P. 1
HyperMesh 8.0 User's Guide

HyperMesh 8.0 User's Guide

|Views: 749|Likes:
Publicado porSubhash Chander

More info:

Published by: Subhash Chander on Jul 07, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/07/2013

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • Hardware and Operating Systems
  • Starting HyperMesh
  • Starting HyperMesh Batch Version
  • Start-up Options
  • Configuring HyperMesh
  • Configuration File Commands
  • Start-up Files
  • Specifying a Temporary File Directory
  • HyperMesh Database Design
  • Database Names
  • Using and Saving a Database
  • Nodes
  • Fixed Points
  • Free Points
  • Collectors
  • Elements
  • Lines
  • Surfaces and Faces
  • Systems
  • Loads
  • Cards
  • Vectors
  • Title
  • HyperMesh Environment
  • Pull-Down menus
  • Graphics Area
  • Toolbar Area
  • Header Bar
  • Main Menu Area
  • Page Menu
  • Tab Area
  • Model Browser
  • Include Browser
  • Modules
  • Loadsteps Browser
  • Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles
  • Panels
  • Sub-panels
  • Input Controls
  • File Browser
  • The Mouse
  • Rapid Menu
  • Keyboard
  • Secondary Menu
  • Utility Menu
  • BOM comparison tool
  • Quick TetraMesh
  • User Profiles
  • HyperMesh User Profile
  • Using HyperMesh
  • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database
  • Picking Entities on the Screen
  • Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements
  • Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu
  • Viewing Models
  • Using the disp (display) Panel
  • Setting View Options
  • Setting Tolerances
  • Setting Global Parameters
  • Importing and Exporting Data
  • Printing Screen Images
  • Using the Card Previewer
  • General Process for Building Models
  • Creating Collectors
  • Reading Geometry
  • Creating Geometry Data
  • Temporary Nodes
  • Picking Surfaces
  • Editing Surfaces
  • Associativity
  • Geometry Cleanup
  • Building Elements
  • Checking Model Quality
  • Applying Loads
  • Creating Systems
  • Automatic Mesh Generation
  • Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel
  • Mesh Generation Algorithms
  • Smoothing Algorithms
  • Element Biasing
  • Linked or Locked Edges
  • Connector Entity
  • Connector Terminology
  • Connector Definition
  • Connector Realization
  • Connector Review
  • Connectors User Control Mode
  • Master Connectors File
  • Multiple Weld File Format
  • Import Templates
  • FE Configuration File
  • FE Definition Examples
  • HyperMorph Strategies
  • The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing
  • Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains
  • Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • HyperBeam Module
  • Example of the Three-Step Process
  • Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam
  • HyperBeam Environment
  • Section Browser
  • Shell Section Graphics Pane
  • Results/Spreadsheet Pane
  • HyperBeam Menu Bar
  • HyperBeam Toolbar
  • Beam Cross Section Property Solver
  • Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements
  • Defining a Cross Section
  • Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties
  • Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver
  • Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers
  • HyperLaminate Module
  • HyperLaminate Environment
  • HyperLaminate Menus
  • HyperLaminate Toolbar
  • Laminate Browser
  • Define/Edit Pane
  • Review Pane
  • Finite Difference Module
  • Creating a Finite Difference Block
  • Creating a Structured Mesh
  • Loads on Geometry
  • Terminology and Definitions
  • Application of Loads to Geometry
  • Exporting Loads
  • Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh
  • Distributed Load Mapper
  • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results
  • Select a data type and a mapping method
  • Set the scale factor
  • Set the mapping algorithm
  • Mathematical Loading
  • Post-Processing Analysis
  • HyperMesh Results Database
  • Specifying the Results File
  • Creating Deformed Geometry Plots
  • Creating Animations
  • Creating Vector Plots
  • Creating Contour Plots
  • Creating Assigned Plots
  • Adding Plot Identification
  • Inspecting the Results
  • XY Plotting
  • XY Plots Module
  • Creating an XY Plot
  • Modifying an XY Plot
  • Working with Multiple XY Plots
  • Modifying Multiple XY Plots
  • Creating Curves on XY Plots
  • Modifying Curve Attributes
  • Displaying Selected Curves on Plots
  • Using the Curve Editor
  • AutoDV Introduction
  • Generation of Perturbation Vectors
  • Manual Perturbation
  • Polynomial Perturbation Vectors
  • Primary Domain Model
  • Primary Domain Node Sets
  • Control Perturbations
  • Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets
  • Harmonic Perturbation Vectors
  • Generation of Variable Loads
  • Running AutoDV Stand-alone
  • Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
  • To create an H3D file from HyperMesh:
  • H3D FAQ's
  • Free Body Diagrams
  • FBD Set Manager
  • FBD Displacements
  • FBD Forces
  • FBD Cross-section manager
  • FBD Resultant Force and Moment
  • FBD Results Manager
  • FBD Export Manager
  • FBD Grid Point Force Balance

HyperMesh 8.

0 User's Guide

HyperWorks

Altair Engineering Contact Information
Web site FTP site www.altair.com Address: ftp.altair.com or ftp2.altair.com or http://ftp.altair.com/ftp Login: ftp Password: <your e-mail address>

Location
North America China France Germany India

Telephone
248.614.2425 86.21.5393.0011 33.1.4133.0990 49.7031.6208.22 91.80.6629.4500 1.800.425.0234 (toll free) 39.800.905.595 81.3.5396.1341 81.3.5396.2881 82.31.716.4321 46.46.286.2052 44.1926.468.600 55.11.4223.5733 64.9.413.7981 64.9.413.7981

e-mail
hwsupport@altair.com support@altair.com.cn francesupport@altair.com hwsupport@altair.de support@india.altair.com

Italy Japan Korea Scandinavia United Kingdom Brazil Australia New Zealand

support@altairtorino.it support@altairjp.co.jp support@altair.co.kr support@altair.se support@uk.altair.com br_support@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com

The following countries have distributors for Altair Engineering: Mexico, Romania, Russia, South Korea, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan and Turkey. See www.altair.com for complete contact information. © 2007 Altair Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated to another language without the written permission of Altair Engineering, Inc. To obtain this permission, write to the attention Altair Engineering legal department at: 1820 E. Big Beaver, Troy, Michigan, USA, or call +1-248-614-2400.

Trademark and Registered Trademark Acknowledgments
Listed below are Altair HyperWorks applications. Copyright Altair Engineering Inc., All Rights Reserved for: HyperMesh 1990-2006; HyperView 1999-2006; OptiStruct 1996-2006; HyperStudy 1999-2006; ® ® ® HyperGraph 1995-2006; HyperGraph 3D 2005-2006; MotionView 1993-2006; MotionSolve 2002-2006; ® ® ® ® HyperForm 1998-2006; HyperXtrude 1999-2006; HyperOpt 1996-2006; HyperView Player 2001-2006; ® Process Manager™ 2003-2006; HyperWeb 2002-2004; Data Manager™ 2005-2006; Templex™ 19902006; Manufacturing Solutions ™ 2005-2006 All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
® ® ® ® ® ® ©

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Starting and Configuring HyperMesh
Hardware and Operating Systems ......................................................................................1 Starting HyperMesh .............................................................................................................2 Starting HyperMesh Batch Version .....................................................................................5 Start-up Options ...................................................................................................................6 Configuring HyperMesh.......................................................................................................7 Configuration File Commands .............................................................................................9 Start-up Files ......................................................................................................................21 Specifying a Temporary File Directory ..............................................................................21

HyperMesh Database and Environment
HyperMesh Database Design............................................................................................22 Database Names ...............................................................................................................22 Using and Saving a Database...........................................................................................22 Nodes .................................................................................................................................22 Fixed Points .......................................................................................................................22 Free Points .........................................................................................................................22 Collectors ...........................................................................................................................23 Elements ............................................................................................................................27 Lines ...................................................................................................................................30 Surfaces and Faces...........................................................................................................32 Systems..............................................................................................................................33 Loads..................................................................................................................................33 Cards..................................................................................................................................33 Vectors ...............................................................................................................................33 Title.....................................................................................................................................34 HyperMesh Environment ...................................................................................................35 Pull-Down menus...............................................................................................................37 Graphics Area ....................................................................................................................39 Toolbar Area ......................................................................................................................40 Header Bar .........................................................................................................................44 Main Menu Area.................................................................................................................46 Page Menu .........................................................................................................................46
Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide i

Tab Area.............................................................................................................................47 Model Browser ...................................................................................................................48 Include Browser .................................................................................................................57 Modules ..............................................................................................................................63 Loadsteps Browser............................................................................................................64 Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles ............................................................65 Panels ................................................................................................................................69 Sub-panels .........................................................................................................................70 Input Controls.....................................................................................................................71 File Browser .......................................................................................................................77 The Mouse .........................................................................................................................79 Rapid Menu ........................................................................................................................81 Keyboard ............................................................................................................................82 Secondary Menu ................................................................................................................86 Utility Menu ........................................................................................................................87 BOM comparison tool ........................................................................................................95 Quick TetraMesh..............................................................................................................112

User Profiles
User Profiles.....................................................................................................................127 HyperMesh User Profile...................................................................................................128

Using HyperMesh
Using HyperMesh ............................................................................................................128 Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database ..............................................................129 Picking Entities on the Screen .........................................................................................130 Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements .......................................................................132 Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu .....................................................................133 Viewing Models ................................................................................................................137 Using the disp (display) Panel .........................................................................................140 Setting View Options........................................................................................................142 Setting Tolerances ...........................................................................................................145 Setting Global Parameters...............................................................................................145 Importing and Exporting Data ..........................................................................................146 Printing Screen Images ...................................................................................................148 Using the Card Previewer................................................................................................150
ii HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Building Models
General Process for Building Models ..............................................................................151 Creating Collectors ..........................................................................................................152 Reading Geometry...........................................................................................................153 Creating Geometry Data ..................................................................................................154 Temporary Nodes ............................................................................................................158 Picking Surfaces ..............................................................................................................158 Editing Surfaces ...............................................................................................................159 Associativity .....................................................................................................................161 Geometry Cleanup ...........................................................................................................162 Building Elements ............................................................................................................164 Checking Model Quality ...................................................................................................167 Applying Loads.................................................................................................................168 Creating Systems.............................................................................................................169

Automatic 2-D Mesh Generation
Automatic Mesh Generation ............................................................................................170 Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel.......................................................................172 Mesh Generation Algorithms ...........................................................................................173 Smoothing Algorithms......................................................................................................175 Element Biasing ...............................................................................................................176 Linked or Locked Edges ..................................................................................................179

Connectors
Connector Entity...............................................................................................................180 Connector Terminology ...................................................................................................181 Connector Definition ........................................................................................................185 Connector Realization......................................................................................................187 Connector Review............................................................................................................188 Connectors User Control Mode .......................................................................................188 Master Connectors File....................................................................................................189 Multiple Weld File Format ................................................................................................190 Import Templates .............................................................................................................191 FE Configuration File .......................................................................................................193 FE Definition Examples ...................................................................................................197

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide iii

HyperMorph and Morphing Strategies
HyperMorph Strategies ....................................................................................................199 The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing......................................................................201 Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains ..................................................220 Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................237 Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................263

Calculating Beam Properties
HyperBeam Module .........................................................................................................272 Example of the Three-Step Process................................................................................274 Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam ..............................................279 HyperBeam Environment.................................................................................................282 Section Browser...............................................................................................................283 Shell Section Graphics Pane...........................................................................................284 Results/Spreadsheet Pane..............................................................................................285 HyperBeam Menu Bar .....................................................................................................287 HyperBeam Toolbar .........................................................................................................294 Beam Cross Section Property Solver ..............................................................................296 Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements..................................................297 Defining a Cross Section .................................................................................................298 Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties .................300 Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver .........................................................................301 Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers ................................................................303

HyperLaminate and Composites
HyperLaminate Module....................................................................................................304 HyperLaminate Environment ...........................................................................................305 HyperLaminate Menus .....................................................................................................306 HyperLaminate Toolbar ...................................................................................................308 Laminate Browser............................................................................................................309 Define/Edit Pane ..............................................................................................................313 Review Pane ....................................................................................................................323

iv HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Finite Difference Module
Finite Difference Module ..................................................................................................324 Creating a Finite Difference Block...................................................................................324 Creating a Structured Mesh.............................................................................................325

Boundary Conditions
Loads on Geometry .........................................................................................................327 Terminology and Definitions ............................................................................................328 Application of Loads to Geometry ...................................................................................329 Exporting Loads ...............................................................................................................330 Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh ..............................................330 Distributed Load Mapper .................................................................................................331 Load an input file containing CFD analysis results .........................................................333 Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, or ANSYS input file format) ...............................................................................................................334 Select a data type and a mapping method......................................................................334 Set the scale factor ..........................................................................................................334 Set the mapping algorithm ...............................................................................................335 Mathematical Loading......................................................................................................336

Post-Processing and XY Plots
Post-Processing Analysis ................................................................................................338 HyperMesh Results Database.........................................................................................338 Specifying the Results File ..............................................................................................339 Creating Deformed Geometry Plots ................................................................................339 Creating Animations.........................................................................................................339 Creating Vector Plots .......................................................................................................340 Creating Contour Plots.....................................................................................................340 Creating Assigned Plots ..................................................................................................340 Adding Plot Identification .................................................................................................341 Inspecting the Results......................................................................................................341 XY Plotting .......................................................................................................................342 XY Plots Module...............................................................................................................343 Creating an XY Plot .........................................................................................................344 Modifying an XY Plot........................................................................................................344 Working with Multiple XY Plots ........................................................................................344
Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide v

Modifying Multiple XY Plots .............................................................................................344 Creating Curves on XY Plots ...........................................................................................345 Modifying Curve Attributes...............................................................................................347 Displaying Selected Curves on Plots ..............................................................................347 Using the Curve Editor.....................................................................................................348

AutoDV
AutoDV Introduction .........................................................................................................351 Generation of Perturbation Vectors.................................................................................352 Manual Perturbation.........................................................................................................352 Polynomial Perturbation Vectors .....................................................................................353 Primary Domain Model ....................................................................................................353 Primary Domain Node Sets .............................................................................................354 Control Perturbations .......................................................................................................355 Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets ....................................................................357 Harmonic Perturbation Vectors .......................................................................................359 Generation of Variable Loads ..........................................................................................361 Running AutoDV Stand-alone .........................................................................................363

H3D Writer
Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh ...........................................................................365 H3D FAQ's .......................................................................................................................369

Free Body Diagrams
Free Body Diagrams........................................................................................................370 FBD Set Manager ............................................................................................................371 FBD Displacements .........................................................................................................375 FBD Forces ......................................................................................................................378 FBD Cross-section manager ...........................................................................................381 FBD Resultant Force and Moment ..................................................................................383 FBD Results Manager......................................................................................................386 FBD Export Manager .......................................................................................................388 FBD Grid Point Force Balance ........................................................................................390

vi HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

For more specific information concerning your hardware/software configuration. a small portion of source code that controls the graphically oriented operations. All UNIX ports are built around OpenGL. Notes for PC Users If you are running Windows NT (depending on model size or processor speed) you may wish to turn the full drag option off.2.Hardware and Operating Systems HyperMesh is not tied to a specific set of computer hardware or operating system and presents the same appearance on all platforms. please contact your HyperMesh sales representative. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This option is found in the Desktop icon in the Control Panel group. which prevents HyperMesh from redrawing immediately when a destructive windowing operation is performed. SUN workstations running Solaris 2. depending on their level of sophistication.0. Silicon Graphics family of workstations running IRIX 6. Some platforms may have limitations or extensions.0 or 11. LINUX running RH 7. IBM running AIX 4.3.5. The following hardware platforms are currently supported: • • • • • • • Pentium-based PC or compatible running Windows WIN NT 4.8. WIN 2000/XP. or 5. However. In general.3. needs to be "ported" to each hardware platform on which HyperMesh runs. HP-ITANIUM (HPUX_IA32) running 11.0 User’s Guide 1 . 5. HyperMesh has an identical appearance and behavior on all platforms.13 m.11 m and IRIX 6.5.0. Most of the HyperMesh source code is independent and can be compiled on various systems. HP-PARISC (HPUX) running 11.1.3 or RH 8.11.23. such as drawing a line on the screen. or information concerning future platforms.

2 HyperMesh 8. To start HyperMesh: 1. enter the full path of the HyperMesh script (e. For more information about the hm.cshrc file in the user home directory. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .alias or . Windows 2000. see Configuring HyperMesh. to have HyperMesh start and run according to the standards and preferences of your particular work site. and Windows XP platforms. You can create a start-up file or alter the HyperMesh configuration file.alias or . Note: For more information about creating and using start-up files. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use.Starting HyperMesh This section explains how to start HyperMesh on UNIX. Starting HyperMesh in UNIX This section contains the instructions and optional arguments for starting HyperMesh on a UNIX workstation.0/altair/script/hm’ Once an alias is created.cfg configuration file. Or Create an alias for HyperMesh in the user . enter hm at the command prompt to invoke HyperMesh. For example. At the operating system prompt. add the following line in the .g.cfg. <altair_home>/altair/scripts/hm) and press the ENTER key. see Start-up Files. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh.cshrc file: alias hm ‘/homes/applications/hm8. hm..

4. an Altair HyperWorks group is created in Programs on the Start menu. or Click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. From the Altair HyperWorks group: select HyperMesh. To start HyperMesh: 1. Since HyperMesh creates user files. To exit HyperMesh. By default. 5. 2. User profiles affect the HyperMesh layout as well as features such as element quality checks. The quit button is located on the upper right-hand corner of the panel area on any of the main menu pages. Uncheck always show at startup to prevent this window from opening each time you load HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide 3 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh starts and the main menu is displayed on the screen. Choose the desired user profile and then click OK. From the Start menu. The user profiles window is also accessible from the view pull-down menu. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. a window opens prompting you to choose a user profile. 3.Starting HyperMesh on PC During installation. click Start and choose Programs. you may wish to change this directory. click quit. The default working directory specified by the HyperMesh icon is the Windows default My Documents directory.

command. The path to the HyperMesh executable displays after Target:. Select Properties. Append the startup options to the path listed in Target:. enter the name and path of the directory in which you want to run HyperMesh. Select the Shortcut tab. Select the Shortcut tab. enter -nocommand after the HyperMesh path. Select Properties.cmf and hmmenu. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. For example. 2.set. Your user files. 2. To change/use startup options: 1. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. After Start in:. 5. if you do not want HyperMesh to write a command file.To change the working directory: 1. 4. 4 HyperMesh 8. 3. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. 4. 3. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. are created in this directory. Click Apply.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

) are ignored. 6. 3. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.g. type hmbatch –ccommand.cmf contains the HyperMesh commands to be executed. At the operating system prompt.0 User’s Guide 5 . postscript. plot. create. To start HyperMesh batch version on UNIX: 1.com) executable file in the /hm/bin directory. fit. 2. –ccommand. Locate and right-click on the hmbatch(. Since this batch version does not have graphical display. After Cmd line:. Select the programs tab.Starting HyperMesh Batch Version HyperMesh batch version (hmbatch) allows you to invoke HyperMesh in batch mode at the command line and run a command file. To start HyperMesh batch version on PC: 1. 5. etc. Note: See Start-up Options for more information about the start-up arguments you can use. hmbatch terminates when it reaches the end of the command file or when it encounters *quit( ) in the command file. command. Right -click on the hmbatch icon on the desktop. 4. Click Apply. HyperMesh commands that require display (e. 2. the path to the hmbatch executable is displayed. to this path.cmf. Select Properties.cmf and press ENTER. Append the option. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh.

Prevents HyperMesh from creating or writing to the command. or to print messages. Sets the global template file to the specified file. -e<filename> <filename> -mmouse. The format of the command is: hm [ -version ] [-h] [-m] where: -version -h -m Display the current version. Allows Templex within command files.hm. Write the mouse commands to a mouse.cmf file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Use the results file.res suffix. Forces HyperMesh to run in the foreground. Do not prompt via a pop-up box. Print this message. Causes HyperMesh to pause on the title splash screen until you press a key on the keyboard. or the specified file.set file to replace the installed hmmenu. Plays back the mouse commands in the mouse.msf file. Always continue on error when processing a command file. Opens the application in a window of the specified width and height in pixels (PC only).msf file Other options that can be specified after the start-up command allow you to specify model or results files or run command or mouse files. Automatically run the specified command file. Sets the name of the HyperMesh results file database to either the input filename with a . Otherwise. Set the text input field in the export panel to the specified file. Allows you to write a master hmmenu. change screen resolutions.set. Automatically load the specified HyperMesh binary file. Causes HyperMesh to draw nodes to the PostScript file as circles. res (-r alone specifies the file fl.Start-up Options You can enter arguments after the hm command that allow you to specify which command file to run. These options include: fl.res). -uAnsys to start HyperMesh under the Ansys user profile. nodes are not drawn. Start HyperMesh under a specific user profile: for example. fl. pre-set export paths.msf -nobg -nocommand -psdhm -r[filename] -rres -s<width><height> -templex -t<filename> -titlepause -u<profile> -writemastermenu 6 HyperMesh 8.hm -c<filename> -continue Read the HyperMesh file.

and titlestitlefont_configuration_command>Config fonts Specify the default legend colorlegendcolorfile_configuration_command>Config Specify a color to use for entities with no resultsnoresultcolor_configuration_command>Config Change cursor sizebigcursors_configuration_command>Config Turn element and geom handlesnopickhandles_configuration_command>Config off by default Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending PostScript files to a PostScript printerpostcopy_configuration_command>Config Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending black and white PostScript filespostcopyblackandwhite_configuration_command>Config to a PostScript printer • • • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. only on start -up.cfg file controls certain aspects of how HyperMesh runs at your particular site. with each command occupying one line. The following commands are an example of a partial hm.cfg commands begins with an asterisk and is followed by a set of parentheses that enclose a variable number of arguments.cfg file: *menufont(2) *titlefont(3) *graphicfont(1) Note: HyperMesh accesses the configuration file. You can edit the commands in the hm. The hm. Each of the hm. The commands are not sensitive to location in the file.cfg file allow you to: • • • • • Specify an absolute pointing deviceabsolutepointer_configuration_command>Config Enable buttonbuttons_configuration_command>Config and dialdials_configuration_command>Config input Specify default translatorsfeinput_default_configuration_command>Config and templatesfeoutput_default_configuration_command>Config Specify the default solversregistersolver_configuration_command>Config Specify default graphicsgraphicfont_configuration_command>Config. A command can be turned into a comment by removing the asterisk (*) preceding the command. hm.Configuring HyperMesh HyperMesh has a default configuration file named hm.cfg. which is read on start-up and is located in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/ directory. HyperMesh uses the following order of precedence: PC customization path current (local) directory installation directory UNIX current (local) directory home directory installation directory All running copies of HyperMesh must be restarted before any changes to the hm. menumenufont_configuration_command>Config. The commands in the hm.cfg file are acknowledged.cfg file to save your preferences.cfg.0 User’s Guide 7 .cfg file exists in multiple directories. If the hm. They may begin in any column. or all of the commands may be on one line.

ini Fatigue.set file Cadreader.mac file hmmenu.cfg).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .• • • • • • • • • • • • • Note: Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending ASCII files to a PostScript printerprintfile_configuration_command>Config Specify how to create a PostScript file of the screenpostfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Specify how to create a bitmap file of the screenscreenfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Indicate to HyperMesh the method for creating bitmap files Set reverse video when your printer cannot be set to reverse black and white. This prevents them from being overwritten when you install a new HyperWorks update. administrators must set up an environment variable called HW_CONFIG_PATH to specify the path. or ug. model or include browser). iges. hmcustom.cfg file Any printer settings (which may also exist in hm.ini.tcl. deleting this file can restore your HyperMesh settings to the default state if you encounter problems within the HyperMesh user interface that you cannot rectify by any other means. Set the screen size Specify the colormap version Set the default graphics simplification mode Tells HyperMesh to load the 3D Writer Specify the input translator and component format Specifies which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system Display the Utility menu when HyperMesh starts Include intermediate (not just the final choice) rotation commands There is another configuration file stored in "My Documents" on the Windows platform and in ~/. Multiple paths can be specified as variable values within this variable name.cfg file hmexec file feconfig.tcl should not be edited and its format will change between releases.altair on Unix and Linux. HyperMesh creates this file automatically when upon exiting the program.cfg file hyperlaminate. Hmsettings. However. Customization paths You can store configuration files in a file path other than the ones to which they are installed by default. such as tab locations (left/right/both/none).cfg file userpage. called hmsettings. in order to use configuration files stored in a different file path. However. tabs which are visible (e.ini. such as catia.tcl file 8 HyperMesh 8. recent files imported and recent files loaded. key bindings.g. The configuration files which can be used in conjunction with customization paths are: hm.ini files. HyperMesh uses this file to record various GUI settings for each user.

