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HyperMesh 8.0 User's Guide

HyperMesh 8.0 User's Guide

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Publicado porSubhash Chander

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Published by: Subhash Chander on Jul 07, 2011
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Sections

  • Hardware and Operating Systems
  • Starting HyperMesh
  • Starting HyperMesh Batch Version
  • Start-up Options
  • Configuring HyperMesh
  • Configuration File Commands
  • Start-up Files
  • Specifying a Temporary File Directory
  • HyperMesh Database Design
  • Database Names
  • Using and Saving a Database
  • Nodes
  • Fixed Points
  • Free Points
  • Collectors
  • Elements
  • Lines
  • Surfaces and Faces
  • Systems
  • Loads
  • Cards
  • Vectors
  • Title
  • HyperMesh Environment
  • Pull-Down menus
  • Graphics Area
  • Toolbar Area
  • Header Bar
  • Main Menu Area
  • Page Menu
  • Tab Area
  • Model Browser
  • Include Browser
  • Modules
  • Loadsteps Browser
  • Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles
  • Panels
  • Sub-panels
  • Input Controls
  • File Browser
  • The Mouse
  • Rapid Menu
  • Keyboard
  • Secondary Menu
  • Utility Menu
  • BOM comparison tool
  • Quick TetraMesh
  • User Profiles
  • HyperMesh User Profile
  • Using HyperMesh
  • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database
  • Picking Entities on the Screen
  • Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements
  • Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu
  • Viewing Models
  • Using the disp (display) Panel
  • Setting View Options
  • Setting Tolerances
  • Setting Global Parameters
  • Importing and Exporting Data
  • Printing Screen Images
  • Using the Card Previewer
  • General Process for Building Models
  • Creating Collectors
  • Reading Geometry
  • Creating Geometry Data
  • Temporary Nodes
  • Picking Surfaces
  • Editing Surfaces
  • Associativity
  • Geometry Cleanup
  • Building Elements
  • Checking Model Quality
  • Applying Loads
  • Creating Systems
  • Automatic Mesh Generation
  • Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel
  • Mesh Generation Algorithms
  • Smoothing Algorithms
  • Element Biasing
  • Linked or Locked Edges
  • Connector Entity
  • Connector Terminology
  • Connector Definition
  • Connector Realization
  • Connector Review
  • Connectors User Control Mode
  • Master Connectors File
  • Multiple Weld File Format
  • Import Templates
  • FE Configuration File
  • FE Definition Examples
  • HyperMorph Strategies
  • The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing
  • Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains
  • Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • HyperBeam Module
  • Example of the Three-Step Process
  • Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam
  • HyperBeam Environment
  • Section Browser
  • Shell Section Graphics Pane
  • Results/Spreadsheet Pane
  • HyperBeam Menu Bar
  • HyperBeam Toolbar
  • Beam Cross Section Property Solver
  • Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements
  • Defining a Cross Section
  • Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties
  • Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver
  • Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers
  • HyperLaminate Module
  • HyperLaminate Environment
  • HyperLaminate Menus
  • HyperLaminate Toolbar
  • Laminate Browser
  • Define/Edit Pane
  • Review Pane
  • Finite Difference Module
  • Creating a Finite Difference Block
  • Creating a Structured Mesh
  • Loads on Geometry
  • Terminology and Definitions
  • Application of Loads to Geometry
  • Exporting Loads
  • Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh
  • Distributed Load Mapper
  • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results
  • Select a data type and a mapping method
  • Set the scale factor
  • Set the mapping algorithm
  • Mathematical Loading
  • Post-Processing Analysis
  • HyperMesh Results Database
  • Specifying the Results File
  • Creating Deformed Geometry Plots
  • Creating Animations
  • Creating Vector Plots
  • Creating Contour Plots
  • Creating Assigned Plots
  • Adding Plot Identification
  • Inspecting the Results
  • XY Plotting
  • XY Plots Module
  • Creating an XY Plot
  • Modifying an XY Plot
  • Working with Multiple XY Plots
  • Modifying Multiple XY Plots
  • Creating Curves on XY Plots
  • Modifying Curve Attributes
  • Displaying Selected Curves on Plots
  • Using the Curve Editor
  • AutoDV Introduction
  • Generation of Perturbation Vectors
  • Manual Perturbation
  • Polynomial Perturbation Vectors
  • Primary Domain Model
  • Primary Domain Node Sets
  • Control Perturbations
  • Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets
  • Harmonic Perturbation Vectors
  • Generation of Variable Loads
  • Running AutoDV Stand-alone
  • Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
  • To create an H3D file from HyperMesh:
  • H3D FAQ's
  • Free Body Diagrams
  • FBD Set Manager
  • FBD Displacements
  • FBD Forces
  • FBD Cross-section manager
  • FBD Resultant Force and Moment
  • FBD Results Manager
  • FBD Export Manager
  • FBD Grid Point Force Balance

HyperMesh 8.

0 User's Guide

HyperWorks

Altair Engineering Contact Information
Web site FTP site www.altair.com Address: ftp.altair.com or ftp2.altair.com or http://ftp.altair.com/ftp Login: ftp Password: <your e-mail address>

Location
North America China France Germany India

Telephone
248.614.2425 86.21.5393.0011 33.1.4133.0990 49.7031.6208.22 91.80.6629.4500 1.800.425.0234 (toll free) 39.800.905.595 81.3.5396.1341 81.3.5396.2881 82.31.716.4321 46.46.286.2052 44.1926.468.600 55.11.4223.5733 64.9.413.7981 64.9.413.7981

e-mail
hwsupport@altair.com support@altair.com.cn francesupport@altair.com hwsupport@altair.de support@india.altair.com

Italy Japan Korea Scandinavia United Kingdom Brazil Australia New Zealand

support@altairtorino.it support@altairjp.co.jp support@altair.co.kr support@altair.se support@uk.altair.com br_support@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com

The following countries have distributors for Altair Engineering: Mexico, Romania, Russia, South Korea, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan and Turkey. See www.altair.com for complete contact information. © 2007 Altair Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated to another language without the written permission of Altair Engineering, Inc. To obtain this permission, write to the attention Altair Engineering legal department at: 1820 E. Big Beaver, Troy, Michigan, USA, or call +1-248-614-2400.

Trademark and Registered Trademark Acknowledgments
Listed below are Altair HyperWorks applications. Copyright Altair Engineering Inc., All Rights Reserved for: HyperMesh 1990-2006; HyperView 1999-2006; OptiStruct 1996-2006; HyperStudy 1999-2006; ® ® ® HyperGraph 1995-2006; HyperGraph 3D 2005-2006; MotionView 1993-2006; MotionSolve 2002-2006; ® ® ® ® HyperForm 1998-2006; HyperXtrude 1999-2006; HyperOpt 1996-2006; HyperView Player 2001-2006; ® Process Manager™ 2003-2006; HyperWeb 2002-2004; Data Manager™ 2005-2006; Templex™ 19902006; Manufacturing Solutions ™ 2005-2006 All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
® ® ® ® ® ® ©

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Starting and Configuring HyperMesh
Hardware and Operating Systems ......................................................................................1 Starting HyperMesh .............................................................................................................2 Starting HyperMesh Batch Version .....................................................................................5 Start-up Options ...................................................................................................................6 Configuring HyperMesh.......................................................................................................7 Configuration File Commands .............................................................................................9 Start-up Files ......................................................................................................................21 Specifying a Temporary File Directory ..............................................................................21

HyperMesh Database and Environment
HyperMesh Database Design............................................................................................22 Database Names ...............................................................................................................22 Using and Saving a Database...........................................................................................22 Nodes .................................................................................................................................22 Fixed Points .......................................................................................................................22 Free Points .........................................................................................................................22 Collectors ...........................................................................................................................23 Elements ............................................................................................................................27 Lines ...................................................................................................................................30 Surfaces and Faces...........................................................................................................32 Systems..............................................................................................................................33 Loads..................................................................................................................................33 Cards..................................................................................................................................33 Vectors ...............................................................................................................................33 Title.....................................................................................................................................34 HyperMesh Environment ...................................................................................................35 Pull-Down menus...............................................................................................................37 Graphics Area ....................................................................................................................39 Toolbar Area ......................................................................................................................40 Header Bar .........................................................................................................................44 Main Menu Area.................................................................................................................46 Page Menu .........................................................................................................................46
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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide i

Tab Area.............................................................................................................................47 Model Browser ...................................................................................................................48 Include Browser .................................................................................................................57 Modules ..............................................................................................................................63 Loadsteps Browser............................................................................................................64 Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles ............................................................65 Panels ................................................................................................................................69 Sub-panels .........................................................................................................................70 Input Controls.....................................................................................................................71 File Browser .......................................................................................................................77 The Mouse .........................................................................................................................79 Rapid Menu ........................................................................................................................81 Keyboard ............................................................................................................................82 Secondary Menu ................................................................................................................86 Utility Menu ........................................................................................................................87 BOM comparison tool ........................................................................................................95 Quick TetraMesh..............................................................................................................112

User Profiles
User Profiles.....................................................................................................................127 HyperMesh User Profile...................................................................................................128

Using HyperMesh
Using HyperMesh ............................................................................................................128 Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database ..............................................................129 Picking Entities on the Screen .........................................................................................130 Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements .......................................................................132 Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu .....................................................................133 Viewing Models ................................................................................................................137 Using the disp (display) Panel .........................................................................................140 Setting View Options........................................................................................................142 Setting Tolerances ...........................................................................................................145 Setting Global Parameters...............................................................................................145 Importing and Exporting Data ..........................................................................................146 Printing Screen Images ...................................................................................................148 Using the Card Previewer................................................................................................150
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Building Models
General Process for Building Models ..............................................................................151 Creating Collectors ..........................................................................................................152 Reading Geometry...........................................................................................................153 Creating Geometry Data ..................................................................................................154 Temporary Nodes ............................................................................................................158 Picking Surfaces ..............................................................................................................158 Editing Surfaces ...............................................................................................................159 Associativity .....................................................................................................................161 Geometry Cleanup ...........................................................................................................162 Building Elements ............................................................................................................164 Checking Model Quality ...................................................................................................167 Applying Loads.................................................................................................................168 Creating Systems.............................................................................................................169

Automatic 2-D Mesh Generation
Automatic Mesh Generation ............................................................................................170 Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel.......................................................................172 Mesh Generation Algorithms ...........................................................................................173 Smoothing Algorithms......................................................................................................175 Element Biasing ...............................................................................................................176 Linked or Locked Edges ..................................................................................................179

Connectors
Connector Entity...............................................................................................................180 Connector Terminology ...................................................................................................181 Connector Definition ........................................................................................................185 Connector Realization......................................................................................................187 Connector Review............................................................................................................188 Connectors User Control Mode .......................................................................................188 Master Connectors File....................................................................................................189 Multiple Weld File Format ................................................................................................190 Import Templates .............................................................................................................191 FE Configuration File .......................................................................................................193 FE Definition Examples ...................................................................................................197

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide iii

HyperMorph and Morphing Strategies
HyperMorph Strategies ....................................................................................................199 The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing......................................................................201 Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains ..................................................220 Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................237 Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................263

Calculating Beam Properties
HyperBeam Module .........................................................................................................272 Example of the Three-Step Process................................................................................274 Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam ..............................................279 HyperBeam Environment.................................................................................................282 Section Browser...............................................................................................................283 Shell Section Graphics Pane...........................................................................................284 Results/Spreadsheet Pane..............................................................................................285 HyperBeam Menu Bar .....................................................................................................287 HyperBeam Toolbar .........................................................................................................294 Beam Cross Section Property Solver ..............................................................................296 Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements..................................................297 Defining a Cross Section .................................................................................................298 Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties .................300 Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver .........................................................................301 Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers ................................................................303

HyperLaminate and Composites
HyperLaminate Module....................................................................................................304 HyperLaminate Environment ...........................................................................................305 HyperLaminate Menus .....................................................................................................306 HyperLaminate Toolbar ...................................................................................................308 Laminate Browser............................................................................................................309 Define/Edit Pane ..............................................................................................................313 Review Pane ....................................................................................................................323

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Finite Difference Module
Finite Difference Module ..................................................................................................324 Creating a Finite Difference Block...................................................................................324 Creating a Structured Mesh.............................................................................................325

Boundary Conditions
Loads on Geometry .........................................................................................................327 Terminology and Definitions ............................................................................................328 Application of Loads to Geometry ...................................................................................329 Exporting Loads ...............................................................................................................330 Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh ..............................................330 Distributed Load Mapper .................................................................................................331 Load an input file containing CFD analysis results .........................................................333 Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, or ANSYS input file format) ...............................................................................................................334 Select a data type and a mapping method......................................................................334 Set the scale factor ..........................................................................................................334 Set the mapping algorithm ...............................................................................................335 Mathematical Loading......................................................................................................336

Post-Processing and XY Plots
Post-Processing Analysis ................................................................................................338 HyperMesh Results Database.........................................................................................338 Specifying the Results File ..............................................................................................339 Creating Deformed Geometry Plots ................................................................................339 Creating Animations.........................................................................................................339 Creating Vector Plots .......................................................................................................340 Creating Contour Plots.....................................................................................................340 Creating Assigned Plots ..................................................................................................340 Adding Plot Identification .................................................................................................341 Inspecting the Results......................................................................................................341 XY Plotting .......................................................................................................................342 XY Plots Module...............................................................................................................343 Creating an XY Plot .........................................................................................................344 Modifying an XY Plot........................................................................................................344 Working with Multiple XY Plots ........................................................................................344
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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide v

Modifying Multiple XY Plots .............................................................................................344 Creating Curves on XY Plots ...........................................................................................345 Modifying Curve Attributes...............................................................................................347 Displaying Selected Curves on Plots ..............................................................................347 Using the Curve Editor.....................................................................................................348

AutoDV
AutoDV Introduction .........................................................................................................351 Generation of Perturbation Vectors.................................................................................352 Manual Perturbation.........................................................................................................352 Polynomial Perturbation Vectors .....................................................................................353 Primary Domain Model ....................................................................................................353 Primary Domain Node Sets .............................................................................................354 Control Perturbations .......................................................................................................355 Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets ....................................................................357 Harmonic Perturbation Vectors .......................................................................................359 Generation of Variable Loads ..........................................................................................361 Running AutoDV Stand-alone .........................................................................................363

H3D Writer
Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh ...........................................................................365 H3D FAQ's .......................................................................................................................369

Free Body Diagrams
Free Body Diagrams........................................................................................................370 FBD Set Manager ............................................................................................................371 FBD Displacements .........................................................................................................375 FBD Forces ......................................................................................................................378 FBD Cross-section manager ...........................................................................................381 FBD Resultant Force and Moment ..................................................................................383 FBD Results Manager......................................................................................................386 FBD Export Manager .......................................................................................................388 FBD Grid Point Force Balance ........................................................................................390

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depending on their level of sophistication.0.8. such as drawing a line on the screen.3. IBM running AIX 4.13 m. Most of the HyperMesh source code is independent and can be compiled on various systems. please contact your HyperMesh sales representative. LINUX running RH 7. Some platforms may have limitations or extensions. or 5. or information concerning future platforms. WIN 2000/XP. Notes for PC Users If you are running Windows NT (depending on model size or processor speed) you may wish to turn the full drag option off. HyperMesh has an identical appearance and behavior on all platforms.2.23.1. HP-ITANIUM (HPUX_IA32) running 11.3.3 or RH 8. All UNIX ports are built around OpenGL.0 User’s Guide 1 .5. However. HP-PARISC (HPUX) running 11. This option is found in the Desktop icon in the Control Panel group. Silicon Graphics family of workstations running IRIX 6.11.0 or 11.5.0. needs to be "ported" to each hardware platform on which HyperMesh runs. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 5.Hardware and Operating Systems HyperMesh is not tied to a specific set of computer hardware or operating system and presents the same appearance on all platforms. which prevents HyperMesh from redrawing immediately when a destructive windowing operation is performed. SUN workstations running Solaris 2.11 m and IRIX 6. a small portion of source code that controls the graphically oriented operations. For more specific information concerning your hardware/software configuration. The following hardware platforms are currently supported: • • • • • • • Pentium-based PC or compatible running Windows WIN NT 4. In general.

At the operating system prompt. enter the full path of the HyperMesh script (e. hm.Starting HyperMesh This section explains how to start HyperMesh on UNIX. To start HyperMesh: 1. add the following line in the .cfg configuration file. Or Create an alias for HyperMesh in the user . enter hm at the command prompt to invoke HyperMesh. You can create a start-up file or alter the HyperMesh configuration file. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. 2. Note: For more information about creating and using start-up files.. For more information about the hm. For example. see Configuring HyperMesh. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh. see Start-up Files.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .cshrc file in the user home directory. and Windows XP platforms.alias or . Starting HyperMesh in UNIX This section contains the instructions and optional arguments for starting HyperMesh on a UNIX workstation.g. <altair_home>/altair/scripts/hm) and press the ENTER key.alias or . 2 HyperMesh 8.cfg. to have HyperMesh start and run according to the standards and preferences of your particular work site. Windows 2000.0/altair/script/hm’ Once an alias is created.cshrc file: alias hm ‘/homes/applications/hm8.

a window opens prompting you to choose a user profile. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. 5. The user profiles window is also accessible from the view pull-down menu. By default. Since HyperMesh creates user files. Choose the desired user profile and then click OK. Uncheck always show at startup to prevent this window from opening each time you load HyperMesh. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. click Start and choose Programs. an Altair HyperWorks group is created in Programs on the Start menu. 2. From the Start menu. you may wish to change this directory. From the Altair HyperWorks group: select HyperMesh. 3. 4. User profiles affect the HyperMesh layout as well as features such as element quality checks.Starting HyperMesh on PC During installation. HyperMesh starts and the main menu is displayed on the screen. The quit button is located on the upper right-hand corner of the panel area on any of the main menu pages. To start HyperMesh: 1. To exit HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide 3 . or Click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. click quit. The default working directory specified by the HyperMesh icon is the Windows default My Documents directory.

To change the working directory: 1. 4. The path to the HyperMesh executable displays after Target:. 5. Select Properties. Select the Shortcut tab.set. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. 2. 4 HyperMesh 8. are created in this directory.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .cmf and hmmenu. 2. Click Apply. 3. enter the name and path of the directory in which you want to run HyperMesh. Select the Shortcut tab. For example. Append the startup options to the path listed in Target:. enter -nocommand after the HyperMesh path. 4. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. To change/use startup options: 1. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. if you do not want HyperMesh to write a command file. After Start in:. command. Your user files. 3. Select Properties.

the path to the hmbatch executable is displayed.g.cmf and press ENTER. After Cmd line:. postscript.com) executable file in the /hm/bin directory. At the operating system prompt. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 5 . type hmbatch –ccommand. Since this batch version does not have graphical display. 3. To start HyperMesh batch version on UNIX: 1. create. command. hmbatch terminates when it reaches the end of the command file or when it encounters *quit( ) in the command file. Locate and right-click on the hmbatch(.Starting HyperMesh Batch Version HyperMesh batch version (hmbatch) allows you to invoke HyperMesh in batch mode at the command line and run a command file. Click Apply. 4. –ccommand. Right -click on the hmbatch icon on the desktop. etc. Note: See Start-up Options for more information about the start-up arguments you can use. Select Properties.) are ignored. 2.cmf contains the HyperMesh commands to be executed. To start HyperMesh batch version on PC: 1. HyperMesh commands that require display (e. fit. 5. 6. Append the option. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh. 2.cmf. Select the programs tab. to this path. plot.

set file to replace the installed hmmenu. -uAnsys to start HyperMesh under the Ansys user profile.res suffix. The format of the command is: hm [ -version ] [-h] [-m] where: -version -h -m Display the current version.set.cmf file. Causes HyperMesh to pause on the title splash screen until you press a key on the keyboard. Do not prompt via a pop-up box. Automatically load the specified HyperMesh binary file.msf file.msf file Other options that can be specified after the start-up command allow you to specify model or results files or run command or mouse files. Write the mouse commands to a mouse. Causes HyperMesh to draw nodes to the PostScript file as circles. Set the text input field in the export panel to the specified file. Plays back the mouse commands in the mouse. Allows you to write a master hmmenu. Print this message. Automatically run the specified command file.Start-up Options You can enter arguments after the hm command that allow you to specify which command file to run. Forces HyperMesh to run in the foreground. res (-r alone specifies the file fl. nodes are not drawn. These options include: fl. or the specified file. Use the results file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .res). Sets the global template file to the specified file. -e<filename> <filename> -mmouse. Otherwise. or to print messages.msf -nobg -nocommand -psdhm -r[filename] -rres -s<width><height> -templex -t<filename> -titlepause -u<profile> -writemastermenu 6 HyperMesh 8. Allows Templex within command files. Start HyperMesh under a specific user profile: for example. pre-set export paths. Prevents HyperMesh from creating or writing to the command. change screen resolutions. Sets the name of the HyperMesh results file database to either the input filename with a . fl. Opens the application in a window of the specified width and height in pixels (PC only).hm -c<filename> -continue Read the HyperMesh file.hm. Always continue on error when processing a command file.

only on start -up. The commands are not sensitive to location in the file. The hm.cfg commands begins with an asterisk and is followed by a set of parentheses that enclose a variable number of arguments. which is read on start-up and is located in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/ directory.cfg file are acknowledged.0 User’s Guide 7 .cfg. hm. You can edit the commands in the hm. They may begin in any column.cfg. and titlestitlefont_configuration_command>Config fonts Specify the default legend colorlegendcolorfile_configuration_command>Config Specify a color to use for entities with no resultsnoresultcolor_configuration_command>Config Change cursor sizebigcursors_configuration_command>Config Turn element and geom handlesnopickhandles_configuration_command>Config off by default Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending PostScript files to a PostScript printerpostcopy_configuration_command>Config Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending black and white PostScript filespostcopyblackandwhite_configuration_command>Config to a PostScript printer • • • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Each of the hm. HyperMesh uses the following order of precedence: PC customization path current (local) directory installation directory UNIX current (local) directory home directory installation directory All running copies of HyperMesh must be restarted before any changes to the hm.cfg file: *menufont(2) *titlefont(3) *graphicfont(1) Note: HyperMesh accesses the configuration file. A command can be turned into a comment by removing the asterisk (*) preceding the command.Configuring HyperMesh HyperMesh has a default configuration file named hm.cfg file allow you to: • • • • • Specify an absolute pointing deviceabsolutepointer_configuration_command>Config Enable buttonbuttons_configuration_command>Config and dialdials_configuration_command>Config input Specify default translatorsfeinput_default_configuration_command>Config and templatesfeoutput_default_configuration_command>Config Specify the default solversregistersolver_configuration_command>Config Specify default graphicsgraphicfont_configuration_command>Config. or all of the commands may be on one line. The following commands are an example of a partial hm.cfg file to save your preferences. The commands in the hm.cfg file exists in multiple directories. If the hm.cfg file controls certain aspects of how HyperMesh runs at your particular site. with each command occupying one line. menumenufont_configuration_command>Config.

called hmsettings. Hmsettings.cfg).mac file hmmenu.set file Cadreader. Set the screen size Specify the colormap version Set the default graphics simplification mode Tells HyperMesh to load the 3D Writer Specify the input translator and component format Specifies which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system Display the Utility menu when HyperMesh starts Include intermediate (not just the final choice) rotation commands There is another configuration file stored in "My Documents" on the Windows platform and in ~/. such as tab locations (left/right/both/none).cfg file hmexec file feconfig.cfg file Any printer settings (which may also exist in hm. Multiple paths can be specified as variable values within this variable name. or ug.tcl file 8 HyperMesh 8.ini.cfg file userpage. However. deleting this file can restore your HyperMesh settings to the default state if you encounter problems within the HyperMesh user interface that you cannot rectify by any other means.ini files.tcl should not be edited and its format will change between releases. hmcustom. tabs which are visible (e.ini Fatigue. in order to use configuration files stored in a different file path. key bindings.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The configuration files which can be used in conjunction with customization paths are: hm. HyperMesh creates this file automatically when upon exiting the program.ini. iges.cfg file hyperlaminate. model or include browser).g.altair on Unix and Linux. This prevents them from being overwritten when you install a new HyperWorks update. HyperMesh uses this file to record various GUI settings for each user.tcl. recent files imported and recent files loaded. such as catia. administrators must set up an environment variable called HW_CONFIG_PATH to specify the path.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Note: Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending ASCII files to a PostScript printerprintfile_configuration_command>Config Specify how to create a PostScript file of the screenpostfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Specify how to create a bitmap file of the screenscreenfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Indicate to HyperMesh the method for creating bitmap files Set reverse video when your printer cannot be set to reverse black and white. However. Customization paths You can store configuration files in a file path other than the ones to which they are installed by default.

uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text.Configuration File Commands The following is a list of the configuration commands that you can use to control how HyperMesh runs at your particular site: *absolutepointer() Use this command if you have a digitizing tablet or any other type of absolute pointing device. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. *boldmenufont () Description Syntax To force the menu font to bold on windows.0 User’s Guide 9 . *boldmenufont(state) state 1 = bold 0 = use current value Comments The menu system in HyperMesh.) *bigcursors() Informs HyperMesh that pointing cursors should be double-sized when they are displayed on the screen. under Windows. (An absolute pointer usually has six buttons. You can also change the cursor size by selecting large or standard under cursor size: on the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. This command allows you to force the menu system to use a bold font.

0. HyperMesh does not respond to button input.00170778765. When mode is set to 1. *ce_fe_orientaxis() This command is called from the HyperMesh configuration file to specify the axis of the system that needs to be aligned in the direction of FE during connector realization.0. In this case. A value of 1 (default) to the function aligns the Y-axis of the coordinate system in the direction of FE and a value of 0 defines Xaxis and a value 2 defines Z-axis. *dynamicrotatemode() Sets mode for output of intermediate rotation commands.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations. there may be a delay in the operation while the display list is being built. Syntax Arguments Example *dynamicrotatemode(mode) mode Set to 1 or 0.0.999937705) *quatrotate(-0.999966514) *quatrotate(0.00529684395.00994070323. *controlkeyviewmode() Specify whether display listing should be done during control key assisted viewing.000802068982. if the *buttons() command is not added to the configuration file.00228960797.0.0. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu. *dials() This command informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with dials that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode.999985423) 10 HyperMesh 8. Immediate mode results in a faster initial response time. Syntax *controlkeyviewmode(mode) mode Note: 0 = immediate mode 1 = use display listing (default) When display listing is used.0. HyperMesh does not respond to dial input.7397916e005. In this case. but the operation will have a higher frame rate (faster). the following output is generated: *dynamicviewbegin() *quatrotate(-0.00785649346. See *CE_FE_SetDetailsandRealize() for information on creating a coordinate system during realization.*buttons() Informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with buttons that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode. but a lower frame rate (slower).000673180986.0. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations.0047803938. if the *dials() command is not added to the configuration file.0. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu (See *buttons()).-5.

You can display or hide the utility menu from within HyperMesh by selecting Utility Menu from the View pull-down menu. *enablemacromenu() This specifies whether or not the macro Utility Menu should display when the program loads. -3.299006.000000. or a symbolic name for the translator.761037. Otherwise.657815.00106667981.886445. 8.000000.575689. Syntax *feinputdefault(filename) Arguments entity_type The name of any file found in the feinput directory. 0. -0. -8.*quatrotate(0. -0. Comments A symbolic name begins with a '#' character followed by the specification of the translator.0. The first part is the type of translator and the second part is a specific version of the translator. 0.000395387048.623743. 0. 1. 1 = on (default). 0. *feinputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which translator in the import/CUSTOM sub-panel is the default. 0. the following output is generated: *viewset(-0.0.00263644785. Comments 0.0. only the finial position is output.000327769044.583235.000000.999996393) *dynamicviewend() When mode is set to 0. the Utility menu is displayed. -3. 0. When the mode is set to 1. reducing the size of the command file. 0. intermediate *quadrotate() rotation commands are output to the command file.485656.0. 0 = off.964252. 0. The specification contains two parts separated with a '\'. By default.9 99998898) *quatrotate(-0.722177.000230328525.0.030465.0.621393) 5.703590.612440. 2.756111. 0.213868.00100703597.000000.0 User’s Guide 11 . The symbolic name for each translator is listed below: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

12 HyperMesh 8.FE: #abaqus\abaqus #ansys\ansys #cmold\cmold #moldflow\moldflow #nastran\nastran #patran\patran #marc\marc #optistruct\optistruct #ls-dyna\dynakey #ls-dyna\\dynaseq #pamcrash\pamcrash #ideas\ideas #autodv\autodv #stl\stl #hmascii\hmascii GEOM: #catia\catia #iges\iges #ug\ug_16 #ug\ug_15 #stl\stl #vdafs\vdafs #hmascii\hmascii WELD: #spotweld\spotweld *feoutputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which template is the default. This command requires one argument which can be set to the name of any file found in the template/feoutput directory.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

The default simplification mode for performance graphics can also be set in the graphics subpanel in the options panel.0 User’s Guide 13 . element handles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. style.*forceoldmenufonts () To force the menu font to the old style. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). Syntax *graphicsimplificationmode(mode. Syntax *graphicengine(mode) mode 0 = standard graphics 1 = performance graphics *graphicfont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display numbers. This option can also be set using the engine: toggle in the graphics sub-panel of the options panel. style is set using the simplification style switch and curComp is set using the simplify current comp check box. *graphicengine() Sets the default graphics mode. where: mode is set using view acceleration and when view acceleration is set to automatic or Ctrl-Shift. The font size may also be changed during a HyperMesh session using the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. curComp) mode 0 = none 1 = automatic (default) 2 = Ctrl-Shift 0 1 2 3 4 5 = no simplification = feature lines (default) = bounding box = node cloud = element centroid = simplified shading style curComp 0 = do not simplify current component (default) 1 = simplify current component Note: If mode = 0. *graphicsimplificationmode() Sets the default simplification mode for performance graphics. under Windows. Syntax Note: *forceoldmenufonts() The menu system in HyperMesh. This command allows you to force the menu system to use the historical fonts. and legends in the graphics area. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. style and curComp are not required.

HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. The element and geometry pick handles can be set in the modeling sub-panel of the options panel. The only information unknown at startup is the name of the file. if this command is specified.*legendcolorfile() Informs HyperMesh which legend color file should be the default.100). This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). You can copy this file into your home directory and customize many of the default settings. To circumvent this. The string is sent to the operating system and should be the standard command which you would use to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. or khaki (210.0. The color must be between 1 and 64. The command requires one parameter.cfg file. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. *nopickhandles() Informs HyperMesh that you wish to have element and geometry pick handles off by default. For testing purposes.0. The color assigned to these no result entities is specified in the hm. The complete *postcopy() command of the above example is *postfile("postprt *filename"). If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. Pick handles will be turned off when HyperMesh is started and turned off whenever a new file is loaded. G. This command links the PostScript capability of HyperMesh and allows plots of the currently displayed screen to be printed directly from HyperMesh. Syntax *legendsetbordercolor(color) Comments *menufont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display the menu. white (255. The font size may also be changed in the menu config sub-panel in the options panel.175. You can experiment with the values in the color sub-panel of the options panel. This improves graphic performance. *noresultcolor() Elements or nodes for which no results were found are assigned a color (default = gray) to distinguish them from an actual 0 result. *postcopy() is invoked when you press CTRL-F3. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing.B). then you would use *postcopy("postprt junk"). The default color is specified with *noresultcolor(R. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. inclusively 14 HyperMesh 8.0).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .255. Other colors include: dark blue (0. black (0. Green and Blue. The default gray color values are *noresultcolor(80. Syntax legendcolorfile(file) *legendsetbordercolor() Allows you to set the border color. however.G. This command requires one argument that can be set to the name of any file found in the <install_directory>/hm/colors directory. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *postcopy() command to the operating system.80).255).80. a character string closed in double quotes "". if you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command postprt junk. *postcopy() Informs HyperMesh how to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. For example. 0-D elements (such as contact slave elements and mass elements) cannot be seen easily. and B are the intensity values for Red. where R.128).

Provided for consistency with the *screenfile() and *screencopy() commands. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. *rapidmenus() The rapid menu functionality for the middle mouse button may be turned off with this command. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. By default. use *printfile("print_it junk"). Syntax Argument *rapidmenus(mode) mode 0 1 Comments Disable rapid menus. O. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. "Hyper3D") Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *printfile() command to the operating system. To circumvent this. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. The string provided is sent to the operating system and should be the command which you normally use to send a file to a printer. For testing purposes. rapid menu functionality is enabled.*postcopyblackandwhite() Identical to the *postcopy() command. For testing purposes. a character string closed in double quotes."Hyper3D") UNIX Users: *register3dwriter({bindir+"/hm3dwriter3. *register3dwriter() Tells HyperMesh to activate the H3D writer. "". *printfile() Informs HyperMesh how to send an ASCII file to a printer. *postfile() Sends the currently displayed screen to a PostScript file. In general. but allows you to use a different command to send a black and white PostScript file to a printer. The only information unknown at start-up is the name of the file. *printfile() is invoked in the summary panel on the Post page.dll"}.1"}. Disabling it may be desirable if you use the middle mouse button for other (e. PC Users: *register3dwriter({bin_dir+"/hm3dwriter31. This command is only used in the command file."Hyper3Dwrite". you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. the string parameter required is set to a zero length string.0 User’s Guide 15 .g. *postcopyblackandwhite() is invoked when you press CTRL-F5. Enable rapid menus."Hyper3Dwrite". If you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command print_it junk./non-HyperMesh) tasks. This command requires one parameter.S. The complete *printfile() command of the above example is *printfile("print_it *filename").

On UNIX platforms. This command allows you to set up and customize the solver panel in HyperMesh. A character string that is passed to the operating system to invoke the solver.sdp is created by HyperMesh."outfile:output file". *input is replaced by the input file (the extension is always . the colors representing black and white should be reversed.fem. which is a value.out". A character string that is of type file or value. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness.) *memory in MB is replaced by the value. > *output. "value:memory in MB". The name of the solver executable file. one for the memory in MB. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. The third parameter undergoes the substitution with the user-input values. This command takes several arguments: Syntax *registersolver({solver}.fem *memory in MB. *output is replaced with the user-selected output file (the extension for output file is always . after substituting the user-input parameters. *solver is replaced by the solver executable name. The status bar indicates when the screen grab is complete. "file:input". a file is created but not spooled to the print device (the CTRL-F1 and CTRL-F2 keys function identically) and you must click the active HyperMesh window to trigger the screen capture."*solver *input file *output file *options". The solver field can be of type value or file. optistruct."{home}\ {solver}". one for the solver executable. A file named sliden.out). and one for the output file name. depending on the expected input. Each character string represents an input field. "file:output") Arguments This command creates a solver panel with four user-input fields."infile:input file". A maximum of six fields are allowed per solver. contact your systems administrator. *reversevideo() Informs HyperMesh that before the strings provided as parameters in the *screencopy() and *screenfile() commands are sent to the operating system. "*solver *input. a site-specific operating system utility is called to create and spool the image to the printing device. 16 HyperMesh 8. Example *registersolver(OPTISTRUCT.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Reverse video can also be set in the postscript sub-panel of the options panel. For more information on spooling bitmapped files directly to the printer. *screencopy() Tells HyperMesh how to create a temporary bitmap file of the screen and send it to a hard copy device."value:options") solver The name that you want to appear on the toggle in the solver panel. one for the input file name. The number of strings is identical to the substitutable fields in the third argument. Functionally.*registersolver() Informs HyperMesh which solvers are available and how to invoke them. This command is necessary only if the hard copy device on your system is not reverse video capable. By default.

contact your system administrator. follow the same method as described above and measure the vertical dimension of the screen. it’s important to remember to use the correct order for the command (e. The *screensize() option changes the aspect ratio of the images drawn in the graphics area. although the look of HyperMesh doesn’t change. a bitmap file is generated using the utility defined in the *screenfile() function (typically xwd) and output to a unique file using the same process as above. the length/width ratio of the objects may be distorted.1920) should allow HyperMesh to render undistorted images.sdf is created by HyperMesh. The name of the file can be accessed with the characters *filename. Note: in some cases. Syntax *setcolor(index. (0 through 255) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Functionally. you must select the HyperMesh window to indicate which window to capture. The units used are not important but must be consistent. height.*screenfile() Informs HyperMesh how to create a bitmap file of the screen that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device (such as a printer). HyperMesh generates a *. width). height). measure the horizontal dimension of the usable portion of the screen excluding any borders in the default window that HyperMesh creates (or the entire screen if your system does not use windows). When *screensize(14. For example. On the PC. A file named sliden. *screensize(1200. Circles may look like ovals. In such cases. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness.6). even after specifying the screen measurements the display can still appear distorted. change the two values to any numbers that have the same aspect ratio of the screen resolution that you use. The second parameter is the vertical (y) dimension of the screen. if your desktop runs at a resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels (an aspect ratio of 1. After you press CTRL-F2.bmp file that can be read into wordprocessing programs. The first parameter is the horizontal (x) dimension of the screen. red. (1 through 64) The color’s red component. blue) index red green blue Specifies the color location.30) is implemented. If you use a wide aspect ratio screen. thus. The command requires two parameters in real format separated by a comma. To determine this value. A message on the status bar indicates when the screen capture is complete. For more information about creating bitmap screen images. (0 through 255) The color’s green component. it is very similar to the *printfile() command.8.75. To find this value.0 User’s Guide 17 .g. The numbers are physical measurements of the display area of the screen (width. green. (0 through 255) The color’s blue component. the proportions of the objects is corrected. Remember that the command parameters represent height and width respectively. *setcolor() Set a colormap entry for each of the entity colors. *screensize() Informs HyperMesh of the physical size of your monitor. while screen resolutions are typically listed width by height. On UNIX platforms.

y. 18 HyperMesh 8. vertical direction of screen. Place the element coordinate system number here. and the following: ‘ ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * . z) x y z Comments X axis location. Z axis location.( ) _ = + \ | [ ] } . Currently. Example: *setcomponentformat(ansys. 1. only the ANSYS feinput translator supports this command. which represents lighting the model as you are looking at it. Symbols mean that everything encapsulated between the two symbols is displayed only if the element uses a section ID. The default setting is 0. Syntax *setlightsource(x. Place the material number here. spaces.0.*setcomponentformat() The first parameter of this command specifies which feinput translator you would like to use. *setlightsource() Set direction of the global light source. a-z. Place the real number here.cfg file or from a command file. in/out of screen. horizontal direction of screen. while the second parameter specifies the format you want your components to follow when importing them to HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 0-9. 0. Here are some examples of what the component above will show: TYPE3-MAT2 -REAL2-ESYS2 TYPE1-MAT1 -REAL1-ESYS0 TYPE2-MAT2 -REAL3-SECID1-ESYS0 The following characters can be used to customize the name of the components: A-Z. . Y axis location. This command may be used in either the hm. : ‘ / ? . "TYPE%t-MAT%m-REAL%r<-SECID%s>-ESYS%e") %t %m %r % <> %e Place the type number here.0.0. Place the section ID number here.

this usually occurs in models that are large in one direction.5. that N does not need to be an integer—decimal values are acceptable. Syntax *setperformancenormalmode(mode) mode Comments 0 = flat normals (default) 1 = smooth normals This command can only be used in the configuration file.7.0) The shininess value. but small in another direction. It is brightest along direct angle of reflection.0.1. 5 is the default).0.0.0.0.0. After altering this value you must restart HyperMesh to see the changes.7. the smaller and brighter the highlight (range 0 – 128) shininess Comments This command may be used in either the hm. The higher the value.0) The green component of the reflected light (range 0.0 – 1. The amount of specular reflection seen depends on the location of the viewpoint.5. Syntax *setspecularity(red. Example Settings may be used to simulate different materials: Glass *setspecularity(1.128) Plastic *setspecularity(0. Add or modify the *shadingquality(N) command in the hm. or from a command file.0 – 1.0) The blue component of the reflected light (range 0.cfg file. *setspecularity(0. *setspecularity() Set the global specular highlight values for performance graphics mode. blue. Specular reflection from an object produces highlights.0 – 1.*setperformancenormalmode() Set the performance graphics normal mode.5.32) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.7. Raising or decreasing shading quality by 1 roughly doubles or halves the quality. shininess) red green blue The red component of the reflected light (range 0.1. however.cfg file (where N is a number between 1 and 10. Note.0.64) Lead *shadingquality() Shaded geometry visualization sometimes does not follow the actual geometry. green.0 User’s Guide 19 .

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . characters in the name. To assist you in determining the best X Lib font to assign to HyperMesh. Note that the font size may also be changed in the titles panel on the Post page. but may cause the rest of the system’s colors to change when the HyperMesh window is active and HyperMesh’s colors to change when the window is not active. The first parameter indicates which of the four HyperMesh fonts is being assigned. *titlefont() Informs HyperMesh which font size should be used to display titles. A non-shared colormap can be used. or a similar one. This parameter may range from 1 to 4. On some platforms. 20 HyperMesh 8.*sharedcolormap() Informs HyperMesh which colormap method should be used in the X version. the X Lib utilities are usually distributed with a program called xfontsel. This program. *xfontname() Informs HyperMesh which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system. if your system is unique or if HyperMesh warns about one of the default fonts. The second parameter is a string which locates the X Lib font which you want to assign to the HyperMesh font. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). displays the possible X Lib font sets interactively. *. In general. With a shared colormap. However. the *xfontname() command must be modified. the system colormap does not have 256 colors available. some colors in HyperMesh may not be available and appear as black. The X version of HyperMesh requires a 256 color palette. This command requires two parameters. This string may contain wild card. the configuration file should have the appropriate fonts for your system.

All commands executed by the HyperMesh command processor are written to the command file command.hmexec on UNIX systems and hmexec on Windows systems. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2..cmf file when HyperMesh is started. On the Control panel. Although start-up files may contain any of the commands considered valid in a command file. 3. To avoid this problem. problems may arise if you later want to rerun the command. 5. Execute any task that you want the start-up file to automatically perform when HyperMesh opens. 4.cmf before you run it. Click the TMP line under User variables for .. if it exists. 4. If the environment variable is set. the directory where HyperMesh is installed. If you rerun the command.hmexec or hmexec. To set the environment variable in UNIX: SETENV TMPDIR <directory path> To set the environment variable in Windows: 1.0 User’s Guide 21 .cmf file. The file must be a HyperMesh command file and is named .cmf.Start-up Files HyperMesh allows you to create a start-up file that can be used to either execute a series of commands or to define global parameters. you can either not generate any entities in the start-up file. Specifying a Temporary File Directory You can set the environment variable to control where temporary HyperMesh files are created. Start HyperMesh. After you have generated all of the necessary commands. Click OK. it generates the entities specified in the start-up file. your home directory (where your home directory is assumed to be specified in the environment variable. . and then generates the same entities as specified by the command. Start-up files allow you to automatically define global parameters for the current session of HyperMesh. and the directory from which HyperMesh was invoked. Delete the command. quit HyperMesh. then the temporary files are created with an HM prefix in the referenced directory. double click the System folder. To create a start-up file: 1. Edit the text after Value: to specify the correct path to the directory in which you want temporary files created. be aware that if you create entities in the start-up file. or delete the start-up file commands in command. Rename command.cmf file. 2.cmf to the file name particular to your system. it looks for this file and then processes the commands within the file. including those generated by your start-up file. The directories searched include your customization path (if one is set up). When HyperMesh is invoked. the commands which were written when the start-up file was executed initially. HOME). 5.cmf file created during your HyperMesh session. 3. Select the Environment tab.

or group. The original database does not change until you save the model. Fixed points are displayed in the same color as the surface to which they belong. There are several types of collectors and each collector stores the model data relative to its type. points.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh copies the database into system memory. are organized within collectors. See Using and Saving a Database for more information about saving HyperMesh files. Note: See Database Names for more information about naming conventions. vector. However. or are referenced by a card image. HyperMesh entities include: Database Names There are no restrictions placed on HyperMesh database names other than those imposed by the operating system. Vertices along the edges of a surface are always marked by fixed points. Nodes The node is the most basic finite element entity. Using and Saving a Database While you work on a model. Fixed points may appear anywhere on a surface. Nodes contain a pointer to a surface and are therefore associated to a surface. This allows you to select nodes and elements by surface. and systems. If you exit HyperMesh without saving the current database." 22 HyperMesh 8. Free points are not associated with a surface and are labeled with a small "x. A fixed point is associated with a surface and is labeled with a small "o". All HyperMesh entities. all the changes that you have made during your work session are lost.hm for all HyperMesh binary databases. HyperMesh prompts you for confirmation before you exit. including nodes. elements. Free Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. This convention allows you to determine easily which of the files in a directory are HyperMesh databases. at Altair we use the extension . The automesher always places nodes at fixed points. if the current database has been modified but not saved. Nodes are considered "used" if they are part of an element.HyperMesh Database Design A HyperMesh database stores information about many different entity types. loads. Nodes represent physical positions on the structure being modeled and are used by the element entity to define the location and shape of the element. Fixed Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. HyperMesh automatically deletes from the database unused nodes and any loads that were attached to the unused nodes. lines.

Collectors can be modified and the entities within them can be reorganized. Note: Collector names are limited to 160 characters. Operations performed on a component affect all the elements. HyperMesh automatically creates a component. and surface data. All the elements in a component collector are assigned the same properties and materials except when the elements have a property reference. Component Collectors Components are collectors that contain element. You can use the collectors panel to modify the attributes of the auto1 component and the rename panel to change the name. auto1. Lines. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. and surfaces that belong to the component. This restricted access lets HyperMesh translate special collections of entities as a unit and allows it to support advanced features of analysis codes. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information in the header bar. lines. Note: Use the display panel to control the screen display of the collectors in your model. For more information about reorganizing collectors. rotated. an element cannot exist in two different collectors. elements. for example. see the organize panel.0 User’s Guide 23 . Component collectors also retain property and material information about the entities that belong to it. and surfaces cannot exist unless a component collector exists. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. All entities within HyperMesh must belong to a collector. or deleted. Entities can belong to only one collector. Configurations 1-4 are created in the interfaces panel. If you have not created a component first. assigned colors.Collectors A collector gathers related data and allows you to handle the data as one unit. HyperMesh automatically creates a collector for new entities if you do not create a collector first. for those entities. line. In this case. Configuration 5 is created in the rigid wall panel. This allows you to organize geometry data into units that can be translated. Group Collectors Groups are collectors that are restricted to certain types of elements. the elements are assigned properties from the property which they reference. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type.

Assembly Collectors Assemblies are collectors that contain several components organized into a single logical unit. After an assembly is created. Curve collectors contain information about the curves of an xy plot. 2-D or 3-D. you can assign the specified properties to new 1-D elements by entering the collector name after property = when you create or update the elements. A curve is referenced by selecting the plot collector. Operations performed on an assembly do not affect the components in the assembly. If a model contains any non-rigid elements. Entity Information Collectors These collectors maintain information about the entities assigned to them: Property Property collectors contain property information about 1-D elements and are required only when a model contains one or more of the following elements: bar2 bar3 gap joint masses rod spring After you create a property collector. Plot collectors contain pointers to curve collectors. See the Finite Difference Module section for more information. Components can belong to more than one assembly. then the model should have at least one material collector. You can set a component or property to the correct material collector by entering the collector name after material =. For example. This information includes the name and color of the curve and the line style used to display the curve. Plot Curve Block 24 HyperMesh 8. A plot collector contains information associated with an xy plot. if you delete an assembly. Material Material collectors contain information about the materials in a HyperMesh model. Block collectors contain information relating to a finite difference block. Properties for all other element types. the components in the assembly are not deleted. including its walls and cells. One plot collector is created for each plot in the database. you can select and display all the components that belong to it by selecting the assembly.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . are assigned by the component to which the elements belong.

Provide the rigid body reference for ellipsoids. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of loads. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of systems. Typically. The output blocks entity is used to store these nodes. Multibody Collectors Setting collector type to multibodies in the collectors panel provides functionality for the creation and modification of multibody collectors. or components (each set can contain only one type of entity). components. Note: A system cannot exist unless a system collector exists. Vector Collectors Vector collectors allow you to organize vectors. which allows you to access a group of systems as a unit. then HyperMesh creates a collector called auto1. and mbjoints entities. Hold and define rigid body properties for multi-body analysis. Additional information that can be included in sets are the name of the set and the type of entity contained within the set. a load collector contains loads that are to be applied at the same time. A vector collector can hold any number of vectors. which can be composed of specified elements. Note: If no collector has been created prior to the creation of vectors. elements. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. Output Blocks Some solvers allow you to request output results for specific nodes or elements. Typically. or materials. groups. systems. mbplanes. simulating a system loading condition.System Collectors System collectors allow you to organize local coordinate systems. Load Collectors Load collectors allow you to organize loads. Note: A load cannot exist unless a load collector exists. nodes.0 User’s Guide 25 . Multibody collectors serve multiple purposes: • • • Organizing HyperMesh’s ellipsoids. and planes. A system can belong to only one system collector. Load Steps The load steps entity allows you to select a set of load collectors. A system collector can hold any number of systems. cylinders. The method by which loads are organized may depend on the analysis code that is used to solve the problem. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. which allows you to access them as a unit. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. Sets Collectors Set collectors contain lists of entity IDs. the set of load collectors represents a system loading condition. A load can belong to only one load collector.

click anywhere on the geometry to define a location. The same fields and options available in the create sub-panel are also available in the update subpanel. If only surfaces or lines are available for selection.Create a Multibody Collector The create sub-panel is used for creating multibody collectors. Using or not using a card image has no bearing on how multibody collectors behave within HyperMesh and only effect data being exported. Setting creation method: to no card image specifies that a multibody collector type is to be assigned at the time of creation but one can be assigned later in the card image sub-panel. use system assigns the selected system to the created body. location of the center of gravity. and Reset a Multibody Collector The card image sub-panel is used to define. The N1 box contains the same functionality as the N1 selection buttons found elsewhere in HyperMesh. To define a center of gravity location. select a node on in the model window. create provides four data blocks for defining: the collector’s name. Review. The types of multibody collectors available are dependent on the loaded solver interface specified as a template file in the global panel. and the body’s local coordinate system. The name= field supports names up to 160 characters in length. center of gravity: provides an N1 node/geometry selection box to define the x. There are three ways to define the body’s orientation. Change. card image type. the rename panel is available in the far left column of every HyperMesh page. y=. Setting creation method: to same as assigns a copy of the card image of another multibody collector to the created collector. Note: The element handles option in the modeling sub-panel (options panel) allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. which is access through the card panel after the multibody collector has been created. release the mouse button. The multibody types available are based on the template loaded in the global panel. click and hold left mouse button in the model window until the cursor becomes a square. To modify the name of a multibody collector. change. center of gravity. and z= entry fields. Update a Multibody Collector The update sub-panel is provided to modify the body’s local coordinate system and center of gravity. Moments of inertia and other rigid body properties are defined in the multibody collector’s card image. drag the cursor over geometry to select it. duplicate system ensures a unique coordinate system is assigned to the created body by creating a duplicate of the selected coordinate system and assigning this duplicated coordinate system to the created body. y. creation method: assigns the multibody type specified in the card image= field. review and reset the multibody collector type. body system assigns a copy of the local coordinate system assigned to the current multibody collector specified in the global panel. The name= text field is provided for specifying a name for the multibody collector being created and for reviewing the names of already existing multibodies. and z. click on the edit button under the N1 selection box to bring up x=. The most common type of multibody collector is a "rigid body". body local system: defines the body local coordinate system of the created body by assigning a local coordinate system entity to the multibody collector. 26 HyperMesh 8. For an alternative method to define the center of gravity. Define.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

The element configuration tells HyperMesh how to draw. quad.e. The element type allows you to define multiple analysis elements for each HyperMesh element. Each element has two associated variables: an element configuration and an element type.. and rigids. Element Configuration The element configuration defines the physical geometry (i.0 User’s Guide 27 . store. and work with the element. In modeling situations where specific analysis codes are used because of their unique capabilities.e. quads. If a model uses only the basic element types. Element configurations include: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the model is not considered generic and does not transfer between analysis codes. trias. hex) of the element. i.Elements Each element entity performs a specific task to facilitate a controlled and complete interface between HyperMesh and the analysis codes.. HyperMesh can transfer the model to several different analysis codes.

A joint element does not allow types other than specified below. Examples of different types of quads within ABAQUS are S4R and S4R5. (Must be Type 1. and pin flags (configuration 63). offsets. assign type1 to the first type of quad element and type 2 to the second type of quad element. local vector. or 6-noded element with property and orientation systems or nodes. 2-noded gap element with property reference and vector (configuration 70). or output translator. refer to Template Design. 3-noded bar element with property reference. local vector. or orientation node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For example. which allows the template. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mass Master3 Master4 Penta15 Penta6 Pyramid5 Type Name Spherical Revolute Cylindrical Planar Universal Translational Locking # nodes 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 Orientation none/systems/nodes none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems 1-noded mass element (configuration 1). if an analysis code has two different quad elements and you wish to use both in a model. Note: For more specific information about using the HyperMesh templates. 4-.Element Type Defines the category of the element. 3-noded master interface element (configuration 123). Supported Element Types HyperMesh supports the following element configurations: Bar2 Bar3 Gap Hex20 Hex8 Joint 2-noded bar element with property reference. (Must be Type 1. and pin flags (configuration 60). The template file HyperMesh uses to write the analysis deck recognizes the different element types and outputs them as configured.) 4-noded master interface element (configuration 124). The type of the element controls the number of nodes used in the element and the permissible orientations of the element (configuration 22). 28 HyperMesh 8. offsets.) 15-noded wedge solid element (configuration 215). 8-noded brick solid element (configuration 208). 6-noded wedge solid element (configuration 206). 5-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 205). to distinguish between the different types. 20-noded brick solid element (configuration 220). or orientation node. 2-.

