reference. Collectors can be modified and the entities within them can be reorganized. Entities can belong to only one collector. and surfaces that belong to the component. and surface data. Component collectors also retain property and material information about the entities that belong to it. an element cannot exist in two different collectors. HyperMesh automatically creates a component. For more information about reorganizing collectors. lines. assigned colors. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. rotated. for those entities. HyperMesh automatically creates a collector for new entities if you do not create a collector first. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information in the header bar. If you have not created a component first.

Plot collectors contain pointers to curve collectors. If a model contains any non-rigid elements. After an assembly is created. One plot collector is created for each plot in the database. A plot collector contains information associated with an xy plot. Curve collectors contain information about the curves of an xy plot. Block collectors contain information relating to a finite difference block. See the Finite Difference Module section for more information. Components can belong to more than one assembly.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if you delete an assembly. Entity Information Collectors These collectors maintain information about the entities assigned to them: Property Property collectors contain property information about 1-D elements and are required only when a model contains one or more of the following elements: bar2 bar3 gap joint masses rod spring After you create a property collector. For example. you can select and display all the components that belong to it by selecting the assembly. you can assign the specified properties to new 1-D elements by entering the collector name after property = when you create or update the elements. then the model should have at least one material collector. Properties for all other element types. This information includes the name and color of the curve and the line style used to display the curve.Assembly Collectors Assemblies are collectors that contain several components organized into a single logical unit. You can set a component or property to the correct material collector by entering the collector name after material =. Operations performed on an assembly do not affect the components in the assembly. the components in the assembly are not deleted. including its walls and cells. 2-D or 3-D. are assigned by the component to which the elements belong. A curve is referenced by selecting the plot collector. Plot Curve Block 24 HyperMesh 8. Material Material collectors contain information about the materials in a HyperMesh model.

then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of systems. elements. cylinders. groups. which can be composed of specified elements. components. The method by which loads are organized may depend on the analysis code that is used to solve the problem. A system can belong to only one system collector. or components (each set can contain only one type of entity). Sets Collectors Set collectors contain lists of entity IDs. and planes. mbplanes. Load Collectors Load collectors allow you to organize loads. which allows you to access them as a unit. Additional information that can be included in sets are the name of the set and the type of entity contained within the set. Multibody collectors serve multiple purposes: • • • Organizing HyperMesh’s ellipsoids. Typically. the set of load collectors represents a system loading condition. Provide the rigid body reference for ellipsoids. which allows you to access a group of systems as a unit. Note: A system cannot exist unless a system collector exists.System Collectors System collectors allow you to organize local coordinate systems. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of loads. then HyperMesh creates a collector called auto1. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. Load Steps The load steps entity allows you to select a set of load collectors. A load can belong to only one load collector. Vector Collectors Vector collectors allow you to organize vectors. Output Blocks Some solvers allow you to request output results for specific nodes or elements. a load collector contains loads that are to be applied at the same time. nodes. Hold and define rigid body properties for multi-body analysis. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Multibody Collectors Setting collector type to multibodies in the collectors panel provides functionality for the creation and modification of multibody collectors. The output blocks entity is used to store these nodes.0 User’s Guide 25 . or materials. Note: If no collector has been created prior to the creation of vectors. and mbjoints entities. A system collector can hold any number of systems. simulating a system loading condition. A vector collector can hold any number of vectors. Typically. systems. Note: A load cannot exist unless a load collector exists.

26 HyperMesh 8. and Reset a Multibody Collector The card image sub-panel is used to define. The N1 box contains the same functionality as the N1 selection buttons found elsewhere in HyperMesh. The same fields and options available in the create sub-panel are also available in the update subpanel. click on the edit button under the N1 selection box to bring up x=. For an alternative method to define the center of gravity. Using or not using a card image has no bearing on how multibody collectors behave within HyperMesh and only effect data being exported. Note: The element handles option in the modeling sub-panel (options panel) allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. The name= text field is provided for specifying a name for the multibody collector being created and for reviewing the names of already existing multibodies. create provides four data blocks for defining: the collector’s name. Review. Setting creation method: to same as assigns a copy of the card image of another multibody collector to the created collector. the rename panel is available in the far left column of every HyperMesh page. location of the center of gravity. center of gravity: provides an N1 node/geometry selection box to define the x. The name= field supports names up to 160 characters in length. Define. The multibody types available are based on the template loaded in the global panel. click and hold left mouse button in the model window until the cursor becomes a square. creation method: assigns the multibody type specified in the card image= field. body local system: defines the body local coordinate system of the created body by assigning a local coordinate system entity to the multibody collector. To modify the name of a multibody collector. Setting creation method: to no card image specifies that a multibody collector type is to be assigned at the time of creation but one can be assigned later in the card image sub-panel. card image type. The types of multibody collectors available are dependent on the loaded solver interface specified as a template file in the global panel.Create a Multibody Collector The create sub-panel is used for creating multibody collectors. y. y=. which is access through the card panel after the multibody collector has been created. change. If only surfaces or lines are available for selection. and the body’s local coordinate system. and z. and z= entry fields. Update a Multibody Collector The update sub-panel is provided to modify the body’s local coordinate system and center of gravity. Change. click anywhere on the geometry to define a location. There are three ways to define the body’s orientation. The most common type of multibody collector is a "rigid body". body system assigns a copy of the local coordinate system assigned to the current multibody collector specified in the global panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Moments of inertia and other rigid body properties are defined in the multibody collector’s card image. duplicate system ensures a unique coordinate system is assigned to the created body by creating a duplicate of the selected coordinate system and assigning this duplicated coordinate system to the created body. To define a center of gravity location. review and reset the multibody collector type. select a node on in the model window. center of gravity. drag the cursor over geometry to select it. use system assigns the selected system to the created body. release the mouse button.

the model is not considered generic and does not transfer between analysis codes. Element Configuration The element configuration defines the physical geometry (i. store. If a model uses only the basic element types. i. quad. HyperMesh can transfer the model to several different analysis codes. In modeling situations where specific analysis codes are used because of their unique capabilities. hex) of the element.. Element configurations include: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The element type allows you to define multiple analysis elements for each HyperMesh element. quads. The element configuration tells HyperMesh how to draw.e.Elements Each element entity performs a specific task to facilitate a controlled and complete interface between HyperMesh and the analysis codes.0 User’s Guide 27 . and rigids. Each element has two associated variables: an element configuration and an element type.. and work with the element. trias.e.

to distinguish between the different types. Supported Element Types HyperMesh supports the following element configurations: Bar2 Bar3 Gap Hex20 Hex8 Joint 2-noded bar element with property reference. offsets. 20-noded brick solid element (configuration 220). offsets. 2-noded gap element with property reference and vector (configuration 70). or output translator. which allows the template. and pin flags (configuration 63). 4-. refer to Template Design. or 6-noded element with property and orientation systems or nodes. or orientation node. assign type1 to the first type of quad element and type 2 to the second type of quad element. or orientation node.Element Type Defines the category of the element. (Must be Type 1. Note: For more specific information about using the HyperMesh templates. A joint element does not allow types other than specified below. For example. local vector. (Must be Type 1. The type of the element controls the number of nodes used in the element and the permissible orientations of the element (configuration 22). Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mass Master3 Master4 Penta15 Penta6 Pyramid5 Type Name Spherical Revolute Cylindrical Planar Universal Translational Locking # nodes 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 Orientation none/systems/nodes none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems 1-noded mass element (configuration 1). and pin flags (configuration 60). 6-noded wedge solid element (configuration 206).) 4-noded master interface element (configuration 124).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 3-noded master interface element (configuration 123). 8-noded brick solid element (configuration 208). 2-. if an analysis code has two different quad elements and you wish to use both in a model. 3-noded bar element with property reference. local vector. 28 HyperMesh 8. Examples of different types of quads within ABAQUS are S4R and S4R5.) 15-noded wedge solid element (configuration 215). 5-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 205). The template file HyperMesh uses to write the analysis deck recognizes the different element types and outputs them as configured.

0 User’s Guide 29 . 8-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 108). Rigid Rigidlink Rod Slave1 Slave3 Slave4 Spring Tetra10 Tetra4 Tria3 Tria6 Weld Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.) 4-noded slave interface element (configuration 134). (Must be Type 1.Pyramid13 Plot Quad4 Quad8 RBE3 13-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 213) 2-noded plot element used for display purposes (configuration 2). 4-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 104).) 3-noded slave interface element (configuration 133). 4-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 204). (Must be Type 1. Each node contains a coefficient (weighting factor) and a user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 56). 3-noded triangular shell element (configuration 103). 6-noded triangular shell element (configuration 106). Multi-noded element with one independent node and a variable number of dependent nodes. 1-noded slave interface element (configuration 135).) 2-noded spring element with user-defined degrees of freedom. 2-noded beam element with property reference (configuration 61). (Must be Type 1. 2-noded rigid element (configuration 3). an orientation vector. and a property reference (configuration 21). 2-noded rigid element with user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 5). 10-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 210). The independent node has user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 55). Multi-noded element with one dependent node and a variable number of independent nodes.

Lines from CAD data are not attached to surfaces. Under certain conditions. Suppressed edges allow the mesh to flow across or over these boundaries. No nodes are placed along a suppressed edge. A shared edge (displayed green) is a surface edge that is shared between exactly 2 surfaces. In general. These edges (displayed yellow) are shared by more than two surfaces. You can use surface edges as a line in most panels. A suppressed edge can be changed back to a shared edge. Non-manifold edges can be turned into shared edges by deleting one of the attached surfaces. An edge is a trim line of a surface. A joint is the common point between two line segments. Surface edges include: Free A free edge (displayed red) is a surface edge that belongs to a single surface which does not have other surfaces aligned with it within the specified cleanup tolerance. Line segments are maintained as a single line entity.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and their color is determined by the status of the component. Used to represent conics such as a circle. such as when you are working within the spline . but are then less efficient. circles can be represented exactly in HyperMesh. By using elliptical segments or NURBS segments. The end point of each line segment is connected to the first point of the next segment. These edges usually indicate a collapsed or very thin surface or a fully or partially duplicated surface. so operations performed on the line affect each segment of the line. Used to represent lines that are not straight or elliptical. However. ellipse.Lines The line entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. you can use surface edges as free lines. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number and type of line segments to represent the geometry. Shared Suppressed Non-Manifold /Duplicate 30 HyperMesh 8. NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) may also be used to represent a straight or elliptical line. A line can be composed of a single line type or multiple line types. Suppressed edges (displayed blue dotted) are the internal face edges within a surface. their color is determined by the surfaces to which they belong. as well as many other types of curves. All lines in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: • • • straight elliptical NURBS • • • Note: Used to represent a straight line between two points in space. NURBS can exactly represent the piecewise parametric cubic splines they replace. or parabola. A shared edge cannot be changed back to a free edge. Nodes are placed along this edge during automeshing and recognized during meshing of bordering surfaces. Each line type in a line is referred to as a segment. or line drag panels. ruled.

0 User’s Guide 31 .The following panels can be used to create lines: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • circles fillets intersect lines section surface tangents The following panels can be used to change lines: delete line permute position project reflect reparam rotate scale translate Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

A HyperMesh surface can be made of a single surface type or of multiple surface types. HyperMesh maintains all of the faces as a single surface entity. Surfaces define 2-D regions that may be used in automatic mesh generation. Multiple types are used for more complex surfaces that contain sharp corners or highly complex shapes. The following panels can be us ed to create surface entities: • • • • • • • • • • • surfaces primitives midsurface The following panels can be us ed to change surface entities: defeature permute position reflect rotate scale surface translate 32 HyperMesh 8. Used to represent a spherical surface. NURBS may also be used to represent the above surface types but they are not as efficient.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Surfaces and Faces The surface entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. Each face contains a mathematical surface and edges to trim the surface (if required). In general. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number of and type of surface faces to represent the geometry. When a surface has several faces. Operations performed on the surface affect all the faces that comprise the surface. Used to represent cylindrical or conical surfaces. Used to represent a toroidal surface. Used to represent surfaces which are not definable by the above surface types. Each surface type is referred to as a face. All surfaces in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: plane cylinder/cone sphere torus NURBS Used to represent a planar surface.

If a system does exist. Additionally. the model retains its cylindrical shape and also its location in space. is placed in the global system only if a system does not exist at that node. each of these entities is defined in the global system with an ID of zero. Analysis systems are typically used to transform element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom from the global system to a local system. A constraint. and an analysis system is used to transform the nodal coordinate system. In HyperMesh. Note: A system may be a reference system. or both. Vectors can be used for orientation of spring and gap elements or to specify a direction during selection.Systems The system entity.0 User’s Guide 33 . Entities that have a reference system are systems. If you delete a system. accelerations. and then delete the system in which the nodes are defined. Constraints. Vectors The vector entity allows you to define a three dimensional vector in the database. velocities. the orientation of the constraint is dictated by the local system. Loads The load entity allows you to add forces and constraints to the database. Vectors are created in the global system unless a local coordinate system is defined. concentrated forces. The only entity that may be defined in an analysis system is a node. temperatures. Entities are always displayed in the transformed global system. all the entities that were defined in that system are transferred to the global system. an analysis system. concentrated fluxes. and mass elements. may be rectangular. concentrated moments. cylindrical. nodal points. loads. HyperMesh allows you to modify the analysis system of an entity when you define the analysis system. For example. After a constraint has been applied. the position of the entity is maintained relative to the global system in the transformation process. By default. When a reference system is deleted. Loads are applied in the global system except when the reference system has been modified. commonly called a coordinate system. Control cards are defined within templates and are specific to one FE solver. HyperMesh does not maintain the proper orientation for the constraint when you create or delete local systems at the node where the constraint resides. as HyperMesh does not maintain these in the transfer from the local system to the global system. Cards The card entity allows you to create control cards such as CPU limits or Title cards. When you delete an analysis system. and pressures are currently supported. You can use the systems panel to modify the reference coordinate system of an entity. or spherical. you must set the proper orientation for element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom. a reference system is used to define the geometric positions of entities. Several systems may be nested. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. vectors can be created between two nodes and can change magnitude and direction as those nodes move through analysis. applied at a node. if you define a cylindrical structure in a cylindrical coordinate system.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 34 HyperMesh 8. the color of the title.Title Title collectors contain title information. and the text displayed in the title. including the name of the title.

Use these options to access different areas of HyperMesh functionality. these menus "drop down" a list of options when clicked.HyperMesh Environment There are several main areas in the HyperMesh window: These areas are described below: title bar Located at the top of the HyperMesh window.0 User’s Guide 35 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. this displays the current HyperMesh version. It also displays the path and name of the file currently open in the active HyperMesh session. A current file is determined with the following rules: • • • • Pull-down menus The last HyperMesh (. Like the pull-down menus in many graphical user interface applications.hm) file retrieved or saved in the active session FE or CAD import does not affect the current file Delete model clears the current file If no .hm model is retrieved or saved in the active session the current file field is empty Located just under the title bar.

Graphics area Toolbar Area Located above the tool bar(s): the graphics display area is where model geometry and mesh displays. these sidebars display additional tools. It displays the name of the current panel and user profile. such as changing display options. The main menu is divided into the panel area and the page list. Located just under the graphics area. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. Located across the bottom of the window.Tab Area Located on the left. • • • Tab Area sidebars can be toggled on or off by use of the View pull-down menu. You can click-and-drag tabs to move them between the left and right Tab Area sidebars.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Secondary menus can be accessed by using keyboard shortcuts. or both sides of the graphics area. Tab Location sub-menu. and model status information. in a tabbed format. Header bar Located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. this area may contain one toolbar. such as the Utility menu or Include browser. these buttons provide quick access to commonly-used functions. Individual items (tabs) can be added to or removed from the Tab Area by selecting the item from the View pull-down menu. Depending on your display resolution and the number of buttons. Main menu Command Window secondary menu 36 HyperMesh 8. right. You can type HyperMesh commands directly into this text box and execute them instead of using the HyperMesh Graphical User Interface. or two toolbars stacked vertically.

this is because some menu items have sub-menus of additional options. but some options perform other tasks such as configuring the layout of the HyperMesh environment. Menu items can work in several different ways: Sub-Menu heading These items are marked with a triangular arrow. clicking it alternates between showing and hiding the solver browser in one of the Tab Area sidebars. rather than presenting every option in a single list (which could result in very long lists). Selecting a submenu heading opens a sub-menu of options related to the submenu heading. This method allows similar commands to be grouped logically. This approach sub-groups similar features together. enable access to many types of HyperMesh functionality. such as accessing a specific HyperMesh panel.Pull-Down menus The pull-down menus. Most menu items simply execute a command when selected. these items are marked with a checkbox and activate or deactivate a feature.0 User’s Guide 37 . and helps prevent any single menu list from becoming excessively long. When clicked. located just beneath the title bar. Most menu options access HyperMesh panels. and clicking on the menu name (such as File) "pulls down" a list of the options available in that menu: Notice that there are two lists of options displayed in this screen shot. One example is the solver browser item found in the view menu. Toggle Command Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Each menu contains many different options.

Rotate. and contact surfaces. View results of solved simulations (contour or vector plots. connectors. Quickly access other HyperWorks programs. or finding entities. Change the angle of view on the model. use import. To import multiple files.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 38 HyperMesh 8.There are multiple ways to select a pull-down menu or a menu item within it: Mouse Keyboard (menu) Click the menu or menu item with the mouse. Each of the pull-down menus in HyperMesh groups certain types of functions: File Contains functions to load. and export models and other files. among other options. Reflect. for example). Boundary Conditions such as forces. these keys are underlined (as the "F" in the File menu). or constraints. such as OptiStruct. tetramesh. or Scale entities. Model properties such as materials. or Use the left and right arrow keys to move among the menu headings. First. lighting. including element check settings. Morph. pressures. or visibility and location of tab area items. save. solid map. Tools for creating and renaming collectors. Keyboard (menu item) Menu items can be selected with the keyboard in two ways: or Use the arrow keys to move among list of options. and keyboard configuration. Note: To work with only one model at a time. Model quality checks. such as automesh. use the multiple files option in the import sub-menu. and press enter to select a highlighted option. deleting. and the up and down arrow keys to open a menu and navigate among its options. Edit View Organize Geometry Mesh BCs Setup Checks Tools Applications Results Preferences Help Tools for masking. etc. press the alt key to activate the menu area. Translate. Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu item. etc. Meshing tools. Tools for geometry editing and cleanup. moments. element edit. these keys are underlined (as the "O" in the Open). HyperMesh preferences such as User Profiles. import. among other options. global options. Access the on-line Help system. assemblies. To add extra models to your workspace. Then: Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu or item. use load.

Models.Graphics Area The graphics area occupies the upper portion of the screen. Entities on the screen are selected for use in functions by clicking the desired entity with the mouse.0 User’s Guide 39 . and plots are displayed in this area. Note: See Entity Selection for more information about picking entities. The graphics area dominates the HyperMesh environment and is framed by all of the other interface areas. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. geometry.

a group of buttons automatically moves to the second row. For example. This only applies when a valid template file has been specified in the global panel. the property (PBEAM. But for 1D elements such as bars and springs. or import files.0.Toolbar Area The functions on the toolbar allow you to manipulate the view of the model. The toolbar uses two different groups of visual icons to represent different HyperMesh functions. Selects the element color style. etc) is assigned directly to the element. Access the collectors panel. use the colors panel to change the colors of properties Note: 40 HyperMesh 8. This button accesses the display panel. set global modeling parameters. Notice that the toolbar may display in one or two rows. but when the toolbar is too narrow to hold all of the buttons. the property color of shell elements (quads and trias) in a NASTRAN model is the same as the component. save. and edit solver-specific data.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Edit solver-specific data in card format. This accesses the files panel. Users already familiar with earlier HyperMesh releases will find the same functionality that the permanent menu offered now located in the toolbars. thus the shell elements are colored in component color even in this mode. the property assigned varies based on the solver used. Use this panel to individually determine how each component of your model displays its FE mesh. The toolbar buttons perform the following functions: Load. control which collectors are displayed in the graphics region. Create or update load collectors. Access the visual attributes panel. if you select "by comp". Turn the display of collectors on and off. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to access other collector functions: Create or update material collectors. many of these functions were contained in the permanent menu. For example. Create or update property collectors. Other options include: • By Prop: colors the elements based on their assigned properties. the model elements’ colors change based on the components that contain them. Normally all of the buttons display on a single row. the two-row configuration is shown above. Note: In versions of HyperMesh prior to release 8.

materials are assigned to elements via their components. suppressed edges in blue. . This helps you focus on 2D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. the faces of solids are also colored based on their topology: exterior bounding faces in transparent green. 2D and 3D elements differently.g. then each piece of geometry is re-colored based on the component that contains it. 3-dimensional geometry (i. The topology of 3D solid geometry is ignored (drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel). lines. free edges in red. If geometry shading is turned on. geometry is colored based on topology. the geometry is colored based on its corresponding component. all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology: shared edges drawn in green. By Config: colors elements based on their configurationbeam.e. feature lines. By 2D Topo: In this mode. Note: • • . 1D/2D/3D: colors 1D. surfaces) that is not part of a solid is colored based on its topology. etc. if you select "by component". quad. By Comp: Surfaces. bar. The topology of 2D geometry is ignored and drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel. . solid faces and their edges) is colored based on its topology. automesh). The individual colors given to each configuration (such as spring or hexa) can be seen and changed in the element types panel. This helps you focus on 3D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. use the colors panel to change the colors of materials. surface edit. Switches the mesh rendering mode to wire-frame mode. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between skin-only and full wire frame (including internal lines). Other coloring options include: • Auto: In this mode the geometry coloring changes based on the panel you open. Surfaces that aren’t part of a solid are shaded in gray. By Topo: In this mode. By 3D Topo: In this mode. Switches the mesh rendering mode to a shaded mode. 2-dimensional geometry (i. In most cases. 2D shell elements in blue and 3D solid elements in red. internal partition faces in yellow. Some exceptions apply. etc. In the remaining panels (such as translate or delete).0 User’s Guide 41 . Determines how geometry features are colored. trias etc. In panels geometry creation and editing panels (e. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between mesh lines. For example. All the 1D elements are colored in green. and no lines.• By Mat: colors the elements based on the material assigned to the elements. • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. etc. are colored according to the components that they belong to.e.

Modal Zoom. Resizes the model view (by zooming in or out and panning the view as needed) in order to fit the model to the graphics area. Click the downward arrow to choose between excluding and including surface lines. . Once active. Returns to the previous view.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. this works in one of two different ways: • Left-clicking activates the circle zoom feature. Pan modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate pan mode. Left-click to deactivate. in shaded mode surfaces and solid faces are shaded in their components’ color. click-and-drag in the graphics area to pan the model view. This allows you to (for example) perform a free rotation on a model and then quickly return it to its original orientation. Opens the visualization pop-up panel.• Mixed: This mode behaves similarly to Topology mode in that all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology. free edges in red. or when you click either button while the pointer is in the graphics area. Once active. . Right -clicking activates the dynamic zoom feature. right-click in the graphics area and hold the mouse button down to make the model spin. Right -click to activate center mode. Right-click to deactivate. Left-click to deactivate. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. click-and-drag in the graphics area to rotate the model. Draws model geometry in shaded mode. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. (shared edges in green. left-click to zoom in. Right -click to activate dynamic spin mode. Once active.) In addition. 42 HyperMesh 8. or to alternate between two different views. Once active. etc. Circle zoom deactivates after zooming once. Right -click to deactivate. Draws model geometry as a wire-frame. Once active. Rotate modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate dynamic rotate mode. Zoom incrementally. right-click and drag in the graphics area to zoom in/out. Left-click to deactivate. right-click to zoom out. right-click in the graphics area to change the graphics area center. Click the downward arrow for options: with edges or without them.

See Keyboard for more information.0 User’s Guide 43 . and the right button to rotate it rightward. Rotate Up or Down: this is similar to pressing the up and down arrow keys on the keyboard. Open a pop-up menu used to save and retrieve user-defined or standard views. You can use keyboard hot keys to access the same viewing options.Rotate Left or Right: this is similar to pressing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model upward. and the right button to rotate it downward Spherical clipping: accesses the spherical clipping panel. Use spherical clipping to isolate portions of the model regardless of component or collector. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model leftward. Notes: See Viewing Models for more information about the viewing options available on the toolbar.

Header Bar The header bar is located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. The header bar also displays a brief description of the panel when you hold down the left mouse button on the panel button (see below). When you are on one of the main menu pages (not within a panel). along with the current menu page name (i. The current component and load collector names are displayed on the right side of the bar. Geometry) are displayed. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. comp:) in the message bar. the header bar displays the current panel title and model status. If you access a panel by using a function key. Panel titles display on the left side of the bar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the bar displays the current panel name on the left (in black) and the original panel name to the right (in gray). Messages also appear on the header bar and temporarily override the title and status information. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu.g.. 44 HyperMesh 8. the current include and current component (comp). It displays information pertaining to the currently loaded model as well as descriptions of the main menu pages and panels. When you are in a panel. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information (e..e.

Messages posted on the header bar are color-coded: red green/gray Error messages. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Miscellaneous messages. You can also obtain a brief description of a panel’s function if you hold down the left mouse button over a panel button.0 User’s Guide 45 . such as status updates or completed operations. These messages appear in green when using HyperMesh classic dark menu colors and they appear in gray when using Windows light menu colors Click a mouse button to remove a message from the header bar.

then the menu items described above may not appear on the appropriate pages. such as bars. 46 HyperMesh 8. Post-processing and xy plotting functions. and informational functions. masses. HyperMesh presents these pages in the page menu. or surfaces 1-D element creation. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. Most panels are further divided into sub-panels. and spot welds Creation and editing functions for 2-D surfaces and elements Creation and editing functions for 3-D surfaces and elements Boundary conditions. Each of these pages contain panels related to the page name: Geom 1D 2D 3D Analysis Tool Post Creation and editing functions for geometry such as points. quit HyperMesh. coordinate system. If you are not using the default HyperMesh menu system. which is located on the right-hand edge of the main menu area. lines. Model editing. delete the file hmmenu. A secondary menu can be accessed by using keyboard keys.set from the directory you are working in (provided you are not working in the directory where HyperMesh is installed). To correct this condition.Main Menu Area HyperMesh functionality is organized according into pages. each containing a list of panels and modules. The page menu. To change main menu pages: • Note: Click the radio button before the main menu page. utility functions. model checking functions. and load creation functions.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and then start HyperMesh once again. Modules contain a collection of panels that are grouped according to functionality. Page Menu HyperMesh panels are grouped by function on several “pages”.

and/or the solver browser. model browser. multiple features are organized onto tabs. However. click a tab heading to bring it to the forefront. such as the utility menu. To maximize available space. both. or none from the Tab Locations sub-menu of the view pull-down menu.0 User’s Guide 47 . so you might only see one—or even none—at a time.Tab Area This area of the HyperMesh environment is actually two separate sidebars which flank the Graphics Area. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Each Tab Area sidebar can contain multiple complex features. Turn the Tab Area sidebars on and off by selecting left side. right side. each sidebar can be toggled on and off separately.

system collectors. materials. 48 HyperMesh 8. vector collectors. groups.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The browser displays on one of the Tab Area sidebars. To open the model browser: Click the model browser item located within the view pull-down menu. entity sets.Model Browser The model browser resides on a tab in a Tab Area sidebar and allows you to view the HyperMesh model structure by organizing assemblies. and beamsectcols into a tree-like display. components. This screenshot shows all of the entities that can display in the browser. load collectors. properties. multibodies.

the right-click menu contains only a single option: color.0 User’s Guide 49 . for example. Deactivating the check box for an item hides all of its parent assemblies. and System Collectors can all be colored individually. and beamsectcols cannot be organized into assemblies and are all placed at the top level of the tree. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all its components and multibodies. vector cols. Each folder can be expanded or collapsed to display or hide its contents. The currently assigned color displays in the column. Deactivating the check box for an assembly hides all of its components and multibodies. Properties. Deactivating the check box for an item does not affect the state of its parent assembly. etc. Assemblies can also have sub-folders within the main Assembly folder. right-click on the current color in the model browser. a specific component might appear under Components and again as a sub-item of a specific Assembly. properties. multibodies. the color and display style of entities also display in the model browser. Note: When the color picker palette appears. Components. The palette automatically disappears when you move the mouse pointer beyond its boundaries. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. An empty assembly never displays. groups.) display. the mouse pointer automatically moves to its center. system cols. groups. unchecked entities are hidden. so that the items related to each assembly appear within that assembly’s folder in the Assembly Hierarchy. Materials. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all of its contents. To change an entity’s color. When appropriate. therefore it does not have a check box. each in their corresponding folder (for example all sets are placed as a flat list in the Sets folder). Materials. Select this to open the same color picker used throughout HyperMesh. In this instance. and its state does not affect the state of its ancestors. and click the desired color from the palette.Multiple entities of the same type are collected into folders in the tree structure. Colors Assemblies. entity sets. The following rules apply: • • • • • • • • Checked entities (components. Components and Assemblies may appear in multiple places in the tree. and the model browser allows you to set each entity’s color without using the color panel. Assemblies containing components or multibodies are considered displayed only when all of the contents are displayed. Load Collectors. load cols. Check Boxes Items are displayed or hidden by toggling the corresponding check boxes.

Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the model browser’s own toolbar. Only shaded topology displays (no mesh). or click the ID heading to sort numerically by entity ID. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. repeated clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. Global Switches The Display All . multibodies (not assemblies). Click a second time to remove them. or load collector. Multibodies. multibodies. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. groups. components. Click a second time to remove them. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. groups. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. 50 HyperMesh 8. and load cols have several display states.Display Mode Components. the entity displays differently: Only a wireframe mesh displays. Transparent shaded topology displays without mesh. Note: These buttons only affect the display state.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . geometry entities. Shaded topology displays with mesh lines. and vector cols shown in the tree. but no mesh. or both: Include mesh entities in tree structure. Depending on which option you select. based on a combination of their elements and their geometry. and vector cols. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. and vector cols have only one display state and will be shown only in element mode. load cols. load cols. assembly. Right -clicking opens a popup menu from which you can choose the new style. system cols. Include geometry entities in tree structure. The first set of filters let you restrict the tree structure to display mesh entities. system cols. and Reverse Display buttons at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. Display None . system cols. You can select these display modes by right-clicking clicking the small icons in the column for each component. In either case. Shaded topology displays with feature lines. assemblies. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. groups.

Accomplish this via the matching: combo text/list box. You can also select groups of entities based on a wildcard search. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. For example. Whole name only selects tree items whose entire name matches the specified text.0 User’s Guide 51 . In this way. Fine-tune the search/selection by choosing an option from the ( • • ) button: Match case only selects tree items that match the entered text exactly. an up-arrow button. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. a down-arrow button. and Reverse Selection. Display None. In addition. However. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. typing “pillar” in the matching field when using the whole name option will not locate a component named “CH-A-PILLAR-B-I-L”.The next filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the model browser. Otherwise. click OK to close the list. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. in this case they are used for Select All. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. . This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the model browser’s tree structure. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. For example. and Reverse Display as described under global switches above. with the same buttons for Display All. For example. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). then all entity types ending with “collector” will be checked and display in the list. if you type “*collector” into this combo box and press <enter>. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. including upper/lower case letters. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. Select None.

and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. In other words. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. such as searching for whole names with matching case. For instance. For example. In this way. In this way you can combine the search options. for instance. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. Drag and Drop Components. rather than only part of the name. To find entities matching your specified string and options. multibodies. Since this function works in combination with the filters.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. 52 HyperMesh 8. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). clicking third time finds match #3. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. type a search string into the combination box. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. To deactivate the option. and assemblies can be dragged and dropped with the left and right mouse button. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. The left mouse button allows you to move the item into another assembly. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. select it again to remove the checkbox. or “RearChassis1”. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again.To find an entity. all the items in the assembly are moved to the new location (items that are not seen in the tree due to filters are also moved). for example. with this option active. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. it is deleted in all its parent assemblies and placed at the top level of the tree. If an assembly is moved or copied. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). Note: If an item is dragged out of the tree and dropped onto empty space. So. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. clicking again finds match #2. “FrontChassis”. the right mouse button activates a menu that allows you to move or copy an item to the new location. A dragged item is added to the bottom of the list in an assembly. You can drag and drop multiple items at any time using the standard shift and ctrl keys. finding match #1 again. it is highlighted in the model browser.

Option New Available for: Assemblies. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. system col. component. or beamsectcol can be created at the top level. Properties. Options selected in an empty space apply to the entire model. Delete All except the top-level of Assemblies • Rename All Any item can be renamed by entering a new name in the name text box. Materials. Once created. If you want to entirely delete an assembly. load cols. system cols. you will be given a choice of either deleting that item from the database entirely or only removing it from the present location. Load Collectors. material. Description A new assembly. and that assembly has children that are not present anywhere else. • If a component or multibody is present in more than one assembly in the model. Folders that contain materials. The options available depend on the entity that you right -click on. sets. the item is automatically assigned a unique generic name that can be changed by entering the new name in the highlighted field. component. vector col. group. property.0 User’s Guide 53 . load col. multibody. A new assembly. vector cols. those children will be automatically moved to the top level. All instances of the renamed item will be automatically updated. set. or multibody can be created inside an assembly (activate the menu over an assembly). Plots. and groups cannot be renamed. properties. Most items can be deleted. Components. beamsectcols.Context Menu Clicking the right mouse button on a folder or entity within the browser’s tree structure allows you to change a variety of options. The new name must be unique. You can cancel the rename operation by pressing ESCAPE or clicking anywhere outside the entry box before editing the existing name.

components. multibody. properties. load collectors. properties. all materials. load collectors. Assemblies. and properties. The card image of that entity for the solver template loaded will be displayed. materials. system collectors. plots. Opens the Model Browser’s Browser Configuration window. Closes all of the folders in the tree structure. and properties. materials. properties. A component. Configure Browser… 54 HyperMesh 8. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. load collectors. which allows you to determine what entities display in the tree as well as the columns that the browser displays. Display the item in the graphics area. materials. so that only this item displays in the graphics area. plots. and properties. card. plots. or beamsectcol can be made current using the pop-up menu.g. the card editor is not invoked and the appropriate message is displayed. system collectors. load collectors. so that the item no longer displays in the graphics area. In such cases. load collectors.Edit Card… All Any single item can be card edited. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. All Collapse all Expand all Show Hide Un-checks the item’s checkbox. this hides everything except for the items within that branch. groups.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. components. all materials. materials. cards. plots. components. all groups.) Make Current components. groups. components. etc. load collectors. multibody. plots. In such cases. If a template is not loaded or if the entity does not have any card images associated to the loaded template. materials. This selects each affected item’s checkbox. Used to quickly and easily isolate single entities. beamsectcol All All Assemblies.) Show Only Deactivates the checkboxes of all items in the entire model browser except for this single item. Opens all of the folders in the entire tree structure. system collectors. so that only the top-most level of items displays. materials. In such cases. this shows all of the items within that branch (e. groups. Assemblies. components. all groups. components. exposing every item nested at every level.g. etc. plots. this hides all of the items within that branch (e. The current component is designated with bold font.

A checkmark indicates that the entity type will display in the browser. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and select reverse buttons in this mode. choose the radio button marked select all entity types in the current model. Separate tabs organize entities and columns. Entities Tab To show all of the entity types that the currently-loaded model possesses. select none.0 User’s Guide 55 . You can also use the select all. To select entity types manually.Model Browser Configuration window This window opens when you select the configure browser… option from the Model Browser’s context menu. Use this window to change the columns and entity types that display in the model browser. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired entity type. click the Entity types: radio button.

select none. To select columns manually.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Command buttons Once you finish configuring the browser. A checkmark indicates that the column will display in the browser. choose the radio button marked Select all column types in the current model. Click Cancel to discard the changes (keeping the original settings) and close the window. click one of the command buttons to close the window and return to HyperMesh: • • Click OK to keep the new settings and close the window. click the Column types: radio button.Columns tab To show columns for all of the attributes that the currently-loaded model possesses. and select reverse buttons in this mode. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired column. You can also use the select all. 56 HyperMesh 8.

An example of a model in the include browser is shown below. You can select entities (using the standard Shift and Control keys) and drag various entities between two includes or between the master model and an include. Each include can be expanded to reveal its contents. Each include file is represented with an icon along with its name and internal HyperMesh ID. The Master Model is at the top level of the include browser. organize. the include named dummy. The contents of each include is organized (grouped) into folders containing each type. Data. edit. etc. 55 systems. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Include Browser The include browser can be accessed by selecting include browser from the view pull-down menu. It allows you create. For example. 296 properties. 116 sets. next to which appears the total number of entities of each type. in the above example.dyn contains 55 vectors. and update the contents of a model into various include files.0 User’s Guide 57 . which does not have any references to an include file. is stored in the master model. The browser can be configured to show only specific entities of interest. 55 system collectors. Each of the folders can be expanded to review the individual entities in that folder. review.

assemblies are unchecked only as needed. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the include browser. Otherwise. an up-arrow button. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. groups. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. in this case they are used for Select All. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. 58 HyperMesh 8. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. load cols. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. system cols. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon.Global Switches The Display All . load cols. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . multibodies. components. and vector cols shown in the tree. with the same buttons for Display All. click OK to close the list. For example. groups. The filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. and vector cols. and Reverse Display as described under Global Switches above. a down-arrow button. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. Multiple clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the include browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the browser’s own toolbar. However. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). In this way. and Reverse Display at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. In addition. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. system cols. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the include browser’s tree structure. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. and Reverse Selection. Display None. . Display None . multibodies (not assemblies). This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. Select None. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure.

Since this function works in combination with the filters. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. To find entities matching your specified string and options. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. type a search string into the combination box. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). In this way. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. or “RearChassis1”. For example. for instance. In this way you can combine the search options. rather than only part of the name. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons.0 User’s Guide 59 . if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. finding match #1 again. such as searching for whole names with matching case. So. clicking again finds match #2. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. “FrontChassis”. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. select it again to remove the checkbox. In other words. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. clicking third time finds match #3. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. for example. it is highlighted in the include browser. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. To deactivate the option. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point.To find an entity. For instance. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. with this option active. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match.

Deletes the selected include. the new include is created within it. contacts. Clicking on the selected (highlighted) include a second time also has the same effect. Thus any new entities created in HyperMesh such as new elements.Context Menu A context sensitive pop-up menu provides many other include browser functionalities. Prompts the user with two choices: • Delete the include file The first option moves all the contents of the include file into its parent include and deletes the include file. Makes the selected include "current". Make current When an include is selected 60 HyperMesh 8. If a specific include is selected (highlighted). Right click in the browser to invoke the following pop-up menu. Function New… When function is active Permanently Description Creates a new include. Delete When an include is selected • Rename When an include is selected Converts the name of the include into an editable text box ready for the new name to be entered. are automatically placed in the current include. etc. Delete the include file and its contents The second option deletes all the contents within the selected include along with the include itself.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . components. The new include is created at the top level inside the master model when no include file is highlighted while selecting this option.

For the remaining solvers this option is not available. Expands all the branches of the include’s tree structure along with the various entity type folders (such as comps. or an entire include) into the include that is marked as current. Nastran. Collapses all the branches of the tree structure for the selected include. This flag is specific to some solvers such as Optistruct.).0 User’s Guide 61 . Export an include… Export all includes Collapse Include Expand include When an include is selected Permanently Permanently Permanently Display only When an include (or master model) is selected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Exports the contents of the selected include into the chosen file name. The contents of the chosen file are imported into include. Executive Control. etc. The available options are: • • • name file name to be exported (absolute path or path relative to its parent include) Do not export flag (allows you to review the contents of an include but not export it). mats. Flag representing the section of the input deck that the include belongs in.Move to current When entities are selected Moves all the selected entities (individual entities. Clears the graphics region of any previous display and displays all the entities that belong to the selected include. Include file options… When an include is selected • Import include… When an include is selected Imports the content of a file into the selected include. Option prompts you to select a name and browse for the file to be imported. Exports all the includes with their corresponding content (not the master model only the includes). Allows you to set the various options for a selected include.. or Case Control. Includes that have this flag turned on display in the browser in italics. which subdivide their data deck into various sections such as Bulk Data. the entire set of entities of a specific type. etc.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 62 HyperMesh 8. Select from a list of all entities (except nodes and elements) in HyperMesh. Allows users to enable (turn on and export) control cards that have been disabled and vice versa. • User selected entity types Allows you to select the entities that you want to display in the browser. Two options are available: • Select all entity types available in current model Displays all the entity types available in the current model (default). Edit card Enable/Disable When a control card is selected When a control card is selected Invokes the card image of the control card in the HyperMesh window.Configure browser Permanently Opens a window that allows you to select which types of entities should be shown in the include browser.

The main difference between the module and a panel is the additional menu layer. Note: HyperMesh does not make any special distinction between modules and panels. and are grouped to provide easy panel access without unnecessary navigational clicks. A module may contain panels that are also found on the main pages.Modules Panels that are used to perform related functions are sometimes grouped together in modules. To select a module. contains panels that allow you to read curves. and scale the axis of plots. xy plots located on the Post page. the module. locate the module button on one of the main menu pages and click the module button. perform simple math on curves. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 63 . For example. edit curves.

the settings apply only to the current display. refer to the topics below: Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles Other profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. This button acts as a toggle. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. the Sync button becomes active whenever you make changes to the current HM database. You can also select individual items by clicking on them. the display settings apply to export of loadsteps. More profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. the Loadstep Browser does not automatically sync itself with the HM database. or select multiple items by shiftclicking or control-clicking. Export state Sync browser Filter The main functionality of the Loadstep Browser varies depending on the active HyperMesh User Profile. and control the way that the data displays in HyperMesh (which is the default behavior) or exports (when the Export state button is active). This allows you to perform many operations inside HM without performance issues. To alleviate this. OptiStruct (OS) and Nastran are supported within this framework. with controls for altering the Display of the information and/or exporting it. When activated. For help specific to each profile. manage and display HyperMesh loadsteps (sub-cases) and the associated control cards.Loadsteps Browser The Loadsteps Browser is used to create. Note that this changes the loadsteps’ export states. A right-click menu accesses editing and advanced options. Display Options The display options lie in a toolbar at the top of the browser tab. but may not be active by default. and then sync the browser with one click. reverse selection Use these to select the items in the tree. The information is arranged into a tree structure for ease of use.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When inactive. Note: For the 8. it can be turned on and off. Select it from the BCs Pull-Down menu to display its tab in the tab area.0SR1 release. Instead. Use this feature to limit the tree to display only loadsteps whose names match a specific text string—either partly or completely. while popup forms allow you to quickly enter or select relevant information. select none. For large models. keeping the browser in sinc with an actions taken within the rest of HyperMesh can require considerable processing time. The Loadsteps Browser displays in its own tab in the tab area. but not their visibility in the HM graphics area. Each control has its own function: Select all. including a name filter that uses HyperMesh standard filtering syntax. 64 HyperMesh 8.

Delete the selected entity or entities. This launches the Loads Summary utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. The loadcols in the loadstep do not display in the HyperMesh graphics area. LOAD. This option creates a copy of loadcols with these card images and converts them into an auto-managed naming convention for easy editing/reviewing inside the Edit options popup. This loadstep will not be exported. MLOAD. or all folders if none are selected. these options include: New subcase Edit options Edit card Delete Rename Renumber BCs Contour Loads Summary Collapse all/selection Expand all/selection Auto-manage load references Create a new subcase. MOTION. This option is for users who wish to have existing DLOAD. either from scratch or by creating an exact copy of an existing subcase. Collapses all selected folders and subfolders. For the OptiStruct and Nastran profiles.Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles The browser’s tree structure lists relevant control cards and loadstep information. accessed by right-clicking on the tree background or on individual or multiple items. This launches the BCs Contour utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep.0 User’s Guide 65 . There are many functions available. every loadstep listed in the tree has a small checkbox next to it as well as an export state indicator. organized into folders. Depending on the entity selected. this will bring up an appropriate GUI for editing of the loadstep or control card information. This loadstep will be exported. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can click these to toggle them back and forth: The loadcols in the loadstep display in the HyperMesh graphics area. Rename the selected entity. Note: When you first open the loadstep browser. MPCADD and SPCADD cards auto-managed. or all folders if none are selected. Review the selected entity in the HM card editor. all of the loadsteps in the model default to the blank (unchecked) state. Expands all selected folders and subfolders. OptiStruct In addition. Renumber the selected entity. Opens the OptiStruct panel in HyperMesh.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The table on the left lists the loadcols that are valid for a particular load reference. Right -click anywhere in the Loadstep Browser and select New subcase. To activate an option. In order to support this. or any subfolder in the Loadstep Browser. 5. the new subcase is an exact copy of the existing one. The popup has several tabs to gather the relevant information. the list will change accordingly. A bold reference signifies that the load reference is defined. allowing you to edit the subcase. 3. • • Depending on the load reference selected in the tree. To edit a subcase: 1. allowing you to edit the subcase. a warning message appears to notify you. allowing you to: • • 2. Depending on the Subcase Type. If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol does not exist in the HM database. A pop-up window opens. Name filtering is available by using standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. A tree structure lists the load references that are available for the selected subcase type. • • • • 4. • • If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol is not appropriate for that particular load reference.To create a new subcase: 1. Note: This step is skipped when you create a new subcase! A popup window opens. These references are also listed in the right table with a warning message to notify you that the loadcol doesn’t exist in the database 66 HyperMesh 8. check the box next to the desired option and fill in the required fields. When this option is active. Click create. then pick an existing subcase to base the new one on. Another pop-up window opens. select the loadcol in the left table and use the right arrow to add the loadcol to the table on the right. The table on the right lists the loadcols currently selected for that load reference. Right -click on the desired subcase folder. To add a loadcol to the load reference. This allows users to modify a subcase and add in references to loadcols that do not exist in the current model. and select Edit options. the Add <unavailable> load reference ID option is available. 2. a warning message appears to notify you. A green indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and is defined. it is possible that the subcase may reference loadcols that have not been imported (they are in a separate include file). A red indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and requires attention. When importing a model into HyperMesh. the list of appropriate Load References will change accordingly. depending on the card image or types of loads contained within. Type in a subcase name Select the same as option.

To remove a loadcol from the load reference. or edit the card of a subcase: Right click on the appropriate subcase or loadcol. 7. use the all/none/reverse buttons where appropriate. 1. 2.6. Additional control is also available at both the Global Options and Subcase Load References level: 3. 8. To display a subcase: 1. Note: To rename. an entry box appears so that you can enter the appropriate information in the browser. For renaming and renumbering. 2. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. 9. except that the first step is to right-click on the Global Options folder or any of its sub-folders. Global load references are not checked on/off by selecting or deselecting a subcase. renumber. To select multiple loadcols. You must determine the appropriate loadcols to check on/off depending on the subcase type.0 User’s Guide 67 . The selected utility launches with the loadcols associated with the selected subcase automatically selected. • • All of the loads contained in a loadcol display regardless of their relevance to the load reference they are assigned to. instead of clicking on a specific subcase’s folder or sub-folder. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select the desired option from the popup menu. Right -click options allow for additional functionality depending on the current selection. Click the Display button at the bottom of the Loadstep Browser GUI. delete. Check/uncheck the display checkbox next to the subcase of interest. To edit the Global Options of a subcase: Editing Global Options works exactly like editing a subcase. • The Add <unavailable> load reference ID option allows you to add a reference to a loadcol ID that does not currently exist in the HM database (as described in step 5). You can also launch the “BCs Contour” and “Loads Summary” utilities from the Loadstep Browser. It is up to you to organize their loads for proper display. These buttons select loadcols from the currently active table. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol.

If the loadcol selected for the load reference already has the card image assigned (for users wishing to manually manage their loadcols and point to an existing loadcol with one of the card images listed above) no additional action takes place. Assign that new loadcol to the original load reference. Looks at each subcase and at each load reference. the Auto-manage load references option is available.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) 68 HyperMesh 8. the loadcol will not be expanded or editable inside the GUI. assigning the appropriate card image. nor are they always aware of their existence. Inside the Edit options popup. Inside the Edit options popup. LOAD. and selecting the appropriate loadcols. MLOAD. (The original loadcol is not deleted or modified in any way. MOTION. In HyperMesh. based on a fixed naming convention (auto<CARD IMAGE NAME>_#). For example. However. when appropriate. To satisfy both types of users. if a load reference pointed to an SPCADD loadcol. there has traditionally only been one way to create DLOAD.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) The global scale factor is not 1. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has not been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. the loadcol is expanded and editable inside the GUI. However. This option does the following: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . MPCADD and SPCADD loadcols: by creating a loadcol. a new copy would be created and named “autoSPCADD_1”.) • 2. The only way to modify the loadcol is via the card editor (right-click option from the editor GUI).Loadsteps: Auto-manage load references This option is recommended for all users. it will: • Create a copy of that loadcol and assign it a new name. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. a loadcol is automatically created and assigned the correct card image when any of these conditions are met: • • • More than one loadcol is selected for the load reference One loadcol is selected and the local scale factor is not 1. If the load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images indicated above. many HyperMesh users do not want to be responsible for managing these load collectors.

