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HyperMesh 8.0 User's Guide

HyperMesh 8.0 User's Guide

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Publicado porSubhash Chander

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Published by: Subhash Chander on Jul 07, 2011
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Sections

  • Hardware and Operating Systems
  • Starting HyperMesh
  • Starting HyperMesh Batch Version
  • Start-up Options
  • Configuring HyperMesh
  • Configuration File Commands
  • Start-up Files
  • Specifying a Temporary File Directory
  • HyperMesh Database Design
  • Database Names
  • Using and Saving a Database
  • Nodes
  • Fixed Points
  • Free Points
  • Collectors
  • Elements
  • Lines
  • Surfaces and Faces
  • Systems
  • Loads
  • Cards
  • Vectors
  • Title
  • HyperMesh Environment
  • Pull-Down menus
  • Graphics Area
  • Toolbar Area
  • Header Bar
  • Main Menu Area
  • Page Menu
  • Tab Area
  • Model Browser
  • Include Browser
  • Modules
  • Loadsteps Browser
  • Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles
  • Panels
  • Sub-panels
  • Input Controls
  • File Browser
  • The Mouse
  • Rapid Menu
  • Keyboard
  • Secondary Menu
  • Utility Menu
  • BOM comparison tool
  • Quick TetraMesh
  • User Profiles
  • HyperMesh User Profile
  • Using HyperMesh
  • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database
  • Picking Entities on the Screen
  • Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements
  • Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu
  • Viewing Models
  • Using the disp (display) Panel
  • Setting View Options
  • Setting Tolerances
  • Setting Global Parameters
  • Importing and Exporting Data
  • Printing Screen Images
  • Using the Card Previewer
  • General Process for Building Models
  • Creating Collectors
  • Reading Geometry
  • Creating Geometry Data
  • Temporary Nodes
  • Picking Surfaces
  • Editing Surfaces
  • Associativity
  • Geometry Cleanup
  • Building Elements
  • Checking Model Quality
  • Applying Loads
  • Creating Systems
  • Automatic Mesh Generation
  • Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel
  • Mesh Generation Algorithms
  • Smoothing Algorithms
  • Element Biasing
  • Linked or Locked Edges
  • Connector Entity
  • Connector Terminology
  • Connector Definition
  • Connector Realization
  • Connector Review
  • Connectors User Control Mode
  • Master Connectors File
  • Multiple Weld File Format
  • Import Templates
  • FE Configuration File
  • FE Definition Examples
  • HyperMorph Strategies
  • The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing
  • Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains
  • Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • HyperBeam Module
  • Example of the Three-Step Process
  • Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam
  • HyperBeam Environment
  • Section Browser
  • Shell Section Graphics Pane
  • Results/Spreadsheet Pane
  • HyperBeam Menu Bar
  • HyperBeam Toolbar
  • Beam Cross Section Property Solver
  • Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements
  • Defining a Cross Section
  • Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties
  • Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver
  • Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers
  • HyperLaminate Module
  • HyperLaminate Environment
  • HyperLaminate Menus
  • HyperLaminate Toolbar
  • Laminate Browser
  • Define/Edit Pane
  • Review Pane
  • Finite Difference Module
  • Creating a Finite Difference Block
  • Creating a Structured Mesh
  • Loads on Geometry
  • Terminology and Definitions
  • Application of Loads to Geometry
  • Exporting Loads
  • Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh
  • Distributed Load Mapper
  • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results
  • Select a data type and a mapping method
  • Set the scale factor
  • Set the mapping algorithm
  • Mathematical Loading
  • Post-Processing Analysis
  • HyperMesh Results Database
  • Specifying the Results File
  • Creating Deformed Geometry Plots
  • Creating Animations
  • Creating Vector Plots
  • Creating Contour Plots
  • Creating Assigned Plots
  • Adding Plot Identification
  • Inspecting the Results
  • XY Plotting
  • XY Plots Module
  • Creating an XY Plot
  • Modifying an XY Plot
  • Working with Multiple XY Plots
  • Modifying Multiple XY Plots
  • Creating Curves on XY Plots
  • Modifying Curve Attributes
  • Displaying Selected Curves on Plots
  • Using the Curve Editor
  • AutoDV Introduction
  • Generation of Perturbation Vectors
  • Manual Perturbation
  • Polynomial Perturbation Vectors
  • Primary Domain Model
  • Primary Domain Node Sets
  • Control Perturbations
  • Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets
  • Harmonic Perturbation Vectors
  • Generation of Variable Loads
  • Running AutoDV Stand-alone
  • Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
  • To create an H3D file from HyperMesh:
  • H3D FAQ's
  • Free Body Diagrams
  • FBD Set Manager
  • FBD Displacements
  • FBD Forces
  • FBD Cross-section manager
  • FBD Resultant Force and Moment
  • FBD Results Manager
  • FBD Export Manager
  • FBD Grid Point Force Balance

HyperMesh 8.

0 User's Guide

HyperWorks

Altair Engineering Contact Information
Web site FTP site www.altair.com Address: ftp.altair.com or ftp2.altair.com or http://ftp.altair.com/ftp Login: ftp Password: <your e-mail address>

Location
North America China France Germany India

Telephone
248.614.2425 86.21.5393.0011 33.1.4133.0990 49.7031.6208.22 91.80.6629.4500 1.800.425.0234 (toll free) 39.800.905.595 81.3.5396.1341 81.3.5396.2881 82.31.716.4321 46.46.286.2052 44.1926.468.600 55.11.4223.5733 64.9.413.7981 64.9.413.7981

e-mail
hwsupport@altair.com support@altair.com.cn francesupport@altair.com hwsupport@altair.de support@india.altair.com

Italy Japan Korea Scandinavia United Kingdom Brazil Australia New Zealand

support@altairtorino.it support@altairjp.co.jp support@altair.co.kr support@altair.se support@uk.altair.com br_support@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com

The following countries have distributors for Altair Engineering: Mexico, Romania, Russia, South Korea, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan and Turkey. See www.altair.com for complete contact information. © 2007 Altair Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated to another language without the written permission of Altair Engineering, Inc. To obtain this permission, write to the attention Altair Engineering legal department at: 1820 E. Big Beaver, Troy, Michigan, USA, or call +1-248-614-2400.

Trademark and Registered Trademark Acknowledgments
Listed below are Altair HyperWorks applications. Copyright Altair Engineering Inc., All Rights Reserved for: HyperMesh 1990-2006; HyperView 1999-2006; OptiStruct 1996-2006; HyperStudy 1999-2006; ® ® ® HyperGraph 1995-2006; HyperGraph 3D 2005-2006; MotionView 1993-2006; MotionSolve 2002-2006; ® ® ® ® HyperForm 1998-2006; HyperXtrude 1999-2006; HyperOpt 1996-2006; HyperView Player 2001-2006; ® Process Manager™ 2003-2006; HyperWeb 2002-2004; Data Manager™ 2005-2006; Templex™ 19902006; Manufacturing Solutions ™ 2005-2006 All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
® ® ® ® ® ® ©

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Starting and Configuring HyperMesh
Hardware and Operating Systems ......................................................................................1 Starting HyperMesh .............................................................................................................2 Starting HyperMesh Batch Version .....................................................................................5 Start-up Options ...................................................................................................................6 Configuring HyperMesh.......................................................................................................7 Configuration File Commands .............................................................................................9 Start-up Files ......................................................................................................................21 Specifying a Temporary File Directory ..............................................................................21

HyperMesh Database and Environment
HyperMesh Database Design............................................................................................22 Database Names ...............................................................................................................22 Using and Saving a Database...........................................................................................22 Nodes .................................................................................................................................22 Fixed Points .......................................................................................................................22 Free Points .........................................................................................................................22 Collectors ...........................................................................................................................23 Elements ............................................................................................................................27 Lines ...................................................................................................................................30 Surfaces and Faces...........................................................................................................32 Systems..............................................................................................................................33 Loads..................................................................................................................................33 Cards..................................................................................................................................33 Vectors ...............................................................................................................................33 Title.....................................................................................................................................34 HyperMesh Environment ...................................................................................................35 Pull-Down menus...............................................................................................................37 Graphics Area ....................................................................................................................39 Toolbar Area ......................................................................................................................40 Header Bar .........................................................................................................................44 Main Menu Area.................................................................................................................46 Page Menu .........................................................................................................................46
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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide i

Tab Area.............................................................................................................................47 Model Browser ...................................................................................................................48 Include Browser .................................................................................................................57 Modules ..............................................................................................................................63 Loadsteps Browser............................................................................................................64 Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles ............................................................65 Panels ................................................................................................................................69 Sub-panels .........................................................................................................................70 Input Controls.....................................................................................................................71 File Browser .......................................................................................................................77 The Mouse .........................................................................................................................79 Rapid Menu ........................................................................................................................81 Keyboard ............................................................................................................................82 Secondary Menu ................................................................................................................86 Utility Menu ........................................................................................................................87 BOM comparison tool ........................................................................................................95 Quick TetraMesh..............................................................................................................112

User Profiles
User Profiles.....................................................................................................................127 HyperMesh User Profile...................................................................................................128

Using HyperMesh
Using HyperMesh ............................................................................................................128 Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database ..............................................................129 Picking Entities on the Screen .........................................................................................130 Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements .......................................................................132 Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu .....................................................................133 Viewing Models ................................................................................................................137 Using the disp (display) Panel .........................................................................................140 Setting View Options........................................................................................................142 Setting Tolerances ...........................................................................................................145 Setting Global Parameters...............................................................................................145 Importing and Exporting Data ..........................................................................................146 Printing Screen Images ...................................................................................................148 Using the Card Previewer................................................................................................150
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Building Models
General Process for Building Models ..............................................................................151 Creating Collectors ..........................................................................................................152 Reading Geometry...........................................................................................................153 Creating Geometry Data ..................................................................................................154 Temporary Nodes ............................................................................................................158 Picking Surfaces ..............................................................................................................158 Editing Surfaces ...............................................................................................................159 Associativity .....................................................................................................................161 Geometry Cleanup ...........................................................................................................162 Building Elements ............................................................................................................164 Checking Model Quality ...................................................................................................167 Applying Loads.................................................................................................................168 Creating Systems.............................................................................................................169

Automatic 2-D Mesh Generation
Automatic Mesh Generation ............................................................................................170 Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel.......................................................................172 Mesh Generation Algorithms ...........................................................................................173 Smoothing Algorithms......................................................................................................175 Element Biasing ...............................................................................................................176 Linked or Locked Edges ..................................................................................................179

Connectors
Connector Entity...............................................................................................................180 Connector Terminology ...................................................................................................181 Connector Definition ........................................................................................................185 Connector Realization......................................................................................................187 Connector Review............................................................................................................188 Connectors User Control Mode .......................................................................................188 Master Connectors File....................................................................................................189 Multiple Weld File Format ................................................................................................190 Import Templates .............................................................................................................191 FE Configuration File .......................................................................................................193 FE Definition Examples ...................................................................................................197

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide iii

HyperMorph and Morphing Strategies
HyperMorph Strategies ....................................................................................................199 The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing......................................................................201 Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains ..................................................220 Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................237 Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................263

Calculating Beam Properties
HyperBeam Module .........................................................................................................272 Example of the Three-Step Process................................................................................274 Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam ..............................................279 HyperBeam Environment.................................................................................................282 Section Browser...............................................................................................................283 Shell Section Graphics Pane...........................................................................................284 Results/Spreadsheet Pane..............................................................................................285 HyperBeam Menu Bar .....................................................................................................287 HyperBeam Toolbar .........................................................................................................294 Beam Cross Section Property Solver ..............................................................................296 Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements..................................................297 Defining a Cross Section .................................................................................................298 Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties .................300 Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver .........................................................................301 Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers ................................................................303

HyperLaminate and Composites
HyperLaminate Module....................................................................................................304 HyperLaminate Environment ...........................................................................................305 HyperLaminate Menus .....................................................................................................306 HyperLaminate Toolbar ...................................................................................................308 Laminate Browser............................................................................................................309 Define/Edit Pane ..............................................................................................................313 Review Pane ....................................................................................................................323

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Finite Difference Module
Finite Difference Module ..................................................................................................324 Creating a Finite Difference Block...................................................................................324 Creating a Structured Mesh.............................................................................................325

Boundary Conditions
Loads on Geometry .........................................................................................................327 Terminology and Definitions ............................................................................................328 Application of Loads to Geometry ...................................................................................329 Exporting Loads ...............................................................................................................330 Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh ..............................................330 Distributed Load Mapper .................................................................................................331 Load an input file containing CFD analysis results .........................................................333 Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, or ANSYS input file format) ...............................................................................................................334 Select a data type and a mapping method......................................................................334 Set the scale factor ..........................................................................................................334 Set the mapping algorithm ...............................................................................................335 Mathematical Loading......................................................................................................336

Post-Processing and XY Plots
Post-Processing Analysis ................................................................................................338 HyperMesh Results Database.........................................................................................338 Specifying the Results File ..............................................................................................339 Creating Deformed Geometry Plots ................................................................................339 Creating Animations.........................................................................................................339 Creating Vector Plots .......................................................................................................340 Creating Contour Plots.....................................................................................................340 Creating Assigned Plots ..................................................................................................340 Adding Plot Identification .................................................................................................341 Inspecting the Results......................................................................................................341 XY Plotting .......................................................................................................................342 XY Plots Module...............................................................................................................343 Creating an XY Plot .........................................................................................................344 Modifying an XY Plot........................................................................................................344 Working with Multiple XY Plots ........................................................................................344
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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide v

Modifying Multiple XY Plots .............................................................................................344 Creating Curves on XY Plots ...........................................................................................345 Modifying Curve Attributes...............................................................................................347 Displaying Selected Curves on Plots ..............................................................................347 Using the Curve Editor.....................................................................................................348

AutoDV
AutoDV Introduction .........................................................................................................351 Generation of Perturbation Vectors.................................................................................352 Manual Perturbation.........................................................................................................352 Polynomial Perturbation Vectors .....................................................................................353 Primary Domain Model ....................................................................................................353 Primary Domain Node Sets .............................................................................................354 Control Perturbations .......................................................................................................355 Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets ....................................................................357 Harmonic Perturbation Vectors .......................................................................................359 Generation of Variable Loads ..........................................................................................361 Running AutoDV Stand-alone .........................................................................................363

H3D Writer
Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh ...........................................................................365 H3D FAQ's .......................................................................................................................369

Free Body Diagrams
Free Body Diagrams........................................................................................................370 FBD Set Manager ............................................................................................................371 FBD Displacements .........................................................................................................375 FBD Forces ......................................................................................................................378 FBD Cross-section manager ...........................................................................................381 FBD Resultant Force and Moment ..................................................................................383 FBD Results Manager......................................................................................................386 FBD Export Manager .......................................................................................................388 FBD Grid Point Force Balance ........................................................................................390

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0 User’s Guide 1 . a small portion of source code that controls the graphically oriented operations. IBM running AIX 4. HP-PARISC (HPUX) running 11. However. or 5. Notes for PC Users If you are running Windows NT (depending on model size or processor speed) you may wish to turn the full drag option off. All UNIX ports are built around OpenGL. please contact your HyperMesh sales representative.2.5. Some platforms may have limitations or extensions.3.13 m. Silicon Graphics family of workstations running IRIX 6. For more specific information concerning your hardware/software configuration.0 or 11. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or information concerning future platforms.0. HP-ITANIUM (HPUX_IA32) running 11. WIN 2000/XP.1. LINUX running RH 7.Hardware and Operating Systems HyperMesh is not tied to a specific set of computer hardware or operating system and presents the same appearance on all platforms.11 m and IRIX 6.5. depending on their level of sophistication.3.23.3 or RH 8. In general.11.0. 5. needs to be "ported" to each hardware platform on which HyperMesh runs. Most of the HyperMesh source code is independent and can be compiled on various systems. such as drawing a line on the screen. The following hardware platforms are currently supported: • • • • • • • Pentium-based PC or compatible running Windows WIN NT 4.8. SUN workstations running Solaris 2. HyperMesh has an identical appearance and behavior on all platforms. which prevents HyperMesh from redrawing immediately when a destructive windowing operation is performed. This option is found in the Desktop icon in the Control Panel group.

Windows 2000. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. 2.0/altair/script/hm’ Once an alias is created.alias or . Or Create an alias for HyperMesh in the user .cfg configuration file. 2 HyperMesh 8. see Configuring HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can create a start-up file or alter the HyperMesh configuration file. For more information about the hm. to have HyperMesh start and run according to the standards and preferences of your particular work site. <altair_home>/altair/scripts/hm) and press the ENTER key. At the operating system prompt. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh. Starting HyperMesh in UNIX This section contains the instructions and optional arguments for starting HyperMesh on a UNIX workstation. add the following line in the . and Windows XP platforms. see Start-up Files. To start HyperMesh: 1.Starting HyperMesh This section explains how to start HyperMesh on UNIX.alias or . enter the full path of the HyperMesh script (e.cshrc file: alias hm ‘/homes/applications/hm8.cshrc file in the user home directory.g. enter hm at the command prompt to invoke HyperMesh. Note: For more information about creating and using start-up files. hm. For example.cfg..

or Click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. Since HyperMesh creates user files. 3.Starting HyperMesh on PC During installation. User profiles affect the HyperMesh layout as well as features such as element quality checks. click Start and choose Programs. From the Start menu. The quit button is located on the upper right-hand corner of the panel area on any of the main menu pages. The default working directory specified by the HyperMesh icon is the Windows default My Documents directory. an Altair HyperWorks group is created in Programs on the Start menu. The user profiles window is also accessible from the view pull-down menu. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. By default. 2. 5. To exit HyperMesh. To start HyperMesh: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you may wish to change this directory. a window opens prompting you to choose a user profile. From the Altair HyperWorks group: select HyperMesh. Uncheck always show at startup to prevent this window from opening each time you load HyperMesh. click quit. HyperMesh starts and the main menu is displayed on the screen. 4.0 User’s Guide 3 . Choose the desired user profile and then click OK.

3. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. 5. 3. 4 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2. 4. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop.set. enter the name and path of the directory in which you want to run HyperMesh. The path to the HyperMesh executable displays after Target:. Append the startup options to the path listed in Target:. 2. Click Apply. command. Select the Shortcut tab. Your user files. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. Select Properties. To change/use startup options: 1. Select the Shortcut tab. 4. After Start in:.cmf and hmmenu. enter -nocommand after the HyperMesh path. if you do not want HyperMesh to write a command file. Select Properties. are created in this directory.To change the working directory: 1. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. For example.

etc.cmf and press ENTER. Locate and right-click on the hmbatch(. 3. Append the option. 5. 4. HyperMesh commands that require display (e. command. Since this batch version does not have graphical display. To start HyperMesh batch version on UNIX: 1.com) executable file in the /hm/bin directory. Click Apply. postscript.g. –ccommand. fit. 2. create. After Cmd line:. Select Properties. Right -click on the hmbatch icon on the desktop.0 User’s Guide 5 .cmf.cmf contains the HyperMesh commands to be executed. hmbatch terminates when it reaches the end of the command file or when it encounters *quit( ) in the command file. 6.Starting HyperMesh Batch Version HyperMesh batch version (hmbatch) allows you to invoke HyperMesh in batch mode at the command line and run a command file. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh. type hmbatch –ccommand. At the operating system prompt. to this path. Note: See Start-up Options for more information about the start-up arguments you can use. To start HyperMesh batch version on PC: 1. plot.) are ignored. Select the programs tab. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. the path to the hmbatch executable is displayed.

Use the results file. The format of the command is: hm [ -version ] [-h] [-m] where: -version -h -m Display the current version. Plays back the mouse commands in the mouse. Automatically load the specified HyperMesh binary file.res). Set the text input field in the export panel to the specified file. Sets the global template file to the specified file. Do not prompt via a pop-up box.set. change screen resolutions.set file to replace the installed hmmenu.res suffix. res (-r alone specifies the file fl.hm -c<filename> -continue Read the HyperMesh file. Automatically run the specified command file. or to print messages. fl. Sets the name of the HyperMesh results file database to either the input filename with a .msf file. Allows you to write a master hmmenu. nodes are not drawn.msf file Other options that can be specified after the start-up command allow you to specify model or results files or run command or mouse files. Causes HyperMesh to pause on the title splash screen until you press a key on the keyboard. Print this message. or the specified file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Write the mouse commands to a mouse. pre-set export paths.hm. -e<filename> <filename> -mmouse.cmf file. Start HyperMesh under a specific user profile: for example. Prevents HyperMesh from creating or writing to the command. -uAnsys to start HyperMesh under the Ansys user profile. Causes HyperMesh to draw nodes to the PostScript file as circles. Always continue on error when processing a command file. Forces HyperMesh to run in the foreground.msf -nobg -nocommand -psdhm -r[filename] -rres -s<width><height> -templex -t<filename> -titlepause -u<profile> -writemastermenu 6 HyperMesh 8. Otherwise. Allows Templex within command files. These options include: fl. Opens the application in a window of the specified width and height in pixels (PC only).Start-up Options You can enter arguments after the hm command that allow you to specify which command file to run.

or all of the commands may be on one line. A command can be turned into a comment by removing the asterisk (*) preceding the command.cfg file exists in multiple directories.cfg file controls certain aspects of how HyperMesh runs at your particular site. The following commands are an example of a partial hm. Each of the hm.cfg file to save your preferences. hm.cfg.cfg file are acknowledged. They may begin in any column. The hm. which is read on start-up and is located in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/ directory.cfg commands begins with an asterisk and is followed by a set of parentheses that enclose a variable number of arguments.cfg file: *menufont(2) *titlefont(3) *graphicfont(1) Note: HyperMesh accesses the configuration file.0 User’s Guide 7 .Configuring HyperMesh HyperMesh has a default configuration file named hm. HyperMesh uses the following order of precedence: PC customization path current (local) directory installation directory UNIX current (local) directory home directory installation directory All running copies of HyperMesh must be restarted before any changes to the hm.cfg. The commands in the hm. If the hm. The commands are not sensitive to location in the file. You can edit the commands in the hm. with each command occupying one line. menumenufont_configuration_command>Config.cfg file allow you to: • • • • • Specify an absolute pointing deviceabsolutepointer_configuration_command>Config Enable buttonbuttons_configuration_command>Config and dialdials_configuration_command>Config input Specify default translatorsfeinput_default_configuration_command>Config and templatesfeoutput_default_configuration_command>Config Specify the default solversregistersolver_configuration_command>Config Specify default graphicsgraphicfont_configuration_command>Config. and titlestitlefont_configuration_command>Config fonts Specify the default legend colorlegendcolorfile_configuration_command>Config Specify a color to use for entities with no resultsnoresultcolor_configuration_command>Config Change cursor sizebigcursors_configuration_command>Config Turn element and geom handlesnopickhandles_configuration_command>Config off by default Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending PostScript files to a PostScript printerpostcopy_configuration_command>Config Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending black and white PostScript filespostcopyblackandwhite_configuration_command>Config to a PostScript printer • • • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. only on start -up.

key bindings. deleting this file can restore your HyperMesh settings to the default state if you encounter problems within the HyperMesh user interface that you cannot rectify by any other means. or ug. However.cfg file Any printer settings (which may also exist in hm. such as catia.ini files. However.tcl. iges.ini.cfg file hmexec file feconfig. called hmsettings. HyperMesh uses this file to record various GUI settings for each user. administrators must set up an environment variable called HW_CONFIG_PATH to specify the path.g. Customization paths You can store configuration files in a file path other than the ones to which they are installed by default.tcl file 8 HyperMesh 8.set file Cadreader. This prevents them from being overwritten when you install a new HyperWorks update. tabs which are visible (e. Multiple paths can be specified as variable values within this variable name. in order to use configuration files stored in a different file path. hmcustom. Set the screen size Specify the colormap version Set the default graphics simplification mode Tells HyperMesh to load the 3D Writer Specify the input translator and component format Specifies which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system Display the Utility menu when HyperMesh starts Include intermediate (not just the final choice) rotation commands There is another configuration file stored in "My Documents" on the Windows platform and in ~/.cfg).ini Fatigue. such as tab locations (left/right/both/none).altair on Unix and Linux.mac file hmmenu. HyperMesh creates this file automatically when upon exiting the program.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .cfg file hyperlaminate.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Note: Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending ASCII files to a PostScript printerprintfile_configuration_command>Config Specify how to create a PostScript file of the screenpostfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Specify how to create a bitmap file of the screenscreenfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Indicate to HyperMesh the method for creating bitmap files Set reverse video when your printer cannot be set to reverse black and white.tcl should not be edited and its format will change between releases.cfg file userpage. recent files imported and recent files loaded. Hmsettings. model or include browser).ini. The configuration files which can be used in conjunction with customization paths are: hm.

Configuration File Commands The following is a list of the configuration commands that you can use to control how HyperMesh runs at your particular site: *absolutepointer() Use this command if you have a digitizing tablet or any other type of absolute pointing device. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text.) *bigcursors() Informs HyperMesh that pointing cursors should be double-sized when they are displayed on the screen. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can also change the cursor size by selecting large or standard under cursor size: on the menu config sub-panel in the options panel.0 User’s Guide 9 . (An absolute pointer usually has six buttons. *boldmenufont(state) state 1 = bold 0 = use current value Comments The menu system in HyperMesh. under Windows. *boldmenufont () Description Syntax To force the menu font to bold on windows. This command allows you to force the menu system to use a bold font.

0.999937705) *quatrotate(-0. if the *dials() command is not added to the configuration file. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations. the following output is generated: *dynamicviewbegin() *quatrotate(-0.7397916e005.000673180986. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations.00228960797.999966514) *quatrotate(0.0. Syntax *controlkeyviewmode(mode) mode Note: 0 = immediate mode 1 = use display listing (default) When display listing is used. A value of 1 (default) to the function aligns the Y-axis of the coordinate system in the direction of FE and a value of 0 defines Xaxis and a value 2 defines Z-axis.0.999985423) 10 HyperMesh 8.-5. *ce_fe_orientaxis() This command is called from the HyperMesh configuration file to specify the axis of the system that needs to be aligned in the direction of FE during connector realization. *dials() This command informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with dials that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode. HyperMesh does not respond to dial input. but a lower frame rate (slower).0.00994070323.0. In this case.0.0. but the operation will have a higher frame rate (faster). HyperMesh does not respond to button input.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . See *CE_FE_SetDetailsandRealize() for information on creating a coordinate system during realization.0. In this case.0047803938.*buttons() Informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with buttons that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode. Immediate mode results in a faster initial response time. Syntax Arguments Example *dynamicrotatemode(mode) mode Set to 1 or 0.00170778765. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu (See *buttons()). if the *buttons() command is not added to the configuration file. *controlkeyviewmode() Specify whether display listing should be done during control key assisted viewing. *dynamicrotatemode() Sets mode for output of intermediate rotation commands.00785649346. there may be a delay in the operation while the display list is being built. When mode is set to 1.000802068982. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu.00529684395.

9 99998898) *quatrotate(-0. Comments A symbolic name begins with a '#' character followed by the specification of the translator. Comments 0.722177. -3. 0.964252. The symbolic name for each translator is listed below: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2.761037. 0. By default.657815. the following output is generated: *viewset(-0.886445. -8. 0 = off. reducing the size of the command file.030465.703590. 0. only the finial position is output. When the mode is set to 1.0. 1 = on (default).999996393) *dynamicviewend() When mode is set to 0.213868.000000.*quatrotate(0. You can display or hide the utility menu from within HyperMesh by selecting Utility Menu from the View pull-down menu. *enablemacromenu() This specifies whether or not the macro Utility Menu should display when the program loads.623743. 0. -3.000000.00106667981. the Utility menu is displayed.000327769044. Syntax *feinputdefault(filename) Arguments entity_type The name of any file found in the feinput directory.299006.0.621393) 5.0. 0. The specification contains two parts separated with a '\'.0. *feinputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which translator in the import/CUSTOM sub-panel is the default.0 User’s Guide 11 .612440.0.000230328525. 0. -0.00100703597.0. -0. 0. Otherwise.000000. intermediate *quadrotate() rotation commands are output to the command file. 0. or a symbolic name for the translator. 8. The first part is the type of translator and the second part is a specific version of the translator. 0.575689.000000.00263644785.756111.000395387048. 1.583235.485656.

FE: #abaqus\abaqus #ansys\ansys #cmold\cmold #moldflow\moldflow #nastran\nastran #patran\patran #marc\marc #optistruct\optistruct #ls-dyna\dynakey #ls-dyna\\dynaseq #pamcrash\pamcrash #ideas\ideas #autodv\autodv #stl\stl #hmascii\hmascii GEOM: #catia\catia #iges\iges #ug\ug_16 #ug\ug_15 #stl\stl #vdafs\vdafs #hmascii\hmascii WELD: #spotweld\spotweld *feoutputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which template is the default. 12 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This command requires one argument which can be set to the name of any file found in the template/feoutput directory.

Syntax Note: *forceoldmenufonts() The menu system in HyperMesh. curComp) mode 0 = none 1 = automatic (default) 2 = Ctrl-Shift 0 1 2 3 4 5 = no simplification = feature lines (default) = bounding box = node cloud = element centroid = simplified shading style curComp 0 = do not simplify current component (default) 1 = simplify current component Note: If mode = 0. element handles.*forceoldmenufonts () To force the menu font to the old style. The font size may also be changed during a HyperMesh session using the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. style is set using the simplification style switch and curComp is set using the simplify current comp check box. Syntax *graphicsimplificationmode(mode. This option can also be set using the engine: toggle in the graphics sub-panel of the options panel. The default simplification mode for performance graphics can also be set in the graphics subpanel in the options panel. *graphicsimplificationmode() Sets the default simplification mode for performance graphics. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text.0 User’s Guide 13 . Syntax *graphicengine(mode) mode 0 = standard graphics 1 = performance graphics *graphicfont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display numbers. *graphicengine() Sets the default graphics mode. where: mode is set using view acceleration and when view acceleration is set to automatic or Ctrl-Shift. This command allows you to force the menu system to use the historical fonts. style and curComp are not required. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). under Windows. style. and legends in the graphics area.

80). To circumvent this. The color must be between 1 and 64. Pick handles will be turned off when HyperMesh is started and turned off whenever a new file is loaded. where R.80.100). The only information unknown at startup is the name of the file.128).cfg file. This command requires one argument that can be set to the name of any file found in the <install_directory>/hm/colors directory. Syntax *legendsetbordercolor(color) Comments *menufont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display the menu. if this command is specified.B). You can copy this file into your home directory and customize many of the default settings. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. black (0. *postcopy() is invoked when you press CTRL-F3. This command links the PostScript capability of HyperMesh and allows plots of the currently displayed screen to be printed directly from HyperMesh. white (255. The default gray color values are *noresultcolor(80.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 0-D elements (such as contact slave elements and mass elements) cannot be seen easily.0.175. For example. The element and geometry pick handles can be set in the modeling sub-panel of the options panel. Other colors include: dark blue (0. if you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command postprt junk.255. a character string closed in double quotes "". Green and Blue. Syntax legendcolorfile(file) *legendsetbordercolor() Allows you to set the border color. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. The command requires one parameter. The color assigned to these no result entities is specified in the hm.G. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. inclusively 14 HyperMesh 8. then you would use *postcopy("postprt junk"). *nopickhandles() Informs HyperMesh that you wish to have element and geometry pick handles off by default.0). For testing purposes. *noresultcolor() Elements or nodes for which no results were found are assigned a color (default = gray) to distinguish them from an actual 0 result. The default color is specified with *noresultcolor(R. The font size may also be changed in the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. *postcopy() Informs HyperMesh how to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. You can experiment with the values in the color sub-panel of the options panel. G. however. The complete *postcopy() command of the above example is *postfile("postprt *filename").0. or khaki (210. The string is sent to the operating system and should be the standard command which you would use to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer.255). This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). This improves graphic performance. and B are the intensity values for Red. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *postcopy() command to the operating system.*legendcolorfile() Informs HyperMesh which legend color file should be the default.

In general. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *printfile() command to the operating system. If you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command print_it junk. "Hyper3D") Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. By default. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. The string provided is sent to the operating system and should be the command which you normally use to send a file to a printer. This command is only used in the command file. Provided for consistency with the *screenfile() and *screencopy() commands. "". Syntax Argument *rapidmenus(mode) mode 0 1 Comments Disable rapid menus.1"}.S. PC Users: *register3dwriter({bin_dir+"/hm3dwriter31. use *printfile("print_it junk"). To circumvent this.0 User’s Guide 15 .*postcopyblackandwhite() Identical to the *postcopy() command.g. For testing purposes. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. *postcopyblackandwhite() is invoked when you press CTRL-F5."Hyper3D") UNIX Users: *register3dwriter({bindir+"/hm3dwriter3. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. The complete *printfile() command of the above example is *printfile("print_it *filename")./non-HyperMesh) tasks. O. *printfile() is invoked in the summary panel on the Post page.dll"}. but allows you to use a different command to send a black and white PostScript file to a printer."Hyper3Dwrite". the string parameter required is set to a zero length string. a character string closed in double quotes. *rapidmenus() The rapid menu functionality for the middle mouse button may be turned off with this command. The only information unknown at start-up is the name of the file. This command requires one parameter. Enable rapid menus. *register3dwriter() Tells HyperMesh to activate the H3D writer. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. rapid menu functionality is enabled. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename."Hyper3Dwrite". For testing purposes. *postfile() Sends the currently displayed screen to a PostScript file. Disabling it may be desirable if you use the middle mouse button for other (e. *printfile() Informs HyperMesh how to send an ASCII file to a printer.

This command allows you to set up and customize the solver panel in HyperMesh. a file is created but not spooled to the print device (the CTRL-F1 and CTRL-F2 keys function identically) and you must click the active HyperMesh window to trigger the screen capture."{home}\ {solver}". This command takes several arguments: Syntax *registersolver({solver}. after substituting the user-input parameters. one for the solver executable. a site-specific operating system utility is called to create and spool the image to the printing device. *input is replaced by the input file (the extension is always .*registersolver() Informs HyperMesh which solvers are available and how to invoke them. one for the memory in MB. *reversevideo() Informs HyperMesh that before the strings provided as parameters in the *screencopy() and *screenfile() commands are sent to the operating system."outfile:output file". which is a value. Reverse video can also be set in the postscript sub-panel of the options panel. *screencopy() Tells HyperMesh how to create a temporary bitmap file of the screen and send it to a hard copy device."*solver *input file *output file *options". one for the input file name. Each character string represents an input field. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. it is very similar to the *printfile() command."infile:input file". The solver field can be of type value or file.fem.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .fem *memory in MB. Functionally. A character string that is of type file or value."value:options") solver The name that you want to appear on the toggle in the solver panel. A maximum of six fields are allowed per solver. the colors representing black and white should be reversed. The number of strings is identical to the substitutable fields in the third argument. The name of the solver executable file. By default. "file:output") Arguments This command creates a solver panel with four user-input fields. and one for the output file name. optistruct.out". The third parameter undergoes the substitution with the user-input values. Example *registersolver(OPTISTRUCT. A file named sliden.sdp is created by HyperMesh. "file:input". 16 HyperMesh 8. depending on the expected input. This command is necessary only if the hard copy device on your system is not reverse video capable. "*solver *input. *solver is replaced by the solver executable name. "value:memory in MB".out). For more information on spooling bitmapped files directly to the printer. The status bar indicates when the screen grab is complete. A character string that is passed to the operating system to invoke the solver.) *memory in MB is replaced by the value. > *output. contact your systems administrator. On UNIX platforms. *output is replaced with the user-selected output file (the extension for output file is always .

*screensize(1200. while screen resolutions are typically listed width by height. contact your system administrator. a bitmap file is generated using the utility defined in the *screenfile() function (typically xwd) and output to a unique file using the same process as above.0 User’s Guide 17 . (0 through 255) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. if your desktop runs at a resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels (an aspect ratio of 1. The numbers are physical measurements of the display area of the screen (width. the length/width ratio of the objects may be distorted. When *screensize(14. The second parameter is the vertical (y) dimension of the screen. Note: in some cases. you must select the HyperMesh window to indicate which window to capture. Syntax *setcolor(index. After you press CTRL-F2. height. The *screensize() option changes the aspect ratio of the images drawn in the graphics area.sdf is created by HyperMesh. For more information about creating bitmap screen images. For example. height). The name of the file can be accessed with the characters *filename. A message on the status bar indicates when the screen capture is complete. On UNIX platforms. red. The units used are not important but must be consistent. (0 through 255) The color’s blue component. measure the horizontal dimension of the usable portion of the screen excluding any borders in the default window that HyperMesh creates (or the entire screen if your system does not use windows). it is very similar to the *printfile() command. it’s important to remember to use the correct order for the command (e. Functionally. To find this value. thus. To determine this value.30) is implemented. follow the same method as described above and measure the vertical dimension of the screen. blue) index red green blue Specifies the color location.g. *setcolor() Set a colormap entry for each of the entity colors. In such cases. On the PC.1920) should allow HyperMesh to render undistorted images. change the two values to any numbers that have the same aspect ratio of the screen resolution that you use.75.6).bmp file that can be read into wordprocessing programs. Remember that the command parameters represent height and width respectively. width). although the look of HyperMesh doesn’t change. (0 through 255) The color’s green component. the proportions of the objects is corrected. If you use a wide aspect ratio screen. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. *screensize() Informs HyperMesh of the physical size of your monitor. even after specifying the screen measurements the display can still appear distorted. HyperMesh generates a *. (1 through 64) The color’s red component. A file named sliden.8. The first parameter is the horizontal (x) dimension of the screen. green. The command requires two parameters in real format separated by a comma.*screenfile() Informs HyperMesh how to create a bitmap file of the screen that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device (such as a printer). Circles may look like ovals.

in/out of screen. and the following: ‘ ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * . while the second parameter specifies the format you want your components to follow when importing them to HyperMesh. "TYPE%t-MAT%m-REAL%r<-SECID%s>-ESYS%e") %t %m %r % <> %e Place the type number here. y. Place the section ID number here.*setcomponentformat() The first parameter of this command specifies which feinput translator you would like to use. 0-9.0. spaces.cfg file or from a command file. Symbols mean that everything encapsulated between the two symbols is displayed only if the element uses a section ID.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .0. Place the real number here. 0. horizontal direction of screen. Y axis location. The default setting is 0. z) x y z Comments X axis location. Place the element coordinate system number here. 18 HyperMesh 8. vertical direction of screen. . *setlightsource() Set direction of the global light source. Example: *setcomponentformat(ansys. Currently. Here are some examples of what the component above will show: TYPE3-MAT2 -REAL2-ESYS2 TYPE1-MAT1 -REAL1-ESYS0 TYPE2-MAT2 -REAL3-SECID1-ESYS0 The following characters can be used to customize the name of the components: A-Z. a-z. Place the material number here. 1. : ‘ / ? . Syntax *setlightsource(x. only the ANSYS feinput translator supports this command. which represents lighting the model as you are looking at it. This command may be used in either the hm.0.( ) _ = + \ | [ ] } . Z axis location.

7.0.1. Raising or decreasing shading quality by 1 roughly doubles or halves the quality.0. this usually occurs in models that are large in one direction. After altering this value you must restart HyperMesh to see the changes.cfg file (where N is a number between 1 and 10. but small in another direction. Example Settings may be used to simulate different materials: Glass *setspecularity(1. or from a command file.cfg file.5.0.5.0 – 1.0) The blue component of the reflected light (range 0. *setspecularity(0.0 – 1.64) Lead *shadingquality() Shaded geometry visualization sometimes does not follow the actual geometry.0 – 1.0) The green component of the reflected light (range 0. shininess) red green blue The red component of the reflected light (range 0.128) Plastic *setspecularity(0. Add or modify the *shadingquality(N) command in the hm. Syntax *setperformancenormalmode(mode) mode Comments 0 = flat normals (default) 1 = smooth normals This command can only be used in the configuration file. The amount of specular reflection seen depends on the location of the viewpoint. It is brightest along direct angle of reflection.5. Syntax *setspecularity(red. blue. that N does not need to be an integer—decimal values are acceptable.1. the smaller and brighter the highlight (range 0 – 128) shininess Comments This command may be used in either the hm. *setspecularity() Set the global specular highlight values for performance graphics mode. The higher the value.*setperformancenormalmode() Set the performance graphics normal mode.0) The shininess value.7.32) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0. Specular reflection from an object produces highlights. 5 is the default).7. Note.0.0 User’s Guide 19 .0.0. however. green.

*xfontname() Informs HyperMesh which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system. *titlefont() Informs HyperMesh which font size should be used to display titles. the X Lib utilities are usually distributed with a program called xfontsel. but may cause the rest of the system’s colors to change when the HyperMesh window is active and HyperMesh’s colors to change when the window is not active. However. or a similar one. The first parameter indicates which of the four HyperMesh fonts is being assigned. *. displays the possible X Lib font sets interactively. In general.*sharedcolormap() Informs HyperMesh which colormap method should be used in the X version. With a shared colormap. if your system is unique or if HyperMesh warns about one of the default fonts. This command requires two parameters. Note that the font size may also be changed in the titles panel on the Post page. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). some colors in HyperMesh may not be available and appear as black. A non-shared colormap can be used. the configuration file should have the appropriate fonts for your system. The X version of HyperMesh requires a 256 color palette. the *xfontname() command must be modified. the system colormap does not have 256 colors available. characters in the name. On some platforms. This string may contain wild card. To assist you in determining the best X Lib font to assign to HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This parameter may range from 1 to 4. The second parameter is a string which locates the X Lib font which you want to assign to the HyperMesh font. 20 HyperMesh 8. This program.

and then generates the same entities as specified by the command. Specifying a Temporary File Directory You can set the environment variable to control where temporary HyperMesh files are created. problems may arise if you later want to rerun the command. be aware that if you create entities in the start-up file. if it exists. 2. The directories searched include your customization path (if one is set up). Select the Environment tab. HOME). 3. including those generated by your start-up file. Although start-up files may contain any of the commands considered valid in a command file. 4. Execute any task that you want the start-up file to automatically perform when HyperMesh opens. or delete the start-up file commands in command. 5. . The file must be a HyperMesh command file and is named . After you have generated all of the necessary commands. it looks for this file and then processes the commands within the file.0 User’s Guide 21 . it generates the entities specified in the start-up file.hmexec or hmexec. quit HyperMesh. Click OK. the directory where HyperMesh is installed.cmf file.cmf file created during your HyperMesh session.hmexec on UNIX systems and hmexec on Windows systems. To avoid this problem. To create a start-up file: 1.cmf to the file name particular to your system.cmf file when HyperMesh is started. 2. Start-up files allow you to automatically define global parameters for the current session of HyperMesh. On the Control panel. If you rerun the command. 3. If the environment variable is set. When HyperMesh is invoked.cmf.cmf file. you can either not generate any entities in the start-up file. the commands which were written when the start-up file was executed initially.cmf before you run it. double click the System folder.. then the temporary files are created with an HM prefix in the referenced directory. 5. Edit the text after Value: to specify the correct path to the directory in which you want temporary files created.Start-up Files HyperMesh allows you to create a start-up file that can be used to either execute a series of commands or to define global parameters. and the directory from which HyperMesh was invoked. All commands executed by the HyperMesh command processor are written to the command file command. Rename command. Click the TMP line under User variables for . your home directory (where your home directory is assumed to be specified in the environment variable. 4. To set the environment variable in UNIX: SETENV TMPDIR <directory path> To set the environment variable in Windows: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Delete the command.. Start HyperMesh.

The original database does not change until you save the model. Free points are not associated with a surface and are labeled with a small "x. are organized within collectors.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Fixed points are displayed in the same color as the surface to which they belong. lines. There are several types of collectors and each collector stores the model data relative to its type. at Altair we use the extension . The automesher always places nodes at fixed points. Note: See Database Names for more information about naming conventions. including nodes.hm for all HyperMesh binary databases. Fixed points may appear anywhere on a surface. All HyperMesh entities. and systems. Fixed Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. This convention allows you to determine easily which of the files in a directory are HyperMesh databases. Free Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. elements. This allows you to select nodes and elements by surface. See Using and Saving a Database for more information about saving HyperMesh files. or group. loads. vector. HyperMesh prompts you for confirmation before you exit. However. points. Vertices along the edges of a surface are always marked by fixed points. Nodes contain a pointer to a surface and are therefore associated to a surface. Nodes represent physical positions on the structure being modeled and are used by the element entity to define the location and shape of the element. HyperMesh entities include: Database Names There are no restrictions placed on HyperMesh database names other than those imposed by the operating system.HyperMesh Database Design A HyperMesh database stores information about many different entity types. all the changes that you have made during your work session are lost. A fixed point is associated with a surface and is labeled with a small "o"." 22 HyperMesh 8. Nodes are considered "used" if they are part of an element. if the current database has been modified but not saved. Nodes The node is the most basic finite element entity. If you exit HyperMesh without saving the current database. Using and Saving a Database While you work on a model. or are referenced by a card image. HyperMesh copies the database into system memory. HyperMesh automatically deletes from the database unused nodes and any loads that were attached to the unused nodes.

You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information in the header bar. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. Note: Use the display panel to control the screen display of the collectors in your model. and surfaces cannot exist unless a component collector exists. Collectors can be modified and the entities within them can be reorganized. line. elements. the elements are assigned properties from the property which they reference.0 User’s Guide 23 . You can use the collectors panel to modify the attributes of the auto1 component and the rename panel to change the name. Entities can belong to only one collector. If you have not created a component first. lines. rotated. or deleted. All entities within HyperMesh must belong to a collector. assigned colors. for example. HyperMesh automatically creates a collector for new entities if you do not create a collector first. and surface data. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This allows you to organize geometry data into units that can be translated.Collectors A collector gathers related data and allows you to handle the data as one unit. auto1. Operations performed on a component affect all the elements. Configurations 1-4 are created in the interfaces panel. HyperMesh automatically creates a component. and surfaces that belong to the component. In this case. Component Collectors Components are collectors that contain element. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. Lines. for those entities. an element cannot exist in two different collectors. see the organize panel. This restricted access lets HyperMesh translate special collections of entities as a unit and allows it to support advanced features of analysis codes. Configuration 5 is created in the rigid wall panel. Group Collectors Groups are collectors that are restricted to certain types of elements. Component collectors also retain property and material information about the entities that belong to it. For more information about reorganizing collectors. Note: Collector names are limited to 160 characters. All the elements in a component collector are assigned the same properties and materials except when the elements have a property reference.

Entity Information Collectors These collectors maintain information about the entities assigned to them: Property Property collectors contain property information about 1-D elements and are required only when a model contains one or more of the following elements: bar2 bar3 gap joint masses rod spring After you create a property collector. See the Finite Difference Module section for more information. Plot Curve Block 24 HyperMesh 8. then the model should have at least one material collector. Operations performed on an assembly do not affect the components in the assembly. you can select and display all the components that belong to it by selecting the assembly. You can set a component or property to the correct material collector by entering the collector name after material =. Curve collectors contain information about the curves of an xy plot. One plot collector is created for each plot in the database. Properties for all other element types.Assembly Collectors Assemblies are collectors that contain several components organized into a single logical unit. you can assign the specified properties to new 1-D elements by entering the collector name after property = when you create or update the elements. Material Material collectors contain information about the materials in a HyperMesh model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Plot collectors contain pointers to curve collectors. This information includes the name and color of the curve and the line style used to display the curve. Block collectors contain information relating to a finite difference block. 2-D or 3-D. For example. After an assembly is created. If a model contains any non-rigid elements. if you delete an assembly. including its walls and cells. A plot collector contains information associated with an xy plot. are assigned by the component to which the elements belong. the components in the assembly are not deleted. A curve is referenced by selecting the plot collector. Components can belong to more than one assembly.

The method by which loads are organized may depend on the analysis code that is used to solve the problem. Load Steps The load steps entity allows you to select a set of load collectors. The output blocks entity is used to store these nodes.0 User’s Guide 25 . A vector collector can hold any number of vectors. A load can belong to only one load collector. which allows you to access them as a unit. the set of load collectors represents a system loading condition. and mbjoints entities. simulating a system loading condition. Multibody Collectors Setting collector type to multibodies in the collectors panel provides functionality for the creation and modification of multibody collectors. A system can belong to only one system collector. Typically. elements. then HyperMesh creates a collector called auto1. and planes. Additional information that can be included in sets are the name of the set and the type of entity contained within the set. Multibody collectors serve multiple purposes: • • • Organizing HyperMesh’s ellipsoids. which allows you to access a group of systems as a unit. Note: A load cannot exist unless a load collector exists. Typically. Output Blocks Some solvers allow you to request output results for specific nodes or elements. components. a load collector contains loads that are to be applied at the same time. A system collector can hold any number of systems. Hold and define rigid body properties for multi-body analysis. Note: A system cannot exist unless a system collector exists. systems. or materials. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of systems. cylinders. Vector Collectors Vector collectors allow you to organize vectors. Sets Collectors Set collectors contain lists of entity IDs. mbplanes. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of loads. which can be composed of specified elements. Provide the rigid body reference for ellipsoids. Note: If no collector has been created prior to the creation of vectors. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. groups. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. nodes. Load Collectors Load collectors allow you to organize loads. or components (each set can contain only one type of entity).System Collectors System collectors allow you to organize local coordinate systems.

Review. creation method: assigns the multibody type specified in the card image= field. click and hold left mouse button in the model window until the cursor becomes a square. Moments of inertia and other rigid body properties are defined in the multibody collector’s card image. y. For an alternative method to define the center of gravity. duplicate system ensures a unique coordinate system is assigned to the created body by creating a duplicate of the selected coordinate system and assigning this duplicated coordinate system to the created body.Create a Multibody Collector The create sub-panel is used for creating multibody collectors. 26 HyperMesh 8. center of gravity. card image type. which is access through the card panel after the multibody collector has been created. Change. and z. select a node on in the model window. The multibody types available are based on the template loaded in the global panel. use system assigns the selected system to the created body. To modify the name of a multibody collector. and z= entry fields. The name= text field is provided for specifying a name for the multibody collector being created and for reviewing the names of already existing multibodies. The types of multibody collectors available are dependent on the loaded solver interface specified as a template file in the global panel. Define. If only surfaces or lines are available for selection. y=. the rename panel is available in the far left column of every HyperMesh page. change. The N1 box contains the same functionality as the N1 selection buttons found elsewhere in HyperMesh. and Reset a Multibody Collector The card image sub-panel is used to define. Setting creation method: to same as assigns a copy of the card image of another multibody collector to the created collector. Note: The element handles option in the modeling sub-panel (options panel) allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. body local system: defines the body local coordinate system of the created body by assigning a local coordinate system entity to the multibody collector. The same fields and options available in the create sub-panel are also available in the update subpanel. The name= field supports names up to 160 characters in length. click anywhere on the geometry to define a location. release the mouse button. drag the cursor over geometry to select it. Using or not using a card image has no bearing on how multibody collectors behave within HyperMesh and only effect data being exported. Setting creation method: to no card image specifies that a multibody collector type is to be assigned at the time of creation but one can be assigned later in the card image sub-panel. create provides four data blocks for defining: the collector’s name. To define a center of gravity location. review and reset the multibody collector type. Update a Multibody Collector The update sub-panel is provided to modify the body’s local coordinate system and center of gravity. body system assigns a copy of the local coordinate system assigned to the current multibody collector specified in the global panel. location of the center of gravity.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . center of gravity: provides an N1 node/geometry selection box to define the x. and the body’s local coordinate system. There are three ways to define the body’s orientation. The most common type of multibody collector is a "rigid body". click on the edit button under the N1 selection box to bring up x=.

i. quads. quad.Elements Each element entity performs a specific task to facilitate a controlled and complete interface between HyperMesh and the analysis codes. In modeling situations where specific analysis codes are used because of their unique capabilities. If a model uses only the basic element types. Element Configuration The element configuration defines the physical geometry (i. store. Each element has two associated variables: an element configuration and an element type. HyperMesh can transfer the model to several different analysis codes.e. The element configuration tells HyperMesh how to draw. trias. The element type allows you to define multiple analysis elements for each HyperMesh element.0 User’s Guide 27 . hex) of the element. the model is not considered generic and does not transfer between analysis codes. and work with the element. Element configurations include: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.e.. and rigids..

local vector. For example. Examples of different types of quads within ABAQUS are S4R and S4R5. to distinguish between the different types. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mass Master3 Master4 Penta15 Penta6 Pyramid5 Type Name Spherical Revolute Cylindrical Planar Universal Translational Locking # nodes 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 Orientation none/systems/nodes none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems 1-noded mass element (configuration 1). 3-noded bar element with property reference. 3-noded master interface element (configuration 123). or orientation node. or output translator. The template file HyperMesh uses to write the analysis deck recognizes the different element types and outputs them as configured.) 15-noded wedge solid element (configuration 215). 8-noded brick solid element (configuration 208).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . offsets. or orientation node. Supported Element Types HyperMesh supports the following element configurations: Bar2 Bar3 Gap Hex20 Hex8 Joint 2-noded bar element with property reference. 2-noded gap element with property reference and vector (configuration 70).) 4-noded master interface element (configuration 124). 5-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 205). (Must be Type 1. and pin flags (configuration 60).Element Type Defines the category of the element. local vector. and pin flags (configuration 63). 20-noded brick solid element (configuration 220). 28 HyperMesh 8. or 6-noded element with property and orientation systems or nodes. if an analysis code has two different quad elements and you wish to use both in a model. 2-. assign type1 to the first type of quad element and type 2 to the second type of quad element. A joint element does not allow types other than specified below. Note: For more specific information about using the HyperMesh templates. The type of the element controls the number of nodes used in the element and the permissible orientations of the element (configuration 22). (Must be Type 1. 4-. 6-noded wedge solid element (configuration 206). which allows the template. refer to Template Design. offsets.

and a property reference (configuration 21). Each node contains a coefficient (weighting factor) and a user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 56). 2-noded rigid element with user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 5). Multi-noded element with one independent node and a variable number of dependent nodes. Rigid Rigidlink Rod Slave1 Slave3 Slave4 Spring Tetra10 Tetra4 Tria3 Tria6 Weld Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 10-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 210). 1-noded slave interface element (configuration 135). 3-noded triangular shell element (configuration 103). 6-noded triangular shell element (configuration 106). (Must be Type 1. 8-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 108).) 4-noded slave interface element (configuration 134). an orientation vector. 2-noded beam element with property reference (configuration 61).) 3-noded slave interface element (configuration 133). The independent node has user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 55).0 User’s Guide 29 .) 2-noded spring element with user-defined degrees of freedom. (Must be Type 1.Pyramid13 Plot Quad4 Quad8 RBE3 13-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 213) 2-noded plot element used for display purposes (configuration 2). 4-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 204). Multi-noded element with one dependent node and a variable number of independent nodes. (Must be Type 1. 2-noded rigid element (configuration 3). 4-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 104).