1-noded slave interface element (configuration 135). 2-noded beam element with property reference (configuration 61). 3-noded triangular shell element (configuration 103). The independent node has user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 55). 2-noded rigid element with user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 5).Pyramid13 Plot Quad4 Quad8 RBE3 13-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 213) 2-noded plot element used for display purposes (configuration 2). (Must be Type 1. (Must be Type 1. 2-noded rigid element (configuration 3). 4-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 104). Rigid Rigidlink Rod Slave1 Slave3 Slave4 Spring Tetra10 Tetra4 Tria3 Tria6 Weld Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 6-noded triangular shell element (configuration 106). Multi-noded element with one independent node and a variable number of dependent nodes.) 3-noded slave interface element (configuration 133). Multi-noded element with one dependent node and a variable number of independent nodes.) 2-noded spring element with user-defined degrees of freedom. (Must be Type 1. and a property reference (configuration 21).) 4-noded slave interface element (configuration 134). 10-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 210). an orientation vector. 4-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 204). Each node contains a coefficient (weighting factor) and a user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 56).0 User’s Guide 29 . 8-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 108).

you can use surface edges as free lines. A suppressed edge can be changed back to a shared edge. Line segments are maintained as a single line entity. Nodes are placed along this edge during automeshing and recognized during meshing of bordering surfaces. Suppressed edges allow the mesh to flow across or over these boundaries. Surface edges include: Free A free edge (displayed red) is a surface edge that belongs to a single surface which does not have other surfaces aligned with it within the specified cleanup tolerance. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number and type of line segments to represent the geometry. ellipse. The end point of each line segment is connected to the first point of the next segment. circles can be represented exactly in HyperMesh. You can use surface edges as a line in most panels. Shared Suppressed Non-Manifold /Duplicate 30 HyperMesh 8. Used to represent conics such as a circle. ruled. Each line type in a line is referred to as a segment. or line drag panels. In general. A line can be composed of a single line type or multiple line types. A shared edge cannot be changed back to a free edge. their color is determined by the surfaces to which they belong. or parabola. as well as many other types of curves.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . so operations performed on the line affect each segment of the line. A joint is the common point between two line segments. Used to represent lines that are not straight or elliptical. By using elliptical segments or NURBS segments. A shared edge (displayed green) is a surface edge that is shared between exactly 2 surfaces. These edges usually indicate a collapsed or very thin surface or a fully or partially duplicated surface. and their color is determined by the status of the component. such as when you are working within the spline . An edge is a trim line of a surface. However. Lines from CAD data are not attached to surfaces. These edges (displayed yellow) are shared by more than two surfaces. NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) may also be used to represent a straight or elliptical line. No nodes are placed along a suppressed edge. All lines in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: • • • straight elliptical NURBS • • • Note: Used to represent a straight line between two points in space. Suppressed edges (displayed blue dotted) are the internal face edges within a surface.Lines The line entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. Non-manifold edges can be turned into shared edges by deleting one of the attached surfaces. Under certain conditions. but are then less efficient. NURBS can exactly represent the piecewise parametric cubic splines they replace.

The following panels can be used to create lines: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • circles fillets intersect lines section surface tangents The following panels can be used to change lines: delete line permute position project reflect reparam rotate scale translate Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 31 .

Multiple types are used for more complex surfaces that contain sharp corners or highly complex shapes. Surfaces define 2-D regions that may be used in automatic mesh generation. A HyperMesh surface can be made of a single surface type or of multiple surface types. In general. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number of and type of surface faces to represent the geometry. HyperMesh maintains all of the faces as a single surface entity. When a surface has several faces. Used to represent a spherical surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Surfaces and Faces The surface entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. Operations performed on the surface affect all the faces that comprise the surface. All surfaces in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: plane cylinder/cone sphere torus NURBS Used to represent a planar surface. Each face contains a mathematical surface and edges to trim the surface (if required). Used to represent cylindrical or conical surfaces. Used to represent surfaces which are not definable by the above surface types. Each surface type is referred to as a face. NURBS may also be used to represent the above surface types but they are not as efficient. Used to represent a toroidal surface. The following panels can be us ed to create surface entities: • • • • • • • • • • • surfaces primitives midsurface The following panels can be us ed to change surface entities: defeature permute position reflect rotate scale surface translate 32 HyperMesh 8.

velocities. The only entity that may be defined in an analysis system is a node. After a constraint has been applied. temperatures. Several systems may be nested. the model retains its cylindrical shape and also its location in space. For example. nodal points. concentrated fluxes. vectors can be created between two nodes and can change magnitude and direction as those nodes move through analysis. commonly called a coordinate system. If you delete a system. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A constraint. If a system does exist. When a reference system is deleted. Analysis systems are typically used to transform element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom from the global system to a local system. and mass elements. Vectors The vector entity allows you to define a three dimensional vector in the database. may be rectangular.Systems The system entity. You can use the systems panel to modify the reference coordinate system of an entity. Entities are always displayed in the transformed global system. concentrated moments. Note: A system may be a reference system. each of these entities is defined in the global system with an ID of zero. HyperMesh does not maintain the proper orientation for the constraint when you create or delete local systems at the node where the constraint resides. the position of the entity is maintained relative to the global system in the transformation process.0 User’s Guide 33 . Loads The load entity allows you to add forces and constraints to the database. Entities that have a reference system are systems. When you delete an analysis system. Control cards are defined within templates and are specific to one FE solver. concentrated forces. applied at a node. is placed in the global system only if a system does not exist at that node. HyperMesh allows you to modify the analysis system of an entity when you define the analysis system. Vectors can be used for orientation of spring and gap elements or to specify a direction during selection. and then delete the system in which the nodes are defined. and pressures are currently supported. loads. cylindrical. or both. an analysis system. or spherical. and an analysis system is used to transform the nodal coordinate system. all the entities that were defined in that system are transferred to the global system. accelerations. you must set the proper orientation for element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom. Additionally. the orientation of the constraint is dictated by the local system. By default. as HyperMesh does not maintain these in the transfer from the local system to the global system. Loads are applied in the global system except when the reference system has been modified. a reference system is used to define the geometric positions of entities. Vectors are created in the global system unless a local coordinate system is defined. Constraints. In HyperMesh. if you define a cylindrical structure in a cylindrical coordinate system. Cards The card entity allows you to create control cards such as CPU limits or Title cards.

Title Title collectors contain title information. and the text displayed in the title. the color of the title.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 34 HyperMesh 8. including the name of the title.

these menus "drop down" a list of options when clicked.HyperMesh Environment There are several main areas in the HyperMesh window: These areas are described below: title bar Located at the top of the HyperMesh window. It also displays the path and name of the file currently open in the active HyperMesh session. Use these options to access different areas of HyperMesh functionality. this displays the current HyperMesh version.0 User’s Guide 35 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Like the pull-down menus in many graphical user interface applications.hm) file retrieved or saved in the active session FE or CAD import does not affect the current file Delete model clears the current file If no . A current file is determined with the following rules: • • • • Pull-down menus The last HyperMesh (.hm model is retrieved or saved in the active session the current file field is empty Located just under the title bar.

Tab Area Located on the left. Located across the bottom of the window. or both sides of the graphics area. • • • Tab Area sidebars can be toggled on or off by use of the View pull-down menu. Depending on your display resolution and the number of buttons. Header bar Located between the main menu area and the toolbar area.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . right. It displays the name of the current panel and user profile. Graphics area Toolbar Area Located above the tool bar(s): the graphics display area is where model geometry and mesh displays. You can click-and-drag tabs to move them between the left and right Tab Area sidebars. The main menu is divided into the panel area and the page list. Tab Location sub-menu. and model status information. Secondary menus can be accessed by using keyboard shortcuts. in a tabbed format. Main menu Command Window secondary menu 36 HyperMesh 8. such as changing display options. Located just under the graphics area. or two toolbars stacked vertically. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. Individual items (tabs) can be added to or removed from the Tab Area by selecting the item from the View pull-down menu. You can type HyperMesh commands directly into this text box and execute them instead of using the HyperMesh Graphical User Interface. these sidebars display additional tools. this area may contain one toolbar. such as the Utility menu or Include browser. these buttons provide quick access to commonly-used functions.

this is because some menu items have sub-menus of additional options. This method allows similar commands to be grouped logically. Toggle Command Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Menu items can work in several different ways: Sub-Menu heading These items are marked with a triangular arrow. but some options perform other tasks such as configuring the layout of the HyperMesh environment. located just beneath the title bar. Each menu contains many different options.Pull-Down menus The pull-down menus. and clicking on the menu name (such as File) "pulls down" a list of the options available in that menu: Notice that there are two lists of options displayed in this screen shot. and helps prevent any single menu list from becoming excessively long. rather than presenting every option in a single list (which could result in very long lists). Selecting a submenu heading opens a sub-menu of options related to the submenu heading. clicking it alternates between showing and hiding the solver browser in one of the Tab Area sidebars. enable access to many types of HyperMesh functionality.0 User’s Guide 37 . Most menu options access HyperMesh panels. such as accessing a specific HyperMesh panel. these items are marked with a checkbox and activate or deactivate a feature. One example is the solver browser item found in the view menu. When clicked. This approach sub-groups similar features together. Most menu items simply execute a command when selected.

pressures. Tools for creating and renaming collectors. save. Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu item. Tools for geometry editing and cleanup. Boundary Conditions such as forces. or constraints. HyperMesh preferences such as User Profiles. solid map. these keys are underlined (as the "F" in the File menu). use the multiple files option in the import sub-menu. global options. To add extra models to your workspace. connectors. for example). assemblies. element edit. or visibility and location of tab area items. Then: Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu or item. tetramesh. and the up and down arrow keys to open a menu and navigate among its options. such as automesh. including element check settings. or finding entities. and contact surfaces. such as OptiStruct. deleting. these keys are underlined (as the "O" in the Open). etc. View results of solved simulations (contour or vector plots. or Scale entities. Reflect. To import multiple files. use load. Edit View Organize Geometry Mesh BCs Setup Checks Tools Applications Results Preferences Help Tools for masking. or Use the left and right arrow keys to move among the menu headings. Keyboard (menu item) Menu items can be selected with the keyboard in two ways: or Use the arrow keys to move among list of options. press the alt key to activate the menu area.There are multiple ways to select a pull-down menu or a menu item within it: Mouse Keyboard (menu) Click the menu or menu item with the mouse. First. Each of the pull-down menus in HyperMesh groups certain types of functions: File Contains functions to load. moments.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . import. among other options. 38 HyperMesh 8. and press enter to select a highlighted option. and keyboard configuration. Access the on-line Help system. and export models and other files. Translate. Meshing tools. Model properties such as materials. Rotate. Note: To work with only one model at a time. among other options. lighting. etc. use import. Model quality checks. Change the angle of view on the model. Quickly access other HyperWorks programs. Morph.

and plots are displayed in this area. The graphics area dominates the HyperMesh environment and is framed by all of the other interface areas. geometry. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Entities on the screen are selected for use in functions by clicking the desired entity with the mouse.0 User’s Guide 39 . Note: See Entity Selection for more information about picking entities. Models.Graphics Area The graphics area occupies the upper portion of the screen.

save. But for 1D elements such as bars and springs.0. Users already familiar with earlier HyperMesh releases will find the same functionality that the permanent menu offered now located in the toolbars. a group of buttons automatically moves to the second row. the property assigned varies based on the solver used. Note: In versions of HyperMesh prior to release 8. Normally all of the buttons display on a single row. Create or update load collectors. Other options include: • By Prop: colors the elements based on their assigned properties. the property (PBEAM. Use this panel to individually determine how each component of your model displays its FE mesh.Toolbar Area The functions on the toolbar allow you to manipulate the view of the model. etc) is assigned directly to the element. or import files. For example. Create or update property collectors.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This button accesses the display panel. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to access other collector functions: Create or update material collectors. The toolbar uses two different groups of visual icons to represent different HyperMesh functions. but when the toolbar is too narrow to hold all of the buttons. Edit solver-specific data in card format. the two-row configuration is shown above. This only applies when a valid template file has been specified in the global panel. For example. Access the visual attributes panel. control which collectors are displayed in the graphics region. if you select "by comp". set global modeling parameters. use the colors panel to change the colors of properties Note: 40 HyperMesh 8. Turn the display of collectors on and off. Access the collectors panel. the property color of shell elements (quads and trias) in a NASTRAN model is the same as the component. Notice that the toolbar may display in one or two rows. This accesses the files panel. the model elements’ colors change based on the components that contain them. Selects the element color style. and edit solver-specific data. The toolbar buttons perform the following functions: Load. many of these functions were contained in the permanent menu. thus the shell elements are colored in component color even in this mode.

surfaces) that is not part of a solid is colored based on its topology. . Determines how geometry features are colored.g. if you select "by component". bar. suppressed edges in blue. surface edit. the geometry is colored based on its corresponding component. etc. Switches the mesh rendering mode to a shaded mode. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between skin-only and full wire frame (including internal lines). lines. the faces of solids are also colored based on their topology: exterior bounding faces in transparent green. By 3D Topo: In this mode. Note: • • .0 User’s Guide 41 . Switches the mesh rendering mode to wire-frame mode. . 2D and 3D elements differently.e. By Topo: In this mode. use the colors panel to change the colors of materials.• By Mat: colors the elements based on the material assigned to the elements. The individual colors given to each configuration (such as spring or hexa) can be seen and changed in the element types panel. free edges in red. Other coloring options include: • Auto: In this mode the geometry coloring changes based on the panel you open. • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 1D/2D/3D: colors 1D. are colored according to the components that they belong to. This helps you focus on 3D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. then each piece of geometry is re-colored based on the component that contains it. trias etc. By Config: colors elements based on their configurationbeam. 3-dimensional geometry (i. Surfaces that aren’t part of a solid are shaded in gray. materials are assigned to elements via their components. feature lines. and no lines. etc. solid faces and their edges) is colored based on its topology. all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology: shared edges drawn in green. 2-dimensional geometry (i. In panels geometry creation and editing panels (e. The topology of 2D geometry is ignored and drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel. By Comp: Surfaces. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between mesh lines. For example. geometry is colored based on topology. internal partition faces in yellow. Some exceptions apply. quad. In the remaining panels (such as translate or delete). If geometry shading is turned on. This helps you focus on 2D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. etc.e. automesh). 2D shell elements in blue and 3D solid elements in red. All the 1D elements are colored in green. By 2D Topo: In this mode. In most cases. The topology of 3D solid geometry is ignored (drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel).

right-click to zoom out. Once active. free edges in red. Right -click to deactivate. Left-click to deactivate. Right -clicking activates the dynamic zoom feature. Right -click to activate center mode. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. (shared edges in green. Circle zoom deactivates after zooming once. Once active. Once active. Zoom incrementally. Draws model geometry as a wire-frame. Right-click to deactivate. click-and-drag in the graphics area to rotate the model. Returns to the previous view.• Mixed: This mode behaves similarly to Topology mode in that all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology. or when you click either button while the pointer is in the graphics area. right-click in the graphics area and hold the mouse button down to make the model spin.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Opens the visualization pop-up panel. Click the downward arrow to choose between excluding and including surface lines. right-click in the graphics area to change the graphics area center. Click the downward arrow for options: with edges or without them. Left-click to deactivate. . Modal Zoom. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Resizes the model view (by zooming in or out and panning the view as needed) in order to fit the model to the graphics area. Once active. Draws model geometry in shaded mode. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. this works in one of two different ways: • Left-clicking activates the circle zoom feature. This allows you to (for example) perform a free rotation on a model and then quickly return it to its original orientation. Left-click to deactivate. 42 HyperMesh 8. Pan modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate pan mode. right-click and drag in the graphics area to zoom in/out. or to alternate between two different views. Rotate modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate dynamic rotate mode. Right -click to activate dynamic spin mode. etc.) In addition. click-and-drag in the graphics area to pan the model view. Once active. . in shaded mode surfaces and solid faces are shaded in their components’ color. left-click to zoom in.

and the right button to rotate it downward Spherical clipping: accesses the spherical clipping panel. Open a pop-up menu used to save and retrieve user-defined or standard views. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model leftward. and the right button to rotate it rightward. You can use keyboard hot keys to access the same viewing options. Use spherical clipping to isolate portions of the model regardless of component or collector. Rotate Up or Down: this is similar to pressing the up and down arrow keys on the keyboard. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model upward. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Rotate Left or Right: this is similar to pressing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard. See Keyboard for more information. Notes: See Viewing Models for more information about the viewing options available on the toolbar.0 User’s Guide 43 .

Panel titles display on the left side of the bar. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information (e. Geometry) are displayed. It displays information pertaining to the currently loaded model as well as descriptions of the main menu pages and panels. When you are in a panel. the bar displays the current panel name on the left (in black) and the original panel name to the right (in gray). comp:) in the message bar. When you are on one of the main menu pages (not within a panel). The header bar also displays a brief description of the panel when you hold down the left mouse button on the panel button (see below). the header bar displays the current panel title and model status.e. the current include and current component (comp). 44 HyperMesh 8. Messages also appear on the header bar and temporarily override the title and status information. along with the current menu page name (i..0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you access a panel by using a function key..g. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu.Header Bar The header bar is located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. The current component and load collector names are displayed on the right side of the bar. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type.

such as status updates or completed operations.Messages posted on the header bar are color-coded: red green/gray Error messages. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These messages appear in green when using HyperMesh classic dark menu colors and they appear in gray when using Windows light menu colors Click a mouse button to remove a message from the header bar. Miscellaneous messages. You can also obtain a brief description of a panel’s function if you hold down the left mouse button over a panel button.0 User’s Guide 45 .

HyperMesh presents these pages in the page menu. Each of these pages contain panels related to the page name: Geom 1D 2D 3D Analysis Tool Post Creation and editing functions for geometry such as points. masses. model checking functions. To change main menu pages: • Note: Click the radio button before the main menu page. Model editing.set from the directory you are working in (provided you are not working in the directory where HyperMesh is installed). and informational functions. Post-processing and xy plotting functions. and then start HyperMesh once again. then the menu items described above may not appear on the appropriate pages. A secondary menu can be accessed by using keyboard keys. Modules contain a collection of panels that are grouped according to functionality. To correct this condition. which is located on the right-hand edge of the main menu area. If you are not using the default HyperMesh menu system. Page Menu HyperMesh panels are grouped by function on several “pages”. such as bars. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and spot welds Creation and editing functions for 2-D surfaces and elements Creation and editing functions for 3-D surfaces and elements Boundary conditions. delete the file hmmenu. each containing a list of panels and modules. quit HyperMesh. and load creation functions. utility functions. coordinate system. lines. Most panels are further divided into sub-panels. or surfaces 1-D element creation. 46 HyperMesh 8.Main Menu Area HyperMesh functionality is organized according into pages. The page menu.

both. click a tab heading to bring it to the forefront. such as the utility menu. so you might only see one—or even none—at a time. model browser. Each Tab Area sidebar can contain multiple complex features. each sidebar can be toggled on and off separately. and/or the solver browser. However. right side.0 User’s Guide 47 . Turn the Tab Area sidebars on and off by selecting left side. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To maximize available space.Tab Area This area of the HyperMesh environment is actually two separate sidebars which flank the Graphics Area. or none from the Tab Locations sub-menu of the view pull-down menu. multiple features are organized onto tabs.

properties. multibodies. 48 HyperMesh 8. system collectors. groups. components. This screenshot shows all of the entities that can display in the browser. To open the model browser: Click the model browser item located within the view pull-down menu.Model Browser The model browser resides on a tab in a Tab Area sidebar and allows you to view the HyperMesh model structure by organizing assemblies. vector collectors. entity sets.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and beamsectcols into a tree-like display. materials. The browser displays on one of the Tab Area sidebars. load collectors.

The following rules apply: • • • • • • • • Checked entities (components. unchecked entities are hidden. entity sets. When appropriate. Assemblies containing components or multibodies are considered displayed only when all of the contents are displayed. so that the items related to each assembly appear within that assembly’s folder in the Assembly Hierarchy. Deactivating the check box for an assembly hides all of its components and multibodies. etc. and beamsectcols cannot be organized into assemblies and are all placed at the top level of the tree. multibodies. right-click on the current color in the model browser. Note: When the color picker palette appears. properties.) display. Assemblies can also have sub-folders within the main Assembly folder. Colors Assemblies. groups. Properties. The palette automatically disappears when you move the mouse pointer beyond its boundaries. therefore it does not have a check box. Deactivating the check box for an item hides all of its parent assemblies. Select this to open the same color picker used throughout HyperMesh. load cols. system cols. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all of its contents. and System Collectors can all be colored individually. the right-click menu contains only a single option: color. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. each in their corresponding folder (for example all sets are placed as a flat list in the Sets folder). the color and display style of entities also display in the model browser. and click the desired color from the palette. Materials.Multiple entities of the same type are collected into folders in the tree structure. An empty assembly never displays. Deactivating the check box for an item does not affect the state of its parent assembly. Check Boxes Items are displayed or hidden by toggling the corresponding check boxes. Each folder can be expanded or collapsed to display or hide its contents. To change an entity’s color. Components. and the model browser allows you to set each entity’s color without using the color panel. In this instance. a specific component might appear under Components and again as a sub-item of a specific Assembly. the mouse pointer automatically moves to its center.0 User’s Guide 49 . Materials. Components and Assemblies may appear in multiple places in the tree. vector cols. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all its components and multibodies. for example. Load Collectors. groups. and its state does not affect the state of its ancestors. The currently assigned color displays in the column.

groups. or both: Include mesh entities in tree structure. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. multibodies (not assemblies). multibodies. load cols. Transparent shaded topology displays without mesh. and vector cols have only one display state and will be shown only in element mode. Click a second time to remove them. or load collector. groups. assemblies. Multibodies. Shaded topology displays with feature lines. 50 HyperMesh 8. and vector cols shown in the tree. Include geometry entities in tree structure. system cols. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the model browser’s own toolbar. or click the ID heading to sort numerically by entity ID. but no mesh. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. The first set of filters let you restrict the tree structure to display mesh entities. load cols.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Shaded topology displays with mesh lines. assembly. and load cols have several display states. Right -clicking opens a popup menu from which you can choose the new style. Click a second time to remove them. Global Switches The Display All . Display None . In either case. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. and Reverse Display buttons at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. Only shaded topology displays (no mesh). only the items displayed in the tree are affected. You can select these display modes by right-clicking clicking the small icons in the column for each component. based on a combination of their elements and their geometry. Depending on which option you select. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. geometry entities. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. system cols. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. and vector cols. repeated clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. components. groups. the entity displays differently: Only a wireframe mesh displays.Display Mode Components. system cols.

Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. with the same buttons for Display All. For example. In this way. For example. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the model browser. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Accomplish this via the matching: combo text/list box.0 User’s Guide 51 . and Reverse Display as described under global switches above. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. typing “pillar” in the matching field when using the whole name option will not locate a component named “CH-A-PILLAR-B-I-L”. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it.The next filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). if you type “*collector” into this combo box and press <enter>. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the model browser’s tree structure. in this case they are used for Select All. then all entity types ending with “collector” will be checked and display in the list. Display None. including upper/lower case letters. Otherwise. Fine-tune the search/selection by choosing an option from the ( • • ) button: Match case only selects tree items that match the entered text exactly. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). an up-arrow button. However. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. and Reverse Selection. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. In addition. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. click OK to close the list. Whole name only selects tree items whose entire name matches the specified text. a down-arrow button. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. Select None. For example. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. You can also select groups of entities based on a wildcard search. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. .

it is highlighted in the model browser.To find an entity. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. In other words. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. “FrontChassis”. Since this function works in combination with the filters. Note: If an item is dragged out of the tree and dropped onto empty space. type a search string into the combination box. for example. If an assembly is moved or copied. 52 HyperMesh 8. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. finding match #1 again. To find entities matching your specified string and options. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. To deactivate the option. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. You can drag and drop multiple items at any time using the standard shift and ctrl keys. it is deleted in all its parent assemblies and placed at the top level of the tree. select it again to remove the checkbox. and assemblies can be dragged and dropped with the left and right mouse button. multibodies. clicking third time finds match #3. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. with this option active. For instance. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. rather than only part of the name. For example. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. The left mouse button allows you to move the item into another assembly. In this way you can combine the search options. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. all the items in the assembly are moved to the new location (items that are not seen in the tree due to filters are also moved). until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. Drag and Drop Components. such as searching for whole names with matching case. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). for instance. In this way. or “RearChassis1”. the right mouse button activates a menu that allows you to move or copy an item to the new location. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. So. clicking again finds match #2. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. A dragged item is added to the bottom of the list in an assembly.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. those children will be automatically moved to the top level. or beamsectcol can be created at the top level. Delete All except the top-level of Assemblies • Rename All Any item can be renamed by entering a new name in the name text box. system col. multibody. vector col. Folders that contain materials. Most items can be deleted. • If a component or multibody is present in more than one assembly in the model. or multibody can be created inside an assembly (activate the menu over an assembly). Option New Available for: Assemblies. vector cols. Properties. the item is automatically assigned a unique generic name that can be changed by entering the new name in the highlighted field.Context Menu Clicking the right mouse button on a folder or entity within the browser’s tree structure allows you to change a variety of options. A new assembly. set. load cols. All instances of the renamed item will be automatically updated. sets. you will be given a choice of either deleting that item from the database entirely or only removing it from the present location. The new name must be unique. Components. property. Options selected in an empty space apply to the entire model. group. Materials. and groups cannot be renamed. system cols. Load Collectors. beamsectcols. You can cancel the rename operation by pressing ESCAPE or clicking anywhere outside the entry box before editing the existing name. Description A new assembly. If you want to entirely delete an assembly. and that assembly has children that are not present anywhere else. material. load col. The options available depend on the entity that you right -click on. Once created. Plots. component.0 User’s Guide 53 . properties. component.

and properties. groups. Opens the Model Browser’s Browser Configuration window. components. load collectors. In such cases. multibody. materials. load collectors.g. In such cases. materials. card. properties. beamsectcol All All Assemblies. load collectors. plots. A component. this shows all of the items within that branch (e. or beamsectcol can be made current using the pop-up menu. components. Assemblies. plots. exposing every item nested at every level. so that only the top-most level of items displays. so that only this item displays in the graphics area. plots. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. Display the item in the graphics area.) Show Only Deactivates the checkboxes of all items in the entire model browser except for this single item. system collectors. All Collapse all Expand all Show Hide Un-checks the item’s checkbox. In such cases. system collectors. all groups. groups. and properties. components. materials. etc. properties. so that the item no longer displays in the graphics area.) Make Current components. components. load collectors. groups. cards. If a template is not loaded or if the entity does not have any card images associated to the loaded template. etc. plots.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . this hides all of the items within that branch (e. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. materials. components. plots. and properties. load collectors.Edit Card… All Any single item can be card edited. Assemblies. system collectors. Configure Browser… 54 HyperMesh 8. multibody. materials. the card editor is not invoked and the appropriate message is displayed. This selects each affected item’s checkbox. this hides everything except for the items within that branch. Used to quickly and easily isolate single entities. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. all materials. materials. The current component is designated with bold font. which allows you to determine what entities display in the tree as well as the columns that the browser displays. properties. all materials. The card image of that entity for the solver template loaded will be displayed. load collectors.g. all groups. plots. Closes all of the folders in the tree structure. components. Opens all of the folders in the entire tree structure.

Separate tabs organize entities and columns.0 User’s Guide 55 . and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired entity type. choose the radio button marked select all entity types in the current model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and select reverse buttons in this mode. Use this window to change the columns and entity types that display in the model browser. click the Entity types: radio button. To select entity types manually.Model Browser Configuration window This window opens when you select the configure browser… option from the Model Browser’s context menu. A checkmark indicates that the entity type will display in the browser. Entities Tab To show all of the entity types that the currently-loaded model possesses. select none. You can also use the select all.

and select reverse buttons in this mode. click one of the command buttons to close the window and return to HyperMesh: • • Click OK to keep the new settings and close the window. Click Cancel to discard the changes (keeping the original settings) and close the window.Columns tab To show columns for all of the attributes that the currently-loaded model possesses. To select columns manually. click the Column types: radio button. You can also use the select all.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Command buttons Once you finish configuring the browser. 56 HyperMesh 8. select none. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired column. A checkmark indicates that the column will display in the browser. choose the radio button marked Select all column types in the current model.

Each include file is represented with an icon along with its name and internal HyperMesh ID. 55 system collectors. organize. It allows you create. and update the contents of a model into various include files. The Master Model is at the top level of the include browser. Each of the folders can be expanded to review the individual entities in that folder. The browser can be configured to show only specific entities of interest. The contents of each include is organized (grouped) into folders containing each type.0 User’s Guide 57 . Each include can be expanded to reveal its contents. For example.dyn contains 55 vectors. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. in the above example. etc. the include named dummy. is stored in the master model. You can select entities (using the standard Shift and Control keys) and drag various entities between two includes or between the master model and an include. 296 properties. 55 systems.Include Browser The include browser can be accessed by selecting include browser from the view pull-down menu. next to which appears the total number of entities of each type. which does not have any references to an include file. edit. An example of a model in the include browser is shown below. review. 116 sets. Data.

and Reverse Selection. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. with the same buttons for Display All. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. click OK to close the list. and Reverse Display at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. load cols. In this way. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the include browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the browser’s own toolbar. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). Select None. and vector cols. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. a down-arrow button. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. system cols. multibodies. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. For example. Display None. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the include browser. The filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. system cols. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. groups. Otherwise. However. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the include browser’s tree structure.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. components. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. an up-arrow button. and vector cols shown in the tree. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. In addition. multibodies (not assemblies). . assemblies are unchecked only as needed. Display None . Multiple clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. in this case they are used for Select All. and Reverse Display as described under Global Switches above. load cols. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. 58 HyperMesh 8.Global Switches The Display All . groups. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list.

click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. For example. or “RearChassis1”. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In other words. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. Since this function works in combination with the filters. clicking third time finds match #3. To find entities matching your specified string and options. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. it is highlighted in the include browser.To find an entity. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). for example. with this option active. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. In this way you can combine the search options. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. type a search string into the combination box. So. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. To deactivate the option. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top.0 User’s Guide 59 . a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. such as searching for whole names with matching case. “FrontChassis”. for instance. finding match #1 again. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. In this way. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). select it again to remove the checkbox. rather than only part of the name. For instance. clicking again finds match #2. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box.

Context Menu A context sensitive pop-up menu provides many other include browser functionalities. Delete the include file and its contents The second option deletes all the contents within the selected include along with the include itself. Clicking on the selected (highlighted) include a second time also has the same effect. contacts. etc. Prompts the user with two choices: • Delete the include file The first option moves all the contents of the include file into its parent include and deletes the include file. Thus any new entities created in HyperMesh such as new elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Makes the selected include "current". The new include is created at the top level inside the master model when no include file is highlighted while selecting this option. Delete When an include is selected • Rename When an include is selected Converts the name of the include into an editable text box ready for the new name to be entered. Make current When an include is selected 60 HyperMesh 8. are automatically placed in the current include. the new include is created within it. Deletes the selected include. Right click in the browser to invoke the following pop-up menu. Function New… When function is active Permanently Description Creates a new include. If a specific include is selected (highlighted). components.

Exports the contents of the selected include into the chosen file name.). The contents of the chosen file are imported into include.. Allows you to set the various options for a selected include. Executive Control. Nastran. Exports all the includes with their corresponding content (not the master model only the includes). Clears the graphics region of any previous display and displays all the entities that belong to the selected include. or an entire include) into the include that is marked as current. mats. This flag is specific to some solvers such as Optistruct.Move to current When entities are selected Moves all the selected entities (individual entities. The available options are: • • • name file name to be exported (absolute path or path relative to its parent include) Do not export flag (allows you to review the contents of an include but not export it). etc. Include file options… When an include is selected • Import include… When an include is selected Imports the content of a file into the selected include. Option prompts you to select a name and browse for the file to be imported. etc. Expands all the branches of the include’s tree structure along with the various entity type folders (such as comps. or Case Control. For the remaining solvers this option is not available.0 User’s Guide 61 . Collapses all the branches of the tree structure for the selected include. Flag representing the section of the input deck that the include belongs in. which subdivide their data deck into various sections such as Bulk Data. Includes that have this flag turned on display in the browser in italics. Export an include… Export all includes Collapse Include Expand include When an include is selected Permanently Permanently Permanently Display only When an include (or master model) is selected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the entire set of entities of a specific type.

Select from a list of all entities (except nodes and elements) in HyperMesh. Two options are available: • Select all entity types available in current model Displays all the entity types available in the current model (default).Configure browser Permanently Opens a window that allows you to select which types of entities should be shown in the include browser. Edit card Enable/Disable When a control card is selected When a control card is selected Invokes the card image of the control card in the HyperMesh window. • User selected entity types Allows you to select the entities that you want to display in the browser. 62 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Allows users to enable (turn on and export) control cards that have been disabled and vice versa.

xy plots located on the Post page. and scale the axis of plots. For example. the module.Modules Panels that are used to perform related functions are sometimes grouped together in modules. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note: HyperMesh does not make any special distinction between modules and panels.0 User’s Guide 63 . locate the module button on one of the main menu pages and click the module button. perform simple math on curves. contains panels that allow you to read curves. and are grouped to provide easy panel access without unnecessary navigational clicks. The main difference between the module and a panel is the additional menu layer. A module may contain panels that are also found on the main pages. edit curves. To select a module.

the display settings apply to export of loadsteps. More profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. 64 HyperMesh 8. but not their visibility in the HM graphics area. This allows you to perform many operations inside HM without performance issues. The Loadsteps Browser displays in its own tab in the tab area. A right-click menu accesses editing and advanced options. reverse selection Use these to select the items in the tree. the settings apply only to the current display. keeping the browser in sinc with an actions taken within the rest of HyperMesh can require considerable processing time. or select multiple items by shiftclicking or control-clicking. Each control has its own function: Select all. and then sync the browser with one click. For help specific to each profile. The information is arranged into a tree structure for ease of use. OptiStruct (OS) and Nastran are supported within this framework. refer to the topics below: Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles Other profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. Instead. select none.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .0SR1 release. When inactive. To alleviate this. the Loadstep Browser does not automatically sync itself with the HM database. Select it from the BCs Pull-Down menu to display its tab in the tab area. and control the way that the data displays in HyperMesh (which is the default behavior) or exports (when the Export state button is active). Note: For the 8. Display Options The display options lie in a toolbar at the top of the browser tab. with controls for altering the Display of the information and/or exporting it. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. it can be turned on and off. When activated. the Sync button becomes active whenever you make changes to the current HM database. For large models. This button acts as a toggle. Use this feature to limit the tree to display only loadsteps whose names match a specific text string—either partly or completely. Note that this changes the loadsteps’ export states. while popup forms allow you to quickly enter or select relevant information. You can also select individual items by clicking on them. but may not be active by default. including a name filter that uses HyperMesh standard filtering syntax.Loadsteps Browser The Loadsteps Browser is used to create. Export state Sync browser Filter The main functionality of the Loadstep Browser varies depending on the active HyperMesh User Profile. manage and display HyperMesh loadsteps (sub-cases) and the associated control cards.

Delete the selected entity or entities. LOAD. MOTION. Rename the selected entity. all of the loadsteps in the model default to the blank (unchecked) state. Note: When you first open the loadstep browser. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Review the selected entity in the HM card editor. This loadstep will not be exported.Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles The browser’s tree structure lists relevant control cards and loadstep information. Expands all selected folders and subfolders. OptiStruct In addition.0 User’s Guide 65 . This option creates a copy of loadcols with these card images and converts them into an auto-managed naming convention for easy editing/reviewing inside the Edit options popup. Opens the OptiStruct panel in HyperMesh. Depending on the entity selected. accessed by right-clicking on the tree background or on individual or multiple items. This launches the BCs Contour utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. This loadstep will be exported. this will bring up an appropriate GUI for editing of the loadstep or control card information. This launches the Loads Summary utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. organized into folders. either from scratch or by creating an exact copy of an existing subcase. every loadstep listed in the tree has a small checkbox next to it as well as an export state indicator. or all folders if none are selected. MPCADD and SPCADD cards auto-managed. these options include: New subcase Edit options Edit card Delete Rename Renumber BCs Contour Loads Summary Collapse all/selection Expand all/selection Auto-manage load references Create a new subcase. There are many functions available. or all folders if none are selected. Collapses all selected folders and subfolders. The loadcols in the loadstep do not display in the HyperMesh graphics area. This option is for users who wish to have existing DLOAD. Renumber the selected entity. You can click these to toggle them back and forth: The loadcols in the loadstep display in the HyperMesh graphics area. For the OptiStruct and Nastran profiles. MLOAD.

the list will change accordingly. 3. • • Depending on the load reference selected in the tree. allowing you to: • • 2. To activate an option. allowing you to edit the subcase.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . These references are also listed in the right table with a warning message to notify you that the loadcol doesn’t exist in the database 66 HyperMesh 8. the list of appropriate Load References will change accordingly. Type in a subcase name Select the same as option. • • If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol is not appropriate for that particular load reference. The table on the right lists the loadcols currently selected for that load reference. Note: This step is skipped when you create a new subcase! A popup window opens. Right -click anywhere in the Loadstep Browser and select New subcase. When this option is active.To create a new subcase: 1. 5. a warning message appears to notify you. Depending on the Subcase Type. In order to support this. the Add <unavailable> load reference ID option is available. A red indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and requires attention. a warning message appears to notify you. If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol does not exist in the HM database. The popup has several tabs to gather the relevant information. Right -click on the desired subcase folder. depending on the card image or types of loads contained within. A bold reference signifies that the load reference is defined. When importing a model into HyperMesh. 2. A tree structure lists the load references that are available for the selected subcase type. Another pop-up window opens. and select Edit options. This allows users to modify a subcase and add in references to loadcols that do not exist in the current model. Click create. the new subcase is an exact copy of the existing one. allowing you to edit the subcase. To add a loadcol to the load reference. then pick an existing subcase to base the new one on. To edit a subcase: 1. The table on the left lists the loadcols that are valid for a particular load reference. • • • • 4. Name filtering is available by using standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. A green indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and is defined. A pop-up window opens. it is possible that the subcase may reference loadcols that have not been imported (they are in a separate include file). or any subfolder in the Loadstep Browser. select the loadcol in the left table and use the right arrow to add the loadcol to the table on the right. check the box next to the desired option and fill in the required fields.

Select the desired option from the popup menu. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. Additional control is also available at both the Global Options and Subcase Load References level: 3. • • All of the loads contained in a loadcol display regardless of their relevance to the load reference they are assigned to. Right -click options allow for additional functionality depending on the current selection. or edit the card of a subcase: Right click on the appropriate subcase or loadcol. use the all/none/reverse buttons where appropriate. an entry box appears so that you can enter the appropriate information in the browser. 1. Global load references are not checked on/off by selecting or deselecting a subcase. For renaming and renumbering. 2. To edit the Global Options of a subcase: Editing Global Options works exactly like editing a subcase. You must determine the appropriate loadcols to check on/off depending on the subcase type. 7.0 User’s Guide 67 . 9. delete. 2. Check/uncheck the display checkbox next to the subcase of interest. To display a subcase: 1. To select multiple loadcols. The selected utility launches with the loadcols associated with the selected subcase automatically selected. except that the first step is to right-click on the Global Options folder or any of its sub-folders. It is up to you to organize their loads for proper display. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 8. renumber.6. Note: To rename. Click the Display button at the bottom of the Loadstep Browser GUI. These buttons select loadcols from the currently active table. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. instead of clicking on a specific subcase’s folder or sub-folder. You can also launch the “BCs Contour” and “Loads Summary” utilities from the Loadstep Browser. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. • The Add <unavailable> load reference ID option allows you to add a reference to a loadcol ID that does not currently exist in the HM database (as described in step 5).

there has traditionally only been one way to create DLOAD. If the loadcol selected for the load reference already has the card image assigned (for users wishing to manually manage their loadcols and point to an existing loadcol with one of the card images listed above) no additional action takes place. when appropriate. However. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has not been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. For example.) • 2. However.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . a new copy would be created and named “autoSPCADD_1”. the loadcol will not be expanded or editable inside the GUI. the Auto-manage load references option is available. assigning the appropriate card image. based on a fixed naming convention (auto<CARD IMAGE NAME>_#). a loadcol is automatically created and assigned the correct card image when any of these conditions are met: • • • More than one loadcol is selected for the load reference One loadcol is selected and the local scale factor is not 1. Assign that new loadcol to the original load reference. Inside the Edit options popup. In HyperMesh. (The original loadcol is not deleted or modified in any way. Looks at each subcase and at each load reference. The only way to modify the loadcol is via the card editor (right-click option from the editor GUI). nor are they always aware of their existence.Loadsteps: Auto-manage load references This option is recommended for all users. it will: • Create a copy of that loadcol and assign it a new name. and selecting the appropriate loadcols. Inside the Edit options popup. MLOAD. MOTION. MPCADD and SPCADD loadcols: by creating a loadcol. the loadcol is expanded and editable inside the GUI. To satisfy both types of users.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) The global scale factor is not 1.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) 68 HyperMesh 8. This option does the following: 1. If the load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images indicated above. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. many HyperMesh users do not want to be responsible for managing these load collectors. if a load reference pointed to an SPCADD loadcol. LOAD.

You can also use the middle mouse click to advance through input collectors (yellow) or entry fields and then proceed to a function (green) or return (red).0 User’s Guide 69 . If you press a function button and the data is incorrect or required information is missing. locate and click the panel button on one of the main menu pages. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and continue selecting or complete the operation. To select a panel. press the "H" key or select HyperMesh and OptiStruct from the Help pull-down menu to display the help topic for the current panel. advance to the next selection. Release the mouse button to access the panel. You can press the ESC key or click return to exit a panel. Each panel has a unique title that describes the main function of the panel. A description of the panel as well as instructions on how to use it display. a message is displayed stating the error. Using the middle mouse button allows you to make the required selections in the graphics region. This behavior is called rapid menu. Note: Once a panel is active. Each panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. This cannot be rejected once the panel is exited. hold the mouse button down while the cursor is over the panel name. Returning out of a panel means accepting what was performed on the model while using the panel.Panels HyperMesh panels allow you to perform specific tasks by selecting options and entering variable data. thus reducing mouse movement. Panels with multiple functions have sub-panels that display only those menu items that are relevant to the current operation. Note: To display a brief description of the function of a panel in the header bar. Some panels contain several functions that perform similar tasks.

on the collectors panel there are three sub-panels: create. For example. and card image or dictionary. Each sub-panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. Collectors . Collectors .create sub-panel. click the radio button next to the sub-panel name on the left side of the panel.update sub-panel.card image sub-panel.Sub-panels Sub-panel names are listed on the left side of the panel. update. Collectors .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Only one sub-panel may be selected at a time. To select a sub-panel. 70 HyperMesh 8.

the menu item following it alternates between choices. Menu items include: Menu Buttons The color of the menu button corresponds to its purpose: green yellow red Functions or executable items Collectors Return or abort Toggles and Switches Toggles and switches appear on many HyperMesh panels. data entry fields. Each panel contains input collectors. When you click a toggle. and function buttons. a list of options is displayed. the list of options presented by a switch can be very long: In these cases.Input Controls The menu items on each panel indicate the information that is needed to correctly perform the panel’s function. Most panels also have toggles and switches that allow you to alternate between choices or select options from a list. HyperMesh breaks the options up into multiple “pages” within the switch’s pop-up menu. Step backward one page toward the beginning of the list. When you click a switch. The green arrow buttons on the right-hand edge of the pop-up menu advance or back-track through the list of options: << < > >> Go directly to the first page of the list. toggle switch In some cases. plane collectors.0 User’s Guide 71 . Advance one page toward the end of the list Go directly to the last page of the list Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Extended entity selection window. see Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu. Note: If the data type is a line list. An input collector contains a switch or toggle. These selection options display for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. show node order by window 72 HyperMesh 8. you can click on the collector to access a pop-up with the selections by list. Allows you to select a few nodes that form a path and HyperMesh selects all the displayed nodes that lie in the shortest path of the nodes selected. If the data type is a node list. you can select multiple entities via quick window selection (hold down the SHIFT key and drag your mouse to create a window. by list by path Allows you to pick the nodes individually from the node list. Note: For more information about the extended entity options. click the input collector switch to access the pop-up menu of possible data types. by path. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are grayed out.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . a data type button. An input collector is active when the data type button is enclosed in a blue rectangle. and select the type you want to use. by path follows the connectivity of the elements between the nodes selected. If you select nodes on the edges of a part. displaying a list of available selection methods.Input Collectors Input collectors allow you to indicate which entities are to be modified when a function is performed. Therefore. In addition to selecting one entity at a time on the screen. Input Collector To change the data type. The extended entity selection window opens. To access the options: • Click the data type button. Allows you to view the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. the function tries to find the closest path along the edges of that part. this function does not apply. The extended entity selection window allows you to choose various methods of selecting entities of a specified data type. See The Mouse for more details). if the nodes selected are not connected by elements. show node order. and a reset (|< ) button. or by window. If you want to reset the entity selections. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). click the data type of the input collector to see the selected entities in the order in which they were selected. click the reset to deselect all selected entities.

N2. switch The switch is used to select the method for defining the plane or vector. cylindrical or spherical. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. The options available are: • Use x-axis. When defining a plane.N2. the resulting vector is normal to this plane following the right hand rule. Local systems may be rectangular. or a local system when one can be explicitly specified. however. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. N3 to define a vector (N1. and z-axis to define the first.0 User’s Guide 73 . For example. This includes vectors defining coordinate systems. HyperMesh takes advantage of the following principle: a plane can be defined with a vector (the plane is normal to the vector specified). Plane and Vector Selector Several HyperMesh panels require that you define a plane or a vector (direction) to perform a certain function. This coordinate system may be the global coordinate system. and loads as well. or plane (N1. Choose vector to specify a vector entity (created in the vectors panel). Note.N3). • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. y-axis. Either can be defined via the plane and vector selector—a group of buttons that work in concert to define planes or vectors. If you select two free (red) edges. second or third axis respectively of a coordinate system in your model. N2.N2). Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces.The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. or B) to type in coordinates rather than selecting existing nodes in your model. and passes through either N1 or the base node (if one is specified). as needed: The Plane and vector selector. while the reflect panel requires a plane for the creation of the mirror images of the entities selected. Double-click a node’s button (N1. the translate panel requires that you define the direction of translation. that not every item appears at all times. just as a vector can be defined with a plane (the vector is normal to the plane specified). This selector is broken down into the following items. it only works with surface edges and not with free unconnected geometric lines. or N3. only the items necessary for the current HyperMesh function will display. Use N1.

y-. Note that when using the N1.N2. N2. To define a plane: 1. arrows that represent a local coordinate system vector or load vector). if selected) is the point on the plane through which the vector passes. 3. the following selector displays in the position and linear solid panels: This selector is used in these panels to map entities from one location to another. local coordinate system vectors or load vectors).B (base node) Use this selector to define the base node—the point in space where the vector or plane is located. N1. and N3.e.. N3 option. Select the x-. To define a vector: 1. Select two nodes. N1. The resulting plane is normal to the N1-N2 vector and passes through N1 (or the base node. or z-axis. N2. N1 and N2. 3. The base node locates a plane normal to the chosen axis. Select a model vector (i.N3 and base). if selected). N2. For example. 2. Some selectors may resemble the plane and vector selector.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . N1 and N2. N1 (or the base node. 4. Select three nodes. Select the x-. Select a model vector (i. 74 HyperMesh 8. N1. 2. The vector is the normal of the plane defi ned by the three nodes. Select two nodes. y-. Select three nodes.. but serve a different purpose. For example. reset Note: Allows you to clear your selection (vector. A parallel plane can be specified by selecting a base point elsewhere in the model. selecting a plane of projection using the x-axis does not define the location of the plane entirely.e. or z-axis and a base node. N3. The resulting plane is normal to the vector. A base node provides the extra information. 4. HyperMesh uses N1 as a default base node if no other base node is specified.

Character String Input To enter a character string. Input field. The first character in a string cannot be a space. Deletes the character which is above the cursor.e.0 User’s Guide 75 .Input Fields Input fields are used to enter text or numerical values. Move the cursor in the input field to the left and right. To cut and paste character strings. or press a function key. Moves the cursor to the end of the input field. respectively. In edit mode. press a right or left arrow key ( or ) before pressing any other keys. or click the input field a second time to access the HyperMesh calculator. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. plot =. Moves the input cursor from field to field on the panel.. characters can be inserted or deleted at the proper location. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. HyperMesh removes any leading spaces contained in a character string. comp =. Press the ESC key while the field is still active to restore the initial text or value to the input field. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. click the corresponding menu item or input field (the menu item is placed in edit modea). click the menu item or input field a second time to select the name from a list of the existing collectors. If you want to edit the existing data. and the new character is placed at the far left of the input field. the value previously assigned to the field is erased. When you type an alphanumeric character with the keyboard. After you click either the input field or the description. and BACKSPACE HOME END DELETE TAB To exit edit mode. Note: If you need to specify the name of a collector for a data input field (i. the following keys perform the corresponding functions: ESC Restores the initial text or value displayed upon entering edit mode. You can enter characters and numbers from the keyboard to modify the value. and press CTRL-v. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the input field. the text currently in the input field is highlighted.). press CTRL-c. You can cut and paste text from one data field to another within HyperMesh and also from data fields in HyperMesh to a command window (except in OpenGL versions). Deletes the character to the left of the cursor and moves the cursor one space to the left. select another menu item. A description of the type of input precedes the field. After positioning the cursor in the input field. signifying that the input field in ready for editing. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. and use the keyboard to enter text until the proper information is displayed. title =). press the ENTER key.

Pop-ups Pop-up menus are displayed when there are seve ral options from which to choose.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If the pop-up does not have a border. click the corresponding menu item or input field and enter the value using the keyboard.45. click numeric and function buttons on the calculator using HP-style reverse notation. Calculator pop-up. If a real number contains three or more leading zeros after the decimal. Some pop-ups are displayed with a border around the menu box and some have no border. When the pop-up menu appears. you can either select a menu item on the pop-up menu or move the mouse outside the bounds of the menu. You can also use the HyperMesh calculator to enter the value. and click exit to close the calculator.Numeric Data Input Numerical values are specified as real numbers or integers. To cut and paste numeric data. HyperMesh discards input characters that are not valid numbers and subsequent numbers. the second click gives you access to the calculator). For example.000. the mouse cursor is centered in the menu and the menu is made active. If HyperMesh expects an integer value and you enter 123. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. HyperMesh displays integer values without a decimal point. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. The pop-up menu remains on the screen until you move the mouse outside the bounds of the box. HyperMesh immediately processes the selection you have made on the pop-up menu and then waits for you to make more selections. If the pop-up menu has a border. press CTRL-c. and press CTRL-v. In edit mode. 76 HyperMesh 8. you must make a selection before you can proceed. click the menu item or input field a second time (the first click allows you to enter edit mode. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. Real numbers are displayed with a decimal point or in scientific notation. HyperMesh interprets it as 1230.). HyperMesh truncates the number to eliminate the decimal point. if you type 123e+1q1. To enter numeric data. HyperMesh automatically displays the value in scientific notation. Some pop-up menus allow multiple selections. For example. To use the calculator. the view pop-up menu (view on the Toolbar Area) allows you to make multiple selections.

File Browser When you open or save a file using save as. and last date modified.. This field allows you to enter the name of the file you wish to locate. Look in/Save in This drop-down menu contains the overall directory structure. Creates a new folder within the current directory. type. This field allows you to select the type of file you want to locate.. write as…. you use the standard Windows file browser.. Click Cancel to close the file browser. You can open new directories from this list. based on the search criteria used. Lists only the file name. File name Files of type Open (Save) Cancel Displays the folder at the previous level. as well as the contents of the open directory. Click Open (or Save) to load (or save) the file shown in the File name field. The file browser enables you to navigate through the directories on your network to locate files. Lists the file name. retrieve…. Folders and/or file names within the selected directory are listed below the Look in/Save in text box. etc.0 User’s Guide 77 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. import…. load…. It also displays the file that has been selected from the list. browse….

78 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . type filename* where filename is any portion of the name of the file you wish to locate. specify the directory to search. Type *.* to search for all files in the directory. Press ENTER. 2. Or For Files of Type. *. etc.To search for a particular file extension: 1. specify the search directory. hm5. Press ENTER. For Look in/Save in. All files ending with the specified extension are displayed. In the File name field. select the file type from the drop-down menu.hm* for all HyperMesh database files with extensions hm4. For File name. hm6. 3. You can also type *. All files beginning with the specified characters are displayed in the files list. type *. 2.hm searches for all the HyperMesh database files (files with an . For Look in/ Save in. 3.hm extension) in the specified directory. For example. To search for a particular filename: 1.ext where ext is the extension of the file type you wish to locate.

Single click and release. Click and move.0 User’s Guide 79 . Single click and release. such as Penetration Checks. Click and move. Selects a new center of rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. Performs selection operations on single entities. Fit the displayed model to the screen. Aborts graphics operations. Some operations require pressing a keyboard key in addition to using the mouse. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. If you release the mouse. Deselects an entity in the graphics area. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be selected. the pre-highlighted entity is selected Dynamic rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. Keyboard Left mouse Middle mouse Right mouse Single click and release. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels.The Mouse The mouse attached to your system is integral to HyperMesh and can be used in almost every aspect of user input. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be deselected (removed from selection). Rapid menu allows you to use the middle mouse button to quickly perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. Aborts intensive processes. the pre-highlighted entity is deselected. If you release the mouse. Single click and hold. CTRL Single click and release. Single click and release. Selects a new center of rotation.

SHIFT Single click and release. Pans the model. Click and move. In entity selection mode quick window selection of entities. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window SHIFT Click and move.quick window deselection of entities.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In entity selection mode . In display panel – turn off collectors that are inside/outside the window. 80 HyperMesh 8. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. Click and move. Dynamically rotates the model. Single click and release. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: Single click and release. In display panel – turn on collectors that are inside/outside the window. Zooms into an area of the model. Click and move.CTRL Click and move.

N2. HyperMesh performs the fill plot action when you click the middle mouse button. select a few nodes for your first node list or line list. thus translating/rotating the same nodes again. collectors/create panel with a preset collector name creates a collector when you click the middle mouse button. the entities in the input collector are not cleared. For example. Since you do not have N1. The rapid menu function can also vary within a panel. a middle mouse click performs the operation with the defaults. N3 vector option in the translate panel. allowing you to use the same entities to repeat the operation. For example. Some panels do not have function buttons and are repetitive. clicking the middle mouse button a second time repeats the translate + or rotate + function. In panels that have pre-filled defaults. resulting in an error message. This allows advanced users to perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region.Rapid Menu Rapid menu is a feature that uses the middle mouse button (a single click for each step) to move through a panel along a predetermined path. using the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel. the middle mouse button repeats the chosen function as long as the entity collector is not reset to empty. in the replace panel. For example in the ruled panel. For example. it replaces one with the other and proceeds to repeat the operation with the new selection. In these panels. For example. The rapid menu function is predetermined and varies between panels. If you click the middle mouse button after you select the required nodes. In most panels. the middle mouse button may activate a function for which there is insufficient data. rapid menu is assigned to the most commonly used function. thus reducing "mouse miles". an error message results. In panels that contain multiple function buttons. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 81 . rapid menu advances to the next collector. return is assigned to the rapid menu. In some panels. in the translate or rotate panels once you selected some elements/nodes/comps and direction and distance of translation. But once you pick a node to create the line. N2 and N3 selected or may not have a magnitude value entered. an attempt to perform translate + is executed. In panels where there is no clear sequence of selections. create becomes the rapid menu function. the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel if the active input collector (yellow collector with a blue outline) is empty. when you try to move nodes using the N1. and then click the middle mouse button to advance to the second node list so that you can begin picking more nodes. when you enter the lines panel. For example. In panels where there is a defined sequence of selections (input collectors). For example: in the hidden line panel shown below. In such cases. if you pick two nodes. The function button that is assigned to rapid menu is outlined in black.