To select a panel.Panels HyperMesh panels allow you to perform specific tasks by selecting options and entering variable data. hold the mouse button down while the cursor is over the panel name. Note: To display a brief description of the function of a panel in the header bar. If you press a function button and the data is incorrect or required information is missing. Each panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. and continue selecting or complete the operation. locate and click the panel button on one of the main menu pages. Note: Once a panel is active. You can also use the middle mouse click to advance through input collectors (yellow) or entry fields and then proceed to a function (green) or return (red). Release the mouse button to access the panel. A description of the panel as well as instructions on how to use it display. This cannot be rejected once the panel is exited. thus reducing mouse movement. advance to the next selection. Returning out of a panel means accepting what was performed on the model while using the panel. Each panel has a unique title that describes the main function of the panel. You can press the ESC key or click return to exit a panel. Panels with multiple functions have sub-panels that display only those menu items that are relevant to the current operation.0 User’s Guide 69 . Some panels contain several functions that perform similar tasks. a message is displayed stating the error. press the "H" key or select HyperMesh and OptiStruct from the Help pull-down menu to display the help topic for the current panel. Using the middle mouse button allows you to make the required selections in the graphics region. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This behavior is called rapid menu.

card image sub-panel. 70 HyperMesh 8. For example.Sub-panels Sub-panel names are listed on the left side of the panel. Collectors . To select a sub-panel. Collectors . Only one sub-panel may be selected at a time.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . click the radio button next to the sub-panel name on the left side of the panel. update.update sub-panel.create sub-panel. and card image or dictionary. Each sub-panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. Collectors . on the collectors panel there are three sub-panels: create.

Menu items include: Menu Buttons The color of the menu button corresponds to its purpose: green yellow red Functions or executable items Collectors Return or abort Toggles and Switches Toggles and switches appear on many HyperMesh panels. data entry fields. The green arrow buttons on the right-hand edge of the pop-up menu advance or back-track through the list of options: << < > >> Go directly to the first page of the list. Step backward one page toward the beginning of the list. Most panels also have toggles and switches that allow you to alternate between choices or select options from a list. the menu item following it alternates between choices. HyperMesh breaks the options up into multiple “pages” within the switch’s pop-up menu. Advance one page toward the end of the list Go directly to the last page of the list Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Input Controls The menu items on each panel indicate the information that is needed to correctly perform the panel’s function. and function buttons. When you click a toggle. plane collectors. When you click a switch.0 User’s Guide 71 . toggle switch In some cases. the list of options presented by a switch can be very long: In these cases. Each panel contains input collectors. a list of options is displayed.

this function does not apply. click the reset to deselect all selected entities. If the data type is a node list. and select the type you want to use. or by window. In addition to selecting one entity at a time on the screen. Extended entity selection window. if the nodes selected are not connected by elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . show node order by window 72 HyperMesh 8. Note: For more information about the extended entity options. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are grayed out. displaying a list of available selection methods. by path follows the connectivity of the elements between the nodes selected. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). click the data type of the input collector to see the selected entities in the order in which they were selected. show node order. If you select nodes on the edges of a part. An input collector is active when the data type button is enclosed in a blue rectangle. the function tries to find the closest path along the edges of that part. click the input collector switch to access the pop-up menu of possible data types. see Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu. These selection options display for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. The extended entity selection window allows you to choose various methods of selecting entities of a specified data type. Note: If the data type is a line list. See The Mouse for more details). Allows you to view the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection.Input Collectors Input collectors allow you to indicate which entities are to be modified when a function is performed. by path. by list by path Allows you to pick the nodes individually from the node list. Allows you to select a few nodes that form a path and HyperMesh selects all the displayed nodes that lie in the shortest path of the nodes selected. Input Collector To change the data type. a data type button. An input collector contains a switch or toggle. Therefore. To access the options: • Click the data type button. If you want to reset the entity selections. you can select multiple entities via quick window selection (hold down the SHIFT key and drag your mouse to create a window. The extended entity selection window opens. and a reset (|< ) button. you can click on the collector to access a pop-up with the selections by list.

just as a vector can be defined with a plane (the vector is normal to the plane specified). The options available are: • Use x-axis. This coordinate system may be the global coordinate system. N2. the translate panel requires that you define the direction of translation. Choose vector to specify a vector entity (created in the vectors panel). or plane (N1. or a local system when one can be explicitly specified. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. second or third axis respectively of a coordinate system in your model. or B) to type in coordinates rather than selecting existing nodes in your model. and loads as well. Double-click a node’s button (N1. This selector is broken down into the following items. This includes vectors defining coordinate systems. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. while the reflect panel requires a plane for the creation of the mirror images of the entities selected. y-axis. Local systems may be rectangular. or N3. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. cylindrical or spherical. that not every item appears at all times.The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. If you select two free (red) edges. it only works with surface edges and not with free unconnected geometric lines.0 User’s Guide 73 . Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. and z-axis to define the first. as needed: The Plane and vector selector. Use N1. When defining a plane. and passes through either N1 or the base node (if one is specified). N2. HyperMesh takes advantage of the following principle: a plane can be defined with a vector (the plane is normal to the vector specified). Plane and Vector Selector Several HyperMesh panels require that you define a plane or a vector (direction) to perform a certain function.N2). Either can be defined via the plane and vector selector—a group of buttons that work in concert to define planes or vectors. switch The switch is used to select the method for defining the plane or vector. the resulting vector is normal to this plane following the right hand rule.N3).N2. For example. only the items necessary for the current HyperMesh function will display. N3 to define a vector (N1. Note. however.

arrows that represent a local coordinate system vector or load vector). HyperMesh uses N1 as a default base node if no other base node is specified. N1 and N2.e. A base node provides the extra information. 3. reset Note: Allows you to clear your selection (vector. For example. N3. but serve a different purpose. 4. N1 and N2. 2.B (base node) Use this selector to define the base node—the point in space where the vector or plane is located. N2. 74 HyperMesh 8. The resulting plane is normal to the N1-N2 vector and passes through N1 (or the base node. the following selector displays in the position and linear solid panels: This selector is used in these panels to map entities from one location to another. Select three nodes. The resulting plane is normal to the vector. Select the x-. local coordinate system vectors or load vectors). and N3. N1 (or the base node. if selected). 4. Some selectors may resemble the plane and vector selector. selecting a plane of projection using the x-axis does not define the location of the plane entirely. Select three nodes. To define a vector: 1. or z-axis and a base node. 3. Select two nodes. Select a model vector (i.. N2. Note that when using the N1. Select a model vector (i. N2. y-. if selected) is the point on the plane through which the vector passes.e. 2..N2. N1. Select the x-. The base node locates a plane normal to the chosen axis.N3 and base). N1. For example. To define a plane: 1. or z-axis. The vector is the normal of the plane defi ned by the three nodes. Select two nodes. N1. A parallel plane can be specified by selecting a base point elsewhere in the model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . y-. N3 option.

the text currently in the input field is highlighted. Deletes the character to the left of the cursor and moves the cursor one space to the left. and press CTRL-v. When you type an alphanumeric character with the keyboard. title =). the following keys perform the corresponding functions: ESC Restores the initial text or value displayed upon entering edit mode.0 User’s Guide 75 . press CTRL-c. click the menu item or input field a second time to select the name from a list of the existing collectors. Moves the input cursor from field to field on the panel. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. or click the input field a second time to access the HyperMesh calculator.). The first character in a string cannot be a space.e. characters can be inserted or deleted at the proper location. After you click either the input field or the description. You can enter characters and numbers from the keyboard to modify the value. and the new character is placed at the far left of the input field. click the corresponding menu item or input field (the menu item is placed in edit modea). Move the cursor in the input field to the left and right. If you want to edit the existing data. To cut and paste character strings. plot =. You can cut and paste text from one data field to another within HyperMesh and also from data fields in HyperMesh to a command window (except in OpenGL versions). comp =. Press the ESC key while the field is still active to restore the initial text or value to the input field. and use the keyboard to enter text until the proper information is displayed. After positioning the cursor in the input field. press the ENTER key. signifying that the input field in ready for editing. press a right or left arrow key ( or ) before pressing any other keys. Deletes the character which is above the cursor. Moves the cursor to the end of the input field. In edit mode. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Character String Input To enter a character string. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the input field.. HyperMesh removes any leading spaces contained in a character string. respectively. or press a function key.Input Fields Input fields are used to enter text or numerical values. Note: If you need to specify the name of a collector for a data input field (i. Input field. the value previously assigned to the field is erased. select another menu item. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. and BACKSPACE HOME END DELETE TAB To exit edit mode. A description of the type of input precedes the field.

HyperMesh discards input characters that are not valid numbers and subsequent numbers. When the pop-up menu appears. you can either select a menu item on the pop-up menu or move the mouse outside the bounds of the menu. HyperMesh interprets it as 1230. If a real number contains three or more leading zeros after the decimal. press CTRL-c.). you must make a selection before you can proceed.Numeric Data Input Numerical values are specified as real numbers or integers.45. To cut and paste numeric data. Some pop-ups are displayed with a border around the menu box and some have no border. the mouse cursor is centered in the menu and the menu is made active. click the corresponding menu item or input field and enter the value using the keyboard.000. To use the calculator. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. 76 HyperMesh 8. click the menu item or input field a second time (the first click allows you to enter edit mode. Real numbers are displayed with a decimal point or in scientific notation. If HyperMesh expects an integer value and you enter 123. In edit mode. For example. You can also use the HyperMesh calculator to enter the value. If the pop-up menu has a border. Some pop-up menus allow multiple selections. the second click gives you access to the calculator). and press CTRL-v. HyperMesh automatically displays the value in scientific notation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For example. Calculator pop-up. The pop-up menu remains on the screen until you move the mouse outside the bounds of the box. To enter numeric data. If the pop-up does not have a border. and click exit to close the calculator. HyperMesh immediately processes the selection you have made on the pop-up menu and then waits for you to make more selections. click numeric and function buttons on the calculator using HP-style reverse notation. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. the view pop-up menu (view on the Toolbar Area) allows you to make multiple selections. HyperMesh displays integer values without a decimal point. if you type 123e+1q1. Pop-ups Pop-up menus are displayed when there are seve ral options from which to choose. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. HyperMesh truncates the number to eliminate the decimal point.

type. Lists only the file name. browse…. write as…. Creates a new folder within the current directory. File name Files of type Open (Save) Cancel Displays the folder at the previous level. and last date modified. you use the standard Windows file browser. Click Cancel to close the file browser. Lists the file name. load…. as well as the contents of the open directory. You can open new directories from this list.File Browser When you open or save a file using save as. Look in/Save in This drop-down menu contains the overall directory structure. etc. import…. Click Open (or Save) to load (or save) the file shown in the File name field. based on the search criteria used. The file browser enables you to navigate through the directories on your network to locate files. This field allows you to select the type of file you want to locate. This field allows you to enter the name of the file you wish to locate... Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8..0 User’s Guide 77 . retrieve…. Folders and/or file names within the selected directory are listed below the Look in/Save in text box. It also displays the file that has been selected from the list.

For File name. All files beginning with the specified characters are displayed in the files list.hm* for all HyperMesh database files with extensions hm4. hm6. Or For Files of Type.* to search for all files in the directory. Type *. 2. etc. select the file type from the drop-down menu. All files ending with the specified extension are displayed.hm extension) in the specified directory. type filename* where filename is any portion of the name of the file you wish to locate.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . hm5. For Look in/Save in.To search for a particular file extension: 1. 78 HyperMesh 8. For Look in/ Save in. Press ENTER. specify the search directory. You can also type *. *.ext where ext is the extension of the file type you wish to locate.hm searches for all the HyperMesh database files (files with an . type *. Press ENTER. For example. 2. 3. 3. To search for a particular filename: 1. specify the directory to search. In the File name field.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Single click and release. Selects a new center of rotation. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. If you release the mouse.0 User’s Guide 79 . Some operations require pressing a keyboard key in addition to using the mouse. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Performs selection operations on single entities. CTRL Single click and release. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Fit the displayed model to the screen. the pre-highlighted entity is selected Dynamic rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. Aborts intensive processes. If you release the mouse. Keyboard Left mouse Middle mouse Right mouse Single click and release. Single click and release. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be selected.The Mouse The mouse attached to your system is integral to HyperMesh and can be used in almost every aspect of user input. Single click and release. the pre-highlighted entity is deselected. Aborts graphics operations. Single click and hold. Selects a new center of rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. Rapid menu allows you to use the middle mouse button to quickly perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. such as Penetration Checks. Deselects an entity in the graphics area. Click and move. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be deselected (removed from selection). Click and move.

Zooms into an area of the model. In display panel – turn on collectors that are inside/outside the window.CTRL Click and move.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. In display panel – turn off collectors that are inside/outside the window. Click and move. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window SHIFT Click and move. In entity selection mode quick window selection of entities.quick window deselection of entities. Dynamically rotates the model. Pans the model. Click and move. In entity selection mode . Single click and release. Click and move. 80 HyperMesh 8. SHIFT Single click and release. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: Single click and release.

If you click the middle mouse button after you select the required nodes. in the translate or rotate panels once you selected some elements/nodes/comps and direction and distance of translation. Since you do not have N1. In panels that have pre-filled defaults. In some panels. The function button that is assigned to rapid menu is outlined in black. For example.Rapid Menu Rapid menu is a feature that uses the middle mouse button (a single click for each step) to move through a panel along a predetermined path. the middle mouse button repeats the chosen function as long as the entity collector is not reset to empty. This allows advanced users to perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. N2 and N3 selected or may not have a magnitude value entered. a middle mouse click performs the operation with the defaults. N2. an attempt to perform translate + is executed. return is assigned to the rapid menu. For example: in the hidden line panel shown below. But once you pick a node to create the line. rapid menu is assigned to the most commonly used function. create becomes the rapid menu function. For example. N3 vector option in the translate panel. it replaces one with the other and proceeds to repeat the operation with the new selection. allowing you to use the same entities to repeat the operation. in the replace panel. Some panels do not have function buttons and are repetitive. when you try to move nodes using the N1. thus translating/rotating the same nodes again. thus reducing "mouse miles". In such cases. the middle mouse button may activate a function for which there is insufficient data. collectors/create panel with a preset collector name creates a collector when you click the middle mouse button. The rapid menu function is predetermined and varies between panels. resulting in an error message. In panels where there is a defined sequence of selections (input collectors). In most panels. For example. when you enter the lines panel. In these panels. if you pick two nodes. For example. In panels where there is no clear sequence of selections. The rapid menu function can also vary within a panel. For example in the ruled panel. the entities in the input collector are not cleared. an error message results. HyperMesh performs the fill plot action when you click the middle mouse button. clicking the middle mouse button a second time repeats the translate + or rotate + function. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In panels that contain multiple function buttons.0 User’s Guide 81 . and then click the middle mouse button to advance to the second node list so that you can begin picking more nodes. rapid menu advances to the next collector. For example. the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel if the active input collector (yellow collector with a blue outline) is empty. select a few nodes for your first node list or line list. using the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel.

Keyboard Although most HyperMesh operations are performed with the mouse. but simply + on the numeric keypad. and CTRL key to access panels. global panel Open the Help. Rotate by increments Ctrl Incremental counterclockwise. this opens help for that panel. Note that "+" is actually shift = on the main keyboard. options panel Plot Rotate Dynamically zooms in and out when you move the mouse up and down True view transparent components panel User View pop-up menu Windows panel Circle-zoom When you use the +. When a panel is active. Arc rotate Return to a previous view Center (spherical) clipping panel display panel Fill/fit model to window. Press "m" again to bring the menus back. you must use the keyboard to enter new file or component names or title information. from the main page menu. SHIFT key. +.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and reverse view Zoom by increments. or arrow keys. it opens the Help’s table of contents. The secondary menu uses various combinations of the function keys. The hot keys are the same as the letters on the menu. press the key once and wait for HyperMesh to redraw the model before pressing the key again. there are several keyboard hot keys that you can use to access the viewing functions available on the Toolbar Area. Turn off the menus and display only the graphics window. clockwise.a b c <ctrl>+<c> d f g h m o p r s t <ctrl>+<t> v w z Notes: 82 HyperMesh 8. In addition. You can press ESC instead of clicking return to exit a panel. You can also use the arrow keys on the keyboard to rotate your model. -.

so that you can quickly execute tasks that you use frequently simply by pressing one or more keys on the keyboard. Examples include: • • • • • • • Jumping to a specific HyperMesh panel Automatically performing a task using HyperMesh *commands Executing a macro The following keys are usable when defining shortcuts: Letter and number keys ("standard" keys) <ctrl> plus another "standard" key <shift> plus another "standard" key <ctrl> plus <shift> plus another "standard" key You can assign or remove a shortcut by selecting keyboard from the Preferences pull-down menu. One example of this is the default mapping of the <f> key—which. when pressed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can customize the default shortcut mappings to create your own shortcuts for a variety of tasks. zooms and pans the graphics area view to fit the currently displayed model to the screen.Mapping Keyboard Shortcuts Keyboard shortcuts can be used to map HyperMesh functions to keys or key combinations. The keyboard option opens a free-standing window with a keyboard display.0 User’s Guide 83 .

alt. backspace etc. Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. Generates a *.Keys display in the Key-Command Mappings window with colors based on their mapping: To map a function to a shortcut key. up. counterclockwise and reverse view Creates bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. For example. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. to enter the combine sub-panel in the element edit panel.jpg screen capture or animation file. use hm_pushpanelitem {element edit} {combine} This will take you to the last used sub-panel in the specified panel. Creates PostScript file of the screen and spools it to printer. ctrl. Examples of such shortcuts are: Incremental rotate left. Some keyboard shortcuts are mapped by default during installation. The selected key highlights in blue. such as tab. right. Those keys are identified with a different color: Use the hm_pushpanelitem command in a shortcut to jump to a specific sub-panel of a panel. and some utilize functions which are only accessible via shortcut keys. Next.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . enter the appropriate command(s) and if necessary the file name (for a tcl script) in the table area of the menu located below the keyboard diagram. esc. • • Any HyperMesh command file commands can be mapped to a shortcut key. cannot be mapped. select the appropriate key by clicking in the keyboard menu or holding down that key on your keyboard. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. and down respectively. Remapping such keys to new functionality results in loss of original functionality. 84 HyperMesh 8. Notes • • Some special-function keys. Ctrl + Ctrl + F1 Ctrl + F2 Ctrl + F3 Ctrl + F4 Ctrl + F5 Ctrl + F6 Incremental clockwise. shift.

"".tcl file. click the "…" button to browse to and select the findbeams. enter the following commands in the command field next to the key "E": *createmark elements 1 "all".tcl file with following commands: Proc displayonlybeams {} { *createmark elements 2 "by config" 60 63 set beams [hm_getmark elements 2] *clearmark elements 2 if { ![Null beams]} { *displaycollectorwithfilter(comps. enter the following in the command field next to the key "L": hm_pushpanel {lines}. To call the same macro.7: this macro already exists in the QA page of the Utility menu. To create a shortcut key "J" that runs a macro to find all the elements with jacobian < 0. *findmark elements 1 0 1 elements 0 2. "none".7" 0 To create a shortcut key "shift + K" that runs a macro to check whether any beam/bar elements exist in the model and display them only: Create a findbeams. } else { hm_usermessage "No beam elements in this model" } } In the Key-Command Mappings window. enter the following in the command field next to the key "J": *evaltclstring "macroElementJacobian 0. Enter the following in the command field next to the key "K".shortcut mapping examples To create a shortcut key "e" that deletes all the elements in the model. 1). select shift from the Shortcut Key pull-down menu. eval *createmark elements 1 $beams. *evaltclstring displayonlybeams In the file field.0 User’s Guide 85 . 1. To create a shortcut key "L" that accesses the lines panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. *deletemark elements 1.

to continue using the initial panel.Secondary Menu The secondary menu is a list of panels that can be accessed by using the function keys F1 through F12. The default secondary panels are as follows: Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Note: Function key only hidden line delete replace distance mask element edit align node create node line edit check element geometry quick edit automesh plus SHIFT key color temp nodes edges translate find split project node edit surf edit normals organize smooth plus CTRL key print slide slide file print eps create eps file print b/w eps create JPEG file Function keys may be reassigned to different panels by using the build menu panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it interrupts the active panel and allows you to perform a function in the secondary panel. When you use the secondary menu. or in combination with the SHIFT or CTRL keys. and upon completion. Entities selected while in the secondary panel are still selected when you return to the initial panel. 86 HyperMesh 8. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel.

A macro file (hm.mac file in their home directory. it looks for a macro file named hm. HyperMesh runs it automatically to define the attributes and contents of the utility menu. Thus it is actually a group of menus. When HyperMesh starts. Populates the QA/Model page of the utility menu. The default hm. etc. When HyperMesh starts.mac qamodelpage.mac in the current directory. similar to the way that only one radio button can be active at a time—selecting a button de-selects all of the other buttons in the group. If it finds this macro.mac userpage. Populates the Geom/Mesh page of the utility menu. although only one displays at a time. Macros may contain any valid command file command.mac geommeshpage. to specify where the arguments should be substituted. $2. The *callmacro() command allows you to call a macro from within another one. The menu is located on a tab of the tab area pane(s). Attributes that you can change include: • • • • • The utility menu page on which the operations appear Text to be displayed on each control Location and size of the menu The help string to be displayed on the menu bar The macro to call when each control is used. which allows you to create groups of standard reusable macros. You may also select and run a macro file after HyperMesh starts from within the options panel. and are enclosed by the *beginmacro() and *endmacro() commands. Creates the button group that allows you to switch pages. UNIX users also have the option of putting the userpage. A userpage. so that you can group the macros by type of operation. by using the arguments $1. Only one button can be depressed at a time. and text that have HyperMesh-supplied and user-defined macros associated with them. clicking one of these buttons opens the page associated with it. The utility menu includes several pages of its own. radio options.mac Populates the Display page of the utility menu.mac globalpage.mac file may exist in the installation directory for HyperMesh or in the directory from which HyperMesh launches. with optional arguments to pass The page number allows you to create multiple pages.0 User’s Guide 87 . passed to them from a control. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Macros may accept variable arguments. Populates the User page of the utility menu. and can be shown or hidden from within the view pull-down menu. HOME directory (UNIX only).Utility Menu The utility menu allows you to customize the standard interface to include function buttons. This file defines the attributes and contents of the User page of the utility menu. Each page is associated with a button at the bottom of the utility menu. it first looks for the userpage. or the application’s base directory.mac) controls the display and available operations of the utility menu.mac file sources the following additional macro files: disppage.mac file in the directory from which it launches and then in the installation directory. each dedicated to different tasks.

For example. If you want to remove the Utility menu from the default screen display. Default Utility menu The utility menu is normally located on the left side of the graphics region. Note. if the utility menu is on the right-hand tab area pane. and a macro may not be called recursively. Note: While macros offer a great deal of flexibility. you can turn the display of individual types back on as desired. if you wish. you can restrict HyperMesh to only drawing a small sub-set of the entities in your model. with the current page’s button depressed. showing or hiding all 2-D elements. Disp Utility menu The Disp utility menu contains a variety of macros that allow you to modify the graphical display of HyperMesh entities in several different ways. it can also be dragged-and-dropped to the right -side explorer pane. You can turn the utility menu off completely (removing its tab from the tab area) by un-checking it in the view pull-down menu. you must remember that once a macro is executed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . turning off the display of everything except entities of type. however. Chief among these is the ability to turn the display of individual entity types on and off—for example. However. the Utility menu displays when HyperMesh starts. and Disp pages contain a variety of macros that allow you to quickly perform functions which would normally take several steps. the utility menu will still be invisible even though you have it checked in the view menu. and save additional model views. there is no way to cancel the execution or reject the results.By default. The different pages of the utility menu are: • • • • Geom/Mesh (macros related to model geometry and FE mesh) Disp (Options related to the graphical display of entities) QA/Model (macros related to element quality and loads) User (user-created macros only) The utility menu displays by default. You can also mask and unmask portions of your model. See the descriptions below for help with each type of macro. You can also turn the utility menu off by clicking the small “x” in the upper corner of the tab area when the utility menu tab is in the forefront. but display of the menu is controlled by a command in the HyperMesh Configuration. You can also isolate only a specific entity type. simply check it in the view menu. in the Tab area pane. or even by clicking-and-dragging the tab to the HyperMesh title bar. although it may be obscured by another tab such as the model browser or include browser. that it still might not display if the tab area pane on which it resides is not active. QA/Model. if that pane is open. It contains page selection buttons at the bottom of the menu. Then. delete the * before the *enablemacromenu() command in the hm. 88 HyperMesh 8. but you have only the left-hand pane showing in the HyperMesh environment. By combining these features. The Geom/Mesh.cfg file. To restore the utility menu. until only the desired subset of entity types displays.

are more restrictive. Broad categories. 1. Smaller sub-types of entity. but does not affect the display of 0. for example. 3) save macros. however. In other words. followed by 2-3 buttons. For example.3) Retrieve These buttons save the current view of the model in slot 1. and allow you to turn the display of different types of entities on or off. There are different categories of entities whose display you can turn on and off. or slot 3. Display macros: These controls form the bulk of the menu. regardless of entity type. even within the same broad category. This allows you to turn the display of entire classes of entity on or off in one click. surfs. Each broad category or sub-type has a text label on the menu. such as elements or geometry. but does not affect the display of 0. This enables you to turn off certain entities while retaining others. Clicking none turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. These buttons perform the actual display macro functions: All These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. and solids). 3) Save Scene (1. such as 2-D elements or lines. clicking none hides the entire model. These sub-types have buttons labeled on or off. 1. Clicking On turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. including its boundary conditions. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. clicking all next to the elements label turns on the display of every element type in your model. These views function just like the custom views that you can save and retrieve via the user views function (accessed from the HyperMesh toolbar). none On Off Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. if you turn off the display of lines. Clicking All turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. For example. For example.0 User’s Guide 89 . 2. such as 2-D elements or geometry points. The All and none buttons for this category literally affect every entity in the model. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. Toggling the display of these does not affect other entities within the same broad category. These views function in addition to the user views. So. The largest group possible is labeled Everything. Clicking Off turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. These buttons retrieve views of the model that you have previously saved via the scene (1. Scene (1. lines. or 3-D elements. slot 2. and always include any masks that you may have applied to the model. such as geometry.2. such as elements or geometry. 2. or 3-D elements.Scene macros: These controls allow you to save and retrieve up to three additional views of your model. or isolate the display of an entity type. clicking none next to the elements label turns off the display of every element type in your model. clicking Off next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every 2-D element in your model. control an array of several related entities (such as points. For example. clicking all next to the 2-D label turns on the display of every 2-D element in your model. These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. other geometry types (such as points) do not turn off. These broad categories have buttons labeled All or none. such as 2-D elements or lines.

Note that these functions are accumulative. To exit the macro. For example. they should be deleted before the model is sent to a solver. those lines would be revealed—but only a single row of elements. such as rbe3 elements. Clicking only isolates the entity type indicated by the label by hiding every other entity type in the model. This macro reveals one or more rows of elements adjacent to the entities currently displayed. the surface itself will not be unless it is completely outside of the graphics display area. This allows you to view only the adjoining mesh. either click proceed again without selecting any lines. or press the <esc> key. etc. Select the desired lines and click proceed to show. that entities can’t be partially hidden—so while some of the mesh elements on a surface may be masked out. Mask Out This macro automatically applies a mask to hide every entity in the model that does not currently display in the graphics area. Similarly. Labels (located under the BC’s category). then clicked show adjacent elems any mesh along . The By Edge… macro (under Geometry à Surfs) allows you to turn off all surfaces attached to one or more edge lines. results in only the lines (plus FE elements. Note. Unmask All Clear Temp Nodes This macro removes any and all masks that you have applied to the model. clicking Only next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every entity in the model except for 2-D elements. rather than all of the mesh for an entire component. so that only 2-D elements remain visible.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .) displaying. for this reason. turning off all geometry. either by way of the mask out macro or the mask panel.Only These buttons may appear for broad categories of entity or sub-types. so that only the specified entity type remains visible. or isolate the surfaces touching those lines. hide. then turning on lines. if you choose to show only 2-D elements. you can then add other entities to the view by turning them On one-by-one. Click Clear Temp Nodes to automatically remove all temporary nodes from the model. masking allows you to reduce the number of entities drawn onscreen. Comments Handle (located under the Elements category) refers to the text labels that appear on some elements. however. Mask and Node macros: The final set of controls concern masking and unmasking entities. Temporary nodes are any nodes that users create during a HyperMorph session. if you isolated a model’s geometry lines. Show Adjacent Elems 90 HyperMesh 8. Like the display controls. Clicking one of the buttons for this option causes HyperMesh to display a lines selector. masking is based on entity location rather than entity type. The only exception to this accumulative usage is repeated use of the only option: since it always hides everything except the chosen entity type. however. refers to the text labels for boundary conditions such as pressures and forces. as well as removing temporary nodes. For example. These nodes are redundant because they must be created on existing geometry. boundary conditions. multiple only commands do not work accumulatively.

The other layers and thickness are then placed in a temp directory and masked. Isolates either an inner or an outer surface layer (based on the user selected surface) from a 3D model. This allows a higher quality mesh around circular holes. Assigns the thickness of a midsurface geometry to FE nodes or elements. Two other options available are: 1) Create a rigid spider along the hole and 2) Enforce a minimum number of nodes around the hole. Isolate Surface ThinSolid=>Midsurf Washer Adj Circ Pts The mesh macros are: Auto Connectors Midsurf Thickness A pop-up menu that allows you to automatically create connectors and FE realize them from a master connection file. Quick Tetramesh Fix 2nd Order Midnodes Add Washer Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Geom/Mesh utility menu This menu contains a set of macros related to working with model geometry.0 User’s Guide 91 . Extracts a midsurface from a thin solid representation of sheet metal stamped parts. Improves element quality by moving the mid-edge nodes of second order elements. You select a line whose length represents the solid thickness and a surface. Its primary use cases are solid parts with varying thickness. and then projects those points to a concentric line. The macro then creates a layer of washer elements around the hole and remeshes the surrounding elements to maintain mesh connectivity. and then trims this new line into the surface. This macro works only on the surfaces attached to the selected surface. Scales a copy of a selected circular line to 1. This macro is intended to be used with sheet metal parts with uniform thickness and does not work for molded solid parts. The macro also creates the corresponding property card and updates the thickness. points may even project to multiple edges. Creates a layer of washer elements around a circular hole in the mesh. You select a node along the hole. Quickly creates an automatic tetrahedral mesh while meeting the requirements for minimum element angle and element size. the macro determines the radius of the hole. and displays a menu for entering the width of the washer. Depending on the tolerance you specify. The geometry macros are: Preserve edges Project points Prevents specific edges from being suppressed during autocleanup or batchmeshing. This can be helpful to achieve uniform meshing with regard to weld points. by offsetting one side surfaced to midplane. with ribs (T junctions). etc. creating a higher quality mesh. Places four additional fixed points on an inner line. You can also review the thickness as a contour plot on the elements. which is part of either the inner or outer side of the solid.5 times its original size. as well as a set for working with FE mesh. Projects free points to surface edges.

it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their aspect ratio. Trims the model along user-defined trim lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the quality criteria used by these macros remains consistent with those used throughout the rest of HyperMesh—and can be indirectly adjusted by changing the settings on the check elements panel. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. This is useful for reducing the model size by taking advantage of symmetry etc. This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that fill the hole. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the warpage test. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Since the criteria on that panel are customizable.Trim Hole Creates a circular hole (of a given radius) in the mesh at the selected node (as the center of the hole). Tools There are eight tools to isolate elements that fail certain element check criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the maximum internal angle. Fills the selected hole and remeshes the surrounding mesh to maintain connectivity. if necessary. An optional layer of washer elements can be created along with a rigid spider along the hole. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their warpage. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Fill Hole Box Trim Bead QA/Model Utility menu The QA utility menu contains many tools to help you quickly review and clean up the quality of a preexisting mesh. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Jacob (Jacobian) Warp (warpage) Aspect (aspect ratio) Max ang: Q (quad) 92 HyperMesh 8. If any elements fail the criteria. The element quality criteria used by these tools comes directly from the values entered on the check elements panel. Creates a bead of a given height and width along the selected two nodes and connects to the surrounding mesh. it displays a message and leaves the model display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements against the maximum Jacobian value. Length This macro checks all the displayed elements against the minimum length criteria.

it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the minimum internal angle. If any elements fail the criteria. You can also export the results to a text file using save as. two. two. It also displays a dialog that allows you to review the free edges of the component and any elements attached to the component. BOM Comparison Tool Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The results are shown as the number of elements and percentage of elements failing each criterion. and uses the mixed element type. This macro displays the component name. Allows you to remesh the selected elements plus one. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. number of elements in that component and their ID range.Max ang: T (tria) This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the maximum internal angle. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Min ang: Q (quad) Min ang: T (tria) You can use the following macros to quickly modify any elements that fail the element checks. Finds all of the elements attached to the displayed elements.0 User’s Guide 93 . Find Attached Remesh Smooth Quality Report Model Tour Allows you to review (tour) the selected components individually. If any elements fail the criteria. Allows you to apply the smoothing algorithm to the selected elements plus one. The remesh uses the current size. Note: Changing the criteria on this report interface does not change the settings in the check elements panel. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. They only affect the report. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the minimum internal angle. Each element failing this criterion is then split along its diagonal to form two tria elements instead of the original quad. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). Split Warped Checks all displayed quad elements for warp exceeding the acceptable value. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). Reads a generic Bill Of Materials file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM as well as the corresponding FE model. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. does not break connectivity. If any elements fail the criteria. Brings up a user interface that allows you to set the various quality values and check the quality of all the 2D elements in the model.

while 3 is the largest. constraints. If masked. Note that this only affects the graphical display of load indicators—it does not change the load magnitudes. and so on. the numbers do not directly correspond to any specific values or ratios. Since these buttons affect all loads. If masked. pressures.The model tools included on this page are: Load Size These numbered buttons represent different display sizes for load indicators: 0 is the smallest. including forces. Find Elems>>Loads Find Comps>>Loads Find Loads>>Comps Find Elems>>Connectors Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all load indicators. Automatically finds all components directly attached to any and all load indicators. these comps are un-masked. If masked. these loads are un-masked. these elements are un-masked. Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all connectors.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Automatically finds all loads directly attached to a selected component. If masked. 94 HyperMesh 8. these elements are un-masked.

see the following topics: • • • • • • • BOM Comparison Tool Graphical User Interface (GUI) BOM Comparison Tool Control Section BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section BOM Comparison Tool Master Column BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. assembly. property assignments. Radioss-Block. and Abaqus user profiles.0 User’s Guide 95 . the formats and content of the BOM can vary. BOMs usually use Microsoft Excel® format (CSV format) or XML format. LS-Dyna. One BOM may contain more data than another BOM for the same program. model comparison. Since users in different design and analysis groups use BOM information. The BOM reader includes the following abilities: • • • • • Reads a generic BOM file of CSV format (comma separated values file) Provides a GUI to manipulate data in the BOM and the corresponding FE model Provides an option to update attributes in the FE model based on the data available in the BOM Provides an option to complete the existing BOM based on the data available from the model Filters out all vague information present in the BOM and provides a feature to edit the vague information into a valid data and move it back to the BOM Provides a functionality to export a new BOM file Note: The BOM Comparison Tool only applies to the Nastran. The HyperMesh BOM Comparison Tool focuses primarily on the Excel format. For an in-depth description of the parts that make up the BOM Comparison Tool user interface and how to use them. and updates between design iterations as well as other CAE activities.BOM comparison tool The BOM Comparison Tool located on the QA/Model utility menu reads a generic Bill of Materials (BOM) file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM and its corresponding FE model. A BOM is often used as the master document for model meshing.

part of the tree section. This section contains a table to display BOM info as it is seen in the actual BOM file. Contains filtering options for displaying tree and table info. Displays failed records from a loaded BOM file. Contains a tree structure displaying part names and ids.BOM Comparison Tool GUI The BOM Comparison Tool’s GUI consists of seven sections as shown below: Control section: Tree section: Master column: BOM display section: Metadata display section: Failed records section: Display filter section: Contains menu items and buttons to perform various operations. Contains master column selection.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Contains options for metadata management. 96 HyperMesh 8. This section controls most tool functions.

Invalid records can be edited to form valid data and can be moved to the BOM Display table. Close the BOM Comparison Tool. File menu New Open Create a new session Browse for and load a new BOM file. Use the Complete BOM operation to either complete an existing BOM. Material Id. you can complete the BOM data by querying the HM database and extracting the data. Once you had added or deleted all necessary entries.BOM Comparison Tool Control Section This portion of the interface contains drop-down menus and the toolbar. and Gauge. you will be prompted select the heading from the BOM file that corresponds to each standard header. HyperMesh checks for the standard headers Part Name. or click an item already in the list and insert the new item just above it. If all are found. Part Id. details populate the relevant fields in the BOM comparison tool. Update the model attributes to match the BOM. click Continue to generate the new file. Save and export the current information shown in the BOM Display section as a new BOM csv file in a user selected location. Show Failed Display all the invalid records that the tool encounters while reading a BOM file in a table. Material. You can select additional items from a combo box. or generate a new BOM by querying the HM model in current session. or type a new header into it and Add them. Only valid records from a BOM file display in the BOM Display Section’s table.0 User’s Guide 97 . Save and Export Exit Edit menu Update Model Complete BOM Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This option switches the BOM Display Section to Comparison mode if it is currently in BOM View mode (see below). Sometimes the BOM doesn’t contain all of the data you want. Check Model Checks the model against the BOM. If any are missing. If the corresponding model contains the missing data. You may also select items in the list and Delete them from the file. This option opens a new window listing the items to be added to the BOM file.

Different: components in BOM whose standard attributes differ from those in the model. In_BOM_Only: components found in BOM but not in model.View menu BOM View Compare View Display section displays BOM info as it appears in the BOM file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Same function as Edit > Check Model. Categorizes BOM information into four sections: • Match: components in BOM whose standard attributes match exactly with those in the model. Same function as File > Show Failed. Same function as Edit > Complete BOM. 98 HyperMesh 8. • • • Same function as File > Open. In_Model_Only: components found in model but not in BOM. Same function as Edit > Update Model. Same function as File >Save and Export.

You can enter a string in the combo box. and press the <return> key to display the desired information in the tree and BOM display table. Apart from this there are filter buttons each one of which is explained below: (Select All) (Select None) (Reverse selection) Displays all the branches in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table Switch off all the branches in the tree and delete all the data in the BOM display table Switch on all the “off” branches in the tree and vice versa. the tool identifies the part name and part id of all valid records. Data associated with switched-on branches displays in the BOM display table Switch on only those branches in the tree (and associated data in the BOM display table) that correspond to the displayed parts in the model (Show displayed) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. It then displays the part names.0 User’s Guide 99 .BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section When a BOM file is loaded into the tool. to affect which parts display in the tree and which parts are selected or deselected. The combo box remembers previously entered strings until you quit the tool. in brackets in the form of a tree structure located on the left side of the tool window. appended with part ids. Each tree branch is associated with a row in the BOM display table containing all standard information for the part in the tree branch. and can be used to filter the BOM info anytime in the session. Filter options are given for displaying only the desired part info in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table. select the desired header in the options menu. This section also includes selection and filtering controls.

The master column data is used as a key for the following operations: • • • Update model attributes as in BOM Complete BOM by querying model Check model against BOM The tool allows three master column combinations between the BOM and the model. Compare by Part Number in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part number as the key.e. BOM info can be displayed in two different modes: BOM only. This section allows you to select the desired master column option. The tool queries the data in the model based on any one of these column combinations: • • • Compare Part Id in BOM with Part Id in model: the tool compares the attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part id as the key. and Comparison. Only columns with three attributes can be used as master columns. Compare by Part Name in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part name as the key.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .BOM Comparison Tool Master Column The central top portion of the tool window contains the master column section. BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM info displays in a table in the BOM display section. located in the center of the tool window just below the master column section. columns containing part id. i. The master column is the column in the BOM file whose attributes are considered as a key in comparison and validation operations. By default information displays in BOM Only view: 100 HyperMesh 8. part name and part number.

Use the toggle button located in the top-right portion of the GUI to switch to Comparison mode. Display all parts will display all the parts in the model. Create metadata creates metadata of all the attributes of the parts in the model corresponding to the selected row in the table. Right-Click menu Right -clicking on the table opens a menu of functions: • • • • • • Display selected parts displays parts in the model corresponding to the selected rows in the BOM display table. In the Different category. remaining columns display the BOM info. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Update metadata updates metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. which categorizes the BOM information into four categories: • • • • Match: BOM components whose standard attributes exactly match those in the model Different: BOM components whose standard attributes differ from those in the model In_BOM_Only: components found in the BOM but not in the model In_Model_Only: components found in the model but not in the BOM The screenshot below illustrates Comparison view: Column 1 shows the category name with the number of parts falling under that category enclosed in brackets. Delete metadata deletes metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. Delete deletes the selected row in the table. mismatched attributes between BOM and the model are highlighted in light blue.0 User’s Guide 101 .

This opens a Failed records table as shown below. The metadata display section contains four display options in the form of a combo box.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and then use this combo box to select the type of information displayed in the metadata display table: None Metadata related to BOM All metadata Differences between BOM/metadata clear the table if already some data exists display BOM related metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display all the metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display two rows of info in the metadata table. second row corresponds to metadata associated with the model BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section When a BOM file is loaded. You have the option to edit each of those failed records to make them valid and move them to the BOM display table using the Move button.BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section You can create. update and delete metadata using some of the menu items on the BOM display table. 102 HyperMesh 8. the whole record is considered invalid and will be stored out-of-sight. Click the Show failed menu item or corresponding button in the control section to see the failed records. The tool considers the following five terms as standard attributes: • • • • • Part Name Part Id Material Material Id Gauge If at least one attribute is missing or repetitive. Metadata information contains all the attributes for a part in the model. After selecting a row in the BOM Display table. First row corresponds to BOM info. the tool checks for the validity of each standard attribute in a record (a record corresponds to one line of info in the BOM file).

Select Lines Show Preserved Comps selection boundary Select comps Clear all lines Save preserved Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. this checkbox prevents HyperMesh auto-cleanup from equivalencing the boundaries between adjacent components. a new pop-up window opens to accept your settings: The following options are available for the Preserve Edges macro: Clear at start When this checkbox is active. Click this button to highlight the lines already marked for preservation. picking a new set of lines starts over instead of adding to the selection.0 User’s Guide 103 . so that autocleanup and batch mesher will know which lines must be preserved. When you click the preserve edges button. Removes all lines from the preservation list. When active. any previously stored feature lines will purge each time you click select lines or select comps. However. Use the lines selector to choose the lines you wish preserved. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a line selector in the HyperMesh panel area. sometimes minor features are still important to your analysis. Thus. Saves the preservation state. The preserve edges macro provides a way to ensure that specific components edges and feature lines do not accidentally get discarded during autocleanup or batch meshing. Use the comps selector to choose the components whose boundary edges you wish preserved.Preserve Edges Both the batch mesher and the autocleanup features seek to improve mesh speed and/or quality by suppressing minor features (which are assumed to be insignificant). Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a component selector in the HyperMesh panel area. Note that this will not preserve lines inside the components—only the outer boundary edge.

OK Cancel Accepts any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. HyperMesh displays a target element size field. The lines remain preserved. You can also review the contour plot of thickness data with this macro. Any points within this distance of the selected surfaces’ edges will be projected to those edges. The Midsurf thickness macro. 104 HyperMesh 8. Midsurf Thickness Geometric surfaces that represent the mid-plane of a solid part. allows you to transfer thickness data from surfaces to the associated nodes/elements.Reset highlights After clicking the show preserved button. Discards any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. the controls for this macro display in a new tab in the tab area. using the same units as your model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . After selecting surfs and clicking proceed. When you click the Midusrf thickness… menu button. use this to select the surfaces whose edges you wish to project points to. Project Points Use this macro to project geometric points (such as weld points) to nearby edges. Clicking this button opens a surfs selector in the HyperMesh panel area. The thickness data can be a single value for the entire part or a varying function. if extracted using the HyperMesh midsurface function. Type a value into this field. have thickness information stored in their definition. use this button to remove the highlight from the preserved lines. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. only the visual highlighting effect is removed (until you click show preserved again).

This option is only valid for OptiStruct and Nastran User profiles. The components option performs the following generic steps for each User profile: 1.The following options are available in the Midsurf thickness. Use the Nodes/Elements option to assign the thickness and Z-offset values directly to the element cards. then assign the thickness value to the component property card image for each User Profile. For each User profile. In order to execute this mode. the zoffset (which is saved as part of the midsurface data) tells a solver how much of a positive-normal offset exists between the actual part surface and the midsurface: To assign Z-offset values to the element cards for supported solvers. Z-Offset Values Activate this checkbox to take z-offsets into account. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. (For example.. check the Z-offset values checkbox.0 User’s Guide 105 . The t0 component definition will be used for all created components based on the Range Interval specified in the Component Organization Method section described below. Most solvers only have Z-offset defined on the element card. (For example. a base component named t0 must be defined. Creates components with name “t[thickness value]” by copying the properties of the base component t0 and assigning the appropriate thickness based on the value of the Range Interval or Gage File options. Assigns appropriate thickness values to the Component. the PSHELL T field will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). HyperMesh uses Z-offsets when midsurfacing parts that have variable thickness. the values will be updated on the element card for that solver. 2. Use the Components option to group elements that fall within userspecified thickness intervals into common components. CQUAD4 T1-T4 and Zoff fields will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). so this value will always be populated on the element cards for any solver that supports Z-offset.. 3. Refer to the User profile section for more details on the unique behavior of the Midsurf Thickness utility for each User profile. The nodes option is valid for only LS-DYNA and ANSYS solvers. macro: Apply thickness to You can choose to assign or view the thickness values at the nodes or on elements. Groups the elements that have thickness values within the specified ranges into the new component based on the Range Interval or Gage File options.

Thickness calculation method This option is valid only while applying the thickness to elements. Centroid –the element’s centroid (interpolated from its nodes) Max –the maximum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. Thickness range intervals are automatically generated based on the thickness tolerance using the following formula.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Range Interval – You must specify a thickness tolerance. Assign Contour Assigns the thickness from the surface definition to the nodes or elements chosen. The thickness assigned to each created component is n*tolerance. You can specify thickness range intervals by two methods: 1. Creates a contour plot of the thicknesses on the selected elements/nodes. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value. You can obtain the thickness value from the surface at: Average – the average of the element’s nodes. Gauge – You must specify the thickness range intervals in a Gage File. Click here for details on the format of the gauge file. it is a review/display function only. HyperMesh groups elements having thickness values within the specified range intervals into appropriately created components with the appropriate thickness values assigned to the component. Closes the tab. Min – the minimum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. • • • Lower limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* i ) Upper limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* (i + 1)) Assigned value = tolerance*(i+1) Where i = 0……n. n is determined by the maximum thickness in model divided by the user specified tolerance and then rounding to up to the next integer. Close 106 HyperMesh 8. Component Organization method This option specifies the thickness range intervals used when grouping the elements into components based on their thickness values. This option is very useful for visualizing and verifying the results of the Midsurf Thickness utility before applying the midsurf thickness mapping operation. This step does not assign the thickness to the nodes or elements. If the Assigned Value is not specified. 2.

3. and enter any default values for this card. Pick the desired nodes. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 7. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. 11. Select the Nodes/Elements option.To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Nodes/Elements Option: 1. 4. 5. 8. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. 2. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. Change to your preferred User Profile. 3. 5. 5. To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Components Option: 1. 7. 6. Select a Thickness Calculation method. Create the base component “t0”. 2. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. 3. 7.0 User’s Guide 107 . Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 8. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. 9. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click the Proceed button. Select the Components option. Change to your preferred User Profile. Load the desired model file. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. Load the desired model file. Load the desired model file. 10. 4. 2. Change to your preferred User Profile. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping To Contour Thickness for Node/Element Option: 1. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of thickness for the Node/Element option. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. 6. assign the base property card image. 4. 6. Select a Component Organization method and either select a file or enter a tolerance based on the method.

Select the Components option. 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select the desired nodes. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. 6. 8. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. 4. Click Proceed. 9. Click the contour button to open the node selection panel.To Contour Z-offset for Node/Element Option: 1. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Select the desired elements. 4. Select the desired nodes. 6. 3. 10. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Change to your preferred User Profile. Change to your preferred User Profile. 2. 9. Select the desired elements. 2. Activate the Z-Offset check box. 7. 11. 5. Load the desired model file. Select the desired nodes. Load the desired model file. Click the Proceed button. To Contour Z-offset for Components Option: 1. 6. 108 HyperMesh 8. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. 5. Activate the Z-Offset check box. 3. 2. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the Node/Element option. Click the Proceed button. 10. Select the Components option. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 4. Load the desired model file. 5. 8. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the thickness for the components option. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the components option. 3. Change to your preferred User Profile. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. To Contour Thickness for Components Option: 1. 7. 7.