Line segments are maintained as a single line entity. No nodes are placed along a suppressed edge. Under certain conditions.Lines The line entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. A joint is the common point between two line segments. Used to represent conics such as a circle. Non-manifold edges can be turned into shared edges by deleting one of the attached surfaces. Shared Suppressed Non-Manifold /Duplicate 30 HyperMesh 8. However. and their color is determined by the status of the component. In general. Suppressed edges allow the mesh to flow across or over these boundaries.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Surface edges include: Free A free edge (displayed red) is a surface edge that belongs to a single surface which does not have other surfaces aligned with it within the specified cleanup tolerance. A shared edge (displayed green) is a surface edge that is shared between exactly 2 surfaces. NURBS can exactly represent the piecewise parametric cubic splines they replace. The end point of each line segment is connected to the first point of the next segment. ruled. you can use surface edges as free lines. as well as many other types of curves. A line can be composed of a single line type or multiple line types. Lines from CAD data are not attached to surfaces. These edges (displayed yellow) are shared by more than two surfaces. All lines in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: • • • straight elliptical NURBS • • • Note: Used to represent a straight line between two points in space. You can use surface edges as a line in most panels. Suppressed edges (displayed blue dotted) are the internal face edges within a surface. Nodes are placed along this edge during automeshing and recognized during meshing of bordering surfaces. such as when you are working within the spline . Used to represent lines that are not straight or elliptical. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number and type of line segments to represent the geometry. or line drag panels. An edge is a trim line of a surface. By using elliptical segments or NURBS segments. A suppressed edge can be changed back to a shared edge. Each line type in a line is referred to as a segment. NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) may also be used to represent a straight or elliptical line. ellipse. These edges usually indicate a collapsed or very thin surface or a fully or partially duplicated surface. so operations performed on the line affect each segment of the line. A shared edge cannot be changed back to a free edge. circles can be represented exactly in HyperMesh. their color is determined by the surfaces to which they belong. but are then less efficient. or parabola.

0 User’s Guide 31 .The following panels can be used to create lines: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • circles fillets intersect lines section surface tangents The following panels can be used to change lines: delete line permute position project reflect reparam rotate scale translate Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Used to represent surfaces which are not definable by the above surface types. The following panels can be us ed to create surface entities: • • • • • • • • • • • surfaces primitives midsurface The following panels can be us ed to change surface entities: defeature permute position reflect rotate scale surface translate 32 HyperMesh 8. In general. All surfaces in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: plane cylinder/cone sphere torus NURBS Used to represent a planar surface. When a surface has several faces. Surfaces define 2-D regions that may be used in automatic mesh generation. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number of and type of surface faces to represent the geometry. Each surface type is referred to as a face. Each face contains a mathematical surface and edges to trim the surface (if required). Multiple types are used for more complex surfaces that contain sharp corners or highly complex shapes. Used to represent cylindrical or conical surfaces.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Used to represent a toroidal surface. A HyperMesh surface can be made of a single surface type or of multiple surface types.Surfaces and Faces The surface entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. Operations performed on the surface affect all the faces that comprise the surface. Used to represent a spherical surface. NURBS may also be used to represent the above surface types but they are not as efficient. HyperMesh maintains all of the faces as a single surface entity.

You can use the systems panel to modify the reference coordinate system of an entity. nodal points. A constraint. Note: A system may be a reference system. if you define a cylindrical structure in a cylindrical coordinate system. Cards The card entity allows you to create control cards such as CPU limits or Title cards. the position of the entity is maintained relative to the global system in the transformation process. Control cards are defined within templates and are specific to one FE solver.0 User’s Guide 33 . all the entities that were defined in that system are transferred to the global system. vectors can be created between two nodes and can change magnitude and direction as those nodes move through analysis. Several systems may be nested. the model retains its cylindrical shape and also its location in space. If you delete a system. temperatures. Vectors The vector entity allows you to define a three dimensional vector in the database. the orientation of the constraint is dictated by the local system. you must set the proper orientation for element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom. and mass elements. or spherical. an analysis system. By default. HyperMesh allows you to modify the analysis system of an entity when you define the analysis system. Additionally. Analysis systems are typically used to transform element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom from the global system to a local system. or both. HyperMesh does not maintain the proper orientation for the constraint when you create or delete local systems at the node where the constraint resides. In HyperMesh. as HyperMesh does not maintain these in the transfer from the local system to the global system. concentrated forces. When you delete an analysis system. concentrated moments. If a system does exist. When a reference system is deleted. The only entity that may be defined in an analysis system is a node. loads. velocities. For example. Constraints. Entities that have a reference system are systems. each of these entities is defined in the global system with an ID of zero. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and an analysis system is used to transform the nodal coordinate system. is placed in the global system only if a system does not exist at that node. a reference system is used to define the geometric positions of entities. concentrated fluxes. may be rectangular. Entities are always displayed in the transformed global system. Loads The load entity allows you to add forces and constraints to the database. commonly called a coordinate system.Systems The system entity. accelerations. and then delete the system in which the nodes are defined. After a constraint has been applied. Loads are applied in the global system except when the reference system has been modified. applied at a node. Vectors are created in the global system unless a local coordinate system is defined. Vectors can be used for orientation of spring and gap elements or to specify a direction during selection. cylindrical. and pressures are currently supported.

the color of the title. and the text displayed in the title.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 34 HyperMesh 8. including the name of the title.Title Title collectors contain title information.

A current file is determined with the following rules: • • • • Pull-down menus The last HyperMesh (. Like the pull-down menus in many graphical user interface applications.HyperMesh Environment There are several main areas in the HyperMesh window: These areas are described below: title bar Located at the top of the HyperMesh window. this displays the current HyperMesh version. Use these options to access different areas of HyperMesh functionality. these menus "drop down" a list of options when clicked.hm) file retrieved or saved in the active session FE or CAD import does not affect the current file Delete model clears the current file If no .hm model is retrieved or saved in the active session the current file field is empty Located just under the title bar.0 User’s Guide 35 . It also displays the path and name of the file currently open in the active HyperMesh session. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

• • • Tab Area sidebars can be toggled on or off by use of the View pull-down menu. Main menu Command Window secondary menu 36 HyperMesh 8. You can type HyperMesh commands directly into this text box and execute them instead of using the HyperMesh Graphical User Interface. these buttons provide quick access to commonly-used functions. It displays the name of the current panel and user profile. Located across the bottom of the window. Tab Location sub-menu. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. Depending on your display resolution and the number of buttons. right. these sidebars display additional tools. Individual items (tabs) can be added to or removed from the Tab Area by selecting the item from the View pull-down menu. and model status information.Tab Area Located on the left.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Located just under the graphics area. or two toolbars stacked vertically. or both sides of the graphics area. Secondary menus can be accessed by using keyboard shortcuts. this area may contain one toolbar. Header bar Located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. such as the Utility menu or Include browser. You can click-and-drag tabs to move them between the left and right Tab Area sidebars. Graphics area Toolbar Area Located above the tool bar(s): the graphics display area is where model geometry and mesh displays. such as changing display options. in a tabbed format. The main menu is divided into the panel area and the page list.

This approach sub-groups similar features together. This method allows similar commands to be grouped logically. One example is the solver browser item found in the view menu. and helps prevent any single menu list from becoming excessively long. Toggle Command Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. but some options perform other tasks such as configuring the layout of the HyperMesh environment.0 User’s Guide 37 . Most menu options access HyperMesh panels. When clicked. enable access to many types of HyperMesh functionality. and clicking on the menu name (such as File) "pulls down" a list of the options available in that menu: Notice that there are two lists of options displayed in this screen shot. these items are marked with a checkbox and activate or deactivate a feature. Selecting a submenu heading opens a sub-menu of options related to the submenu heading. this is because some menu items have sub-menus of additional options.Pull-Down menus The pull-down menus. such as accessing a specific HyperMesh panel. Most menu items simply execute a command when selected. clicking it alternates between showing and hiding the solver browser in one of the Tab Area sidebars. Each menu contains many different options. Menu items can work in several different ways: Sub-Menu heading These items are marked with a triangular arrow. rather than presenting every option in a single list (which could result in very long lists). located just beneath the title bar.

There are multiple ways to select a pull-down menu or a menu item within it: Mouse Keyboard (menu) Click the menu or menu item with the mouse. such as OptiStruct. including element check settings. connectors. View results of solved simulations (contour or vector plots. Edit View Organize Geometry Mesh BCs Setup Checks Tools Applications Results Preferences Help Tools for masking. Each of the pull-down menus in HyperMesh groups certain types of functions: File Contains functions to load. To import multiple files. among other options. lighting. To add extra models to your workspace. press the alt key to activate the menu area. these keys are underlined (as the "F" in the File menu). use load. or Scale entities. First. element edit. Tools for creating and renaming collectors. etc. Note: To work with only one model at a time. Meshing tools. solid map. Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu item. Tools for geometry editing and cleanup. for example).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . tetramesh. Model quality checks. HyperMesh preferences such as User Profiles. Reflect. Change the angle of view on the model. and press enter to select a highlighted option. Translate. use the multiple files option in the import sub-menu. 38 HyperMesh 8. and keyboard configuration. global options. assemblies. moments. Boundary Conditions such as forces. Access the on-line Help system. Model properties such as materials. pressures. or constraints. and export models and other files. among other options. Keyboard (menu item) Menu items can be selected with the keyboard in two ways: or Use the arrow keys to move among list of options. and the up and down arrow keys to open a menu and navigate among its options. save. etc. import. Rotate. Then: Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu or item. Quickly access other HyperWorks programs. or finding entities. and contact surfaces. or visibility and location of tab area items. Morph. use import. these keys are underlined (as the "O" in the Open). such as automesh. deleting. or Use the left and right arrow keys to move among the menu headings.

Entities on the screen are selected for use in functions by clicking the desired entity with the mouse.Graphics Area The graphics area occupies the upper portion of the screen. and plots are displayed in this area. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note: See Entity Selection for more information about picking entities. The graphics area dominates the HyperMesh environment and is framed by all of the other interface areas. Models.0 User’s Guide 39 . geometry.

the property color of shell elements (quads and trias) in a NASTRAN model is the same as the component. Create or update property collectors. For example. etc) is assigned directly to the element. if you select "by comp". Create or update load collectors. The toolbar uses two different groups of visual icons to represent different HyperMesh functions. The toolbar buttons perform the following functions: Load. For example. the property assigned varies based on the solver used. the two-row configuration is shown above. This only applies when a valid template file has been specified in the global panel. Notice that the toolbar may display in one or two rows. control which collectors are displayed in the graphics region. save. Turn the display of collectors on and off. use the colors panel to change the colors of properties Note: 40 HyperMesh 8. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to access other collector functions: Create or update material collectors. Access the collectors panel. Use this panel to individually determine how each component of your model displays its FE mesh. Normally all of the buttons display on a single row. many of these functions were contained in the permanent menu. thus the shell elements are colored in component color even in this mode.Toolbar Area The functions on the toolbar allow you to manipulate the view of the model. This accesses the files panel. Access the visual attributes panel. but when the toolbar is too narrow to hold all of the buttons. But for 1D elements such as bars and springs. and edit solver-specific data.0. Other options include: • By Prop: colors the elements based on their assigned properties. Selects the element color style. a group of buttons automatically moves to the second row. the model elements’ colors change based on the components that contain them. Users already familiar with earlier HyperMesh releases will find the same functionality that the permanent menu offered now located in the toolbars. Note: In versions of HyperMesh prior to release 8. the property (PBEAM. set global modeling parameters.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or import files. Edit solver-specific data in card format. This button accesses the display panel.

For example. trias etc. then each piece of geometry is re-colored based on the component that contains it. quad. use the colors panel to change the colors of materials. surface edit. suppressed edges in blue. Surfaces that aren’t part of a solid are shaded in gray. etc. the faces of solids are also colored based on their topology: exterior bounding faces in transparent green.g. all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology: shared edges drawn in green. free edges in red. lines. geometry is colored based on topology. automesh). Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between mesh lines. 2-dimensional geometry (i. and no lines. if you select "by component". surfaces) that is not part of a solid is colored based on its topology. Switches the mesh rendering mode to a shaded mode. This helps you focus on 2D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. 3-dimensional geometry (i. Determines how geometry features are colored. This helps you focus on 3D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. The topology of 2D geometry is ignored and drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel. the geometry is colored based on its corresponding component. If geometry shading is turned on. . 2D and 3D elements differently. By 3D Topo: In this mode.0 User’s Guide 41 . solid faces and their edges) is colored based on its topology. By Config: colors elements based on their configurationbeam. Note: • • .e. etc. The individual colors given to each configuration (such as spring or hexa) can be seen and changed in the element types panel. The topology of 3D solid geometry is ignored (drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel).• By Mat: colors the elements based on the material assigned to the elements. etc. In most cases. All the 1D elements are colored in green. • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2D shell elements in blue and 3D solid elements in red. internal partition faces in yellow. Switches the mesh rendering mode to wire-frame mode. are colored according to the components that they belong to. By Topo: In this mode. By Comp: Surfaces. Other coloring options include: • Auto: In this mode the geometry coloring changes based on the panel you open. By 2D Topo: In this mode. In the remaining panels (such as translate or delete).e. Some exceptions apply. 1D/2D/3D: colors 1D. feature lines. materials are assigned to elements via their components. . Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between skin-only and full wire frame (including internal lines). In panels geometry creation and editing panels (e. bar.

. Pan modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate pan mode. or when you click either button while the pointer is in the graphics area. Draws model geometry in shaded mode. free edges in red. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Rotate modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate dynamic rotate mode. Resizes the model view (by zooming in or out and panning the view as needed) in order to fit the model to the graphics area. right-click in the graphics area and hold the mouse button down to make the model spin. right-click and drag in the graphics area to zoom in/out. Circle zoom deactivates after zooming once. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Zoom incrementally. Once active. right-click in the graphics area to change the graphics area center. Once active. Right -clicking activates the dynamic zoom feature. click-and-drag in the graphics area to pan the model view.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Once active. Returns to the previous view. left-click to zoom in. Left-click to deactivate. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. click-and-drag in the graphics area to rotate the model. Draws model geometry as a wire-frame. Left-click to deactivate. Click the downward arrow for options: with edges or without them. right-click to zoom out. Right -click to activate center mode. Right-click to deactivate. 42 HyperMesh 8.• Mixed: This mode behaves similarly to Topology mode in that all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology. in shaded mode surfaces and solid faces are shaded in their components’ color.) In addition. or to alternate between two different views. this works in one of two different ways: • Left-clicking activates the circle zoom feature. etc. Modal Zoom. This allows you to (for example) perform a free rotation on a model and then quickly return it to its original orientation. Once active. Opens the visualization pop-up panel. Right -click to deactivate. Left-click to deactivate. Once active. Click the downward arrow to choose between excluding and including surface lines. (shared edges in green. . Right -click to activate dynamic spin mode.

Click the left mouse button to rotate the model upward. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 43 .Rotate Left or Right: this is similar to pressing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard. You can use keyboard hot keys to access the same viewing options. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model leftward. and the right button to rotate it downward Spherical clipping: accesses the spherical clipping panel. Use spherical clipping to isolate portions of the model regardless of component or collector. Rotate Up or Down: this is similar to pressing the up and down arrow keys on the keyboard. and the right button to rotate it rightward. Notes: See Viewing Models for more information about the viewing options available on the toolbar. Open a pop-up menu used to save and retrieve user-defined or standard views. See Keyboard for more information.

The current component and load collector names are displayed on the right side of the bar. Geometry) are displayed.. It displays information pertaining to the currently loaded model as well as descriptions of the main menu pages and panels. When you are on one of the main menu pages (not within a panel). 44 HyperMesh 8. If you access a panel by using a function key.. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. Messages also appear on the header bar and temporarily override the title and status information. the bar displays the current panel name on the left (in black) and the original panel name to the right (in gray).Header Bar The header bar is located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information (e. Panel titles display on the left side of the bar. the current include and current component (comp). the header bar displays the current panel title and model status. comp:) in the message bar.e. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. The header bar also displays a brief description of the panel when you hold down the left mouse button on the panel button (see below). along with the current menu page name (i.g.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When you are in a panel.

Messages posted on the header bar are color-coded: red green/gray Error messages. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These messages appear in green when using HyperMesh classic dark menu colors and they appear in gray when using Windows light menu colors Click a mouse button to remove a message from the header bar. Miscellaneous messages. such as status updates or completed operations. You can also obtain a brief description of a panel’s function if you hold down the left mouse button over a panel button.0 User’s Guide 45 .

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which is located on the right-hand edge of the main menu area. or surfaces 1-D element creation. delete the file hmmenu. Modules contain a collection of panels that are grouped according to functionality. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. A secondary menu can be accessed by using keyboard keys. and load creation functions. quit HyperMesh. and informational functions. then the menu items described above may not appear on the appropriate pages. The page menu. Post-processing and xy plotting functions.Main Menu Area HyperMesh functionality is organized according into pages. Page Menu HyperMesh panels are grouped by function on several “pages”. To correct this condition. each containing a list of panels and modules. lines. HyperMesh presents these pages in the page menu. Each of these pages contain panels related to the page name: Geom 1D 2D 3D Analysis Tool Post Creation and editing functions for geometry such as points. and spot welds Creation and editing functions for 2-D surfaces and elements Creation and editing functions for 3-D surfaces and elements Boundary conditions. coordinate system. 46 HyperMesh 8. model checking functions. such as bars. Model editing. Most panels are further divided into sub-panels. utility functions. masses. and then start HyperMesh once again. To change main menu pages: • Note: Click the radio button before the main menu page. If you are not using the default HyperMesh menu system.set from the directory you are working in (provided you are not working in the directory where HyperMesh is installed).

click a tab heading to bring it to the forefront. or none from the Tab Locations sub-menu of the view pull-down menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. multiple features are organized onto tabs. so you might only see one—or even none—at a time. model browser. and/or the solver browser. such as the utility menu. Turn the Tab Area sidebars on and off by selecting left side. each sidebar can be toggled on and off separately. both. To maximize available space.0 User’s Guide 47 . right side.Tab Area This area of the HyperMesh environment is actually two separate sidebars which flank the Graphics Area. Each Tab Area sidebar can contain multiple complex features. However.

The browser displays on one of the Tab Area sidebars. load collectors. This screenshot shows all of the entities that can display in the browser. To open the model browser: Click the model browser item located within the view pull-down menu. groups. vector collectors. entity sets. 48 HyperMesh 8. components. materials.Model Browser The model browser resides on a tab in a Tab Area sidebar and allows you to view the HyperMesh model structure by organizing assemblies.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and beamsectcols into a tree-like display. system collectors. properties. multibodies.

Deactivating the check box for an item does not affect the state of its parent assembly. Each folder can be expanded or collapsed to display or hide its contents. properties. therefore it does not have a check box. Assemblies can also have sub-folders within the main Assembly folder. The following rules apply: • • • • • • • • Checked entities (components. for example.0 User’s Guide 49 .Multiple entities of the same type are collected into folders in the tree structure. Colors Assemblies. multibodies. Load Collectors. and the model browser allows you to set each entity’s color without using the color panel. so that the items related to each assembly appear within that assembly’s folder in the Assembly Hierarchy. groups. Deactivating the check box for an item hides all of its parent assemblies. Note: When the color picker palette appears. groups. right-click on the current color in the model browser. Assemblies containing components or multibodies are considered displayed only when all of the contents are displayed. Deactivating the check box for an assembly hides all of its components and multibodies. the mouse pointer automatically moves to its center. etc. load cols. Materials. Components and Assemblies may appear in multiple places in the tree. entity sets. Components. system cols. the right-click menu contains only a single option: color.) display. and System Collectors can all be colored individually. To change an entity’s color. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all of its contents. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. An empty assembly never displays. and click the desired color from the palette. a specific component might appear under Components and again as a sub-item of a specific Assembly. When appropriate. and its state does not affect the state of its ancestors. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all its components and multibodies. Properties. Materials. The currently assigned color displays in the column. The palette automatically disappears when you move the mouse pointer beyond its boundaries. the color and display style of entities also display in the model browser. In this instance. Check Boxes Items are displayed or hidden by toggling the corresponding check boxes. vector cols. unchecked entities are hidden. Select this to open the same color picker used throughout HyperMesh. and beamsectcols cannot be organized into assemblies and are all placed at the top level of the tree. each in their corresponding folder (for example all sets are placed as a flat list in the Sets folder).

The first set of filters let you restrict the tree structure to display mesh entities. the entity displays differently: Only a wireframe mesh displays. Click a second time to remove them. and Reverse Display buttons at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. and vector cols shown in the tree. repeated clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. Only shaded topology displays (no mesh). 50 HyperMesh 8. Multibodies. multibodies (not assemblies). assemblies. Shaded topology displays with feature lines. or click the ID heading to sort numerically by entity ID. assembly. and load cols have several display states. components. load cols. but no mesh. Depending on which option you select. groups. and vector cols have only one display state and will be shown only in element mode. and vector cols. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. system cols. based on a combination of their elements and their geometry. Right -clicking opens a popup menu from which you can choose the new style. Include geometry entities in tree structure. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. system cols. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. In either case. load cols. or load collector. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. Transparent shaded topology displays without mesh. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the model browser’s own toolbar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Display Mode Components. groups. You can select these display modes by right-clicking clicking the small icons in the column for each component. Display None . Click a second time to remove them. or both: Include mesh entities in tree structure. system cols. Shaded topology displays with mesh lines. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. groups. multibodies. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. Global Switches The Display All . geometry entities.

in this case they are used for Select All. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the model browser’s tree structure. and Reverse Display as described under global switches above. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). However. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. For example. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. click OK to close the list.0 User’s Guide 51 . and Reverse Selection.The next filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). In addition. For example. For example. with the same buttons for Display All. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. In this way. Select None. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the model browser. a down-arrow button. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. Whole name only selects tree items whose entire name matches the specified text. . the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. You can also select groups of entities based on a wildcard search. Otherwise. then all entity types ending with “collector” will be checked and display in the list. including upper/lower case letters. Accomplish this via the matching: combo text/list box. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. Fine-tune the search/selection by choosing an option from the ( • • ) button: Match case only selects tree items that match the entered text exactly. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. if you type “*collector” into this combo box and press <enter>. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. typing “pillar” in the matching field when using the whole name option will not locate a component named “CH-A-PILLAR-B-I-L”. Display None. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. an up-arrow button. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure.

it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A dragged item is added to the bottom of the list in an assembly. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). The left mouse button allows you to move the item into another assembly. If an assembly is moved or copied. Drag and Drop Components. In this way you can combine the search options. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. clicking again finds match #2. You can drag and drop multiple items at any time using the standard shift and ctrl keys. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. clicking third time finds match #3. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. or “RearChassis1”. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. select it again to remove the checkbox. Since this function works in combination with the filters. and assemblies can be dragged and dropped with the left and right mouse button. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. all the items in the assembly are moved to the new location (items that are not seen in the tree due to filters are also moved). “FrontChassis”. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. it is highlighted in the model browser. 52 HyperMesh 8. In this way. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. In other words. For instance. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. finding match #1 again. To find entities matching your specified string and options. Note: If an item is dragged out of the tree and dropped onto empty space.To find an entity. it is deleted in all its parent assemblies and placed at the top level of the tree. the right mouse button activates a menu that allows you to move or copy an item to the new location. To deactivate the option. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. multibodies. rather than only part of the name. for instance. for example. with this option active. For example. So. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. such as searching for whole names with matching case. type a search string into the combination box.

If you want to entirely delete an assembly. sets. properties. component. system cols. Option New Available for: Assemblies. multibody. vector col. Description A new assembly. Once created. and that assembly has children that are not present anywhere else. Materials. • If a component or multibody is present in more than one assembly in the model. vector cols. Plots. component. Properties. the item is automatically assigned a unique generic name that can be changed by entering the new name in the highlighted field. Folders that contain materials. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Context Menu Clicking the right mouse button on a folder or entity within the browser’s tree structure allows you to change a variety of options. set. Delete All except the top-level of Assemblies • Rename All Any item can be renamed by entering a new name in the name text box. beamsectcols. property. or multibody can be created inside an assembly (activate the menu over an assembly). A new assembly. load col. Options selected in an empty space apply to the entire model.0 User’s Guide 53 . those children will be automatically moved to the top level. you will be given a choice of either deleting that item from the database entirely or only removing it from the present location. Components. system col. The options available depend on the entity that you right -click on. Load Collectors. Most items can be deleted. and groups cannot be renamed. or beamsectcol can be created at the top level. All instances of the renamed item will be automatically updated. group. material. You can cancel the rename operation by pressing ESCAPE or clicking anywhere outside the entry box before editing the existing name. The new name must be unique. load cols.

components. Opens the Model Browser’s Browser Configuration window. all groups. materials. so that only the top-most level of items displays. and properties. Used to quickly and easily isolate single entities. this shows all of the items within that branch (e. load collectors. which allows you to determine what entities display in the tree as well as the columns that the browser displays. load collectors. properties. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. plots. or beamsectcol can be made current using the pop-up menu. beamsectcol All All Assemblies.) Show Only Deactivates the checkboxes of all items in the entire model browser except for this single item. groups. multibody. materials. components. Opens all of the folders in the entire tree structure. load collectors. If a template is not loaded or if the entity does not have any card images associated to the loaded template. etc. all materials. properties. In such cases. components. plots. The current component is designated with bold font. all groups. system collectors. materials. A component. Assemblies. This selects each affected item’s checkbox. materials. In such cases. groups.) Make Current components. In such cases. All Collapse all Expand all Show Hide Un-checks the item’s checkbox.Edit Card… All Any single item can be card edited. card.g. system collectors. cards. components. Display the item in the graphics area. and properties. Closes all of the folders in the tree structure. system collectors. and properties. the card editor is not invoked and the appropriate message is displayed. plots. components. load collectors. so that only this item displays in the graphics area. plots.g. Assemblies. this hides everything except for the items within that branch. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. materials. groups. multibody. so that the item no longer displays in the graphics area. plots. this hides all of the items within that branch (e. exposing every item nested at every level. properties. load collectors. etc. components. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . materials. Configure Browser… 54 HyperMesh 8. The card image of that entity for the solver template loaded will be displayed. plots. load collectors. all materials.

choose the radio button marked select all entity types in the current model. select none. A checkmark indicates that the entity type will display in the browser. Use this window to change the columns and entity types that display in the model browser.0 User’s Guide 55 .Model Browser Configuration window This window opens when you select the configure browser… option from the Model Browser’s context menu. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired entity type. You can also use the select all. Separate tabs organize entities and columns. click the Entity types: radio button. Entities Tab To show all of the entity types that the currently-loaded model possesses. To select entity types manually. and select reverse buttons in this mode. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

A checkmark indicates that the column will display in the browser. Command buttons Once you finish configuring the browser. click one of the command buttons to close the window and return to HyperMesh: • • Click OK to keep the new settings and close the window. and select reverse buttons in this mode. You can also use the select all. click the Column types: radio button. 56 HyperMesh 8. To select columns manually. select none.Columns tab To show columns for all of the attributes that the currently-loaded model possesses. Click Cancel to discard the changes (keeping the original settings) and close the window. choose the radio button marked Select all column types in the current model. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired column.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

dyn contains 55 vectors. The browser can be configured to show only specific entities of interest. You can select entities (using the standard Shift and Control keys) and drag various entities between two includes or between the master model and an include. The Master Model is at the top level of the include browser. Each of the folders can be expanded to review the individual entities in that folder. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. which does not have any references to an include file.Include Browser The include browser can be accessed by selecting include browser from the view pull-down menu. review. in the above example. and update the contents of a model into various include files. edit. organize. 116 sets. next to which appears the total number of entities of each type. is stored in the master model. 296 properties.0 User’s Guide 57 . Each include file is represented with an icon along with its name and internal HyperMesh ID. the include named dummy. etc. Data. Each include can be expanded to reveal its contents. 55 system collectors. It allows you create. 55 systems. For example. The contents of each include is organized (grouped) into folders containing each type. An example of a model in the include browser is shown below.

only the items displayed in the tree are affected. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. The filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. In this way.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. groups. Select None. For example. and vector cols. load cols. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. Otherwise. multibodies. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. In addition. load cols. and Reverse Display at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the include browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the browser’s own toolbar. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. multibodies (not assemblies). system cols. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. 58 HyperMesh 8. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. and Reverse Selection. in this case they are used for Select All. an up-arrow button. . groups. However. Display None . Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. system cols. Multiple clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. and Reverse Display as described under Global Switches above.Global Switches The Display All . click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the include browser’s tree structure. components. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the include browser. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). and vector cols shown in the tree. Display None. a down-arrow button. click OK to close the list. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. with the same buttons for Display All.

finding match #1 again. In this way. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. with this option active. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. clicking again finds match #2. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. clicking third time finds match #3. So. rather than only part of the name. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. such as searching for whole names with matching case.0 User’s Guide 59 . and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. To deactivate the option. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. For instance. To find entities matching your specified string and options. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). for instance. for example. Since this function works in combination with the filters. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. “FrontChassis”.To find an entity. or “RearChassis1”. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. In this way you can combine the search options. In other words. select it again to remove the checkbox. it is highlighted in the include browser. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. type a search string into the combination box. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). For example. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top.

Deletes the selected include. components. If a specific include is selected (highlighted). etc. the new include is created within it.Context Menu A context sensitive pop-up menu provides many other include browser functionalities. Make current When an include is selected 60 HyperMesh 8. The new include is created at the top level inside the master model when no include file is highlighted while selecting this option. Function New… When function is active Permanently Description Creates a new include. Delete When an include is selected • Rename When an include is selected Converts the name of the include into an editable text box ready for the new name to be entered.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Prompts the user with two choices: • Delete the include file The first option moves all the contents of the include file into its parent include and deletes the include file. Delete the include file and its contents The second option deletes all the contents within the selected include along with the include itself. Makes the selected include "current". Thus any new entities created in HyperMesh such as new elements. contacts. Clicking on the selected (highlighted) include a second time also has the same effect. are automatically placed in the current include. Right click in the browser to invoke the following pop-up menu.

mats. etc. Nastran. or an entire include) into the include that is marked as current. Exports the contents of the selected include into the chosen file name. Exports all the includes with their corresponding content (not the master model only the includes).. Allows you to set the various options for a selected include. the entire set of entities of a specific type. The contents of the chosen file are imported into include. or Case Control. Include file options… When an include is selected • Import include… When an include is selected Imports the content of a file into the selected include.).0 User’s Guide 61 .Move to current When entities are selected Moves all the selected entities (individual entities. Includes that have this flag turned on display in the browser in italics. Clears the graphics region of any previous display and displays all the entities that belong to the selected include. This flag is specific to some solvers such as Optistruct. The available options are: • • • name file name to be exported (absolute path or path relative to its parent include) Do not export flag (allows you to review the contents of an include but not export it). which subdivide their data deck into various sections such as Bulk Data. Export an include… Export all includes Collapse Include Expand include When an include is selected Permanently Permanently Permanently Display only When an include (or master model) is selected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For the remaining solvers this option is not available. Flag representing the section of the input deck that the include belongs in. Option prompts you to select a name and browse for the file to be imported. etc. Executive Control. Expands all the branches of the include’s tree structure along with the various entity type folders (such as comps. Collapses all the branches of the tree structure for the selected include.

Two options are available: • Select all entity types available in current model Displays all the entity types available in the current model (default).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Configure browser Permanently Opens a window that allows you to select which types of entities should be shown in the include browser. 62 HyperMesh 8. Edit card Enable/Disable When a control card is selected When a control card is selected Invokes the card image of the control card in the HyperMesh window. Allows users to enable (turn on and export) control cards that have been disabled and vice versa. • User selected entity types Allows you to select the entities that you want to display in the browser. Select from a list of all entities (except nodes and elements) in HyperMesh.

the module. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. edit curves. The main difference between the module and a panel is the additional menu layer. locate the module button on one of the main menu pages and click the module button. To select a module.0 User’s Guide 63 . For example.Modules Panels that are used to perform related functions are sometimes grouped together in modules. contains panels that allow you to read curves. Note: HyperMesh does not make any special distinction between modules and panels. perform simple math on curves. A module may contain panels that are also found on the main pages. xy plots located on the Post page. and scale the axis of plots. and are grouped to provide easy panel access without unnecessary navigational clicks.

reverse selection Use these to select the items in the tree. and then sync the browser with one click. the display settings apply to export of loadsteps. but not their visibility in the HM graphics area. Select it from the BCs Pull-Down menu to display its tab in the tab area. Use this feature to limit the tree to display only loadsteps whose names match a specific text string—either partly or completely. You can also select individual items by clicking on them. including a name filter that uses HyperMesh standard filtering syntax. the Loadstep Browser does not automatically sync itself with the HM database. Note that this changes the loadsteps’ export states. or select multiple items by shiftclicking or control-clicking. A right-click menu accesses editing and advanced options. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. For help specific to each profile. the settings apply only to the current display. This button acts as a toggle. the Sync button becomes active whenever you make changes to the current HM database. When activated. and control the way that the data displays in HyperMesh (which is the default behavior) or exports (when the Export state button is active). To alleviate this. For large models. This allows you to perform many operations inside HM without performance issues. When inactive. Each control has its own function: Select all.Loadsteps Browser The Loadsteps Browser is used to create. it can be turned on and off. 64 HyperMesh 8. OptiStruct (OS) and Nastran are supported within this framework. but may not be active by default. keeping the browser in sinc with an actions taken within the rest of HyperMesh can require considerable processing time.0SR1 release. while popup forms allow you to quickly enter or select relevant information. The information is arranged into a tree structure for ease of use. Instead. select none. Display Options The display options lie in a toolbar at the top of the browser tab.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The Loadsteps Browser displays in its own tab in the tab area. with controls for altering the Display of the information and/or exporting it. Note: For the 8. refer to the topics below: Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles Other profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. manage and display HyperMesh loadsteps (sub-cases) and the associated control cards. More profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. Export state Sync browser Filter The main functionality of the Loadstep Browser varies depending on the active HyperMesh User Profile.

Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles The browser’s tree structure lists relevant control cards and loadstep information. every loadstep listed in the tree has a small checkbox next to it as well as an export state indicator. For the OptiStruct and Nastran profiles. either from scratch or by creating an exact copy of an existing subcase. This launches the BCs Contour utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. Opens the OptiStruct panel in HyperMesh. LOAD. You can click these to toggle them back and forth: The loadcols in the loadstep display in the HyperMesh graphics area. these options include: New subcase Edit options Edit card Delete Rename Renumber BCs Contour Loads Summary Collapse all/selection Expand all/selection Auto-manage load references Create a new subcase.0 User’s Guide 65 . This option is for users who wish to have existing DLOAD. MLOAD. or all folders if none are selected. Renumber the selected entity. organized into folders. MPCADD and SPCADD cards auto-managed. Review the selected entity in the HM card editor. OptiStruct In addition. Depending on the entity selected. This loadstep will be exported. this will bring up an appropriate GUI for editing of the loadstep or control card information. This option creates a copy of loadcols with these card images and converts them into an auto-managed naming convention for easy editing/reviewing inside the Edit options popup. The loadcols in the loadstep do not display in the HyperMesh graphics area. all of the loadsteps in the model default to the blank (unchecked) state. This launches the Loads Summary utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. Expands all selected folders and subfolders. This loadstep will not be exported. Rename the selected entity. MOTION. or all folders if none are selected. Collapses all selected folders and subfolders. There are many functions available. accessed by right-clicking on the tree background or on individual or multiple items. Delete the selected entity or entities. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note: When you first open the loadstep browser.

select the loadcol in the left table and use the right arrow to add the loadcol to the table on the right. • • • • 4. To activate an option. the list of appropriate Load References will change accordingly. 3. check the box next to the desired option and fill in the required fields. Right -click on the desired subcase folder.To create a new subcase: 1. a warning message appears to notify you. depending on the card image or types of loads contained within. When this option is active. A pop-up window opens. Click create. To add a loadcol to the load reference. 5. Right -click anywhere in the Loadstep Browser and select New subcase. The table on the right lists the loadcols currently selected for that load reference. Note: This step is skipped when you create a new subcase! A popup window opens. In order to support this. Another pop-up window opens. If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol does not exist in the HM database. the Add <unavailable> load reference ID option is available. When importing a model into HyperMesh. and select Edit options. Type in a subcase name Select the same as option. it is possible that the subcase may reference loadcols that have not been imported (they are in a separate include file). • • If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol is not appropriate for that particular load reference. the new subcase is an exact copy of the existing one.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The popup has several tabs to gather the relevant information. then pick an existing subcase to base the new one on. A red indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and requires attention. This allows users to modify a subcase and add in references to loadcols that do not exist in the current model. Depending on the Subcase Type. 2. These references are also listed in the right table with a warning message to notify you that the loadcol doesn’t exist in the database 66 HyperMesh 8. • • Depending on the load reference selected in the tree. A green indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and is defined. or any subfolder in the Loadstep Browser. To edit a subcase: 1. A bold reference signifies that the load reference is defined. allowing you to edit the subcase. a warning message appears to notify you. A tree structure lists the load references that are available for the selected subcase type. The table on the left lists the loadcols that are valid for a particular load reference. allowing you to edit the subcase. Name filtering is available by using standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. the list will change accordingly. allowing you to: • • 2.

1. You can also launch the “BCs Contour” and “Loads Summary” utilities from the Loadstep Browser. You must determine the appropriate loadcols to check on/off depending on the subcase type. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To edit the Global Options of a subcase: Editing Global Options works exactly like editing a subcase. delete. It is up to you to organize their loads for proper display. To display a subcase: 1. 9. To select multiple loadcols. use the all/none/reverse buttons where appropriate. an entry box appears so that you can enter the appropriate information in the browser. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. 2. Select the desired option from the popup menu. Global load references are not checked on/off by selecting or deselecting a subcase. For renaming and renumbering. These buttons select loadcols from the currently active table. 8.6. Note: To rename. renumber. • The Add <unavailable> load reference ID option allows you to add a reference to a loadcol ID that does not currently exist in the HM database (as described in step 5). or edit the card of a subcase: Right click on the appropriate subcase or loadcol. The selected utility launches with the loadcols associated with the selected subcase automatically selected.0 User’s Guide 67 . Right -click options allow for additional functionality depending on the current selection. Click the Display button at the bottom of the Loadstep Browser GUI. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. Additional control is also available at both the Global Options and Subcase Load References level: 3. instead of clicking on a specific subcase’s folder or sub-folder. • • All of the loads contained in a loadcol display regardless of their relevance to the load reference they are assigned to. except that the first step is to right-click on the Global Options folder or any of its sub-folders. 7. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. 2. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. Check/uncheck the display checkbox next to the subcase of interest.

In HyperMesh. the loadcol is expanded and editable inside the GUI. Inside the Edit options popup. Assign that new loadcol to the original load reference. However. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has been converted to the auto-managed naming convention.Loadsteps: Auto-manage load references This option is recommended for all users. a loadcol is automatically created and assigned the correct card image when any of these conditions are met: • • • More than one loadcol is selected for the load reference One loadcol is selected and the local scale factor is not 1. If the loadcol selected for the load reference already has the card image assigned (for users wishing to manually manage their loadcols and point to an existing loadcol with one of the card images listed above) no additional action takes place. The only way to modify the loadcol is via the card editor (right-click option from the editor GUI). MOTION. the Auto-manage load references option is available. many HyperMesh users do not want to be responsible for managing these load collectors. MPCADD and SPCADD loadcols: by creating a loadcol. For example. This option does the following: 1. However. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has not been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. nor are they always aware of their existence. the loadcol will not be expanded or editable inside the GUI. if a load reference pointed to an SPCADD loadcol. a new copy would be created and named “autoSPCADD_1”.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) The global scale factor is not 1. assigning the appropriate card image. To satisfy both types of users. and selecting the appropriate loadcols. based on a fixed naming convention (auto<CARD IMAGE NAME>_#).) • 2. it will: • Create a copy of that loadcol and assign it a new name. If the load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images indicated above. there has traditionally only been one way to create DLOAD. (The original loadcol is not deleted or modified in any way.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . when appropriate. LOAD. MLOAD. Inside the Edit options popup.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) 68 HyperMesh 8. Looks at each subcase and at each load reference.

To select a panel. You can also use the middle mouse click to advance through input collectors (yellow) or entry fields and then proceed to a function (green) or return (red). press the "H" key or select HyperMesh and OptiStruct from the Help pull-down menu to display the help topic for the current panel. Each panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. and continue selecting or complete the operation. This cannot be rejected once the panel is exited. A description of the panel as well as instructions on how to use it display. advance to the next selection. Panels with multiple functions have sub-panels that display only those menu items that are relevant to the current operation.0 User’s Guide 69 . hold the mouse button down while the cursor is over the panel name. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Each panel has a unique title that describes the main function of the panel. locate and click the panel button on one of the main menu pages. If you press a function button and the data is incorrect or required information is missing.Panels HyperMesh panels allow you to perform specific tasks by selecting options and entering variable data. Note: To display a brief description of the function of a panel in the header bar. Using the middle mouse button allows you to make the required selections in the graphics region. You can press the ESC key or click return to exit a panel. Returning out of a panel means accepting what was performed on the model while using the panel. Release the mouse button to access the panel. a message is displayed stating the error. thus reducing mouse movement. Note: Once a panel is active. Some panels contain several functions that perform similar tasks. This behavior is called rapid menu.

on the collectors panel there are three sub-panels: create. To select a sub-panel. and card image or dictionary.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . update. Collectors . For example. 70 HyperMesh 8. Collectors .create sub-panel.Sub-panels Sub-panel names are listed on the left side of the panel. Each sub-panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. click the radio button next to the sub-panel name on the left side of the panel. Collectors . Only one sub-panel may be selected at a time.card image sub-panel.update sub-panel.

and function buttons. the list of options presented by a switch can be very long: In these cases. When you click a switch. the menu item following it alternates between choices. Step backward one page toward the beginning of the list. Most panels also have toggles and switches that allow you to alternate between choices or select options from a list. When you click a toggle. HyperMesh breaks the options up into multiple “pages” within the switch’s pop-up menu. The green arrow buttons on the right-hand edge of the pop-up menu advance or back-track through the list of options: << < > >> Go directly to the first page of the list. plane collectors. data entry fields. toggle switch In some cases. Each panel contains input collectors.Input Controls The menu items on each panel indicate the information that is needed to correctly perform the panel’s function. a list of options is displayed. Advance one page toward the end of the list Go directly to the last page of the list Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 71 . Menu items include: Menu Buttons The color of the menu button corresponds to its purpose: green yellow red Functions or executable items Collectors Return or abort Toggles and Switches Toggles and switches appear on many HyperMesh panels.

Input Collectors Input collectors allow you to indicate which entities are to be modified when a function is performed. show node order. Allows you to select a few nodes that form a path and HyperMesh selects all the displayed nodes that lie in the shortest path of the nodes selected. you can click on the collector to access a pop-up with the selections by list. see Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu. by list by path Allows you to pick the nodes individually from the node list. In addition to selecting one entity at a time on the screen. the function tries to find the closest path along the edges of that part. Extended entity selection window. this function does not apply. displaying a list of available selection methods. by path. or by window. if the nodes selected are not connected by elements. If the data type is a node list. Allows you to view the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. you can select multiple entities via quick window selection (hold down the SHIFT key and drag your mouse to create a window. Therefore. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). a data type button. See The Mouse for more details). click the input collector switch to access the pop-up menu of possible data types. An input collector contains a switch or toggle. by path follows the connectivity of the elements between the nodes selected. and a reset (|< ) button. If you select nodes on the edges of a part. These selection options display for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. If you want to reset the entity selections. To access the options: • Click the data type button. click the reset to deselect all selected entities. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are grayed out.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . An input collector is active when the data type button is enclosed in a blue rectangle. Note: For more information about the extended entity options. and select the type you want to use. click the data type of the input collector to see the selected entities in the order in which they were selected. Input Collector To change the data type. The extended entity selection window allows you to choose various methods of selecting entities of a specified data type. The extended entity selection window opens. Note: If the data type is a line list. show node order by window 72 HyperMesh 8.

just as a vector can be defined with a plane (the vector is normal to the plane specified). This coordinate system may be the global coordinate system. or a local system when one can be explicitly specified. or N3. HyperMesh takes advantage of the following principle: a plane can be defined with a vector (the plane is normal to the vector specified). or B) to type in coordinates rather than selecting existing nodes in your model. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.N2). switch The switch is used to select the method for defining the plane or vector.The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. This includes vectors defining coordinate systems. and loads as well. If you select two free (red) edges. or plane (N1. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces.N3). it only works with surface edges and not with free unconnected geometric lines. cylindrical or spherical. the resulting vector is normal to this plane following the right hand rule. Use N1. Either can be defined via the plane and vector selector—a group of buttons that work in concert to define planes or vectors.0 User’s Guide 73 . Choose vector to specify a vector entity (created in the vectors panel). Plane and Vector Selector Several HyperMesh panels require that you define a plane or a vector (direction) to perform a certain function. The options available are: • Use x-axis. N2. Note. N3 to define a vector (N1. that not every item appears at all times. the translate panel requires that you define the direction of translation. For example. Double-click a node’s button (N1. however. while the reflect panel requires a plane for the creation of the mirror images of the entities selected.N2. only the items necessary for the current HyperMesh function will display. and passes through either N1 or the base node (if one is specified). the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. and z-axis to define the first. N2. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. Local systems may be rectangular. as needed: The Plane and vector selector. This selector is broken down into the following items. second or third axis respectively of a coordinate system in your model. y-axis. When defining a plane.

Select three nodes. arrows that represent a local coordinate system vector or load vector). Note that when using the N1. or z-axis. 4. Select two nodes. N1. y-. N1. HyperMesh uses N1 as a default base node if no other base node is specified. A parallel plane can be specified by selecting a base point elsewhere in the model.. reset Note: Allows you to clear your selection (vector. N3 option. The resulting plane is normal to the N1-N2 vector and passes through N1 (or the base node. Select a model vector (i. 74 HyperMesh 8. The vector is the normal of the plane defi ned by the three nodes. y-. Select the x-. 2. N1 and N2. Some selectors may resemble the plane and vector selector.N2. The resulting plane is normal to the vector. Select the x-.. N1. if selected) is the point on the plane through which the vector passes. N2.e.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if selected). To define a plane: 1. A base node provides the extra information. N2. The base node locates a plane normal to the chosen axis. To define a vector: 1. For example. or z-axis and a base node.e. Select a model vector (i. but serve a different purpose.N3 and base). 3. N2. Select two nodes.B (base node) Use this selector to define the base node—the point in space where the vector or plane is located. selecting a plane of projection using the x-axis does not define the location of the plane entirely. N1 (or the base node. 4. N1 and N2. the following selector displays in the position and linear solid panels: This selector is used in these panels to map entities from one location to another. Select three nodes. 3. 2. N3. local coordinate system vectors or load vectors). and N3. For example.

Character String Input To enter a character string.Input Fields Input fields are used to enter text or numerical values.0 User’s Guide 75 . Moves the cursor to the end of the input field. comp =. click the menu item or input field a second time to select the name from a list of the existing collectors. In edit mode. or press a function key. press CTRL-c. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. After you click either the input field or the description.. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. After positioning the cursor in the input field. Move the cursor in the input field to the left and right. the value previously assigned to the field is erased. press a right or left arrow key ( or ) before pressing any other keys.). click the corresponding menu item or input field (the menu item is placed in edit modea). respectively. select another menu item. and BACKSPACE HOME END DELETE TAB To exit edit mode. and press CTRL-v. When you type an alphanumeric character with the keyboard. Deletes the character to the left of the cursor and moves the cursor one space to the left. The first character in a string cannot be a space. characters can be inserted or deleted at the proper location. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. Press the ESC key while the field is still active to restore the initial text or value to the input field. HyperMesh removes any leading spaces contained in a character string. or click the input field a second time to access the HyperMesh calculator. plot =. title =). You can enter characters and numbers from the keyboard to modify the value. and the new character is placed at the far left of the input field. the following keys perform the corresponding functions: ESC Restores the initial text or value displayed upon entering edit mode. and use the keyboard to enter text until the proper information is displayed. Note: If you need to specify the name of a collector for a data input field (i. If you want to edit the existing data. signifying that the input field in ready for editing. Deletes the character which is above the cursor. To cut and paste character strings. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the input field. Moves the input cursor from field to field on the panel. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. A description of the type of input precedes the field. press the ENTER key.e. the text currently in the input field is highlighted. Input field. You can cut and paste text from one data field to another within HyperMesh and also from data fields in HyperMesh to a command window (except in OpenGL versions).

The pop-up menu remains on the screen until you move the mouse outside the bounds of the box. For example. If the pop-up does not have a border. press CTRL-c. To use the calculator. To cut and paste numeric data.Numeric Data Input Numerical values are specified as real numbers or integers. HyperMesh truncates the number to eliminate the decimal point. HyperMesh discards input characters that are not valid numbers and subsequent numbers. HyperMesh displays integer values without a decimal point.45. click the corresponding menu item or input field and enter the value using the keyboard. You can also use the HyperMesh calculator to enter the value. and click exit to close the calculator. the second click gives you access to the calculator). If the pop-up menu has a border. HyperMesh automatically displays the value in scientific notation. When the pop-up menu appears. and press CTRL-v. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy.). For example. Some pop-up menus allow multiple selections. click the menu item or input field a second time (the first click allows you to enter edit mode. the mouse cursor is centered in the menu and the menu is made active. Real numbers are displayed with a decimal point or in scientific notation. click numeric and function buttons on the calculator using HP-style reverse notation. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. To enter numeric data. Pop-ups Pop-up menus are displayed when there are seve ral options from which to choose. if you type 123e+1q1. In edit mode. HyperMesh interprets it as 1230. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. Calculator pop-up. the view pop-up menu (view on the Toolbar Area) allows you to make multiple selections. Some pop-ups are displayed with a border around the menu box and some have no border. you must make a selection before you can proceed. HyperMesh immediately processes the selection you have made on the pop-up menu and then waits for you to make more selections. you can either select a menu item on the pop-up menu or move the mouse outside the bounds of the menu. If a real number contains three or more leading zeros after the decimal.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 76 HyperMesh 8.000. If HyperMesh expects an integer value and you enter 123.

etc. type.. write as…. based on the search criteria used. You can open new directories from this list. and last date modified.0 User’s Guide 77 . Look in/Save in This drop-down menu contains the overall directory structure. Folders and/or file names within the selected directory are listed below the Look in/Save in text box. retrieve…. Click Open (or Save) to load (or save) the file shown in the File name field. you use the standard Windows file browser.File Browser When you open or save a file using save as... The file browser enables you to navigate through the directories on your network to locate files. browse…. load…. Click Cancel to close the file browser. This field allows you to enter the name of the file you wish to locate. This field allows you to select the type of file you want to locate. It also displays the file that has been selected from the list. as well as the contents of the open directory. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Creates a new folder within the current directory. Lists only the file name. File name Files of type Open (Save) Cancel Displays the folder at the previous level. import…. Lists the file name.

hm5. In the File name field. select the file type from the drop-down menu. specify the directory to search.hm extension) in the specified directory. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2. 2. 78 HyperMesh 8. Press ENTER. For File name.hm searches for all the HyperMesh database files (files with an . To search for a particular filename: 1. type filename* where filename is any portion of the name of the file you wish to locate. hm6. All files beginning with the specified characters are displayed in the files list. All files ending with the specified extension are displayed.hm* for all HyperMesh database files with extensions hm4.* to search for all files in the directory. Type *. Press ENTER. 3. For Look in/ Save in. For example. Or For Files of Type. For Look in/Save in. type *.To search for a particular file extension: 1. etc. You can also type *.ext where ext is the extension of the file type you wish to locate. *. specify the search directory.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Rapid menu allows you to use the middle mouse button to quickly perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. Some operations require pressing a keyboard key in addition to using the mouse. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. If you release the mouse. the pre-highlighted entity is selected Dynamic rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. Single click and release. Click and move. Performs selection operations on single entities. Selects a new center of rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. Keyboard Left mouse Middle mouse Right mouse Single click and release. Aborts intensive processes. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be selected. Single click and release. Selects a new center of rotation. Deselects an entity in the graphics area. Aborts graphics operations.0 User’s Guide 79 . Click and move.The Mouse The mouse attached to your system is integral to HyperMesh and can be used in almost every aspect of user input. Fit the displayed model to the screen. the pre-highlighted entity is deselected. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be deselected (removed from selection). If you release the mouse. such as Penetration Checks. Single click and hold. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. CTRL Single click and release. Single click and release.

In display panel – turn off collectors that are inside/outside the window. Single click and release. Click and move. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. In entity selection mode quick window selection of entities. Click and move.quick window deselection of entities. Dynamically rotates the model. Pans the model. SHIFT Single click and release.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In display panel – turn on collectors that are inside/outside the window. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window SHIFT Click and move. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: Single click and release. In entity selection mode . 80 HyperMesh 8.CTRL Click and move. Zooms into an area of the model. Click and move.

in the translate or rotate panels once you selected some elements/nodes/comps and direction and distance of translation. This allows advanced users to perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. If you click the middle mouse button after you select the required nodes. HyperMesh performs the fill plot action when you click the middle mouse button. return is assigned to the rapid menu. In most panels. and then click the middle mouse button to advance to the second node list so that you can begin picking more nodes. For example. In these panels. the middle mouse button may activate a function for which there is insufficient data. thus reducing "mouse miles". Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For example. Since you do not have N1. clicking the middle mouse button a second time repeats the translate + or rotate + function. thus translating/rotating the same nodes again. N2. in the replace panel. For example. when you try to move nodes using the N1. For example: in the hidden line panel shown below. allowing you to use the same entities to repeat the operation.Rapid Menu Rapid menu is a feature that uses the middle mouse button (a single click for each step) to move through a panel along a predetermined path. rapid menu is assigned to the most commonly used function. using the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel. Some panels do not have function buttons and are repetitive. create becomes the rapid menu function. For example. The rapid menu function can also vary within a panel. select a few nodes for your first node list or line list. But once you pick a node to create the line. In such cases. In panels that have pre-filled defaults. The rapid menu function is predetermined and varies between panels. when you enter the lines panel. In panels that contain multiple function buttons.0 User’s Guide 81 . the middle mouse button repeats the chosen function as long as the entity collector is not reset to empty. In panels where there is no clear sequence of selections. resulting in an error message. N2 and N3 selected or may not have a magnitude value entered. For example. it replaces one with the other and proceeds to repeat the operation with the new selection. collectors/create panel with a preset collector name creates a collector when you click the middle mouse button. In some panels. N3 vector option in the translate panel. an error message results. if you pick two nodes. For example in the ruled panel. The function button that is assigned to rapid menu is outlined in black. the entities in the input collector are not cleared. an attempt to perform translate + is executed. the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel if the active input collector (yellow collector with a blue outline) is empty. In panels where there is a defined sequence of selections (input collectors). a middle mouse click performs the operation with the defaults. rapid menu advances to the next collector.