+. from the main page menu. Note that "+" is actually shift = on the main keyboard. you must use the keyboard to enter new file or component names or title information. but simply + on the numeric keypad. When a panel is active. SHIFT key. -. global panel Open the Help. options panel Plot Rotate Dynamically zooms in and out when you move the mouse up and down True view transparent components panel User View pop-up menu Windows panel Circle-zoom When you use the +. The hot keys are the same as the letters on the menu. Arc rotate Return to a previous view Center (spherical) clipping panel display panel Fill/fit model to window. The secondary menu uses various combinations of the function keys.Keyboard Although most HyperMesh operations are performed with the mouse. Press "m" again to bring the menus back. You can press ESC instead of clicking return to exit a panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Rotate by increments Ctrl Incremental counterclockwise. this opens help for that panel. In addition. You can also use the arrow keys on the keyboard to rotate your model. it opens the Help’s table of contents. or arrow keys. and reverse view Zoom by increments. press the key once and wait for HyperMesh to redraw the model before pressing the key again. Turn off the menus and display only the graphics window.a b c <ctrl>+<c> d f g h m o p r s t <ctrl>+<t> v w z Notes: 82 HyperMesh 8. there are several keyboard hot keys that you can use to access the viewing functions available on the Toolbar Area. and CTRL key to access panels. clockwise.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Examples include: • • • • • • • Jumping to a specific HyperMesh panel Automatically performing a task using HyperMesh *commands Executing a macro The following keys are usable when defining shortcuts: Letter and number keys ("standard" keys) <ctrl> plus another "standard" key <shift> plus another "standard" key <ctrl> plus <shift> plus another "standard" key You can assign or remove a shortcut by selecting keyboard from the Preferences pull-down menu.Mapping Keyboard Shortcuts Keyboard shortcuts can be used to map HyperMesh functions to keys or key combinations. One example of this is the default mapping of the <f> key—which. when pressed.0 User’s Guide 83 . zooms and pans the graphics area view to fit the currently displayed model to the screen. so that you can quickly execute tasks that you use frequently simply by pressing one or more keys on the keyboard. The keyboard option opens a free-standing window with a keyboard display. You can customize the default shortcut mappings to create your own shortcuts for a variety of tasks.

enter the appropriate command(s) and if necessary the file name (for a tcl script) in the table area of the menu located below the keyboard diagram. cannot be mapped. to enter the combine sub-panel in the element edit panel. right. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk.Keys display in the Key-Command Mappings window with colors based on their mapping: To map a function to a shortcut key. Some keyboard shortcuts are mapped by default during installation. use hm_pushpanelitem {element edit} {combine} This will take you to the last used sub-panel in the specified panel. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. alt. Remapping such keys to new functionality results in loss of original functionality. Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. The selected key highlights in blue. 84 HyperMesh 8. Ctrl + Ctrl + F1 Ctrl + F2 Ctrl + F3 Ctrl + F4 Ctrl + F5 Ctrl + F6 Incremental clockwise. ctrl. For example. such as tab. Creates PostScript file of the screen and spools it to printer. and down respectively. and some utilize functions which are only accessible via shortcut keys. esc. up. Those keys are identified with a different color: Use the hm_pushpanelitem command in a shortcut to jump to a specific sub-panel of a panel. backspace etc. counterclockwise and reverse view Creates bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Examples of such shortcuts are: Incremental rotate left. • • Any HyperMesh command file commands can be mapped to a shortcut key. Next.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Notes • • Some special-function keys. shift. select the appropriate key by clicking in the keyboard menu or holding down that key on your keyboard.jpg screen capture or animation file. Generates a *.

To create a shortcut key "J" that runs a macro to find all the elements with jacobian < 0. enter the following commands in the command field next to the key "E": *createmark elements 1 "all". enter the following in the command field next to the key "J": *evaltclstring "macroElementJacobian 0.tcl file with following commands: Proc displayonlybeams {} { *createmark elements 2 "by config" 60 63 set beams [hm_getmark elements 2] *clearmark elements 2 if { ![Null beams]} { *displaycollectorwithfilter(comps. 1.tcl file. *evaltclstring displayonlybeams In the file field. "". To create a shortcut key "L" that accesses the lines panel. enter the following in the command field next to the key "L": hm_pushpanel {lines}. 1). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. "none". } else { hm_usermessage "No beam elements in this model" } } In the Key-Command Mappings window. To call the same macro. select shift from the Shortcut Key pull-down menu.0 User’s Guide 85 .shortcut mapping examples To create a shortcut key "e" that deletes all the elements in the model. Enter the following in the command field next to the key "K".7: this macro already exists in the QA page of the Utility menu. click the "…" button to browse to and select the findbeams. *findmark elements 1 0 1 elements 0 2.7" 0 To create a shortcut key "shift + K" that runs a macro to check whether any beam/bar elements exist in the model and display them only: Create a findbeams. eval *createmark elements 1 $beams. *deletemark elements 1.

it interrupts the active panel and allows you to perform a function in the secondary panel. Entities selected while in the secondary panel are still selected when you return to the initial panel. to continue using the initial panel. or in combination with the SHIFT or CTRL keys. and upon completion. 86 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. The default secondary panels are as follows: Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Note: Function key only hidden line delete replace distance mask element edit align node create node line edit check element geometry quick edit automesh plus SHIFT key color temp nodes edges translate find split project node edit surf edit normals organize smooth plus CTRL key print slide slide file print eps create eps file print b/w eps create JPEG file Function keys may be reassigned to different panels by using the build menu panel. When you use the secondary menu.Secondary Menu The secondary menu is a list of panels that can be accessed by using the function keys F1 through F12.

and text that have HyperMesh-supplied and user-defined macros associated with them. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The menu is located on a tab of the tab area pane(s).mac userpage. clicking one of these buttons opens the page associated with it. radio options. You may also select and run a macro file after HyperMesh starts from within the options panel. so that you can group the macros by type of operation.mac geommeshpage. HyperMesh runs it automatically to define the attributes and contents of the utility menu.0 User’s Guide 87 . similar to the way that only one radio button can be active at a time—selecting a button de-selects all of the other buttons in the group.mac Populates the Display page of the utility menu. $2. with optional arguments to pass The page number allows you to create multiple pages. A macro file (hm.mac qamodelpage. although only one displays at a time. it looks for a macro file named hm. UNIX users also have the option of putting the userpage. Populates the Geom/Mesh page of the utility menu. Each page is associated with a button at the bottom of the utility menu. Macros may accept variable arguments. and can be shown or hidden from within the view pull-down menu. The default hm. Thus it is actually a group of menus. When HyperMesh starts.mac file in the directory from which it launches and then in the installation directory. Attributes that you can change include: • • • • • The utility menu page on which the operations appear Text to be displayed on each control Location and size of the menu The help string to be displayed on the menu bar The macro to call when each control is used. The utility menu includes several pages of its own. Populates the QA/Model page of the utility menu.mac globalpage. passed to them from a control. which allows you to create groups of standard reusable macros. If it finds this macro.mac in the current directory. to specify where the arguments should be substituted. The *callmacro() command allows you to call a macro from within another one.Utility Menu The utility menu allows you to customize the standard interface to include function buttons. This file defines the attributes and contents of the User page of the utility menu. Populates the User page of the utility menu. etc. Macros may contain any valid command file command. or the application’s base directory. A userpage. and are enclosed by the *beginmacro() and *endmacro() commands. HOME directory (UNIX only). by using the arguments $1. Only one button can be depressed at a time. it first looks for the userpage. Creates the button group that allows you to switch pages. each dedicated to different tasks.mac file in their home directory.mac file may exist in the installation directory for HyperMesh or in the directory from which HyperMesh launches. When HyperMesh starts.mac file sources the following additional macro files: disppage.mac) controls the display and available operations of the utility menu.

the utility menu will still be invisible even though you have it checked in the view menu.cfg file. Disp Utility menu The Disp utility menu contains a variety of macros that allow you to modify the graphical display of HyperMesh entities in several different ways. if you wish. you must remember that once a macro is executed. you can restrict HyperMesh to only drawing a small sub-set of the entities in your model. The different pages of the utility menu are: • • • • Geom/Mesh (macros related to model geometry and FE mesh) Disp (Options related to the graphical display of entities) QA/Model (macros related to element quality and loads) User (user-created macros only) The utility menu displays by default. but you have only the left-hand pane showing in the HyperMesh environment. the Utility menu displays when HyperMesh starts. Then. if the utility menu is on the right-hand tab area pane. Note: While macros offer a great deal of flexibility. For example. showing or hiding all 2-D elements. and a macro may not be called recursively. To restore the utility menu. turning off the display of everything except entities of type. 88 HyperMesh 8. although it may be obscured by another tab such as the model browser or include browser. or even by clicking-and-dragging the tab to the HyperMesh title bar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if that pane is open. it can also be dragged-and-dropped to the right -side explorer pane. and Disp pages contain a variety of macros that allow you to quickly perform functions which would normally take several steps. there is no way to cancel the execution or reject the results. If you want to remove the Utility menu from the default screen display.By default. You can also mask and unmask portions of your model. It contains page selection buttons at the bottom of the menu. in the Tab area pane. The Geom/Mesh. with the current page’s button depressed. QA/Model. simply check it in the view menu. You can turn the utility menu off completely (removing its tab from the tab area) by un-checking it in the view pull-down menu. delete the * before the *enablemacromenu() command in the hm. However. and save additional model views. You can also isolate only a specific entity type. that it still might not display if the tab area pane on which it resides is not active. you can turn the display of individual types back on as desired. Default Utility menu The utility menu is normally located on the left side of the graphics region. By combining these features. until only the desired subset of entity types displays. Note. You can also turn the utility menu off by clicking the small “x” in the upper corner of the tab area when the utility menu tab is in the forefront. See the descriptions below for help with each type of macro. Chief among these is the ability to turn the display of individual entity types on and off—for example. but display of the menu is controlled by a command in the HyperMesh Configuration. however.

control an array of several related entities (such as points.Scene macros: These controls allow you to save and retrieve up to three additional views of your model. clicking all next to the 2-D label turns on the display of every 2-D element in your model. These views function just like the custom views that you can save and retrieve via the user views function (accessed from the HyperMesh toolbar). or slot 3. and always include any masks that you may have applied to the model. such as elements or geometry. So. 1. These views function in addition to the user views. This enables you to turn off certain entities while retaining others. There are different categories of entities whose display you can turn on and off. regardless of entity type. such as elements or geometry. and allow you to turn the display of different types of entities on or off. Clicking All turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. are more restrictive. such as 2-D elements or lines. none On Off Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. but does not affect the display of 0. Toggling the display of these does not affect other entities within the same broad category. slot 2. Clicking Off turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. and solids). Smaller sub-types of entity. These buttons retrieve views of the model that you have previously saved via the scene (1. such as 2-D elements or lines. 2. These broad categories have buttons labeled All or none. such as geometry.3) Retrieve These buttons save the current view of the model in slot 1. if you turn off the display of lines. clicking none hides the entire model. clicking all next to the elements label turns on the display of every element type in your model. 2. lines. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. other geometry types (such as points) do not turn off. 3) save macros. In other words. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. The largest group possible is labeled Everything. or 3-D elements. Clicking none turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. clicking Off next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every 2-D element in your model. followed by 2-3 buttons. or 3-D elements. Each broad category or sub-type has a text label on the menu. Broad categories. clicking none next to the elements label turns off the display of every element type in your model. such as 2-D elements or geometry points. 3) Save Scene (1. Scene (1. or isolate the display of an entity type. For example.0 User’s Guide 89 . For example. These buttons perform the actual display macro functions: All These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. The All and none buttons for this category literally affect every entity in the model. however. but does not affect the display of 0. These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. For example.2. 1. surfs. Clicking On turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. For example. even within the same broad category. Display macros: These controls form the bulk of the menu. for example. including its boundary conditions. This allows you to turn the display of entire classes of entity on or off in one click. These sub-types have buttons labeled on or off.

Select the desired lines and click proceed to show. etc. masking allows you to reduce the number of entities drawn onscreen. the surface itself will not be unless it is completely outside of the graphics display area. Note that these functions are accumulative. Similarly. then turning on lines. for this reason. Labels (located under the BC’s category). however. Like the display controls. then clicked show adjacent elems any mesh along . turning off all geometry. The By Edge… macro (under Geometry à Surfs) allows you to turn off all surfaces attached to one or more edge lines. Temporary nodes are any nodes that users create during a HyperMorph session. either by way of the mask out macro or the mask panel. Unmask All Clear Temp Nodes This macro removes any and all masks that you have applied to the model. Clicking one of the buttons for this option causes HyperMesh to display a lines selector. results in only the lines (plus FE elements. masking is based on entity location rather than entity type. however. boundary conditions. or isolate the surfaces touching those lines. those lines would be revealed—but only a single row of elements. This macro reveals one or more rows of elements adjacent to the entities currently displayed. refers to the text labels for boundary conditions such as pressures and forces. Mask and Node macros: The final set of controls concern masking and unmasking entities. The only exception to this accumulative usage is repeated use of the only option: since it always hides everything except the chosen entity type. you can then add other entities to the view by turning them On one-by-one. so that only the specified entity type remains visible. This allows you to view only the adjoining mesh. as well as removing temporary nodes. such as rbe3 elements. if you choose to show only 2-D elements. Show Adjacent Elems 90 HyperMesh 8. Note. Comments Handle (located under the Elements category) refers to the text labels that appear on some elements. Mask Out This macro automatically applies a mask to hide every entity in the model that does not currently display in the graphics area. multiple only commands do not work accumulatively. rather than all of the mesh for an entire component.Only These buttons may appear for broad categories of entity or sub-types. if you isolated a model’s geometry lines. either click proceed again without selecting any lines. For example. that entities can’t be partially hidden—so while some of the mesh elements on a surface may be masked out. Click Clear Temp Nodes to automatically remove all temporary nodes from the model. These nodes are redundant because they must be created on existing geometry. Clicking only isolates the entity type indicated by the label by hiding every other entity type in the model. To exit the macro. hide. so that only 2-D elements remain visible.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . they should be deleted before the model is sent to a solver. clicking Only next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every entity in the model except for 2-D elements.) displaying. For example. or press the <esc> key.

Its primary use cases are solid parts with varying thickness. This allows a higher quality mesh around circular holes. by offsetting one side surfaced to midplane. with ribs (T junctions). Extracts a midsurface from a thin solid representation of sheet metal stamped parts.5 times its original size. Quickly creates an automatic tetrahedral mesh while meeting the requirements for minimum element angle and element size. The macro also creates the corresponding property card and updates the thickness. Quick Tetramesh Fix 2nd Order Midnodes Add Washer Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Places four additional fixed points on an inner line. You select a line whose length represents the solid thickness and a surface. Isolate Surface ThinSolid=>Midsurf Washer Adj Circ Pts The mesh macros are: Auto Connectors Midsurf Thickness A pop-up menu that allows you to automatically create connectors and FE realize them from a master connection file. the macro determines the radius of the hole. Scales a copy of a selected circular line to 1. Depending on the tolerance you specify. creating a higher quality mesh. and then trims this new line into the surface.Geom/Mesh utility menu This menu contains a set of macros related to working with model geometry. The geometry macros are: Preserve edges Project points Prevents specific edges from being suppressed during autocleanup or batchmeshing.0 User’s Guide 91 . and then projects those points to a concentric line. which is part of either the inner or outer side of the solid. Isolates either an inner or an outer surface layer (based on the user selected surface) from a 3D model. This macro works only on the surfaces attached to the selected surface. Two other options available are: 1) Create a rigid spider along the hole and 2) Enforce a minimum number of nodes around the hole. etc. Assigns the thickness of a midsurface geometry to FE nodes or elements. This macro is intended to be used with sheet metal parts with uniform thickness and does not work for molded solid parts. Creates a layer of washer elements around a circular hole in the mesh. and displays a menu for entering the width of the washer. You can also review the thickness as a contour plot on the elements. Projects free points to surface edges. points may even project to multiple edges. The macro then creates a layer of washer elements around the hole and remeshes the surrounding elements to maintain mesh connectivity. You select a node along the hole. as well as a set for working with FE mesh. This can be helpful to achieve uniform meshing with regard to weld points. Improves element quality by moving the mid-edge nodes of second order elements. The other layers and thickness are then placed in a temp directory and masked.

delete the rigid spider before using this macro. If any elements fail the criteria. Since the criteria on that panel are customizable. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Jacob (Jacobian) Warp (warpage) Aspect (aspect ratio) Max ang: Q (quad) 92 HyperMesh 8. If any elements fail the criteria. if necessary. Fill Hole Box Trim Bead QA/Model Utility menu The QA utility menu contains many tools to help you quickly review and clean up the quality of a preexisting mesh. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their warpage. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the criteria. Creates a bead of a given height and width along the selected two nodes and connects to the surrounding mesh. An optional layer of washer elements can be created along with a rigid spider along the hole. Trims the model along user-defined trim lines. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the maximum internal angle. it displays a message and leaves the model display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements against the maximum Jacobian value. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If any elements fail the warpage test. This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that fill the hole. Tools There are eight tools to isolate elements that fail certain element check criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. The element quality criteria used by these tools comes directly from the values entered on the check elements panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. the quality criteria used by these macros remains consistent with those used throughout the rest of HyperMesh—and can be indirectly adjusted by changing the settings on the check elements panel. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their aspect ratio.Trim Hole Creates a circular hole (of a given radius) in the mesh at the selected node (as the center of the hole). Length This macro checks all the displayed elements against the minimum length criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Fills the selected hole and remeshes the surrounding mesh to maintain connectivity. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. This is useful for reducing the model size by taking advantage of symmetry etc.

If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the criteria. Finds all of the elements attached to the displayed elements. Allows you to remesh the selected elements plus one. does not break connectivity. Find Attached Remesh Smooth Quality Report Model Tour Allows you to review (tour) the selected components individually. Brings up a user interface that allows you to set the various quality values and check the quality of all the 2D elements in the model. You can also export the results to a text file using save as.Max ang: T (tria) This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the maximum internal angle. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. It also displays a dialog that allows you to review the free edges of the component and any elements attached to the component. two. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). number of elements in that component and their ID range. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the minimum internal angle. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. The results are shown as the number of elements and percentage of elements failing each criterion. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. two. BOM Comparison Tool Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Reads a generic Bill Of Materials file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM as well as the corresponding FE model. Allows you to apply the smoothing algorithm to the selected elements plus one. They only affect the report. The remesh uses the current size. Each element failing this criterion is then split along its diagonal to form two tria elements instead of the original quad. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). If any elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Min ang: Q (quad) Min ang: T (tria) You can use the following macros to quickly modify any elements that fail the element checks. This macro displays the component name. and uses the mixed element type. Note: Changing the criteria on this report interface does not change the settings in the check elements panel. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the minimum internal angle.0 User’s Guide 93 . Split Warped Checks all displayed quad elements for warp exceeding the acceptable value.

these elements are un-masked.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If masked. 94 HyperMesh 8. constraints. Automatically finds all loads directly attached to a selected component. If masked. these loads are un-masked. while 3 is the largest. these comps are un-masked. Find Elems>>Loads Find Comps>>Loads Find Loads>>Comps Find Elems>>Connectors Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all load indicators. the numbers do not directly correspond to any specific values or ratios. If masked. including forces. Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all connectors. and so on. If masked.The model tools included on this page are: Load Size These numbered buttons represent different display sizes for load indicators: 0 is the smallest. Note that this only affects the graphical display of load indicators—it does not change the load magnitudes. Since these buttons affect all loads. these elements are un-masked. Automatically finds all components directly attached to any and all load indicators. pressures.

Since users in different design and analysis groups use BOM information. LS-Dyna. BOMs usually use Microsoft Excel® format (CSV format) or XML format. the formats and content of the BOM can vary. and updates between design iterations as well as other CAE activities. A BOM is often used as the master document for model meshing. Radioss-Block. and Abaqus user profiles. One BOM may contain more data than another BOM for the same program.BOM comparison tool The BOM Comparison Tool located on the QA/Model utility menu reads a generic Bill of Materials (BOM) file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM and its corresponding FE model. see the following topics: • • • • • • • BOM Comparison Tool Graphical User Interface (GUI) BOM Comparison Tool Control Section BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section BOM Comparison Tool Master Column BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For an in-depth description of the parts that make up the BOM Comparison Tool user interface and how to use them. property assignments.0 User’s Guide 95 . model comparison. The BOM reader includes the following abilities: • • • • • Reads a generic BOM file of CSV format (comma separated values file) Provides a GUI to manipulate data in the BOM and the corresponding FE model Provides an option to update attributes in the FE model based on the data available in the BOM Provides an option to complete the existing BOM based on the data available from the model Filters out all vague information present in the BOM and provides a feature to edit the vague information into a valid data and move it back to the BOM Provides a functionality to export a new BOM file Note: The BOM Comparison Tool only applies to the Nastran. The HyperMesh BOM Comparison Tool focuses primarily on the Excel format. assembly.

part of the tree section. This section contains a table to display BOM info as it is seen in the actual BOM file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Contains master column selection. Contains filtering options for displaying tree and table info. Displays failed records from a loaded BOM file. 96 HyperMesh 8.BOM Comparison Tool GUI The BOM Comparison Tool’s GUI consists of seven sections as shown below: Control section: Tree section: Master column: BOM display section: Metadata display section: Failed records section: Display filter section: Contains menu items and buttons to perform various operations. This section controls most tool functions. Contains a tree structure displaying part names and ids. Contains options for metadata management.

and Gauge. details populate the relevant fields in the BOM comparison tool. HyperMesh checks for the standard headers Part Name. Invalid records can be edited to form valid data and can be moved to the BOM Display table. Close the BOM Comparison Tool.BOM Comparison Tool Control Section This portion of the interface contains drop-down menus and the toolbar. you will be prompted select the heading from the BOM file that corresponds to each standard header. You can select additional items from a combo box. Material Id. or generate a new BOM by querying the HM model in current session. Sometimes the BOM doesn’t contain all of the data you want. If the corresponding model contains the missing data. or type a new header into it and Add them. This option opens a new window listing the items to be added to the BOM file. Check Model Checks the model against the BOM. This option switches the BOM Display Section to Comparison mode if it is currently in BOM View mode (see below). Use the Complete BOM operation to either complete an existing BOM. Material. you can complete the BOM data by querying the HM database and extracting the data.0 User’s Guide 97 . If any are missing. You may also select items in the list and Delete them from the file. File menu New Open Create a new session Browse for and load a new BOM file. Only valid records from a BOM file display in the BOM Display Section’s table. If all are found. or click an item already in the list and insert the new item just above it. Show Failed Display all the invalid records that the tool encounters while reading a BOM file in a table. Part Id. Save and export the current information shown in the BOM Display section as a new BOM csv file in a user selected location. Update the model attributes to match the BOM. Once you had added or deleted all necessary entries. click Continue to generate the new file. Save and Export Exit Edit menu Update Model Complete BOM Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

In_Model_Only: components found in model but not in BOM.View menu BOM View Compare View Display section displays BOM info as it appears in the BOM file. Different: components in BOM whose standard attributes differ from those in the model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Same function as Edit > Update Model. Same function as Edit > Complete BOM. Same function as File > Show Failed. Categorizes BOM information into four sections: • Match: components in BOM whose standard attributes match exactly with those in the model. Same function as File >Save and Export. 98 HyperMesh 8. Same function as Edit > Check Model. In_BOM_Only: components found in BOM but not in model. • • • Same function as File > Open.

It then displays the part names. select the desired header in the options menu.BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section When a BOM file is loaded into the tool.0 User’s Guide 99 . appended with part ids. and can be used to filter the BOM info anytime in the session. Each tree branch is associated with a row in the BOM display table containing all standard information for the part in the tree branch. You can enter a string in the combo box. The combo box remembers previously entered strings until you quit the tool. the tool identifies the part name and part id of all valid records. Apart from this there are filter buttons each one of which is explained below: (Select All) (Select None) (Reverse selection) Displays all the branches in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table Switch off all the branches in the tree and delete all the data in the BOM display table Switch on all the “off” branches in the tree and vice versa. This section also includes selection and filtering controls. and press the <return> key to display the desired information in the tree and BOM display table. in brackets in the form of a tree structure located on the left side of the tool window. Data associated with switched-on branches displays in the BOM display table Switch on only those branches in the tree (and associated data in the BOM display table) that correspond to the displayed parts in the model (Show displayed) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. to affect which parts display in the tree and which parts are selected or deselected. Filter options are given for displaying only the desired part info in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table.

Only columns with three attributes can be used as master columns. The master column data is used as a key for the following operations: • • • Update model attributes as in BOM Complete BOM by querying model Check model against BOM The tool allows three master column combinations between the BOM and the model. i. columns containing part id.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . BOM info can be displayed in two different modes: BOM only. BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM info displays in a table in the BOM display section. By default information displays in BOM Only view: 100 HyperMesh 8. The tool queries the data in the model based on any one of these column combinations: • • • Compare Part Id in BOM with Part Id in model: the tool compares the attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part id as the key.e. This section allows you to select the desired master column option. Compare by Part Name in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part name as the key. Compare by Part Number in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part number as the key. and Comparison. located in the center of the tool window just below the master column section.BOM Comparison Tool Master Column The central top portion of the tool window contains the master column section. The master column is the column in the BOM file whose attributes are considered as a key in comparison and validation operations. part name and part number.

In the Different category. which categorizes the BOM information into four categories: • • • • Match: BOM components whose standard attributes exactly match those in the model Different: BOM components whose standard attributes differ from those in the model In_BOM_Only: components found in the BOM but not in the model In_Model_Only: components found in the model but not in the BOM The screenshot below illustrates Comparison view: Column 1 shows the category name with the number of parts falling under that category enclosed in brackets. Update metadata updates metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. Delete metadata deletes metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. remaining columns display the BOM info. Create metadata creates metadata of all the attributes of the parts in the model corresponding to the selected row in the table. Delete deletes the selected row in the table. Right-Click menu Right -clicking on the table opens a menu of functions: • • • • • • Display selected parts displays parts in the model corresponding to the selected rows in the BOM display table.0 User’s Guide 101 .Use the toggle button located in the top-right portion of the GUI to switch to Comparison mode. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Display all parts will display all the parts in the model. mismatched attributes between BOM and the model are highlighted in light blue.

the whole record is considered invalid and will be stored out-of-sight. You have the option to edit each of those failed records to make them valid and move them to the BOM display table using the Move button. The tool considers the following five terms as standard attributes: • • • • • Part Name Part Id Material Material Id Gauge If at least one attribute is missing or repetitive.BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section You can create. the tool checks for the validity of each standard attribute in a record (a record corresponds to one line of info in the BOM file). The metadata display section contains four display options in the form of a combo box. After selecting a row in the BOM Display table. Click the Show failed menu item or corresponding button in the control section to see the failed records. second row corresponds to metadata associated with the model BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section When a BOM file is loaded. Metadata information contains all the attributes for a part in the model. and then use this combo box to select the type of information displayed in the metadata display table: None Metadata related to BOM All metadata Differences between BOM/metadata clear the table if already some data exists display BOM related metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display all the metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display two rows of info in the metadata table. This opens a Failed records table as shown below.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . First row corresponds to BOM info. 102 HyperMesh 8. update and delete metadata using some of the menu items on the BOM display table.

The preserve edges macro provides a way to ensure that specific components edges and feature lines do not accidentally get discarded during autocleanup or batch meshing. Click this button to highlight the lines already marked for preservation. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a line selector in the HyperMesh panel area. so that autocleanup and batch mesher will know which lines must be preserved.Preserve Edges Both the batch mesher and the autocleanup features seek to improve mesh speed and/or quality by suppressing minor features (which are assumed to be insignificant). Use the comps selector to choose the components whose boundary edges you wish preserved. picking a new set of lines starts over instead of adding to the selection. Thus. Removes all lines from the preservation list. a new pop-up window opens to accept your settings: The following options are available for the Preserve Edges macro: Clear at start When this checkbox is active. When you click the preserve edges button. When active.0 User’s Guide 103 . this checkbox prevents HyperMesh auto-cleanup from equivalencing the boundaries between adjacent components. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a component selector in the HyperMesh panel area. Saves the preservation state. Select Lines Show Preserved Comps selection boundary Select comps Clear all lines Save preserved Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. any previously stored feature lines will purge each time you click select lines or select comps. sometimes minor features are still important to your analysis. However. Use the lines selector to choose the lines you wish preserved. Note that this will not preserve lines inside the components—only the outer boundary edge.

You can also review the contour plot of thickness data with this macro. allows you to transfer thickness data from surfaces to the associated nodes/elements. 104 HyperMesh 8. OK Cancel Accepts any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. using the same units as your model. if extracted using the HyperMesh midsurface function. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. When you click the Midusrf thickness… menu button. HyperMesh displays a target element size field. use this button to remove the highlight from the preserved lines. only the visual highlighting effect is removed (until you click show preserved again). Type a value into this field. Any points within this distance of the selected surfaces’ edges will be projected to those edges. Clicking this button opens a surfs selector in the HyperMesh panel area. the controls for this macro display in a new tab in the tab area. Project Points Use this macro to project geometric points (such as weld points) to nearby edges.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Reset highlights After clicking the show preserved button. After selecting surfs and clicking proceed. have thickness information stored in their definition. The lines remain preserved. use this to select the surfaces whose edges you wish to project points to. Midsurf Thickness Geometric surfaces that represent the mid-plane of a solid part. The Midsurf thickness macro. Discards any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. The thickness data can be a single value for the entire part or a varying function.

The following options are available in the Midsurf thickness. Most solvers only have Z-offset defined on the element card. the zoffset (which is saved as part of the midsurface data) tells a solver how much of a positive-normal offset exists between the actual part surface and the midsurface: To assign Z-offset values to the element cards for supported solvers. 2.. the values will be updated on the element card for that solver. (For example. (For example. The components option performs the following generic steps for each User profile: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Groups the elements that have thickness values within the specified ranges into the new component based on the Range Interval or Gage File options. the PSHELL T field will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). Use the Components option to group elements that fall within userspecified thickness intervals into common components. Use the Nodes/Elements option to assign the thickness and Z-offset values directly to the element cards. In order to execute this mode. 3. The nodes option is valid for only LS-DYNA and ANSYS solvers. so this value will always be populated on the element cards for any solver that supports Z-offset. CQUAD4 T1-T4 and Zoff fields will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). For each User profile.. macro: Apply thickness to You can choose to assign or view the thickness values at the nodes or on elements. Z-Offset Values Activate this checkbox to take z-offsets into account. a base component named t0 must be defined. This option is only valid for OptiStruct and Nastran User profiles. Refer to the User profile section for more details on the unique behavior of the Midsurf Thickness utility for each User profile. Creates components with name “t[thickness value]” by copying the properties of the base component t0 and assigning the appropriate thickness based on the value of the Range Interval or Gage File options. The t0 component definition will be used for all created components based on the Range Interval specified in the Component Organization Method section described below. HyperMesh uses Z-offsets when midsurfacing parts that have variable thickness. check the Z-offset values checkbox. then assign the thickness value to the component property card image for each User Profile.0 User’s Guide 105 . Assigns appropriate thickness values to the Component.

• • • Lower limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* i ) Upper limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* (i + 1)) Assigned value = tolerance*(i+1) Where i = 0……n. The thickness assigned to each created component is n*tolerance. Assign Contour Assigns the thickness from the surface definition to the nodes or elements chosen.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This option is very useful for visualizing and verifying the results of the Midsurf Thickness utility before applying the midsurf thickness mapping operation. This step does not assign the thickness to the nodes or elements. Close 106 HyperMesh 8. Range Interval – You must specify a thickness tolerance. Thickness range intervals are automatically generated based on the thickness tolerance using the following formula. Centroid –the element’s centroid (interpolated from its nodes) Max –the maximum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. Gauge – You must specify the thickness range intervals in a Gage File. Min – the minimum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. n is determined by the maximum thickness in model divided by the user specified tolerance and then rounding to up to the next integer. You can obtain the thickness value from the surface at: Average – the average of the element’s nodes. Click here for details on the format of the gauge file. 2. Closes the tab.Thickness calculation method This option is valid only while applying the thickness to elements. Component Organization method This option specifies the thickness range intervals used when grouping the elements into components based on their thickness values. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value. Creates a contour plot of the thicknesses on the selected elements/nodes. it is a review/display function only. HyperMesh groups elements having thickness values within the specified range intervals into appropriately created components with the appropriate thickness values assigned to the component. You can specify thickness range intervals by two methods: 1. If the Assigned Value is not specified.

3. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. Select a Thickness Calculation method. 9. 6. and enter any default values for this card. 7. 4. Change to your preferred User Profile. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. Change to your preferred User Profile. 7. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. 2. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of thickness for the Node/Element option. 11. 5. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 10. 6. 3. Select the Nodes/Elements option. 8. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping. 2. 8. Load the desired model file. To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Components Option: 1. 6. Click the Proceed button. Load the desired model file. 5. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. Create the base component “t0”. Change to your preferred User Profile. Select the Components option. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto.0 User’s Guide 107 . 3. Select a Component Organization method and either select a file or enter a tolerance based on the method. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Load the desired model file. 4. assign the base property card image.To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Nodes/Elements Option: 1. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. 7. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping To Contour Thickness for Node/Element Option: 1. Pick the desired nodes. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. 2. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 4. 5.

Select the desired elements. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. Select the Components option. Load the desired model file. Click the Proceed button. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. 3. 2. Change to your preferred User Profile. 4. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 4. Load the desired model file. 4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 108 HyperMesh 8. 10. 8. 2. Change to your preferred User Profile. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 7. Change to your preferred User Profile. Select the desired nodes. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. 3. Click the contour button to open the node selection panel. 2. 8. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the components option. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab.To Contour Z-offset for Node/Element Option: 1. To Contour Z-offset for Components Option: 1. Activate the Z-Offset check box. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the Node/Element option. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. 6. 8. 9. Click Proceed. 3. 6. 5. Select the desired nodes. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. Select the desired nodes. 7. 9. Select the desired elements. Activate the Z-Offset check box. Select the Components option. 5. 10. 7. Click the Proceed button. To Contour Thickness for Components Option: 1. Load the desired model file. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the thickness for the components option. 6. 11. 5.

15 0.Gauge file example The Gauge file uses the following format: Number of Gauges [Number of Gauge Data Lines] Gauges Begin [min Thk] … If the Assigned Value is not specified.2 Assigned Value 0. Below is a specific example of a gauge file: Number of Gauges 4 End [max Thk] Assigned Value [Assigned Thk] Gauges Begin 0.0 User’s Guide 109 . Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.05 0. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option.05 0. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value.1 0.1 0. Z-Offset value • Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.05 0.1 0.15 0. Nodes/Elements Option • 2. • • • Unsupported Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”. 3.2 Midsurf Utility Behavior under different user profiles Abaqus 1.0 0.15 End 0.

3. Nodes/Elements • • • • 2. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option. • Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Components Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported OptiStruct and Nastran 1. 1. Z-Offset value • If Z-Offset is checked “on” Z-offset values from the midsuface will be retrieved and assigned to the elements associated to that midsurface. • • • • • 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The components option will group the elements with thickness intervals. 110 HyperMesh 8. • • • Assigns the Thickness and Z-Offset values to the Element Card based on the user selection Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”.Ansys The only difference between the nodes/elements and components options are that the nodes/ elements option will group the elements which match only exact thickness values. Nodes/Elements Option • 2.

Ls-Dyna 1.0 User’s Guide 111 . Nodes/Elements • 2. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Assigns the thickness value to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. • • • 3. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported PamCrash 1. Nodes/Elements • 2. Nodes/Elements • 2. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Radioss 1. • • • • • 3. • • • • • 3.

The maximum feature angle protects nodes on corners with a feature angle greater than the value specified. During the process of quick tetramesh. Click proceed to finalize the selection. the mesh may deviate from the underlying geometry in order to maintain good quality elements. Use this control to limit how acute the resulting elements will be. This applies only to cases where you can maintain features while fixing minimum element size. The surface trias from which the tetramesh will be extrapolated will be generated with angles that measure at least this many degrees.Quick TetraMesh The Quick TetraMesh macro quickly creates a tetramesh of an enclosed volume defined by geometry and/or elements. the features may not be maintained as they do not pass minimum element criteria.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . if two nodes of an element share different features (as in thin steps). Surfaces and/or elements can be used to define the volume. helping to better maintain the geometry. This macro is accessed on the Geom/Mesh utility menu located on the standard utility menu. For example. you can select “sacred elements” so that the tetmeshing function closely follows the original geometry. Altair Engineering Minimum Tria Angle Maximum feature angle 112 HyperMesh 8. Its main objective is to quickly and automatically create a tetramesh that meets the minimum interior angle and minimum element size. To alleviate this. The following options are available in the Quick TetraMesh macro: Volume Complist Double-click components and use the comps collector that displays in the panel area to select comps representing the geometry of the solid to be tetra meshed. and displays in a new tab in the tab area.

This determines the meshing engine used: the one used by the automesh panel. but only for the elements selected as sacred. Opens a pop-up window with basic information about each control that displays on the tab. Chordal deviation uses smaller elements along curves. The tetramesher will not move the nodes of these elements. When this option is checked. and edges to improve accuracy. This is useful in ensuring that a particular feature is captured exactly the way you want it to be. The Batch mesher generally produces better results. no tetra elements are created and the macro simply goes through the cleanup steps for the shell mesh. or the one used by the batch mesher. Note that this setting overrides the float setting in the tet from option. Average element size of the mesh to be created. and always uses uniform density. in which the quick tetramesher is free to move nodes in a surface tria mesh to achieve better tetra elements based on them. Tet from Mesher Perform mesh cleanup only Help Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. No single edge of any generated element will be shorter than this. correction of sliver elements. it gives special preference to trying to keep the nodes on a sacred surface. and projections onto the original geometry. feature lines. splitting of elements. All the cleanup steps are designed to improve the mesh quality. but may produce lowquality elements along such locations. in which the mesher must keep the tria mesh unchanged. With the Mixed mesh type. even if doing so would improve element quality. If the feature angle exceeds the given value.0 User’s Guide 113 . Mesh size Minimum Edge Size Minimum Elem Size Sacred surface Sacred elements Mesh type Mesh Density The mesh type options are Trias Only and Mixed. or fixed. ignores/replaces existing elements. When HyperMesh tries to move element nodes to improved element quality. both trias and quads may be created. Choose between automesh and batch. but does not currently support sacred surfaces or elements. but requires more computing time. Choose between chordal deviation and uniform. Some of the cleanup operations performed are: the suppression of free edges. two adjacent elements are considered reversed and actions are performed to correct the situation. Uniform uses identically-sized elements throughout the mesh.Maximum reverse angle The maximum feature angle allowed between normals of adjacent elements. Choose floating. Minimum allowable area for any element. Note: this does not work if two adjacent surfaces are both marked as sacred! These are existing trias that you have created according to your requirements and wish to maintain while tetrameshing the part.

this persists until you exit HyperMesh. A series of tools that help you located problem areas which can cause poor meshing: Find Holes Find T-Con Dihedrals Attached Try TetraMesh Locate holes in your model. After making adjustments.g. Note: There is no Undo function! You can. click this to re-run the meshing operation on the same components. 3. improves element quality by moving the midedge nodes of second order elements. manually mesh using chordal deviation. manually mesh problem areas. Run with the desired mesh size. moved midnodes lose any preexistent association with the underlying geometry. Locate T-connections in the model. or if mesh in certain areas is not satisfactory). attempt to remesh using different settings if you do not like the initial results. Fix 2nd order midnodes This macro. if any (e. any surfaces edges that were ignored. Locate features in the model that have feature angles greater than 150 degrees. Re-launch the Quick Tetramesh macro and select sacred elements to protect. You can manually mesh some critical geometry and select those elements as sacred elements. the tool heals small cracks in the model. however. Load the geometry. In addition. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. For critical areas where you want to control the mesh such as bolt holes. Use the delete panel to delete the tetras then. Launch the Quick Tetramesh macro.Mesh Perform the quick tetramesh with the specified settings. This helps to obtain the desired mesh in critical areas. Identify problem areas. 6. Locate entities attached to the selected components. and Maximum angle. Note: Moved midnodes are saved to your save list. 114 HyperMesh 8. 5. As a part of the cleanup. Minimum Ratio between the minimum and maximum edge length. Select these elements as sacred elements. Suggested process to effectively use quick tetramesh: 1. 2. and specify the quality constraints: Minimum Jacobian (evaluated at the corner nodes or integration points). Close Debug Surface Mesh The Quick Tetramesh macro meshes the unmeshed surfaces in the model using chordal deviation and fixes all the elements that fail the criteria provided.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You select the elements on which you want to improve the quality. Closes the tab. 4. These sacred elements need to be trias.

The Fix 2 Order Midnodes window opens. Remember that this is a minimum length. so you can click-and-drag it to any desired location. Specify a minimum Jacobian value. so a value of 0. Click proceed. and using that panel’s save failed option. and use the radio buttons to determine whether HyperMesh should evaluate each element’s Jacobian at the corner nodes or the integration points. or longer—but not shorter than half the length of the longer segment. The utility will move midnodes such that the angle at the ends of each segment will not deviate from a straight line by more than this amount (thought of another way. HyperMesh 8. choose your element quality constraints: Choose a maximum angle. Specify a limit to the ratio of minimum and maximum length for the segments of the midnodebearing edges. nd In the Fix 2 • Order Midnodes window.Typical usage of this utility begins with use of the check elems panel to identify poorly-formed nd elements. but no greater than 1. 3. nd Order Midnodes window. This pop-up window exists independently of the rest of the HyperMesh environment. See the screenshot above for an example using a value of 30 degrees. From that point onward. Click the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes button on the geom/mesh Utility Menu. An element selector and proceed button display in the panel area. nd The Fix 2 4. you use the Fix 2 Order Midnodes utility: 1. A value of 1 represents perfectly equal segment length. 2. while a length of 0 would mean that the shorter segment might not exist—so this value must be greater than 0. the angle between the segments at the midnode will not exceed 180 degrees minus this value).5 would allow the shorter segment to be half as long as the longer segment.0 User’s Guide 115 Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering • • Altair Engineering . Click the elems selector and select retrieve to load the saved failed elements.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Reject undoes any changes made when you pressed apply. Close closes the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes window. a message displays under the Results heading to inform you of exactly what HyperMesh did to the mesh. as well as the overall results: Before clicking Apply After clicking Apply 116 HyperMesh 8. When you click Apply. The images below illustrate the before-and-after state of a specific midnode and the criteria used. Click one of the command buttons to finalize: • • • Apply tells HyperMesh to move the midnodes to try to match the criteria you specified.5.

then click proceed. Otherwise. No. If you chose varying width for the layers. temporary panel in the HyperMesh panel area. the table displays one row for each of the number of layers that you specified. or to vary from one another.Trim Hole Macro This macro. A new window opens: The options in the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window determine the type of hole that HyperMesh creates at each chosen node: Hole radius Number of layers Uniform/Varying Each node will receive a hole of this radius. The number of a specific washer layer. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. This toggle only applies when the number of layers is more than zero. Clicking the Trim Hole button opens a special. and specifies whether you want mesh layers to all be the same width. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. only one row displays because all layers will be set to the same values. with a nodes selector and a proceed button. This is the number of layers of washer mesh elements that you want to surround each hole.0 User’s Guide 117 . creates a circular hole of a given radius in the mesh at a node specifying the center of the hole. You can also specify a number of layers of washer elements to include. measured from the node. Pick nodes on your model for the centers of each hole that you wish to create.

This checkbox tells HyperMesh to create a rigid spider in each of the new holes created. Each new hole will be created with at least the number of nodes that you specify in the density field. Close Fill Hole Macro This macro.5” for a washer layer that’s half as wide as the hole radius. Width: specify a fixed width for each layer. Click this button to create the new hole(s). delete the rigid spider before using this macro. • Value Create rigid spider along the hole The scale factor or width of the layer(s). so it can only undo multiple holes if they were created simultaneously during a single trim operation. click this button to undo it. When you click the Fill Hole button in the utility menu. a new window opens: 118 HyperMesh 8. Choose single rigid link to create one rigid element that connects to all of the nodes around the new hole. Note: This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that currently fill the hole.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Close the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window. Minimum number of nodes around the hole Trim Reject This determines the mesh density around the new hole(s). evenly spaced around its circumference. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Note that this only undoes a single click of the trim button. if necessary. For example. • Scale: you can specify each layer’s scale relative to the Hole radius. use “0. and enables two more options: • • Choose individual rigid links to create rigid elements at each node of the new hole.Scale/Width Determines the width of the washer layers. If you don’t like the results of the last trim operation. fills in one or more holes in your geometry with automatically-generated mesh.

Automatic Use this option to let HyperMesh select holes automatically based on size. Click the Fill button to fill the selected holes with mesh. HyperMesh will automatically scan you model for holes smaller than this value. and X=xmin and X=value. The Filling holes with mesh window returns. click this button to undo it.0 and Y=ymax. Click proceed in t he panel area. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=ymiddle. Click this button to perform the fill operation.0 and X=value (selected value). Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=value and X=xmax.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. so it can only undo multiple fills if they were created simultaneously during a single fill operation. a full car model can be trimmed along the Y=0 axis to obtain the left or right side of the car. Split the model along global Y=0.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. Fill Reject Close Box Trim Macro The Box Trim macro. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. The selected model can be trimmed along eight standard types: left right front rear frontleft frontright rearleft rearright Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y=ymin and Y= ymiddle (ymiddle =(ymin+ymax)/2). and X=value and X=xmax. whether you chose to select your holes manually or automatically. and X=xmin and X=value. returning you to the main HyperMesh environment with a nodes selector active in the panel area. 4. Click the yellow Select Nodes button.There are two methods of filling holes: Manual Use this option to select the holes that you wish to fill: 1. 3. Split the model along global Y=0. Split the model along global Y=0. For example. with the Select Nodes button now green to indicate that nodes have been chosen. Type a value into the entry field labeled Fill circular holes with radius smaller than:. Select nodes on the edges of the holes that you wish to fill. allows you to trim the model (or selected subset) along the global axis to fit the selected 3-D box.0. and X=value and X=xmax.0 and Y=ymax. Close the Filling holes with mesh window. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y= ymiddle and Y=ymax. and attempt to fill them with mesh. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note that this only undoes a single click of the fill button. The window temporarily minimzes. If you don’t like the results of the last fill operation. and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=0.0 User’s Guide 119 . Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=xmin and X=value.

e The model can also be trimmed using custom box by either selecting the two corner nodes or center node and dimensions.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .This macro is useful in applications where some types of analysis can be performed on one-half (or quarter) of the model using symmetry boundary conditions. Note: This macro is for the 1st order plate elements only. 120 HyperMesh 8. The axis directions and terminology are based on modeling standards in the automotiv industry.

. click the icon. Y and Z bounds of the box. 3. 6. (Reject will undo all the above. click Box Trim. The nodes are constrained in the appropriate directions depending on the trim axes and are stored in the specified load collector (SPC collector). select the node/enter value for trim location. all displayed elements are selected. the constraints are created in the current load collector. From the Box Trim dialog. 2. choose the appropriate option from the Box trim type: menu. If no elements are selected. Then enter Delta X.) 5. If you select custom. You can also specify a Box collector. Y and Z directions. . 4. click the icon.0 User’s Guide 121 . You can turn on the option of creating constraints (SPCs) for all the nodes along the face of the box. From the Geom/Mesh utility menu.To box trim a model: 1. Delta Y and Delta Z values which is the distance from the center node to the outer bounds of the box in global X. If no load collector is specified. A large hexa element that represents the box will be created for visualization in the specified collector. If you select a standard type. and select the center node. and select the two corner nodes that define If you select Distance from center. Click Trim. select the elements you would like to trim and click proceed or the middle mouse button. define the box by either selecting two corner nodes (Corners) or selecting the center node and dimensions (Distance from center). Using the extended entity selection. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the outer X. If you select Corners.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Virtually every option available for FE realization in the connectors module is also available in the Auto Connectors macro. Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog 122 HyperMesh 8.Auto Connectors Macro Note: If you are unfamiliar with HyperMesh connector entities. The Auto Connectors macro automates the importation and FE realization of connectors from either a Master Connectors File or an older Master Weld File. refer to Connector Definition and Connector Realization for more information.

The property and diameter can be specified if necessary.0 User’s Guide 123 . The user-defined FE type definitions can be found in the appropriate feconfig.cfg file and displays a list of all the appropriate user-defined FE types (found in the feconfig.Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog . This script automatically reads the default HyperMesh feconfig.cfg file) in the Fe type field.user-defined option Input requirements for connector entity creation and FE realization are: • • • Note: Master connectors/weld file FE config Projection tolerance In the case of a user-defined FE config. the user-defined FE type-t o-realize is required.cfg file. Additional options are: • • • Build systems Snap to node Attach to shells Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

T1 and T2 are the component thicknesses. Project to shell 124 HyperMesh 8.99.9 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The second figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method. The size of the solid element is determined using the DvsT file.0 Nugget diameter 7 8 The nugget diameter is 7.4 to 1. The weld is defined using a solid (HEXA) element whose cross-sectional area is equivalent to the area of the weld nugget.exe feinput translator.25:: PartId1 2:: 2:: PartId2 3:: 3:: 5:: PartId3 The syntax is the same as used for spotweld. The first figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method. The nugget diameter corresponding to the minimum thickness of the connecting parts is obtained from the DvsT file.0 for the thickness range of 1. ACM Welds An ACM (Area Contact Method) weld is a special representation of a spot weld. The length of the Hexa element will be equal to the actual distance between the two connecting components/elements. Th e solid element is created at the exact weld location independent of the shell elements that represent the sheet metal parts. A format example is shown below. These solid elements are connected to the corresponding components using RBE3 elements. Diameter vs. The size of the hexa is calculated to match the cross-sectional area of the weld nugget.25:: 3.05:: Y 2.25: 3.0:: 0. see Spotweld Interface Overview. The equivalent area is taken to determine the side of the hexa. This creates the Hexa elements between the component/element shell surface. Minimum thickness 1. The file format includes thickness range and the corresponding diameter of the weld nugget.Master Weld Files The Master Weld File provides the weld location and parts to be connected. Thickness Files DvsT file (diameter vs thickness ) contains a table that associates the thickness of components and the nugget diameter of the weld.0 Maximum thickness 1.4 2. PointId 12:: 23:: 1t/2t/3t 2:: 3:: X 2.25:: Z 1. For additional supported formats. The length of the weld element is calculated using one of the following methods: (T1+T2)/2 This creates the Hexa elements with a length equal to the average component thickness it is connecting.

The nodes of the shell element closest to the dependent node are assigned a greater weight relative to the node that is farther away.0 option ACM creation using Project to Shells option The weights of the RBE3 elements are calculated based on the projection of the dependent node on the shell element. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 125 . ACM creation using (T1+T2)/2.The figures below show ACM created using the two currently available methods.

2. 7. Make sure that the connectors are created at each of the weld locations along with connecting parts information. In addition to the creation of CWELD elements. meshless elements. Once a connector is created. Load the Nastran user profile from the user prof… panel in Geom or Tools page. 6. For CWELD elements. 8. For details regarding connected shell elements or nodal information see the element card. 5. which determines the size of the hexa based on the thicknesses of the components being connected. a corresponding property card (PWELD) is created with an updated diameter ‘D’ attribute value. Make sure all the connecting parts have PSHELL cards with correct thicknesses. 9. CWELD Elements CWELD elements are created as patch-patch. hexas are created with weld nugget diameter =1. The 1D element is not connected to the shell element.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Set the appropriate tolerance (proj tol=) value.ACM welds can be created and managed in HyperMesh using connectors.0. The appropriate property script is automatically loaded for the selected type. Select a DvsT file. 126 HyperMesh 8. Click realize. Select the connectors to be realized as ACMs in the fe realize panel of the connectors module on the 1D page. Choose custom element config and select type = Nastran 70 ACM((T1+T2)/2) or type = Nastran 71 ACM (Shell Gap) per your requirements. 3. 4. they can be realized as ACM spotwelds as follows: 1. the diameter is determined from a DvsT file based on the component thickness. Make sure the attach to shell and snap to node options are turned off in fe options…. If no DvsT file is selected.

Once you choose a standard user profile. Note that the user profiles change the appearance of a panel . Select User Profiles from the Preferences pull-down menu. OptiStruct.User Profiles The HyperMesh user interface can be configured according to your specific needs and saved as a user profile.they do not affect the internal behavior of each function. Note: Ensure that items required for a specific function are not removed from the interface. The current user profile displays on the header bar. Permas. or renaming panel options. LsDyna. and an interface customized for CFD uses. removing unused panels or sub-panels. They may. The configuration can include loading a specific template. User profiles for the following products are included: HyperMesh OptiStruct ABAQUS ACTRAN ANSYS LS-DYNA MADYMO NASTRAN PAM-CRASH & PAM-CRASH2G PERMAS RADIOSS CFD Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. They include Abaqus.set file keeps track of which user profile was last loaded. renaming panels. and removing. Ansys. loading a specific Utility menu.0 User’s Guide 127 . Madymo. however. Radioss. The hmmenu. Moldflow. A set of standard user profiles is included in the HyperMesh installation. Pamcrash. HyperMesh. Actran. add functions to (or remove them from) a panel. the appropriate template and Utility menu load (you can return to the standard HyperMesh GUI by selecting the HyperMesh profile). Nastran. moving.

If a template file exists before loading the profile. the template remains the same.mac) is loaded. It contains information about: • • • • • • • • • • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Input Collectors Viewing Models Using the Display Panel Setting View Options Setting Tolerances Setting Global Parameters Importing and Exporting Data Printing Screen Images Using the Card Previewer 128 HyperMesh 8. The standard HyperMesh Utility menu (hm. If a template file exists before loading the profile. Using HyperMesh This section explains how to use a typical HyperMesh panel by description and example.HyperMesh User Profile Template: None/Unchanged This user profile does not load a template.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Utility menu: Panel changes: The standard HyperMesh Utility menu is loaded. the template remains the same. None The HyperMesh user profile does not load a template.

Next. or type in a name for the file to be saved. Save.0 and earlier. Open and Save As… both invoke browsers so that you can navigate to the desired file directory and either select a file to open. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.. and Save As… options located in the Files pull-down menu. select a path and file name.. updating/overwriting its older version each time you Save. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. To save a database. click save. dialog.0 User’s Guide 129 .. you can also use the hm file sub-panel on the files panel to save and retrieve HyperMesh binary databases. and click Open. but can be less efficient than using the File menu. If the file being saved already exists. and then select the hm file sub-panel.. You can also click save as. and click Save. This process is familiar for users of HyperMesh 7. and then select the hm file sub-panel. To retrieve a binary HyperMesh database.Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Using the File pull-down menu The simplest way to open or save a HyperMesh model database is to use the Open.. Using the Files Panel However. HyperMesh asks for confirmation before overwriting the file.... Next. click retrieve. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. Save simply saves the current model under its current name. select a file using the Open file.