*boldmenufont () Description Syntax To force the menu font to bold on windows. This command allows you to force the menu system to use a bold font. *boldmenufont(state) state 1 = bold 0 = use current value Comments The menu system in HyperMesh. (An absolute pointer usually has six buttons. You can also change the cursor size by selecting large or standard under cursor size: on the menu config sub-panel in the options panel.Configuration File Commands The following is a list of the configuration commands that you can use to control how HyperMesh runs at your particular site: *absolutepointer() Use this command if you have a digitizing tablet or any other type of absolute pointing device. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.) *bigcursors() Informs HyperMesh that pointing cursors should be double-sized when they are displayed on the screen.0 User’s Guide 9 . under Windows.

When mode is set to 1.0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Syntax Arguments Example *dynamicrotatemode(mode) mode Set to 1 or 0.00228960797.0.0.0.0047803938.0.*buttons() Informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with buttons that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu (See *buttons()).-5. Syntax *controlkeyviewmode(mode) mode Note: 0 = immediate mode 1 = use display listing (default) When display listing is used. In this case. *ce_fe_orientaxis() This command is called from the HyperMesh configuration file to specify the axis of the system that needs to be aligned in the direction of FE during connector realization.000802068982. *dynamicrotatemode() Sets mode for output of intermediate rotation commands.999966514) *quatrotate(0. *dials() This command informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with dials that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode.000673180986.00994070323. the following output is generated: *dynamicviewbegin() *quatrotate(-0.7397916e005. but a lower frame rate (slower).999937705) *quatrotate(-0. HyperMesh does not respond to button input. if the *dials() command is not added to the configuration file. but the operation will have a higher frame rate (faster).0. if the *buttons() command is not added to the configuration file. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu. A value of 1 (default) to the function aligns the Y-axis of the coordinate system in the direction of FE and a value of 0 defines Xaxis and a value 2 defines Z-axis. In this case. See *CE_FE_SetDetailsandRealize() for information on creating a coordinate system during realization. there may be a delay in the operation while the display list is being built.0. *controlkeyviewmode() Specify whether display listing should be done during control key assisted viewing. HyperMesh does not respond to dial input.00785649346.00529684395. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations.0.00170778765. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations.999985423) 10 HyperMesh 8. Immediate mode results in a faster initial response time.

703590. 0.583235. *feinputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which translator in the import/CUSTOM sub-panel is the default.964252. intermediate *quadrotate() rotation commands are output to the command file. 0.000000. 0. 0.0.00263644785.000327769044. -8.0 User’s Guide 11 . 0 = off. only the finial position is output.9 99998898) *quatrotate(-0.761037.00106667981.722177.485656. Otherwise. -3. 2.0. 1 = on (default).756111.000230328525. the following output is generated: *viewset(-0.000000. *enablemacromenu() This specifies whether or not the macro Utility Menu should display when the program loads.000000. 0. The symbolic name for each translator is listed below: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.621393) 5. You can display or hide the utility menu from within HyperMesh by selecting Utility Menu from the View pull-down menu. reducing the size of the command file.213868. By default. When the mode is set to 1. 1. -0.0. the Utility menu is displayed. or a symbolic name for the translator. 0. -3. Comments A symbolic name begins with a '#' character followed by the specification of the translator.000000. 0. -0. 0.575689. The specification contains two parts separated with a '\'.000395387048.999996393) *dynamicviewend() When mode is set to 0.886445.030465.00100703597.0. 0.657815.623743.*quatrotate(0.0. Syntax *feinputdefault(filename) Arguments entity_type The name of any file found in the feinput directory. 8. The first part is the type of translator and the second part is a specific version of the translator.0.299006.612440. Comments 0.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 12 HyperMesh 8.FE: #abaqus\abaqus #ansys\ansys #cmold\cmold #moldflow\moldflow #nastran\nastran #patran\patran #marc\marc #optistruct\optistruct #ls-dyna\dynakey #ls-dyna\\dynaseq #pamcrash\pamcrash #ideas\ideas #autodv\autodv #stl\stl #hmascii\hmascii GEOM: #catia\catia #iges\iges #ug\ug_16 #ug\ug_15 #stl\stl #vdafs\vdafs #hmascii\hmascii WELD: #spotweld\spotweld *feoutputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which template is the default. This command requires one argument which can be set to the name of any file found in the template/feoutput directory.

style. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). where: mode is set using view acceleration and when view acceleration is set to automatic or Ctrl-Shift. Syntax *graphicsimplificationmode(mode. and legends in the graphics area. style and curComp are not required. Syntax *graphicengine(mode) mode 0 = standard graphics 1 = performance graphics *graphicfont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display numbers. This command allows you to force the menu system to use the historical fonts. This option can also be set using the engine: toggle in the graphics sub-panel of the options panel. *graphicsimplificationmode() Sets the default simplification mode for performance graphics. element handles. The font size may also be changed during a HyperMesh session using the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. under Windows. Syntax Note: *forceoldmenufonts() The menu system in HyperMesh. The default simplification mode for performance graphics can also be set in the graphics subpanel in the options panel.*forceoldmenufonts () To force the menu font to the old style. *graphicengine() Sets the default graphics mode. style is set using the simplification style switch and curComp is set using the simplify current comp check box. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. curComp) mode 0 = none 1 = automatic (default) 2 = Ctrl-Shift 0 1 2 3 4 5 = no simplification = feature lines (default) = bounding box = node cloud = element centroid = simplified shading style curComp 0 = do not simplify current component (default) 1 = simplify current component Note: If mode = 0.0 User’s Guide 13 .

or khaki (210. where R. The default gray color values are *noresultcolor(80. Green and Blue.175. if you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command postprt junk. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name.255). The font size may also be changed in the menu config sub-panel in the options panel.0). white (255.255.80. *nopickhandles() Informs HyperMesh that you wish to have element and geometry pick handles off by default. *postcopy() Informs HyperMesh how to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. The only information unknown at startup is the name of the file. This command links the PostScript capability of HyperMesh and allows plots of the currently displayed screen to be printed directly from HyperMesh. The color assigned to these no result entities is specified in the hm. a character string closed in double quotes "".G. inclusively 14 HyperMesh 8. Syntax legendcolorfile(file) *legendsetbordercolor() Allows you to set the border color.B). This command requires one argument that can be set to the name of any file found in the <install_directory>/hm/colors directory.100). and B are the intensity values for Red. Syntax *legendsetbordercolor(color) Comments *menufont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display the menu. Pick handles will be turned off when HyperMesh is started and turned off whenever a new file is loaded. The color must be between 1 and 64.*legendcolorfile() Informs HyperMesh which legend color file should be the default. Other colors include: dark blue (0. To circumvent this. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .0. You can copy this file into your home directory and customize many of the default settings. then you would use *postcopy("postprt junk"). The default color is specified with *noresultcolor(R. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *postcopy() command to the operating system. *noresultcolor() Elements or nodes for which no results were found are assigned a color (default = gray) to distinguish them from an actual 0 result. The complete *postcopy() command of the above example is *postfile("postprt *filename"). The string is sent to the operating system and should be the standard command which you would use to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer.128). The command requires one parameter. if this command is specified. however. *postcopy() is invoked when you press CTRL-F3. You can experiment with the values in the color sub-panel of the options panel. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. black (0. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. For testing purposes. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing.0. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer.cfg file. The element and geometry pick handles can be set in the modeling sub-panel of the options panel.80). 0-D elements (such as contact slave elements and mass elements) cannot be seen easily. This improves graphic performance. For example. G.

This command requires one parameter. use *printfile("print_it junk"). rapid menu functionality is enabled. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *printfile() command to the operating system.*postcopyblackandwhite() Identical to the *postcopy() command. PC Users: *register3dwriter({bin_dir+"/hm3dwriter31. "". *printfile() is invoked in the summary panel on the Post page. "Hyper3D") Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. *rapidmenus() The rapid menu functionality for the middle mouse button may be turned off with this command. *register3dwriter() Tells HyperMesh to activate the H3D writer. By default.0 User’s Guide 15 . Provided for consistency with the *screenfile() and *screencopy() commands. The only information unknown at start-up is the name of the file.S. *printfile() Informs HyperMesh how to send an ASCII file to a printer. This command is only used in the command file.1"}."Hyper3Dwrite". you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. the string parameter required is set to a zero length string. O. In general."Hyper3Dwrite". Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename./non-HyperMesh) tasks. The string provided is sent to the operating system and should be the command which you normally use to send a file to a printer. Enable rapid menus. *postfile() Sends the currently displayed screen to a PostScript file. If you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command print_it junk. Disabling it may be desirable if you use the middle mouse button for other (e. Syntax Argument *rapidmenus(mode) mode 0 1 Comments Disable rapid menus. To circumvent this. For testing purposes.dll"}. *postcopyblackandwhite() is invoked when you press CTRL-F5. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. The complete *printfile() command of the above example is *printfile("print_it *filename"). it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name."Hyper3D") UNIX Users: *register3dwriter({bindir+"/hm3dwriter3.g. For testing purposes. a character string closed in double quotes. but allows you to use a different command to send a black and white PostScript file to a printer.

The solver field can be of type value or file. Reverse video can also be set in the postscript sub-panel of the options panel. one for the solver executable. For more information on spooling bitmapped files directly to the printer."infile:input file". optistruct. A file named sliden. A character string that is passed to the operating system to invoke the solver. contact your systems administrator. This command allows you to set up and customize the solver panel in HyperMesh."*solver *input file *output file *options".0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .) *memory in MB is replaced by the value.fem. Functionally. The number of strings is identical to the substitutable fields in the third argument. and one for the output file name. a site-specific operating system utility is called to create and spool the image to the printing device. *reversevideo() Informs HyperMesh that before the strings provided as parameters in the *screencopy() and *screenfile() commands are sent to the operating system. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. *output is replaced with the user-selected output file (the extension for output file is always . *screencopy() Tells HyperMesh how to create a temporary bitmap file of the screen and send it to a hard copy device. one for the memory in MB. "file:input". Each character string represents an input field. Example *registersolver(OPTISTRUCT. "*solver *input."{home}\ {solver}". > *output. "file:output") Arguments This command creates a solver panel with four user-input fields. *input is replaced by the input file (the extension is always . one for the input file name. By default.out"."outfile:output file". This command takes several arguments: Syntax *registersolver({solver}. 16 HyperMesh 8. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. A character string that is of type file or value. A maximum of six fields are allowed per solver. *solver is replaced by the solver executable name. The third parameter undergoes the substitution with the user-input values. "value:memory in MB".out). the colors representing black and white should be reversed. after substituting the user-input parameters."value:options") solver The name that you want to appear on the toggle in the solver panel. depending on the expected input. This command is necessary only if the hard copy device on your system is not reverse video capable. The name of the solver executable file. On UNIX platforms. a file is created but not spooled to the print device (the CTRL-F1 and CTRL-F2 keys function identically) and you must click the active HyperMesh window to trigger the screen capture. which is a value.sdp is created by HyperMesh.*registersolver() Informs HyperMesh which solvers are available and how to invoke them.fem *memory in MB. The status bar indicates when the screen grab is complete.

Syntax *setcolor(index. height). HyperMesh generates a *. *screensize() Informs HyperMesh of the physical size of your monitor. Circles may look like ovals. (0 through 255) The color’s blue component. thus. Remember that the command parameters represent height and width respectively. although the look of HyperMesh doesn’t change. follow the same method as described above and measure the vertical dimension of the screen. the length/width ratio of the objects may be distorted. To find this value.*screenfile() Informs HyperMesh how to create a bitmap file of the screen that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device (such as a printer). The name of the file can be accessed with the characters *filename. change the two values to any numbers that have the same aspect ratio of the screen resolution that you use. If you use a wide aspect ratio screen. For more information about creating bitmap screen images. A message on the status bar indicates when the screen capture is complete.75. *setcolor() Set a colormap entry for each of the entity colors. The numbers are physical measurements of the display area of the screen (width. The first parameter is the horizontal (x) dimension of the screen.30) is implemented. blue) index red green blue Specifies the color location. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. measure the horizontal dimension of the usable portion of the screen excluding any borders in the default window that HyperMesh creates (or the entire screen if your system does not use windows).g. Functionally. a bitmap file is generated using the utility defined in the *screenfile() function (typically xwd) and output to a unique file using the same process as above. A file named sliden. *screensize(1200.sdf is created by HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide 17 . where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. When *screensize(14. In such cases. you must select the HyperMesh window to indicate which window to capture. The command requires two parameters in real format separated by a comma. Note: in some cases. width). The units used are not important but must be consistent. if your desktop runs at a resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels (an aspect ratio of 1. On UNIX platforms. red. For example. contact your system administrator.1920) should allow HyperMesh to render undistorted images. green. while screen resolutions are typically listed width by height. The *screensize() option changes the aspect ratio of the images drawn in the graphics area. (1 through 64) The color’s red component.6). To determine this value. The second parameter is the vertical (y) dimension of the screen.bmp file that can be read into wordprocessing programs.8. After you press CTRL-F2. (0 through 255) The color’s green component. On the PC. it’s important to remember to use the correct order for the command (e. even after specifying the screen measurements the display can still appear distorted. the proportions of the objects is corrected. (0 through 255) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. height.

Place the element coordinate system number here. Example: *setcomponentformat(ansys. z) x y z Comments X axis location.cfg file or from a command file. a-z.0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Place the section ID number here. Currently. Place the real number here. spaces. Here are some examples of what the component above will show: TYPE3-MAT2 -REAL2-ESYS2 TYPE1-MAT1 -REAL1-ESYS0 TYPE2-MAT2 -REAL3-SECID1-ESYS0 The following characters can be used to customize the name of the components: A-Z.( ) _ = + \ | [ ] } . This command may be used in either the hm. Y axis location. 0. and the following: ‘ ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * . in/out of screen. y.0. . The default setting is 0. only the ANSYS feinput translator supports this command.0. Syntax *setlightsource(x. which represents lighting the model as you are looking at it. *setlightsource() Set direction of the global light source.*setcomponentformat() The first parameter of this command specifies which feinput translator you would like to use. Symbols mean that everything encapsulated between the two symbols is displayed only if the element uses a section ID. while the second parameter specifies the format you want your components to follow when importing them to HyperMesh. : ‘ / ? . Z axis location. 0-9. 18 HyperMesh 8. Place the material number here. "TYPE%t-MAT%m-REAL%r<-SECID%s>-ESYS%e") %t %m %r % <> %e Place the type number here. horizontal direction of screen. vertical direction of screen. 1.

that N does not need to be an integer—decimal values are acceptable. *setspecularity(0.7.0 User’s Guide 19 . blue. but small in another direction.0 – 1.0. however. Specular reflection from an object produces highlights. *setspecularity() Set the global specular highlight values for performance graphics mode.cfg file.32) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.5.5.64) Lead *shadingquality() Shaded geometry visualization sometimes does not follow the actual geometry.0) The blue component of the reflected light (range 0.0 – 1.0) The green component of the reflected light (range 0. green.0 – 1.0.128) Plastic *setspecularity(0. 5 is the default). Example Settings may be used to simulate different materials: Glass *setspecularity(1. The higher the value.7. Syntax *setspecularity(red.0.5. After altering this value you must restart HyperMesh to see the changes.1.0. Add or modify the *shadingquality(N) command in the hm. Syntax *setperformancenormalmode(mode) mode Comments 0 = flat normals (default) 1 = smooth normals This command can only be used in the configuration file.1.0. Note.0) The shininess value. shininess) red green blue The red component of the reflected light (range 0.0. Raising or decreasing shading quality by 1 roughly doubles or halves the quality.0. the smaller and brighter the highlight (range 0 – 128) shininess Comments This command may be used in either the hm. It is brightest along direct angle of reflection.*setperformancenormalmode() Set the performance graphics normal mode. or from a command file. this usually occurs in models that are large in one direction.cfg file (where N is a number between 1 and 10.7. The amount of specular reflection seen depends on the location of the viewpoint.

*. On some platforms. A non-shared colormap can be used. or a similar one. *titlefont() Informs HyperMesh which font size should be used to display titles. the *xfontname() command must be modified. the configuration file should have the appropriate fonts for your system. This program. With a shared colormap. the system colormap does not have 256 colors available. displays the possible X Lib font sets interactively. This command requires two parameters. The first parameter indicates which of the four HyperMesh fonts is being assigned. The second parameter is a string which locates the X Lib font which you want to assign to the HyperMesh font.*sharedcolormap() Informs HyperMesh which colormap method should be used in the X version. if your system is unique or if HyperMesh warns about one of the default fonts. This string may contain wild card. *xfontname() Informs HyperMesh which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . some colors in HyperMesh may not be available and appear as black. 20 HyperMesh 8. characters in the name. However. but may cause the rest of the system’s colors to change when the HyperMesh window is active and HyperMesh’s colors to change when the window is not active. the X Lib utilities are usually distributed with a program called xfontsel. This parameter may range from 1 to 4. The X version of HyperMesh requires a 256 color palette. To assist you in determining the best X Lib font to assign to HyperMesh. In general. Note that the font size may also be changed in the titles panel on the Post page.

Click OK.cmf to the file name particular to your system. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.hmexec or hmexec. Select the Environment tab. and the directory from which HyperMesh was invoked. then the temporary files are created with an HM prefix in the referenced directory.cmf. the directory where HyperMesh is installed.Start-up Files HyperMesh allows you to create a start-up file that can be used to either execute a series of commands or to define global parameters. your home directory (where your home directory is assumed to be specified in the environment variable.cmf file when HyperMesh is started. 5. On the Control panel. 5. Start HyperMesh. if it exists. After you have generated all of the necessary commands. be aware that if you create entities in the start-up file. and then generates the same entities as specified by the command. 4. If the environment variable is set. Rename command. problems may arise if you later want to rerun the command.. All commands executed by the HyperMesh command processor are written to the command file command. . Edit the text after Value: to specify the correct path to the directory in which you want temporary files created. When HyperMesh is invoked. or delete the start-up file commands in command. 4. 3.. Click the TMP line under User variables for .cmf before you run it. 2.hmexec on UNIX systems and hmexec on Windows systems. The directories searched include your customization path (if one is set up). including those generated by your start-up file. double click the System folder. 2. If you rerun the command. To create a start-up file: 1. Execute any task that you want the start-up file to automatically perform when HyperMesh opens. Specifying a Temporary File Directory You can set the environment variable to control where temporary HyperMesh files are created. Start-up files allow you to automatically define global parameters for the current session of HyperMesh. To set the environment variable in UNIX: SETENV TMPDIR <directory path> To set the environment variable in Windows: 1. The file must be a HyperMesh command file and is named .0 User’s Guide 21 . the commands which were written when the start-up file was executed initially.cmf file. Delete the command.cmf file created during your HyperMesh session. HOME). 3.cmf file. you can either not generate any entities in the start-up file. it generates the entities specified in the start-up file. quit HyperMesh. Although start-up files may contain any of the commands considered valid in a command file. To avoid this problem. it looks for this file and then processes the commands within the file.

or are referenced by a card image. A fixed point is associated with a surface and is labeled with a small "o". HyperMesh copies the database into system memory.hm for all HyperMesh binary databases. This convention allows you to determine easily which of the files in a directory are HyperMesh databases. at Altair we use the extension . See Using and Saving a Database for more information about saving HyperMesh files. including nodes. lines. The automesher always places nodes at fixed points. if the current database has been modified but not saved. HyperMesh entities include: Database Names There are no restrictions placed on HyperMesh database names other than those imposed by the operating system. and systems. are organized within collectors. all the changes that you have made during your work session are lost. All HyperMesh entities. This allows you to select nodes and elements by surface. Nodes represent physical positions on the structure being modeled and are used by the element entity to define the location and shape of the element. Free Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. elements. points. HyperMesh prompts you for confirmation before you exit. Nodes The node is the most basic finite element entity. However. The original database does not change until you save the model. Free points are not associated with a surface and are labeled with a small "x.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . There are several types of collectors and each collector stores the model data relative to its type. Fixed points may appear anywhere on a surface.HyperMesh Database Design A HyperMesh database stores information about many different entity types. Note: See Database Names for more information about naming conventions. Fixed Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. loads. Nodes are considered "used" if they are part of an element. HyperMesh automatically deletes from the database unused nodes and any loads that were attached to the unused nodes. Using and Saving a Database While you work on a model. Vertices along the edges of a surface are always marked by fixed points. Nodes contain a pointer to a surface and are therefore associated to a surface. Fixed points are displayed in the same color as the surface to which they belong. vector. or group." 22 HyperMesh 8. If you exit HyperMesh without saving the current database.

All the elements in a component collector are assigned the same properties and materials except when the elements have a property reference. rotated. HyperMesh automatically creates a component. an element cannot exist in two different collectors. for example. Note: Use the display panel to control the screen display of the collectors in your model. for those entities. line.0 User’s Guide 23 . For more information about reorganizing collectors. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. assigned colors. auto1. see the organize panel. Configurations 1-4 are created in the interfaces panel. Component collectors also retain property and material information about the entities that belong to it. Configuration 5 is created in the rigid wall panel. Collectors can be modified and the entities within them can be reorganized. This restricted access lets HyperMesh translate special collections of entities as a unit and allows it to support advanced features of analysis codes. the elements are assigned properties from the property which they reference. and surfaces cannot exist unless a component collector exists. Group Collectors Groups are collectors that are restricted to certain types of elements. If you have not created a component first. Operations performed on a component affect all the elements. You can use the collectors panel to modify the attributes of the auto1 component and the rename panel to change the name. HyperMesh automatically creates a collector for new entities if you do not create a collector first. All entities within HyperMesh must belong to a collector. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. lines. Note: Collector names are limited to 160 characters. In this case. Lines. This allows you to organize geometry data into units that can be translated. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. elements. and surface data. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information in the header bar. and surfaces that belong to the component. or deleted. Entities can belong to only one collector.Collectors A collector gathers related data and allows you to handle the data as one unit. Component Collectors Components are collectors that contain element.