Z-Offset value • Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.1 0. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.15 0.05 0.2 Assigned Value 0. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option.2 Midsurf Utility Behavior under different user profiles Abaqus 1. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value. 3.0 User’s Guide 109 .Gauge file example The Gauge file uses the following format: Number of Gauges [Number of Gauge Data Lines] Gauges Begin [min Thk] … If the Assigned Value is not specified. Nodes/Elements Option • 2.15 End 0.1 0. • • • Unsupported Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”.15 0.05 0. Below is a specific example of a gauge file: Number of Gauges 4 End [max Thk] Assigned Value [Assigned Thk] Gauges Begin 0.05 0.1 0.0 0.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option.Ansys The only difference between the nodes/elements and components options are that the nodes/ elements option will group the elements which match only exact thickness values. • Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Components Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported OptiStruct and Nastran 1. 110 HyperMesh 8. Z-Offset value • If Z-Offset is checked “on” Z-offset values from the midsuface will be retrieved and assigned to the elements associated to that midsurface. 3. Nodes/Elements • • • • 2. Nodes/Elements Option • 2. The components option will group the elements with thickness intervals. • • • • • 3. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method. • • • Assigns the Thickness and Z-Offset values to the Element Card based on the user selection Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”. 1.

• Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported PamCrash 1. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Assigns the thickness value to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Radioss 1. • • • • • 3. • • • 3. • • • • • 3.0 User’s Guide 111 . Nodes/Elements • 2.Ls-Dyna 1. Nodes/Elements • 2. Nodes/Elements • 2.

This macro is accessed on the Geom/Mesh utility menu located on the standard utility menu. Surfaces and/or elements can be used to define the volume. Its main objective is to quickly and automatically create a tetramesh that meets the minimum interior angle and minimum element size. the mesh may deviate from the underlying geometry in order to maintain good quality elements. you can select “sacred elements” so that the tetmeshing function closely follows the original geometry. The maximum feature angle protects nodes on corners with a feature angle greater than the value specified. Altair Engineering Minimum Tria Angle Maximum feature angle 112 HyperMesh 8.Quick TetraMesh The Quick TetraMesh macro quickly creates a tetramesh of an enclosed volume defined by geometry and/or elements. To alleviate this. helping to better maintain the geometry. For example. Click proceed to finalize the selection. The surface trias from which the tetramesh will be extrapolated will be generated with angles that measure at least this many degrees.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Use this control to limit how acute the resulting elements will be. The following options are available in the Quick TetraMesh macro: Volume Complist Double-click components and use the comps collector that displays in the panel area to select comps representing the geometry of the solid to be tetra meshed. the features may not be maintained as they do not pass minimum element criteria. and displays in a new tab in the tab area. if two nodes of an element share different features (as in thin steps). During the process of quick tetramesh. This applies only to cases where you can maintain features while fixing minimum element size.

No single edge of any generated element will be shorter than this. Uniform uses identically-sized elements throughout the mesh. correction of sliver elements. ignores/replaces existing elements. Note: this does not work if two adjacent surfaces are both marked as sacred! These are existing trias that you have created according to your requirements and wish to maintain while tetrameshing the part. When HyperMesh tries to move element nodes to improved element quality. no tetra elements are created and the macro simply goes through the cleanup steps for the shell mesh. With the Mixed mesh type. but requires more computing time. All the cleanup steps are designed to improve the mesh quality. When this option is checked. and projections onto the original geometry. even if doing so would improve element quality. Chordal deviation uses smaller elements along curves. but may produce lowquality elements along such locations. This is useful in ensuring that a particular feature is captured exactly the way you want it to be. Minimum allowable area for any element. and always uses uniform density. Mesh size Minimum Edge Size Minimum Elem Size Sacred surface Sacred elements Mesh type Mesh Density The mesh type options are Trias Only and Mixed. it gives special preference to trying to keep the nodes on a sacred surface. The tetramesher will not move the nodes of these elements. If the feature angle exceeds the given value. Tet from Mesher Perform mesh cleanup only Help Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Opens a pop-up window with basic information about each control that displays on the tab. or fixed. and edges to improve accuracy. in which the mesher must keep the tria mesh unchanged. but only for the elements selected as sacred. or the one used by the batch mesher.0 User’s Guide 113 . two adjacent elements are considered reversed and actions are performed to correct the situation.Maximum reverse angle The maximum feature angle allowed between normals of adjacent elements. Choose between automesh and batch. Choose between chordal deviation and uniform. but does not currently support sacred surfaces or elements. splitting of elements. both trias and quads may be created. Choose floating. feature lines. The Batch mesher generally produces better results. Average element size of the mesh to be created. Note that this setting overrides the float setting in the tet from option. This determines the meshing engine used: the one used by the automesh panel. in which the quick tetramesher is free to move nodes in a surface tria mesh to achieve better tetra elements based on them. Some of the cleanup operations performed are: the suppression of free edges.

You can manually mesh some critical geometry and select those elements as sacred elements. if any (e. Run with the desired mesh size. improves element quality by moving the midedge nodes of second order elements. moved midnodes lose any preexistent association with the underlying geometry. this persists until you exit HyperMesh. Launch the Quick Tetramesh macro. 2. 4. Identify problem areas. These sacred elements need to be trias. manually mesh problem areas. Locate features in the model that have feature angles greater than 150 degrees. This helps to obtain the desired mesh in critical areas. You select the elements on which you want to improve the quality. however. the tool heals small cracks in the model. Fix 2nd order midnodes This macro. Suggested process to effectively use quick tetramesh: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and specify the quality constraints: Minimum Jacobian (evaluated at the corner nodes or integration points).Mesh Perform the quick tetramesh with the specified settings. 114 HyperMesh 8. any surfaces edges that were ignored. In addition. Locate T-connections in the model. Use the delete panel to delete the tetras then. attempt to remesh using different settings if you do not like the initial results. Minimum Ratio between the minimum and maximum edge length. Note: There is no Undo function! You can. 5.g. Close Debug Surface Mesh The Quick Tetramesh macro meshes the unmeshed surfaces in the model using chordal deviation and fixes all the elements that fail the criteria provided. After making adjustments. 3. Re-launch the Quick Tetramesh macro and select sacred elements to protect. For critical areas where you want to control the mesh such as bolt holes. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. A series of tools that help you located problem areas which can cause poor meshing: Find Holes Find T-Con Dihedrals Attached Try TetraMesh Locate holes in your model. Select these elements as sacred elements. As a part of the cleanup. Closes the tab. Locate entities attached to the selected components. click this to re-run the meshing operation on the same components. manually mesh using chordal deviation. and Maximum angle. 6. Load the geometry. or if mesh in certain areas is not satisfactory). Note: Moved midnodes are saved to your save list.

From that point onward. Click the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes button on the geom/mesh Utility Menu.Typical usage of this utility begins with use of the check elems panel to identify poorly-formed nd elements. so a value of 0. but no greater than 1. Specify a minimum Jacobian value.0 User’s Guide 115 Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering • • Altair Engineering . and using that panel’s save failed option. Click the elems selector and select retrieve to load the saved failed elements. nd In the Fix 2 • Order Midnodes window. choose your element quality constraints: Choose a maximum angle. while a length of 0 would mean that the shorter segment might not exist—so this value must be greater than 0. This pop-up window exists independently of the rest of the HyperMesh environment. you use the Fix 2 Order Midnodes utility: 1. 2. An element selector and proceed button display in the panel area. HyperMesh 8. Remember that this is a minimum length. so you can click-and-drag it to any desired location. the angle between the segments at the midnode will not exceed 180 degrees minus this value). nd Order Midnodes window. and use the radio buttons to determine whether HyperMesh should evaluate each element’s Jacobian at the corner nodes or the integration points.5 would allow the shorter segment to be half as long as the longer segment. A value of 1 represents perfectly equal segment length. or longer—but not shorter than half the length of the longer segment. The Fix 2 Order Midnodes window opens. See the screenshot above for an example using a value of 30 degrees. nd The Fix 2 4. Specify a limit to the ratio of minimum and maximum length for the segments of the midnodebearing edges. Click proceed. 3. The utility will move midnodes such that the angle at the ends of each segment will not deviate from a straight line by more than this amount (thought of another way.

5. The images below illustrate the before-and-after state of a specific midnode and the criteria used. Close closes the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes window. Reject undoes any changes made when you pressed apply. Click one of the command buttons to finalize: • • • Apply tells HyperMesh to move the midnodes to try to match the criteria you specified. When you click Apply.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . a message displays under the Results heading to inform you of exactly what HyperMesh did to the mesh. as well as the overall results: Before clicking Apply After clicking Apply 116 HyperMesh 8.

or to vary from one another. This toggle only applies when the number of layers is more than zero. Pick nodes on your model for the centers of each hole that you wish to create. only one row displays because all layers will be set to the same values. A new window opens: The options in the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window determine the type of hole that HyperMesh creates at each chosen node: Hole radius Number of layers Uniform/Varying Each node will receive a hole of this radius. and specifies whether you want mesh layers to all be the same width. measured from the node. temporary panel in the HyperMesh panel area. the table displays one row for each of the number of layers that you specified. Otherwise.Trim Hole Macro This macro. No. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. This is the number of layers of washer mesh elements that you want to surround each hole. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. with a nodes selector and a proceed button. You can also specify a number of layers of washer elements to include. The number of a specific washer layer. If you chose varying width for the layers. Clicking the Trim Hole button opens a special. creates a circular hole of a given radius in the mesh at a node specifying the center of the hole. then click proceed.0 User’s Guide 117 .

Close the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window. This checkbox tells HyperMesh to create a rigid spider in each of the new holes created. if necessary. fills in one or more holes in your geometry with automatically-generated mesh. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Note: This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that currently fill the hole. so it can only undo multiple holes if they were created simultaneously during a single trim operation. use “0. • Value Create rigid spider along the hole The scale factor or width of the layer(s). and enables two more options: • • Choose individual rigid links to create rigid elements at each node of the new hole. Minimum number of nodes around the hole Trim Reject This determines the mesh density around the new hole(s). • Scale: you can specify each layer’s scale relative to the Hole radius. evenly spaced around its circumference.Scale/Width Determines the width of the washer layers. For example. Width: specify a fixed width for each layer. Each new hole will be created with at least the number of nodes that you specify in the density field. a new window opens: 118 HyperMesh 8. When you click the Fill Hole button in the utility menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note that this only undoes a single click of the trim button. click this button to undo it. Close Fill Hole Macro This macro.5” for a washer layer that’s half as wide as the hole radius. If you don’t like the results of the last trim operation. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. Click this button to create the new hole(s). Choose single rigid link to create one rigid element that connects to all of the nodes around the new hole.

Fill Reject Close Box Trim Macro The Box Trim macro. and X=value and X=xmax. 2. and attempt to fill them with mesh. so it can only undo multiple fills if they were created simultaneously during a single fill operation. a full car model can be trimmed along the Y=0 axis to obtain the left or right side of the car. 4. Type a value into the entry field labeled Fill circular holes with radius smaller than:. and X=value and X=xmax.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. Select nodes on the edges of the holes that you wish to fill.0 User’s Guide 119 . click this button to undo it. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=xmin and X=value. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y= ymiddle and Y=ymax. The Filling holes with mesh window returns. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=value and X=xmax. returning you to the main HyperMesh environment with a nodes selector active in the panel area. and X=xmin and X=value. with the Select Nodes button now green to indicate that nodes have been chosen. allows you to trim the model (or selected subset) along the global axis to fit the selected 3-D box. Close the Filling holes with mesh window. Click the yellow Select Nodes button. and X=xmin and X=value. and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=0. Split the model along global Y=0.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0.0 and Y=ymax. Split the model along global Y=0. Split the model along global Y=0. If you don’t like the results of the last fill operation. Automatic Use this option to let HyperMesh select holes automatically based on size. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=ymiddle. Note that this only undoes a single click of the fill button. Click proceed in t he panel area. The selected model can be trimmed along eight standard types: left right front rear frontleft frontright rearleft rearright Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y=ymin and Y= ymiddle (ymiddle =(ymin+ymax)/2).There are two methods of filling holes: Manual Use this option to select the holes that you wish to fill: 1. 3.0 and Y=ymax. Click the Fill button to fill the selected holes with mesh. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The window temporarily minimzes.0. Click this button to perform the fill operation. HyperMesh will automatically scan you model for holes smaller than this value. whether you chose to select your holes manually or automatically.0 and X=value (selected value). For example.

This macro is useful in applications where some types of analysis can be performed on one-half (or quarter) of the model using symmetry boundary conditions. The axis directions and terminology are based on modeling standards in the automotiv industry. Note: This macro is for the 1st order plate elements only. 120 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . e The model can also be trimmed using custom box by either selecting the two corner nodes or center node and dimensions.

click the icon. select the node/enter value for trim location. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. From the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Then enter Delta X. If you select custom. . 6. the outer X. (Reject will undo all the above. Delta Y and Delta Z values which is the distance from the center node to the outer bounds of the box in global X. If no load collector is specified. If you select a standard type. If no elements are selected. define the box by either selecting two corner nodes (Corners) or selecting the center node and dimensions (Distance from center). 4. Click Trim.) 5. From the Box Trim dialog. click Box Trim. You can also specify a Box collector. the constraints are created in the current load collector. select the elements you would like to trim and click proceed or the middle mouse button. A large hexa element that represents the box will be created for visualization in the specified collector. The nodes are constrained in the appropriate directions depending on the trim axes and are stored in the specified load collector (SPC collector). and select the center node. Y and Z directions. 2.To box trim a model: 1. Using the extended entity selection. choose the appropriate option from the Box trim type: menu. and select the two corner nodes that define If you select Distance from center. . If you select Corners. all displayed elements are selected. 3.0 User’s Guide 121 . click the icon. Y and Z bounds of the box. You can turn on the option of creating constraints (SPCs) for all the nodes along the face of the box.

The Auto Connectors macro automates the importation and FE realization of connectors from either a Master Connectors File or an older Master Weld File.Auto Connectors Macro Note: If you are unfamiliar with HyperMesh connector entities. Virtually every option available for FE realization in the connectors module is also available in the Auto Connectors macro. refer to Connector Definition and Connector Realization for more information. Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog 122 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog .cfg file.user-defined option Input requirements for connector entity creation and FE realization are: • • • Note: Master connectors/weld file FE config Projection tolerance In the case of a user-defined FE config.0 User’s Guide 123 . This script automatically reads the default HyperMesh feconfig. the user-defined FE type-t o-realize is required.cfg file and displays a list of all the appropriate user-defined FE types (found in the feconfig. The user-defined FE type definitions can be found in the appropriate feconfig. Additional options are: • • • Build systems Snap to node Attach to shells Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.cfg file) in the Fe type field. The property and diameter can be specified if necessary.

The second figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method.25:: 3. Minimum thickness 1.0 Maximum thickness 1.25:: Z 1. ACM Welds An ACM (Area Contact Method) weld is a special representation of a spot weld.Master Weld Files The Master Weld File provides the weld location and parts to be connected.99. The size of the solid element is determined using the DvsT file. Project to shell 124 HyperMesh 8. Th e solid element is created at the exact weld location independent of the shell elements that represent the sheet metal parts.4 to 1. The length of the weld element is calculated using one of the following methods: (T1+T2)/2 This creates the Hexa elements with a length equal to the average component thickness it is connecting.0 for the thickness range of 1. The nugget diameter corresponding to the minimum thickness of the connecting parts is obtained from the DvsT file. The size of the hexa is calculated to match the cross-sectional area of the weld nugget. These solid elements are connected to the corresponding components using RBE3 elements. PointId 12:: 23:: 1t/2t/3t 2:: 3:: X 2. The length of the Hexa element will be equal to the actual distance between the two connecting components/elements. This creates the Hexa elements between the component/element shell surface. The weld is defined using a solid (HEXA) element whose cross-sectional area is equivalent to the area of the weld nugget.9 3. The file format includes thickness range and the corresponding diameter of the weld nugget. Diameter vs. The first figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method. Thickness Files DvsT file (diameter vs thickness ) contains a table that associates the thickness of components and the nugget diameter of the weld. The equivalent area is taken to determine the side of the hexa.exe feinput translator.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .0:: 0. T1 and T2 are the component thicknesses. A format example is shown below.0 Nugget diameter 7 8 The nugget diameter is 7.25: 3.25:: PartId1 2:: 2:: PartId2 3:: 3:: 5:: PartId3 The syntax is the same as used for spotweld. For additional supported formats.4 2. see Spotweld Interface Overview.05:: Y 2.

ACM creation using (T1+T2)/2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 option ACM creation using Project to Shells option The weights of the RBE3 elements are calculated based on the projection of the dependent node on the shell element.The figures below show ACM created using the two currently available methods.0 User’s Guide 125 . The nodes of the shell element closest to the dependent node are assigned a greater weight relative to the node that is farther away.

126 HyperMesh 8. Make sure all the connecting parts have PSHELL cards with correct thicknesses. Set the appropriate tolerance (proj tol=) value. 9. 7. they can be realized as ACM spotwelds as follows: 1. The 1D element is not connected to the shell element. Once a connector is created.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In addition to the creation of CWELD elements. Make sure the attach to shell and snap to node options are turned off in fe options…. meshless elements. which determines the size of the hexa based on the thicknesses of the components being connected. 2. 8. 4. For CWELD elements. Make sure that the connectors are created at each of the weld locations along with connecting parts information. For details regarding connected shell elements or nodal information see the element card. The appropriate property script is automatically loaded for the selected type. a corresponding property card (PWELD) is created with an updated diameter ‘D’ attribute value.ACM welds can be created and managed in HyperMesh using connectors. 6. CWELD Elements CWELD elements are created as patch-patch. Select a DvsT file. Load the Nastran user profile from the user prof… panel in Geom or Tools page. Select the connectors to be realized as ACMs in the fe realize panel of the connectors module on the 1D page. the diameter is determined from a DvsT file based on the component thickness. Choose custom element config and select type = Nastran 70 ACM((T1+T2)/2) or type = Nastran 71 ACM (Shell Gap) per your requirements.0. hexas are created with weld nugget diameter =1. 3. 5. If no DvsT file is selected. Click realize.

Radioss. removing unused panels or sub-panels. Nastran. Note: Ensure that items required for a specific function are not removed from the interface.0 User’s Guide 127 . Pamcrash. or renaming panel options. renaming panels. A set of standard user profiles is included in the HyperMesh installation. the appropriate template and Utility menu load (you can return to the standard HyperMesh GUI by selecting the HyperMesh profile). The current user profile displays on the header bar. add functions to (or remove them from) a panel. Actran. The configuration can include loading a specific template. Ansys. OptiStruct. The hmmenu. Note that the user profiles change the appearance of a panel . Moldflow.User Profiles The HyperMesh user interface can be configured according to your specific needs and saved as a user profile. Permas. Madymo. however. moving.set file keeps track of which user profile was last loaded. Select User Profiles from the Preferences pull-down menu. They may. Once you choose a standard user profile. loading a specific Utility menu. and an interface customized for CFD uses. User profiles for the following products are included: HyperMesh OptiStruct ABAQUS ACTRAN ANSYS LS-DYNA MADYMO NASTRAN PAM-CRASH & PAM-CRASH2G PERMAS RADIOSS CFD Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and removing.they do not affect the internal behavior of each function. They include Abaqus. HyperMesh. LsDyna.

Utility menu: Panel changes: The standard HyperMesh Utility menu is loaded. Using HyperMesh This section explains how to use a typical HyperMesh panel by description and example. If a template file exists before loading the profile. If a template file exists before loading the profile.mac) is loaded.HyperMesh User Profile Template: None/Unchanged This user profile does not load a template.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The standard HyperMesh Utility menu (hm. the template remains the same. the template remains the same. None The HyperMesh user profile does not load a template. It contains information about: • • • • • • • • • • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Input Collectors Viewing Models Using the Display Panel Setting View Options Setting Tolerances Setting Global Parameters Importing and Exporting Data Printing Screen Images Using the Card Previewer 128 HyperMesh 8.

0 and earlier. and click Save. select a file using the Open file. and then select the hm file sub-panel.. You can also click save as. To retrieve a binary HyperMesh database. Using the Files Panel However.0 User’s Guide 129 .. dialog. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button.. but can be less efficient than using the File menu. you can also use the hm file sub-panel on the files panel to save and retrieve HyperMesh binary databases. updating/overwriting its older version each time you Save. Open and Save As… both invoke browsers so that you can navigate to the desired file directory and either select a file to open. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Next. If the file being saved already exists. Save simply saves the current model under its current name. Next.. or type in a name for the file to be saved. To save a database.Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Using the File pull-down menu The simplest way to open or save a HyperMesh model database is to use the Open... click retrieve.. Save. HyperMesh asks for confirmation before overwriting the file. This process is familiar for users of HyperMesh 7.. and click Open. and Save As… options located in the Files pull-down menu. select a path and file name. and then select the hm file sub-panel. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. click save.

cfg command file. see Entity Selection. You can set the default mode for the graphics mode you wish to use by activating/deactivating the *graphicengine(mode) command in the hm. Components do not have pick handles. Surfaces can be selected along their edges or on interior UV lines (also known as surface lines). Each type of entity has a pick handle that allows you to select the entity. move the mouse to the location on the screen where the node resides. The pick handle for a coordinate system is located at the origin of the system. see Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements. you can use the mouse to pick the desired entities in the graphics area of the screen. Systems 130 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Line handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. line. a "+" is displayed at only some of the pick handles. You may need to change the command if the default has been changed by a prior user. Note: For more information about picking entities." If there are many pick handles. 1-D element pick handles are displayed as letters at the centroid of the elements: K M BAR2 BAR3 R RL W RBE3 J ROD GAP spring masses bar2 bar3 rigid rigid link weld rbe3 joint rod gap Click the element handles check box on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel to switch on or off the display of element handles. To select a node. Each pick handle is displayed as a small "+. If you need to select nodes on geometry or on an element where nodes do not currently exist. Elements Shell and solid element pick handles are displayed as pixels at the centroid of the element. or surface within that component. Element handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed.Picking Entities on the Screen After you select the correct data type. The following list indicates the pick handle locations for each type of entity: Nodes The pick handle for a node is located at the node. Click geom handle on the modeling sub-panel on the options subpanel to switch on or off the display of line handles. Surfaces Components Surfaces do not have pick handles. Lines Each segment of a line has pick handles along its length. A component can be selected by picking an element.

A plot can be selected by picking within its border. simply select a load within that system collector. Blocks are drawn in shaded mode with transparency and can be selected by picking anywhere on the entity. simply select a system within that system collector. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Titles Vectors Curves Note A title can be selected by picking within its bounding box. The pick handle for a load is located at the pick handle of the entity to which the load is applied.System Collectors Loads Load Collectors Plots Blocks System collectors do not have pick handles. elements. or loads. To select a system collector. To select a load collector. when several of them are coincident (present at the same location). A curve can be selected by clicking anywhere along the curve. Vector pick handles are located at the arrow tip of the vector.0 User’s Guide 131 . Blocks do not have pick handles. Load collectors do not have pick handles. you can turn on the coincident picking option from the modeling sub-panel of the options panel (accessed from the toolbar). To facilitate the selection of graphical entities such as nodes.

Continue to hold the left mouse button down and use the mouse to move this special cursor box close to the desired geometry entity. To select new nodes on geometry: 1. 3. A temporary node is created at that location and is selected in the node collection for the panel. edges. You can create temporary nodes on an element (similar to creating a node on the fly on a line or surface). You can create a node on geometry by holding the left mouse button down along the geometry handle until the cursor becomes a square and then selecting the geometry (lines. 132 HyperMesh 8. This function allows you to create welds at locations that do not have pre-existing nodes. While the line or surface is highlighted in this manner. You can create nodes on elements by holding the left mouse button down on an element handle until the cursor becomes a square and selecting the element. When you are in a node collection mode.Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements Node and node list input collectors allow you to not only pick existing nodes in the model. This function can be accessed from any node collector in any panel. 4. you can select nodes at the desired location(s) on the geometry.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Position the cursor on a node and press the left mouse button. . The cursor becomes a small white box 2. Then move the cursor to the exact location on the elements of that component and click the left mouse button to place the node. While the line/surface is highlighted. release the left mouse button to select it. position the cursor on an element handle and hold the left mouse button down. Then move your cursor to the exact location on the geometry where you would like the node to be placed and click the left mouse button to place a node. Release the left mouse button. surfaces) on which you would like to place a node. Move your cursor to the exact location on the element where you want to add a node and click the left mouse button. they also allow you to create new nodes on geometry or on elements. 2. 3. To select new nodes on elements: 1. The cursor becomes a small white box and the element is highlighted.

When you select by adjacent. Input Collector Extended entity selection menu. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are displayed in dimmed text. the set to be added to the user mark includes entities displayed and those not displayed. Entities that are not displayed will not be selected although they may be attached to the entity selected. When you select by attached. You may select multiple assemblies from this list. HyperMesh includes the entities that are adjacent to the entities already selected. When you select by assems. Allows you to select entities by specifying an entity among a large group of continuously connected elements. Allows you to select elements. These selection options are displayed for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. click the data type button on the current input collector.Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu The extended entity selection menu provides a number of entity selection options. With all other entities. coordinate systems. HyperMesh displays a list of the available collectors. Extended selection techniques are described in the following table: all Allows you to select all entities of the specified type. Allows you to select entities adjacent to the entities already selected. To access the extended selection menu. You may select multiple collectors from this list. When you select all. HyperMesh displays a list of the available assemblies. by adjacent by assems by attached by collector Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 133 . loads. lines. surfaces. equations. Allows you to select entities by assembly. the entities selected by this operation are those attached to the selected component. When you select by collector. HyperMesh includes the entities currently displayed that are attached to the entities already selected. the elements or lines contained in the selected components are selected. vectors. You can then select an option from the extended entity selection menu. If you select component collectors in regard to elements or lines. and points by collector.

HyperMesh displays a list of the available includes that you may select. adjacent surfaces or elements are progressively selected when the angle between them is less than or equal to the specified feature angle. 3. 400 t 500 b 3 by face by group by id by include Allows you to select FE entities such as elements. groups etc. by output block Allows you to select the nodes. HyperMesh displays a panel for specifying an element configuration and type for selection.<end number> by <increment value> "through". Allows you to select entities by typing in their ID numbers.2000 by 100 1000 . 134 HyperMesh 8.10. 850 1 . 800. HyperMesh displays a list of the available output blocks from which you may select. groups and mats within an outputblock. comps. 5.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . that belong to selected include. systs. or "t" may be substituted for the dash (-). elements. HyperMesh displays a list of the available groups. Attached. 77. 8 . a pop-up window prompts you to type ID numbers or ranges of ID numbers. Allows you to select entities by surface face.100 by 2. Note: Includes created via the include browser are only valid for solvers that support them. It finds surfaces and elements that are attached to each other without crossing a feature line. 4. When you select by output block.2000 b 100 You can also use a comma to separate individual entities or entity ranges. The standard format is: <start number> . You can use keywords to specify a range that determines which entities are selected. When you select by include.by config Allows you to select elements by configuration and type. loads. Examples of valid by id expressions: 127 127 – 722 300 through 600 300 thru 600 300 t 600 1000 . When you select by id. The feature angle parameter in the options panel’s modeling sub-panel determines the feature lines. The element type is dependent on the template file specified in the global panel. "thru". 5. When you select by config. Allows you to select entities by group. When you select by group. You may select multiple groups from this list. Output blocks are created in the output blocks panel. 100 3. Examples of valid lists of by id expressions: 1. and the letter "b" may be substituted for "by" when you specify the range.

the function tries to find the closest path along that free edge. Allows you to select all of the entities currently displayed on the screen. Allows you to select entities inside a user-defined multiple-sided polygon in the plane of the screen. Allows you to select the entities which are associated to a surface. or points. Select original to place the new entities in the same component collectors as the original entities. Selecting by window activates the build window panel. and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. Allows you to select a group of entities whose pick handles reside on a plane. as shown in the global panel. Select points in the graphics area to define a window enclosing the pick handles of the desired entities.0 User’s Guide 135 . Click select entities to highlight the enclosed entities. either by picking a sample surface or by specifying a range of values for the width. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes. all entities within collectors that are active in the disp (display) panel are selected. and selects all the nodes/lines that fall in the closest path connecting the selected ones. click select and HyperMesh selects the entities which are associated to the surfaces. HyperMesh displays a panel from which you may select one or more surfaces. This is useful when you want to apply constraints to a plane. Allows you to duplicate the currently selected elements. When you select by surface. The initially selected entities are deselected when the duplicate elements are created and selected. Entities can be saved to the user mark by selecting save in this popup window. Allows you to retrieve previously saved entities from the user mark. When you select duplicate. When disp is selected. click reject entities to deselect enclosed entities that were previously highlighted. surfaces. or by selecting save failed in the check elems panel. Sets are created in the entity sets panel. by path for lines uses the connectivity of surfaces/solids and thus requires the selected lines to be surface/solid edges. Select current to place the new entities in the currently active component collector. Similarly. lines. When you select by sets. a pop-up window allows you to choose a component for the newly created duplicate entities. If you select two nodes on a free edge of some elements. This can be very useful when you use the reflect function on a model (only available for elements and lines). HyperMesh displays a list of the available sets from which you may select. by sets by surface by window by width displayed duplicate on plane retrieve Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Allows you to select surfaces by width.by path Allows you to pick multiple nodes or lines. Once the surfaces have been selected. Allows you to select the entities within a set. You can associate entities to a surface in the node edit panel. Alternatively.

the function tries to find the closest path along the free edge. origin in the systems panel requires only one node. The nodelist collector displays the following extended selection options: save Notes: by list by path Allows you to select nodes individually in the desired sequence. When reverse is selected. for example. Allows you to pick nodes (two or more) and selects all the nodes that fall in the closest path connecting the selected nodes. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. If you select two free (red) edges. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. all selected elements are removed from the mark. Some panels in HyperMesh require only a single entity to collect. such as nodelist and linelist must remember the sequence in which the entities are selected. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally. Some collectors. Allows you to review the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection.reverse Allows for a Boolean "not" to be performed on the currently displayed elements. Thus their extended entity selection menu is different from that of the standard extended selection menu. 136 HyperMesh 8. it only works with surface edges and not free unconnected geometric lines. all elements which are not on the mark and are currently active are selected. The extended entity selection menu is not displayed in such situations. Allows you to save the currently selected entities to a holding area known as the user mark. If you select two nodes on the free edge of the elements. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . show node order by window The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges.

then click cw (clockwise) or ccw (counterclockwise). The save and restore options allow you to save. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. specify an area to see in closer detail. reverse the view. or rotate the model in clockwise or counterclockwise directions. • • • Use the left. fill the window with the model. and refresh the screen. then click-and-drag on the model in the graphics area. Slide zoom. Using View Rotation There are multiple methods you can use to rotate a displayed model. The view commands are accessible even when you are using other panels. (Numeric keypad) Current Window Zoom Fit to screen Plot (refreshes the rendering in the Graphics Area). The viewing functions allow you to: Setting Basic Views The view pop-up menu allows you to display your model in several basic views.0 User’s Guide 137 . up. Hold down the ctrl key. click-and-drag the mouse to zoom in and out.Viewing Models The functions on the Toolbar Area allow you to control the view of your model. The view menu Changing the Window The window viewing options allow you to zoom in and out of the currently displayed window. right. The following window viewing options are included as default keyboard shortcuts: z + and f p s Circle zoom: click-and-drag the mouse to draw a circle. and down arrow keys to rotate the model incrementally. and restore different views of your model. Click the user view button in the Toolbar Area to access the view menu. The view zooms to that circle when you release the mouse button. Release the mouse button to stop zooming. View pop-up menu. identify.

HyperMesh displays a message requesting you to circle the area of the model to be more closely investigated.on the numeric keypad to zoom out. To fit the entire model on the screen: • Press F on the keyboard. move the mouse to circle the area to be zoomed in on. Press . Move the mouse to the appropriate area on the screen and hold the left mouse button down. To refresh the screen: • Click the plot refresh toolbar button or press P on the keyboard. Slide the mouse: or 4. The model and/or the window are not resized when you refresh the screen. To drag the model: 1. To use the mouse to zoom in and out: 1. The cursor changes to dynamic center mode. 2.right click allows you to drag the model. Simultaneously press and hold the CTRL key and the right mouse button.CTRL . press the p key or the plot refresh toolbar button to refresh the screen. Automatic full screen refreshes are kept to a minimum. 3. down to zoom in up to zoom out Release the mouse button to end the zoom function. A trailer line appears wherever the mouse is moved. 2. Press the s key. 138 HyperMesh 8. Press Z on the keyboard.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The area circled is used to recalculate the window when the mouse button is released. Use the mouse to drag the model to the desired position on the screen. To zoom in and out of the current window: 1. 3. If the screen appears messy or inaccurate after entities have been plotted and erased. Click and hold the mouse button. With the mouse button still depressed. Press + on the numeric keypad to zoom in. To perform a circle zoom: 1. 2. Release the mouse button. 2. These two functions increase or decrease the current window by the user-defined factor specified on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel.

The current center is indicated by a small white box. Move the mouse into the graphics area. Move the mouse to the point where you want the new center located and click the left mouse button. This returns the screen graphic to the view before a rotation. The center relocates. 3. or other viewing manipulation was performed. is performed by selecting a new center for the current window. Exit by moving the mouse into the menu area. Return to the Previous View To return to the previous view of your model. center. To change the screen center: 1. 2. click the previous view button in the Toolbar Area or press b on the keyboard. zoom. or by pressing any key.0 User’s Guide 139 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. also called panning.Performing View Translation Translation of the model. by clicking the right mouse button. Press C on the keyboard. 4. You can toggle between two views of a model by clicking (or pressing) repeatedly.

Click the upper switch. Click the lower switch and select (id) to display the collector’s ID number instead of the name. Use the right mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want removed. 3. Components can be turned on and off by selecting the check boxes of the components in the display list.Using the disp (display) Panel The disp (display) panel. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. 3. To turn a collector off: 1. Click all. Click the lower switch and select name to display the collector’s name. 2. Click the upper switch. allows you to select which components and collectors are displayed on the screen. the switches (on the right-hand side of the panel) are set to comps and elems. 2. To turn on all the collectors of a specified type: 1. or both: 1. The name and ID of the collector are displayed on the left side of the page. To change to another collector type: 1. Select the type of collector you want to remove from the screen display. Use the left mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want added to the display. At this setting. Select the collector type. the elements in the selected components are displayed if the component (on the left-hand side of the panel) is selected. 2. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. located on the permanent menu. 2. In the default mode of the display panel. Click the lower switch and select name (id) to display the name and the collector’s ID number. Collectors can also be turned off by moving the mouse to the graphics region and picking an entity which they collect. The colors of each component display next to the component names. IDs. Click the upper switch. To change the collector list to display names. The name of the collector is displayed on the left side of the page. Select the type of collector you want to display. 140 HyperMesh 8. To turn a collector on: 1. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The ID of the collector is displayed in parenthesis on the left side of the page. Access it by clicking the display button in the Toolbar Area or selecting Display > Collectors from the View pull-down menu. 3. To turn all the collectors off: • Click none. Select the type of collector you want to display.

2. Click the leftmost toggle to filter =. To display geometry: • Click the toggle and select geoms to display the surfaces and lines in a component. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can use the asterisk (*) for a wildcard.0 User’s Guide 141 .To reverse the selection: • Click reverse to toggle between having all the selected components on or off. To use a filter: 1. Enter the character string to use for the filter.

Fixed points can also be turned on and off from vis opts in the geometry cleanup panel. fixed points The fixed points option allows you to specify whether or not to display fixed points. The coincident picking option allows you to graphically select a desired entity from a stack of coincident entities when there are multiple entities at the same location. but it can slow down the redraw speed of a large model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When the pick tolerance is increased. elements. The pick tolerance specifies the maximum distance. For example. The surf lines parameter specifies the default number of u-v lines to draw on new surfaces when they are created. setting the rotation angle to a lower value allows a smooth transition from frame to frame. You can then pick the appropriate load.Setting View Options The modeling sub-panel on the options panel (accessible via to toolbar or the Tools pull-down menu) allows you to define several viewing options. The zoom factor specifies the multiplication factor that is used to increase or decrease the scale of the current view when you press the + and – keys on the numeric keypad. Turning off pick handles can speed up the redraw time. This does not affect the display of free points. a circular insert pops up containing various loads displayed separately with their IDs turned on. This option allows you to display the element labels as template names or HyperMesh names. for more information see Setting Tolerances. This function is activated by turning on coincident picking in the options panel. Increasing or decreasing the angle makes the model appear to rotate faster or slower. The number of surface lines on existing surfaces can be changed by using the surf lines panel. Viewing option settings include: rotate angle The rotate angle specifies the number of degrees that your model rotates when you use the arrow keys. Displaying surface lines can help you to visualize a surface better. pick tol zoom factor surf lines element handle geom handle coincident picking template labels/ HM labels 142 HyperMesh 8. The geom handles option allows you to specify whether or not to display line and surface handles. if multiple loads are detected at the same location. loads and systems. it is easier to pick an entity. in pixels. that the cursor can be from the pick handle of a graphical entity in order to select it. An element handle is a single-pixel dot at the centroid of an element. This sub-panel also allows you to specify node and cleanup tolerances. The entities supported for coincident picking are nodes. The element handles option specifies whether or not to draw element handles. The element handles option also allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. For smaller models.

Hidden Line with Feature Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the "feature" edges drawn in mesh line color. HyperMesh selects the node closest to the point where the element was selected. Access this panel by opening the View pull-down menu. select the element to which the node of interest is attached. If no shrink is selected. as you are not required to have a pick handle on the screen in order to pick the entity. For nodes that are not attached to any elements. so that its corners do not appear to touch its nodes. The display attributes that you can assign to each component are: Wireframe Element edges display with lines. Another key feature in the graphics engine is the method by which nodes are selected. then selecting FE Styles. This feature allows you to assign a set of display attributes to each component of your model that determines how each component is displayed.Shrink The shrink option controls the shrink factor to be used when drawing elements. The shrink value must be between 0 and 1. each element is drawn so that its corners directly connect to its nodes. it is much easier to work when you are zoomed in on a particular area. For lines and surfaces. The benefit of this feature is that it allows you to create zero length elements between two coincident nodes in a mesh. Component Display The graphics engine treats each HyperMesh component as an independent unit. Transparent The element displays as a filled transparent polygon. Hidden Line with Mesh Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the edges drawn in mesh line color. Hidden Line The element displays as a filled polygon.0 User’s Guide 143 . Shrinking elements is a convenient way to detect holes in a mesh and to improve wireframe element picking. To select a node. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If a shrink value is applied. Entity Selection The graphics engine allows you to select entities by moving the mouse anywhere along the entity of interest. They can be applied to individual components or sets of components through the Visual Attributes panel. the element is scaled by the specified value about its centroid. Display attributes can be applied to all components by using the wireframe elements and shaded elements toolbar buttons. HyperMesh allows you to select the node by picking the "node sphere" on the screen.

Potential areas of zbuffer stitching are in the features. One of the optimizations is the removal of interior solid faces. To perform this task. and animation panels. HyperMesh calculates where the external faces are in your model. If one or more of the components in a model are set to a display style besides wireframe. the interior is filled with solid color. If swapping occurs while you are running HyperMesh.User Features of the Graphics engine When you are post-processing. HyperMesh relies on the zbuffer found on your graphics device. In some cases. the zbuffer may have difficulty deciding which entity to display. When a component is set to hidden line. If you encounter this problem. The isosurfaces sub-panel is available on the contour and animation panels. the graphics engine draws all selected or temporary nodes as spheres when one or more components are set to a display attribute other than wireframe.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the graphics engine offers advanced and powerful features: Cutting plane Cutting plane functions have been expanded to allow three planes to be active simultaneously. with the elements in back eliminated from the display. it may help to use the shrink option (modeling sub-panel on the options panel). the display lines which represent the edges (for example) might be partially or completely blocked out by the original entity in the database. edges. you should obtain more system memory. To correct this situation. contour. If this situation occurs. HyperMesh graphics use some memory. Optimization The graphics engine optimizes the display of your finite element model. and displays these instead of displaying all of the faces. The cutting plane feature can be found in the hidden line. If this occurs. or as a value-based surface in which you specify a value that indicates where an isosurface should be displayed. since HyperMesh is creating entities that reside in the same location in space as another entity. and faces panels. or nearly the same location in space. Cutting plane control is more interactive and is controlled by selecting any of the active planes with the mouse and then dragging the plane across the model. Isosurfaces Hidden components Memory usage 144 HyperMesh 8. you might see a "dotting" or "stitching" effect where the zbuffer considers one entity to be closer to you at one pointer. then HyperMesh draws the whole model in hidden line. and then another entity closer to you at another. you can turn the zbuffer off by making all of the components in your model wireframe. There are some limitations to using a zbuffer and some display output differences of which you should be aware. Isosurfaces can be displayed on a model in either a legendbased mode in which each of the legend colors generates an isosurface. The zbuffer allows HyperMesh to render your model in hidden line. If you have solid elements in your model. One problem with using the zbuffer technology is that if two entities lie in the same location in space. This can make it very difficult to see a node. Here. this could seriously affect performance.

0 100. These tolerance values include: node tol Node tolerance is essentially the resolution to which HyperMesh maintains the finite element data in the model.. If you want to create second order elements. and eliminating extraneous vertices. click the toggle after element order: to second. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.01 1e-3 0. These parameters remain constant until changed.0 Setting Global Parameters The global panel.0 User’s Guide 145 . the tolerance values are determined by the demands for that mesh.0 10. HyperMesh attempts to make a reasonable guess at this value when you import a CAD file. When you specify a node tolerance.0 Cleanup tolerance min. cleanup tol Since the objective is to make a finite element mesh for the geometry.1 10.1 1. Elements are designated as first order elements by default. accessed by selecting Global Parameters from the Model pull-down menu. Since you will approximate the geometry with a finite element mesh. you need to work with a cleanup tolerance that is less than the node tolerance used in the mesh generation.1 10.. You need to approximate the size of the elements that make up the smallest feature of importance in your model.max 1e-4 0. "Cleaning up" refers to cleaning up the CAD geometry data by equivalencing edges.0 0. deleting fillets. any entities created are stored in the active collectors. HyperMesh considers any two nodes to be coincident if the distance between them is less than the value. Element size Node tolerance min max 0.0 0. Use this panel or the template sub-panel on the files panel to specify the template file you want to use. This sub-tab allows you to define tolerance values. controls model parameters that are accessed by several different panels. which is accessible from the toolbar or from the Tools pull-down menu. The global panel controls which components or collectors are active.01 1.01 1e-3 0.1 0.Setting Tolerances The modeling sub-panel is located on the Options panel.01 1.0 1e-4 0.1 0. and initializes the tolerances as appropriate. but without additional input it uses a cautious estimate. The cleanup tolerance value specifies how much HyperMesh is allowed to modify the geometry in the course of "cleaning" it.

HM ASCII. You can also use the templates to perform complex editing or data manipulation tasks. 7. Altair Engineering 9. Click import to open the import sub-menu. <ctrl>-click to select multiple files one at a time. Radioss. The HyperMesh templates can be used to create model summaries and perform some analysis calculations. Click Close to close the Multiple File Import window. Cmold. The custom option can be used to import models using a translator provided with the HyperMesh installation but cannot be accessed via the pop-up menu. The FE formats we support are Optistruct. STL. 146 HyperMesh 8. Click Import to import the selected files. HyperMesh ascii. Select the desired file extension to limit the files that display in the files to import list. The Multiple File Import window opens. Abaqus. Pamcrash. Select the desired file type. You can modify the existing templates to support a desired feature or create a new template to support another analysis code.Importing and Exporting Data The import sub-panel on the files panel allows you to input external CAD line and surface data or finite element models. Geometry data can be written in IGES format. Nastran. and STEP. Click the “open folder” icon in the directory field to open a browser. and a secondary window opens to show the import progress and any errors that may occur.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Click the button to deselect all of the files in the list. Ls-Dyna. Click multiple files. you can select the ones you don’t want and then invert the selection. HyperMesh uses templates to create the analysis input decks for finite element solvers. Ansys. 6. Click the file pull-down menu. This is useful in cases when you want to choose most of the files in the list. The window minimizes during the import process. PRO/E. The CAD formats currently supported are IGES. Patran. • Selected files are highlighted to indicate their selection. To import multiple files: 1. and Ideas. PDGS. Browse to and select the directory that contains the models you wish to import. Marc. UG. 8. CATIA. You can also import/merge HyperMesh model files (. 2. The export sub-panel on the files panel allows you to write information from a HyperMesh database to many finite element formats. Moldflow. The CUSTOM interface allows you to import models using your own custom-built translation package. but not all. Click the button to select all of the files in the list. Select the desired files in the files to import list: • • • • Left-click to select a single file. DXF.hm) into the current model session. 3. 5. Click the button to invert the selection (deselect any currently selected files and select any currently non-selected ones). VDAFS. 4.

0 User’s Guide 147 .. or layers & groups. Click the lower switch and select layers. Click filename = and enter the name of the output file. (Note that the IGES interface exports geometry only. For translator:. and use the browser to select the file containing the data. 3. To write geometry data in IGES format: 1. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. if they are not already present. 5. click browse… and choose the translator required to read the file. A new input field. 6. 2. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. For file:. Click template = and specify the file name of the template file. Click the upper switch and select the plane format of the data. template = appears if it is not already present. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. Select the data format that corresponds to your input data from the pop-up menu. groups. Select IGES.. 3. 6. 4. 4.) To create an analysis deck via an external translator: 1. 4. 9.. 3. 2. Select EXTERNAL. A column of switches and toggles appears on the right. 2. Click write. 2. Click write. Click the toggle and choose either outer loop optional or outer loop mandatory. click import. 8. 5. Click write as. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. 7. To read data using a custom translator: 1.. click import.. 3. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. and use the browser to select a file. 4. Select the CUSTOM option. For file:.To read data using a standard translator: 1. Select the FE option. and enter the name of the output file or select. Select IGES. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel.. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

you must have a PostScript capable printer installed. The following options are available in the options panel. You can check this by selecting Print from the File menu to show the print dialog box and pressing the Properties button next to the printer name. Make sure the option Print PostScript over text is selected. Select fill model to expand the model to its maximum size within the graphics area of the PostScript page. To change PostScript settings file: 1. a PostScript tab is present in the properties dialog. 2. postscript sub-panel: color checkbox Activate the color checkbox to print in color. 3. If it is not selected. The ? is a number provided for file uniqueness. A PostScript file with the name post?.0 inches. Set the options to your print specifications. The generate bitmaps option must be off if you select this option. press the Options button in the print dialog. Select generate bitmaps to generate a bitmap PostScript file. To print an imported encapsulated PostScript image in MS Word. reverse video generate bitmaps fill to page fill model bitmap preview Select reverse video to indicate that your printer cannot produce reverse video images. and * is an extension (either eps for a PostScript file whose destination is the hard disk. plot optimize page length = 148 HyperMesh 8. 2. Deactivate the color checkbox to print in black and white. Select Image > PostScript. Click page length = and enter the new size to alter the page length. the PostScript preview or file information is printed instead of the actual PostScript image. This requires processing time to optimize the image output. To set MS Word to send the imported file as a PostScript image to the printer. Select the PostScript sub-panel. If the printer selected is capable of printing PostScript. Open the File pull-down menu. The color checkbox is active by default. Select plot optimize to decrease the size of the PostScript file generated. Select fill to page to fill the PostScript image to the specified page dimensions. or psp for a PostScript file whose destination is the printer).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The standard page length is 11. To create a PostScript file: 1. Select bitmap preview to generate an image that can be viewed when you view the file in another document.Printing Screen Images The postscript sub-panel on the options panel allows you to modify the default print specifications before you create a PostScript file. Select Options from the Tools pull-down menu.* is generated.

Click the toggle to standard/enhanced to change the postscript file resolution to print blended contours. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file.page width = image size = line width = print it standard/enhanced Click page width = and enter the new size to alter the page width.5 inches. This command executes the operating system command in the *postcopy() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. hm. but takes longer to generate. please contact your systems administrator. CTRL-F1 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. (Note: This works only in UNIX. hm. CTRL-F2 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk.0 User’s Guide 149 . The resolution is displayed in the header bar. The standard page width is 8. CTRL-F3 CTRL-F4 CTRL-F5 CTRL-F6 Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. the default installation does not spool the bitmap file to the printer. Click image size = and enter the new size to scale the image on the page to your specifications.cfg. Generates a *. If you select enhanced. It creates a smaller PS file.cfg. Printing Screen Images Using Keyboard Commands You can also use the following function keys in combination with the CTRL key to print and/or save screen images without accessing the postscript sub-panel. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file.) Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk.jpg screen capture or animation file. Select print it to send a copy of the file to the printer when you generate the PostScript file. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. The enhanced option allows you to print blended contours (not discrete). The slider controls the smoothness of the gradient fill of the blended contour. On UNIX platforms.cfg. If the functions do not create output. a slider bar is displayed. Select line width = and enter the new width to alter the line width. In order for the functions to work correctly. hm. your systems administrator must configure these functions for your system.

A card that has been defined may be disabled.Using the Card Previewer A control card may be in one of three states: State Undefined Defined (See note. Those control cards that are defined (green in the control card editor) are output. To override a default value field. the control card is not output. however. the field label color is yellow and no data entry is allowed. The attributes for that card remain. A default value field has two states: State Default = ON Default = OVERRIDDEN Description In this state. the label text color changes to cyan.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . pick the yellow field label. Default values for attributes are common throughout the card previewer. Any control card viewed in the card previewer is activated. When you override a default value field.) Inactive Note: Color Gray Green Red Explanation The control card was either never created or has been deleted. and allows you to enter data in the field. 150 HyperMesh 8.

the following building process is used: • • • • • • Create collectors Obtain line and surface geometry from an external file.0 User’s Guide 151 .General Process for Building Models This section describes how to build a finite element model in HyperMesh. or hand digitize the data Reconcile conflicts in the geometry and prepare it for use Build the model by using element-building panels Verify the quality of the model Create boundary conditions and systems Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In general.