The hot keys are the same as the letters on the menu.a b c <ctrl>+<c> d f g h m o p r s t <ctrl>+<t> v w z Notes: 82 HyperMesh 8. You can also use the arrow keys on the keyboard to rotate your model. clockwise. +. from the main page menu. When a panel is active. options panel Plot Rotate Dynamically zooms in and out when you move the mouse up and down True view transparent components panel User View pop-up menu Windows panel Circle-zoom When you use the +. Arc rotate Return to a previous view Center (spherical) clipping panel display panel Fill/fit model to window. there are several keyboard hot keys that you can use to access the viewing functions available on the Toolbar Area. You can press ESC instead of clicking return to exit a panel. In addition. this opens help for that panel. press the key once and wait for HyperMesh to redraw the model before pressing the key again. and CTRL key to access panels.Keyboard Although most HyperMesh operations are performed with the mouse. The secondary menu uses various combinations of the function keys. it opens the Help’s table of contents. Press "m" again to bring the menus back. or arrow keys. Note that "+" is actually shift = on the main keyboard.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you must use the keyboard to enter new file or component names or title information. SHIFT key. and reverse view Zoom by increments. Turn off the menus and display only the graphics window. -. Rotate by increments Ctrl Incremental counterclockwise. global panel Open the Help. but simply + on the numeric keypad.

One example of this is the default mapping of the <f> key—which. The keyboard option opens a free-standing window with a keyboard display. You can customize the default shortcut mappings to create your own shortcuts for a variety of tasks. Examples include: • • • • • • • Jumping to a specific HyperMesh panel Automatically performing a task using HyperMesh *commands Executing a macro The following keys are usable when defining shortcuts: Letter and number keys ("standard" keys) <ctrl> plus another "standard" key <shift> plus another "standard" key <ctrl> plus <shift> plus another "standard" key You can assign or remove a shortcut by selecting keyboard from the Preferences pull-down menu. when pressed.0 User’s Guide 83 . zooms and pans the graphics area view to fit the currently displayed model to the screen. so that you can quickly execute tasks that you use frequently simply by pressing one or more keys on the keyboard.Mapping Keyboard Shortcuts Keyboard shortcuts can be used to map HyperMesh functions to keys or key combinations. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . up. The selected key highlights in blue. Examples of such shortcuts are: Incremental rotate left. such as tab. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. ctrl. 84 HyperMesh 8. For example. shift. select the appropriate key by clicking in the keyboard menu or holding down that key on your keyboard. alt. Some keyboard shortcuts are mapped by default during installation. counterclockwise and reverse view Creates bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. to enter the combine sub-panel in the element edit panel. Notes • • Some special-function keys.Keys display in the Key-Command Mappings window with colors based on their mapping: To map a function to a shortcut key. esc. Next. Remapping such keys to new functionality results in loss of original functionality. right. Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. Generates a *. backspace etc. enter the appropriate command(s) and if necessary the file name (for a tcl script) in the table area of the menu located below the keyboard diagram. use hm_pushpanelitem {element edit} {combine} This will take you to the last used sub-panel in the specified panel. Ctrl + Ctrl + F1 Ctrl + F2 Ctrl + F3 Ctrl + F4 Ctrl + F5 Ctrl + F6 Incremental clockwise.jpg screen capture or animation file. • • Any HyperMesh command file commands can be mapped to a shortcut key. Creates PostScript file of the screen and spools it to printer. and down respectively. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Those keys are identified with a different color: Use the hm_pushpanelitem command in a shortcut to jump to a specific sub-panel of a panel. and some utilize functions which are only accessible via shortcut keys. cannot be mapped.

shortcut mapping examples To create a shortcut key "e" that deletes all the elements in the model.7" 0 To create a shortcut key "shift + K" that runs a macro to check whether any beam/bar elements exist in the model and display them only: Create a findbeams. To call the same macro. 1). *deletemark elements 1. } else { hm_usermessage "No beam elements in this model" } } In the Key-Command Mappings window. *evaltclstring displayonlybeams In the file field. enter the following in the command field next to the key "J": *evaltclstring "macroElementJacobian 0.tcl file. eval *createmark elements 1 $beams. click the "…" button to browse to and select the findbeams. To create a shortcut key "L" that accesses the lines panel. enter the following in the command field next to the key "L": hm_pushpanel {lines}. "none". *findmark elements 1 0 1 elements 0 2. enter the following commands in the command field next to the key "E": *createmark elements 1 "all". select shift from the Shortcut Key pull-down menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. "".tcl file with following commands: Proc displayonlybeams {} { *createmark elements 2 "by config" 60 63 set beams [hm_getmark elements 2] *clearmark elements 2 if { ![Null beams]} { *displaycollectorwithfilter(comps. 1.0 User’s Guide 85 . Enter the following in the command field next to the key "K".7: this macro already exists in the QA page of the Utility menu. To create a shortcut key "J" that runs a macro to find all the elements with jacobian < 0.

to continue using the initial panel. and upon completion. The default secondary panels are as follows: Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Note: Function key only hidden line delete replace distance mask element edit align node create node line edit check element geometry quick edit automesh plus SHIFT key color temp nodes edges translate find split project node edit surf edit normals organize smooth plus CTRL key print slide slide file print eps create eps file print b/w eps create JPEG file Function keys may be reassigned to different panels by using the build menu panel. or in combination with the SHIFT or CTRL keys.Secondary Menu The secondary menu is a list of panels that can be accessed by using the function keys F1 through F12.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When you use the secondary menu. it interrupts the active panel and allows you to perform a function in the secondary panel. 86 HyperMesh 8. Entities selected while in the secondary panel are still selected when you return to the initial panel. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel.

mac in the current directory. each dedicated to different tasks.mac) controls the display and available operations of the utility menu. A userpage. passed to them from a control. which allows you to create groups of standard reusable macros. This file defines the attributes and contents of the User page of the utility menu. A macro file (hm. or the application’s base directory. If it finds this macro. so that you can group the macros by type of operation.mac qamodelpage. clicking one of these buttons opens the page associated with it.mac file may exist in the installation directory for HyperMesh or in the directory from which HyperMesh launches. The menu is located on a tab of the tab area pane(s). Each page is associated with a button at the bottom of the utility menu. Attributes that you can change include: • • • • • The utility menu page on which the operations appear Text to be displayed on each control Location and size of the menu The help string to be displayed on the menu bar The macro to call when each control is used. The utility menu includes several pages of its own.mac globalpage. although only one displays at a time. Populates the Geom/Mesh page of the utility menu. Populates the QA/Model page of the utility menu.Utility Menu The utility menu allows you to customize the standard interface to include function buttons. etc. to specify where the arguments should be substituted. Only one button can be depressed at a time. with optional arguments to pass The page number allows you to create multiple pages. Macros may contain any valid command file command. by using the arguments $1. When HyperMesh starts. and can be shown or hidden from within the view pull-down menu. When HyperMesh starts.mac Populates the Display page of the utility menu. You may also select and run a macro file after HyperMesh starts from within the options panel.0 User’s Guide 87 . Thus it is actually a group of menus.mac file in the directory from which it launches and then in the installation directory. similar to the way that only one radio button can be active at a time—selecting a button de-selects all of the other buttons in the group. it looks for a macro file named hm.mac geommeshpage. radio options. and are enclosed by the *beginmacro() and *endmacro() commands.mac file in their home directory. and text that have HyperMesh-supplied and user-defined macros associated with them. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. $2.mac userpage. it first looks for the userpage. Macros may accept variable arguments. HyperMesh runs it automatically to define the attributes and contents of the utility menu.mac file sources the following additional macro files: disppage. Populates the User page of the utility menu. The default hm. HOME directory (UNIX only). Creates the button group that allows you to switch pages. The *callmacro() command allows you to call a macro from within another one. UNIX users also have the option of putting the userpage.

To restore the utility menu. and save additional model views. If you want to remove the Utility menu from the default screen display. However. in the Tab area pane. You can turn the utility menu off completely (removing its tab from the tab area) by un-checking it in the view pull-down menu. and Disp pages contain a variety of macros that allow you to quickly perform functions which would normally take several steps. Then. For example. until only the desired subset of entity types displays. there is no way to cancel the execution or reject the results. the utility menu will still be invisible even though you have it checked in the view menu. or even by clicking-and-dragging the tab to the HyperMesh title bar. You can also turn the utility menu off by clicking the small “x” in the upper corner of the tab area when the utility menu tab is in the forefront. but you have only the left-hand pane showing in the HyperMesh environment. You can also mask and unmask portions of your model. showing or hiding all 2-D elements. QA/Model. Note: While macros offer a great deal of flexibility. however. but display of the menu is controlled by a command in the HyperMesh Configuration.By default. that it still might not display if the tab area pane on which it resides is not active. although it may be obscured by another tab such as the model browser or include browser. 88 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if that pane is open. By combining these features. simply check it in the view menu. you must remember that once a macro is executed. the Utility menu displays when HyperMesh starts. if the utility menu is on the right-hand tab area pane. you can restrict HyperMesh to only drawing a small sub-set of the entities in your model.cfg file. turning off the display of everything except entities of type. Disp Utility menu The Disp utility menu contains a variety of macros that allow you to modify the graphical display of HyperMesh entities in several different ways. and a macro may not be called recursively. if you wish. You can also isolate only a specific entity type. you can turn the display of individual types back on as desired. The Geom/Mesh. Chief among these is the ability to turn the display of individual entity types on and off—for example. delete the * before the *enablemacromenu() command in the hm. it can also be dragged-and-dropped to the right -side explorer pane. with the current page’s button depressed. See the descriptions below for help with each type of macro. Note. Default Utility menu The utility menu is normally located on the left side of the graphics region. It contains page selection buttons at the bottom of the menu. The different pages of the utility menu are: • • • • Geom/Mesh (macros related to model geometry and FE mesh) Disp (Options related to the graphical display of entities) QA/Model (macros related to element quality and loads) User (user-created macros only) The utility menu displays by default.

These buttons retrieve views of the model that you have previously saved via the scene (1. 3) save macros. clicking none hides the entire model. These sub-types have buttons labeled on or off. For example. or isolate the display of an entity type. Clicking Off turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. The largest group possible is labeled Everything. For example. and solids). or 3-D elements. For example. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. These buttons perform the actual display macro functions: All These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. Broad categories. slot 2. such as 2-D elements or lines. 1. clicking all next to the 2-D label turns on the display of every 2-D element in your model. regardless of entity type. are more restrictive. Smaller sub-types of entity. lines. clicking all next to the elements label turns on the display of every element type in your model. Clicking On turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. but does not affect the display of 0. but does not affect the display of 0. Each broad category or sub-type has a text label on the menu. however. such as elements or geometry. for example. and allow you to turn the display of different types of entities on or off. or slot 3. Clicking All turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label.2. or 3-D elements. In other words. These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type.Scene macros: These controls allow you to save and retrieve up to three additional views of your model. and always include any masks that you may have applied to the model. including its boundary conditions. even within the same broad category. 1. 3) Save Scene (1. Clicking none turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. other geometry types (such as points) do not turn off. 2. such as 2-D elements or geometry points. Toggling the display of these does not affect other entities within the same broad category. such as geometry. These broad categories have buttons labeled All or none.3) Retrieve These buttons save the current view of the model in slot 1. none On Off Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. if you turn off the display of lines. Scene (1. clicking Off next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every 2-D element in your model. Display macros: These controls form the bulk of the menu. So. These views function in addition to the user views. The All and none buttons for this category literally affect every entity in the model. followed by 2-3 buttons. There are different categories of entities whose display you can turn on and off. 2. surfs. control an array of several related entities (such as points.0 User’s Guide 89 . This enables you to turn off certain entities while retaining others. such as 2-D elements or lines. clicking none next to the elements label turns off the display of every element type in your model. This allows you to turn the display of entire classes of entity on or off in one click. These views function just like the custom views that you can save and retrieve via the user views function (accessed from the HyperMesh toolbar). For example. such as elements or geometry.

so that only the specified entity type remains visible. those lines would be revealed—but only a single row of elements. Similarly. Like the display controls. refers to the text labels for boundary conditions such as pressures and forces. This macro reveals one or more rows of elements adjacent to the entities currently displayed. Note. For example. Labels (located under the BC’s category). Mask and Node macros: The final set of controls concern masking and unmasking entities. the surface itself will not be unless it is completely outside of the graphics display area. The By Edge… macro (under Geometry à Surfs) allows you to turn off all surfaces attached to one or more edge lines.Only These buttons may appear for broad categories of entity or sub-types. turning off all geometry. results in only the lines (plus FE elements. The only exception to this accumulative usage is repeated use of the only option: since it always hides everything except the chosen entity type. multiple only commands do not work accumulatively. To exit the macro. For example. you can then add other entities to the view by turning them On one-by-one. however. rather than all of the mesh for an entire component. if you choose to show only 2-D elements. or isolate the surfaces touching those lines. Select the desired lines and click proceed to show. that entities can’t be partially hidden—so while some of the mesh elements on a surface may be masked out. for this reason. Comments Handle (located under the Elements category) refers to the text labels that appear on some elements. etc. boundary conditions. Mask Out This macro automatically applies a mask to hide every entity in the model that does not currently display in the graphics area. This allows you to view only the adjoining mesh. then clicked show adjacent elems any mesh along . clicking Only next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every entity in the model except for 2-D elements. if you isolated a model’s geometry lines. masking allows you to reduce the number of entities drawn onscreen. so that only 2-D elements remain visible. Clicking only isolates the entity type indicated by the label by hiding every other entity type in the model.) displaying. hide. such as rbe3 elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click Clear Temp Nodes to automatically remove all temporary nodes from the model. Temporary nodes are any nodes that users create during a HyperMorph session. however. masking is based on entity location rather than entity type. either click proceed again without selecting any lines. Show Adjacent Elems 90 HyperMesh 8. either by way of the mask out macro or the mask panel. Note that these functions are accumulative. Unmask All Clear Temp Nodes This macro removes any and all masks that you have applied to the model. or press the <esc> key. Clicking one of the buttons for this option causes HyperMesh to display a lines selector. they should be deleted before the model is sent to a solver. These nodes are redundant because they must be created on existing geometry. as well as removing temporary nodes. then turning on lines.

This macro works only on the surfaces attached to the selected surface. Improves element quality by moving the mid-edge nodes of second order elements. etc. Creates a layer of washer elements around a circular hole in the mesh. Isolates either an inner or an outer surface layer (based on the user selected surface) from a 3D model. The macro also creates the corresponding property card and updates the thickness. Quickly creates an automatic tetrahedral mesh while meeting the requirements for minimum element angle and element size. and then trims this new line into the surface. Projects free points to surface edges. Places four additional fixed points on an inner line. This can be helpful to achieve uniform meshing with regard to weld points. Quick Tetramesh Fix 2nd Order Midnodes Add Washer Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and then projects those points to a concentric line. with ribs (T junctions). Isolate Surface ThinSolid=>Midsurf Washer Adj Circ Pts The mesh macros are: Auto Connectors Midsurf Thickness A pop-up menu that allows you to automatically create connectors and FE realize them from a master connection file. which is part of either the inner or outer side of the solid. You select a node along the hole. You select a line whose length represents the solid thickness and a surface. The other layers and thickness are then placed in a temp directory and masked. This macro is intended to be used with sheet metal parts with uniform thickness and does not work for molded solid parts. by offsetting one side surfaced to midplane.5 times its original size. and displays a menu for entering the width of the washer. The macro then creates a layer of washer elements around the hole and remeshes the surrounding elements to maintain mesh connectivity. Assigns the thickness of a midsurface geometry to FE nodes or elements. points may even project to multiple edges. the macro determines the radius of the hole. Extracts a midsurface from a thin solid representation of sheet metal stamped parts. creating a higher quality mesh. Depending on the tolerance you specify.0 User’s Guide 91 .Geom/Mesh utility menu This menu contains a set of macros related to working with model geometry. Two other options available are: 1) Create a rigid spider along the hole and 2) Enforce a minimum number of nodes around the hole. The geometry macros are: Preserve edges Project points Prevents specific edges from being suppressed during autocleanup or batchmeshing. This allows a higher quality mesh around circular holes. Its primary use cases are solid parts with varying thickness. as well as a set for working with FE mesh. You can also review the thickness as a contour plot on the elements. Scales a copy of a selected circular line to 1.

If any elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the warpage test. Length This macro checks all the displayed elements against the minimum length criteria. An optional layer of washer elements can be created along with a rigid spider along the hole. the quality criteria used by these macros remains consistent with those used throughout the rest of HyperMesh—and can be indirectly adjusted by changing the settings on the check elements panel. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their warpage. Trims the model along user-defined trim lines. This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that fill the hole. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria.Trim Hole Creates a circular hole (of a given radius) in the mesh at the selected node (as the center of the hole). If any elements fail the criteria. This is useful for reducing the model size by taking advantage of symmetry etc. Fill Hole Box Trim Bead QA/Model Utility menu The QA utility menu contains many tools to help you quickly review and clean up the quality of a preexisting mesh. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their aspect ratio. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. The element quality criteria used by these tools comes directly from the values entered on the check elements panel. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Creates a bead of a given height and width along the selected two nodes and connects to the surrounding mesh. it displays a message and leaves the model display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements against the maximum Jacobian value. if necessary. Tools There are eight tools to isolate elements that fail certain element check criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If any elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Jacob (Jacobian) Warp (warpage) Aspect (aspect ratio) Max ang: Q (quad) 92 HyperMesh 8. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Fills the selected hole and remeshes the surrounding mesh to maintain connectivity. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Since the criteria on that panel are customizable. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the maximum internal angle.

it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Min ang: Q (quad) Min ang: T (tria) You can use the following macros to quickly modify any elements that fail the element checks. two. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). The remesh uses the current size.0 User’s Guide 93 . If any elements fail the criteria. You can also export the results to a text file using save as. If any elements fail the criteria. does not break connectivity. Allows you to apply the smoothing algorithm to the selected elements plus one. The results are shown as the number of elements and percentage of elements failing each criterion. They only affect the report. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the criteria. Brings up a user interface that allows you to set the various quality values and check the quality of all the 2D elements in the model. Find Attached Remesh Smooth Quality Report Model Tour Allows you to review (tour) the selected components individually. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Finds all of the elements attached to the displayed elements. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the minimum internal angle. and uses the mixed element type. number of elements in that component and their ID range. Note: Changing the criteria on this report interface does not change the settings in the check elements panel. Split Warped Checks all displayed quad elements for warp exceeding the acceptable value. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the minimum internal angle. Each element failing this criterion is then split along its diagonal to form two tria elements instead of the original quad. This macro displays the component name. two. Allows you to remesh the selected elements plus one. Reads a generic Bill Of Materials file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM as well as the corresponding FE model.Max ang: T (tria) This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the maximum internal angle. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. It also displays a dialog that allows you to review the free edges of the component and any elements attached to the component. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). BOM Comparison Tool Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

the numbers do not directly correspond to any specific values or ratios. Note that this only affects the graphical display of load indicators—it does not change the load magnitudes. while 3 is the largest. Automatically finds all loads directly attached to a selected component. constraints. these elements are un-masked.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . pressures. these comps are un-masked. these elements are un-masked. Automatically finds all components directly attached to any and all load indicators. If masked. including forces. Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all connectors. Since these buttons affect all loads. If masked. 94 HyperMesh 8. and so on. these loads are un-masked. If masked.The model tools included on this page are: Load Size These numbered buttons represent different display sizes for load indicators: 0 is the smallest. If masked. Find Elems>>Loads Find Comps>>Loads Find Loads>>Comps Find Elems>>Connectors Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all load indicators.

Since users in different design and analysis groups use BOM information.BOM comparison tool The BOM Comparison Tool located on the QA/Model utility menu reads a generic Bill of Materials (BOM) file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM and its corresponding FE model. and Abaqus user profiles. the formats and content of the BOM can vary. property assignments. For an in-depth description of the parts that make up the BOM Comparison Tool user interface and how to use them. and updates between design iterations as well as other CAE activities. see the following topics: • • • • • • • BOM Comparison Tool Graphical User Interface (GUI) BOM Comparison Tool Control Section BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section BOM Comparison Tool Master Column BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. BOMs usually use Microsoft Excel® format (CSV format) or XML format.0 User’s Guide 95 . assembly. A BOM is often used as the master document for model meshing. The HyperMesh BOM Comparison Tool focuses primarily on the Excel format. model comparison. Radioss-Block. One BOM may contain more data than another BOM for the same program. LS-Dyna. The BOM reader includes the following abilities: • • • • • Reads a generic BOM file of CSV format (comma separated values file) Provides a GUI to manipulate data in the BOM and the corresponding FE model Provides an option to update attributes in the FE model based on the data available in the BOM Provides an option to complete the existing BOM based on the data available from the model Filters out all vague information present in the BOM and provides a feature to edit the vague information into a valid data and move it back to the BOM Provides a functionality to export a new BOM file Note: The BOM Comparison Tool only applies to the Nastran.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . part of the tree section. Contains master column selection. This section contains a table to display BOM info as it is seen in the actual BOM file. Contains filtering options for displaying tree and table info. Contains a tree structure displaying part names and ids. Contains options for metadata management. 96 HyperMesh 8.BOM Comparison Tool GUI The BOM Comparison Tool’s GUI consists of seven sections as shown below: Control section: Tree section: Master column: BOM display section: Metadata display section: Failed records section: Display filter section: Contains menu items and buttons to perform various operations. Displays failed records from a loaded BOM file. This section controls most tool functions.

File menu New Open Create a new session Browse for and load a new BOM file. Use the Complete BOM operation to either complete an existing BOM. This option opens a new window listing the items to be added to the BOM file. Part Id. or click an item already in the list and insert the new item just above it. Once you had added or deleted all necessary entries. or generate a new BOM by querying the HM model in current session. Update the model attributes to match the BOM. This option switches the BOM Display Section to Comparison mode if it is currently in BOM View mode (see below). Show Failed Display all the invalid records that the tool encounters while reading a BOM file in a table. and Gauge. click Continue to generate the new file. If any are missing. You can select additional items from a combo box. Material Id. If the corresponding model contains the missing data. Close the BOM Comparison Tool. Check Model Checks the model against the BOM. details populate the relevant fields in the BOM comparison tool. Invalid records can be edited to form valid data and can be moved to the BOM Display table. or type a new header into it and Add them. Save and export the current information shown in the BOM Display section as a new BOM csv file in a user selected location. HyperMesh checks for the standard headers Part Name. If all are found. you can complete the BOM data by querying the HM database and extracting the data. you will be prompted select the heading from the BOM file that corresponds to each standard header. Material. Only valid records from a BOM file display in the BOM Display Section’s table.BOM Comparison Tool Control Section This portion of the interface contains drop-down menus and the toolbar.0 User’s Guide 97 . You may also select items in the list and Delete them from the file. Sometimes the BOM doesn’t contain all of the data you want. Save and Export Exit Edit menu Update Model Complete BOM Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Different: components in BOM whose standard attributes differ from those in the model. Same function as File >Save and Export.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In_Model_Only: components found in model but not in BOM. 98 HyperMesh 8. • • • Same function as File > Open.View menu BOM View Compare View Display section displays BOM info as it appears in the BOM file. Same function as Edit > Complete BOM. Same function as Edit > Check Model. Categorizes BOM information into four sections: • Match: components in BOM whose standard attributes match exactly with those in the model. Same function as File > Show Failed. In_BOM_Only: components found in BOM but not in model. Same function as Edit > Update Model.

It then displays the part names. the tool identifies the part name and part id of all valid records. to affect which parts display in the tree and which parts are selected or deselected. appended with part ids. You can enter a string in the combo box. in brackets in the form of a tree structure located on the left side of the tool window. Filter options are given for displaying only the desired part info in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table. Each tree branch is associated with a row in the BOM display table containing all standard information for the part in the tree branch. Data associated with switched-on branches displays in the BOM display table Switch on only those branches in the tree (and associated data in the BOM display table) that correspond to the displayed parts in the model (Show displayed) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and can be used to filter the BOM info anytime in the session. This section also includes selection and filtering controls. Apart from this there are filter buttons each one of which is explained below: (Select All) (Select None) (Reverse selection) Displays all the branches in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table Switch off all the branches in the tree and delete all the data in the BOM display table Switch on all the “off” branches in the tree and vice versa. and press the <return> key to display the desired information in the tree and BOM display table. The combo box remembers previously entered strings until you quit the tool. select the desired header in the options menu.0 User’s Guide 99 .BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section When a BOM file is loaded into the tool.

part name and part number.BOM Comparison Tool Master Column The central top portion of the tool window contains the master column section. BOM info can be displayed in two different modes: BOM only. Compare by Part Number in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part number as the key. and Comparison. The master column is the column in the BOM file whose attributes are considered as a key in comparison and validation operations. located in the center of the tool window just below the master column section.e. BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM info displays in a table in the BOM display section. i. By default information displays in BOM Only view: 100 HyperMesh 8. Only columns with three attributes can be used as master columns. columns containing part id. This section allows you to select the desired master column option.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Compare by Part Name in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part name as the key. The tool queries the data in the model based on any one of these column combinations: • • • Compare Part Id in BOM with Part Id in model: the tool compares the attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part id as the key. The master column data is used as a key for the following operations: • • • Update model attributes as in BOM Complete BOM by querying model Check model against BOM The tool allows three master column combinations between the BOM and the model.

Create metadata creates metadata of all the attributes of the parts in the model corresponding to the selected row in the table. remaining columns display the BOM info.0 User’s Guide 101 . Display all parts will display all the parts in the model. mismatched attributes between BOM and the model are highlighted in light blue. Delete metadata deletes metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. Update metadata updates metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. Delete deletes the selected row in the table. Right-Click menu Right -clicking on the table opens a menu of functions: • • • • • • Display selected parts displays parts in the model corresponding to the selected rows in the BOM display table. which categorizes the BOM information into four categories: • • • • Match: BOM components whose standard attributes exactly match those in the model Different: BOM components whose standard attributes differ from those in the model In_BOM_Only: components found in the BOM but not in the model In_Model_Only: components found in the model but not in the BOM The screenshot below illustrates Comparison view: Column 1 shows the category name with the number of parts falling under that category enclosed in brackets. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Use the toggle button located in the top-right portion of the GUI to switch to Comparison mode. In the Different category.

You have the option to edit each of those failed records to make them valid and move them to the BOM display table using the Move button. the tool checks for the validity of each standard attribute in a record (a record corresponds to one line of info in the BOM file).BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section You can create. This opens a Failed records table as shown below. First row corresponds to BOM info. After selecting a row in the BOM Display table. The tool considers the following five terms as standard attributes: • • • • • Part Name Part Id Material Material Id Gauge If at least one attribute is missing or repetitive. Metadata information contains all the attributes for a part in the model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The metadata display section contains four display options in the form of a combo box. second row corresponds to metadata associated with the model BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section When a BOM file is loaded. Click the Show failed menu item or corresponding button in the control section to see the failed records. update and delete metadata using some of the menu items on the BOM display table. the whole record is considered invalid and will be stored out-of-sight. 102 HyperMesh 8. and then use this combo box to select the type of information displayed in the metadata display table: None Metadata related to BOM All metadata Differences between BOM/metadata clear the table if already some data exists display BOM related metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display all the metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display two rows of info in the metadata table.

Click this button to highlight the lines already marked for preservation. When you click the preserve edges button. However.0 User’s Guide 103 . Saves the preservation state. The preserve edges macro provides a way to ensure that specific components edges and feature lines do not accidentally get discarded during autocleanup or batch meshing. so that autocleanup and batch mesher will know which lines must be preserved. Removes all lines from the preservation list. this checkbox prevents HyperMesh auto-cleanup from equivalencing the boundaries between adjacent components. picking a new set of lines starts over instead of adding to the selection. a new pop-up window opens to accept your settings: The following options are available for the Preserve Edges macro: Clear at start When this checkbox is active. Thus. Use the lines selector to choose the lines you wish preserved. Note that this will not preserve lines inside the components—only the outer boundary edge.Preserve Edges Both the batch mesher and the autocleanup features seek to improve mesh speed and/or quality by suppressing minor features (which are assumed to be insignificant). Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a component selector in the HyperMesh panel area. Use the comps selector to choose the components whose boundary edges you wish preserved. sometimes minor features are still important to your analysis. any previously stored feature lines will purge each time you click select lines or select comps. When active. Select Lines Show Preserved Comps selection boundary Select comps Clear all lines Save preserved Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a line selector in the HyperMesh panel area.

After selecting surfs and clicking proceed. if extracted using the HyperMesh midsurface function. the controls for this macro display in a new tab in the tab area.Reset highlights After clicking the show preserved button. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. using the same units as your model. When you click the Midusrf thickness… menu button. The lines remain preserved. only the visual highlighting effect is removed (until you click show preserved again). Any points within this distance of the selected surfaces’ edges will be projected to those edges.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The Midsurf thickness macro. OK Cancel Accepts any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. have thickness information stored in their definition. 104 HyperMesh 8. allows you to transfer thickness data from surfaces to the associated nodes/elements. Discards any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. Project Points Use this macro to project geometric points (such as weld points) to nearby edges. You can also review the contour plot of thickness data with this macro. use this to select the surfaces whose edges you wish to project points to. use this button to remove the highlight from the preserved lines. HyperMesh displays a target element size field. The thickness data can be a single value for the entire part or a varying function. Midsurf Thickness Geometric surfaces that represent the mid-plane of a solid part. Clicking this button opens a surfs selector in the HyperMesh panel area. Type a value into this field.

so this value will always be populated on the element cards for any solver that supports Z-offset.The following options are available in the Midsurf thickness. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 105 . Groups the elements that have thickness values within the specified ranges into the new component based on the Range Interval or Gage File options. The nodes option is valid for only LS-DYNA and ANSYS solvers. the PSHELL T field will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). then assign the thickness value to the component property card image for each User Profile.. CQUAD4 T1-T4 and Zoff fields will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). a base component named t0 must be defined. check the Z-offset values checkbox. Assigns appropriate thickness values to the Component. Use the Nodes/Elements option to assign the thickness and Z-offset values directly to the element cards. The components option performs the following generic steps for each User profile: 1. This option is only valid for OptiStruct and Nastran User profiles. Refer to the User profile section for more details on the unique behavior of the Midsurf Thickness utility for each User profile. Most solvers only have Z-offset defined on the element card. In order to execute this mode. (For example. Creates components with name “t[thickness value]” by copying the properties of the base component t0 and assigning the appropriate thickness based on the value of the Range Interval or Gage File options. HyperMesh uses Z-offsets when midsurfacing parts that have variable thickness. (For example. Use the Components option to group elements that fall within userspecified thickness intervals into common components. 2.. the zoffset (which is saved as part of the midsurface data) tells a solver how much of a positive-normal offset exists between the actual part surface and the midsurface: To assign Z-offset values to the element cards for supported solvers. the values will be updated on the element card for that solver. 3. The t0 component definition will be used for all created components based on the Range Interval specified in the Component Organization Method section described below. For each User profile. Z-Offset Values Activate this checkbox to take z-offsets into account. macro: Apply thickness to You can choose to assign or view the thickness values at the nodes or on elements.

2. HyperMesh groups elements having thickness values within the specified range intervals into appropriately created components with the appropriate thickness values assigned to the component. • • • Lower limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* i ) Upper limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* (i + 1)) Assigned value = tolerance*(i+1) Where i = 0……n.Thickness calculation method This option is valid only while applying the thickness to elements. Thickness range intervals are automatically generated based on the thickness tolerance using the following formula. Assign Contour Assigns the thickness from the surface definition to the nodes or elements chosen. This step does not assign the thickness to the nodes or elements. You can obtain the thickness value from the surface at: Average – the average of the element’s nodes. n is determined by the maximum thickness in model divided by the user specified tolerance and then rounding to up to the next integer. If the Assigned Value is not specified. The thickness assigned to each created component is n*tolerance. This option is very useful for visualizing and verifying the results of the Midsurf Thickness utility before applying the midsurf thickness mapping operation. Creates a contour plot of the thicknesses on the selected elements/nodes. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value. it is a review/display function only. Click here for details on the format of the gauge file. Gauge – You must specify the thickness range intervals in a Gage File. Close 106 HyperMesh 8. Range Interval – You must specify a thickness tolerance. Component Organization method This option specifies the thickness range intervals used when grouping the elements into components based on their thickness values. Closes the tab. Centroid –the element’s centroid (interpolated from its nodes) Max –the maximum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. You can specify thickness range intervals by two methods: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Min – the minimum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses.

Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Pick the desired nodes. 6. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. 8. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 8. Load the desired model file. assign the base property card image. 5. To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Components Option: 1. 3. Load the desired model file. Select a Component Organization method and either select a file or enter a tolerance based on the method. 4. 4. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto.To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Nodes/Elements Option: 1. 2. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. 10. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Load the desired model file. 4. Select the Components option. 5. Create the base component “t0”. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping To Contour Thickness for Node/Element Option: 1. 7. 3. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. Change to your preferred User Profile. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. 9. 2. 6. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. and enter any default values for this card. Change to your preferred User Profile. 7. 11. Change to your preferred User Profile. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. 2. 5. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping. 3. Click the Proceed button. 7. Select a Thickness Calculation method.0 User’s Guide 107 . The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of thickness for the Node/Element option. 6. Select the Nodes/Elements option.

Load the desired model file. 7. 108 HyperMesh 8. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. 5. 10. Load the desired model file. Click the Proceed button. 10. 8. 6. Select the desired nodes. 3. To Contour Z-offset for Components Option: 1. Click the Proceed button. Activate the Z-Offset check box. 3. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 6. 11. 2. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the thickness for the components option. Change to your preferred User Profile. Select the desired nodes. To Contour Thickness for Components Option: 1. Click the contour button to open the node selection panel. Load the desired model file. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Select the Components option.To Contour Z-offset for Node/Element Option: 1. 8. Select the Components option. 9. 9. Select the desired nodes. 4. 5. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the Node/Element option. 2. 7. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the components option. 5. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. Change to your preferred User Profile. Activate the Z-Offset check box. Select the desired elements. 6. 4. 7. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. Change to your preferred User Profile. Select the Nodes/Elements option. 8. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Click Proceed. 2. 3. 4. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Select the desired elements.

05 0.Gauge file example The Gauge file uses the following format: Number of Gauges [Number of Gauge Data Lines] Gauges Begin [min Thk] … If the Assigned Value is not specified.15 End 0. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value. Below is a specific example of a gauge file: Number of Gauges 4 End [max Thk] Assigned Value [Assigned Thk] Gauges Begin 0. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option.2 Midsurf Utility Behavior under different user profiles Abaqus 1. 3. Z-Offset value • Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.15 0.1 0.05 0.1 0.0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0. • • • Unsupported Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”.2 Assigned Value 0.0 User’s Guide 109 . Nodes/Elements Option • 2.

3. 110 HyperMesh 8. • • • • • 3. Nodes/Elements • • • • 2. The components option will group the elements with thickness intervals. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.Ansys The only difference between the nodes/elements and components options are that the nodes/ elements option will group the elements which match only exact thickness values. 1. • Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Components Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported OptiStruct and Nastran 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option. Nodes/Elements Option • 2. • • • Assigns the Thickness and Z-Offset values to the Element Card based on the user selection Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”. Z-Offset value • If Z-Offset is checked “on” Z-offset values from the midsuface will be retrieved and assigned to the elements associated to that midsurface.

Nodes/Elements • 2. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported PamCrash 1. • • • • • 3.0 User’s Guide 111 . • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Radioss 1. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Assigns the thickness value to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. • • • • • 3.Ls-Dyna 1. Nodes/Elements • 2. Nodes/Elements • 2. • • • 3.

you can select “sacred elements” so that the tetmeshing function closely follows the original geometry. the features may not be maintained as they do not pass minimum element criteria. the mesh may deviate from the underlying geometry in order to maintain good quality elements. Its main objective is to quickly and automatically create a tetramesh that meets the minimum interior angle and minimum element size. if two nodes of an element share different features (as in thin steps). The maximum feature angle protects nodes on corners with a feature angle greater than the value specified. The following options are available in the Quick TetraMesh macro: Volume Complist Double-click components and use the comps collector that displays in the panel area to select comps representing the geometry of the solid to be tetra meshed. Click proceed to finalize the selection. This applies only to cases where you can maintain features while fixing minimum element size.Quick TetraMesh The Quick TetraMesh macro quickly creates a tetramesh of an enclosed volume defined by geometry and/or elements. During the process of quick tetramesh. and displays in a new tab in the tab area. Use this control to limit how acute the resulting elements will be. Altair Engineering Minimum Tria Angle Maximum feature angle 112 HyperMesh 8. Surfaces and/or elements can be used to define the volume. helping to better maintain the geometry. This macro is accessed on the Geom/Mesh utility menu located on the standard utility menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . For example. To alleviate this. The surface trias from which the tetramesh will be extrapolated will be generated with angles that measure at least this many degrees.

or fixed. but requires more computing time. Minimum allowable area for any element. both trias and quads may be created. no tetra elements are created and the macro simply goes through the cleanup steps for the shell mesh. it gives special preference to trying to keep the nodes on a sacred surface. and always uses uniform density. All the cleanup steps are designed to improve the mesh quality. feature lines. This determines the meshing engine used: the one used by the automesh panel.0 User’s Guide 113 . two adjacent elements are considered reversed and actions are performed to correct the situation. Uniform uses identically-sized elements throughout the mesh. Chordal deviation uses smaller elements along curves. If the feature angle exceeds the given value. and projections onto the original geometry. in which the quick tetramesher is free to move nodes in a surface tria mesh to achieve better tetra elements based on them. Average element size of the mesh to be created. When this option is checked. When HyperMesh tries to move element nodes to improved element quality. and edges to improve accuracy. Choose between automesh and batch.Maximum reverse angle The maximum feature angle allowed between normals of adjacent elements. Opens a pop-up window with basic information about each control that displays on the tab. Note: this does not work if two adjacent surfaces are both marked as sacred! These are existing trias that you have created according to your requirements and wish to maintain while tetrameshing the part. ignores/replaces existing elements. but may produce lowquality elements along such locations. but does not currently support sacred surfaces or elements. The Batch mesher generally produces better results. With the Mixed mesh type. Tet from Mesher Perform mesh cleanup only Help Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. splitting of elements. even if doing so would improve element quality. Choose floating. Mesh size Minimum Edge Size Minimum Elem Size Sacred surface Sacred elements Mesh type Mesh Density The mesh type options are Trias Only and Mixed. Note that this setting overrides the float setting in the tet from option. No single edge of any generated element will be shorter than this. The tetramesher will not move the nodes of these elements. in which the mesher must keep the tria mesh unchanged. or the one used by the batch mesher. Choose between chordal deviation and uniform. but only for the elements selected as sacred. This is useful in ensuring that a particular feature is captured exactly the way you want it to be. Some of the cleanup operations performed are: the suppression of free edges. correction of sliver elements.

For critical areas where you want to control the mesh such as bolt holes. 2. 4. Run with the desired mesh size. Locate T-connections in the model. Minimum Ratio between the minimum and maximum edge length. this persists until you exit HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Load the geometry. In addition. Suggested process to effectively use quick tetramesh: 1. if any (e. As a part of the cleanup. moved midnodes lose any preexistent association with the underlying geometry. and Maximum angle. Re-launch the Quick Tetramesh macro and select sacred elements to protect. manually mesh problem areas. You select the elements on which you want to improve the quality. Launch the Quick Tetramesh macro. or if mesh in certain areas is not satisfactory).g.Mesh Perform the quick tetramesh with the specified settings. After making adjustments. Note: Moved midnodes are saved to your save list. You can manually mesh some critical geometry and select those elements as sacred elements. This helps to obtain the desired mesh in critical areas. the tool heals small cracks in the model. 6. These sacred elements need to be trias. manually mesh using chordal deviation. A series of tools that help you located problem areas which can cause poor meshing: Find Holes Find T-Con Dihedrals Attached Try TetraMesh Locate holes in your model. 114 HyperMesh 8. Closes the tab. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Close Debug Surface Mesh The Quick Tetramesh macro meshes the unmeshed surfaces in the model using chordal deviation and fixes all the elements that fail the criteria provided. Fix 2nd order midnodes This macro. Select these elements as sacred elements. attempt to remesh using different settings if you do not like the initial results. 3. Note: There is no Undo function! You can. and specify the quality constraints: Minimum Jacobian (evaluated at the corner nodes or integration points). improves element quality by moving the midedge nodes of second order elements. Identify problem areas. Locate entities attached to the selected components. click this to re-run the meshing operation on the same components. 5. however. Locate features in the model that have feature angles greater than 150 degrees. Use the delete panel to delete the tetras then. any surfaces edges that were ignored.

nd In the Fix 2 • Order Midnodes window. while a length of 0 would mean that the shorter segment might not exist—so this value must be greater than 0. and use the radio buttons to determine whether HyperMesh should evaluate each element’s Jacobian at the corner nodes or the integration points.0 User’s Guide 115 Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering • • Altair Engineering . The utility will move midnodes such that the angle at the ends of each segment will not deviate from a straight line by more than this amount (thought of another way. you use the Fix 2 Order Midnodes utility: 1.5 would allow the shorter segment to be half as long as the longer segment. and using that panel’s save failed option. so you can click-and-drag it to any desired location. Click proceed. Click the elems selector and select retrieve to load the saved failed elements.Typical usage of this utility begins with use of the check elems panel to identify poorly-formed nd elements. Click the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes button on the geom/mesh Utility Menu. See the screenshot above for an example using a value of 30 degrees. choose your element quality constraints: Choose a maximum angle. Remember that this is a minimum length. From that point onward. 2. so a value of 0. Specify a minimum Jacobian value. An element selector and proceed button display in the panel area. 3. the angle between the segments at the midnode will not exceed 180 degrees minus this value). but no greater than 1. The Fix 2 Order Midnodes window opens. Specify a limit to the ratio of minimum and maximum length for the segments of the midnodebearing edges. nd Order Midnodes window. HyperMesh 8. A value of 1 represents perfectly equal segment length. This pop-up window exists independently of the rest of the HyperMesh environment. nd The Fix 2 4. or longer—but not shorter than half the length of the longer segment.

Reject undoes any changes made when you pressed apply. Click one of the command buttons to finalize: • • • Apply tells HyperMesh to move the midnodes to try to match the criteria you specified. When you click Apply. as well as the overall results: Before clicking Apply After clicking Apply 116 HyperMesh 8. a message displays under the Results heading to inform you of exactly what HyperMesh did to the mesh. Close closes the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes window.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .5. The images below illustrate the before-and-after state of a specific midnode and the criteria used.

You can also specify a number of layers of washer elements to include. with a nodes selector and a proceed button. measured from the node. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. creates a circular hole of a given radius in the mesh at a node specifying the center of the hole. A new window opens: The options in the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window determine the type of hole that HyperMesh creates at each chosen node: Hole radius Number of layers Uniform/Varying Each node will receive a hole of this radius. or to vary from one another. only one row displays because all layers will be set to the same values. The number of a specific washer layer. Otherwise. This is the number of layers of washer mesh elements that you want to surround each hole. Clicking the Trim Hole button opens a special. No.Trim Hole Macro This macro. and specifies whether you want mesh layers to all be the same width. Pick nodes on your model for the centers of each hole that you wish to create. If you chose varying width for the layers. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 117 . then click proceed. the table displays one row for each of the number of layers that you specified. This toggle only applies when the number of layers is more than zero. temporary panel in the HyperMesh panel area.

If you don’t like the results of the last trim operation. Click this button to create the new hole(s).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When you click the Fill Hole button in the utility menu. Choose single rigid link to create one rigid element that connects to all of the nodes around the new hole. This checkbox tells HyperMesh to create a rigid spider in each of the new holes created. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Each new hole will be created with at least the number of nodes that you specify in the density field. Note that this only undoes a single click of the trim button. Close the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window. if necessary. For example. evenly spaced around its circumference. fills in one or more holes in your geometry with automatically-generated mesh. Close Fill Hole Macro This macro. Note: This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that currently fill the hole. Width: specify a fixed width for each layer. click this button to undo it. a new window opens: 118 HyperMesh 8. • Scale: you can specify each layer’s scale relative to the Hole radius. Minimum number of nodes around the hole Trim Reject This determines the mesh density around the new hole(s).5” for a washer layer that’s half as wide as the hole radius.Scale/Width Determines the width of the washer layers. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. and enables two more options: • • Choose individual rigid links to create rigid elements at each node of the new hole. so it can only undo multiple holes if they were created simultaneously during a single trim operation. use “0. • Value Create rigid spider along the hole The scale factor or width of the layer(s).

and X=value and X=xmax. so it can only undo multiple fills if they were created simultaneously during a single fill operation. Click proceed in t he panel area. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu.0. returning you to the main HyperMesh environment with a nodes selector active in the panel area. 3. Split the model along global Y=0. Fill Reject Close Box Trim Macro The Box Trim macro.There are two methods of filling holes: Manual Use this option to select the holes that you wish to fill: 1.0 and Y=ymax. Note that this only undoes a single click of the fill button. and X=value and X=xmax. HyperMesh will automatically scan you model for holes smaller than this value. and X=xmin and X=value. Click the yellow Select Nodes button.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. click this button to undo it. and attempt to fill them with mesh. and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=0. 2. Select nodes on the edges of the holes that you wish to fill.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0.0 and X=value (selected value). Split the model along global Y=0. The Filling holes with mesh window returns. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=ymiddle. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y= ymiddle and Y=ymax. The window temporarily minimzes. Close the Filling holes with mesh window. and X=xmin and X=value. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For example. with the Select Nodes button now green to indicate that nodes have been chosen. allows you to trim the model (or selected subset) along the global axis to fit the selected 3-D box. 4. Automatic Use this option to let HyperMesh select holes automatically based on size. whether you chose to select your holes manually or automatically. a full car model can be trimmed along the Y=0 axis to obtain the left or right side of the car. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=xmin and X=value.0 and Y=ymax. The selected model can be trimmed along eight standard types: left right front rear frontleft frontright rearleft rearright Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y=ymin and Y= ymiddle (ymiddle =(ymin+ymax)/2). Click the Fill button to fill the selected holes with mesh.0 User’s Guide 119 . If you don’t like the results of the last fill operation. Type a value into the entry field labeled Fill circular holes with radius smaller than:. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=value and X=xmax. Click this button to perform the fill operation. Split the model along global Y=0.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note: This macro is for the 1st order plate elements only. e The model can also be trimmed using custom box by either selecting the two corner nodes or center node and dimensions.This macro is useful in applications where some types of analysis can be performed on one-half (or quarter) of the model using symmetry boundary conditions. 120 HyperMesh 8. The axis directions and terminology are based on modeling standards in the automotiv industry.

select the node/enter value for trim location. 6. . the constraints are created in the current load collector. You can turn on the option of creating constraints (SPCs) for all the nodes along the face of the box. Using the extended entity selection.To box trim a model: 1. . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If you select custom. A large hexa element that represents the box will be created for visualization in the specified collector. click Box Trim. If you select Corners. and select the two corner nodes that define If you select Distance from center. and select the center node.0 User’s Guide 121 . 2. click the icon. the outer X. If no elements are selected. The nodes are constrained in the appropriate directions depending on the trim axes and are stored in the specified load collector (SPC collector). 4. Delta Y and Delta Z values which is the distance from the center node to the outer bounds of the box in global X. You can also specify a Box collector. Y and Z bounds of the box.) 5. all displayed elements are selected. 3. If no load collector is specified. (Reject will undo all the above. define the box by either selecting two corner nodes (Corners) or selecting the center node and dimensions (Distance from center). Y and Z directions. Then enter Delta X. select the elements you would like to trim and click proceed or the middle mouse button. From the Geom/Mesh utility menu. click the icon. choose the appropriate option from the Box trim type: menu. Click Trim. If you select a standard type. From the Box Trim dialog.

Auto Connectors Macro Note: If you are unfamiliar with HyperMesh connector entities. Virtually every option available for FE realization in the connectors module is also available in the Auto Connectors macro. refer to Connector Definition and Connector Realization for more information.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog 122 HyperMesh 8. The Auto Connectors macro automates the importation and FE realization of connectors from either a Master Connectors File or an older Master Weld File.

The user-defined FE type definitions can be found in the appropriate feconfig.cfg file and displays a list of all the appropriate user-defined FE types (found in the feconfig. the user-defined FE type-t o-realize is required.Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog .cfg file) in the Fe type field.cfg file.0 User’s Guide 123 .user-defined option Input requirements for connector entity creation and FE realization are: • • • Note: Master connectors/weld file FE config Projection tolerance In the case of a user-defined FE config. The property and diameter can be specified if necessary. This script automatically reads the default HyperMesh feconfig. Additional options are: • • • Build systems Snap to node Attach to shells Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Project to shell 124 HyperMesh 8.25: 3.0 Nugget diameter 7 8 The nugget diameter is 7. Thickness Files DvsT file (diameter vs thickness ) contains a table that associates the thickness of components and the nugget diameter of the weld. ACM Welds An ACM (Area Contact Method) weld is a special representation of a spot weld. The file format includes thickness range and the corresponding diameter of the weld nugget. see Spotweld Interface Overview. Th e solid element is created at the exact weld location independent of the shell elements that represent the sheet metal parts.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Master Weld Files The Master Weld File provides the weld location and parts to be connected.0 Maximum thickness 1.99. The length of the weld element is calculated using one of the following methods: (T1+T2)/2 This creates the Hexa elements with a length equal to the average component thickness it is connecting. The size of the hexa is calculated to match the cross-sectional area of the weld nugget.0 for the thickness range of 1. PointId 12:: 23:: 1t/2t/3t 2:: 3:: X 2. T1 and T2 are the component thicknesses. The length of the Hexa element will be equal to the actual distance between the two connecting components/elements. This creates the Hexa elements between the component/element shell surface. These solid elements are connected to the corresponding components using RBE3 elements. Diameter vs. A format example is shown below.4 to 1.25:: PartId1 2:: 2:: PartId2 3:: 3:: 5:: PartId3 The syntax is the same as used for spotweld.25:: Z 1. For additional supported formats.9 3. The first figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method.exe feinput translator. The weld is defined using a solid (HEXA) element whose cross-sectional area is equivalent to the area of the weld nugget. The equivalent area is taken to determine the side of the hexa. The size of the solid element is determined using the DvsT file.25:: 3.0:: 0. Minimum thickness 1.4 2.05:: Y 2. The second figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method. The nugget diameter corresponding to the minimum thickness of the connecting parts is obtained from the DvsT file.

0 option ACM creation using Project to Shells option The weights of the RBE3 elements are calculated based on the projection of the dependent node on the shell element.0 User’s Guide 125 .The figures below show ACM created using the two currently available methods. ACM creation using (T1+T2)/2. The nodes of the shell element closest to the dependent node are assigned a greater weight relative to the node that is farther away. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Set the appropriate tolerance (proj tol=) value. they can be realized as ACM spotwelds as follows: 1. 4. If no DvsT file is selected. The appropriate property script is automatically loaded for the selected type. which determines the size of the hexa based on the thicknesses of the components being connected. hexas are created with weld nugget diameter =1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 8. Make sure all the connecting parts have PSHELL cards with correct thicknesses. For CWELD elements. 7. CWELD Elements CWELD elements are created as patch-patch.ACM welds can be created and managed in HyperMesh using connectors. Click realize. Make sure the attach to shell and snap to node options are turned off in fe options…. Once a connector is created. Select a DvsT file. Make sure that the connectors are created at each of the weld locations along with connecting parts information. Select the connectors to be realized as ACMs in the fe realize panel of the connectors module on the 1D page. 3. Load the Nastran user profile from the user prof… panel in Geom or Tools page. the diameter is determined from a DvsT file based on the component thickness. The 1D element is not connected to the shell element. 2. In addition to the creation of CWELD elements. 6. 5. Choose custom element config and select type = Nastran 70 ACM((T1+T2)/2) or type = Nastran 71 ACM (Shell Gap) per your requirements. meshless elements. a corresponding property card (PWELD) is created with an updated diameter ‘D’ attribute value.0. 9. 126 HyperMesh 8. For details regarding connected shell elements or nodal information see the element card.

0 User’s Guide 127 . Moldflow. and removing. They include Abaqus. Ansys. the appropriate template and Utility menu load (you can return to the standard HyperMesh GUI by selecting the HyperMesh profile). Note: Ensure that items required for a specific function are not removed from the interface. moving. Radioss. Permas. The configuration can include loading a specific template.User Profiles The HyperMesh user interface can be configured according to your specific needs and saved as a user profile. Select User Profiles from the Preferences pull-down menu. Madymo. The hmmenu. Nastran. and an interface customized for CFD uses. removing unused panels or sub-panels. however. Note that the user profiles change the appearance of a panel .set file keeps track of which user profile was last loaded. or renaming panel options.they do not affect the internal behavior of each function. Pamcrash. Actran. User profiles for the following products are included: HyperMesh OptiStruct ABAQUS ACTRAN ANSYS LS-DYNA MADYMO NASTRAN PAM-CRASH & PAM-CRASH2G PERMAS RADIOSS CFD Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. OptiStruct. HyperMesh. LsDyna. renaming panels. add functions to (or remove them from) a panel. Once you choose a standard user profile. They may. The current user profile displays on the header bar. A set of standard user profiles is included in the HyperMesh installation. loading a specific Utility menu.

Using HyperMesh This section explains how to use a typical HyperMesh panel by description and example. the template remains the same. It contains information about: • • • • • • • • • • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Input Collectors Viewing Models Using the Display Panel Setting View Options Setting Tolerances Setting Global Parameters Importing and Exporting Data Printing Screen Images Using the Card Previewer 128 HyperMesh 8.mac) is loaded. the template remains the same.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . None The HyperMesh user profile does not load a template. If a template file exists before loading the profile. If a template file exists before loading the profile.HyperMesh User Profile Template: None/Unchanged This user profile does not load a template. Utility menu: Panel changes: The standard HyperMesh Utility menu is loaded. The standard HyperMesh Utility menu (hm.

This process is familiar for users of HyperMesh 7. Save... If the file being saved already exists. click save. and Save As… options located in the Files pull-down menu.. you can also use the hm file sub-panel on the files panel to save and retrieve HyperMesh binary databases. click retrieve. select a path and file name. To retrieve a binary HyperMesh database.0 and earlier. select a file using the Open file. but can be less efficient than using the File menu. dialog. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.. Next. and click Open.Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Using the File pull-down menu The simplest way to open or save a HyperMesh model database is to use the Open. and then select the hm file sub-panel... Open and Save As… both invoke browsers so that you can navigate to the desired file directory and either select a file to open. and click Save. Next. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. Using the Files Panel However.0 User’s Guide 129 . and then select the hm file sub-panel. Save simply saves the current model under its current name.. HyperMesh asks for confirmation before overwriting the file. or type in a name for the file to be saved.. To save a database. updating/overwriting its older version each time you Save. You can also click save as.