Note: For more information about picking entities. To select a node. see Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements. Element handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. Systems 130 HyperMesh 8. Elements Shell and solid element pick handles are displayed as pixels at the centroid of the element. Surfaces Components Surfaces do not have pick handles. The following list indicates the pick handle locations for each type of entity: Nodes The pick handle for a node is located at the node.Picking Entities on the Screen After you select the correct data type. a "+" is displayed at only some of the pick handles. If you need to select nodes on geometry or on an element where nodes do not currently exist. or surface within that component. see Entity Selection. A component can be selected by picking an element." If there are many pick handles. Each type of entity has a pick handle that allows you to select the entity.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The pick handle for a coordinate system is located at the origin of the system.cfg command file. You can set the default mode for the graphics mode you wish to use by activating/deactivating the *graphicengine(mode) command in the hm. You may need to change the command if the default has been changed by a prior user. line. Lines Each segment of a line has pick handles along its length. 1-D element pick handles are displayed as letters at the centroid of the elements: K M BAR2 BAR3 R RL W RBE3 J ROD GAP spring masses bar2 bar3 rigid rigid link weld rbe3 joint rod gap Click the element handles check box on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel to switch on or off the display of element handles. move the mouse to the location on the screen where the node resides. Line handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. you can use the mouse to pick the desired entities in the graphics area of the screen. Click geom handle on the modeling sub-panel on the options subpanel to switch on or off the display of line handles. Components do not have pick handles. Surfaces can be selected along their edges or on interior UV lines (also known as surface lines). Each pick handle is displayed as a small "+.

To facilitate the selection of graphical entities such as nodes. Vector pick handles are located at the arrow tip of the vector. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. when several of them are coincident (present at the same location).System Collectors Loads Load Collectors Plots Blocks System collectors do not have pick handles. elements.0 User’s Guide 131 . Blocks are drawn in shaded mode with transparency and can be selected by picking anywhere on the entity. To select a system collector. A curve can be selected by clicking anywhere along the curve. Blocks do not have pick handles. simply select a load within that system collector. Load collectors do not have pick handles. or loads. A plot can be selected by picking within its border. simply select a system within that system collector. To select a load collector. you can turn on the coincident picking option from the modeling sub-panel of the options panel (accessed from the toolbar). The pick handle for a load is located at the pick handle of the entity to which the load is applied. Titles Vectors Curves Note A title can be selected by picking within its bounding box.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you can select nodes at the desired location(s) on the geometry. Release the left mouse button. This function can be accessed from any node collector in any panel. This function allows you to create welds at locations that do not have pre-existing nodes. surfaces) on which you would like to place a node. 4. You can create temporary nodes on an element (similar to creating a node on the fly on a line or surface). You can create a node on geometry by holding the left mouse button down along the geometry handle until the cursor becomes a square and then selecting the geometry (lines. Then move your cursor to the exact location on the geometry where you would like the node to be placed and click the left mouse button to place a node. Continue to hold the left mouse button down and use the mouse to move this special cursor box close to the desired geometry entity. To select new nodes on elements: 1. You can create nodes on elements by holding the left mouse button down on an element handle until the cursor becomes a square and selecting the element. While the line or surface is highlighted in this manner. Then move the cursor to the exact location on the elements of that component and click the left mouse button to place the node. 3. The cursor becomes a small white box 2. The cursor becomes a small white box and the element is highlighted. position the cursor on an element handle and hold the left mouse button down. edges. 3. release the left mouse button to select it. A temporary node is created at that location and is selected in the node collection for the panel. 132 HyperMesh 8. Position the cursor on a node and press the left mouse button. . When you are in a node collection mode. Move your cursor to the exact location on the element where you want to add a node and click the left mouse button.Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements Node and node list input collectors allow you to not only pick existing nodes in the model. While the line/surface is highlighted. 2. they also allow you to create new nodes on geometry or on elements. To select new nodes on geometry: 1.

click the data type button on the current input collector. surfaces. Allows you to select entities by assembly. If you select component collectors in regard to elements or lines. Allows you to select entities adjacent to the entities already selected. lines. When you select by assems. HyperMesh displays a list of the available collectors. You may select multiple collectors from this list. You may select multiple assemblies from this list. loads. coordinate systems. equations. by adjacent by assems by attached by collector Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh includes the entities that are adjacent to the entities already selected. and points by collector. These selection options are displayed for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. When you select by adjacent.Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu The extended entity selection menu provides a number of entity selection options. HyperMesh displays a list of the available assemblies. Extended selection techniques are described in the following table: all Allows you to select all entities of the specified type. the entities selected by this operation are those attached to the selected component. vectors.0 User’s Guide 133 . You can then select an option from the extended entity selection menu. When you select by collector. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are displayed in dimmed text. the set to be added to the user mark includes entities displayed and those not displayed. To access the extended selection menu. Allows you to select elements. HyperMesh includes the entities currently displayed that are attached to the entities already selected. With all other entities. Input Collector Extended entity selection menu. the elements or lines contained in the selected components are selected. Allows you to select entities by specifying an entity among a large group of continuously connected elements. When you select all. Entities that are not displayed will not be selected although they may be attached to the entity selected. When you select by attached.

You can use keywords to specify a range that determines which entities are selected. Attached.2000 by 100 1000 . You may select multiple groups from this list. The standard format is: <start number> . 100 3. When you select by group. elements. 134 HyperMesh 8. Output blocks are created in the output blocks panel. 800. The element type is dependent on the template file specified in the global panel. loads. groups etc. It finds surfaces and elements that are attached to each other without crossing a feature line. HyperMesh displays a list of the available output blocks from which you may select. 5. HyperMesh displays a list of the available groups. Allows you to select entities by typing in their ID numbers. 850 1 . and the letter "b" may be substituted for "by" when you specify the range.10. When you select by id. Note: Includes created via the include browser are only valid for solvers that support them. 5. by output block Allows you to select the nodes. 400 t 500 b 3 by face by group by id by include Allows you to select FE entities such as elements. HyperMesh displays a list of the available includes that you may select. comps. Examples of valid lists of by id expressions: 1. Allows you to select entities by group. 3. When you select by output block. groups and mats within an outputblock. Allows you to select entities by surface face. HyperMesh displays a panel for specifying an element configuration and type for selection. When you select by config. The feature angle parameter in the options panel’s modeling sub-panel determines the feature lines. or "t" may be substituted for the dash (-).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . adjacent surfaces or elements are progressively selected when the angle between them is less than or equal to the specified feature angle.<end number> by <increment value> "through". 4. "thru".by config Allows you to select elements by configuration and type. Examples of valid by id expressions: 127 127 – 722 300 through 600 300 thru 600 300 t 600 1000 . that belong to selected include. 77.2000 b 100 You can also use a comma to separate individual entities or entity ranges. When you select by include.100 by 2. a pop-up window prompts you to type ID numbers or ranges of ID numbers. 8 . systs.

and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. Select current to place the new entities in the currently active component collector. all entities within collectors that are active in the disp (display) panel are selected. Allows you to select all of the entities currently displayed on the screen. HyperMesh displays a panel from which you may select one or more surfaces. When disp is selected. by sets by surface by window by width displayed duplicate on plane retrieve Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The initially selected entities are deselected when the duplicate elements are created and selected. as shown in the global panel. either by picking a sample surface or by specifying a range of values for the width. click reject entities to deselect enclosed entities that were previously highlighted. This can be very useful when you use the reflect function on a model (only available for elements and lines).by path Allows you to pick multiple nodes or lines. lines. by path for lines uses the connectivity of surfaces/solids and thus requires the selected lines to be surface/solid edges. You can associate entities to a surface in the node edit panel. Alternatively. click select and HyperMesh selects the entities which are associated to the surfaces. When you select duplicate. Entities can be saved to the user mark by selecting save in this popup window. Allows you to duplicate the currently selected elements. and selects all the nodes/lines that fall in the closest path connecting the selected ones.0 User’s Guide 135 . If you select two nodes on a free edge of some elements. surfaces. Allows you to select the entities which are associated to a surface. Select points in the graphics area to define a window enclosing the pick handles of the desired entities. Sets are created in the entity sets panel. Allows you to retrieve previously saved entities from the user mark. Once the surfaces have been selected. or points. Allows you to select the entities within a set. Selecting by window activates the build window panel. a pop-up window allows you to choose a component for the newly created duplicate entities. HyperMesh displays a list of the available sets from which you may select. Similarly. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes. This is useful when you want to apply constraints to a plane. Select original to place the new entities in the same component collectors as the original entities. Allows you to select entities inside a user-defined multiple-sided polygon in the plane of the screen. Allows you to select surfaces by width. or by selecting save failed in the check elems panel. the function tries to find the closest path along that free edge. When you select by sets. Click select entities to highlight the enclosed entities. Allows you to select a group of entities whose pick handles reside on a plane. When you select by surface.

This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. The nodelist collector displays the following extended selection options: save Notes: by list by path Allows you to select nodes individually in the desired sequence. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). show node order by window The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces.reverse Allows for a Boolean "not" to be performed on the currently displayed elements. origin in the systems panel requires only one node. Thus their extended entity selection menu is different from that of the standard extended selection menu. If you select two free (red) edges. all elements which are not on the mark and are currently active are selected. The extended entity selection menu is not displayed in such situations. such as nodelist and linelist must remember the sequence in which the entities are selected. it only works with surface edges and not free unconnected geometric lines. for example. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally. Some collectors. 136 HyperMesh 8. Allows you to review the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. Some panels in HyperMesh require only a single entity to collect. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you select two nodes on the free edge of the elements. the function tries to find the closest path along the free edge. all selected elements are removed from the mark. Allows you to pick nodes (two or more) and selects all the nodes that fall in the closest path connecting the selected nodes. When reverse is selected. Allows you to save the currently selected entities to a holding area known as the user mark.

specify an area to see in closer detail. and restore different views of your model. identify. or rotate the model in clockwise or counterclockwise directions. The save and restore options allow you to save. and refresh the screen. fill the window with the model. Slide zoom. click-and-drag the mouse to zoom in and out. Using View Rotation There are multiple methods you can use to rotate a displayed model. The viewing functions allow you to: Setting Basic Views The view pop-up menu allows you to display your model in several basic views. (Numeric keypad) Current Window Zoom Fit to screen Plot (refreshes the rendering in the Graphics Area). The view commands are accessible even when you are using other panels. Release the mouse button to stop zooming. Hold down the ctrl key.0 User’s Guide 137 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. reverse the view. The view menu Changing the Window The window viewing options allow you to zoom in and out of the currently displayed window. up. View pop-up menu. • • • Use the left. and down arrow keys to rotate the model incrementally.Viewing Models The functions on the Toolbar Area allow you to control the view of your model. then click-and-drag on the model in the graphics area. right. The following window viewing options are included as default keyboard shortcuts: z + and f p s Circle zoom: click-and-drag the mouse to draw a circle. then click cw (clockwise) or ccw (counterclockwise). The view zooms to that circle when you release the mouse button. Click the user view button in the Toolbar Area to access the view menu.

HyperMesh displays a message requesting you to circle the area of the model to be more closely investigated. To use the mouse to zoom in and out: 1.on the numeric keypad to zoom out. To perform a circle zoom: 1. The cursor changes to dynamic center mode. 2. Press + on the numeric keypad to zoom in. To zoom in and out of the current window: 1. Automatic full screen refreshes are kept to a minimum. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Move the mouse to the appropriate area on the screen and hold the left mouse button down. 2. Press Z on the keyboard. Press . Slide the mouse: or 4. To fit the entire model on the screen: • Press F on the keyboard. Press the s key. A trailer line appears wherever the mouse is moved. Release the mouse button. The area circled is used to recalculate the window when the mouse button is released. To drag the model: 1. To refresh the screen: • Click the plot refresh toolbar button or press P on the keyboard. down to zoom in up to zoom out Release the mouse button to end the zoom function. With the mouse button still depressed. These two functions increase or decrease the current window by the user-defined factor specified on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel. The model and/or the window are not resized when you refresh the screen. Click and hold the mouse button. 2. Simultaneously press and hold the CTRL key and the right mouse button. 3. move the mouse to circle the area to be zoomed in on. 3.right click allows you to drag the model.CTRL . press the p key or the plot refresh toolbar button to refresh the screen. If the screen appears messy or inaccurate after entities have been plotted and erased. 138 HyperMesh 8. Use the mouse to drag the model to the desired position on the screen.

by clicking the right mouse button. This returns the screen graphic to the view before a rotation.0 User’s Guide 139 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To change the screen center: 1. or by pressing any key. You can toggle between two views of a model by clicking (or pressing) repeatedly. zoom. 3. Move the mouse to the point where you want the new center located and click the left mouse button. Return to the Previous View To return to the previous view of your model. Move the mouse into the graphics area. 4. click the previous view button in the Toolbar Area or press b on the keyboard. Press C on the keyboard. or other viewing manipulation was performed. center. also called panning. is performed by selecting a new center for the current window. The center relocates. 2. Exit by moving the mouse into the menu area.Performing View Translation Translation of the model. The current center is indicated by a small white box.

A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. the elements in the selected components are displayed if the component (on the left-hand side of the panel) is selected. allows you to select which components and collectors are displayed on the screen. Select the type of collector you want to display. The name of the collector is displayed on the left side of the page. To change to another collector type: 1. 140 HyperMesh 8. Select the type of collector you want to remove from the screen display. Select the type of collector you want to display. At this setting. To turn all the collectors off: • Click none. 3. 2. Select the collector type. 3. Click the upper switch.Using the disp (display) Panel The disp (display) panel. In the default mode of the display panel. 2. Click the upper switch. 2. Components can be turned on and off by selecting the check boxes of the components in the display list. Click the lower switch and select name to display the collector’s name. IDs. The name and ID of the collector are displayed on the left side of the page. 3. 2. Click the lower switch and select (id) to display the collector’s ID number instead of the name. To turn a collector off: 1. The ID of the collector is displayed in parenthesis on the left side of the page. located on the permanent menu. The colors of each component display next to the component names. Use the right mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want removed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click the upper switch. Click the lower switch and select name (id) to display the name and the collector’s ID number. or both: 1. To change the collector list to display names. 2. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. To turn a collector on: 1. Collectors can also be turned off by moving the mouse to the graphics region and picking an entity which they collect. Click all. Access it by clicking the display button in the Toolbar Area or selecting Display > Collectors from the View pull-down menu. To turn on all the collectors of a specified type: 1. Use the left mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want added to the display. the switches (on the right-hand side of the panel) are set to comps and elems.

Enter the character string to use for the filter. To display geometry: • Click the toggle and select geoms to display the surfaces and lines in a component.0 User’s Guide 141 . 2. You can use the asterisk (*) for a wildcard. To use a filter: 1.To reverse the selection: • Click reverse to toggle between having all the selected components on or off. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click the leftmost toggle to filter =.

Fixed points can also be turned on and off from vis opts in the geometry cleanup panel. The entities supported for coincident picking are nodes. elements. that the cursor can be from the pick handle of a graphical entity in order to select it.Setting View Options The modeling sub-panel on the options panel (accessible via to toolbar or the Tools pull-down menu) allows you to define several viewing options. pick tol zoom factor surf lines element handle geom handle coincident picking template labels/ HM labels 142 HyperMesh 8. setting the rotation angle to a lower value allows a smooth transition from frame to frame. The surf lines parameter specifies the default number of u-v lines to draw on new surfaces when they are created. This function is activated by turning on coincident picking in the options panel. When the pick tolerance is increased. This option allows you to display the element labels as template names or HyperMesh names. Displaying surface lines can help you to visualize a surface better. This sub-panel also allows you to specify node and cleanup tolerances. Turning off pick handles can speed up the redraw time. Viewing option settings include: rotate angle The rotate angle specifies the number of degrees that your model rotates when you use the arrow keys. The pick tolerance specifies the maximum distance. The number of surface lines on existing surfaces can be changed by using the surf lines panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . but it can slow down the redraw speed of a large model. The element handles option specifies whether or not to draw element handles. loads and systems. fixed points The fixed points option allows you to specify whether or not to display fixed points. if multiple loads are detected at the same location. The coincident picking option allows you to graphically select a desired entity from a stack of coincident entities when there are multiple entities at the same location. This does not affect the display of free points. The geom handles option allows you to specify whether or not to display line and surface handles. An element handle is a single-pixel dot at the centroid of an element. for more information see Setting Tolerances. You can then pick the appropriate load. The element handles option also allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. For example. For smaller models. a circular insert pops up containing various loads displayed separately with their IDs turned on. it is easier to pick an entity. Increasing or decreasing the angle makes the model appear to rotate faster or slower. The zoom factor specifies the multiplication factor that is used to increase or decrease the scale of the current view when you press the + and – keys on the numeric keypad. in pixels.

Shrinking elements is a convenient way to detect holes in a mesh and to improve wireframe element picking. HyperMesh allows you to select the node by picking the "node sphere" on the screen. Hidden Line The element displays as a filled polygon. For nodes that are not attached to any elements. Entity Selection The graphics engine allows you to select entities by moving the mouse anywhere along the entity of interest. Another key feature in the graphics engine is the method by which nodes are selected. If a shrink value is applied. Component Display The graphics engine treats each HyperMesh component as an independent unit. HyperMesh selects the node closest to the point where the element was selected. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. it is much easier to work when you are zoomed in on a particular area. For lines and surfaces. select the element to which the node of interest is attached. Display attributes can be applied to all components by using the wireframe elements and shaded elements toolbar buttons. as you are not required to have a pick handle on the screen in order to pick the entity. so that its corners do not appear to touch its nodes. To select a node. The display attributes that you can assign to each component are: Wireframe Element edges display with lines. Access this panel by opening the View pull-down menu.Shrink The shrink option controls the shrink factor to be used when drawing elements. The shrink value must be between 0 and 1. then selecting FE Styles. each element is drawn so that its corners directly connect to its nodes. This feature allows you to assign a set of display attributes to each component of your model that determines how each component is displayed. They can be applied to individual components or sets of components through the Visual Attributes panel. The benefit of this feature is that it allows you to create zero length elements between two coincident nodes in a mesh. Transparent The element displays as a filled transparent polygon. the element is scaled by the specified value about its centroid.0 User’s Guide 143 . If no shrink is selected. Hidden Line with Feature Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the "feature" edges drawn in mesh line color. Hidden Line with Mesh Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the edges drawn in mesh line color.

This can make it very difficult to see a node. since HyperMesh is creating entities that reside in the same location in space as another entity. you can turn the zbuffer off by making all of the components in your model wireframe. The cutting plane feature can be found in the hidden line. and then another entity closer to you at another. contour. There are some limitations to using a zbuffer and some display output differences of which you should be aware. If you encounter this problem. Potential areas of zbuffer stitching are in the features. the zbuffer may have difficulty deciding which entity to display. In some cases. Isosurfaces Hidden components Memory usage 144 HyperMesh 8. Optimization The graphics engine optimizes the display of your finite element model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If this situation occurs. Here. the graphics engine draws all selected or temporary nodes as spheres when one or more components are set to a display attribute other than wireframe. If you have solid elements in your model. One of the optimizations is the removal of interior solid faces. One problem with using the zbuffer technology is that if two entities lie in the same location in space. you might see a "dotting" or "stitching" effect where the zbuffer considers one entity to be closer to you at one pointer. edges. To correct this situation. HyperMesh graphics use some memory. this could seriously affect performance. Cutting plane control is more interactive and is controlled by selecting any of the active planes with the mouse and then dragging the plane across the model. or as a value-based surface in which you specify a value that indicates where an isosurface should be displayed. then HyperMesh draws the whole model in hidden line. and animation panels. the graphics engine offers advanced and powerful features: Cutting plane Cutting plane functions have been expanded to allow three planes to be active simultaneously. When a component is set to hidden line. Isosurfaces can be displayed on a model in either a legendbased mode in which each of the legend colors generates an isosurface. If one or more of the components in a model are set to a display style besides wireframe.User Features of the Graphics engine When you are post-processing. If this occurs. and faces panels. it may help to use the shrink option (modeling sub-panel on the options panel). you should obtain more system memory. To perform this task. or nearly the same location in space. the display lines which represent the edges (for example) might be partially or completely blocked out by the original entity in the database. If swapping occurs while you are running HyperMesh. and displays these instead of displaying all of the faces. the interior is filled with solid color. HyperMesh relies on the zbuffer found on your graphics device. The zbuffer allows HyperMesh to render your model in hidden line. with the elements in back eliminated from the display. The isosurfaces sub-panel is available on the contour and animation panels. HyperMesh calculates where the external faces are in your model.

Setting Tolerances The modeling sub-panel is located on the Options panel.. HyperMesh attempts to make a reasonable guess at this value when you import a CAD file. You need to approximate the size of the elements that make up the smallest feature of importance in your model. controls model parameters that are accessed by several different panels.0 Cleanup tolerance min. you need to work with a cleanup tolerance that is less than the node tolerance used in the mesh generation. but without additional input it uses a cautious estimate.0 10. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.01 1e-3 0. which is accessible from the toolbar or from the Tools pull-down menu. HyperMesh considers any two nodes to be coincident if the distance between them is less than the value.0 User’s Guide 145 . "Cleaning up" refers to cleaning up the CAD geometry data by equivalencing edges.0 Setting Global Parameters The global panel.1 10. This sub-tab allows you to define tolerance values.0 100.1 1. deleting fillets. cleanup tol Since the objective is to make a finite element mesh for the geometry. the tolerance values are determined by the demands for that mesh.01 1e-3 0.1 0.0 0. These tolerance values include: node tol Node tolerance is essentially the resolution to which HyperMesh maintains the finite element data in the model.01 1.max 1e-4 0. Use this panel or the template sub-panel on the files panel to specify the template file you want to use. The global panel controls which components or collectors are active.1 0. Elements are designated as first order elements by default. Element size Node tolerance min max 0. These parameters remain constant until changed. accessed by selecting Global Parameters from the Model pull-down menu.1 10.0 1e-4 0. Since you will approximate the geometry with a finite element mesh. and initializes the tolerances as appropriate. click the toggle after element order: to second. When you specify a node tolerance. The cleanup tolerance value specifies how much HyperMesh is allowed to modify the geometry in the course of "cleaning" it. If you want to create second order elements.01 1. and eliminating extraneous vertices. any entities created are stored in the active collectors..0 0.

STL. You can also import/merge HyperMesh model files (. Click the button to invert the selection (deselect any currently selected files and select any currently non-selected ones). 146 HyperMesh 8. HM ASCII. The Multiple File Import window opens. Nastran. The window minimizes during the import process. and a secondary window opens to show the import progress and any errors that may occur. VDAFS. 5. Radioss. UG. HyperMesh ascii. 6. 3. The export sub-panel on the files panel allows you to write information from a HyperMesh database to many finite element formats. <ctrl>-click to select multiple files one at a time. Geometry data can be written in IGES format. • Selected files are highlighted to indicate their selection. Patran. Moldflow. You can modify the existing templates to support a desired feature or create a new template to support another analysis code. Cmold. 2. you can select the ones you don’t want and then invert the selection. To import multiple files: 1. Abaqus. but not all. Click the “open folder” icon in the directory field to open a browser. 7. Click Import to import the selected files. CATIA.hm) into the current model session. This is useful in cases when you want to choose most of the files in the list. Click import to open the import sub-menu. The HyperMesh templates can be used to create model summaries and perform some analysis calculations. Select the desired files in the files to import list: • • • • Left-click to select a single file. Ansys. 8. Ls-Dyna. Click the button to deselect all of the files in the list. You can also use the templates to perform complex editing or data manipulation tasks. and STEP. The CAD formats currently supported are IGES. PRO/E. and Ideas. Click Close to close the Multiple File Import window.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . The custom option can be used to import models using a translator provided with the HyperMesh installation but cannot be accessed via the pop-up menu. Click multiple files. DXF. Marc. Select the desired file type. HyperMesh uses templates to create the analysis input decks for finite element solvers. The FE formats we support are Optistruct.Importing and Exporting Data The import sub-panel on the files panel allows you to input external CAD line and surface data or finite element models. Altair Engineering 9. Pamcrash. Click the file pull-down menu. PDGS. Select the desired file extension to limit the files that display in the files to import list. 4. Browse to and select the directory that contains the models you wish to import. Click the button to select all of the files in the list. The CUSTOM interface allows you to import models using your own custom-built translation package.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A new input field. 7. 3. Click write. Click the lower switch and select layers. 4.To read data using a standard translator: 1. 3.) To create an analysis deck via an external translator: 1. 2. and use the browser to select the file containing the data. To write geometry data in IGES format: 1. Select the data format that corresponds to your input data from the pop-up menu. 2. 9. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. 3. 4. template = appears if it is not already present. 6. To read data using a custom translator: 1. if they are not already present. 5. click import. Select IGES.. For translator:. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. Click filename = and enter the name of the output file.. 8. groups. 4. Select IGES. Click template = and specify the file name of the template file. (Note that the IGES interface exports geometry only.. click import. 2. 6. Click the toggle and choose either outer loop optional or outer loop mandatory.0 User’s Guide 147 .. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. click browse… and choose the translator required to read the file. 5. and enter the name of the output file or select. Select EXTERNAL. A column of switches and toggles appears on the right. Select the FE option. Click write. 3. 2. and use the browser to select a file. Click the upper switch and select the plane format of the data. For file:. or layers & groups... Select the CUSTOM option. For file:. 4. Click write as. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed.

2. you must have a PostScript capable printer installed. 2. Deactivate the color checkbox to print in black and white. Make sure the option Print PostScript over text is selected. The standard page length is 11. You can check this by selecting Print from the File menu to show the print dialog box and pressing the Properties button next to the printer name. Select fill model to expand the model to its maximum size within the graphics area of the PostScript page. A PostScript file with the name post?. Open the File pull-down menu. press the Options button in the print dialog. or psp for a PostScript file whose destination is the printer). To set MS Word to send the imported file as a PostScript image to the printer. postscript sub-panel: color checkbox Activate the color checkbox to print in color. To create a PostScript file: 1. The following options are available in the options panel. To change PostScript settings file: 1.* is generated.Printing Screen Images The postscript sub-panel on the options panel allows you to modify the default print specifications before you create a PostScript file. 3. Select generate bitmaps to generate a bitmap PostScript file. Select bitmap preview to generate an image that can be viewed when you view the file in another document.0 inches. Select Options from the Tools pull-down menu. the PostScript preview or file information is printed instead of the actual PostScript image. To print an imported encapsulated PostScript image in MS Word. This requires processing time to optimize the image output.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select the PostScript sub-panel. Select fill to page to fill the PostScript image to the specified page dimensions. and * is an extension (either eps for a PostScript file whose destination is the hard disk. reverse video generate bitmaps fill to page fill model bitmap preview Select reverse video to indicate that your printer cannot produce reverse video images. Set the options to your print specifications. The generate bitmaps option must be off if you select this option. a PostScript tab is present in the properties dialog. The color checkbox is active by default. The ? is a number provided for file uniqueness. Click page length = and enter the new size to alter the page length. If it is not selected. Select Image > PostScript. plot optimize page length = 148 HyperMesh 8. If the printer selected is capable of printing PostScript. Select plot optimize to decrease the size of the PostScript file generated.

but takes longer to generate. CTRL-F3 CTRL-F4 CTRL-F5 CTRL-F6 Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This command executes the operating system command in the *postcopy() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file.) Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk.cfg.0 User’s Guide 149 . CTRL-F2 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. your systems administrator must configure these functions for your system. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer.cfg. hm. The standard page width is 8.jpg screen capture or animation file. a slider bar is displayed. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. If you select enhanced. The resolution is displayed in the header bar. please contact your systems administrator. On UNIX platforms. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. It creates a smaller PS file. hm. In order for the functions to work correctly. Click image size = and enter the new size to scale the image on the page to your specifications. Generates a *. Click the toggle to standard/enhanced to change the postscript file resolution to print blended contours. (Note: This works only in UNIX. Select line width = and enter the new width to alter the line width. the default installation does not spool the bitmap file to the printer. Select print it to send a copy of the file to the printer when you generate the PostScript file. The slider controls the smoothness of the gradient fill of the blended contour. CTRL-F1 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer.cfg.page width = image size = line width = print it standard/enhanced Click page width = and enter the new size to alter the page width. If the functions do not create output. hm.5 inches. The enhanced option allows you to print blended contours (not discrete). Printing Screen Images Using Keyboard Commands You can also use the following function keys in combination with the CTRL key to print and/or save screen images without accessing the postscript sub-panel.

Any control card viewed in the card previewer is activated. 150 HyperMesh 8. A default value field has two states: State Default = ON Default = OVERRIDDEN Description In this state.) Inactive Note: Color Gray Green Red Explanation The control card was either never created or has been deleted.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the control card is not output. the field label color is yellow and no data entry is allowed. To override a default value field. the label text color changes to cyan. A card that has been defined may be disabled. however. The attributes for that card remain.Using the Card Previewer A control card may be in one of three states: State Undefined Defined (See note. Those control cards that are defined (green in the control card editor) are output. and allows you to enter data in the field. pick the yellow field label. Default values for attributes are common throughout the card previewer. When you override a default value field.

or hand digitize the data Reconcile conflicts in the geometry and prepare it for use Build the model by using element-building panels Verify the quality of the model Create boundary conditions and systems Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the following building process is used: • • • • • • Create collectors Obtain line and surface geometry from an external file. In general.General Process for Building Models This section describes how to build a finite element model in HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide 151 .

create a component collector for the lines and surfaces. Click the upper switch and select comps. Click create. Where available. 5. Note: For more information about the types of collectors used in HyperMesh. Click the switch under creation method: and select no card image. each collector may use a dictionary or card image to define the attributes assigned to the collector. 4. select material = and enter a name for the material. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click name = and enter a name for the collector. 3. Click create. Click name= and enter comp1. 6. Based on the assigned template. HyperMesh uses the definitions contained in the dictionaries or card image to translate models to external analysis codes. Select the collectors panel. refer to Collectors in Database Design. You are not required to provide a material name when you create a component or property. If you choose not to. 7. Before you build a model in HyperMesh. Select the collectors panel. If you are creating a component or property collector. Select dictionary or card image and then click dictionary = or card image = to select the dictionary or card image from a list. if desired. To create a collector: 1.Creating Collectors All entities in a HyperMesh database are stored in collectors. 5. Click the switch under creation method:. For collector type:. click the switch and select the type of collector that you want to create. 3. 152 HyperMesh 8. 8. − − − Select no dictionary or no card image if you do not want to assign a dictionary or card image. Select same as and then click same as = to select the collector whose type and dictionary or card image information you want to copy from an existing collector. Select the create sub-panel. 7. HyperMesh automatically creates a material for you and gives it the same name as the component or property. 6. 4. 2. click color and select the desired color for the component from the pop-up menu. To create a component: 1. Click return. Select the create sub-panel. The collectors panel allows you to create and update collectors and assign and edit card images or dictionaries.

To import geometry: 1. VDAFS. Pro/E. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. When the geometry is read into the current database. DXF. Select the appropriate file format to be imported from the pop-up menu. Unigraphics.Reading Geometry HyperMesh imports CAD geometry (such as lines. IGES. Click import… to invoke the file browser and select the file that contains your geometry data. or select cleanup tol and enter a tolerance value. − − Using the toggle. select create blanked component or no blanked component. 2.0 User’s Guide 153 . Using the toggle. Select the Geom option. HyperMesh creates a new component if an active component does not already exist. Blanked components are geometric data that exists in the CAD file but is marked as not displayed or turned on. 4. select use automatic cleanup tol to use the cleanup tolerance associated with the geometry of the imported file. ACIS and STEP. surface data. and point data) in the following formats: CATIA (V4 and V5). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The types of geometric entities and organizational information imported vary for different formats. PDGS. Parasolid. Click Open to import the model into HyperMesh. please review the individual CAD translator topics for additional information. 3. 5.

point/node creation and editing panels nodes temp nodes Create new nodes. and cylinders. surfaces creation and editing panels surfaces primitives surface edit defeature Create surfaces from existing lines or nodes by different methods. drag. and drag/spin sub-panels of the surfaces panel can be used to create NURBS surfaces. If you select a set of lines that do not form a closed loop. split. and at the intersection of other geometry.Creating Geometry Data If geometry is not available from a CAD system. extending. at tangents. There is no limit on the number of lines used to create a mesh/surface. Edit existing surfaces by trimming. smooth. cones. or spin. Add or remove nodes used only for geometry creation or editing. Edit existing lines in a variety of methods such as combine. Create circles or arcs. spline/filler. Create standard shaped surfaces or solid entities. Creating NURBS surfaces A NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) surface is a parametric surface defined by control points. you can create or edit geometry using the line and surface builders. The spline option creates a surface through 3-D lines. HyperMesh will connect the disconnected lines with straight lines. knots and weights. or shrinking. including: from points. or extend.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Several methods are available. The ruled. 154 HyperMesh 8. such as spline. The panels used in this process are listed below: lines creation and editing panels lines line edit circles Create lines in a variety of methods. These lines form one path because they intersect at four points. and create a spline surface and/or mesh in the enclosed area. Edit existing surfaces by removing individual features such as holes or fillets. including squares. spheres.

These sharp edges are sometimes the result of data created on other CAD/CAM systems and brought into HyperMesh via a translator. which takes longer to create. The tolerance setting on the options panel is used to determine the intersections between lines. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If the tolerance is too small and an intersection cannot be found. line by using the lines panel.These lines form more than one path and cause an error. These lines may need to be "smoothed" by using the line edit panel or replaced with a new. Creating a surface with these lines results in a relatively complex surface. and slows the automeshing process.0 User’s Guide 155 . Lines that contain sharp edges can cause problems when you create a surface. HyperMesh reports an error when you attempt to create the surface. smooth. These lines result in a more complex surface.

156 HyperMesh 8. Lines used to define a skinned surface.The "circular" shaped line has been replaced with a smooth line. which results in a much simpler surface. The skin option can create a skinned surface through a set of lines. In some cases the sharp edges are required to represent the model and should not be smoothed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A skinned surface created from the lines.

A ruled surface created from the lines. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 157 .The ruled option can create a ruled surface between two lines. Lines used to create a ruled surface.

you can select any one of them by clicking on the edge. Surface edges may be used in the same way as lines in any surface creation panel.. If you use any surface edge lines in the line edit panel. protecting them from automatic removal by HyperMesh’s database management (except for some panels that automatically clear all temporary nodes. edit elements). There may be times when you wish to use an unattached node later in the modeling process. If several surfaces share an edge. Removes selected individual nodes from the temporary node list. the easiest method of selecting a surface is to pick the surface near its edges or surface visualization lines. you can hold the left mouse button down until the surface of interest is highlighted. i.e. Similar to wireframe mode. moving the mouse slightly from side to side. The temp nodes panel allows you to modify the temporary node list. In wireframe mode. faces. click anywhere on the surface to select it. you can display surfaces in wireframe mode or in shaded mode. Removes all the temporary nodes from the database. edges.Temporary Nodes A temporary node list retains nodes that are not attached to an element.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In shaded mode. In the temp nodes panel. 158 HyperMesh 8. Release the mouse button when the desired surface is highlighted. and release it to confirm the selection. where appropriate. Picking Surfaces In HyperMesh. and while holding the mouse button down. there are three functions: • • • add clear clear all • • • Adds selected individual nodes to the temporary node list. Each surface highlights as selected. duplicates of the lines are created and the operation is applied to the duplicates.

two new surfaces are created (shown highlighted) and the original surface is trimmed. use the trim with line sub-panel of the surface edit panel. A circle and a surface (represented with surface lines) before trimming. The features and automesh panels have a cleanup sub-panel. You can use the surface edit panel to modify surface geometry when it is necessary to make changes before you generate a mesh. which contain surface editing tools. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. After the circle is used to trim the surface. If the sweep does not intersect the surface. This allows them to be meshed at the same time. to trim a surface with a line. the surface is not trimmed.0 User’s Guide 159 . The surface is trimmed by sweeping the line along the vector and intersecting the surface with the sweep. For example. You must select the surface and the line and specify a direction vector.Editing Surfaces Each HyperMesh surface contains one or more faces. It is usually preferable to combine multiple faces into one surface entity before you use the meshing tools.

use the trim with surf sub-panel. The smaller surface is split into two surfaces after it is trimmed with the larger surface.To trim one surface with another. Two surfaces before trimming. 160 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

which allows you to select all the nodes and/or elements associated to a surface. the associativity is not broken. Associated nodes and elements can be selected by surface. use the node edit or project panel. if you transform a component that contains both a surface and its associated nodes/elements.Associativity Nodes and elements can be associated to surfaces.0 User’s Guide 161 . When you create a mesh with the automesher. or element. a surface. node. If you transform. such as translate. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. associativity is broken. When nodes are associated to a surface. Associativity is also broken if you trim a surface. you can use the smooth panel to smooth elements on the surface and the node edit panel to move the nodes along the surface. To re-associate a node to a surface. Note: Re-associating nodes to a surface is usually a time consuming task. the nodes are automatically associated to the surface. However. Some operations break associativity.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To make the geometry more appropriate for meshing. analysts need to combine a number of faces into a single smooth surface. and prevents unnecessary artificial or accidental edges from being present in the final mesh. A single smooth surface is typically split into smaller patches. or other misalignments. The initial CAD geometry often contains gaps. 162 HyperMesh 8. overlaps. The quick edit. their priorities are different from those of analysts trying to use the data. This allows the elements to be created on the entire region at once. or pinholes. The juncture between two surfaces often contains gaps. point edit. misalignments. edge edit. each a separate mathematical face. These features can distort the elements or demand a finer mesh. and autocleanup panels contain tools to help you prepare surface geometry for meshing.Geometry Cleanup When designers create CAD geometry.

you can easily build a much better mesh.With the tools of the geometry cleanup panels. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Using the simpler.0 User’s Guide 163 . and eliminate pinholes. combine surfaces into large meshing regions. cleaner geometry. you can close the gaps between surfaces.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Supports complex beams. Building 0-D Elements The 0-D elements currently supported in HyperMesh are masses. Supports NASTRAN RBE3 elements. Plot elements are generated in the edit element. rbe3s. Purpose Supports complex beams. a value of mass. Weld Note: Supports weld elements. Masses have the ability to store one node. rods. springs. Building 1-D Elements One-dimensional elements currently supported in HyperMesh include bar2s. Supports rigid elements with multiple nodes. edges. This section describes the element types and indicates which panels you can use to build the elements. welds. elem offset. or features panel. rigids. plots. and joints. bar3s. The 1-D element-building panels are located on the 1D page of the default main menu.Building Elements After you create or obtain geometry data. Altair Engineering 164 HyperMesh 8. you can build elements directly on the geometry. and a property reference. Supports kinematic joint definitions supplied with Safety Analysis Codes. gaps. Supports display type elements. Supports gap elements. rigid links. Note: bar3s contain a third node designed to supported second order beams. Supports springs or damper. The following list indicates the storage capabilities and purpose of each of the 1-D elements. Masses can be created in the masses panel. line mesh. Supports simple beams. 1-D Element Bar2 Stores A property reference A local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Bar3 Property reference Local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Gap Joint Property reference Property reference Optional orientation nodes or system(s) Plot RBE3 Rigid link A reference to two nodes A degree of freedom at each node Weight at each node A degree of freedom code One independent node Multiple dependent nodes Rigid Rod Spring A degree of freedom code A property reference A property reference A degree of freedom code An optional orientation vector A degree of freedom code Supports rigid elements.

These two-dimensional elements can be built in any of the following panels: automesh cones drag edit element elem offset line drag planes ruled spheres spin spline torus Note: Builds elements on surfaces according to user specifications. Builds elements on conic or cylindrical surfaces. Builds elements by offsetting a group of elements in the direction of their normals. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Building 2-D Elements Three-noded trias. or group of elements along a vector. and eight-noded quads can all be built in HyperMesh. Builds elements on toroidal surfaces. row of nodes. Builds elements that lie on a surface defined by lines. six-noded trias. four-noded quads. or two lines. Builds elements by spinning a line. a row of nodes and a line.0 User’s Guide 165 . or group of elements about a vector. first order linear elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. Builds elements by hand. but second order parabolic elements may be generated by changing the element order in the global panel. Builds elements by dragging a line or group of elements along or about a control line. Builds elements on spherical surfaces. Builds elements between two rows of nodes. By default. Builds elements on square or trimmed planar surfaces. row of nodes. Builds elements by dragging a line.

6.and 15-noded pentas. By default. Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a line. lines. and surfaces. Propagates split hexas. Creates solid elements by offsetting a group of two-dimensional elements normal to the surface formed by the group of two-dimensional elements.and 20-noded hexa elements. but second order solids may be generated by switching the element order in the global panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Pentas and hexas can be built in any of the following panels: drag edit element line drag linear solid solid map solid mesh elem offset spin split tetramesh Note: Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a vector to create solids.Building 3-D Elements HyperMesh builds 4.and 10-noded tetras. Tetras can be built in the edit element panel by hand or by using the tetramesh panel. Spins a group of two-dimensional elements about a vector to create solids. and 8. Builds solid elements between nodes. Fills with tetra elements a volume that is enclosed by tria elements or surfaces. Builds elements by hand. 166 HyperMesh 8. Builds solid elements between a variable number of lines. first order elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. Creates solid elements between two-dimensional elements.

skew. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check a mesh of elements for its maximum chordal deviation from a real or inferred surface The 3-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. and NASTRAN-style aspect ratio The time sub-panel allows you to check for elements whose small size might cause problems for an explicit solver.0 User’s Guide 167 . and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check tetra elements for collapse. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. aspect ratio. The group sub-panel provides a tool to check for and eliminate group or interface elements whose underlying structural element has changed and left them detached. The user sub-panel allows you to verify element quality by using a template file that checks for userspecified conditions.Checking Model Quality After you build your model. you can use the check elems panel to verify the geometric quality of the elements in the model. You can check your model for connectivity and duplicate elements. CFD-style volumetric skew. aspect ratio. The 1-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check one-dimensional elements for free ends Determine if a group of rigid elements form a loop Check weld and rigid elements for double dependency Check all elements for a minimum length of a side The 2-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. skew.

with an optional label.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . create a load collector. V. Before you apply loads. and updating loads and constraints. The label may include the magnitude of the force. HyperMesh transforms the loads appropriately to any local nodal output coordinate system. A. The label may also display the magnitude of the acceleration. Applies a concentrated moment about a user-defined vector at a node. Loads are displayed in the color assigned to the load collector. Velocities are displayed as a singleheaded arrow with an optional label. Moments are displayed as a double-headed arrow with an optional label. • constraints • • • equations fluxes • • • forces • • moments • • pressures • • temperatures • • velocities • Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. Applies a general equation constraint between nodes. Accelerations are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. reviewing. T. M. flux. 168 HyperMesh 8. Applies a concentrated force along any user-defined vector at a node. Equations are displayed with the label. Temperatures are displayed as a straight line starting at the node at which the temperature is applied extending upward. HyperMesh currently supports the following load types: • accelerations • Applies an acceleration at a node. Depending on the analysis code being used to calculate results. The label may include the magnitude of the flux. Applies a pressure on an element or geometry. EQ. HyperMesh stores and displays all loads in the global coordinate system. Forces are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label F. Fluxes are displayed as a thick arrow with an optional label. P. Pressures are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. Applies a temperature constraint at a node. Constraints are displayed as a triangle with an optional label that displays the degrees of freedom effected by the constraint. Applies a constraint or enforced displacement at a node. Applies a flux load at a node. Applies a velocity at a node. The label may include the magnitude of the moment. The size of loads and constraints is based on model units and can be modified from within the boundary condition panels.Applying Loads The final step in the model building process is to apply constraints and forces and to create or assign coordinate systems. The label may include the magnitude of the pressure. The label may include the magnitude of the velocity.

Systems are built and referenced in the systems panel.0 User’s Guide 169 . Analysis systems transform the output system of a node entity. cylindrical.Creating Systems Systems in HyperMesh are referred to as coordinate systems and may be rectangular. forces. Nodes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh supports reference and analysis systems. Reference systems transform geometric location or input vectors from the global system to a local system. mass elements. and other systems are eligible entities for a reference system. A system collector must exist and be current in order to build a system. or spherical. Note: System collectors collect system entities.

you can use any of viewing tools on the visual options menu to simplify the visualization of complex structures in your model. You can adjust interactively a wide variety of parameters and choose from a suite of algorithms. You can adjust the node biasing on each edge to force more elements to be created near one end than near the other. trias. you can specify the mesh generation and visualization options to use on each individual surface. which allows you to see immediately the locations of the new nodes. which allows you to evaluate it for element quality before choosing to store it in the HyperMesh database. • If you use surfaces. There are two approaches to the automeshing secondary panel. or mixed and whether they should be first or second order elements. You can also specify whether the new elements should be quads. there are situations in which it is not possible or not desirable to create a surface. A solid model created by dragging automeshed plate elements. If you do not use surfaces. have more flexibility in specifying the algorithm parameters. 170 HyperMesh 8. which supplies as much automated assistance as possible. • For either method. you may choose from a greater variety of algorithms.Automatic Mesh Generation HyperMesh has a centralized plate and shell mesh generation tool called the automeshing secondary panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Mesh smoothing is also available and you may select the algorithm for that operation as well. Most of the element creation panels use this module. You control interactively the number of elements on each edge or side and can determine immediately the nodes that are used to create the mesh. until you are satisfied with the resulting mesh. depending on whether or not you use surfaces as the basis for the operation. While you are in the meshing module. Most of the functions are still available and operate in the same way. The created mesh can be previewed. Furthermore. the meshing process is usually faster and uses less memory. HyperMesh responds with immediate feedback on the effects of the changes. and employ the mesh-smoothing operation to improve element quality. If you use surfaces. the module operates the same. You may choose from several mesh generation algorithms.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 171 .The automeshing secondary panel can make second order elements for boundary element solutions.

undo. density algorithm type biasing details checks Each automeshing sub-panel has the mesh. smooth. as well as the local view pop-up menu. 172 HyperMesh 8.Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel The functions of the automeshing secondary panel are divided into six sub-panels. You can switch freely between the sub-panels. and return functions (see Automeshing Secondary Panel in the Panels section). reject. the screen display changes to present only the information applicable to the current operation. abort.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

or Pentagon If the region is free from internal holes and the boundary is clearly triangular. an advancing front algorithm is used. and where applicable. the best choice of algorithm is usually to map a standard mesh onto the region using transfinite interpolation. at least one tria always needed. the default mesh generation algorithm is Autodecide. For most configurations. a submapping algorithm is used. HyperMesh uses a streamlined version of this algorithm that is optimized for the different shape and connectivity requirements of tria elements. Each site where an element could be placed is measured and one of several possible elements is chosen. and chooses the algorithm that will give the best results. Map as Triangle. Examines the groups of elements to see if a local change in the connectivity might improve element quality. The mesh generation algorithms include: Autodecide If you are meshing a surface. rectangular. Ignoring rotations.Mesh Generation Algorithms The mesh generation algorithms are divided into two types: those that require the presence of a surface to provide a context of operation. HyperMesh attempts to produce an all-quads mesh. Such an operation is exceedingly fast. if that is the case. placing elements along the edges as it proceeds. HyperMesh chooses a standard template based on the element densities around the perimeter of the region. The advancing front algorithm uses the following process: • Traverses the perimeter of the region. gives quality results rapidly. or pentagonal in shape. If trias is the selected element type. you can usually eliminate them by changing some of the meshing parameters and then remeshing the region. Eventually the entire region is filled with elements. Rectangle. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The Free meshing algorithm is a general-purpose formula that works for most meshing conditions. but there are some situations in which one or more trias are included: • • • If the total number of elements specified for the perimeter of the face is odd. HyperMesh recognizes more than 18 different configurations requiring distinct templates. If there is a tight corner on the boundary that would require a poor quality quad. HyperMesh first creates a quads mesh and then divides each element along its shortest diagonal.0 User’s Guide 173 . Free • • If quads is the selected element type for the current face. Applies repeatedly the selected smoothing algorithm until no node is moved farther than the specified smoothing tolerance. it chooses the Free algorithm. HyperMesh analyzes the geometry of each face and the element densities specified for each edge. To make tria elements. If mixed is the element type. or those working entirely from node and/or line data. Sometimes two or more trias are needed because of the particular order in which the elements were generated. The surface can have interior holes or edges and any number of sides. HyperMesh uses a single tria. If quads or trias is the selected element type. In this case.

Map without Surface If you are creating a mesh entirely from line and/or node data. You can still use the density and biasing manipulation tools but some edges will be linked together. the algorithm is to drag. and if you use the spheres panel. 174 HyperMesh 8. so that the configuration always satisfies the balancing requirements of the intended mapping. the algorithm is to map a sphere-covering mesh. the mesh generation algorithm is decided by the tool that was used to describe the desired operation. If you use the drag panel. with no surface. the algorithm is to spin. If you use the spin panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

If there is a transition from small elements to large elements in the region. Size Corrected Shape Corrected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The size-corrected smoothing algorithm attempts to even out the sizes of the elements at the cost of some element quality. The shape-correcting smoothing algorithm attempts to correct the elements’ shapes.0 User’s Guide 175 . HyperMesh uses a modified isoparametric-centroidal over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. allowing variation in element size. this choice usually gives the best results. HyperMesh uses a modified Laplacian over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. HyperMesh traverses the perimeter of the region looking for variations in element edge length and choose between size-correcting and shape-correcting smoothing algorithms. usually in the form of worsened aspect ratios from the stretching of elements. this choice usually gives the best results.Smoothing Algorithms There are three smoothing algorithms used by HyperMesh: Autodecide By default. If the element spacing around the perimeter is roughly uniform.

then: . You can designate that the smaller intervals go near the start of the edge. you may want to use biasing to improve element quality when transitioning from smaller to larger element sizes. When you use the drag and solid offset panels.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1. you can use biasing to cluster several layers of elements near the surface of a solid.1] of the Real Line. This interval is uniformly divided into as many subintervals as specified by the element density and they are mapped along the edge so that the length of the image interval is proportional to the height of the line over the midpoint of the source interval.Element Biasing The automeshing process allows you to bias the placement of nodes so that their intervals are not uniform in size. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. the mesh at one end could be scaled several times larger than at the other end.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In linear solids. Element biasing allows you to moderate the changes in aspect ratio from the start to the end. Linear Biasing In linear biasing. near both ends with larger intervals in the middle. let n be the element density and let . the biasing intensity corresponds to the positive slope of a straight line over the interval [0. Each image interval corresponds to the side of an element. and b is its y-intercept. or near the middle of the edge. Specifically. If m is the slope of the line. There are three methods you can use to calculate the biasing of node positions: Use biasing to preserve element quality in complex regions. 176 HyperMesh 8. near the end of the edge. Within the automesher.

x(s). the nodes are placed according to 1 .0 plus 1/10 of the absolute value of the biasing intensity. For this. . the sizes of the intervals grow geometrically.Using x(0) = 0. If the biasing intensity is negative.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) =1. and convenient values will fall in the range [0. placing the smaller elements at the end instead of the beginning. . Thus.20]. We need a function Let then: so that: which gives the proper interval lengths. progressing along the edge. Exponential Biasing In exponential biasing. The value used is b = 1.20]. This formula was chosen so that an intensity of zero will still represent no biasing. Negative biasing intensities just reverse the edge. then x(s) scales them to the range of [0. and x(1) = 1. Specifically. let n be the element density and let . We can use b to scale the behavior of the function so that convenient values are in the range [0. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a positiv biasing intensity puts small elements at the start of e the interval.0 User’s Guide 177 . That factor is 1. we find: so.1]. with each successive interval being a constant factor larger than the previous. Thus. Let be the geometric growth factor. m is the absolute value of the biasing intensity.5. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0.

then x(s) becomes: where erf() is the statistical error function. 178 HyperMesh 8.1] with x(0) = 0. let n be the element density and . Specifically.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and if it is negative. If we use: for positive biasing intensity r. We need so that takes values in [0.Bellcurve Biasing In bellcurve biasing. . they are placed at the middle of the edge. x(1) = 1. and has the behavior noted above. If the biasing intensity is positive. the smaller intervals are placed at the beginning and end of the edge. nodes are distributed long the edge in a pattern that is symmetric across the midpoint of the edge.

HyperMesh automatically links those edges together so that they stay balanced.Linked or Locked Edges Most of the surface-less mesh generation algorithms requires that some edges have exactly the same element density and biasing values as other edges. Use the automeshing secondary panel to prepare input for solid offset.0 User’s Guide 179 . If you try to adjust the element density numbers corresponding to these locked edges. "The value of this number cannot be changed" is displayed. it has no effect. HyperMesh uses those nodes directly to make elements within the automeshing secondary panel. Any change to one of the edges is immediately applied to all others that are linked to it. Some of the surface creation panels allow you to use a node list to define one or more sides of a surface. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The error message. In these circumstances. The resulting edge is locked and you cannot change the element density or biasing.

Just as you can create an FE shell mesh by meshing a surface. you can create an FE weld by realizing a connector.Connector Entity Connectors are geometric entities (not FE) primarily used to create welds. The characteristics of connector entities can be divided into four categories: Connector Terminology Connector Definition Connector Realization Connector Review 180 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

or the weld element is deleted. realized failed Note: Connector Location The position in space at which a connector entity is created. spacing. but the line may be split into multiple projection locations as specified by the offset. Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A connector that was realized can revert back to being unrealized if. a link entity is suppressed from its definition. The connector is displayed in red. The connector is considered failed if the weld creation at the connector was not successful. and density values. for example. Only nodes. The connector icon is created at the center of the selected line. The connector location option is set in the create panel. The connector is created at the point location. nodes points lines The connector is created at the node location.0 User’s Guide 181 . The connector is displayed in yellow. The connector is considered realized only if weld creation at the connector was successful. and lines can be used to define connector location.Connector Terminology Connector State The connector state is defined as one of the following types: unrealized The initial definition of the connector entity after it is created. Only one connector is created for each line. The color code provides an easier way to visualize and filter connectors based on their state. The connector is displayed in green. points.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The link entity options are set in the create and add links panels. The HyperMesh entities to which the link entities refer are welded together during realization. tags. surfaces. geom Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its geometry (connect surfaces only). The tag entity can be used to define a weld connector to either a node. components Components can be used to connect elements or surfaces. Surfaces can be used to create welds to connect geometry before meshing. elements.Link Entity A reference to a separate HyperMesh entity that can be added to a connector. The elems option connects the mesh on the component or surface and the geom option connects the geometry on the component or surface. Only nodes. elems Note: 182 HyperMesh 8. The above states are applicable to only surfaces and components added to the connector entity. and components can be added to connectors. A part that needs to be welded is often represented as a component. or an element that it holds. The following entities are supported. The connectors can hold a single entity or a combination of these entities. The welds create fixed points for the mesh. The surfaces can be either meshed or unmeshed. Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its mesh. The link entity state options are set in the create and add Links panels. A node facilitates a node-node weld connector. An element facilitates a patch-patch weld connector. elements surfaces nodes tags Note: Link Entity State Specifies if the HyperMesh entity referenced by the link entity is meshed or unmeshed.