Click the switch under creation method: and select no card image. Before you build a model in HyperMesh. 3. Select the create sub-panel. 4. To create a collector: 1. 2. Click create. To create a component: 1. Click name = and enter a name for the collector. 4. Click create. 8. each collector may use a dictionary or card image to define the attributes assigned to the collector. Click the switch under creation method:. 5. You are not required to provide a material name when you create a component or property. select material = and enter a name for the material. create a component collector for the lines and surfaces. Select same as and then click same as = to select the collector whose type and dictionary or card image information you want to copy from an existing collector. 7.Creating Collectors All entities in a HyperMesh database are stored in collectors. If you choose not to. 3. HyperMesh uses the definitions contained in the dictionaries or card image to translate models to external analysis codes. Select the create sub-panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Where available. Select dictionary or card image and then click dictionary = or card image = to select the dictionary or card image from a list. Click name= and enter comp1. click the switch and select the type of collector that you want to create. 7. Click the upper switch and select comps. If you are creating a component or property collector. if desired. 152 HyperMesh 8. Select the collectors panel. 6. HyperMesh automatically creates a material for you and gives it the same name as the component or property. click color and select the desired color for the component from the pop-up menu. Click return. 6. Select the collectors panel. refer to Collectors in Database Design. − − − Select no dictionary or no card image if you do not want to assign a dictionary or card image. The collectors panel allows you to create and update collectors and assign and edit card images or dictionaries. 2. 5. For collector type:. Based on the assigned template. Note: For more information about the types of collectors used in HyperMesh.

Parasolid. Select the Geom option. Unigraphics. When the geometry is read into the current database. DXF. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select the appropriate file format to be imported from the pop-up menu. surface data. IGES. or select cleanup tol and enter a tolerance value. 2. ACIS and STEP. select use automatic cleanup tol to use the cleanup tolerance associated with the geometry of the imported file. VDAFS. please review the individual CAD translator topics for additional information.0 User’s Guide 153 . 5. Blanked components are geometric data that exists in the CAD file but is marked as not displayed or turned on. Click Open to import the model into HyperMesh. 3.Reading Geometry HyperMesh imports CAD geometry (such as lines. − − Using the toggle. Pro/E. select create blanked component or no blanked component. Click import… to invoke the file browser and select the file that contains your geometry data. To import geometry: 1. The types of geometric entities and organizational information imported vary for different formats. PDGS. HyperMesh creates a new component if an active component does not already exist. Using the toggle. 4. and point data) in the following formats: CATIA (V4 and V5).

spheres. Create circles or arcs. The ruled. spline/filler. Creating NURBS surfaces A NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) surface is a parametric surface defined by control points. drag. cones. point/node creation and editing panels nodes temp nodes Create new nodes. including squares. at tangents. and drag/spin sub-panels of the surfaces panel can be used to create NURBS surfaces. and create a spline surface and/or mesh in the enclosed area. surfaces creation and editing panels surfaces primitives surface edit defeature Create surfaces from existing lines or nodes by different methods. The spline option creates a surface through 3-D lines. knots and weights. Edit existing lines in a variety of methods such as combine. smooth. or extend. 154 HyperMesh 8. Create standard shaped surfaces or solid entities. or spin. including: from points. and cylinders. and at the intersection of other geometry. Edit existing surfaces by removing individual features such as holes or fillets.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . split. or shrinking. extending. If you select a set of lines that do not form a closed loop. HyperMesh will connect the disconnected lines with straight lines. These lines form one path because they intersect at four points. Several methods are available. you can create or edit geometry using the line and surface builders.Creating Geometry Data If geometry is not available from a CAD system. Add or remove nodes used only for geometry creation or editing. There is no limit on the number of lines used to create a mesh/surface. The panels used in this process are listed below: lines creation and editing panels lines line edit circles Create lines in a variety of methods. Edit existing surfaces by trimming. such as spline.

HyperMesh reports an error when you attempt to create the surface. smooth. If the tolerance is too small and an intersection cannot be found. Creating a surface with these lines results in a relatively complex surface. and slows the automeshing process. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 155 .These lines form more than one path and cause an error. Lines that contain sharp edges can cause problems when you create a surface. These sharp edges are sometimes the result of data created on other CAD/CAM systems and brought into HyperMesh via a translator. These lines result in a more complex surface. which takes longer to create. The tolerance setting on the options panel is used to determine the intersections between lines. line by using the lines panel. These lines may need to be "smoothed" by using the line edit panel or replaced with a new.

In some cases the sharp edges are required to represent the model and should not be smoothed. which results in a much simpler surface. Lines used to define a skinned surface. 156 HyperMesh 8. The skin option can create a skinned surface through a set of lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A skinned surface created from the lines.The "circular" shaped line has been replaced with a smooth line.

0 User’s Guide 157 . A ruled surface created from the lines. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The ruled option can create a ruled surface between two lines. Lines used to create a ruled surface.

Removes selected individual nodes from the temporary node list. The temp nodes panel allows you to modify the temporary node list.Temporary Nodes A temporary node list retains nodes that are not attached to an element. In shaded mode. edges. and while holding the mouse button down. duplicates of the lines are created and the operation is applied to the duplicates. 158 HyperMesh 8. Removes all the temporary nodes from the database. where appropriate. you can hold the left mouse button down until the surface of interest is highlighted. edit elements). moving the mouse slightly from side to side. There may be times when you wish to use an unattached node later in the modeling process. Release the mouse button when the desired surface is highlighted. you can display surfaces in wireframe mode or in shaded mode. Surface edges may be used in the same way as lines in any surface creation panel. protecting them from automatic removal by HyperMesh’s database management (except for some panels that automatically clear all temporary nodes. Picking Surfaces In HyperMesh. and release it to confirm the selection. the easiest method of selecting a surface is to pick the surface near its edges or surface visualization lines. If several surfaces share an edge. Similar to wireframe mode..e. faces. click anywhere on the surface to select it. Each surface highlights as selected. i. In the temp nodes panel. there are three functions: • • • add clear clear all • • • Adds selected individual nodes to the temporary node list. If you use any surface edge lines in the line edit panel. you can select any one of them by clicking on the edge.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In wireframe mode.

which contain surface editing tools. use the trim with line sub-panel of the surface edit panel. The features and automesh panels have a cleanup sub-panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can use the surface edit panel to modify surface geometry when it is necessary to make changes before you generate a mesh.0 User’s Guide 159 . If the sweep does not intersect the surface. It is usually preferable to combine multiple faces into one surface entity before you use the meshing tools. After the circle is used to trim the surface.Editing Surfaces Each HyperMesh surface contains one or more faces. The surface is trimmed by sweeping the line along the vector and intersecting the surface with the sweep. A circle and a surface (represented with surface lines) before trimming. the surface is not trimmed. This allows them to be meshed at the same time. two new surfaces are created (shown highlighted) and the original surface is trimmed. You must select the surface and the line and specify a direction vector. to trim a surface with a line. For example.

Two surfaces before trimming. The smaller surface is split into two surfaces after it is trimmed with the larger surface.To trim one surface with another. use the trim with surf sub-panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 160 HyperMesh 8.

if you transform a component that contains both a surface and its associated nodes/elements. or element. a surface. associativity is broken. use the node edit or project panel. such as translate. When nodes are associated to a surface. the nodes are automatically associated to the surface.Associativity Nodes and elements can be associated to surfaces. which allows you to select all the nodes and/or elements associated to a surface. Associativity is also broken if you trim a surface. However. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When you create a mesh with the automesher. you can use the smooth panel to smooth elements on the surface and the node edit panel to move the nodes along the surface. Note: Re-associating nodes to a surface is usually a time consuming task. node. To re-associate a node to a surface. Some operations break associativity.0 User’s Guide 161 . the associativity is not broken. If you transform. Associated nodes and elements can be selected by surface.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The quick edit. overlaps. edge edit. their priorities are different from those of analysts trying to use the data. and prevents unnecessary artificial or accidental edges from being present in the final mesh. and autocleanup panels contain tools to help you prepare surface geometry for meshing. The initial CAD geometry often contains gaps.Geometry Cleanup When designers create CAD geometry. This allows the elements to be created on the entire region at once. These features can distort the elements or demand a finer mesh. A single smooth surface is typically split into smaller patches. point edit. or other misalignments. 162 HyperMesh 8. The juncture between two surfaces often contains gaps. misalignments. analysts need to combine a number of faces into a single smooth surface. To make the geometry more appropriate for meshing. each a separate mathematical face. or pinholes.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you can easily build a much better mesh. Using the simpler. and eliminate pinholes.0 User’s Guide 163 . combine surfaces into large meshing regions. cleaner geometry. you can close the gaps between surfaces.With the tools of the geometry cleanup panels.

Building 1-D Elements One-dimensional elements currently supported in HyperMesh include bar2s. or features panel. rods. This section describes the element types and indicates which panels you can use to build the elements. elem offset. springs. edges. and joints. rigids. 1-D Element Bar2 Stores A property reference A local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Bar3 Property reference Local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Gap Joint Property reference Property reference Optional orientation nodes or system(s) Plot RBE3 Rigid link A reference to two nodes A degree of freedom at each node Weight at each node A degree of freedom code One independent node Multiple dependent nodes Rigid Rod Spring A degree of freedom code A property reference A property reference A degree of freedom code An optional orientation vector A degree of freedom code Supports rigid elements. Supports complex beams. Supports springs or damper. plots. The following list indicates the storage capabilities and purpose of each of the 1-D elements. Masses have the ability to store one node. Supports simple beams. bar3s. Supports gap elements. line mesh. Masses can be created in the masses panel. Building 0-D Elements The 0-D elements currently supported in HyperMesh are masses. you can build elements directly on the geometry. a value of mass. Supports rigid elements with multiple nodes.Building Elements After you create or obtain geometry data. rbe3s. rigid links. Supports kinematic joint definitions supplied with Safety Analysis Codes. Purpose Supports complex beams. Plot elements are generated in the edit element. Supports NASTRAN RBE3 elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . gaps. Altair Engineering 164 HyperMesh 8. The 1-D element-building panels are located on the 1D page of the default main menu. Note: bar3s contain a third node designed to supported second order beams. Supports display type elements. Weld Note: Supports weld elements. and a property reference. welds.

Builds elements that lie on a surface defined by lines. Builds elements between two rows of nodes. Builds elements on conic or cylindrical surfaces. first order linear elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. or group of elements about a vector. and eight-noded quads can all be built in HyperMesh. Builds elements by dragging a line. Builds elements on toroidal surfaces. a row of nodes and a line. Builds elements on square or trimmed planar surfaces. four-noded quads. Builds elements by offsetting a group of elements in the direction of their normals. Builds elements by spinning a line.0 User’s Guide 165 . These two-dimensional elements can be built in any of the following panels: automesh cones drag edit element elem offset line drag planes ruled spheres spin spline torus Note: Builds elements on surfaces according to user specifications. Builds elements by hand. or group of elements along a vector. row of nodes. Builds elements on spherical surfaces. By default. row of nodes. but second order parabolic elements may be generated by changing the element order in the global panel.Building 2-D Elements Three-noded trias. or two lines. six-noded trias. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Builds elements by dragging a line or group of elements along or about a control line.

Builds solid elements between a variable number of lines. 166 HyperMesh 8.and 15-noded pentas. but second order solids may be generated by switching the element order in the global panel. By default.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Building 3-D Elements HyperMesh builds 4.and 20-noded hexa elements. Builds elements by hand. Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a line. and 8. 6. Tetras can be built in the edit element panel by hand or by using the tetramesh panel. Creates solid elements by offsetting a group of two-dimensional elements normal to the surface formed by the group of two-dimensional elements.and 10-noded tetras. Creates solid elements between two-dimensional elements. first order elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. Builds solid elements between nodes. and surfaces. lines. Fills with tetra elements a volume that is enclosed by tria elements or surfaces. Pentas and hexas can be built in any of the following panels: drag edit element line drag linear solid solid map solid mesh elem offset spin split tetramesh Note: Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a vector to create solids. Propagates split hexas. Spins a group of two-dimensional elements about a vector to create solids.

skew. aspect ratio. The 1-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check one-dimensional elements for free ends Determine if a group of rigid elements form a loop Check weld and rigid elements for double dependency Check all elements for a minimum length of a side The 2-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage.Checking Model Quality After you build your model. You can check your model for connectivity and duplicate elements.0 User’s Guide 167 . and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check tetra elements for collapse. and NASTRAN-style aspect ratio The time sub-panel allows you to check for elements whose small size might cause problems for an explicit solver. The group sub-panel provides a tool to check for and eliminate group or interface elements whose underlying structural element has changed and left them detached. skew. CFD-style volumetric skew. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check a mesh of elements for its maximum chordal deviation from a real or inferred surface The 3-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. you can use the check elems panel to verify the geometric quality of the elements in the model. aspect ratio. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The user sub-panel allows you to verify element quality by using a template file that checks for userspecified conditions.

Applies a flux load at a node. P. V. Loads are displayed in the color assigned to the load collector. The label may include the magnitude of the force. Velocities are displayed as a singleheaded arrow with an optional label. Applies a constraint or enforced displacement at a node. Forces are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label F.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Applying Loads The final step in the model building process is to apply constraints and forces and to create or assign coordinate systems. HyperMesh stores and displays all loads in the global coordinate system. M. create a load collector. 168 HyperMesh 8. Fluxes are displayed as a thick arrow with an optional label. • constraints • • • equations fluxes • • • forces • • moments • • pressures • • temperatures • • velocities • Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. The size of loads and constraints is based on model units and can be modified from within the boundary condition panels. The label may include the magnitude of the flux. Applies a pressure on an element or geometry. Moments are displayed as a double-headed arrow with an optional label. Before you apply loads. flux. EQ. reviewing. Accelerations are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. HyperMesh transforms the loads appropriately to any local nodal output coordinate system. T. Applies a velocity at a node. HyperMesh currently supports the following load types: • accelerations • Applies an acceleration at a node. The label may include the magnitude of the moment. The label may also display the magnitude of the acceleration. and updating loads and constraints. The label may include the magnitude of the pressure. Applies a concentrated moment about a user-defined vector at a node. Equations are displayed with the label. The label may include the magnitude of the velocity. with an optional label. A. Constraints are displayed as a triangle with an optional label that displays the degrees of freedom effected by the constraint. Applies a general equation constraint between nodes. Applies a temperature constraint at a node. Depending on the analysis code being used to calculate results. Applies a concentrated force along any user-defined vector at a node. Temperatures are displayed as a straight line starting at the node at which the temperature is applied extending upward. Pressures are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label.

Nodes. cylindrical.Creating Systems Systems in HyperMesh are referred to as coordinate systems and may be rectangular.0 User’s Guide 169 . A system collector must exist and be current in order to build a system. mass elements. Analysis systems transform the output system of a node entity. Note: System collectors collect system entities. Reference systems transform geometric location or input vectors from the global system to a local system. HyperMesh supports reference and analysis systems. or spherical. Systems are built and referenced in the systems panel. and other systems are eligible entities for a reference system. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. forces.

which allows you to see immediately the locations of the new nodes. HyperMesh responds with immediate feedback on the effects of the changes. you can specify the mesh generation and visualization options to use on each individual surface. the module operates the same. have more flexibility in specifying the algorithm parameters. which supplies as much automated assistance as possible. which allows you to evaluate it for element quality before choosing to store it in the HyperMesh database. until you are satisfied with the resulting mesh. and employ the mesh-smoothing operation to improve element quality. • If you use surfaces.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you do not use surfaces. There are two approaches to the automeshing secondary panel. You may choose from several mesh generation algorithms. Furthermore. You control interactively the number of elements on each edge or side and can determine immediately the nodes that are used to create the mesh. there are situations in which it is not possible or not desirable to create a surface. Most of the functions are still available and operate in the same way. A solid model created by dragging automeshed plate elements. trias. You can adjust the node biasing on each edge to force more elements to be created near one end than near the other. You can also specify whether the new elements should be quads. you may choose from a greater variety of algorithms. You can adjust interactively a wide variety of parameters and choose from a suite of algorithms. depending on whether or not you use surfaces as the basis for the operation. Most of the element creation panels use this module. Mesh smoothing is also available and you may select the algorithm for that operation as well. or mixed and whether they should be first or second order elements. The created mesh can be previewed. you can use any of viewing tools on the visual options menu to simplify the visualization of complex structures in your model. the meshing process is usually faster and uses less memory. If you use surfaces. While you are in the meshing module. 170 HyperMesh 8.Automatic Mesh Generation HyperMesh has a centralized plate and shell mesh generation tool called the automeshing secondary panel. • For either method.

0 User’s Guide 171 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The automeshing secondary panel can make second order elements for boundary element solutions.

smooth. undo. reject. abort. density algorithm type biasing details checks Each automeshing sub-panel has the mesh. as well as the local view pop-up menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can switch freely between the sub-panels.Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel The functions of the automeshing secondary panel are divided into six sub-panels. the screen display changes to present only the information applicable to the current operation. 172 HyperMesh 8. and return functions (see Automeshing Secondary Panel in the Panels section).

Eventually the entire region is filled with elements. Free • • If quads is the selected element type for the current face. if that is the case. HyperMesh first creates a quads mesh and then divides each element along its shortest diagonal. The advancing front algorithm uses the following process: • Traverses the perimeter of the region. HyperMesh recognizes more than 18 different configurations requiring distinct templates. Rectangle. HyperMesh analyzes the geometry of each face and the element densities specified for each edge. Each site where an element could be placed is measured and one of several possible elements is chosen. Sometimes two or more trias are needed because of the particular order in which the elements were generated. or those working entirely from node and/or line data. or pentagonal in shape. HyperMesh chooses a standard template based on the element densities around the perimeter of the region.0 User’s Guide 173 . For most configurations. and chooses the algorithm that will give the best results. the default mesh generation algorithm is Autodecide. To make tria elements. Applies repeatedly the selected smoothing algorithm until no node is moved farther than the specified smoothing tolerance. at least one tria always needed. but there are some situations in which one or more trias are included: • • • If the total number of elements specified for the perimeter of the face is odd. Ignoring rotations. HyperMesh uses a streamlined version of this algorithm that is optimized for the different shape and connectivity requirements of tria elements. placing elements along the edges as it proceeds. The mesh generation algorithms include: Autodecide If you are meshing a surface. The Free meshing algorithm is a general-purpose formula that works for most meshing conditions. it chooses the Free algorithm. gives quality results rapidly. an advancing front algorithm is used. the best choice of algorithm is usually to map a standard mesh onto the region using transfinite interpolation. If mixed is the element type. or Pentagon If the region is free from internal holes and the boundary is clearly triangular. If quads or trias is the selected element type. Map as Triangle. and where applicable. you can usually eliminate them by changing some of the meshing parameters and then remeshing the region.Mesh Generation Algorithms The mesh generation algorithms are divided into two types: those that require the presence of a surface to provide a context of operation. In this case. a submapping algorithm is used. HyperMesh attempts to produce an all-quads mesh. If trias is the selected element type. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Examines the groups of elements to see if a local change in the connectivity might improve element quality. HyperMesh uses a single tria. Such an operation is exceedingly fast. If there is a tight corner on the boundary that would require a poor quality quad. rectangular. The surface can have interior holes or edges and any number of sides.

174 HyperMesh 8. with no surface. and if you use the spheres panel. You can still use the density and biasing manipulation tools but some edges will be linked together.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . so that the configuration always satisfies the balancing requirements of the intended mapping. If you use the spin panel.Map without Surface If you are creating a mesh entirely from line and/or node data. the algorithm is to map a sphere-covering mesh. the mesh generation algorithm is decided by the tool that was used to describe the desired operation. If you use the drag panel. the algorithm is to spin. the algorithm is to drag.

this choice usually gives the best results. this choice usually gives the best results. If the element spacing around the perimeter is roughly uniform. allowing variation in element size. HyperMesh uses a modified isoparametric-centroidal over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. If there is a transition from small elements to large elements in the region. HyperMesh uses a modified Laplacian over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. Size Corrected Shape Corrected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 175 . HyperMesh traverses the perimeter of the region looking for variations in element edge length and choose between size-correcting and shape-correcting smoothing algorithms. The shape-correcting smoothing algorithm attempts to correct the elements’ shapes. The size-corrected smoothing algorithm attempts to even out the sizes of the elements at the cost of some element quality. usually in the form of worsened aspect ratios from the stretching of elements.Smoothing Algorithms There are three smoothing algorithms used by HyperMesh: Autodecide By default.

Linear Biasing In linear biasing. If m is the slope of the line. Each image interval corresponds to the side of an element. You can designate that the smaller intervals go near the start of the edge. Specifically. the biasing intensity corresponds to the positive slope of a straight line over the interval [0. There are three methods you can use to calculate the biasing of node positions: Use biasing to preserve element quality in complex regions. let n be the element density and let . near both ends with larger intervals in the middle. you can use biasing to cluster several layers of elements near the surface of a solid.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1. Element biasing allows you to moderate the changes in aspect ratio from the start to the end. you may want to use biasing to improve element quality when transitioning from smaller to larger element sizes. This interval is uniformly divided into as many subintervals as specified by the element density and they are mapped along the edge so that the length of the image interval is proportional to the height of the line over the midpoint of the source interval. When you use the drag and solid offset panels.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or near the middle of the edge. the mesh at one end could be scaled several times larger than at the other end. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. 176 HyperMesh 8.Element Biasing The automeshing process allows you to bias the placement of nodes so that their intervals are not uniform in size. Within the automesher. In linear solids.1] of the Real Line. then: . near the end of the edge. and b is its y-intercept.

Let be the geometric growth factor. . Thus. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. That factor is 1. and x(1) = 1.5.0 plus 1/10 of the absolute value of the biasing intensity. with each successive interval being a constant factor larger than the previous. we find: so. progressing along the edge. Negative biasing intensities just reverse the edge. then x(s) scales them to the range of [0.20]. Thus. If the biasing intensity is negative. We can use b to scale the behavior of the function so that convenient values are in the range [0. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. m is the absolute value of the biasing intensity. For this. Specifically. We need a function Let then: so that: which gives the proper interval lengths. This formula was chosen so that an intensity of zero will still represent no biasing. and convenient values will fall in the range [0. The value used is b = 1. a positiv biasing intensity puts small elements at the start of e the interval.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) =1. let n be the element density and let . the sizes of the intervals grow geometrically.1].Using x(0) = 0.0 User’s Guide 177 . placing the smaller elements at the end instead of the beginning.20]. the nodes are placed according to 1 .x(s). Exponential Biasing In exponential biasing. .

let n be the element density and .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If we use: for positive biasing intensity r. We need so that takes values in [0. and if it is negative. and has the behavior noted above. .1] with x(0) = 0. Specifically. x(1) = 1. If the biasing intensity is positive.Bellcurve Biasing In bellcurve biasing. they are placed at the middle of the edge. 178 HyperMesh 8. the smaller intervals are placed at the beginning and end of the edge. nodes are distributed long the edge in a pattern that is symmetric across the midpoint of the edge. then x(s) becomes: where erf() is the statistical error function.

it has no effect. The resulting edge is locked and you cannot change the element density or biasing. "The value of this number cannot be changed" is displayed. Any change to one of the edges is immediately applied to all others that are linked to it.0 User’s Guide 179 . Some of the surface creation panels allow you to use a node list to define one or more sides of a surface. If you try to adjust the element density numbers corresponding to these locked edges. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh automatically links those edges together so that they stay balanced. HyperMesh uses those nodes directly to make elements within the automeshing secondary panel. The error message.Linked or Locked Edges Most of the surface-less mesh generation algorithms requires that some edges have exactly the same element density and biasing values as other edges. Use the automeshing secondary panel to prepare input for solid offset. In these circumstances.

The characteristics of connector entities can be divided into four categories: Connector Terminology Connector Definition Connector Realization Connector Review 180 HyperMesh 8. Just as you can create an FE shell mesh by meshing a surface.Connector Entity Connectors are geometric entities (not FE) primarily used to create welds.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you can create an FE weld by realizing a connector.

Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. nodes points lines The connector is created at the node location. The connector icon is created at the center of the selected line. The connector location option is set in the create panel. but the line may be split into multiple projection locations as specified by the offset. realized failed Note: Connector Location The position in space at which a connector entity is created. The connector is considered failed if the weld creation at the connector was not successful. The color code provides an easier way to visualize and filter connectors based on their state. The connector is created at the point location. and lines can be used to define connector location. Only nodes. A connector that was realized can revert back to being unrealized if. or the weld element is deleted. for example. a link entity is suppressed from its definition. Only one connector is created for each line. points. The connector is displayed in green. The connector is displayed in red. and density values.0 User’s Guide 181 . The connector is considered realized only if weld creation at the connector was successful.Connector Terminology Connector State The connector state is defined as one of the following types: unrealized The initial definition of the connector entity after it is created. spacing. The connector is displayed in yellow.

The HyperMesh entities to which the link entities refer are welded together during realization. A part that needs to be welded is often represented as a component. A node facilitates a node-node weld connector. and components can be added to connectors. elements. elems Note: 182 HyperMesh 8. Surfaces can be used to create welds to connect geometry before meshing. Only nodes. or an element that it holds.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The surfaces can be either meshed or unmeshed. The link entity state options are set in the create and add Links panels. Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its mesh.Link Entity A reference to a separate HyperMesh entity that can be added to a connector. An element facilitates a patch-patch weld connector. The tag entity can be used to define a weld connector to either a node. surfaces. The link entity options are set in the create and add links panels. components Components can be used to connect elements or surfaces. The welds create fixed points for the mesh. elements surfaces nodes tags Note: Link Entity State Specifies if the HyperMesh entity referenced by the link entity is meshed or unmeshed. The above states are applicable to only surfaces and components added to the connector entity. tags. The connectors can hold a single entity or a combination of these entities. geom Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its geometry (connect surfaces only). The following entities are supported. The elems option connects the mesh on the component or surface and the geom option connects the geometry on the component or surface.

Re-connect Rules
Defines how a connector should protect its link entity information. none If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity is then removed from the connector. If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity retains the ID of the HyperMesh entity. The link entity remains in the connector. Same as the by id rule except that the entity name is retained.

by id

by name Note:

These rules are useful for applications such as part replacement. A part can be added to a connector ith the use id or use name reconnect rule and can be replaced with a redesigned part with the same ID or name, without having to change the connector definition. The re-connect rule options are set in the create and add links panels.

Number of Layers
The total number of thicknesses (layers) to connect at the connector. total T Sets the number of thickness to connect (2T/3T/4T/nT). This influences the number of welds created at a connector. Sets the total number of link entities that can be added to the connector. The number of link entities added to a connector is always less than or equal to the total thickness. The number of layers option is set in the create and add links panels.

Note:

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 183

Connector Rules
Shapes the definition of a connector entity. none The connector is created with no link entities and no thickness defined. In this state, the connector must first be updated with more information before it can be successfully realized. This option requires link entities to be specified before the connector is created. The link entities are added to the connector based on the user-supplied criteria. For this option, the connector only remembers what type of link entity it is to connect, rather than a specific link entity. During the fe realize process, the connector searches the HyperMesh database to generate the best (usually the closest) link entity it can using the supplied information.

now

at fe realize

Note:

The connector rules (connect when:) option is set in the Create and Add Links panels.

Connector Realization
Creating welds at a connector. fe realize The process of creating welds (FE) to connect the HyperMesh entities referenced by the link entities added to a connector.

Note:

The connector entity can be used to create only welds at this time.

Request for Connection
A set of parameters used during realization to create a physical connection between link entities.

184 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Connector Definition
The connector is simply a database of information defining a specific request for connection at a specific location. A connector definition describes the connector between multiple HyperMesh entities at a specific location. Entities that are to be connected are referred to as link entities. The connector location is defined as a node, a geometric point, or a geometric line. In the following example, there are two components (Top and Bottom) that are to be connected at the location of a point (with an id of 10). In this case, both components are considered to be link entities, since they are to be linked together. The point defines the location of the connector.

After a connector is created, the connector icon is placed at point 10, and components 1 and 2 are incorporated into the request for connection. The following diagram shows the connector after it is created (with an id of 7) at the location of point 10 (point 10 is not visible).

In this example, connector 7 has been defined and no welds have been created. The connector stores the following information: • • • Which link entities the request for connection is to connect (Comp 1 and Comp 2) The thickness of the realization (Thickness = 2) Where to connect the link entities (the connectors current location)

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 185

HyperMesh entities currently supported as link entities include COMPS, ELEMS, SURFS, NODES, and TAGS. Any number of link entities of differing types can be added to a connector in any order. The connector sets the order of link entities during the realization process. The example above is a simple case where we have added two link entities of the same type (COMPS) to a single connector. Note: An element-to-tag-t o-component connector is possible, as is any other combination of the supported link entities.

186 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Connector Realization
During connector realization, welds are created using the connector definition. Note: In HyperMesh, the only form of realization currently supported is fe realization (weld creation). For successful realization, the connector must be populated with all the relevant details required for its realization type. For example, fe realization requires the connector to be populated with a projection tolerance and an FE configuration type.

The following diagram shows connector 7 realized with a valid tolerance value, and a config value of type 21 (spring).

One advantage of separating weld fe realization from the connector definition, is that a connector can be re-realized as a weld of a different configuration (or possibly, a user-defined weld) without having to redefine the connector. If you edit the connector definition (i.e. add or delete a link entity from the connector), the connector removes the welds it created, and reverts back to an unrealized state. The connector is unrealized only if its user-control mode is turned off. By default, the connector mode is off but it can be turned on by registering custom FE with a connector. Connectors store all FE information that they create, allowing advanced find, mask, delete, and organizational functionality in a number of common HyperMesh panels. If the weld creation is unsuccessful (due to low tolerance, insufficient link entities, etc.) the connector icon is displayed as failed (red). An unrealized connector is yellow, a realized connector is green, and a failed connector is red.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 187

Connector Review
There are many advantages to the way connectors store information. Not only does this local storage allow you to edit the connector definition, it also allows you to review connector details and the quality of the realization. There are a number of tools that can be useful in the review process. The visualization pop-up allows you to update the visual appearance of a connector based on its state, thickness (number of layers), or the component in which it is located. In addition, the vis opts panel also allows you to filter the displayed connectors by various criteria (such as thickness). This filter can then be used for “displayed” mark creation. HyperMesh includes a connector information table that creates a table of connector definitions from a mark and allows you to delete link entities. The quality panel allows you to check the quality of welds created from the connectors. The connector database can also be queried through Tcl functions.

Connectors User Control Mode
Each individual connector can be placed in a user control mode using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. This user control mode is most useful for automated Tcl scripts. Once in user control mode, the following procedures are possible for a given connector: • • • Pre-existing FE can be registered as a given connector’s realization by using the *CE_FE_Register command. Connectors can be edited without automatically unrealizing (as happens most notably when a link is added or removed from a connector, or when an FE realization entity is deleted). A connector’s state can be manually changed from realized to failed, or from failed to realized by using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. A connector’s state will not change to or from the unrealized state using this method.

Once a connector is placed into the user control mode, the user control mode remains active until an unrealize command is called (such as *CE_Unrealize), an already realized connector is rerealized, or the user control mode is manually turned off with either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. While a given connector is in user control mode, it may not behave the same as a normal connector. Specifically, there are a number of scenarios where a user-controlled connector will not auto unrealize in response to database changes that would cause a normal connector to auto unrealize. Note: It is strongly recommended that when FE is registered to a user-controlled connector, that the connector links and other necessary details should also be set with a given connector (so that the connector can properly re-realize if a user interactively requests it to). At the bare minimum, connectors should know which links they are to connect.

188 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Master Connectors File
Most of the information stored in the connector entity can be exported to a master connectors file. This file contains connector entity information such as location, link entity, link entity state, link entity rules (see Connector Terminology). The exported file may also contain metadata information stored in the connector. The master connectors file contains welding information at a given location and also assists in the weld automation process. An exported master connectors file can be re-imported using the connectors reader to re-create connectors. The master connectors file is exported in a single format. The outline of a generic HyperMesh master connectors file is provided below: • • Master connectors files can have comments beginning with the characters # or $, or there can be blank lines in between. The format of the file is fixed and the order of heading definitions cannot be changed. The column information is shown below:

Notes: • • • The header at the beginning of the file specifies information about the column data. Number of layers defines the thickness to connect at the specified location (X, Y, Z). The data between the brackets are repeated for each link entity. For standard HyperMesh FE types such as ACM and CWELD, the FE Config will have a number of 1001, which defines the user-defined type number specified in FE Config File. The FE Type will be the number defined in the FE Config File (for CWELD it is 72). For a detailed explanation of custom FE Configurations see FE Configuration File. The data between the brackets (link entity information) in the table are repeated for the number of links (NumLinks). The NumLinks variable must be equal to the number of link entities.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 189

Metadata is an attribute type that can be stored on a HyperMesh entity. User-defined information (such as Station Id or Gun Id) can be stored on the connector entity as metadata. The Metadata is defined by a name-value pair and is supported for multiple data types (int, double, string, etc.). Please see the HyperMesh on-line help for more information on Metadata. The Metadata name is written to the master connectors file in the following format ~<Sturct><DataType>Name. <Struct> represents whether the value associated is a single variable or an array. <DataType> represents the type of data stored in the value. For example, a Metadata of name Assembly containing an array of integers is written out as ~AIAssembly. The only delimiter supported in the entire file is the double semicolon “::”. The entire column of data in the file should be of the same type. The connectors reader uses the templex template to read the master connectors file. See weld templates for more information. By default, the file is read into HyperMesh through the HMIN function call, HMIN_CE_CreateDefined.

• • • •

The connector entity is created with the information specified in the master connectors file and displayed as unrealized (yellow). To realize the connectors as welds, the fe realize panel must be used.

Multiple Weld File Format
In addition to the master connectors file, the connectors reader also supports master weld file formats previously supported by the spotweld reader.

190 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

For custom templates.0 :: 3:: 2:: 1:: int num header { type "CONNECTORS" set mark find "[0-9]+::" rewind set num = 0 if { do 1000000 { if { isdigit } then { set num = sum(num. the required headings must be added to the template requests and record blocks.cfg file must contain only the names of all the registered weld templates. The following example shows the template for a simple format file with two semi colons as delimiters. To read in metadata. a spotweld_format directory must exist in the same location as the master weld file.375 Weld Template :: 2. Each template works on only one specific format file.cfg file under the same directory.0 User’s Guide 191 . An example for a specific master weld file format is shown below: # Index::T::X::Y::Z::EID1:: EID2:: EID3:: 1:: 3:: 48.4375:: 9.Import Templates Templates work with the connectors reader to import multiple file formats. The templates are stored in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/feinput/spotweld_format and are registered in the spotweld. The spotweld. 1) } readln null } } set numrecords = num set numrequests = 9 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .requests "ID/T/X/Y/Z/EID1/EID2/EID3/EID4" set numcomponents = 1 components "Value" } record { read request // ID qfind "::" set mark read request rewind read num qfind "::" read request // X qfind "::" read request // Y qfind "::" read request // Z do num { qfind "::" read request // EID } set num = diff(4. num) do num { read constant 0 // fake EID } readln null } //T 192 HyperMesh 8.

The data can be separated using a space. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.FE Configuration File The FE configuration file (feconfig. The user-defined number for the FE combination.cfg) is used to define custom welds such as ACM (Area Contact Method) and other special types. The user-specified name for the FE combination. ansys. and pamcrash2g. LSDYNA.g. dyna. The weld definition in the file includes the type of weld to create and the surrounding connector to shells.0 User’s Guide 193 . FE Definition Template The FE definition template is shown below: CFG <SOLVER> <USER_FE_TYPE> <USER_FE_NAME> *filter <filter_type1> <filter_type2> <etc. This is input in the fe realize template as FE Type.> *style <style_type> *head <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <RIGID_FLAG> *body <BODY_FLAG> <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG> [<HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG>] *post <POST_SCRIPT_NAME> The template parameters are defined below. The specific solver template for the type of weld must be loaded in HyperMesh before the welds can be created using a connector entity. optistruct. By default. the feconfig. The specified name is saved and displayed in the info table during connector review process. The weld definition is solver dependant (NASTRAN. Supported solvers are: abaqus. USER_FE_TYPE USER_FE_NAME Note: This should be the first line in the user FE definition. See FE Definition Examples for information regarding the format and options for FE definition. Seam.cfg file from the <install_directory>/hm/bin directory is loaded in each of the panels related to each connector type (e. pamcrash. Spot. etc. etc).). Area. SOLVER The solver template for which FE needs to be created. marc. The FE configuration file has a pre-defined format that must be used to define different weld configurations. nastran.

For example. plot. The string head is required to specify that a rigid is to be created to connect the weld node to the surrounding shell element. Defines how the weld node is to be connected to the surrounding shell element. the weld node is connected to only one of the shell element vertex using the rigid. If the rigid flag = 1. rbe3. equation and rbe3 do not have a type defined. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE HM_FE_TYPE RIGID_FLAG CONNECT_FLAG 194 HyperMesh 8. and that they are native types. The various types supported for rigids are equation. For example.*FILTER This option can be used to allow only the specified connector types to realize the configuration. rigidlink. Note: *HEAD Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. the weld node is connected to all the vertices of the shell elements using rigid to form a spider. etc. This option indicates that the configurations have specific behaviors associated during realization. In addition. If rigid flag = 0. so the type field should be zero. If the type is not defined.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . this option is used as a filter when displaying FE configurations in the type = field of respective realize panels. a zero should be input. *FILTER spot seam indicates that this configuration can be realized only by the spot and seam connector types. A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. HM_FE_CONFIG The config for the rigid currently supported by HyperMesh. Note: The style definition line for these configurations must not be edited. For example. *style bolts 1 indicates that this is a bolt connection of type 1 that creates a specific bolted connection between the parts. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. Note: *STYLE A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. This option is not applicable to equation and rbe3.

The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config.0 User’s Guide 195 . The series weld definition has more than one weld between the link entities.0). Note. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG Note: *POST A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment.tcl extension. The body flag is used to calculate the length of the weld. This postscript will be automatically executed post FE realization and it can be used to edit weld properties. The flag specifies the length factor to be used for series welds. based on the solver. The type number is defined in respective solver templates and differs. If the length location flag is >= 0 and < 1.0. If the body flag = 1. The *post lines are optional. but if specified it must be followed by the name (excluding path) of a valid Tcl script with a . or the scripts/connectors/ directory. if you choose to type in a property script instead of specifying a CFG file in the connector’s generation panel. If the length location flag = 1. this option can also be used to specify a property script for the configuration. hexa8. The length location flag is used to specify if the weld created should be of type series or parallel. This allows HyperMesh to parse the CFG file for configuration instead of relying on metadata saved individually with each connector (as was done prior to 8. that metadata is still created and saved if you do not use POST to assign a property script (for example. Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. If the body flag = 0.*BODY BODY_FLAG The string body is required to specify that a weld is to be created to connect the link entities added to the connector. The various types supported for welds are. however. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Starting with HyperMesh 8. CBUSH is of config spring and type 6. rod. and other solver specific details. There can be more than one weld in a series. spring. the length is calculated based on the distance between the connecting layers (link entities). the users home directory (UNIX only). welds are created in parallel. For example. The config for the weld currently supported by HyperMesh. the length is calculated based on the average thickness of the connecting layers (link entities). etc. a series weld is created. This Tcl script must be located in the current working directory. plot. attributes.

The total length of series welds cannot exceed 1. Series welds are not created when the distance between the connecting link entities is zero. Series welds are not supported where the link entities are coincident. The head and the body definition must begin with a “*” to define rigid and weld definitions.0 (100%). Therefore. Series and parallel weld element combinations are not supported.FE Specification Rules • • • • • • • • Each solver will have a specific definition so the same user-defined types can be repeated for each solver. 1D and 3D element combinations are not supported.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 196 HyperMesh 8.5 (50%) each. an ACM can have only one hexa weld element specified in the definition. Hence there cannot be three welds specified in series having a length factor of 0. User comments should start with a hash character “#”. Multiple solid element combinations are not currently supported.

5 The series weld is created at the center with length equal to half the distance between the link entities.5 The two series welds are created with a length equal to half the distance between the link entities. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.0 User’s Guide 197 .5 spring 6 0.FE Definition Examples Washers CFG nastran 56 bolts *filter bolt *style bolt 0 *head rigidlink 1 1 dofs=123 rigidlink 1 3 *body 0 rigid 1 1 dofs=456 ACM Welds CFG nastran 71 acm *head rbe3 0 0 *body 1 hex8 1 1 The above definition creates ACMs with HEXA8 solid elements as welds and RBE3 elements as rigids. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The length of the hexa is equal to the distance between the connecting shell elements.

then it is placed at the center of the proposed 1-D element path.Parallel Welds CFG dyna 101 parallel *head plot 0 0 *body 0 bar2 1 1 bar2 1 1 The bar elements are created at the same location and connect the same link entities. or "2". 0-D Welds CFG pamcrash2g 1 plink (ce loc) *head plot 0 0 *body 0 mass 5 2 plot 0 1 *post prop_plink.tcl Supported values for the length location flag are "0". If this 0-D element is the only config given in the *body.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . "1" has the same behavior as "0" except only a single 0-D element is created even if multiple bodies are created (as happens in >2T welds) and "2" places the 0-D element at the connector location. "0" places the 0-D element along the proposed 1-D element path. The behavior for each value is as follows. 198 HyperMesh 8. "1".

Overview: The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing • The Domains and Handles Concept • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Global Domain and Global Handles Local Domains and Handles Partitioning Dependent Handles Working with Shapes Setting Up Optimization Creating morph volumes Registering nodes Altering Morph Volumes Tangency Morphing by Moving Nodes Morphing by Using Other Panels Sculpting The Domains and Handles Concept The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Space Frame Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • • Matching a Mesh or Line or Surface Data Making Parametric Changes Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Mirror Images: Using 1-Plane Symmetry Reducing 3D to 2D: Using Linear Symmetry Reducing 3D to 1D: Using Planar Symmetry Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. It enables rapid shape changes on the finite element mesh without severely sacrificing the mesh quality.HyperMorph Strategies HyperMorph is a tool in HyperMesh to morph the shape of a finite element model in ways that are useful. which can be used for subsequent design optimization studies. HyperMorph also allows the creation of shape variables.0 User’s Guide 199 . During the morphing process. logical and intuitive.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Shell Model Strategies • • • • • • Creating Handles and Domains Morphing on Local Domains Section Mapping Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing Solid Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • Viewing Solid Models Morphing on Local Domains Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing 200 HyperMesh 8.

rotation. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and arc angles as well as morphing the mesh to match geometric data and other meshes. radii. The domains and handles approach also allows parametric morphing of distances. Handles placed at the corners and along the edges of the morph volumes allow for the morphing of the morph volumes which in turn morph the mesh inside the morph volumes.0 User’s Guide 201 . on-screen method. This approach is most useful for making detailed changes to any mesh (local domains) as well as general changes to space frame type meshes (global domains). The Freehand Concept This approach involves morphing by moving the nodes directly without needing to create any HyperMorph entities. The HyperMorph Strategy Guide is intended illustrate the capabilities of HyperMorph and introduce you to both the basic and advanced functionality to help you get the most out of the tool. allowing the user to do virtually any kind of morphing. A number of methods exist to create the morph volumes including single and matrix creation as well as the interactive. and projection to geometry as well as using a "tool" to "sculpt" the mesh into the desired shape. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses when dealing with the numerous applications of morphing and you are advised to gain a basic understanding of each approach so that you can decide which approach is best for your needs. such as scaling or node projection. which are highly deformable six-sided prisms. dividing the mesh into logical domains. into morphs using the record sub-panel. The Morph Volume Concept This approach involves surrounding the mesh with one or more morph volumes. The freehand approach also allows for "customized" morphing. HyperMorph can do this automatically. or you can define your own domains and handles. and the freehand concept. You are also able to turn node manipulations made in any panel.The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing HyperMorph contains six exclusive entity types and a wide array of functionality. allowing for rapid changes to any mesh. While all the entities and functions are fully compatible and may be used in a complementary fashion they can be divided into three basic approaches to morphing: the domains and handles concept. such as translation. The morph volume approach is quick and intuitive and is most useful for making large scale changes to complex meshes. The domains and handles approach is the most difficult approach to learn but it is also the most powerful. When the handles are moved. The basics of the three concepts are summarized below: The Domains and Handles Concept This approach involves dividing the mesh into domains made up of elements or nodes and placing handles at the corners of those domains. You have great flexibility in how the moving nodes are moved. the shape of the mesh changes according to the domain boundaries. Morph volumes support tangency between adjoining edges and allow for multiple control points along the edges. The freehand approach is an ideal introduction to HyperMorph since it allows morphing without the creation of new entities while implying the concepts of domains and handles. angles. the nodes which will stay fixed. the morph volume concept. You define the nodes which will move. and the affected elements manually.

The process for calculating the influence coefficients is somewhat time consuming. parametric changes to the model. Each domain is associated with any number of local handles. Local handles are intended to be used to make small scale. edge domains. the mesh is stretched or compressed to match the desired shape. and general domains. Global handles and domains are best for making large scale shape changes to the model. Therefore. HyperMorph spends an amount of time proportional to the size of the new or edited domains calculating the handle influences. but it is not necessary to have both types of domains and handles in a model. Thus. 2D domains. the model is divided into domains where handles are used to control its shapes. Global handles are the largest handles in the model and they are red if they are not dependent on other handles. You can adjust the base size of all the handles in the model in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels or in the handles panel. the actual morphing occurs quickly.The Domains and Handles Concept When using the domains and handles approach. and general domains. the process of calculating influences can be too slow or too memory intensive and so the large domain solver makes it possible to morph such domains.000 elements (although you can change this default limit) the large domain solver is used. For domains that have more than 50. It is located at the centroid of the nodes selected when you create the global domain. 3D. each of which is associated with a number of global handles. global and local. cyan. The nodes in each domain move as a function of the handles that are either associated with the domain or are touching the domain. which allows you to make both large and small scale morphs and have them combine logically. These local handles can only influence nodes contained in any domains that they are either associated with or are touching. However. thus making morphing slower. or violet if they are dependent on other handles. Domains and handles are divided into two basic groups. when handles and domains are initially set up or edited. Dependent global handles are also smaller than the handles on which they are dependent. or yellow. The advantage of the large domain solver is that it is faster for morphing large domains but the drawback is that it must be invoked every time you wish to morph. but once they are calculated they can be stored and applied rapidly. but when handles are moved in order to morph the model no calculations are necessary. changes the positions of the nodes inside those domains. calculating influence coefficients is too time-consuming. the shape of the domains touching those handles change. for very large domains. the color indicating their level of dependency. The size given is used as the radius for the independent global handles as well as the diameter of the independent local handles. Global handles will only influence the nodes in the global domain to which they are associated. For very large domains. 3D domains. During the morphing process the mesh morphs in a logical way with nodes near the moving handles moving more and nodes near the stationary handles moving less. edge. The global group consists of global domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . in the case of global domains. in the case of 1D. The local group consists of five types of local domains: 1D domains. The advantage of this approach is that it makes morphing an interactive process. Global Domains and Global Handles Global domains are represented by a cube made up of dashed lines. A model can contain both global and local handles and domains. You cannot edit the color of the handles nor the relative size between the dependent and independent handles. The amount each node moves with respect to each handle is relative to an internally calculated influence coefficient. or elements. Domains consist of nodes. even for large models. In the areas between the handles. When the handles are moved. which in turn. However. 202 HyperMesh 8. 2D. you can edit the color of the domains in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels.

HyperMorph creates a global handle at each of the eight corners of a box surrounding the model laid out along the global axes. The automatic global handle generation works particularly well for space frame models such as full car models. or create new handles. By movi ng the handles you can stretch or deform the model along all three axes.0 User’s Guide 203 . These handles are named handle followed by a number. These global handles are named corner followed by a number from one to eight. Example of a model with a global domain and global handles Eight handles are placed at the corners of a box enclosing the model. you can always delete them. HyperMorph generates a number of global handles.When a global domain and handles are generated automatically. If the handles are not generated in the positions where you want them to be. or use the generate auto-function. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMorph generally creates no more than about 30 global handles for models of any size. reposition them. HyperMorph also places at least one global handle within the box in areas of peak nodal density within the model. such as when you create a global domain with the create handles option turned on.

204 HyperMesh 8. In the direct method.A space frame with six manually created global handles When the handles are moved. which in turn influence nodes. You should select which method is right for the type of morphing that you want to perform. global handles will influence every node inside the global domain using the hierarchical method if the node is inside a local domain. while the direct method may bend or warp these features into curved edges and elliptical holes. choose the direct method. If you wish to preserve the local geometry. global handles influence the nodes in the model directly.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the space frame morphs in a way such that the bars run between the handles. and the mixed method. If you are willing to accept distortions in the local geometry. Straight edges will remain straight and circular holes will remain circular for the hierarchical method. or the direct method if the node is not in a local domain The method used can be selected in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel and the parameters sub-panel in the domains panel with the default being the direct method. In the hierarchical method. In the mixed method. There are three options for determining how global handles in global domains influence the mesh: the hierarchical method. the direct method. There are subtle differences in how the global handles influence the nodes for each method with the main difference being that the parts of the model defined by local edge domains have their shape preserved when using the hierarchical method. choose the hierarchical or mixed method. global handles influence the local handles found at nodes inside the global domain.