Lines Each segment of a line has pick handles along its length. Surfaces can be selected along their edges or on interior UV lines (also known as surface lines). Note: For more information about picking entities. Each pick handle is displayed as a small "+. 1-D element pick handles are displayed as letters at the centroid of the elements: K M BAR2 BAR3 R RL W RBE3 J ROD GAP spring masses bar2 bar3 rigid rigid link weld rbe3 joint rod gap Click the element handles check box on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel to switch on or off the display of element handles. The following list indicates the pick handle locations for each type of entity: Nodes The pick handle for a node is located at the node. line. A component can be selected by picking an element. Elements Shell and solid element pick handles are displayed as pixels at the centroid of the element. Surfaces Components Surfaces do not have pick handles.Picking Entities on the Screen After you select the correct data type.cfg command file. If you need to select nodes on geometry or on an element where nodes do not currently exist. The pick handle for a coordinate system is located at the origin of the system." If there are many pick handles. or surface within that component. move the mouse to the location on the screen where the node resides. Line handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. You may need to change the command if the default has been changed by a prior user. see Entity Selection. Element handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. To select a node. see Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements. Systems 130 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can set the default mode for the graphics mode you wish to use by activating/deactivating the *graphicengine(mode) command in the hm. you can use the mouse to pick the desired entities in the graphics area of the screen. Each type of entity has a pick handle that allows you to select the entity. Click geom handle on the modeling sub-panel on the options subpanel to switch on or off the display of line handles. a "+" is displayed at only some of the pick handles. Components do not have pick handles.

you can turn on the coincident picking option from the modeling sub-panel of the options panel (accessed from the toolbar). A curve can be selected by clicking anywhere along the curve. when several of them are coincident (present at the same location). Load collectors do not have pick handles. simply select a system within that system collector. A plot can be selected by picking within its border. To select a system collector. Vector pick handles are located at the arrow tip of the vector. or loads.0 User’s Guide 131 . simply select a load within that system collector. To facilitate the selection of graphical entities such as nodes. elements. Blocks are drawn in shaded mode with transparency and can be selected by picking anywhere on the entity. To select a load collector. Titles Vectors Curves Note A title can be selected by picking within its bounding box. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.System Collectors Loads Load Collectors Plots Blocks System collectors do not have pick handles. The pick handle for a load is located at the pick handle of the entity to which the load is applied. Blocks do not have pick handles.

This function can be accessed from any node collector in any panel. To select new nodes on geometry: 1. edges. position the cursor on an element handle and hold the left mouse button down. 4. 2. release the left mouse button to select it. 3. While the line or surface is highlighted in this manner. The cursor becomes a small white box 2. Position the cursor on a node and press the left mouse button. To select new nodes on elements: 1. Release the left mouse button. surfaces) on which you would like to place a node. When you are in a node collection mode. The cursor becomes a small white box and the element is highlighted. . Continue to hold the left mouse button down and use the mouse to move this special cursor box close to the desired geometry entity. Then move your cursor to the exact location on the geometry where you would like the node to be placed and click the left mouse button to place a node.Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements Node and node list input collectors allow you to not only pick existing nodes in the model. Then move the cursor to the exact location on the elements of that component and click the left mouse button to place the node. you can select nodes at the desired location(s) on the geometry. You can create nodes on elements by holding the left mouse button down on an element handle until the cursor becomes a square and selecting the element. You can create a node on geometry by holding the left mouse button down along the geometry handle until the cursor becomes a square and then selecting the geometry (lines. While the line/surface is highlighted. they also allow you to create new nodes on geometry or on elements. 132 HyperMesh 8. Move your cursor to the exact location on the element where you want to add a node and click the left mouse button.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A temporary node is created at that location and is selected in the node collection for the panel. 3. You can create temporary nodes on an element (similar to creating a node on the fly on a line or surface). This function allows you to create welds at locations that do not have pre-existing nodes.

0 User’s Guide 133 . HyperMesh displays a list of the available collectors. lines. You can then select an option from the extended entity selection menu. Allows you to select entities by assembly. coordinate systems. click the data type button on the current input collector. HyperMesh displays a list of the available assemblies. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are displayed in dimmed text. the elements or lines contained in the selected components are selected. When you select by adjacent. loads. When you select by assems. Extended selection techniques are described in the following table: all Allows you to select all entities of the specified type. the set to be added to the user mark includes entities displayed and those not displayed. Allows you to select entities adjacent to the entities already selected. You may select multiple assemblies from this list. These selection options are displayed for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. When you select by collector. the entities selected by this operation are those attached to the selected component. You may select multiple collectors from this list. To access the extended selection menu. When you select by attached. Entities that are not displayed will not be selected although they may be attached to the entity selected. surfaces. When you select all. by adjacent by assems by attached by collector Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. equations. Input Collector Extended entity selection menu. Allows you to select entities by specifying an entity among a large group of continuously connected elements. HyperMesh includes the entities currently displayed that are attached to the entities already selected. If you select component collectors in regard to elements or lines. With all other entities.Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu The extended entity selection menu provides a number of entity selection options. vectors. HyperMesh includes the entities that are adjacent to the entities already selected. Allows you to select elements. and points by collector.

134 HyperMesh 8. 5. You can use keywords to specify a range that determines which entities are selected. Attached. Examples of valid by id expressions: 127 127 – 722 300 through 600 300 thru 600 300 t 600 1000 . HyperMesh displays a list of the available output blocks from which you may select. The feature angle parameter in the options panel’s modeling sub-panel determines the feature lines. 400 t 500 b 3 by face by group by id by include Allows you to select FE entities such as elements. 8 . systs.10.by config Allows you to select elements by configuration and type. by output block Allows you to select the nodes. "thru". and the letter "b" may be substituted for "by" when you specify the range. a pop-up window prompts you to type ID numbers or ranges of ID numbers.2000 b 100 You can also use a comma to separate individual entities or entity ranges. 850 1 . Note: Includes created via the include browser are only valid for solvers that support them. You may select multiple groups from this list.<end number> by <increment value> "through". HyperMesh displays a list of the available includes that you may select. that belong to selected include. When you select by include. 800. 4. comps. Allows you to select entities by typing in their ID numbers. 5. When you select by group.2000 by 100 1000 . When you select by id. groups etc. adjacent surfaces or elements are progressively selected when the angle between them is less than or equal to the specified feature angle. Examples of valid lists of by id expressions: 1. The standard format is: <start number> . loads. or "t" may be substituted for the dash (-). Allows you to select entities by group.100 by 2. When you select by config. HyperMesh displays a list of the available groups. HyperMesh displays a panel for specifying an element configuration and type for selection. 100 3. 77. 3. When you select by output block. Allows you to select entities by surface face. It finds surfaces and elements that are attached to each other without crossing a feature line. Output blocks are created in the output blocks panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . groups and mats within an outputblock. elements. The element type is dependent on the template file specified in the global panel.

When disp is selected. Allows you to select entities inside a user-defined multiple-sided polygon in the plane of the screen. This can be very useful when you use the reflect function on a model (only available for elements and lines).by path Allows you to pick multiple nodes or lines. Allows you to duplicate the currently selected elements. lines. Sets are created in the entity sets panel. either by picking a sample surface or by specifying a range of values for the width. Alternatively. Select original to place the new entities in the same component collectors as the original entities. When you select duplicate. or points. the function tries to find the closest path along that free edge. Select points in the graphics area to define a window enclosing the pick handles of the desired entities. This is useful when you want to apply constraints to a plane. and selects all the nodes/lines that fall in the closest path connecting the selected ones. surfaces. Click select entities to highlight the enclosed entities. click select and HyperMesh selects the entities which are associated to the surfaces.0 User’s Guide 135 . Selecting by window activates the build window panel. by sets by surface by window by width displayed duplicate on plane retrieve Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. by path for lines uses the connectivity of surfaces/solids and thus requires the selected lines to be surface/solid edges. as shown in the global panel. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes. Allows you to select the entities within a set. The initially selected entities are deselected when the duplicate elements are created and selected. When you select by sets. all entities within collectors that are active in the disp (display) panel are selected. Allows you to select all of the entities currently displayed on the screen. a pop-up window allows you to choose a component for the newly created duplicate entities. If you select two nodes on a free edge of some elements. Entities can be saved to the user mark by selecting save in this popup window. Allows you to retrieve previously saved entities from the user mark. You can associate entities to a surface in the node edit panel. Allows you to select a group of entities whose pick handles reside on a plane. Select current to place the new entities in the currently active component collector. When you select by surface. or by selecting save failed in the check elems panel. click reject entities to deselect enclosed entities that were previously highlighted. Once the surfaces have been selected. HyperMesh displays a panel from which you may select one or more surfaces. Similarly. and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. Allows you to select the entities which are associated to a surface. HyperMesh displays a list of the available sets from which you may select. Allows you to select surfaces by width.

Allows you to save the currently selected entities to a holding area known as the user mark. The extended entity selection menu is not displayed in such situations. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. such as nodelist and linelist must remember the sequence in which the entities are selected. origin in the systems panel requires only one node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Some panels in HyperMesh require only a single entity to collect. The nodelist collector displays the following extended selection options: save Notes: by list by path Allows you to select nodes individually in the desired sequence. show node order by window The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). If you select two free (red) edges. If you select two nodes on the free edge of the elements. 136 HyperMesh 8. Allows you to review the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. the function tries to find the closest path along the free edge. Some collectors. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. Allows you to pick nodes (two or more) and selects all the nodes that fall in the closest path connecting the selected nodes. Thus their extended entity selection menu is different from that of the standard extended selection menu. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally.reverse Allows for a Boolean "not" to be performed on the currently displayed elements. for example. When reverse is selected. all elements which are not on the mark and are currently active are selected. all selected elements are removed from the mark. it only works with surface edges and not free unconnected geometric lines.

The view commands are accessible even when you are using other panels. and restore different views of your model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and refresh the screen. up. The viewing functions allow you to: Setting Basic Views The view pop-up menu allows you to display your model in several basic views. or rotate the model in clockwise or counterclockwise directions. specify an area to see in closer detail. right. identify.Viewing Models The functions on the Toolbar Area allow you to control the view of your model. click-and-drag the mouse to zoom in and out. (Numeric keypad) Current Window Zoom Fit to screen Plot (refreshes the rendering in the Graphics Area). The view zooms to that circle when you release the mouse button. fill the window with the model. reverse the view. and down arrow keys to rotate the model incrementally. Click the user view button in the Toolbar Area to access the view menu. The save and restore options allow you to save. • • • Use the left. The following window viewing options are included as default keyboard shortcuts: z + and f p s Circle zoom: click-and-drag the mouse to draw a circle.0 User’s Guide 137 . Hold down the ctrl key. The view menu Changing the Window The window viewing options allow you to zoom in and out of the currently displayed window. Slide zoom. Release the mouse button to stop zooming. then click cw (clockwise) or ccw (counterclockwise). View pop-up menu. Using View Rotation There are multiple methods you can use to rotate a displayed model. then click-and-drag on the model in the graphics area.

HyperMesh displays a message requesting you to circle the area of the model to be more closely investigated. Press + on the numeric keypad to zoom in.on the numeric keypad to zoom out. A trailer line appears wherever the mouse is moved. 138 HyperMesh 8. To refresh the screen: • Click the plot refresh toolbar button or press P on the keyboard. Move the mouse to the appropriate area on the screen and hold the left mouse button down. The cursor changes to dynamic center mode. The area circled is used to recalculate the window when the mouse button is released.CTRL . press the p key or the plot refresh toolbar button to refresh the screen. These two functions increase or decrease the current window by the user-defined factor specified on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel. To drag the model: 1. Click and hold the mouse button. With the mouse button still depressed. Press Z on the keyboard.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Simultaneously press and hold the CTRL key and the right mouse button. 2. Press the s key. To fit the entire model on the screen: • Press F on the keyboard. To perform a circle zoom: 1. Press . Release the mouse button. If the screen appears messy or inaccurate after entities have been plotted and erased. Use the mouse to drag the model to the desired position on the screen.right click allows you to drag the model. down to zoom in up to zoom out Release the mouse button to end the zoom function. 2. To use the mouse to zoom in and out: 1. 2. To zoom in and out of the current window: 1. 3. 3. The model and/or the window are not resized when you refresh the screen. move the mouse to circle the area to be zoomed in on. Slide the mouse: or 4. Automatic full screen refreshes are kept to a minimum. 2.

4. zoom. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To change the screen center: 1. or by pressing any key.0 User’s Guide 139 . The current center is indicated by a small white box. Return to the Previous View To return to the previous view of your model. center. is performed by selecting a new center for the current window. This returns the screen graphic to the view before a rotation. click the previous view button in the Toolbar Area or press b on the keyboard. Move the mouse to the point where you want the new center located and click the left mouse button. by clicking the right mouse button. or other viewing manipulation was performed. You can toggle between two views of a model by clicking (or pressing) repeatedly.Performing View Translation Translation of the model. Press C on the keyboard. Move the mouse into the graphics area. also called panning. The center relocates. Exit by moving the mouse into the menu area. 3. 2.

3. To change to another collector type: 1. At this setting. Click the upper switch.Using the disp (display) Panel The disp (display) panel. the elements in the selected components are displayed if the component (on the left-hand side of the panel) is selected. 2. To turn a collector off: 1. Collectors can also be turned off by moving the mouse to the graphics region and picking an entity which they collect. 2. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. Use the left mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want added to the display.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2. 3. Select the type of collector you want to remove from the screen display. Click all. Click the upper switch. Select the type of collector you want to display. the switches (on the right-hand side of the panel) are set to comps and elems. 2. The name and ID of the collector are displayed on the left side of the page. Click the lower switch and select name (id) to display the name and the collector’s ID number. Components can be turned on and off by selecting the check boxes of the components in the display list. 2. The colors of each component display next to the component names. Click the upper switch. located on the permanent menu. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. The ID of the collector is displayed in parenthesis on the left side of the page. Select the type of collector you want to display. allows you to select which components and collectors are displayed on the screen. In the default mode of the display panel. To turn on all the collectors of a specified type: 1. Click the lower switch and select name to display the collector’s name. Select the collector type. To turn all the collectors off: • Click none. Access it by clicking the display button in the Toolbar Area or selecting Display > Collectors from the View pull-down menu. Use the right mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want removed. To change the collector list to display names. 140 HyperMesh 8. To turn a collector on: 1. The name of the collector is displayed on the left side of the page. 3. Click the lower switch and select (id) to display the collector’s ID number instead of the name. or both: 1. IDs.

To reverse the selection: • Click reverse to toggle between having all the selected components on or off.0 User’s Guide 141 . Click the leftmost toggle to filter =. To use a filter: 1. To display geometry: • Click the toggle and select geoms to display the surfaces and lines in a component. 2. You can use the asterisk (*) for a wildcard. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Enter the character string to use for the filter.

if multiple loads are detected at the same location. The entities supported for coincident picking are nodes. Viewing option settings include: rotate angle The rotate angle specifies the number of degrees that your model rotates when you use the arrow keys.Setting View Options The modeling sub-panel on the options panel (accessible via to toolbar or the Tools pull-down menu) allows you to define several viewing options. For smaller models. but it can slow down the redraw speed of a large model. This function is activated by turning on coincident picking in the options panel. it is easier to pick an entity. The geom handles option allows you to specify whether or not to display line and surface handles. When the pick tolerance is increased. An element handle is a single-pixel dot at the centroid of an element. This option allows you to display the element labels as template names or HyperMesh names. Fixed points can also be turned on and off from vis opts in the geometry cleanup panel. The element handles option also allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. in pixels. The surf lines parameter specifies the default number of u-v lines to draw on new surfaces when they are created. that the cursor can be from the pick handle of a graphical entity in order to select it. a circular insert pops up containing various loads displayed separately with their IDs turned on. The zoom factor specifies the multiplication factor that is used to increase or decrease the scale of the current view when you press the + and – keys on the numeric keypad. setting the rotation angle to a lower value allows a smooth transition from frame to frame. Increasing or decreasing the angle makes the model appear to rotate faster or slower. loads and systems. This does not affect the display of free points.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . elements. The pick tolerance specifies the maximum distance. The coincident picking option allows you to graphically select a desired entity from a stack of coincident entities when there are multiple entities at the same location. Displaying surface lines can help you to visualize a surface better. The number of surface lines on existing surfaces can be changed by using the surf lines panel. pick tol zoom factor surf lines element handle geom handle coincident picking template labels/ HM labels 142 HyperMesh 8. This sub-panel also allows you to specify node and cleanup tolerances. The element handles option specifies whether or not to draw element handles. For example. You can then pick the appropriate load. Turning off pick handles can speed up the redraw time. for more information see Setting Tolerances. fixed points The fixed points option allows you to specify whether or not to display fixed points.

This feature allows you to assign a set of display attributes to each component of your model that determines how each component is displayed. If no shrink is selected. the element is scaled by the specified value about its centroid. then selecting FE Styles. Display attributes can be applied to all components by using the wireframe elements and shaded elements toolbar buttons. HyperMesh allows you to select the node by picking the "node sphere" on the screen. Entity Selection The graphics engine allows you to select entities by moving the mouse anywhere along the entity of interest. Transparent The element displays as a filled transparent polygon. Another key feature in the graphics engine is the method by which nodes are selected. To select a node. If a shrink value is applied. Component Display The graphics engine treats each HyperMesh component as an independent unit.Shrink The shrink option controls the shrink factor to be used when drawing elements. select the element to which the node of interest is attached.0 User’s Guide 143 . Hidden Line with Feature Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the "feature" edges drawn in mesh line color. so that its corners do not appear to touch its nodes. For nodes that are not attached to any elements. Hidden Line The element displays as a filled polygon. Access this panel by opening the View pull-down menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. it is much easier to work when you are zoomed in on a particular area. each element is drawn so that its corners directly connect to its nodes. Hidden Line with Mesh Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the edges drawn in mesh line color. The display attributes that you can assign to each component are: Wireframe Element edges display with lines. For lines and surfaces. as you are not required to have a pick handle on the screen in order to pick the entity. Shrinking elements is a convenient way to detect holes in a mesh and to improve wireframe element picking. The shrink value must be between 0 and 1. HyperMesh selects the node closest to the point where the element was selected. The benefit of this feature is that it allows you to create zero length elements between two coincident nodes in a mesh. They can be applied to individual components or sets of components through the Visual Attributes panel.

This can make it very difficult to see a node. When a component is set to hidden line. The isosurfaces sub-panel is available on the contour and animation panels. and displays these instead of displaying all of the faces. To correct this situation. the interior is filled with solid color. If this occurs. The zbuffer allows HyperMesh to render your model in hidden line. HyperMesh relies on the zbuffer found on your graphics device. then HyperMesh draws the whole model in hidden line. There are some limitations to using a zbuffer and some display output differences of which you should be aware. you should obtain more system memory.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The cutting plane feature can be found in the hidden line. this could seriously affect performance. and animation panels. the zbuffer may have difficulty deciding which entity to display. contour. it may help to use the shrink option (modeling sub-panel on the options panel). To perform this task. you might see a "dotting" or "stitching" effect where the zbuffer considers one entity to be closer to you at one pointer. If one or more of the components in a model are set to a display style besides wireframe. and then another entity closer to you at another. If swapping occurs while you are running HyperMesh. the display lines which represent the edges (for example) might be partially or completely blocked out by the original entity in the database.User Features of the Graphics engine When you are post-processing. and faces panels. HyperMesh graphics use some memory. Isosurfaces Hidden components Memory usage 144 HyperMesh 8. Isosurfaces can be displayed on a model in either a legendbased mode in which each of the legend colors generates an isosurface. In some cases. If you have solid elements in your model. or as a value-based surface in which you specify a value that indicates where an isosurface should be displayed. If this situation occurs. since HyperMesh is creating entities that reside in the same location in space as another entity. with the elements in back eliminated from the display. the graphics engine offers advanced and powerful features: Cutting plane Cutting plane functions have been expanded to allow three planes to be active simultaneously. the graphics engine draws all selected or temporary nodes as spheres when one or more components are set to a display attribute other than wireframe. Cutting plane control is more interactive and is controlled by selecting any of the active planes with the mouse and then dragging the plane across the model. or nearly the same location in space. you can turn the zbuffer off by making all of the components in your model wireframe. Optimization The graphics engine optimizes the display of your finite element model. If you encounter this problem. One of the optimizations is the removal of interior solid faces. edges. Here. HyperMesh calculates where the external faces are in your model. Potential areas of zbuffer stitching are in the features. One problem with using the zbuffer technology is that if two entities lie in the same location in space.

0 100. Element size Node tolerance min max 0.1 0. This sub-tab allows you to define tolerance values..0 0. any entities created are stored in the active collectors. These tolerance values include: node tol Node tolerance is essentially the resolution to which HyperMesh maintains the finite element data in the model. accessed by selecting Global Parameters from the Model pull-down menu. cleanup tol Since the objective is to make a finite element mesh for the geometry. the tolerance values are determined by the demands for that mesh. Use this panel or the template sub-panel on the files panel to specify the template file you want to use. "Cleaning up" refers to cleaning up the CAD geometry data by equivalencing edges..01 1. If you want to create second order elements.0 User’s Guide 145 . Since you will approximate the geometry with a finite element mesh. and eliminating extraneous vertices. deleting fillets. you need to work with a cleanup tolerance that is less than the node tolerance used in the mesh generation. which is accessible from the toolbar or from the Tools pull-down menu.1 10. controls model parameters that are accessed by several different panels.max 1e-4 0. When you specify a node tolerance. Elements are designated as first order elements by default. The global panel controls which components or collectors are active.01 1e-3 0.1 10. and initializes the tolerances as appropriate. These parameters remain constant until changed. but without additional input it uses a cautious estimate.1 1.Setting Tolerances The modeling sub-panel is located on the Options panel.01 1e-3 0. HyperMesh considers any two nodes to be coincident if the distance between them is less than the value. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh attempts to make a reasonable guess at this value when you import a CAD file.0 10. click the toggle after element order: to second.01 1.0 Cleanup tolerance min. The cleanup tolerance value specifies how much HyperMesh is allowed to modify the geometry in the course of "cleaning" it.0 1e-4 0.0 Setting Global Parameters The global panel.1 0.0 0. You need to approximate the size of the elements that make up the smallest feature of importance in your model.

and Ideas. 3. Ansys. <ctrl>-click to select multiple files one at a time. Select the desired file type. Click Close to close the Multiple File Import window. HyperMesh uses templates to create the analysis input decks for finite element solvers. The CAD formats currently supported are IGES. HM ASCII. Click multiple files. • Selected files are highlighted to indicate their selection. The export sub-panel on the files panel allows you to write information from a HyperMesh database to many finite element formats.hm) into the current model session. Cmold. STL. 5. Click the button to select all of the files in the list. Click the file pull-down menu. 4. The FE formats we support are Optistruct. Click the “open folder” icon in the directory field to open a browser. Select the desired files in the files to import list: • • • • Left-click to select a single file. Browse to and select the directory that contains the models you wish to import. and STEP. You can also use the templates to perform complex editing or data manipulation tasks. HyperMesh ascii. 2. PRO/E. DXF. 7. This is useful in cases when you want to choose most of the files in the list. 6. You can also import/merge HyperMesh model files (. but not all. The HyperMesh templates can be used to create model summaries and perform some analysis calculations. 146 HyperMesh 8. The window minimizes during the import process. CATIA. Click import to open the import sub-menu. Abaqus. Geometry data can be written in IGES format. The custom option can be used to import models using a translator provided with the HyperMesh installation but cannot be accessed via the pop-up menu. Altair Engineering 9. Click the button to invert the selection (deselect any currently selected files and select any currently non-selected ones). The CUSTOM interface allows you to import models using your own custom-built translation package. Radioss. you can select the ones you don’t want and then invert the selection. The Multiple File Import window opens. UG. PDGS.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering .Importing and Exporting Data The import sub-panel on the files panel allows you to input external CAD line and surface data or finite element models. Patran. Nastran. Pamcrash. To import multiple files: 1. 8. Click the button to deselect all of the files in the list. Marc. Ls-Dyna. VDAFS. Click Import to import the selected files. Select the desired file extension to limit the files that display in the files to import list. You can modify the existing templates to support a desired feature or create a new template to support another analysis code. and a secondary window opens to show the import progress and any errors that may occur. Moldflow.

Click filename = and enter the name of the output file. 3. 6.. 9. 8. or layers & groups.) To create an analysis deck via an external translator: 1.. and enter the name of the output file or select. and use the browser to select a file. Select EXTERNAL. Select the FE option. Select the CUSTOM option. click import.. 4. 3. click browse… and choose the translator required to read the file. Select the data format that corresponds to your input data from the pop-up menu. 2. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. Click the lower switch and select layers. Click the upper switch and select the plane format of the data. Click write as.. For translator:. 4. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. 4. 2.. To write geometry data in IGES format: 1. 5. A new input field.. Select IGES. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. groups. Select IGES. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. Click template = and specify the file name of the template file. 6. if they are not already present. template = appears if it is not already present. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. 3. 7. For file:. Click the toggle and choose either outer loop optional or outer loop mandatory. (Note that the IGES interface exports geometry only. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. A column of switches and toggles appears on the right. For file:. 2.To read data using a standard translator: 1. Click write. 2. Click write. To read data using a custom translator: 1. 3.0 User’s Guide 147 . 4. and use the browser to select the file containing the data. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. click import. 5.

the PostScript preview or file information is printed instead of the actual PostScript image. 2. You can check this by selecting Print from the File menu to show the print dialog box and pressing the Properties button next to the printer name. To create a PostScript file: 1.0 inches. If it is not selected. This requires processing time to optimize the image output. you must have a PostScript capable printer installed. Select generate bitmaps to generate a bitmap PostScript file. a PostScript tab is present in the properties dialog. Click page length = and enter the new size to alter the page length. Select fill model to expand the model to its maximum size within the graphics area of the PostScript page. Select plot optimize to decrease the size of the PostScript file generated. Select Options from the Tools pull-down menu. To change PostScript settings file: 1. postscript sub-panel: color checkbox Activate the color checkbox to print in color. or psp for a PostScript file whose destination is the printer).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A PostScript file with the name post?. The generate bitmaps option must be off if you select this option. Open the File pull-down menu. 2. plot optimize page length = 148 HyperMesh 8. If the printer selected is capable of printing PostScript.* is generated. press the Options button in the print dialog. Select Image > PostScript. Deactivate the color checkbox to print in black and white. Select bitmap preview to generate an image that can be viewed when you view the file in another document. The ? is a number provided for file uniqueness. Select fill to page to fill the PostScript image to the specified page dimensions. Select the PostScript sub-panel. reverse video generate bitmaps fill to page fill model bitmap preview Select reverse video to indicate that your printer cannot produce reverse video images. To set MS Word to send the imported file as a PostScript image to the printer. The following options are available in the options panel. Make sure the option Print PostScript over text is selected. The color checkbox is active by default. Set the options to your print specifications. The standard page length is 11. 3.Printing Screen Images The postscript sub-panel on the options panel allows you to modify the default print specifications before you create a PostScript file. and * is an extension (either eps for a PostScript file whose destination is the hard disk. To print an imported encapsulated PostScript image in MS Word.

Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file.jpg screen capture or animation file.5 inches. If you select enhanced. The slider controls the smoothness of the gradient fill of the blended contour. CTRL-F3 CTRL-F4 CTRL-F5 CTRL-F6 Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. (Note: This works only in UNIX. a slider bar is displayed.cfg. but takes longer to generate. Click image size = and enter the new size to scale the image on the page to your specifications. please contact your systems administrator. The enhanced option allows you to print blended contours (not discrete). the default installation does not spool the bitmap file to the printer. The standard page width is 8. Select print it to send a copy of the file to the printer when you generate the PostScript file. The resolution is displayed in the header bar. It creates a smaller PS file. Select line width = and enter the new width to alter the line width.cfg. CTRL-F1 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Printing Screen Images Using Keyboard Commands You can also use the following function keys in combination with the CTRL key to print and/or save screen images without accessing the postscript sub-panel.cfg. This command executes the operating system command in the *postcopy() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file.page width = image size = line width = print it standard/enhanced Click page width = and enter the new size to alter the page width. CTRL-F2 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. Generates a *. your systems administrator must configure these functions for your system. hm. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. In order for the functions to work correctly. If the functions do not create output.0 User’s Guide 149 . Creates a PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. hm. hm. On UNIX platforms. Click the toggle to standard/enhanced to change the postscript file resolution to print blended contours.) Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk.

A card that has been defined may be disabled.Using the Card Previewer A control card may be in one of three states: State Undefined Defined (See note.) Inactive Note: Color Gray Green Red Explanation The control card was either never created or has been deleted. Any control card viewed in the card previewer is activated. and allows you to enter data in the field. pick the yellow field label. the label text color changes to cyan. The attributes for that card remain. A default value field has two states: State Default = ON Default = OVERRIDDEN Description In this state. the control card is not output. 150 HyperMesh 8. the field label color is yellow and no data entry is allowed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . however. Those control cards that are defined (green in the control card editor) are output. When you override a default value field. To override a default value field. Default values for attributes are common throughout the card previewer.

0 User’s Guide 151 . or hand digitize the data Reconcile conflicts in the geometry and prepare it for use Build the model by using element-building panels Verify the quality of the model Create boundary conditions and systems Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the following building process is used: • • • • • • Create collectors Obtain line and surface geometry from an external file.General Process for Building Models This section describes how to build a finite element model in HyperMesh. In general.

Click create. each collector may use a dictionary or card image to define the attributes assigned to the collector. Click name= and enter comp1. refer to Collectors in Database Design. Click the upper switch and select comps. 5. 4. 6. Note: For more information about the types of collectors used in HyperMesh. Select same as and then click same as = to select the collector whose type and dictionary or card image information you want to copy from an existing collector. Select the collectors panel. For collector type:. To create a collector: 1. HyperMesh automatically creates a material for you and gives it the same name as the component or property. Based on the assigned template. Where available. To create a component: 1. Click return. 6. The collectors panel allows you to create and update collectors and assign and edit card images or dictionaries. − − − Select no dictionary or no card image if you do not want to assign a dictionary or card image. Select dictionary or card image and then click dictionary = or card image = to select the dictionary or card image from a list. select material = and enter a name for the material. If you are creating a component or property collector.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click name = and enter a name for the collector. 152 HyperMesh 8. You are not required to provide a material name when you create a component or property. if desired. 5. Before you build a model in HyperMesh. Select the create sub-panel. 8. Click the switch under creation method:. 7. Click create. 7. HyperMesh uses the definitions contained in the dictionaries or card image to translate models to external analysis codes. 2. Click the switch under creation method: and select no card image. Select the collectors panel. If you choose not to.Creating Collectors All entities in a HyperMesh database are stored in collectors. 4. 3. Select the create sub-panel. 3. 2. click color and select the desired color for the component from the pop-up menu. click the switch and select the type of collector that you want to create. create a component collector for the lines and surfaces.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Unigraphics. DXF. surface data. select create blanked component or no blanked component. and point data) in the following formats: CATIA (V4 and V5). Click Open to import the model into HyperMesh. The types of geometric entities and organizational information imported vary for different formats. Using the toggle. select use automatic cleanup tol to use the cleanup tolerance associated with the geometry of the imported file. Pro/E. HyperMesh creates a new component if an active component does not already exist. When the geometry is read into the current database. To import geometry: 1. please review the individual CAD translator topics for additional information. − − Using the toggle. or select cleanup tol and enter a tolerance value. ACIS and STEP. Select the Geom option. Select the appropriate file format to be imported from the pop-up menu. IGES.Reading Geometry HyperMesh imports CAD geometry (such as lines. 4. 3. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. Parasolid. VDAFS. Click import… to invoke the file browser and select the file that contains your geometry data. 2. PDGS.0 User’s Guide 153 . Blanked components are geometric data that exists in the CAD file but is marked as not displayed or turned on. 5.

extending. HyperMesh will connect the disconnected lines with straight lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The spline option creates a surface through 3-D lines. including: from points. drag. The panels used in this process are listed below: lines creation and editing panels lines line edit circles Create lines in a variety of methods. Add or remove nodes used only for geometry creation or editing. surfaces creation and editing panels surfaces primitives surface edit defeature Create surfaces from existing lines or nodes by different methods. and at the intersection of other geometry. or shrinking. or extend. and create a spline surface and/or mesh in the enclosed area. These lines form one path because they intersect at four points. 154 HyperMesh 8. and cylinders. Several methods are available. There is no limit on the number of lines used to create a mesh/surface. If you select a set of lines that do not form a closed loop. spline/filler. Create standard shaped surfaces or solid entities. or spin. you can create or edit geometry using the line and surface builders. and drag/spin sub-panels of the surfaces panel can be used to create NURBS surfaces. including squares. The ruled. Creating NURBS surfaces A NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) surface is a parametric surface defined by control points. Create circles or arcs. split. cones. Edit existing surfaces by trimming. Edit existing surfaces by removing individual features such as holes or fillets.Creating Geometry Data If geometry is not available from a CAD system. knots and weights. Edit existing lines in a variety of methods such as combine. such as spline. at tangents. smooth. spheres. point/node creation and editing panels nodes temp nodes Create new nodes.

0 User’s Guide 155 . which takes longer to create.These lines form more than one path and cause an error. smooth. The tolerance setting on the options panel is used to determine the intersections between lines. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and slows the automeshing process. Creating a surface with these lines results in a relatively complex surface. Lines that contain sharp edges can cause problems when you create a surface. These lines result in a more complex surface. line by using the lines panel. HyperMesh reports an error when you attempt to create the surface. These sharp edges are sometimes the result of data created on other CAD/CAM systems and brought into HyperMesh via a translator. If the tolerance is too small and an intersection cannot be found. These lines may need to be "smoothed" by using the line edit panel or replaced with a new.

In some cases the sharp edges are required to represent the model and should not be smoothed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 156 HyperMesh 8. Lines used to define a skinned surface. A skinned surface created from the lines.The "circular" shaped line has been replaced with a smooth line. which results in a much simpler surface. The skin option can create a skinned surface through a set of lines.

0 User’s Guide 157 .The ruled option can create a ruled surface between two lines. Lines used to create a ruled surface. A ruled surface created from the lines. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

158 HyperMesh 8.e. protecting them from automatic removal by HyperMesh’s database management (except for some panels that automatically clear all temporary nodes.. edit elements). click anywhere on the surface to select it. Removes all the temporary nodes from the database.Temporary Nodes A temporary node list retains nodes that are not attached to an element. Each surface highlights as selected. Release the mouse button when the desired surface is highlighted. In shaded mode. moving the mouse slightly from side to side. and while holding the mouse button down. you can select any one of them by clicking on the edge. Picking Surfaces In HyperMesh. you can display surfaces in wireframe mode or in shaded mode.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Removes selected individual nodes from the temporary node list. where appropriate. In the temp nodes panel. you can hold the left mouse button down until the surface of interest is highlighted. duplicates of the lines are created and the operation is applied to the duplicates. There may be times when you wish to use an unattached node later in the modeling process. If you use any surface edge lines in the line edit panel. edges. the easiest method of selecting a surface is to pick the surface near its edges or surface visualization lines. Surface edges may be used in the same way as lines in any surface creation panel. faces. Similar to wireframe mode. there are three functions: • • • add clear clear all • • • Adds selected individual nodes to the temporary node list. and release it to confirm the selection. If several surfaces share an edge. In wireframe mode. i. The temp nodes panel allows you to modify the temporary node list.

A circle and a surface (represented with surface lines) before trimming. This allows them to be meshed at the same time.0 User’s Guide 159 . It is usually preferable to combine multiple faces into one surface entity before you use the meshing tools. which contain surface editing tools. The surface is trimmed by sweeping the line along the vector and intersecting the surface with the sweep.Editing Surfaces Each HyperMesh surface contains one or more faces. You can use the surface edit panel to modify surface geometry when it is necessary to make changes before you generate a mesh. For example. two new surfaces are created (shown highlighted) and the original surface is trimmed. to trim a surface with a line. If the sweep does not intersect the surface. use the trim with line sub-panel of the surface edit panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You must select the surface and the line and specify a direction vector. After the circle is used to trim the surface. The features and automesh panels have a cleanup sub-panel. the surface is not trimmed.

Two surfaces before trimming.To trim one surface with another.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . use the trim with surf sub-panel. The smaller surface is split into two surfaces after it is trimmed with the larger surface. 160 HyperMesh 8.

If you transform.0 User’s Guide 161 . or element. if you transform a component that contains both a surface and its associated nodes/elements.Associativity Nodes and elements can be associated to surfaces. When nodes are associated to a surface. Associativity is also broken if you trim a surface. use the node edit or project panel. a surface. Some operations break associativity. When you create a mesh with the automesher. the associativity is not broken. However. node. Associated nodes and elements can be selected by surface. To re-associate a node to a surface. you can use the smooth panel to smooth elements on the surface and the node edit panel to move the nodes along the surface. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. which allows you to select all the nodes and/or elements associated to a surface. the nodes are automatically associated to the surface. such as translate. Note: Re-associating nodes to a surface is usually a time consuming task. associativity is broken.

analysts need to combine a number of faces into a single smooth surface. their priorities are different from those of analysts trying to use the data. each a separate mathematical face. or pinholes. or other misalignments.Geometry Cleanup When designers create CAD geometry. and prevents unnecessary artificial or accidental edges from being present in the final mesh. This allows the elements to be created on the entire region at once. edge edit. 162 HyperMesh 8. and autocleanup panels contain tools to help you prepare surface geometry for meshing. To make the geometry more appropriate for meshing. point edit. misalignments. The juncture between two surfaces often contains gaps. A single smooth surface is typically split into smaller patches.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The initial CAD geometry often contains gaps. These features can distort the elements or demand a finer mesh. overlaps. The quick edit.

and eliminate pinholes. Using the simpler. you can close the gaps between surfaces. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you can easily build a much better mesh.With the tools of the geometry cleanup panels.0 User’s Guide 163 . cleaner geometry. combine surfaces into large meshing regions.

Supports gap elements. Building 0-D Elements The 0-D elements currently supported in HyperMesh are masses. 1-D Element Bar2 Stores A property reference A local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Bar3 Property reference Local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Gap Joint Property reference Property reference Optional orientation nodes or system(s) Plot RBE3 Rigid link A reference to two nodes A degree of freedom at each node Weight at each node A degree of freedom code One independent node Multiple dependent nodes Rigid Rod Spring A degree of freedom code A property reference A property reference A degree of freedom code An optional orientation vector A degree of freedom code Supports rigid elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . line mesh. Supports NASTRAN RBE3 elements. springs. rbe3s. Supports simple beams. bar3s. elem offset. plots. gaps. Altair Engineering 164 HyperMesh 8. This section describes the element types and indicates which panels you can use to build the elements. you can build elements directly on the geometry. Purpose Supports complex beams. Supports kinematic joint definitions supplied with Safety Analysis Codes.Building Elements After you create or obtain geometry data. rigid links. Supports rigid elements with multiple nodes. a value of mass. Weld Note: Supports weld elements. rigids. and joints. or features panel. The 1-D element-building panels are located on the 1D page of the default main menu. welds. Masses can be created in the masses panel. Plot elements are generated in the edit element. rods. Masses have the ability to store one node. The following list indicates the storage capabilities and purpose of each of the 1-D elements. edges. and a property reference. Supports complex beams. Supports display type elements. Note: bar3s contain a third node designed to supported second order beams. Supports springs or damper. Building 1-D Elements One-dimensional elements currently supported in HyperMesh include bar2s.

a row of nodes and a line. Builds elements on square or trimmed planar surfaces.Building 2-D Elements Three-noded trias. or two lines. Builds elements by dragging a line or group of elements along or about a control line. Builds elements by offsetting a group of elements in the direction of their normals. These two-dimensional elements can be built in any of the following panels: automesh cones drag edit element elem offset line drag planes ruled spheres spin spline torus Note: Builds elements on surfaces according to user specifications. By default. four-noded quads. or group of elements about a vector. or group of elements along a vector. and eight-noded quads can all be built in HyperMesh. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Builds elements on conic or cylindrical surfaces. but second order parabolic elements may be generated by changing the element order in the global panel. row of nodes. Builds elements by hand. row of nodes.0 User’s Guide 165 . Builds elements between two rows of nodes. Builds elements that lie on a surface defined by lines. Builds elements on spherical surfaces. first order linear elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. Builds elements by dragging a line. six-noded trias. Builds elements by spinning a line. Builds elements on toroidal surfaces.

and 8.and 10-noded tetras. Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a line. By default. Builds elements by hand. Creates solid elements by offsetting a group of two-dimensional elements normal to the surface formed by the group of two-dimensional elements. Spins a group of two-dimensional elements about a vector to create solids. 166 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Building 3-D Elements HyperMesh builds 4.and 15-noded pentas. and surfaces. but second order solids may be generated by switching the element order in the global panel. first order elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. Creates solid elements between two-dimensional elements. Builds solid elements between a variable number of lines. Pentas and hexas can be built in any of the following panels: drag edit element line drag linear solid solid map solid mesh elem offset spin split tetramesh Note: Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a vector to create solids. 6. lines. Fills with tetra elements a volume that is enclosed by tria elements or surfaces. Builds solid elements between nodes.and 20-noded hexa elements. Propagates split hexas. Tetras can be built in the edit element panel by hand or by using the tetramesh panel.

aspect ratio.Checking Model Quality After you build your model. and NASTRAN-style aspect ratio The time sub-panel allows you to check for elements whose small size might cause problems for an explicit solver. The 1-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check one-dimensional elements for free ends Determine if a group of rigid elements form a loop Check weld and rigid elements for double dependency Check all elements for a minimum length of a side The 2-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. The group sub-panel provides a tool to check for and eliminate group or interface elements whose underlying structural element has changed and left them detached. you can use the check elems panel to verify the geometric quality of the elements in the model. CFD-style volumetric skew. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check tetra elements for collapse. The user sub-panel allows you to verify element quality by using a template file that checks for userspecified conditions. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check a mesh of elements for its maximum chordal deviation from a real or inferred surface The 3-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. You can check your model for connectivity and duplicate elements. skew.0 User’s Guide 167 . skew. aspect ratio. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

The size of loads and constraints is based on model units and can be modified from within the boundary condition panels. EQ. HyperMesh stores and displays all loads in the global coordinate system. Velocities are displayed as a singleheaded arrow with an optional label. Forces are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label F. Temperatures are displayed as a straight line starting at the node at which the temperature is applied extending upward. Applies a velocity at a node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh transforms the loads appropriately to any local nodal output coordinate system. Accelerations are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. The label may include the magnitude of the moment. create a load collector. The label may also display the magnitude of the acceleration. Applies a pressure on an element or geometry. Pressures are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. • constraints • • • equations fluxes • • • forces • • moments • • pressures • • temperatures • • velocities • Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. Constraints are displayed as a triangle with an optional label that displays the degrees of freedom effected by the constraint. Applies a flux load at a node. HyperMesh currently supports the following load types: • accelerations • Applies an acceleration at a node.Applying Loads The final step in the model building process is to apply constraints and forces and to create or assign coordinate systems. M. The label may include the magnitude of the force. Applies a concentrated force along any user-defined vector at a node. V. Fluxes are displayed as a thick arrow with an optional label. The label may include the magnitude of the flux. Equations are displayed with the label. T. with an optional label. The label may include the magnitude of the velocity. Applies a general equation constraint between nodes. 168 HyperMesh 8. Applies a constraint or enforced displacement at a node. The label may include the magnitude of the pressure. A. Applies a concentrated moment about a user-defined vector at a node. reviewing. Before you apply loads. Depending on the analysis code being used to calculate results. Moments are displayed as a double-headed arrow with an optional label. Applies a temperature constraint at a node. and updating loads and constraints. P. flux. Loads are displayed in the color assigned to the load collector.

A system collector must exist and be current in order to build a system. cylindrical. HyperMesh supports reference and analysis systems. Nodes. Analysis systems transform the output system of a node entity.0 User’s Guide 169 . Systems are built and referenced in the systems panel. mass elements.Creating Systems Systems in HyperMesh are referred to as coordinate systems and may be rectangular. Reference systems transform geometric location or input vectors from the global system to a local system. or spherical. Note: System collectors collect system entities. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. forces. and other systems are eligible entities for a reference system.

Automatic Mesh Generation HyperMesh has a centralized plate and shell mesh generation tool called the automeshing secondary panel. There are two approaches to the automeshing secondary panel. • For either method. which allows you to see immediately the locations of the new nodes. until you are satisfied with the resulting mesh. You may choose from several mesh generation algorithms. you may choose from a greater variety of algorithms. the module operates the same. While you are in the meshing module. A solid model created by dragging automeshed plate elements. Mesh smoothing is also available and you may select the algorithm for that operation as well. You control interactively the number of elements on each edge or side and can determine immediately the nodes that are used to create the mesh. and employ the mesh-smoothing operation to improve element quality. there are situations in which it is not possible or not desirable to create a surface. You can adjust the node biasing on each edge to force more elements to be created near one end than near the other. 170 HyperMesh 8. You can also specify whether the new elements should be quads. Furthermore. The created mesh can be previewed. HyperMesh responds with immediate feedback on the effects of the changes. which allows you to evaluate it for element quality before choosing to store it in the HyperMesh database. Most of the element creation panels use this module. the meshing process is usually faster and uses less memory. Most of the functions are still available and operate in the same way. you can use any of viewing tools on the visual options menu to simplify the visualization of complex structures in your model. If you do not use surfaces.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . trias. which supplies as much automated assistance as possible. If you use surfaces. you can specify the mesh generation and visualization options to use on each individual surface. depending on whether or not you use surfaces as the basis for the operation. You can adjust interactively a wide variety of parameters and choose from a suite of algorithms. have more flexibility in specifying the algorithm parameters. • If you use surfaces. or mixed and whether they should be first or second order elements.

0 User’s Guide 171 .The automeshing secondary panel can make second order elements for boundary element solutions. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

172 HyperMesh 8. undo. reject. the screen display changes to present only the information applicable to the current operation. You can switch freely between the sub-panels. and return functions (see Automeshing Secondary Panel in the Panels section). density algorithm type biasing details checks Each automeshing sub-panel has the mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . abort.Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel The functions of the automeshing secondary panel are divided into six sub-panels. as well as the local view pop-up menu. smooth.

if that is the case. Each site where an element could be placed is measured and one of several possible elements is chosen.0 User’s Guide 173 . Rectangle. To make tria elements. HyperMesh attempts to produce an all-quads mesh. HyperMesh analyzes the geometry of each face and the element densities specified for each edge.Mesh Generation Algorithms The mesh generation algorithms are divided into two types: those that require the presence of a surface to provide a context of operation. Applies repeatedly the selected smoothing algorithm until no node is moved farther than the specified smoothing tolerance. Eventually the entire region is filled with elements. Ignoring rotations. rectangular. Free • • If quads is the selected element type for the current face. Examines the groups of elements to see if a local change in the connectivity might improve element quality. Map as Triangle. For most configurations. The advancing front algorithm uses the following process: • Traverses the perimeter of the region. a submapping algorithm is used. If there is a tight corner on the boundary that would require a poor quality quad. If trias is the selected element type. HyperMesh uses a single tria. Such an operation is exceedingly fast. The Free meshing algorithm is a general-purpose formula that works for most meshing conditions. If mixed is the element type. an advancing front algorithm is used. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh uses a streamlined version of this algorithm that is optimized for the different shape and connectivity requirements of tria elements. The mesh generation algorithms include: Autodecide If you are meshing a surface. HyperMesh recognizes more than 18 different configurations requiring distinct templates. or pentagonal in shape. HyperMesh chooses a standard template based on the element densities around the perimeter of the region. gives quality results rapidly. Sometimes two or more trias are needed because of the particular order in which the elements were generated. In this case. but there are some situations in which one or more trias are included: • • • If the total number of elements specified for the perimeter of the face is odd. it chooses the Free algorithm. the default mesh generation algorithm is Autodecide. you can usually eliminate them by changing some of the meshing parameters and then remeshing the region. The surface can have interior holes or edges and any number of sides. and chooses the algorithm that will give the best results. at least one tria always needed. or Pentagon If the region is free from internal holes and the boundary is clearly triangular. HyperMesh first creates a quads mesh and then divides each element along its shortest diagonal. the best choice of algorithm is usually to map a standard mesh onto the region using transfinite interpolation. placing elements along the edges as it proceeds. If quads or trias is the selected element type. or those working entirely from node and/or line data. and where applicable.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can still use the density and biasing manipulation tools but some edges will be linked together. and if you use the spheres panel. If you use the drag panel. If you use the spin panel.Map without Surface If you are creating a mesh entirely from line and/or node data. with no surface. so that the configuration always satisfies the balancing requirements of the intended mapping. 174 HyperMesh 8. the algorithm is to map a sphere-covering mesh. the mesh generation algorithm is decided by the tool that was used to describe the desired operation. the algorithm is to spin. the algorithm is to drag.

this choice usually gives the best results. If the element spacing around the perimeter is roughly uniform. usually in the form of worsened aspect ratios from the stretching of elements.Smoothing Algorithms There are three smoothing algorithms used by HyperMesh: Autodecide By default. HyperMesh uses a modified isoparametric-centroidal over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. The size-corrected smoothing algorithm attempts to even out the sizes of the elements at the cost of some element quality.0 User’s Guide 175 . The shape-correcting smoothing algorithm attempts to correct the elements’ shapes. HyperMesh uses a modified Laplacian over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. If there is a transition from small elements to large elements in the region. HyperMesh traverses the perimeter of the region looking for variations in element edge length and choose between size-correcting and shape-correcting smoothing algorithms. this choice usually gives the best results. Size Corrected Shape Corrected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. allowing variation in element size.

You can designate that the smaller intervals go near the start of the edge. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0.Element Biasing The automeshing process allows you to bias the placement of nodes so that their intervals are not uniform in size. and b is its y-intercept. In linear solids. If m is the slope of the line. the mesh at one end could be scaled several times larger than at the other end. near both ends with larger intervals in the middle. or near the middle of the edge. When you use the drag and solid offset panels. Element biasing allows you to moderate the changes in aspect ratio from the start to the end. you may want to use biasing to improve element quality when transitioning from smaller to larger element sizes. 176 HyperMesh 8. let n be the element density and let . you can use biasing to cluster several layers of elements near the surface of a solid. Within the automesher. near the end of the edge. Linear Biasing In linear biasing. the biasing intensity corresponds to the positive slope of a straight line over the interval [0. Specifically. There are three methods you can use to calculate the biasing of node positions: Use biasing to preserve element quality in complex regions. This interval is uniformly divided into as many subintervals as specified by the element density and they are mapped along the edge so that the length of the image interval is proportional to the height of the line over the midpoint of the source interval.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1.1] of the Real Line. Each image interval corresponds to the side of an element. then: .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

the sizes of the intervals grow geometrically. Let be the geometric growth factor. Thus. m is the absolute value of the biasing intensity.0 User’s Guide 177 .5.0 plus 1/10 of the absolute value of the biasing intensity. Thus.Using x(0) = 0. . a positiv biasing intensity puts small elements at the start of e the interval.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) =1. Exponential Biasing In exponential biasing. then x(s) scales them to the range of [0. Specifically.x(s). Negative biasing intensities just reverse the edge. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0.20]. We need a function Let then: so that: which gives the proper interval lengths. with each successive interval being a constant factor larger than the previous. This formula was chosen so that an intensity of zero will still represent no biasing. we find: so. We can use b to scale the behavior of the function so that convenient values are in the range [0. progressing along the edge. and convenient values will fall in the range [0. the nodes are placed according to 1 .20]. let n be the element density and let . The value used is b = 1. . If the biasing intensity is negative.1]. and x(1) = 1. For this. placing the smaller elements at the end instead of the beginning. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. That factor is 1.

they are placed at the middle of the edge. the smaller intervals are placed at the beginning and end of the edge. x(1) = 1. Specifically. let n be the element density and . If we use: for positive biasing intensity r.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . nodes are distributed long the edge in a pattern that is symmetric across the midpoint of the edge. and has the behavior noted above. and if it is negative.Bellcurve Biasing In bellcurve biasing. 178 HyperMesh 8. then x(s) becomes: where erf() is the statistical error function. If the biasing intensity is positive. .1] with x(0) = 0. We need so that takes values in [0.

The error message. The resulting edge is locked and you cannot change the element density or biasing.Linked or Locked Edges Most of the surface-less mesh generation algorithms requires that some edges have exactly the same element density and biasing values as other edges. it has no effect. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh automatically links those edges together so that they stay balanced.0 User’s Guide 179 . Some of the surface creation panels allow you to use a node list to define one or more sides of a surface. If you try to adjust the element density numbers corresponding to these locked edges. "The value of this number cannot be changed" is displayed. In these circumstances. Use the automeshing secondary panel to prepare input for solid offset. HyperMesh uses those nodes directly to make elements within the automeshing secondary panel. Any change to one of the edges is immediately applied to all others that are linked to it.

you can create an FE weld by realizing a connector.Connector Entity Connectors are geometric entities (not FE) primarily used to create welds.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The characteristics of connector entities can be divided into four categories: Connector Terminology Connector Definition Connector Realization Connector Review 180 HyperMesh 8. Just as you can create an FE shell mesh by meshing a surface.

The connector icon is created at the center of the selected line. for example. The color code provides an easier way to visualize and filter connectors based on their state. spacing. The connector is displayed in green. The connector is considered realized only if weld creation at the connector was successful. but the line may be split into multiple projection locations as specified by the offset. nodes points lines The connector is created at the node location. points. The connector is displayed in yellow. A connector that was realized can revert back to being unrealized if. or the weld element is deleted. and density values. Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Connector Terminology Connector State The connector state is defined as one of the following types: unrealized The initial definition of the connector entity after it is created. and lines can be used to define connector location. The connector is considered failed if the weld creation at the connector was not successful. The connector location option is set in the create panel. Only one connector is created for each line. realized failed Note: Connector Location The position in space at which a connector entity is created. Only nodes.0 User’s Guide 181 . a link entity is suppressed from its definition. The connector is displayed in red. The connector is created at the point location.

The connectors can hold a single entity or a combination of these entities. The elems option connects the mesh on the component or surface and the geom option connects the geometry on the component or surface. The link entity state options are set in the create and add Links panels. The link entity options are set in the create and add links panels. and components can be added to connectors. geom Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its geometry (connect surfaces only). tags. The above states are applicable to only surfaces and components added to the connector entity. Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its mesh. Only nodes. elements surfaces nodes tags Note: Link Entity State Specifies if the HyperMesh entity referenced by the link entity is meshed or unmeshed. components Components can be used to connect elements or surfaces. The HyperMesh entities to which the link entities refer are welded together during realization.Link Entity A reference to a separate HyperMesh entity that can be added to a connector. A part that needs to be welded is often represented as a component. The welds create fixed points for the mesh. The surfaces can be either meshed or unmeshed. elements. or an element that it holds. The following entities are supported. Surfaces can be used to create welds to connect geometry before meshing.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The tag entity can be used to define a weld connector to either a node. elems Note: 182 HyperMesh 8. surfaces. An element facilitates a patch-patch weld connector. A node facilitates a node-node weld connector.