Re-connect Rules
Defines how a connector should protect its link entity information. none If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity is then removed from the connector. If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity retains the ID of the HyperMesh entity. The link entity remains in the connector. Same as the by id rule except that the entity name is retained.

by id

by name Note:

These rules are useful for applications such as part replacement. A part can be added to a connector ith the use id or use name reconnect rule and can be replaced with a redesigned part with the same ID or name, without having to change the connector definition. The re-connect rule options are set in the create and add links panels.

Number of Layers
The total number of thicknesses (layers) to connect at the connector. total T Sets the number of thickness to connect (2T/3T/4T/nT). This influences the number of welds created at a connector. Sets the total number of link entities that can be added to the connector. The number of link entities added to a connector is always less than or equal to the total thickness. The number of layers option is set in the create and add links panels.

Note:

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Connector Rules
Shapes the definition of a connector entity. none The connector is created with no link entities and no thickness defined. In this state, the connector must first be updated with more information before it can be successfully realized. This option requires link entities to be specified before the connector is created. The link entities are added to the connector based on the user-supplied criteria. For this option, the connector only remembers what type of link entity it is to connect, rather than a specific link entity. During the fe realize process, the connector searches the HyperMesh database to generate the best (usually the closest) link entity it can using the supplied information.

now

at fe realize

Note:

The connector rules (connect when:) option is set in the Create and Add Links panels.

Connector Realization
Creating welds at a connector. fe realize The process of creating welds (FE) to connect the HyperMesh entities referenced by the link entities added to a connector.

Note:

The connector entity can be used to create only welds at this time.

Request for Connection
A set of parameters used during realization to create a physical connection between link entities.

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Connector Definition
The connector is simply a database of information defining a specific request for connection at a specific location. A connector definition describes the connector between multiple HyperMesh entities at a specific location. Entities that are to be connected are referred to as link entities. The connector location is defined as a node, a geometric point, or a geometric line. In the following example, there are two components (Top and Bottom) that are to be connected at the location of a point (with an id of 10). In this case, both components are considered to be link entities, since they are to be linked together. The point defines the location of the connector.

After a connector is created, the connector icon is placed at point 10, and components 1 and 2 are incorporated into the request for connection. The following diagram shows the connector after it is created (with an id of 7) at the location of point 10 (point 10 is not visible).

In this example, connector 7 has been defined and no welds have been created. The connector stores the following information: • • • Which link entities the request for connection is to connect (Comp 1 and Comp 2) The thickness of the realization (Thickness = 2) Where to connect the link entities (the connectors current location)

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HyperMesh entities currently supported as link entities include COMPS, ELEMS, SURFS, NODES, and TAGS. Any number of link entities of differing types can be added to a connector in any order. The connector sets the order of link entities during the realization process. The example above is a simple case where we have added two link entities of the same type (COMPS) to a single connector. Note: An element-to-tag-t o-component connector is possible, as is any other combination of the supported link entities.

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Connector Realization
During connector realization, welds are created using the connector definition. Note: In HyperMesh, the only form of realization currently supported is fe realization (weld creation). For successful realization, the connector must be populated with all the relevant details required for its realization type. For example, fe realization requires the connector to be populated with a projection tolerance and an FE configuration type.

The following diagram shows connector 7 realized with a valid tolerance value, and a config value of type 21 (spring).

One advantage of separating weld fe realization from the connector definition, is that a connector can be re-realized as a weld of a different configuration (or possibly, a user-defined weld) without having to redefine the connector. If you edit the connector definition (i.e. add or delete a link entity from the connector), the connector removes the welds it created, and reverts back to an unrealized state. The connector is unrealized only if its user-control mode is turned off. By default, the connector mode is off but it can be turned on by registering custom FE with a connector. Connectors store all FE information that they create, allowing advanced find, mask, delete, and organizational functionality in a number of common HyperMesh panels. If the weld creation is unsuccessful (due to low tolerance, insufficient link entities, etc.) the connector icon is displayed as failed (red). An unrealized connector is yellow, a realized connector is green, and a failed connector is red.

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Connector Review
There are many advantages to the way connectors store information. Not only does this local storage allow you to edit the connector definition, it also allows you to review connector details and the quality of the realization. There are a number of tools that can be useful in the review process. The visualization pop-up allows you to update the visual appearance of a connector based on its state, thickness (number of layers), or the component in which it is located. In addition, the vis opts panel also allows you to filter the displayed connectors by various criteria (such as thickness). This filter can then be used for “displayed” mark creation. HyperMesh includes a connector information table that creates a table of connector definitions from a mark and allows you to delete link entities. The quality panel allows you to check the quality of welds created from the connectors. The connector database can also be queried through Tcl functions.

Connectors User Control Mode
Each individual connector can be placed in a user control mode using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. This user control mode is most useful for automated Tcl scripts. Once in user control mode, the following procedures are possible for a given connector: • • • Pre-existing FE can be registered as a given connector’s realization by using the *CE_FE_Register command. Connectors can be edited without automatically unrealizing (as happens most notably when a link is added or removed from a connector, or when an FE realization entity is deleted). A connector’s state can be manually changed from realized to failed, or from failed to realized by using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. A connector’s state will not change to or from the unrealized state using this method.

Once a connector is placed into the user control mode, the user control mode remains active until an unrealize command is called (such as *CE_Unrealize), an already realized connector is rerealized, or the user control mode is manually turned off with either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. While a given connector is in user control mode, it may not behave the same as a normal connector. Specifically, there are a number of scenarios where a user-controlled connector will not auto unrealize in response to database changes that would cause a normal connector to auto unrealize. Note: It is strongly recommended that when FE is registered to a user-controlled connector, that the connector links and other necessary details should also be set with a given connector (so that the connector can properly re-realize if a user interactively requests it to). At the bare minimum, connectors should know which links they are to connect.

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Master Connectors File
Most of the information stored in the connector entity can be exported to a master connectors file. This file contains connector entity information such as location, link entity, link entity state, link entity rules (see Connector Terminology). The exported file may also contain metadata information stored in the connector. The master connectors file contains welding information at a given location and also assists in the weld automation process. An exported master connectors file can be re-imported using the connectors reader to re-create connectors. The master connectors file is exported in a single format. The outline of a generic HyperMesh master connectors file is provided below: • • Master connectors files can have comments beginning with the characters # or $, or there can be blank lines in between. The format of the file is fixed and the order of heading definitions cannot be changed. The column information is shown below:

Notes: • • • The header at the beginning of the file specifies information about the column data. Number of layers defines the thickness to connect at the specified location (X, Y, Z). The data between the brackets are repeated for each link entity. For standard HyperMesh FE types such as ACM and CWELD, the FE Config will have a number of 1001, which defines the user-defined type number specified in FE Config File. The FE Type will be the number defined in the FE Config File (for CWELD it is 72). For a detailed explanation of custom FE Configurations see FE Configuration File. The data between the brackets (link entity information) in the table are repeated for the number of links (NumLinks). The NumLinks variable must be equal to the number of link entities.

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 189

Metadata is an attribute type that can be stored on a HyperMesh entity. User-defined information (such as Station Id or Gun Id) can be stored on the connector entity as metadata. The Metadata is defined by a name-value pair and is supported for multiple data types (int, double, string, etc.). Please see the HyperMesh on-line help for more information on Metadata. The Metadata name is written to the master connectors file in the following format ~<Sturct><DataType>Name. <Struct> represents whether the value associated is a single variable or an array. <DataType> represents the type of data stored in the value. For example, a Metadata of name Assembly containing an array of integers is written out as ~AIAssembly. The only delimiter supported in the entire file is the double semicolon “::”. The entire column of data in the file should be of the same type. The connectors reader uses the templex template to read the master connectors file. See weld templates for more information. By default, the file is read into HyperMesh through the HMIN function call, HMIN_CE_CreateDefined.

• • • •

The connector entity is created with the information specified in the master connectors file and displayed as unrealized (yellow). To realize the connectors as welds, the fe realize panel must be used.

Multiple Weld File Format
In addition to the master connectors file, the connectors reader also supports master weld file formats previously supported by the spotweld reader.

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The following example shows the template for a simple format file with two semi colons as delimiters. The templates are stored in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/feinput/spotweld_format and are registered in the spotweld. The spotweld.0 :: 3:: 2:: 1:: int num header { type "CONNECTORS" set mark find "[0-9]+::" rewind set num = 0 if { do 1000000 { if { isdigit } then { set num = sum(num. An example for a specific master weld file format is shown below: # Index::T::X::Y::Z::EID1:: EID2:: EID3:: 1:: 3:: 48. 1) } readln null } } set numrecords = num set numrequests = 9 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a spotweld_format directory must exist in the same location as the master weld file.375 Weld Template :: 2.cfg file under the same directory. Each template works on only one specific format file.0 User’s Guide 191 .Import Templates Templates work with the connectors reader to import multiple file formats. the required headings must be added to the template requests and record blocks. For custom templates. To read in metadata.4375:: 9.cfg file must contain only the names of all the registered weld templates.

requests "ID/T/X/Y/Z/EID1/EID2/EID3/EID4" set numcomponents = 1 components "Value" } record { read request // ID qfind "::" set mark read request rewind read num qfind "::" read request // X qfind "::" read request // Y qfind "::" read request // Z do num { qfind "::" read request // EID } set num = diff(4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . num) do num { read constant 0 // fake EID } readln null } //T 192 HyperMesh 8.

Spot.> *style <style_type> *head <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <RIGID_FLAG> *body <BODY_FLAG> <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG> [<HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG>] *post <POST_SCRIPT_NAME> The template parameters are defined below. Area. etc. The user-defined number for the FE combination. optistruct. The weld definition in the file includes the type of weld to create and the surrounding connector to shells. pamcrash.0 User’s Guide 193 . The data can be separated using a space. nastran. ansys. dyna.). Seam. USER_FE_TYPE USER_FE_NAME Note: This should be the first line in the user FE definition. By default. This is input in the fe realize template as FE Type. the feconfig. etc).cfg) is used to define custom welds such as ACM (Area Contact Method) and other special types. The specific solver template for the type of weld must be loaded in HyperMesh before the welds can be created using a connector entity. The user-specified name for the FE combination. marc. SOLVER The solver template for which FE needs to be created. See FE Definition Examples for information regarding the format and options for FE definition. FE Definition Template The FE definition template is shown below: CFG <SOLVER> <USER_FE_TYPE> <USER_FE_NAME> *filter <filter_type1> <filter_type2> <etc. The FE configuration file has a pre-defined format that must be used to define different weld configurations.FE Configuration File The FE configuration file (feconfig.g. The specified name is saved and displayed in the info table during connector review process. The weld definition is solver dependant (NASTRAN. Supported solvers are: abaqus. and pamcrash2g. LSDYNA. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.cfg file from the <install_directory>/hm/bin directory is loaded in each of the panels related to each connector type (e.

the weld node is connected to all the vertices of the shell elements using rigid to form a spider. If the type is not defined. rigidlink. plot. A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. *FILTER spot seam indicates that this configuration can be realized only by the spot and seam connector types. a zero should be input. and that they are native types. Note: *STYLE A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For example. The various types supported for rigids are equation. Note: The style definition line for these configurations must not be edited. For example. HM_FE_CONFIG The config for the rigid currently supported by HyperMesh. This option indicates that the configurations have specific behaviors associated during realization. In addition. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. equation and rbe3 do not have a type defined. this option is used as a filter when displaying FE configurations in the type = field of respective realize panels. Note: *HEAD Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment.*FILTER This option can be used to allow only the specified connector types to realize the configuration. *style bolts 1 indicates that this is a bolt connection of type 1 that creates a specific bolted connection between the parts. etc. so the type field should be zero. For example. This option is not applicable to equation and rbe3. rbe3. The string head is required to specify that a rigid is to be created to connect the weld node to the surrounding shell element. If the rigid flag = 1. the weld node is connected to only one of the shell element vertex using the rigid. Defines how the weld node is to be connected to the surrounding shell element. If rigid flag = 0. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE HM_FE_TYPE RIGID_FLAG CONNECT_FLAG 194 HyperMesh 8.

plot. CBUSH is of config spring and type 6. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG Note: *POST A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. For example. Note. If the body flag = 0. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. The body flag is used to calculate the length of the weld. a series weld is created. The length location flag is used to specify if the weld created should be of type series or parallel. however. etc. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The flag specifies the length factor to be used for series welds. welds are created in parallel. rod. the users home directory (UNIX only). Starting with HyperMesh 8. If the body flag = 1. attributes. hexa8.0. If the length location flag is >= 0 and < 1. The various types supported for welds are.*BODY BODY_FLAG The string body is required to specify that a weld is to be created to connect the link entities added to the connector. but if specified it must be followed by the name (excluding path) of a valid Tcl script with a . that metadata is still created and saved if you do not use POST to assign a property script (for example. This allows HyperMesh to parse the CFG file for configuration instead of relying on metadata saved individually with each connector (as was done prior to 8. and other solver specific details. This Tcl script must be located in the current working directory. If the length location flag = 1. The series weld definition has more than one weld between the link entities. Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment.0). based on the solver. this option can also be used to specify a property script for the configuration. the length is calculated based on the distance between the connecting layers (link entities).tcl extension. the length is calculated based on the average thickness of the connecting layers (link entities).0 User’s Guide 195 . This postscript will be automatically executed post FE realization and it can be used to edit weld properties. The type number is defined in respective solver templates and differs. The *post lines are optional. The config for the weld currently supported by HyperMesh. There can be more than one weld in a series. if you choose to type in a property script instead of specifying a CFG file in the connector’s generation panel. spring. or the scripts/connectors/ directory.

5 (50%) each. Hence there cannot be three welds specified in series having a length factor of 0. Series welds are not supported where the link entities are coincident. The total length of series welds cannot exceed 1.FE Specification Rules • • • • • • • • Each solver will have a specific definition so the same user-defined types can be repeated for each solver. Series and parallel weld element combinations are not supported. Series welds are not created when the distance between the connecting link entities is zero. User comments should start with a hash character “#”.0 (100%). Multiple solid element combinations are not currently supported. The head and the body definition must begin with a “*” to define rigid and weld definitions. Therefore.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . an ACM can have only one hexa weld element specified in the definition. 1D and 3D element combinations are not supported. 196 HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide 197 .FE Definition Examples Washers CFG nastran 56 bolts *filter bolt *style bolt 0 *head rigidlink 1 1 dofs=123 rigidlink 1 3 *body 0 rigid 1 1 dofs=456 ACM Welds CFG nastran 71 acm *head rbe3 0 0 *body 1 hex8 1 1 The above definition creates ACMs with HEXA8 solid elements as welds and RBE3 elements as rigids. The length of the hexa is equal to the distance between the connecting shell elements.5 The series weld is created at the center with length equal to half the distance between the link entities. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.5 spring 6 0.5 The two series welds are created with a length equal to half the distance between the link entities.

Parallel Welds CFG dyna 101 parallel *head plot 0 0 *body 0 bar2 1 1 bar2 1 1 The bar elements are created at the same location and connect the same link entities. then it is placed at the center of the proposed 1-D element path. "0" places the 0-D element along the proposed 1-D element path.tcl Supported values for the length location flag are "0". or "2". 198 HyperMesh 8. The behavior for each value is as follows. "1". "1" has the same behavior as "0" except only a single 0-D element is created even if multiple bodies are created (as happens in >2T welds) and "2" places the 0-D element at the connector location. If this 0-D element is the only config given in the *body. 0-D Welds CFG pamcrash2g 1 plink (ce loc) *head plot 0 0 *body 0 mass 5 2 plot 0 1 *post prop_plink.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

HyperMorph Strategies HyperMorph is a tool in HyperMesh to morph the shape of a finite element model in ways that are useful.0 User’s Guide 199 . which can be used for subsequent design optimization studies. Overview: The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing • The Domains and Handles Concept • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Global Domain and Global Handles Local Domains and Handles Partitioning Dependent Handles Working with Shapes Setting Up Optimization Creating morph volumes Registering nodes Altering Morph Volumes Tangency Morphing by Moving Nodes Morphing by Using Other Panels Sculpting The Domains and Handles Concept The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Space Frame Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • • Matching a Mesh or Line or Surface Data Making Parametric Changes Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Mirror Images: Using 1-Plane Symmetry Reducing 3D to 2D: Using Linear Symmetry Reducing 3D to 1D: Using Planar Symmetry Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. logical and intuitive. It enables rapid shape changes on the finite element mesh without severely sacrificing the mesh quality. HyperMorph also allows the creation of shape variables. During the morphing process.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Shell Model Strategies • • • • • • Creating Handles and Domains Morphing on Local Domains Section Mapping Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing Solid Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • Viewing Solid Models Morphing on Local Domains Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing 200 HyperMesh 8.

You have great flexibility in how the moving nodes are moved.0 User’s Guide 201 . The freehand approach is an ideal introduction to HyperMorph since it allows morphing without the creation of new entities while implying the concepts of domains and handles. allowing for rapid changes to any mesh. This approach is most useful for making detailed changes to any mesh (local domains) as well as general changes to space frame type meshes (global domains). The morph volume approach is quick and intuitive and is most useful for making large scale changes to complex meshes. Handles placed at the corners and along the edges of the morph volumes allow for the morphing of the morph volumes which in turn morph the mesh inside the morph volumes. The freehand approach also allows for "customized" morphing. and arc angles as well as morphing the mesh to match geometric data and other meshes. the shape of the mesh changes according to the domain boundaries. The domains and handles approach is the most difficult approach to learn but it is also the most powerful. such as translation. The Freehand Concept This approach involves morphing by moving the nodes directly without needing to create any HyperMorph entities. angles. The Morph Volume Concept This approach involves surrounding the mesh with one or more morph volumes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. such as scaling or node projection. the morph volume concept. A number of methods exist to create the morph volumes including single and matrix creation as well as the interactive. rotation.The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing HyperMorph contains six exclusive entity types and a wide array of functionality. radii. When the handles are moved. While all the entities and functions are fully compatible and may be used in a complementary fashion they can be divided into three basic approaches to morphing: the domains and handles concept. into morphs using the record sub-panel. and the affected elements manually. on-screen method. which are highly deformable six-sided prisms. or you can define your own domains and handles. HyperMorph can do this automatically. The basics of the three concepts are summarized below: The Domains and Handles Concept This approach involves dividing the mesh into domains made up of elements or nodes and placing handles at the corners of those domains. You are also able to turn node manipulations made in any panel. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses when dealing with the numerous applications of morphing and you are advised to gain a basic understanding of each approach so that you can decide which approach is best for your needs. You define the nodes which will move. and the freehand concept. dividing the mesh into logical domains. The domains and handles approach also allows parametric morphing of distances. The HyperMorph Strategy Guide is intended illustrate the capabilities of HyperMorph and introduce you to both the basic and advanced functionality to help you get the most out of the tool. Morph volumes support tangency between adjoining edges and allow for multiple control points along the edges. the nodes which will stay fixed. and projection to geometry as well as using a "tool" to "sculpt" the mesh into the desired shape. allowing the user to do virtually any kind of morphing.

the mesh is stretched or compressed to match the desired shape. which in turn. In the areas between the handles. Global handles will only influence the nodes in the global domain to which they are associated. The nodes in each domain move as a function of the handles that are either associated with the domain or are touching the domain. The amount each node moves with respect to each handle is relative to an internally calculated influence coefficient. or violet if they are dependent on other handles. edge domains. parametric changes to the model. However. or yellow. Domains and handles are divided into two basic groups. You cannot edit the color of the handles nor the relative size between the dependent and independent handles. These local handles can only influence nodes contained in any domains that they are either associated with or are touching. Local handles are intended to be used to make small scale. global and local. For domains that have more than 50. but once they are calculated they can be stored and applied rapidly. for very large domains. It is located at the centroid of the nodes selected when you create the global domain. The local group consists of five types of local domains: 1D domains. even for large models. but it is not necessary to have both types of domains and handles in a model. The global group consists of global domains. 2D domains. the model is divided into domains where handles are used to control its shapes. 202 HyperMesh 8. Global Domains and Global Handles Global domains are represented by a cube made up of dashed lines. Global handles and domains are best for making large scale shape changes to the model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or elements. Dependent global handles are also smaller than the handles on which they are dependent. The process for calculating the influence coefficients is somewhat time consuming. The advantage of the large domain solver is that it is faster for morphing large domains but the drawback is that it must be invoked every time you wish to morph. which allows you to make both large and small scale morphs and have them combine logically. Global handles are the largest handles in the model and they are red if they are not dependent on other handles.The Domains and Handles Concept When using the domains and handles approach.000 elements (although you can change this default limit) the large domain solver is used. you can edit the color of the domains in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels. 3D. each of which is associated with a number of global handles. 3D domains. the shape of the domains touching those handles change. calculating influence coefficients is too time-consuming. edge. thus making morphing slower. The advantage of this approach is that it makes morphing an interactive process. HyperMorph spends an amount of time proportional to the size of the new or edited domains calculating the handle influences. when handles and domains are initially set up or edited. Domains consist of nodes. in the case of 1D. the process of calculating influences can be too slow or too memory intensive and so the large domain solver makes it possible to morph such domains. 2D. Therefore. For very large domains. changes the positions of the nodes inside those domains. but when handles are moved in order to morph the model no calculations are necessary. You can adjust the base size of all the handles in the model in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels or in the handles panel. A model can contain both global and local handles and domains. the color indicating their level of dependency. Thus. During the morphing process the mesh morphs in a logical way with nodes near the moving handles moving more and nodes near the stationary handles moving less. in the case of global domains. Each domain is associated with any number of local handles. The size given is used as the radius for the independent global handles as well as the diameter of the independent local handles. and general domains. When the handles are moved. cyan. the actual morphing occurs quickly. and general domains. However.

When a global domain and handles are generated automatically. such as when you create a global domain with the create handles option turned on. HyperMorph generates a number of global handles. These global handles are named corner followed by a number from one to eight. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or create new handles. HyperMorph generally creates no more than about 30 global handles for models of any size. If the handles are not generated in the positions where you want them to be. These handles are named handle followed by a number. The automatic global handle generation works particularly well for space frame models such as full car models. or use the generate auto-function.0 User’s Guide 203 . Example of a model with a global domain and global handles Eight handles are placed at the corners of a box enclosing the model. you can always delete them. HyperMorph also places at least one global handle within the box in areas of peak nodal density within the model. reposition them. By movi ng the handles you can stretch or deform the model along all three axes. HyperMorph creates a global handle at each of the eight corners of a box surrounding the model laid out along the global axes.

global handles influence the nodes in the model directly. global handles will influence every node inside the global domain using the hierarchical method if the node is inside a local domain. In the direct method. In the hierarchical method. You should select which method is right for the type of morphing that you want to perform. In the mixed method. choose the hierarchical or mixed method. There are three options for determining how global handles in global domains influence the mesh: the hierarchical method. which in turn influence nodes. the direct method. There are subtle differences in how the global handles influence the nodes for each method with the main difference being that the parts of the model defined by local edge domains have their shape preserved when using the hierarchical method. or the direct method if the node is not in a local domain The method used can be selected in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel and the parameters sub-panel in the domains panel with the default being the direct method.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and the mixed method. global handles influence the local handles found at nodes inside the global domain. If you are willing to accept distortions in the local geometry. choose the direct method.A space frame with six manually created global handles When the handles are moved. If you wish to preserve the local geometry. the space frame morphs in a way such that the bars run between the handles. Straight edges will remain straight and circular holes will remain circular for the hierarchical method. 204 HyperMesh 8. while the direct method may bend or warp these features into curved edges and elliptical holes.

An example of global morphing using the hierarchical method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. which move the mesh. An example of global morphing using the direct method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. the mesh is affected directly. Note the resulting distortion of the edge and circle.0 User’s Guide 205 . Note how the straight edge remains straight and the circle remains round. it moves the local handles.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 206 HyperMesh 8. two joined rectangles for 2D domains. Both methods attempt to determine how a global handle affects nodes or local handles in the space surrounding it. The placement of local handles depends on the type of domain created and the partitioning options if partitioning is selected. four joined rectangles for general domains. These local handles are named local followed by a number. HyperMorph automatically places local handles at the ends of all edge domains. When local domains are created. Independent local handles are orange and have a radius of one half the value of the handle size parameter. or for the entire model by using the generate auto-function. and a line for edge domains. Local domains can be created individually by selecting nodes or elements in the create sub-panel of the domains panel. The geometric method is the method that was originally used for the Tcl/Tk interface of HyperMorph and HyperMesh and generates influences based on the geometric relationship between a given node or local handle and the surrounding global handles. The influences between the global handles and local handles (using the hierarchical method) or nodes (using the direct method) can be calculated using either the spatial method or the geometric method. and is the fastest and most robust method for generating global influences based on a spatial formulation for the entire model. a cube for 3D domains.An example of global morphing using the direct method and biasing factors By increasing the biasing factor for the highlighted (white) handle. The spatial method is the default.. Local Domains and Handles Local domains are represented by a single rectangle for 1D domains. but may produce more desirable influences. The color of the domains can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. the angular shape of the morph becomes rounded. The colors of the handles cannot be changed. The geometric method can be slow for large models or large numbers of global handles. Dependent local handles are smaller than the independent local handles and are different colors depending on the level of their dependency.

handles have been placed at the ends of all the edge domains. All the dependent handles in a given 1D domain are directly dependent on the independent handle. These elements are placed in a component named ^morphface. An independent local handle is placed at the centermost node of the 1D domain and dependent local handles are placed at every other node of the elements in the 1D domain. A higher biasing factor means that a given handle will have greater influence over the surrounding mesh than the others. Additionally. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Domains made up of 1D elements. This is done to preserve the unique relationship established for groups of 1D elements. This dependency relationship means that moving the independent handle also results in moving the dependent handles the same amount in the same direction. Finally. 1D elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 1D domains. while the dependent handles are smaller and green. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. The independent handle is larger and orange. The higher biasing factor given to dependent handles on 1D domains is intended to prevent mesh distortion when the 1D elements connect to nodes in 2D and 3D domains. Also note that 2D domains have been created on the faces of the 3D domain and that edge domains have been create on the edges of all the 2D domains. are called 1D domains. the bias factors for the dependent handles for a 1D domain are given an initial value of 3. Note that shell elements have been created on the faces of the 3D domain. In the example above. The shell elements have been placed in two 2D domains separated at the bend line due to partitioning. All other handles in the model are given a biasing factor of 1. such as bars and rigid elements. The solid elements have been placed in a 3D domain.Example of a model with local domains and local handles with partitioning. the rigid elements have been placed in a 1D domain with the center node having an independent (orange) handle and the other nodes having dependent (green) handles.0 User’s Guide 207 .

Edge domains are placed along the edges of the 2D domains and are also partitioned. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. they will influence the nodes in any domain that shares the node at which it is placed. these domains are subdivided into smaller domains along break angles and curvature changes according to the partitioning parameters. Domains made up of shell elements are called 2D domains. it helps to have handles already at the positions where you want them. even though the generated local handles are associated with the edge domains. Note that it is possible to create a handle on a node that is not touching the domain to which it is associated. or create new ones. edit them. the entire spider is moved. you can delete them. This is true even if the handle is associated with the 2D domain. such as floating in space near the domain.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .A rigid spider becomes a 1D domain An independent local handle (orange) is placed at the centroid of the 1D domain and dependent handles (green) are placed at each node. Since you morph the model by moving handles. HyperMorph tries to predict where the handles should be placed to reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare your model for morphing. In general. shell elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 2D domains. Local handles are placed at the ends of all the edge domains. This allows you to place a handle outside of a domain. Also. the local handles are placed at the corners of the 2D domains and at other useful positions. A handle associated with any domain will always influence the nodes in domains that it is touching. The intent is to make it faster and easier for you to apply parametric changes to the model. maintaining the proper shape and connectivity for the rigid spider. If partitioning has been selected. If the handles or domains are not laid out in the positions where you want them to be. and have it influence the nodes within its domain. By moving the orange handle. 208 HyperMesh 8.

When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. Domains made up of solid elements are called 3D domains. A block of solid elements is made into a 3D domain The gray shell elements on the face of the 3D domain are the ^morphface component. Handles can be placed anywhere. Note that these elements will not be written out to any FEM formatted deck since the component name begins with a “^”. Elements are created on the faces of each 3D domain and placed into a component called ^morphface. The elements on the face of each 3D domain are placed into a 2D domain that is then partitioned if the partitioning option is active.0 User’s Guide 209 . Edge elements are placed around each 2D domain and local handles are created at the ends of each edge domain. In cases where shell elements that are attached to the faces of solid elements are present in the model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. even at nodes not on the associated domain. HyperMorph will not create ^morphface elements coincident with the existing elements. Handles are created at the corners of the 2D domains. if you do. The model on the right shows the addition of four new handles. these elements and their 2D domains will be regenerated the next time you enter or exit a HyperMorph panel or the delete panel. However. It is recommended that you do not delete or edit these elements nor rename or delete the ^morphface component. solid elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 3D domains. The color of the ^morphface component can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. The ^morphface component has been partitioned into 2D domains.Two 2D domains with edge domains and handles The model on the left shows the initial handle positions.

it is partitioned and handles are placed at the ends and joints. and curved edges retain their curvature. This makes it easier for you to tell which domain you are selecting. Examples of edge domains Edge domains are placed around the edges of 2D domains. When you release the mouse button. For domains that have non-reflective symmetry types. nodes in a 2D domain on the face of a 3D domain will only move as a function of the handles touching the 2D domain. non-reflective symmetries allow the influences of handles to extend through edges and faces depending on the type of symmetry. the boundaries may not be preserved during morphing. Similarly. HyperMesh will highlight both the domain icon and the surrounding edge domains. flat surfaces remain flat. Nodes on edge domains will only move as a function of the handles touching the edge domain. only the icon for the domain remains highlighted. Edge domains and 2D domains on the faces of 3D domains play an important function in determining the influences for the handles over a given domain.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note that when an edge domain is created. When creating local domains or using the generate aut o-function. In the model at the right an edge domain has been created inside a 2D domain. edge domains are placed around the edges of all 2D domains. Also.Domains made up of a list of nodes are called edge domains. It allows you to move handles within a 2D or 3D domain without affecting the edges. This preserves the boundaries of 2D and 3D domains such that straight edges remain straight. No other handles will affect the nodes on the edges. 210 HyperMesh 8. or choose to create the domain as a general domain instead. When you are selecting domains and are holding the mouse button down while placing the mouse over the icon of a 2D or 3D domain (or an element in the domain). If you do not want to have the boundaries of a domain preserved you can delete the edges for a given domain.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. but the rest of the mesh (where a general domain is used) can simply follow along. General domains are very useful for realized connectors which are often represented as clusters of different element types. where 1D. and 3D elements. no 2D domains are created on the faces of any 3D elements and no edge domains are created either. Otherwise. preserving the shape of the feature. allowing it to stretch and deform in an unbounded manner with morphing extending across differences in element type. Another use is for meshes where precise changes are required for one section. However. general domains respect all neighboring edge domains and 2D domains and thus if you create 2D and edge domains for your general domains they will impose restrictions on handle influences for the general domain. When a general domain is created. General domains are not automatically created when generating local domains or using the generate auto-function.How edge domains affect morphing In the top two frames two handles inside a 2D domain are created and moved. Note that the edge domain remains straight. 2D. In the bottom frames. the elements within a single general domain must touch one another. handles on a general domain freely influence all of the nodes inside the general domain.0 User’s Guide 211 . General domains can be made up of any combination of 1D. thus no handles are created for the domain. Like all other domains. and 3D domains are used. two handles connected by an edge domain are created and moved. 2D.

If you are unsatisfied with the partitioning. or where the angle between elements exceeds a certain value. such as at the edges of surfaces associated with the mesh. shell. In the bottom frame the two handles inside the general domain are translated. Note how the shell elements in the general domain morph. you may change the partitioning parameters in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel and try again (using the redo last button). and solid elements. You can invoke partitioning when creating 2D or 3D domains by activating the partition 2D domains check box.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . partitioning is not an exact science and there will be areas where elements are not placed into the desired domains. Partitioning is a method of dividing 2D domains into smaller 2D domains at logical places.Example of interaction between a general domain and 2D domains In the top frame. bounded only by the edge of the 2D domains with the other edges free to follow the handles Partitioning Partitioning can be applied directly to 2D domains and indirectly to 3D domains (3D domains are created with 2D domains on their faces). two 2D domains are created for parts of two shell meshes and a general domain is creating from the remaining rigid. However. or edit the domains by hand using the create and organize sub-panels in the domains panel. Two handles have been placed within the general domain at the ends of the rigid spiders. If there are no surfaces in the model. or the use geometry option in the partitioning sub-panel is unchecked. 212 HyperMesh 8. Partitioning allows you to prepare your model for morphing more quickly and easily since it divides your model into sections where parametric changes can be applied. or where the domain changes from flat to curved. partitioning will ideally divide your model such that every radius and straight or flat section is placed into a separate domain.

Each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. If you have also selected add to geometry. There are also several parameters that govern the creation of domains for either algorithm. When using curvature-based partitioning. They are found in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. Note that in order for a new partition to be created. the curve tolerance controls the angle of which values less than it are considered straight for curvature measuring purposes. For the node based method. changes direction. the other method might work better. domain angle and curve tolerance have a roughly similar meaning as the element based method. otherwise they are considered to be curved.Example of partitioning For the model on the left. although exact performance for each method depends heavily on the features in your model. Note how the 2D domains are divided along angle and curvature change boundaries. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is less than this value. then any partitions created outside of the surfaces will be added to the partitions created using the surfaces if the partitioning algorithm does not find a break along the edges or the surfaces. or changes curvature by more than the curvature tolerance. There are two algorithms you can use to partition. element-based and node-based. the node based method seems to work better on first order tria and tetra meshes while the element based method seems to work better on mixed quad and tria meshes. The node based method tends to create fewer partitions than the element based method. so if one method is not producing the partitions that you desire. partitioning was used. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is greater than this value. For instance. If you have selected use geometry. the element-based algorithm works better for quad/mixed meshes and second order meshes. In general. All other elements will be partitioned using one of the partitioning algorithms. a break due to angle or curvature must be found along its entire edge. These can be set individually for quad/mixed meshes and for tria/tetra meshes. Also note that the edge domains are partitioned regardless of whether the partitioning option is on or off. the domain angle controls the break angle along which a partitioning break is made. In either case. If the curvature changes from straight to curved. the 2D domain was created without partitioning. This option is helpful when surface data is incomplete of some of the nodes have been moved away from their surfaces. while the node-based algorithm works better for tria/tetra meshes. For the model on the right.0 User’s Guide 213 . Partitioning can be angle-based or curvature-based. they are considered flat. all elements whose nodes are associated to surfaces in the model will be partitioned along the edges of the surfaces.

Global handles. biasing will affect them. all local handles are dependent on global handles. • • Transparent control of domain edges and faces You can create a dependent handle on an edge domain that is dependent on the handles at the ends of the domain. and violet) Local handles. the dependent handle moves along as if it was not there. Making a handle dependent has no affect on the way it influences nodes. it inherits the full movement of the higher level handle. The review button in the update sub-panel of the handles panel allows you to view the handles on which a specific handle is dependent. and so on. independent (red) and dependent (yellow. Handles that are dependent on other handles appear smaller and in a color different from the handles on which they are dependent. the shape of the edge can be changed. If a handle is dependent on only one other handle. When the dependent handle is moved. This allows you to add the movements of dependent and independent handles in a logical manner. but dependency loops are not allowed. This means that movements applied to the dependent handle are not applied to the independent handles. independent (orange) and dependent (green. A handle may be dependent on any number of handles. When the handle at either end of the edge domain is moved. This system allows you to create any number of dependency layers. If a handle is dependent on more than one handle. A dependent handle can be moved independently of the handles on which it is dependent. The percentage is based on the distance between the dependent and independent handles. and pink) The conditions for handle dependency are as follows: • • • A handle that is dependent on another handle inherits the movements applied to the higher level handle. blue. cyan. 214 HyperMesh 8. and then make those handles dependent on one or more other handles. In the hierarchical method. These dependencies are calculated internally and cannot be modified manually.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Dependent Handles You can make a handle dependent on one or more other handles. • • • Handle dependencies are useful for several different applications. This allows you to combine the changes easily without having to apply separate perturbations for all of the handles. it will inherit a percentage of the movements applied to each higher level handle.

In the lower frame. Linking several domains together You can make all of the handles within several domains dependent on a few at the corners of the domain.0 User’s Guide 215 .example 1 The center global handle is dependent on the two outer global handles. the center handle follows along. in essence. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the center handle is moved independently. This allows you to move an entire cross section while only having to select one handle.• • • Grouping features together to move as a unit You can make all the handles at one cross section of a beam dependent on a single handle. When the highlighted handle on the left is moved (center frame). Dependencies . This allows you to stretch all of the domains uniformly by moving the independent handles. performing localized “global” morphing.

example 2 In the model on the left.Dependencies . When the independent handle is moved. The entire cross section is controlled by one handle. The bottom has similar dependencies.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the three green handles on the top are dependent on the orange handle on the top. In the model on the right. 216 HyperMesh 8. each hole can be positioned separately by moving the dependent handle associated with it. Also. The top and bottom halves of the cross sections are controlled by just two handles. Note that the dependencies can extend beyond the 2D domain boundaries. all of the green handles are dependent on the orange handle.example 3 An independent handle was created between the two holes and the handles governing the positions of the holes are made dependent on it. both holes move with it. Dependencies .

Note that while shapes with handle perturbations will move nodes when they are applied. the dependent handles follow and reduce mesh distortion by spreading the morph across the entire part instead of only around the hole. all of these shapes must be applied.0 User’s Guide 217 . HyperMorph takes the difference between the initial state of the model and the current state of the model when creating a new shape. For many morphing operations. In the case of freehand morphing. If you save the model using the save each morph step option in the shapes panel. the morph consists only of handle perturbations. those shapes do not contain node perturbations and thus vectors are not drawn at those nodes. or create a shape in the shapes panel with the save current state option turned on. If you create a shape in either the morph or freehand panels. When you create a shape. or the morph is a mapping or radius changing operation. the handle and/or node perturbations are stored in the new shape entity along with biasing factors for the handle perturbations and details such as the biasing style. The dependent handles were constrained along vectors parallel to the sides of the part.Using dependencies to reduce mesh distortion In this example two dependent handles were created on the edges of the part near the center hole. When you create a shape using the save as shape or save shape sub-panels. each morph on the undo/redo list will be saved as a separate shape. node perturbations are required to fully describe the shape. However. vectors are drawn for each handle and node perturbation for the shape. Creating shapes allows you to generate shape variables for optimization and store model changes for parametric studies. Working with Shapes Shapes are collections of handle and/or node perturbations. When you morph your model. if constraints are being used. When the handle at the hole is moved downward. The vectors are drawn the exact length of the perturbation and the vectors for the handle perturbations are drawn with thicker lines to denote that they are different from node perturbations. the morph consists only of node perturbations. HyperMorph stores the morph internally as a collection of perturbations which you can then undo or redo. To get to the current state of the model from the initial state. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

2. If you select node perturbations. Click create. The shape is converted. you can apply it to your model with any given scaling factor. the shape will be saved as either handle perturbations only. 3. 4. but by adding a desvar which points to the shape. 5.When you are saving a shape. save shapes as handle perturbations and they will require less memory and disk space. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for each shape variable you want to create. 7. 8. Select the shapes for which you want to create shape variables. redone. the shape will be saved as node perturbations only. Save your morph as a shape. Each desvar is given a unique name. select the morph panel. 6.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 5. A desvar for each shape is created with the initial value and bounds in the panel. 2. Note: A shape is not a shape variable. Applying a shape in this way is like any other morphing operation and can be undone. 10. Select the shapes to be converted. 3. Click convert. or saved as part of another shape. Setting Up Optimization Morphing can be used to create shape variables for optimization. you can select whether to save it as handle perturbations or node perturbations. it becomes a shape variable. or a combination of handle and node perturbations if node perturbations are required to describe the shape. From the BCs page. select the shapes panel. 9. you should save shapes as node perturbations. To create shape variables for an optimization run: 1. 218 HyperMesh 8. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. Whenever you make a change to your model. If not. select the shape panel. The difference between the two types comes into play if you change the handles or domains in your model. while shapes saved as handle perturbations will differ from shapes that have been saved with changes to the handle influences. optimization module. To convert shapes saved with handle perturbations to shapes saved with node perturbations. HyperMorph will ask you if you want to preserve any existing shapes saved as handle perturbations by converting them to node perturbations. Set the toggle to multiple desvars. Morph your model into the shape of the first shape variable. If you later decide that you want to change a shape from node perturbations to handle perturbations or vice versa you can do so in the convert sub-panel of the shapes panel. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. Once a shape is saved. 4. If you plan to make changes to domains and handles. Select the save shape sub-panel. Click undo all to return to your base model shape. If you select handle perturbations. or vice-versa: 1. Select the type of conversion that you wish to perform. Select the convert sub-panel. Shapes saved as node perturbations are not affected by changes to domains and handles.

The deformed panel displays. Once you have created shape variables for your shapes. you can set up the rest of your optimization problem within the optimization module.11. allowing you to view each shape variable by animating it. The Morph Volume Concept Morph Volume strategies are still being created. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Freehand concepts and strategies. The Freehand Concept Freehand strategies are still being created. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Morph Volume concepts and strategies. Click animate.0 User’s Guide 219 . Animate the shape variables: Click undo morphing if you did not click undo all after saving the last shape. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Set the toggle to all nodes.space frame model 1. Local handles are not required since local changes to the frame components are not necessary. A new global handle is created at each node or at the specified xyz location. but their basic structure is rather simple. Often the desired shape changes are general. Select the domains panel. Space frame models can generally have element counts in the hundreds of thousands. Set the selector to global domain. shorter. such as making it smaller. 6. 3. 2. You should place global handles both in areas where you want to apply perturbations and in areas that you want to stay fixed. or altering the basic positions of components within the frame. Click create.Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains Space frames are models that have a sparse distribution of elements. Since local handles and domains for large models can consume a great deal of resources. the handles will each be given a unique name by appending a number after the name you have given. If not. In many instances. 7. 220 HyperMesh 8. Select an xyz position or any number of nodes where you want global handles. you should avoid creating them unless it is necessary. If more than one handle is created at a time. select the HyperMorph module. Set the toggle to create handles. Click create. From the HyperMorph module. 4. In many cases. these changes can be performed by placing a handle at each joint in the frame and moving those handles to the desired locations. all that is necessary is to create a global domain and global handles. use a cluster type morph constraint. If you want a part of your model to move as a rigid body.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For these types of models. such as a car body. delete them and add global handles elsewhere: Press F2 or go to the delete panel. A global domain and global handles are created at useful positions throughout the space frame. Delete any unwanted handles. such as a wheel or the engine block. these handles will be where you want them to be. wider. Type in a name. From the Tool page. Creating Handles and Domains . You can also use morph constraints to fix nodes in place during global morphing but if you want them to affect the surrounding mesh you must select the stretch mesh around nodes option when creating the morph constraint. 5. select the handles panel. Select create.

if necessary. For large models or large changes. editing. so you will want to make all the changes you desire within each panel before exiting. or symmetries. The best one to use depends on the results that you want to achieve: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Adding. or deleting handles. makes it necessary for HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. There are many options available for moving the handles.0 User’s Guide 221 . domains.A global domain and global handles for a full car model Exiting any panel in the HyperMorph module or the delete panel automatically triggers HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. this can be time consuming.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 9. Make sure that the stretch mesh around nodes option is unchecked. All the nodes in the target mesh are constrained to remain fixed during morphing operations as long as the constraint is active and the use constraints box is checked (see the morph options panel). Line. 2. select the morph panel. As you drag the mouse. 3. 2. 4. select the morph constraints panel. the nodes between the constrained nodes and the handles will be affected regardless of whether the mesh is continuous between them. Select move handles. which leaves a dark trail through the mesh. If you are going to match a mesh you need to make sure that the mesh does not get morphed when you are moving the handles. For large models it may be too slow to morph interactively in real time. As you drag a handle across the screen and you can watch the mesh move along with it. To morph interactively by moving the handle and releasing the mouse button: 1. the morph is applied to the model and the graphics are updated for the entire model. 6. When you release the mouse button. repeat steps 7 through 9. One of the most enjoyable ways to morph is interactively. 3. 5. Select a handle on the screen and hold the mouse button down. 4. To constrain the nodes on the target mesh: 1. the handle follows along the selected vector. 7. Since on release was selected. Click morph. only the graphics for the handle are updated. Change the upper middle selector to interactive. Move the handle to the new location and release the mouse button. From the HyperMorph module. or Surface Data The basic approach for HyperMorph is to move the handles into positions that change the shape of the model to match the mesh or geometry data. But you can still morph interactively with any size model by setting HyperMorph to perform the morphing after you move the handle and release the mouse button. 5.Matching a Mesh. From the HyperMorph module. Switch the selector to fixed. 6. Click create. Select a vector. This can be accomplished by constraining the nodes on the target mesh. 222 HyperMesh 8. Select the nodes on the target mesh. Select the create/update sub-panel. Change the lower middle selector from on domains to along vector. 8. Note that if you check the stretch mesh around nodes option. If the handle position needs to be changed again. Change the rightmost toggle from real time to on release.

all of the selected handles are moved the same distance in the same direction. Move more than one handle at the same time: Before clicking morph. Perform steps 7 through 9. Morphing to a profile line In the top frame.10.0 User’s Guide 223 . When you release the mouse. select several handles on the screen. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In the bottom frame the process has been repeated for the other handles on the roof. In the middle frame they are interactively moved upwards along a vector to a point matching with the profile line. The result is a morphed vehicle model that closely matches the profile line. the global handles on either side of top of the windshield are selected.

To match a target mesh or geometric data by moving the handles to a specified node location: 1. Hold the mouse button down and drag the mouse over a line or surface until it is highlighted. Select a handle. edit. The handle is moved to the position where the node was prior to morphing and the rest of the mesh morphs accordingly. Change the upper middle selector from interactive to move to node. HyperMorph will give you the option of converting existing shapes from handle perturbations to node perturbations automatically after you add. If you intend to add or delete handles in your model. or delete any morphing entities. 3. 2. save your shapes as node perturbations. To create nodes on the fly on lines and surfaces: 1. a plane. Handles may always be added or deleted from a model without affecting the current morphed state of the model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Select a node. However. any shapes saved as handle perturbations may not yield the same morphed shape after handles have been added or deleted. HyperMorph uses the position of the mouse on the screen to figure out where you want to move the handle. You can use this feature to position a handle anywhere you want line or surface data. Click on the line or surface where you want the node. or a surface.Morphing to a profile line A handle is added to the center of the rear windshield and is moved to better match the profile line. Altair Engineering 224 HyperMesh 8. 2. A node will be created and the handle will immediately be moved to the node. You can also select other features to drag the handle along such as a line.

Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. Change the upper middle selector from translate to rotate.Making Parametric Changes Dimensions such as distance and angle can be changed easily in HyperMorph.0 User’s Guide 225 . Rotate the handles. Set the rotation angle. The handles rotate about the axis the specified angle and the model morph accordingly. Click translate. Change the distance value. Select an axis of rotation. 2. both node a and node b will move the same distance. Select a vector and distance. Click morph. Specify dimensions more precisely in the alter dimensions sub-panel. Select alter dimensions. node a will not move (same for node b). The handles move the specified distance in the specified direction and the model morphs accordingly. Select a few handles. Select node a and node b at nodes whose distance you want to change. From the HyperMorph module. Or Select the desired xyz translation. Set the upper left selector to distance. One way to do this is by translating or rotating handles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select a few handles. select the morph panel. Translate the handles. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. To translate or rotate handles: 1. Click rotate. Change the upper middle selector from move to node to translate. If the left selector is set to hold middle. If the left selector is set to hold end a. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. 3. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for node a as a group and the follower handles for node b as a group either towards each other or away from each other so that the new distance between node a and node b is equal to the specified distance.

If node a and node b are selected coincident with one of the follower handles. 3. 5. 2. Set the upper left selector to angle. HyperMorph will iterate to achieve the desired angle. Select node a. and node b are the specified angle. iterattion is not necessary. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. vertex. Change the angle value. To change the angle: 1. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. The distance is changed and the model morphs.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. 226 HyperMesh 8. 7. or at least get close. If necessary. 6. Click morph. 4.Morphing by altering the distance between two nodes The width of the car is found by placing node a (green dot) on the right hand door and node b (blue dot) on the left hand door. and node b at nodes whose angle you want to change. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for each end in a way so that the new angle between node a. the vertex. The handles on the right side of the model are selected as followers for node a and the handles on the left side of the model are selected as followers for node b.

0 User’s Guide 227 . Note that the handles on either side of the windshield were constrained to move along the x-axis (front to back) thus maintaining the height of the roof.Morphing by altering the angle formed by three nodes The slope of the windshield is altered by defining an angle using three nodes (green. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For the general space frame cases. However. In morphing this is accomplished by placing handles evenly along both sides of the mesh to be stretched. Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Global morphing differs from local morphing in that there are no definite boundaries between the handles that restrict their zones of influence. the space between your fingers on the two finger side will be pulled towards the three finger side. the parts of the model that are morphed are those that lie between the handles that are moving and those that are not. You can visualize the handles as places on a sheet of rubber where you are placing your fingers. The angle is changed from 160 degrees to 150 degrees. and selecting two handles on either side of the windshield as followers for node b (red node). When you perform global morphing operations. blue. positioning handles at the joints between the members of the space frame restricts the handle influences to the parts of the frame that they are touching. for cases where you are trying to morph a mesh that covers a wide area. If you place three fingers on one side and two on the other and try to stretch the sheet. you allow for even stretching to occur between each set of fingers. selecting two handles at the front of the car as followers for node a (green). By placing three fingers on each side. you will need to place several handles across both of sides of the zone of influence. and red).

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . only the part of the car between the roof and the handles along the midline of the car is stretched. Now when the handle on the roof is moved upwards. 228 HyperMesh 8. Controlling global morphing with handles – part 2 A handle is added directly below the handle on the roof near the center of the car.Controlling global morphing with handles – part 1 The handle on the roof is moved upwards and the center section of the car is morphed along with it.

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Select the global domain icon. you can create a plane of symmetry at the center of your space frame and have your morphs applied in a symmetric fashion.Using 1-Plane Symmetry If your space frame is symmetric. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry. morph volumes will usually yield better results. 6. Create a system at a node where the plane of symmetry is to be located and have the x-axis pointing normal to the plane to be created. Mirror Images . Note that dependent handles are used to simplify the morphing operation. Also note that in cases where detailed shape changes are required. select the symmetry panel. To set up a plane of symmetry: 1. 7.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 9. 2. Return to the HyperMorph module. 8. Select the system you created. 230 HyperMesh 8. Change the left toggle from approximate to enforced. Switch the selector from none to 1 plane. From the HyperMorph module. 4. the fender of the model is morphed.Adding handles to control global morphing Using several handles on either side. 3. Enter a name. select the systems panel. 5.

If you have the symmetry links check box activated. use the approximate option instead. Now when you perform a morphing operation you only need to move the handles on one side of the plane of symmetry. A plane of symmetry is created at the origin of the system and based perpendicular to the x-axis. The mesh itself does not need to be symmetric to use the symmetry options.10. HyperMorph creates new handles that are reflections of ones that are not linked to any others and creates a symmetric link between them. If you want to add handles to one side of the plane of symmetry and not the other. HyperMorph automatically applies the handle movements to the handles on the other side of the plane of symmetry through the symmetry link. the model maintains symmetry across the symmetry plane.0 User’s Guide 231 . yet still have symmetry active for the symmetric handles. The perturbations applied to handles on one side of the plane of symmetry will be mirrored on to the other side. HyperMorph also links any handles that it finds that are reflections of the other. the enforced option will automatically create or delete handles on the other side of the symmetric link in order to enforce symmetry of the handles. As a result. When handles are created or deleted. The icon for a 1-plane symmetry is a rectangle positioned like a small mirror for the symmetry system. Since enforced was selected. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The symmetry will be applied to the handles and handle perturbations that will influence the mesh in a symmetric fashion. System and 1-plane symmetry The plane of symmetry is positioned at the origin of the system and perpendicular to the x-axis. Click create.

Using 1-plane symmetry Three handles on the right hand side of the roof are selected and moved towards the centerline. HyperMorph automatically moves the corresponding nodes on the left hand side of the roof in a symmetric fashion.

Reducing 3D to 2D - Using Linear Symmetry
You can use linear symmetry to apply morphs to the model in such a way that the model is essentially reduced to two dimensions. To create a linear symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be reduced. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from 1 plane to linear. Select the system you created.

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9.

Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. A linear symmetry is created along the x-axis of the system. The icon for a linear symmetry consists of two parallel lines along the dimension to be reduced. The origin of the system is irrelevant. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a line extending along the system xaxis. If two handles lie along a line parallel to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same y and z coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since linear is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others that are linked via the symmetry. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and linear symmetry The linear symmetry icon consists of two parallel lines along the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a linear symmetry system does not matter; the effect of the linear symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a linear symmetry is very useful for making profile changes to a space frame model. It does not matter where the handles are placed along the x-axis, greatly simplifying the model set up. You only need to look at the model from one view to set up the handles and to morph the model. For models with a large number of elements this can save a great deal of time.

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Using linear symmetry The handle on the rear part of the roof is selected and the entire rear portion of the roof is morphed along with it. With linear symmetry you only need to place handles on one side of the model to affect the entire profile.

Reducing 3D to 1D - Using Planar Symmetry
Planar symmetry is similar to linear symmetry accept that it reduces two dimensions instead of one. This enables you to morph your model along a single axis with only two or more handles. To create a planar symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be retained. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from linear to planar. Select the system you created. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

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11. Return to the HyperMorph module. 12. Select the symmetry panel. 13. Select update by domain. 14. Select the global domain. 15. Select the planar symmetry. 16. Click update. A planar symmetry is created and the other two symmetries from the global domain are removed. You are allowed to have any number of symmetries associated with a domain and all will apply, but combining linear and planar symmetry in the same direction results in an unrealistic situation and poor influence calculations. The planar symmetry icon is displayed as a filled-in rectangle perpendicular to the system x-axis. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a plane perpendicular to the x-axis. If two handles lie in a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same x coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since planar is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and planar symmetry The planar symmetry icon is a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a planar symmetry system does not matter, the effect of the planar symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a planar symmetry greatly simplifies a model. Essentially, it reduces the model to a lying along single axis. This symmetry type is very useful for changing dimensions along one axis through the entire model.

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Using planar symmetry The handle at the rear of the model is selected and the entire trunk of the car is morphed. With planar symmetry you only need a row of handles lying roughly along the planar symmetry system x-axis.

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Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
Shell models are models that are made up primarily of shell elements, namely, quads, and trias. In general, a shell model represents many parts, each with numerous features such as holes and edges, and connected together using 1D elements such as bars and rigids. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shapes of the shell model features. This is done using one of the following methods: • Moving the handles on the part to new locations • • Moving the global handles around the parts to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the parts, or mapping the nodes of a part to line or surface data

For most models you only need to create 2D domains for the entire part, but you can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature.