Note how the straight edge remains straight and the circle remains round. the mesh is affected directly. Note the resulting distortion of the edge and circle. it moves the local handles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 205 . An example of global morphing using the direct method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right.An example of global morphing using the hierarchical method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. which move the mesh.

two joined rectangles for 2D domains. The colors of the handles cannot be changed. but may produce more desirable influences. and a line for edge domains. Independent local handles are orange and have a radius of one half the value of the handle size parameter. 206 HyperMesh 8. The geometric method is the method that was originally used for the Tcl/Tk interface of HyperMorph and HyperMesh and generates influences based on the geometric relationship between a given node or local handle and the surrounding global handles. and is the fastest and most robust method for generating global influences based on a spatial formulation for the entire model. The spatial method is the default.An example of global morphing using the direct method and biasing factors By increasing the biasing factor for the highlighted (white) handle.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The influences between the global handles and local handles (using the hierarchical method) or nodes (using the direct method) can be calculated using either the spatial method or the geometric method. The color of the domains can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. These local handles are named local followed by a number. The placement of local handles depends on the type of domain created and the partitioning options if partitioning is selected. or for the entire model by using the generate auto-function. When local domains are created. a cube for 3D domains. Dependent local handles are smaller than the independent local handles and are different colors depending on the level of their dependency. four joined rectangles for general domains. the angular shape of the morph becomes rounded. Local Domains and Handles Local domains are represented by a single rectangle for 1D domains.. Local domains can be created individually by selecting nodes or elements in the create sub-panel of the domains panel. The geometric method can be slow for large models or large numbers of global handles. Both methods attempt to determine how a global handle affects nodes or local handles in the space surrounding it. HyperMorph automatically places local handles at the ends of all edge domains.

handles have been placed at the ends of all the edge domains. All other handles in the model are given a biasing factor of 1. These elements are placed in a component named ^morphface. A higher biasing factor means that a given handle will have greater influence over the surrounding mesh than the others. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. while the dependent handles are smaller and green. The higher biasing factor given to dependent handles on 1D domains is intended to prevent mesh distortion when the 1D elements connect to nodes in 2D and 3D domains. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Additionally. the rigid elements have been placed in a 1D domain with the center node having an independent (orange) handle and the other nodes having dependent (green) handles. Finally. In the example above. Also note that 2D domains have been created on the faces of the 3D domain and that edge domains have been create on the edges of all the 2D domains. such as bars and rigid elements. This dependency relationship means that moving the independent handle also results in moving the dependent handles the same amount in the same direction. The independent handle is larger and orange.Example of a model with local domains and local handles with partitioning. Domains made up of 1D elements. 1D elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 1D domains. An independent local handle is placed at the centermost node of the 1D domain and dependent local handles are placed at every other node of the elements in the 1D domain. Note that shell elements have been created on the faces of the 3D domain. are called 1D domains.0 User’s Guide 207 . This is done to preserve the unique relationship established for groups of 1D elements. All the dependent handles in a given 1D domain are directly dependent on the independent handle. the bias factors for the dependent handles for a 1D domain are given an initial value of 3. The solid elements have been placed in a 3D domain. The shell elements have been placed in two 2D domains separated at the bend line due to partitioning.

By moving the orange handle. Also. The intent is to make it faster and easier for you to apply parametric changes to the model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . edit them. Since you morph the model by moving handles. even though the generated local handles are associated with the edge domains. or create new ones.A rigid spider becomes a 1D domain An independent local handle (orange) is placed at the centroid of the 1D domain and dependent handles (green) are placed at each node. Edge domains are placed along the edges of the 2D domains and are also partitioned. they will influence the nodes in any domain that shares the node at which it is placed. these domains are subdivided into smaller domains along break angles and curvature changes according to the partitioning parameters. Local handles are placed at the ends of all the edge domains. the entire spider is moved. such as floating in space near the domain. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. shell elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 2D domains. HyperMorph tries to predict where the handles should be placed to reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare your model for morphing. This is true even if the handle is associated with the 2D domain. Note that it is possible to create a handle on a node that is not touching the domain to which it is associated. If partitioning has been selected. maintaining the proper shape and connectivity for the rigid spider. you can delete them. If the handles or domains are not laid out in the positions where you want them to be. the local handles are placed at the corners of the 2D domains and at other useful positions. 208 HyperMesh 8. and have it influence the nodes within its domain. Domains made up of shell elements are called 2D domains. This allows you to place a handle outside of a domain. it helps to have handles already at the positions where you want them. A handle associated with any domain will always influence the nodes in domains that it is touching. In general.

The ^morphface component has been partitioned into 2D domains. The model on the right shows the addition of four new handles. A block of solid elements is made into a 3D domain The gray shell elements on the face of the 3D domain are the ^morphface component. Domains made up of solid elements are called 3D domains. Elements are created on the faces of each 3D domain and placed into a component called ^morphface. It is recommended that you do not delete or edit these elements nor rename or delete the ^morphface component. Edge elements are placed around each 2D domain and local handles are created at the ends of each edge domain. The elements on the face of each 3D domain are placed into a 2D domain that is then partitioned if the partitioning option is active. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 209 . Handles can be placed anywhere. However. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. solid elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 3D domains. these elements and their 2D domains will be regenerated the next time you enter or exit a HyperMorph panel or the delete panel. The color of the ^morphface component can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. if you do. In cases where shell elements that are attached to the faces of solid elements are present in the model. Note that these elements will not be written out to any FEM formatted deck since the component name begins with a “^”.Two 2D domains with edge domains and handles The model on the left shows the initial handle positions. Handles are created at the corners of the 2D domains. even at nodes not on the associated domain. HyperMorph will not create ^morphface elements coincident with the existing elements.

Examples of edge domains Edge domains are placed around the edges of 2D domains. When creating local domains or using the generate aut o-function. When you are selecting domains and are holding the mouse button down while placing the mouse over the icon of a 2D or 3D domain (or an element in the domain). Edge domains and 2D domains on the faces of 3D domains play an important function in determining the influences for the handles over a given domain. This preserves the boundaries of 2D and 3D domains such that straight edges remain straight. edge domains are placed around the edges of all 2D domains. Nodes on edge domains will only move as a function of the handles touching the edge domain. nodes in a 2D domain on the face of a 3D domain will only move as a function of the handles touching the 2D domain. No other handles will affect the nodes on the edges. This makes it easier for you to tell which domain you are selecting. the boundaries may not be preserved during morphing. For domains that have non-reflective symmetry types. 210 HyperMesh 8. it is partitioned and handles are placed at the ends and joints. non-reflective symmetries allow the influences of handles to extend through edges and faces depending on the type of symmetry. Also.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you do not want to have the boundaries of a domain preserved you can delete the edges for a given domain. or choose to create the domain as a general domain instead. HyperMesh will highlight both the domain icon and the surrounding edge domains. In the model at the right an edge domain has been created inside a 2D domain. and curved edges retain their curvature. It allows you to move handles within a 2D or 3D domain without affecting the edges. Similarly.Domains made up of a list of nodes are called edge domains. Note that when an edge domain is created. flat surfaces remain flat. When you release the mouse button. only the icon for the domain remains highlighted.

General domains can be made up of any combination of 1D.How edge domains affect morphing In the top two frames two handles inside a 2D domain are created and moved. thus no handles are created for the domain. and 3D elements. allowing it to stretch and deform in an unbounded manner with morphing extending across differences in element type. However. the elements within a single general domain must touch one another. General domains are not automatically created when generating local domains or using the generate auto-function. no 2D domains are created on the faces of any 3D elements and no edge domains are created either. Another use is for meshes where precise changes are required for one section.0 User’s Guide 211 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2D. 2D. where 1D. Note that the edge domain remains straight. Otherwise. preserving the shape of the feature. Like all other domains. but the rest of the mesh (where a general domain is used) can simply follow along. general domains respect all neighboring edge domains and 2D domains and thus if you create 2D and edge domains for your general domains they will impose restrictions on handle influences for the general domain. two handles connected by an edge domain are created and moved. handles on a general domain freely influence all of the nodes inside the general domain. In the bottom frames. When a general domain is created. General domains are very useful for realized connectors which are often represented as clusters of different element types. and 3D domains are used.

two 2D domains are created for parts of two shell meshes and a general domain is creating from the remaining rigid. You can invoke partitioning when creating 2D or 3D domains by activating the partition 2D domains check box.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . partitioning is not an exact science and there will be areas where elements are not placed into the desired domains. or the use geometry option in the partitioning sub-panel is unchecked. or where the angle between elements exceeds a certain value. such as at the edges of surfaces associated with the mesh. If you are unsatisfied with the partitioning. or where the domain changes from flat to curved. Note how the shell elements in the general domain morph. and solid elements. bounded only by the edge of the 2D domains with the other edges free to follow the handles Partitioning Partitioning can be applied directly to 2D domains and indirectly to 3D domains (3D domains are created with 2D domains on their faces). Two handles have been placed within the general domain at the ends of the rigid spiders. Partitioning allows you to prepare your model for morphing more quickly and easily since it divides your model into sections where parametric changes can be applied. partitioning will ideally divide your model such that every radius and straight or flat section is placed into a separate domain. In the bottom frame the two handles inside the general domain are translated. or edit the domains by hand using the create and organize sub-panels in the domains panel. If there are no surfaces in the model. you may change the partitioning parameters in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel and try again (using the redo last button). 212 HyperMesh 8.Example of interaction between a general domain and 2D domains In the top frame. However. Partitioning is a method of dividing 2D domains into smaller 2D domains at logical places. shell.

There are two algorithms you can use to partition. partitioning was used. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note that in order for a new partition to be created. If the curvature changes from straight to curved. There are also several parameters that govern the creation of domains for either algorithm. They are found in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. all elements whose nodes are associated to surfaces in the model will be partitioned along the edges of the surfaces. although exact performance for each method depends heavily on the features in your model. Also note that the edge domains are partitioned regardless of whether the partitioning option is on or off. a break due to angle or curvature must be found along its entire edge. the element-based algorithm works better for quad/mixed meshes and second order meshes. changes direction. All other elements will be partitioned using one of the partitioning algorithms. the node based method seems to work better on first order tria and tetra meshes while the element based method seems to work better on mixed quad and tria meshes. or changes curvature by more than the curvature tolerance. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is less than this value. When using curvature-based partitioning. For the node based method.Example of partitioning For the model on the left. Note how the 2D domains are divided along angle and curvature change boundaries.0 User’s Guide 213 . In general. element-based and node-based. These can be set individually for quad/mixed meshes and for tria/tetra meshes. the 2D domain was created without partitioning. This option is helpful when surface data is incomplete of some of the nodes have been moved away from their surfaces. while the node-based algorithm works better for tria/tetra meshes. then any partitions created outside of the surfaces will be added to the partitions created using the surfaces if the partitioning algorithm does not find a break along the edges or the surfaces. so if one method is not producing the partitions that you desire. they are considered flat. For the model on the right. For instance. Each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is greater than this value. The node based method tends to create fewer partitions than the element based method. In either case. Partitioning can be angle-based or curvature-based. domain angle and curve tolerance have a roughly similar meaning as the element based method. otherwise they are considered to be curved. If you have selected use geometry. the other method might work better. the domain angle controls the break angle along which a partitioning break is made. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. If you have also selected add to geometry. the curve tolerance controls the angle of which values less than it are considered straight for curvature measuring purposes.

and pink) The conditions for handle dependency are as follows: • • • A handle that is dependent on another handle inherits the movements applied to the higher level handle. Handles that are dependent on other handles appear smaller and in a color different from the handles on which they are dependent. it inherits the full movement of the higher level handle. This means that movements applied to the dependent handle are not applied to the independent handles. When the handle at either end of the edge domain is moved. all local handles are dependent on global handles. This system allows you to create any number of dependency layers. This allows you to combine the changes easily without having to apply separate perturbations for all of the handles. the dependent handle moves along as if it was not there. If a handle is dependent on more than one handle. When the dependent handle is moved. • • Transparent control of domain edges and faces You can create a dependent handle on an edge domain that is dependent on the handles at the ends of the domain. blue.Dependent Handles You can make a handle dependent on one or more other handles. and then make those handles dependent on one or more other handles. 214 HyperMesh 8. This allows you to add the movements of dependent and independent handles in a logical manner. Making a handle dependent has no affect on the way it influences nodes. it will inherit a percentage of the movements applied to each higher level handle. A handle may be dependent on any number of handles. • • • Handle dependencies are useful for several different applications. The review button in the update sub-panel of the handles panel allows you to view the handles on which a specific handle is dependent. biasing will affect them. independent (red) and dependent (yellow. Global handles. In the hierarchical method. and so on. The percentage is based on the distance between the dependent and independent handles. and violet) Local handles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the shape of the edge can be changed. These dependencies are calculated internally and cannot be modified manually. A dependent handle can be moved independently of the handles on which it is dependent. independent (orange) and dependent (green. cyan. but dependency loops are not allowed. If a handle is dependent on only one other handle.

the center handle follows along. This allows you to stretch all of the domains uniformly by moving the independent handles. This allows you to move an entire cross section while only having to select one handle. performing localized “global” morphing.example 1 The center global handle is dependent on the two outer global handles. When the highlighted handle on the left is moved (center frame). Linking several domains together You can make all of the handles within several domains dependent on a few at the corners of the domain. Dependencies . the center handle is moved independently.0 User’s Guide 215 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In the lower frame. in essence.• • • Grouping features together to move as a unit You can make all the handles at one cross section of a beam dependent on a single handle.

example 2 In the model on the left. In the model on the right.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The entire cross section is controlled by one handle. each hole can be positioned separately by moving the dependent handle associated with it. all of the green handles are dependent on the orange handle. Note that the dependencies can extend beyond the 2D domain boundaries. The bottom has similar dependencies.example 3 An independent handle was created between the two holes and the handles governing the positions of the holes are made dependent on it. the three green handles on the top are dependent on the orange handle on the top.Dependencies . When the independent handle is moved. Also. 216 HyperMesh 8. The top and bottom halves of the cross sections are controlled by just two handles. both holes move with it. Dependencies .

if constraints are being used. the morph consists only of handle perturbations. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or create a shape in the shapes panel with the save current state option turned on. or the morph is a mapping or radius changing operation. However. each morph on the undo/redo list will be saved as a separate shape. If you save the model using the save each morph step option in the shapes panel. In the case of freehand morphing. Working with Shapes Shapes are collections of handle and/or node perturbations. When you morph your model.0 User’s Guide 217 .Using dependencies to reduce mesh distortion In this example two dependent handles were created on the edges of the part near the center hole. When the handle at the hole is moved downward. The vectors are drawn the exact length of the perturbation and the vectors for the handle perturbations are drawn with thicker lines to denote that they are different from node perturbations. those shapes do not contain node perturbations and thus vectors are not drawn at those nodes. The dependent handles were constrained along vectors parallel to the sides of the part. node perturbations are required to fully describe the shape. If you create a shape in either the morph or freehand panels. HyperMorph takes the difference between the initial state of the model and the current state of the model when creating a new shape. For many morphing operations. vectors are drawn for each handle and node perturbation for the shape. Note that while shapes with handle perturbations will move nodes when they are applied. When you create a shape. the handle and/or node perturbations are stored in the new shape entity along with biasing factors for the handle perturbations and details such as the biasing style. the dependent handles follow and reduce mesh distortion by spreading the morph across the entire part instead of only around the hole. the morph consists only of node perturbations. Creating shapes allows you to generate shape variables for optimization and store model changes for parametric studies. all of these shapes must be applied. HyperMorph stores the morph internally as a collection of perturbations which you can then undo or redo. To get to the current state of the model from the initial state. When you create a shape using the save as shape or save shape sub-panels.

Click create. Set the toggle to multiple desvars. The shape is converted. 10. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for each shape variable you want to create. To create shape variables for an optimization run: 1. 218 HyperMesh 8. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. Click convert. Setting Up Optimization Morphing can be used to create shape variables for optimization. select the morph panel.When you are saving a shape. 4. 3. save shapes as handle perturbations and they will require less memory and disk space. 7. Select the shapes to be converted. it becomes a shape variable. If you later decide that you want to change a shape from node perturbations to handle perturbations or vice versa you can do so in the convert sub-panel of the shapes panel. the shape will be saved as either handle perturbations only. the shape will be saved as node perturbations only. but by adding a desvar which points to the shape. redone. you can apply it to your model with any given scaling factor. If not. 6. or vice-versa: 1. or a combination of handle and node perturbations if node perturbations are required to describe the shape. Click undo all to return to your base model shape. If you select node perturbations. optimization module. Select the convert sub-panel. you should save shapes as node perturbations. Note: A shape is not a shape variable. Once a shape is saved. The difference between the two types comes into play if you change the handles or domains in your model. Each desvar is given a unique name. 4. 5. select the shape panel. To convert shapes saved with handle perturbations to shapes saved with node perturbations.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you plan to make changes to domains and handles. Select the type of conversion that you wish to perform. 2. while shapes saved as handle perturbations will differ from shapes that have been saved with changes to the handle influences. 5. 9. If you select handle perturbations. or saved as part of another shape. A desvar for each shape is created with the initial value and bounds in the panel. From the BCs page. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. Morph your model into the shape of the first shape variable. Select the shapes for which you want to create shape variables. Save your morph as a shape. Applying a shape in this way is like any other morphing operation and can be undone. you can select whether to save it as handle perturbations or node perturbations. Shapes saved as node perturbations are not affected by changes to domains and handles. 2. 8. HyperMorph will ask you if you want to preserve any existing shapes saved as handle perturbations by converting them to node perturbations. Whenever you make a change to your model. Select the save shape sub-panel. select the shapes panel. 3.

you can set up the rest of your optimization problem within the optimization module. The Freehand Concept Freehand strategies are still being created. allowing you to view each shape variable by animating it. The deformed panel displays. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Freehand concepts and strategies.0 User’s Guide 219 . Animate the shape variables: Click undo morphing if you did not click undo all after saving the last shape. Once you have created shape variables for your shapes.11. Click animate. The Morph Volume Concept Morph Volume strategies are still being created. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Morph Volume concepts and strategies. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Delete any unwanted handles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Set the toggle to create handles.space frame model 1. 7. Local handles are not required since local changes to the frame components are not necessary. wider. use a cluster type morph constraint. select the HyperMorph module. such as making it smaller. If you want a part of your model to move as a rigid body. Type in a name. the handles will each be given a unique name by appending a number after the name you have given. Select an xyz position or any number of nodes where you want global handles. shorter. delete them and add global handles elsewhere: Press F2 or go to the delete panel. select the handles panel. You can also use morph constraints to fix nodes in place during global morphing but if you want them to affect the surrounding mesh you must select the stretch mesh around nodes option when creating the morph constraint. Space frame models can generally have element counts in the hundreds of thousands. Select create. Click create. For these types of models. From the HyperMorph module. 6. A new global handle is created at each node or at the specified xyz location. 5. Set the toggle to all nodes. such as a wheel or the engine block. You should place global handles both in areas where you want to apply perturbations and in areas that you want to stay fixed. these handles will be where you want them to be. In many cases. these changes can be performed by placing a handle at each joint in the frame and moving those handles to the desired locations. If more than one handle is created at a time. but their basic structure is rather simple. If not. Often the desired shape changes are general.Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains Space frames are models that have a sparse distribution of elements. In many instances. you should avoid creating them unless it is necessary. 4. Set the selector to global domain. A global domain and global handles are created at useful positions throughout the space frame. all that is necessary is to create a global domain and global handles. 220 HyperMesh 8. 2. or altering the basic positions of components within the frame. From the Tool page. Select the domains panel. such as a car body. Creating Handles and Domains . 3. Click create. Since local handles and domains for large models can consume a great deal of resources.

There are many options available for moving the handles. makes it necessary for HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. this can be time consuming. if necessary. For large models or large changes.0 User’s Guide 221 . or symmetries.A global domain and global handles for a full car model Exiting any panel in the HyperMorph module or the delete panel automatically triggers HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. so you will want to make all the changes you desire within each panel before exiting. The best one to use depends on the results that you want to achieve: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. editing. Adding. domains. or deleting handles.

For large models it may be too slow to morph interactively in real time. Change the upper middle selector to interactive. Select the create/update sub-panel. only the graphics for the handle are updated. As you drag a handle across the screen and you can watch the mesh move along with it. If you are going to match a mesh you need to make sure that the mesh does not get morphed when you are moving the handles. the nodes between the constrained nodes and the handles will be affected regardless of whether the mesh is continuous between them. 6.Matching a Mesh. Click morph. which leaves a dark trail through the mesh. Since on release was selected. Note that if you check the stretch mesh around nodes option. the handle follows along the selected vector. Select move handles. 2. 3. Select a handle on the screen and hold the mouse button down. 2. Change the rightmost toggle from real time to on release. 9. the morph is applied to the model and the graphics are updated for the entire model. When you release the mouse button. repeat steps 7 through 9. Line. One of the most enjoyable ways to morph is interactively. 6. To morph interactively by moving the handle and releasing the mouse button: 1. Move the handle to the new location and release the mouse button. Click create. Select a vector. 7. Switch the selector to fixed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 4. 5. If the handle position needs to be changed again. As you drag the mouse. All the nodes in the target mesh are constrained to remain fixed during morphing operations as long as the constraint is active and the use constraints box is checked (see the morph options panel). This can be accomplished by constraining the nodes on the target mesh. Select the nodes on the target mesh. 222 HyperMesh 8. From the HyperMorph module. Change the lower middle selector from on domains to along vector. To constrain the nodes on the target mesh: 1. 5. 4. From the HyperMorph module. 3. Make sure that the stretch mesh around nodes option is unchecked. select the morph constraints panel. 8. But you can still morph interactively with any size model by setting HyperMorph to perform the morphing after you move the handle and release the mouse button. select the morph panel. or Surface Data The basic approach for HyperMorph is to move the handles into positions that change the shape of the model to match the mesh or geometry data.

The result is a morphed vehicle model that closely matches the profile line. In the bottom frame the process has been repeated for the other handles on the roof. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In the middle frame they are interactively moved upwards along a vector to a point matching with the profile line. select several handles on the screen. Morphing to a profile line In the top frame. all of the selected handles are moved the same distance in the same direction. the global handles on either side of top of the windshield are selected.0 User’s Guide 223 . Perform steps 7 through 9.10. When you release the mouse. Move more than one handle at the same time: Before clicking morph.

However. or a surface. edit. any shapes saved as handle perturbations may not yield the same morphed shape after handles have been added or deleted. or delete any morphing entities. Hold the mouse button down and drag the mouse over a line or surface until it is highlighted. The handle is moved to the position where the node was prior to morphing and the rest of the mesh morphs accordingly.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . a plane. 2. To match a target mesh or geometric data by moving the handles to a specified node location: 1. Handles may always be added or deleted from a model without affecting the current morphed state of the model. A node will be created and the handle will immediately be moved to the node. Change the upper middle selector from interactive to move to node. You can also select other features to drag the handle along such as a line. Altair Engineering 224 HyperMesh 8. 2. 3. Select a node.Morphing to a profile line A handle is added to the center of the rear windshield and is moved to better match the profile line. HyperMorph uses the position of the mouse on the screen to figure out where you want to move the handle. save your shapes as node perturbations. Click on the line or surface where you want the node. HyperMorph will give you the option of converting existing shapes from handle perturbations to node perturbations automatically after you add. You can use this feature to position a handle anywhere you want line or surface data. If you intend to add or delete handles in your model. To create nodes on the fly on lines and surfaces: 1. Select a handle.

Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. One way to do this is by translating or rotating handles. Click translate. Set the rotation angle. Set the upper left selector to distance. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. 2. Change the distance value. select the morph panel.Making Parametric Changes Dimensions such as distance and angle can be changed easily in HyperMorph. The handles move the specified distance in the specified direction and the model morphs accordingly. Select node a and node b at nodes whose distance you want to change. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. Select a vector and distance. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for node a as a group and the follower handles for node b as a group either towards each other or away from each other so that the new distance between node a and node b is equal to the specified distance. To translate or rotate handles: 1. If the left selector is set to hold end a. Select a few handles. Change the upper middle selector from translate to rotate.0 User’s Guide 225 . Change the upper middle selector from move to node to translate. The handles rotate about the axis the specified angle and the model morph accordingly. Click rotate. Translate the handles. If the left selector is set to hold middle. From the HyperMorph module. both node a and node b will move the same distance. Or Select the desired xyz translation. Click morph. Specify dimensions more precisely in the alter dimensions sub-panel. node a will not move (same for node b). 3. Select an axis of rotation. Select a few handles. Select alter dimensions. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Rotate the handles.

6. If necessary. 4. and node b are the specified angle. Change the angle value. 3. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for each end in a way so that the new angle between node a. HyperMorph will iterate to achieve the desired angle. The handles on the right side of the model are selected as followers for node a and the handles on the left side of the model are selected as followers for node b. 226 HyperMesh 8.Morphing by altering the distance between two nodes The width of the car is found by placing node a (green dot) on the right hand door and node b (blue dot) on the left hand door.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. or at least get close. 2. Set the upper left selector to angle. To change the angle: 1. If node a and node b are selected coincident with one of the follower handles. vertex. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. 7. Click morph. The distance is changed and the model morphs. and node b at nodes whose angle you want to change. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. the vertex. 5. Select node a. iterattion is not necessary.

Morphing by altering the angle formed by three nodes The slope of the windshield is altered by defining an angle using three nodes (green.0 User’s Guide 227 . for cases where you are trying to morph a mesh that covers a wide area. When you perform global morphing operations. you will need to place several handles across both of sides of the zone of influence. you allow for even stretching to occur between each set of fingers. By placing three fingers on each side. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For the general space frame cases. the parts of the model that are morphed are those that lie between the handles that are moving and those that are not. positioning handles at the joints between the members of the space frame restricts the handle influences to the parts of the frame that they are touching. Note that the handles on either side of the windshield were constrained to move along the x-axis (front to back) thus maintaining the height of the roof. However. In morphing this is accomplished by placing handles evenly along both sides of the mesh to be stretched. You can visualize the handles as places on a sheet of rubber where you are placing your fingers. the space between your fingers on the two finger side will be pulled towards the three finger side. The angle is changed from 160 degrees to 150 degrees. selecting two handles at the front of the car as followers for node a (green). and red). and selecting two handles on either side of the windshield as followers for node b (red node). Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Global morphing differs from local morphing in that there are no definite boundaries between the handles that restrict their zones of influence. If you place three fingers on one side and two on the other and try to stretch the sheet. blue.

Controlling global morphing with handles – part 2 A handle is added directly below the handle on the roof near the center of the car.Controlling global morphing with handles – part 1 The handle on the roof is moved upwards and the center section of the car is morphed along with it.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 228 HyperMesh 8. Now when the handle on the roof is moved upwards. only the part of the car between the roof and the handles along the midline of the car is stretched.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 229 .

Return to the HyperMorph module. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry. 3. 4.Adding handles to control global morphing Using several handles on either side. you can create a plane of symmetry at the center of your space frame and have your morphs applied in a symmetric fashion. 7. select the symmetry panel. select the systems panel. Also note that in cases where detailed shape changes are required. 9. Change the left toggle from approximate to enforced. 6. 230 HyperMesh 8.Using 1-Plane Symmetry If your space frame is symmetric. Mirror Images . Create a system at a node where the plane of symmetry is to be located and have the x-axis pointing normal to the plane to be created. 2. Select the global domain icon. From the HyperMorph module. 5. Enter a name. To set up a plane of symmetry: 1. Switch the selector from none to 1 plane. morph volumes will usually yield better results. 8. Note that dependent handles are used to simplify the morphing operation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select the system you created. the fender of the model is morphed.

Now when you perform a morphing operation you only need to move the handles on one side of the plane of symmetry. If you want to add handles to one side of the plane of symmetry and not the other. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. yet still have symmetry active for the symmetric handles. HyperMorph automatically applies the handle movements to the handles on the other side of the plane of symmetry through the symmetry link. When handles are created or deleted. Since enforced was selected. A plane of symmetry is created at the origin of the system and based perpendicular to the x-axis. use the approximate option instead. the enforced option will automatically create or delete handles on the other side of the symmetric link in order to enforce symmetry of the handles. the model maintains symmetry across the symmetry plane. System and 1-plane symmetry The plane of symmetry is positioned at the origin of the system and perpendicular to the x-axis. The mesh itself does not need to be symmetric to use the symmetry options. The icon for a 1-plane symmetry is a rectangle positioned like a small mirror for the symmetry system. As a result. The symmetry will be applied to the handles and handle perturbations that will influence the mesh in a symmetric fashion. Click create. If you have the symmetry links check box activated.0 User’s Guide 231 . HyperMorph creates new handles that are reflections of ones that are not linked to any others and creates a symmetric link between them. The perturbations applied to handles on one side of the plane of symmetry will be mirrored on to the other side. HyperMorph also links any handles that it finds that are reflections of the other.10.

Using 1-plane symmetry Three handles on the right hand side of the roof are selected and moved towards the centerline. HyperMorph automatically moves the corresponding nodes on the left hand side of the roof in a symmetric fashion.

Reducing 3D to 2D - Using Linear Symmetry
You can use linear symmetry to apply morphs to the model in such a way that the model is essentially reduced to two dimensions. To create a linear symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be reduced. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from 1 plane to linear. Select the system you created.

232 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

9.

Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. A linear symmetry is created along the x-axis of the system. The icon for a linear symmetry consists of two parallel lines along the dimension to be reduced. The origin of the system is irrelevant. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a line extending along the system xaxis. If two handles lie along a line parallel to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same y and z coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since linear is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others that are linked via the symmetry. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and linear symmetry The linear symmetry icon consists of two parallel lines along the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a linear symmetry system does not matter; the effect of the linear symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a linear symmetry is very useful for making profile changes to a space frame model. It does not matter where the handles are placed along the x-axis, greatly simplifying the model set up. You only need to look at the model from one view to set up the handles and to morph the model. For models with a large number of elements this can save a great deal of time.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 233

Using linear symmetry The handle on the rear part of the roof is selected and the entire rear portion of the roof is morphed along with it. With linear symmetry you only need to place handles on one side of the model to affect the entire profile.

Reducing 3D to 1D - Using Planar Symmetry
Planar symmetry is similar to linear symmetry accept that it reduces two dimensions instead of one. This enables you to morph your model along a single axis with only two or more handles. To create a planar symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be retained. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from linear to planar. Select the system you created. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. 234 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

11. Return to the HyperMorph module. 12. Select the symmetry panel. 13. Select update by domain. 14. Select the global domain. 15. Select the planar symmetry. 16. Click update. A planar symmetry is created and the other two symmetries from the global domain are removed. You are allowed to have any number of symmetries associated with a domain and all will apply, but combining linear and planar symmetry in the same direction results in an unrealistic situation and poor influence calculations. The planar symmetry icon is displayed as a filled-in rectangle perpendicular to the system x-axis. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a plane perpendicular to the x-axis. If two handles lie in a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same x coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since planar is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and planar symmetry The planar symmetry icon is a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a planar symmetry system does not matter, the effect of the planar symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a planar symmetry greatly simplifies a model. Essentially, it reduces the model to a lying along single axis. This symmetry type is very useful for changing dimensions along one axis through the entire model.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 235

Using planar symmetry The handle at the rear of the model is selected and the entire trunk of the car is morphed. With planar symmetry you only need a row of handles lying roughly along the planar symmetry system x-axis.

236 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
Shell models are models that are made up primarily of shell elements, namely, quads, and trias. In general, a shell model represents many parts, each with numerous features such as holes and edges, and connected together using 1D elements such as bars and rigids. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shapes of the shell model features. This is done using one of the following methods: • Moving the handles on the part to new locations • • Moving the global handles around the parts to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the parts, or mapping the nodes of a part to line or surface data

For most models you only need to create 2D domains for the entire part, but you can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature.

Creating Handles and Domains - shell model
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Change the toggle to all elements or select all the elements in the model. Click create. A 2D domain is created for each group of continuous shell elements. Parts joined by 1D or 3D elements are separated into different domains. If partition domains is checked, the 2D domains will be partitioned according to the settings selected in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. Once partitioned, edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. All of this is automatic, but 1D and 3D elements will not be placed into 1D and 3D domains unless you set the selector to local domains instead of 2D domains. In many cases, the domains and handles will be generated where you want them to be. If not you can always add, edit, or delete the handles and domains to meet your needs.

A shell model is partitioned into 2D domains 6. If you wish to generate a global domain as well as local domains for your model with a single button click, either change the selector to global and local and click create, or to auto functions and click generate.

In the case of the generate auto function, if there are any domains or handles in the model, HyperMorph will first ask if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. If you say “yes”, or if there are no morphing entities in the model, HyperMorph automatically generates 1D, 2D, 3D, and edge domains for the entire model and a global domain and handles as well.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 237

For tria meshes which lack underlying geometry, both the node-based and element based partitioning algorithms may prove unsatisfactory. In these cases you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when partitioning. To accomplish this, go to the partitioning sub-panel, select element based as the algorithm for tria/tetra meshes, and change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. HyperMorph will then only make partitions along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. You can then go in and manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should go. This method is almost mandatory for meshes that began as first order meshes but were transformed into second order meshes. For these meshes, HyperMorph will detect a curvature break at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. The result will be a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Solving the influence coefficients for 2D domains which contain more than 20,000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. In these cases you may want to divide the large domains into multiple domains or lower the limit for the large domain solver. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. However, even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid, morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming, and thus subdividing 2D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. To divide your shell model, do this: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Select the elements to be placed into a new 2D domain. Click create. When selecting the elements for the new domain you do not need to select only shell elements. HyperMorph automatically removes any other elements before creating the domain. It does not matter if the elements selected are already in a 2D domain. When the new domain is created, the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Handle influences need to be recalculated every time handles, domains, or symmetries are added, edited, or deleted. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. These calculations occur when you enter or leave any HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. Thus, for models with large domains you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. HyperMorph only recalculates the handle influences for handles in regions that have been edited. If the domains are not created exactly how you want them to be, you can edit them in the domains panel. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. The organize subpanel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split, merge, and place handles along edge domains. It is suggested that you create and edit all the 2D domains, then create and edit the edge domains. This order works better since creating or editing 2D domains will result in the regeneration of the surrounding edge domains with the previous modifications to those edge domains being discarded. Sometimes partitioning does not divide the mesh in the ways that would be most useful to you. Occasionally, elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Partitioning is not an exact science, so some cleanup is sometimes required.

238 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

To move elements from one domain to another: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select organize. Change the selector to add nodes/elems . Change the toggle to local domain. Select the elements to be moved. Select the target domain. Click organize. This will move the elements from the domain that they are currently in to the selected domain. HyperMorph also refreshes the edge domains around both domains as well as the edge domains at the interface. New handles may also be created during this process, and if retain handles is not checked, handles may be deleted. It is suggested that you keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing.

Partitioning problems The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. For this example the retain handles option was left unchecked resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. Note that the edge domains are always partitioned for any new domain and handles are placed at the end of the edge domains. For the example above, a handle was created in a new location due to the edge partitioning being different for the two domain configurations. When you hold the mouse button down and the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D domain or over an element inside a domain, the edge domains surrounding the domain are highlighted as well. This allows you to better visualize the domain that you are selecting. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain, and some domains can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 239

2. The selected domains are combined into a single domain and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D domains. 4. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. 5. Click organize. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. Two domains are organized into one Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. From the HyperMorph module. Select the domains to be grouped together. 240 HyperMesh 8. Change the selector to combine domains. Select organize. If you do your edge editing first.To group two or more domains together: 1. HyperMorph tries to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. You may need to correct this by hand. select the domains panel. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. but in some cases it may not identify the proper starting and ending points. This is why any editing of the edge domains should come after the editing of the other domains.

Select an edge domain. 4. 4. 2. 6.To split edge domains: 1. Splitting an edge domain . Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. 2. 3. To merge edge domains: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click merge. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end to end such that the resultant edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. From the HyperMorph module. Click split. select the domains panel. 3. 5. Change the selector to split. Change the selector to merge. Select edit edges. 5. Select edit edges. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. select the domains panel. From the HyperMorph module. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. A handle is created at the selected node.0 User’s Guide 241 .a circular edge domain is divided into two half circles A handle was created at the joint to allow you to manipulate the edges. Select any number of connected edge domains.

From the HyperMorph module. This feature is quite useful for saving time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. 3. Change the selector to add handles. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select one or more domains. the handle at the joint was deleted. Select edit edges.Merging two edge domains The two half circles are merged into a single domain. select the domains panel. To place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change: 1. Click create. 4. 2. Since retain handles was unchecked. The dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. 242 HyperMesh 8. If the domain containing the radius to be changed is very large you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change before you go into the morph panel. 5. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain.

and element offset Using freehand morphing capabilities such as move nodes. record. click return. Secondly. Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. delete unnecessary handles. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. and sculpting Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 243 . the influences do not need to be recalculated.Creating handles on an edge domain A dependent handle is created on each node of the edge domain. surface. The first is that since they are dependent. It will be as if they were not there. In these cases you should divide large domains. HyperMorph calculates the influences for the handles and you are ready to begin morphing. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. During influence calculation you might run out of available memory. . curvature. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge will be transparently applied to the dependent handles. Morphing on Local Domains You can change the shape of a model with local domains and handles using one or more of the following methods: • • • • • • Moving the local handles Changing a distance or angle Changing the radius.When you are satisfied with your domains. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. plane. or mesh Using section mapping. line and surface difference. or arc angle of an edge domain Mapping nodes to a line.

You select an entity such as a vector. This option allows you to rotate handles about an axis. surfaces. If you want to move a handle a specific distance or to a specific position. and move a handle by clicking on it and dragging it to a new location. to orient the mouse location in 3D space. These options allow you to position handles at specific node or point locations. or domains. or place them on lines. it is better to use a non-interactive option. Interactive morphing is most effective for visualizing how the mesh will react when a handle is moved and for making approximate shape changes. line. or another mesh. This option allows you to position handles at specific XYZ locations or place them on lines. surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . move to point 244 HyperMesh 8. This option allows you to translate handles along a vector or element normals. plane. or another mesh. surfaces.There are six ways to move handles in the move handles sub-panel of the morph panel: interactive This option allows you to move handles interactively by dragging the mouse across the screen. translate rotate move to XYZ move to node.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Morphing by translating handles By selecting the two handles along the edge of the flange and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section (green and blue nodes).0 User’s Guide 245 . the length of the flange is reduced.

246 HyperMesh 8. the width of the channel is increased. the thickness of the lower section is reduced.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Morphing by translating handles By selecting the handles at the bottom of the part and translating them upwards.Morphing by translating handles By selecting the three handles and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 247 . Morphing by rotating handles .Morphing by translating handles By selecting all the handles around the bolt boss and translating them horizontally. the end angle of the section is modified. Morphing by rotating handles .constant The right end of the block is given a constant rotation. the position of the bolt boss is modified.constant By selecting all the handles at the end of the section and rotating them about a point (violet node).

This concept comes into play when you are using the rotate function. When applying handle perturbations to your model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .normal Although the highlighted handles are rotated. To correct this situation. After rotating handles you may find areas in the model (particularly those defined by curved edges) that are not rotated the same as the neighboring handles. the circle at the center of the model remains on the same plane as before. Although it could be argued that true rotation is the "correct" way to morph via rotation of the handles. 248 HyperMesh 8. Note how the magnitude of the twist increases linearly with the distance from the base (purple) node. This will cause the nodes to be rotated as well as the handles with the amount of rotation being equal to the influence coefficient. it is important to note that the nodes in the model follow the movements of the handles according to the influence coefficients. This is because the nodes have followed the handles instead of being rotated about the axis. not all morphing applications are best done using true rotation.Morphing by rotating handles . Morphing by rotating handles . check the true rotation checkbox.linear The entire block is given a linear rotation.

The alter dimensions sub-panel of the morph panel allows you to change one of the parameters in the model. For solid models. If you click yes the given perturbation is applied to each handle and the dependent handles are not given an additional perturbation inherited from another handle. If you click no. controlling a particular dimension often involves moving more than one handle for each end. the angle between nodes. For most cases you will want to click yes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or the radius or curvature of an edge domain. You must select at least one handle for each end and the handle may be coincident with one of the nodes. The handles selected are the ones that will move to make the distance between node a and node b (or angle with a vertex selected) equal the specified value. The basic concept is as follows: Select two nodes (node a and node b). This occurs when both a dependent handle and the handle on which it is dependent are selected to be morphed. Select handles corresponding to those nodes. the following message may be displayed: “Some handles selected are dependent on others.true rotation During "true rotation" the nodes rotate along with the handles.Morphing by rotating handles . Would you like to ignore dependencies for this operation?”. such as the distance between nodes.0 User’s Guide 249 . While morphing a model. the given perturbation and any inherited perturbation is applied to each dependent node.

Morphing by altering dimensions .distance By selecting the width of the bottom of the channel as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the left (highlighted) to follow the green node and the handles on the right (shown as gray) to follow the blue node. the thickness of the block between the radius and the back face is altered from 15 to 25 by moving the entire back face.distance By selecting the thickness of the block as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the radius (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles on the back face (highlighted) to follow the blue node.Morphing by altering dimensions . 250 HyperMesh 8. the width of the bottom of the channel can be changed from 60 to 30 with the rest of the channel changing along with it.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Morphing by altering dimensions . and below the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. blue.angle By selecting the angle between two faces of the block (green. Morphing by altering dimensions . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 251 . the angle of the left side of the section is changed from 110 degrees to 90 degrees. the angle is altered from 126 degrees to 90 degrees. and red nodes) and by selecting the handles at and directly below the green node (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles at. and red nodes) and by selecting the handle at the bottom right of the channel (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handle at the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. near.angle By selecting the angle of the left side of the channel (green. blue.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .5.fillet By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the fillet option. All the domains are changed simultaneously. The curvature tool is intended for domains that do not have constant curvature. curvature multiplication. the radius is changed from 5 to 2. the radius is changed from 3 to 1. so if you want to change a radius from 5. Note: Morphing by altering dimensions – radius – center By selecting the edge domain around the edge of the hole. 252 HyperMesh 8. Morphing by altering dimensions .6. set the new radius. and arc angle options are used as follows. Making the bias factor retroactive does not work for radius changes. and click morph. You select any number of curved edge or 2D domains. curvature.5 and kept in line with the edges at either end.The radius. you need to set the curve ratio to 1.radius . Note: The curvature tool scales your radius by a factor rather than a set radius.0. select the center calculation and style options. or arc angle factor for them.0 to 8.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold ends By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the hold ends option, the radius is changed from 5 to 10 with the ends held in place.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold end By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part, selecting the hold end option, and selecting a node at the end of the edge domain, the radius is changed from 5 to 8 while the held end remains in place.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 253

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - fillet By selecting all of the edge domains that form the fillet between the flat sections and the round section and changing them simultaneously, the fillet is reduced from 20 to 8.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius The radius is changed in three different ways. At the top right, the hold center option is used. At the lower left, the hold ends option is used. At the lower right, the fillet option is used. In all cases, both the top and bottom edge domains were selected as well as the 2D domain and the by normals option was used for center calculation. This option will directly calculate the radii for the nodes on the 2D domain instead of inferring them from the edge domains which makes this approach more accurate for 2D domains as well as more reliable for non-uniform meshes.

254 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the mesh is changed from 60 to 90 degrees using by axis (the vertical axis and violet base node) to calculate the center of curvature.

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the fillet is changed from 90 to 180 degrees using by normals to calculate the center of curvature. There are five methods available for calculating the center of curvature for the selected domains: • by normals - this method is the default and uses the element normals to approximate where the center of curvature is for each node in the selected domains. This method is not always accurate, but often gives good results for regular meshes. by axis - you may select an axis which will serve as the center of curvature. by line - you may select a line which will serve as the center of curvature. by node - you may select a node which will serve as the center of curvature. by edges - this method uses the edge domains to calculate the center of curvature with the center lying in the plane of the edge domains. The symmetry option refers to how the morphing of the edge domains is applied to neighboring 2D domains. The auto-symmetry option was the default for HyperMorph prior to version 8.0. In 8.0 you may choose to turn off symmetry when using this option.

• • • •

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 255

For auto-symmetry, the changes in the radii of the edge domains are applied to any 2D domain, depending on the number of edge domains you change for the 2D domains. If you change only one edge domain for a given 2D domain, the radius change will not be applied linearly across the 2D domain. If you change the radii of two edges for any given 2D domain, either a linear or planar temporary symmetry is created between the two edge domains for the 2D domain that will apply radius changes more linearly across the 2D domain. This works best if the mesh is regular. If you are changing only one edge for a 2D domain, you can increase the bias factor of any handles on an edge domain to yield a more even distribution. Mapping an edge domain to a line or a 2D mesh to a plane, surface, or mesh is done using the map to geom panel. This option is very effective for fitting a mesh to new geometric data. When mapping a domain to a geometric feature, all the nodes in neighboring domains are stretched along with it, minimizing mesh distortion. You have several options for determining how the nodes for the mapped domain are placed on the geometry. When mapping an edge domain or node list the nodes can be moved normal to the line, along a vector to the line, or distributed along the full length of the line. When mapping a 2D domain or selection of nodes to a plane, surface, or mesh, the nodes can be moved normal to the target, normal to the elements of the 2D domain or selected nodes, or along a vector. If you wish to fit a mesh to a surface, there is no option to do this automatically, however, with multiple mapping operations, or using the user control option you can fit a 2D domain to a surface. Furthermore, you have the option of creating a morph constraint between the nodes and the map target automatically after mapping. This constraint will allow you to do further morphing operations while maintaining the constrained nodes on the geometry. The map to geom panel is also effective for solid model meshing. You can create a block of solid elements roughly in the shape of the geometry that you are trying to mesh, and then use map to surface to morph the faces of the block to the geometry.

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - normal to geom The edge domain is mapped to a line by moving the nodes normal to the line.

256 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - fit to line The edge domain is mapped to the line by fitting them along the line. Any proportional spacing between the nodes will be maintained after mapping.

Morphing by mapping to surface By selecting the 2D domain on the top of the solid block to be mapped to the surface, the entire solid block is morphed to match the surface.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 257

Morphing by mapping to surface A rectangular C-section is mapped to a curved surface.

Morphing by mapping to surface - user control This example shows the user-control approach to mapping a mesh onto a surface. The surface and 2D domain are selected and the user control button is clicked. This brings up a new panel which allows you to place handles or map edges prior to the surface mapping operation. One by one each edge domain is placed on one of the lines around the target surface using the fit to line option. This stretches the 2D domain to match the surface more closely than before. When the map button is clicked, the domain is the mapped to the surface, fitting it perfectly to the geometry.

258 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Morphing Global Handles
Global handles are most effective when used to make general shape changes for a model, such as changing the basic shape of a model, stretching parts of a model, or making changes that involve the movement of many local handles. There are three methods available for affecting the way global handles influence the model, the direct method, the hierarchical method, and the mixed method. The default is the direct method, where the global handles move the nodes directly. In the hierarchical method, the global handles move the local handles which in turn move the nodes, but if any nodes lie outside of local domains they will be unaffected. In the mixed method, the hierarchical method is used for all nodes in local domains and the direct method is used for all other nodes. The hierarchical method maintains the shape of edge domains in the model, but if local handles are not evenly placed throughout the model, some parts will become distorted. The direct method gives you what you expect but often distorts the shape of the edge domains. For shell and solid models, better morphing is more likely to occur if you use the hierarchical method, and place local handles in areas where there is distortion.

Using Constraints
Morph constraints are a powerful tool that can be used to restrict the movement of nodes during morphing operations. The following types of constraints can be applied to any node: fixed, cluster, along vector, on plane, along line, on surface, and on elements. Whenever a handle is moved that influences a node, which is constrained, the node is moved according to the handle perturbation and is then projected back onto the feature to which it is constrained. This allows the nodes to slide across vectors, lines, planes, surfaces, and meshes, to remain fixed when handles are moved, or to move as a cluster along with other nodes. You may also constrain nodes where handles are located which, in effect, constrains the handles. When a perturbation is applied to a constrained handle, the handle are moved along the constraint feature regardless of the applied perturbation. This means that if you apply a translation in the x direction on a handle that is constrained along a vector x - y = 0, the handle moves along both the x and y axes. There are also morph constraints that can be applied to domains, such as the smooth constraint, which applies spline-based smoothing along the constrained edge domains, and model constraints, which allow you to set a given parametric target (such as length, angle, mass, etc.) and have HyperMorph adjust the model to meet that target. These constraints as well as bounded and set distance options for the node constraints are described more fully in the panel help. Morph constraints can be very useful for morphing a mesh that has been mapped to, projected to, or created upon a surface. Note that the map to geom operation allows you to have a morph constraint automatically created after mapping. Once you have done so, the nodes will remain on the surface during morphing operations. Note: Although morph constraints can keep nodes on a curved line or surface during morphing operations, when morphs are saved as shapes and then turned into shape variables for optimization, the nodes will not stay on the line or surface during optimization. This is because optimization is a linear process and the shapes will be treated as linear, meaning that the nodes will move directly from their original point to their maximally perturbed point without moving along any constraint.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 259

Controlling handle positions with morph constraints The angle of the lower right corner is changed from 74 to 90 degrees using the alter dimensions (angle) operation. The middle frame shows the result with no constraints. The frame on the right shows the result with the node in the upper right corner constrained to move along a vector that lies along the top edge.