For example. you can select and display all the components that belong to it by selecting the assembly. Components can belong to more than one assembly. then the model should have at least one material collector. the components in the assembly are not deleted. including its walls and cells. Operations performed on an assembly do not affect the components in the assembly. Curve collectors contain information about the curves of an xy plot. Material Material collectors contain information about the materials in a HyperMesh model.Assembly Collectors Assemblies are collectors that contain several components organized into a single logical unit. Entity Information Collectors These collectors maintain information about the entities assigned to them: Property Property collectors contain property information about 1-D elements and are required only when a model contains one or more of the following elements: bar2 bar3 gap joint masses rod spring After you create a property collector. See the Finite Difference Module section for more information. 2-D or 3-D. One plot collector is created for each plot in the database. Properties for all other element types. Plot Curve Block 24 HyperMesh 8. if you delete an assembly. After an assembly is created. are assigned by the component to which the elements belong. A plot collector contains information associated with an xy plot. Plot collectors contain pointers to curve collectors. This information includes the name and color of the curve and the line style used to display the curve. you can assign the specified properties to new 1-D elements by entering the collector name after property = when you create or update the elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can set a component or property to the correct material collector by entering the collector name after material =. If a model contains any non-rigid elements. Block collectors contain information relating to a finite difference block. A curve is referenced by selecting the plot collector.

which allows you to access a group of systems as a unit. Multibody Collectors Setting collector type to multibodies in the collectors panel provides functionality for the creation and modification of multibody collectors. nodes. a load collector contains loads that are to be applied at the same time. A system can belong to only one system collector. Multibody collectors serve multiple purposes: • • • Organizing HyperMesh’s ellipsoids. Note: A load cannot exist unless a load collector exists. and mbjoints entities. cylinders. Note: A system cannot exist unless a system collector exists. groups.0 User’s Guide 25 . Note: If no collector has been created prior to the creation of vectors. Load Steps The load steps entity allows you to select a set of load collectors. A load can belong to only one load collector. Typically. Provide the rigid body reference for ellipsoids. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of systems. mbplanes. which allows you to access them as a unit. A vector collector can hold any number of vectors. The output blocks entity is used to store these nodes. Sets Collectors Set collectors contain lists of entity IDs. Output Blocks Some solvers allow you to request output results for specific nodes or elements. elements. Load Collectors Load collectors allow you to organize loads. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. systems. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. Hold and define rigid body properties for multi-body analysis. simulating a system loading condition. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. Vector Collectors Vector collectors allow you to organize vectors. or components (each set can contain only one type of entity). components.System Collectors System collectors allow you to organize local coordinate systems. and planes. or materials. The method by which loads are organized may depend on the analysis code that is used to solve the problem. Typically. then HyperMesh creates a collector called auto1. A system collector can hold any number of systems. which can be composed of specified elements. Additional information that can be included in sets are the name of the set and the type of entity contained within the set. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of loads. the set of load collectors represents a system loading condition.

release the mouse button.Create a Multibody Collector The create sub-panel is used for creating multibody collectors. creation method: assigns the multibody type specified in the card image= field. click on the edit button under the N1 selection box to bring up x=. duplicate system ensures a unique coordinate system is assigned to the created body by creating a duplicate of the selected coordinate system and assigning this duplicated coordinate system to the created body. center of gravity: provides an N1 node/geometry selection box to define the x. which is access through the card panel after the multibody collector has been created. 26 HyperMesh 8. Define. location of the center of gravity. Setting creation method: to no card image specifies that a multibody collector type is to be assigned at the time of creation but one can be assigned later in the card image sub-panel. Setting creation method: to same as assigns a copy of the card image of another multibody collector to the created collector. and z= entry fields. center of gravity. The N1 box contains the same functionality as the N1 selection buttons found elsewhere in HyperMesh. The name= field supports names up to 160 characters in length. The types of multibody collectors available are dependent on the loaded solver interface specified as a template file in the global panel. If only surfaces or lines are available for selection. body local system: defines the body local coordinate system of the created body by assigning a local coordinate system entity to the multibody collector. The multibody types available are based on the template loaded in the global panel. drag the cursor over geometry to select it. the rename panel is available in the far left column of every HyperMesh page. There are three ways to define the body’s orientation. and z. use system assigns the selected system to the created body. To modify the name of a multibody collector. The name= text field is provided for specifying a name for the multibody collector being created and for reviewing the names of already existing multibodies. Moments of inertia and other rigid body properties are defined in the multibody collector’s card image. y=. Note: The element handles option in the modeling sub-panel (options panel) allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. y. create provides four data blocks for defining: the collector’s name. Update a Multibody Collector The update sub-panel is provided to modify the body’s local coordinate system and center of gravity. select a node on in the model window. Using or not using a card image has no bearing on how multibody collectors behave within HyperMesh and only effect data being exported. Review. and the body’s local coordinate system.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . click anywhere on the geometry to define a location. Change. The most common type of multibody collector is a "rigid body". For an alternative method to define the center of gravity. body system assigns a copy of the local coordinate system assigned to the current multibody collector specified in the global panel. review and reset the multibody collector type. card image type. To define a center of gravity location. change. click and hold left mouse button in the model window until the cursor becomes a square. and Reset a Multibody Collector The card image sub-panel is used to define. The same fields and options available in the create sub-panel are also available in the update subpanel.

. The element type allows you to define multiple analysis elements for each HyperMesh element. Element Configuration The element configuration defines the physical geometry (i.e.Elements Each element entity performs a specific task to facilitate a controlled and complete interface between HyperMesh and the analysis codes. In modeling situations where specific analysis codes are used because of their unique capabilities. i. HyperMesh can transfer the model to several different analysis codes.e. hex) of the element. and work with the element. If a model uses only the basic element types. and rigids. Element configurations include: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.. quad. Each element has two associated variables: an element configuration and an element type.0 User’s Guide 27 . store. quads. the model is not considered generic and does not transfer between analysis codes. The element configuration tells HyperMesh how to draw. trias.

5-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 205).Element Type Defines the category of the element. or orientation node. 4-. 20-noded brick solid element (configuration 220). The template file HyperMesh uses to write the analysis deck recognizes the different element types and outputs them as configured. or output translator. offsets. assign type1 to the first type of quad element and type 2 to the second type of quad element. (Must be Type 1. The type of the element controls the number of nodes used in the element and the permissible orientations of the element (configuration 22).) 15-noded wedge solid element (configuration 215). For example. local vector. 8-noded brick solid element (configuration 208). local vector.) 4-noded master interface element (configuration 124). 3-noded master interface element (configuration 123). 6-noded wedge solid element (configuration 206). and pin flags (configuration 63). and pin flags (configuration 60). Supported Element Types HyperMesh supports the following element configurations: Bar2 Bar3 Gap Hex20 Hex8 Joint 2-noded bar element with property reference. 28 HyperMesh 8. or 6-noded element with property and orientation systems or nodes. offsets. (Must be Type 1. 3-noded bar element with property reference. if an analysis code has two different quad elements and you wish to use both in a model. refer to Template Design. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mass Master3 Master4 Penta15 Penta6 Pyramid5 Type Name Spherical Revolute Cylindrical Planar Universal Translational Locking # nodes 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 Orientation none/systems/nodes none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems 1-noded mass element (configuration 1). 2-.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . to distinguish between the different types. Note: For more specific information about using the HyperMesh templates. Examples of different types of quads within ABAQUS are S4R and S4R5. A joint element does not allow types other than specified below. or orientation node. which allows the template. 2-noded gap element with property reference and vector (configuration 70).

) 4-noded slave interface element (configuration 134).) 2-noded spring element with user-defined degrees of freedom. Multi-noded element with one independent node and a variable number of dependent nodes. an orientation vector. (Must be Type 1. and a property reference (configuration 21). Multi-noded element with one dependent node and a variable number of independent nodes. The independent node has user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 55). 8-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 108). 4-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 104). 2-noded rigid element with user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 5). 2-noded beam element with property reference (configuration 61). 1-noded slave interface element (configuration 135). 2-noded rigid element (configuration 3). 3-noded triangular shell element (configuration 103). (Must be Type 1. Each node contains a coefficient (weighting factor) and a user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 56). Rigid Rigidlink Rod Slave1 Slave3 Slave4 Spring Tetra10 Tetra4 Tria3 Tria6 Weld Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 29 . 6-noded triangular shell element (configuration 106). 4-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 204).) 3-noded slave interface element (configuration 133). 10-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 210).Pyramid13 Plot Quad4 Quad8 RBE3 13-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 213) 2-noded plot element used for display purposes (configuration 2). (Must be Type 1.

Surface edges include: Free A free edge (displayed red) is a surface edge that belongs to a single surface which does not have other surfaces aligned with it within the specified cleanup tolerance. You can use surface edges as a line in most panels. Used to represent conics such as a circle. Shared Suppressed Non-Manifold /Duplicate 30 HyperMesh 8. ruled.Lines The line entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. Used to represent lines that are not straight or elliptical. you can use surface edges as free lines. NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) may also be used to represent a straight or elliptical line. In general. However. A shared edge (displayed green) is a surface edge that is shared between exactly 2 surfaces. their color is determined by the surfaces to which they belong. such as when you are working within the spline . but are then less efficient. Under certain conditions. The end point of each line segment is connected to the first point of the next segment. or line drag panels. and their color is determined by the status of the component. so operations performed on the line affect each segment of the line. Lines from CAD data are not attached to surfaces. Suppressed edges (displayed blue dotted) are the internal face edges within a surface. circles can be represented exactly in HyperMesh. No nodes are placed along a suppressed edge. Line segments are maintained as a single line entity. These edges usually indicate a collapsed or very thin surface or a fully or partially duplicated surface. These edges (displayed yellow) are shared by more than two surfaces. An edge is a trim line of a surface. A line can be composed of a single line type or multiple line types. A joint is the common point between two line segments. NURBS can exactly represent the piecewise parametric cubic splines they replace. Non-manifold edges can be turned into shared edges by deleting one of the attached surfaces.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number and type of line segments to represent the geometry. Each line type in a line is referred to as a segment. A suppressed edge can be changed back to a shared edge. ellipse. All lines in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: • • • straight elliptical NURBS • • • Note: Used to represent a straight line between two points in space. Nodes are placed along this edge during automeshing and recognized during meshing of bordering surfaces. Suppressed edges allow the mesh to flow across or over these boundaries. or parabola. By using elliptical segments or NURBS segments. as well as many other types of curves. A shared edge cannot be changed back to a free edge.

0 User’s Guide 31 .The following panels can be used to create lines: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • circles fillets intersect lines section surface tangents The following panels can be used to change lines: delete line permute position project reflect reparam rotate scale translate Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Used to represent cylindrical or conical surfaces. The following panels can be us ed to create surface entities: • • • • • • • • • • • surfaces primitives midsurface The following panels can be us ed to change surface entities: defeature permute position reflect rotate scale surface translate 32 HyperMesh 8. Used to represent a toroidal surface. NURBS may also be used to represent the above surface types but they are not as efficient.Surfaces and Faces The surface entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. All surfaces in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: plane cylinder/cone sphere torus NURBS Used to represent a planar surface. Each face contains a mathematical surface and edges to trim the surface (if required). HyperMesh maintains all of the faces as a single surface entity. Surfaces define 2-D regions that may be used in automatic mesh generation. Multiple types are used for more complex surfaces that contain sharp corners or highly complex shapes.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Used to represent surfaces which are not definable by the above surface types. Operations performed on the surface affect all the faces that comprise the surface. Used to represent a spherical surface. In general. When a surface has several faces. A HyperMesh surface can be made of a single surface type or of multiple surface types. Each surface type is referred to as a face. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number of and type of surface faces to represent the geometry.

Analysis systems are typically used to transform element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom from the global system to a local system. and then delete the system in which the nodes are defined. concentrated moments. Vectors The vector entity allows you to define a three dimensional vector in the database. if you define a cylindrical structure in a cylindrical coordinate system. an analysis system. When you delete an analysis system. Loads The load entity allows you to add forces and constraints to the database. accelerations. For example. may be rectangular. If you delete a system.Systems The system entity. a reference system is used to define the geometric positions of entities. Loads are applied in the global system except when the reference system has been modified. and an analysis system is used to transform the nodal coordinate system. velocities. or both. concentrated forces. Cards The card entity allows you to create control cards such as CPU limits or Title cards. Note: A system may be a reference system. Several systems may be nested. HyperMesh allows you to modify the analysis system of an entity when you define the analysis system. the orientation of the constraint is dictated by the local system. as HyperMesh does not maintain these in the transfer from the local system to the global system. HyperMesh does not maintain the proper orientation for the constraint when you create or delete local systems at the node where the constraint resides. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. After a constraint has been applied. concentrated fluxes. By default. Entities that have a reference system are systems. Additionally. Vectors are created in the global system unless a local coordinate system is defined. each of these entities is defined in the global system with an ID of zero. loads.0 User’s Guide 33 . commonly called a coordinate system. vectors can be created between two nodes and can change magnitude and direction as those nodes move through analysis. The only entity that may be defined in an analysis system is a node. cylindrical. temperatures. and mass elements. the model retains its cylindrical shape and also its location in space. you must set the proper orientation for element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom. Vectors can be used for orientation of spring and gap elements or to specify a direction during selection. Control cards are defined within templates and are specific to one FE solver. the position of the entity is maintained relative to the global system in the transformation process. all the entities that were defined in that system are transferred to the global system. and pressures are currently supported. You can use the systems panel to modify the reference coordinate system of an entity. In HyperMesh. If a system does exist. Constraints. is placed in the global system only if a system does not exist at that node. applied at a node. nodal points. When a reference system is deleted. or spherical. A constraint. Entities are always displayed in the transformed global system.

and the text displayed in the title. including the name of the title. the color of the title.Title Title collectors contain title information. 34 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

A current file is determined with the following rules: • • • • Pull-down menus The last HyperMesh (. this displays the current HyperMesh version. It also displays the path and name of the file currently open in the active HyperMesh session.hm) file retrieved or saved in the active session FE or CAD import does not affect the current file Delete model clears the current file If no .hm model is retrieved or saved in the active session the current file field is empty Located just under the title bar. Use these options to access different areas of HyperMesh functionality. these menus "drop down" a list of options when clicked.0 User’s Guide 35 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Like the pull-down menus in many graphical user interface applications.HyperMesh Environment There are several main areas in the HyperMesh window: These areas are described below: title bar Located at the top of the HyperMesh window.

Main menu Command Window secondary menu 36 HyperMesh 8. Located across the bottom of the window. Located just under the graphics area. right. • • • Tab Area sidebars can be toggled on or off by use of the View pull-down menu. such as the Utility menu or Include browser. Header bar Located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. Individual items (tabs) can be added to or removed from the Tab Area by selecting the item from the View pull-down menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Tab Area Located on the left. this area may contain one toolbar. The main menu is divided into the panel area and the page list. You can click-and-drag tabs to move them between the left and right Tab Area sidebars. You can type HyperMesh commands directly into this text box and execute them instead of using the HyperMesh Graphical User Interface. Depending on your display resolution and the number of buttons. Tab Location sub-menu. or two toolbars stacked vertically. Secondary menus can be accessed by using keyboard shortcuts. and model status information. these buttons provide quick access to commonly-used functions. in a tabbed format. It displays the name of the current panel and user profile. these sidebars display additional tools. or both sides of the graphics area. such as changing display options. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. Graphics area Toolbar Area Located above the tool bar(s): the graphics display area is where model geometry and mesh displays.

This approach sub-groups similar features together. Menu items can work in several different ways: Sub-Menu heading These items are marked with a triangular arrow.Pull-Down menus The pull-down menus. Toggle Command Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When clicked. but some options perform other tasks such as configuring the layout of the HyperMesh environment. Most menu options access HyperMesh panels. Selecting a submenu heading opens a sub-menu of options related to the submenu heading. these items are marked with a checkbox and activate or deactivate a feature. located just beneath the title bar. Most menu items simply execute a command when selected. One example is the solver browser item found in the view menu. this is because some menu items have sub-menus of additional options. and clicking on the menu name (such as File) "pulls down" a list of the options available in that menu: Notice that there are two lists of options displayed in this screen shot. rather than presenting every option in a single list (which could result in very long lists). This method allows similar commands to be grouped logically.0 User’s Guide 37 . enable access to many types of HyperMesh functionality. such as accessing a specific HyperMesh panel. clicking it alternates between showing and hiding the solver browser in one of the Tab Area sidebars. and helps prevent any single menu list from becoming excessively long. Each menu contains many different options.

Edit View Organize Geometry Mesh BCs Setup Checks Tools Applications Results Preferences Help Tools for masking. Each of the pull-down menus in HyperMesh groups certain types of functions: File Contains functions to load. Meshing tools. use import. HyperMesh preferences such as User Profiles. etc. Translate. import. such as automesh. Reflect. 38 HyperMesh 8. Then: Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu or item. or finding entities. use load. Boundary Conditions such as forces. pressures. and contact surfaces. or constraints. these keys are underlined (as the "F" in the File menu). and press enter to select a highlighted option. Access the on-line Help system. etc. press the alt key to activate the menu area. use the multiple files option in the import sub-menu. First. tetramesh. Model quality checks. Morph. element edit. global options. assemblies. these keys are underlined (as the "O" in the Open). among other options. Tools for creating and renaming collectors. and the up and down arrow keys to open a menu and navigate among its options. among other options. or visibility and location of tab area items. save. Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu item. including element check settings. for example). solid map. Tools for geometry editing and cleanup. Keyboard (menu item) Menu items can be selected with the keyboard in two ways: or Use the arrow keys to move among list of options.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . deleting.There are multiple ways to select a pull-down menu or a menu item within it: Mouse Keyboard (menu) Click the menu or menu item with the mouse. connectors. To add extra models to your workspace. or Use the left and right arrow keys to move among the menu headings. such as OptiStruct. and export models and other files. View results of solved simulations (contour or vector plots. Model properties such as materials. Note: To work with only one model at a time. Quickly access other HyperWorks programs. Rotate. lighting. Change the angle of view on the model. and keyboard configuration. To import multiple files. or Scale entities. moments.

Graphics Area The graphics area occupies the upper portion of the screen.0 User’s Guide 39 . and plots are displayed in this area. geometry. Models. Entities on the screen are selected for use in functions by clicking the desired entity with the mouse. The graphics area dominates the HyperMesh environment and is framed by all of the other interface areas. Note: See Entity Selection for more information about picking entities. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Notice that the toolbar may display in one or two rows. but when the toolbar is too narrow to hold all of the buttons. if you select "by comp". etc) is assigned directly to the element. This accesses the files panel. use the colors panel to change the colors of properties Note: 40 HyperMesh 8. control which collectors are displayed in the graphics region. set global modeling parameters. the two-row configuration is shown above. This button accesses the display panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Access the visual attributes panel. Edit solver-specific data in card format. Access the collectors panel. Turn the display of collectors on and off. save. or import files. The toolbar uses two different groups of visual icons to represent different HyperMesh functions. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to access other collector functions: Create or update material collectors. Create or update load collectors. many of these functions were contained in the permanent menu. thus the shell elements are colored in component color even in this mode. Users already familiar with earlier HyperMesh releases will find the same functionality that the permanent menu offered now located in the toolbars. Other options include: • By Prop: colors the elements based on their assigned properties. But for 1D elements such as bars and springs. Use this panel to individually determine how each component of your model displays its FE mesh. a group of buttons automatically moves to the second row. Note: In versions of HyperMesh prior to release 8. and edit solver-specific data. For example. This only applies when a valid template file has been specified in the global panel. For example. the property color of shell elements (quads and trias) in a NASTRAN model is the same as the component. the property (PBEAM. the property assigned varies based on the solver used. Selects the element color style. The toolbar buttons perform the following functions: Load. Normally all of the buttons display on a single row. the model elements’ colors change based on the components that contain them. Create or update property collectors.0.Toolbar Area The functions on the toolbar allow you to manipulate the view of the model.

By Config: colors elements based on their configurationbeam. etc. if you select "by component". . This helps you focus on 3D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities.g. The topology of 3D solid geometry is ignored (drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel). bar. etc. suppressed edges in blue. surfaces) that is not part of a solid is colored based on its topology. All the 1D elements are colored in green. Switches the mesh rendering mode to wire-frame mode. the faces of solids are also colored based on their topology: exterior bounding faces in transparent green. Note: • • . The individual colors given to each configuration (such as spring or hexa) can be seen and changed in the element types panel. For example.e. geometry is colored based on topology.0 User’s Guide 41 . Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between mesh lines. feature lines. This helps you focus on 2D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between skin-only and full wire frame (including internal lines). all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology: shared edges drawn in green. If geometry shading is turned on. By Topo: In this mode. Some exceptions apply. 2D shell elements in blue and 3D solid elements in red. Other coloring options include: • Auto: In this mode the geometry coloring changes based on the panel you open. Determines how geometry features are colored. • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. lines. Switches the mesh rendering mode to a shaded mode. By 3D Topo: In this mode. and no lines. By Comp: Surfaces. are colored according to the components that they belong to. then each piece of geometry is re-colored based on the component that contains it. quad. 2-dimensional geometry (i. free edges in red. In most cases. trias etc. In panels geometry creation and editing panels (e. 1D/2D/3D: colors 1D. 3-dimensional geometry (i.e. The topology of 2D geometry is ignored and drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel. the geometry is colored based on its corresponding component. internal partition faces in yellow. By 2D Topo: In this mode. use the colors panel to change the colors of materials. In the remaining panels (such as translate or delete). surface edit.• By Mat: colors the elements based on the material assigned to the elements. . etc. materials are assigned to elements via their components. Surfaces that aren’t part of a solid are shaded in gray. 2D and 3D elements differently. automesh). solid faces and their edges) is colored based on its topology.

free edges in red. click-and-drag in the graphics area to rotate the model. Right -click to activate dynamic spin mode. Modal Zoom. Click the downward arrow to choose between excluding and including surface lines. Draws model geometry as a wire-frame. left-click to zoom in. Right -click to deactivate. Once active. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. or when you click either button while the pointer is in the graphics area. Rotate modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate dynamic rotate mode. . Circle zoom deactivates after zooming once. Zoom incrementally. Right -clicking activates the dynamic zoom feature. . Once active. right-click in the graphics area and hold the mouse button down to make the model spin. This allows you to (for example) perform a free rotation on a model and then quickly return it to its original orientation. Once active. this works in one of two different ways: • Left-clicking activates the circle zoom feature. 42 HyperMesh 8. or to alternate between two different views. Once active. in shaded mode surfaces and solid faces are shaded in their components’ color. Right-click to deactivate. Right -click to activate center mode. right-click and drag in the graphics area to zoom in/out. (shared edges in green. right-click in the graphics area to change the graphics area center. right-click to zoom out.) In addition. Left-click to deactivate. Click the downward arrow for options: with edges or without them. Pan modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate pan mode.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . click-and-drag in the graphics area to pan the model view. etc. Opens the visualization pop-up panel. Left-click to deactivate. Left-click to deactivate. Resizes the model view (by zooming in or out and panning the view as needed) in order to fit the model to the graphics area. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Returns to the previous view. Once active.• Mixed: This mode behaves similarly to Topology mode in that all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology. Draws model geometry in shaded mode.

and the right button to rotate it rightward. Open a pop-up menu used to save and retrieve user-defined or standard views. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model upward. You can use keyboard hot keys to access the same viewing options. Notes: See Viewing Models for more information about the viewing options available on the toolbar. Use spherical clipping to isolate portions of the model regardless of component or collector. and the right button to rotate it downward Spherical clipping: accesses the spherical clipping panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 43 .Rotate Left or Right: this is similar to pressing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard. Rotate Up or Down: this is similar to pressing the up and down arrow keys on the keyboard. See Keyboard for more information. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model leftward.

g.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The header bar also displays a brief description of the panel when you hold down the left mouse button on the panel button (see below). along with the current menu page name (i. The current component and load collector names are displayed on the right side of the bar. Messages also appear on the header bar and temporarily override the title and status information. Geometry) are displayed. Panel titles display on the left side of the bar. the header bar displays the current panel title and model status. the bar displays the current panel name on the left (in black) and the original panel name to the right (in gray).e. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information (e. It displays information pertaining to the currently loaded model as well as descriptions of the main menu pages and panels. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. the current include and current component (comp).. If you access a panel by using a function key. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. When you are on one of the main menu pages (not within a panel).Header Bar The header bar is located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. comp:) in the message bar. When you are in a panel.. 44 HyperMesh 8.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can also obtain a brief description of a panel’s function if you hold down the left mouse button over a panel button. Miscellaneous messages. These messages appear in green when using HyperMesh classic dark menu colors and they appear in gray when using Windows light menu colors Click a mouse button to remove a message from the header bar. such as status updates or completed operations.0 User’s Guide 45 .Messages posted on the header bar are color-coded: red green/gray Error messages.