Creating Handles and Domains - shell model
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Change the toggle to all elements or select all the elements in the model. Click create. A 2D domain is created for each group of continuous shell elements. Parts joined by 1D or 3D elements are separated into different domains. If partition domains is checked, the 2D domains will be partitioned according to the settings selected in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. Once partitioned, edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. All of this is automatic, but 1D and 3D elements will not be placed into 1D and 3D domains unless you set the selector to local domains instead of 2D domains. In many cases, the domains and handles will be generated where you want them to be. If not you can always add, edit, or delete the handles and domains to meet your needs.

A shell model is partitioned into 2D domains 6. If you wish to generate a global domain as well as local domains for your model with a single button click, either change the selector to global and local and click create, or to auto functions and click generate.

In the case of the generate auto function, if there are any domains or handles in the model, HyperMorph will first ask if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. If you say “yes”, or if there are no morphing entities in the model, HyperMorph automatically generates 1D, 2D, 3D, and edge domains for the entire model and a global domain and handles as well.

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For tria meshes which lack underlying geometry, both the node-based and element based partitioning algorithms may prove unsatisfactory. In these cases you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when partitioning. To accomplish this, go to the partitioning sub-panel, select element based as the algorithm for tria/tetra meshes, and change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. HyperMorph will then only make partitions along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. You can then go in and manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should go. This method is almost mandatory for meshes that began as first order meshes but were transformed into second order meshes. For these meshes, HyperMorph will detect a curvature break at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. The result will be a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Solving the influence coefficients for 2D domains which contain more than 20,000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. In these cases you may want to divide the large domains into multiple domains or lower the limit for the large domain solver. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. However, even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid, morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming, and thus subdividing 2D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. To divide your shell model, do this: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Select the elements to be placed into a new 2D domain. Click create. When selecting the elements for the new domain you do not need to select only shell elements. HyperMorph automatically removes any other elements before creating the domain. It does not matter if the elements selected are already in a 2D domain. When the new domain is created, the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Handle influences need to be recalculated every time handles, domains, or symmetries are added, edited, or deleted. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. These calculations occur when you enter or leave any HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. Thus, for models with large domains you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. HyperMorph only recalculates the handle influences for handles in regions that have been edited. If the domains are not created exactly how you want them to be, you can edit them in the domains panel. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. The organize subpanel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split, merge, and place handles along edge domains. It is suggested that you create and edit all the 2D domains, then create and edit the edge domains. This order works better since creating or editing 2D domains will result in the regeneration of the surrounding edge domains with the previous modifications to those edge domains being discarded. Sometimes partitioning does not divide the mesh in the ways that would be most useful to you. Occasionally, elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Partitioning is not an exact science, so some cleanup is sometimes required.

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To move elements from one domain to another: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select organize. Change the selector to add nodes/elems . Change the toggle to local domain. Select the elements to be moved. Select the target domain. Click organize. This will move the elements from the domain that they are currently in to the selected domain. HyperMorph also refreshes the edge domains around both domains as well as the edge domains at the interface. New handles may also be created during this process, and if retain handles is not checked, handles may be deleted. It is suggested that you keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing.

Partitioning problems The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. For this example the retain handles option was left unchecked resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. Note that the edge domains are always partitioned for any new domain and handles are placed at the end of the edge domains. For the example above, a handle was created in a new location due to the edge partitioning being different for the two domain configurations. When you hold the mouse button down and the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D domain or over an element inside a domain, the edge domains surrounding the domain are highlighted as well. This allows you to better visualize the domain that you are selecting. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain, and some domains can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements.

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so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . select the domains panel. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D domains. 4. Select the domains to be grouped together. 2. The selected domains are combined into a single domain and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. Click organize. You may need to correct this by hand.To group two or more domains together: 1. 240 HyperMesh 8. From the HyperMorph module. but in some cases it may not identify the proper starting and ending points. Select organize. HyperMorph tries to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. Change the selector to combine domains. If you do your edge editing first. 5. Two domains are organized into one Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. This is why any editing of the edge domains should come after the editing of the other domains.

select the domains panel. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. A handle is created at the selected node. 5. 5. 2. 6. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Change the selector to merge. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. Select edit edges. Select an edge domain.a circular edge domain is divided into two half circles A handle was created at the joint to allow you to manipulate the edges.0 User’s Guide 241 . 4. 3. From the HyperMorph module. From the HyperMorph module.To split edge domains: 1. To merge edge domains: 1. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. select the domains panel. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. Change the selector to split. Click merge. 3. Select any number of connected edge domains. 4. Splitting an edge domain . Select edit edges. 2. Click split. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end to end such that the resultant edge domain is a continuous series of nodes.

Merging two edge domains The two half circles are merged into a single domain. Since retain handles was unchecked. 5. 4. Click create. The dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. Change the selector to add handles. From the HyperMorph module. Select edit edges. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. If the domain containing the radius to be changed is very large you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change before you go into the morph panel. This feature is quite useful for saving time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the handle at the joint was deleted. 2. To place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change: 1. 3. 242 HyperMesh 8. Select one or more domains. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. select the domains panel.

Secondly. During influence calculation you might run out of available memory. and sculpting Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. curvature. or mesh Using section mapping. click return.When you are satisfied with your domains. plane. delete unnecessary handles. . record. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge will be transparently applied to the dependent handles.0 User’s Guide 243 . which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. The first is that since they are dependent. surface. Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. or arc angle of an edge domain Mapping nodes to a line.Creating handles on an edge domain A dependent handle is created on each node of the edge domain. It will be as if they were not there. In these cases you should divide large domains. Morphing on Local Domains You can change the shape of a model with local domains and handles using one or more of the following methods: • • • • • • Moving the local handles Changing a distance or angle Changing the radius. line and surface difference. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. the influences do not need to be recalculated. HyperMorph calculates the influences for the handles and you are ready to begin morphing. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. and element offset Using freehand morphing capabilities such as move nodes.

and move a handle by clicking on it and dragging it to a new location. or domains. This option allows you to rotate handles about an axis. it is better to use a non-interactive option. line. move to point 244 HyperMesh 8. or place them on lines. This option allows you to position handles at specific XYZ locations or place them on lines. surfaces. plane. If you want to move a handle a specific distance or to a specific position. or another mesh. translate rotate move to XYZ move to node. or another mesh. Interactive morphing is most effective for visualizing how the mesh will react when a handle is moved and for making approximate shape changes. These options allow you to position handles at specific node or point locations. This option allows you to translate handles along a vector or element normals. You select an entity such as a vector. surfaces. to orient the mouse location in 3D space.There are six ways to move handles in the move handles sub-panel of the morph panel: interactive This option allows you to move handles interactively by dragging the mouse across the screen. surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

the length of the flange is reduced.0 User’s Guide 245 .Morphing by translating handles By selecting the two handles along the edge of the flange and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section (green and blue nodes). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

the thickness of the lower section is reduced.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 246 HyperMesh 8. the width of the channel is increased. Morphing by translating handles By selecting the handles at the bottom of the part and translating them upwards.Morphing by translating handles By selecting the three handles and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section.

the end angle of the section is modified. the position of the bolt boss is modified.Morphing by translating handles By selecting all the handles around the bolt boss and translating them horizontally. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Morphing by rotating handles .0 User’s Guide 247 .constant The right end of the block is given a constant rotation.constant By selecting all the handles at the end of the section and rotating them about a point (violet node). Morphing by rotating handles .

not all morphing applications are best done using true rotation. This concept comes into play when you are using the rotate function. When applying handle perturbations to your model. After rotating handles you may find areas in the model (particularly those defined by curved edges) that are not rotated the same as the neighboring handles. This will cause the nodes to be rotated as well as the handles with the amount of rotation being equal to the influence coefficient. This is because the nodes have followed the handles instead of being rotated about the axis. Morphing by rotating handles . the circle at the center of the model remains on the same plane as before. it is important to note that the nodes in the model follow the movements of the handles according to the influence coefficients.linear The entire block is given a linear rotation. Note how the magnitude of the twist increases linearly with the distance from the base (purple) node.Morphing by rotating handles . To correct this situation. 248 HyperMesh 8.normal Although the highlighted handles are rotated. check the true rotation checkbox.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Although it could be argued that true rotation is the "correct" way to morph via rotation of the handles.

true rotation During "true rotation" the nodes rotate along with the handles. The handles selected are the ones that will move to make the distance between node a and node b (or angle with a vertex selected) equal the specified value. the given perturbation and any inherited perturbation is applied to each dependent node. The basic concept is as follows: Select two nodes (node a and node b). Select handles corresponding to those nodes. This occurs when both a dependent handle and the handle on which it is dependent are selected to be morphed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If you click yes the given perturbation is applied to each handle and the dependent handles are not given an additional perturbation inherited from another handle. For solid models.Morphing by rotating handles . If you click no. You must select at least one handle for each end and the handle may be coincident with one of the nodes. The alter dimensions sub-panel of the morph panel allows you to change one of the parameters in the model. controlling a particular dimension often involves moving more than one handle for each end. For most cases you will want to click yes. While morphing a model. Would you like to ignore dependencies for this operation?”. the angle between nodes. the following message may be displayed: “Some handles selected are dependent on others.0 User’s Guide 249 . or the radius or curvature of an edge domain. such as the distance between nodes.

Morphing by altering dimensions . the thickness of the block between the radius and the back face is altered from 15 to 25 by moving the entire back face.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Morphing by altering dimensions .distance By selecting the thickness of the block as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the radius (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles on the back face (highlighted) to follow the blue node. the width of the bottom of the channel can be changed from 60 to 30 with the rest of the channel changing along with it. 250 HyperMesh 8.distance By selecting the width of the bottom of the channel as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the left (highlighted) to follow the green node and the handles on the right (shown as gray) to follow the blue node.

and below the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. the angle of the left side of the section is changed from 110 degrees to 90 degrees.angle By selecting the angle of the left side of the channel (green.Morphing by altering dimensions . Morphing by altering dimensions . and red nodes) and by selecting the handle at the bottom right of the channel (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handle at the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node.angle By selecting the angle between two faces of the block (green. blue. and red nodes) and by selecting the handles at and directly below the green node (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles at. the angle is altered from 126 degrees to 90 degrees. near.0 User’s Guide 251 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. blue.

radius . Note: Morphing by altering dimensions – radius – center By selecting the edge domain around the edge of the hole. the radius is changed from 5 to 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .0 to 8. Morphing by altering dimensions . Note: The curvature tool scales your radius by a factor rather than a set radius. set the new radius. You select any number of curved edge or 2D domains. curvature multiplication.The radius. or arc angle factor for them. and arc angle options are used as follows.6. curvature. so if you want to change a radius from 5.fillet By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the fillet option. and click morph. the radius is changed from 3 to 1. 252 HyperMesh 8. Making the bias factor retroactive does not work for radius changes.0. The curvature tool is intended for domains that do not have constant curvature.5.5 and kept in line with the edges at either end. All the domains are changed simultaneously. select the center calculation and style options. you need to set the curve ratio to 1.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold ends By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the hold ends option, the radius is changed from 5 to 10 with the ends held in place.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold end By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part, selecting the hold end option, and selecting a node at the end of the edge domain, the radius is changed from 5 to 8 while the held end remains in place.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - fillet By selecting all of the edge domains that form the fillet between the flat sections and the round section and changing them simultaneously, the fillet is reduced from 20 to 8.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius The radius is changed in three different ways. At the top right, the hold center option is used. At the lower left, the hold ends option is used. At the lower right, the fillet option is used. In all cases, both the top and bottom edge domains were selected as well as the 2D domain and the by normals option was used for center calculation. This option will directly calculate the radii for the nodes on the 2D domain instead of inferring them from the edge domains which makes this approach more accurate for 2D domains as well as more reliable for non-uniform meshes.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the mesh is changed from 60 to 90 degrees using by axis (the vertical axis and violet base node) to calculate the center of curvature.

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the fillet is changed from 90 to 180 degrees using by normals to calculate the center of curvature. There are five methods available for calculating the center of curvature for the selected domains: • by normals - this method is the default and uses the element normals to approximate where the center of curvature is for each node in the selected domains. This method is not always accurate, but often gives good results for regular meshes. by axis - you may select an axis which will serve as the center of curvature. by line - you may select a line which will serve as the center of curvature. by node - you may select a node which will serve as the center of curvature. by edges - this method uses the edge domains to calculate the center of curvature with the center lying in the plane of the edge domains. The symmetry option refers to how the morphing of the edge domains is applied to neighboring 2D domains. The auto-symmetry option was the default for HyperMorph prior to version 8.0. In 8.0 you may choose to turn off symmetry when using this option.

• • • •

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For auto-symmetry, the changes in the radii of the edge domains are applied to any 2D domain, depending on the number of edge domains you change for the 2D domains. If you change only one edge domain for a given 2D domain, the radius change will not be applied linearly across the 2D domain. If you change the radii of two edges for any given 2D domain, either a linear or planar temporary symmetry is created between the two edge domains for the 2D domain that will apply radius changes more linearly across the 2D domain. This works best if the mesh is regular. If you are changing only one edge for a 2D domain, you can increase the bias factor of any handles on an edge domain to yield a more even distribution. Mapping an edge domain to a line or a 2D mesh to a plane, surface, or mesh is done using the map to geom panel. This option is very effective for fitting a mesh to new geometric data. When mapping a domain to a geometric feature, all the nodes in neighboring domains are stretched along with it, minimizing mesh distortion. You have several options for determining how the nodes for the mapped domain are placed on the geometry. When mapping an edge domain or node list the nodes can be moved normal to the line, along a vector to the line, or distributed along the full length of the line. When mapping a 2D domain or selection of nodes to a plane, surface, or mesh, the nodes can be moved normal to the target, normal to the elements of the 2D domain or selected nodes, or along a vector. If you wish to fit a mesh to a surface, there is no option to do this automatically, however, with multiple mapping operations, or using the user control option you can fit a 2D domain to a surface. Furthermore, you have the option of creating a morph constraint between the nodes and the map target automatically after mapping. This constraint will allow you to do further morphing operations while maintaining the constrained nodes on the geometry. The map to geom panel is also effective for solid model meshing. You can create a block of solid elements roughly in the shape of the geometry that you are trying to mesh, and then use map to surface to morph the faces of the block to the geometry.

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - normal to geom The edge domain is mapped to a line by moving the nodes normal to the line.

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Morphing by mapping to line - automap - fit to line The edge domain is mapped to the line by fitting them along the line. Any proportional spacing between the nodes will be maintained after mapping.

Morphing by mapping to surface By selecting the 2D domain on the top of the solid block to be mapped to the surface, the entire solid block is morphed to match the surface.

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Morphing by mapping to surface A rectangular C-section is mapped to a curved surface.

Morphing by mapping to surface - user control This example shows the user-control approach to mapping a mesh onto a surface. The surface and 2D domain are selected and the user control button is clicked. This brings up a new panel which allows you to place handles or map edges prior to the surface mapping operation. One by one each edge domain is placed on one of the lines around the target surface using the fit to line option. This stretches the 2D domain to match the surface more closely than before. When the map button is clicked, the domain is the mapped to the surface, fitting it perfectly to the geometry.

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Morphing Global Handles
Global handles are most effective when used to make general shape changes for a model, such as changing the basic shape of a model, stretching parts of a model, or making changes that involve the movement of many local handles. There are three methods available for affecting the way global handles influence the model, the direct method, the hierarchical method, and the mixed method. The default is the direct method, where the global handles move the nodes directly. In the hierarchical method, the global handles move the local handles which in turn move the nodes, but if any nodes lie outside of local domains they will be unaffected. In the mixed method, the hierarchical method is used for all nodes in local domains and the direct method is used for all other nodes. The hierarchical method maintains the shape of edge domains in the model, but if local handles are not evenly placed throughout the model, some parts will become distorted. The direct method gives you what you expect but often distorts the shape of the edge domains. For shell and solid models, better morphing is more likely to occur if you use the hierarchical method, and place local handles in areas where there is distortion.

Using Constraints
Morph constraints are a powerful tool that can be used to restrict the movement of nodes during morphing operations. The following types of constraints can be applied to any node: fixed, cluster, along vector, on plane, along line, on surface, and on elements. Whenever a handle is moved that influences a node, which is constrained, the node is moved according to the handle perturbation and is then projected back onto the feature to which it is constrained. This allows the nodes to slide across vectors, lines, planes, surfaces, and meshes, to remain fixed when handles are moved, or to move as a cluster along with other nodes. You may also constrain nodes where handles are located which, in effect, constrains the handles. When a perturbation is applied to a constrained handle, the handle are moved along the constraint feature regardless of the applied perturbation. This means that if you apply a translation in the x direction on a handle that is constrained along a vector x - y = 0, the handle moves along both the x and y axes. There are also morph constraints that can be applied to domains, such as the smooth constraint, which applies spline-based smoothing along the constrained edge domains, and model constraints, which allow you to set a given parametric target (such as length, angle, mass, etc.) and have HyperMorph adjust the model to meet that target. These constraints as well as bounded and set distance options for the node constraints are described more fully in the panel help. Morph constraints can be very useful for morphing a mesh that has been mapped to, projected to, or created upon a surface. Note that the map to geom operation allows you to have a morph constraint automatically created after mapping. Once you have done so, the nodes will remain on the surface during morphing operations. Note: Although morph constraints can keep nodes on a curved line or surface during morphing operations, when morphs are saved as shapes and then turned into shape variables for optimization, the nodes will not stay on the line or surface during optimization. This is because optimization is a linear process and the shapes will be treated as linear, meaning that the nodes will move directly from their original point to their maximally perturbed point without moving along any constraint.

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Controlling handle positions with morph constraints The angle of the lower right corner is changed from 74 to 90 degrees using the alter dimensions (angle) operation. The middle frame shows the result with no constraints. The frame on the right shows the result with the node in the upper right corner constrained to move along a vector that lies along the top edge.

Nodes tracking a line during morphing The nodes along the right edge domain are constrained to the line. When the handle is moved, it and the other constrained nodes move along the line.

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0 User’s Guide 261 . they too will be moved along the surface regardless of the applied perturbation.Morphing after mapping to surface All mapped nodes are automatically constrained to the surface. If the biasing values for all of the handles are equal to 1. Using Biasing Biasing allows you to control the shape of a mesh when applying handle perturbations. while lower biasing values generate harsh corners near the handles. 2. Biasing increases or decreases the influence of a handle over the nodes within its area of influence.000. the handles were translated linearly.000 in the middle. provided both handles are global handles or they are located on edge domains. If the handles were also part of the map to geom operation. To smoothly change the shape of a domain it is recommended that you use a biasing factor of 1. HyperMorph automatically placed the handles back on the surfaces after applying the translation so that the constraint was obeyed. When the handles are translated.000 at the corners. the nodes are moved along the surface a distance corresponding to the applied handle perturbations. the morphing between the handles is linear.000 at the edges. and 3. which is the default value for all handles except for dependent handles on 1D domains. Higher biasing values generate a smooth curvature near the handles. In this example. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

262 HyperMesh 8. After applying a morph.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .000. When the biasing value of the handle at the hole is increased to 3.000 for the handle at the hole. and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 2. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. This is useful in selecting a good biasing value to apply for a given morph. Apply the morphs and change the biasing values retroactively until you get the shape that you want.000. The model at the lower left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 2. you can change the biasing value by activating the make retroactive check box.000. and have the current list of applied morphs updated to reflect the new biasing values.000. Biasing to reduce mesh distortion When the hole is moved downward with a biasing factor of 1.000 and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 0.Biasing for a 2D domain The model at the upper left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 1.000. the mesh folds over due to the influences of the other handles (middle frame). Biasing can be applied retroactively after a morphing operation. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. the mesh unfolds (right frame).500.

flanges. You can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature. the domains and handles are generated where you want them to be. Creating Handles and Domains . pentas. This is done using one of the following methods: • • • • Moving the handles on the part to new locations Moving the global handles around the part to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the part Mapping the nodes of the part to line or surface data. In general. This procedure is automatic. or delete the handles and domains to meet specific needs. Select create. tetras. 4. 3. Click create. If partition 2D domains is checked. or manually select all of the elements in the model. 5.Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains Solid models are models that are made up of solid elements. To create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in the model: 1. From the HyperMorph module. you can add. For solid models. bosses. edges. In many cases. select the domains panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. If the model is made up of more than one part. each part is placed in its own 3D domain. The elements in ^morphface covering each 3D domain are placed into 2D domains. and hexas. Once partitioned. a solid model represents a single part with numerous features such as holes.solid model You can create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in a model. namely. 2. these 2D domains are partitioned according to the settings selected in the parameter subpanel of the domains panel. If they are not. A 3D domain is created for a solid model Note the automatic creation and partitioning of 2D domains on the face of the solid and the creation of edge domains and handles for the 2D domains. Set the selector to 3D domains. edit. it is only necessary to create a single 3D domain for the entire part. The surfaces of each 3D domain are covered with shell elements that are placed in a component named ^morphface.0 User’s Guide 263 . HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shape of features in a solid model. Change the toggle to all elements. and ribs.

2. morphing cannot be performed. 4. Click generate. If you do not select partition 2D domains when you generate a 3D domain. such as first order tetra meshes. Note: The element based method sometimes works better on second order tetras since it accounts for element curvature. If there are any domains or handles in the model. which produces dependent (green) handles. the node based partitioning will work better. as well as a global domain and handles. 3. From the HyperMorph module. or if there are no morphing entities in the model. before deciding to partition by hand. 2D. and 1D domain. Select create. However. element based and node based. select the domains panel.To create a 3D domain along with a global domain and global handles to your model: 1. Without handles. Automatic generation of domains on a solid model Note the addition of a global domain. However. the 2D domain made up of the elements on the surface of the 3D domain will not have edge domains and thus no handles will be generated for it. Set the selector to auto functions. if the second order tetras are converted first order tetras and thus have no curvature. you are asked if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. and 3D domains are automatically generated for the entire model. 1D.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 264 HyperMesh 8. Be sure to try both methods of partitioning. you may find it easier to start with a blank slate rather than editing the automatically created domains. this approach will give you a “blank slate” 2D domain that you can partition by hand. For meshes on which the automatic partitioning does not work well. global handles. If you click yes.

3. 2. select the domains panel. or lower the limit for the large domain solver. it does not matter if the selected elements are already in a 3D domain. select the domains panel. When selecting elements for the new domain. you only need to create domains for that part. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 4. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. Select the 3D domains to be subdivided. 5. This results in a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Click subdivide. Select update. morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming. Set the selector to 3D domains. For these meshes. 2. you do not need to be concerned about selecting the morphface elements. Additionally. change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. Select the elements to be placed into a new 3D domain. This better accommodates the division of tetra meshes that cannot be divided along flat or curved internal faces and thus would be partitioned into many domains. HyperMorph automatically subdivides the 3D domains into one or more 3D domains while leaving the 2D domains not selected as being divisible unchanged. From the HyperMorph module. if you are only going to morph a part of your 3D mesh. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. 6. in the parameters sub-panel. for first order tetra meshes. even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid. In these cases you may want to divide the domain into multiple domains using the subdivide 3D function in the update sub-panel of the domains panel. Not that in some cases HyperMorph will not be able to subdivide a 3D domain without dividing an indivisible 2D domain. Select create. but it will not partition the interface. 5. In these cases the 3D domain will be left undivided.Also. Solving the influence coefficients for 3D domains which contain more than 20. To do this. other elements are automatically removed before the domain is created. you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when automatically partitioning. This method is very helpful for meshes that began as first order tetra meshes but then were then transformed into second order meshes. However. you do not need to select only solid elements. You can then manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should be located. From the HyperMorph module. a curvature break is detected at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. 3. and thus subdividing 3D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing.0 User’s Guide 265 . 4. Also. Therefore. Click create. Select any 2D domains on the surface of the 3D domain that are permissible for HyperMorph to split into more than one 2D domain. To subdivide your solid model: 1. When the new domain is created. Set the selector to subdivide 3D. Partitions will be made only along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. Morphface elements are placed at the internal interface between the new domain and the other domains and create a 2D domain for the interface.000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. To divide your solid model manually: 1. the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain.

Influences must be recalculated every time handles. Occasionally. it has the effect of partitioning the surface of the original 3D domain along seams where the divisions were made. merge. and place handles along edge domains. edited. This is generally caused by handle influences extending too far through the 3D domain. domains. and creating or editing 2D domains results in the creation and deletion of edge domains. you can edit them in the domains panel. elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. When some meshes are morphed. A single 3D domain is split into four 3D domains The influences of the handles will not extend across the boundaries between the domains. make sure that you divide it along lines where you want your 2D domains on the surface to be. These calculations occur when you enter or leave a HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. The influences for handles are only recalculated in regions that have been edited. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. Dividing a 3D domain into many 3D domains can be very useful for controlling the movement of nodes within the domain when the handles on the surface are moved. The organize sub-panel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split. Automatic partitioning does not always divide a mesh in the most useful ways. or deleted. 266 HyperMesh 8. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. you should perform the tasks in the following order: Create and edit all the 3D domains that you want first. the internal elements can become distorted. or symmetries are added. For large models you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. Some cleanup may be required. So when you divide your model into 3D domains.Note: When you divide a 3D domain into parts. If the domains are not created exactly the way you want them. Since creating or editing 3D domains results in the creation of 2D and edge domains. You can divide your 3D domains to restrict the handle influences and control mesh distortion. Create and edit the 2D domains. Create and edit the edge domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Select the elements to be moved. From the HyperMorph module. and for some domains it can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons.To move elements from one domain to another: 1. handles may be deleted. and if retain handles is not checked. Click organize. select the domains panel. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain. This allows you to visualize the domain that you are selecting. Change the selector to add nodes/elements. 4. the retain handles option was left unchecked. Select the target domain. 6. resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. as well as the 2D domains at the interface if solid elements are being organized. 3. Note: Holding the mouse button down when the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D or 3D domain or over an element inside a domain.0 User’s Guide 267 . The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For this example. The edge domains around both domains are refreshed. will highlight the edge domains surrounding the domain. The elements are moved from their current domain to the selected domain. Select organize. You should keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing. 2. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements. 5. New handles may also be created during this process.

so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. You will need to correct this by hand. select the domains panel. Change the selector to split. Select organize. Click organize. 5. Now the radius of each new edge domain may be modified independently of the other. 2. HyperMorph attempts to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. 268 HyperMesh 8.To group two or more domains: 1. Click split. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D and 3D domains. Select edit edges. 4. Change the selector to combine domains. 6. From the HyperMorph module. Select an edge domain. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To split edge domains: 1. A handle is created at the selected node. 5. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. The selected domains are combined into a single domain. Select the domains to be grouped. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. it will not identify the proper starting and ending points. 2. but in some cases. This is why you should edit the edge domains after the other domains have been edited. which becomes a handle (right model). select the domains panel. 3. The lower edge domain has been split at the gray node (left model). Edge domains are used to make radius changes. From the HyperMorph module. and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. If you perform edge editing first. 4. 3. Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created.

5. 2. Click create. From the HyperMorph module.To merge edge domains: 1. If a model is very large. 3. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge are transparently applied to the dependent handles. 4.0 User’s Guide 269 . select the domains panel. the influences do not need to be recalculated. 5. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. It will be as if they were not there. Select any number of edge domains. Select one or more domains. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end-to-end such that the resultant merged edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. Dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. select the domains panel. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. Dependent handles created using the handles on edge feature Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The first is that since they are dependent. Select edit edges. 3. Change the selector to add handles. Secondly. From the HyperMorph module. Change the selector to merge. 4. you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish to change before you enter the morphing panel. This feature helps save time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. 2. Select edit edges. To create dependent handles along an edge domain: 1. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. Click merge.

270 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which contains shell elements on the surface of the 3D domains. you should divide large domains. Since HyperMorph creates a component called ^morphface. a full wire frame can make it very difficult to visualize the model because every element in the model is displayed. When you are satisfied with your domains. the default setting is to display only that component—thus showing only the outer surface of your model and making it easier to work on.6. solid fill The option produces a display that is similar to what you see when you perform a fill plot in the hidden line panel. surface-only wire frame In this default mode. you will see the two sides of your model superimposed over each other. You can still display the surface mesh. delete unnecessary handles. In these cases. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. Note: During influence calculation for large models you might run out of available memory. Viewing Solid Models . The influences for the handles is calculated and you are ready to begin morphing. You only see the side of the model that is facing you (as if your model was a real part). if desired (as shown). However. or lower the limit of the large domain solver.solid model The HyperMesh graphics engine supports different visual options for viewing models as you work on them. your model is displayed as a wire frame. since the viewing mode is still wire frame. but only the surface elements are drawn because in a solid model. click return.

0 User’s Guide 271 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.You can also view a solid model for morphing by turning off all the components and looking at only the domains and handles. so by viewing only the domains you can visualize the model with minimal clutter. Partitioning generally captures all the features on the surface of a solid. This is similar to looking at the model in a meshless wire frame mode.

Beam section properties are imported back into HyperMesh and applied to element property cards.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Step 1: Beam Section Definition. The HyperBeam panel in HyperMesh allows you to: • • • • Define the beam cross sectional plane via the existing HyperMesh vector definition methods. Step 2: Beam Section Manipulation. including splitting and joining operations Selecting vertex coordinates when the spreadsheet display is active Edit the beam section manually via dialogs and a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates. Operations that can be accomplished in this way include: Hand editing of vertex coordinate geometry and connectivity Editing section thickness Creating parts Editing part to vertex associativity Parameterizing the beam section for optimization via a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates Organizing HyperBeam sections into a single level structure of HyperBeam collectors 272 HyperMesh 8. Transfer the data into the HyperBeam module. Beam section manipulation and property calculation takes place in the HyperBeam module. and any beam section properties calculated. beam.HyperBeam Module The HyperBeam module allows you to calculate general beam section properties from geometry or element data. Each step is described in more detail below. This data can be imported into the HyperMesh finite element pre-processor and used to create one-dimensional (bar. its local coordinate system. rod) element property data for an FEA model. moving. Access previously defined beam cross sections for editing in the HyperBeam module. Select the lines. Operations that can be done this way include: • Editing section thickness Creating. Edit the beam section graphically via mouse clicks and drags. elements or surfaces that represent the beam cross section. steps one and three are performed within HyperMesh and step two is performed in the HyperBeam module. or element data takes place in the HyperBeam panel within HyperMesh. Step One Step Two Step Three Beam section definition from line. It is a threestep process. and deleting vertices Editing line segments. as dictated by the beam section template. The HyperBeam module allows you to: • • View the beam section. surface.

The beam section characteristics are displayed in the card image of the property collector but must be edited from within the HyperBeam module.0 User’s Guide 273 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Step 3: Beam Property Import. You can import beam section properties into HyperMesh that have been defined in HyperBeam by using the collectors panel with the properties entity selected.

N2 and N3 locations are selected as shown in the figure below. N1.Example of the Three-Step Process This example illustrates how HyperBeam can be used to attach beam section properties to a OptiStruct PBAR card image.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This plot element will be used to align the section within HyperBeam. The shell section subpanel is selected from the HyperBeam panel. The blue lines are plot elements denoting the beam section. 274 HyperMesh 8. project to plane is then selected under cross section plane:. And the plane base node is chosen (change option to specify node) at N1 also. The selector type is set to elems and the blue plot elements are selected. It assumes that the OptiStruct user profile is loaded. The purple line is a plot element created in the global y-direction. Elements or lines can be used to describe a beam section.

The vector created by N1 to N2 describes the local y-axis used in HyperBeam. Later we will need to know this when the beam section is aligned for bar elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. N3 describes the positive sense of the z-axis. It is important to note the alignment of the local axes at this point. HyperBeam is invoked when you click create.0 User’s Guide 275 .

and N3 was reversed (essentially the z-direction was flipped).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .If the node selection was performed differently. HyperBeam would yield different results as shown below. 276 HyperMesh 8.

Bar element alignment using HyperBeam sections is very straightforward if the section was defined using an absolute y-direction. This operation is performed in the bars panel. If there were a 1 within the Z comp. the y-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. After the card image is created. and the local bar element alignment axis. The direction specified within the bars panel defines the alignment along the y-direction. In this case. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Once HyperBeam solves the cross sectional properties.0 User’s Guide 277 . it is necessary to attach the beam section to the PBAR card image. the PBAR card image must be attached to the 1-D element in question. This can be done in the collectors panel. the z-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. The figure below illustrates the alignment of the global axis. the HyperBeam alignment axis.

The beam cross section can also be attached to the beam to visually inspect the alignment.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This option can be found in the review sections subpanel in the HyperBeam panel. 278 HyperMesh 8.

This means that for the calculation of the moments and product of inertia terms of higher order of the shell thickness t are neglected. only the theory of thin walled bars is used. The coordinate system defined by the user is called the local coordinate system.0 User’s Guide 279 . The x axis is defined along the beam axis.z plane. the system referring to the principal bending axes is called the principal coordinate system. Area Area Moments of Inertia Area Product of Inertia Radius of Gyration Elastic Section Modulus Max Coordinate Extension Plastic Section Modulus Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Thickness warping is also neglected.Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam The beam cross section is always defined in a y. For shell sections. the system parallel to the local coordinate system with the origin in the centroid is called the centroidal coordinate system.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Torsional Constant Solid Shell open Shell closed Elastic Torsion Modulus Solid Shell open Shell closed Warping Constant (normalized to the shear center) Shear deformation coefficients 280 HyperMesh 8.

1993.Shear stiffness factors Shear stiffness Nastran Type Notation References W. Lehrbuch – Hoehere Festigkeitslehre. Rubenchik. U. 1979. Schramm. A. 1981. The Theory of Thin Walled Bars.D.. Leipzig. Fachbuchverlag. CRC Press.0 User’s Guide 281 . Structural Mechanics – Variational and Computational Methods. and W. ed. Gjelsvik. Pilkey and W. Wunderlich. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. FL. Wiley & Sons. Boca Raton.D. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 40 (1997) 211-232. H. Pilkey. Beam Stiffness Matrix based on the Elasticity Equations. Goeldner. V.

shell section graphics pane.HyperBeam Environment HyperBeam has three main panes: the section browser. toolbar. Click each section of the HyperBeam window below to access detailed information about the menu areas.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and results/spreadsheet sections. and status bar. It also has a menu bar. 282 HyperMesh 8.

To view thumbnail images of the sections in a section collector. and dragging and dropping it into the collector where you want it to be located Copy a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. To move a section. select the collector where you want the section to appear. select the desired sections or section collectors in the section browser (hold down the control key to select multiple items). select Cut from the Edit menu. select Copy from the Edit menu. Section types are identified by icons.0 User’s Guide 283 . select the section. and select Paste from the Edit menu. select the collector where you want the section to appear. click again to indicate that you want to rename it. Below that are all of the collectors followed by the beam sections at the lowest level. copying sections. select the section. the thumbnail images that were just created may be viewed in the graphics pane by selecting Model in the section browser tree. To view thumbnails of selected sections. You can also reorganize the database by moving sections between collectors. You can use the section browser to find a particular section of your model for displaying or editing. HyperBeam displays this hierarchy in a standard tree structure. and renaming sections and section collectors. To copy a section. right-click in the section browser pane. thumbnail images of all the sections are shown in the graphics pane. click once on the item to select it. There are two ways to "drag and drop": • Move a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. and enter the new name. choose Create Thumbnails from the pop-up menu. To export sections to an external file. select multiple sections by holding down the control key and left-clicking on multiple sections. select the collector branch in the section browser window. and select Paste from the Edit menu. At the highest level is the model. select a section by left-clicking on it. as listed below: Shell Solid Standard Generic You can perform the following tasks in the section browser: • • • • To rename a section or section collector. choose Export Section from the pop-up menu.Section Browser This section browser presents a hierarchical view of all of the beam sections and section collectors on your database. until you create thumbnail images for a different selection of sections. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. holding down the control key. give a filename and location in the Save As window (it is recommended to use the . click Save.bm extension to save beam section files). and dragging it to the collector where you want it to be located. right-click in the section browser pane.

each sheet metal part is drawn by lines connecting the dots that show the section's vertices.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can modify the section itself with the shell section editing tools.The Importance of Flanges When HyperBeam computes the properties for the section. The section's torsion and warping factor are displayed in the lower left corner of the pane. For shell sections. Each vertex may or may not be labeled by its ID. The section's local coordinate system and its principle coordinate system (at its centroid) are displayed. 284 HyperMesh 8. the metal thickness used for a flange is the sum of the thicknesses of all the parts that share it. if you have them enabled on the view menu. then HyperBeam underestimates the stiffness of a section. The shear center appears as an x with a circle around it. Shell Section Graphics Pane The graphics pane displays a representation of the geometric layout of the section. The centroid appears as a plus with a circle around it. The color of the lines for each part is selected on the section's properties dialog. if the section's x-axis points into or out of the monitor. separated by a colon. if you have them enabled on the view menu. The bar is labeled with the part's number in the section and the current numerical value of the thickness. If you accidentally omit those vertices from the connectivity for a part. Each part is also marked with a slider bar that you can use to adjust the part's thickness. The preferences dialog allows you to set the font and background color to use in the text graphics pane. You have control (on the preferences dialog) over whether the z-axis points up or down. or equivalently. depending on if you have the toggle set on the toolbar or the view menu. The section axis is always drawn with its y-axis pointing to the right.

consult the documentation for the results output template. but you can select it and copy it to paste it into another application such as a word processor. and optimization bounds for the section. to toggle between them. there are more results computed than are displayed in the default template. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar.0 User’s Guide 285 . If the section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. Shell Section Spreadsheet (non-optimization version) For a shell section. The section results pane shares screen space with the section definition spreadsheets. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. You will find controls for the actual format and layout of the text and results in two locations. variables. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. You can specify a new results template by selecting the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. "No results to display.Results/Spreadsheet Pane Section Properties Results Whenever HyperBeam computes the section properties of the current section. it displays them in the results pane. such as when you have edited the section definition and dynamic update is disabled. Also. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. You can type a new value into any of the coordinates." Standard Section Spreadsheet For a standard section. You cannot edit the text in this portion of the window. then the spreadsheet additionally displays optimization bounds for each variable. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's variables and their current values. If there are computed values that are not necessary. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's vertices and their coordinates. and background color on the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. you can delete them from the template so that they are not displayed. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. and the associated vertex moves to the new location. then HyperBeam displays the message. To see the list of all the results available. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. you can use the spreadsheet button on the toolbar. If this section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. text color. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. so you may choose to add additional values to the template. then the spreadsheet displays equations. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. You can change the display of text and values by editing the scripts file. If the results are not available. You specify the text font.

Next. (For example.) To delete an equation. If all three values are equal. Select delete variable on the menu. A menu is displayed. click the variable with the right mouse button. initial value. Click the coordinate and it will appear as the dependent vertex. variables. click the right-hand side of the equation and enter the formula. If you choose add. you can use other vertex coordinates.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Alternatively. a vertex coordinate can be defined using an equation. a lower bound. click the vertex coordinate to make it active and delete the text of the equation. then the shell-section spreadsheet expands to display the rest of the necessary information. The coordinate will be set equal to the last value it had calculated. To define a variable for use in an equation. A vertex that is defined by an equation may not appear on the right-hand side of another equation. and an upper bound. A menu is displayed that allows you to choose between adding or deleting a variable. a new blank line appears. 286 HyperMesh 8. To delete a variable.Optimization Shell Section Spreadsheet If the shell section has been designated an optimization section on the Properties dialog. or trigonometric functions. The equation is passed to the optimization solver. with a few restrictions. and optimization bounds. into which you can enter the variable's name. it is assumed the optimizer treats that coordinate as fixed. Each vertex coordinate now has three values: an initial value. so it must be formatted as appropriate for that solver. arithmetic functions. In the equation. use the right mouse button to select the variable's section. blank spaces may be prohibited.

Some operations such as importing and exporting are accomplished only from the menu bar. There are controls for the results/spreadsheet window and controls for the section graphics window available. File Menu New Save Import Section Export Section Export Results Print Print Preview Print Setup Exit Create a new section collector. The Preferences dialog allows you to specify the appearance and behavior of HyperBeam.HyperBeam Menu Bar The HyperBeam menu bar allows you to perform a wide variety of operations using drop-down menus. Delete the currently selected text or entity. or generic section. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 287 . Opens a file browser so you can import a beam cross-section. select Preferences to display the tabs. On the Edit menu. Setting the Section Graphics Options The Graphics tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Specifies the main background color for the section graphics region. Displays a print preview. Exit the HyperBeam module and return to HyperMesh. Opens a file browser so you can export a beam cross-section. or only selected sections. select Preferences. Paste the selected text or entity into the location of the cursor. Copies the selected text or entity. Prints the currently displayed beam cross section and the section analysis results. Options are provided to export all sections. Set the graphics and results preferences. From the Edit window. standard section. Redo the last procedure. Opens a file browser so you can export the results for the selected section to a text file. Edit Menu Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Delete Preferences Undo the last procedure. Allows you to set up printer preferences. Other operations can be performed using either the menu bar or the corresponding tool button. The Graphics and Results tabs in the Preferences dialog allow you to set preferences for the section graphics window and the results/spreadsheet window. Copies and removes the selected text or entity. Save the beam cross-section.

x-axis direction Grid Thumbnails Specifying the Results/Spreadsheet Display The Results tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Font Select the background color for the results display. so that their sizes are relative to one another. for best formatting. Contact Altair for technical details on exchange file formats and return codes. See the Templex Reference On-line Help for additional details. such as courier. Results output templates The computed results for a section are formatted using a user-specified TEMPLEX scripts. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for section graphics window. The Scale Thumbnails checkbox allows thumbnail images to be displayed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Allows you to specify whether HyperBeam should display the section with the x-axis coming out of the page (so z axis goes up) or going into the page (so the z-axis goes down). You may substitute your own solver to compute values for thin Shell sections. Allows you to specify a bitmap or second color for a gradient to display as the background of the section graphics window.Font Background effects Displays the font dialog box. so it can display just those values known to be relevant. Displays the font dialog box. It is recommended that you use a fixed-width font. Allows you to display a grid behind the section image. Each section type can have its own custom script. The distance entry field allows the distance between nodes of the grid to be adjusted. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for the results display. External solver for thin shell sections 288 HyperMesh 8.

Allows you to specify the section that you want to zoom in on to examine in greater detail.. Reduces the size of the graphic in the graphics pane. Allows you to move vertices. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Allows you to delete a vertex to join two segments. Tools Menu Break a Segment Join Segments Create a New Part Move Vertices Reorient Shell Section.. Allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section.0 User’s Guide 289 . Allows you to break a segment so that you can add a new vertex.. updates results. automatically updates the display when you make changes. Turns on and off the display of the Vertex IDs. Properties. Switches the display in the Results/Spreadsheet pane. Allows you to add a new sheet metal part to the current section. When selected. Turns on and off the display of the status bar. Turns on and off the display of the Torsion Factor.View Menu Toolbar Status Bar Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit to screen Update Results Dynamic update Systems Torsion Factor Warping Factor Spreadsheets Vertex Ids Turns on and off the display of the toolbar... Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Turns on and off the display of the Warping Factor. Scales the graphic so that it exactly fits the active window. Moves the model in the selected direction.. Turns on and off the display of the system coordinate axes. rearrange vertices in a part. Part Editor. If selected. Magnifies the graphic in the graphics pane. Allows you to modify the properties of the beam cross-sections. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section.

the origin for the section does not follow it. Specifying the Origin You can designate a vertex. or the principle axes change. To specify a new coordinate system. If you move a defi ning vertex. reflecting it about the y-axis. or at an angle offset from the current y axis. if you subsequently move that vertex. this coordinate system does not adjust with them. the origin will not move with it. Note that. you must specify the location of its origin relative to the vertices and the direction of the y-axis. the current principle axes. 290 HyperMesh 8. Specifying the y-axis You can specify the direction for the for the y-axis of the local coordinate system using vertices. Likewise. You can also move the origin by a fixed amount by defining y and z offsets.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if the shear center or centroid changes because of any changes to the section properties. or the current centroid to be the new origin.Reorient Shell Section The reorient shell section dialog allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. the current shear center. reverse x-axis Activate the check box to flip the section over.

0 User’s Guide 291 . 3. 13... You can use the up and down arrows to review any part. The part features that you need to control are its thickness and the connectivity of its vertices. … and the connectivity of the bottom flange is 1. the segment between vertices 1 and 2 is a flange. 5. 15 … Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. so the connectivity of the top part is 1. The part editor also allows you to review and edit part vertex connectivities. To designate a segment between two vertices and a flange. in the section illustrated below. the currently selected part of the section is highlighted. A part in this context is an individual piece of sheet metal that is typically welded to other parts along flanges. enter a value in the appropriate field. 2. 2. 14. on the Tools menu and entering data in the Edit Parts dialog. You can add or remove vertices to change the part.) If you are currently in an optimization section. To set a new thickness. When you use the part editor tools for. you can set upper and lower bounds for the optimization of the section's sheet metal thicknesses. include those vertices in more than one part. 4. 12. For example. (You can also adjust thickness by using the graphic tools.Part Editor Parts of thin-shell sections can be edited by selecting Part Editor. There is list of the vertex IDs at the bottom of the list.

See the HyperBeam panel for more information on beam cross-sections types. This operation cannot be undone. Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane.Properties Properties for beam cross-sections are specified by selecting Properties on the Tools menu and entering data in the Thin-Shell Section Properties dialog. Set the warping factor. Thin Shell Section Properties The Thin Shell Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single shell section. On the Tools menu. or equations tying coordinates together. The properties that can be specified differ for each type of section. Standard Section Properties The Standard Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single standard section. select properties. Specify the shape out of the available choices to use for the standard section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . such as upper and lower bound on thicknesses. or vertex coordinates. Section type 292 HyperMesh 8. HyperBeam recognizes four types of beam cross-sections. You can activate this option if you need to specify optimization parameters for this section. Fill color Choose the color to use for displaying the material portion of the section in the graphics pane. Torsion factor Warping Factor Line color Set the torsion factor. Optimization Solid Section Properties The Solid Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a solid section.

0 User’s Guide 293 . Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane.Generic Section Properties The Generic Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a generic section. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

To add a new sheet metal part to the current section. activate this tool and click on the vertex. If you want to delete a vertex.HyperBeam Toolbar The toolbar allows you to quickly access some of the more commonly used functions. Bring the section results up to date. Specify a new center for the graphics display. Enlarge the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. You can use any mixture of existing or new vertices in creating the part. Resize the display to fit the pane. Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit Show/hide Ids Update results Show/hide spreadsheet Properties Zoom in on area of the beam section by using the mouse to draw a circle around the area of interest. activate this tool and then click in the graphics area the sequence of vertices. if you have turned off the auto-update of section results. To finish the part. double-click the last vertex. Join two segments/ eliminate vertex Create a new part 294 HyperMesh 8. Alternate between displaying results or the spreadsheet. Turn on and off the display of vertex IDs in shell sections. View Controls The view controls are available on the View menu and the toolbar. or deactivate the tool by toggling its button on the toolbar. Pops-up the properties dialog Shell Section Editing Tools There are five tools to modify the basic definition of a shell section: Break segment If you want to add a new vertex between two existing vertices.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . They control how the section is displayed in the graphics pane and the results/spreadsheet pane. Zoom out on the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. activate this tool and click at approximately the place you want it to appear.

Redo the last action performed. Open the print dialog. rearrange vertices in a part. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Cut an item and hold it in memory for pasting.Move vertex Part-editor To reposition a vertex. If you place the cursor over a toolbar icon. Undo the last action performed.0 User’s Guide 295 . Open the HyperBeam on-line help. activate this tool. General Tools There are eight tools that allow you to manage a HyperBeam session: Save Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Print On-line Help Save the session. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. a short description of the action performed when you click the icon is displayed in the status bar. Copy an item. Status Bar The HyperBeam status bar displays messages and information about the interface. and click and hold on the vertex to move and drag it to its new location. Paste a copied or cut item.

This process is performed in the beam xsect panel. center of gravity. and apply those properties to a HyperMesh model. HyperMesh uses a finite element methodology to calculate the properties for the cross section. moments of inertia.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The panel functions also facilitate the creation of bar2 elements. The properties that HyperMesh calculates include cross sectional area.Beam Cross Section Property Solver The beam cross section property solver allows you to define a beam cross section. calculate its properties. Note: For design reasons. 296 HyperMesh 8. the beam cross section functions favor NASTRAN analysis in nomenclature and bar offset calculations. principal axes. and torsion and warping constants. shear center. The tools on the beam xsect panel can help you complete the necessary property cards for finite element analysis using HyperMesh bar2 elements.

secondary panels called define offset parameters are opened. Note: The save element option has no effect when you define sections by elements. and the Z-axis is the cross product of the X and Y axis. You may specify any existing HyperMesh node as the base point of the plane. and the element order can be defined in the beam xsect panel. the cross section must be planar. Local Axes Many of the properties are defined relative to a local coordinate system. The name of the component is preceded by a caret (^). If you define the base point by picking a node. These elements are placed in a newly created component for each calculation. the order of the selected HyperMesh element is used. If you do not specify a base point. You can also use the standard HyperMesh plane collector to define the plane. your N1 and N2 selections are used to define the positive Y-axis. If you define the plane. or elements is used. Unless you change the name of the component. offset values are calculated for you. In all cases the planar normal is defined as the positive X axis. If you create the bar2 element by using this method. If you use the offset lines sub-panel. 1 versus 2 Order Element Analysis st nd For beam cross sections that were fully defined by lines or surfaces. Linear weighting of the points on the selected lines. This option is specified by using the toggle under analysis type: on the pick geom sub-panel. these elements are not output when you use the export subpanel on the files panel. If you use the default method. or have it calculated for you. HyperMesh calculates the plane for you. using NASTRAN conventions. These specifications are applied by using the toggles under cross section plane: or plane base node:.and Z-axes are defined to be the principal axes of the cross section. These options are specified by using the toggle under plane base node:. Planes In order for properties to be calculated correctly.Describing Cross Section Planes. If you are using offset sections. Save Elements Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When you pick elements. the Y. This tells HyperMesh to ignore the contents of the component when exporting a model. HyperMesh uses one of two methods to define the plane. surfaces.0 User’s Guide 297 . and Elements The following factors relating to the cross section plane. The system is the same as the coordinate system for the plane. in this case. The save element option is located on the pick geom sub-panel on the beam xsect panel. second order elements are always used. the plane is determined by a "best fit" from the data provided. Axes. If HyperMesh calculates the plane. this node can be referenced as an end of a bar2 element created with the panel. The save elements option allows you to save the elements defining the cross section as part of the HyperMesh model. you may choose to have the properties calculated using first or second order elements. the coordinate system. HyperMesh defines the plane base at the Center of Gravity of the cross section. All properties are calculated on the plane.

Each HyperMesh line in the set can be assigned a thickness. The beam cross section is described by a set of lines. When this method is used in the offset lines sub-panel of the beam xsect panel. it is best to use fewer lines with the property calculator. The tolerance is defined as 15% of the largest distance between the weld areas on the lines minus the offset distances. HyperMesh first looks for coincident node pairs to join. Weld points are used to join separate pieces of sheet metal at a point. Note: If you define a cross section with elements and use the intersect panel to cut elements. you may change any or all of the line thicknesses. An arrow is displayed that indicates the offset direction. Any continuous set of HyperMesh lines (as determined by HyperMesh) is considered to be a single piece of sheet metal. Although you can use the line segments option. The weld point is located a given distance from a fixed point.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can also change the offset direction after the initial cross section definition. After the initial cross section is defined. By default. Any number of lines may be selected to be part of a weld point. The distance from the point and the diameter of the weld may be changed graphically. use the combine lines option and specify a break angle. When you define a weld point. The offset direction is user-specified. you can also specify weld points for the cross section. The initial definition of the cross section uses the user-defined nominal thickness for each line. based upon the line data in the model. Offset Sections The offset sections method is designed to support thin-walled cross sections manufactured from sheet metal. The line sets may be changed one at a time by selecting the graphical toggle and picking the line set or all sets may be changed at once by clicking the toggle sides button. an offset of each line is created. the offset direction is centered. 298 HyperMesh 8. Holes are allowed in the section but all portions of it must touch all other portions. the section is considered fully open and no correlation will exist between nodes on different sets of lines. HyperMesh allows this point to be chosen at any end or joint of a selected line. Then it looks for nodes within tolerance of each other. you can define any or all line thicknesses using the thickness = option. When you use this method. or reverse normal to the line. If weld points are not defined for offset sections. The thickness used is considered to be the total thickness of the sheet metal piece. HyperMesh attempts to join four nodes per line per weld to a corresponding set of four nodes on another line. the section must be a contiguous area. After nominal = for initial thickness is defined.Defining a Cross Section There are two methods you can use to describe a cross-section for analysis: by offsetting HyperMesh lines or by selecting a fully enclosed area. thicknesses. You can change the thickness of lines interactively by using the mouse cursor or you can enter a value and apply it to specific lines or all of the lines. or by entering the desired values. The choices are centered. and weld points. With either method. normal to the line. with the line as the center of the sheet metal piece. provided they are used in the definition of the cross section.

Note: This means that all nodes along common boundaries are taken as the same and the solver does not consider moving them independently. lines. you can use the pick geom sub-panel of the beam xsect panel to select any set of elements. the area is automeshed to generate elements for the cross section.Fully Defined Sections For this method of beam cross section definition. If you select by elements. When lines or surfaces are chosen. Defining the section using lines or surfaces in this manner creates a fully closed section. If the section is defined using elements. HyperMesh uses the connectivity provided by the elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. those elements are considered to be the section. or surfaces that describe a fully closed area.0 User’s Guide 299 . No alterations are made to those elements. aside from projecting to a common plane.