Re-connect Rules
Defines how a connector should protect its link entity information. none If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity is then removed from the connector. If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity retains the ID of the HyperMesh entity. The link entity remains in the connector. Same as the by id rule except that the entity name is retained.

by id

by name Note:

These rules are useful for applications such as part replacement. A part can be added to a connector ith the use id or use name reconnect rule and can be replaced with a redesigned part with the same ID or name, without having to change the connector definition. The re-connect rule options are set in the create and add links panels.

Number of Layers
The total number of thicknesses (layers) to connect at the connector. total T Sets the number of thickness to connect (2T/3T/4T/nT). This influences the number of welds created at a connector. Sets the total number of link entities that can be added to the connector. The number of link entities added to a connector is always less than or equal to the total thickness. The number of layers option is set in the create and add links panels.

Note:

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Connector Rules
Shapes the definition of a connector entity. none The connector is created with no link entities and no thickness defined. In this state, the connector must first be updated with more information before it can be successfully realized. This option requires link entities to be specified before the connector is created. The link entities are added to the connector based on the user-supplied criteria. For this option, the connector only remembers what type of link entity it is to connect, rather than a specific link entity. During the fe realize process, the connector searches the HyperMesh database to generate the best (usually the closest) link entity it can using the supplied information.

now

at fe realize

Note:

The connector rules (connect when:) option is set in the Create and Add Links panels.

Connector Realization
Creating welds at a connector. fe realize The process of creating welds (FE) to connect the HyperMesh entities referenced by the link entities added to a connector.

Note:

The connector entity can be used to create only welds at this time.

Request for Connection
A set of parameters used during realization to create a physical connection between link entities.

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Connector Definition
The connector is simply a database of information defining a specific request for connection at a specific location. A connector definition describes the connector between multiple HyperMesh entities at a specific location. Entities that are to be connected are referred to as link entities. The connector location is defined as a node, a geometric point, or a geometric line. In the following example, there are two components (Top and Bottom) that are to be connected at the location of a point (with an id of 10). In this case, both components are considered to be link entities, since they are to be linked together. The point defines the location of the connector.

After a connector is created, the connector icon is placed at point 10, and components 1 and 2 are incorporated into the request for connection. The following diagram shows the connector after it is created (with an id of 7) at the location of point 10 (point 10 is not visible).

In this example, connector 7 has been defined and no welds have been created. The connector stores the following information: • • • Which link entities the request for connection is to connect (Comp 1 and Comp 2) The thickness of the realization (Thickness = 2) Where to connect the link entities (the connectors current location)

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HyperMesh entities currently supported as link entities include COMPS, ELEMS, SURFS, NODES, and TAGS. Any number of link entities of differing types can be added to a connector in any order. The connector sets the order of link entities during the realization process. The example above is a simple case where we have added two link entities of the same type (COMPS) to a single connector. Note: An element-to-tag-t o-component connector is possible, as is any other combination of the supported link entities.

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Connector Realization
During connector realization, welds are created using the connector definition. Note: In HyperMesh, the only form of realization currently supported is fe realization (weld creation). For successful realization, the connector must be populated with all the relevant details required for its realization type. For example, fe realization requires the connector to be populated with a projection tolerance and an FE configuration type.

The following diagram shows connector 7 realized with a valid tolerance value, and a config value of type 21 (spring).

One advantage of separating weld fe realization from the connector definition, is that a connector can be re-realized as a weld of a different configuration (or possibly, a user-defined weld) without having to redefine the connector. If you edit the connector definition (i.e. add or delete a link entity from the connector), the connector removes the welds it created, and reverts back to an unrealized state. The connector is unrealized only if its user-control mode is turned off. By default, the connector mode is off but it can be turned on by registering custom FE with a connector. Connectors store all FE information that they create, allowing advanced find, mask, delete, and organizational functionality in a number of common HyperMesh panels. If the weld creation is unsuccessful (due to low tolerance, insufficient link entities, etc.) the connector icon is displayed as failed (red). An unrealized connector is yellow, a realized connector is green, and a failed connector is red.

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Connector Review
There are many advantages to the way connectors store information. Not only does this local storage allow you to edit the connector definition, it also allows you to review connector details and the quality of the realization. There are a number of tools that can be useful in the review process. The visualization pop-up allows you to update the visual appearance of a connector based on its state, thickness (number of layers), or the component in which it is located. In addition, the vis opts panel also allows you to filter the displayed connectors by various criteria (such as thickness). This filter can then be used for “displayed” mark creation. HyperMesh includes a connector information table that creates a table of connector definitions from a mark and allows you to delete link entities. The quality panel allows you to check the quality of welds created from the connectors. The connector database can also be queried through Tcl functions.

Connectors User Control Mode
Each individual connector can be placed in a user control mode using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. This user control mode is most useful for automated Tcl scripts. Once in user control mode, the following procedures are possible for a given connector: • • • Pre-existing FE can be registered as a given connector’s realization by using the *CE_FE_Register command. Connectors can be edited without automatically unrealizing (as happens most notably when a link is added or removed from a connector, or when an FE realization entity is deleted). A connector’s state can be manually changed from realized to failed, or from failed to realized by using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. A connector’s state will not change to or from the unrealized state using this method.

Once a connector is placed into the user control mode, the user control mode remains active until an unrealize command is called (such as *CE_Unrealize), an already realized connector is rerealized, or the user control mode is manually turned off with either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. While a given connector is in user control mode, it may not behave the same as a normal connector. Specifically, there are a number of scenarios where a user-controlled connector will not auto unrealize in response to database changes that would cause a normal connector to auto unrealize. Note: It is strongly recommended that when FE is registered to a user-controlled connector, that the connector links and other necessary details should also be set with a given connector (so that the connector can properly re-realize if a user interactively requests it to). At the bare minimum, connectors should know which links they are to connect.

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Master Connectors File
Most of the information stored in the connector entity can be exported to a master connectors file. This file contains connector entity information such as location, link entity, link entity state, link entity rules (see Connector Terminology). The exported file may also contain metadata information stored in the connector. The master connectors file contains welding information at a given location and also assists in the weld automation process. An exported master connectors file can be re-imported using the connectors reader to re-create connectors. The master connectors file is exported in a single format. The outline of a generic HyperMesh master connectors file is provided below: • • Master connectors files can have comments beginning with the characters # or $, or there can be blank lines in between. The format of the file is fixed and the order of heading definitions cannot be changed. The column information is shown below:

Notes: • • • The header at the beginning of the file specifies information about the column data. Number of layers defines the thickness to connect at the specified location (X, Y, Z). The data between the brackets are repeated for each link entity. For standard HyperMesh FE types such as ACM and CWELD, the FE Config will have a number of 1001, which defines the user-defined type number specified in FE Config File. The FE Type will be the number defined in the FE Config File (for CWELD it is 72). For a detailed explanation of custom FE Configurations see FE Configuration File. The data between the brackets (link entity information) in the table are repeated for the number of links (NumLinks). The NumLinks variable must be equal to the number of link entities.

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Metadata is an attribute type that can be stored on a HyperMesh entity. User-defined information (such as Station Id or Gun Id) can be stored on the connector entity as metadata. The Metadata is defined by a name-value pair and is supported for multiple data types (int, double, string, etc.). Please see the HyperMesh on-line help for more information on Metadata. The Metadata name is written to the master connectors file in the following format ~<Sturct><DataType>Name. <Struct> represents whether the value associated is a single variable or an array. <DataType> represents the type of data stored in the value. For example, a Metadata of name Assembly containing an array of integers is written out as ~AIAssembly. The only delimiter supported in the entire file is the double semicolon “::”. The entire column of data in the file should be of the same type. The connectors reader uses the templex template to read the master connectors file. See weld templates for more information. By default, the file is read into HyperMesh through the HMIN function call, HMIN_CE_CreateDefined.

• • • •

The connector entity is created with the information specified in the master connectors file and displayed as unrealized (yellow). To realize the connectors as welds, the fe realize panel must be used.

Multiple Weld File Format
In addition to the master connectors file, the connectors reader also supports master weld file formats previously supported by the spotweld reader.

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Import Templates Templates work with the connectors reader to import multiple file formats.375 Weld Template :: 2.0 User’s Guide 191 . The following example shows the template for a simple format file with two semi colons as delimiters.cfg file must contain only the names of all the registered weld templates. the required headings must be added to the template requests and record blocks. Each template works on only one specific format file. 1) } readln null } } set numrecords = num set numrequests = 9 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The spotweld.cfg file under the same directory. a spotweld_format directory must exist in the same location as the master weld file. For custom templates.4375:: 9. To read in metadata. An example for a specific master weld file format is shown below: # Index::T::X::Y::Z::EID1:: EID2:: EID3:: 1:: 3:: 48.0 :: 3:: 2:: 1:: int num header { type "CONNECTORS" set mark find "[0-9]+::" rewind set num = 0 if { do 1000000 { if { isdigit } then { set num = sum(num. The templates are stored in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/feinput/spotweld_format and are registered in the spotweld.

requests "ID/T/X/Y/Z/EID1/EID2/EID3/EID4" set numcomponents = 1 components "Value" } record { read request // ID qfind "::" set mark read request rewind read num qfind "::" read request // X qfind "::" read request // Y qfind "::" read request // Z do num { qfind "::" read request // EID } set num = diff(4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . num) do num { read constant 0 // fake EID } readln null } //T 192 HyperMesh 8.

USER_FE_TYPE USER_FE_NAME Note: This should be the first line in the user FE definition. The data can be separated using a space. The specified name is saved and displayed in the info table during connector review process.0 User’s Guide 193 .cfg file from the <install_directory>/hm/bin directory is loaded in each of the panels related to each connector type (e.cfg) is used to define custom welds such as ACM (Area Contact Method) and other special types. The user-specified name for the FE combination. etc). ansys. dyna. The user-defined number for the FE combination. LSDYNA. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. optistruct. See FE Definition Examples for information regarding the format and options for FE definition. By default. pamcrash.FE Configuration File The FE configuration file (feconfig. etc. marc.g. and pamcrash2g.> *style <style_type> *head <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <RIGID_FLAG> *body <BODY_FLAG> <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG> [<HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG>] *post <POST_SCRIPT_NAME> The template parameters are defined below. The FE configuration file has a pre-defined format that must be used to define different weld configurations. Spot. Area. The weld definition in the file includes the type of weld to create and the surrounding connector to shells. FE Definition Template The FE definition template is shown below: CFG <SOLVER> <USER_FE_TYPE> <USER_FE_NAME> *filter <filter_type1> <filter_type2> <etc. The specific solver template for the type of weld must be loaded in HyperMesh before the welds can be created using a connector entity. Seam. Supported solvers are: abaqus.). the feconfig. SOLVER The solver template for which FE needs to be created. This is input in the fe realize template as FE Type. nastran. The weld definition is solver dependant (NASTRAN.

The various types supported for rigids are equation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . a zero should be input. so the type field should be zero. rigidlink. Note: The style definition line for these configurations must not be edited. For example. If rigid flag = 0. equation and rbe3 do not have a type defined. plot. the weld node is connected to only one of the shell element vertex using the rigid. The string head is required to specify that a rigid is to be created to connect the weld node to the surrounding shell element. A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. Note: *HEAD Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. If the type is not defined. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE HM_FE_TYPE RIGID_FLAG CONNECT_FLAG 194 HyperMesh 8. If the rigid flag = 1. Defines how the weld node is to be connected to the surrounding shell element. For example. Note: *STYLE A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. this option is used as a filter when displaying FE configurations in the type = field of respective realize panels. the weld node is connected to all the vertices of the shell elements using rigid to form a spider. rbe3. HM_FE_CONFIG The config for the rigid currently supported by HyperMesh. *FILTER spot seam indicates that this configuration can be realized only by the spot and seam connector types.*FILTER This option can be used to allow only the specified connector types to realize the configuration. In addition. This option is not applicable to equation and rbe3. This option indicates that the configurations have specific behaviors associated during realization. For example. etc. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. *style bolts 1 indicates that this is a bolt connection of type 1 that creates a specific bolted connection between the parts. and that they are native types.

If the body flag = 0. For example. based on the solver. or the scripts/connectors/ directory. if you choose to type in a property script instead of specifying a CFG file in the connector’s generation panel. This allows HyperMesh to parse the CFG file for configuration instead of relying on metadata saved individually with each connector (as was done prior to 8. The various types supported for welds are. spring. The *post lines are optional. If the length location flag = 1. Note.0. attributes. that metadata is still created and saved if you do not use POST to assign a property script (for example. rod. the length is calculated based on the average thickness of the connecting layers (link entities).0 User’s Guide 195 . hexa8. CBUSH is of config spring and type 6. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG Note: *POST A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. If the body flag = 1. This Tcl script must be located in the current working directory. There can be more than one weld in a series. If the length location flag is >= 0 and < 1. The type number is defined in respective solver templates and differs. The config for the weld currently supported by HyperMesh. The length location flag is used to specify if the weld created should be of type series or parallel. Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. This postscript will be automatically executed post FE realization and it can be used to edit weld properties. but if specified it must be followed by the name (excluding path) of a valid Tcl script with a . a series weld is created. The series weld definition has more than one weld between the link entities.0). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.tcl extension. plot. Starting with HyperMesh 8. etc.*BODY BODY_FLAG The string body is required to specify that a weld is to be created to connect the link entities added to the connector. the users home directory (UNIX only). welds are created in parallel. The body flag is used to calculate the length of the weld. the length is calculated based on the distance between the connecting layers (link entities). The flag specifies the length factor to be used for series welds. and other solver specific details. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. this option can also be used to specify a property script for the configuration. however.

1D and 3D element combinations are not supported. Therefore. 196 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The total length of series welds cannot exceed 1. Multiple solid element combinations are not currently supported. Series and parallel weld element combinations are not supported. Series welds are not supported where the link entities are coincident.0 (100%). Hence there cannot be three welds specified in series having a length factor of 0. an ACM can have only one hexa weld element specified in the definition.FE Specification Rules • • • • • • • • Each solver will have a specific definition so the same user-defined types can be repeated for each solver. Series welds are not created when the distance between the connecting link entities is zero. The head and the body definition must begin with a “*” to define rigid and weld definitions. User comments should start with a hash character “#”.5 (50%) each.

FE Definition Examples Washers CFG nastran 56 bolts *filter bolt *style bolt 0 *head rigidlink 1 1 dofs=123 rigidlink 1 3 *body 0 rigid 1 1 dofs=456 ACM Welds CFG nastran 71 acm *head rbe3 0 0 *body 1 hex8 1 1 The above definition creates ACMs with HEXA8 solid elements as welds and RBE3 elements as rigids. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.5 The series weld is created at the center with length equal to half the distance between the link entities. The length of the hexa is equal to the distance between the connecting shell elements. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.5 spring 6 0. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 197 .5 The two series welds are created with a length equal to half the distance between the link entities.

"0" places the 0-D element along the proposed 1-D element path.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . then it is placed at the center of the proposed 1-D element path. or "2". 0-D Welds CFG pamcrash2g 1 plink (ce loc) *head plot 0 0 *body 0 mass 5 2 plot 0 1 *post prop_plink.tcl Supported values for the length location flag are "0". If this 0-D element is the only config given in the *body. "1". The behavior for each value is as follows. "1" has the same behavior as "0" except only a single 0-D element is created even if multiple bodies are created (as happens in >2T welds) and "2" places the 0-D element at the connector location. 198 HyperMesh 8.Parallel Welds CFG dyna 101 parallel *head plot 0 0 *body 0 bar2 1 1 bar2 1 1 The bar elements are created at the same location and connect the same link entities.

which can be used for subsequent design optimization studies.HyperMorph Strategies HyperMorph is a tool in HyperMesh to morph the shape of a finite element model in ways that are useful.0 User’s Guide 199 . logical and intuitive. HyperMorph also allows the creation of shape variables. Overview: The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing • The Domains and Handles Concept • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Global Domain and Global Handles Local Domains and Handles Partitioning Dependent Handles Working with Shapes Setting Up Optimization Creating morph volumes Registering nodes Altering Morph Volumes Tangency Morphing by Moving Nodes Morphing by Using Other Panels Sculpting The Domains and Handles Concept The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Space Frame Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • • Matching a Mesh or Line or Surface Data Making Parametric Changes Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Mirror Images: Using 1-Plane Symmetry Reducing 3D to 2D: Using Linear Symmetry Reducing 3D to 1D: Using Planar Symmetry Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. During the morphing process. It enables rapid shape changes on the finite element mesh without severely sacrificing the mesh quality.

Shell Model Strategies • • • • • • Creating Handles and Domains Morphing on Local Domains Section Mapping Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing Solid Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • Viewing Solid Models Morphing on Local Domains Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing 200 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

and arc angles as well as morphing the mesh to match geometric data and other meshes. While all the entities and functions are fully compatible and may be used in a complementary fashion they can be divided into three basic approaches to morphing: the domains and handles concept. HyperMorph can do this automatically. Handles placed at the corners and along the edges of the morph volumes allow for the morphing of the morph volumes which in turn morph the mesh inside the morph volumes. The Freehand Concept This approach involves morphing by moving the nodes directly without needing to create any HyperMorph entities. dividing the mesh into logical domains. The HyperMorph Strategy Guide is intended illustrate the capabilities of HyperMorph and introduce you to both the basic and advanced functionality to help you get the most out of the tool. The freehand approach is an ideal introduction to HyperMorph since it allows morphing without the creation of new entities while implying the concepts of domains and handles. allowing for rapid changes to any mesh. The Morph Volume Concept This approach involves surrounding the mesh with one or more morph volumes. You are also able to turn node manipulations made in any panel. angles. the shape of the mesh changes according to the domain boundaries. When the handles are moved. The domains and handles approach is the most difficult approach to learn but it is also the most powerful. The domains and handles approach also allows parametric morphing of distances. radii.0 User’s Guide 201 . such as scaling or node projection. and projection to geometry as well as using a "tool" to "sculpt" the mesh into the desired shape. The freehand approach also allows for "customized" morphing. rotation. You define the nodes which will move. the nodes which will stay fixed. or you can define your own domains and handles. You have great flexibility in how the moving nodes are moved. Morph volumes support tangency between adjoining edges and allow for multiple control points along the edges. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses when dealing with the numerous applications of morphing and you are advised to gain a basic understanding of each approach so that you can decide which approach is best for your needs. such as translation. and the freehand concept. The basics of the three concepts are summarized below: The Domains and Handles Concept This approach involves dividing the mesh into domains made up of elements or nodes and placing handles at the corners of those domains. and the affected elements manually. into morphs using the record sub-panel. on-screen method. This approach is most useful for making detailed changes to any mesh (local domains) as well as general changes to space frame type meshes (global domains). The morph volume approach is quick and intuitive and is most useful for making large scale changes to complex meshes. which are highly deformable six-sided prisms. allowing the user to do virtually any kind of morphing. the morph volume concept. A number of methods exist to create the morph volumes including single and matrix creation as well as the interactive.The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing HyperMorph contains six exclusive entity types and a wide array of functionality. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

global and local. HyperMorph spends an amount of time proportional to the size of the new or edited domains calculating the handle influences. or yellow. However. but it is not necessary to have both types of domains and handles in a model. the color indicating their level of dependency. for very large domains. For very large domains. 2D domains. in the case of 1D. or violet if they are dependent on other handles. and general domains. The advantage of this approach is that it makes morphing an interactive process. the model is divided into domains where handles are used to control its shapes. The size given is used as the radius for the independent global handles as well as the diameter of the independent local handles. 3D domains. Each domain is associated with any number of local handles. which in turn. The local group consists of five types of local domains: 1D domains. Global Domains and Global Handles Global domains are represented by a cube made up of dashed lines. Domains and handles are divided into two basic groups. Thus. It is located at the centroid of the nodes selected when you create the global domain. 202 HyperMesh 8. Domains consist of nodes. Global handles and domains are best for making large scale shape changes to the model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Global handles will only influence the nodes in the global domain to which they are associated. the process of calculating influences can be too slow or too memory intensive and so the large domain solver makes it possible to morph such domains. thus making morphing slower. in the case of global domains. Local handles are intended to be used to make small scale. the mesh is stretched or compressed to match the desired shape. or elements. Global handles are the largest handles in the model and they are red if they are not dependent on other handles. A model can contain both global and local handles and domains. parametric changes to the model. The amount each node moves with respect to each handle is relative to an internally calculated influence coefficient. cyan. the actual morphing occurs quickly. changes the positions of the nodes inside those domains. The advantage of the large domain solver is that it is faster for morphing large domains but the drawback is that it must be invoked every time you wish to morph. even for large models. When the handles are moved. During the morphing process the mesh morphs in a logical way with nodes near the moving handles moving more and nodes near the stationary handles moving less. You can adjust the base size of all the handles in the model in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels or in the handles panel. you can edit the color of the domains in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels.000 elements (although you can change this default limit) the large domain solver is used. but once they are calculated they can be stored and applied rapidly. 2D. edge domains. when handles and domains are initially set up or edited. You cannot edit the color of the handles nor the relative size between the dependent and independent handles. The nodes in each domain move as a function of the handles that are either associated with the domain or are touching the domain. 3D. For domains that have more than 50. Therefore. the shape of the domains touching those handles change. However. and general domains. calculating influence coefficients is too time-consuming. The global group consists of global domains. In the areas between the handles. each of which is associated with a number of global handles. The process for calculating the influence coefficients is somewhat time consuming. These local handles can only influence nodes contained in any domains that they are either associated with or are touching. which allows you to make both large and small scale morphs and have them combine logically. Dependent global handles are also smaller than the handles on which they are dependent. but when handles are moved in order to morph the model no calculations are necessary. edge.The Domains and Handles Concept When using the domains and handles approach.

or create new handles. or use the generate auto-function. By movi ng the handles you can stretch or deform the model along all three axes.When a global domain and handles are generated automatically. If the handles are not generated in the positions where you want them to be. HyperMorph also places at least one global handle within the box in areas of peak nodal density within the model. These global handles are named corner followed by a number from one to eight. HyperMorph generates a number of global handles.0 User’s Guide 203 . such as when you create a global domain with the create handles option turned on. HyperMorph generally creates no more than about 30 global handles for models of any size. Example of a model with a global domain and global handles Eight handles are placed at the corners of a box enclosing the model. HyperMorph creates a global handle at each of the eight corners of a box surrounding the model laid out along the global axes. you can always delete them. These handles are named handle followed by a number. The automatic global handle generation works particularly well for space frame models such as full car models. reposition them. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

In the hierarchical method. or the direct method if the node is not in a local domain The method used can be selected in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel and the parameters sub-panel in the domains panel with the default being the direct method. global handles will influence every node inside the global domain using the hierarchical method if the node is inside a local domain. while the direct method may bend or warp these features into curved edges and elliptical holes. In the direct method. You should select which method is right for the type of morphing that you want to perform. If you wish to preserve the local geometry. choose the hierarchical or mixed method. If you are willing to accept distortions in the local geometry. the space frame morphs in a way such that the bars run between the handles. In the mixed method.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . choose the direct method. the direct method. global handles influence the local handles found at nodes inside the global domain. Straight edges will remain straight and circular holes will remain circular for the hierarchical method. 204 HyperMesh 8. There are three options for determining how global handles in global domains influence the mesh: the hierarchical method. There are subtle differences in how the global handles influence the nodes for each method with the main difference being that the parts of the model defined by local edge domains have their shape preserved when using the hierarchical method. which in turn influence nodes. global handles influence the nodes in the model directly. and the mixed method.A space frame with six manually created global handles When the handles are moved.

Note how the straight edge remains straight and the circle remains round. which move the mesh.0 User’s Guide 205 . Note the resulting distortion of the edge and circle.An example of global morphing using the hierarchical method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the mesh is affected directly. it moves the local handles. An example of global morphing using the direct method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right.

The placement of local handles depends on the type of domain created and the partitioning options if partitioning is selected. Dependent local handles are smaller than the independent local handles and are different colors depending on the level of their dependency.. Local Domains and Handles Local domains are represented by a single rectangle for 1D domains. or for the entire model by using the generate auto-function. The spatial method is the default. four joined rectangles for general domains. and is the fastest and most robust method for generating global influences based on a spatial formulation for the entire model. Independent local handles are orange and have a radius of one half the value of the handle size parameter. The color of the domains can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. The colors of the handles cannot be changed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The geometric method is the method that was originally used for the Tcl/Tk interface of HyperMorph and HyperMesh and generates influences based on the geometric relationship between a given node or local handle and the surrounding global handles. a cube for 3D domains. and a line for edge domains. HyperMorph automatically places local handles at the ends of all edge domains. two joined rectangles for 2D domains.An example of global morphing using the direct method and biasing factors By increasing the biasing factor for the highlighted (white) handle. When local domains are created. 206 HyperMesh 8. but may produce more desirable influences. Local domains can be created individually by selecting nodes or elements in the create sub-panel of the domains panel. the angular shape of the morph becomes rounded. Both methods attempt to determine how a global handle affects nodes or local handles in the space surrounding it. The influences between the global handles and local handles (using the hierarchical method) or nodes (using the direct method) can be calculated using either the spatial method or the geometric method. The geometric method can be slow for large models or large numbers of global handles. These local handles are named local followed by a number.

Note that shell elements have been created on the faces of the 3D domain. Domains made up of 1D elements. while the dependent handles are smaller and green. such as bars and rigid elements. The shell elements have been placed in two 2D domains separated at the bend line due to partitioning. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. All other handles in the model are given a biasing factor of 1. handles have been placed at the ends of all the edge domains.Example of a model with local domains and local handles with partitioning. A higher biasing factor means that a given handle will have greater influence over the surrounding mesh than the others. 1D elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 1D domains. In the example above. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. All the dependent handles in a given 1D domain are directly dependent on the independent handle. the bias factors for the dependent handles for a 1D domain are given an initial value of 3. the rigid elements have been placed in a 1D domain with the center node having an independent (orange) handle and the other nodes having dependent (green) handles. Finally. These elements are placed in a component named ^morphface. The independent handle is larger and orange. are called 1D domains. Also note that 2D domains have been created on the faces of the 3D domain and that edge domains have been create on the edges of all the 2D domains.0 User’s Guide 207 . The higher biasing factor given to dependent handles on 1D domains is intended to prevent mesh distortion when the 1D elements connect to nodes in 2D and 3D domains. The solid elements have been placed in a 3D domain. Additionally. This dependency relationship means that moving the independent handle also results in moving the dependent handles the same amount in the same direction. An independent local handle is placed at the centermost node of the 1D domain and dependent local handles are placed at every other node of the elements in the 1D domain. This is done to preserve the unique relationship established for groups of 1D elements.

208 HyperMesh 8. The intent is to make it faster and easier for you to apply parametric changes to the model. Note that it is possible to create a handle on a node that is not touching the domain to which it is associated. If partitioning has been selected. you can delete them.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Local handles are placed at the ends of all the edge domains. Also. Since you morph the model by moving handles. they will influence the nodes in any domain that shares the node at which it is placed. the local handles are placed at the corners of the 2D domains and at other useful positions. This allows you to place a handle outside of a domain. This is true even if the handle is associated with the 2D domain.A rigid spider becomes a 1D domain An independent local handle (orange) is placed at the centroid of the 1D domain and dependent handles (green) are placed at each node. or create new ones. these domains are subdivided into smaller domains along break angles and curvature changes according to the partitioning parameters. edit them. Edge domains are placed along the edges of the 2D domains and are also partitioned. it helps to have handles already at the positions where you want them. shell elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 2D domains. Domains made up of shell elements are called 2D domains. By moving the orange handle. In general. HyperMorph tries to predict where the handles should be placed to reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare your model for morphing. and have it influence the nodes within its domain. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. maintaining the proper shape and connectivity for the rigid spider. A handle associated with any domain will always influence the nodes in domains that it is touching. even though the generated local handles are associated with the edge domains. such as floating in space near the domain. If the handles or domains are not laid out in the positions where you want them to be. the entire spider is moved.

The color of the ^morphface component can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. Handles can be placed anywhere. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. The model on the right shows the addition of four new handles. A block of solid elements is made into a 3D domain The gray shell elements on the face of the 3D domain are the ^morphface component. Handles are created at the corners of the 2D domains. However. HyperMorph will not create ^morphface elements coincident with the existing elements.Two 2D domains with edge domains and handles The model on the left shows the initial handle positions.0 User’s Guide 209 . The ^morphface component has been partitioned into 2D domains. even at nodes not on the associated domain. solid elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 3D domains. It is recommended that you do not delete or edit these elements nor rename or delete the ^morphface component. The elements on the face of each 3D domain are placed into a 2D domain that is then partitioned if the partitioning option is active. Elements are created on the faces of each 3D domain and placed into a component called ^morphface. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Domains made up of solid elements are called 3D domains. Edge elements are placed around each 2D domain and local handles are created at the ends of each edge domain. these elements and their 2D domains will be regenerated the next time you enter or exit a HyperMorph panel or the delete panel. if you do. Note that these elements will not be written out to any FEM formatted deck since the component name begins with a “^”. In cases where shell elements that are attached to the faces of solid elements are present in the model.

Also. nodes in a 2D domain on the face of a 3D domain will only move as a function of the handles touching the 2D domain. Edge domains and 2D domains on the faces of 3D domains play an important function in determining the influences for the handles over a given domain. It allows you to move handles within a 2D or 3D domain without affecting the edges. edge domains are placed around the edges of all 2D domains. non-reflective symmetries allow the influences of handles to extend through edges and faces depending on the type of symmetry. No other handles will affect the nodes on the edges.Domains made up of a list of nodes are called edge domains. only the icon for the domain remains highlighted. Similarly. Nodes on edge domains will only move as a function of the handles touching the edge domain. flat surfaces remain flat. it is partitioned and handles are placed at the ends and joints. HyperMesh will highlight both the domain icon and the surrounding edge domains. and curved edges retain their curvature. For domains that have non-reflective symmetry types. Examples of edge domains Edge domains are placed around the edges of 2D domains. When you release the mouse button. When creating local domains or using the generate aut o-function. or choose to create the domain as a general domain instead. 210 HyperMesh 8. This makes it easier for you to tell which domain you are selecting. the boundaries may not be preserved during morphing. Note that when an edge domain is created. When you are selecting domains and are holding the mouse button down while placing the mouse over the icon of a 2D or 3D domain (or an element in the domain).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This preserves the boundaries of 2D and 3D domains such that straight edges remain straight. In the model at the right an edge domain has been created inside a 2D domain. If you do not want to have the boundaries of a domain preserved you can delete the edges for a given domain.

0 User’s Guide 211 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. two handles connected by an edge domain are created and moved. and 3D elements. When a general domain is created. general domains respect all neighboring edge domains and 2D domains and thus if you create 2D and edge domains for your general domains they will impose restrictions on handle influences for the general domain. Note that the edge domain remains straight. preserving the shape of the feature. where 1D. 2D. In the bottom frames. General domains are very useful for realized connectors which are often represented as clusters of different element types. thus no handles are created for the domain. handles on a general domain freely influence all of the nodes inside the general domain. Another use is for meshes where precise changes are required for one section. General domains can be made up of any combination of 1D. allowing it to stretch and deform in an unbounded manner with morphing extending across differences in element type. However. and 3D domains are used.How edge domains affect morphing In the top two frames two handles inside a 2D domain are created and moved. General domains are not automatically created when generating local domains or using the generate auto-function. but the rest of the mesh (where a general domain is used) can simply follow along. the elements within a single general domain must touch one another. Like all other domains. no 2D domains are created on the faces of any 3D elements and no edge domains are created either. 2D. Otherwise.

two 2D domains are created for parts of two shell meshes and a general domain is creating from the remaining rigid. or the use geometry option in the partitioning sub-panel is unchecked. or where the domain changes from flat to curved. You can invoke partitioning when creating 2D or 3D domains by activating the partition 2D domains check box.Example of interaction between a general domain and 2D domains In the top frame. partitioning is not an exact science and there will be areas where elements are not placed into the desired domains. you may change the partitioning parameters in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel and try again (using the redo last button). partitioning will ideally divide your model such that every radius and straight or flat section is placed into a separate domain.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . shell. 212 HyperMesh 8. and solid elements. In the bottom frame the two handles inside the general domain are translated. bounded only by the edge of the 2D domains with the other edges free to follow the handles Partitioning Partitioning can be applied directly to 2D domains and indirectly to 3D domains (3D domains are created with 2D domains on their faces). However. Note how the shell elements in the general domain morph. or edit the domains by hand using the create and organize sub-panels in the domains panel. such as at the edges of surfaces associated with the mesh. Partitioning allows you to prepare your model for morphing more quickly and easily since it divides your model into sections where parametric changes can be applied. Partitioning is a method of dividing 2D domains into smaller 2D domains at logical places. If you are unsatisfied with the partitioning. If there are no surfaces in the model. Two handles have been placed within the general domain at the ends of the rigid spiders. or where the angle between elements exceeds a certain value.

although exact performance for each method depends heavily on the features in your model. Partitioning can be angle-based or curvature-based. If you have selected use geometry. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. Also note that the edge domains are partitioned regardless of whether the partitioning option is on or off. or changes curvature by more than the curvature tolerance. element-based and node-based. partitioning was used. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is less than this value. If the curvature changes from straight to curved. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. They are found in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. a break due to angle or curvature must be found along its entire edge. For instance. In general. This option is helpful when surface data is incomplete of some of the nodes have been moved away from their surfaces. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is greater than this value. Note that in order for a new partition to be created. the other method might work better. while the node-based algorithm works better for tria/tetra meshes. For the node based method. otherwise they are considered to be curved. the node based method seems to work better on first order tria and tetra meshes while the element based method seems to work better on mixed quad and tria meshes. the curve tolerance controls the angle of which values less than it are considered straight for curvature measuring purposes. For the model on the right. There are two algorithms you can use to partition. then any partitions created outside of the surfaces will be added to the partitions created using the surfaces if the partitioning algorithm does not find a break along the edges or the surfaces. These can be set individually for quad/mixed meshes and for tria/tetra meshes. When using curvature-based partitioning. The node based method tends to create fewer partitions than the element based method. Each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. In either case. they are considered flat. the 2D domain was created without partitioning.Example of partitioning For the model on the left.0 User’s Guide 213 . all elements whose nodes are associated to surfaces in the model will be partitioned along the edges of the surfaces. the element-based algorithm works better for quad/mixed meshes and second order meshes. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. the domain angle controls the break angle along which a partitioning break is made. so if one method is not producing the partitions that you desire. There are also several parameters that govern the creation of domains for either algorithm. domain angle and curve tolerance have a roughly similar meaning as the element based method. All other elements will be partitioned using one of the partitioning algorithms. changes direction. If you have also selected add to geometry. Note how the 2D domains are divided along angle and curvature change boundaries.

In the hierarchical method. A handle may be dependent on any number of handles. cyan. biasing will affect them. it will inherit a percentage of the movements applied to each higher level handle. the dependent handle moves along as if it was not there. Global handles. This system allows you to create any number of dependency layers. A dependent handle can be moved independently of the handles on which it is dependent. independent (orange) and dependent (green. When the dependent handle is moved. Making a handle dependent has no affect on the way it influences nodes. blue. 214 HyperMesh 8. This allows you to add the movements of dependent and independent handles in a logical manner. and so on.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and pink) The conditions for handle dependency are as follows: • • • A handle that is dependent on another handle inherits the movements applied to the higher level handle.Dependent Handles You can make a handle dependent on one or more other handles. If a handle is dependent on more than one handle. This allows you to combine the changes easily without having to apply separate perturbations for all of the handles. If a handle is dependent on only one other handle. The review button in the update sub-panel of the handles panel allows you to view the handles on which a specific handle is dependent. When the handle at either end of the edge domain is moved. • • • Handle dependencies are useful for several different applications. • • Transparent control of domain edges and faces You can create a dependent handle on an edge domain that is dependent on the handles at the ends of the domain. all local handles are dependent on global handles. and then make those handles dependent on one or more other handles. the shape of the edge can be changed. independent (red) and dependent (yellow. Handles that are dependent on other handles appear smaller and in a color different from the handles on which they are dependent. but dependency loops are not allowed. The percentage is based on the distance between the dependent and independent handles. This means that movements applied to the dependent handle are not applied to the independent handles. it inherits the full movement of the higher level handle. These dependencies are calculated internally and cannot be modified manually. and violet) Local handles.

the center handle is moved independently. in essence. This allows you to stretch all of the domains uniformly by moving the independent handles. Linking several domains together You can make all of the handles within several domains dependent on a few at the corners of the domain.0 User’s Guide 215 . This allows you to move an entire cross section while only having to select one handle. Dependencies . the center handle follows along. performing localized “global” morphing. In the lower frame. When the highlighted handle on the left is moved (center frame).• • • Grouping features together to move as a unit You can make all the handles at one cross section of a beam dependent on a single handle. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.example 1 The center global handle is dependent on the two outer global handles.

all of the green handles are dependent on the orange handle. Note that the dependencies can extend beyond the 2D domain boundaries. both holes move with it. The bottom has similar dependencies.Dependencies . The top and bottom halves of the cross sections are controlled by just two handles. In the model on the right.example 3 An independent handle was created between the two holes and the handles governing the positions of the holes are made dependent on it. each hole can be positioned separately by moving the dependent handle associated with it.example 2 In the model on the left. 216 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Dependencies . When the independent handle is moved. the three green handles on the top are dependent on the orange handle on the top. Also. The entire cross section is controlled by one handle.

The vectors are drawn the exact length of the perturbation and the vectors for the handle perturbations are drawn with thicker lines to denote that they are different from node perturbations. When you morph your model. node perturbations are required to fully describe the shape. When the handle at the hole is moved downward. all of these shapes must be applied. the morph consists only of handle perturbations.Using dependencies to reduce mesh distortion In this example two dependent handles were created on the edges of the part near the center hole. the morph consists only of node perturbations. In the case of freehand morphing. The dependent handles were constrained along vectors parallel to the sides of the part. Working with Shapes Shapes are collections of handle and/or node perturbations. those shapes do not contain node perturbations and thus vectors are not drawn at those nodes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If you save the model using the save each morph step option in the shapes panel. When you create a shape. each morph on the undo/redo list will be saved as a separate shape. When you create a shape using the save as shape or save shape sub-panels. HyperMorph takes the difference between the initial state of the model and the current state of the model when creating a new shape. the dependent handles follow and reduce mesh distortion by spreading the morph across the entire part instead of only around the hole. or the morph is a mapping or radius changing operation. the handle and/or node perturbations are stored in the new shape entity along with biasing factors for the handle perturbations and details such as the biasing style. if constraints are being used. To get to the current state of the model from the initial state. However. Creating shapes allows you to generate shape variables for optimization and store model changes for parametric studies. For many morphing operations. or create a shape in the shapes panel with the save current state option turned on. HyperMorph stores the morph internally as a collection of perturbations which you can then undo or redo. vectors are drawn for each handle and node perturbation for the shape. Note that while shapes with handle perturbations will move nodes when they are applied. If you create a shape in either the morph or freehand panels.0 User’s Guide 217 .

the shape will be saved as either handle perturbations only. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. select the shapes panel. Select the convert sub-panel. Select the save shape sub-panel. Select the shapes to be converted. 5. Note: A shape is not a shape variable. you can select whether to save it as handle perturbations or node perturbations. Select the type of conversion that you wish to perform. Click convert.When you are saving a shape. The shape is converted. Applying a shape in this way is like any other morphing operation and can be undone. 4. 10. Click create. From the BCs page. you can apply it to your model with any given scaling factor. To create shape variables for an optimization run: 1. or vice-versa: 1. HyperMorph will ask you if you want to preserve any existing shapes saved as handle perturbations by converting them to node perturbations. select the shape panel. Shapes saved as node perturbations are not affected by changes to domains and handles. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. 3. Click undo all to return to your base model shape. Select the shapes for which you want to create shape variables. 7. or a combination of handle and node perturbations if node perturbations are required to describe the shape. 218 HyperMesh 8. Each desvar is given a unique name. To convert shapes saved with handle perturbations to shapes saved with node perturbations. 2. If you select handle perturbations. 6. save shapes as handle perturbations and they will require less memory and disk space. it becomes a shape variable. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A desvar for each shape is created with the initial value and bounds in the panel. If not. 9. The difference between the two types comes into play if you change the handles or domains in your model. If you plan to make changes to domains and handles. or saved as part of another shape. the shape will be saved as node perturbations only. If you later decide that you want to change a shape from node perturbations to handle perturbations or vice versa you can do so in the convert sub-panel of the shapes panel. 8. If you select node perturbations. but by adding a desvar which points to the shape. select the morph panel. 3. Save your morph as a shape. Once a shape is saved. Setting Up Optimization Morphing can be used to create shape variables for optimization. Morph your model into the shape of the first shape variable. optimization module. Whenever you make a change to your model. 4. Set the toggle to multiple desvars. you should save shapes as node perturbations. while shapes saved as handle perturbations will differ from shapes that have been saved with changes to the handle influences. redone. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for each shape variable you want to create. 5.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click animate. The deformed panel displays. allowing you to view each shape variable by animating it. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Freehand concepts and strategies. Animate the shape variables: Click undo morphing if you did not click undo all after saving the last shape. Once you have created shape variables for your shapes.0 User’s Guide 219 . this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Morph Volume concepts and strategies. you can set up the rest of your optimization problem within the optimization module. The Freehand Concept Freehand strategies are still being created.11. The Morph Volume Concept Morph Volume strategies are still being created.

these handles will be where you want them to be. select the handles panel. Since local handles and domains for large models can consume a great deal of resources. Local handles are not required since local changes to the frame components are not necessary. select the HyperMorph module. use a cluster type morph constraint. Click create. all that is necessary is to create a global domain and global handles. If not. such as making it smaller. A global domain and global handles are created at useful positions throughout the space frame. For these types of models. Set the selector to global domain. Select the domains panel.space frame model 1.Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains Space frames are models that have a sparse distribution of elements. shorter.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . such as a car body. A new global handle is created at each node or at the specified xyz location. 4. In many instances. Select an xyz position or any number of nodes where you want global handles. Set the toggle to all nodes. but their basic structure is rather simple. wider. 2. Creating Handles and Domains . In many cases. or altering the basic positions of components within the frame. 6. If more than one handle is created at a time. the handles will each be given a unique name by appending a number after the name you have given. You should place global handles both in areas where you want to apply perturbations and in areas that you want to stay fixed. 220 HyperMesh 8. Space frame models can generally have element counts in the hundreds of thousands. 3. From the HyperMorph module. delete them and add global handles elsewhere: Press F2 or go to the delete panel. 5. Often the desired shape changes are general. You can also use morph constraints to fix nodes in place during global morphing but if you want them to affect the surrounding mesh you must select the stretch mesh around nodes option when creating the morph constraint. Click create. Set the toggle to create handles. Type in a name. If you want a part of your model to move as a rigid body. such as a wheel or the engine block. From the Tool page. Delete any unwanted handles. you should avoid creating them unless it is necessary. 7. Select create. these changes can be performed by placing a handle at each joint in the frame and moving those handles to the desired locations.

The best one to use depends on the results that you want to achieve: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. editing. so you will want to make all the changes you desire within each panel before exiting. makes it necessary for HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. this can be time consuming. There are many options available for moving the handles. if necessary. or symmetries.0 User’s Guide 221 . or deleting handles. Adding. For large models or large changes. domains.A global domain and global handles for a full car model Exiting any panel in the HyperMorph module or the delete panel automatically triggers HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences.

Switch the selector to fixed. This can be accomplished by constraining the nodes on the target mesh. One of the most enjoyable ways to morph is interactively. 6. 9. Select a vector. From the HyperMorph module.Matching a Mesh. select the morph constraints panel. As you drag a handle across the screen and you can watch the mesh move along with it. which leaves a dark trail through the mesh. the nodes between the constrained nodes and the handles will be affected regardless of whether the mesh is continuous between them. 2. 8. Line. the handle follows along the selected vector. 5. Select the nodes on the target mesh. 4. Click create. Change the rightmost toggle from real time to on release. Select a handle on the screen and hold the mouse button down. To morph interactively by moving the handle and releasing the mouse button: 1. 2. When you release the mouse button. If the handle position needs to be changed again. Select move handles. Note that if you check the stretch mesh around nodes option. All the nodes in the target mesh are constrained to remain fixed during morphing operations as long as the constraint is active and the use constraints box is checked (see the morph options panel). For large models it may be too slow to morph interactively in real time. Click morph. the morph is applied to the model and the graphics are updated for the entire model. repeat steps 7 through 9. From the HyperMorph module. only the graphics for the handle are updated. 7. Change the lower middle selector from on domains to along vector. 5. Since on release was selected. Move the handle to the new location and release the mouse button. 222 HyperMesh 8. But you can still morph interactively with any size model by setting HyperMorph to perform the morphing after you move the handle and release the mouse button. 3. 4. To constrain the nodes on the target mesh: 1. Select the create/update sub-panel. If you are going to match a mesh you need to make sure that the mesh does not get morphed when you are moving the handles. 3. Make sure that the stretch mesh around nodes option is unchecked.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . As you drag the mouse. 6. or Surface Data The basic approach for HyperMorph is to move the handles into positions that change the shape of the model to match the mesh or geometry data. Change the upper middle selector to interactive. select the morph panel.

When you release the mouse. The result is a morphed vehicle model that closely matches the profile line. Morphing to a profile line In the top frame. all of the selected handles are moved the same distance in the same direction. In the bottom frame the process has been repeated for the other handles on the roof. Perform steps 7 through 9. select several handles on the screen. Move more than one handle at the same time: Before clicking morph. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 223 . In the middle frame they are interactively moved upwards along a vector to a point matching with the profile line.10. the global handles on either side of top of the windshield are selected.

2. HyperMorph uses the position of the mouse on the screen to figure out where you want to move the handle. You can use this feature to position a handle anywhere you want line or surface data.Morphing to a profile line A handle is added to the center of the rear windshield and is moved to better match the profile line. or a surface. You can also select other features to drag the handle along such as a line. Handles may always be added or deleted from a model without affecting the current morphed state of the model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . any shapes saved as handle perturbations may not yield the same morphed shape after handles have been added or deleted. Altair Engineering 224 HyperMesh 8. If you intend to add or delete handles in your model. edit. However. The handle is moved to the position where the node was prior to morphing and the rest of the mesh morphs accordingly. 2. 3. Hold the mouse button down and drag the mouse over a line or surface until it is highlighted. A node will be created and the handle will immediately be moved to the node. Select a handle. HyperMorph will give you the option of converting existing shapes from handle perturbations to node perturbations automatically after you add. a plane. To create nodes on the fly on lines and surfaces: 1. save your shapes as node perturbations. Click on the line or surface where you want the node. Change the upper middle selector from interactive to move to node. To match a target mesh or geometric data by moving the handles to a specified node location: 1. or delete any morphing entities. Select a node.

From the HyperMorph module. Or Select the desired xyz translation. 2. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. One way to do this is by translating or rotating handles. Select a few handles. Click rotate. If the left selector is set to hold middle. Select a vector and distance. Select node a and node b at nodes whose distance you want to change. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. If the left selector is set to hold end a. Rotate the handles. To translate or rotate handles: 1. Translate the handles. Set the rotation angle. The handles move the specified distance in the specified direction and the model morphs accordingly. Select alter dimensions. Select a few handles. Change the upper middle selector from translate to rotate. Click translate. Specify dimensions more precisely in the alter dimensions sub-panel. 3.Making Parametric Changes Dimensions such as distance and angle can be changed easily in HyperMorph. Select an axis of rotation. Set the upper left selector to distance. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. Click morph. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for node a as a group and the follower handles for node b as a group either towards each other or away from each other so that the new distance between node a and node b is equal to the specified distance. select the morph panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The handles rotate about the axis the specified angle and the model morph accordingly. both node a and node b will move the same distance. Change the upper middle selector from move to node to translate. node a will not move (same for node b). Change the distance value.0 User’s Guide 225 .

If necessary. Select node a. 7. Change the angle value. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for each end in a way so that the new angle between node a. vertex. HyperMorph will iterate to achieve the desired angle.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The handles on the right side of the model are selected as followers for node a and the handles on the left side of the model are selected as followers for node b. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a.Morphing by altering the distance between two nodes The width of the car is found by placing node a (green dot) on the right hand door and node b (blue dot) on the left hand door. To change the angle: 1. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. the vertex. If node a and node b are selected coincident with one of the follower handles. Click morph. 4. and node b at nodes whose angle you want to change. iterattion is not necessary. or at least get close. 6. 2. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. 5. Set the upper left selector to angle. 226 HyperMesh 8. The distance is changed and the model morphs. 3. and node b are the specified angle.

you allow for even stretching to occur between each set of fingers. Note that the handles on either side of the windshield were constrained to move along the x-axis (front to back) thus maintaining the height of the roof. blue. When you perform global morphing operations. the parts of the model that are morphed are those that lie between the handles that are moving and those that are not. By placing three fingers on each side. for cases where you are trying to morph a mesh that covers a wide area. For the general space frame cases. If you place three fingers on one side and two on the other and try to stretch the sheet. In morphing this is accomplished by placing handles evenly along both sides of the mesh to be stretched. selecting two handles at the front of the car as followers for node a (green). you will need to place several handles across both of sides of the zone of influence.0 User’s Guide 227 . the space between your fingers on the two finger side will be pulled towards the three finger side. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The angle is changed from 160 degrees to 150 degrees. and selecting two handles on either side of the windshield as followers for node b (red node).Morphing by altering the angle formed by three nodes The slope of the windshield is altered by defining an angle using three nodes (green. positioning handles at the joints between the members of the space frame restricts the handle influences to the parts of the frame that they are touching. Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Global morphing differs from local morphing in that there are no definite boundaries between the handles that restrict their zones of influence. You can visualize the handles as places on a sheet of rubber where you are placing your fingers. However. and red).

Controlling global morphing with handles – part 2 A handle is added directly below the handle on the roof near the center of the car.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Controlling global morphing with handles – part 1 The handle on the roof is moved upwards and the center section of the car is morphed along with it. 228 HyperMesh 8. Now when the handle on the roof is moved upwards. only the part of the car between the roof and the handles along the midline of the car is stretched.

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select the symmetry panel. 7. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry. From the HyperMorph module. Select the system you created.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the fender of the model is morphed. Mirror Images . 9. 2. select the systems panel. Select the global domain icon. you can create a plane of symmetry at the center of your space frame and have your morphs applied in a symmetric fashion. 8. Note that dependent handles are used to simplify the morphing operation. 230 HyperMesh 8.Adding handles to control global morphing Using several handles on either side. Return to the HyperMorph module.Using 1-Plane Symmetry If your space frame is symmetric. morph volumes will usually yield better results. Create a system at a node where the plane of symmetry is to be located and have the x-axis pointing normal to the plane to be created. 4. To set up a plane of symmetry: 1. Enter a name. Switch the selector from none to 1 plane. Change the left toggle from approximate to enforced. 3. 5. 6. Also note that in cases where detailed shape changes are required.

A plane of symmetry is created at the origin of the system and based perpendicular to the x-axis. The mesh itself does not need to be symmetric to use the symmetry options. HyperMorph automatically applies the handle movements to the handles on the other side of the plane of symmetry through the symmetry link. The perturbations applied to handles on one side of the plane of symmetry will be mirrored on to the other side. use the approximate option instead. HyperMorph creates new handles that are reflections of ones that are not linked to any others and creates a symmetric link between them. yet still have symmetry active for the symmetric handles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. As a result. If you have the symmetry links check box activated. System and 1-plane symmetry The plane of symmetry is positioned at the origin of the system and perpendicular to the x-axis. Since enforced was selected. Now when you perform a morphing operation you only need to move the handles on one side of the plane of symmetry. the enforced option will automatically create or delete handles on the other side of the symmetric link in order to enforce symmetry of the handles. When handles are created or deleted. If you want to add handles to one side of the plane of symmetry and not the other. the model maintains symmetry across the symmetry plane. The icon for a 1-plane symmetry is a rectangle positioned like a small mirror for the symmetry system. The symmetry will be applied to the handles and handle perturbations that will influence the mesh in a symmetric fashion. HyperMorph also links any handles that it finds that are reflections of the other.10.0 User’s Guide 231 . Click create.

Using 1-plane symmetry Three handles on the right hand side of the roof are selected and moved towards the centerline. HyperMorph automatically moves the corresponding nodes on the left hand side of the roof in a symmetric fashion.

Reducing 3D to 2D - Using Linear Symmetry
You can use linear symmetry to apply morphs to the model in such a way that the model is essentially reduced to two dimensions. To create a linear symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be reduced. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from 1 plane to linear. Select the system you created.

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9.

Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. A linear symmetry is created along the x-axis of the system. The icon for a linear symmetry consists of two parallel lines along the dimension to be reduced. The origin of the system is irrelevant. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a line extending along the system xaxis. If two handles lie along a line parallel to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same y and z coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since linear is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others that are linked via the symmetry. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and linear symmetry The linear symmetry icon consists of two parallel lines along the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a linear symmetry system does not matter; the effect of the linear symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a linear symmetry is very useful for making profile changes to a space frame model. It does not matter where the handles are placed along the x-axis, greatly simplifying the model set up. You only need to look at the model from one view to set up the handles and to morph the model. For models with a large number of elements this can save a great deal of time.

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Using linear symmetry The handle on the rear part of the roof is selected and the entire rear portion of the roof is morphed along with it. With linear symmetry you only need to place handles on one side of the model to affect the entire profile.

Reducing 3D to 1D - Using Planar Symmetry
Planar symmetry is similar to linear symmetry accept that it reduces two dimensions instead of one. This enables you to morph your model along a single axis with only two or more handles. To create a planar symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be retained. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from linear to planar. Select the system you created. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

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11. Return to the HyperMorph module. 12. Select the symmetry panel. 13. Select update by domain. 14. Select the global domain. 15. Select the planar symmetry. 16. Click update. A planar symmetry is created and the other two symmetries from the global domain are removed. You are allowed to have any number of symmetries associated with a domain and all will apply, but combining linear and planar symmetry in the same direction results in an unrealistic situation and poor influence calculations. The planar symmetry icon is displayed as a filled-in rectangle perpendicular to the system x-axis. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a plane perpendicular to the x-axis. If two handles lie in a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same x coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since planar is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and planar symmetry The planar symmetry icon is a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a planar symmetry system does not matter, the effect of the planar symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a planar symmetry greatly simplifies a model. Essentially, it reduces the model to a lying along single axis. This symmetry type is very useful for changing dimensions along one axis through the entire model.

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Using planar symmetry The handle at the rear of the model is selected and the entire trunk of the car is morphed. With planar symmetry you only need a row of handles lying roughly along the planar symmetry system x-axis.

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Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
Shell models are models that are made up primarily of shell elements, namely, quads, and trias. In general, a shell model represents many parts, each with numerous features such as holes and edges, and connected together using 1D elements such as bars and rigids. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shapes of the shell model features. This is done using one of the following methods: • Moving the handles on the part to new locations • • Moving the global handles around the parts to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the parts, or mapping the nodes of a part to line or surface data

For most models you only need to create 2D domains for the entire part, but you can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature.