Each of these pages contain panels related to the page name: Geom 1D 2D 3D Analysis Tool Post Creation and editing functions for geometry such as points. If you are not using the default HyperMesh menu system. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. and informational functions. A secondary menu can be accessed by using keyboard keys. To correct this condition.set from the directory you are working in (provided you are not working in the directory where HyperMesh is installed). or surfaces 1-D element creation. and load creation functions. The page menu. Model editing. each containing a list of panels and modules. Most panels are further divided into sub-panels. then the menu items described above may not appear on the appropriate pages. HyperMesh presents these pages in the page menu. such as bars.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To change main menu pages: • Note: Click the radio button before the main menu page. quit HyperMesh. 46 HyperMesh 8. Page Menu HyperMesh panels are grouped by function on several “pages”. Modules contain a collection of panels that are grouped according to functionality. masses. delete the file hmmenu. coordinate system. utility functions. which is located on the right-hand edge of the main menu area. Post-processing and xy plotting functions. model checking functions. lines. and then start HyperMesh once again.Main Menu Area HyperMesh functionality is organized according into pages. and spot welds Creation and editing functions for 2-D surfaces and elements Creation and editing functions for 3-D surfaces and elements Boundary conditions.

model browser. both. each sidebar can be toggled on and off separately. such as the utility menu. or none from the Tab Locations sub-menu of the view pull-down menu. click a tab heading to bring it to the forefront. However. multiple features are organized onto tabs. right side. Turn the Tab Area sidebars on and off by selecting left side. and/or the solver browser. so you might only see one—or even none—at a time. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To maximize available space.0 User’s Guide 47 .Tab Area This area of the HyperMesh environment is actually two separate sidebars which flank the Graphics Area. Each Tab Area sidebar can contain multiple complex features.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . entity sets. materials. vector collectors. properties. The browser displays on one of the Tab Area sidebars. This screenshot shows all of the entities that can display in the browser. components. multibodies. 48 HyperMesh 8. and beamsectcols into a tree-like display. groups. system collectors.Model Browser The model browser resides on a tab in a Tab Area sidebar and allows you to view the HyperMesh model structure by organizing assemblies. load collectors. To open the model browser: Click the model browser item located within the view pull-down menu.

the color and display style of entities also display in the model browser. groups. Components. Colors Assemblies. so that the items related to each assembly appear within that assembly’s folder in the Assembly Hierarchy. right-click on the current color in the model browser. and beamsectcols cannot be organized into assemblies and are all placed at the top level of the tree. The palette automatically disappears when you move the mouse pointer beyond its boundaries. Components and Assemblies may appear in multiple places in the tree. Materials.0 User’s Guide 49 . therefore it does not have a check box. In this instance. When appropriate. unchecked entities are hidden. and System Collectors can all be colored individually. etc. entity sets. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all of its contents. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Load Collectors. properties. Deactivating the check box for an item does not affect the state of its parent assembly. An empty assembly never displays. The currently assigned color displays in the column. and click the desired color from the palette. a specific component might appear under Components and again as a sub-item of a specific Assembly.Multiple entities of the same type are collected into folders in the tree structure. for example. and its state does not affect the state of its ancestors. load cols. Assemblies can also have sub-folders within the main Assembly folder. Check Boxes Items are displayed or hidden by toggling the corresponding check boxes. Deactivating the check box for an assembly hides all of its components and multibodies. To change an entity’s color. Deactivating the check box for an item hides all of its parent assemblies. system cols. Select this to open the same color picker used throughout HyperMesh. vector cols. Note: When the color picker palette appears.) display. each in their corresponding folder (for example all sets are placed as a flat list in the Sets folder). groups. Materials. Properties. and the model browser allows you to set each entity’s color without using the color panel. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all its components and multibodies. multibodies. The following rules apply: • • • • • • • • Checked entities (components. the mouse pointer automatically moves to its center. the right-click menu contains only a single option: color. Each folder can be expanded or collapsed to display or hide its contents. Assemblies containing components or multibodies are considered displayed only when all of the contents are displayed.

assembly. Display None . Shaded topology displays with feature lines. and vector cols have only one display state and will be shown only in element mode. Multibodies. Shaded topology displays with mesh lines. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. and Reverse Display buttons at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. Transparent shaded topology displays without mesh. system cols. and load cols have several display states.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . only the items displayed in the tree are affected. the entity displays differently: Only a wireframe mesh displays. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. but no mesh. Depending on which option you select. components. or load collector. The first set of filters let you restrict the tree structure to display mesh entities. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. Right -clicking opens a popup menu from which you can choose the new style. Click a second time to remove them.Display Mode Components. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. system cols. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the model browser’s own toolbar. You can select these display modes by right-clicking clicking the small icons in the column for each component. Include geometry entities in tree structure. groups. Global Switches The Display All . multibodies. or both: Include mesh entities in tree structure. based on a combination of their elements and their geometry. load cols. geometry entities. In either case. multibodies (not assemblies). They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. and vector cols shown in the tree. groups. groups. Only shaded topology displays (no mesh). and vector cols. repeated clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. 50 HyperMesh 8. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. Click a second time to remove them. assemblies. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. system cols. or click the ID heading to sort numerically by entity ID. load cols.

typing “pillar” in the matching field when using the whole name option will not locate a component named “CH-A-PILLAR-B-I-L”. Otherwise.The next filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. then all entity types ending with “collector” will be checked and display in the list. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). and Reverse Display as described under global switches above. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. with the same buttons for Display All.0 User’s Guide 51 . However. and Reverse Selection. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. In addition. in this case they are used for Select All. Whole name only selects tree items whose entire name matches the specified text. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. For example. For example. . For example. Fine-tune the search/selection by choosing an option from the ( • • ) button: Match case only selects tree items that match the entered text exactly. Display None. if you type “*collector” into this combo box and press <enter>. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the model browser. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. Select None. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. In this way. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. a down-arrow button. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. including upper/lower case letters. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. click OK to close the list. Accomplish this via the matching: combo text/list box. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the model browser’s tree structure. You can also select groups of entities based on a wildcard search. an up-arrow button.

type a search string into the combination box. For example. with this option active. or “RearChassis1”. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). Drag and Drop Components. for example. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. finding match #1 again. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. “FrontChassis”. In this way you can combine the search options. To find entities matching your specified string and options. For instance. Note: If an item is dragged out of the tree and dropped onto empty space. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. it is highlighted in the model browser. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. You can drag and drop multiple items at any time using the standard shift and ctrl keys. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. In this way. clicking third time finds match #3. all the items in the assembly are moved to the new location (items that are not seen in the tree due to filters are also moved). the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. select it again to remove the checkbox. A dragged item is added to the bottom of the list in an assembly. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. In other words. So. the right mouse button activates a menu that allows you to move or copy an item to the new location. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed.To find an entity. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. clicking again finds match #2. for instance. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). 52 HyperMesh 8. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. such as searching for whole names with matching case. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. The left mouse button allows you to move the item into another assembly. multibodies. and assemblies can be dragged and dropped with the left and right mouse button. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. To deactivate the option. If an assembly is moved or copied. Since this function works in combination with the filters. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. it is deleted in all its parent assemblies and placed at the top level of the tree. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . rather than only part of the name.

A new assembly. component. property. Option New Available for: Assemblies. or beamsectcol can be created at the top level. Most items can be deleted. set. The options available depend on the entity that you right -click on. Description A new assembly. load cols. You can cancel the rename operation by pressing ESCAPE or clicking anywhere outside the entry box before editing the existing name. Load Collectors. those children will be automatically moved to the top level. group. properties. If you want to entirely delete an assembly. sets. system col. Properties. or multibody can be created inside an assembly (activate the menu over an assembly). vector cols. All instances of the renamed item will be automatically updated. component. and that assembly has children that are not present anywhere else. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Folders that contain materials. Components. multibody. load col. The new name must be unique. Options selected in an empty space apply to the entire model. Materials. material.Context Menu Clicking the right mouse button on a folder or entity within the browser’s tree structure allows you to change a variety of options. beamsectcols. and groups cannot be renamed.0 User’s Guide 53 . Once created. system cols. the item is automatically assigned a unique generic name that can be changed by entering the new name in the highlighted field. you will be given a choice of either deleting that item from the database entirely or only removing it from the present location. vector col. • If a component or multibody is present in more than one assembly in the model. Delete All except the top-level of Assemblies • Rename All Any item can be renamed by entering a new name in the name text box. Plots.

You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. groups. plots. Configure Browser… 54 HyperMesh 8. system collectors. the card editor is not invoked and the appropriate message is displayed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A component. so that only the top-most level of items displays. components. components. this shows all of the items within that branch (e. materials. card. and properties. The card image of that entity for the solver template loaded will be displayed. Opens all of the folders in the entire tree structure. If a template is not loaded or if the entity does not have any card images associated to the loaded template. plots. groups.g.) Show Only Deactivates the checkboxes of all items in the entire model browser except for this single item. materials. materials. all groups. this hides all of the items within that branch (e. plots. The current component is designated with bold font. etc. all materials. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. Display the item in the graphics area. beamsectcol All All Assemblies. load collectors. materials. properties. properties. so that only this item displays in the graphics area. this hides everything except for the items within that branch.g. load collectors. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. which allows you to determine what entities display in the tree as well as the columns that the browser displays. components. load collectors. components. system collectors. load collectors.Edit Card… All Any single item can be card edited.) Make Current components. load collectors. Assemblies. This selects each affected item’s checkbox. In such cases. Used to quickly and easily isolate single entities. so that the item no longer displays in the graphics area. load collectors. multibody. components. plots. Assemblies. plots. In such cases. materials. properties. components. groups. plots. and properties. In such cases. cards. multibody. materials. and properties. or beamsectcol can be made current using the pop-up menu. etc. Opens the Model Browser’s Browser Configuration window. Closes all of the folders in the tree structure. exposing every item nested at every level. All Collapse all Expand all Show Hide Un-checks the item’s checkbox. system collectors. all materials. all groups.

click the Entity types: radio button. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Use this window to change the columns and entity types that display in the model browser. Separate tabs organize entities and columns. Entities Tab To show all of the entity types that the currently-loaded model possesses.0 User’s Guide 55 . You can also use the select all.Model Browser Configuration window This window opens when you select the configure browser… option from the Model Browser’s context menu. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired entity type. choose the radio button marked select all entity types in the current model. select none. To select entity types manually. A checkmark indicates that the entity type will display in the browser. and select reverse buttons in this mode.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . choose the radio button marked Select all column types in the current model. To select columns manually. click one of the command buttons to close the window and return to HyperMesh: • • Click OK to keep the new settings and close the window. select none. click the Column types: radio button. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired column. 56 HyperMesh 8. You can also use the select all. Click Cancel to discard the changes (keeping the original settings) and close the window. and select reverse buttons in this mode.Columns tab To show columns for all of the attributes that the currently-loaded model possesses. Command buttons Once you finish configuring the browser. A checkmark indicates that the column will display in the browser.

0 User’s Guide 57 . review. 55 systems. Each of the folders can be expanded to review the individual entities in that folder. the include named dummy.Include Browser The include browser can be accessed by selecting include browser from the view pull-down menu. It allows you create. 55 system collectors. organize. The Master Model is at the top level of the include browser. is stored in the master model. An example of a model in the include browser is shown below. 116 sets. For example. You can select entities (using the standard Shift and Control keys) and drag various entities between two includes or between the master model and an include. which does not have any references to an include file. edit. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Each include can be expanded to reveal its contents. The contents of each include is organized (grouped) into folders containing each type. in the above example. The browser can be configured to show only specific entities of interest. etc. Data.dyn contains 55 vectors. next to which appears the total number of entities of each type. Each include file is represented with an icon along with its name and internal HyperMesh ID. and update the contents of a model into various include files. 296 properties.

the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. system cols. and vector cols shown in the tree. Display None. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. with the same buttons for Display All. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. and Reverse Selection. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. system cols. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. load cols. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. Otherwise. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. Select None. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. multibodies (not assemblies). In this way. a down-arrow button.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . in this case they are used for Select All. groups. and vector cols. multibodies. and Reverse Display at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. For example. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. In addition. an up-arrow button. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. and Reverse Display as described under Global Switches above. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. 58 HyperMesh 8. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. . click OK to close the list. groups. Display None . Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. The filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). assemblies are unchecked only as needed. components. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the include browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the browser’s own toolbar. However. load cols. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the include browser. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. Multiple clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the include browser’s tree structure.Global Switches The Display All .

you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. for example. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. For example. with this option active. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. select it again to remove the checkbox. In this way you can combine the search options. rather than only part of the name. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. such as searching for whole names with matching case. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. Since this function works in combination with the filters. or “RearChassis1”. So. To find entities matching your specified string and options. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). type a search string into the combination box.To find an entity. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. “FrontChassis”. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. for instance. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. finding match #1 again. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. clicking third time finds match #3.0 User’s Guide 59 . HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. For instance. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. clicking again finds match #2. In other words. To deactivate the option. it is highlighted in the include browser. In this way.

Clicking on the selected (highlighted) include a second time also has the same effect. Deletes the selected include. Delete When an include is selected • Rename When an include is selected Converts the name of the include into an editable text box ready for the new name to be entered. Thus any new entities created in HyperMesh such as new elements. Makes the selected include "current". If a specific include is selected (highlighted). contacts.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Function New… When function is active Permanently Description Creates a new include. the new include is created within it. are automatically placed in the current include. The new include is created at the top level inside the master model when no include file is highlighted while selecting this option. etc. Make current When an include is selected 60 HyperMesh 8.Context Menu A context sensitive pop-up menu provides many other include browser functionalities. components. Right click in the browser to invoke the following pop-up menu. Prompts the user with two choices: • Delete the include file The first option moves all the contents of the include file into its parent include and deletes the include file. Delete the include file and its contents The second option deletes all the contents within the selected include along with the include itself.

Collapses all the branches of the tree structure for the selected include. Executive Control. etc. or Case Control. This flag is specific to some solvers such as Optistruct. or an entire include) into the include that is marked as current. mats. Flag representing the section of the input deck that the include belongs in.Move to current When entities are selected Moves all the selected entities (individual entities. the entire set of entities of a specific type.. Clears the graphics region of any previous display and displays all the entities that belong to the selected include. Includes that have this flag turned on display in the browser in italics. The available options are: • • • name file name to be exported (absolute path or path relative to its parent include) Do not export flag (allows you to review the contents of an include but not export it). Allows you to set the various options for a selected include. Exports all the includes with their corresponding content (not the master model only the includes). Export an include… Export all includes Collapse Include Expand include When an include is selected Permanently Permanently Permanently Display only When an include (or master model) is selected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.). The contents of the chosen file are imported into include. Include file options… When an include is selected • Import include… When an include is selected Imports the content of a file into the selected include. Expands all the branches of the include’s tree structure along with the various entity type folders (such as comps. Option prompts you to select a name and browse for the file to be imported. which subdivide their data deck into various sections such as Bulk Data. For the remaining solvers this option is not available. Nastran. etc.0 User’s Guide 61 . Exports the contents of the selected include into the chosen file name.

Select from a list of all entities (except nodes and elements) in HyperMesh. • User selected entity types Allows you to select the entities that you want to display in the browser. Two options are available: • Select all entity types available in current model Displays all the entity types available in the current model (default).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Edit card Enable/Disable When a control card is selected When a control card is selected Invokes the card image of the control card in the HyperMesh window. Allows users to enable (turn on and export) control cards that have been disabled and vice versa. 62 HyperMesh 8.Configure browser Permanently Opens a window that allows you to select which types of entities should be shown in the include browser.

Modules Panels that are used to perform related functions are sometimes grouped together in modules. xy plots located on the Post page. the module. and are grouped to provide easy panel access without unnecessary navigational clicks. locate the module button on one of the main menu pages and click the module button. The main difference between the module and a panel is the additional menu layer. perform simple math on curves.0 User’s Guide 63 . and scale the axis of plots. edit curves. For example. To select a module. A module may contain panels that are also found on the main pages. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. contains panels that allow you to read curves. Note: HyperMesh does not make any special distinction between modules and panels.

This allows you to perform many operations inside HM without performance issues. refer to the topics below: Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles Other profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. 64 HyperMesh 8. The information is arranged into a tree structure for ease of use.Loadsteps Browser The Loadsteps Browser is used to create. the display settings apply to export of loadsteps. while popup forms allow you to quickly enter or select relevant information. keeping the browser in sinc with an actions taken within the rest of HyperMesh can require considerable processing time. and control the way that the data displays in HyperMesh (which is the default behavior) or exports (when the Export state button is active). For large models. manage and display HyperMesh loadsteps (sub-cases) and the associated control cards. with controls for altering the Display of the information and/or exporting it. the Sync button becomes active whenever you make changes to the current HM database.0SR1 release. and then sync the browser with one click. Instead. Note that this changes the loadsteps’ export states. A right-click menu accesses editing and advanced options. Export state Sync browser Filter The main functionality of the Loadstep Browser varies depending on the active HyperMesh User Profile. it can be turned on and off. More profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. Use this feature to limit the tree to display only loadsteps whose names match a specific text string—either partly or completely. This button acts as a toggle. including a name filter that uses HyperMesh standard filtering syntax. or select multiple items by shiftclicking or control-clicking. When inactive. Select it from the BCs Pull-Down menu to display its tab in the tab area. the settings apply only to the current display. Note: For the 8. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. OptiStruct (OS) and Nastran are supported within this framework. Display Options The display options lie in a toolbar at the top of the browser tab. For help specific to each profile. reverse selection Use these to select the items in the tree. You can also select individual items by clicking on them. but may not be active by default. the Loadstep Browser does not automatically sync itself with the HM database.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . but not their visibility in the HM graphics area. The Loadsteps Browser displays in its own tab in the tab area. When activated. select none. Each control has its own function: Select all. To alleviate this.

This option creates a copy of loadcols with these card images and converts them into an auto-managed naming convention for easy editing/reviewing inside the Edit options popup. Delete the selected entity or entities. Renumber the selected entity. Opens the OptiStruct panel in HyperMesh. organized into folders. MLOAD. This launches the BCs Contour utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. You can click these to toggle them back and forth: The loadcols in the loadstep display in the HyperMesh graphics area. or all folders if none are selected. OptiStruct In addition. There are many functions available. This loadstep will not be exported. The loadcols in the loadstep do not display in the HyperMesh graphics area. This loadstep will be exported. MOTION. this will bring up an appropriate GUI for editing of the loadstep or control card information. Review the selected entity in the HM card editor. Collapses all selected folders and subfolders. Depending on the entity selected. either from scratch or by creating an exact copy of an existing subcase. all of the loadsteps in the model default to the blank (unchecked) state. This option is for users who wish to have existing DLOAD. or all folders if none are selected. LOAD. Rename the selected entity.Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles The browser’s tree structure lists relevant control cards and loadstep information. every loadstep listed in the tree has a small checkbox next to it as well as an export state indicator. For the OptiStruct and Nastran profiles. Expands all selected folders and subfolders. accessed by right-clicking on the tree background or on individual or multiple items.0 User’s Guide 65 . these options include: New subcase Edit options Edit card Delete Rename Renumber BCs Contour Loads Summary Collapse all/selection Expand all/selection Auto-manage load references Create a new subcase. Note: When you first open the loadstep browser. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This launches the Loads Summary utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. MPCADD and SPCADD cards auto-managed.

or any subfolder in the Loadstep Browser. the new subcase is an exact copy of the existing one. Note: This step is skipped when you create a new subcase! A popup window opens. This allows users to modify a subcase and add in references to loadcols that do not exist in the current model. A bold reference signifies that the load reference is defined. The popup has several tabs to gather the relevant information. 3. A pop-up window opens. When importing a model into HyperMesh. Type in a subcase name Select the same as option. To add a loadcol to the load reference. allowing you to edit the subcase. the Add <unavailable> load reference ID option is available. 5. allowing you to edit the subcase. To edit a subcase: 1. a warning message appears to notify you. A green indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and is defined. When this option is active. 2. the list will change accordingly. check the box next to the desired option and fill in the required fields. To activate an option. • • Depending on the load reference selected in the tree. a warning message appears to notify you.To create a new subcase: 1. select the loadcol in the left table and use the right arrow to add the loadcol to the table on the right.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Depending on the Subcase Type. • • If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol is not appropriate for that particular load reference. If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol does not exist in the HM database. A red indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and requires attention. Name filtering is available by using standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. then pick an existing subcase to base the new one on. The table on the right lists the loadcols currently selected for that load reference. allowing you to: • • 2. Right -click on the desired subcase folder. and select Edit options. Click create. Right -click anywhere in the Loadstep Browser and select New subcase. the list of appropriate Load References will change accordingly. In order to support this. A tree structure lists the load references that are available for the selected subcase type. depending on the card image or types of loads contained within. These references are also listed in the right table with a warning message to notify you that the loadcol doesn’t exist in the database 66 HyperMesh 8. • • • • 4. Another pop-up window opens. it is possible that the subcase may reference loadcols that have not been imported (they are in a separate include file). The table on the left lists the loadcols that are valid for a particular load reference.

You must determine the appropriate loadcols to check on/off depending on the subcase type. an entry box appears so that you can enter the appropriate information in the browser. use the all/none/reverse buttons where appropriate. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. The selected utility launches with the loadcols associated with the selected subcase automatically selected. • • All of the loads contained in a loadcol display regardless of their relevance to the load reference they are assigned to. or edit the card of a subcase: Right click on the appropriate subcase or loadcol. except that the first step is to right-click on the Global Options folder or any of its sub-folders. 2. instead of clicking on a specific subcase’s folder or sub-folder. To display a subcase: 1. 1. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. To edit the Global Options of a subcase: Editing Global Options works exactly like editing a subcase. 7. Note: To rename. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Additional control is also available at both the Global Options and Subcase Load References level: 3. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. 8. To select multiple loadcols. 9. 2. Right -click options allow for additional functionality depending on the current selection. Global load references are not checked on/off by selecting or deselecting a subcase. For renaming and renumbering. Check/uncheck the display checkbox next to the subcase of interest. renumber.6. • The Add <unavailable> load reference ID option allows you to add a reference to a loadcol ID that does not currently exist in the HM database (as described in step 5). delete. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. It is up to you to organize their loads for proper display.0 User’s Guide 67 . Click the Display button at the bottom of the Loadstep Browser GUI. Select the desired option from the popup menu. You can also launch the “BCs Contour” and “Loads Summary” utilities from the Loadstep Browser. These buttons select loadcols from the currently active table.

and selecting the appropriate loadcols.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) 68 HyperMesh 8. Inside the Edit options popup. a loadcol is automatically created and assigned the correct card image when any of these conditions are met: • • • More than one loadcol is selected for the load reference One loadcol is selected and the local scale factor is not 1.Loadsteps: Auto-manage load references This option is recommended for all users. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. This option does the following: 1. the Auto-manage load references option is available. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has not been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. (The original loadcol is not deleted or modified in any way. a new copy would be created and named “autoSPCADD_1”.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) The global scale factor is not 1. the loadcol will not be expanded or editable inside the GUI. it will: • Create a copy of that loadcol and assign it a new name. If the loadcol selected for the load reference already has the card image assigned (for users wishing to manually manage their loadcols and point to an existing loadcol with one of the card images listed above) no additional action takes place. many HyperMesh users do not want to be responsible for managing these load collectors. The only way to modify the loadcol is via the card editor (right-click option from the editor GUI). However. when appropriate.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .) • 2. In HyperMesh. If the load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images indicated above. Inside the Edit options popup. MPCADD and SPCADD loadcols: by creating a loadcol. MOTION. LOAD. However. To satisfy both types of users. there has traditionally only been one way to create DLOAD. Looks at each subcase and at each load reference. MLOAD. based on a fixed naming convention (auto<CARD IMAGE NAME>_#). Assign that new loadcol to the original load reference. the loadcol is expanded and editable inside the GUI. For example. if a load reference pointed to an SPCADD loadcol. assigning the appropriate card image. nor are they always aware of their existence.

a message is displayed stating the error. Some panels contain several functions that perform similar tasks. Each panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. Each panel has a unique title that describes the main function of the panel. A description of the panel as well as instructions on how to use it display. This cannot be rejected once the panel is exited. Using the middle mouse button allows you to make the required selections in the graphics region. thus reducing mouse movement. This behavior is called rapid menu. advance to the next selection. You can also use the middle mouse click to advance through input collectors (yellow) or entry fields and then proceed to a function (green) or return (red). Note: To display a brief description of the function of a panel in the header bar. You can press the ESC key or click return to exit a panel. If you press a function button and the data is incorrect or required information is missing. and continue selecting or complete the operation. press the "H" key or select HyperMesh and OptiStruct from the Help pull-down menu to display the help topic for the current panel.Panels HyperMesh panels allow you to perform specific tasks by selecting options and entering variable data. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 69 . Release the mouse button to access the panel. hold the mouse button down while the cursor is over the panel name. Returning out of a panel means accepting what was performed on the model while using the panel. To select a panel. Panels with multiple functions have sub-panels that display only those menu items that are relevant to the current operation. locate and click the panel button on one of the main menu pages. Note: Once a panel is active.

on the collectors panel there are three sub-panels: create. 70 HyperMesh 8. To select a sub-panel. update. Only one sub-panel may be selected at a time. Collectors .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .update sub-panel. click the radio button next to the sub-panel name on the left side of the panel.Sub-panels Sub-panel names are listed on the left side of the panel. For example. Collectors . Collectors .create sub-panel. and card image or dictionary. Each sub-panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform.card image sub-panel.