Nodes tracking a line during morphing The nodes along the right edge domain are constrained to the line. When the handle is moved, it and the other constrained nodes move along the line.

260 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Biasing increases or decreases the influence of a handle over the nodes within its area of influence. the nodes are moved along the surface a distance corresponding to the applied handle perturbations.Morphing after mapping to surface All mapped nodes are automatically constrained to the surface. Higher biasing values generate a smooth curvature near the handles. which is the default value for all handles except for dependent handles on 1D domains. If the biasing values for all of the handles are equal to 1. In this example. To smoothly change the shape of a domain it is recommended that you use a biasing factor of 1.000 at the edges. HyperMorph automatically placed the handles back on the surfaces after applying the translation so that the constraint was obeyed. When the handles are translated. Using Biasing Biasing allows you to control the shape of a mesh when applying handle perturbations. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. while lower biasing values generate harsh corners near the handles.000. 2. the handles were translated linearly. they too will be moved along the surface regardless of the applied perturbation. and 3. provided both handles are global handles or they are located on edge domains.000 in the middle.0 User’s Guide 261 . the morphing between the handles is linear. If the handles were also part of the map to geom operation.000 at the corners.

Biasing for a 2D domain The model at the upper left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 1. 262 HyperMesh 8. The model at the lower left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 2.000. Biasing can be applied retroactively after a morphing operation. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. the mesh unfolds (right frame). and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 2. Biasing to reduce mesh distortion When the hole is moved downward with a biasing factor of 1.000. the mesh folds over due to the influences of the other handles (middle frame).000 and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 0. you can change the biasing value by activating the make retroactive check box.500.000.000 for the handle at the hole. After applying a morph. When the biasing value of the handle at the hole is increased to 3. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .000.000. This is useful in selecting a good biasing value to apply for a given morph. and have the current list of applied morphs updated to reflect the new biasing values. Apply the morphs and change the biasing values retroactively until you get the shape that you want.

In general. This procedure is automatic. select the domains panel. you can add. Once partitioned. edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. For solid models. the domains and handles are generated where you want them to be. From the HyperMorph module. Click create. and hexas. flanges. The elements in ^morphface covering each 3D domain are placed into 2D domains. or delete the handles and domains to meet specific needs. In many cases. A 3D domain is created for a solid model Note the automatic creation and partitioning of 2D domains on the face of the solid and the creation of edge domains and handles for the 2D domains. If partition 2D domains is checked. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. pentas. Change the toggle to all elements. bosses. namely. or manually select all of the elements in the model. 3. Creating Handles and Domains . edges. a solid model represents a single part with numerous features such as holes. 2. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shape of features in a solid model. and ribs. To create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in the model: 1. edit.solid model You can create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in a model. it is only necessary to create a single 3D domain for the entire part. Set the selector to 3D domains. The surfaces of each 3D domain are covered with shell elements that are placed in a component named ^morphface. 4. This is done using one of the following methods: • • • • Moving the handles on the part to new locations Moving the global handles around the part to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the part Mapping the nodes of the part to line or surface data. 5. If the model is made up of more than one part. If they are not. Select create. tetras. these 2D domains are partitioned according to the settings selected in the parameter subpanel of the domains panel. each part is placed in its own 3D domain.Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains Solid models are models that are made up of solid elements. You can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature.0 User’s Guide 263 .

Set the selector to auto functions. or if there are no morphing entities in the model. Automatic generation of domains on a solid model Note the addition of a global domain. as well as a global domain and handles. this approach will give you a “blank slate” 2D domain that you can partition by hand. If you do not select partition 2D domains when you generate a 3D domain. From the HyperMorph module. Note: The element based method sometimes works better on second order tetras since it accounts for element curvature. and 3D domains are automatically generated for the entire model. you are asked if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. 2. 4. global handles. Click generate. 2D. Be sure to try both methods of partitioning. morphing cannot be performed.To create a 3D domain along with a global domain and global handles to your model: 1. 3. Select create. However. the 2D domain made up of the elements on the surface of the 3D domain will not have edge domains and thus no handles will be generated for it. element based and node based. if the second order tetras are converted first order tetras and thus have no curvature. you may find it easier to start with a blank slate rather than editing the automatically created domains. the node based partitioning will work better. Without handles. For meshes on which the automatic partitioning does not work well.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 1D. If you click yes. such as first order tetra meshes. However. which produces dependent (green) handles. and 1D domain. before deciding to partition by hand. select the domains panel. If there are any domains or handles in the model. 264 HyperMesh 8.

Morphface elements are placed at the internal interface between the new domain and the other domains and create a 2D domain for the interface. 4. Solving the influence coefficients for 3D domains which contain more than 20. Select the elements to be placed into a new 3D domain. From the HyperMorph module. Click create. select the domains panel. In these cases you may want to divide the domain into multiple domains using the subdivide 3D function in the update sub-panel of the domains panel. 6. Select create. Partitions will be made only along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. This method is very helpful for meshes that began as first order tetra meshes but then were then transformed into second order meshes. To subdivide your solid model: 1. Therefore. change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. Not that in some cases HyperMorph will not be able to subdivide a 3D domain without dividing an indivisible 2D domain. you do not need to select only solid elements. This better accommodates the division of tetra meshes that cannot be divided along flat or curved internal faces and thus would be partitioned into many domains. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you only need to create domains for that part. Select update.000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. but it will not partition the interface. and thus subdividing 3D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. 3. or lower the limit for the large domain solver. HyperMorph automatically subdivides the 3D domains into one or more 3D domains while leaving the 2D domains not selected as being divisible unchanged. for first order tetra meshes. Set the selector to subdivide 3D. even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid. You can then manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should be located. Select the 3D domains to be subdivided. For these meshes. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. 4. 5. you do not need to be concerned about selecting the morphface elements. a curvature break is detected at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. Set the selector to 3D domains. Click subdivide. 2. the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. Additionally. 5. in the parameters sub-panel. In these cases the 3D domain will be left undivided. Select any 2D domains on the surface of the 3D domain that are permissible for HyperMorph to split into more than one 2D domain. it does not matter if the selected elements are already in a 3D domain. From the HyperMorph module. you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when automatically partitioning. This results in a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical.0 User’s Guide 265 . When selecting elements for the new domain. To divide your solid model manually: 1. 3. if you are only going to morph a part of your 3D mesh. However. select the domains panel. 2.Also. other elements are automatically removed before the domain is created. To do this. Also. morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming. When the new domain is created.

Note: When you divide a 3D domain into parts. Some cleanup may be required. or deleted. These calculations occur when you enter or leave a HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. you should perform the tasks in the following order: Create and edit all the 3D domains that you want first. you can edit them in the domains panel. domains. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. Create and edit the edge domains. When some meshes are morphed. make sure that you divide it along lines where you want your 2D domains on the surface to be. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split. Since creating or editing 3D domains results in the creation of 2D and edge domains. merge. This is generally caused by handle influences extending too far through the 3D domain. Dividing a 3D domain into many 3D domains can be very useful for controlling the movement of nodes within the domain when the handles on the surface are moved. or symmetries are added. the internal elements can become distorted. So when you divide your model into 3D domains. Create and edit the 2D domains. The influences for handles are only recalculated in regions that have been edited. Occasionally. For large models you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. Influences must be recalculated every time handles. If the domains are not created exactly the way you want them. it has the effect of partitioning the surface of the original 3D domain along seams where the divisions were made. edited. elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. You can divide your 3D domains to restrict the handle influences and control mesh distortion. and place handles along edge domains. The organize sub-panel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A single 3D domain is split into four 3D domains The influences of the handles will not extend across the boundaries between the domains. 266 HyperMesh 8. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. Automatic partitioning does not always divide a mesh in the most useful ways. and creating or editing 2D domains results in the creation and deletion of edge domains.

New handles may also be created during this process. For this example. You should keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain. the retain handles option was left unchecked. Select the elements to be moved. The edge domains around both domains are refreshed. and if retain handles is not checked. The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. Note: Holding the mouse button down when the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D or 3D domain or over an element inside a domain. From the HyperMorph module. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 6. 3. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements. resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. 5. handles may be deleted. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. 2. as well as the 2D domains at the interface if solid elements are being organized. This allows you to visualize the domain that you are selecting.To move elements from one domain to another: 1. Select organize. select the domains panel. The elements are moved from their current domain to the selected domain. Select the target domain.0 User’s Guide 267 . 4. will highlight the edge domains surrounding the domain. Change the selector to add nodes/elements. and for some domains it can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. Click organize.

Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. select the domains panel. Change the selector to split. From the HyperMorph module. A handle is created at the selected node. Select the domains to be grouped. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D and 3D domains. 6. 3. Select organize. Now the radius of each new edge domain may be modified independently of the other. 4. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. The selected domains are combined into a single domain. To split edge domains: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This is why you should edit the edge domains after the other domains have been edited. and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. If you perform edge editing first. Click organize. 3. The lower edge domain has been split at the gray node (left model). 268 HyperMesh 8. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. 5. Click split. 4. Select edit edges. Change the selector to combine domains. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. From the HyperMorph module. select the domains panel. it will not identify the proper starting and ending points. HyperMorph attempts to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. You will need to correct this by hand. 2. which becomes a handle (right model). Select an edge domain. 2. 5. but in some cases.To group two or more domains: 1.

select the domains panel. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge are transparently applied to the dependent handles. Select edit edges. Dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. Change the selector to merge. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. If a model is very large. 2. From the HyperMorph module. 5. 3. 5. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end-to-end such that the resultant merged edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. Select any number of edge domains. Select one or more domains. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. To create dependent handles along an edge domain: 1. This feature helps save time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. select the domains panel. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. From the HyperMorph module. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. Dependent handles created using the handles on edge feature Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. the influences do not need to be recalculated. Click create.To merge edge domains: 1. Select edit edges. 4. 4. Change the selector to add handles. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. Secondly. you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish to change before you enter the morphing panel. The first is that since they are dependent.0 User’s Guide 269 . Click merge. It will be as if they were not there. 2. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain.

which contains shell elements on the surface of the 3D domains. You only see the side of the model that is facing you (as if your model was a real part). surface-only wire frame In this default mode. You can still display the surface mesh. you will see the two sides of your model superimposed over each other. Note: During influence calculation for large models you might run out of available memory. In these cases.6. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. Since HyperMorph creates a component called ^morphface. The influences for the handles is calculated and you are ready to begin morphing. solid fill The option produces a display that is similar to what you see when you perform a fill plot in the hidden line panel. When you are satisfied with your domains.solid model The HyperMesh graphics engine supports different visual options for viewing models as you work on them. a full wire frame can make it very difficult to visualize the model because every element in the model is displayed. the default setting is to display only that component—thus showing only the outer surface of your model and making it easier to work on.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. your model is displayed as a wire frame. 270 HyperMesh 8. you should divide large domains. if desired (as shown). but only the surface elements are drawn because in a solid model. However. click return. Viewing Solid Models . delete unnecessary handles. since the viewing mode is still wire frame.

so by viewing only the domains you can visualize the model with minimal clutter.0 User’s Guide 271 .You can also view a solid model for morphing by turning off all the components and looking at only the domains and handles. Partitioning generally captures all the features on the surface of a solid. This is similar to looking at the model in a meshless wire frame mode. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

The HyperBeam module allows you to: • • View the beam section. as dictated by the beam section template. including splitting and joining operations Selecting vertex coordinates when the spreadsheet display is active Edit the beam section manually via dialogs and a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates. The HyperBeam panel in HyperMesh allows you to: • • • • Define the beam cross sectional plane via the existing HyperMesh vector definition methods. elements or surfaces that represent the beam cross section. Edit the beam section graphically via mouse clicks and drags. Select the lines. Operations that can be done this way include: • Editing section thickness Creating. Step 1: Beam Section Definition. This data can be imported into the HyperMesh finite element pre-processor and used to create one-dimensional (bar. Transfer the data into the HyperBeam module.HyperBeam Module The HyperBeam module allows you to calculate general beam section properties from geometry or element data. Step One Step Two Step Three Beam section definition from line. surface. Operations that can be accomplished in this way include: Hand editing of vertex coordinate geometry and connectivity Editing section thickness Creating parts Editing part to vertex associativity Parameterizing the beam section for optimization via a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates Organizing HyperBeam sections into a single level structure of HyperBeam collectors 272 HyperMesh 8. steps one and three are performed within HyperMesh and step two is performed in the HyperBeam module. It is a threestep process. Step 2: Beam Section Manipulation. Each step is described in more detail below. beam. Beam section properties are imported back into HyperMesh and applied to element property cards. Beam section manipulation and property calculation takes place in the HyperBeam module. rod) element property data for an FEA model. or element data takes place in the HyperBeam panel within HyperMesh. its local coordinate system. moving.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and deleting vertices Editing line segments. and any beam section properties calculated. Access previously defined beam cross sections for editing in the HyperBeam module.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 273 . You can import beam section properties into HyperMesh that have been defined in HyperBeam by using the collectors panel with the properties entity selected.Step 3: Beam Property Import. The beam section characteristics are displayed in the card image of the property collector but must be edited from within the HyperBeam module.

274 HyperMesh 8. It assumes that the OptiStruct user profile is loaded. project to plane is then selected under cross section plane:.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This plot element will be used to align the section within HyperBeam.Example of the Three-Step Process This example illustrates how HyperBeam can be used to attach beam section properties to a OptiStruct PBAR card image. Elements or lines can be used to describe a beam section. And the plane base node is chosen (change option to specify node) at N1 also. N1. N2 and N3 locations are selected as shown in the figure below. The blue lines are plot elements denoting the beam section. The purple line is a plot element created in the global y-direction. The selector type is set to elems and the blue plot elements are selected. The shell section subpanel is selected from the HyperBeam panel.

0 User’s Guide 275 . N3 describes the positive sense of the z-axis. Later we will need to know this when the beam section is aligned for bar elements. It is important to note the alignment of the local axes at this point. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperBeam is invoked when you click create.The vector created by N1 to N2 describes the local y-axis used in HyperBeam.

276 HyperMesh 8. and N3 was reversed (essentially the z-direction was flipped).If the node selection was performed differently. HyperBeam would yield different results as shown below.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

This can be done in the collectors panel.Once HyperBeam solves the cross sectional properties. the z-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. In this case.0 User’s Guide 277 . If there were a 1 within the Z comp. The direction specified within the bars panel defines the alignment along the y-direction. and the local bar element alignment axis. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This operation is performed in the bars panel. The figure below illustrates the alignment of the global axis. the HyperBeam alignment axis. the PBAR card image must be attached to the 1-D element in question. Bar element alignment using HyperBeam sections is very straightforward if the section was defined using an absolute y-direction. it is necessary to attach the beam section to the PBAR card image. After the card image is created. the y-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section.

This option can be found in the review sections subpanel in the HyperBeam panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .The beam cross section can also be attached to the beam to visually inspect the alignment. 278 HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide 279 . Area Area Moments of Inertia Area Product of Inertia Radius of Gyration Elastic Section Modulus Max Coordinate Extension Plastic Section Modulus Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For shell sections. the system referring to the principal bending axes is called the principal coordinate system. only the theory of thin walled bars is used. The coordinate system defined by the user is called the local coordinate system. the system parallel to the local coordinate system with the origin in the centroid is called the centroidal coordinate system.Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam The beam cross section is always defined in a y. This means that for the calculation of the moments and product of inertia terms of higher order of the shell thickness t are neglected. Thickness warping is also neglected. The x axis is defined along the beam axis.z plane.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Torsional Constant Solid Shell open Shell closed Elastic Torsion Modulus Solid Shell open Shell closed Warping Constant (normalized to the shear center) Shear deformation coefficients 280 HyperMesh 8.

CRC Press.0 User’s Guide 281 . Wiley & Sons. Goeldner. FL. 1979. Structural Mechanics – Variational and Computational Methods.D. The Theory of Thin Walled Bars. Fachbuchverlag. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 40 (1997) 211-232.. Rubenchik. Schramm. and W. V. A. H. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 1981. Pilkey. Gjelsvik. Leipzig. Pilkey and W. 1993.D.Shear stiffness factors Shear stiffness Nastran Type Notation References W. U. Beam Stiffness Matrix based on the Elasticity Equations. ed. Lehrbuch – Hoehere Festigkeitslehre. Wunderlich. Boca Raton.

and status bar. 282 HyperMesh 8. and results/spreadsheet sections. toolbar. shell section graphics pane. It also has a menu bar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click each section of the HyperBeam window below to access detailed information about the menu areas.HyperBeam Environment HyperBeam has three main panes: the section browser.

give a filename and location in the Save As window (it is recommended to use the .0 User’s Guide 283 . and dragging it to the collector where you want it to be located. click once on the item to select it. To view thumbnails of selected sections. select Cut from the Edit menu. Below that are all of the collectors followed by the beam sections at the lowest level. choose Export Section from the pop-up menu. copying sections. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To move a section. select the collector branch in the section browser window. right-click in the section browser pane. thumbnail images of all the sections are shown in the graphics pane.Section Browser This section browser presents a hierarchical view of all of the beam sections and section collectors on your database. and enter the new name. the thumbnail images that were just created may be viewed in the graphics pane by selecting Model in the section browser tree. until you create thumbnail images for a different selection of sections. Section types are identified by icons. holding down the control key. select multiple sections by holding down the control key and left-clicking on multiple sections. and select Paste from the Edit menu. click Save. select the desired sections or section collectors in the section browser (hold down the control key to select multiple items). You can use the section browser to find a particular section of your model for displaying or editing. select the collector where you want the section to appear. as listed below: Shell Solid Standard Generic You can perform the following tasks in the section browser: • • • • To rename a section or section collector. select Copy from the Edit menu. select the section. At the highest level is the model. and renaming sections and section collectors. select the section. select the collector where you want the section to appear. HyperBeam displays this hierarchy in a standard tree structure. and select Paste from the Edit menu. To view thumbnail images of the sections in a section collector. There are two ways to "drag and drop": • Move a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. select a section by left-clicking on it. choose Create Thumbnails from the pop-up menu. click again to indicate that you want to rename it. To copy a section. right-click in the section browser pane. To export sections to an external file. You can also reorganize the database by moving sections between collectors. and dragging and dropping it into the collector where you want it to be located Copy a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move.bm extension to save beam section files).

The section axis is always drawn with its y-axis pointing to the right. The preferences dialog allows you to set the font and background color to use in the text graphics pane. The shear center appears as an x with a circle around it. The section's torsion and warping factor are displayed in the lower left corner of the pane.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the metal thickness used for a flange is the sum of the thicknesses of all the parts that share it. if you have them enabled on the view menu. or equivalently. depending on if you have the toggle set on the toolbar or the view menu. if the section's x-axis points into or out of the monitor. The centroid appears as a plus with a circle around it. 284 HyperMesh 8.The Importance of Flanges When HyperBeam computes the properties for the section. then HyperBeam underestimates the stiffness of a section. The section's local coordinate system and its principle coordinate system (at its centroid) are displayed. You can modify the section itself with the shell section editing tools. The color of the lines for each part is selected on the section's properties dialog. if you have them enabled on the view menu. separated by a colon. Each part is also marked with a slider bar that you can use to adjust the part's thickness. Each vertex may or may not be labeled by its ID. You have control (on the preferences dialog) over whether the z-axis points up or down. If you accidentally omit those vertices from the connectivity for a part. Shell Section Graphics Pane The graphics pane displays a representation of the geometric layout of the section. The bar is labeled with the part's number in the section and the current numerical value of the thickness. each sheet metal part is drawn by lines connecting the dots that show the section's vertices. For shell sections.

If this section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. The section results pane shares screen space with the section definition spreadsheets. If the results are not available. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. You can type a new value into any of the coordinates. You can specify a new results template by selecting the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. to toggle between them. and the associated vertex moves to the new location. "No results to display.0 User’s Guide 285 . and background color on the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. Shell Section Spreadsheet (non-optimization version) For a shell section. You specify the text font. there are more results computed than are displayed in the default template. then HyperBeam displays the message. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. then the spreadsheet additionally displays optimization bounds for each variable. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. You will find controls for the actual format and layout of the text and results in two locations. text color. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. To see the list of all the results available. If the section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. such as when you have edited the section definition and dynamic update is disabled. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications.Results/Spreadsheet Pane Section Properties Results Whenever HyperBeam computes the section properties of the current section. If there are computed values that are not necessary. but you can select it and copy it to paste it into another application such as a word processor. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. consult the documentation for the results output template. Also. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's variables and their current values. then the spreadsheet displays equations. you can delete them from the template so that they are not displayed. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. variables. You cannot edit the text in this portion of the window. you can use the spreadsheet button on the toolbar. You can change the display of text and values by editing the scripts file." Standard Section Spreadsheet For a standard section. and optimization bounds for the section. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's vertices and their coordinates. it displays them in the results pane. so you may choose to add additional values to the template.

then the shell-section spreadsheet expands to display the rest of the necessary information. arithmetic functions.Optimization Shell Section Spreadsheet If the shell section has been designated an optimization section on the Properties dialog. click the variable with the right mouse button. use the right mouse button to select the variable's section. a vertex coordinate can be defined using an equation. blank spaces may be prohibited. The equation is passed to the optimization solver. click the right-hand side of the equation and enter the formula. and an upper bound. In the equation. To define a variable for use in an equation. If all three values are equal. The coordinate will be set equal to the last value it had calculated. it is assumed the optimizer treats that coordinate as fixed. To delete a variable. Click the coordinate and it will appear as the dependent vertex. A menu is displayed that allows you to choose between adding or deleting a variable. 286 HyperMesh 8. Select delete variable on the menu. (For example. so it must be formatted as appropriate for that solver. If you choose add.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A menu is displayed. a lower bound. initial value. or trigonometric functions.) To delete an equation. click the vertex coordinate to make it active and delete the text of the equation. into which you can enter the variable's name. with a few restrictions. Each vertex coordinate now has three values: an initial value. Alternatively. a new blank line appears. A vertex that is defined by an equation may not appear on the right-hand side of another equation. and optimization bounds. Next. you can use other vertex coordinates. variables.

The Preferences dialog allows you to specify the appearance and behavior of HyperBeam. Delete the currently selected text or entity. File Menu New Save Import Section Export Section Export Results Print Print Preview Print Setup Exit Create a new section collector. Edit Menu Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Delete Preferences Undo the last procedure. Save the beam cross-section. From the Edit window.HyperBeam Menu Bar The HyperBeam menu bar allows you to perform a wide variety of operations using drop-down menus. Paste the selected text or entity into the location of the cursor. Exit the HyperBeam module and return to HyperMesh. Copies and removes the selected text or entity. standard section. Redo the last procedure. Opens a file browser so you can import a beam cross-section. or only selected sections. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Set the graphics and results preferences. Prints the currently displayed beam cross section and the section analysis results. Allows you to set up printer preferences. There are controls for the results/spreadsheet window and controls for the section graphics window available. select Preferences. Opens a file browser so you can export a beam cross-section. Copies the selected text or entity. Other operations can be performed using either the menu bar or the corresponding tool button. On the Edit menu. or generic section. Displays a print preview. select Preferences to display the tabs. Some operations such as importing and exporting are accomplished only from the menu bar. Setting the Section Graphics Options The Graphics tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Specifies the main background color for the section graphics region.0 User’s Guide 287 . Opens a file browser so you can export the results for the selected section to a text file. Options are provided to export all sections. The Graphics and Results tabs in the Preferences dialog allow you to set preferences for the section graphics window and the results/spreadsheet window.

Allows you to display a grid behind the section image. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for the results display. Displays the font dialog box. See the Templex Reference On-line Help for additional details. so it can display just those values known to be relevant. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for section graphics window. The distance entry field allows the distance between nodes of the grid to be adjusted. Contact Altair for technical details on exchange file formats and return codes. It is recommended that you use a fixed-width font. x-axis direction Grid Thumbnails Specifying the Results/Spreadsheet Display The Results tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Font Select the background color for the results display. Each section type can have its own custom script. for best formatting. so that their sizes are relative to one another. External solver for thin shell sections 288 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Font Background effects Displays the font dialog box. such as courier. Results output templates The computed results for a section are formatted using a user-specified TEMPLEX scripts. Allows you to specify a bitmap or second color for a gradient to display as the background of the section graphics window. Allows you to specify whether HyperBeam should display the section with the x-axis coming out of the page (so z axis goes up) or going into the page (so the z-axis goes down). You may substitute your own solver to compute values for thin Shell sections. The Scale Thumbnails checkbox allows thumbnail images to be displayed.

automatically updates the display when you make changes. Tools Menu Break a Segment Join Segments Create a New Part Move Vertices Reorient Shell Section. When selected. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Turns on and off the display of the Vertex IDs. Turns on and off the display of the system coordinate axes. Turns on and off the display of the status bar. rearrange vertices in a part. Allows you to delete a vertex to join two segments.0 User’s Guide 289 .. Scales the graphic so that it exactly fits the active window. updates results. Reduces the size of the graphic in the graphics pane. Allows you to add a new sheet metal part to the current section. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section.. Part Editor. Magnifies the graphic in the graphics pane. Properties... Switches the display in the Results/Spreadsheet pane. Allows you to break a segment so that you can add a new vertex. Allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. Allows you to modify the properties of the beam cross-sections. Allows you to move vertices. Moves the model in the selected direction. Turns on and off the display of the Warping Factor.View Menu Toolbar Status Bar Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit to screen Update Results Dynamic update Systems Torsion Factor Warping Factor Spreadsheets Vertex Ids Turns on and off the display of the toolbar. Turns on and off the display of the Torsion Factor. If selected.. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.. Allows you to specify the section that you want to zoom in on to examine in greater detail.

if the shear center or centroid changes because of any changes to the section properties. You can also move the origin by a fixed amount by defining y and z offsets. or the principle axes change. the origin for the section does not follow it. you must specify the location of its origin relative to the vertices and the direction of the y-axis. To specify a new coordinate system. reflecting it about the y-axis. the current shear center. Likewise.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Specifying the y-axis You can specify the direction for the for the y-axis of the local coordinate system using vertices. If you move a defi ning vertex. the current principle axes. or at an angle offset from the current y axis. this coordinate system does not adjust with them. reverse x-axis Activate the check box to flip the section over. Specifying the Origin You can designate a vertex. or the current centroid to be the new origin. 290 HyperMesh 8. if you subsequently move that vertex. the origin will not move with it.Reorient Shell Section The reorient shell section dialog allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. Note that.

you can set upper and lower bounds for the optimization of the section's sheet metal thicknesses. 12. To set a new thickness. 4.) If you are currently in an optimization section. The part editor also allows you to review and edit part vertex connectivities. the segment between vertices 1 and 2 is a flange. in the section illustrated below.. 5. the currently selected part of the section is highlighted. on the Tools menu and entering data in the Edit Parts dialog.Part Editor Parts of thin-shell sections can be edited by selecting Part Editor. The part features that you need to control are its thickness and the connectivity of its vertices. You can add or remove vertices to change the part. … and the connectivity of the bottom flange is 1. so the connectivity of the top part is 1. When you use the part editor tools for. For example. (You can also adjust thickness by using the graphic tools.. 2. 3. include those vertices in more than one part.0 User’s Guide 291 . 13. To designate a segment between two vertices and a flange. You can use the up and down arrows to review any part. There is list of the vertex IDs at the bottom of the list. enter a value in the appropriate field. 15 … Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. 14. A part in this context is an individual piece of sheet metal that is typically welded to other parts along flanges.

The properties that can be specified differ for each type of section. Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. or vertex coordinates. You can activate this option if you need to specify optimization parameters for this section. select properties. HyperBeam recognizes four types of beam cross-sections. or equations tying coordinates together. Fill color Choose the color to use for displaying the material portion of the section in the graphics pane. Torsion factor Warping Factor Line color Set the torsion factor. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane.Properties Properties for beam cross-sections are specified by selecting Properties on the Tools menu and entering data in the Thin-Shell Section Properties dialog. Thin Shell Section Properties The Thin Shell Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single shell section. Section type 292 HyperMesh 8. On the Tools menu. Standard Section Properties The Standard Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single standard section. This operation cannot be undone. Set the warping factor. Optimization Solid Section Properties The Solid Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a solid section. Specify the shape out of the available choices to use for the standard section. See the HyperBeam panel for more information on beam cross-sections types.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . such as upper and lower bound on thicknesses.

Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 293 .Generic Section Properties The Generic Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a generic section.

Resize the display to fit the pane. or deactivate the tool by toggling its button on the toolbar. To finish the part. Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit Show/hide Ids Update results Show/hide spreadsheet Properties Zoom in on area of the beam section by using the mouse to draw a circle around the area of interest. Alternate between displaying results or the spreadsheet. They control how the section is displayed in the graphics pane and the results/spreadsheet pane. activate this tool and click on the vertex. You can use any mixture of existing or new vertices in creating the part. Zoom out on the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. Enlarge the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. if you have turned off the auto-update of section results. Pops-up the properties dialog Shell Section Editing Tools There are five tools to modify the basic definition of a shell section: Break segment If you want to add a new vertex between two existing vertices. activate this tool and click at approximately the place you want it to appear.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . activate this tool and then click in the graphics area the sequence of vertices. Specify a new center for the graphics display.HyperBeam Toolbar The toolbar allows you to quickly access some of the more commonly used functions. To add a new sheet metal part to the current section. Join two segments/ eliminate vertex Create a new part 294 HyperMesh 8. Turn on and off the display of vertex IDs in shell sections. View Controls The view controls are available on the View menu and the toolbar. Bring the section results up to date. If you want to delete a vertex. double-click the last vertex.

Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. Open the print dialog. General Tools There are eight tools that allow you to manage a HyperBeam session: Save Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Print On-line Help Save the session. activate this tool. Cut an item and hold it in memory for pasting.0 User’s Guide 295 . Copy an item. Redo the last action performed. Paste a copied or cut item. Status Bar The HyperBeam status bar displays messages and information about the interface. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and click and hold on the vertex to move and drag it to its new location. rearrange vertices in a part. Undo the last action performed. a short description of the action performed when you click the icon is displayed in the status bar. If you place the cursor over a toolbar icon.Move vertex Part-editor To reposition a vertex. Open the HyperBeam on-line help. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition.

The properties that HyperMesh calculates include cross sectional area. moments of inertia. and torsion and warping constants. the beam cross section functions favor NASTRAN analysis in nomenclature and bar offset calculations. HyperMesh uses a finite element methodology to calculate the properties for the cross section. and apply those properties to a HyperMesh model. This process is performed in the beam xsect panel. calculate its properties. Note: For design reasons. The tools on the beam xsect panel can help you complete the necessary property cards for finite element analysis using HyperMesh bar2 elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . center of gravity.Beam Cross Section Property Solver The beam cross section property solver allows you to define a beam cross section. shear center. principal axes. The panel functions also facilitate the creation of bar2 elements. 296 HyperMesh 8.

Note: The save element option has no effect when you define sections by elements. 1 versus 2 Order Element Analysis st nd For beam cross sections that were fully defined by lines or surfaces. This tells HyperMesh to ignore the contents of the component when exporting a model. the plane is determined by a "best fit" from the data provided. If HyperMesh calculates the plane. secondary panels called define offset parameters are opened. and Elements The following factors relating to the cross section plane. If you define the plane. Unless you change the name of the component. Planes In order for properties to be calculated correctly. All properties are calculated on the plane. Linear weighting of the points on the selected lines. the coordinate system. If you create the bar2 element by using this method. If you use the offset lines sub-panel.Describing Cross Section Planes. These specifications are applied by using the toggles under cross section plane: or plane base node:. Local Axes Many of the properties are defined relative to a local coordinate system. and the Z-axis is the cross product of the X and Y axis. or have it calculated for you. you may choose to have the properties calculated using first or second order elements. second order elements are always used. HyperMesh defines the plane base at the Center of Gravity of the cross section. If you are using offset sections. You may specify any existing HyperMesh node as the base point of the plane. or elements is used. HyperMesh uses one of two methods to define the plane. Save Elements Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. using NASTRAN conventions. the cross section must be planar. HyperMesh calculates the plane for you. your N1 and N2 selections are used to define the positive Y-axis. This option is specified by using the toggle under analysis type: on the pick geom sub-panel. If you define the base point by picking a node. You can also use the standard HyperMesh plane collector to define the plane. If you do not specify a base point. When you pick elements. these elements are not output when you use the export subpanel on the files panel.and Z-axes are defined to be the principal axes of the cross section. In all cases the planar normal is defined as the positive X axis. and the element order can be defined in the beam xsect panel. surfaces. The name of the component is preceded by a caret (^). offset values are calculated for you. If you use the default method. The save element option is located on the pick geom sub-panel on the beam xsect panel. The system is the same as the coordinate system for the plane. this node can be referenced as an end of a bar2 element created with the panel. the order of the selected HyperMesh element is used. The save elements option allows you to save the elements defining the cross section as part of the HyperMesh model. These options are specified by using the toggle under plane base node:.0 User’s Guide 297 . in this case. the Y. These elements are placed in a newly created component for each calculation. Axes.

When you define a weld point. HyperMesh first looks for coincident node pairs to join. The distance from the point and the diameter of the weld may be changed graphically. An arrow is displayed that indicates the offset direction. Any number of lines may be selected to be part of a weld point. Any continuous set of HyperMesh lines (as determined by HyperMesh) is considered to be a single piece of sheet metal. The thickness used is considered to be the total thickness of the sheet metal piece. with the line as the center of the sheet metal piece. provided they are used in the definition of the cross section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . After the initial cross section is defined. The tolerance is defined as 15% of the largest distance between the weld areas on the lines minus the offset distances. based upon the line data in the model. HyperMesh attempts to join four nodes per line per weld to a corresponding set of four nodes on another line. thicknesses. When you use this method. HyperMesh allows this point to be chosen at any end or joint of a selected line. You can change the thickness of lines interactively by using the mouse cursor or you can enter a value and apply it to specific lines or all of the lines. the offset direction is centered. Offset Sections The offset sections method is designed to support thin-walled cross sections manufactured from sheet metal. After nominal = for initial thickness is defined. Then it looks for nodes within tolerance of each other. 298 HyperMesh 8. By default.Defining a Cross Section There are two methods you can use to describe a cross-section for analysis: by offsetting HyperMesh lines or by selecting a fully enclosed area. With either method. you can also specify weld points for the cross section. Weld points are used to join separate pieces of sheet metal at a point. the section must be a contiguous area. normal to the line. The choices are centered. The beam cross section is described by a set of lines. Note: If you define a cross section with elements and use the intersect panel to cut elements. Holes are allowed in the section but all portions of it must touch all other portions. The initial definition of the cross section uses the user-defined nominal thickness for each line. or by entering the desired values. it is best to use fewer lines with the property calculator. an offset of each line is created. you may change any or all of the line thicknesses. Each HyperMesh line in the set can be assigned a thickness. Although you can use the line segments option. use the combine lines option and specify a break angle. you can define any or all line thicknesses using the thickness = option. or reverse normal to the line. The line sets may be changed one at a time by selecting the graphical toggle and picking the line set or all sets may be changed at once by clicking the toggle sides button. When this method is used in the offset lines sub-panel of the beam xsect panel. You can also change the offset direction after the initial cross section definition. The offset direction is user-specified. and weld points. the section is considered fully open and no correlation will exist between nodes on different sets of lines. If weld points are not defined for offset sections. The weld point is located a given distance from a fixed point.

you can use the pick geom sub-panel of the beam xsect panel to select any set of elements. lines. Defining the section using lines or surfaces in this manner creates a fully closed section. HyperMesh uses the connectivity provided by the elements. If the section is defined using elements. No alterations are made to those elements. those elements are considered to be the section.0 User’s Guide 299 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the area is automeshed to generate elements for the cross section. aside from projecting to a common plane.Fully Defined Sections For this method of beam cross section definition. If you select by elements. or surfaces that describe a fully closed area. Note: This means that all nodes along common boundaries are taken as the same and the solver does not consider moving them independently. When lines or surfaces are chosen.

individual menu items are displayed that perform only the sub-set of desired operations. Temporary nodes are also created at the Center of Gravity and Shear Center. with which you can apply the calculated properties to the HyperMesh model.Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties After you select the solve function in the beam xsect panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The post-processing panel is displayed. Otherwise. 300 HyperMesh 8. the properties are calculated. The post-processing panel displays only the menu items necessary for the current operation. The following symbols are displayed at the Center of Gravity and the Shear Center: Center of Gravity symbol Shear Center symbol The local axes of the beam are also displayed. The following postprocessing options can be performed in any combination desired and are not exclusive of other functions. At any time you can click apply results to perform all the currently specified options.

When you apply the results to the properties or components. HyperMesh checks to see if data already exists for the currently chosen solver on that property/component. you can specify the already created HyperMesh properties or components to which to apply the results as a card image. N1. see Creating Collectors. Is. CW. that solver is automatically selected. J.Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver In order to relate the calculated properties to a card for your desired output solver. I22. I2. Ist. I2. CENTROID. For more information. If you already have a card image template specified in the global panel. RADIOSS.0. K1. no changes are made to the calculated value. K1. Solver NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT ABAQUS Comp/Prop Property Property Component Card Name PBAR PBEAM (end A) BEAMGENERAL. The size determination is for user-viewing preference only and does not affect any of the actual values. Centroid x1 and x2. independently developed over many years. Shear Center x1 and x2 Area. I12. A non unit Torsion factor will modify the value of the Torsional Constant. ABAQUS. LS-DYNA. and the modified value. J. see Save and Display Results. J. use the FEA solver: switch to select the solver. ANSYS. relate fully welded sections to partially welded sections. I1. and replaced by the newly calculated data or default data for that property/component. These constants provide a means to apply empirical "fudge factors" to the results. you are prompted to confirm that you wish to overwrite the data on that property/component. the original value. These factors. J. MARC. After you select the solver. For more information. As. principal Y axis unit VECTOR ANSYS LS-DYNA/ RADIOSS PAM-CRASH MARC Property Property Component Component Torsion and Warping Factors torsion factors and warping factors are the only fields common to all operations of the postprocessing panel. you may select NASTRAN. If these factors remain at the default value of 1. Γw. K2. and the spacing between welds.0 warping factor modifies the Warping Constant. If data exists. SA A. All of the solver data of the property/component is deleted if you answer yes. K2 A. I2. I1. Otherwise. elform 2 Mat’l type 202 geometry Data A. Irr. Itt. The changes are applied to all HyperMesh properties and/or components. N2 A. Iss. Ir A. Iyy. OPTISTRUCT. Iyy A. Izz. This function does not work for dictionary solvers. I1. Display Size You can control the size of the Center of Gravity and Shear Center symbols and the local Coordinate system with the draw size = field. It. HyperMesh material data associated with the property/component is not affected. I12. SHEAR CENTER R SECTION_BEAM. or PAM-CRASH.0 User’s Guide 301 . Similarly non 1. The values that are saved in summary files or displayed on the screen show the factor. Izz. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

The node for this end of the bar is either the centroid of the section or the user-selected base node. to describe the bar’s orientation. 302 HyperMesh 8. If you want a permanent record of the calculations you have just performed. There are many properties calculated that are not assigned to solver cards. This option is provided to aid in understanding the orientation of the cross section relative to the overall model. Coordinate Systems/Vectors A HyperMesh coordinate system may be created to save the orientation of the cross section. check to make sure the desired component is currently active. If you want to save these. and not with summary alone. Whether you choose to save a summary file and/or display it on the screen. that property is automatically assigned to the new BAR2 element. or move the bar element to that component by using the organize panel. Manipulating them does not change the property values that may be saved and referenced by the created bar element. The cross section may be chosen as either end A or end B of the bar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The sign of the distance is the direction along the x axis. it creates a new node. If you use a nodal orientation. You are asked about each selected property until you answer "yes" to the question presented. to which the calculated properties were assigned. you are asked if you want each property associated with the newly created bar element. If any properties (not components) are selected when you build a BAR2 element. that is referenced by the bar element. use the disp (display) panel to confirm that the elements of the current component are selected for display. If the solver for which you are defining a model uses components. Save and Display Results All of the calculated properties may be viewed or saved to an ASCII text file. This feature works only with apply results. either as a vector or by letting HyperMesh create a node along the axis. The other end of the bar may be defined by picking a node or specifying a distance along the x axis of the cross section. the information includes a named list of the properties/components. The system is created identical to the one displayed on the screen. 10% of the length of the element away from the existing node. Note: If you create a BAR2 element and it does not show on the screen. The element is created in the currently active component. The BAR2 element that you are creating can also be assigned an orientation. it applies a global unit vector to the bar created. if any. The properties can also be viewed on the screen in the same manner as summary templates. You may use the cross section’s local Y or Z axis.Creating a Bar Element Another option is to create a HyperMesh BAR2 element by specifying two nodes and optionally choosing a direction vector or node and property for the element. You may also create a HyperMesh vector in either the local Y or Z direction of the cross section. you must save the results as an ASCII file. If you use a vector orientation. If only one property is selected. you can select the summary file option and specify a file name in the field after summary file.

Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers This section provides answers for common questions about using the beam cross section process: How do I change the number of lines on which I can define a thickness? Change the number of HyperMesh lines you are selecting. If you need a different reference point. Use the line edit panel on the Geom page to either split or combine existing lines. Select those lines as your section definition. Each HyperMesh line has a different thickness. split the HyperMesh line at the desired point and then choose the new point at the split.0 User’s Guide 303 . How do I define a weld point at a different location? Use the graphical controls to change its location on the line. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. How do I obtain lines from a shell element model to use as my offset lines? Use the hidden line panel on the Post page and choose line plot as the desired output.

The HyperLaminate module is supported for the OptiStruct. component collectors and design variables) may result in synchronization problems and loss of data.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 304 HyperMesh 8. The current HyperMesh database is only updated with information from the current HyperLaminate session on exit from HyperLaminate (an exception to this rule are Abaqus materials. HyperLaminate is launched from within HyperMesh either from the HyperLaminate button on the 2D page of the main menu. Ansys and Abaqus user profiles. this is not advisable.HyperLaminate Module HyperLaminate is a HyperMesh module that facilitates the creation. or by selecting HyperLaminate from the Setup pull-down menu. Nastran. which are updated simultaneously in HyperMesh and HyperLaminate). review and edition of composite laminates. In support of this process certain materials and design variables are also supported by in the HyperLaminate module. so while it is possible to work in HyperMesh while HyperLaminate is running. Any changes made to those entities which HyperLaminate touches (materials.

and delete entries in text boxes. This is the right hand pane of the HyperLaminate module. as shown here: Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus that allow you to manage files. and to cut. copy. laminate or design variable definition (depending on the selected branch in the laminate browser). Left clicking on an entity populates the Define/Edit and Review panes with details of that branch. Review Pane Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Toolbar Laminate Browser Define/Edit Pane This is the central pane of the HyperLaminate module. Right clicking on a branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. The review pane has a number of tabs that display the current state of the selected branch. Here users may enter or change data related to a material. change views.0 User’s Guide 305 . The HyperLaminate toolbar contains five tools that allow you to generate new materials. laminates and design variables. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. edit materials. and access on-line help. This browser.HyperLaminate Environment The HyperLaminate environment consists of five general areas. provides a vertical tree view of materials. laminates and size design variables in your model. paste. laminates or design variables.

Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. Edit Cut Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . File New Export to File Exit Generates a new entity. This text file can be printed. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. 306 HyperMesh 8. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. The following chart lists each menu option. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser.HyperLaminate Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus. Exit HyperLaminate. Exports material and laminate information to a text file. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. At this point the current HyperMesh database is updated with the information in the current HyperLaminate session.

Displays version. Display/hide status bar. Allows you to select defaults for new Laminates for: • • • • • View Toolbar Status Bar Help About HyperLaminate Help Topics color convention repetitions ply thickness common thickness Display/hide toolbar. Activates the HyperLaminate on-line help. and copyright information.Tools Ply lay-up options Displays the Ply lay-up Options dialog. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 307 . contact.

Icon Name New Function Generates a new entity. Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. Cut Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting.HyperLaminate Toolbar The HyperLaminate toolbar is located below the menu bar and its display is controlled by the Toolbar option under the View pull-down menu. 308 HyperMesh 8. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). The toolbar is shown and described here. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane.

Laminates and Design Variables. Laminates: PCOMP and PCOMPG iii. provides a vertical tree view of the materials. Materials: MATERIAL and MPDATA ii.Laminate Browser The Laminate browser.0 User’s Guide 309 . SOLID46 and SOLID 191 c. SHELLSECTION and SHELLGENERALSECTION Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Laminates: SOLIDSECTION. and laminates in your model. Laminates: SHELL91. laminate definitions and size design variables existing in the HyperMesh database. MAT2 and MAT8 ii. At the highest level are the entity types: Materials. Materials: MAT1. 2. for Abaqus: i. for Ansys: i. These are: a. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. On launching HyperLaminate. The data is presented in a slightly different format for the various user profiles as shown here: OptiStruct & Nastran Ansys Abaqus The Laminate Browser is organized in a three level hierarchy: 1. the Laminate Browser is populated with all the relevant materials. for OptiStruct and Nastran: i. Design Variables: DESVAR b. for the active user profile. Materials: ABAQUS_MATERIAL ii. SHELL99. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the browser also includes size design variables. At the intermediate level are the entity subtypes or card images.

At the lowest level are the entities. Left or right clicking on a branch in the browser selects that branch and it becomes highlighted. Click New. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. on the toolbar. A new entity appears under the selected branch A default name and id are assigned to each newly created entity. 310 HyperMesh 8. Or 1. 3. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. To review and update entities: 1. It is then possible to alter and update the entity definition.3. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. . Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. displayed with the names as defined by you. A new entity appears under the selected branch. 2. Make the desired changes to the entity definition in the Define/Edit pane and click apply or update laminate to update the entity. Select New from the File pull-down menu. At the intermediate level (entity sub-types) only one operation is available: New – which will create a new entity of the selected sub-type. • • At the highest level (entity types) no operations are available. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. if MAT1 is selected and we right click on it and choose New. Right clicking on an already selected (highlighted) branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. Click the New icon.e. a new MAT1 entity is created.which allows the entity to be renamed. At the lowest level (entities) three operations are available. When an entity (lowest level branch in the tree hierarchy) is selected. 2. 2. Duplicate – which creates a copy of the selected entity. Right click on selected entity sub-type. The selected entity is highlighted. the Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . • From the Laminate Browser it is possible to: To create entities: There are three options for creating new entities in HyperLaminate: 1. Or 1. i. A new entity appears under the selected branch. and Delete – which will delete the selected entity. Rename .

Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Click Delete. A confirmation dialog is displayed. 2. in the Laminate Browser. 3. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. Click Yes. switches to a text box. 4. Select Delete from the Edit pull-down menu. The name of the selected entity. 3. 6. Duplicate. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. You can also rename an entity by altering the relevant field in the Define/Edit pane and then clicking on Apply or Update Laminate. 2. A duplicate of the entity is created and appears in the Laminate Browser. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. Click Rename. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. Right click on the selected entity. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. Click Yes. Or Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2.To rename entities: 1. Click Duplicate. 7. Duplicate. Or 5. Duplicate. 4. Right click on the selected entity. To delete entities: There are three options for deleting entities in HyperLaminate: 1. 3. and Delete. and Delete. and Delete. A confirmation dialog is displayed.0 User’s Guide 311 . Right click on selected entity. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Enter the desired new name in the text box. To duplicate entities: 1.

9.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .8. on the toolbar. Click the Delete icon. . either complete their definition (by clicking Edit – which takes you to the HyperMesh material card previewer) or exit and restart HyperLaminate (in which case the undefined materials are purged). A confirmation dialog is displayed. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. Click Yes. 312 HyperMesh 8. as they do not really exist. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. To delete these undefined materials. 10. Note: Abaqus materials that are created but not defined (they appear in a red font in Laminate Browser) may not be deleted.

Materials For OptiStruct. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Define/Edit pane is populated with the current definitions. Once the desired changes have been made. the central pane of the HyperLaminate window. To reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. Below are screenshots showing the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct MAT8 definition and an Ansys MATERIAL definition: OptiStruct – Materials – MAT8 Ansys – Materials – MATERIAL Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 313 . clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). The configuration of the Define/Edit pane differs for different user profiles and sub-types (card images). allows you to edit the definition of the selected entity.Define/Edit Pane The Define/Edit Pane. all material property information for the selected material may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. Nastran and Ansys materials.

Clicking the Edit button takes you to the material card previewer in the HyperMesh GUI. Once you has finished reviewing/editing the material. clicking return will return you to the HyperLaminate GUI. the Define/Edit pane allows the laminate name. HyperMesh component color. As with the other user profiles. where you can review and alter the definition of the selected material. stacking sequence convention and the ply lay-up order to be edited.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .For Abaqus materials users may rename or redefine the color of the material in the Define/Edit pane. to reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. This is for all supported user profiles and laminate sub-types. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus SOLIDSECTION laminate is shown here: Abaqus – Laminates – SOLIDSECTION 314 HyperMesh 8. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus material is shown here: Abaqus – Materials – ABAQUS_MATERIAL Laminates For Laminates. but to fully define the material properties they must click the Edit button.