Creating Handles and Domains - shell model
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Change the toggle to all elements or select all the elements in the model. Click create. A 2D domain is created for each group of continuous shell elements. Parts joined by 1D or 3D elements are separated into different domains. If partition domains is checked, the 2D domains will be partitioned according to the settings selected in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. Once partitioned, edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. All of this is automatic, but 1D and 3D elements will not be placed into 1D and 3D domains unless you set the selector to local domains instead of 2D domains. In many cases, the domains and handles will be generated where you want them to be. If not you can always add, edit, or delete the handles and domains to meet your needs.

A shell model is partitioned into 2D domains 6. If you wish to generate a global domain as well as local domains for your model with a single button click, either change the selector to global and local and click create, or to auto functions and click generate.

In the case of the generate auto function, if there are any domains or handles in the model, HyperMorph will first ask if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. If you say “yes”, or if there are no morphing entities in the model, HyperMorph automatically generates 1D, 2D, 3D, and edge domains for the entire model and a global domain and handles as well.

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For tria meshes which lack underlying geometry, both the node-based and element based partitioning algorithms may prove unsatisfactory. In these cases you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when partitioning. To accomplish this, go to the partitioning sub-panel, select element based as the algorithm for tria/tetra meshes, and change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. HyperMorph will then only make partitions along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. You can then go in and manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should go. This method is almost mandatory for meshes that began as first order meshes but were transformed into second order meshes. For these meshes, HyperMorph will detect a curvature break at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. The result will be a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Solving the influence coefficients for 2D domains which contain more than 20,000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. In these cases you may want to divide the large domains into multiple domains or lower the limit for the large domain solver. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. However, even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid, morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming, and thus subdividing 2D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. To divide your shell model, do this: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Select the elements to be placed into a new 2D domain. Click create. When selecting the elements for the new domain you do not need to select only shell elements. HyperMorph automatically removes any other elements before creating the domain. It does not matter if the elements selected are already in a 2D domain. When the new domain is created, the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Handle influences need to be recalculated every time handles, domains, or symmetries are added, edited, or deleted. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. These calculations occur when you enter or leave any HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. Thus, for models with large domains you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. HyperMorph only recalculates the handle influences for handles in regions that have been edited. If the domains are not created exactly how you want them to be, you can edit them in the domains panel. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. The organize subpanel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split, merge, and place handles along edge domains. It is suggested that you create and edit all the 2D domains, then create and edit the edge domains. This order works better since creating or editing 2D domains will result in the regeneration of the surrounding edge domains with the previous modifications to those edge domains being discarded. Sometimes partitioning does not divide the mesh in the ways that would be most useful to you. Occasionally, elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Partitioning is not an exact science, so some cleanup is sometimes required.

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To move elements from one domain to another: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select organize. Change the selector to add nodes/elems . Change the toggle to local domain. Select the elements to be moved. Select the target domain. Click organize. This will move the elements from the domain that they are currently in to the selected domain. HyperMorph also refreshes the edge domains around both domains as well as the edge domains at the interface. New handles may also be created during this process, and if retain handles is not checked, handles may be deleted. It is suggested that you keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing.

Partitioning problems The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. For this example the retain handles option was left unchecked resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. Note that the edge domains are always partitioned for any new domain and handles are placed at the end of the edge domains. For the example above, a handle was created in a new location due to the edge partitioning being different for the two domain configurations. When you hold the mouse button down and the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D domain or over an element inside a domain, the edge domains surrounding the domain are highlighted as well. This allows you to better visualize the domain that you are selecting. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain, and some domains can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements.

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You may need to correct this by hand. 5. This is why any editing of the edge domains should come after the editing of the other domains. HyperMorph tries to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. Select the domains to be grouped together. but in some cases it may not identify the proper starting and ending points. 3. Click organize. From the HyperMorph module.To group two or more domains together: 1. Select organize.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Two domains are organized into one Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. select the domains panel. If you do your edge editing first. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. The selected domains are combined into a single domain and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D domains. 2. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. 240 HyperMesh 8. 4. Change the selector to combine domains.

To merge edge domains: 1. From the HyperMorph module.0 User’s Guide 241 . Change the selector to merge. A handle is created at the selected node. 2. select the domains panel. 4. 5. select the domains panel. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end to end such that the resultant edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. 3. 2. Click merge.a circular edge domain is divided into two half circles A handle was created at the joint to allow you to manipulate the edges. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select edit edges. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. 6. Select any number of connected edge domains. Select an edge domain.To split edge domains: 1. 3. Select edit edges. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. 5. Change the selector to split. Click split. Splitting an edge domain . From the HyperMorph module. 4. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node.

These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. 2. If the domain containing the radius to be changed is very large you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change before you go into the morph panel. the handle at the joint was deleted. 5. Select one or more domains. 3. Click create. Change the selector to add handles. Select edit edges. 4.Merging two edge domains The two half circles are merged into a single domain.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . From the HyperMorph module. Since retain handles was unchecked. 242 HyperMesh 8. To place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change: 1. select the domains panel. The dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. This feature is quite useful for saving time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain.

0 User’s Guide 243 . Secondly. . surface. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. delete unnecessary handles. and sculpting Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. record. During influence calculation you might run out of available memory. Morphing on Local Domains You can change the shape of a model with local domains and handles using one or more of the following methods: • • • • • • Moving the local handles Changing a distance or angle Changing the radius. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. click return. HyperMorph calculates the influences for the handles and you are ready to begin morphing. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge will be transparently applied to the dependent handles. The first is that since they are dependent. plane. or mesh Using section mapping.When you are satisfied with your domains. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. the influences do not need to be recalculated. line and surface difference. or arc angle of an edge domain Mapping nodes to a line.Creating handles on an edge domain A dependent handle is created on each node of the edge domain. It will be as if they were not there. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. curvature. In these cases you should divide large domains. and element offset Using freehand morphing capabilities such as move nodes.

or place them on lines. This option allows you to rotate handles about an axis. This option allows you to translate handles along a vector or element normals. move to point 244 HyperMesh 8. or another mesh. to orient the mouse location in 3D space. or another mesh. it is better to use a non-interactive option. translate rotate move to XYZ move to node. line.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .There are six ways to move handles in the move handles sub-panel of the morph panel: interactive This option allows you to move handles interactively by dragging the mouse across the screen. If you want to move a handle a specific distance or to a specific position. plane. You select an entity such as a vector. surface. Interactive morphing is most effective for visualizing how the mesh will react when a handle is moved and for making approximate shape changes. These options allow you to position handles at specific node or point locations. This option allows you to position handles at specific XYZ locations or place them on lines. or domains. surfaces. surfaces. and move a handle by clicking on it and dragging it to a new location.

Morphing by translating handles By selecting the two handles along the edge of the flange and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section (green and blue nodes).0 User’s Guide 245 . the length of the flange is reduced. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

the thickness of the lower section is reduced.Morphing by translating handles By selecting the three handles and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section. Morphing by translating handles By selecting the handles at the bottom of the part and translating them upwards. the width of the channel is increased.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 246 HyperMesh 8.

Morphing by translating handles By selecting all the handles around the bolt boss and translating them horizontally.0 User’s Guide 247 . the end angle of the section is modified. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.constant The right end of the block is given a constant rotation. the position of the bolt boss is modified. Morphing by rotating handles .constant By selecting all the handles at the end of the section and rotating them about a point (violet node). Morphing by rotating handles .

linear The entire block is given a linear rotation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This will cause the nodes to be rotated as well as the handles with the amount of rotation being equal to the influence coefficient. the circle at the center of the model remains on the same plane as before.normal Although the highlighted handles are rotated. When applying handle perturbations to your model. This concept comes into play when you are using the rotate function. not all morphing applications are best done using true rotation. After rotating handles you may find areas in the model (particularly those defined by curved edges) that are not rotated the same as the neighboring handles.Morphing by rotating handles . Morphing by rotating handles . check the true rotation checkbox. Although it could be argued that true rotation is the "correct" way to morph via rotation of the handles. This is because the nodes have followed the handles instead of being rotated about the axis. To correct this situation. it is important to note that the nodes in the model follow the movements of the handles according to the influence coefficients. 248 HyperMesh 8. Note how the magnitude of the twist increases linearly with the distance from the base (purple) node.

or the radius or curvature of an edge domain.0 User’s Guide 249 . Would you like to ignore dependencies for this operation?”. The alter dimensions sub-panel of the morph panel allows you to change one of the parameters in the model. If you click yes the given perturbation is applied to each handle and the dependent handles are not given an additional perturbation inherited from another handle. the angle between nodes. controlling a particular dimension often involves moving more than one handle for each end.Morphing by rotating handles . The handles selected are the ones that will move to make the distance between node a and node b (or angle with a vertex selected) equal the specified value. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This occurs when both a dependent handle and the handle on which it is dependent are selected to be morphed. the given perturbation and any inherited perturbation is applied to each dependent node. You must select at least one handle for each end and the handle may be coincident with one of the nodes. While morphing a model. such as the distance between nodes. For solid models. If you click no.true rotation During "true rotation" the nodes rotate along with the handles. the following message may be displayed: “Some handles selected are dependent on others. Select handles corresponding to those nodes. The basic concept is as follows: Select two nodes (node a and node b). For most cases you will want to click yes.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Morphing by altering dimensions .distance By selecting the thickness of the block as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the radius (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles on the back face (highlighted) to follow the blue node. 250 HyperMesh 8. the width of the bottom of the channel can be changed from 60 to 30 with the rest of the channel changing along with it. the thickness of the block between the radius and the back face is altered from 15 to 25 by moving the entire back face.distance By selecting the width of the bottom of the channel as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the left (highlighted) to follow the green node and the handles on the right (shown as gray) to follow the blue node. Morphing by altering dimensions .

the angle of the left side of the section is changed from 110 degrees to 90 degrees. and below the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. and red nodes) and by selecting the handles at and directly below the green node (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles at. blue.0 User’s Guide 251 . near.Morphing by altering dimensions . the angle is altered from 126 degrees to 90 degrees. Morphing by altering dimensions . and red nodes) and by selecting the handle at the bottom right of the channel (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handle at the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node.angle By selecting the angle between two faces of the block (green.angle By selecting the angle of the left side of the channel (green. blue. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

select the center calculation and style options.0. you need to set the curve ratio to 1. The curvature tool is intended for domains that do not have constant curvature.0 to 8. You select any number of curved edge or 2D domains.The radius.5 and kept in line with the edges at either end. Making the bias factor retroactive does not work for radius changes. the radius is changed from 5 to 2. so if you want to change a radius from 5. and click morph.fillet By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the fillet option.radius . the radius is changed from 3 to 1. Note: The curvature tool scales your radius by a factor rather than a set radius. set the new radius.6.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 252 HyperMesh 8. curvature. All the domains are changed simultaneously. and arc angle options are used as follows. Morphing by altering dimensions .5. Note: Morphing by altering dimensions – radius – center By selecting the edge domain around the edge of the hole. curvature multiplication. or arc angle factor for them.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold ends By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the hold ends option, the radius is changed from 5 to 10 with the ends held in place.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold end By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part, selecting the hold end option, and selecting a node at the end of the edge domain, the radius is changed from 5 to 8 while the held end remains in place.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - fillet By selecting all of the edge domains that form the fillet between the flat sections and the round section and changing them simultaneously, the fillet is reduced from 20 to 8.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius The radius is changed in three different ways. At the top right, the hold center option is used. At the lower left, the hold ends option is used. At the lower right, the fillet option is used. In all cases, both the top and bottom edge domains were selected as well as the 2D domain and the by normals option was used for center calculation. This option will directly calculate the radii for the nodes on the 2D domain instead of inferring them from the edge domains which makes this approach more accurate for 2D domains as well as more reliable for non-uniform meshes.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the mesh is changed from 60 to 90 degrees using by axis (the vertical axis and violet base node) to calculate the center of curvature.

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the fillet is changed from 90 to 180 degrees using by normals to calculate the center of curvature. There are five methods available for calculating the center of curvature for the selected domains: • by normals - this method is the default and uses the element normals to approximate where the center of curvature is for each node in the selected domains. This method is not always accurate, but often gives good results for regular meshes. by axis - you may select an axis which will serve as the center of curvature. by line - you may select a line which will serve as the center of curvature. by node - you may select a node which will serve as the center of curvature. by edges - this method uses the edge domains to calculate the center of curvature with the center lying in the plane of the edge domains. The symmetry option refers to how the morphing of the edge domains is applied to neighboring 2D domains. The auto-symmetry option was the default for HyperMorph prior to version 8.0. In 8.0 you may choose to turn off symmetry when using this option.

• • • •

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For auto-symmetry, the changes in the radii of the edge domains are applied to any 2D domain, depending on the number of edge domains you change for the 2D domains. If you change only one edge domain for a given 2D domain, the radius change will not be applied linearly across the 2D domain. If you change the radii of two edges for any given 2D domain, either a linear or planar temporary symmetry is created between the two edge domains for the 2D domain that will apply radius changes more linearly across the 2D domain. This works best if the mesh is regular. If you are changing only one edge for a 2D domain, you can increase the bias factor of any handles on an edge domain to yield a more even distribution. Mapping an edge domain to a line or a 2D mesh to a plane, surface, or mesh is done using the map to geom panel. This option is very effective for fitting a mesh to new geometric data. When mapping a domain to a geometric feature, all the nodes in neighboring domains are stretched along with it, minimizing mesh distortion. You have several options for determining how the nodes for the mapped domain are placed on the geometry. When mapping an edge domain or node list the nodes can be moved normal to the line, along a vector to the line, or distributed along the full length of the line. When mapping a 2D domain or selection of nodes to a plane, surface, or mesh, the nodes can be moved normal to the target, normal to the elements of the 2D domain or selected nodes, or along a vector. If you wish to fit a mesh to a surface, there is no option to do this automatically, however, with multiple mapping operations, or using the user control option you can fit a 2D domain to a surface. Furthermore, you have the option of creating a morph constraint between the nodes and the map target automatically after mapping. This constraint will allow you to do further morphing operations while maintaining the constrained nodes on the geometry. The map to geom panel is also effective for solid model meshing. You can create a block of solid elements roughly in the shape of the geometry that you are trying to mesh, and then use map to surface to morph the faces of the block to the geometry.

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - normal to geom The edge domain is mapped to a line by moving the nodes normal to the line.

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Morphing by mapping to line - automap - fit to line The edge domain is mapped to the line by fitting them along the line. Any proportional spacing between the nodes will be maintained after mapping.

Morphing by mapping to surface By selecting the 2D domain on the top of the solid block to be mapped to the surface, the entire solid block is morphed to match the surface.

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Morphing by mapping to surface A rectangular C-section is mapped to a curved surface.

Morphing by mapping to surface - user control This example shows the user-control approach to mapping a mesh onto a surface. The surface and 2D domain are selected and the user control button is clicked. This brings up a new panel which allows you to place handles or map edges prior to the surface mapping operation. One by one each edge domain is placed on one of the lines around the target surface using the fit to line option. This stretches the 2D domain to match the surface more closely than before. When the map button is clicked, the domain is the mapped to the surface, fitting it perfectly to the geometry.

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Morphing Global Handles
Global handles are most effective when used to make general shape changes for a model, such as changing the basic shape of a model, stretching parts of a model, or making changes that involve the movement of many local handles. There are three methods available for affecting the way global handles influence the model, the direct method, the hierarchical method, and the mixed method. The default is the direct method, where the global handles move the nodes directly. In the hierarchical method, the global handles move the local handles which in turn move the nodes, but if any nodes lie outside of local domains they will be unaffected. In the mixed method, the hierarchical method is used for all nodes in local domains and the direct method is used for all other nodes. The hierarchical method maintains the shape of edge domains in the model, but if local handles are not evenly placed throughout the model, some parts will become distorted. The direct method gives you what you expect but often distorts the shape of the edge domains. For shell and solid models, better morphing is more likely to occur if you use the hierarchical method, and place local handles in areas where there is distortion.

Using Constraints
Morph constraints are a powerful tool that can be used to restrict the movement of nodes during morphing operations. The following types of constraints can be applied to any node: fixed, cluster, along vector, on plane, along line, on surface, and on elements. Whenever a handle is moved that influences a node, which is constrained, the node is moved according to the handle perturbation and is then projected back onto the feature to which it is constrained. This allows the nodes to slide across vectors, lines, planes, surfaces, and meshes, to remain fixed when handles are moved, or to move as a cluster along with other nodes. You may also constrain nodes where handles are located which, in effect, constrains the handles. When a perturbation is applied to a constrained handle, the handle are moved along the constraint feature regardless of the applied perturbation. This means that if you apply a translation in the x direction on a handle that is constrained along a vector x - y = 0, the handle moves along both the x and y axes. There are also morph constraints that can be applied to domains, such as the smooth constraint, which applies spline-based smoothing along the constrained edge domains, and model constraints, which allow you to set a given parametric target (such as length, angle, mass, etc.) and have HyperMorph adjust the model to meet that target. These constraints as well as bounded and set distance options for the node constraints are described more fully in the panel help. Morph constraints can be very useful for morphing a mesh that has been mapped to, projected to, or created upon a surface. Note that the map to geom operation allows you to have a morph constraint automatically created after mapping. Once you have done so, the nodes will remain on the surface during morphing operations. Note: Although morph constraints can keep nodes on a curved line or surface during morphing operations, when morphs are saved as shapes and then turned into shape variables for optimization, the nodes will not stay on the line or surface during optimization. This is because optimization is a linear process and the shapes will be treated as linear, meaning that the nodes will move directly from their original point to their maximally perturbed point without moving along any constraint.

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Controlling handle positions with morph constraints The angle of the lower right corner is changed from 74 to 90 degrees using the alter dimensions (angle) operation. The middle frame shows the result with no constraints. The frame on the right shows the result with the node in the upper right corner constrained to move along a vector that lies along the top edge.

Nodes tracking a line during morphing The nodes along the right edge domain are constrained to the line. When the handle is moved, it and the other constrained nodes move along the line.

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000. Higher biasing values generate a smooth curvature near the handles. Using Biasing Biasing allows you to control the shape of a mesh when applying handle perturbations. Biasing increases or decreases the influence of a handle over the nodes within its area of influence.000 in the middle. When the handles are translated. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the morphing between the handles is linear. and 3. while lower biasing values generate harsh corners near the handles. the nodes are moved along the surface a distance corresponding to the applied handle perturbations. If the handles were also part of the map to geom operation. the handles were translated linearly. which is the default value for all handles except for dependent handles on 1D domains.0 User’s Guide 261 .000 at the edges. In this example.000 at the corners. 2. If the biasing values for all of the handles are equal to 1. they too will be moved along the surface regardless of the applied perturbation. HyperMorph automatically placed the handles back on the surfaces after applying the translation so that the constraint was obeyed. provided both handles are global handles or they are located on edge domains. To smoothly change the shape of a domain it is recommended that you use a biasing factor of 1.Morphing after mapping to surface All mapped nodes are automatically constrained to the surface.

Apply the morphs and change the biasing values retroactively until you get the shape that you want. Biasing to reduce mesh distortion When the hole is moved downward with a biasing factor of 1.000. After applying a morph.000. and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 2. Biasing can be applied retroactively after a morphing operation.000. the mesh folds over due to the influences of the other handles (middle frame). When the biasing value of the handle at the hole is increased to 3. 262 HyperMesh 8.000 for the handle at the hole.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. The model at the lower left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 2.000. you can change the biasing value by activating the make retroactive check box. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. This is useful in selecting a good biasing value to apply for a given morph. and have the current list of applied morphs updated to reflect the new biasing values. the mesh unfolds (right frame).000 and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 0.000.500.Biasing for a 2D domain The model at the upper left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 1.

edit. Change the toggle to all elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In general.Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains Solid models are models that are made up of solid elements. Creating Handles and Domains . and ribs. Set the selector to 3D domains. edges. From the HyperMorph module. you can add. a solid model represents a single part with numerous features such as holes. the domains and handles are generated where you want them to be.solid model You can create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in a model. or manually select all of the elements in the model. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shape of features in a solid model. For solid models. 5. edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. tetras. The surfaces of each 3D domain are covered with shell elements that are placed in a component named ^morphface. namely. pentas. Once partitioned. If they are not. flanges. and hexas. This is done using one of the following methods: • • • • Moving the handles on the part to new locations Moving the global handles around the part to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the part Mapping the nodes of the part to line or surface data. or delete the handles and domains to meet specific needs. Click create. 2. In many cases. each part is placed in its own 3D domain. A 3D domain is created for a solid model Note the automatic creation and partitioning of 2D domains on the face of the solid and the creation of edge domains and handles for the 2D domains. bosses. Select create. To create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in the model: 1. This procedure is automatic. If the model is made up of more than one part. 4. The elements in ^morphface covering each 3D domain are placed into 2D domains. You can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature. select the domains panel. these 2D domains are partitioned according to the settings selected in the parameter subpanel of the domains panel. If partition 2D domains is checked. 3. it is only necessary to create a single 3D domain for the entire part.0 User’s Guide 263 .

which produces dependent (green) handles. select the domains panel. Click generate. 2. you are asked if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. From the HyperMorph module. 2D. you may find it easier to start with a blank slate rather than editing the automatically created domains. If you do not select partition 2D domains when you generate a 3D domain. Set the selector to auto functions. this approach will give you a “blank slate” 2D domain that you can partition by hand. Without handles. However. the 2D domain made up of the elements on the surface of the 3D domain will not have edge domains and thus no handles will be generated for it. Automatic generation of domains on a solid model Note the addition of a global domain. and 1D domain. For meshes on which the automatic partitioning does not work well. 4. Be sure to try both methods of partitioning. morphing cannot be performed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 1D. 3. and 3D domains are automatically generated for the entire model. such as first order tetra meshes. or if there are no morphing entities in the model. the node based partitioning will work better. Note: The element based method sometimes works better on second order tetras since it accounts for element curvature. If there are any domains or handles in the model. If you click yes. as well as a global domain and handles. Select create. if the second order tetras are converted first order tetras and thus have no curvature. global handles. 264 HyperMesh 8. However. element based and node based.To create a 3D domain along with a global domain and global handles to your model: 1. before deciding to partition by hand.

Solving the influence coefficients for 3D domains which contain more than 20. Additionally. 3. Also.000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. Select create. you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when automatically partitioning. Set the selector to subdivide 3D. This better accommodates the division of tetra meshes that cannot be divided along flat or curved internal faces and thus would be partitioned into many domains. you do not need to select only solid elements. Click subdivide. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. Partitions will be made only along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. 5. 5. morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming. select the domains panel. However. Morphface elements are placed at the internal interface between the new domain and the other domains and create a 2D domain for the interface. To subdivide your solid model: 1. in the parameters sub-panel. From the HyperMorph module. or lower the limit for the large domain solver. This results in a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. 6. In these cases you may want to divide the domain into multiple domains using the subdivide 3D function in the update sub-panel of the domains panel. select the domains panel. Click create. This method is very helpful for meshes that began as first order tetra meshes but then were then transformed into second order meshes. other elements are automatically removed before the domain is created. for first order tetra meshes. Therefore. 2. Select any 2D domains on the surface of the 3D domain that are permissible for HyperMorph to split into more than one 2D domain. you only need to create domains for that part. but it will not partition the interface. 3. You can then manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should be located. a curvature break is detected at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. In these cases the 3D domain will be left undivided. From the HyperMorph module. Select the 3D domains to be subdivided. 4. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. and thus subdividing 3D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing.0 User’s Guide 265 . To do this. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When the new domain is created.Also. the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Not that in some cases HyperMorph will not be able to subdivide a 3D domain without dividing an indivisible 2D domain. 2. For these meshes. if you are only going to morph a part of your 3D mesh. Select update. When selecting elements for the new domain. even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid. change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. Select the elements to be placed into a new 3D domain. Set the selector to 3D domains. it does not matter if the selected elements are already in a 3D domain. HyperMorph automatically subdivides the 3D domains into one or more 3D domains while leaving the 2D domains not selected as being divisible unchanged. you do not need to be concerned about selecting the morphface elements. 4. To divide your solid model manually: 1.

These calculations occur when you enter or leave a HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. merge. The organize sub-panel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. or deleted. elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Influences must be recalculated every time handles. you can edit them in the domains panel. the internal elements can become distorted. make sure that you divide it along lines where you want your 2D domains on the surface to be. Create and edit the edge domains. and place handles along edge domains. You can divide your 3D domains to restrict the handle influences and control mesh distortion. If the domains are not created exactly the way you want them. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split. you should perform the tasks in the following order: Create and edit all the 3D domains that you want first. it has the effect of partitioning the surface of the original 3D domain along seams where the divisions were made. Some cleanup may be required. and creating or editing 2D domains results in the creation and deletion of edge domains. Dividing a 3D domain into many 3D domains can be very useful for controlling the movement of nodes within the domain when the handles on the surface are moved. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. This is generally caused by handle influences extending too far through the 3D domain. Since creating or editing 3D domains results in the creation of 2D and edge domains. For large models you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. Automatic partitioning does not always divide a mesh in the most useful ways. The influences for handles are only recalculated in regions that have been edited. A single 3D domain is split into four 3D domains The influences of the handles will not extend across the boundaries between the domains. domains. Occasionally. edited. When some meshes are morphed. Create and edit the 2D domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . So when you divide your model into 3D domains. or symmetries are added. 266 HyperMesh 8.Note: When you divide a 3D domain into parts.

resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. select the domains panel. Click organize. as well as the 2D domains at the interface if solid elements are being organized. 3. For this example. This allows you to visualize the domain that you are selecting. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 6. and if retain handles is not checked. and for some domains it can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. 5.To move elements from one domain to another: 1. Select organize. The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. will highlight the edge domains surrounding the domain. Change the selector to add nodes/elements. handles may be deleted. Select the elements to be moved. From the HyperMorph module. the retain handles option was left unchecked. The edge domains around both domains are refreshed. 4. Note: Holding the mouse button down when the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D or 3D domain or over an element inside a domain. The elements are moved from their current domain to the selected domain. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain. New handles may also be created during this process. Select the target domain.0 User’s Guide 267 . Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements. 2. You should keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing.

Click organize. select the domains panel. 5. The selected domains are combined into a single domain. To split edge domains: 1. Change the selector to split. 4. Select edit edges. 268 HyperMesh 8. 2. Select an edge domain. You will need to correct this by hand. This is why you should edit the edge domains after the other domains have been edited. 4. A handle is created at the selected node. 5.To group two or more domains: 1. select the domains panel. Change the selector to combine domains. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Edge domains are used to make radius changes. 2. Click split. Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. 3. From the HyperMorph module. it will not identify the proper starting and ending points. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D and 3D domains. 6. and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. If you perform edge editing first. HyperMorph attempts to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. but in some cases. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. Select organize. Select the domains to be grouped. The lower edge domain has been split at the gray node (left model). Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. Now the radius of each new edge domain may be modified independently of the other. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. which becomes a handle (right model). From the HyperMorph module.

select the domains panel. Click create. 4. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. Change the selector to add handles. Select any number of edge domains. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. 5. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. Dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. The first is that since they are dependent. 3. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. Select edit edges. Select edit edges. If a model is very large. you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish to change before you enter the morphing panel. Click merge.0 User’s Guide 269 . Dependent handles created using the handles on edge feature Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. 2. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. Select one or more domains. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge are transparently applied to the dependent handles.To merge edge domains: 1. Secondly. This feature helps save time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. It will be as if they were not there. To create dependent handles along an edge domain: 1. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. From the HyperMorph module. select the domains panel. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. 2. 4. From the HyperMorph module. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end-to-end such that the resultant merged edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. the influences do not need to be recalculated. 5. Change the selector to merge.

you should divide large domains. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. Since HyperMorph creates a component called ^morphface. The influences for the handles is calculated and you are ready to begin morphing. You can still display the surface mesh. 270 HyperMesh 8. surface-only wire frame In this default mode. or lower the limit of the large domain solver.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .solid model The HyperMesh graphics engine supports different visual options for viewing models as you work on them. click return. since the viewing mode is still wire frame. if desired (as shown). solid fill The option produces a display that is similar to what you see when you perform a fill plot in the hidden line panel. the default setting is to display only that component—thus showing only the outer surface of your model and making it easier to work on. In these cases. Note: During influence calculation for large models you might run out of available memory.6. which contains shell elements on the surface of the 3D domains. Viewing Solid Models . but only the surface elements are drawn because in a solid model. You only see the side of the model that is facing you (as if your model was a real part). your model is displayed as a wire frame. a full wire frame can make it very difficult to visualize the model because every element in the model is displayed. When you are satisfied with your domains. delete unnecessary handles. you will see the two sides of your model superimposed over each other. However.

0 User’s Guide 271 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. so by viewing only the domains you can visualize the model with minimal clutter. Partitioning generally captures all the features on the surface of a solid. This is similar to looking at the model in a meshless wire frame mode.You can also view a solid model for morphing by turning off all the components and looking at only the domains and handles.

Each step is described in more detail below. including splitting and joining operations Selecting vertex coordinates when the spreadsheet display is active Edit the beam section manually via dialogs and a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates. Beam section properties are imported back into HyperMesh and applied to element property cards. Operations that can be accomplished in this way include: Hand editing of vertex coordinate geometry and connectivity Editing section thickness Creating parts Editing part to vertex associativity Parameterizing the beam section for optimization via a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates Organizing HyperBeam sections into a single level structure of HyperBeam collectors 272 HyperMesh 8. Access previously defined beam cross sections for editing in the HyperBeam module. or element data takes place in the HyperBeam panel within HyperMesh. as dictated by the beam section template. It is a threestep process. The HyperBeam module allows you to: • • View the beam section. Step 2: Beam Section Manipulation. Transfer the data into the HyperBeam module. Step One Step Two Step Three Beam section definition from line. beam. elements or surfaces that represent the beam cross section. its local coordinate system. The HyperBeam panel in HyperMesh allows you to: • • • • Define the beam cross sectional plane via the existing HyperMesh vector definition methods. Select the lines. moving. and deleting vertices Editing line segments. rod) element property data for an FEA model. Operations that can be done this way include: • Editing section thickness Creating. and any beam section properties calculated.HyperBeam Module The HyperBeam module allows you to calculate general beam section properties from geometry or element data. steps one and three are performed within HyperMesh and step two is performed in the HyperBeam module. Beam section manipulation and property calculation takes place in the HyperBeam module. This data can be imported into the HyperMesh finite element pre-processor and used to create one-dimensional (bar. Step 1: Beam Section Definition. surface. Edit the beam section graphically via mouse clicks and drags.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

0 User’s Guide 273 . The beam section characteristics are displayed in the card image of the property collector but must be edited from within the HyperBeam module.Step 3: Beam Property Import. You can import beam section properties into HyperMesh that have been defined in HyperBeam by using the collectors panel with the properties entity selected. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The shell section subpanel is selected from the HyperBeam panel. N1. The blue lines are plot elements denoting the beam section. The selector type is set to elems and the blue plot elements are selected. 274 HyperMesh 8. The purple line is a plot element created in the global y-direction. Elements or lines can be used to describe a beam section. This plot element will be used to align the section within HyperBeam. And the plane base node is chosen (change option to specify node) at N1 also. N2 and N3 locations are selected as shown in the figure below. project to plane is then selected under cross section plane:.Example of the Three-Step Process This example illustrates how HyperBeam can be used to attach beam section properties to a OptiStruct PBAR card image. It assumes that the OptiStruct user profile is loaded.

0 User’s Guide 275 . Later we will need to know this when the beam section is aligned for bar elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. It is important to note the alignment of the local axes at this point. HyperBeam is invoked when you click create.The vector created by N1 to N2 describes the local y-axis used in HyperBeam. N3 describes the positive sense of the z-axis.

and N3 was reversed (essentially the z-direction was flipped).If the node selection was performed differently.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperBeam would yield different results as shown below. 276 HyperMesh 8.

This can be done in the collectors panel. the y-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. The figure below illustrates the alignment of the global axis. the PBAR card image must be attached to the 1-D element in question. This operation is performed in the bars panel.Once HyperBeam solves the cross sectional properties. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the z-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. Bar element alignment using HyperBeam sections is very straightforward if the section was defined using an absolute y-direction. the HyperBeam alignment axis. it is necessary to attach the beam section to the PBAR card image. The direction specified within the bars panel defines the alignment along the y-direction. If there were a 1 within the Z comp. After the card image is created. In this case. and the local bar element alignment axis.0 User’s Guide 277 .

278 HyperMesh 8. This option can be found in the review sections subpanel in the HyperBeam panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .The beam cross section can also be attached to the beam to visually inspect the alignment.

The x axis is defined along the beam axis.0 User’s Guide 279 . the system referring to the principal bending axes is called the principal coordinate system.z plane. This means that for the calculation of the moments and product of inertia terms of higher order of the shell thickness t are neglected. The coordinate system defined by the user is called the local coordinate system.Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam The beam cross section is always defined in a y. the system parallel to the local coordinate system with the origin in the centroid is called the centroidal coordinate system. only the theory of thin walled bars is used. For shell sections. Thickness warping is also neglected. Area Area Moments of Inertia Area Product of Inertia Radius of Gyration Elastic Section Modulus Max Coordinate Extension Plastic Section Modulus Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Torsional Constant Solid Shell open Shell closed Elastic Torsion Modulus Solid Shell open Shell closed Warping Constant (normalized to the shear center) Shear deformation coefficients 280 HyperMesh 8.

Shear stiffness factors Shear stiffness Nastran Type Notation References W. CRC Press. H. Pilkey and W. ed. and W. Leipzig. The Theory of Thin Walled Bars. Boca Raton. Pilkey. Goeldner. Beam Stiffness Matrix based on the Elasticity Equations.D. Fachbuchverlag.. Rubenchik. 1979. Wunderlich. Lehrbuch – Hoehere Festigkeitslehre. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.D. Structural Mechanics – Variational and Computational Methods. A. Gjelsvik.0 User’s Guide 281 . Schramm. FL. Wiley & Sons. 1993. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 40 (1997) 211-232. U. 1981. V.

shell section graphics pane. toolbar.HyperBeam Environment HyperBeam has three main panes: the section browser. It also has a menu bar. 282 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click each section of the HyperBeam window below to access detailed information about the menu areas. and status bar. and results/spreadsheet sections.

select the section.0 User’s Guide 283 . To view thumbnail images of the sections in a section collector. and select Paste from the Edit menu. There are two ways to "drag and drop": • Move a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. choose Create Thumbnails from the pop-up menu. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. click again to indicate that you want to rename it. holding down the control key. give a filename and location in the Save As window (it is recommended to use the . and dragging it to the collector where you want it to be located. select Cut from the Edit menu.Section Browser This section browser presents a hierarchical view of all of the beam sections and section collectors on your database. choose Export Section from the pop-up menu.bm extension to save beam section files). Below that are all of the collectors followed by the beam sections at the lowest level. To view thumbnails of selected sections. select multiple sections by holding down the control key and left-clicking on multiple sections. and enter the new name. HyperBeam displays this hierarchy in a standard tree structure. right-click in the section browser pane. To export sections to an external file. the thumbnail images that were just created may be viewed in the graphics pane by selecting Model in the section browser tree. select a section by left-clicking on it. and renaming sections and section collectors. and select Paste from the Edit menu. Section types are identified by icons. You can also reorganize the database by moving sections between collectors. To copy a section. To move a section. You can use the section browser to find a particular section of your model for displaying or editing. click Save. right-click in the section browser pane. select the section. select the desired sections or section collectors in the section browser (hold down the control key to select multiple items). select the collector where you want the section to appear. as listed below: Shell Solid Standard Generic You can perform the following tasks in the section browser: • • • • To rename a section or section collector. until you create thumbnail images for a different selection of sections. copying sections. At the highest level is the model. select Copy from the Edit menu. select the collector where you want the section to appear. select the collector branch in the section browser window. and dragging and dropping it into the collector where you want it to be located Copy a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. thumbnail images of all the sections are shown in the graphics pane. click once on the item to select it.

or equivalently. If you accidentally omit those vertices from the connectivity for a part. 284 HyperMesh 8. You have control (on the preferences dialog) over whether the z-axis points up or down. each sheet metal part is drawn by lines connecting the dots that show the section's vertices. if you have them enabled on the view menu. The section axis is always drawn with its y-axis pointing to the right. The centroid appears as a plus with a circle around it. Each part is also marked with a slider bar that you can use to adjust the part's thickness. then HyperBeam underestimates the stiffness of a section. The color of the lines for each part is selected on the section's properties dialog. Each vertex may or may not be labeled by its ID. The shear center appears as an x with a circle around it. depending on if you have the toggle set on the toolbar or the view menu. The section's local coordinate system and its principle coordinate system (at its centroid) are displayed. the metal thickness used for a flange is the sum of the thicknesses of all the parts that share it. The section's torsion and warping factor are displayed in the lower left corner of the pane. separated by a colon.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if the section's x-axis points into or out of the monitor.The Importance of Flanges When HyperBeam computes the properties for the section. The bar is labeled with the part's number in the section and the current numerical value of the thickness. if you have them enabled on the view menu. You can modify the section itself with the shell section editing tools. Shell Section Graphics Pane The graphics pane displays a representation of the geometric layout of the section. For shell sections. The preferences dialog allows you to set the font and background color to use in the text graphics pane.

If there are computed values that are not necessary. so you may choose to add additional values to the template. If this section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. If the section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog." Standard Section Spreadsheet For a standard section. there are more results computed than are displayed in the default template. then the spreadsheet displays equations. it displays them in the results pane. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. consult the documentation for the results output template. but you can select it and copy it to paste it into another application such as a word processor. "No results to display. Also. You cannot edit the text in this portion of the window. to toggle between them. and the associated vertex moves to the new location. and optimization bounds for the section. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. You can change the display of text and values by editing the scripts file. and background color on the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's vertices and their coordinates. you can use the spreadsheet button on the toolbar. you can delete them from the template so that they are not displayed. If the results are not available. Shell Section Spreadsheet (non-optimization version) For a shell section. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You specify the text font. text color.0 User’s Guide 285 . You will find controls for the actual format and layout of the text and results in two locations. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's variables and their current values. You can type a new value into any of the coordinates. You can specify a new results template by selecting the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. such as when you have edited the section definition and dynamic update is disabled.Results/Spreadsheet Pane Section Properties Results Whenever HyperBeam computes the section properties of the current section. The section results pane shares screen space with the section definition spreadsheets. variables. then the spreadsheet additionally displays optimization bounds for each variable. then HyperBeam displays the message. To see the list of all the results available.

To delete a variable. In the equation. Each vertex coordinate now has three values: an initial value. click the vertex coordinate to make it active and delete the text of the equation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . a vertex coordinate can be defined using an equation. 286 HyperMesh 8. with a few restrictions. then the shell-section spreadsheet expands to display the rest of the necessary information. The equation is passed to the optimization solver. click the right-hand side of the equation and enter the formula. and optimization bounds.) To delete an equation. a new blank line appears. Click the coordinate and it will appear as the dependent vertex. Select delete variable on the menu. so it must be formatted as appropriate for that solver. The coordinate will be set equal to the last value it had calculated. and an upper bound. you can use other vertex coordinates. into which you can enter the variable's name. variables. If all three values are equal. If you choose add. A vertex that is defined by an equation may not appear on the right-hand side of another equation. Next. A menu is displayed. it is assumed the optimizer treats that coordinate as fixed. initial value. blank spaces may be prohibited. To define a variable for use in an equation. arithmetic functions. click the variable with the right mouse button. a lower bound. A menu is displayed that allows you to choose between adding or deleting a variable. use the right mouse button to select the variable's section. Alternatively. or trigonometric functions.Optimization Shell Section Spreadsheet If the shell section has been designated an optimization section on the Properties dialog. (For example.

or generic section. Setting the Section Graphics Options The Graphics tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Specifies the main background color for the section graphics region. Some operations such as importing and exporting are accomplished only from the menu bar.HyperBeam Menu Bar The HyperBeam menu bar allows you to perform a wide variety of operations using drop-down menus. Copies and removes the selected text or entity. On the Edit menu. From the Edit window. Options are provided to export all sections. Prints the currently displayed beam cross section and the section analysis results. Delete the currently selected text or entity. Edit Menu Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Delete Preferences Undo the last procedure. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Paste the selected text or entity into the location of the cursor. Opens a file browser so you can export the results for the selected section to a text file. Redo the last procedure. Opens a file browser so you can import a beam cross-section. Opens a file browser so you can export a beam cross-section. Exit the HyperBeam module and return to HyperMesh. select Preferences. Set the graphics and results preferences. Allows you to set up printer preferences. Copies the selected text or entity. select Preferences to display the tabs. or only selected sections.0 User’s Guide 287 . There are controls for the results/spreadsheet window and controls for the section graphics window available. Save the beam cross-section. The Preferences dialog allows you to specify the appearance and behavior of HyperBeam. The Graphics and Results tabs in the Preferences dialog allow you to set preferences for the section graphics window and the results/spreadsheet window. Displays a print preview. File Menu New Save Import Section Export Section Export Results Print Print Preview Print Setup Exit Create a new section collector. Other operations can be performed using either the menu bar or the corresponding tool button. standard section.

The distance entry field allows the distance between nodes of the grid to be adjusted.Font Background effects Displays the font dialog box. Displays the font dialog box. so it can display just those values known to be relevant. You may substitute your own solver to compute values for thin Shell sections. so that their sizes are relative to one another. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for section graphics window. for best formatting. See the Templex Reference On-line Help for additional details. It is recommended that you use a fixed-width font.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The Scale Thumbnails checkbox allows thumbnail images to be displayed. Results output templates The computed results for a section are formatted using a user-specified TEMPLEX scripts. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for the results display. Each section type can have its own custom script. Allows you to display a grid behind the section image. Allows you to specify a bitmap or second color for a gradient to display as the background of the section graphics window. x-axis direction Grid Thumbnails Specifying the Results/Spreadsheet Display The Results tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Font Select the background color for the results display. External solver for thin shell sections 288 HyperMesh 8. Contact Altair for technical details on exchange file formats and return codes. such as courier. Allows you to specify whether HyperBeam should display the section with the x-axis coming out of the page (so z axis goes up) or going into the page (so the z-axis goes down).

. Allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section.. Switches the display in the Results/Spreadsheet pane. Turns on and off the display of the Vertex IDs. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Properties. Scales the graphic so that it exactly fits the active window. Turns on and off the display of the Torsion Factor. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Allows you to move vertices. Allows you to add a new sheet metal part to the current section. If selected. Reduces the size of the graphic in the graphics pane.. Allows you to modify the properties of the beam cross-sections. Turns on and off the display of the system coordinate axes. Turns on and off the display of the Warping Factor. Moves the model in the selected direction. Allows you to specify the section that you want to zoom in on to examine in greater detail.0 User’s Guide 289 . updates results. Magnifies the graphic in the graphics pane... automatically updates the display when you make changes.View Menu Toolbar Status Bar Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit to screen Update Results Dynamic update Systems Torsion Factor Warping Factor Spreadsheets Vertex Ids Turns on and off the display of the toolbar. When selected. Allows you to delete a vertex to join two segments. Tools Menu Break a Segment Join Segments Create a New Part Move Vertices Reorient Shell Section.. Turns on and off the display of the status bar. rearrange vertices in a part. Part Editor. Allows you to break a segment so that you can add a new vertex.

To specify a new coordinate system. if you subsequently move that vertex. the current principle axes. reverse x-axis Activate the check box to flip the section over. Specifying the y-axis You can specify the direction for the for the y-axis of the local coordinate system using vertices. the current shear center. Note that. or the current centroid to be the new origin. the origin for the section does not follow it. If you move a defi ning vertex.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Reorient Shell Section The reorient shell section dialog allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. 290 HyperMesh 8. or at an angle offset from the current y axis. Likewise. this coordinate system does not adjust with them. You can also move the origin by a fixed amount by defining y and z offsets. Specifying the Origin You can designate a vertex. or the principle axes change. the origin will not move with it. you must specify the location of its origin relative to the vertices and the direction of the y-axis. if the shear center or centroid changes because of any changes to the section properties. reflecting it about the y-axis.

you can set upper and lower bounds for the optimization of the section's sheet metal thicknesses. 4. the currently selected part of the section is highlighted. The part editor also allows you to review and edit part vertex connectivities. You can add or remove vertices to change the part. 5. 12. For example. To set a new thickness.Part Editor Parts of thin-shell sections can be edited by selecting Part Editor. in the section illustrated below.. enter a value in the appropriate field. When you use the part editor tools for. A part in this context is an individual piece of sheet metal that is typically welded to other parts along flanges. 2.0 User’s Guide 291 . on the Tools menu and entering data in the Edit Parts dialog. 14. To designate a segment between two vertices and a flange. so the connectivity of the top part is 1. 2.. 15 … Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can use the up and down arrows to review any part. include those vertices in more than one part. (You can also adjust thickness by using the graphic tools. 3. the segment between vertices 1 and 2 is a flange.) If you are currently in an optimization section. 13. The part features that you need to control are its thickness and the connectivity of its vertices. There is list of the vertex IDs at the bottom of the list. … and the connectivity of the bottom flange is 1.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Thin Shell Section Properties The Thin Shell Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single shell section. Set the warping factor. such as upper and lower bound on thicknesses. Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. HyperBeam recognizes four types of beam cross-sections. Fill color Choose the color to use for displaying the material portion of the section in the graphics pane. Section type 292 HyperMesh 8. See the HyperBeam panel for more information on beam cross-sections types. Optimization Solid Section Properties The Solid Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a solid section.Properties Properties for beam cross-sections are specified by selecting Properties on the Tools menu and entering data in the Thin-Shell Section Properties dialog. Torsion factor Warping Factor Line color Set the torsion factor. On the Tools menu. Specify the shape out of the available choices to use for the standard section. Standard Section Properties The Standard Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single standard section. or vertex coordinates. or equations tying coordinates together. You can activate this option if you need to specify optimization parameters for this section. The properties that can be specified differ for each type of section. This operation cannot be undone. select properties. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Generic Section Properties The Generic Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a generic section. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane.0 User’s Guide 293 .

Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit Show/hide Ids Update results Show/hide spreadsheet Properties Zoom in on area of the beam section by using the mouse to draw a circle around the area of interest. You can use any mixture of existing or new vertices in creating the part. if you have turned off the auto-update of section results. Turn on and off the display of vertex IDs in shell sections. activate this tool and click on the vertex. Alternate between displaying results or the spreadsheet. Bring the section results up to date. View Controls The view controls are available on the View menu and the toolbar. or deactivate the tool by toggling its button on the toolbar. If you want to delete a vertex. Resize the display to fit the pane. Join two segments/ eliminate vertex Create a new part 294 HyperMesh 8. To add a new sheet metal part to the current section. Enlarge the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. To finish the part. Specify a new center for the graphics display. Zoom out on the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. activate this tool and then click in the graphics area the sequence of vertices. activate this tool and click at approximately the place you want it to appear.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .HyperBeam Toolbar The toolbar allows you to quickly access some of the more commonly used functions. They control how the section is displayed in the graphics pane and the results/spreadsheet pane. double-click the last vertex. Pops-up the properties dialog Shell Section Editing Tools There are five tools to modify the basic definition of a shell section: Break segment If you want to add a new vertex between two existing vertices.

Copy an item. rearrange vertices in a part. If you place the cursor over a toolbar icon. Paste a copied or cut item. activate this tool. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Redo the last action performed.Move vertex Part-editor To reposition a vertex. a short description of the action performed when you click the icon is displayed in the status bar. Open the HyperBeam on-line help. Cut an item and hold it in memory for pasting.0 User’s Guide 295 . Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. and click and hold on the vertex to move and drag it to its new location. Open the print dialog. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Status Bar The HyperBeam status bar displays messages and information about the interface. Undo the last action performed. General Tools There are eight tools that allow you to manage a HyperBeam session: Save Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Print On-line Help Save the session.

The panel functions also facilitate the creation of bar2 elements. Note: For design reasons. 296 HyperMesh 8. This process is performed in the beam xsect panel. and torsion and warping constants. moments of inertia. calculate its properties. principal axes. The properties that HyperMesh calculates include cross sectional area. HyperMesh uses a finite element methodology to calculate the properties for the cross section. center of gravity.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The tools on the beam xsect panel can help you complete the necessary property cards for finite element analysis using HyperMesh bar2 elements.Beam Cross Section Property Solver The beam cross section property solver allows you to define a beam cross section. the beam cross section functions favor NASTRAN analysis in nomenclature and bar offset calculations. and apply those properties to a HyperMesh model. shear center.

You can also use the standard HyperMesh plane collector to define the plane. your N1 and N2 selections are used to define the positive Y-axis. 1 versus 2 Order Element Analysis st nd For beam cross sections that were fully defined by lines or surfaces. If you use the offset lines sub-panel. Local Axes Many of the properties are defined relative to a local coordinate system. the plane is determined by a "best fit" from the data provided. Linear weighting of the points on the selected lines. and the element order can be defined in the beam xsect panel. the cross section must be planar. The system is the same as the coordinate system for the plane.Describing Cross Section Planes. this node can be referenced as an end of a bar2 element created with the panel. All properties are calculated on the plane. HyperMesh defines the plane base at the Center of Gravity of the cross section. the order of the selected HyperMesh element is used. The name of the component is preceded by a caret (^). Note: The save element option has no effect when you define sections by elements. This tells HyperMesh to ignore the contents of the component when exporting a model. When you pick elements. These options are specified by using the toggle under plane base node:. If you create the bar2 element by using this method. If you define the base point by picking a node. the coordinate system.and Z-axes are defined to be the principal axes of the cross section. or have it calculated for you. or elements is used.0 User’s Guide 297 . Axes. The save element option is located on the pick geom sub-panel on the beam xsect panel. You may specify any existing HyperMesh node as the base point of the plane. If HyperMesh calculates the plane. In all cases the planar normal is defined as the positive X axis. These specifications are applied by using the toggles under cross section plane: or plane base node:. If you define the plane. This option is specified by using the toggle under analysis type: on the pick geom sub-panel. secondary panels called define offset parameters are opened. Save Elements Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. offset values are calculated for you. in this case. the Y. second order elements are always used. these elements are not output when you use the export subpanel on the files panel. The save elements option allows you to save the elements defining the cross section as part of the HyperMesh model. These elements are placed in a newly created component for each calculation. you may choose to have the properties calculated using first or second order elements. If you do not specify a base point. using NASTRAN conventions. and Elements The following factors relating to the cross section plane. Unless you change the name of the component. HyperMesh calculates the plane for you. surfaces. If you use the default method. and the Z-axis is the cross product of the X and Y axis. If you are using offset sections. HyperMesh uses one of two methods to define the plane. Planes In order for properties to be calculated correctly.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or reverse normal to the line. you can also specify weld points for the cross section. Then it looks for nodes within tolerance of each other. An arrow is displayed that indicates the offset direction. If weld points are not defined for offset sections. The initial definition of the cross section uses the user-defined nominal thickness for each line. the section must be a contiguous area. Note: If you define a cross section with elements and use the intersect panel to cut elements. After nominal = for initial thickness is defined. When you define a weld point. use the combine lines option and specify a break angle. Any continuous set of HyperMesh lines (as determined by HyperMesh) is considered to be a single piece of sheet metal. The beam cross section is described by a set of lines. HyperMesh attempts to join four nodes per line per weld to a corresponding set of four nodes on another line. The choices are centered. You can change the thickness of lines interactively by using the mouse cursor or you can enter a value and apply it to specific lines or all of the lines. Any number of lines may be selected to be part of a weld point. provided they are used in the definition of the cross section. Although you can use the line segments option. based upon the line data in the model. the offset direction is centered. the section is considered fully open and no correlation will exist between nodes on different sets of lines. Offset Sections The offset sections method is designed to support thin-walled cross sections manufactured from sheet metal.Defining a Cross Section There are two methods you can use to describe a cross-section for analysis: by offsetting HyperMesh lines or by selecting a fully enclosed area. Weld points are used to join separate pieces of sheet metal at a point. After the initial cross section is defined. When you use this method. By default. HyperMesh first looks for coincident node pairs to join. With either method. thicknesses. You can also change the offset direction after the initial cross section definition. The offset direction is user-specified. and weld points. an offset of each line is created. HyperMesh allows this point to be chosen at any end or joint of a selected line. it is best to use fewer lines with the property calculator. normal to the line. Holes are allowed in the section but all portions of it must touch all other portions. The line sets may be changed one at a time by selecting the graphical toggle and picking the line set or all sets may be changed at once by clicking the toggle sides button. The thickness used is considered to be the total thickness of the sheet metal piece. The distance from the point and the diameter of the weld may be changed graphically. Each HyperMesh line in the set can be assigned a thickness. or by entering the desired values. When this method is used in the offset lines sub-panel of the beam xsect panel. The tolerance is defined as 15% of the largest distance between the weld areas on the lines minus the offset distances. 298 HyperMesh 8. The weld point is located a given distance from a fixed point. you can define any or all line thicknesses using the thickness = option. you may change any or all of the line thicknesses. with the line as the center of the sheet metal piece.

Note: This means that all nodes along common boundaries are taken as the same and the solver does not consider moving them independently. Defining the section using lines or surfaces in this manner creates a fully closed section. lines. When lines or surfaces are chosen.0 User’s Guide 299 . those elements are considered to be the section. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If you select by elements. you can use the pick geom sub-panel of the beam xsect panel to select any set of elements. the area is automeshed to generate elements for the cross section. HyperMesh uses the connectivity provided by the elements. No alterations are made to those elements. aside from projecting to a common plane. If the section is defined using elements.Fully Defined Sections For this method of beam cross section definition. or surfaces that describe a fully closed area.

The post-processing panel is displayed. The post-processing panel displays only the menu items necessary for the current operation. Otherwise. with which you can apply the calculated properties to the HyperMesh model. The following symbols are displayed at the Center of Gravity and the Shear Center: Center of Gravity symbol Shear Center symbol The local axes of the beam are also displayed. individual menu items are displayed that perform only the sub-set of desired operations. Temporary nodes are also created at the Center of Gravity and Shear Center.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 300 HyperMesh 8. The following postprocessing options can be performed in any combination desired and are not exclusive of other functions. At any time you can click apply results to perform all the currently specified options. the properties are calculated.Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties After you select the solve function in the beam xsect panel.