Most panels also have toggles and switches that allow you to alternate between choices or select options from a list. Advance one page toward the end of the list Go directly to the last page of the list Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. toggle switch In some cases. data entry fields.Input Controls The menu items on each panel indicate the information that is needed to correctly perform the panel’s function. When you click a switch. the list of options presented by a switch can be very long: In these cases. Menu items include: Menu Buttons The color of the menu button corresponds to its purpose: green yellow red Functions or executable items Collectors Return or abort Toggles and Switches Toggles and switches appear on many HyperMesh panels. HyperMesh breaks the options up into multiple “pages” within the switch’s pop-up menu.0 User’s Guide 71 . plane collectors. Step backward one page toward the beginning of the list. a list of options is displayed. When you click a toggle. and function buttons. the menu item following it alternates between choices. Each panel contains input collectors. The green arrow buttons on the right-hand edge of the pop-up menu advance or back-track through the list of options: << < > >> Go directly to the first page of the list.

if the nodes selected are not connected by elements. show node order. displaying a list of available selection methods. Allows you to select a few nodes that form a path and HyperMesh selects all the displayed nodes that lie in the shortest path of the nodes selected. Note: If the data type is a line list. and select the type you want to use. If the data type is a node list. click the input collector switch to access the pop-up menu of possible data types. These selection options display for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. An input collector contains a switch or toggle. Allows you to view the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. by path follows the connectivity of the elements between the nodes selected. Note: For more information about the extended entity options. by path. this function does not apply. the function tries to find the closest path along the edges of that part. a data type button. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). or by window.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Input Collector To change the data type. The extended entity selection window opens. The extended entity selection window allows you to choose various methods of selecting entities of a specified data type. you can select multiple entities via quick window selection (hold down the SHIFT key and drag your mouse to create a window. you can click on the collector to access a pop-up with the selections by list. Extended entity selection window. See The Mouse for more details). To access the options: • Click the data type button. and a reset (|< ) button. click the reset to deselect all selected entities. show node order by window 72 HyperMesh 8. click the data type of the input collector to see the selected entities in the order in which they were selected. An input collector is active when the data type button is enclosed in a blue rectangle. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are grayed out. If you select nodes on the edges of a part. by list by path Allows you to pick the nodes individually from the node list. see Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu. If you want to reset the entity selections.Input Collectors Input collectors allow you to indicate which entities are to be modified when a function is performed. In addition to selecting one entity at a time on the screen. Therefore.

N2). the translate panel requires that you define the direction of translation.The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. N2. When defining a plane. HyperMesh takes advantage of the following principle: a plane can be defined with a vector (the plane is normal to the vector specified). Either can be defined via the plane and vector selector—a group of buttons that work in concert to define planes or vectors. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or plane (N1.N2. y-axis. The options available are: • Use x-axis. only the items necessary for the current HyperMesh function will display. N2. that not every item appears at all times. This selector is broken down into the following items. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. For example. Use N1. Double-click a node’s button (N1.N3). however. while the reflect panel requires a plane for the creation of the mirror images of the entities selected. and z-axis to define the first. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. switch The switch is used to select the method for defining the plane or vector. This coordinate system may be the global coordinate system. or B) to type in coordinates rather than selecting existing nodes in your model. Note. second or third axis respectively of a coordinate system in your model. N3 to define a vector (N1. This includes vectors defining coordinate systems. just as a vector can be defined with a plane (the vector is normal to the plane specified). the resulting vector is normal to this plane following the right hand rule. or a local system when one can be explicitly specified. Plane and Vector Selector Several HyperMesh panels require that you define a plane or a vector (direction) to perform a certain function. as needed: The Plane and vector selector.0 User’s Guide 73 . or N3. If you select two free (red) edges. cylindrical or spherical. and loads as well. and passes through either N1 or the base node (if one is specified). Local systems may be rectangular. Choose vector to specify a vector entity (created in the vectors panel). it only works with surface edges and not with free unconnected geometric lines.

if selected) is the point on the plane through which the vector passes. For example. Select the x-. selecting a plane of projection using the x-axis does not define the location of the plane entirely. Select a model vector (i. N1 (or the base node.N3 and base). and N3. A base node provides the extra information. but serve a different purpose.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select two nodes. 4. Select three nodes.. 3. N3. or z-axis and a base node.N2. N2. The vector is the normal of the plane defi ned by the three nodes. The resulting plane is normal to the N1-N2 vector and passes through N1 (or the base node. reset Note: Allows you to clear your selection (vector. the following selector displays in the position and linear solid panels: This selector is used in these panels to map entities from one location to another. The resulting plane is normal to the vector. N2. To define a vector: 1. Note that when using the N1. y-. N2. N1. Select the x-. N1 and N2. 4. N1 and N2. The base node locates a plane normal to the chosen axis.. Select a model vector (i.e. N1. N3 option. 3. Select two nodes. or z-axis. For example. A parallel plane can be specified by selecting a base point elsewhere in the model. 74 HyperMesh 8. local coordinate system vectors or load vectors). HyperMesh uses N1 as a default base node if no other base node is specified. if selected). arrows that represent a local coordinate system vector or load vector). Select three nodes.e. Some selectors may resemble the plane and vector selector. To define a plane: 1. y-. 2. N1.B (base node) Use this selector to define the base node—the point in space where the vector or plane is located. 2.

Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL.e. If you want to edit the existing data. plot =. HyperMesh removes any leading spaces contained in a character string. press CTRL-c. the following keys perform the corresponding functions: ESC Restores the initial text or value displayed upon entering edit mode. In edit mode. You can enter characters and numbers from the keyboard to modify the value. Note: If you need to specify the name of a collector for a data input field (i. Moves the cursor to the end of the input field. Press the ESC key while the field is still active to restore the initial text or value to the input field. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. A description of the type of input precedes the field. Deletes the character which is above the cursor. the value previously assigned to the field is erased. press a right or left arrow key ( or ) before pressing any other keys. When you type an alphanumeric character with the keyboard. and use the keyboard to enter text until the proper information is displayed. Move the cursor in the input field to the left and right. press the ENTER key. select another menu item. title =). click the menu item or input field a second time to select the name from a list of the existing collectors. Moves the input cursor from field to field on the panel. Character String Input To enter a character string.). characters can be inserted or deleted at the proper location. You can cut and paste text from one data field to another within HyperMesh and also from data fields in HyperMesh to a command window (except in OpenGL versions).. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the input field. The first character in a string cannot be a space. signifying that the input field in ready for editing.0 User’s Guide 75 . use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. comp =. and press CTRL-v. Input field. After you click either the input field or the description. or click the input field a second time to access the HyperMesh calculator. Deletes the character to the left of the cursor and moves the cursor one space to the left. After positioning the cursor in the input field. click the corresponding menu item or input field (the menu item is placed in edit modea). respectively. the text currently in the input field is highlighted. and the new character is placed at the far left of the input field. or press a function key. To cut and paste character strings. and BACKSPACE HOME END DELETE TAB To exit edit mode.Input Fields Input fields are used to enter text or numerical values.

move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. if you type 123e+1q1. HyperMesh immediately processes the selection you have made on the pop-up menu and then waits for you to make more selections. If the pop-up does not have a border. 76 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh automatically displays the value in scientific notation. click the corresponding menu item or input field and enter the value using the keyboard. The pop-up menu remains on the screen until you move the mouse outside the bounds of the box. For example. If HyperMesh expects an integer value and you enter 123. When the pop-up menu appears.Numeric Data Input Numerical values are specified as real numbers or integers. In edit mode. HyperMesh displays integer values without a decimal point. and click exit to close the calculator. the second click gives you access to the calculator). the mouse cursor is centered in the menu and the menu is made active. You can also use the HyperMesh calculator to enter the value. press CTRL-c.000. To use the calculator. you must make a selection before you can proceed.). If the pop-up menu has a border. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. HyperMesh interprets it as 1230. click numeric and function buttons on the calculator using HP-style reverse notation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . click the menu item or input field a second time (the first click allows you to enter edit mode. Pop-ups Pop-up menus are displayed when there are seve ral options from which to choose. Calculator pop-up. HyperMesh truncates the number to eliminate the decimal point.45. To cut and paste numeric data. If a real number contains three or more leading zeros after the decimal. the view pop-up menu (view on the Toolbar Area) allows you to make multiple selections. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. you can either select a menu item on the pop-up menu or move the mouse outside the bounds of the menu. Some pop-ups are displayed with a border around the menu box and some have no border. Real numbers are displayed with a decimal point or in scientific notation. HyperMesh discards input characters that are not valid numbers and subsequent numbers. and press CTRL-v. For example. To enter numeric data. Some pop-up menus allow multiple selections.

It also displays the file that has been selected from the list. Lists only the file name. This field allows you to select the type of file you want to locate. Click Cancel to close the file browser. write as…. type. The file browser enables you to navigate through the directories on your network to locate files. This field allows you to enter the name of the file you wish to locate.0 User’s Guide 77 . Look in/Save in This drop-down menu contains the overall directory structure.File Browser When you open or save a file using save as. You can open new directories from this list. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click Open (or Save) to load (or save) the file shown in the File name field.. you use the standard Windows file browser. Folders and/or file names within the selected directory are listed below the Look in/Save in text box. based on the search criteria used. and last date modified. as well as the contents of the open directory. import….. retrieve…. Creates a new folder within the current directory. browse…. File name Files of type Open (Save) Cancel Displays the folder at the previous level. load….. Lists the file name. etc.

* to search for all files in the directory.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To search for a particular filename: 1. For Look in/ Save in. In the File name field. 2.ext where ext is the extension of the file type you wish to locate. For Look in/Save in. hm5. Type *. 3.To search for a particular file extension: 1. For example. type filename* where filename is any portion of the name of the file you wish to locate. hm6. Or For Files of Type. All files ending with the specified extension are displayed. specify the directory to search. Press ENTER. select the file type from the drop-down menu. *. type *. specify the search directory. 3.hm searches for all the HyperMesh database files (files with an .hm* for all HyperMesh database files with extensions hm4. All files beginning with the specified characters are displayed in the files list. For File name.hm extension) in the specified directory. etc. 78 HyperMesh 8. 2. You can also type *. Press ENTER.

Deselects an entity in the graphics area. Aborts intensive processes. such as Penetration Checks. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If you release the mouse. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be deselected (removed from selection). the pre-highlighted entity is selected Dynamic rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be selected. Some operations require pressing a keyboard key in addition to using the mouse. Single click and hold. Performs selection operations on single entities. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Single click and release. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels.The Mouse The mouse attached to your system is integral to HyperMesh and can be used in almost every aspect of user input. CTRL Single click and release. Click and move. Click and move. Fit the displayed model to the screen. Single click and release. Selects a new center of rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. the pre-highlighted entity is deselected. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. Rapid menu allows you to use the middle mouse button to quickly perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. Selects a new center of rotation. Keyboard Left mouse Middle mouse Right mouse Single click and release. If you release the mouse. Aborts graphics operations.0 User’s Guide 79 . Single click and release.

quick window deselection of entities. SHIFT Single click and release. Click and move. Pans the model.CTRL Click and move. In display panel – turn on collectors that are inside/outside the window. Click and move. Single click and release. 80 HyperMesh 8. Dynamically rotates the model. In display panel – turn off collectors that are inside/outside the window. Click and move. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window SHIFT Click and move. Zooms into an area of the model. In entity selection mode . In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: Single click and release. In entity selection mode quick window selection of entities.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

This allows advanced users to perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. the middle mouse button repeats the chosen function as long as the entity collector is not reset to empty. In such cases. thus reducing "mouse miles". an error message results. if you pick two nodes. For example. using the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel. For example. resulting in an error message. and then click the middle mouse button to advance to the second node list so that you can begin picking more nodes. For example. the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel if the active input collector (yellow collector with a blue outline) is empty. rapid menu is assigned to the most commonly used function. select a few nodes for your first node list or line list. it replaces one with the other and proceeds to repeat the operation with the new selection.0 User’s Guide 81 . In panels where there is no clear sequence of selections. In these panels. N3 vector option in the translate panel. in the replace panel. For example in the ruled panel. an attempt to perform translate + is executed. in the translate or rotate panels once you selected some elements/nodes/comps and direction and distance of translation. rapid menu advances to the next collector. In most panels. the middle mouse button may activate a function for which there is insufficient data. The function button that is assigned to rapid menu is outlined in black. allowing you to use the same entities to repeat the operation. If you click the middle mouse button after you select the required nodes. For example: in the hidden line panel shown below. In panels where there is a defined sequence of selections (input collectors). In panels that have pre-filled defaults. Since you do not have N1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. N2.Rapid Menu Rapid menu is a feature that uses the middle mouse button (a single click for each step) to move through a panel along a predetermined path. return is assigned to the rapid menu. thus translating/rotating the same nodes again. a middle mouse click performs the operation with the defaults. For example. The rapid menu function can also vary within a panel. N2 and N3 selected or may not have a magnitude value entered. In panels that contain multiple function buttons. create becomes the rapid menu function. But once you pick a node to create the line. when you try to move nodes using the N1. In some panels. For example. HyperMesh performs the fill plot action when you click the middle mouse button. when you enter the lines panel. clicking the middle mouse button a second time repeats the translate + or rotate + function. the entities in the input collector are not cleared. Some panels do not have function buttons and are repetitive. collectors/create panel with a preset collector name creates a collector when you click the middle mouse button. The rapid menu function is predetermined and varies between panels.

Note that "+" is actually shift = on the main keyboard. +. The hot keys are the same as the letters on the menu. SHIFT key. The secondary menu uses various combinations of the function keys. global panel Open the Help. You can press ESC instead of clicking return to exit a panel. options panel Plot Rotate Dynamically zooms in and out when you move the mouse up and down True view transparent components panel User View pop-up menu Windows panel Circle-zoom When you use the +. When a panel is active. this opens help for that panel. from the main page menu. Press "m" again to bring the menus back. Arc rotate Return to a previous view Center (spherical) clipping panel display panel Fill/fit model to window.Keyboard Although most HyperMesh operations are performed with the mouse.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you must use the keyboard to enter new file or component names or title information. there are several keyboard hot keys that you can use to access the viewing functions available on the Toolbar Area. press the key once and wait for HyperMesh to redraw the model before pressing the key again. but simply + on the numeric keypad. and reverse view Zoom by increments. and CTRL key to access panels. or arrow keys. clockwise. Turn off the menus and display only the graphics window. In addition. Rotate by increments Ctrl Incremental counterclockwise.a b c <ctrl>+<c> d f g h m o p r s t <ctrl>+<t> v w z Notes: 82 HyperMesh 8. You can also use the arrow keys on the keyboard to rotate your model. -. it opens the Help’s table of contents.

The keyboard option opens a free-standing window with a keyboard display. so that you can quickly execute tasks that you use frequently simply by pressing one or more keys on the keyboard.0 User’s Guide 83 . Examples include: • • • • • • • Jumping to a specific HyperMesh panel Automatically performing a task using HyperMesh *commands Executing a macro The following keys are usable when defining shortcuts: Letter and number keys ("standard" keys) <ctrl> plus another "standard" key <shift> plus another "standard" key <ctrl> plus <shift> plus another "standard" key You can assign or remove a shortcut by selecting keyboard from the Preferences pull-down menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. zooms and pans the graphics area view to fit the currently displayed model to the screen. You can customize the default shortcut mappings to create your own shortcuts for a variety of tasks. when pressed.Mapping Keyboard Shortcuts Keyboard shortcuts can be used to map HyperMesh functions to keys or key combinations. One example of this is the default mapping of the <f> key—which.

Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. counterclockwise and reverse view Creates bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. to enter the combine sub-panel in the element edit panel. 84 HyperMesh 8. ctrl. such as tab. backspace etc. cannot be mapped. • • Any HyperMesh command file commands can be mapped to a shortcut key. Examples of such shortcuts are: Incremental rotate left. shift. Next. Ctrl + Ctrl + F1 Ctrl + F2 Ctrl + F3 Ctrl + F4 Ctrl + F5 Ctrl + F6 Incremental clockwise. up. Notes • • Some special-function keys.jpg screen capture or animation file. and down respectively. esc. enter the appropriate command(s) and if necessary the file name (for a tcl script) in the table area of the menu located below the keyboard diagram. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. Remapping such keys to new functionality results in loss of original functionality. Generates a *.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Keys display in the Key-Command Mappings window with colors based on their mapping: To map a function to a shortcut key. The selected key highlights in blue. use hm_pushpanelitem {element edit} {combine} This will take you to the last used sub-panel in the specified panel. select the appropriate key by clicking in the keyboard menu or holding down that key on your keyboard. Those keys are identified with a different color: Use the hm_pushpanelitem command in a shortcut to jump to a specific sub-panel of a panel. For example. and some utilize functions which are only accessible via shortcut keys. Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. right. Creates PostScript file of the screen and spools it to printer. alt. Some keyboard shortcuts are mapped by default during installation.

7: this macro already exists in the QA page of the Utility menu. click the "…" button to browse to and select the findbeams. "none".0 User’s Guide 85 .shortcut mapping examples To create a shortcut key "e" that deletes all the elements in the model. 1. *deletemark elements 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.7" 0 To create a shortcut key "shift + K" that runs a macro to check whether any beam/bar elements exist in the model and display them only: Create a findbeams. To create a shortcut key "L" that accesses the lines panel.tcl file. enter the following commands in the command field next to the key "E": *createmark elements 1 "all".tcl file with following commands: Proc displayonlybeams {} { *createmark elements 2 "by config" 60 63 set beams [hm_getmark elements 2] *clearmark elements 2 if { ![Null beams]} { *displaycollectorwithfilter(comps. enter the following in the command field next to the key "J": *evaltclstring "macroElementJacobian 0. To call the same macro. To create a shortcut key "J" that runs a macro to find all the elements with jacobian < 0. 1). select shift from the Shortcut Key pull-down menu. *findmark elements 1 0 1 elements 0 2. enter the following in the command field next to the key "L": hm_pushpanel {lines}. } else { hm_usermessage "No beam elements in this model" } } In the Key-Command Mappings window. Enter the following in the command field next to the key "K". "". eval *createmark elements 1 $beams. *evaltclstring displayonlybeams In the file field.

The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. or in combination with the SHIFT or CTRL keys. and upon completion. to continue using the initial panel. When you use the secondary menu. The default secondary panels are as follows: Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Note: Function key only hidden line delete replace distance mask element edit align node create node line edit check element geometry quick edit automesh plus SHIFT key color temp nodes edges translate find split project node edit surf edit normals organize smooth plus CTRL key print slide slide file print eps create eps file print b/w eps create JPEG file Function keys may be reassigned to different panels by using the build menu panel.Secondary Menu The secondary menu is a list of panels that can be accessed by using the function keys F1 through F12.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Entities selected while in the secondary panel are still selected when you return to the initial panel. it interrupts the active panel and allows you to perform a function in the secondary panel. 86 HyperMesh 8.

etc. Macros may contain any valid command file command. HyperMesh runs it automatically to define the attributes and contents of the utility menu. it looks for a macro file named hm.Utility Menu The utility menu allows you to customize the standard interface to include function buttons. A userpage. radio options.mac) controls the display and available operations of the utility menu.mac in the current directory. $2. The *callmacro() command allows you to call a macro from within another one. and are enclosed by the *beginmacro() and *endmacro() commands.mac file sources the following additional macro files: disppage. This file defines the attributes and contents of the User page of the utility menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. it first looks for the userpage. Populates the User page of the utility menu. Thus it is actually a group of menus. with optional arguments to pass The page number allows you to create multiple pages.mac qamodelpage. Attributes that you can change include: • • • • • The utility menu page on which the operations appear Text to be displayed on each control Location and size of the menu The help string to be displayed on the menu bar The macro to call when each control is used. Creates the button group that allows you to switch pages. which allows you to create groups of standard reusable macros.mac file in their home directory. so that you can group the macros by type of operation. The utility menu includes several pages of its own. When HyperMesh starts.0 User’s Guide 87 .mac userpage. Macros may accept variable arguments. and can be shown or hidden from within the view pull-down menu. UNIX users also have the option of putting the userpage. clicking one of these buttons opens the page associated with it. You may also select and run a macro file after HyperMesh starts from within the options panel. The menu is located on a tab of the tab area pane(s). The default hm. Each page is associated with a button at the bottom of the utility menu. each dedicated to different tasks. by using the arguments $1.mac globalpage.mac Populates the Display page of the utility menu. A macro file (hm. passed to them from a control. HOME directory (UNIX only). similar to the way that only one radio button can be active at a time—selecting a button de-selects all of the other buttons in the group.mac file may exist in the installation directory for HyperMesh or in the directory from which HyperMesh launches. Populates the QA/Model page of the utility menu. or the application’s base directory. and text that have HyperMesh-supplied and user-defined macros associated with them. to specify where the arguments should be substituted. although only one displays at a time.mac geommeshpage. Only one button can be depressed at a time.mac file in the directory from which it launches and then in the installation directory. If it finds this macro. When HyperMesh starts. Populates the Geom/Mesh page of the utility menu.

with the current page’s button depressed. and Disp pages contain a variety of macros that allow you to quickly perform functions which would normally take several steps. Default Utility menu The utility menu is normally located on the left side of the graphics region. however. but you have only the left-hand pane showing in the HyperMesh environment. if the utility menu is on the right-hand tab area pane. However. You can also turn the utility menu off by clicking the small “x” in the upper corner of the tab area when the utility menu tab is in the forefront.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . QA/Model. it can also be dragged-and-dropped to the right -side explorer pane. turning off the display of everything except entities of type. Note: While macros offer a great deal of flexibility. although it may be obscured by another tab such as the model browser or include browser. By combining these features. It contains page selection buttons at the bottom of the menu. delete the * before the *enablemacromenu() command in the hm.cfg file. 88 HyperMesh 8. simply check it in the view menu. Note. To restore the utility menu. The Geom/Mesh. and a macro may not be called recursively. the Utility menu displays when HyperMesh starts. that it still might not display if the tab area pane on which it resides is not active. if you wish. You can also isolate only a specific entity type. You can also mask and unmask portions of your model. but display of the menu is controlled by a command in the HyperMesh Configuration. the utility menu will still be invisible even though you have it checked in the view menu. in the Tab area pane. Then. If you want to remove the Utility menu from the default screen display.By default. For example. or even by clicking-and-dragging the tab to the HyperMesh title bar. there is no way to cancel the execution or reject the results. Disp Utility menu The Disp utility menu contains a variety of macros that allow you to modify the graphical display of HyperMesh entities in several different ways. you can turn the display of individual types back on as desired. until only the desired subset of entity types displays. you must remember that once a macro is executed. if that pane is open. showing or hiding all 2-D elements. You can turn the utility menu off completely (removing its tab from the tab area) by un-checking it in the view pull-down menu. The different pages of the utility menu are: • • • • Geom/Mesh (macros related to model geometry and FE mesh) Disp (Options related to the graphical display of entities) QA/Model (macros related to element quality and loads) User (user-created macros only) The utility menu displays by default. you can restrict HyperMesh to only drawing a small sub-set of the entities in your model. and save additional model views. See the descriptions below for help with each type of macro. Chief among these is the ability to turn the display of individual entity types on and off—for example.