The midlayer is not reflected. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. 90. Symmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. 90. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Ansys SHELL99 laminate with variable ply thickness is shown here: Ansys – Laminates – SHELL99 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. e. 270 and 360 remain as 0. f. the total number of plies is always odd. 270 and 360 respectively). The midlayer is not reflected. d. Due to the midlayer. 180. Antisymmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. b. c. It is possible to choose between constant and variable ply thickness for certain user profiles. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. the total number of plies is always odd. Due to the midlayer. 180. 270 and 360 remain as 0. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. 270 and 360 respectively). The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. 90. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. Symmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. Repeat: The Ply lay-up order table describes a single sub-laminate which is repeated a number of times. Antisymmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate.There are a number of options for Convention for the stacking sequence: a.0 User’s Guide 315 . 180. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. The number of repetitions is given by the Repetitions: field (which is activated when this Convention is chosen). 180. 90. Total: The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate in its entirety. variable ply thickness allows up to 4 nodal thicknesses to be defined for each ply. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table.

Changes can be made to the Add/Update plies: fields and Update Selection can be clicked to update the selected rows with the updated information (no changes occur to the selected rows for blank fields). or repetitions field and based on the selected Convention). The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate from the bottom ply (most negative Z) moving upwards (increasing in positive Z direction). the Add/Update plies: fields are populated with the information common to the selected rows.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . pasted or deleted to/from the table. When multiple rows are selected.It is also possible to choose a common thickness for all plies. Each row of the Ply lay-up order table has an SOUT field. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct PCOMPG laminate is shown below: OptiStruct – Laminates – PCOMPG 316 HyperMesh 8. with the Ctrl key held down. Each row of the table defines the material. Ctrl+c. Rows may be cut. copied. which when set to YES includes the plies described by that row in the stress output and the failure theory calculation. Rows may be inserted in the table. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. when multiple rows are selected the clipboard contents are pasted above each selected row. or for all rows at once through the Output ply stress results: field under the Stress and failure theory output: heading. Blank fields indicate that not all of the selected rows contain the same values for that field. Select multiple rows as described in the previous paragraph. Rows are always pasted above the selected rows. All fields in the Ply lay-up order table may be edited. Rows are added to the table by completing the Add/Update plies: entry fields and clicking the Add New Ply button. by clicking the Insert New Ply button. ply thickness and ply orientation for a number of plies (defined by the No. Select multiple rows by selecting one row and then. either above or below selected rows (choose from the Above Selected or Below Selected radio buttons). using the toolbar. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to request stress and failure theory output. selecting a theory from the pull-down list and defining an Interlaminar shear allowable: value. It is also possible to edit multiple rows at once. Once one or more SOUT fields are set to YES it is possible to activate failure theory calculation. by checking the Failure Theory check-box. It is possible to set the SOUT field individually for each row. this will keep the current selection and add all the rows between the current selection and the newly selected row). select other rows (alternatively multiple rows may be selected with the Shift key held down. common thickness gives every ply in the laminate the same thickness.

on the toolbar.The Ply lay-up order table for the OptiStruct and Nastran PCOMPG laminate sub-type is different from other laminate subtypes in that it has a GPLYID field. To reset all design variable fields to their default values. A new material appears under the selected branch. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. A new material appears under the selected branch. Selecting a design variable to the right of a thickness or orientation assigns the selected design variable to that thickness or orientation. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. . For PCOMPG each row in the Ply lay-up order table should represent a single ply so only the Total stacking convention should be used for PCOMPG. Checking the Optimization check-box expands the Ply 0 lay-up order table. Design Variables For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the DESVAR design variable card is supported in HyperLaminate. Click Update Laminate to apply all the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). As this id should not be repeated within the same laminate. Use one of the following three methods to create a new material in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. c) Click New. This field is used to assign a global ply id to a ply definition (the global ply id is a post-processing aid). you can click the Clear button. b) Click the new icon. A default name and id are assigned to newly created materials. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. All information for the selected design variable may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. of repetitions field is not available for PCOMPG. Design variables may be selected in these extra fields. The newly created material is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected material sub-type. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the No. 2.0 User’s Guide 317 . b) Right click on selected material sub-type. adding extra fields to the right of the Thickness T1 and Orientation fields. A new material appears under the selected branch. Once the desired changes have been made. To define a new material: 1. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). but this is not enforced in the GUI. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to assign a design variable to a thickness or orientation field in the Ply lay-up order table.

3. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. 5. Data may be cut. Click Apply to save the changes. copied. Provide the material definition by filling in the entry fields in the Define/Edit pane. Click return. Note: It is not possible to rename an Abaqus material until after it has been defined (edited). Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Also it is not possible to create a new Abaqus material if an undefined material definition already exists (appears in a red font in Laminate Browser). 2.For the OptiStruct. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. using the toolbar. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. Ctrl+c. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. For the OptiStruct.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For the Abaqus user profile: 1. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected material definition. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). 3. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to zero. 2. 4. Select the material to be edited from the Laminate Browser. 3. To review or modify an existing material: 1. 2. Click on Edit and provide the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. The final material definition is displayed in the Review tab. 318 HyperMesh 8. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x.

. 3. For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles define the Stress and failure theory output: information as desired. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Laminate name: field or the component color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Click on Edit to see the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. c) Click New. A default name and id are assigned to newly created laminates.For the Abaqus user profile: 1. Make all desired changes to the material definition in the card previewer. To define a new laminate: 1. Click Apply to save the changes. 5. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. Use one of the following three methods to create a new laminate in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate Browser. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. 4. 2. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. b) Click the new icon. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. 2. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 6. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. 3. 4. Click return. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. on the toolbar. The newly created laminate is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected laminate sub-type.0 User’s Guide 319 .

Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). 320 HyperMesh 8. This is governed by the stacking convention and the number of repetitions. The number of rows in the table is not the number of plies. If Constant is selected. the Ply lay-up order table includes multiple thickness columns: Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness T1 T2 T3 T4 c) For Constant ply thickness. 8. but are now editable. and what was row 7 will now be row 9. Eg. specify how many times you want to repeat the entire block of entry rows. the thickness fields retain the common thickness value. Note: 7. select one of the following stacking sequence conventions. Ctrl+c.5. For all user profiles define the Stacking sequence convention: information. row 1 will be pasted as row 7. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. they will be pasted as sequential rows. Having checked the Common Thickness box and entered a common thickness value. When multiple non-sequential rows are copied and then pasted. pasted or deleted to/from selected fields.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . pasted or deleted. Total Symmetric Antisymmetric Symmetric-Midlayer Antisymmetric-Midlayer Repeat If you select Repeat. 6. copied. Note: Note: Rows are always pasted above selected rows. the Ply lay-up order table includes a single thickness column: Thickness T1 If Variable is selected. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. 9. you can check the Common Thickness box and specify a thickness to be used by all the entry rows. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Note: The option to switch between constant or variable thickness is only available for certain laminate sub-types. if you now uncheck the box. 10. row 3 will be pasted as row 8. a) For Convention:. using the toolbar. Add/Insert rows by completing the Add/Update plies: fields and clicking Add New Ply or Insert New Ply (for Insert New Ply it is possible to choose to insert the ply above or below the selected rows). copied. Ctrl+c. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to define thickness and orientation fields in the Ply lay-up order table as designable and to assign design variables to them. select Constant or Variable. Data may be cut. Table rows may also be cut. If rows 1 and 3 are copied and pasted at row 7. Complete the Ply lay-up order table. using the toolbar. b) For Ply thickness:.

A new design variable appears under the selected branch. 2. where a move limit value other than the default of 0. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. 3.0 User’s Guide 321 . Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. Checking the Move limit box activates the Move limit field. 5.5 may be entered. (See To define a new laminate). Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). (only subtype available is DESVAR). A default name and id are assigned to newly created design variables. lower bound and upper bound values for the design variable can be entered in the appropriate data fields. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. . b) Click the new icon. 7. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected laminate definition. Use one of the following three methods to create a new design variable in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate Browser. on the toolbar. Checking the Ddval ID box activates the Ddval ID field. (only subtype available is DESVAR). If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Desvar: field. 4. The laminate definition may be modified in the Define/Edit pane in a manner similar to defining a new laminate. c) Click New. To define a new design variable: Design variables are only supported for the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. where the id of a discrete value list may be entered. 2. 3. A new design varaible appears under the selected branch. Select the laminate to be edited from the Laminate Browser. Initial. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser.To review and modify an existing laminate: 1. The newly created design variable is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration. 6. (only subtype available is DESVAR). 1. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate).

The final design variable definition is displayed in the Review tab.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to their default values.To review and modify an existing design variable: 1. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. Select the design variable to be edited from the Laminate Browser. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. copied. 322 HyperMesh 8. 3. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. using the toolbar. Ctrl+c. 2. Data may be cut. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected design variable definition. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate).

Information displayed on these tabs is only for the saved laminate definition. so this information is only updated when the Update Laminates button is clicked. information for the selected design variable is displayed in the Review pane. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Review pane is displays the current definition of that entity. Laminates For laminate definitions for all user profiles. This is followed by a description of the laminate.Review Pane The Review Pane. showing a graphical representation each ply’s orientation and listing the referenced material. these are used by many finite element solvers to represent the laminated composite as a homogenized shell. thickness and orientation. Design Variables For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. the total number of plies in the laminate and the total thickness of the laminate. The Review tab is headed by the laminate name. listing the plies in order from the bottom ply (most negative z). the review pane has two tabs. Nastran and Ansys materials. The second set of matrices are the equivalent material matrices. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a Review tab and a Stiffness/Material Matrix tab. all material property information for the selected material is displayed in the Review pane.0 User’s Guide 323 . the right-hand pane of the HyperLaminate window. The Stiffness/Material Matrix tab provides the two sets of matrices. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. Materials For OptiStruct. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. For Abaqus materials. more commonly referred to as the ABD matrices. allows you to review the information pertaining to the selected entity. no information is displayed in the Review pane. The first set of matrices are the composite shell stiffness matrices.

0 in each direction. The panels in this module allow you to intersect your finite element shell model with a finite difference block. Finite difference blocks are built performing the following steps: Creating a Finite Difference Block The first step in creating a finite difference block is to create the block. and a block may contain multiple walls of dead cells. If a finite element model is currently loaded.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . chemical reaction. Otherwise. j. You cannot change the shape of the finite difference block after you create the structured mesh without destroying all the grid lines. three-dimensional. wall.Finite Difference Module The Finite Difference module allows you to perform heat transfer. 324 HyperMesh 8. the outer boundary of the volume. and k directions of the block. Note: The color of a block may be modified at any time by using the update function on the FD blocks panel. These axes serve as a reminder of the i. the block is created with a default size of ten percent larger than the model in each direction (the size of a model is determined by its nodes). a small set of coordinate axes is displayed at the corner of the block. You can adjust the size of the block by using the functions on the FD blocks panel. Cylindrical and spherical volumes are not supported in the current release. and solidification processes by creating an orthogonal. When the block is displayed." All of these dead cells are placed in walls. fluid flow. the block is created with the default bounds of -10. Always finalize the size of your block before beginning the next phase. creating "dead cells. After you create a finite difference block. and dead cell information as an analysis input deck by using the HyperMesh template system. structured mesh in a cubic volume around your model.0 and 110. you can export the grid.

The wall functions are described below: create delete update delete all display Creates a new wall with the name and color specified in wall = and color. or k nodes has been selected. Cells that intersect an element are placed into the current wall. Deletes the specified wall. A cell may exist in only one wall. meaning that the cell does not alter the flow being studied. Initially. Note: Before any wall operation is begun. Intersecting Elements with Cells The intersection of grid lines in the i. HyperMesh allows you to automatically intersect a finite element model with the cells in a finite difference block. Deletes all existing walls. depending upon the restrictions enforced by the analysis code being used. See the FD nodes panel for more information. All the one-and two-dimensional elements selected are intersected with the cells in the current block. each cell within a block is live. the block must be selected by using the block = menu item. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Cells that alter the flow are known as dead cells. which also contains all the functions you can use to manipulate walls. respectively. you can verify the aspect ratio or expansion ratio limits. You may then select which walls to display and turn off by using the left or right mouse button. j. Solid elements are currently not supported in the interse ction operation. j nodes. After you create a wall. you create a structured mesh in the block by creating grid lines in the i. Grid lines are created in one direction at a time. The intersection and modification of live and dead cells is done in the FD walls panel. After you create a mesh.or two-dimensional element intersects any part of a cell. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. Displays a list of all walls in the block. based on whether i nodes. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. and k directions creates a large number of small cubic volumes called cells. and k directions. Updates the color of an existing wall.0 User’s Guide 325 . which creates dead cells wherever a one. all or part of the finite element model may be intersected with the cells in the finite difference block. To intersect the model with the cells.Creating a Structured Mesh After you create a block. and displayed in the current wall color. select the desired elements and click intersect. marked as dead. j. You must create a wall before you create dead cells.

j. Creating Finite Difference Hidden Line Plots Hidden line plots of cells in a finite difference block are useful in the verification phase of a finite difference model. since only dead cells are plotted.Modifying Cells Cells may be changed from live to dead or dead to live individually. if planar mode is used to display one or more of the planes of cells. If you change the color of a plane. After edit cells is selected. Because cells have no visible pick handle. where the block coordinate axes are located. use the cursor to select the cells to add or remove. The edit cells function allows you to add individual cells to the current wall and mark them as dead. The FD walls panel allows you to edit cells. the color menu items in the i. It is possible to step through the model. all dead cells are displayed in the color of the wall to which they belong. then only cells in the currently displayed plane(s) may be edited. and k are at their minimum values. they are highlighted. j. and k directions must be modified to provide the plotting color for cells in each plane. Otherwise. you must click hidden line again to display the new color. by using the next and prev menu functions. or by planes. However. by volumes. and i. If the block is displayed in planar mode.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 326 HyperMesh 8. or remove cells from the current wall and mark the cells as live. plane-by-plane. it is easier to see which cells are dead. When cells are selected. Cells do not have a visible pick handle and must be selected at the corner closest to the origin of the block. When the entire block is plotted. Click the left mouse button to add cells and the right mouse button to remove cells from a wall. you can edit any cell in the block.

all and reverse buttons to assist in selecting which loadcols should be displayed. These are the same panels used to apply loads to a mesh. and click the toggle to select elems or geoms. temperatures. One load collector stores both loads on geometry and loads on mesh. When geoms is selected. flux. After remeshing. loads or boundary conditions that have been applied to geometrical entities can be remapped to the new mesh. See Exporting Loads for more information. by exporting the FE deck. When elems is selected. Use the none. The disp (display) panel allows separate or simultaneous visualization of loads on mesh and loads on geometry. from the display panel (accessed via the toolbar) select loadcols from the switch. Automatically.0 User’s Guide 327 . One advantage is that you can remesh a model without deleting complicated loads or boundary conditions. you control the display of loads applied to elements. This means that you can control the display of both types of loads independently. To visualize loads on mesh and/or loads on geometry. Each load type is stored in a dedicated section of the same load collector. using the files panel/export sub-panel. and accels. Comments Loads on mesh and loads on geometry can be displayed together (similar to the simultaneous display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component). moments. You can apply loads to geometry by using the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. There are two ways to map loads on geometry to the mesh associated with this geometry (loads on mesh): • • Manually. and load collectors may contain one type or both types simultaneously.Loads on Geometry HyperMesh allows you to apply loads to geometrical entities and map them to the FE mesh using the load on geom panel on the Analysis Page. A geometrical entity can be associated with one mesh or multiple meshes (HyperMesh component or components) and/or with one load collector or multiple load collectors. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. constraints. you control the display of loads applied to geometric entities. pressures. using the load on geom panel. The mesh (or multiple meshes) is associated with the geometrical entities to which the loads on geometry have been applied. velocities.

The loads are mapped from the geometrical entities (to which the geometrical loads are applied) to the mesh that is associated with the geometrical entities. Loads applied to mesh (nodes or element). The process of mapping geometrical loads to mesh loads. load mapping 328 HyperMesh 8.Terminology and Definitions geometrical entities loads on geometry or geometry loads loads on mesh or mesh loads A point.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Loads applied to geometrical entities. or a surface. a line. Loads can be applied directly to mesh or applied by mapping them from loads on geometry.

reviewing. etc. node). Applying loads to the geometry using one of the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. constraints. lines and surfaces. HyperMesh stores the loads/boundary conditions in the database and displays them in the graphical window. The following chart specifies the geometrical entities to which loads can be applied. flux. points. constraints.g. access a HyperMesh load panel (e. 1. select a geometrical entity on which the loads will be applied (points.Application of Loads to Geometry You can apply loads to geometrical entities in a way similar to the manner in which loads are applied to mesh. pressures. temperatures velocities Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. velocities. lines. define the load or boundary condition parameters in the same way you would for the application of the load or boundary condition on a FE mesh entity (e. in each of the load application panels listed above. To apply a load to a geometrical entity. temperatures.g. Next. Third. 2. lines and surfaces. and accels. Panel accels constraints flux forces moments pressures Geometrical Entities points. Creating a load collector by using the collector panel. forces. and click create. and updating loads and constraints. moments. lines and surfaces. points. points points points surfaces nodes on edge: lines (for 2-D solid elements) nodes on face: surfaces (for 3-D solid elements) points. The process includes two basic steps. first create a load collector in which the loads applied to geometrical entities will be stored.0 User’s Guide 329 . and choose the create sub-panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.) located on the Analysis Page. lines and surfaces. or surfaces) using the panel selection box.

When exporting the model using an export template. If displayed is selected. 330 HyperMesh 8. Multiple arrows represent loads on mesh (one arrow per node or element). elems controls the display of loads on mesh and geom controls the display of loads on geometry. all the loads on geometry that have not been mapped (if any). all load types are saved and are retrieved when you open the .Exporting Loads HyperMesh sessions can contain loads on geometry. The all/displayed toggle on the export sub-panel on the file panel allows you to determine which loads are exported. and loads on mesh that have been mapped from loads on geometry. loads on mesh that have been applied directly to mesh. A simultaneous display is similar to the display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component. Note: A major graphical display difference between loads on geometry and loads on mesh is the density of the arrows. or both. they will automatically be mapped to loads on mesh and exported as well.hm file. All the loads on mesh (both displayed and hidden) that are associated with the displayed loads on geometry are exported as well. The loads on mesh that are exported may have been applied directly to mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . are mapped to loads on mesh and all the loads on mesh are exported. an arrow that represents a load on geometry is longer than arrows representing loads on mesh. a single arrow for each geometrical entity represents loads on geometry. Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh The disp (display) panel allows you to visualize loads on mesh and loads on geometry either individually or together by setting the collector type to loadcols and using the toggle between elems and geoms. The basic length of the arrow also differs. When saving the model as a HyperMesh database. all the displayed loads on mesh are exported. only the loads on mesh are exported. If any loads on geometry are displayed and have not been mapped. For the same arrow magnitude percentage setting or uniform size setting within the load application panels. mapped from geometry to mesh. If all is selected.

until all data has been entered. The Distributed Load Mapper dialog is displayed when you click DLM. NASTRAN.. When you enter data in the dialog you should begin with the first field and proceed.0 format or at spatial coordinates is mapped to a structural analysis mesh in OPTISTRUCT. Aerodynamic pressure loading and temperatures computed in a CFD analysis and written out either in TECPLOT 4. Entering data in the Distributed Load Mapper dialog requires the following steps: • • • • • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. or ANSYS input file format) Select a data type and a mapping method Set the scale factors Set the mapping algorithm Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8..mac. dlm. on the macro menu. in order. The Distributed Load Mapper macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file.0 User’s Guide 331 . NASTRAN. ABAQUS. to the next field below. ABAQUS. or ANSYS format. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory.Distributed Load Mapper The Distributed Load Mapper (DLM) macro enables you to perform structural finite element analyses by incorporating the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis.

DLM Input and Output Files It is useful to understand the input and output files related to a DLM session.dat Structural analysis model file. one of the following conditions must exist: • • The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing outward from the wings outer surface. The only exception to this is when some of the DLM transformation functions are used correctly and appropriately through their selection in the DLM interface. The element normals of both the CFD mesh and the structural analysis mesh must be consistent in that all the elements should be aligned and pointing in a common direction. This file is related to the base CFD model.dat One file containing all the mapping parameters and selections detailed in the DLM interface. wing_cfd_model_dynain • A DLM specific file. Examples of Typical Input Files • • Computational fluid dynamics results database file.dat Examples of Typical Output Files • A DLM specific file.0 format file related to the structural input model. The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing inward from the wings outer surface. for example. 332 HyperMesh 8. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. if you are mapping a pressure loading on a wing structure. the CFD base model and the structural finite element model must exist in the same position in coordinate space. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. A valid HyperWorks/HyperMesh license must be available on the local system or network for the DLM mapping algorithms to run. D:\dlm_map_files\structural_model. This file is related to the structural input model. structural_model_tecplot. D:\dlm_map_files\wing_cfd_model. These files are always called hmimp. For instance.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . structural_model_dynain • • A Tecplot 4.Assumptions Regarding the DLM Interface and Mapping Process In order to map effectively. for example.

The file is placed in the same directory as the CFD database and takes its name from the parent file. The data must be prescribed in a fixed format. Use the browser to locate a file. y. #ENDDATA Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.095489740E+00 .098905325E+00 1. Click Open. Each row should show the x.Load an input file containing CFD analysis results 1. a warning message is displayed.926119655E-02 1. followed by the pressure or temperature value each data occupying 16 characters and a space separating them. i.452460170E-02 1. Note: • • • DLM accepts three input file formats: Tecplot 4.356568158E-01-8. The file also must have a header and footer as shown below: #XYZDATA #pressure 1. . a DLM specific file is created so that the data being mapped can be visualized in Altair HyperView. .e. and z coordinates first. The pressure or temperature data at spatial coordinates must be distributed densely enough to have approximately one data point for each element of the structural model. .970389962E+00 4. 2.357369840E-01-8..960968852E+00 4. filename_dynain.0 BLOCK and POINT data formats DLM specific input file format (files which end filename_dynain) Measured pressure or temperature at xyz coordinates If the selected file is not in a DLM appropriate format. click Browse.105462790E+00 1. For Computational fluid dynamics results database file:.854129910E-02 1.548135996E-01-8..960631967E+00 4. If the CFD file is in a Tecplot format.0 User’s Guide 333 .

For Structural analysis model file:. Y.e. or to simply investigate the effects of scaling the load upon the model. This could be used to apply a safety factor to the results. The file is placed in the same directory as the structural model database and takes its name from the parent file. The data can either be mapped and related to the nodes of each element in the structural model. For example.000. if the XYZ dimensions of the model were scaled to 1/200 of the actual size and submitted for analysis. For Data parameter mapped:. all the data mapped during the DLM session is multiplied by a factor of 1. if dimensional reduction/scaling was used in the actual CFD analysis. Select a data type and a mapping method 1. ABAQUS. The base CFD model file may contain up to seven different data types. The default is 1. These data parameters are read into the interface when you load the base CFD model file (Load an input file containing CFD analysis results). and Z coordinates of all the nodal locations in the base CFD model is scaled. enter a scale factor by which to increase or decrease the results. . if the CFD result scale factor is 1. This would ensure that the base CFD model would match and be positioned in the same Cartesian space as the structural analysis model.. 2. 2. 334 HyperMesh 8. it is appended to the structural model input file in the form of PLOAD or TEMP cards appended to the end of the OPTISTRUCT.. The default value is 1.500. Note: The data from the base CFD model is superimposed onto this model through the mapping process. For Mapping method:. filename_dynain. Set the scale factor 1. which would leave the coordinates of the base CFD model unchanged prior to mapping.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or to the element centroids of each quadrilateral or triangular element in the structural mesh. For CFD result scaling:. select the data type to be mapped. A DLM-specific formatted file is written out for post-processing in Altair HyperView. enter a scale factor to physically scale the base CFD analysis model. For example. or ANSYS input deck. the X.00 (no scaling). 2. Once the data is mapped. ABAQUS. The data type is read from the information in the header block of the base CFD file. i. 3. click Browse. Click Open. select Element nodes or Element centroids. or ANSYS input file format) 1. NASTRAN. NASTRAN. The PLOAD card output to the structural model files is altered appropriately to the selected nodal or elemental configuration. Use the browser to locate a file. These scaled values are output to the structural model data file in the PLOAD card section. The mapped data written to structural analysis model files can relate to two different locations on the finite elements of the model. If a value of 200 is entered for CFD model scaling:.Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. For CFD model scaling:.500.

Click OK. for instance. Takes the maximum and minimum of the data points captured in the proximity of the data location being mapped to.0 User’s Guide 335 . select one of the following options: Averaged Takes the data and average for data points captured in the proximity of the structural data position being mapped to. The mapping algorithms are accessed. Selects the maximum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. Maxima Minima Extrema Averaged extrema Delaunay-O’C 2. the Modulus value of the data points captured in the vicinity of the element/nodal location being mapped to. Accepts whichever is larger in magnitude. and the DLM dialog closes upon completion of the mapping process. The default mapping algorithm. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Set the mapping algorithm 1. the mapping process runs. Selects the minimum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. For Mapping algorithm:. and takes an average of these two values.

0 Altair Engineering ..z) = The browser allows you to select the structural model in NASTRAN format on which to apply a mathematical function.0 10e-01 336 HyperMesh 8. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory. This field allows you to enter an equation string using standard spreadsheet inputs for the various operators and operands. The operators for which the algorithms are programmed are listed below: Programmed Operators: Unary minus ^ Power of ln Natural Log log Log to the base 10 sin sine cos cosine tan tangent asin arcsine acos arccosine atan arctangent exp Exponential / division * Multiplication + Addition Subtraction Acceptable 1 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering operands may be input in the following forms: corresponds to 1. dlm. Mathematical Loading dialog The Mathematical Loading macro requires the following input: Structural analysis model file: Equation string fn(x..0 corresponds to 1.Mathematical Loading Distributed pressure loads can be created at nodes via mathematical loading functions using the Mathematical Loading macro.y. on the macro menu.0 corresponds to 1. The Mathematical Loading macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file.mac. The Mathematical Loading dialog is displayed when you click Math.

0 x corresponds to the coordinate position x of the nodes of the model y corresponds to the coordinate position y of the nodes of the model z corresponds to the coordinate position z of the nodes of the model The following input rules apply: • Equation strings should always have balanced parentheses to ensure that the logic of the math expression is maintained. The dialog informs you when there is an error in this instance. • Note: To create pressure loads at element centroids via mathematical functions. However unrecognized characters and functions will cause the loading to yield unacceptable results.1e+01 corresponds to 1. use the Field Loads macro on the Geom/Mesh macro menu. Spaces and a mixture of uppercase and lower case letters are acceptable.0. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 337 .

HyperMesh Results Database The structure of a results database allows you to access results by a method similar to that of the analysis code. HyperMesh sets the results values needed for that function to zero for all of the nodes or elements that are missing. HyperMesh prints a message indicating that results for some of the entities requested were not found in the database. if you run a linear statics problem and apply three different loading conditions to your model. For example. phase. Results files can be translated into HyperMesh results databases which are then read into HyperMesh for post-processing. offset) at a node. Data types are one of the forms described below: nodal displacement nodal value Stores three floating point values at a node. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. Stores one floating point value at a node. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. phase. the results file generated by the translator contains three simulations. Stores one floating point value at an element. In order to complete the post-processing function being executed. if this is appropriate. A results database is divided into sections called simulations. each load step (the response of the model to each incremental amount of load applied) translates to a simulation. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at an element. If this occurs. refer to the individual translators in the Interface help system. for more information. For example. offset) at an element. each simulation in a results file may contain two data types: displacements and von Mises stress. Each simulation stores the results for a model as it responds to a loading condition. and vector plots. element value complex nodal displacement complex nodal value complex element value complex nodal von Mises complex element von Mises Data types are not required to contain results for every node or element in the model. and may contain a subset of the total model. This section describes the structure of a HyperMesh results database and explains how to use the post-processing functions to create contour. Each data type found in a simulation contains a group of results of the same type. assigned. 338 HyperMesh 8. Each simulation in the results database is further subdivided into data types. If you run a nonlinear job. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. This translation is done using result translators. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at an element.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Post-Processing Analysis The HyperMesh post-processing functions allow you to review the results files and databases generated by external codes. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. deformed. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at a node. A data type may contain only one type of result.

Transient animation sequences are generated in the transient panel. Linear Linear animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts with the original position of the structure and ends with the fully deformed position of the structure. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Modal animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. It is from the data contained with the nodal displacement records that HyperMesh is able to calculate the deformed geometry of the structure. The three types of animation include linear. and transient.. HyperMesh calculates the deformed geometry of the structure from the data contained within the nodal displacement records. In this case. you must first specify the name and location of the HyperMesh results database. HyperMesh uses only one simulation and this simulation must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. HyperMesh uses a range of simulations. Modal Transient The selected simulations must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records in order for HyperMesh to create an animation sequence.0 User’s Guide 339 . The deforming frames are calculated based on a sinusoidal function. and for file:. For transient animation. in either wire frame or hidden line mode. In the global panel.. Transient animation is used to animate the transient response of a structure. Linear animation is usually selected when results are from a static analysis. Linear animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. Creating Animations The HyperMesh animation functions allow you to view your model structure in motion. Creating Deformed Geometry Plots The deformed panel allows you to display the deformed geometry of your model statically. An appropriate number of frames are linearly interpolated between the first and the last positions.. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse.Specifying the Results File In order to perform post-processing functions. for results file:. modal. The selected simulation must have a data type in it that contains nodal displacement records.. Modal animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts and ends with the original position of the structure. For linear and modal animation. to select a file using the browser. There are two ways to select a results file: • • From the files panel. Transient animation displays the structure in its timestep positions as calculated by the analysis code. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. Modal animation is most useful for displaying mode shapes. select the results sub-panel. to select a file using the browser. each of the simulations used in the animation sequence must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records.

For each element. HyperMesh averages the centroidal element values to the nodes of the elements. Creating Contour Plots The contour function in the contour panel generates color bands on a model. so no further calculations are required. In order to accomplish this. based on the values found in the results file. element values1 Creating Assigned Plots The assign function in the contour panel assigns a color to each element in the model. The values are located at the centroid of the element. element values The results are already stored at the centroid of the element. When a contour function is performed. nodal values and displacements The results are stored at the nodes. The elements are then displayed in the solid color assigned to them. nodal values and displacements 340 HyperMesh 8. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. When the assign function is performed. In order to accomplish this. HyperMesh can create the contour plot without modifying any of the values in the results file. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the assigned plot. HyperMesh averages the results at the nodes to the centroid of the elements. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. The bands of color are created by calculating a value for each node in the model and then interpolating across each element. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. based on the values in the results file. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the centroid of the elements. Vector plots are used to determine the direction of movement and allow you to verify the location of the center of rotation of a model. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when nodal values or nodal displacements are being used to create an assigned plot. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the nodes of the elements. This allows you to display elements that have values within a specified range. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the contour plot.Creating Vector Plots A vector plot displays the model with a vector at each node that has a result-based direction and magnitude. this is accomplished by adding the results at each node and dividing by the number of nodes on the element. See the vector plot panel for more information. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You should be aware that averaging is taking place when element centroid values are used to create a contour plot.

the descriptor is located in the upper left-hand corner of the plot above the legend. modify the colors used in the legend. Inspecting the Results A contour or assigned plot provides a fast. and also change the colors used in the legend that correspond to the model. By default. click within the descriptor to access the title edit panel. HyperMesh plots a legend if the results-based plot created requires it. you can add titles. simulation and data type. and value of the node or element are displayed in the menu area. change the font size. Temporary titles can be added to each type of plot by entering a title in the title = field in the contour panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. After you enter the title and create the plot. reverse the colors of the legend.0 User’s Guide 341 . the temporary title is displayed on the upper left side of the screen. change the color of the text in the legend. Functions on this panel allow you to move the legend to a different location on the screen. you can select the node or element after the results-based plot has been created. The ID. click color to change the color of the text of the descriptor. click within the displayed legend to access the legend edit panel. To modify a legend. To modify the descriptor. and relocate the legend and the descriptor. HyperMesh creates the "descriptor" in order to display the simulation and data type that were used to create the plot. When you want to determine the actual value that an analysis code has calculated for a node or element.Adding Plot Identification After you create a results-based plot. convenient way of viewing the results of a large number of elements. click font and select the size font you want to use in the descriptor.

This section introduces the functions that are available in the xy plots module. which are referred to as curves. 342 HyperMesh 8. There is no limit to the number of plot collectors that a HyperMesh database may contain.XY Plotting The functions in the xy plots module allow you to study the relationships between data vectors in results files. The plot may contain any number of curves. Plots maintain a list of pointers to curves that are to be displayed on the plot. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. You can create standard plots or dual plots that show real /imaginary or phase/magnitude data. To display a curve. you must assign the curve collector to a plot.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which are referred to as plots. A curve may appear on more than one plot at a time and there is no limit to the number of curves that a HyperMesh database may contain. Procedures for creating and editing xy plots and curves include: • • • • • • • • • • • Creating an XY Plot Modifying XY Plots Working with Multiple XY Plots Modifying Multiple XY Plots Creating Curves on XY Plots Reading Curves from an ASCII File Creating Analysis Based Curves Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions Modifying Curve Attributes Displaying Selected Curves on Plots In addition. Information about curves is stored in curve collectors. Information about xy plots is stored in plot collectors.

line style. and number of significant places in the labels. The xy plotting panels are described below: axis labels The axis labels panel allows you to modify the x and y axes titles and labels. you can change the color and font size used to display these entities. and zoom out. axis scaling border curve attribs edit curves grid attribs grid labels integrate legend plot titles plots query curves read curves rename results curves simple math In addition. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. and label. dashed. To access the xy plots module. You can also change the curve title that appears in the legend. Grid labels appear along the x and y axes in the plot (tick marks). You can also change the color and font size used to display these entities. circle zoom.XY Plots Module The xy plots module is a group of panels that perform operations on plots and the curves displayed on those plots. Allows you to create an xy plot and assign curves to the xy plot. Creates and modifies the curves in the database. select xy plots on the Post page of the main menu. thickness. etc. The legend panel allows you to change the location and the font used to display the legend. The grid attribs panel allows you to change the color. Calculates and displays the integral of a curve. The border panel allows you to change the thickness and color of the border around the plot. Reads curves from an ASCII file. Generates a curve from the currently-selected results file. and the margin displayed around the grid lines. Allows you to rename curves. In addition.). Allows you to perform simple mathematical calculations on a curve. The curve attribs panel allows you to change the color. You may also specify whether the border is displayed and the size of the margin between the border and the plot. font. Allows you to determine the coordinate values of points in a curve. The grid labels panel allows you to change the color. This panel allows you to read data vectors from files as well as perform advanced mathematical operations on curves.0 User’s Guide 343 . subtitle. The axis scaling panel allows you to modify the starting and ending values of the plot axes. You can apply a scaling factor to the original data points. The plot titles panel allows you to change the plot title. You can set the values explicitly or implicitly by using the panel functions such as find curves. thickness of the grid lines. marker style (used to indicate the point location). and the line style (solid.

the plot = field allows you to select one plot and the plots entity selector allows you to select multiple plots. subtitle. you may wish to modify one of the values on all of the plots. HyperMesh initially assigns default values to the xy plot attributes. Plot attributes include the title. the panels in the xy plots module are updated to reflect the change. or width of the border. You can modify one plot so that it has the desired values. you may wish to change the axis titles so that they are all the same. you can change the color. For example. or add a title to the plot. Every time you change the current xy plot. select the plot you want to change. Each time a panel in the xy plots module is accessed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Access this panel by pressing the w key. select the panel that applies to the attribute you want to change. This allows you to control multiple plots by resizing and moving plots around the screen. thickness. and labels. This process also applies to curves. and then apply those modifications to the other plots. To modify an xy plot. the grid labels and grid attributes. When you modify xy plots using the panels of the xy plots module. 344 HyperMesh 8. The first step in the process of creating an xy plot is to use the plots panel to name and create an xy plot collector. and also the margin and border around the xy plot. These attributes can be adjusted before or after you add curves to the plot. Modifying Multiple XY Plots When several plots are contained within a database.Creating an XY Plot Each xy plot window is assigned a name when you create it. XY plot window placement is controlled with the Windows panel. Modifying an XY Plot After you create an xy plot. HyperMesh immediately displays the update. After each change. Working with Multiple XY Plots HyperMesh places every xy plot within a window. in one step. or a subset of the plots. HyperMesh displays the existing values of the current xy plot (the plot listed after plot =) in the data entry fields in the panel. and change the attribute in the panel.

XYDATA. When you create an analysis curve.0 User’s Guide 345 . . follows on the same line. After XYDATA. and then select a data type for the x axis data points and a data type for the y axis data points. you select entities of interest in your model. You can also apply external filters to curves in this panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In the above example. Creating Analysis-Based Curves Analysis-based curves are generated from the HyperMesh binary results file. y) data pairs on each line. . the title assigned to the curve. there are two blocks of data. You can combine two curves. The block ends with an ENDDATA statement. After this information has been supplied. ENDDATA XYDATA. HyperMesh reads the required data from the results file and generates the appropriate curve. For every operation. Examples of external filters are in the filters subdirectory that is provided when this option is selected. ENDDATA Each curve in the file is defined in a block format. which is displayed in the legend. using the standard HyperMesh curve data file format. Essentially.TITLE X1. which define two curves. it assumes that the format of the input file is as follows: XYDATA. Y1 X2. Y1 X2.Creating Curves on XY Plots You can create curves using four different methods: • • • • Read curves from an ASCII file Extract a curve directly from a results database Create curves by using a few simple math operators Read single curves from files as well as generate curves by using mathematical expressions Reading Curves from an ASCII file When HyperMesh reads curves from an ASCII file with the read curves panel. . transform a curve. Point data follows with a set of (x. or export the curve. Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Curves can be created using simple math operators in the simple math panel. Analysis-based curves are generated in the results curves panel. Y2 . Y2 . you can specify that the x or y values of the curve remain fixed. . filters exchange data with HyperMesh.TITLE X1. The block begins with the statement.

The data sources for the x and y vectors are displayed in the x = and y = fields.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .y To reference the x vector of curve 1. and component. based on what has been modified. For more information about math expressions. the data request set needs to be selected. HyperMesh recalculates the curves in the proper order. Type Request Component Note: Data files can consist of different types of data. you must indicate the curve number and the x or y vector. Each vector of a curve can be defined using either a data vector in a data file or a math expression. The y vector can be a function of x or the x vector can be a function of y. in the format curve number. When you modify a curve. and the data source for the y vector could be a math expression.vector: For example: c1.x c1. the data source for the x vector could be a file. 346 HyperMesh 8. Once the data type has been selected. To edit the x and y vectors of a math curve. request. After the data request set has been selected. New data can be selected from a source file or mathematically defined. refer to the Altair Math Reference. Source file data is divided into type. Available data types depend on the data file.Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions The edit curves panel allows you to create new curves or edit existing ones. For example. the component must be selected. To reference the y vector of curve 1.

0 User’s Guide 347 . you can select which curves in the database you want to display on an xy plot. no line at all. x scale factor y scale factor Displaying Selected Curves on Plots After you have read or created curves. when the curve is displayed. Modify the list by selecting the curves by name and removing or adding the curves to the current plot as desired and click return. and square markers. HyperMesh displays a list of the available curves in the database. The color used to draw the curve. The curve may also be displayed with no markers shown. To select curves for a plot. HyperMesh currently supports 15 standard colors. HyperMesh currently supports circular. HyperMesh currently supports a solid line. This scale factor is used to scale the y values in a curve. The style of line used to draw the curve. and four different patterns. The names of the curves that are already displayed on the current xy plot are highlighted. HyperMesh currently supports either thick or thin lines. This scale factor is used to scale the x values in a curve. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. curve title curve width curve style curve color curve marker The curve title is displayed in the legend.Modifying Curve Attributes Modifying curves is very similar to modifying plots. The following curve attributes may be changed in the curve attribs panel. select the plots panel and click select curves. The width of line used when the curve is drawn. Determines the markers drawn around each data point in the curve. triangular.

Access the curve editor from HyperMesh’s Setup pull-down menu. and graph attributes (cyan). outlined with colored boxes in the image below: the curve list (green). To summarize: • • Changes made in the curve editor immediately affect HyperMesh. The curve displays in the graph area. It’s important to be aware that the curve editor is not completely symmetrical with HyperMesh. if you leave the curve editor open while making changes within the HyperMesh XY plotting module. you must use the update button in the curve editor to import the changes. Changes made in HyperMesh do not immediately affect the curve editor. To display curves in the graph area: 1. in the sense that changes made in the curve editor are automatically sent back to HyperMesh. 348 HyperMesh 8. For this reason. Note that any changes you make in the curve editor will be retained. graph area (red). Click the display checkbox in the curve atributes area. Modify the curve attributes if needed. and must be imported by use of the update button. because they are automatically applied as you make them. curve attributes (blue). The curve’s attributes fill in the fields in the curve attributes area.Using the Curve Editor The curve editor is a pop-up window that allows you to view and modify graphed curves in a more intuitive and holistic way than the individual xy plots panels provide. Click the desired curve in the curve list. To quit the curve editor. click the close command button.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . but changes made in a HyperMesh panel do not automatically get sent to the curve editor. 2. The curve editor contains four main areas. 3.

Change the Color by clicking the colored box. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. Make any desired changes to the curve’s attributes: Modify each X and/or Y value by clicking it. making a finer grid. the line’s symbol points will still display. Click the curve in the graph area. Or 2. click the thick line checkbox. Click the display checkbox to toggle the display of the curve in the graph area. you could 2 restrict the X axis to only graph accelerations from 1 to 5 m/s .5. For example. select a number from the every: list box. Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. and 1. even if your data included accelerations ranging from 0 up to 10 m/s . To draw the curve in a thicker line.0 User’s Guide 349 . if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. 2. modify the fields inside the X-axi s frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s X -axis label. or show no line at all. A list of available colors displays. Either click the curve in the curve list. Select a Line style to change the curve’s line from solid to dotted. you could change it from “X” to “Acceleration”. For example. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. To change the graph's attributes: 1. if you choose “3” then only every third point will display as a symbol. For example. and then typing in a new value. you could change it from “Y” to “time”. Click the curve that you wish to modify. For example. 2 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To place a marker symbol at each point on the curve. To change the symbol spacing. click the desired color to select it. if it is already set to Display. For example. 1. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. In the graph attributes area. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. pressing the <delete> key to erase the current value.0. select a symbol from the list box. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced.0. Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). Modify the fields inside the Y-axis frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s Y-axis label. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis.5). Note: If you choose no line.To change a curve's attributes: 1.

350 HyperMesh 8.0. 3. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. Click the new curve in the curve list and modify its attributes as needed. you cannot recover it. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. Undo You cannot undo a deletion. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. 1. and 1. A confirmation window displays. Click proceed. Modify the fields inside the Legends frame: Select a location to determine where the legend displays in the graph area. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a name for the new curve. Type in a name for the new curve. 2. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a new name for the chosen curve. For example.- Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. Click the New… command button in the curve editor window. making a finer grid. 3. 3. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. you could restrict the range by typing “20” into the min and “35” into the max. In the curve list. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. 2.0. For example. Type in a new name for the curve. 2. type in the X and Y coordinates for each data point in the curve. Click Yes to confirm the deletion.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .5). To create a new curve: 1. 3. which now uses the curve’s new name. but you only wish to graph the accelerations that occur between 30 and 35 seconds. To rename a curve: 1. even if your data included accelerations from 0 seconds to 60 seconds. To delete a curve: 1. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. Click the desired curve in the curve list. - Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. Click proceed.5. once you delete a curve. Click the Delete command button. click the curve that you wish to delete. or No to keep the curve. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. Click the hide checkbox to toggle the display of the legend on and off. For example. 4.

the perturbation vector approach must be selected. Altair HyperStudy. In the past. AutoDV is now complemented by HyperMorph. The stand-alone solver is still available and can be used for the generation of manual perturbations. Both approaches refer to the definition of the structural shape as a linear combination of vectors. The boundary shape changes must be translated into changes of the interior of the mesh to avoid mesh distortions due to shape changes. AutoDV has been stand-alone software. is the vector of nodal coordinates. In size optimization. The function of creating harmonic shape functions for 2D problems only works with AutoDV. BVi variable DVi . Using the basis vector approach. If there is a choice in the optimization code. the shell thickness. such as beam section properties. the structural shape is defined as a linear combination of basis vectors. a finite element model must be loaded into HyperMesh. and spring properties are design variables. the structural shape change is defined as a linear combination of perturbation vectors. x = ∑ DVi ⋅ BVi x is the vector of nodal coordinates. AutoDV interfaces with HyperMesh thru the AutoDV template for export and AutoDV reader for import. the design variables define the boundary shape of the part to be optimized. with the perturbation vector approach as the default setting. Altair OptiStruct and Altair HyperStudy use the perturbation vector approach. Genesis. and Templex. HyperOpt. AutoDV can also be used to generate distributed loads. The perturbation vectors define changes of nodal locations with respect to the original finite element mesh. Before importing AutoDV data. PVi is the perturbation vector associated to the design variable DVi . Nastran. HyperStudy. Starting with HyperWorks 6. In topology optimization. the shape of the structure is defined by the vector of nodal coordinates. input parameters of a model. x Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0. Nastran. Shape Optimization The type of design variables that are used distinguishes different types of structural optimization.AutoDV Introduction AutoDV is utility developed for the generation of perturbation vectors for shape optimization in optimization packages such as Altair OptiStruct. most of AutoDV’s capability to create perturbation vectors using control perturbations is fully integrated in HyperMesh. In shape optimization. x. are the basis vector approach and the perturbation vector approach. There are different approaches used to define the shape in an optimization setup. In finite elements. where is the basis vector associated to the design Using the perturbation vector approach.0 User’s Guide 351 . and Genesis. The basis vectors define nodal locations. a more flexible tool to set-up and generate shape perturbations. usually density-related values that define the material distribution are the design variables. Altair HyperOpt. Further. The two most commonly used in commercial software packages like OptiStruct. x = x 0 + ∑ DVi ⋅ PVi where x 0 is the vector of nodal coordinates of the initial design. AutoDV generates perturbation vectors. Altair HyperOpt provides both.

pert<nnn> files that contain only the perturbed grids.base file using the baseline model of the structure using the OptiStruct template supplied in the distribution. 6. Write out a perturbation file <prefix>.pert<nnn> files contain data only for the perturbed grid points. Run AutoDV through the solver panel using the appropriate options. 4. where nnn is the design variable ID. and generates the corresponding perturbation vector. Manual Perturbation To generate perturbation vectors by the manual perturbation method: 1. Before these methods can be applied.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . giving the *. Harmonic perturbation vectors using design domains. 352 HyperMesh 8. Select the solver panel. Click the switch and select AutoDV as your solver. using the AutoDV template.base model.pert<nnn> models with the <prefix>. 3. AutoDV creates condensed <prefix>. Do not save the perturbed model.pert<nnn>. In HyperMesh.pert file a different ID. the files generated by HyperMesh contain the entire model.Generation of Perturbation Vectors Perturbation vectors can be generated in one of three ways: 1. 3. move the grids to define the perturbed shape. 5. retrieve the baseline HyperMesh database and complete steps 2 and 3. 7. However. 2. Example: mymodel. Polynomial perturbation vectors using design domains. AutoDV requires that the <prefix>. To generate another perturbation vector. 2. Write a <prefix>. a finite element model representing the baseline shape of the structure must be developed. identifies the perturbed grids. Manual perturbation of grids in HyperMesh. AutoDV compares all <prefix>.pert006.

0 User’s Guide 353 . Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. 5. none of the domain components should include finite elements. 3. Select the domain subpanel. build a secondary domain model and define secondary node sets. Select the type of domain element. Select the perturbations panel. 3. 2. 2-D elements 3-D elements DQUAD4. Pick the nodes that form the domain element. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 7. 6. It is recommended. Primary Domain Model This example shows how to create a primary domain model over the finite element model using the following first order 2-D and 3-D domain elements. Use the solver panel to run AutoDV. Define shapes and control perturbations. If needed. On the BCs page. 4. 5. select the optimization panel. DTRIA3 DHEXA8. To create a domain element: 1. that you organize 2-D and 3-D domain elements in separate components. The Domain model must encompass those finite element grids of the model that need to be perturbed. but not necessary. Each domain element generally encompasses a large number of finite elements. Assign shapes to design variables. All domain elements may be organized in more than one domain component. DTETRA4 These element types are generated using the AutoDV template provided in the distribution. 2. 4. Define primary domain model elements and domain node sets. However. DPENTA6.Polynomial Perturbation Vectors To create polynomial perturbation vectors: 1. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV.