At any time you can click apply results to perform all the currently specified options. Temporary nodes are also created at the Center of Gravity and Shear Center. individual menu items are displayed that perform only the sub-set of desired operations. The post-processing panel displays only the menu items necessary for the current operation. the properties are calculated. Otherwise. The post-processing panel is displayed. 300 HyperMesh 8. with which you can apply the calculated properties to the HyperMesh model.Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties After you select the solve function in the beam xsect panel. The following symbols are displayed at the Center of Gravity and the Shear Center: Center of Gravity symbol Shear Center symbol The local axes of the beam are also displayed. The following postprocessing options can be performed in any combination desired and are not exclusive of other functions.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

MARC. Irr.0 User’s Guide 301 . J. For more information. The size determination is for user-viewing preference only and does not affect any of the actual values. I12. CENTROID. These constants provide a means to apply empirical "fudge factors" to the results. ABAQUS. After you select the solver. that solver is automatically selected. J. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Ir A. use the FEA solver: switch to select the solver. Is. you are prompted to confirm that you wish to overwrite the data on that property/component. N2 A. Iss. These factors. and replaced by the newly calculated data or default data for that property/component. Similarly non 1. As. or PAM-CRASH. I1. For more information. This function does not work for dictionary solvers. and the spacing between welds. SHEAR CENTER R SECTION_BEAM. N1. Izz. If you already have a card image template specified in the global panel. All of the solver data of the property/component is deleted if you answer yes.0. independently developed over many years. OPTISTRUCT. relate fully welded sections to partially welded sections.0 warping factor modifies the Warping Constant. J. HyperMesh material data associated with the property/component is not affected. and the modified value. ANSYS. I2. A non unit Torsion factor will modify the value of the Torsional Constant. The values that are saved in summary files or displayed on the screen show the factor. The changes are applied to all HyperMesh properties and/or components. K2 A. you can specify the already created HyperMesh properties or components to which to apply the results as a card image. It. I2. I2. you may select NASTRAN. LS-DYNA. HyperMesh checks to see if data already exists for the currently chosen solver on that property/component. I1. K1. K1. see Creating Collectors. When you apply the results to the properties or components. Iyy A. see Save and Display Results. K2. If these factors remain at the default value of 1. If data exists. RADIOSS. Solver NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT ABAQUS Comp/Prop Property Property Component Card Name PBAR PBEAM (end A) BEAMGENERAL. Ist. I1. SA A.Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver In order to relate the calculated properties to a card for your desired output solver. Display Size You can control the size of the Center of Gravity and Shear Center symbols and the local Coordinate system with the draw size = field. Izz. Iyy. Γw. I12. CW. Centroid x1 and x2. the original value. no changes are made to the calculated value. principal Y axis unit VECTOR ANSYS LS-DYNA/ RADIOSS PAM-CRASH MARC Property Property Component Component Torsion and Warping Factors torsion factors and warping factors are the only fields common to all operations of the postprocessing panel. I22. Otherwise. Itt. elform 2 Mat’l type 202 geometry Data A. Shear Center x1 and x2 Area. J.

The node for this end of the bar is either the centroid of the section or the user-selected base node. check to make sure the desired component is currently active. if any. There are many properties calculated that are not assigned to solver cards. If you use a vector orientation. and not with summary alone. or move the bar element to that component by using the organize panel. Save and Display Results All of the calculated properties may be viewed or saved to an ASCII text file. You may use the cross section’s local Y or Z axis. This option is provided to aid in understanding the orientation of the cross section relative to the overall model. it applies a global unit vector to the bar created. If the solver for which you are defining a model uses components. If you want a permanent record of the calculations you have just performed. that is referenced by the bar element. Note: If you create a BAR2 element and it does not show on the screen. that property is automatically assigned to the new BAR2 element. to describe the bar’s orientation. it creates a new node. The other end of the bar may be defined by picking a node or specifying a distance along the x axis of the cross section. The BAR2 element that you are creating can also be assigned an orientation. The sign of the distance is the direction along the x axis. you are asked if you want each property associated with the newly created bar element. you must save the results as an ASCII file. You are asked about each selected property until you answer "yes" to the question presented. If you use a nodal orientation. Coordinate Systems/Vectors A HyperMesh coordinate system may be created to save the orientation of the cross section. either as a vector or by letting HyperMesh create a node along the axis. The cross section may be chosen as either end A or end B of the bar. Whether you choose to save a summary file and/or display it on the screen. The system is created identical to the one displayed on the screen. use the disp (display) panel to confirm that the elements of the current component are selected for display.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Creating a Bar Element Another option is to create a HyperMesh BAR2 element by specifying two nodes and optionally choosing a direction vector or node and property for the element. You may also create a HyperMesh vector in either the local Y or Z direction of the cross section. The element is created in the currently active component. Manipulating them does not change the property values that may be saved and referenced by the created bar element. 302 HyperMesh 8. This feature works only with apply results. you can select the summary file option and specify a file name in the field after summary file. to which the calculated properties were assigned. If any properties (not components) are selected when you build a BAR2 element. the information includes a named list of the properties/components. If only one property is selected. 10% of the length of the element away from the existing node. The properties can also be viewed on the screen in the same manner as summary templates. If you want to save these.

0 User’s Guide 303 . How do I define a weld point at a different location? Use the graphical controls to change its location on the line. Each HyperMesh line has a different thickness. split the HyperMesh line at the desired point and then choose the new point at the split. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Use the line edit panel on the Geom page to either split or combine existing lines. Select those lines as your section definition.Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers This section provides answers for common questions about using the beam cross section process: How do I change the number of lines on which I can define a thickness? Change the number of HyperMesh lines you are selecting. If you need a different reference point. How do I obtain lines from a shell element model to use as my offset lines? Use the hidden line panel on the Post page and choose line plot as the desired output.

The HyperLaminate module is supported for the OptiStruct. component collectors and design variables) may result in synchronization problems and loss of data. this is not advisable. Any changes made to those entities which HyperLaminate touches (materials. review and edition of composite laminates. In support of this process certain materials and design variables are also supported by in the HyperLaminate module. so while it is possible to work in HyperMesh while HyperLaminate is running. 304 HyperMesh 8. The current HyperMesh database is only updated with information from the current HyperLaminate session on exit from HyperLaminate (an exception to this rule are Abaqus materials. Nastran. or by selecting HyperLaminate from the Setup pull-down menu. HyperLaminate is launched from within HyperMesh either from the HyperLaminate button on the 2D page of the main menu.HyperLaminate Module HyperLaminate is a HyperMesh module that facilitates the creation. which are updated simultaneously in HyperMesh and HyperLaminate). Ansys and Abaqus user profiles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

change views. This is the right hand pane of the HyperLaminate module.HyperLaminate Environment The HyperLaminate environment consists of five general areas. laminates or design variables. laminate or design variable definition (depending on the selected branch in the laminate browser). and access on-line help. copy. and delete entries in text boxes. Toolbar Laminate Browser Define/Edit Pane This is the central pane of the HyperLaminate module. Right clicking on a branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. Review Pane Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The review pane has a number of tabs that display the current state of the selected branch. laminates and size design variables in your model. Left clicking on an entity populates the Define/Edit and Review panes with details of that branch. paste. This browser. The HyperLaminate toolbar contains five tools that allow you to generate new materials. Here users may enter or change data related to a material. laminates and design variables.0 User’s Guide 305 . as shown here: Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus that allow you to manage files. and to cut. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. edit materials. provides a vertical tree view of materials.

Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion).HyperLaminate Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. 306 HyperMesh 8. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This text file can be printed. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. Exit HyperLaminate. Edit Cut Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. File New Export to File Exit Generates a new entity. The following chart lists each menu option. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. Exports material and laminate information to a text file. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. At this point the current HyperMesh database is updated with the information in the current HyperLaminate session.

and copyright information. contact. Display/hide status bar. Displays version.Tools Ply lay-up options Displays the Ply lay-up Options dialog. Allows you to select defaults for new Laminates for: • • • • • View Toolbar Status Bar Help About HyperLaminate Help Topics color convention repetitions ply thickness common thickness Display/hide toolbar.0 User’s Guide 307 . Activates the HyperLaminate on-line help. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. Icon Name New Function Generates a new entity. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser.HyperLaminate Toolbar The HyperLaminate toolbar is located below the menu bar and its display is controlled by the Toolbar option under the View pull-down menu. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. Cut Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. The toolbar is shown and described here. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. 308 HyperMesh 8.

For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the browser also includes size design variables. for OptiStruct and Nastran: i. laminate definitions and size design variables existing in the HyperMesh database. Laminates: SOLIDSECTION. At the highest level are the entity types: Materials. SHELL99.0 User’s Guide 309 . These are: a. the Laminate Browser is populated with all the relevant materials. MAT2 and MAT8 ii. for Ansys: i. Laminates: PCOMP and PCOMPG iii. Design Variables: DESVAR b. for the active user profile. On launching HyperLaminate. SOLID46 and SOLID 191 c. Materials: MAT1.Laminate Browser The Laminate browser. Materials: MATERIAL and MPDATA ii. Laminates and Design Variables. Laminates: SHELL91. Materials: ABAQUS_MATERIAL ii. SHELLSECTION and SHELLGENERALSECTION Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. provides a vertical tree view of the materials. and laminates in your model. for Abaqus: i. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. 2. At the intermediate level are the entity subtypes or card images. The data is presented in a slightly different format for the various user profiles as shown here: OptiStruct & Nastran Ansys Abaqus The Laminate Browser is organized in a three level hierarchy: 1.

and Delete – which will delete the selected entity. 3. 2. the Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. Right click on selected entity sub-type. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. Left or right clicking on a branch in the browser selects that branch and it becomes highlighted. Duplicate – which creates a copy of the selected entity. A new entity appears under the selected branch. 2. a new MAT1 entity is created. 2. displayed with the names as defined by you. • From the Laminate Browser it is possible to: To create entities: There are three options for creating new entities in HyperLaminate: 1. Or 1. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. • • At the highest level (entity types) no operations are available. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. When an entity (lowest level branch in the tree hierarchy) is selected.3. A new entity appears under the selected branch A default name and id are assigned to each newly created entity. At the intermediate level (entity sub-types) only one operation is available: New – which will create a new entity of the selected sub-type. Select New from the File pull-down menu.e. Right clicking on an already selected (highlighted) branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. Click the New icon. Make the desired changes to the entity definition in the Define/Edit pane and click apply or update laminate to update the entity. 2. To review and update entities: 1. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Or 1. At the lowest level (entities) three operations are available.which allows the entity to be renamed. Click New. The selected entity is highlighted. on the toolbar. i. A new entity appears under the selected branch. 310 HyperMesh 8. if MAT1 is selected and we right click on it and choose New. . Rename . It is then possible to alter and update the entity definition. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. At the lowest level are the entities.

Duplicate. Click Rename. 2. Right click on the selected entity.0 User’s Guide 311 . Right click on selected entity. and Delete. Click Yes. 4. Or Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A duplicate of the entity is created and appears in the Laminate Browser. To delete entities: There are three options for deleting entities in HyperLaminate: 1. 6. 3. switches to a text box. and Delete. 7. Or 5. 2. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. To duplicate entities: 1. You can also rename an entity by altering the relevant field in the Define/Edit pane and then clicking on Apply or Update Laminate. Click Yes. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. 3. 4. Duplicate. Select Delete from the Edit pull-down menu. A confirmation dialog is displayed. Duplicate. Click Delete. A confirmation dialog is displayed. The name of the selected entity. Right click on the selected entity. Click Duplicate. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename.To rename entities: 1. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. in the Laminate Browser. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Enter the desired new name in the text box. 3. 2. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. and Delete. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser.

A confirmation dialog is displayed. 312 HyperMesh 8. Click Yes. . Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Note: Abaqus materials that are created but not defined (they appear in a red font in Laminate Browser) may not be deleted. 10. on the toolbar.8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To delete these undefined materials. Click the Delete icon. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. 9. either complete their definition (by clicking Edit – which takes you to the HyperMesh material card previewer) or exit and restart HyperLaminate (in which case the undefined materials are purged). as they do not really exist.

0 User’s Guide 313 . clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Nastran and Ansys materials. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Define/Edit pane is populated with the current definitions. Below are screenshots showing the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct MAT8 definition and an Ansys MATERIAL definition: OptiStruct – Materials – MAT8 Ansys – Materials – MATERIAL Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Once the desired changes have been made. To reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. all material property information for the selected material may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. Materials For OptiStruct. The configuration of the Define/Edit pane differs for different user profiles and sub-types (card images). allows you to edit the definition of the selected entity. the central pane of the HyperLaminate window.Define/Edit Pane The Define/Edit Pane.

A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus SOLIDSECTION laminate is shown here: Abaqus – Laminates – SOLIDSECTION 314 HyperMesh 8. but to fully define the material properties they must click the Edit button.For Abaqus materials users may rename or redefine the color of the material in the Define/Edit pane. As with the other user profiles. This is for all supported user profiles and laminate sub-types.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . clicking return will return you to the HyperLaminate GUI. to reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. where you can review and alter the definition of the selected material. Once you has finished reviewing/editing the material. the Define/Edit pane allows the laminate name. Clicking the Edit button takes you to the material card previewer in the HyperMesh GUI. stacking sequence convention and the ply lay-up order to be edited. HyperMesh component color. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus material is shown here: Abaqus – Materials – ABAQUS_MATERIAL Laminates For Laminates.

90. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. The midlayer is not reflected. Repeat: The Ply lay-up order table describes a single sub-laminate which is repeated a number of times. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. Symmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. The number of repetitions is given by the Repetitions: field (which is activated when this Convention is chosen). e. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. 180. The midlayer is not reflected. c. f. 180. b. 270 and 360 respectively).0 User’s Guide 315 . the total number of plies is always odd. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. 270 and 360 remain as 0. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. 90.There are a number of options for Convention for the stacking sequence: a. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. 90. Due to the midlayer. Antisymmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. Due to the midlayer. 90. It is possible to choose between constant and variable ply thickness for certain user profiles. Total: The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate in its entirety. 270 and 360 respectively). The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. 180. d. 270 and 360 remain as 0. variable ply thickness allows up to 4 nodal thicknesses to be defined for each ply. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Ansys SHELL99 laminate with variable ply thickness is shown here: Ansys – Laminates – SHELL99 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Antisymmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). the total number of plies is always odd. 180. Symmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half.

Each row of the table defines the material. Each row of the Ply lay-up order table has an SOUT field. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to request stress and failure theory output.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . by clicking the Insert New Ply button. Ctrl+c. this will keep the current selection and add all the rows between the current selection and the newly selected row). Rows are always pasted above the selected rows. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Changes can be made to the Add/Update plies: fields and Update Selection can be clicked to update the selected rows with the updated information (no changes occur to the selected rows for blank fields). It is possible to set the SOUT field individually for each row. common thickness gives every ply in the laminate the same thickness. pasted or deleted to/from the table. when multiple rows are selected the clipboard contents are pasted above each selected row. select other rows (alternatively multiple rows may be selected with the Shift key held down. by checking the Failure Theory check-box. which when set to YES includes the plies described by that row in the stress output and the failure theory calculation. either above or below selected rows (choose from the Above Selected or Below Selected radio buttons). selecting a theory from the pull-down list and defining an Interlaminar shear allowable: value. ply thickness and ply orientation for a number of plies (defined by the No. Blank fields indicate that not all of the selected rows contain the same values for that field. the Add/Update plies: fields are populated with the information common to the selected rows. All fields in the Ply lay-up order table may be edited. copied. Rows may be cut. or for all rows at once through the Output ply stress results: field under the Stress and failure theory output: heading. Select multiple rows as described in the previous paragraph. Once one or more SOUT fields are set to YES it is possible to activate failure theory calculation. Rows are added to the table by completing the Add/Update plies: entry fields and clicking the Add New Ply button. or repetitions field and based on the selected Convention). It is also possible to edit multiple rows at once. with the Ctrl key held down. Select multiple rows by selecting one row and then. Rows may be inserted in the table. The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate from the bottom ply (most negative Z) moving upwards (increasing in positive Z direction). When multiple rows are selected. using the toolbar.It is also possible to choose a common thickness for all plies. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct PCOMPG laminate is shown below: OptiStruct – Laminates – PCOMPG 316 HyperMesh 8.

Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Design Variables For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the DESVAR design variable card is supported in HyperLaminate. Once the desired changes have been made.The Ply lay-up order table for the OptiStruct and Nastran PCOMPG laminate sub-type is different from other laminate subtypes in that it has a GPLYID field. of repetitions field is not available for PCOMPG. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. . but this is not enforced in the GUI. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. Checking the Optimization check-box expands the Ply 0 lay-up order table. Selecting a design variable to the right of a thickness or orientation assigns the selected design variable to that thickness or orientation. Design variables may be selected in these extra fields. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. b) Right click on selected material sub-type.0 User’s Guide 317 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. Click Update Laminate to apply all the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). A new material appears under the selected branch. All information for the selected design variable may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. A default name and id are assigned to newly created materials. on the toolbar. To reset all design variable fields to their default values. For PCOMPG each row in the Ply lay-up order table should represent a single ply so only the Total stacking convention should be used for PCOMPG. To define a new material: 1. adding extra fields to the right of the Thickness T1 and Orientation fields. Use one of the following three methods to create a new material in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. A new material appears under the selected branch. This field is used to assign a global ply id to a ply definition (the global ply id is a post-processing aid). c) Click New. b) Click the new icon. A new material appears under the selected branch. As this id should not be repeated within the same laminate. The newly created material is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected material sub-type. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to assign a design variable to a thickness or orientation field in the Ply lay-up order table. you can click the Clear button. the No.

Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields.For the OptiStruct. 3. Click on Edit and provide the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Data may be cut. using the toolbar. 2. Select the material to be edited from the Laminate Browser. 3. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). To review or modify an existing material: 1. Note: It is not possible to rename an Abaqus material until after it has been defined (edited). copied. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. The final material definition is displayed in the Review tab. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Click Apply to save the changes. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected material definition. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. 2. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Also it is not possible to create a new Abaqus material if an undefined material definition already exists (appears in a red font in Laminate Browser). Clicking Clear will reset all fields to zero. Click return. Provide the material definition by filling in the entry fields in the Define/Edit pane. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. 318 HyperMesh 8. 3. 2. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. Ctrl+c. 4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. 5. For the Abaqus user profile: 1. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. For the OptiStruct.

. 6. Click Apply to save the changes. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. Click on Edit to see the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. Click return. b) Click the new icon. For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles define the Stress and failure theory output: information as desired. 4. 4. The newly created laminate is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected laminate sub-type. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. c) Click New. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. on the toolbar. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser.For the Abaqus user profile: 1. 3. A new laminate appears under the selected branch.0 User’s Guide 319 . If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Laminate name: field or the component color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. A default name and id are assigned to newly created laminates. 5. Make all desired changes to the material definition in the card previewer. Use one of the following three methods to create a new laminate in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate Browser. 2. To define a new laminate: 1. 2. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New.

they will be pasted as sequential rows. 320 HyperMesh 8. Having checked the Common Thickness box and entered a common thickness value.5. pasted or deleted to/from selected fields. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. pasted or deleted. Note: 7. but are now editable. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to define thickness and orientation fields in the Ply lay-up order table as designable and to assign design variables to them. Note: The option to switch between constant or variable thickness is only available for certain laminate sub-types. copied. Ctrl+c. and what was row 7 will now be row 9. b) For Ply thickness:. If Constant is selected. If rows 1 and 3 are copied and pasted at row 7. Ctrl+c. For all user profiles define the Stacking sequence convention: information. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Table rows may also be cut. you can check the Common Thickness box and specify a thickness to be used by all the entry rows. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. 6. using the toolbar. using the toolbar. Eg. select one of the following stacking sequence conventions. row 1 will be pasted as row 7. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. the Ply lay-up order table includes multiple thickness columns: Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness T1 T2 T3 T4 c) For Constant ply thickness. Total Symmetric Antisymmetric Symmetric-Midlayer Antisymmetric-Midlayer Repeat If you select Repeat. the Ply lay-up order table includes a single thickness column: Thickness T1 If Variable is selected. 10. This is governed by the stacking convention and the number of repetitions. Data may be cut. the thickness fields retain the common thickness value. select Constant or Variable. The number of rows in the table is not the number of plies. When multiple non-sequential rows are copied and then pasted. row 3 will be pasted as row 8. a) For Convention:. Note: Note: Rows are always pasted above selected rows. if you now uncheck the box. Add/Insert rows by completing the Add/Update plies: fields and clicking Add New Ply or Insert New Ply (for Insert New Ply it is possible to choose to insert the ply above or below the selected rows). Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). specify how many times you want to repeat the entire block of entry rows. 9. 8. Complete the Ply lay-up order table.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . copied.

2. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. A default name and id are assigned to newly created design variables. (only subtype available is DESVAR). b) Click the new icon. 4. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected laminate definition. Checking the Ddval ID box activates the Ddval ID field. A new design varaible appears under the selected branch. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. Use one of the following three methods to create a new design variable in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate Browser. 3. 1. 2. c) Click New. Checking the Move limit box activates the Move limit field. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. lower bound and upper bound values for the design variable can be entered in the appropriate data fields. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). on the toolbar. 7. where a move limit value other than the default of 0.To review and modify an existing laminate: 1. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). (See To define a new laminate). The laminate definition may be modified in the Define/Edit pane in a manner similar to defining a new laminate. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. To define a new design variable: Design variables are only supported for the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles.0 User’s Guide 321 . where the id of a discrete value list may be entered. . A new design variable appears under the selected branch. Select the laminate to be edited from the Laminate Browser. 5. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. 6.5 may be entered. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. (only subtype available is DESVAR). If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Desvar: field. Initial. (only subtype available is DESVAR). The newly created design variable is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration. 3.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Each change is reflected in the Review pane. 322 HyperMesh 8. Select the design variable to be edited from the Laminate Browser. Ctrl+c. 3. 2. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. copied.To review and modify an existing design variable: 1. using the toolbar. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to their default values. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. Data may be cut. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). The final design variable definition is displayed in the Review tab. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected design variable definition.

the right-hand pane of the HyperLaminate window. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Review Pane The Review Pane. listing the plies in order from the bottom ply (most negative z). a Review tab and a Stiffness/Material Matrix tab. the total number of plies in the laminate and the total thickness of the laminate. The first set of matrices are the composite shell stiffness matrices. This is followed by a description of the laminate. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. Information displayed on these tabs is only for the saved laminate definition. information for the selected design variable is displayed in the Review pane. no information is displayed in the Review pane. thickness and orientation. The second set of matrices are the equivalent material matrices. Laminates For laminate definitions for all user profiles. these are used by many finite element solvers to represent the laminated composite as a homogenized shell. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Review pane is displays the current definition of that entity. so this information is only updated when the Update Laminates button is clicked. Materials For OptiStruct. allows you to review the information pertaining to the selected entity. For Abaqus materials. all material property information for the selected material is displayed in the Review pane. The Stiffness/Material Matrix tab provides the two sets of matrices. Design Variables For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. more commonly referred to as the ABD matrices. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane.0 User’s Guide 323 . The Review tab is headed by the laminate name. the review pane has two tabs. Nastran and Ansys materials. showing a graphical representation each ply’s orientation and listing the referenced material.

a small set of coordinate axes is displayed at the corner of the block.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering ." All of these dead cells are placed in walls.Finite Difference Module The Finite Difference module allows you to perform heat transfer. Always finalize the size of your block before beginning the next phase. 324 HyperMesh 8. You can adjust the size of the block by using the functions on the FD blocks panel. and k directions of the block. and dead cell information as an analysis input deck by using the HyperMesh template system.0 and 110. and solidification processes by creating an orthogonal. Cylindrical and spherical volumes are not supported in the current release. three-dimensional. If a finite element model is currently loaded. and a block may contain multiple walls of dead cells. wall. You cannot change the shape of the finite difference block after you create the structured mesh without destroying all the grid lines. Note: The color of a block may be modified at any time by using the update function on the FD blocks panel. j. Otherwise. the block is created with the default bounds of -10. structured mesh in a cubic volume around your model. When the block is displayed. After you create a finite difference block. creating "dead cells. the outer boundary of the volume. Finite difference blocks are built performing the following steps: Creating a Finite Difference Block The first step in creating a finite difference block is to create the block. fluid flow.0 in each direction. chemical reaction. These axes serve as a reminder of the i. you can export the grid. The panels in this module allow you to intersect your finite element shell model with a finite difference block. the block is created with a default size of ten percent larger than the model in each direction (the size of a model is determined by its nodes).

See the FD nodes panel for more information. and k directions. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. j nodes. respectively. j. HyperMesh allows you to automatically intersect a finite element model with the cells in a finite difference block. The intersection and modification of live and dead cells is done in the FD walls panel. Initially. To intersect the model with the cells. depending upon the restrictions enforced by the analysis code being used.Creating a Structured Mesh After you create a block. After you create a wall. select the desired elements and click intersect. j. which creates dead cells wherever a one. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. After you create a mesh. Grid lines are created in one direction at a time. the block must be selected by using the block = menu item. Cells that alter the flow are known as dead cells. and k directions creates a large number of small cubic volumes called cells. All the one-and two-dimensional elements selected are intersected with the cells in the current block. Deletes all existing walls. Solid elements are currently not supported in the interse ction operation. all or part of the finite element model may be intersected with the cells in the finite difference block. meaning that the cell does not alter the flow being studied. You must create a wall before you create dead cells. and displayed in the current wall color. Note: Before any wall operation is begun. Updates the color of an existing wall.or two-dimensional element intersects any part of a cell. Intersecting Elements with Cells The intersection of grid lines in the i. Displays a list of all walls in the block. which also contains all the functions you can use to manipulate walls. Deletes the specified wall. you create a structured mesh in the block by creating grid lines in the i. each cell within a block is live. marked as dead. or k nodes has been selected. based on whether i nodes. A cell may exist in only one wall. You may then select which walls to display and turn off by using the left or right mouse button.0 User’s Guide 325 . you can verify the aspect ratio or expansion ratio limits. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. The wall functions are described below: create delete update delete all display Creates a new wall with the name and color specified in wall = and color. Cells that intersect an element are placed into the current wall.

The FD walls panel allows you to edit cells. the color menu items in the i. However. it is easier to see which cells are dead. since only dead cells are plotted. and k are at their minimum values. you can edit any cell in the block. all dead cells are displayed in the color of the wall to which they belong. If you change the color of a plane. then only cells in the currently displayed plane(s) may be edited. Otherwise. and i. After edit cells is selected. by volumes. use the cursor to select the cells to add or remove. If the block is displayed in planar mode. 326 HyperMesh 8. they are highlighted.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you must click hidden line again to display the new color. j. where the block coordinate axes are located. j. plane-by-plane. Creating Finite Difference Hidden Line Plots Hidden line plots of cells in a finite difference block are useful in the verification phase of a finite difference model. or remove cells from the current wall and mark the cells as live. Cells do not have a visible pick handle and must be selected at the corner closest to the origin of the block. Click the left mouse button to add cells and the right mouse button to remove cells from a wall. It is possible to step through the model. When cells are selected. The edit cells function allows you to add individual cells to the current wall and mark them as dead. and k directions must be modified to provide the plotting color for cells in each plane.Modifying Cells Cells may be changed from live to dead or dead to live individually. or by planes. by using the next and prev menu functions. When the entire block is plotted. if planar mode is used to display one or more of the planes of cells. Because cells have no visible pick handle.

There are two ways to map loads on geometry to the mesh associated with this geometry (loads on mesh): • • Manually. Automatically. Comments Loads on mesh and loads on geometry can be displayed together (similar to the simultaneous display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component). by exporting the FE deck. you control the display of loads applied to elements. velocities. moments. flux.Loads on Geometry HyperMesh allows you to apply loads to geometrical entities and map them to the FE mesh using the load on geom panel on the Analysis Page. pressures. The disp (display) panel allows separate or simultaneous visualization of loads on mesh and loads on geometry. temperatures. When geoms is selected. and click the toggle to select elems or geoms. from the display panel (accessed via the toolbar) select loadcols from the switch. When elems is selected. One advantage is that you can remesh a model without deleting complicated loads or boundary conditions. Use the none. and accels. all and reverse buttons to assist in selecting which loadcols should be displayed. A geometrical entity can be associated with one mesh or multiple meshes (HyperMesh component or components) and/or with one load collector or multiple load collectors. using the load on geom panel. using the files panel/export sub-panel. loads or boundary conditions that have been applied to geometrical entities can be remapped to the new mesh. The mesh (or multiple meshes) is associated with the geometrical entities to which the loads on geometry have been applied. constraints.0 User’s Guide 327 . Each load type is stored in a dedicated section of the same load collector. To visualize loads on mesh and/or loads on geometry. and load collectors may contain one type or both types simultaneously. See Exporting Loads for more information. One load collector stores both loads on geometry and loads on mesh. This means that you can control the display of both types of loads independently. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you control the display of loads applied to geometric entities. After remeshing. These are the same panels used to apply loads to a mesh. You can apply loads to geometry by using the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces.

a line. The process of mapping geometrical loads to mesh loads.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . load mapping 328 HyperMesh 8. or a surface. The loads are mapped from the geometrical entities (to which the geometrical loads are applied) to the mesh that is associated with the geometrical entities. Loads applied to geometrical entities. Loads can be applied directly to mesh or applied by mapping them from loads on geometry.Terminology and Definitions geometrical entities loads on geometry or geometry loads loads on mesh or mesh loads A point. Loads applied to mesh (nodes or element).

points points points surfaces nodes on edge: lines (for 2-D solid elements) nodes on face: surfaces (for 3-D solid elements) points. first create a load collector in which the loads applied to geometrical entities will be stored. etc. lines and surfaces. moments. constraints.g. 1. lines and surfaces. velocities. Creating a load collector by using the collector panel. define the load or boundary condition parameters in the same way you would for the application of the load or boundary condition on a FE mesh entity (e. temperatures velocities Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. forces. Applying loads to the geometry using one of the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces.g. temperatures.0 User’s Guide 329 . HyperMesh stores the loads/boundary conditions in the database and displays them in the graphical window. access a HyperMesh load panel (e. node). constraints. The process includes two basic steps. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.) located on the Analysis Page. in each of the load application panels listed above. and choose the create sub-panel. points. and accels. Third. and click create. 2. lines. or surfaces) using the panel selection box.Application of Loads to Geometry You can apply loads to geometrical entities in a way similar to the manner in which loads are applied to mesh. lines and surfaces. select a geometrical entity on which the loads will be applied (points. Next. Panel accels constraints flux forces moments pressures Geometrical Entities points. lines and surfaces. points. To apply a load to a geometrical entity. reviewing. flux. and updating loads and constraints. The following chart specifies the geometrical entities to which loads can be applied. pressures.

The basic length of the arrow also differs.hm file. they will automatically be mapped to loads on mesh and exported as well. mapped from geometry to mesh. a single arrow for each geometrical entity represents loads on geometry. all load types are saved and are retrieved when you open the .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and loads on mesh that have been mapped from loads on geometry. If any loads on geometry are displayed and have not been mapped. The loads on mesh that are exported may have been applied directly to mesh. an arrow that represents a load on geometry is longer than arrows representing loads on mesh. loads on mesh that have been applied directly to mesh. all the loads on geometry that have not been mapped (if any). only the loads on mesh are exported. are mapped to loads on mesh and all the loads on mesh are exported. When exporting the model using an export template. When saving the model as a HyperMesh database. or both. all the displayed loads on mesh are exported. 330 HyperMesh 8. Note: A major graphical display difference between loads on geometry and loads on mesh is the density of the arrows. The all/displayed toggle on the export sub-panel on the file panel allows you to determine which loads are exported. If all is selected. For the same arrow magnitude percentage setting or uniform size setting within the load application panels. A simultaneous display is similar to the display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component. Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh The disp (display) panel allows you to visualize loads on mesh and loads on geometry either individually or together by setting the collector type to loadcols and using the toggle between elems and geoms. If displayed is selected. elems controls the display of loads on mesh and geom controls the display of loads on geometry. Multiple arrows represent loads on mesh (one arrow per node or element). All the loads on mesh (both displayed and hidden) that are associated with the displayed loads on geometry are exported as well.Exporting Loads HyperMesh sessions can contain loads on geometry.

NASTRAN. ABAQUS. When you enter data in the dialog you should begin with the first field and proceed. until all data has been entered. The Distributed Load Mapper macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file. on the macro menu. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory. Aerodynamic pressure loading and temperatures computed in a CFD analysis and written out either in TECPLOT 4. in order. NASTRAN.mac.. or ANSYS input file format) Select a data type and a mapping method Set the scale factors Set the mapping algorithm Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 format or at spatial coordinates is mapped to a structural analysis mesh in OPTISTRUCT. to the next field below.0 User’s Guide 331 . Entering data in the Distributed Load Mapper dialog requires the following steps: • • • • • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. The Distributed Load Mapper dialog is displayed when you click DLM.Distributed Load Mapper The Distributed Load Mapper (DLM) macro enables you to perform structural finite element analyses by incorporating the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. or ANSYS format. ABAQUS.. dlm.

for example. The only exception to this is when some of the DLM transformation functions are used correctly and appropriately through their selection in the DLM interface. D:\dlm_map_files\structural_model. one of the following conditions must exist: • • The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing outward from the wings outer surface. structural_model_dynain • • A Tecplot 4. The element normals of both the CFD mesh and the structural analysis mesh must be consistent in that all the elements should be aligned and pointing in a common direction. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. This file is related to the base CFD model. This file is related to the structural input model. if you are mapping a pressure loading on a wing structure.Assumptions Regarding the DLM Interface and Mapping Process In order to map effectively. These files are always called hmimp.dat One file containing all the mapping parameters and selections detailed in the DLM interface. Examples of Typical Input Files • • Computational fluid dynamics results database file. For instance. the CFD base model and the structural finite element model must exist in the same position in coordinate space. D:\dlm_map_files\wing_cfd_model. for example.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . wing_cfd_model_dynain • A DLM specific file. 332 HyperMesh 8.0 format file related to the structural input model.dat Structural analysis model file.dat Examples of Typical Output Files • A DLM specific file. The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing inward from the wings outer surface. A valid HyperWorks/HyperMesh license must be available on the local system or network for the DLM mapping algorithms to run. DLM Input and Output Files It is useful to understand the input and output files related to a DLM session. structural_model_tecplot. used to post-process in Altair HyperView.

. Use the browser to locate a file. The pressure or temperature data at spatial coordinates must be distributed densely enough to have approximately one data point for each element of the structural model.. The data must be prescribed in a fixed format.548135996E-01-8. a warning message is displayed.098905325E+00 1.0 User’s Guide 333 .357369840E-01-8.356568158E-01-8. .926119655E-02 1.e.960968852E+00 4..105462790E+00 1. Click Open. If the CFD file is in a Tecplot format. 2. Note: • • • DLM accepts three input file formats: Tecplot 4.854129910E-02 1. filename_dynain. The file also must have a header and footer as shown below: #XYZDATA #pressure 1. followed by the pressure or temperature value each data occupying 16 characters and a space separating them. i. click Browse. Each row should show the x. y.452460170E-02 1. The file is placed in the same directory as the CFD database and takes its name from the parent file. .960631967E+00 4.970389962E+00 4.Load an input file containing CFD analysis results 1. #ENDDATA Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a DLM specific file is created so that the data being mapped can be visualized in Altair HyperView.095489740E+00 . For Computational fluid dynamics results database file:. and z coordinates first.0 BLOCK and POINT data formats DLM specific input file format (files which end filename_dynain) Measured pressure or temperature at xyz coordinates If the selected file is not in a DLM appropriate format.

500. This could be used to apply a safety factor to the results. 334 HyperMesh 8.00 (no scaling). or ANSYS input file format) 1.. Y. it is appended to the structural model input file in the form of PLOAD or TEMP cards appended to the end of the OPTISTRUCT. or to the element centroids of each quadrilateral or triangular element in the structural mesh. click Browse. or to simply investigate the effects of scaling the load upon the model. For Data parameter mapped:.e. if dimensional reduction/scaling was used in the actual CFD analysis. ABAQUS. i. For Mapping method:. Use the browser to locate a file. The file is placed in the same directory as the structural model database and takes its name from the parent file. the X. if the CFD result scale factor is 1. The base CFD model file may contain up to seven different data types. NASTRAN. The default value is 1. or ANSYS input deck. These data parameters are read into the interface when you load the base CFD model file (Load an input file containing CFD analysis results).Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. The PLOAD card output to the structural model files is altered appropriately to the selected nodal or elemental configuration. For CFD result scaling:. Note: The data from the base CFD model is superimposed onto this model through the mapping process. 2. For Structural analysis model file:. select Element nodes or Element centroids. ABAQUS. enter a scale factor to physically scale the base CFD analysis model. which would leave the coordinates of the base CFD model unchanged prior to mapping. The data can either be mapped and related to the nodes of each element in the structural model.500.. This would ensure that the base CFD model would match and be positioned in the same Cartesian space as the structural analysis model. If a value of 200 is entered for CFD model scaling:. The mapped data written to structural analysis model files can relate to two different locations on the finite elements of the model. filename_dynain. all the data mapped during the DLM session is multiplied by a factor of 1. Click Open. 3. . A DLM-specific formatted file is written out for post-processing in Altair HyperView. 2. NASTRAN. enter a scale factor by which to increase or decrease the results. if the XYZ dimensions of the model were scaled to 1/200 of the actual size and submitted for analysis. and Z coordinates of all the nodal locations in the base CFD model is scaled. The default is 1. Select a data type and a mapping method 1. For example. select the data type to be mapped. 2. For CFD model scaling:. The data type is read from the information in the header block of the base CFD file. For example.000. Set the scale factor 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Once the data is mapped. These scaled values are output to the structural model data file in the PLOAD card section.

Selects the minimum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. the Modulus value of the data points captured in the vicinity of the element/nodal location being mapped to. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Set the mapping algorithm 1.0 User’s Guide 335 . select one of the following options: Averaged Takes the data and average for data points captured in the proximity of the structural data position being mapped to. For Mapping algorithm:. Click OK. The mapping algorithms are accessed. and the DLM dialog closes upon completion of the mapping process. Accepts whichever is larger in magnitude. for instance. and takes an average of these two values. Maxima Minima Extrema Averaged extrema Delaunay-O’C 2. Selects the maximum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. Takes the maximum and minimum of the data points captured in the proximity of the data location being mapped to. the mapping process runs. The default mapping algorithm.

The operators for which the algorithms are programmed are listed below: Programmed Operators: Unary minus ^ Power of ln Natural Log log Log to the base 10 sin sine cos cosine tan tangent asin arcsine acos arccosine atan arctangent exp Exponential / division * Multiplication + Addition Subtraction Acceptable 1 1.0 corresponds to 1.mac. The Mathematical Loading dialog is displayed when you click Math. This field allows you to enter an equation string using standard spreadsheet inputs for the various operators and operands.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering operands may be input in the following forms: corresponds to 1.0 10e-01 336 HyperMesh 8.0 corresponds to 1.Mathematical Loading Distributed pressure loads can be created at nodes via mathematical loading functions using the Mathematical Loading macro.. Mathematical Loading dialog The Mathematical Loading macro requires the following input: Structural analysis model file: Equation string fn(x..y. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory. dlm.0 Altair Engineering .z) = The browser allows you to select the structural model in NASTRAN format on which to apply a mathematical function. on the macro menu. The Mathematical Loading macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file.

1e+01 corresponds to 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0.0 User’s Guide 337 .0 x corresponds to the coordinate position x of the nodes of the model y corresponds to the coordinate position y of the nodes of the model z corresponds to the coordinate position z of the nodes of the model The following input rules apply: • Equation strings should always have balanced parentheses to ensure that the logic of the math expression is maintained. • Note: To create pressure loads at element centroids via mathematical functions. However unrecognized characters and functions will cause the loading to yield unacceptable results. use the Field Loads macro on the Geom/Mesh macro menu. Spaces and a mixture of uppercase and lower case letters are acceptable. The dialog informs you when there is an error in this instance.

HyperMesh Results Database The structure of a results database allows you to access results by a method similar to that of the analysis code.Post-Processing Analysis The HyperMesh post-processing functions allow you to review the results files and databases generated by external codes. phase. Each simulation in the results database is further subdivided into data types. This translation is done using result translators. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. Stores one floating point value at an element. Data types are one of the forms described below: nodal displacement nodal value Stores three floating point values at a node. If you run a nonlinear job. Each simulation stores the results for a model as it responds to a loading condition. element value complex nodal displacement complex nodal value complex element value complex nodal von Mises complex element von Mises Data types are not required to contain results for every node or element in the model. refer to the individual translators in the Interface help system. For example. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at a node. A data type may contain only one type of result. if this is appropriate. deformed. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at an element. and vector plots. Results files can be translated into HyperMesh results databases which are then read into HyperMesh for post-processing. In order to complete the post-processing function being executed. for more information. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. HyperMesh prints a message indicating that results for some of the entities requested were not found in the database. A results database is divided into sections called simulations. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at an element. Stores one floating point value at a node. HyperMesh sets the results values needed for that function to zero for all of the nodes or elements that are missing. assigned. offset) at a node. If this occurs. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. phase. Each data type found in a simulation contains a group of results of the same type. and may contain a subset of the total model. For example. each load step (the response of the model to each incremental amount of load applied) translates to a simulation. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. each simulation in a results file may contain two data types: displacements and von Mises stress.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 338 HyperMesh 8. This section describes the structure of a HyperMesh results database and explains how to use the post-processing functions to create contour. if you run a linear statics problem and apply three different loading conditions to your model. the results file generated by the translator contains three simulations. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. offset) at an element.

HyperMesh uses only one simulation and this simulation must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. The selected simulation must have a data type in it that contains nodal displacement records. HyperMesh calculates the deformed geometry of the structure from the data contained within the nodal displacement records. There are two ways to select a results file: • • From the files panel. HyperMesh uses a range of simulations. modal. select the results sub-panel. Modal animation is most useful for displaying mode shapes.. and transient. It is from the data contained with the nodal displacement records that HyperMesh is able to calculate the deformed geometry of the structure. Transient animation sequences are generated in the transient panel. The deforming frames are calculated based on a sinusoidal function. Creating Deformed Geometry Plots The deformed panel allows you to display the deformed geometry of your model statically. In this case. Modal Transient The selected simulations must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records in order for HyperMesh to create an animation sequence. An appropriate number of frames are linearly interpolated between the first and the last positions. each of the simulations used in the animation sequence must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records.0 User’s Guide 339 . In the global panel.Specifying the Results File In order to perform post-processing functions. in either wire frame or hidden line mode. The three types of animation include linear.. Transient animation is used to animate the transient response of a structure. to select a file using the browser. to select a file using the browser. Modal animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. Modal animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts and ends with the original position of the structure. Creating Animations The HyperMesh animation functions allow you to view your model structure in motion. Linear animation is usually selected when results are from a static analysis. you must first specify the name and location of the HyperMesh results database. Linear Linear animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts with the original position of the structure and ends with the fully deformed position of the structure. Linear animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. for results file:. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Transient animation displays the structure in its timestep positions as calculated by the analysis code. For linear and modal animation. For transient animation... enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. and for file:. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse.

nodal values and displacements The results are stored at the nodes. The elements are then displayed in the solid color assigned to them. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. When a contour function is performed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Vector plots are used to determine the direction of movement and allow you to verify the location of the center of rotation of a model.Creating Vector Plots A vector plot displays the model with a vector at each node that has a result-based direction and magnitude. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the centroid of the elements. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when element centroid values are used to create a contour plot. nodal values and displacements 340 HyperMesh 8. The bands of color are created by calculating a value for each node in the model and then interpolating across each element. this is accomplished by adding the results at each node and dividing by the number of nodes on the element. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when nodal values or nodal displacements are being used to create an assigned plot. When the assign function is performed. so no further calculations are required. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the contour plot. element values The results are already stored at the centroid of the element. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. HyperMesh averages the results at the nodes to the centroid of the elements. Creating Contour Plots The contour function in the contour panel generates color bands on a model. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the assigned plot. In order to accomplish this. based on the values in the results file. This allows you to display elements that have values within a specified range. HyperMesh can create the contour plot without modifying any of the values in the results file. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. See the vector plot panel for more information. element values1 Creating Assigned Plots The assign function in the contour panel assigns a color to each element in the model. HyperMesh averages the centroidal element values to the nodes of the elements. In order to accomplish this. based on the values found in the results file. For each element. The values are located at the centroid of the element. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the nodes of the elements.

The ID. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When you want to determine the actual value that an analysis code has calculated for a node or element.Adding Plot Identification After you create a results-based plot. To modify the descriptor. click font and select the size font you want to use in the descriptor. modify the colors used in the legend. and also change the colors used in the legend that correspond to the model. convenient way of viewing the results of a large number of elements. simulation and data type. HyperMesh plots a legend if the results-based plot created requires it. To modify a legend. you can select the node or element after the results-based plot has been created. Temporary titles can be added to each type of plot by entering a title in the title = field in the contour panel. the temporary title is displayed on the upper left side of the screen. click within the displayed legend to access the legend edit panel. click color to change the color of the text of the descriptor. change the color of the text in the legend. change the font size. the descriptor is located in the upper left-hand corner of the plot above the legend. By default. Inspecting the Results A contour or assigned plot provides a fast.0 User’s Guide 341 . and relocate the legend and the descriptor. reverse the colors of the legend. you can add titles. and value of the node or element are displayed in the menu area. After you enter the title and create the plot. HyperMesh creates the "descriptor" in order to display the simulation and data type that were used to create the plot. Functions on this panel allow you to move the legend to a different location on the screen. click within the descriptor to access the title edit panel.

342 HyperMesh 8. This section introduces the functions that are available in the xy plots module. Information about xy plots is stored in plot collectors.XY Plotting The functions in the xy plots module allow you to study the relationships between data vectors in results files. You can create standard plots or dual plots that show real /imaginary or phase/magnitude data. Plots maintain a list of pointers to curves that are to be displayed on the plot.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you must assign the curve collector to a plot. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. Procedures for creating and editing xy plots and curves include: • • • • • • • • • • • Creating an XY Plot Modifying XY Plots Working with Multiple XY Plots Modifying Multiple XY Plots Creating Curves on XY Plots Reading Curves from an ASCII File Creating Analysis Based Curves Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions Modifying Curve Attributes Displaying Selected Curves on Plots In addition. Information about curves is stored in curve collectors. To display a curve. The plot may contain any number of curves. There is no limit to the number of plot collectors that a HyperMesh database may contain. which are referred to as plots. which are referred to as curves. A curve may appear on more than one plot at a time and there is no limit to the number of curves that a HyperMesh database may contain.

and zoom out. circle zoom. You can also change the color and font size used to display these entities. etc. line style. you can change the color and font size used to display these entities. Grid labels appear along the x and y axes in the plot (tick marks). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You may also specify whether the border is displayed and the size of the margin between the border and the plot.0 User’s Guide 343 . and the line style (solid. The plot titles panel allows you to change the plot title. To access the xy plots module. font.). The legend panel allows you to change the location and the font used to display the legend. The axis scaling panel allows you to modify the starting and ending values of the plot axes. In addition. axis scaling border curve attribs edit curves grid attribs grid labels integrate legend plot titles plots query curves read curves rename results curves simple math In addition. Creates and modifies the curves in the database. and the margin displayed around the grid lines. select xy plots on the Post page of the main menu. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. and number of significant places in the labels. dashed. Allows you to determine the coordinate values of points in a curve. You can also change the curve title that appears in the legend. subtitle.XY Plots Module The xy plots module is a group of panels that perform operations on plots and the curves displayed on those plots. You can apply a scaling factor to the original data points. Reads curves from an ASCII file. marker style (used to indicate the point location). The grid labels panel allows you to change the color. You can set the values explicitly or implicitly by using the panel functions such as find curves. The curve attribs panel allows you to change the color. The grid attribs panel allows you to change the color. thickness of the grid lines. thickness. This panel allows you to read data vectors from files as well as perform advanced mathematical operations on curves. Generates a curve from the currently-selected results file. Calculates and displays the integral of a curve. Allows you to perform simple mathematical calculations on a curve. and label. Allows you to create an xy plot and assign curves to the xy plot. The xy plotting panels are described below: axis labels The axis labels panel allows you to modify the x and y axes titles and labels. Allows you to rename curves. The border panel allows you to change the thickness and color of the border around the plot.

and then apply those modifications to the other plots.Creating an XY Plot Each xy plot window is assigned a name when you create it. Modifying Multiple XY Plots When several plots are contained within a database. the grid labels and grid attributes. Working with Multiple XY Plots HyperMesh places every xy plot within a window. Every time you change the current xy plot. HyperMesh displays the existing values of the current xy plot (the plot listed after plot =) in the data entry fields in the panel. XY plot window placement is controlled with the Windows panel. you can change the color. This process also applies to curves. the plot = field allows you to select one plot and the plots entity selector allows you to select multiple plots. This allows you to control multiple plots by resizing and moving plots around the screen. the panels in the xy plots module are updated to reflect the change. select the plot you want to change. and change the attribute in the panel. For example. or add a title to the plot. you may wish to modify one of the values on all of the plots. 344 HyperMesh 8. Each time a panel in the xy plots module is accessed. and labels. HyperMesh immediately displays the update. Modifying an XY Plot After you create an xy plot. When you modify xy plots using the panels of the xy plots module. HyperMesh initially assigns default values to the xy plot attributes. you may wish to change the axis titles so that they are all the same.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . These attributes can be adjusted before or after you add curves to the plot. Access this panel by pressing the w key. After each change. You can modify one plot so that it has the desired values. The first step in the process of creating an xy plot is to use the plots panel to name and create an xy plot collector. in one step. To modify an xy plot. or a subset of the plots. and also the margin and border around the xy plot. thickness. subtitle. or width of the border. Plot attributes include the title. select the panel that applies to the attribute you want to change.

TITLE X1. The block ends with an ENDDATA statement. Y1 X2. Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Curves can be created using simple math operators in the simple math panel. The block begins with the statement. Examples of external filters are in the filters subdirectory that is provided when this option is selected. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Essentially. or export the curve. ENDDATA XYDATA. After XYDATA. Point data follows with a set of (x. the title assigned to the curve. . After this information has been supplied. transform a curve. and then select a data type for the x axis data points and a data type for the y axis data points. ENDDATA Each curve in the file is defined in a block format. you select entities of interest in your model.Creating Curves on XY Plots You can create curves using four different methods: • • • • Read curves from an ASCII file Extract a curve directly from a results database Create curves by using a few simple math operators Read single curves from files as well as generate curves by using mathematical expressions Reading Curves from an ASCII file When HyperMesh reads curves from an ASCII file with the read curves panel. For every operation. . . which define two curves. Creating Analysis-Based Curves Analysis-based curves are generated from the HyperMesh binary results file. When you create an analysis curve. there are two blocks of data. which is displayed in the legend.TITLE X1. follows on the same line. Y2 . In the above example. y) data pairs on each line.0 User’s Guide 345 . You can also apply external filters to curves in this panel. You can combine two curves. it assumes that the format of the input file is as follows: XYDATA. HyperMesh reads the required data from the results file and generates the appropriate curve. you can specify that the x or y values of the curve remain fixed. Y1 X2. using the standard HyperMesh curve data file format. Analysis-based curves are generated in the results curves panel. XYDATA. Y2 . . filters exchange data with HyperMesh.

in the format curve number. you must indicate the curve number and the x or y vector. HyperMesh recalculates the curves in the proper order. For more information about math expressions. To reference the y vector of curve 1. the component must be selected. After the data request set has been selected. The y vector can be a function of x or the x vector can be a function of y.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Source file data is divided into type. the data source for the x vector could be a file. When you modify a curve. New data can be selected from a source file or mathematically defined.Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions The edit curves panel allows you to create new curves or edit existing ones. and the data source for the y vector could be a math expression. Each vector of a curve can be defined using either a data vector in a data file or a math expression.y To reference the x vector of curve 1. The data sources for the x and y vectors are displayed in the x = and y = fields. Once the data type has been selected. request. the data request set needs to be selected.vector: For example: c1. based on what has been modified. refer to the Altair Math Reference.x c1. Type Request Component Note: Data files can consist of different types of data. To edit the x and y vectors of a math curve. 346 HyperMesh 8. and component. For example. Available data types depend on the data file.

Modify the list by selecting the curves by name and removing or adding the curves to the current plot as desired and click return. This scale factor is used to scale the x values in a curve. curve title curve width curve style curve color curve marker The curve title is displayed in the legend. when the curve is displayed. This scale factor is used to scale the y values in a curve. triangular. The names of the curves that are already displayed on the current xy plot are highlighted. HyperMesh displays a list of the available curves in the database. you can select which curves in the database you want to display on an xy plot. The following curve attributes may be changed in the curve attribs panel. HyperMesh currently supports a solid line. HyperMesh currently supports either thick or thin lines. The curve may also be displayed with no markers shown. HyperMesh currently supports 15 standard colors. The style of line used to draw the curve. no line at all. x scale factor y scale factor Displaying Selected Curves on Plots After you have read or created curves. HyperMesh currently supports circular. and square markers. To select curves for a plot. select the plots panel and click select curves. The color used to draw the curve. The width of line used when the curve is drawn. and four different patterns.0 User’s Guide 347 .Modifying Curve Attributes Modifying curves is very similar to modifying plots. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Determines the markers drawn around each data point in the curve.

The curve’s attributes fill in the fields in the curve attributes area. To quit the curve editor. and must be imported by use of the update button. but changes made in a HyperMesh panel do not automatically get sent to the curve editor. click the close command button. curve attributes (blue). and graph attributes (cyan). For this reason. Click the display checkbox in the curve atributes area. in the sense that changes made in the curve editor are automatically sent back to HyperMesh. The curve displays in the graph area. To summarize: • • Changes made in the curve editor immediately affect HyperMesh. if you leave the curve editor open while making changes within the HyperMesh XY plotting module. you must use the update button in the curve editor to import the changes. 2. Access the curve editor from HyperMesh’s Setup pull-down menu. To display curves in the graph area: 1.Using the Curve Editor The curve editor is a pop-up window that allows you to view and modify graphed curves in a more intuitive and holistic way than the individual xy plots panels provide. It’s important to be aware that the curve editor is not completely symmetrical with HyperMesh. because they are automatically applied as you make them. Changes made in HyperMesh do not immediately affect the curve editor. The curve editor contains four main areas. 3. 348 HyperMesh 8. Modify the curve attributes if needed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . outlined with colored boxes in the image below: the curve list (green). Note that any changes you make in the curve editor will be retained. graph area (red). Click the desired curve in the curve list.

Click the curve that you wish to modify. 2 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you could 2 restrict the X axis to only graph accelerations from 1 to 5 m/s . To change the graph's attributes: 1. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. you could change it from “X” to “Acceleration”. Or 2. select a number from the every: list box. Modify the fields inside the Y-axis frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s Y-axis label. Make any desired changes to the curve’s attributes: Modify each X and/or Y value by clicking it. modify the fields inside the X-axi s frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s X -axis label. Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. and then typing in a new value. making a finer grid. click the desired color to select it. For example. Either click the curve in the curve list. select a symbol from the list box. To place a marker symbol at each point on the curve. click the thick line checkbox. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. Select a Line style to change the curve’s line from solid to dotted. Click the display checkbox to toggle the display of the curve in the graph area. Click the curve in the graph area. 1. For example. you could change it from “Y” to “time”. To draw the curve in a thicker line. the line’s symbol points will still display. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis.0. For example. A list of available colors displays. Note: If you choose no line. pressing the <delete> key to erase the current value.0. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. For example.5. if it is already set to Display. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. Change the Color by clicking the colored box.0 User’s Guide 349 .To change a curve's attributes: 1. or show no line at all. and 1. In the graph attributes area. Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. 2. To change the symbol spacing. even if your data included accelerations ranging from 0 up to 10 m/s . if you choose “3” then only every third point will display as a symbol.5). For example.