such as 2-D elements or lines. such as 2-D elements or geometry points. but does not affect the display of 0.Scene macros: These controls allow you to save and retrieve up to three additional views of your model. This enables you to turn off certain entities while retaining others. These broad categories have buttons labeled All or none. Scene (1. including its boundary conditions. For example. There are different categories of entities whose display you can turn on and off. These buttons retrieve views of the model that you have previously saved via the scene (1. Toggling the display of these does not affect other entities within the same broad category. clicking Off next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every 2-D element in your model. These views function in addition to the user views. 2. followed by 2-3 buttons. Clicking none turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. or isolate the display of an entity type. These views function just like the custom views that you can save and retrieve via the user views function (accessed from the HyperMesh toolbar). clicking none hides the entire model. Smaller sub-types of entity. such as elements or geometry. 3) save macros. for example. 3) Save Scene (1. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. and allow you to turn the display of different types of entities on or off. For example. clicking all next to the elements label turns on the display of every element type in your model. control an array of several related entities (such as points. other geometry types (such as points) do not turn off. such as geometry. The largest group possible is labeled Everything. 1. surfs. The All and none buttons for this category literally affect every entity in the model. such as elements or geometry. none On Off Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.3) Retrieve These buttons save the current view of the model in slot 1. These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. are more restrictive. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. These buttons perform the actual display macro functions: All These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. So. or slot 3. or 3-D elements. such as 2-D elements or lines. regardless of entity type. slot 2.2. 1. Clicking All turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. Clicking On turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. if you turn off the display of lines. Each broad category or sub-type has a text label on the menu. but does not affect the display of 0. and always include any masks that you may have applied to the model. even within the same broad category. For example. In other words. lines.0 User’s Guide 89 . or 3-D elements. Clicking Off turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. clicking none next to the elements label turns off the display of every element type in your model. however. 2. For example. clicking all next to the 2-D label turns on the display of every 2-D element in your model. and solids). Display macros: These controls form the bulk of the menu. These sub-types have buttons labeled on or off. This allows you to turn the display of entire classes of entity on or off in one click. Broad categories.

either by way of the mask out macro or the mask panel. To exit the macro. if you choose to show only 2-D elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For example. results in only the lines (plus FE elements. Like the display controls. such as rbe3 elements. This macro reveals one or more rows of elements adjacent to the entities currently displayed. so that only the specified entity type remains visible. The By Edge… macro (under Geometry à Surfs) allows you to turn off all surfaces attached to one or more edge lines. Temporary nodes are any nodes that users create during a HyperMorph session. hide. so that only 2-D elements remain visible. for this reason. as well as removing temporary nodes. Unmask All Clear Temp Nodes This macro removes any and all masks that you have applied to the model.) displaying. you can then add other entities to the view by turning them On one-by-one. Labels (located under the BC’s category). then clicked show adjacent elems any mesh along . rather than all of the mesh for an entire component. refers to the text labels for boundary conditions such as pressures and forces. or isolate the surfaces touching those lines. Click Clear Temp Nodes to automatically remove all temporary nodes from the model. or press the <esc> key. Note. Similarly. if you isolated a model’s geometry lines. either click proceed again without selecting any lines. however. masking is based on entity location rather than entity type. etc. Select the desired lines and click proceed to show. however.Only These buttons may appear for broad categories of entity or sub-types. This allows you to view only the adjoining mesh. Comments Handle (located under the Elements category) refers to the text labels that appear on some elements. then turning on lines. clicking Only next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every entity in the model except for 2-D elements. These nodes are redundant because they must be created on existing geometry. Clicking only isolates the entity type indicated by the label by hiding every other entity type in the model. boundary conditions. that entities can’t be partially hidden—so while some of the mesh elements on a surface may be masked out. they should be deleted before the model is sent to a solver. masking allows you to reduce the number of entities drawn onscreen. Mask and Node macros: The final set of controls concern masking and unmasking entities. turning off all geometry. Mask Out This macro automatically applies a mask to hide every entity in the model that does not currently display in the graphics area. the surface itself will not be unless it is completely outside of the graphics display area. multiple only commands do not work accumulatively. For example. Note that these functions are accumulative. Clicking one of the buttons for this option causes HyperMesh to display a lines selector. those lines would be revealed—but only a single row of elements. The only exception to this accumulative usage is repeated use of the only option: since it always hides everything except the chosen entity type. Show Adjacent Elems 90 HyperMesh 8.

Places four additional fixed points on an inner line. You can also review the thickness as a contour plot on the elements. etc. Projects free points to surface edges. You select a node along the hole. which is part of either the inner or outer side of the solid. Depending on the tolerance you specify. The other layers and thickness are then placed in a temp directory and masked. Extracts a midsurface from a thin solid representation of sheet metal stamped parts. Quickly creates an automatic tetrahedral mesh while meeting the requirements for minimum element angle and element size. Scales a copy of a selected circular line to 1.0 User’s Guide 91 .5 times its original size. the macro determines the radius of the hole. Quick Tetramesh Fix 2nd Order Midnodes Add Washer Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Isolates either an inner or an outer surface layer (based on the user selected surface) from a 3D model. This macro is intended to be used with sheet metal parts with uniform thickness and does not work for molded solid parts. with ribs (T junctions). Two other options available are: 1) Create a rigid spider along the hole and 2) Enforce a minimum number of nodes around the hole. and then trims this new line into the surface. points may even project to multiple edges. creating a higher quality mesh. This macro works only on the surfaces attached to the selected surface. Assigns the thickness of a midsurface geometry to FE nodes or elements. as well as a set for working with FE mesh. Creates a layer of washer elements around a circular hole in the mesh. This can be helpful to achieve uniform meshing with regard to weld points. This allows a higher quality mesh around circular holes. Improves element quality by moving the mid-edge nodes of second order elements. The macro also creates the corresponding property card and updates the thickness.Geom/Mesh utility menu This menu contains a set of macros related to working with model geometry. You select a line whose length represents the solid thickness and a surface. The geometry macros are: Preserve edges Project points Prevents specific edges from being suppressed during autocleanup or batchmeshing. by offsetting one side surfaced to midplane. Isolate Surface ThinSolid=>Midsurf Washer Adj Circ Pts The mesh macros are: Auto Connectors Midsurf Thickness A pop-up menu that allows you to automatically create connectors and FE realize them from a master connection file. and then projects those points to a concentric line. and displays a menu for entering the width of the washer. The macro then creates a layer of washer elements around the hole and remeshes the surrounding elements to maintain mesh connectivity. Its primary use cases are solid parts with varying thickness.

If any elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays a message and leaves the model display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements against the maximum Jacobian value.Trim Hole Creates a circular hole (of a given radius) in the mesh at the selected node (as the center of the hole). If any elements fail the warpage test. the quality criteria used by these macros remains consistent with those used throughout the rest of HyperMesh—and can be indirectly adjusted by changing the settings on the check elements panel. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the maximum internal angle. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. The element quality criteria used by these tools comes directly from the values entered on the check elements panel. Fill Hole Box Trim Bead QA/Model Utility menu The QA utility menu contains many tools to help you quickly review and clean up the quality of a preexisting mesh. if necessary. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their warpage. If any elements fail the criteria. Tools There are eight tools to isolate elements that fail certain element check criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their aspect ratio. An optional layer of washer elements can be created along with a rigid spider along the hole. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Jacob (Jacobian) Warp (warpage) Aspect (aspect ratio) Max ang: Q (quad) 92 HyperMesh 8. Since the criteria on that panel are customizable. This is useful for reducing the model size by taking advantage of symmetry etc. Creates a bead of a given height and width along the selected two nodes and connects to the surrounding mesh. Length This macro checks all the displayed elements against the minimum length criteria. Fills the selected hole and remeshes the surrounding mesh to maintain connectivity. This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that fill the hole. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Trims the model along user-defined trim lines. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. delete the rigid spider before using this macro.

If any elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Min ang: Q (quad) Min ang: T (tria) You can use the following macros to quickly modify any elements that fail the element checks. Split Warped Checks all displayed quad elements for warp exceeding the acceptable value. Find Attached Remesh Smooth Quality Report Model Tour Allows you to review (tour) the selected components individually. You can also export the results to a text file using save as. The remesh uses the current size. It also displays a dialog that allows you to review the free edges of the component and any elements attached to the component. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. two. number of elements in that component and their ID range. BOM Comparison Tool Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and uses the mixed element type. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). Each element failing this criterion is then split along its diagonal to form two tria elements instead of the original quad. This macro displays the component name. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the minimum internal angle.Max ang: T (tria) This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the maximum internal angle. The results are shown as the number of elements and percentage of elements failing each criterion. does not break connectivity. If any elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the minimum internal angle. Note: Changing the criteria on this report interface does not change the settings in the check elements panel. Brings up a user interface that allows you to set the various quality values and check the quality of all the 2D elements in the model. Allows you to remesh the selected elements plus one. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each).0 User’s Guide 93 . They only affect the report. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. two. Finds all of the elements attached to the displayed elements. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Allows you to apply the smoothing algorithm to the selected elements plus one. Reads a generic Bill Of Materials file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM as well as the corresponding FE model. If any elements fail the criteria.

If masked. these elements are un-masked. Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all connectors. these loads are un-masked. If masked. the numbers do not directly correspond to any specific values or ratios. Automatically finds all components directly attached to any and all load indicators. pressures. Automatically finds all loads directly attached to a selected component. these comps are un-masked. constraints. If masked. while 3 is the largest. Since these buttons affect all loads. 94 HyperMesh 8. Find Elems>>Loads Find Comps>>Loads Find Loads>>Comps Find Elems>>Connectors Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all load indicators. and so on.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note that this only affects the graphical display of load indicators—it does not change the load magnitudes. including forces.The model tools included on this page are: Load Size These numbered buttons represent different display sizes for load indicators: 0 is the smallest. these elements are un-masked. If masked.

BOM comparison tool The BOM Comparison Tool located on the QA/Model utility menu reads a generic Bill of Materials (BOM) file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM and its corresponding FE model. and updates between design iterations as well as other CAE activities. assembly. One BOM may contain more data than another BOM for the same program. model comparison. property assignments. Radioss-Block. The HyperMesh BOM Comparison Tool focuses primarily on the Excel format. A BOM is often used as the master document for model meshing. For an in-depth description of the parts that make up the BOM Comparison Tool user interface and how to use them. Since users in different design and analysis groups use BOM information. BOMs usually use Microsoft Excel® format (CSV format) or XML format. and Abaqus user profiles. the formats and content of the BOM can vary.0 User’s Guide 95 . The BOM reader includes the following abilities: • • • • • Reads a generic BOM file of CSV format (comma separated values file) Provides a GUI to manipulate data in the BOM and the corresponding FE model Provides an option to update attributes in the FE model based on the data available in the BOM Provides an option to complete the existing BOM based on the data available from the model Filters out all vague information present in the BOM and provides a feature to edit the vague information into a valid data and move it back to the BOM Provides a functionality to export a new BOM file Note: The BOM Comparison Tool only applies to the Nastran. see the following topics: • • • • • • • BOM Comparison Tool Graphical User Interface (GUI) BOM Comparison Tool Control Section BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section BOM Comparison Tool Master Column BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. LS-Dyna.

Contains a tree structure displaying part names and ids. Contains master column selection. This section contains a table to display BOM info as it is seen in the actual BOM file. Contains options for metadata management. 96 HyperMesh 8. part of the tree section.BOM Comparison Tool GUI The BOM Comparison Tool’s GUI consists of seven sections as shown below: Control section: Tree section: Master column: BOM display section: Metadata display section: Failed records section: Display filter section: Contains menu items and buttons to perform various operations.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This section controls most tool functions. Displays failed records from a loaded BOM file. Contains filtering options for displaying tree and table info.

Part Id. and Gauge. Material Id. or click an item already in the list and insert the new item just above it. Only valid records from a BOM file display in the BOM Display Section’s table. Show Failed Display all the invalid records that the tool encounters while reading a BOM file in a table. This option opens a new window listing the items to be added to the BOM file. Sometimes the BOM doesn’t contain all of the data you want. Save and export the current information shown in the BOM Display section as a new BOM csv file in a user selected location. If the corresponding model contains the missing data. File menu New Open Create a new session Browse for and load a new BOM file. If all are found. or type a new header into it and Add them.0 User’s Guide 97 . Update the model attributes to match the BOM. details populate the relevant fields in the BOM comparison tool. click Continue to generate the new file. or generate a new BOM by querying the HM model in current session. Use the Complete BOM operation to either complete an existing BOM. You may also select items in the list and Delete them from the file. You can select additional items from a combo box. If any are missing. you can complete the BOM data by querying the HM database and extracting the data. Save and Export Exit Edit menu Update Model Complete BOM Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Material. Check Model Checks the model against the BOM. Invalid records can be edited to form valid data and can be moved to the BOM Display table. Once you had added or deleted all necessary entries. Close the BOM Comparison Tool. HyperMesh checks for the standard headers Part Name. This option switches the BOM Display Section to Comparison mode if it is currently in BOM View mode (see below). you will be prompted select the heading from the BOM file that corresponds to each standard header.BOM Comparison Tool Control Section This portion of the interface contains drop-down menus and the toolbar.

98 HyperMesh 8. • • • Same function as File > Open. In_BOM_Only: components found in BOM but not in model. Same function as Edit > Complete BOM.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Same function as File > Show Failed. Same function as Edit > Update Model. Different: components in BOM whose standard attributes differ from those in the model. Same function as Edit > Check Model.View menu BOM View Compare View Display section displays BOM info as it appears in the BOM file. Same function as File >Save and Export. In_Model_Only: components found in model but not in BOM. Categorizes BOM information into four sections: • Match: components in BOM whose standard attributes match exactly with those in the model.

Each tree branch is associated with a row in the BOM display table containing all standard information for the part in the tree branch.BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section When a BOM file is loaded into the tool. in brackets in the form of a tree structure located on the left side of the tool window. Filter options are given for displaying only the desired part info in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table. the tool identifies the part name and part id of all valid records.0 User’s Guide 99 . to affect which parts display in the tree and which parts are selected or deselected. Data associated with switched-on branches displays in the BOM display table Switch on only those branches in the tree (and associated data in the BOM display table) that correspond to the displayed parts in the model (Show displayed) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can enter a string in the combo box. select the desired header in the options menu. and press the <return> key to display the desired information in the tree and BOM display table. and can be used to filter the BOM info anytime in the session. appended with part ids. Apart from this there are filter buttons each one of which is explained below: (Select All) (Select None) (Reverse selection) Displays all the branches in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table Switch off all the branches in the tree and delete all the data in the BOM display table Switch on all the “off” branches in the tree and vice versa. The combo box remembers previously entered strings until you quit the tool. This section also includes selection and filtering controls. It then displays the part names.

Only columns with three attributes can be used as master columns. The master column data is used as a key for the following operations: • • • Update model attributes as in BOM Complete BOM by querying model Check model against BOM The tool allows three master column combinations between the BOM and the model. Compare by Part Number in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part number as the key. The master column is the column in the BOM file whose attributes are considered as a key in comparison and validation operations. columns containing part id. i. and Comparison. Compare by Part Name in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part name as the key. located in the center of the tool window just below the master column section. BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM info displays in a table in the BOM display section. The tool queries the data in the model based on any one of these column combinations: • • • Compare Part Id in BOM with Part Id in model: the tool compares the attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part id as the key.e. BOM info can be displayed in two different modes: BOM only. This section allows you to select the desired master column option. By default information displays in BOM Only view: 100 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . part name and part number.BOM Comparison Tool Master Column The central top portion of the tool window contains the master column section.

Right-Click menu Right -clicking on the table opens a menu of functions: • • • • • • Display selected parts displays parts in the model corresponding to the selected rows in the BOM display table. remaining columns display the BOM info. Display all parts will display all the parts in the model. Delete metadata deletes metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. which categorizes the BOM information into four categories: • • • • Match: BOM components whose standard attributes exactly match those in the model Different: BOM components whose standard attributes differ from those in the model In_BOM_Only: components found in the BOM but not in the model In_Model_Only: components found in the model but not in the BOM The screenshot below illustrates Comparison view: Column 1 shows the category name with the number of parts falling under that category enclosed in brackets.0 User’s Guide 101 .Use the toggle button located in the top-right portion of the GUI to switch to Comparison mode. Update metadata updates metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. In the Different category. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. mismatched attributes between BOM and the model are highlighted in light blue. Delete deletes the selected row in the table. Create metadata creates metadata of all the attributes of the parts in the model corresponding to the selected row in the table.

You have the option to edit each of those failed records to make them valid and move them to the BOM display table using the Move button. After selecting a row in the BOM Display table.BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section You can create. First row corresponds to BOM info. update and delete metadata using some of the menu items on the BOM display table. The metadata display section contains four display options in the form of a combo box. the whole record is considered invalid and will be stored out-of-sight. Click the Show failed menu item or corresponding button in the control section to see the failed records. The tool considers the following five terms as standard attributes: • • • • • Part Name Part Id Material Material Id Gauge If at least one attribute is missing or repetitive.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and then use this combo box to select the type of information displayed in the metadata display table: None Metadata related to BOM All metadata Differences between BOM/metadata clear the table if already some data exists display BOM related metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display all the metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display two rows of info in the metadata table. This opens a Failed records table as shown below. the tool checks for the validity of each standard attribute in a record (a record corresponds to one line of info in the BOM file). 102 HyperMesh 8. second row corresponds to metadata associated with the model BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section When a BOM file is loaded. Metadata information contains all the attributes for a part in the model.

When active. any previously stored feature lines will purge each time you click select lines or select comps. Note that this will not preserve lines inside the components—only the outer boundary edge.0 User’s Guide 103 . so that autocleanup and batch mesher will know which lines must be preserved. Thus. this checkbox prevents HyperMesh auto-cleanup from equivalencing the boundaries between adjacent components. The preserve edges macro provides a way to ensure that specific components edges and feature lines do not accidentally get discarded during autocleanup or batch meshing. Use the lines selector to choose the lines you wish preserved. sometimes minor features are still important to your analysis. Removes all lines from the preservation list. Saves the preservation state. a new pop-up window opens to accept your settings: The following options are available for the Preserve Edges macro: Clear at start When this checkbox is active.Preserve Edges Both the batch mesher and the autocleanup features seek to improve mesh speed and/or quality by suppressing minor features (which are assumed to be insignificant). When you click the preserve edges button. However. Select Lines Show Preserved Comps selection boundary Select comps Clear all lines Save preserved Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Use the comps selector to choose the components whose boundary edges you wish preserved. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a line selector in the HyperMesh panel area. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a component selector in the HyperMesh panel area. picking a new set of lines starts over instead of adding to the selection. Click this button to highlight the lines already marked for preservation.

104 HyperMesh 8. Any points within this distance of the selected surfaces’ edges will be projected to those edges. if extracted using the HyperMesh midsurface function.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the controls for this macro display in a new tab in the tab area. Clicking this button opens a surfs selector in the HyperMesh panel area. The Midsurf thickness macro.Reset highlights After clicking the show preserved button. use this to select the surfaces whose edges you wish to project points to. Midsurf Thickness Geometric surfaces that represent the mid-plane of a solid part. HyperMesh displays a target element size field. OK Cancel Accepts any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. The thickness data can be a single value for the entire part or a varying function. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. have thickness information stored in their definition. Type a value into this field. use this button to remove the highlight from the preserved lines. Project Points Use this macro to project geometric points (such as weld points) to nearby edges. only the visual highlighting effect is removed (until you click show preserved again). You can also review the contour plot of thickness data with this macro. allows you to transfer thickness data from surfaces to the associated nodes/elements. When you click the Midusrf thickness… menu button. After selecting surfs and clicking proceed. using the same units as your model. Discards any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. The lines remain preserved.

a base component named t0 must be defined. 2. the PSHELL T field will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). In order to execute this mode. 3. then assign the thickness value to the component property card image for each User Profile. Refer to the User profile section for more details on the unique behavior of the Midsurf Thickness utility for each User profile. Z-Offset Values Activate this checkbox to take z-offsets into account. The nodes option is valid for only LS-DYNA and ANSYS solvers. the zoffset (which is saved as part of the midsurface data) tells a solver how much of a positive-normal offset exists between the actual part surface and the midsurface: To assign Z-offset values to the element cards for supported solvers. Assigns appropriate thickness values to the Component. The t0 component definition will be used for all created components based on the Range Interval specified in the Component Organization Method section described below. The components option performs the following generic steps for each User profile: 1. so this value will always be populated on the element cards for any solver that supports Z-offset. HyperMesh uses Z-offsets when midsurfacing parts that have variable thickness.The following options are available in the Midsurf thickness. (For example.. macro: Apply thickness to You can choose to assign or view the thickness values at the nodes or on elements. Most solvers only have Z-offset defined on the element card. the values will be updated on the element card for that solver. check the Z-offset values checkbox.. Use the Components option to group elements that fall within userspecified thickness intervals into common components. For each User profile. Creates components with name “t[thickness value]” by copying the properties of the base component t0 and assigning the appropriate thickness based on the value of the Range Interval or Gage File options.0 User’s Guide 105 . CQUAD4 T1-T4 and Zoff fields will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Use the Nodes/Elements option to assign the thickness and Z-offset values directly to the element cards. This option is only valid for OptiStruct and Nastran User profiles. (For example. Groups the elements that have thickness values within the specified ranges into the new component based on the Range Interval or Gage File options.

Thickness range intervals are automatically generated based on the thickness tolerance using the following formula. it is a review/display function only. • • • Lower limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* i ) Upper limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* (i + 1)) Assigned value = tolerance*(i+1) Where i = 0……n.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Assign Contour Assigns the thickness from the surface definition to the nodes or elements chosen. This step does not assign the thickness to the nodes or elements. You can obtain the thickness value from the surface at: Average – the average of the element’s nodes. Component Organization method This option specifies the thickness range intervals used when grouping the elements into components based on their thickness values. This option is very useful for visualizing and verifying the results of the Midsurf Thickness utility before applying the midsurf thickness mapping operation. Range Interval – You must specify a thickness tolerance. If the Assigned Value is not specified.Thickness calculation method This option is valid only while applying the thickness to elements. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value. Click here for details on the format of the gauge file. Close 106 HyperMesh 8. n is determined by the maximum thickness in model divided by the user specified tolerance and then rounding to up to the next integer. You can specify thickness range intervals by two methods: 1. 2. Creates a contour plot of the thicknesses on the selected elements/nodes. Centroid –the element’s centroid (interpolated from its nodes) Max –the maximum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. Min – the minimum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. HyperMesh groups elements having thickness values within the specified range intervals into appropriately created components with the appropriate thickness values assigned to the component. Gauge – You must specify the thickness range intervals in a Gage File. Closes the tab. The thickness assigned to each created component is n*tolerance.

Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping. 3. Select the Nodes/Elements option. 8. Load the desired model file. 2. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. 3. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. Select the Components option. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel.To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Nodes/Elements Option: 1. 9. 2. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. Change to your preferred User Profile. 5. Change to your preferred User Profile. 4. 2. 6. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. 6. Select a Thickness Calculation method. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping To Contour Thickness for Node/Element Option: 1. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. 5. Pick the desired nodes. 7. 7. Load the desired model file. 3. Select a Component Organization method and either select a file or enter a tolerance based on the method. 10. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Components Option: 1. 6. 8. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Change to your preferred User Profile. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of thickness for the Node/Element option. 7. Click the Proceed button. assign the base property card image. Create the base component “t0”. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. 4. 4. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. 11. Load the desired model file. and enter any default values for this card. 5.0 User’s Guide 107 .

7. 5. 3. Click the Proceed button. 4. Select the Components option. Select the desired nodes. Click Proceed. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Change to your preferred User Profile. 4. 3. Select the Components option. 2. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the thickness for the components option. Select the desired elements. 11. 7. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. 3. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. Click the contour button to open the node selection panel. 2. 8. 6. 6. Activate the Z-Offset check box. 108 HyperMesh 8. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. 8. Load the desired model file. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the components option. 5. 4. To Contour Thickness for Components Option: 1. 8. 5. Select the desired nodes. Load the desired model file. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Change to your preferred User Profile. Change to your preferred User Profile. Select the desired nodes. Load the desired model file. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 10.To Contour Z-offset for Node/Element Option: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Activate the Z-Offset check box. 9. Click the Proceed button. Select the desired elements. 2. 9. 10. 7. 6. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the Node/Element option. To Contour Z-offset for Components Option: 1. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab.