8. 7. it is identified by AutoDV. Select the nodes for the domain node set.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or they can be created manually. Select the domain subpanel. you must implicitly ensure that relationship while creating domain elements and node sets by making sure that all the nodes that need to be perturbed as a shape variable are completely encompassed or parameterized by the domain model. select the optimization panel. 2. There should be exactly one domain element related to each node set.. To manually create a domain node set for an existing domain element: 1.e. However. This relationship is not explicitly defined by the user. 3. Select the perturbations panel. A given node may belong to more than one node set. 4. 6. Select update. 5. All nodes in a given node set are perturbed using mathematical relationships based on the control perturbations applied on the Domain Model. 354 HyperMesh 8. Pick the domain element from the graphic display. Toggle nodeset to manual. i. all corner nodes of that element must belong to that node set. Domain node sets can be created automatically when the domain element is created. On the BCs page.Primary Domain Node Sets Node sets constitute the primary entities for generating perturbation vectors. This generally happens at the common edges and corners between domain elements. Click add.

defining a zero magnitude vector is the same as placing no vector. the interpolation function is a product of three functions: P(x. Select perturbations using the toggle. A quadratic interpolation would use the corner as well as the mid-side control perturbations. Create shape design variables: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. In either case. Instead. Control perturbations are defined by creating vectors at control points. − AutoDV computes perturbations of all structural grids by interpolating control perturbations.g.y) = Px(x) Py(y) Pz(z) where P x. and Pz are polynomial interpolation functions of up to quadratic order. The deformed panel is displayed so you can animate the design variable to validate your definition.0 User’s Guide 355 . On a given edge. the interpolation function is a product of two functions: P(x. 3. AutoDV assigns a control perturbation of magnitude zero to the corner point. Animate the shape design variable: − Click animate. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The interpolations are performed as follows. The corner points of a domain element and mid-side nodes of the corresponding node sets constitute control points (e.Control Perturbations Perturbation vectors are generated by interpolating control perturbations defined at selected control points. AutoDV identifies the mid-side perturbations and internally changes the corresponding edge of a domain element from linear to quadratic (curvilinear edge element). Py.. the interpolation is parabolic if a mid-side control perturbation is defined. Enter a name (max. you do not need to create a second order domain element. a DQUAD4 domain has 8 control points). To define control perturbations: 1. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. Click return to return to the perturbations panel. In order to generate a quadratic perturbation. A linear interpolation uses control perturbation at the corners. For corner control points. They are automatically added to the shape specified in shape =. 8 characters) in shape =. Select the perturbations panel. Click create shape. That mid-side control point does not have to lie on the edge of the domain element. place the control perturbation on a mid-side node on an edge of the domain node set.y) = Px(x) Py(y) For 3-D domains. otherwise it is linear. For 2-D domains. The order of interpolation is based on the presence of mid-side control perturbations. Click create vector to create the vectors.

AutoDV computes the perturbation vectors for shape variables in the following order: • • • Identifies all domain elements and node sets attached to vector belonging to a given shape variable.For mid-side control points.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 356 HyperMesh 8. defining zero magnitude vector is not the same as placing no vector. the interpolation is quadratic with the value of zero for the mid-side node. Computes perturbation of each grid in the list by interpolation using the related control point perturbations. Generates the corresponding list of grids to be perturbed in that variable. the presence yields a quadratic interpolation. Whereas the absence of a mid-side control perturbation yields a linear interpolation on that edge. In the case of a zero magnitude mid-side perturbation.

because grids G2 and G3 are not part of any node set. For example. However. Move the end nodes as well as all intermediate nodes into an independent node set. The domain model for each plate contains one element each. the control perturbation causes grids G1 and G4 to be perturbed as shown. The perturbation vectors are also shown in the illustration. the perturbation vector for this model is as shown in the illustration below. This problem is solved using a secondary domain model as follows: • • Create one rigid element (type DRBE2) between the two end nodes (G1 and G4 in this example). With only primary domain.0 User’s Guide 357 .Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets A secondary domain model allows computation of perturbation vectors for grids on 1-D elements connecting two different components. The gum-drops are modeled using a rigid (R1)-spring (K)-rigid (R2) representation. consider the two sheet metal components connected using gum-drops. You may use the secondary domain model where two nodes belonging to the primary domain are connected using several 1-D elements in a series. they remain unperturbed. AutoDV responds by: • • • Computing pert urbations on the primary domain model using the control perturbations. Identifying perturbations of the end nodes of the secondary domains. illustrated below. Interpolating those perturbations linearly to all the grids of the secondary domain. Here. grid points G2 and G3 are generally coincident. Here. Secondary domain is not required if the nodes are connected using a single 1-D element. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

358 HyperMesh 8. and no control perturbations are required at the two nodes of the DRBE2 element. this yields the perturbation shown below. Note: A DRBE2 element does not have to be connected to a control point.Using the example illustrated above.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Edit X_ORDER. Select the design variable in the card pre-viewer in the permanent menu. the harmonic component of the shape variable has a value of 1. one at each corner point of the DQUAD4. y) = Xm(x) Yn(y) Where Xm(x) = cos (m*x/2) = sin (m*x/2) =1 and Yn(x) = cos (n*y/2) = sin (n*y/2) =1 for odd values of n for even values of n for n = 0 for odd values of m for even values of m for m = 0 For m = n = 0. In the shape panel. and T is the harmonic function given by: T(x. Each vector may have a different length and orientation.0 User’s Guide 359 . Select the DQUAD4 element on which harmonic perturbation vectors are desired and create a shape with exactly four vectors . Each harmonic shape variable component must contain exactly four vectors. To define harmonic perturbation vectors: 1. These are part of the vector collector card. Then the shape variable is reduced to the polynomial shape variable. The harmonic shape variables are computed using a product of the following two functions: V(x.one at each corner control point of that element. Harmonic variables are defined only on DQUAD4 domains. modeling requirements for generating harmonic variables are very stringent. Generate domain elements and node sets as described in the previous section. create a design variable using that shape.y) T (x. and Y_TYPE: Card image X_ORDER Y_ORDER Symbol m n Default 0 0 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Each vector may have a different length and orientation.y) = P (x. 4. Y_ORDER. The design variable label should not have more than four characters. y) Where P is the polynomial function described in the previous section. The orders m and n of harmonic functions are user-controlled. However. 2. 3. X_TYPE. one DQUAD4 element at a time. There should be no other vector in that shape.Harmonic Perturbation Vectors Harmonic shape variables are defined using a process similar to that for polynomial shape variables.

It generates shape variable names by appending the x and y orders to the component name. Accordingly. even all.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . odd. or even harmonics by entering the appropriate harmonics types in the vector collector. even Default all all For given values of m and n. AutoDV generates a series of independent perturbation vectors. odd. Examples of the naming procedure follow: Example 1: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv01 2 0 1 dv010001 X_TYPE = all Y_TYPE = all 3 1 0 dv010100 4 1 1 dv010101 5 2 0 dv010200 6 2 1 dv010201 desvar name = dv01 Example 2: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv02 X_TYPE = even Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv020001 3 2 0 dv020200 4 2 1 dv020201 desvar name = dv02 Example 3: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv03 X_TYPE = odd Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv030001 3 1 0 dv030100 4 1 1 dv030101 desvar name = dv03 360 HyperMesh 8.You have the option of generating all. modify the setting in the harmonic subpanel. odd. Card image X_TYPE Y_TYPE Options all.

Select all the displayed nodes and set mult = to 1. The control points can be the corner points of a domain element or the mid-side nodes along the edge of domain elements.animate suffix. To generate a variable load: 1. 2.Generation of Variable Loads Generating variable loads with AutoDV is similar to generating perturbation vectors. Click name = and enter the name of the AutoDV input deck. Enter a name (max. Variable loads are generated by interpolating control vectors defined at selected control points. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − − Select perturbations using the toggle. Click solve to create the interpolated variable loads. 3. select the apply result panel. They are automatically added to the design variable specified in desvar =. Click simulation = and select the variable loading condition wants to apply. Create control perturbations to define the characteristic of the variable load: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. Click apply to apply the variable loads. AutoDV computes the variable loads on each structural grid by interpolating the control perturbations defined on control points. Select AUTODV as the solver.0 User’s Guide 361 . select the results subpanel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Apply the variable loads: − − − − − − − On the files panel. moments and temperatures. Select the perturbations panel.dv. Select the create load subpanel. Domain elements and domain node sets for the domain where the load is applied must be created before you can generate a variable load. Click file = and enter the result file with the . On the Post page. Click create to create the vectors. − − − − On the BCs page. you must write an AutoDV input deck using the AutoDV template. A quadratic interpolation can be generated by creating control vectors either on the mid-side control points or on both. 8 characters) in desvar =. Select desvar using the toggle. Click create. the corner and mid-side control points. Run AutoDV to generate the variable loads: Before you run AutoDV. Variable loading can be generated for forces. select the solver panel. Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. 4. Creating control perturbations at the corner nodes of the domain element yields a linear interpolation.

Examples: 362 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Running AutoDV Stand-alone
To run AutoDV, select AUTODV as the solver in the solver panel and then give the prefix of the input file name along with the options. The input file name should be prefix.base. autodv -file <prefix> -inp opt1 -ent opt2 -code opt3

The valid entries and default values for options are given in the following table. Note that these parameters could be given in any order. Entity <prefix> Valid Options Prefix of the input file name, or input file name. OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS, HYPERSTUDY, TEMPLEX, HYPEROPT FORC, MOMT, TEMP, LONG OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, PAMCRASH, RADIOSS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MARC, ANSYS, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT Default Value Solver Panel input file =

Opt1

analysis code =

Opt2 Opt3

NONE NONE

component = subcode type =

The interdependency of options on each other is explained in the following table. For example, for a given opt1, it gives the possible values for opt2 and opt3. Opt1 OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS HYPERSTUDY TEMPLEX Opt2 None Long Opt3 Ignored Remarks For shape optimization None – Standard format Long – Long format For variable loading

FORC, MOMT, TEMP Ignored

Ignored

OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, RADIOSS, PAMCRASH, MARC, ANSYS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT, ABAQUS, NASTRAN

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/Generic and HyperStudy

HYPEROPT

Ignored

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/OPTISTRUCT, HyperOpt/ABAQUS, and HyperOpt/NASTRAN

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 363

After AutoDV runs, it creates the following files: prefix.dat A bulk data file that contains the DVGRID and LOAD information, respectively depending on opt2. A bulk data file for the perturbed model corresponding to the shape variable nnn. This file originally contained the manually generated perturbed file. After the program runs, this file contains only the GRID data for all perturbed grid points. This file contains the shape design variables in the HyperMesh results format. This file can be loaded to HyperMesh and results can be viewed. Note: The animation should be used only as a check for the shape of the perturbation vector. It will not display the upper and lower bounds for the shape variable. The file prefix.dat becomes part of an input file for the respective native analysis package. Note: If you create a perturbed model file, prefix.pertnnn, and also a set of control perturbations with an identical shape variable ID, nnn, the resultant perturbation vector from AutoDV is a union of the manual as well as the interpolated grid perturbations. For the common nodes in the two sets, the manual grid perturbations given in prefix.pertnnn override those generated by using interpolation. prefix.subcode.node.tpl Templex template to replace the nodal coordinates in the original input deck. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX. Contains nodal coordinates and perturbation vectors for use in the file, prefix.subcode.node.tpl. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX.

prefix.autonnn

prefix.dv.animate

prefix.shp

364 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
Using an H3D file, you can save 3-D animations from HyperMesh in the .h3d format for viewing with the HyperView Player. HyperView Player is an Internet browser plug-in for visualizing 3-D Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models and results. Using product data in Altair's compact .h3d format allows you to incorporate animated images in an HTML document for presentation or engineering reports. Simulation results can be sent by e-mail, or placed on the web for others to open and review. HyperView Player is available as a free download on Altair's Web site at http://www.altair.com. To create an H3D file from HyperMesh: 1. 2. Select one of the following panels: contour, deformed, hidden line, transient, or geom cleanup. To control the display attributes for your model: 3. Specify your desired display attributes using visual options or the visual panel.

Click the Hyper3d button or H3D>HV. Two files are created. One is an H3D file, using anim#.h3d as the file name. The symbol # is automatically assigned to the H3D file. The other is a sample HTML file including an <EMBED> statement for the corresponding H3D file. H3D>HV loads the newly created H3D file into HyperView. You can define this option in the options panel under modeling.

4.

To review the model in a web browser: Double click the HTML file to launch a browser. or Click H3D to activate the standalone HyperView Player.

You can customize the external HTML template, h3d_template.html, located in the altair/hm/html directory, to suit your needs. Note: In the HyperMesh geom cleanup panel, the Hyper3D button is displayed when you select the shaded option in the visual options subpanel.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 365

Embedding a HyperView Player Object in HTML Documentation The following section defines the arguments and provides an example for embedding statements in an HTML document in order to view a HyperView Player graphic object. Note the following updates to HyperView Player: Simplified HTML File Statement Since the H3D file created from HyperView, and HyperMesh includes scene information, the arguments in the old statements for model readers and result readers are no longer needed. The HTML statements have been simplified in this release. However, the HTML files created for HyperView Player 3.1 are still supported. HyperView Player only supports H3D direct readers. You can create an H3D file using: • • • • Note HyperView HyperMesh HyperMesh result translators, such as hmnast, hmnasto2, hmdyna, hmradioss, hmpam, hmansys, and hmabaqus OptiStruct You may need to modify your HTM L files created for HyperView Player 3.1 if you were using direct readers other that h3d.dll, such as adams.dll, gfile.dll, lsdyna.dll, and madymo.dll, since those readers are no longer supported in HyperView Player.

Direct Readers

To embed a HyperView Player object, the <EMBED> statement in HTML is used. All arguments are case insensitive.

General Arguments for EMBED Statements
type width/height SRC="URL" Application/x-h3d Measured in pixels The location of the plug-in data file as indicated by its URL.

Embedded Statement Example
<EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="HTTP:\\www.altair.com\h3d\bumper.h3d"> <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="../bumper.h3d">

More examples can be found in the HyperView Player demo directory, and our Web site, http://www.altair.com.

366 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Using an HTML File
You can use HyperView Player to share information by embedding it in an HTML file. You can use either a relative path or a standard Uniform Resource Locator (URL) to specify the path for the H3D file in the <EMBED> statement. There are three different ways to define file transfer protocol: FILE, HTTP and FTP. This section describes how to select a protocol for file transfer using files, anim1.html and anim1.h3d as examples.

Embedded Mode
FILE://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="File://c:\Altair\demos\hvp\anim1.h3d"> An absolute path is required for File:// and the H3D file must reside in the specified path. When you distribute the files, you may need to modify the HTML file for the path.

HTTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="http://www:8080/~John/anim1.h3d> Others can access your public web area on the Internet. When sharing an H3D file, you can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files in your public HTML directory and send the link to others in the company by email. The link can be, for example, http://www:8080/~John/anim1.html. By doing this, you do not need to distribute the H3D file and can guarantee the path is working correctly. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click the link in the email, the model will be displayed.

FTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="FTP://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html> You can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files on your FTP site. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click ftp://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html, the model is displayed.

Relative Path
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="../anim/.h3d> Using a relative path allows you to distribute an HTML file easily. You can create a folder with the necessary HTML and h3d files for distribution.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 367

Full page mode
In an HTML file, you can easily hyperlink a string to an H3D file. When you click the hyperlink, the plug-in loads a model in full-page mode.

Using E-mail
You can attach an H3D file to an email. If the recipient is using a PC, he or she can click the attachment and the H3D file will load automatically. You can also save the H3D file and at a later time, double-click the file to invoke the standalone version of HyperView Player. Another available option is to drag the H3D file and drop it into a browser to view the model in a full window.

368 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

H3D FAQ's
How can I view a model with shaded display in HyperView Player? The model display settings are recorded during H3D creation. Set up the desired model display, with such options as mesh lines and feature lines, in the Vis panel under the Performance Graphics mode in HyperMesh.

Why doesn’t the legend setting in HyperView player reflect the setting in HyperMesh? HyperView Player only supports default settings for the legend display from HyperMesh. The specified Max and Min values in HyperMesh are not recorded in the H3D file of this version.

Can I view complex result animation in HyperView player? No, the H3D writer does not support complex result data.

What types of element are not supported in the H3D file? Second order elements, rigidlinks, and RBE3s are not supported in this version. The mid-side node of a second order element is ignored when it is read into HyperView Player.

How can I change the window size for viewing HyperView Player in the browser? You can modify the width and height values in the <EMBED> statement in the HTML file. (For example, width = 600, height = 600)

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 369

Free Body Diagrams
HyperMesh allows you to create or edit Free Body Diagrams (FBD) using several tools that display in the tab area. Each FBD tool displays on a separate tab, which opens when you activate that tool. Location: Results menu, Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tools) Tool menu (to access the FBD Set Manager only) Tab Area (for the tools themselves)

Free Body Diagram (FBD) utilities facilitate the extraction and post-processing of Grid Point Force (GPFORCE) results. FBD utilities currently support OptiStruct and Nastran .op2 files, and are only available in the OptiStruct or Nastran user profiles. FBD extractions are typically utilized for breakout and/or sub-modeling analysis schemes, where balanced “free body” sub-cases are extracted from a coarse grid model and applied to a fine grid sub-model for eventual optimization and/or analysis. FBD is also used to extract cross-sectional resultant forces and moments (typically at the centroid of a cross-section) for use in traditional strength calculations. Each tool has a separate entry in the menu. In addition, see the overview on Grid Point Force Balance tables to gain further understanding of FBD operations within HyperMesh, while the Set Manager utility assists in generating the element and node sets which the FBD utilities analyze.

This coarse grid model is typical for FBD extractions.

Typical FBD – Forces output on a wing rib

Typical Result Force and Moment output on a floor beam

370 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Nastran. or export state) that the filter buttons apply to. or Abaqus user profile. 3. From the Tools pull-down menu. renaming. geometry. as desired: • • • • Use <ctrl>-click and <shift>-click to select multiple items in the tree structure. Use the toolbar buttons in the Set Manager tab to manipulate the display options. and ABAQUS user profiles. select Set Manager. along with the entity set display and export states. The filter buttons allow for additional selection control. creating. and changing the export state of entity sets.0 User’s Guide 371 . See To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display for details. The selection type options allow you to control the entities (elements. 2. To set display options for the Set Manager: 1. deleting. The set manager displays in the tab area. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. It also includes functions for displaying. appending entities to.FBD Set Manager Use the Set Manager tool to automate the grouping and display of model components through HyperMesh entity set functionality. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. The Set Manager utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct. The sync button synchronizes the entity set display states with the current HyperMesh display. Nastran. Location: Tools menu (to access the Set Manager) Tab Area (to use the Set Manager) The Set Manager consists of a tree structure listing the current entity sets in the model. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.

Nastran. Supported entity set types are shown above. select Set Manager. HyperMesh prompts you to type in a name for the set or accept a default name.To use the Set Manager right-click functionality: 1. Multiple sets may be selected by using standard Ctrl/Shift-click functionality. Delete: Deletes the currently selected set(s). on folders. Collapse All: Collapses all branches of the tree. Expand All: Expands all branches of the tree. Right -click anywhere within the tree structure to open the right-click menu: There are many functions available. or Abaqus user profile. 372 HyperMesh 8. or on individual or multiple items within folders. Rename: Rename the selected set.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2. accessed by right clicking in the background. 3. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. The set manager displays in the tab area. Add Entities to Set: Adds entities into the currently selected set. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. grouped in folders by type. including: • • • • • • • New: Create a new entity set of the specified type. From the Tools pull-down menu. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to add to the set. The graphic above shows all of the available options. Delete Reference: Removes a set reference from a entity set type of sets.

Show: This operation adds the entities contained in the selected set(s) to the HyperMesh display. • • • • • • • To change the Set Manager's display and export states: 1. Display IDs: Displays a popup window showing the IDs of all entities contained in the selected set. The Blank State signifies that one or more of the entities in that entity set are not displayed. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. Export Session File: Saves a session file (. When switching between supported solvers. Display Options: Determines how the sets display in the Set Manager tree. select Set Manager. 2. The set manager displays in the tab area. Show Only: This operation turns off (masks) all currently displayed entities. • The export toggle determines whether the entity set definition is to be exported when the model deck is written. or by using the display options icons in the toolbar. Nastran. click the Synch toolbar button to update the HyperMesh display with the current selection. Hide: This operation removes the entities contained in the selected set(s) from the HyperMesh display.0 User’s Guide 373 . containing group definitions for the selected node or element sets. For component sets there are two toggles: one for elements (first check box) and one for geometry (second check box). These group definitions will be converted into HyperMesh entity sets. Available options are shown above.ses). The export state of each entity set is stored in the HyperMesh database. grouped in folders by type. Once a display toggle is changed. which control the display of each of these entities separately. 3. From the Tools pull-down menu. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. and then displays only the currently selected set(s) in the HyperMesh display. The display and export states of entity sets are controlled by clicking on/off the display and export icons located next to each entity set in the tree. The Blank State signifies that the entity set will be exported. or Abaqus user profile.ses) containing group definitions. The display and export icons associated with each entity set are described below: • The display toggle determines whether the entities contained within the entity set are displayed in HyperMesh. The Checked State signifies that the entity set will not be exported. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to remove from the set. The Checked State signifies that all entities in the entity set are currently displayed. to the disk.• Remove Entities from Set: Removes entities from the currently selected set. this information is automatically converted to the new solver format when Set Manager is opened. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and is only available for component and element sets. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. Import Session File: Loads a session file (.

In addition. For large models. the Display button can be used to update the HyperMesh display to the current Set Manager selection. in which case the Set Manager and the HyperMesh display are synchronized until another selection is made within the Set Manager. The Synch button resides in the toolbar described by the topic To set display options for the Set Manager. the Display button at the bottom of the Set Manager allows you to update HyperMesh to match the Set Manager settings. To remedy these occurrences.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 374 HyperMesh 8.To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display: The Set Manager is meant to allow users to easily control the display and review of entity sets for model grouping and visualization purposes. Export states synch automatically. Instead. the Set Manager utility does not automatically synchronize the display states of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display. constantly synchronizing the display state of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display can introduce performance issues. while the Synch button in the Set Manager toolbar allows you to update the set manager to match the current state of the HyperMesh display. but display states always default to the unchecked state on startup.

To extract displacement data for a user-defined node set: 1. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. Note: Recommended practice is to output displacement data for the node set(s) of interest only.LABEL(ID)”. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool).op2 file display for selection. or if the original . The tool also supports . for Nastran and OptiStruct. all appropriate displacements and rotations are extracted.op2 files containing displacement data from OptiStruct and Nastran. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct or Nastran user profile. The FBD Displacements tab displays in the tab area.op2 file changes. you must load the new . The sub-case display can be switched between ID and Name (ID). The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUB-CASE #”. Use the .op2 file containing the displacement output for the current model. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. Once an . 4.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages.op2 file. only the LABEL is used. select Free Body Diagram. 3. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE . From the Results pull-down menu.FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility extracts displacement data for user defined node set(s). This lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract displacement information. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS io option card The FBD Displacement utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. Location: Results menu.0 User’s Guide 375 . sub-case names and IDs with displacement output are saved with the rest of the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. If a new . consider using STRESS = NONE to further reduce the size of the . You can select multiple sub-cases by ctrl-clicking or shift-clicking.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Displacement extractions.op2 file: field to specify the full path and filename of the .op2 file is selected. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. Select a sub-case. 2.op2 file is required. then FBD Displacements. and a formatted . • • Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files.op2 file into the database (overwriting the previously selected one). Only sub-cases with displacement results from the currently selected. Additionally. a text summary table within HyperMesh. If no SUBTITLE exists. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. Tab Area (for the tool itself) After you define an element set with an associated node set. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This procedure reduces the size of the .

Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the extraction. Displacement data (Ux. then all nodes within the element set are used.y. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database does not match those used to run the analysis then the extracted values will be incorrect. The Node Set selector defines the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted.…) is always output in the system that the results are stored with in the . the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. Results coordinate system transformations are not performed on displacement data. Additional nodes may be added to the node set once it is created by clicking the Node Set selector and picking additional nodes. automatically displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element and node sets. The entity selection section allows you to select and/or create the appropriate entities required to execute the FBD Displacements utility. otherwise modify the value as desired.z) in the summary table and . This procedure selects the nodes interfacing with the remainder of the structure. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. The Set Manager utility on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets.op2 file format. In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). You will be prompted to give the newly created node set a name. and toggle to the assign sub-panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. • The Show model checkbox is a graphical review option that. and click Set Analysis.0e-6. It is assumed that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . 376 HyperMesh 8.op2 file. Uy. The Auto find interface nodes option automatically finds the nodes attached to elements that are not contained within the currently selected element set.op2 file in the output coordinate system without any further coordinate system transformations. There are several options: • The Element Set selector defines the elements that contain the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. • The Coordinate System selector determines the coordinate system used to display the nodal coordinates (x. • 6. click Coordinate Systems. If a node set is not selected.5.csv file output options. If a coordinate system is not specified. Situations when this behavior could occur include modification of nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. The FBD Displacement utility extracts and applies the displacement and rotation results from the . Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. The option helps to eliminate “relatively small” values from being output to the result formats. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used for controlling the output of results to the various formats. On the Setup menu. when checked. Select entities. This functionality allows you to verify which element and node sets are currently selected. Choose Output options: The Output options section contains various options to review and display results of FBD Displacement extractions. • The Zero Tolerance entry defines the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero.

• The Show summary table option outputs the results to a popup window for instant review. • The Create .0 User’s Guide 377 . For example. This collector can be referenced as the LOAD in the sub-case panel. The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. and detailed displacement data at each node. you will be warned that the File already exists and asked if you want to replace it. The loads in this load collector are created with the SPC load type. This collector can be referenced as the SPC in the sub-case panel. element and node set(s). it will be appended to the end of the file. for the current element and node set. is created for each sub-case. If it does not exist. The load collector name format is FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp. node set 1 and sub-case 1. but in a comma-separated file. The Create SPCD option will additionally create a load collector with the name “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD”. Loads in this collector are created with the SPCD load type. Selecting yes will not overwrite the file. The table contains information about the sub-cases.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. FBDD_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Disp would be created for element set 1.csv file option creates a . If an existing file is selected there are several items to note: If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. You may select a new file or an existing file. it will append/replace the data.• The Create Load Collectors option will extract the specified displacement data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window5. IN any case. node set and sub-case IDs). A sample window with partial output is shown below. A single load collector.

op2 file. use this to browse to and select the desired . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. If no SUBTITLE exists.op2 file. This opens the standard file selection dialog window. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. 378 HyperMesh 8. and/or a formatted Comma-Separated Values (. Once you’ve selected an op2 file.op2 file that contains the GPFORCE output for the current model. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. The FBD Forces utility is currently supported by OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. each of which corresponds with the process order of using the tool. To select a results file: Click on the folder icon inside of the op2 file field. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme.FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data (including forces and moments) for a user-defined element set.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions. The op2 file field accepts the full path and filename of the .csv) file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. If a new .op2 files containing GPFORCE data from OptiStruct and Nastran. overwriting the previously selected. The ID option lists the sub-cases in the format SUBCASE #.op2 file changes) you must load the new . The sub-case list can be switched between ID and Name (ID).op2 file into the database. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards The FBD Forces utility is broken down into three major sections.op2 file are displayed for selection only. for Nastran and OptiStruct. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case in the format SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID). a text summary table within HyperMesh. This procedure reduces the size of the . Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. Location: Results menu. To select a sub-case: The Sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. The tool supports . Additionally.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . only the LABEL is used.op2 file is required (or if the original . sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. Multiple sub-cases can be selected via Ctrl-click or Shift-click functionality.

results coming from. and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set.To select entities: 1. RROD. Use the FBD type selector to determine the grid point force and moment data to extract and utilize for FBD calculations for each node in the selected element set. If a node is not selected. In addition.op2 file. The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force and moment results from an . applied. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the GPFORCE data is summed for the selected element set. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point force and moment result vectors are transformed and output.) If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. 2. Reaction Loads Only extracts and utilizes only SPC and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on nodes in the selected set. RJOINT. the extracted values will be incorrect. If a results system is not specified. Activate the Show Model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode while highlighting the currently selected element set. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation . This could occur when modifying a nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and. (See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. It is also useful for calculating the result of applied or reaction forces about any node. SPC. • • • All Loads extracts and utilizes all element contribution. This allows you to verify which element sets is currently selected. result system and summation node. Use the Element Set selector to define the elements that make up the free body and contain the nodes at which GPFORCE data will be extracted.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results.0 User’s Guide 379 . This is useful for verifying free body behavior through zero-sum values for all force and moment components about any node.0) is used by default. or when loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. 3. Available options include All Loads. Applied Loads Only extracts and utilizes only the applied loads grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). To specify output options: 1. and RBAR.0. the HyperMesh origin (0. Rigidlink. On the assign sub-panel. cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. and Reaction Loads Only. RBE3. or output to. 4. Applied Loads Only. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the .

and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. The FBD Results Manager tool can be used to review the load collectors generated from FBD Forces utility. The table contains information about the sub-cases. You may select a new file or an existing file. This allows FBD information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. and component Fx. Use the Create Load Collectors option to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for visualization in the model window. activate the Show summary table option. selecting yes will not overwrite the file—it will append/replace the data as described above. element set(s). sub-case 1. all FBD Forces load collectors are saved to the database. sub-case IDs).csv file option to create a . If it does not exist.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file.0e-6. 5. When you save the HyperMesh database. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets. However. 3. therefore it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which FBD result must be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh 4. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. This option helps to prevent relatively small values from being output to the result formats. it will be appended to the end of the file. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current element set. To output the results to a popup window for instant review. For example FBDF_E(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. If an existing file is selected.2. it is appended to. and there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. but in a comma-separated file. In addition a load collector with the Nastran/OptiStruct LOAD card is also created. Altair Engineering • 380 HyperMesh 8. To maintain floating-point precision the default is set to 1. • The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. Use the Zero Tolerance entry field to define the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. A sample window with partial output is shown below. referencing the component force and moment load collectors. Use the Create . This load collector is named “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” and can be referenced in the sub-case panel as the LOAD entry for the various sub-case definitions. All calculations are performed with floating point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. modify the value as desired. The load collector name format is “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)”.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering .

If no node is selected. The FBD Cross-section Manager interface has two creation methods available for cross-section definition: manual and (semi-) automatic. If this node is deleted from the model. 5. Use the Element Set selector to specify the elements containing the nodes that define the crosssection. 3. etc…) and must have identifiable rows of nodes. The Advanced options section provides the means to semi-automatically create cross-section element and node sets for beam-like structures with regular meshes. the utility defaults to “Centroid”. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the grid point data will be summed. Location: Results menu. gaps. a temporary node is created. result system and summation node which define the cross-section in the graphics display area. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point vector results will be transformed and output. The Display sections checkbox is a graphical review option that. displays the element set. Tab Area (for the tool itself) This utility contains tools for defining cross-sections. Use the Node Set selector to define the nodes in each currently selected element set at which grid point data will be extracted and summed from. each set is added to the table as a separate cross-section definition which can be modified later by selection. It also features semi-automatic generation of element and node sets for defining cross-sections. summation node. To define a cross-section manually: 1. starting from the selected nodes and progressing along the length of the selected elements. node set. When using the “Centroid” option. and a local result coordinate system. If a results system is not specified. This auto-create cross-section capability requires a continuous mesh with rows of nodes (of any orientation) to work properly. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. This option calculates the nodal averaged centroid of the coordinates of all of the nodes in the node set and creates a temporary node at that location. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). If multiple node sets are selected for a single element set. when checked. If multiple element sets are selected. 2. The mesh shouldn’t have any discontinuities (holes. 4.FBD Cross-section manager The FBD Cross-section Manager (CSM) utility creates and manages cross-section definitions that are used within the Resultant Force & Moment utility. Use the Set Manager tool on the Tools menu to create the necessary node sets.0 User’s Guide 381 . Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the grid point extraction. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. which are defined by an element set. node set. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. the loads associated with that node are also deleted. The FBD Cross-section Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. HyperMesh adds separate crosssection definitions to the table with the original element set and each selected node set.

the cross-section data is saved to the HyperMesh database. 5. To define a cross-section automatically: 1. This displays the entire model in transparency mode. Therefore. 7. result system and summation node. node set. cross-section definitions only need to be defined once and stored in the HyperMesh database. 382 HyperMesh 8. Type a prefix for the name of each generated node set into the Node set prefix field. 6. it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which cross-sections are to be retained within HyperMesh database. you type in “NSET” each element set will be named NSET [#]. If the offset value is set to a value greater than zero. the generated set names are numbered starting from that value. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox. By default. the offset value is zero and HyperMesh generates numbered set names starting with one.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Comments Each time a cross-section is created. Cross-Sections can then be accessed from within the Resultant Force and Moment utility. Type a Numbering offset into the text box. Use the Elements selector to choose the elements that define the entire “beam-like” component from which cross-sections will be generated. For example. Optional: use the filter buttons on the top of the spreadsheet to select which cross-sections are required. If checked. highlighting the currently selected elements and nodes. Standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality can be used to select cross-sections. When the HyperMesh database is saved. For example. where “#” increases with each new set generated. 3. or deleted. These nodes should be at one end of the beam. which utilizes the cross-section definitions to perform these calculations. modified. 4. This is the offset value for generated set names. all cross-section definitions are also saved. This allows you to verify a cross-section definition. Type a prefix for the name of each generated element set into the Element set prefix field. Therefore. Optional: activate the sets accumulate option This determines whether each progressive set also contains the elements from the previous set. you type in “ESET” each element set will be named ESET [#]. first cross-section). Selected crosssections can also be deleted from the database by using the Remove selection button on the right end of the filter buttons. Use the Nodes selector to pick nodes for the first node set (i. 7.e. highlighting the currently selected element set. or only the new “row” of elements. each element set will contain the elements from the previous set. where “#” increases with each new set generated.6. 2. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the crosssection names and the associated sets.

Additionally. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If a new . To select a sub-case: Select the desired sub-case(s) from the list in the sub-case section. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. If no SUBTITLE exists. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The resultant force and moment utility generates input data for shear and moment (VMT) diagrams and/or to perform load-case screening with Potato plots in HyperView.0 User’s Guide 383 .FBD Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment (RF&M) utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data for user defined cross-sections created via the Cross-section Manager. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved.op2 file display for selection only.op2 file into the database. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. The tool supports . only the LABEL is used. you must load the new . including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. When an . Multiple sub-cases can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking.op2 file. Two utilities available within HyperGraph also interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided.op2 file containing the desired GPFORCE output for the current model.op2 file changes. This procedure reduces the size of the .op2 files containing grid point force data from OptiStruct and Nastran. for Nastran and OptiStruct. The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUBCASE #”. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . a text summary table within HyperMesh. sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. The subcase list can be organized by ID or Name (ID). To select a results file: Use the . Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. or if the original . The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID)”. Location: Results menu.op2 file is selected. and/or a formatted .op2 file is required.op2 file field to specify the full path and filename of the . overwriting the previously selected. The Resultant Force and Moment utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. The sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information.op2 file and helps speed up the Resultant Force and Moment extractions.

If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. Rigidlink.fbd file output options. RBAR. If a coordinate system is not specified. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this . In addition. To specify output options: The Output Options section contains various options to review and display the results of Resultant Force and Moment extractions. The Cross-sections section lets you specify the cross-sections from which you wish to calculate resultant force and moment results for each selected sub-case. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. node set 1. and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Use the Coordinate System selector to determine the coordinate system used to output the nodal coordinates (x. 384 HyperMesh 8. For example RF&M_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current cross-section. Cross-sections are created using the Cross-section Manager. 1. 2.0e-6. The Resultant Force and Moment utility extracts grid point force and moment results from the . and . Use the Zero Tolerance field to specify the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. . each made up of an element set and node set.y. results coming from or output to cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes.op2 file. RJOINT. sub-case 1. RROD. Activate the Create Load Collectors checkbox to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window. 3. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. This can occur when modifying nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis. otherwise modify the value as desired.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. (On the assign sub-panel. Resultant force and moment vector results are always output in the result coordinate system defined for each cross-section. operation sets the CD field on the GRID cards). Multiple cross-sections can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. The option helps to eliminate relatively small values from being output.To select a cross-section: Pick the desired cross-sections from the list in the cross-sections area of the tab. Result coordinate systems for cross-sections are defined using the Cross-section Manager. the extracted values will be incorrect. and component Fx. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default.z) in the summary table. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. The load collector name format is “RF&M_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_(compID)”.csv file. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. RBE3.

If an existing file is selected. it is appended to.fbd file. If an existing file is selected. it is appended to. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. 6. it will append/replace the data into the file as described above. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager.csv file containing the same information as the summary table.fbd file option to create a file that can be read into HyperGraph using the “Shear and Moment Plot” and “Potato Plot” utilities. Activate the Create . You may select a new file or an existing file. You can also use the FBD Results Manager to review the load collectors generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. When the HyperMesh database is saved. This allows resultant force and moment information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. If it does not exist. These utilities are accessed from the Free Body Diagrams item within the HyperGraph Utilities menu. The table contains information about the sub-cases and cross-sections. 5. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. However. there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. Activate the Show summary table option to output the results to a popup window for instant review. 4. Activate the Create . it will be appended to the end of the file.The “Color” option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. but in a comma separated file.csv or .0 User’s Guide 385 . sub-case IDs). selecting ‘yes’ will not overwrite the file. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets and therefore it is important to not renumber any element or node sets for which resultant force and moment result are to be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh. Comments When saving over existing . Two utilities available within HyperGraph interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility: Shear and Moment Diagrams (VMT Plots) and Potato Plot.csv file option to create a . You may select a new file or an existing file. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. all resultant force and moment load collectors are saved in the database. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Fz…checkboxes determine which component/resultant vectors display when you click the Accept button. Pick the desired Results type. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). 2. Fy. Displacement. The Load handles option determines whether to display the load handles. 4. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.FBD Results Manager Use the FBD Results Manager to graphically review and manage the load collectors generated from all FBD and Resultant Force and Moment utilities. when checked. Displacement. This selector lists all of the node sets associated with the currently selected element set and sub-cases. Select one or more Element sets. FBD Forces (Reaction Loads). Location: Results menu. Specify any desired Display options: The Display options section allows you to decide which force and moment components display in the graphics area for the current selection.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Results Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. • • 386 HyperMesh 8. Valid types include FBD Displacements. Select the desired Sub-cases by clicking on them. • The Fx. and Resultant Force and Moment. or Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. and Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. Multiple subcases can be selected using standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality. Grayed-out checkboxes indicate force and moment components or results that can’t display for the currently selected element set/sub-case/node sets. FBD Forces (All Loads). only the node sets that are common to all of them will be listed. the Results selection interface is modified to include a Node sets selector. To review and manage FBD load collectors: 1. FBD Forces (Applied Loads). The Results selection section lets you select the FBD result type to review. The optional Show model checkbox. displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element set. Selecting an FBD result type scans the HyperMesh database and updates the Subcases list with available sub-cases for the currently selected element set and result type. These checkboxes are disabled for the FBD Displacements Result type. You must choose an existing element set for which you wish to the review the FBD. 3. The Label loads option determines whether to display the load labels (vector magnitude values as text next to the vector). The Entity selection section allows you to select the element set for which to review FBD. For FBD Displacements and Resultant Force and Moment Result types. If multiple sub-cases are selected.

Magnitude % or Uniform size.• The Vector size option allows you to control the display size of the result vectors. The Delete button deletes the load collectors associated with the current selection. The Reset button clears the graphics area of all result vectors and resets all of the FBD Results Manager entry fields. A popup warning tells you what will be deleted and requires you to confirm the deletion. each of which requires a numeric value. removing it from the tab area without displaying any results in the graphics area. Click one of the command buttons at the bottom of the tab: The Accept button displays the selected result vectors on in the graphics area. The Close button closes the FBD Results Manager. if desired. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. • 5.0 User’s Guide 387 . Note that these values do not affect the vector magnitude—only their screen size. The Update load collector color option will recolor the load collectors associated with the current selection to the color selected in the Color option. Two options are available. Click the Color box to pick a different color.

Select the desired node sets in the same fashion as the subcases. For FBD Displacements. 2. and/or Resultant Force and Moment load collectors generated by other FBD utilities. Location: Results menu. If you choose FBD Displacements or Resultant Force and Moment as the result type. If the SPCD option was enabled when creating the FBD Displacement loads. click the Create appropriate subcases checkbox and then click the open-folder button in the Output file text box. Specify Export options:. HyperMesh prompts you to select one or the other from which to create the sub-case. Choose the results type that you wish to export from the list box. If you wish to create sub-cases upon export. The LOAD = will reference the newly created LOAD load collector. 5. 4. or type in a name for a new one. the exported data can be used for breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. 3. Click add to export to add the highlighted results to the export batch. the Results type affects how HyperMesh creates sub-cases: For FBD Forces – All Loads. Displacement.FBD Export Manager The FBD Export Manager exports FBD. highlighting the currently selected element set for review.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If FBD Force and FBD Displacement load collectors from the same sub-case are selected for export. This populates the list of subcases. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Displacement. LOAD = will also be assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collector for the selected sub-case. Click the one(s) that you wish to export to highlight them. This option will also create SUBTITLE and LABEL cards if they are available from the sub-case information within the currently selected . Optional: activate the show model checkbox to display the entire model in transparency mode. a LOAD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collectors will be assigned to it. After export. Use the Element set selector to specify the set for which you wish to export data. 388 HyperMesh 8. The SPC = will reference the newly created SPCADD load collector. a SUBCASE will be created with SPC = assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collector for the selected sub-case.op2 file. If multiple node sets are selected for export the following will occur: An SPCADD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collectors will be assigned to it. or Resultant Force & Moment collectors: 1. a SUBCASE will be created with LOAD = assigned to the “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” load collector which references the LOAD card pointing to each component “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)” load collector for the selected sub-case. an additional list of node sets displays. This opens a standard file browser window that you can use to browse to the desired destination directory and either select an existing file. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Export Manager is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. use <ctrl>-click or <shift>-click to select multiple results. In addition. To export FBD. • • If the SPCD option was enabled when creating FBD Displacement loads.

Deletes the temporary mass elements from the current model. Exports the model with the “displayed” option. Close closes the tab. Click the appropriate command button at the bottom of the tab: Export executes the export process. Displacement. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Reset clears all of the export criteria so that you can start over.0 User’s Guide 389 . removing it from the tab area. meaning that clicking it: • • • • • Turns off the display of all currently displayed elements. and Removes unnecessary header information from the output file. and/or Resultant Force and Moment loads are displayed.6. Creates temporary mass elements on the nodes where the selected FBD.

Tab Area (for the tool itself) Shown below is a sample model which will be used to demonstrate the grid point force calculations that HyperMesh FBD utilities perform. several types of entries are possible depending on the forces acting at that node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The complete GPFORCE table for the above cantilever beam model is presented below. Note that for any given node within the GPFORCE table. which in turn must sum to zero for the complete GPFORCE table. 390 HyperMesh 8. This model cons ists of two elements. a fixed support on the left end. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). is the data around which all FBD-Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utility calculations are performed. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding GPFORCE io option cards.FBD Grid Point Force Balance The Grid Point Force Balance table. including: • • • • • Applied forces and moments SPC forces and moments MPC forces and moments Element forces and moments from elements attached to the node Total summed values for each node. and a point load on the right end. output from OptiStruct and Nastran with the GPFORCE io options command. Location: Results menu.

0 User’s Guide 391 .Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

v. Total FBD Value at Node 1 = 2. for any given node. SPC loads: Fx component exists (2. For FBD types Applied loads only. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. if any element contribution is not from one of the defined elements within the element set. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. SPC loads: Fx component exists (-2. Total FBD Value at Node 2 = -2. Node 1 i. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set will be extracted and utilized in the FBD calculations. This information is then used to produce free bodies and/or resultant force and moments. if all element contributions are from elements from within the defined element set. 3 and 4. Fx calculation. 4. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations.121e+03) and is extracted iii. all nodes connected to the elements in the element set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. MPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations.121e+03 392 HyperMesh 8. 3. The following example of FBD-Forces extraction uses an element set defined with only element: The element set contains only element 1. v. Node 2 i. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 2 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not condered. then the node is an “internal” node and element contributions are not extracted or utilized in FBD calculations. Element 1 has nodes 1. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 1 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not considered. then the node is an “interface” node and element contributions from the elements not a part of the element set are extracted and utilized in FBD calculations.121e+03) and is extracted iii. Furthermore. MPC loads: Zero iv. applied loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. For all nodes connected to elements in the element set. • • 2.Process The FBD Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utilities use element and node set definitions to define what information to extract and sum from the GPFORCE table. 2. For FBD types All loads and Applied loads only. SPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. for any given node. MPC loads: Zero iv. looping through all the nodes attached to elements in the element set: a. For FBD type Reaction loads only.121e+03 b.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Therefore. Applied loads: Zero ii. The element set serves several purposes: 1. Applied loads: Zero ii. For FBD types 2 Applied loads only. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility uses an element set to define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table.

Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. however. Node 4 i. This verifies that the FBD-Forces extraction is indeed a “free body”. iii. iv. iii. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Mz) is not the direct sum of all nodes as the (rXF) terms for the force resultant vector about the sum point must also be added to each moment component appropriately. Notice that the sum of all components is zero about any point in the model.085e+03) v. Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. The final FBD-Forces results are presented in the summary table output from the FBD-Forces utility. The sum of the forces components (Fx. Note that the sum of the moment components (Mx. Node 3 i.085e+03 e.c. Fy. My.0 (ie.085e+03 Sum all nodes in Fx = 0. d. My. • Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Mx. illustrated in the screenshot below. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Fz. ii. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1.0 User’s Guide 393 . Fx component satisfies free body requirements) Fy. ii.085e+03) Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. is the simple sum. v. iv. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. Mz calculations follow similar procedures. Fz) for each node.

2. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. All nodes in the node set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force 2 and Moment calculations .085e+03) v. The node set contains nodes 3 and 4. The following example of Resultant Force and Moment extraction uses a cross-section definition given by an element set defined with only element 1. summation node set to node 3. 5. 4. a node set defined with nodes 3 and 4. MPC loads:Zero iv. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. All nodes in the node set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system: • • • The element set contains only element 1.0 Fy calculation. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. All nodes in the node set must be attached to one or more elements in the element set. Fx calculation. Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. SPC loads: Zero iii. 3. Node 4 vi.085e+03 b. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Since only element 2 is not in the element set. All nodes in the node set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. Sum nodes in node set in Fx = 0. Applied loads: Zero vii. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set of the cross-section definition will be extracted and utilized in the Resultant Force and Moment calculations. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. For all nodes in the node set.085e+03) x. All values are zero in this model.Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment utility uses an element set and a node set (cross-section definition) define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. SPC loads: Zero viii. MPC loads:Zero ix.085e+03 c. The cross-section definition serves several purposes: 1. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. • 394 HyperMesh 8. Node 3 i. Applied loads: Zero ii.

Since only element 2 is not in the element set.0 User’s Guide 395 .024e+00 c.024e+00) xxx. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. SPC loads: Zero xxviii. Node 4: rXF for My component equates to the following equation (rz*Fx) + (rx*Fz) = (-0.• Fz calculation looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. MPC loads:Zero xxiv. Total My Value at Node 3 = -8. Node 3 xi. Applied loads: Zero xxii. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a.426e+02 b.574e+02) xx. My calculation. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. MPC loads:Zero xiv. SPC loads: Zero xxiii. looking through all the nodes in the node set: a. All values are zero in this model. Node 3 xxi. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = -1. Total rXF Value summed at Node 3 = -1. Total Fz Value at Node 3 = 6. Applied loads: Zero xxvii. Applied loads: Zero xii. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.808e+02 xxxiii. MPC loads:Zero xix.166*1. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = 3. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (6.574e+02 c. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-8. Node 4 xxvi.166) the following is obtained: xxxi. Calculate the cross-product of all the forces about the Y-axis at node 3.574e+02) = -1. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Sum nodes in node set in Fz = 1. SPC loads: Zero xviii. Node 3: no additional rXF contributions since it is the sum point xxxii. MPC loads:Zero xxix. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (3.000e+03 (The value of the applied shear) Mx calculation. SPC loads: Zero xiii. Selecting node 3 as the summation node (any node in the model can be selected) and performing rXF (all element edge lengths are 0. Node 4 xvi. Sum nodes in node set and all rXF terms in My = -2. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Applied loads: Zero xvii. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-1.426e+02) xv.871e+00 b. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.871e+00) xxv.0*3.000e+02.808e+02 d.085e+03) + (0.

which is the summary table output from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . • • 396 HyperMesh 8. Additionally.• Mz calculation.op2 file. summation node set to node 3. The final Resultant Force and Moment results are presented in the graphic below.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . MPC forces and moments are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: o RBE2 o RBE3 o Rigidlink o RJOINT o RROD o RBAR The GPFORCE and Displacement results are extracted of the .op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions.op2 file in float point precision in binary format. This procedure reduces the size of the . The element and node sets serve several purposes: 1. This maintains the integrity of the calculations as well as enhances the performance of the utilities. nodes 3 and 4 (node set). looping through all the nodes in the node set a. Additional Information: • Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. 2. for Nastran and OptiStruct. All values are zero in this model. FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility uses an element set and a node set to define the values to extract from the Displacement table. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. for a cross-section defined with element 1 (element set). All nodes in the node set will have displacement and rotation values extracted. The element set is for visualization and breakout modeling purposes only.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Descarga
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->