Type in a new name for the curve. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. In the curve list. making a finer grid. which now uses the curve’s new name. To delete a curve: 1.5). 2. but you only wish to graph the accelerations that occur between 30 and 35 seconds. Click proceed.0. Click the Delete command button. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. A confirmation window displays. For example.0. 2. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a name for the new curve. you cannot recover it. or No to keep the curve. 2. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. 3. Click proceed. Click the new curve in the curve list and modify its attributes as needed. 3. click the curve that you wish to delete. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. For example. once you delete a curve. Click Yes to confirm the deletion. Type in a name for the new curve. type in the X and Y coordinates for each data point in the curve. 3. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a new name for the chosen curve. 4. Click the hide checkbox to toggle the display of the legend on and off. To rename a curve: 1. To create a new curve: 1. - Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. Click the New… command button in the curve editor window. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. Modify the fields inside the Legends frame: Select a location to determine where the legend displays in the graph area. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. and 1. Click the desired curve in the curve list. Undo You cannot undo a deletion.- Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values.5. 350 HyperMesh 8. even if your data included accelerations from 0 seconds to 60 seconds. you could restrict the range by typing “20” into the min and “35” into the max. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. 3. 1. For example.

Altair HyperOpt. Before importing AutoDV data. the perturbation vector approach must be selected.0. x Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. PVi is the perturbation vector associated to the design variable DVi . with the perturbation vector approach as the default setting. Nastran. In shape optimization. are the basis vector approach and the perturbation vector approach. The stand-alone solver is still available and can be used for the generation of manual perturbations. Shape Optimization The type of design variables that are used distinguishes different types of structural optimization. AutoDV has been stand-alone software. The boundary shape changes must be translated into changes of the interior of the mesh to avoid mesh distortions due to shape changes. and Templex. In finite elements. a more flexible tool to set-up and generate shape perturbations. the structural shape is defined as a linear combination of basis vectors. In topology optimization. AutoDV is now complemented by HyperMorph. AutoDV interfaces with HyperMesh thru the AutoDV template for export and AutoDV reader for import. Both approaches refer to the definition of the structural shape as a linear combination of vectors. and Genesis. the shell thickness. and spring properties are design variables. Altair HyperOpt provides both. In the past. most of AutoDV’s capability to create perturbation vectors using control perturbations is fully integrated in HyperMesh. The two most commonly used in commercial software packages like OptiStruct. Further. The basis vectors define nodal locations. the shape of the structure is defined by the vector of nodal coordinates.AutoDV Introduction AutoDV is utility developed for the generation of perturbation vectors for shape optimization in optimization packages such as Altair OptiStruct. such as beam section properties. x = ∑ DVi ⋅ BVi x is the vector of nodal coordinates. The perturbation vectors define changes of nodal locations with respect to the original finite element mesh. Starting with HyperWorks 6. the structural shape change is defined as a linear combination of perturbation vectors. AutoDV generates perturbation vectors. the design variables define the boundary shape of the part to be optimized. If there is a choice in the optimization code. There are different approaches used to define the shape in an optimization setup. HyperOpt.0 User’s Guide 351 . HyperStudy. Altair OptiStruct and Altair HyperStudy use the perturbation vector approach. AutoDV can also be used to generate distributed loads. is the vector of nodal coordinates. usually density-related values that define the material distribution are the design variables. BVi variable DVi . Genesis. Using the basis vector approach. Altair HyperStudy. The function of creating harmonic shape functions for 2D problems only works with AutoDV. x = x 0 + ∑ DVi ⋅ PVi where x 0 is the vector of nodal coordinates of the initial design. x. a finite element model must be loaded into HyperMesh. In size optimization. Nastran. input parameters of a model. where is the basis vector associated to the design Using the perturbation vector approach.

a finite element model representing the baseline shape of the structure must be developed. and generates the corresponding perturbation vector.pert file a different ID. In HyperMesh.pert<nnn> models with the <prefix>. giving the *. Example: mymodel. AutoDV creates condensed <prefix>. move the grids to define the perturbed shape. Write out a perturbation file <prefix>. Do not save the perturbed model. Write a <prefix>.pert<nnn> files that contain only the perturbed grids. However. Manual perturbation of grids in HyperMesh. Before these methods can be applied. AutoDV compares all <prefix>. Select the solver panel. 3. Harmonic perturbation vectors using design domains. where nnn is the design variable ID.base file using the baseline model of the structure using the OptiStruct template supplied in the distribution. the files generated by HyperMesh contain the entire model. Manual Perturbation To generate perturbation vectors by the manual perturbation method: 1. identifies the perturbed grids.pert006. 7. Click the switch and select AutoDV as your solver. using the AutoDV template. 352 HyperMesh 8. Run AutoDV through the solver panel using the appropriate options. retrieve the baseline HyperMesh database and complete steps 2 and 3. 2. To generate another perturbation vector. AutoDV requires that the <prefix>.pert<nnn> files contain data only for the perturbed grid points.pert<nnn>. 6. 3.base model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Generation of Perturbation Vectors Perturbation vectors can be generated in one of three ways: 1. 5. Polynomial perturbation vectors using design domains. 4. 2.

Define primary domain model elements and domain node sets. but not necessary. Select the perturbations panel.0 User’s Guide 353 . 3. However. It is recommended. select the optimization panel. DTRIA3 DHEXA8. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. If needed. that you organize 2-D and 3-D domain elements in separate components. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Polynomial Perturbation Vectors To create polynomial perturbation vectors: 1. DPENTA6. Pick the nodes that form the domain element. Use the solver panel to run AutoDV. To create a domain element: 1. 2. 6. Primary Domain Model This example shows how to create a primary domain model over the finite element model using the following first order 2-D and 3-D domain elements. 5. 2. 5. Select the type of domain element. 3. Each domain element generally encompasses a large number of finite elements. Define shapes and control perturbations. DTETRA4 These element types are generated using the AutoDV template provided in the distribution. 7. 2-D elements 3-D elements DQUAD4. All domain elements may be organized in more than one domain component. Assign shapes to design variables. On the BCs page. The Domain model must encompass those finite element grids of the model that need to be perturbed. Select the domain subpanel. none of the domain components should include finite elements. build a secondary domain model and define secondary node sets. 4. 4.

e. 4. it is identified by AutoDV. Domain node sets can be created automatically when the domain element is created. Select update. 354 HyperMesh 8. 3. you must implicitly ensure that relationship while creating domain elements and node sets by making sure that all the nodes that need to be perturbed as a shape variable are completely encompassed or parameterized by the domain model. Pick the domain element from the graphic display. However. 7. Select the domain subpanel.. A given node may belong to more than one node set.Primary Domain Node Sets Node sets constitute the primary entities for generating perturbation vectors. To manually create a domain node set for an existing domain element: 1. Select the perturbations panel. This generally happens at the common edges and corners between domain elements. This relationship is not explicitly defined by the user.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . All nodes in a given node set are perturbed using mathematical relationships based on the control perturbations applied on the Domain Model. On the BCs page. 6. 2. 8. select the optimization panel. all corner nodes of that element must belong to that node set. Select the nodes for the domain node set. 5. i. There should be exactly one domain element related to each node set. Toggle nodeset to manual. or they can be created manually. Click add.

and Pz are polynomial interpolation functions of up to quadratic order. you do not need to create a second order domain element. In order to generate a quadratic perturbation. On a given edge. Animate the shape design variable: − Click animate. Control perturbations are defined by creating vectors at control points.0 User’s Guide 355 .Control Perturbations Perturbation vectors are generated by interpolating control perturbations defined at selected control points. A linear interpolation uses control perturbation at the corners. Click create vector to create the vectors.. AutoDV assigns a control perturbation of magnitude zero to the corner point. the interpolation is parabolic if a mid-side control perturbation is defined. Click return to return to the perturbations panel. The deformed panel is displayed so you can animate the design variable to validate your definition. Py. Instead. That mid-side control point does not have to lie on the edge of the domain element. To define control perturbations: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. otherwise it is linear.g. 3. Select the perturbations panel.y) = Px(x) Py(y) Pz(z) where P x. Create shape design variables: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. defining a zero magnitude vector is the same as placing no vector. Click create shape.y) = Px(x) Py(y) For 3-D domains. AutoDV identifies the mid-side perturbations and internally changes the corresponding edge of a domain element from linear to quadratic (curvilinear edge element). The order of interpolation is based on the presence of mid-side control perturbations. Select perturbations using the toggle. A quadratic interpolation would use the corner as well as the mid-side control perturbations. 8 characters) in shape =. For corner control points. They are automatically added to the shape specified in shape =. For 2-D domains. The corner points of a domain element and mid-side nodes of the corresponding node sets constitute control points (e. In either case. Enter a name (max. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. place the control perturbation on a mid-side node on an edge of the domain node set. the interpolation function is a product of three functions: P(x. The interpolations are performed as follows. the interpolation function is a product of two functions: P(x. − AutoDV computes perturbations of all structural grids by interpolating control perturbations. 2. a DQUAD4 domain has 8 control points).

the presence yields a quadratic interpolation. Computes perturbation of each grid in the list by interpolation using the related control point perturbations. defining zero magnitude vector is not the same as placing no vector. the interpolation is quadratic with the value of zero for the mid-side node. 356 HyperMesh 8. AutoDV computes the perturbation vectors for shape variables in the following order: • • • Identifies all domain elements and node sets attached to vector belonging to a given shape variable. Whereas the absence of a mid-side control perturbation yields a linear interpolation on that edge. In the case of a zero magnitude mid-side perturbation.For mid-side control points. Generates the corresponding list of grids to be perturbed in that variable.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

However. Interpolating those perturbations linearly to all the grids of the secondary domain.0 User’s Guide 357 . the perturbation vector for this model is as shown in the illustration below. The gum-drops are modeled using a rigid (R1)-spring (K)-rigid (R2) representation. the control perturbation causes grids G1 and G4 to be perturbed as shown. Here. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You may use the secondary domain model where two nodes belonging to the primary domain are connected using several 1-D elements in a series. AutoDV responds by: • • • Computing pert urbations on the primary domain model using the control perturbations. they remain unperturbed. Secondary domain is not required if the nodes are connected using a single 1-D element. grid points G2 and G3 are generally coincident.Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets A secondary domain model allows computation of perturbation vectors for grids on 1-D elements connecting two different components. This problem is solved using a secondary domain model as follows: • • Create one rigid element (type DRBE2) between the two end nodes (G1 and G4 in this example). Here. For example. Identifying perturbations of the end nodes of the secondary domains. Move the end nodes as well as all intermediate nodes into an independent node set. With only primary domain. consider the two sheet metal components connected using gum-drops. The domain model for each plate contains one element each. illustrated below. because grids G2 and G3 are not part of any node set. The perturbation vectors are also shown in the illustration.

Note: A DRBE2 element does not have to be connected to a control point. this yields the perturbation shown below. and no control perturbations are required at the two nodes of the DRBE2 element.Using the example illustrated above. 358 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Each vector may have a different length and orientation. Select the design variable in the card pre-viewer in the permanent menu. 4. The orders m and n of harmonic functions are user-controlled. one at each corner point of the DQUAD4.y) = P (x. create a design variable using that shape. and Y_TYPE: Card image X_ORDER Y_ORDER Symbol m n Default 0 0 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. Generate domain elements and node sets as described in the previous section.0 User’s Guide 359 . Select the DQUAD4 element on which harmonic perturbation vectors are desired and create a shape with exactly four vectors . These are part of the vector collector card. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. The harmonic shape variables are computed using a product of the following two functions: V(x. However. Edit X_ORDER. 3. Harmonic variables are defined only on DQUAD4 domains.y) T (x. one DQUAD4 element at a time. Then the shape variable is reduced to the polynomial shape variable. There should be no other vector in that shape. y) Where P is the polynomial function described in the previous section.Harmonic Perturbation Vectors Harmonic shape variables are defined using a process similar to that for polynomial shape variables. X_TYPE. modeling requirements for generating harmonic variables are very stringent. The design variable label should not have more than four characters. To define harmonic perturbation vectors: 1. y) = Xm(x) Yn(y) Where Xm(x) = cos (m*x/2) = sin (m*x/2) =1 and Yn(x) = cos (n*y/2) = sin (n*y/2) =1 for odd values of n for even values of n for n = 0 for odd values of m for even values of m for m = 0 For m = n = 0. Each harmonic shape variable component must contain exactly four vectors. the harmonic component of the shape variable has a value of 1.one at each corner control point of that element. In the shape panel. and T is the harmonic function given by: T(x. Y_ORDER.

even Default all all For given values of m and n. modify the setting in the harmonic subpanel.You have the option of generating all. or even harmonics by entering the appropriate harmonics types in the vector collector. Examples of the naming procedure follow: Example 1: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv01 2 0 1 dv010001 X_TYPE = all Y_TYPE = all 3 1 0 dv010100 4 1 1 dv010101 5 2 0 dv010200 6 2 1 dv010201 desvar name = dv01 Example 2: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv02 X_TYPE = even Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv020001 3 2 0 dv020200 4 2 1 dv020201 desvar name = dv02 Example 3: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv03 X_TYPE = odd Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv030001 3 1 0 dv030100 4 1 1 dv030101 desvar name = dv03 360 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . odd. Accordingly. even all. odd. odd. Card image X_TYPE Y_TYPE Options all. It generates shape variable names by appending the x and y orders to the component name. AutoDV generates a series of independent perturbation vectors.

The control points can be the corner points of a domain element or the mid-side nodes along the edge of domain elements. Apply the variable loads: − − − − − − − On the files panel. Select desvar using the toggle. Domain elements and domain node sets for the domain where the load is applied must be created before you can generate a variable load. you must write an AutoDV input deck using the AutoDV template. Click create to create the vectors. the corner and mid-side control points. − − − − On the BCs page. Click file = and enter the result file with the . select the apply result panel.0 User’s Guide 361 . Creating control perturbations at the corner nodes of the domain element yields a linear interpolation. Select all the displayed nodes and set mult = to 1. Variable loading can be generated for forces. Create control perturbations to define the characteristic of the variable load: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. select the results subpanel.dv. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − − Select perturbations using the toggle.Generation of Variable Loads Generating variable loads with AutoDV is similar to generating perturbation vectors. Click name = and enter the name of the AutoDV input deck.animate suffix. To generate a variable load: 1. 8 characters) in desvar =. A quadratic interpolation can be generated by creating control vectors either on the mid-side control points or on both. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. select the solver panel. Click solve to create the interpolated variable loads. Click simulation = and select the variable loading condition wants to apply. Select the create load subpanel. Variable loads are generated by interpolating control vectors defined at selected control points. Click create. Click apply to apply the variable loads. On the Post page. They are automatically added to the design variable specified in desvar =. Enter a name (max. AutoDV computes the variable loads on each structural grid by interpolating the control perturbations defined on control points. Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. Select AUTODV as the solver. 2. 3. 4. Run AutoDV to generate the variable loads: Before you run AutoDV. Select the perturbations panel. moments and temperatures.

Examples: 362 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Running AutoDV Stand-alone
To run AutoDV, select AUTODV as the solver in the solver panel and then give the prefix of the input file name along with the options. The input file name should be prefix.base. autodv -file <prefix> -inp opt1 -ent opt2 -code opt3

The valid entries and default values for options are given in the following table. Note that these parameters could be given in any order. Entity <prefix> Valid Options Prefix of the input file name, or input file name. OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS, HYPERSTUDY, TEMPLEX, HYPEROPT FORC, MOMT, TEMP, LONG OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, PAMCRASH, RADIOSS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MARC, ANSYS, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT Default Value Solver Panel input file =

Opt1

analysis code =

Opt2 Opt3

NONE NONE

component = subcode type =

The interdependency of options on each other is explained in the following table. For example, for a given opt1, it gives the possible values for opt2 and opt3. Opt1 OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS HYPERSTUDY TEMPLEX Opt2 None Long Opt3 Ignored Remarks For shape optimization None – Standard format Long – Long format For variable loading

FORC, MOMT, TEMP Ignored

Ignored

OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, RADIOSS, PAMCRASH, MARC, ANSYS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT, ABAQUS, NASTRAN

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/Generic and HyperStudy

HYPEROPT

Ignored

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/OPTISTRUCT, HyperOpt/ABAQUS, and HyperOpt/NASTRAN

Altair Engineering
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After AutoDV runs, it creates the following files: prefix.dat A bulk data file that contains the DVGRID and LOAD information, respectively depending on opt2. A bulk data file for the perturbed model corresponding to the shape variable nnn. This file originally contained the manually generated perturbed file. After the program runs, this file contains only the GRID data for all perturbed grid points. This file contains the shape design variables in the HyperMesh results format. This file can be loaded to HyperMesh and results can be viewed. Note: The animation should be used only as a check for the shape of the perturbation vector. It will not display the upper and lower bounds for the shape variable. The file prefix.dat becomes part of an input file for the respective native analysis package. Note: If you create a perturbed model file, prefix.pertnnn, and also a set of control perturbations with an identical shape variable ID, nnn, the resultant perturbation vector from AutoDV is a union of the manual as well as the interpolated grid perturbations. For the common nodes in the two sets, the manual grid perturbations given in prefix.pertnnn override those generated by using interpolation. prefix.subcode.node.tpl Templex template to replace the nodal coordinates in the original input deck. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX. Contains nodal coordinates and perturbation vectors for use in the file, prefix.subcode.node.tpl. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX.

prefix.autonnn

prefix.dv.animate

prefix.shp

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Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
Using an H3D file, you can save 3-D animations from HyperMesh in the .h3d format for viewing with the HyperView Player. HyperView Player is an Internet browser plug-in for visualizing 3-D Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models and results. Using product data in Altair's compact .h3d format allows you to incorporate animated images in an HTML document for presentation or engineering reports. Simulation results can be sent by e-mail, or placed on the web for others to open and review. HyperView Player is available as a free download on Altair's Web site at http://www.altair.com. To create an H3D file from HyperMesh: 1. 2. Select one of the following panels: contour, deformed, hidden line, transient, or geom cleanup. To control the display attributes for your model: 3. Specify your desired display attributes using visual options or the visual panel.

Click the Hyper3d button or H3D>HV. Two files are created. One is an H3D file, using anim#.h3d as the file name. The symbol # is automatically assigned to the H3D file. The other is a sample HTML file including an <EMBED> statement for the corresponding H3D file. H3D>HV loads the newly created H3D file into HyperView. You can define this option in the options panel under modeling.

4.

To review the model in a web browser: Double click the HTML file to launch a browser. or Click H3D to activate the standalone HyperView Player.

You can customize the external HTML template, h3d_template.html, located in the altair/hm/html directory, to suit your needs. Note: In the HyperMesh geom cleanup panel, the Hyper3D button is displayed when you select the shaded option in the visual options subpanel.

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Embedding a HyperView Player Object in HTML Documentation The following section defines the arguments and provides an example for embedding statements in an HTML document in order to view a HyperView Player graphic object. Note the following updates to HyperView Player: Simplified HTML File Statement Since the H3D file created from HyperView, and HyperMesh includes scene information, the arguments in the old statements for model readers and result readers are no longer needed. The HTML statements have been simplified in this release. However, the HTML files created for HyperView Player 3.1 are still supported. HyperView Player only supports H3D direct readers. You can create an H3D file using: • • • • Note HyperView HyperMesh HyperMesh result translators, such as hmnast, hmnasto2, hmdyna, hmradioss, hmpam, hmansys, and hmabaqus OptiStruct You may need to modify your HTM L files created for HyperView Player 3.1 if you were using direct readers other that h3d.dll, such as adams.dll, gfile.dll, lsdyna.dll, and madymo.dll, since those readers are no longer supported in HyperView Player.

Direct Readers

To embed a HyperView Player object, the <EMBED> statement in HTML is used. All arguments are case insensitive.

General Arguments for EMBED Statements
type width/height SRC="URL" Application/x-h3d Measured in pixels The location of the plug-in data file as indicated by its URL.

Embedded Statement Example
<EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="HTTP:\\www.altair.com\h3d\bumper.h3d"> <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="../bumper.h3d">

More examples can be found in the HyperView Player demo directory, and our Web site, http://www.altair.com.

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Using an HTML File
You can use HyperView Player to share information by embedding it in an HTML file. You can use either a relative path or a standard Uniform Resource Locator (URL) to specify the path for the H3D file in the <EMBED> statement. There are three different ways to define file transfer protocol: FILE, HTTP and FTP. This section describes how to select a protocol for file transfer using files, anim1.html and anim1.h3d as examples.

Embedded Mode
FILE://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="File://c:\Altair\demos\hvp\anim1.h3d"> An absolute path is required for File:// and the H3D file must reside in the specified path. When you distribute the files, you may need to modify the HTML file for the path.

HTTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="http://www:8080/~John/anim1.h3d> Others can access your public web area on the Internet. When sharing an H3D file, you can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files in your public HTML directory and send the link to others in the company by email. The link can be, for example, http://www:8080/~John/anim1.html. By doing this, you do not need to distribute the H3D file and can guarantee the path is working correctly. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click the link in the email, the model will be displayed.

FTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="FTP://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html> You can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files on your FTP site. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click ftp://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html, the model is displayed.

Relative Path
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="../anim/.h3d> Using a relative path allows you to distribute an HTML file easily. You can create a folder with the necessary HTML and h3d files for distribution.

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Full page mode
In an HTML file, you can easily hyperlink a string to an H3D file. When you click the hyperlink, the plug-in loads a model in full-page mode.

Using E-mail
You can attach an H3D file to an email. If the recipient is using a PC, he or she can click the attachment and the H3D file will load automatically. You can also save the H3D file and at a later time, double-click the file to invoke the standalone version of HyperView Player. Another available option is to drag the H3D file and drop it into a browser to view the model in a full window.

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H3D FAQ's
How can I view a model with shaded display in HyperView Player? The model display settings are recorded during H3D creation. Set up the desired model display, with such options as mesh lines and feature lines, in the Vis panel under the Performance Graphics mode in HyperMesh.

Why doesn’t the legend setting in HyperView player reflect the setting in HyperMesh? HyperView Player only supports default settings for the legend display from HyperMesh. The specified Max and Min values in HyperMesh are not recorded in the H3D file of this version.

Can I view complex result animation in HyperView player? No, the H3D writer does not support complex result data.

What types of element are not supported in the H3D file? Second order elements, rigidlinks, and RBE3s are not supported in this version. The mid-side node of a second order element is ignored when it is read into HyperView Player.

How can I change the window size for viewing HyperView Player in the browser? You can modify the width and height values in the <EMBED> statement in the HTML file. (For example, width = 600, height = 600)

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Free Body Diagrams
HyperMesh allows you to create or edit Free Body Diagrams (FBD) using several tools that display in the tab area. Each FBD tool displays on a separate tab, which opens when you activate that tool. Location: Results menu, Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tools) Tool menu (to access the FBD Set Manager only) Tab Area (for the tools themselves)

Free Body Diagram (FBD) utilities facilitate the extraction and post-processing of Grid Point Force (GPFORCE) results. FBD utilities currently support OptiStruct and Nastran .op2 files, and are only available in the OptiStruct or Nastran user profiles. FBD extractions are typically utilized for breakout and/or sub-modeling analysis schemes, where balanced “free body” sub-cases are extracted from a coarse grid model and applied to a fine grid sub-model for eventual optimization and/or analysis. FBD is also used to extract cross-sectional resultant forces and moments (typically at the centroid of a cross-section) for use in traditional strength calculations. Each tool has a separate entry in the menu. In addition, see the overview on Grid Point Force Balance tables to gain further understanding of FBD operations within HyperMesh, while the Set Manager utility assists in generating the element and node sets which the FBD utilities analyze.

This coarse grid model is typical for FBD extractions.

Typical FBD – Forces output on a wing rib

Typical Result Force and Moment output on a floor beam

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deleting. as desired: • • • • Use <ctrl>-click and <shift>-click to select multiple items in the tree structure. geometry. Nastran. or export state) that the filter buttons apply to. From the Tools pull-down menu. and ABAQUS user profiles. and changing the export state of entity sets. The set manager displays in the tab area. Nastran. along with the entity set display and export states. appending entities to. See To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display for details. The selection type options allow you to control the entities (elements. or Abaqus user profile. select Set Manager. 3. Location: Tools menu (to access the Set Manager) Tab Area (to use the Set Manager) The Set Manager consists of a tree structure listing the current entity sets in the model. It also includes functions for displaying. Use the toolbar buttons in the Set Manager tab to manipulate the display options. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.FBD Set Manager Use the Set Manager tool to automate the grouping and display of model components through HyperMesh entity set functionality.0 User’s Guide 371 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The Set Manager utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct. The sync button synchronizes the entity set display states with the current HyperMesh display. renaming. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. 2. To set display options for the Set Manager: 1. The filter buttons allow for additional selection control. creating.

From the Tools pull-down menu. 2. The graphic above shows all of the available options. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. 3. or on individual or multiple items within folders. on folders. select Set Manager. 372 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh prompts you to type in a name for the set or accept a default name. grouped in folders by type. accessed by right clicking in the background. Delete: Deletes the currently selected set(s). or Abaqus user profile. Right -click anywhere within the tree structure to open the right-click menu: There are many functions available. Supported entity set types are shown above. including: • • • • • • • New: Create a new entity set of the specified type. Delete Reference: Removes a set reference from a entity set type of sets. Add Entities to Set: Adds entities into the currently selected set. Expand All: Expands all branches of the tree. Nastran. Multiple sets may be selected by using standard Ctrl/Shift-click functionality. The set manager displays in the tab area.To use the Set Manager right-click functionality: 1. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. Collapse All: Collapses all branches of the tree. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to add to the set. Rename: Rename the selected set.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Import Session File: Loads a session file (. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to remove from the set. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. select Set Manager. Show: This operation adds the entities contained in the selected set(s) to the HyperMesh display.ses). grouped in folders by type. When switching between supported solvers. and then displays only the currently selected set(s) in the HyperMesh display. Export Session File: Saves a session file (. Once a display toggle is changed.• Remove Entities from Set: Removes entities from the currently selected set. The Checked State signifies that all entities in the entity set are currently displayed. which control the display of each of these entities separately. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. The export state of each entity set is stored in the HyperMesh database. For component sets there are two toggles: one for elements (first check box) and one for geometry (second check box).ses) containing group definitions. • The export toggle determines whether the entity set definition is to be exported when the model deck is written. The set manager displays in the tab area. Display Options: Determines how the sets display in the Set Manager tree. The display and export states of entity sets are controlled by clicking on/off the display and export icons located next to each entity set in the tree. to the disk. containing group definitions for the selected node or element sets. From the Tools pull-down menu. The Blank State signifies that one or more of the entities in that entity set are not displayed. Nastran. Available options are shown above. click the Synch toolbar button to update the HyperMesh display with the current selection. or Abaqus user profile. Display IDs: Displays a popup window showing the IDs of all entities contained in the selected set. • • • • • • • To change the Set Manager's display and export states: 1. The display and export icons associated with each entity set are described below: • The display toggle determines whether the entities contained within the entity set are displayed in HyperMesh. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. Show Only: This operation turns off (masks) all currently displayed entities. Hide: This operation removes the entities contained in the selected set(s) from the HyperMesh display.0 User’s Guide 373 . after clicking either the display or sync buttons. These group definitions will be converted into HyperMesh entity sets. this information is automatically converted to the new solver format when Set Manager is opened. The Checked State signifies that the entity set will not be exported. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. The Blank State signifies that the entity set will be exported. 2. or by using the display options icons in the toolbar. and is only available for component and element sets.

the Display button at the bottom of the Set Manager allows you to update HyperMesh to match the Set Manager settings. Instead. but display states always default to the unchecked state on startup. 374 HyperMesh 8. The Synch button resides in the toolbar described by the topic To set display options for the Set Manager. the Set Manager utility does not automatically synchronize the display states of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display. Export states synch automatically. constantly synchronizing the display state of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display can introduce performance issues. In addition.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the Display button can be used to update the HyperMesh display to the current Set Manager selection. To remedy these occurrences. in which case the Set Manager and the HyperMesh display are synchronized until another selection is made within the Set Manager. while the Synch button in the Set Manager toolbar allows you to update the set manager to match the current state of the HyperMesh display. For large models.To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display: The Set Manager is meant to allow users to easily control the display and review of entity sets for model grouping and visualization purposes.

or if the original . only the LABEL is used. consider using STRESS = NONE to further reduce the size of the . If a new . This lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract displacement information. Only sub-cases with displacement results from the currently selected. Once an . Use the . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards.op2 file is required. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.LABEL(ID)”. The FBD Displacements tab displays in the tab area. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct or Nastran user profile. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS io option card The FBD Displacement utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Displacement extractions. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). sub-case names and IDs with displacement output are saved with the rest of the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review.0 User’s Guide 375 . Select a sub-case.op2 file changes.op2 file is selected. You can select multiple sub-cases by ctrl-clicking or shift-clicking. 2. you must load the new . Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. Note: Recommended practice is to output displacement data for the node set(s) of interest only. • • Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files.op2 file: field to specify the full path and filename of the . a text summary table within HyperMesh. Tab Area (for the tool itself) After you define an element set with an associated node set. all appropriate displacements and rotations are extracted. The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUB-CASE #”. Location: Results menu. then FBD Displacements.FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility extracts displacement data for user defined node set(s). for Nastran and OptiStruct. Additionally. To extract displacement data for a user-defined node set: 1. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE . This procedure reduces the size of the . If no SUBTITLE exists.op2 file containing the displacement output for the current model. select Free Body Diagram. The sub-case display can be switched between ID and Name (ID). The tool also supports .op2 file. From the Results pull-down menu.op2 file into the database (overwriting the previously selected one). 3. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. and a formatted . 4.op2 files containing displacement data from OptiStruct and Nastran.op2 file display for selection.

The option helps to eliminate “relatively small” values from being output to the result formats. • 6. If a coordinate system is not specified.op2 file format. On the Setup menu. and toggle to the assign sub-panel. • The Zero Tolerance entry defines the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. There are several options: • The Element Set selector defines the elements that contain the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. The FBD Displacement utility extracts and applies the displacement and rotation results from the .5. • The Show model checkbox is a graphical review option that. otherwise modify the value as desired. Uy. The entity selection section allows you to select and/or create the appropriate entities required to execute the FBD Displacements utility. It is assumed that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . select the required nodes and a coordinate system.csv file output options.0e-6. The Auto find interface nodes option automatically finds the nodes attached to elements that are not contained within the currently selected element set. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used for controlling the output of results to the various formats. Results coordinate system transformations are not performed on displacement data.op2 file. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. If a node set is not selected. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card.z) in the summary table and . click Coordinate Systems.y.…) is always output in the system that the results are stored with in the . Additional nodes may be added to the node set once it is created by clicking the Node Set selector and picking additional nodes.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 376 HyperMesh 8. and click Set Analysis. • The Coordinate System selector determines the coordinate system used to display the nodal coordinates (x. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the extraction. This procedure selects the nodes interfacing with the remainder of the structure.op2 file in the output coordinate system without any further coordinate system transformations. The Node Set selector defines the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. This functionality allows you to verify which element and node sets are currently selected. Select entities. You will be prompted to give the newly created node set a name. automatically displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element and node sets. when checked. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database does not match those used to run the analysis then the extracted values will be incorrect. Displacement data (Ux. Situations when this behavior could occur include modification of nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. Choose Output options: The Output options section contains various options to review and display results of FBD Displacement extractions. The Set Manager utility on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. then all nodes within the element set are used.

The loads in this load collector are created with the SPC load type. The load collector name format is FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp. element and node set(s). FBDD_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Disp would be created for element set 1. it will be appended to the end of the file. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table.csv file option creates a . The table contains information about the sub-cases. IN any case. You may select a new file or an existing file.• The Create Load Collectors option will extract the specified displacement data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window5. node set 1 and sub-case 1. but in a comma-separated file. For example. and detailed displacement data at each node. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. is created for each sub-case. Loads in this collector are created with the SPCD load type. This collector can be referenced as the SPC in the sub-case panel. it will append/replace the data. If it does not exist. If an existing file is selected there are several items to note: If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. • The Create . node set and sub-case IDs). for the current element and node set. The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. The Create SPCD option will additionally create a load collector with the name “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD”. • The Show summary table option outputs the results to a popup window for instant review.0 User’s Guide 377 . A single load collector. Selecting yes will not overwrite the file. you will be warned that the File already exists and asked if you want to replace it. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. This collector can be referenced as the LOAD in the sub-case panel. A sample window with partial output is shown below.

op2 file is required (or if the original . 378 HyperMesh 8. To select a sub-case: The Sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the .op2 file. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. The op2 file field accepts the full path and filename of the .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities.op2 files containing GPFORCE data from OptiStruct and Nastran. use this to browse to and select the desired .op2 file into the database. Once you’ve selected an op2 file. for Nastran and OptiStruct.csv) file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages.FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data (including forces and moments) for a user-defined element set. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected.op2 file. Location: Results menu. and/or a formatted Comma-Separated Values (. Multiple sub-cases can be selected via Ctrl-click or Shift-click functionality. The tool supports . and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. The sub-case list can be switched between ID and Name (ID). a text summary table within HyperMesh. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case in the format SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID).op2 file that contains the GPFORCE output for the current model. only the LABEL is used. This opens the standard file selection dialog window. The ID option lists the sub-cases in the format SUBCASE #. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards The FBD Forces utility is broken down into three major sections. This procedure reduces the size of the . Tab Area (for the tool itself) Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. To select a results file: Click on the folder icon inside of the op2 file field. If no SUBTITLE exists. Additionally. If a new . overwriting the previously selected.op2 file changes) you must load the new . The FBD Forces utility is currently supported by OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). each of which corresponds with the process order of using the tool.op2 file are displayed for selection only.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions.

select the required nodes and a coordinate system. RROD. and Reaction Loads Only. Use the Element Set selector to define the elements that make up the free body and contain the nodes at which GPFORCE data will be extracted. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. Available options include All Loads. On the assign sub-panel.0) is used by default. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation . MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. If a results system is not specified. Reaction Loads Only extracts and utilizes only SPC and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on nodes in the selected set. SPC.) If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis.0 User’s Guide 379 . and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. If a node is not selected. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. To specify output options: 1. Use the FBD type selector to determine the grid point force and moment data to extract and utilize for FBD calculations for each node in the selected element set.op2 file. Rigidlink. Applied Loads Only extracts and utilizes only the applied loads grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. result system and summation node. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the GPFORCE data is summed for the selected element set. cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. This could occur when modifying a nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and.0. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point force and moment result vectors are transformed and output. This allows you to verify which element sets is currently selected. It is also useful for calculating the result of applied or reaction forces about any node. the extracted values will be incorrect. and RBAR. 3. Activate the Show Model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode while highlighting the currently selected element set. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. 4. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . • • • All Loads extracts and utilizes all element contribution.To select entities: 1. RJOINT. results coming from. sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). (See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. or when loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. the HyperMesh origin (0. RBE3. applied. or output to. The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force and moment results from an . In addition. This is useful for verifying free body behavior through zero-sum values for all force and moment components about any node. 2. Applied Loads Only.

For example FBDF_E(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. it will be appended to the end of the file. it is appended to. Use the Create . therefore it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which FBD result must be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh 4. In addition a load collector with the Nastran/OptiStruct LOAD card is also created. Use the Zero Tolerance entry field to define the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. selecting yes will not overwrite the file—it will append/replace the data as described above.2. modify the value as desired. You may select a new file or an existing file.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. This load collector is named “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” and can be referenced in the sub-case panel as the LOAD entry for the various sub-case definitions. • The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. sub-case 1. This option helps to prevent relatively small values from being output to the result formats. Altair Engineering • 380 HyperMesh 8. All calculations are performed with floating point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current element set. The FBD Results Manager tool can be used to review the load collectors generated from FBD Forces utility. activate the Show summary table option. This allows FBD information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. 3. If it does not exist. When you save the HyperMesh database. The table contains information about the sub-cases.0e-6. and component Fx. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets. 5. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . If an existing file is selected. all FBD Forces load collectors are saved to the database. referencing the component force and moment load collectors.csv file option to create a . A sample window with partial output is shown below. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. To output the results to a popup window for instant review. The load collector name format is “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. but in a comma-separated file. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. and there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. However. sub-case IDs). To maintain floating-point precision the default is set to 1. Use the Create Load Collectors option to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for visualization in the model window. element set(s).

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the loads associated with that node are also deleted. gaps. This auto-create cross-section capability requires a continuous mesh with rows of nodes (of any orientation) to work properly. summation node. and a local result coordinate system. If a results system is not specified. result system and summation node which define the cross-section in the graphics display area.FBD Cross-section manager The FBD Cross-section Manager (CSM) utility creates and manages cross-section definitions that are used within the Resultant Force & Moment utility. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the grid point extraction. a temporary node is created. Use the Node Set selector to define the nodes in each currently selected element set at which grid point data will be extracted and summed from. HyperMesh adds separate crosssection definitions to the table with the original element set and each selected node set. The FBD Cross-section Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. etc…) and must have identifiable rows of nodes. Use the Element Set selector to specify the elements containing the nodes that define the crosssection. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. 3. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point vector results will be transformed and output. 5. If this node is deleted from the model. 4. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. If multiple element sets are selected. The Advanced options section provides the means to semi-automatically create cross-section element and node sets for beam-like structures with regular meshes. The FBD Cross-section Manager interface has two creation methods available for cross-section definition: manual and (semi-) automatic. which are defined by an element set. when checked. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the grid point data will be summed. When using the “Centroid” option. each set is added to the table as a separate cross-section definition which can be modified later by selection. Tab Area (for the tool itself) This utility contains tools for defining cross-sections. 2. If no node is selected. This option calculates the nodal averaged centroid of the coordinates of all of the nodes in the node set and creates a temporary node at that location. Use the Set Manager tool on the Tools menu to create the necessary node sets. the utility defaults to “Centroid”. If multiple node sets are selected for a single element set. The mesh shouldn’t have any discontinuities (holes. To define a cross-section manually: 1. It also features semi-automatic generation of element and node sets for defining cross-sections. node set. Location: Results menu. The Display sections checkbox is a graphical review option that.0 User’s Guide 381 . displays the element set. node set. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). starting from the selected nodes and progressing along the length of the selected elements.

result system and summation node. For example. or only the new “row” of elements. 4. cross-section definitions only need to be defined once and stored in the HyperMesh database. the offset value is zero and HyperMesh generates numbered set names starting with one. These nodes should be at one end of the beam. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the crosssection names and the associated sets. Optional: activate the sets accumulate option This determines whether each progressive set also contains the elements from the previous set. 7.e. If checked. the generated set names are numbered starting from that value. 6. all cross-section definitions are also saved. Standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality can be used to select cross-sections. Type a prefix for the name of each generated element set into the Element set prefix field. modified. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode. This displays the entire model in transparency mode. 5. Use the Nodes selector to pick nodes for the first node set (i. 3. If the offset value is set to a value greater than zero. 382 HyperMesh 8. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox. This allows you to verify a cross-section definition. To define a cross-section automatically: 1. you type in “NSET” each element set will be named NSET [#]. the cross-section data is saved to the HyperMesh database. By default. Use the Elements selector to choose the elements that define the entire “beam-like” component from which cross-sections will be generated. Cross-Sections can then be accessed from within the Resultant Force and Moment utility. Optional: use the filter buttons on the top of the spreadsheet to select which cross-sections are required. Therefore. highlighting the currently selected element set. Type a Numbering offset into the text box. highlighting the currently selected elements and nodes. first cross-section). each element set will contain the elements from the previous set. it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which cross-sections are to be retained within HyperMesh database. or deleted. node set. where “#” increases with each new set generated. Selected crosssections can also be deleted from the database by using the Remove selection button on the right end of the filter buttons. Type a prefix for the name of each generated node set into the Node set prefix field. which utilizes the cross-section definitions to perform these calculations. you type in “ESET” each element set will be named ESET [#]. Comments Each time a cross-section is created. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For example.6. 7. When the HyperMesh database is saved. Therefore. This is the offset value for generated set names. where “#” increases with each new set generated.

only the LABEL is used.op2 file is required. a text summary table within HyperMesh. Location: Results menu.op2 file is selected. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. The tool supports . This procedure reduces the size of the .op2 file into the database. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. Two utilities available within HyperGraph also interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. Multiple sub-cases can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. If no SUBTITLE exists. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.op2 file. Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities.op2 file containing the desired GPFORCE output for the current model. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The resultant force and moment utility generates input data for shear and moment (VMT) diagrams and/or to perform load-case screening with Potato plots in HyperView.op2 file and helps speed up the Resultant Force and Moment extractions. and/or a formatted . for Nastran and OptiStruct. you must load the new .op2 file field to specify the full path and filename of the . Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. The Resultant Force and Moment utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. To select a results file: Use the .op2 files containing grid point force data from OptiStruct and Nastran. Additionally.0 User’s Guide 383 .op2 file changes. To select a sub-case: Select the desired sub-case(s) from the list in the sub-case section. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID)”. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved.op2 file display for selection only. The sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . overwriting the previously selected.FBD Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment (RF&M) utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data for user defined cross-sections created via the Cross-section Manager.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. If a new . When an . The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUBCASE #”. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. or if the original . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. The subcase list can be organized by ID or Name (ID).

If a coordinate system is not specified. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current cross-section. Use the Zero Tolerance field to specify the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. Rigidlink. For example RF&M_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. RROD. Activate the Create Load Collectors checkbox to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. 1. otherwise modify the value as desired. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. To specify output options: The Output Options section contains various options to review and display the results of Resultant Force and Moment extractions. The Cross-sections section lets you specify the cross-sections from which you wish to calculate resultant force and moment results for each selected sub-case. Resultant force and moment vector results are always output in the result coordinate system defined for each cross-section.To select a cross-section: Pick the desired cross-sections from the list in the cross-sections area of the tab. In addition. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . each made up of an element set and node set. RBAR. This can occur when modifying nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis. Cross-sections are created using the Cross-section Manager. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2.csv file. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. the extracted values will be incorrect. and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. The option helps to eliminate relatively small values from being output. Multiple cross-sections can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. RBE3. The Resultant Force and Moment utility extracts grid point force and moment results from the . and . The load collector name format is “RF&M_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. results coming from or output to cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this .op2 file. sub-case 1.0e-6. 3.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. operation sets the CD field on the GRID cards). Use the Coordinate System selector to determine the coordinate system used to output the nodal coordinates (x. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. node set 1.y. RJOINT. 2. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . .fbd file output options.z) in the summary table. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. 384 HyperMesh 8. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. and component Fx. Result coordinate systems for cross-sections are defined using the Cross-section Manager. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. (On the assign sub-panel.

Activate the Create . Two utilities available within HyperGraph interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility: Shear and Moment Diagrams (VMT Plots) and Potato Plot. These utilities are accessed from the Free Body Diagrams item within the HyperGraph Utilities menu. If it does not exist. 4. This allows resultant force and moment information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. sub-case IDs). it will be appended to the end of the file.fbd file option to create a file that can be read into HyperGraph using the “Shear and Moment Plot” and “Potato Plot” utilities. 5.fbd file. If an existing file is selected. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. If an existing file is selected. You may select a new file or an existing file. 6. Comments When saving over existing . This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager.csv file containing the same information as the summary table. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. You can also use the FBD Results Manager to review the load collectors generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility.0 User’s Guide 385 . all resultant force and moment load collectors are saved in the database. Activate the Create . However. but in a comma separated file. it is appended to. it is appended to. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. it will append/replace the data into the file as described above. When the HyperMesh database is saved. The table contains information about the sub-cases and cross-sections. You may select a new file or an existing file.csv or . Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets and therefore it is important to not renumber any element or node sets for which resultant force and moment result are to be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh. Activate the Show summary table option to output the results to a popup window for instant review.The “Color” option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors.csv file option to create a . • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. selecting ‘yes’ will not overwrite the file.

Specify any desired Display options: The Display options section allows you to decide which force and moment components display in the graphics area for the current selection. For FBD Displacements and Resultant Force and Moment Result types. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Results Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. • • 386 HyperMesh 8. • The Fx. FBD Forces (All Loads). only the node sets that are common to all of them will be listed. and Resultant Force and Moment. The Label loads option determines whether to display the load labels (vector magnitude values as text next to the vector). If multiple sub-cases are selected. Selecting an FBD result type scans the HyperMesh database and updates the Subcases list with available sub-cases for the currently selected element set and result type. the Results selection interface is modified to include a Node sets selector. These checkboxes are disabled for the FBD Displacements Result type. 2. FBD Forces (Applied Loads). Select the desired Sub-cases by clicking on them. You must choose an existing element set for which you wish to the review the FBD. or Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. Pick the desired Results type. The Load handles option determines whether to display the load handles. 4. The Entity selection section allows you to select the element set for which to review FBD. Select one or more Element sets. and Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. Grayed-out checkboxes indicate force and moment components or results that can’t display for the currently selected element set/sub-case/node sets. 3. Valid types include FBD Displacements. Multiple subcases can be selected using standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality. This selector lists all of the node sets associated with the currently selected element set and sub-cases. Displacement. Fy. Location: Results menu.FBD Results Manager Use the FBD Results Manager to graphically review and manage the load collectors generated from all FBD and Resultant Force and Moment utilities. The optional Show model checkbox.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Fz…checkboxes determine which component/resultant vectors display when you click the Accept button. FBD Forces (Reaction Loads). Displacement. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. when checked. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). The Results selection section lets you select the FBD result type to review. To review and manage FBD load collectors: 1. displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element set.

0 User’s Guide 387 . each of which requires a numeric value. if desired. • 5. removing it from the tab area without displaying any results in the graphics area. Magnitude % or Uniform size. Two options are available. The Update load collector color option will recolor the load collectors associated with the current selection to the color selected in the Color option. The Close button closes the FBD Results Manager. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A popup warning tells you what will be deleted and requires you to confirm the deletion. Click the Color box to pick a different color.• The Vector size option allows you to control the display size of the result vectors. The Delete button deletes the load collectors associated with the current selection. The Reset button clears the graphics area of all result vectors and resets all of the FBD Results Manager entry fields. Click one of the command buttons at the bottom of the tab: The Accept button displays the selected result vectors on in the graphics area. Note that these values do not affect the vector magnitude—only their screen size.

use <ctrl>-click or <shift>-click to select multiple results. a LOAD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collectors will be assigned to it. The LOAD = will reference the newly created LOAD load collector. If you choose FBD Displacements or Resultant Force and Moment as the result type. Displacement. • • If the SPCD option was enabled when creating FBD Displacement loads. click the Create appropriate subcases checkbox and then click the open-folder button in the Output file text box. Location: Results menu. a SUBCASE will be created with LOAD = assigned to the “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” load collector which references the LOAD card pointing to each component “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)” load collector for the selected sub-case. In addition. the exported data can be used for breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. If you wish to create sub-cases upon export. If multiple node sets are selected for export the following will occur: An SPCADD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collectors will be assigned to it. Select the desired node sets in the same fashion as the subcases. or type in a name for a new one. a SUBCASE will be created with SPC = assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collector for the selected sub-case. and/or Resultant Force and Moment load collectors generated by other FBD utilities. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). highlighting the currently selected element set for review.op2 file. Click add to export to add the highlighted results to the export batch. Choose the results type that you wish to export from the list box. or Resultant Force & Moment collectors: 1. Click the one(s) that you wish to export to highlight them. If FBD Force and FBD Displacement load collectors from the same sub-case are selected for export. 3. Optional: activate the show model checkbox to display the entire model in transparency mode. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Export Manager is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. 5. This opens a standard file browser window that you can use to browse to the desired destination directory and either select an existing file. 4. 388 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh prompts you to select one or the other from which to create the sub-case. To export FBD. The SPC = will reference the newly created SPCADD load collector. an additional list of node sets displays.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Displacement. 2. Specify Export options:. Use the Element set selector to specify the set for which you wish to export data. This option will also create SUBTITLE and LABEL cards if they are available from the sub-case information within the currently selected . This populates the list of subcases.FBD Export Manager The FBD Export Manager exports FBD. the Results type affects how HyperMesh creates sub-cases: For FBD Forces – All Loads. LOAD = will also be assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collector for the selected sub-case. For FBD Displacements. If the SPCD option was enabled when creating the FBD Displacement loads. After export.

Deletes the temporary mass elements from the current model. Click the appropriate command button at the bottom of the tab: Export executes the export process.6. Creates temporary mass elements on the nodes where the selected FBD.0 User’s Guide 389 . Close closes the tab. Exports the model with the “displayed” option. and Removes unnecessary header information from the output file. removing it from the tab area. meaning that clicking it: • • • • • Turns off the display of all currently displayed elements. Reset clears all of the export criteria so that you can start over. and/or Resultant Force and Moment loads are displayed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Displacement.

and a point load on the right end. a fixed support on the left end. several types of entries are possible depending on the forces acting at that node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Tab Area (for the tool itself) Shown below is a sample model which will be used to demonstrate the grid point force calculations that HyperMesh FBD utilities perform. output from OptiStruct and Nastran with the GPFORCE io options command. The complete GPFORCE table for the above cantilever beam model is presented below.FBD Grid Point Force Balance The Grid Point Force Balance table. Note that for any given node within the GPFORCE table. 390 HyperMesh 8. including: • • • • • Applied forces and moments SPC forces and moments MPC forces and moments Element forces and moments from elements attached to the node Total summed values for each node. Location: Results menu. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding GPFORCE io option cards. which in turn must sum to zero for the complete GPFORCE table. This model cons ists of two elements. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). is the data around which all FBD-Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utility calculations are performed.

0 User’s Guide 391 .Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility uses an element set to define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. Total FBD Value at Node 1 = 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. Element 1 has nodes 1. SPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. then the node is an “internal” node and element contributions are not extracted or utilized in FBD calculations. MPC loads: Zero iv. 4.121e+03 392 HyperMesh 8. 2.Process The FBD Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utilities use element and node set definitions to define what information to extract and sum from the GPFORCE table. For all nodes connected to elements in the element set. Fx calculation.121e+03) and is extracted iii. v. Node 1 i. for any given node. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only.121e+03 b. For FBD types 2 Applied loads only. This information is then used to produce free bodies and/or resultant force and moments. all nodes connected to the elements in the element set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 2 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not condered. Therefore. Applied loads: Zero ii. v.121e+03) and is extracted iii. 3 and 4. looping through all the nodes attached to elements in the element set: a. if all element contributions are from elements from within the defined element set. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 1 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not considered. 3. applied loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. The following example of FBD-Forces extraction uses an element set defined with only element: The element set contains only element 1. MPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. For FBD types All loads and Applied loads only. if any element contribution is not from one of the defined elements within the element set. For FBD type Reaction loads only. MPC loads: Zero iv. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. for any given node. Applied loads: Zero ii. Node 2 i. Total FBD Value at Node 2 = -2. SPC loads: Fx component exists (-2. The element set serves several purposes: 1. SPC loads: Fx component exists (2. then the node is an “interface” node and element contributions from the elements not a part of the element set are extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. Furthermore. For FBD types Applied loads only. • • 2. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set will be extracted and utilized in the FBD calculations.

iii. The final FBD-Forces results are presented in the summary table output from the FBD-Forces utility.085e+03) v. Fz) for each node. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Fz.0 (ie. Fx component satisfies free body requirements) Fy. however. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. ii. Notice that the sum of all components is zero about any point in the model. Mz) is not the direct sum of all nodes as the (rXF) terms for the force resultant vector about the sum point must also be added to each moment component appropriately. Fy. v. illustrated in the screenshot below. Mx. The sum of the forces components (Fx. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. Node 4 i. iv. iv. My. This verifies that the FBD-Forces extraction is indeed a “free body”. Mz calculations follow similar procedures.0 User’s Guide 393 . d. is the simple sum.085e+03 Sum all nodes in Fx = 0.c. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1.085e+03 e. Note that the sum of the moment components (Mx. • Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. ii.085e+03) Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. iii. Node 3 i. My.

3. All nodes in the node set must be attached to one or more elements in the element set. The cross-section definition serves several purposes: 1. The following example of Resultant Force and Moment extraction uses a cross-section definition given by an element set defined with only element 1. • 394 HyperMesh 8. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system: • • • The element set contains only element 1.085e+03 c. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. 4. All nodes in the node set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force 2 and Moment calculations . For all nodes in the node set. All values are zero in this model. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.085e+03) v. All nodes in the node set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The node set contains nodes 3 and 4. Applied loads: Zero vii. Sum nodes in node set in Fx = 0.085e+03) x. SPC loads: Zero iii. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Fx calculation. Node 4 vi.Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment utility uses an element set and a node set (cross-section definition) define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. Applied loads: Zero ii. SPC loads: Zero viii. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set of the cross-section definition will be extracted and utilized in the Resultant Force and Moment calculations. Node 3 i. 5. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1.085e+03 b. summation node set to node 3.0 Fy calculation. MPC loads:Zero iv. a node set defined with nodes 3 and 4. 2. All nodes in the node set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. MPC loads:Zero ix. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1.

426e+02) xv.000e+02. MPC loads:Zero xiv. Total Fz Value at Node 3 = 6. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. MPC loads:Zero xxix. Applied loads: Zero xxvii. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = 3. SPC loads: Zero xxiii. Applied loads: Zero xii. Node 3: no additional rXF contributions since it is the sum point xxxii. Node 4: rXF for My component equates to the following equation (rz*Fx) + (rx*Fz) = (-0. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.• Fz calculation looping through all the nodes in the node set: a.808e+02 d.024e+00 c. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.0 User’s Guide 395 . Total My Value at Node 3 = -8.166*1. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. SPC loads: Zero xxviii. SPC loads: Zero xiii. Sum nodes in node set in Fz = 1. Sum nodes in node set and all rXF terms in My = -2.574e+02) = -1. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a.166) the following is obtained: xxxi. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-1. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.574e+02) xx. MPC loads:Zero xxiv.0*3. Applied loads: Zero xvii.024e+00) xxx. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. MPC loads:Zero xix. Calculate the cross-product of all the forces about the Y-axis at node 3.000e+03 (The value of the applied shear) Mx calculation. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (6. Applied loads: Zero xxii. Total rXF Value summed at Node 3 = -1. All values are zero in this model. Selecting node 3 as the summation node (any node in the model can be selected) and performing rXF (all element edge lengths are 0. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.871e+00 b. Node 3 xi. Node 4 xxvi.871e+00) xxv.574e+02 c. My calculation. looking through all the nodes in the node set: a.085e+03) + (0. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-8.808e+02 xxxiii. Node 4 xvi. Node 3 xxi. SPC loads: Zero xviii.426e+02 b. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (3. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = -1.

FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility uses an element set and a node set to define the values to extract from the Displacement table. Additional Information: • Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. for a cross-section defined with element 1 (element set).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions. • • 396 HyperMesh 8. 2. The element and node sets serve several purposes: 1.op2 file in float point precision in binary format. All nodes in the node set will have displacement and rotation values extracted. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards.• Mz calculation. The element set is for visualization and breakout modeling purposes only. for Nastran and OptiStruct. MPC forces and moments are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: o RBE2 o RBE3 o Rigidlink o RJOINT o RROD o RBAR The GPFORCE and Displacement results are extracted of the . summation node set to node 3. nodes 3 and 4 (node set). consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . looping through all the nodes in the node set a. The final Resultant Force and Moment results are presented in the graphic below. which is the summary table output from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. This maintains the integrity of the calculations as well as enhances the performance of the utilities. This procedure reduces the size of the . All values are zero in this model.op2 file. Additionally. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system.

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