Below is a specific example of a gauge file: Number of Gauges 4 End [max Thk] Assigned Value [Assigned Thk] Gauges Begin 0.15 0.05 0.05 0. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option.1 0.0 0.Gauge file example The Gauge file uses the following format: Number of Gauges [Number of Gauge Data Lines] Gauges Begin [min Thk] … If the Assigned Value is not specified.15 End 0.0 User’s Guide 109 .1 0.15 0. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method. Z-Offset value • Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.1 0. 3. • • • Unsupported Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”.2 Assigned Value 0. Nodes/Elements Option • 2. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value.2 Midsurf Utility Behavior under different user profiles Abaqus 1.05 0.

Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method. 110 HyperMesh 8.Ansys The only difference between the nodes/elements and components options are that the nodes/ elements option will group the elements which match only exact thickness values. Nodes/Elements • • • • 2. Z-Offset value • If Z-Offset is checked “on” Z-offset values from the midsuface will be retrieved and assigned to the elements associated to that midsurface. • Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Components Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported OptiStruct and Nastran 1. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option. Nodes/Elements Option • 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The components option will group the elements with thickness intervals. • • • Assigns the Thickness and Z-Offset values to the Element Card based on the user selection Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”. 3. • • • • • 3. 1.

Nodes/Elements • 2.0 User’s Guide 111 . • • • • • 3. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Radioss 1.Ls-Dyna 1. Nodes/Elements • 2. • • • • • 3. • • • 3. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Assigns the thickness value to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Nodes/Elements • 2. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported PamCrash 1.

helping to better maintain the geometry. For example. the features may not be maintained as they do not pass minimum element criteria. Click proceed to finalize the selection. Altair Engineering Minimum Tria Angle Maximum feature angle 112 HyperMesh 8. Its main objective is to quickly and automatically create a tetramesh that meets the minimum interior angle and minimum element size. The surface trias from which the tetramesh will be extrapolated will be generated with angles that measure at least this many degrees. The following options are available in the Quick TetraMesh macro: Volume Complist Double-click components and use the comps collector that displays in the panel area to select comps representing the geometry of the solid to be tetra meshed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . you can select “sacred elements” so that the tetmeshing function closely follows the original geometry.Quick TetraMesh The Quick TetraMesh macro quickly creates a tetramesh of an enclosed volume defined by geometry and/or elements. The maximum feature angle protects nodes on corners with a feature angle greater than the value specified. This macro is accessed on the Geom/Mesh utility menu located on the standard utility menu. the mesh may deviate from the underlying geometry in order to maintain good quality elements. During the process of quick tetramesh. and displays in a new tab in the tab area. Use this control to limit how acute the resulting elements will be. This applies only to cases where you can maintain features while fixing minimum element size. Surfaces and/or elements can be used to define the volume. if two nodes of an element share different features (as in thin steps). To alleviate this.

When this option is checked. This is useful in ensuring that a particular feature is captured exactly the way you want it to be. but may produce lowquality elements along such locations. and projections onto the original geometry. feature lines. The Batch mesher generally produces better results. but only for the elements selected as sacred. and edges to improve accuracy. but does not currently support sacred surfaces or elements. Tet from Mesher Perform mesh cleanup only Help Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. ignores/replaces existing elements. splitting of elements. Choose between automesh and batch. Some of the cleanup operations performed are: the suppression of free edges. The tetramesher will not move the nodes of these elements. Choose floating. All the cleanup steps are designed to improve the mesh quality. No single edge of any generated element will be shorter than this. but requires more computing time. even if doing so would improve element quality. both trias and quads may be created. Note: this does not work if two adjacent surfaces are both marked as sacred! These are existing trias that you have created according to your requirements and wish to maintain while tetrameshing the part. This determines the meshing engine used: the one used by the automesh panel. no tetra elements are created and the macro simply goes through the cleanup steps for the shell mesh. Note that this setting overrides the float setting in the tet from option. in which the quick tetramesher is free to move nodes in a surface tria mesh to achieve better tetra elements based on them. Average element size of the mesh to be created. it gives special preference to trying to keep the nodes on a sacred surface. Uniform uses identically-sized elements throughout the mesh. If the feature angle exceeds the given value. in which the mesher must keep the tria mesh unchanged. correction of sliver elements.0 User’s Guide 113 . When HyperMesh tries to move element nodes to improved element quality. Mesh size Minimum Edge Size Minimum Elem Size Sacred surface Sacred elements Mesh type Mesh Density The mesh type options are Trias Only and Mixed. With the Mixed mesh type. Minimum allowable area for any element. and always uses uniform density. Chordal deviation uses smaller elements along curves. or fixed. Opens a pop-up window with basic information about each control that displays on the tab.Maximum reverse angle The maximum feature angle allowed between normals of adjacent elements. Choose between chordal deviation and uniform. or the one used by the batch mesher. two adjacent elements are considered reversed and actions are performed to correct the situation.

Closes the tab. any surfaces edges that were ignored. Re-launch the Quick Tetramesh macro and select sacred elements to protect. 3. You select the elements on which you want to improve the quality. Locate entities attached to the selected components. 4. Locate T-connections in the model. Locate features in the model that have feature angles greater than 150 degrees. Close Debug Surface Mesh The Quick Tetramesh macro meshes the unmeshed surfaces in the model using chordal deviation and fixes all the elements that fail the criteria provided. attempt to remesh using different settings if you do not like the initial results.g. and Maximum angle. this persists until you exit HyperMesh. improves element quality by moving the midedge nodes of second order elements. 5. Load the geometry. Launch the Quick Tetramesh macro. 114 HyperMesh 8. Use the delete panel to delete the tetras then. This helps to obtain the desired mesh in critical areas. These sacred elements need to be trias. moved midnodes lose any preexistent association with the underlying geometry. however. Note: Moved midnodes are saved to your save list. if any (e. Select these elements as sacred elements. and specify the quality constraints: Minimum Jacobian (evaluated at the corner nodes or integration points). After making adjustments. or if mesh in certain areas is not satisfactory). You can manually mesh some critical geometry and select those elements as sacred elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For critical areas where you want to control the mesh such as bolt holes. Identify problem areas. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. manually mesh problem areas. In addition. A series of tools that help you located problem areas which can cause poor meshing: Find Holes Find T-Con Dihedrals Attached Try TetraMesh Locate holes in your model. Suggested process to effectively use quick tetramesh: 1. 6. manually mesh using chordal deviation. Fix 2nd order midnodes This macro. Note: There is no Undo function! You can.Mesh Perform the quick tetramesh with the specified settings. As a part of the cleanup. the tool heals small cracks in the model. 2. click this to re-run the meshing operation on the same components. Run with the desired mesh size. Minimum Ratio between the minimum and maximum edge length.

An element selector and proceed button display in the panel area. 2. The Fix 2 Order Midnodes window opens. From that point onward. choose your element quality constraints: Choose a maximum angle. while a length of 0 would mean that the shorter segment might not exist—so this value must be greater than 0. and using that panel’s save failed option. nd In the Fix 2 • Order Midnodes window. Click the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes button on the geom/mesh Utility Menu. so a value of 0. nd Order Midnodes window. Specify a limit to the ratio of minimum and maximum length for the segments of the midnodebearing edges. 3. but no greater than 1. Click proceed. See the screenshot above for an example using a value of 30 degrees. This pop-up window exists independently of the rest of the HyperMesh environment. the angle between the segments at the midnode will not exceed 180 degrees minus this value). HyperMesh 8. and use the radio buttons to determine whether HyperMesh should evaluate each element’s Jacobian at the corner nodes or the integration points. so you can click-and-drag it to any desired location. Remember that this is a minimum length. or longer—but not shorter than half the length of the longer segment. nd The Fix 2 4.5 would allow the shorter segment to be half as long as the longer segment. Click the elems selector and select retrieve to load the saved failed elements. The utility will move midnodes such that the angle at the ends of each segment will not deviate from a straight line by more than this amount (thought of another way.0 User’s Guide 115 Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering • • Altair Engineering .Typical usage of this utility begins with use of the check elems panel to identify poorly-formed nd elements. Specify a minimum Jacobian value. A value of 1 represents perfectly equal segment length. you use the Fix 2 Order Midnodes utility: 1.

The images below illustrate the before-and-after state of a specific midnode and the criteria used. Close closes the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes window. a message displays under the Results heading to inform you of exactly what HyperMesh did to the mesh. When you click Apply. Reject undoes any changes made when you pressed apply.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .5. as well as the overall results: Before clicking Apply After clicking Apply 116 HyperMesh 8. Click one of the command buttons to finalize: • • • Apply tells HyperMesh to move the midnodes to try to match the criteria you specified.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. then click proceed. This toggle only applies when the number of layers is more than zero. If you chose varying width for the layers. A new window opens: The options in the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window determine the type of hole that HyperMesh creates at each chosen node: Hole radius Number of layers Uniform/Varying Each node will receive a hole of this radius. measured from the node.Trim Hole Macro This macro. The number of a specific washer layer. creates a circular hole of a given radius in the mesh at a node specifying the center of the hole. Clicking the Trim Hole button opens a special.0 User’s Guide 117 . and specifies whether you want mesh layers to all be the same width. Pick nodes on your model for the centers of each hole that you wish to create. with a nodes selector and a proceed button. the table displays one row for each of the number of layers that you specified. temporary panel in the HyperMesh panel area. only one row displays because all layers will be set to the same values. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Otherwise. or to vary from one another. No. This is the number of layers of washer mesh elements that you want to surround each hole. You can also specify a number of layers of washer elements to include.

Choose single rigid link to create one rigid element that connects to all of the nodes around the new hole. Note: This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that currently fill the hole. click this button to undo it. and enables two more options: • • Choose individual rigid links to create rigid elements at each node of the new hole. When you click the Fill Hole button in the utility menu. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. if necessary. Note that this only undoes a single click of the trim button. Click this button to create the new hole(s). This checkbox tells HyperMesh to create a rigid spider in each of the new holes created. fills in one or more holes in your geometry with automatically-generated mesh. evenly spaced around its circumference.Scale/Width Determines the width of the washer layers. For example. • Value Create rigid spider along the hole The scale factor or width of the layer(s).5” for a washer layer that’s half as wide as the hole radius. use “0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Close the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window. • Scale: you can specify each layer’s scale relative to the Hole radius. Each new hole will be created with at least the number of nodes that you specify in the density field. Close Fill Hole Macro This macro. a new window opens: 118 HyperMesh 8. If you don’t like the results of the last trim operation. so it can only undo multiple holes if they were created simultaneously during a single trim operation. Minimum number of nodes around the hole Trim Reject This determines the mesh density around the new hole(s). Width: specify a fixed width for each layer.

Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=ymiddle.There are two methods of filling holes: Manual Use this option to select the holes that you wish to fill: 1. The window temporarily minimzes. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y= ymiddle and Y=ymax. returning you to the main HyperMesh environment with a nodes selector active in the panel area. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=xmin and X=value. whether you chose to select your holes manually or automatically.0 and X=value (selected value).0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0.0 and Y=ymax. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=value and X=xmax. Click proceed in t he panel area.0 User’s Guide 119 . If you don’t like the results of the last fill operation. For example. Close the Filling holes with mesh window. and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=0. and X=xmin and X=value. Split the model along global Y=0.0. and attempt to fill them with mesh. 3. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Type a value into the entry field labeled Fill circular holes with radius smaller than:.0 and Y=ymax. The Filling holes with mesh window returns. Split the model along global Y=0. click this button to undo it. Click the yellow Select Nodes button. Click the Fill button to fill the selected holes with mesh. Note that this only undoes a single click of the fill button. Click this button to perform the fill operation. The selected model can be trimmed along eight standard types: left right front rear frontleft frontright rearleft rearright Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y=ymin and Y= ymiddle (ymiddle =(ymin+ymax)/2). allows you to trim the model (or selected subset) along the global axis to fit the selected 3-D box. and X=xmin and X=value. Split the model along global Y=0. so it can only undo multiple fills if they were created simultaneously during a single fill operation. and X=value and X=xmax. and X=value and X=xmax. Automatic Use this option to let HyperMesh select holes automatically based on size. 4. a full car model can be trimmed along the Y=0 axis to obtain the left or right side of the car. HyperMesh will automatically scan you model for holes smaller than this value.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. Fill Reject Close Box Trim Macro The Box Trim macro. Select nodes on the edges of the holes that you wish to fill. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. with the Select Nodes button now green to indicate that nodes have been chosen. 2.

e The model can also be trimmed using custom box by either selecting the two corner nodes or center node and dimensions. Note: This macro is for the 1st order plate elements only.This macro is useful in applications where some types of analysis can be performed on one-half (or quarter) of the model using symmetry boundary conditions.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The axis directions and terminology are based on modeling standards in the automotiv industry. 120 HyperMesh 8.

If you select Corners. Then enter Delta X. If you select custom. click the icon. click the icon. You can also specify a Box collector. and select the two corner nodes that define If you select Distance from center. click Box Trim. You can turn on the option of creating constraints (SPCs) for all the nodes along the face of the box. and select the center node. From the Geom/Mesh utility menu.0 User’s Guide 121 . define the box by either selecting two corner nodes (Corners) or selecting the center node and dimensions (Distance from center). Using the extended entity selection.To box trim a model: 1. If no load collector is specified. Y and Z bounds of the box. Click Trim. Delta Y and Delta Z values which is the distance from the center node to the outer bounds of the box in global X. 3. select the node/enter value for trim location. the outer X. all displayed elements are selected. (Reject will undo all the above. If you select a standard type. . 6.) 5. choose the appropriate option from the Box trim type: menu. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The nodes are constrained in the appropriate directions depending on the trim axes and are stored in the specified load collector (SPC collector). If no elements are selected. the constraints are created in the current load collector. A large hexa element that represents the box will be created for visualization in the specified collector. From the Box Trim dialog. Y and Z directions. select the elements you would like to trim and click proceed or the middle mouse button. 4. .

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Virtually every option available for FE realization in the connectors module is also available in the Auto Connectors macro.Auto Connectors Macro Note: If you are unfamiliar with HyperMesh connector entities. Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog 122 HyperMesh 8. The Auto Connectors macro automates the importation and FE realization of connectors from either a Master Connectors File or an older Master Weld File. refer to Connector Definition and Connector Realization for more information.

The property and diameter can be specified if necessary. This script automatically reads the default HyperMesh feconfig.0 User’s Guide 123 . Additional options are: • • • Build systems Snap to node Attach to shells Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog . The user-defined FE type definitions can be found in the appropriate feconfig. the user-defined FE type-t o-realize is required.cfg file and displays a list of all the appropriate user-defined FE types (found in the feconfig.user-defined option Input requirements for connector entity creation and FE realization are: • • • Note: Master connectors/weld file FE config Projection tolerance In the case of a user-defined FE config.cfg file) in the Fe type field.cfg file.

4 to 1. The second figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method. Diameter vs. see Spotweld Interface Overview. The equivalent area is taken to determine the side of the hexa. This creates the Hexa elements between the component/element shell surface.9 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Project to shell 124 HyperMesh 8.25: 3. The first figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method.0 Maximum thickness 1. T1 and T2 are the component thicknesses.25:: 3.Master Weld Files The Master Weld File provides the weld location and parts to be connected. Thickness Files DvsT file (diameter vs thickness ) contains a table that associates the thickness of components and the nugget diameter of the weld. The length of the Hexa element will be equal to the actual distance between the two connecting components/elements.4 2.0:: 0. The size of the hexa is calculated to match the cross-sectional area of the weld nugget. Th e solid element is created at the exact weld location independent of the shell elements that represent the sheet metal parts.0 for the thickness range of 1. A format example is shown below.99. The size of the solid element is determined using the DvsT file. ACM Welds An ACM (Area Contact Method) weld is a special representation of a spot weld.exe feinput translator. These solid elements are connected to the corresponding components using RBE3 elements. The file format includes thickness range and the corresponding diameter of the weld nugget. The length of the weld element is calculated using one of the following methods: (T1+T2)/2 This creates the Hexa elements with a length equal to the average component thickness it is connecting. The nugget diameter corresponding to the minimum thickness of the connecting parts is obtained from the DvsT file. PointId 12:: 23:: 1t/2t/3t 2:: 3:: X 2.25:: PartId1 2:: 2:: PartId2 3:: 3:: 5:: PartId3 The syntax is the same as used for spotweld.0 Nugget diameter 7 8 The nugget diameter is 7. For additional supported formats.05:: Y 2. Minimum thickness 1. The weld is defined using a solid (HEXA) element whose cross-sectional area is equivalent to the area of the weld nugget.25:: Z 1.

The nodes of the shell element closest to the dependent node are assigned a greater weight relative to the node that is farther away.0 option ACM creation using Project to Shells option The weights of the RBE3 elements are calculated based on the projection of the dependent node on the shell element.0 User’s Guide 125 .The figures below show ACM created using the two currently available methods. ACM creation using (T1+T2)/2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Select the connectors to be realized as ACMs in the fe realize panel of the connectors module on the 1D page. a corresponding property card (PWELD) is created with an updated diameter ‘D’ attribute value. meshless elements. Once a connector is created. 7. 9. Set the appropriate tolerance (proj tol=) value. 6.0. Click realize. In addition to the creation of CWELD elements. 126 HyperMesh 8. the diameter is determined from a DvsT file based on the component thickness. hexas are created with weld nugget diameter =1. 8. CWELD Elements CWELD elements are created as patch-patch. which determines the size of the hexa based on the thicknesses of the components being connected. Load the Nastran user profile from the user prof… panel in Geom or Tools page. 4. 3. Make sure the attach to shell and snap to node options are turned off in fe options…. 5. Choose custom element config and select type = Nastran 70 ACM((T1+T2)/2) or type = Nastran 71 ACM (Shell Gap) per your requirements. If no DvsT file is selected. For details regarding connected shell elements or nodal information see the element card. Select a DvsT file. The 1D element is not connected to the shell element. they can be realized as ACM spotwelds as follows: 1. Make sure that the connectors are created at each of the weld locations along with connecting parts information.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For CWELD elements.ACM welds can be created and managed in HyperMesh using connectors. Make sure all the connecting parts have PSHELL cards with correct thicknesses. 2. The appropriate property script is automatically loaded for the selected type.

Nastran. Note that the user profiles change the appearance of a panel . the appropriate template and Utility menu load (you can return to the standard HyperMesh GUI by selecting the HyperMesh profile). The hmmenu.they do not affect the internal behavior of each function.set file keeps track of which user profile was last loaded. Moldflow.0 User’s Guide 127 . Ansys. Radioss. OptiStruct. Permas. A set of standard user profiles is included in the HyperMesh installation. loading a specific Utility menu. User profiles for the following products are included: HyperMesh OptiStruct ABAQUS ACTRAN ANSYS LS-DYNA MADYMO NASTRAN PAM-CRASH & PAM-CRASH2G PERMAS RADIOSS CFD Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.User Profiles The HyperMesh user interface can be configured according to your specific needs and saved as a user profile. They may. and removing. however. renaming panels. moving. Madymo. Note: Ensure that items required for a specific function are not removed from the interface. HyperMesh. and an interface customized for CFD uses. They include Abaqus. The current user profile displays on the header bar. Actran. LsDyna. Select User Profiles from the Preferences pull-down menu. The configuration can include loading a specific template. Once you choose a standard user profile. removing unused panels or sub-panels. or renaming panel options. Pamcrash. add functions to (or remove them from) a panel.

If a template file exists before loading the profile. None The HyperMesh user profile does not load a template.HyperMesh User Profile Template: None/Unchanged This user profile does not load a template. If a template file exists before loading the profile. the template remains the same. Using HyperMesh This section explains how to use a typical HyperMesh panel by description and example. The standard HyperMesh Utility menu (hm. It contains information about: • • • • • • • • • • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Input Collectors Viewing Models Using the Display Panel Setting View Options Setting Tolerances Setting Global Parameters Importing and Exporting Data Printing Screen Images Using the Card Previewer 128 HyperMesh 8.mac) is loaded. the template remains the same. Utility menu: Panel changes: The standard HyperMesh Utility menu is loaded.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

. updating/overwriting its older version each time you Save. Next. Save simply saves the current model under its current name.0 and earlier. dialog. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. Save.. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. This process is familiar for users of HyperMesh 7.. click retrieve. but can be less efficient than using the File menu.Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Using the File pull-down menu The simplest way to open or save a HyperMesh model database is to use the Open.0 User’s Guide 129 . or type in a name for the file to be saved... and then select the hm file sub-panel. Open and Save As… both invoke browsers so that you can navigate to the desired file directory and either select a file to open. and Save As… options located in the Files pull-down menu. Next. To retrieve a binary HyperMesh database. and click Save. You can also click save as. select a path and file name. HyperMesh asks for confirmation before overwriting the file.. you can also use the hm file sub-panel on the files panel to save and retrieve HyperMesh binary databases. If the file being saved already exists... click save. and then select the hm file sub-panel. To save a database. and click Open. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. select a file using the Open file. Using the Files Panel However.

or surface within that component. Surfaces can be selected along their edges or on interior UV lines (also known as surface lines). line. move the mouse to the location on the screen where the node resides. The following list indicates the pick handle locations for each type of entity: Nodes The pick handle for a node is located at the node. Surfaces Components Surfaces do not have pick handles.cfg command file. Systems 130 HyperMesh 8. To select a node. see Entity Selection. You may need to change the command if the default has been changed by a prior user. If you need to select nodes on geometry or on an element where nodes do not currently exist. Note: For more information about picking entities. Components do not have pick handles. 1-D element pick handles are displayed as letters at the centroid of the elements: K M BAR2 BAR3 R RL W RBE3 J ROD GAP spring masses bar2 bar3 rigid rigid link weld rbe3 joint rod gap Click the element handles check box on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel to switch on or off the display of element handles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Each type of entity has a pick handle that allows you to select the entity. The pick handle for a coordinate system is located at the origin of the system. Elements Shell and solid element pick handles are displayed as pixels at the centroid of the element. Each pick handle is displayed as a small "+. Element handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed.Picking Entities on the Screen After you select the correct data type. Line handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. you can use the mouse to pick the desired entities in the graphics area of the screen. You can set the default mode for the graphics mode you wish to use by activating/deactivating the *graphicengine(mode) command in the hm. Lines Each segment of a line has pick handles along its length. see Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements. Click geom handle on the modeling sub-panel on the options subpanel to switch on or off the display of line handles." If there are many pick handles. a "+" is displayed at only some of the pick handles. A component can be selected by picking an element.