Iyy A. K1. elform 2 Mat’l type 202 geometry Data A. I2. see Creating Collectors. Iyy. The size determination is for user-viewing preference only and does not affect any of the actual values. that solver is automatically selected. relate fully welded sections to partially welded sections. and the spacing between welds. RADIOSS. Itt. If you already have a card image template specified in the global panel. This function does not work for dictionary solvers. no changes are made to the calculated value.0 warping factor modifies the Warping Constant. I2. For more information. Shear Center x1 and x2 Area. I1. N1. Otherwise. or PAM-CRASH. use the FEA solver: switch to select the solver. the original value. see Save and Display Results.0. As. Izz. It. Irr. All of the solver data of the property/component is deleted if you answer yes. and replaced by the newly calculated data or default data for that property/component. After you select the solver. I12. The values that are saved in summary files or displayed on the screen show the factor. J. Similarly non 1. K1. LS-DYNA. Solver NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT ABAQUS Comp/Prop Property Property Component Card Name PBAR PBEAM (end A) BEAMGENERAL.Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver In order to relate the calculated properties to a card for your desired output solver. K2 A. When you apply the results to the properties or components. you may select NASTRAN. I22. HyperMesh material data associated with the property/component is not affected. Γw. CENTROID. independently developed over many years. N2 A. SA A. Ist. These factors. J. OPTISTRUCT. CW. principal Y axis unit VECTOR ANSYS LS-DYNA/ RADIOSS PAM-CRASH MARC Property Property Component Component Torsion and Warping Factors torsion factors and warping factors are the only fields common to all operations of the postprocessing panel. MARC. ANSYS. J. Display Size You can control the size of the Center of Gravity and Shear Center symbols and the local Coordinate system with the draw size = field. I1. If these factors remain at the default value of 1. Centroid x1 and x2. Is. Iss. you can specify the already created HyperMesh properties or components to which to apply the results as a card image. I12.0 User’s Guide 301 . The changes are applied to all HyperMesh properties and/or components. I2. For more information. and the modified value. J. you are prompted to confirm that you wish to overwrite the data on that property/component. K2. ABAQUS. Izz. SHEAR CENTER R SECTION_BEAM. I1. These constants provide a means to apply empirical "fudge factors" to the results. A non unit Torsion factor will modify the value of the Torsional Constant. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Ir A. If data exists. HyperMesh checks to see if data already exists for the currently chosen solver on that property/component.

If you want to save these. If only one property is selected. Coordinate Systems/Vectors A HyperMesh coordinate system may be created to save the orientation of the cross section. This option is provided to aid in understanding the orientation of the cross section relative to the overall model. If you want a permanent record of the calculations you have just performed. if any. The BAR2 element that you are creating can also be assigned an orientation. check to make sure the desired component is currently active. If you use a nodal orientation. 10% of the length of the element away from the existing node. either as a vector or by letting HyperMesh create a node along the axis. The system is created identical to the one displayed on the screen. Whether you choose to save a summary file and/or display it on the screen. The element is created in the currently active component. to which the calculated properties were assigned. You may also create a HyperMesh vector in either the local Y or Z direction of the cross section. you are asked if you want each property associated with the newly created bar element. you can select the summary file option and specify a file name in the field after summary file. You are asked about each selected property until you answer "yes" to the question presented. you must save the results as an ASCII file. The properties can also be viewed on the screen in the same manner as summary templates. The sign of the distance is the direction along the x axis. If any properties (not components) are selected when you build a BAR2 element. The cross section may be chosen as either end A or end B of the bar. Save and Display Results All of the calculated properties may be viewed or saved to an ASCII text file. it applies a global unit vector to the bar created. This feature works only with apply results. The node for this end of the bar is either the centroid of the section or the user-selected base node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 302 HyperMesh 8. or move the bar element to that component by using the organize panel. If you use a vector orientation. that is referenced by the bar element. use the disp (display) panel to confirm that the elements of the current component are selected for display. Note: If you create a BAR2 element and it does not show on the screen. and not with summary alone. If the solver for which you are defining a model uses components. You may use the cross section’s local Y or Z axis.Creating a Bar Element Another option is to create a HyperMesh BAR2 element by specifying two nodes and optionally choosing a direction vector or node and property for the element. the information includes a named list of the properties/components. to describe the bar’s orientation. Manipulating them does not change the property values that may be saved and referenced by the created bar element. The other end of the bar may be defined by picking a node or specifying a distance along the x axis of the cross section. it creates a new node. that property is automatically assigned to the new BAR2 element. There are many properties calculated that are not assigned to solver cards.

Select those lines as your section definition. split the HyperMesh line at the desired point and then choose the new point at the split. How do I obtain lines from a shell element model to use as my offset lines? Use the hidden line panel on the Post page and choose line plot as the desired output.Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers This section provides answers for common questions about using the beam cross section process: How do I change the number of lines on which I can define a thickness? Change the number of HyperMesh lines you are selecting.0 User’s Guide 303 . If you need a different reference point. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Each HyperMesh line has a different thickness. How do I define a weld point at a different location? Use the graphical controls to change its location on the line. Use the line edit panel on the Geom page to either split or combine existing lines.

so while it is possible to work in HyperMesh while HyperLaminate is running.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperLaminate is launched from within HyperMesh either from the HyperLaminate button on the 2D page of the main menu. which are updated simultaneously in HyperMesh and HyperLaminate). or by selecting HyperLaminate from the Setup pull-down menu. Any changes made to those entities which HyperLaminate touches (materials. review and edition of composite laminates. The HyperLaminate module is supported for the OptiStruct. Nastran. Ansys and Abaqus user profiles. The current HyperMesh database is only updated with information from the current HyperLaminate session on exit from HyperLaminate (an exception to this rule are Abaqus materials. component collectors and design variables) may result in synchronization problems and loss of data. In support of this process certain materials and design variables are also supported by in the HyperLaminate module.HyperLaminate Module HyperLaminate is a HyperMesh module that facilitates the creation. 304 HyperMesh 8. this is not advisable.

This is the right hand pane of the HyperLaminate module.0 User’s Guide 305 . laminates or design variables. provides a vertical tree view of materials. edit materials. Left clicking on an entity populates the Define/Edit and Review panes with details of that branch. and access on-line help. Here users may enter or change data related to a material. and delete entries in text boxes. Review Pane Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. as shown here: Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus that allow you to manage files. copy. laminate or design variable definition (depending on the selected branch in the laminate browser). This browser. Right clicking on a branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. paste. and to cut. change views. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window.HyperLaminate Environment The HyperLaminate environment consists of five general areas. Toolbar Laminate Browser Define/Edit Pane This is the central pane of the HyperLaminate module. laminates and size design variables in your model. The review pane has a number of tabs that display the current state of the selected branch. The HyperLaminate toolbar contains five tools that allow you to generate new materials. laminates and design variables.

Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. Exit HyperLaminate. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). 306 HyperMesh 8. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. The following chart lists each menu option. At this point the current HyperMesh database is updated with the information in the current HyperLaminate session. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane.HyperLaminate Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. Exports material and laminate information to a text file. Edit Cut Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. This text file can be printed. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. File New Export to File Exit Generates a new entity.

Tools Ply lay-up options Displays the Ply lay-up Options dialog.0 User’s Guide 307 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Allows you to select defaults for new Laminates for: • • • • • View Toolbar Status Bar Help About HyperLaminate Help Topics color convention repetitions ply thickness common thickness Display/hide toolbar. Activates the HyperLaminate on-line help. and copyright information. contact. Displays version. Display/hide status bar.

Cut Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. Icon Name New Function Generates a new entity. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. 308 HyperMesh 8. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. The toolbar is shown and described here. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table.HyperLaminate Toolbar The HyperLaminate toolbar is located below the menu bar and its display is controlled by the Toolbar option under the View pull-down menu. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Design Variables: DESVAR b. and laminates in your model. On launching HyperLaminate. Materials: ABAQUS_MATERIAL ii. At the intermediate level are the entity subtypes or card images. the Laminate Browser is populated with all the relevant materials. Materials: MATERIAL and MPDATA ii. for the active user profile. provides a vertical tree view of the materials. Laminates: PCOMP and PCOMPG iii. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. SOLID46 and SOLID 191 c. for OptiStruct and Nastran: i. for Abaqus: i. The data is presented in a slightly different format for the various user profiles as shown here: OptiStruct & Nastran Ansys Abaqus The Laminate Browser is organized in a three level hierarchy: 1. for Ansys: i. These are: a. laminate definitions and size design variables existing in the HyperMesh database. SHELLSECTION and SHELLGENERALSECTION Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Laminate Browser The Laminate browser.0 User’s Guide 309 . Materials: MAT1. At the highest level are the entity types: Materials. Laminates: SHELL91. 2. Laminates and Design Variables. Laminates: SOLIDSECTION. MAT2 and MAT8 ii. SHELL99. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the browser also includes size design variables.

Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. i. 2. It is then possible to alter and update the entity definition. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. The selected entity is highlighted. 3. Select New from the File pull-down menu. A new entity appears under the selected branch. 2. Left or right clicking on a branch in the browser selects that branch and it becomes highlighted. When an entity (lowest level branch in the tree hierarchy) is selected. 2. A new entity appears under the selected branch A default name and id are assigned to each newly created entity. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. the Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. displayed with the names as defined by you. 310 HyperMesh 8.which allows the entity to be renamed. a new MAT1 entity is created. Or 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .3. Right click on selected entity sub-type. • From the Laminate Browser it is possible to: To create entities: There are three options for creating new entities in HyperLaminate: 1. • • At the highest level (entity types) no operations are available. Rename . and Delete – which will delete the selected entity. if MAT1 is selected and we right click on it and choose New. Make the desired changes to the entity definition in the Define/Edit pane and click apply or update laminate to update the entity. Right clicking on an already selected (highlighted) branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. Click New. Click the New icon.e. At the lowest level (entities) three operations are available. . At the lowest level are the entities. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. Duplicate – which creates a copy of the selected entity. 2. Or 1. A new entity appears under the selected branch. on the toolbar. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. At the intermediate level (entity sub-types) only one operation is available: New – which will create a new entity of the selected sub-type. To review and update entities: 1.

Right click on the selected entity. Click Delete. Click Yes. Click Duplicate. Right click on selected entity. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. You can also rename an entity by altering the relevant field in the Define/Edit pane and then clicking on Apply or Update Laminate. and Delete. 4. 6. 2. To delete entities: There are three options for deleting entities in HyperLaminate: 1. A confirmation dialog is displayed. To duplicate entities: 1. and Delete. switches to a text box.To rename entities: 1.0 User’s Guide 311 . in the Laminate Browser. Duplicate. The name of the selected entity. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. Select Delete from the Edit pull-down menu. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. 3. Or 5. and Delete. 3. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. 2. 2. Click Rename. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Enter the desired new name in the text box. Or Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Right click on the selected entity. 4. A duplicate of the entity is created and appears in the Laminate Browser. Duplicate. Click Yes. 7. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. 3. A confirmation dialog is displayed. Duplicate.

Note: Abaqus materials that are created but not defined (they appear in a red font in Laminate Browser) may not be deleted. 10. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it.8. Click Yes. 312 HyperMesh 8. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. 9. . A confirmation dialog is displayed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To delete these undefined materials. either complete their definition (by clicking Edit – which takes you to the HyperMesh material card previewer) or exit and restart HyperLaminate (in which case the undefined materials are purged). on the toolbar. Click the Delete icon. as they do not really exist.

Nastran and Ansys materials. Materials For OptiStruct. Below are screenshots showing the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct MAT8 definition and an Ansys MATERIAL definition: OptiStruct – Materials – MAT8 Ansys – Materials – MATERIAL Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. all material property information for the selected material may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. Once the desired changes have been made. the central pane of the HyperLaminate window. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Define/Edit pane is populated with the current definitions. allows you to edit the definition of the selected entity. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). The configuration of the Define/Edit pane differs for different user profiles and sub-types (card images).Define/Edit Pane The Define/Edit Pane.0 User’s Guide 313 .

A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus SOLIDSECTION laminate is shown here: Abaqus – Laminates – SOLIDSECTION 314 HyperMesh 8. to reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. the Define/Edit pane allows the laminate name. As with the other user profiles. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus material is shown here: Abaqus – Materials – ABAQUS_MATERIAL Laminates For Laminates. where you can review and alter the definition of the selected material. but to fully define the material properties they must click the Edit button. clicking return will return you to the HyperLaminate GUI. Clicking the Edit button takes you to the material card previewer in the HyperMesh GUI.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh component color.For Abaqus materials users may rename or redefine the color of the material in the Define/Edit pane. Once you has finished reviewing/editing the material. stacking sequence convention and the ply lay-up order to be edited. This is for all supported user profiles and laminate sub-types.

270 and 360 remain as 0. f. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The midlayer is not reflected. variable ply thickness allows up to 4 nodal thicknesses to be defined for each ply.0 User’s Guide 315 . Symmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). 180. 90. 180. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. e. the total number of plies is always odd. Total: The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate in its entirety. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. d. 180. It is possible to choose between constant and variable ply thickness for certain user profiles. The number of repetitions is given by the Repetitions: field (which is activated when this Convention is chosen). 90. Antisymmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate.There are a number of options for Convention for the stacking sequence: a. 180. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. 270 and 360 respectively). b. 90. c. Repeat: The Ply lay-up order table describes a single sub-laminate which is repeated a number of times. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. 270 and 360 respectively). The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. 270 and 360 remain as 0. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. Due to the midlayer. Antisymmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Ansys SHELL99 laminate with variable ply thickness is shown here: Ansys – Laminates – SHELL99 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. the total number of plies is always odd. Due to the midlayer. Symmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. The midlayer is not reflected. 90.

pasted or deleted to/from the table. It is also possible to edit multiple rows at once. Rows are added to the table by completing the Add/Update plies: entry fields and clicking the Add New Ply button. Select multiple rows by selecting one row and then. by clicking the Insert New Ply button. Rows may be cut. selecting a theory from the pull-down list and defining an Interlaminar shear allowable: value. the Add/Update plies: fields are populated with the information common to the selected rows. All fields in the Ply lay-up order table may be edited. When multiple rows are selected. this will keep the current selection and add all the rows between the current selection and the newly selected row). copied. ply thickness and ply orientation for a number of plies (defined by the No. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. which when set to YES includes the plies described by that row in the stress output and the failure theory calculation. with the Ctrl key held down. either above or below selected rows (choose from the Above Selected or Below Selected radio buttons). or for all rows at once through the Output ply stress results: field under the Stress and failure theory output: heading. using the toolbar. Once one or more SOUT fields are set to YES it is possible to activate failure theory calculation. by checking the Failure Theory check-box. Each row of the Ply lay-up order table has an SOUT field. or repetitions field and based on the selected Convention). Ctrl+c. Rows are always pasted above the selected rows. Blank fields indicate that not all of the selected rows contain the same values for that field. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to request stress and failure theory output. Changes can be made to the Add/Update plies: fields and Update Selection can be clicked to update the selected rows with the updated information (no changes occur to the selected rows for blank fields). when multiple rows are selected the clipboard contents are pasted above each selected row. The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate from the bottom ply (most negative Z) moving upwards (increasing in positive Z direction). Select multiple rows as described in the previous paragraph.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Each row of the table defines the material. It is possible to set the SOUT field individually for each row. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct PCOMPG laminate is shown below: OptiStruct – Laminates – PCOMPG 316 HyperMesh 8. common thickness gives every ply in the laminate the same thickness. select other rows (alternatively multiple rows may be selected with the Shift key held down.It is also possible to choose a common thickness for all plies. Rows may be inserted in the table. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively.

of repetitions field is not available for PCOMPG. adding extra fields to the right of the Thickness T1 and Orientation fields. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. c) Click New. . A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. A default name and id are assigned to newly created materials. you can click the Clear button. Use one of the following three methods to create a new material in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. A new material appears under the selected branch. The newly created material is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected material sub-type. For PCOMPG each row in the Ply lay-up order table should represent a single ply so only the Total stacking convention should be used for PCOMPG.The Ply lay-up order table for the OptiStruct and Nastran PCOMPG laminate sub-type is different from other laminate subtypes in that it has a GPLYID field. This field is used to assign a global ply id to a ply definition (the global ply id is a post-processing aid). Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. Design variables may be selected in these extra fields. All information for the selected design variable may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. on the toolbar. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. Selecting a design variable to the right of a thickness or orientation assigns the selected design variable to that thickness or orientation. but this is not enforced in the GUI. Checking the Optimization check-box expands the Ply 0 lay-up order table. b) Right click on selected material sub-type. A new material appears under the selected branch. the No. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). b) Click the new icon. To reset all design variable fields to their default values. Design Variables For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the DESVAR design variable card is supported in HyperLaminate. A new material appears under the selected branch. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to assign a design variable to a thickness or orientation field in the Ply lay-up order table. To define a new material: 1. Once the desired changes have been made.0 User’s Guide 317 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. Click Update Laminate to apply all the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). As this id should not be repeated within the same laminate.

Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. 4. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). For the OptiStruct.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To review or modify an existing material: 1. Select the material to be edited from the Laminate Browser. Ctrl+c. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. For the Abaqus user profile: 1. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Data may be cut. 318 HyperMesh 8. 2. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to zero. 3. Provide the material definition by filling in the entry fields in the Define/Edit pane. 2. Click return. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. using the toolbar. Click Apply to save the changes. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. 5. 3. The final material definition is displayed in the Review tab.For the OptiStruct. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected material definition. 2. copied. Click on Edit and provide the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Also it is not possible to create a new Abaqus material if an undefined material definition already exists (appears in a red font in Laminate Browser). 3. Note: It is not possible to rename an Abaqus material until after it has been defined (edited).

4. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. A default name and id are assigned to newly created laminates. 3. Make all desired changes to the material definition in the card previewer. Click on Edit to see the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. 6. 4. A new laminate appears under the selected branch.For the Abaqus user profile: 1. . A new laminate appears under the selected branch. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles define the Stress and failure theory output: information as desired. c) Click New. 2. on the toolbar. b) Click the new icon. Click Apply to save the changes. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser.0 User’s Guide 319 . A new laminate appears under the selected branch. The newly created laminate is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected laminate sub-type. Click return. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. Use one of the following three methods to create a new laminate in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate Browser. 3. To define a new laminate: 1. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Laminate name: field or the component color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. 5.

a) For Convention:. the thickness fields retain the common thickness value. 9. Note: Note: Rows are always pasted above selected rows. if you now uncheck the box. Total Symmetric Antisymmetric Symmetric-Midlayer Antisymmetric-Midlayer Repeat If you select Repeat. row 3 will be pasted as row 8. select Constant or Variable. 10. b) For Ply thickness:. If rows 1 and 3 are copied and pasted at row 7. 320 HyperMesh 8. Note: 7. using the toolbar. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Ctrl+c. The number of rows in the table is not the number of plies. copied. Having checked the Common Thickness box and entered a common thickness value. Note: The option to switch between constant or variable thickness is only available for certain laminate sub-types. When multiple non-sequential rows are copied and then pasted. Add/Insert rows by completing the Add/Update plies: fields and clicking Add New Ply or Insert New Ply (for Insert New Ply it is possible to choose to insert the ply above or below the selected rows). you can check the Common Thickness box and specify a thickness to be used by all the entry rows. using the toolbar. they will be pasted as sequential rows. Ctrl+c. 8. but are now editable. Complete the Ply lay-up order table.5. 6. the Ply lay-up order table includes multiple thickness columns: Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness T1 T2 T3 T4 c) For Constant ply thickness. This is governed by the stacking convention and the number of repetitions. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. and what was row 7 will now be row 9. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). pasted or deleted to/from selected fields. select one of the following stacking sequence conventions. Data may be cut. row 1 will be pasted as row 7. copied. For all user profiles define the Stacking sequence convention: information. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to define thickness and orientation fields in the Ply lay-up order table as designable and to assign design variables to them. Eg. pasted or deleted. Table rows may also be cut. If Constant is selected. specify how many times you want to repeat the entire block of entry rows. the Ply lay-up order table includes a single thickness column: Thickness T1 If Variable is selected.

b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. 3. 6. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected laminate definition. where a move limit value other than the default of 0. Select the laminate to be edited from the Laminate Browser. where the id of a discrete value list may be entered. (only subtype available is DESVAR). To define a new design variable: Design variables are only supported for the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. Use one of the following three methods to create a new design variable in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate Browser. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). on the toolbar. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Checking the Ddval ID box activates the Ddval ID field. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. (only subtype available is DESVAR).To review and modify an existing laminate: 1. Initial. c) Click New. 1. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 5. The newly created design variable is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Desvar: field. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser.5 may be entered. b) Click the new icon. (only subtype available is DESVAR). 4. lower bound and upper bound values for the design variable can be entered in the appropriate data fields. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. (See To define a new laminate). 2. .0 User’s Guide 321 . Checking the Move limit box activates the Move limit field. 3. A default name and id are assigned to newly created design variables. A new design varaible appears under the selected branch. The laminate definition may be modified in the Define/Edit pane in a manner similar to defining a new laminate. 7.

The final design variable definition is displayed in the Review tab. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected design variable definition. Select the design variable to be edited from the Laminate Browser.To review and modify an existing design variable: 1. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. copied. using the toolbar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to their default values. 3. 2. Ctrl+c. 322 HyperMesh 8. Data may be cut. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate).

the right-hand pane of the HyperLaminate window. The first set of matrices are the composite shell stiffness matrices. Design Variables For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. the total number of plies in the laminate and the total thickness of the laminate. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For Abaqus materials. allows you to review the information pertaining to the selected entity. The second set of matrices are the equivalent material matrices. so this information is only updated when the Update Laminates button is clicked. listing the plies in order from the bottom ply (most negative z). The Review tab is headed by the laminate name. information for the selected design variable is displayed in the Review pane. showing a graphical representation each ply’s orientation and listing the referenced material. the review pane has two tabs. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. This is followed by a description of the laminate.0 User’s Guide 323 . no information is displayed in the Review pane. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. Laminates For laminate definitions for all user profiles. Materials For OptiStruct. thickness and orientation. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Review pane is displays the current definition of that entity. a Review tab and a Stiffness/Material Matrix tab. The Stiffness/Material Matrix tab provides the two sets of matrices. these are used by many finite element solvers to represent the laminated composite as a homogenized shell. all material property information for the selected material is displayed in the Review pane. Information displayed on these tabs is only for the saved laminate definition.Review Pane The Review Pane. more commonly referred to as the ABD matrices. Nastran and Ansys materials.

Note: The color of a block may be modified at any time by using the update function on the FD blocks panel. When the block is displayed. You cannot change the shape of the finite difference block after you create the structured mesh without destroying all the grid lines. the block is created with a default size of ten percent larger than the model in each direction (the size of a model is determined by its nodes). three-dimensional. 324 HyperMesh 8.0 and 110. The panels in this module allow you to intersect your finite element shell model with a finite difference block.Finite Difference Module The Finite Difference module allows you to perform heat transfer.0 in each direction. and a block may contain multiple walls of dead cells. fluid flow. and dead cell information as an analysis input deck by using the HyperMesh template system. These axes serve as a reminder of the i. and solidification processes by creating an orthogonal. j. After you create a finite difference block. structured mesh in a cubic volume around your model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Otherwise. creating "dead cells. you can export the grid. and k directions of the block. You can adjust the size of the block by using the functions on the FD blocks panel. Cylindrical and spherical volumes are not supported in the current release. If a finite element model is currently loaded. chemical reaction. Always finalize the size of your block before beginning the next phase. Finite difference blocks are built performing the following steps: Creating a Finite Difference Block The first step in creating a finite difference block is to create the block. the block is created with the default bounds of -10. the outer boundary of the volume." All of these dead cells are placed in walls. a small set of coordinate axes is displayed at the corner of the block. wall.

0 User’s Guide 325 . and k directions creates a large number of small cubic volumes called cells. you can verify the aspect ratio or expansion ratio limits. The wall functions are described below: create delete update delete all display Creates a new wall with the name and color specified in wall = and color. Cells that alter the flow are known as dead cells. and displayed in the current wall color. respectively. See the FD nodes panel for more information. Displays a list of all walls in the block. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. Grid lines are created in one direction at a time. based on whether i nodes. all or part of the finite element model may be intersected with the cells in the finite difference block. After you create a wall. A cell may exist in only one wall. After you create a mesh. j. Deletes the specified wall. you create a structured mesh in the block by creating grid lines in the i. or k nodes has been selected. Note: Before any wall operation is begun. You may then select which walls to display and turn off by using the left or right mouse button. meaning that the cell does not alter the flow being studied. You must create a wall before you create dead cells. which also contains all the functions you can use to manipulate walls. Updates the color of an existing wall.or two-dimensional element intersects any part of a cell. depending upon the restrictions enforced by the analysis code being used. Cells that intersect an element are placed into the current wall. which creates dead cells wherever a one. Deletes all existing walls.Creating a Structured Mesh After you create a block. select the desired elements and click intersect. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. Solid elements are currently not supported in the interse ction operation. To intersect the model with the cells. j nodes. Initially. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. j. marked as dead. The intersection and modification of live and dead cells is done in the FD walls panel. each cell within a block is live. All the one-and two-dimensional elements selected are intersected with the cells in the current block. Intersecting Elements with Cells The intersection of grid lines in the i. HyperMesh allows you to automatically intersect a finite element model with the cells in a finite difference block. and k directions. the block must be selected by using the block = menu item.

and i. Click the left mouse button to add cells and the right mouse button to remove cells from a wall. and k are at their minimum values. since only dead cells are plotted. by volumes. If you change the color of a plane. and k directions must be modified to provide the plotting color for cells in each plane. j.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Cells do not have a visible pick handle and must be selected at the corner closest to the origin of the block. or by planes. use the cursor to select the cells to add or remove. When the entire block is plotted.Modifying Cells Cells may be changed from live to dead or dead to live individually. it is easier to see which cells are dead. then only cells in the currently displayed plane(s) may be edited. you must click hidden line again to display the new color. by using the next and prev menu functions. 326 HyperMesh 8. Creating Finite Difference Hidden Line Plots Hidden line plots of cells in a finite difference block are useful in the verification phase of a finite difference model. The FD walls panel allows you to edit cells. After edit cells is selected. However. where the block coordinate axes are located. you can edit any cell in the block. Because cells have no visible pick handle. Otherwise. When cells are selected. they are highlighted. The edit cells function allows you to add individual cells to the current wall and mark them as dead. if planar mode is used to display one or more of the planes of cells. plane-by-plane. j. It is possible to step through the model. If the block is displayed in planar mode. the color menu items in the i. all dead cells are displayed in the color of the wall to which they belong. or remove cells from the current wall and mark the cells as live.

Comments Loads on mesh and loads on geometry can be displayed together (similar to the simultaneous display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component). There are two ways to map loads on geometry to the mesh associated with this geometry (loads on mesh): • • Manually. These are the same panels used to apply loads to a mesh. constraints. loads or boundary conditions that have been applied to geometrical entities can be remapped to the new mesh. you control the display of loads applied to elements.Loads on Geometry HyperMesh allows you to apply loads to geometrical entities and map them to the FE mesh using the load on geom panel on the Analysis Page. flux. Automatically. and load collectors may contain one type or both types simultaneously. temperatures. using the files panel/export sub-panel. A geometrical entity can be associated with one mesh or multiple meshes (HyperMesh component or components) and/or with one load collector or multiple load collectors. Use the none. One load collector stores both loads on geometry and loads on mesh. and accels. After remeshing. You can apply loads to geometry by using the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. pressures. One advantage is that you can remesh a model without deleting complicated loads or boundary conditions. When geoms is selected. you control the display of loads applied to geometric entities. and click the toggle to select elems or geoms. all and reverse buttons to assist in selecting which loadcols should be displayed. by exporting the FE deck. When elems is selected. The disp (display) panel allows separate or simultaneous visualization of loads on mesh and loads on geometry. velocities. To visualize loads on mesh and/or loads on geometry. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. from the display panel (accessed via the toolbar) select loadcols from the switch.0 User’s Guide 327 . See Exporting Loads for more information. using the load on geom panel. moments. This means that you can control the display of both types of loads independently. The mesh (or multiple meshes) is associated with the geometrical entities to which the loads on geometry have been applied. Each load type is stored in a dedicated section of the same load collector.

Loads applied to geometrical entities.Terminology and Definitions geometrical entities loads on geometry or geometry loads loads on mesh or mesh loads A point. Loads applied to mesh (nodes or element). or a surface. The process of mapping geometrical loads to mesh loads. Loads can be applied directly to mesh or applied by mapping them from loads on geometry. load mapping 328 HyperMesh 8. a line.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The loads are mapped from the geometrical entities (to which the geometrical loads are applied) to the mesh that is associated with the geometrical entities.

The process includes two basic steps.Application of Loads to Geometry You can apply loads to geometrical entities in a way similar to the manner in which loads are applied to mesh.0 User’s Guide 329 . flux. lines and surfaces. define the load or boundary condition parameters in the same way you would for the application of the load or boundary condition on a FE mesh entity (e. forces. select a geometrical entity on which the loads will be applied (points. first create a load collector in which the loads applied to geometrical entities will be stored. reviewing. lines and surfaces.) located on the Analysis Page. or surfaces) using the panel selection box. temperatures velocities Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. velocities. lines. moments. Creating a load collector by using the collector panel. and click create. etc. 2. points. temperatures. Next. constraints. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To apply a load to a geometrical entity. points. access a HyperMesh load panel (e. in each of the load application panels listed above. Third.g. constraints. The following chart specifies the geometrical entities to which loads can be applied.g. lines and surfaces. points points points surfaces nodes on edge: lines (for 2-D solid elements) nodes on face: surfaces (for 3-D solid elements) points. node). and choose the create sub-panel. pressures. HyperMesh stores the loads/boundary conditions in the database and displays them in the graphical window. and accels. Panel accels constraints flux forces moments pressures Geometrical Entities points. 1. and updating loads and constraints. lines and surfaces. Applying loads to the geometry using one of the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces.

330 HyperMesh 8. they will automatically be mapped to loads on mesh and exported as well. When saving the model as a HyperMesh database. The loads on mesh that are exported may have been applied directly to mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . are mapped to loads on mesh and all the loads on mesh are exported. loads on mesh that have been applied directly to mesh. mapped from geometry to mesh. If all is selected. all load types are saved and are retrieved when you open the . a single arrow for each geometrical entity represents loads on geometry. or both. and loads on mesh that have been mapped from loads on geometry. only the loads on mesh are exported. For the same arrow magnitude percentage setting or uniform size setting within the load application panels. When exporting the model using an export template. A simultaneous display is similar to the display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component.hm file. If displayed is selected. elems controls the display of loads on mesh and geom controls the display of loads on geometry. all the loads on geometry that have not been mapped (if any). Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh The disp (display) panel allows you to visualize loads on mesh and loads on geometry either individually or together by setting the collector type to loadcols and using the toggle between elems and geoms. an arrow that represents a load on geometry is longer than arrows representing loads on mesh. All the loads on mesh (both displayed and hidden) that are associated with the displayed loads on geometry are exported as well. If any loads on geometry are displayed and have not been mapped. all the displayed loads on mesh are exported. Multiple arrows represent loads on mesh (one arrow per node or element).Exporting Loads HyperMesh sessions can contain loads on geometry. Note: A major graphical display difference between loads on geometry and loads on mesh is the density of the arrows. The all/displayed toggle on the export sub-panel on the file panel allows you to determine which loads are exported. The basic length of the arrow also differs.

0 format or at spatial coordinates is mapped to a structural analysis mesh in OPTISTRUCT. Aerodynamic pressure loading and temperatures computed in a CFD analysis and written out either in TECPLOT 4. or ANSYS format. dlm. or ANSYS input file format) Select a data type and a mapping method Set the scale factors Set the mapping algorithm Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. ABAQUS. The Distributed Load Mapper dialog is displayed when you click DLM. When you enter data in the dialog you should begin with the first field and proceed.Distributed Load Mapper The Distributed Load Mapper (DLM) macro enables you to perform structural finite element analyses by incorporating the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis.mac. NASTRAN. until all data has been entered. The Distributed Load Mapper macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file.0 User’s Guide 331 . Entering data in the Distributed Load Mapper dialog requires the following steps: • • • • • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT.. ABAQUS. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory.. NASTRAN. in order. to the next field below. on the macro menu.

D:\dlm_map_files\wing_cfd_model. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. These files are always called hmimp. wing_cfd_model_dynain • A DLM specific file. one of the following conditions must exist: • • The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing outward from the wings outer surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .dat Examples of Typical Output Files • A DLM specific file.dat Structural analysis model file. A valid HyperWorks/HyperMesh license must be available on the local system or network for the DLM mapping algorithms to run. DLM Input and Output Files It is useful to understand the input and output files related to a DLM session.0 format file related to the structural input model. 332 HyperMesh 8. the CFD base model and the structural finite element model must exist in the same position in coordinate space. for example. The element normals of both the CFD mesh and the structural analysis mesh must be consistent in that all the elements should be aligned and pointing in a common direction. Examples of Typical Input Files • • Computational fluid dynamics results database file. for example. structural_model_dynain • • A Tecplot 4. if you are mapping a pressure loading on a wing structure. The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing inward from the wings outer surface. This file is related to the base CFD model.dat One file containing all the mapping parameters and selections detailed in the DLM interface. The only exception to this is when some of the DLM transformation functions are used correctly and appropriately through their selection in the DLM interface. This file is related to the structural input model. For instance. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. structural_model_tecplot. D:\dlm_map_files\structural_model.Assumptions Regarding the DLM Interface and Mapping Process In order to map effectively.

926119655E-02 1.960968852E+00 4. followed by the pressure or temperature value each data occupying 16 characters and a space separating them. For Computational fluid dynamics results database file:. filename_dynain.e. If the CFD file is in a Tecplot format. .854129910E-02 1. 2.Load an input file containing CFD analysis results 1.105462790E+00 1. Each row should show the x. The file is placed in the same directory as the CFD database and takes its name from the parent file.. a DLM specific file is created so that the data being mapped can be visualized in Altair HyperView. .960631967E+00 4.970389962E+00 4.548135996E-01-8. Click Open. The file also must have a header and footer as shown below: #XYZDATA #pressure 1..0 BLOCK and POINT data formats DLM specific input file format (files which end filename_dynain) Measured pressure or temperature at xyz coordinates If the selected file is not in a DLM appropriate format.357369840E-01-8. The data must be prescribed in a fixed format. y.356568158E-01-8.098905325E+00 1. #ENDDATA Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and z coordinates first.095489740E+00 . Note: • • • DLM accepts three input file formats: Tecplot 4. . Use the browser to locate a file. click Browse. The pressure or temperature data at spatial coordinates must be distributed densely enough to have approximately one data point for each element of the structural model. i.0 User’s Guide 333 .452460170E-02 1. a warning message is displayed.

Select a data type and a mapping method 1.e. This would ensure that the base CFD model would match and be positioned in the same Cartesian space as the structural analysis model. . or to the element centroids of each quadrilateral or triangular element in the structural mesh. For Mapping method:. The data type is read from the information in the header block of the base CFD file. click Browse. A DLM-specific formatted file is written out for post-processing in Altair HyperView. 334 HyperMesh 8. The default is 1. NASTRAN. Note: The data from the base CFD model is superimposed onto this model through the mapping process. 2. all the data mapped during the DLM session is multiplied by a factor of 1. select the data type to be mapped.Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. NASTRAN. or to simply investigate the effects of scaling the load upon the model. i. or ANSYS input deck.. ABAQUS. For example. For CFD model scaling:. enter a scale factor by which to increase or decrease the results. Y. These scaled values are output to the structural model data file in the PLOAD card section. 3. The data can either be mapped and related to the nodes of each element in the structural model. For Data parameter mapped:. and Z coordinates of all the nodal locations in the base CFD model is scaled.500. filename_dynain.500. Use the browser to locate a file. Click Open. The file is placed in the same directory as the structural model database and takes its name from the parent file. The default value is 1.000. it is appended to the structural model input file in the form of PLOAD or TEMP cards appended to the end of the OPTISTRUCT. If a value of 200 is entered for CFD model scaling:.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . enter a scale factor to physically scale the base CFD analysis model.00 (no scaling). The base CFD model file may contain up to seven different data types. For Structural analysis model file:. ABAQUS. Once the data is mapped. These data parameters are read into the interface when you load the base CFD model file (Load an input file containing CFD analysis results). 2.. For example. if dimensional reduction/scaling was used in the actual CFD analysis. The mapped data written to structural analysis model files can relate to two different locations on the finite elements of the model. the X. if the CFD result scale factor is 1. which would leave the coordinates of the base CFD model unchanged prior to mapping. Set the scale factor 1. select Element nodes or Element centroids. 2. For CFD result scaling:. The PLOAD card output to the structural model files is altered appropriately to the selected nodal or elemental configuration. This could be used to apply a safety factor to the results. or ANSYS input file format) 1. if the XYZ dimensions of the model were scaled to 1/200 of the actual size and submitted for analysis.

the mapping process runs.Set the mapping algorithm 1. Selects the minimum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. The mapping algorithms are accessed. for instance. and takes an average of these two values. The default mapping algorithm.0 User’s Guide 335 . Takes the maximum and minimum of the data points captured in the proximity of the data location being mapped to. For Mapping algorithm:. Maxima Minima Extrema Averaged extrema Delaunay-O’C 2. Selects the maximum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. and the DLM dialog closes upon completion of the mapping process. Accepts whichever is larger in magnitude. Click OK. the Modulus value of the data points captured in the vicinity of the element/nodal location being mapped to. select one of the following options: Averaged Takes the data and average for data points captured in the proximity of the structural data position being mapped to. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

.0 corresponds to 1.Mathematical Loading Distributed pressure loads can be created at nodes via mathematical loading functions using the Mathematical Loading macro.0 Altair Engineering . from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory.0 10e-01 336 HyperMesh 8. Mathematical Loading dialog The Mathematical Loading macro requires the following input: Structural analysis model file: Equation string fn(x. The Mathematical Loading dialog is displayed when you click Math.z) = The browser allows you to select the structural model in NASTRAN format on which to apply a mathematical function.. The operators for which the algorithms are programmed are listed below: Programmed Operators: Unary minus ^ Power of ln Natural Log log Log to the base 10 sin sine cos cosine tan tangent asin arcsine acos arccosine atan arctangent exp Exponential / division * Multiplication + Addition Subtraction Acceptable 1 1.0 corresponds to 1. This field allows you to enter an equation string using standard spreadsheet inputs for the various operators and operands.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering operands may be input in the following forms: corresponds to 1. on the macro menu. The Mathematical Loading macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file.y. dlm.mac.

1e+01 corresponds to 1.0 User’s Guide 337 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The dialog informs you when there is an error in this instance.0 x corresponds to the coordinate position x of the nodes of the model y corresponds to the coordinate position y of the nodes of the model z corresponds to the coordinate position z of the nodes of the model The following input rules apply: • Equation strings should always have balanced parentheses to ensure that the logic of the math expression is maintained. • Note: To create pressure loads at element centroids via mathematical functions. Spaces and a mixture of uppercase and lower case letters are acceptable.0. However unrecognized characters and functions will cause the loading to yield unacceptable results. use the Field Loads macro on the Geom/Mesh macro menu.

Each simulation stores the results for a model as it responds to a loading condition. assigned. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. offset) at an element. If this occurs. and vector plots. HyperMesh Results Database The structure of a results database allows you to access results by a method similar to that of the analysis code. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at an element. offset) at a node. deformed. A results database is divided into sections called simulations. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. for more information. Results files can be translated into HyperMesh results databases which are then read into HyperMesh for post-processing. Stores one floating point value at a node. phase. HyperMesh sets the results values needed for that function to zero for all of the nodes or elements that are missing. If you run a nonlinear job. A data type may contain only one type of result. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at a node. Stores one floating point value at an element. In order to complete the post-processing function being executed. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. Each data type found in a simulation contains a group of results of the same type. each simulation in a results file may contain two data types: displacements and von Mises stress. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at an element. element value complex nodal displacement complex nodal value complex element value complex nodal von Mises complex element von Mises Data types are not required to contain results for every node or element in the model. This section describes the structure of a HyperMesh results database and explains how to use the post-processing functions to create contour. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. phase. if you run a linear statics problem and apply three different loading conditions to your model.Post-Processing Analysis The HyperMesh post-processing functions allow you to review the results files and databases generated by external codes. For example. the results file generated by the translator contains three simulations. refer to the individual translators in the Interface help system. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . each load step (the response of the model to each incremental amount of load applied) translates to a simulation. Data types are one of the forms described below: nodal displacement nodal value Stores three floating point values at a node. 338 HyperMesh 8. Each simulation in the results database is further subdivided into data types. if this is appropriate. and may contain a subset of the total model. This translation is done using result translators. For example. HyperMesh prints a message indicating that results for some of the entities requested were not found in the database.

For linear and modal animation.. Creating Animations The HyperMesh animation functions allow you to view your model structure in motion. you must first specify the name and location of the HyperMesh results database. Modal animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. HyperMesh uses only one simulation and this simulation must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. for results file:. Linear animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. An appropriate number of frames are linearly interpolated between the first and the last positions. For transient animation.. to select a file using the browser. and transient. Modal animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts and ends with the original position of the structure. Creating Deformed Geometry Plots The deformed panel allows you to display the deformed geometry of your model statically. each of the simulations used in the animation sequence must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. It is from the data contained with the nodal displacement records that HyperMesh is able to calculate the deformed geometry of the structure. There are two ways to select a results file: • • From the files panel. modal...Specifying the Results File In order to perform post-processing functions. HyperMesh calculates the deformed geometry of the structure from the data contained within the nodal displacement records. The three types of animation include linear. Transient animation is used to animate the transient response of a structure. In this case. Transient animation sequences are generated in the transient panel. select the results sub-panel. Linear animation is usually selected when results are from a static analysis. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh uses a range of simulations. Linear Linear animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts with the original position of the structure and ends with the fully deformed position of the structure. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. and for file:. Modal animation is most useful for displaying mode shapes. In the global panel. The deforming frames are calculated based on a sinusoidal function. in either wire frame or hidden line mode. to select a file using the browser. Transient animation displays the structure in its timestep positions as calculated by the analysis code. Modal Transient The selected simulations must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records in order for HyperMesh to create an animation sequence. The selected simulation must have a data type in it that contains nodal displacement records.0 User’s Guide 339 . enter the path and name of the results file or click browse.

Vector plots are used to determine the direction of movement and allow you to verify the location of the center of rotation of a model. The bands of color are created by calculating a value for each node in the model and then interpolating across each element. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the nodes of the elements. The elements are then displayed in the solid color assigned to them. See the vector plot panel for more information.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In order to accomplish this. In order to accomplish this. element values1 Creating Assigned Plots The assign function in the contour panel assigns a color to each element in the model. The values are located at the centroid of the element. element values The results are already stored at the centroid of the element. based on the values found in the results file. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the contour plot. Creating Contour Plots The contour function in the contour panel generates color bands on a model. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. so no further calculations are required. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. based on the values in the results file. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when element centroid values are used to create a contour plot. nodal values and displacements The results are stored at the nodes. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the assigned plot. HyperMesh can create the contour plot without modifying any of the values in the results file. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. HyperMesh averages the results at the nodes to the centroid of the elements. When a contour function is performed.Creating Vector Plots A vector plot displays the model with a vector at each node that has a result-based direction and magnitude. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the centroid of the elements. This allows you to display elements that have values within a specified range. For each element. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when nodal values or nodal displacements are being used to create an assigned plot. nodal values and displacements 340 HyperMesh 8. When the assign function is performed. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. this is accomplished by adding the results at each node and dividing by the number of nodes on the element. HyperMesh averages the centroidal element values to the nodes of the elements.

and value of the node or element are displayed in the menu area. you can select the node or element after the results-based plot has been created. change the font size. convenient way of viewing the results of a large number of elements. you can add titles. click color to change the color of the text of the descriptor.0 User’s Guide 341 . and also change the colors used in the legend that correspond to the model. Temporary titles can be added to each type of plot by entering a title in the title = field in the contour panel. HyperMesh creates the "descriptor" in order to display the simulation and data type that were used to create the plot. the temporary title is displayed on the upper left side of the screen. Functions on this panel allow you to move the legend to a different location on the screen. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Adding Plot Identification After you create a results-based plot. reverse the colors of the legend. The ID. To modify the descriptor. HyperMesh plots a legend if the results-based plot created requires it. Inspecting the Results A contour or assigned plot provides a fast. To modify a legend. change the color of the text in the legend. When you want to determine the actual value that an analysis code has calculated for a node or element. simulation and data type. click within the descriptor to access the title edit panel. and relocate the legend and the descriptor. After you enter the title and create the plot. modify the colors used in the legend. the descriptor is located in the upper left-hand corner of the plot above the legend. By default. click font and select the size font you want to use in the descriptor. click within the displayed legend to access the legend edit panel.

You can create standard plots or dual plots that show real /imaginary or phase/magnitude data. This section introduces the functions that are available in the xy plots module. A curve may appear on more than one plot at a time and there is no limit to the number of curves that a HyperMesh database may contain. Procedures for creating and editing xy plots and curves include: • • • • • • • • • • • Creating an XY Plot Modifying XY Plots Working with Multiple XY Plots Modifying Multiple XY Plots Creating Curves on XY Plots Reading Curves from an ASCII File Creating Analysis Based Curves Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions Modifying Curve Attributes Displaying Selected Curves on Plots In addition. Plots maintain a list of pointers to curves that are to be displayed on the plot. Information about xy plots is stored in plot collectors. which are referred to as plots.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . There is no limit to the number of plot collectors that a HyperMesh database may contain. you must assign the curve collector to a plot. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model.XY Plotting The functions in the xy plots module allow you to study the relationships between data vectors in results files. which are referred to as curves. The plot may contain any number of curves. To display a curve. 342 HyperMesh 8. Information about curves is stored in curve collectors.

line style. In addition. Reads curves from an ASCII file. etc. The legend panel allows you to change the location and the font used to display the legend. Allows you to determine the coordinate values of points in a curve. select xy plots on the Post page of the main menu. You may also specify whether the border is displayed and the size of the margin between the border and the plot. The plot titles panel allows you to change the plot title. and the margin displayed around the grid lines. Allows you to rename curves. This panel allows you to read data vectors from files as well as perform advanced mathematical operations on curves. Grid labels appear along the x and y axes in the plot (tick marks). thickness of the grid lines. The grid labels panel allows you to change the color. axis scaling border curve attribs edit curves grid attribs grid labels integrate legend plot titles plots query curves read curves rename results curves simple math In addition. The axis scaling panel allows you to modify the starting and ending values of the plot axes. You can set the values explicitly or implicitly by using the panel functions such as find curves. To access the xy plots module. Allows you to perform simple mathematical calculations on a curve. You can also change the color and font size used to display these entities. The curve attribs panel allows you to change the color. marker style (used to indicate the point location). circle zoom. Creates and modifies the curves in the database. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. dashed. and label. Generates a curve from the currently-selected results file. The xy plotting panels are described below: axis labels The axis labels panel allows you to modify the x and y axes titles and labels. and the line style (solid.).XY Plots Module The xy plots module is a group of panels that perform operations on plots and the curves displayed on those plots. and number of significant places in the labels. You can also change the curve title that appears in the legend.0 User’s Guide 343 . you can change the color and font size used to display these entities. Calculates and displays the integral of a curve. subtitle. and zoom out. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The border panel allows you to change the thickness and color of the border around the plot. Allows you to create an xy plot and assign curves to the xy plot. thickness. font. You can apply a scaling factor to the original data points. The grid attribs panel allows you to change the color.

Each time a panel in the xy plots module is accessed. This process also applies to curves. the plot = field allows you to select one plot and the plots entity selector allows you to select multiple plots. you may wish to change the axis titles so that they are all the same. Plot attributes include the title. or add a title to the plot. you can change the color. This allows you to control multiple plots by resizing and moving plots around the screen. or width of the border. select the plot you want to change. Modifying Multiple XY Plots When several plots are contained within a database. You can modify one plot so that it has the desired values. The first step in the process of creating an xy plot is to use the plots panel to name and create an xy plot collector. 344 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh initially assigns default values to the xy plot attributes. and then apply those modifications to the other plots. Access this panel by pressing the w key. After each change. in one step. HyperMesh displays the existing values of the current xy plot (the plot listed after plot =) in the data entry fields in the panel. you may wish to modify one of the values on all of the plots. or a subset of the plots.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For example. and change the attribute in the panel. To modify an xy plot. the panels in the xy plots module are updated to reflect the change. thickness. subtitle. Every time you change the current xy plot. select the panel that applies to the attribute you want to change. When you modify xy plots using the panels of the xy plots module. HyperMesh immediately displays the update. Working with Multiple XY Plots HyperMesh places every xy plot within a window. XY plot window placement is controlled with the Windows panel. and also the margin and border around the xy plot. Modifying an XY Plot After you create an xy plot. These attributes can be adjusted before or after you add curves to the plot. and labels. the grid labels and grid attributes.Creating an XY Plot Each xy plot window is assigned a name when you create it.

you select entities of interest in your model. Y2 . . ENDDATA XYDATA.0 User’s Guide 345 .Creating Curves on XY Plots You can create curves using four different methods: • • • • Read curves from an ASCII file Extract a curve directly from a results database Create curves by using a few simple math operators Read single curves from files as well as generate curves by using mathematical expressions Reading Curves from an ASCII file When HyperMesh reads curves from an ASCII file with the read curves panel. the title assigned to the curve. y) data pairs on each line. Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Curves can be created using simple math operators in the simple math panel. Y1 X2. filters exchange data with HyperMesh. using the standard HyperMesh curve data file format. which define two curves. . Creating Analysis-Based Curves Analysis-based curves are generated from the HyperMesh binary results file. Y2 . Analysis-based curves are generated in the results curves panel. . XYDATA. which is displayed in the legend.TITLE X1. After XYDATA. follows on the same line. you can specify that the x or y values of the curve remain fixed. In the above example. Point data follows with a set of (x. You can also apply external filters to curves in this panel. For every operation. You can combine two curves. HyperMesh reads the required data from the results file and generates the appropriate curve. it assumes that the format of the input file is as follows: XYDATA. there are two blocks of data.TITLE X1. The block begins with the statement. or export the curve. transform a curve. When you create an analysis curve. After this information has been supplied. Examples of external filters are in the filters subdirectory that is provided when this option is selected. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Essentially. ENDDATA Each curve in the file is defined in a block format. Y1 X2. and then select a data type for the x axis data points and a data type for the y axis data points. . The block ends with an ENDDATA statement.

To reference the y vector of curve 1. you must indicate the curve number and the x or y vector. Available data types depend on the data file. For more information about math expressions. in the format curve number. New data can be selected from a source file or mathematically defined. After the data request set has been selected.Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions The edit curves panel allows you to create new curves or edit existing ones. The data sources for the x and y vectors are displayed in the x = and y = fields. refer to the Altair Math Reference.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .x c1.vector: For example: c1. To edit the x and y vectors of a math curve. When you modify a curve. For example. the data source for the x vector could be a file. the data request set needs to be selected. and the data source for the y vector could be a math expression. Type Request Component Note: Data files can consist of different types of data. Once the data type has been selected. Source file data is divided into type. request. Each vector of a curve can be defined using either a data vector in a data file or a math expression. HyperMesh recalculates the curves in the proper order. the component must be selected.y To reference the x vector of curve 1. 346 HyperMesh 8. based on what has been modified. and component. The y vector can be a function of x or the x vector can be a function of y.

when the curve is displayed. HyperMesh currently supports a solid line. The names of the curves that are already displayed on the current xy plot are highlighted. Determines the markers drawn around each data point in the curve. triangular. The curve may also be displayed with no markers shown. HyperMesh currently supports circular. no line at all. Modify the list by selecting the curves by name and removing or adding the curves to the current plot as desired and click return. HyperMesh displays a list of the available curves in the database. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The width of line used when the curve is drawn. and square markers. This scale factor is used to scale the x values in a curve. The color used to draw the curve. This scale factor is used to scale the y values in a curve.0 User’s Guide 347 . To select curves for a plot. HyperMesh currently supports either thick or thin lines.Modifying Curve Attributes Modifying curves is very similar to modifying plots. The style of line used to draw the curve. you can select which curves in the database you want to display on an xy plot. x scale factor y scale factor Displaying Selected Curves on Plots After you have read or created curves. HyperMesh currently supports 15 standard colors. and four different patterns. curve title curve width curve style curve color curve marker The curve title is displayed in the legend. The following curve attributes may be changed in the curve attribs panel. select the plots panel and click select curves.

For this reason. The curve’s attributes fill in the fields in the curve attributes area. if you leave the curve editor open while making changes within the HyperMesh XY plotting module. click the close command button. outlined with colored boxes in the image below: the curve list (green). Access the curve editor from HyperMesh’s Setup pull-down menu. curve attributes (blue). The curve displays in the graph area. The curve editor contains four main areas. and graph attributes (cyan). graph area (red). 348 HyperMesh 8. in the sense that changes made in the curve editor are automatically sent back to HyperMesh. Changes made in HyperMesh do not immediately affect the curve editor. Modify the curve attributes if needed. but changes made in a HyperMesh panel do not automatically get sent to the curve editor. you must use the update button in the curve editor to import the changes. To quit the curve editor. It’s important to be aware that the curve editor is not completely symmetrical with HyperMesh. Click the display checkbox in the curve atributes area. because they are automatically applied as you make them. To summarize: • • Changes made in the curve editor immediately affect HyperMesh. 2. 3. Note that any changes you make in the curve editor will be retained.Using the Curve Editor The curve editor is a pop-up window that allows you to view and modify graphed curves in a more intuitive and holistic way than the individual xy plots panels provide. To display curves in the graph area: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click the desired curve in the curve list. and must be imported by use of the update button.

A list of available colors displays. To place a marker symbol at each point on the curve. click the thick line checkbox. Select a Line style to change the curve’s line from solid to dotted. 1. For example. modify the fields inside the X-axi s frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s X -axis label.0. To draw the curve in a thicker line. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. Or 2.0 User’s Guide 349 . numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. even if your data included accelerations ranging from 0 up to 10 m/s .To change a curve's attributes: 1. For example. 2. Make any desired changes to the curve’s attributes: Modify each X and/or Y value by clicking it. For example. or show no line at all. Click the display checkbox to toggle the display of the curve in the graph area. making a finer grid. Click the curve in the graph area. Either click the curve in the curve list. Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. To change the symbol spacing. you could change it from “Y” to “time”. For example. click the desired color to select it. 2 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and 1. if you choose “3” then only every third point will display as a symbol. if it is already set to Display. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler).5.5). select a number from the every: list box. To change the graph's attributes: 1. and then typing in a new value. Change the Color by clicking the colored box. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. the line’s symbol points will still display. For example. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. select a symbol from the list box. pressing the <delete> key to erase the current value. In the graph attributes area. Note: If you choose no line. you could 2 restrict the X axis to only graph accelerations from 1 to 5 m/s .0. Click the curve that you wish to modify. Modify the fields inside the Y-axis frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s Y-axis label. you could change it from “X” to “Acceleration”.

HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor.- Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. but you only wish to graph the accelerations that occur between 30 and 35 seconds. 3. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a new name for the chosen curve. 2. click the curve that you wish to delete. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. Click the New… command button in the curve editor window. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. you cannot recover it. Click the Delete command button. 3. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. type in the X and Y coordinates for each data point in the curve. or No to keep the curve.0. 3. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. Modify the fields inside the Legends frame: Select a location to determine where the legend displays in the graph area. which now uses the curve’s new name. once you delete a curve.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you could restrict the range by typing “20” into the min and “35” into the max. Type in a name for the new curve. To rename a curve: 1. 4. Click the desired curve in the curve list. making a finer grid. Undo You cannot undo a deletion. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a name for the new curve. Click the new curve in the curve list and modify its attributes as needed. A confirmation window displays. 2. and 1. Click proceed. For example. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. - Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn.0. 1. In the curve list. Click the hide checkbox to toggle the display of the legend on and off. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). Click Yes to confirm the deletion. For example. 350 HyperMesh 8.5). To create a new curve: 1. Type in a new name for the curve.5. 3. 2. even if your data included accelerations from 0 seconds to 60 seconds. Click proceed. For example. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. To delete a curve: 1.

BVi variable DVi . If there is a choice in the optimization code. The basis vectors define nodal locations. x. In finite elements. the perturbation vector approach must be selected. a finite element model must be loaded into HyperMesh.AutoDV Introduction AutoDV is utility developed for the generation of perturbation vectors for shape optimization in optimization packages such as Altair OptiStruct. input parameters of a model. x = ∑ DVi ⋅ BVi x is the vector of nodal coordinates. are the basis vector approach and the perturbation vector approach. In shape optimization. Using the basis vector approach. and Genesis. The boundary shape changes must be translated into changes of the interior of the mesh to avoid mesh distortions due to shape changes. HyperStudy. the structural shape is defined as a linear combination of basis vectors. The function of creating harmonic shape functions for 2D problems only works with AutoDV. Starting with HyperWorks 6. The two most commonly used in commercial software packages like OptiStruct. AutoDV generates perturbation vectors. Nastran. the design variables define the boundary shape of the part to be optimized. AutoDV can also be used to generate distributed loads. Both approaches refer to the definition of the structural shape as a linear combination of vectors. is the vector of nodal coordinates. The perturbation vectors define changes of nodal locations with respect to the original finite element mesh. In topology optimization. x = x 0 + ∑ DVi ⋅ PVi where x 0 is the vector of nodal coordinates of the initial design. Further. x Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Nastran. AutoDV has been stand-alone software. with the perturbation vector approach as the default setting. usually density-related values that define the material distribution are the design variables. Genesis.0 User’s Guide 351 . Before importing AutoDV data. and Templex. Altair HyperOpt. PVi is the perturbation vector associated to the design variable DVi . Altair HyperStudy. such as beam section properties. the structural shape change is defined as a linear combination of perturbation vectors.0. a more flexible tool to set-up and generate shape perturbations. where is the basis vector associated to the design Using the perturbation vector approach. Shape Optimization The type of design variables that are used distinguishes different types of structural optimization. and spring properties are design variables. HyperOpt. AutoDV interfaces with HyperMesh thru the AutoDV template for export and AutoDV reader for import. AutoDV is now complemented by HyperMorph. Altair HyperOpt provides both. In size optimization. Altair OptiStruct and Altair HyperStudy use the perturbation vector approach. most of AutoDV’s capability to create perturbation vectors using control perturbations is fully integrated in HyperMesh. In the past. the shell thickness. the shape of the structure is defined by the vector of nodal coordinates. There are different approaches used to define the shape in an optimization setup. The stand-alone solver is still available and can be used for the generation of manual perturbations.

pert006. Manual perturbation of grids in HyperMesh. Polynomial perturbation vectors using design domains.Generation of Perturbation Vectors Perturbation vectors can be generated in one of three ways: 1. where nnn is the design variable ID.base file using the baseline model of the structure using the OptiStruct template supplied in the distribution. Select the solver panel. giving the *. Before these methods can be applied. 3. move the grids to define the perturbed shape. 2. retrieve the baseline HyperMesh database and complete steps 2 and 3. Write out a perturbation file <prefix>. the files generated by HyperMesh contain the entire model. a finite element model representing the baseline shape of the structure must be developed. To generate another perturbation vector. Harmonic perturbation vectors using design domains. and generates the corresponding perturbation vector. However.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 352 HyperMesh 8. Click the switch and select AutoDV as your solver.pert<nnn>. AutoDV requires that the <prefix>. using the AutoDV template. Do not save the perturbed model. identifies the perturbed grids. 2.pert<nnn> files contain data only for the perturbed grid points. Example: mymodel.pert<nnn> models with the <prefix>.base model. Manual Perturbation To generate perturbation vectors by the manual perturbation method: 1. 7. In HyperMesh. AutoDV creates condensed <prefix>. 5. AutoDV compares all <prefix>.pert file a different ID.pert<nnn> files that contain only the perturbed grids. 6. Run AutoDV through the solver panel using the appropriate options. Write a <prefix>. 4. 3.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select the perturbations panel. It is recommended. 3. 5. 2-D elements 3-D elements DQUAD4. DTRIA3 DHEXA8. Each domain element generally encompasses a large number of finite elements. Primary Domain Model This example shows how to create a primary domain model over the finite element model using the following first order 2-D and 3-D domain elements. 3. To create a domain element: 1. DTETRA4 These element types are generated using the AutoDV template provided in the distribution. Select the domain subpanel. that you organize 2-D and 3-D domain elements in separate components. 7. DPENTA6. 6. However. On the BCs page. Assign shapes to design variables. Select the type of domain element. 4. build a secondary domain model and define secondary node sets. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. 5. 2. Define shapes and control perturbations. 4. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV.Polynomial Perturbation Vectors To create polynomial perturbation vectors: 1. Use the solver panel to run AutoDV. The Domain model must encompass those finite element grids of the model that need to be perturbed. Define primary domain model elements and domain node sets. but not necessary. 2. Pick the nodes that form the domain element. If needed. All domain elements may be organized in more than one domain component. none of the domain components should include finite elements.0 User’s Guide 353 . select the optimization panel.

4. Select update.Primary Domain Node Sets Node sets constitute the primary entities for generating perturbation vectors. All nodes in a given node set are perturbed using mathematical relationships based on the control perturbations applied on the Domain Model.e. 5. or they can be created manually. 354 HyperMesh 8. Select the nodes for the domain node set. On the BCs page. 2. 7. Pick the domain element from the graphic display. all corner nodes of that element must belong to that node set. There should be exactly one domain element related to each node set. you must implicitly ensure that relationship while creating domain elements and node sets by making sure that all the nodes that need to be perturbed as a shape variable are completely encompassed or parameterized by the domain model.. This relationship is not explicitly defined by the user. it is identified by AutoDV. 3. To manually create a domain node set for an existing domain element: 1. Click add. A given node may belong to more than one node set. This generally happens at the common edges and corners between domain elements. Domain node sets can be created automatically when the domain element is created. 6. Toggle nodeset to manual.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . i. However. 8. select the optimization panel. Select the domain subpanel. Select the perturbations panel.

Click create vector to create the vectors. The corner points of a domain element and mid-side nodes of the corresponding node sets constitute control points (e. Py.y) = Px(x) Py(y) Pz(z) where P x. In order to generate a quadratic perturbation. The deformed panel is displayed so you can animate the design variable to validate your definition. 3. 8 characters) in shape =.. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. Select the perturbations panel. A linear interpolation uses control perturbation at the corners. Click return to return to the perturbations panel.Control Perturbations Perturbation vectors are generated by interpolating control perturbations defined at selected control points. AutoDV assigns a control perturbation of magnitude zero to the corner point.0 User’s Guide 355 . Control perturbations are defined by creating vectors at control points. Animate the shape design variable: − Click animate. In either case. AutoDV identifies the mid-side perturbations and internally changes the corresponding edge of a domain element from linear to quadratic (curvilinear edge element). the interpolation is parabolic if a mid-side control perturbation is defined. To define control perturbations: 1. Enter a name (max. a DQUAD4 domain has 8 control points). the interpolation function is a product of two functions: P(x. the interpolation function is a product of three functions: P(x.y) = Px(x) Py(y) For 3-D domains. Instead. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click create shape. They are automatically added to the shape specified in shape =. A quadratic interpolation would use the corner as well as the mid-side control perturbations. Select perturbations using the toggle. For 2-D domains.g. − AutoDV computes perturbations of all structural grids by interpolating control perturbations. The interpolations are performed as follows. otherwise it is linear. 2. and Pz are polynomial interpolation functions of up to quadratic order. For corner control points. place the control perturbation on a mid-side node on an edge of the domain node set. The order of interpolation is based on the presence of mid-side control perturbations. defining a zero magnitude vector is the same as placing no vector. Create shape design variables: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. you do not need to create a second order domain element. That mid-side control point does not have to lie on the edge of the domain element. On a given edge.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Computes perturbation of each grid in the list by interpolation using the related control point perturbations. Whereas the absence of a mid-side control perturbation yields a linear interpolation on that edge.For mid-side control points. AutoDV computes the perturbation vectors for shape variables in the following order: • • • Identifies all domain elements and node sets attached to vector belonging to a given shape variable. In the case of a zero magnitude mid-side perturbation. defining zero magnitude vector is not the same as placing no vector. the interpolation is quadratic with the value of zero for the mid-side node. the presence yields a quadratic interpolation. 356 HyperMesh 8. Generates the corresponding list of grids to be perturbed in that variable.

the control perturbation causes grids G1 and G4 to be perturbed as shown. For example. This problem is solved using a secondary domain model as follows: • • Create one rigid element (type DRBE2) between the two end nodes (G1 and G4 in this example). With only primary domain. Secondary domain is not required if the nodes are connected using a single 1-D element.0 User’s Guide 357 . AutoDV responds by: • • • Computing pert urbations on the primary domain model using the control perturbations. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. grid points G2 and G3 are generally coincident. Here. illustrated below. because grids G2 and G3 are not part of any node set. the perturbation vector for this model is as shown in the illustration below. Interpolating those perturbations linearly to all the grids of the secondary domain. Identifying perturbations of the end nodes of the secondary domains. The perturbation vectors are also shown in the illustration. Here. Move the end nodes as well as all intermediate nodes into an independent node set. The gum-drops are modeled using a rigid (R1)-spring (K)-rigid (R2) representation. consider the two sheet metal components connected using gum-drops. However. You may use the secondary domain model where two nodes belonging to the primary domain are connected using several 1-D elements in a series. they remain unperturbed.Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets A secondary domain model allows computation of perturbation vectors for grids on 1-D elements connecting two different components. The domain model for each plate contains one element each.

and no control perturbations are required at the two nodes of the DRBE2 element.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 358 HyperMesh 8. this yields the perturbation shown below. Note: A DRBE2 element does not have to be connected to a control point.Using the example illustrated above.

To define harmonic perturbation vectors: 1. In the shape panel. one at each corner point of the DQUAD4. 4. and Y_TYPE: Card image X_ORDER Y_ORDER Symbol m n Default 0 0 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the harmonic component of the shape variable has a value of 1. X_TYPE. Generate domain elements and node sets as described in the previous section. and T is the harmonic function given by: T(x. Select the design variable in the card pre-viewer in the permanent menu. The harmonic shape variables are computed using a product of the following two functions: V(x. one DQUAD4 element at a time.0 User’s Guide 359 . Select the DQUAD4 element on which harmonic perturbation vectors are desired and create a shape with exactly four vectors . Harmonic variables are defined only on DQUAD4 domains. modeling requirements for generating harmonic variables are very stringent. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. Y_ORDER. y) = Xm(x) Yn(y) Where Xm(x) = cos (m*x/2) = sin (m*x/2) =1 and Yn(x) = cos (n*y/2) = sin (n*y/2) =1 for odd values of n for even values of n for n = 0 for odd values of m for even values of m for m = 0 For m = n = 0. Each harmonic shape variable component must contain exactly four vectors. 3. Then the shape variable is reduced to the polynomial shape variable. There should be no other vector in that shape.y) = P (x. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. Edit X_ORDER. y) Where P is the polynomial function described in the previous section. However.Harmonic Perturbation Vectors Harmonic shape variables are defined using a process similar to that for polynomial shape variables. The design variable label should not have more than four characters. 2.y) T (x. These are part of the vector collector card. The orders m and n of harmonic functions are user-controlled.one at each corner control point of that element. create a design variable using that shape.

modify the setting in the harmonic subpanel. Examples of the naming procedure follow: Example 1: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv01 2 0 1 dv010001 X_TYPE = all Y_TYPE = all 3 1 0 dv010100 4 1 1 dv010101 5 2 0 dv010200 6 2 1 dv010201 desvar name = dv01 Example 2: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv02 X_TYPE = even Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv020001 3 2 0 dv020200 4 2 1 dv020201 desvar name = dv02 Example 3: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv03 X_TYPE = odd Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv030001 3 1 0 dv030100 4 1 1 dv030101 desvar name = dv03 360 HyperMesh 8. Card image X_TYPE Y_TYPE Options all. odd. odd.You have the option of generating all.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or even harmonics by entering the appropriate harmonics types in the vector collector. odd. even Default all all For given values of m and n. AutoDV generates a series of independent perturbation vectors. It generates shape variable names by appending the x and y orders to the component name. even all. Accordingly.

select the apply result panel.0 User’s Guide 361 . Click create to create the vectors. 4. Variable loads are generated by interpolating control vectors defined at selected control points. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Variable loading can be generated for forces. Click solve to create the interpolated variable loads. Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. 3. Select all the displayed nodes and set mult = to 1. To generate a variable load: 1. Click create. Enter a name (max. Select the create load subpanel. select the solver panel. Click file = and enter the result file with the . On the Post page. Select AUTODV as the solver. Select the perturbations panel. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − − Select perturbations using the toggle. you must write an AutoDV input deck using the AutoDV template. the corner and mid-side control points.dv. Create control perturbations to define the characteristic of the variable load: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. A quadratic interpolation can be generated by creating control vectors either on the mid-side control points or on both. Select desvar using the toggle. Domain elements and domain node sets for the domain where the load is applied must be created before you can generate a variable load. select the results subpanel.Generation of Variable Loads Generating variable loads with AutoDV is similar to generating perturbation vectors.animate suffix. moments and temperatures. The control points can be the corner points of a domain element or the mid-side nodes along the edge of domain elements. 2. AutoDV computes the variable loads on each structural grid by interpolating the control perturbations defined on control points. Apply the variable loads: − − − − − − − On the files panel. 8 characters) in desvar =. Click simulation = and select the variable loading condition wants to apply. Creating control perturbations at the corner nodes of the domain element yields a linear interpolation. They are automatically added to the design variable specified in desvar =. − − − − On the BCs page. Click apply to apply the variable loads. Click name = and enter the name of the AutoDV input deck. Run AutoDV to generate the variable loads: Before you run AutoDV.

Examples: 362 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Running AutoDV Stand-alone
To run AutoDV, select AUTODV as the solver in the solver panel and then give the prefix of the input file name along with the options. The input file name should be prefix.base. autodv -file <prefix> -inp opt1 -ent opt2 -code opt3

The valid entries and default values for options are given in the following table. Note that these parameters could be given in any order. Entity <prefix> Valid Options Prefix of the input file name, or input file name. OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS, HYPERSTUDY, TEMPLEX, HYPEROPT FORC, MOMT, TEMP, LONG OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, PAMCRASH, RADIOSS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MARC, ANSYS, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT Default Value Solver Panel input file =

Opt1

analysis code =

Opt2 Opt3

NONE NONE

component = subcode type =

The interdependency of options on each other is explained in the following table. For example, for a given opt1, it gives the possible values for opt2 and opt3. Opt1 OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS HYPERSTUDY TEMPLEX Opt2 None Long Opt3 Ignored Remarks For shape optimization None – Standard format Long – Long format For variable loading

FORC, MOMT, TEMP Ignored

Ignored

OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, RADIOSS, PAMCRASH, MARC, ANSYS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT, ABAQUS, NASTRAN

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/Generic and HyperStudy

HYPEROPT

Ignored

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/OPTISTRUCT, HyperOpt/ABAQUS, and HyperOpt/NASTRAN

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 363

After AutoDV runs, it creates the following files: prefix.dat A bulk data file that contains the DVGRID and LOAD information, respectively depending on opt2. A bulk data file for the perturbed model corresponding to the shape variable nnn. This file originally contained the manually generated perturbed file. After the program runs, this file contains only the GRID data for all perturbed grid points. This file contains the shape design variables in the HyperMesh results format. This file can be loaded to HyperMesh and results can be viewed. Note: The animation should be used only as a check for the shape of the perturbation vector. It will not display the upper and lower bounds for the shape variable. The file prefix.dat becomes part of an input file for the respective native analysis package. Note: If you create a perturbed model file, prefix.pertnnn, and also a set of control perturbations with an identical shape variable ID, nnn, the resultant perturbation vector from AutoDV is a union of the manual as well as the interpolated grid perturbations. For the common nodes in the two sets, the manual grid perturbations given in prefix.pertnnn override those generated by using interpolation. prefix.subcode.node.tpl Templex template to replace the nodal coordinates in the original input deck. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX. Contains nodal coordinates and perturbation vectors for use in the file, prefix.subcode.node.tpl. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX.

prefix.autonnn

prefix.dv.animate

prefix.shp

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Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
Using an H3D file, you can save 3-D animations from HyperMesh in the .h3d format for viewing with the HyperView Player. HyperView Player is an Internet browser plug-in for visualizing 3-D Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models and results. Using product data in Altair's compact .h3d format allows you to incorporate animated images in an HTML document for presentation or engineering reports. Simulation results can be sent by e-mail, or placed on the web for others to open and review. HyperView Player is available as a free download on Altair's Web site at http://www.altair.com. To create an H3D file from HyperMesh: 1. 2. Select one of the following panels: contour, deformed, hidden line, transient, or geom cleanup. To control the display attributes for your model: 3. Specify your desired display attributes using visual options or the visual panel.

Click the Hyper3d button or H3D>HV. Two files are created. One is an H3D file, using anim#.h3d as the file name. The symbol # is automatically assigned to the H3D file. The other is a sample HTML file including an <EMBED> statement for the corresponding H3D file. H3D>HV loads the newly created H3D file into HyperView. You can define this option in the options panel under modeling.

4.

To review the model in a web browser: Double click the HTML file to launch a browser. or Click H3D to activate the standalone HyperView Player.

You can customize the external HTML template, h3d_template.html, located in the altair/hm/html directory, to suit your needs. Note: In the HyperMesh geom cleanup panel, the Hyper3D button is displayed when you select the shaded option in the visual options subpanel.

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Embedding a HyperView Player Object in HTML Documentation The following section defines the arguments and provides an example for embedding statements in an HTML document in order to view a HyperView Player graphic object. Note the following updates to HyperView Player: Simplified HTML File Statement Since the H3D file created from HyperView, and HyperMesh includes scene information, the arguments in the old statements for model readers and result readers are no longer needed. The HTML statements have been simplified in this release. However, the HTML files created for HyperView Player 3.1 are still supported. HyperView Player only supports H3D direct readers. You can create an H3D file using: • • • • Note HyperView HyperMesh HyperMesh result translators, such as hmnast, hmnasto2, hmdyna, hmradioss, hmpam, hmansys, and hmabaqus OptiStruct You may need to modify your HTM L files created for HyperView Player 3.1 if you were using direct readers other that h3d.dll, such as adams.dll, gfile.dll, lsdyna.dll, and madymo.dll, since those readers are no longer supported in HyperView Player.

Direct Readers

To embed a HyperView Player object, the <EMBED> statement in HTML is used. All arguments are case insensitive.

General Arguments for EMBED Statements
type width/height SRC="URL" Application/x-h3d Measured in pixels The location of the plug-in data file as indicated by its URL.

Embedded Statement Example
<EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="HTTP:\\www.altair.com\h3d\bumper.h3d"> <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="../bumper.h3d">

More examples can be found in the HyperView Player demo directory, and our Web site, http://www.altair.com.

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Using an HTML File
You can use HyperView Player to share information by embedding it in an HTML file. You can use either a relative path or a standard Uniform Resource Locator (URL) to specify the path for the H3D file in the <EMBED> statement. There are three different ways to define file transfer protocol: FILE, HTTP and FTP. This section describes how to select a protocol for file transfer using files, anim1.html and anim1.h3d as examples.

Embedded Mode
FILE://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="File://c:\Altair\demos\hvp\anim1.h3d"> An absolute path is required for File:// and the H3D file must reside in the specified path. When you distribute the files, you may need to modify the HTML file for the path.

HTTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="http://www:8080/~John/anim1.h3d> Others can access your public web area on the Internet. When sharing an H3D file, you can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files in your public HTML directory and send the link to others in the company by email. The link can be, for example, http://www:8080/~John/anim1.html. By doing this, you do not need to distribute the H3D file and can guarantee the path is working correctly. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click the link in the email, the model will be displayed.

FTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="FTP://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html> You can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files on your FTP site. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click ftp://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html, the model is displayed.

Relative Path
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="../anim/.h3d> Using a relative path allows you to distribute an HTML file easily. You can create a folder with the necessary HTML and h3d files for distribution.

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Full page mode
In an HTML file, you can easily hyperlink a string to an H3D file. When you click the hyperlink, the plug-in loads a model in full-page mode.

Using E-mail
You can attach an H3D file to an email. If the recipient is using a PC, he or she can click the attachment and the H3D file will load automatically. You can also save the H3D file and at a later time, double-click the file to invoke the standalone version of HyperView Player. Another available option is to drag the H3D file and drop it into a browser to view the model in a full window.

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H3D FAQ's
How can I view a model with shaded display in HyperView Player? The model display settings are recorded during H3D creation. Set up the desired model display, with such options as mesh lines and feature lines, in the Vis panel under the Performance Graphics mode in HyperMesh.

Why doesn’t the legend setting in HyperView player reflect the setting in HyperMesh? HyperView Player only supports default settings for the legend display from HyperMesh. The specified Max and Min values in HyperMesh are not recorded in the H3D file of this version.

Can I view complex result animation in HyperView player? No, the H3D writer does not support complex result data.

What types of element are not supported in the H3D file? Second order elements, rigidlinks, and RBE3s are not supported in this version. The mid-side node of a second order element is ignored when it is read into HyperView Player.

How can I change the window size for viewing HyperView Player in the browser? You can modify the width and height values in the <EMBED> statement in the HTML file. (For example, width = 600, height = 600)

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Free Body Diagrams
HyperMesh allows you to create or edit Free Body Diagrams (FBD) using several tools that display in the tab area. Each FBD tool displays on a separate tab, which opens when you activate that tool. Location: Results menu, Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tools) Tool menu (to access the FBD Set Manager only) Tab Area (for the tools themselves)

Free Body Diagram (FBD) utilities facilitate the extraction and post-processing of Grid Point Force (GPFORCE) results. FBD utilities currently support OptiStruct and Nastran .op2 files, and are only available in the OptiStruct or Nastran user profiles. FBD extractions are typically utilized for breakout and/or sub-modeling analysis schemes, where balanced “free body” sub-cases are extracted from a coarse grid model and applied to a fine grid sub-model for eventual optimization and/or analysis. FBD is also used to extract cross-sectional resultant forces and moments (typically at the centroid of a cross-section) for use in traditional strength calculations. Each tool has a separate entry in the menu. In addition, see the overview on Grid Point Force Balance tables to gain further understanding of FBD operations within HyperMesh, while the Set Manager utility assists in generating the element and node sets which the FBD utilities analyze.

This coarse grid model is typical for FBD extractions.

Typical FBD – Forces output on a wing rib

Typical Result Force and Moment output on a floor beam

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Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. or Abaqus user profile. deleting. See To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display for details. appending entities to. The sync button synchronizes the entity set display states with the current HyperMesh display.0 User’s Guide 371 . Nastran. From the Tools pull-down menu. renaming. as desired: • • • • Use <ctrl>-click and <shift>-click to select multiple items in the tree structure. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. The set manager displays in the tab area. and ABAQUS user profiles. Nastran. select Set Manager. creating. or export state) that the filter buttons apply to. The selection type options allow you to control the entities (elements. geometry. The filter buttons allow for additional selection control. 2. Use the toolbar buttons in the Set Manager tab to manipulate the display options. Location: Tools menu (to access the Set Manager) Tab Area (to use the Set Manager) The Set Manager consists of a tree structure listing the current entity sets in the model. The Set Manager utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct. To set display options for the Set Manager: 1. along with the entity set display and export states. It also includes functions for displaying. and changing the export state of entity sets.FBD Set Manager Use the Set Manager tool to automate the grouping and display of model components through HyperMesh entity set functionality. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct.

Delete Reference: Removes a set reference from a entity set type of sets. Supported entity set types are shown above. or on individual or multiple items within folders. 372 HyperMesh 8. Nastran. 3. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to add to the set. Add Entities to Set: Adds entities into the currently selected set. Multiple sets may be selected by using standard Ctrl/Shift-click functionality. grouped in folders by type. select Set Manager.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .To use the Set Manager right-click functionality: 1. Expand All: Expands all branches of the tree. including: • • • • • • • New: Create a new entity set of the specified type. or Abaqus user profile. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. Collapse All: Collapses all branches of the tree. The set manager displays in the tab area. HyperMesh prompts you to type in a name for the set or accept a default name. accessed by right clicking in the background. From the Tools pull-down menu. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. Right -click anywhere within the tree structure to open the right-click menu: There are many functions available. The graphic above shows all of the available options. 2. Delete: Deletes the currently selected set(s). on folders. Rename: Rename the selected set.

Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. When switching between supported solvers. Export Session File: Saves a session file (. The Blank State signifies that the entity set will be exported. Once a display toggle is changed. 3. and is only available for component and element sets. Available options are shown above. or Abaqus user profile. These group definitions will be converted into HyperMesh entity sets. The display and export icons associated with each entity set are described below: • The display toggle determines whether the entities contained within the entity set are displayed in HyperMesh. containing group definitions for the selected node or element sets. this information is automatically converted to the new solver format when Set Manager is opened. click the Synch toolbar button to update the HyperMesh display with the current selection.ses) containing group definitions. Show Only: This operation turns off (masks) all currently displayed entities.0 User’s Guide 373 . The Blank State signifies that one or more of the entities in that entity set are not displayed. The export state of each entity set is stored in the HyperMesh database. The set manager displays in the tab area. Import Session File: Loads a session file (. For component sets there are two toggles: one for elements (first check box) and one for geometry (second check box). • • • • • • • To change the Set Manager's display and export states: 1. grouped in folders by type. From the Tools pull-down menu. select Set Manager.• Remove Entities from Set: Removes entities from the currently selected set. to the disk. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to remove from the set. which control the display of each of these entities separately. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and then displays only the currently selected set(s) in the HyperMesh display. Display Options: Determines how the sets display in the Set Manager tree. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. Show: This operation adds the entities contained in the selected set(s) to the HyperMesh display. The Checked State signifies that all entities in the entity set are currently displayed. Nastran.ses). The Checked State signifies that the entity set will not be exported. The display and export states of entity sets are controlled by clicking on/off the display and export icons located next to each entity set in the tree. 2. • The export toggle determines whether the entity set definition is to be exported when the model deck is written. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. Display IDs: Displays a popup window showing the IDs of all entities contained in the selected set. Hide: This operation removes the entities contained in the selected set(s) from the HyperMesh display. or by using the display options icons in the toolbar.

constantly synchronizing the display state of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display can introduce performance issues. For large models. the Display button can be used to update the HyperMesh display to the current Set Manager selection.To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display: The Set Manager is meant to allow users to easily control the display and review of entity sets for model grouping and visualization purposes. while the Synch button in the Set Manager toolbar allows you to update the set manager to match the current state of the HyperMesh display. The Synch button resides in the toolbar described by the topic To set display options for the Set Manager. the Set Manager utility does not automatically synchronize the display states of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display. the Display button at the bottom of the Set Manager allows you to update HyperMesh to match the Set Manager settings.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . in which case the Set Manager and the HyperMesh display are synchronized until another selection is made within the Set Manager. but display states always default to the unchecked state on startup. Instead. 374 HyperMesh 8. To remedy these occurrences. Export states synch automatically. In addition.

all appropriate displacements and rotations are extracted.LABEL(ID)”. To extract displacement data for a user-defined node set: 1. Tab Area (for the tool itself) After you define an element set with an associated node set. 4. The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUB-CASE #”. select Free Body Diagram.0 User’s Guide 375 . Location: Results menu. This lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract displacement information. 3. You can select multiple sub-cases by ctrl-clicking or shift-clicking. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Displacement extractions. From the Results pull-down menu. Note: Recommended practice is to output displacement data for the node set(s) of interest only.FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility extracts displacement data for user defined node set(s).op2 file is required. then FBD Displacements.op2 file is selected. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct or Nastran user profile. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Once an . Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. for Nastran and OptiStruct.op2 file. Select a sub-case.op2 files containing displacement data from OptiStruct and Nastran. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE . The sub-case display can be switched between ID and Name (ID). Only sub-cases with displacement results from the currently selected. • • Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. This procedure reduces the size of the . If a new .op2 file changes. The tool also supports . Use the . and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme.op2 file containing the displacement output for the current model. The FBD Displacements tab displays in the tab area. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS io option card The FBD Displacement utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. you must load the new . Additionally. consider using STRESS = NONE to further reduce the size of the .csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. sub-case names and IDs with displacement output are saved with the rest of the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. and a formatted . If no SUBTITLE exists. 2.op2 file display for selection.op2 file into the database (overwriting the previously selected one). only the LABEL is used.op2 file: field to specify the full path and filename of the . a text summary table within HyperMesh. or if the original . Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.

op2 file. It is assumed that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel.op2 file in the output coordinate system without any further coordinate system transformations.0e-6. • 6. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the extraction. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. The Auto find interface nodes option automatically finds the nodes attached to elements that are not contained within the currently selected element set. Additional nodes may be added to the node set once it is created by clicking the Node Set selector and picking additional nodes. otherwise modify the value as desired.z) in the summary table and .op2 file format. If a coordinate system is not specified. and toggle to the assign sub-panel.y. click Coordinate Systems. then all nodes within the element set are used. when checked.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The FBD Displacement utility extracts and applies the displacement and rotation results from the . and click Set Analysis. • The Show model checkbox is a graphical review option that.5. Results coordinate system transformations are not performed on displacement data. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). The Set Manager utility on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used for controlling the output of results to the various formats. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. This procedure selects the nodes interfacing with the remainder of the structure. Select entities. automatically displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element and node sets. Situations when this behavior could occur include modification of nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. The entity selection section allows you to select and/or create the appropriate entities required to execute the FBD Displacements utility. The Node Set selector defines the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. You will be prompted to give the newly created node set a name. • The Zero Tolerance entry defines the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. 376 HyperMesh 8. If a node set is not selected.…) is always output in the system that the results are stored with in the . If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database does not match those used to run the analysis then the extracted values will be incorrect. The option helps to eliminate “relatively small” values from being output to the result formats. On the Setup menu. Displacement data (Ux. Choose Output options: The Output options section contains various options to review and display results of FBD Displacement extractions. There are several options: • The Element Set selector defines the elements that contain the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. Uy. This functionality allows you to verify which element and node sets are currently selected. • The Coordinate System selector determines the coordinate system used to display the nodal coordinates (x.csv file output options.

This collector can be referenced as the LOAD in the sub-case panel. If it does not exist. node set and sub-case IDs).• The Create Load Collectors option will extract the specified displacement data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window5. • The Show summary table option outputs the results to a popup window for instant review. This collector can be referenced as the SPC in the sub-case panel. If an existing file is selected there are several items to note: If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. The loads in this load collector are created with the SPC load type. for the current element and node set. you will be warned that the File already exists and asked if you want to replace it. IN any case. and detailed displacement data at each node. A single load collector. Selecting yes will not overwrite the file.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. it will be appended to the end of the file. The load collector name format is FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp. The table contains information about the sub-cases. it will append/replace the data.0 User’s Guide 377 . the existing block will be overwritten with the new data.csv file option creates a . node set 1 and sub-case 1. Loads in this collector are created with the SPCD load type. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. element and node set(s). FBDD_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Disp would be created for element set 1. is created for each sub-case. The Create SPCD option will additionally create a load collector with the name “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD”. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. but in a comma-separated file. A sample window with partial output is shown below. • The Create . You may select a new file or an existing file. The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. For example.

op2 file changes) you must load the new . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards The FBD Forces utility is broken down into three major sections. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards.op2 file into the database.op2 file are displayed for selection only. Multiple sub-cases can be selected via Ctrl-click or Shift-click functionality. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. Location: Results menu. If no SUBTITLE exists. To select a sub-case: The Sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information.FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data (including forces and moments) for a user-defined element set.op2 file is required (or if the original . only the LABEL is used. a text summary table within HyperMesh. overwriting the previously selected.op2 file. Once you’ve selected an op2 file. This opens the standard file selection dialog window. use this to browse to and select the desired . The FBD Forces utility is currently supported by OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. The tool supports . for Nastran and OptiStruct. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .op2 file that contains the GPFORCE output for the current model. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). The ID option lists the sub-cases in the format SUBCASE #.op2 file. and/or a formatted Comma-Separated Values (. The op2 file field accepts the full path and filename of the . Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. If a new .op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions. This procedure reduces the size of the . The sub-case list can be switched between ID and Name (ID). Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. Additionally. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. 378 HyperMesh 8. each of which corresponds with the process order of using the tool.csv) file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. To select a results file: Click on the folder icon inside of the op2 file field. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case in the format SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID).op2 files containing GPFORCE data from OptiStruct and Nastran.

results coming from. (See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . Applied Loads Only extracts and utilizes only the applied loads grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set.0. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. result system and summation node. the HyperMesh origin (0. If a node is not selected. or when loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2.0 User’s Guide 379 . 3. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel.To select entities: 1. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. RJOINT. This could occur when modifying a nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and. Rigidlink. To specify output options: 1. and RBAR. the extracted values will be incorrect. The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force and moment results from an . In addition. 4. and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. RROD. Reaction Loads Only extracts and utilizes only SPC and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on nodes in the selected set. This is useful for verifying free body behavior through zero-sum values for all force and moment components about any node. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation . Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point force and moment result vectors are transformed and output.0) is used by default. Applied Loads Only. On the assign sub-panel. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the GPFORCE data is summed for the selected element set. Available options include All Loads. RBE3. or output to. applied. SPC. This allows you to verify which element sets is currently selected. Use the Element Set selector to define the elements that make up the free body and contain the nodes at which GPFORCE data will be extracted.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. • • • All Loads extracts and utilizes all element contribution. It is also useful for calculating the result of applied or reaction forces about any node.) If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. Use the FBD type selector to determine the grid point force and moment data to extract and utilize for FBD calculations for each node in the selected element set. If a results system is not specified.op2 file. Activate the Show Model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode while highlighting the currently selected element set. cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. 2. and Reaction Loads Only. sets the CD field on the GRID card(s).

element set(s). 5. You may select a new file or an existing file. Altair Engineering • 380 HyperMesh 8. modify the value as desired. and component Fx. referencing the component force and moment load collectors. Use the Create Load Collectors option to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for visualization in the model window.0e-6. The FBD Results Manager tool can be used to review the load collectors generated from FBD Forces utility. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. When you save the HyperMesh database. sub-case IDs). and there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. To output the results to a popup window for instant review. Use the Create . A sample window with partial output is shown below. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. it will be appended to the end of the file. In addition a load collector with the Nastran/OptiStruct LOAD card is also created. The load collector name format is “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. If an existing file is selected. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current element set. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. • The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. However. If it does not exist. it is appended to. This option helps to prevent relatively small values from being output to the result formats. The table contains information about the sub-cases. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. activate the Show summary table option. but in a comma-separated file.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. All calculations are performed with floating point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. Use the Zero Tolerance entry field to define the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. This allows FBD information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. For example FBDF_E(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. This load collector is named “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” and can be referenced in the sub-case panel as the LOAD entry for the various sub-case definitions. 3. all FBD Forces load collectors are saved to the database.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering .csv file option to create a . sub-case 1. selecting yes will not overwrite the file—it will append/replace the data as described above. To maintain floating-point precision the default is set to 1. therefore it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which FBD result must be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh 4.2.

0 User’s Guide 381 . Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the grid point extraction. This option calculates the nodal averaged centroid of the coordinates of all of the nodes in the node set and creates a temporary node at that location. When using the “Centroid” option. the utility defaults to “Centroid”. If a results system is not specified. starting from the selected nodes and progressing along the length of the selected elements. which are defined by an element set. each set is added to the table as a separate cross-section definition which can be modified later by selection. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. Use the Element Set selector to specify the elements containing the nodes that define the crosssection. HyperMesh adds separate crosssection definitions to the table with the original element set and each selected node set. The Display sections checkbox is a graphical review option that. To define a cross-section manually: 1. when checked. 2. If no node is selected. node set. gaps. The Advanced options section provides the means to semi-automatically create cross-section element and node sets for beam-like structures with regular meshes. The FBD Cross-section Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. If multiple node sets are selected for a single element set. displays the element set. the loads associated with that node are also deleted. It also features semi-automatic generation of element and node sets for defining cross-sections. This auto-create cross-section capability requires a continuous mesh with rows of nodes (of any orientation) to work properly. 4. The FBD Cross-section Manager interface has two creation methods available for cross-section definition: manual and (semi-) automatic. 3. If this node is deleted from the model. etc…) and must have identifiable rows of nodes. Location: Results menu. 5. summation node. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a temporary node is created. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point vector results will be transformed and output. Use the Node Set selector to define the nodes in each currently selected element set at which grid point data will be extracted and summed from. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the grid point data will be summed. The mesh shouldn’t have any discontinuities (holes. If multiple element sets are selected. node set. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. Use the Set Manager tool on the Tools menu to create the necessary node sets.FBD Cross-section manager The FBD Cross-section Manager (CSM) utility creates and manages cross-section definitions that are used within the Resultant Force & Moment utility. result system and summation node which define the cross-section in the graphics display area. Tab Area (for the tool itself) This utility contains tools for defining cross-sections. and a local result coordinate system.

the offset value is zero and HyperMesh generates numbered set names starting with one. For example. Therefore. This displays the entire model in transparency mode. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode. Type a Numbering offset into the text box. 382 HyperMesh 8. 5. you type in “NSET” each element set will be named NSET [#]. To define a cross-section automatically: 1. If the offset value is set to a value greater than zero. Therefore. 4.6. which utilizes the cross-section definitions to perform these calculations. it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which cross-sections are to be retained within HyperMesh database. or only the new “row” of elements. These nodes should be at one end of the beam. If checked. Comments Each time a cross-section is created. When the HyperMesh database is saved. the cross-section data is saved to the HyperMesh database. For example. Optional: use the filter buttons on the top of the spreadsheet to select which cross-sections are required. Use the Elements selector to choose the elements that define the entire “beam-like” component from which cross-sections will be generated. 6. Cross-Sections can then be accessed from within the Resultant Force and Moment utility. highlighting the currently selected element set. modified. where “#” increases with each new set generated. Type a prefix for the name of each generated element set into the Element set prefix field. This is the offset value for generated set names. 3. the generated set names are numbered starting from that value. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox. Optional: activate the sets accumulate option This determines whether each progressive set also contains the elements from the previous set. where “#” increases with each new set generated. node set. 2.e. all cross-section definitions are also saved. each element set will contain the elements from the previous set. highlighting the currently selected elements and nodes. This allows you to verify a cross-section definition. or deleted. result system and summation node. 7. cross-section definitions only need to be defined once and stored in the HyperMesh database. Type a prefix for the name of each generated node set into the Node set prefix field. you type in “ESET” each element set will be named ESET [#]. first cross-section). 7. Standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality can be used to select cross-sections. Selected crosssections can also be deleted from the database by using the Remove selection button on the right end of the filter buttons.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the crosssection names and the associated sets. Use the Nodes selector to pick nodes for the first node set (i. By default.

FBD Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment (RF&M) utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data for user defined cross-sections created via the Cross-section Manager. The Resultant Force and Moment utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. When an . and/or a formatted .op2 files containing grid point force data from OptiStruct and Nastran. only the LABEL is used. overwriting the previously selected. for Nastran and OptiStruct. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The resultant force and moment utility generates input data for shear and moment (VMT) diagrams and/or to perform load-case screening with Potato plots in HyperView.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. If a new . This procedure reduces the size of the . or if the original . Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. a text summary table within HyperMesh.op2 file changes. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you must load the new . The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. Two utilities available within HyperGraph also interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility.op2 file. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). To select a sub-case: Select the desired sub-case(s) from the list in the sub-case section.op2 file field to specify the full path and filename of the . The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUBCASE #”. Multiple sub-cases can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the .op2 file containing the desired GPFORCE output for the current model. If no SUBTITLE exists.op2 file is selected. The subcase list can be organized by ID or Name (ID).op2 file and helps speed up the Resultant Force and Moment extractions.0 User’s Guide 383 . sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. To select a results file: Use the . The sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. The tool supports . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only.op2 file is required. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. Location: Results menu.op2 file display for selection only. Additionally. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID)”.op2 file into the database.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For example RF&M_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. RBE3. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. Multiple cross-sections can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking.csv file. and component Fx. . the extracted values will be incorrect. (On the assign sub-panel. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. To specify output options: The Output Options section contains various options to review and display the results of Resultant Force and Moment extractions. sub-case 1. otherwise modify the value as desired. The Cross-sections section lets you specify the cross-sections from which you wish to calculate resultant force and moment results for each selected sub-case. each made up of an element set and node set. RROD. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current cross-section. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. and . RBAR. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the .z) in the summary table. results coming from or output to cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. node set 1. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this . Rigidlink.y. Resultant force and moment vector results are always output in the result coordinate system defined for each cross-section. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided.To select a cross-section: Pick the desired cross-sections from the list in the cross-sections area of the tab. Result coordinate systems for cross-sections are defined using the Cross-section Manager. Use the Zero Tolerance field to specify the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. 3. This can occur when modifying nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis. RJOINT. operation sets the CD field on the GRID cards). Use the Coordinate System selector to determine the coordinate system used to output the nodal coordinates (x. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2.fbd file output options. If a coordinate system is not specified. The option helps to eliminate relatively small values from being output. The load collector name format is “RF&M_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. Cross-sections are created using the Cross-section Manager. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. In addition. 2. 384 HyperMesh 8. 1.op2 file. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. Activate the Create Load Collectors checkbox to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window.0e-6. The Resultant Force and Moment utility extracts grid point force and moment results from the .

This allows resultant force and moment information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. selecting ‘yes’ will not overwrite the file. but in a comma separated file. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 385 . Activate the Create . Comments When saving over existing .fbd file option to create a file that can be read into HyperGraph using the “Shear and Moment Plot” and “Potato Plot” utilities. Activate the Create . Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets and therefore it is important to not renumber any element or node sets for which resultant force and moment result are to be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager. Activate the Show summary table option to output the results to a popup window for instant review. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. 4. However. Two utilities available within HyperGraph interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility: Shear and Moment Diagrams (VMT Plots) and Potato Plot. The table contains information about the sub-cases and cross-sections. all resultant force and moment load collectors are saved in the database. it will append/replace the data into the file as described above. 6. If it does not exist. You may select a new file or an existing file. If an existing file is selected. 5.csv or . HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data.csv file option to create a .csv file containing the same information as the summary table. sub-case IDs). You may select a new file or an existing file. When the HyperMesh database is saved.fbd file.The “Color” option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. it is appended to. If an existing file is selected. You can also use the FBD Results Manager to review the load collectors generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. it will be appended to the end of the file. there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. it is appended to. These utilities are accessed from the Free Body Diagrams item within the HyperGraph Utilities menu.

Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. Pick the desired Results type. You must choose an existing element set for which you wish to the review the FBD. Valid types include FBD Displacements. These checkboxes are disabled for the FBD Displacements Result type. The Results selection section lets you select the FBD result type to review. Specify any desired Display options: The Display options section allows you to decide which force and moment components display in the graphics area for the current selection.FBD Results Manager Use the FBD Results Manager to graphically review and manage the load collectors generated from all FBD and Resultant Force and Moment utilities. Fz…checkboxes determine which component/resultant vectors display when you click the Accept button. If multiple sub-cases are selected. only the node sets that are common to all of them will be listed. 3. 4. Select one or more Element sets. the Results selection interface is modified to include a Node sets selector. For FBD Displacements and Resultant Force and Moment Result types. displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element set. Location: Results menu. Fy. FBD Forces (Reaction Loads). FBD Forces (All Loads). FBD Forces (Applied Loads). Displacement. or Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. This selector lists all of the node sets associated with the currently selected element set and sub-cases. • The Fx. Multiple subcases can be selected using standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality. The Load handles option determines whether to display the load handles. • • 386 HyperMesh 8. Select the desired Sub-cases by clicking on them. and Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Selecting an FBD result type scans the HyperMesh database and updates the Subcases list with available sub-cases for the currently selected element set and result type. The Entity selection section allows you to select the element set for which to review FBD. 2. and Resultant Force and Moment. when checked. The Label loads option determines whether to display the load labels (vector magnitude values as text next to the vector).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To review and manage FBD load collectors: 1. Grayed-out checkboxes indicate force and moment components or results that can’t display for the currently selected element set/sub-case/node sets. Displacement. The optional Show model checkbox. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Results Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles.

0 User’s Guide 387 . The Delete button deletes the load collectors associated with the current selection. The Update load collector color option will recolor the load collectors associated with the current selection to the color selected in the Color option.• The Vector size option allows you to control the display size of the result vectors. Two options are available. Click one of the command buttons at the bottom of the tab: The Accept button displays the selected result vectors on in the graphics area. Note that these values do not affect the vector magnitude—only their screen size. Click the Color box to pick a different color. removing it from the tab area without displaying any results in the graphics area. Magnitude % or Uniform size. The Reset button clears the graphics area of all result vectors and resets all of the FBD Results Manager entry fields. • 5. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A popup warning tells you what will be deleted and requires you to confirm the deletion. if desired. The Close button closes the FBD Results Manager. each of which requires a numeric value.

In addition. If you choose FBD Displacements or Resultant Force and Moment as the result type. If FBD Force and FBD Displacement load collectors from the same sub-case are selected for export. and/or Resultant Force and Moment load collectors generated by other FBD utilities. If multiple node sets are selected for export the following will occur: An SPCADD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collectors will be assigned to it. or type in a name for a new one. highlighting the currently selected element set for review. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Export Manager is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. This option will also create SUBTITLE and LABEL cards if they are available from the sub-case information within the currently selected . Select the desired node sets in the same fashion as the subcases. Displacement. This opens a standard file browser window that you can use to browse to the desired destination directory and either select an existing file. 5.op2 file. Location: Results menu. Specify Export options:. To export FBD. 3. Optional: activate the show model checkbox to display the entire model in transparency mode. 2. the exported data can be used for breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. If you wish to create sub-cases upon export. a LOAD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collectors will be assigned to it. • • If the SPCD option was enabled when creating FBD Displacement loads. 4. The SPC = will reference the newly created SPCADD load collector. Click the one(s) that you wish to export to highlight them. or Resultant Force & Moment collectors: 1. the Results type affects how HyperMesh creates sub-cases: For FBD Forces – All Loads. an additional list of node sets displays. HyperMesh prompts you to select one or the other from which to create the sub-case.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 388 HyperMesh 8. LOAD = will also be assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collector for the selected sub-case. After export. a SUBCASE will be created with SPC = assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collector for the selected sub-case. use <ctrl>-click or <shift>-click to select multiple results. If the SPCD option was enabled when creating the FBD Displacement loads. For FBD Displacements. Click add to export to add the highlighted results to the export batch. The LOAD = will reference the newly created LOAD load collector. a SUBCASE will be created with LOAD = assigned to the “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” load collector which references the LOAD card pointing to each component “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)” load collector for the selected sub-case. Displacement. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool).FBD Export Manager The FBD Export Manager exports FBD. Use the Element set selector to specify the set for which you wish to export data. click the Create appropriate subcases checkbox and then click the open-folder button in the Output file text box. Choose the results type that you wish to export from the list box. This populates the list of subcases.

0 User’s Guide 389 . meaning that clicking it: • • • • • Turns off the display of all currently displayed elements. Creates temporary mass elements on the nodes where the selected FBD. Reset clears all of the export criteria so that you can start over.6. Click the appropriate command button at the bottom of the tab: Export executes the export process. Displacement. and/or Resultant Force and Moment loads are displayed. removing it from the tab area. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Close closes the tab. Exports the model with the “displayed” option. Deletes the temporary mass elements from the current model. and Removes unnecessary header information from the output file.

The complete GPFORCE table for the above cantilever beam model is presented below.FBD Grid Point Force Balance The Grid Point Force Balance table. several types of entries are possible depending on the forces acting at that node. including: • • • • • Applied forces and moments SPC forces and moments MPC forces and moments Element forces and moments from elements attached to the node Total summed values for each node. and a point load on the right end. This model cons ists of two elements. Location: Results menu. output from OptiStruct and Nastran with the GPFORCE io options command. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Shown below is a sample model which will be used to demonstrate the grid point force calculations that HyperMesh FBD utilities perform. Note that for any given node within the GPFORCE table. 390 HyperMesh 8. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding GPFORCE io option cards. is the data around which all FBD-Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utility calculations are performed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . a fixed support on the left end. which in turn must sum to zero for the complete GPFORCE table.

0 User’s Guide 391 .Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

For FBD types Applied loads only. Therefore. MPC loads: Zero iv. v. if any element contribution is not from one of the defined elements within the element set. Total FBD Value at Node 2 = -2. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set will be extracted and utilized in the FBD calculations.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Furthermore. Total FBD Value at Node 1 = 2. The following example of FBD-Forces extraction uses an element set defined with only element: The element set contains only element 1. For FBD type Reaction loads only. SPC loads: Fx component exists (-2. For FBD types All loads and Applied loads only. SPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. The element set serves several purposes: 1. MPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. looping through all the nodes attached to elements in the element set: a. This information is then used to produce free bodies and/or resultant force and moments. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 2 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not condered. For FBD types 2 Applied loads only.121e+03) and is extracted iii.121e+03 b. then the node is an “internal” node and element contributions are not extracted or utilized in FBD calculations. all nodes connected to the elements in the element set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. MPC loads: Zero iv. 3 and 4. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. SPC loads: Fx component exists (2. Node 1 i. for any given node. v. 2. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility uses an element set to define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. 4.Process The FBD Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utilities use element and node set definitions to define what information to extract and sum from the GPFORCE table. then the node is an “interface” node and element contributions from the elements not a part of the element set are extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. if all element contributions are from elements from within the defined element set. Applied loads: Zero ii. • • 2. for any given node.121e+03 392 HyperMesh 8. 3. applied loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. Node 2 i. Applied loads: Zero ii. Element 1 has nodes 1.121e+03) and is extracted iii. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 1 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not considered. For all nodes connected to elements in the element set. Fx calculation.

Mz) is not the direct sum of all nodes as the (rXF) terms for the force resultant vector about the sum point must also be added to each moment component appropriately. Mz calculations follow similar procedures. The sum of the forces components (Fx. illustrated in the screenshot below. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1.c.085e+03) Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. My. ii. iv. My. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Fz) for each node. This verifies that the FBD-Forces extraction is indeed a “free body”. Fz. Fx component satisfies free body requirements) Fy.085e+03 e. ii.0 (ie. iii. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1.085e+03) v.085e+03 Sum all nodes in Fx = 0. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. Node 4 i. The final FBD-Forces results are presented in the summary table output from the FBD-Forces utility. Note that the sum of the moment components (Mx. iv. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Mx. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Node 3 i. Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. however. Fy. iii.0 User’s Guide 393 . d. • Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Notice that the sum of all components is zero about any point in the model. is the simple sum. v.

Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1.0 Fy calculation.085e+03) x. 4. 5. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. All values are zero in this model. • 394 HyperMesh 8. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set of the cross-section definition will be extracted and utilized in the Resultant Force and Moment calculations. Applied loads: Zero ii. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. Applied loads: Zero vii. Sum nodes in node set in Fx = 0. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. SPC loads: Zero iii. Node 4 vi. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system: • • • The element set contains only element 1. The cross-section definition serves several purposes: 1. The node set contains nodes 3 and 4. All nodes in the node set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. Fx calculation.Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment utility uses an element set and a node set (cross-section definition) define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table.085e+03) v.085e+03 b. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. All nodes in the node set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force 2 and Moment calculations . 3. SPC loads: Zero viii.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The following example of Resultant Force and Moment extraction uses a cross-section definition given by an element set defined with only element 1. MPC loads:Zero ix. All nodes in the node set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. All nodes in the node set must be attached to one or more elements in the element set. For all nodes in the node set. a node set defined with nodes 3 and 4. summation node set to node 3. Node 3 i. 2. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. MPC loads:Zero iv.085e+03 c.

Selecting node 3 as the summation node (any node in the model can be selected) and performing rXF (all element edge lengths are 0. Applied loads: Zero xvii.808e+02 d. Total Fz Value at Node 3 = 6. Applied loads: Zero xxii.0*3. SPC loads: Zero xxiii. Sum nodes in node set and all rXF terms in My = -2. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Applied loads: Zero xii.574e+02) xx. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Node 3 xi. Node 4: rXF for My component equates to the following equation (rz*Fx) + (rx*Fz) = (-0.0 User’s Guide 395 . Total rXF Value summed at Node 3 = -1. Node 3: no additional rXF contributions since it is the sum point xxxii. Sum nodes in node set in Fz = 1. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (6.024e+00) xxx. SPC loads: Zero xviii. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. Total My Value at Node 3 = -8. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-1. MPC loads:Zero xix. Applied loads: Zero xxvii. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a.426e+02 b. MPC loads:Zero xiv. Node 4 xxvi. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.024e+00 c. SPC loads: Zero xxviii. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.574e+02 c. MPC loads:Zero xxiv.871e+00 b.• Fz calculation looping through all the nodes in the node set: a.574e+02) = -1. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (3. All values are zero in this model.808e+02 xxxiii. SPC loads: Zero xiii. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. My calculation.166*1. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. looking through all the nodes in the node set: a. Node 4 xvi.085e+03) + (0. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = 3. Calculate the cross-product of all the forces about the Y-axis at node 3.426e+02) xv. Node 3 xxi. MPC loads:Zero xxix.166) the following is obtained: xxxi.000e+03 (The value of the applied shear) Mx calculation.000e+02. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.871e+00) xxv. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = -1. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-8.

op2 file in float point precision in binary format. All nodes in the node set will have displacement and rotation values extracted.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system. All values are zero in this model. nodes 3 and 4 (node set).op2 file. This maintains the integrity of the calculations as well as enhances the performance of the utilities. 2. FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility uses an element set and a node set to define the values to extract from the Displacement table. looping through all the nodes in the node set a. for a cross-section defined with element 1 (element set). summation node set to node 3. Additional Information: • Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. • • 396 HyperMesh 8. for Nastran and OptiStruct. The final Resultant Force and Moment results are presented in the graphic below. which is the summary table output from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. This procedure reduces the size of the . The element set is for visualization and breakout modeling purposes only. The element and node sets serve several purposes: 1.• Mz calculation. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the .op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions. MPC forces and moments are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: o RBE2 o RBE3 o Rigidlink o RJOINT o RROD o RBAR The GPFORCE and Displacement results are extracted of the . Additionally.

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