To facilitate the selection of graphical entities such as nodes. Blocks do not have pick handles. Blocks are drawn in shaded mode with transparency and can be selected by picking anywhere on the entity.0 User’s Guide 131 . you can turn on the coincident picking option from the modeling sub-panel of the options panel (accessed from the toolbar). Vector pick handles are located at the arrow tip of the vector. or loads. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Titles Vectors Curves Note A title can be selected by picking within its bounding box. A plot can be selected by picking within its border. To select a load collector. Load collectors do not have pick handles. To select a system collector. simply select a system within that system collector.System Collectors Loads Load Collectors Plots Blocks System collectors do not have pick handles. when several of them are coincident (present at the same location). elements. simply select a load within that system collector. The pick handle for a load is located at the pick handle of the entity to which the load is applied. A curve can be selected by clicking anywhere along the curve.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 132 HyperMesh 8. While the line/surface is highlighted. . surfaces) on which you would like to place a node. Then move the cursor to the exact location on the elements of that component and click the left mouse button to place the node. The cursor becomes a small white box and the element is highlighted. they also allow you to create new nodes on geometry or on elements. 2. Position the cursor on a node and press the left mouse button. To select new nodes on geometry: 1. A temporary node is created at that location and is selected in the node collection for the panel. edges. When you are in a node collection mode. 4. 3. Then move your cursor to the exact location on the geometry where you would like the node to be placed and click the left mouse button to place a node. you can select nodes at the desired location(s) on the geometry. This function allows you to create welds at locations that do not have pre-existing nodes. Release the left mouse button. To select new nodes on elements: 1.Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements Node and node list input collectors allow you to not only pick existing nodes in the model. release the left mouse button to select it. While the line or surface is highlighted in this manner. position the cursor on an element handle and hold the left mouse button down. This function can be accessed from any node collector in any panel. 3. You can create nodes on elements by holding the left mouse button down on an element handle until the cursor becomes a square and selecting the element. The cursor becomes a small white box 2. You can create temporary nodes on an element (similar to creating a node on the fly on a line or surface). Move your cursor to the exact location on the element where you want to add a node and click the left mouse button. Continue to hold the left mouse button down and use the mouse to move this special cursor box close to the desired geometry entity. You can create a node on geometry by holding the left mouse button down along the geometry handle until the cursor becomes a square and then selecting the geometry (lines.

coordinate systems. click the data type button on the current input collector. You can then select an option from the extended entity selection menu. HyperMesh displays a list of the available collectors. Allows you to select elements. When you select by attached. HyperMesh includes the entities currently displayed that are attached to the entities already selected. Allows you to select entities by assembly. Entities that are not displayed will not be selected although they may be attached to the entity selected. To access the extended selection menu. surfaces. These selection options are displayed for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. When you select by adjacent. loads. Input Collector Extended entity selection menu. by adjacent by assems by attached by collector Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When you select all. the entities selected by this operation are those attached to the selected component. If you select component collectors in regard to elements or lines. You may select multiple collectors from this list.Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu The extended entity selection menu provides a number of entity selection options. You may select multiple assemblies from this list. Extended selection techniques are described in the following table: all Allows you to select all entities of the specified type. vectors. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are displayed in dimmed text. equations. HyperMesh displays a list of the available assemblies. With all other entities. When you select by assems. and points by collector. Allows you to select entities adjacent to the entities already selected. the set to be added to the user mark includes entities displayed and those not displayed. When you select by collector. HyperMesh includes the entities that are adjacent to the entities already selected. Allows you to select entities by specifying an entity among a large group of continuously connected elements. lines. the elements or lines contained in the selected components are selected.0 User’s Guide 133 .

100 by 2.2000 b 100 You can also use a comma to separate individual entities or entity ranges. 800. systs. When you select by config. adjacent surfaces or elements are progressively selected when the angle between them is less than or equal to the specified feature angle. "thru". You can use keywords to specify a range that determines which entities are selected. When you select by output block. HyperMesh displays a list of the available includes that you may select. Examples of valid by id expressions: 127 127 – 722 300 through 600 300 thru 600 300 t 600 1000 . 3. HyperMesh displays a list of the available output blocks from which you may select. When you select by id. loads.10. When you select by group. Note: Includes created via the include browser are only valid for solvers that support them. groups and mats within an outputblock. 100 3. It finds surfaces and elements that are attached to each other without crossing a feature line. 8 . Attached. 134 HyperMesh 8. Examples of valid lists of by id expressions: 1. HyperMesh displays a panel for specifying an element configuration and type for selection. that belong to selected include. Allows you to select entities by typing in their ID numbers. HyperMesh displays a list of the available groups. groups etc. a pop-up window prompts you to type ID numbers or ranges of ID numbers. Output blocks are created in the output blocks panel. elements. When you select by include. 77. by output block Allows you to select the nodes. 400 t 500 b 3 by face by group by id by include Allows you to select FE entities such as elements. 5. The feature angle parameter in the options panel’s modeling sub-panel determines the feature lines. You may select multiple groups from this list. or "t" may be substituted for the dash (-).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The element type is dependent on the template file specified in the global panel.2000 by 100 1000 . Allows you to select entities by group. 5. The standard format is: <start number> . 4. Allows you to select entities by surface face. 850 1 .by config Allows you to select elements by configuration and type.<end number> by <increment value> "through". and the letter "b" may be substituted for "by" when you specify the range. comps.

Select original to place the new entities in the same component collectors as the original entities. or points. When you select duplicate. Allows you to select all of the entities currently displayed on the screen. Similarly. Select points in the graphics area to define a window enclosing the pick handles of the desired entities. Allows you to select the entities which are associated to a surface. either by picking a sample surface or by specifying a range of values for the width. Allows you to select a group of entities whose pick handles reside on a plane. and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. HyperMesh displays a list of the available sets from which you may select. This can be very useful when you use the reflect function on a model (only available for elements and lines). by path for lines uses the connectivity of surfaces/solids and thus requires the selected lines to be surface/solid edges. Selecting by window activates the build window panel. Alternatively. Allows you to select surfaces by width. HyperMesh displays a panel from which you may select one or more surfaces. Allows you to retrieve previously saved entities from the user mark. lines. click reject entities to deselect enclosed entities that were previously highlighted. You can associate entities to a surface in the node edit panel. or by selecting save failed in the check elems panel. When you select by surface. click select and HyperMesh selects the entities which are associated to the surfaces. If you select two nodes on a free edge of some elements. The initially selected entities are deselected when the duplicate elements are created and selected. surfaces. When you select by sets. Select current to place the new entities in the currently active component collector. as shown in the global panel. and selects all the nodes/lines that fall in the closest path connecting the selected ones. When disp is selected. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes. the function tries to find the closest path along that free edge.0 User’s Guide 135 . This is useful when you want to apply constraints to a plane. Click select entities to highlight the enclosed entities. Allows you to duplicate the currently selected elements. Allows you to select the entities within a set. Sets are created in the entity sets panel.by path Allows you to pick multiple nodes or lines. Entities can be saved to the user mark by selecting save in this popup window. Once the surfaces have been selected. all entities within collectors that are active in the disp (display) panel are selected. a pop-up window allows you to choose a component for the newly created duplicate entities. by sets by surface by window by width displayed duplicate on plane retrieve Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Allows you to select entities inside a user-defined multiple-sided polygon in the plane of the screen.

When reverse is selected. Thus their extended entity selection menu is different from that of the standard extended selection menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it only works with surface edges and not free unconnected geometric lines. If you select two nodes on the free edge of the elements. origin in the systems panel requires only one node. 136 HyperMesh 8. for example. the function tries to find the closest path along the free edge. all selected elements are removed from the mark. Some panels in HyperMesh require only a single entity to collect. The nodelist collector displays the following extended selection options: save Notes: by list by path Allows you to select nodes individually in the desired sequence. The extended entity selection menu is not displayed in such situations. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally. all elements which are not on the mark and are currently active are selected. Allows you to save the currently selected entities to a holding area known as the user mark. Some collectors. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). such as nodelist and linelist must remember the sequence in which the entities are selected. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. show node order by window The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. If you select two free (red) edges.reverse Allows for a Boolean "not" to be performed on the currently displayed elements. Allows you to review the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. Allows you to pick nodes (two or more) and selects all the nodes that fall in the closest path connecting the selected nodes.

and refresh the screen. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The view menu Changing the Window The window viewing options allow you to zoom in and out of the currently displayed window. Click the user view button in the Toolbar Area to access the view menu. fill the window with the model. reverse the view. The following window viewing options are included as default keyboard shortcuts: z + and f p s Circle zoom: click-and-drag the mouse to draw a circle. Using View Rotation There are multiple methods you can use to rotate a displayed model. and down arrow keys to rotate the model incrementally. then click-and-drag on the model in the graphics area. (Numeric keypad) Current Window Zoom Fit to screen Plot (refreshes the rendering in the Graphics Area). Hold down the ctrl key.Viewing Models The functions on the Toolbar Area allow you to control the view of your model. identify. Slide zoom. Release the mouse button to stop zooming. right. or rotate the model in clockwise or counterclockwise directions. click-and-drag the mouse to zoom in and out. then click cw (clockwise) or ccw (counterclockwise). The viewing functions allow you to: Setting Basic Views The view pop-up menu allows you to display your model in several basic views. The save and restore options allow you to save. View pop-up menu. • • • Use the left. and restore different views of your model. up. The view commands are accessible even when you are using other panels. specify an area to see in closer detail. The view zooms to that circle when you release the mouse button.0 User’s Guide 137 .

Press the s key. 2. The cursor changes to dynamic center mode. Click and hold the mouse button. Simultaneously press and hold the CTRL key and the right mouse button. 3. move the mouse to circle the area to be zoomed in on. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Use the mouse to drag the model to the desired position on the screen. These two functions increase or decrease the current window by the user-defined factor specified on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel. Automatic full screen refreshes are kept to a minimum. 2. HyperMesh displays a message requesting you to circle the area of the model to be more closely investigated. Press + on the numeric keypad to zoom in. To perform a circle zoom: 1. Slide the mouse: or 4.right click allows you to drag the model. To refresh the screen: • Click the plot refresh toolbar button or press P on the keyboard. press the p key or the plot refresh toolbar button to refresh the screen. down to zoom in up to zoom out Release the mouse button to end the zoom function.on the numeric keypad to zoom out. Move the mouse to the appropriate area on the screen and hold the left mouse button down. To drag the model: 1. To zoom in and out of the current window: 1. 3. The model and/or the window are not resized when you refresh the screen. 138 HyperMesh 8.CTRL . With the mouse button still depressed. Release the mouse button. If the screen appears messy or inaccurate after entities have been plotted and erased. 2. To use the mouse to zoom in and out: 1. Press Z on the keyboard. To fit the entire model on the screen: • Press F on the keyboard. Press . A trailer line appears wherever the mouse is moved. The area circled is used to recalculate the window when the mouse button is released.

This returns the screen graphic to the view before a rotation. is performed by selecting a new center for the current window. click the previous view button in the Toolbar Area or press b on the keyboard. You can toggle between two views of a model by clicking (or pressing) repeatedly. center. The center relocates. The current center is indicated by a small white box. 3. zoom. Press C on the keyboard. Move the mouse to the point where you want the new center located and click the left mouse button. or by pressing any key. or other viewing manipulation was performed. 2. by clicking the right mouse button.0 User’s Guide 139 . Return to the Previous View To return to the previous view of your model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Move the mouse into the graphics area. Exit by moving the mouse into the menu area. also called panning. 4.Performing View Translation Translation of the model. To change the screen center: 1.

3. To turn a collector on: 1. To turn a collector off: 1. The name of the collector is displayed on the left side of the page. IDs. Use the left mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want added to the display. 3. 2. Select the type of collector you want to remove from the screen display. In the default mode of the display panel. At this setting. located on the permanent menu.Using the disp (display) Panel The disp (display) panel. or both: 1. 2. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. The name and ID of the collector are displayed on the left side of the page. Click the lower switch and select name (id) to display the name and the collector’s ID number. To turn all the collectors off: • Click none. To turn on all the collectors of a specified type: 1. 2. Click all. the elements in the selected components are displayed if the component (on the left-hand side of the panel) is selected. 2. The colors of each component display next to the component names. Select the collector type. Components can be turned on and off by selecting the check boxes of the components in the display list. To change to another collector type: 1. Click the upper switch. The ID of the collector is displayed in parenthesis on the left side of the page. Click the lower switch and select name to display the collector’s name. To change the collector list to display names. 2. Click the upper switch. Access it by clicking the display button in the Toolbar Area or selecting Display > Collectors from the View pull-down menu. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the switches (on the right-hand side of the panel) are set to comps and elems. Use the right mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want removed. Collectors can also be turned off by moving the mouse to the graphics region and picking an entity which they collect. allows you to select which components and collectors are displayed on the screen. Click the upper switch. 140 HyperMesh 8. Select the type of collector you want to display. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. Select the type of collector you want to display. Click the lower switch and select (id) to display the collector’s ID number instead of the name.

2.0 User’s Guide 141 . Click the leftmost toggle to filter =. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can use the asterisk (*) for a wildcard. To use a filter: 1. To display geometry: • Click the toggle and select geoms to display the surfaces and lines in a component. Enter the character string to use for the filter.To reverse the selection: • Click reverse to toggle between having all the selected components on or off.

The element handles option specifies whether or not to draw element handles. This sub-panel also allows you to specify node and cleanup tolerances. The zoom factor specifies the multiplication factor that is used to increase or decrease the scale of the current view when you press the + and – keys on the numeric keypad. elements. For smaller models. This function is activated by turning on coincident picking in the options panel. Fixed points can also be turned on and off from vis opts in the geometry cleanup panel. The pick tolerance specifies the maximum distance. for more information see Setting Tolerances.Setting View Options The modeling sub-panel on the options panel (accessible via to toolbar or the Tools pull-down menu) allows you to define several viewing options. The surf lines parameter specifies the default number of u-v lines to draw on new surfaces when they are created. a circular insert pops up containing various loads displayed separately with their IDs turned on. in pixels. The entities supported for coincident picking are nodes. When the pick tolerance is increased. The number of surface lines on existing surfaces can be changed by using the surf lines panel. fixed points The fixed points option allows you to specify whether or not to display fixed points. Viewing option settings include: rotate angle The rotate angle specifies the number of degrees that your model rotates when you use the arrow keys. You can then pick the appropriate load. loads and systems. This does not affect the display of free points. For example. The geom handles option allows you to specify whether or not to display line and surface handles. that the cursor can be from the pick handle of a graphical entity in order to select it. pick tol zoom factor surf lines element handle geom handle coincident picking template labels/ HM labels 142 HyperMesh 8. but it can slow down the redraw speed of a large model. The element handles option also allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. setting the rotation angle to a lower value allows a smooth transition from frame to frame. if multiple loads are detected at the same location. The coincident picking option allows you to graphically select a desired entity from a stack of coincident entities when there are multiple entities at the same location. Turning off pick handles can speed up the redraw time.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Displaying surface lines can help you to visualize a surface better. it is easier to pick an entity. Increasing or decreasing the angle makes the model appear to rotate faster or slower. An element handle is a single-pixel dot at the centroid of an element. This option allows you to display the element labels as template names or HyperMesh names.

Shrinking elements is a convenient way to detect holes in a mesh and to improve wireframe element picking. HyperMesh selects the node closest to the point where the element was selected. Entity Selection The graphics engine allows you to select entities by moving the mouse anywhere along the entity of interest. Another key feature in the graphics engine is the method by which nodes are selected. Transparent The element displays as a filled transparent polygon. it is much easier to work when you are zoomed in on a particular area. so that its corners do not appear to touch its nodes. HyperMesh allows you to select the node by picking the "node sphere" on the screen. select the element to which the node of interest is attached. Display attributes can be applied to all components by using the wireframe elements and shaded elements toolbar buttons. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To select a node. the element is scaled by the specified value about its centroid. Hidden Line with Feature Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the "feature" edges drawn in mesh line color. The display attributes that you can assign to each component are: Wireframe Element edges display with lines. For nodes that are not attached to any elements. This feature allows you to assign a set of display attributes to each component of your model that determines how each component is displayed. Hidden Line The element displays as a filled polygon. Access this panel by opening the View pull-down menu. They can be applied to individual components or sets of components through the Visual Attributes panel. Hidden Line with Mesh Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the edges drawn in mesh line color. The shrink value must be between 0 and 1. as you are not required to have a pick handle on the screen in order to pick the entity. each element is drawn so that its corners directly connect to its nodes.Shrink The shrink option controls the shrink factor to be used when drawing elements. Component Display The graphics engine treats each HyperMesh component as an independent unit. The benefit of this feature is that it allows you to create zero length elements between two coincident nodes in a mesh. For lines and surfaces. then selecting FE Styles. If a shrink value is applied. If no shrink is selected.0 User’s Guide 143 .

This can make it very difficult to see a node. The zbuffer allows HyperMesh to render your model in hidden line. If swapping occurs while you are running HyperMesh. the zbuffer may have difficulty deciding which entity to display.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . edges. To correct this situation. If you have solid elements in your model. the graphics engine offers advanced and powerful features: Cutting plane Cutting plane functions have been expanded to allow three planes to be active simultaneously. the display lines which represent the edges (for example) might be partially or completely blocked out by the original entity in the database. If one or more of the components in a model are set to a display style besides wireframe. Here. then HyperMesh draws the whole model in hidden line. and displays these instead of displaying all of the faces. and then another entity closer to you at another. with the elements in back eliminated from the display. HyperMesh relies on the zbuffer found on your graphics device. Isosurfaces Hidden components Memory usage 144 HyperMesh 8. or nearly the same location in space. If you encounter this problem. If this situation occurs.User Features of the Graphics engine When you are post-processing. HyperMesh calculates where the external faces are in your model. the interior is filled with solid color. When a component is set to hidden line. the graphics engine draws all selected or temporary nodes as spheres when one or more components are set to a display attribute other than wireframe. contour. If this occurs. you might see a "dotting" or "stitching" effect where the zbuffer considers one entity to be closer to you at one pointer. The cutting plane feature can be found in the hidden line. One of the optimizations is the removal of interior solid faces. it may help to use the shrink option (modeling sub-panel on the options panel). and faces panels. In some cases. and animation panels. Cutting plane control is more interactive and is controlled by selecting any of the active planes with the mouse and then dragging the plane across the model. Potential areas of zbuffer stitching are in the features. To perform this task. There are some limitations to using a zbuffer and some display output differences of which you should be aware. this could seriously affect performance. or as a value-based surface in which you specify a value that indicates where an isosurface should be displayed. Isosurfaces can be displayed on a model in either a legendbased mode in which each of the legend colors generates an isosurface. The isosurfaces sub-panel is available on the contour and animation panels. you should obtain more system memory. you can turn the zbuffer off by making all of the components in your model wireframe. Optimization The graphics engine optimizes the display of your finite element model. HyperMesh graphics use some memory. since HyperMesh is creating entities that reside in the same location in space as another entity. One problem with using the zbuffer technology is that if two entities lie in the same location in space.

1 1. When you specify a node tolerance. These parameters remain constant until changed.01 1.1 10. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.max 1e-4 0. controls model parameters that are accessed by several different panels. HyperMesh attempts to make a reasonable guess at this value when you import a CAD file. These tolerance values include: node tol Node tolerance is essentially the resolution to which HyperMesh maintains the finite element data in the model. but without additional input it uses a cautious estimate. Elements are designated as first order elements by default. HyperMesh considers any two nodes to be coincident if the distance between them is less than the value.0 0.0 Setting Global Parameters The global panel. You need to approximate the size of the elements that make up the smallest feature of importance in your model.01 1e-3 0.01 1.0 10. click the toggle after element order: to second. you need to work with a cleanup tolerance that is less than the node tolerance used in the mesh generation.0 User’s Guide 145 . The global panel controls which components or collectors are active.Setting Tolerances The modeling sub-panel is located on the Options panel. cleanup tol Since the objective is to make a finite element mesh for the geometry.1 10.1 0.0 1e-4 0. accessed by selecting Global Parameters from the Model pull-down menu. "Cleaning up" refers to cleaning up the CAD geometry data by equivalencing edges. Since you will approximate the geometry with a finite element mesh. which is accessible from the toolbar or from the Tools pull-down menu. and initializes the tolerances as appropriate. The cleanup tolerance value specifies how much HyperMesh is allowed to modify the geometry in the course of "cleaning" it.0 Cleanup tolerance min.0 0. the tolerance values are determined by the demands for that mesh.. any entities created are stored in the active collectors. and eliminating extraneous vertices. Use this panel or the template sub-panel on the files panel to specify the template file you want to use.1 0.0 100. Element size Node tolerance min max 0.. This sub-tab allows you to define tolerance values.01 1e-3 0. If you want to create second order elements. deleting fillets.

6. The custom option can be used to import models using a translator provided with the HyperMesh installation but cannot be accessed via the pop-up menu. Select the desired file type. You can also use the templates to perform complex editing or data manipulation tasks. Nastran. HyperMesh ascii. The HyperMesh templates can be used to create model summaries and perform some analysis calculations. Select the desired files in the files to import list: • • • • Left-click to select a single file. Click import to open the import sub-menu. VDAFS. Altair Engineering 9. Click Close to close the Multiple File Import window. 7. The export sub-panel on the files panel allows you to write information from a HyperMesh database to many finite element formats. Geometry data can be written in IGES format. HM ASCII. 4. and a secondary window opens to show the import progress and any errors that may occur. UG. you can select the ones you don’t want and then invert the selection. PRO/E. CATIA. Click Import to import the selected files. Click the button to deselect all of the files in the list. Patran. and STEP. The CUSTOM interface allows you to import models using your own custom-built translation package. 5. DXF. Click the “open folder” icon in the directory field to open a browser. Click the button to invert the selection (deselect any currently selected files and select any currently non-selected ones). PDGS. Radioss.Importing and Exporting Data The import sub-panel on the files panel allows you to input external CAD line and surface data or finite element models. The CAD formats currently supported are IGES. Abaqus. and Ideas. The FE formats we support are Optistruct. Marc. 2. <ctrl>-click to select multiple files one at a time. Cmold. This is useful in cases when you want to choose most of the files in the list. The Multiple File Import window opens. Ls-Dyna. The window minimizes during the import process. but not all. Pamcrash. Click multiple files. 146 HyperMesh 8. STL.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . HyperMesh uses templates to create the analysis input decks for finite element solvers. Click the file pull-down menu. You can modify the existing templates to support a desired feature or create a new template to support another analysis code. Browse to and select the directory that contains the models you wish to import.hm) into the current model session. • Selected files are highlighted to indicate their selection. Moldflow. 8. 3. Click the button to select all of the files in the list. To import multiple files: 1. Select the desired file extension to limit the files that display in the files to import list. You can also import/merge HyperMesh model files (. Ansys.

Select EXTERNAL. template = appears if it is not already present. For translator:. and use the browser to select the file containing the data. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed.0 User’s Guide 147 . click import. To write geometry data in IGES format: 1. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel.. 9. (Note that the IGES interface exports geometry only. Click the upper switch and select the plane format of the data. Click write.) To create an analysis deck via an external translator: 1. 3. 5.. Click template = and specify the file name of the template file. 2. and enter the name of the output file or select. 4. For file:. Click write. 3. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. Select the FE option. 2. Select the CUSTOM option.. Click write as. 6. 4. A column of switches and toggles appears on the right. click import. 6. Select IGES. 7. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. 2. 3. 3. To read data using a custom translator: 1. Click filename = and enter the name of the output file. Select the data format that corresponds to your input data from the pop-up menu. 4.To read data using a standard translator: 1. click browse… and choose the translator required to read the file. A new input field. if they are not already present. 8. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. groups. 4.... For file:. Click the toggle and choose either outer loop optional or outer loop mandatory. 5. Select IGES. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. 2. or layers & groups. and use the browser to select a file. Click the lower switch and select layers. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed.

0 inches. or psp for a PostScript file whose destination is the printer). If it is not selected. If the printer selected is capable of printing PostScript. To create a PostScript file: 1. Open the File pull-down menu. The generate bitmaps option must be off if you select this option. Set the options to your print specifications. you must have a PostScript capable printer installed. You can check this by selecting Print from the File menu to show the print dialog box and pressing the Properties button next to the printer name. Select bitmap preview to generate an image that can be viewed when you view the file in another document. Select Options from the Tools pull-down menu. 2. Select Image > PostScript. To change PostScript settings file: 1. The standard page length is 11. Select plot optimize to decrease the size of the PostScript file generated. The ? is a number provided for file uniqueness. The following options are available in the options panel. 2. Select fill model to expand the model to its maximum size within the graphics area of the PostScript page. Deactivate the color checkbox to print in black and white. press the Options button in the print dialog.Printing Screen Images The postscript sub-panel on the options panel allows you to modify the default print specifications before you create a PostScript file. Make sure the option Print PostScript over text is selected. postscript sub-panel: color checkbox Activate the color checkbox to print in color. The color checkbox is active by default. reverse video generate bitmaps fill to page fill model bitmap preview Select reverse video to indicate that your printer cannot produce reverse video images. and * is an extension (either eps for a PostScript file whose destination is the hard disk.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select the PostScript sub-panel. To print an imported encapsulated PostScript image in MS Word. Click page length = and enter the new size to alter the page length. plot optimize page length = 148 HyperMesh 8. the PostScript preview or file information is printed instead of the actual PostScript image. A PostScript file with the name post?. 3.* is generated. a PostScript tab is present in the properties dialog. To set MS Word to send the imported file as a PostScript image to the printer. Select generate bitmaps to generate a bitmap PostScript file. This requires processing time to optimize the image output. Select fill to page to fill the PostScript image to the specified page dimensions.

The enhanced option allows you to print blended contours (not discrete). hm. CTRL-F3 CTRL-F4 CTRL-F5 CTRL-F6 Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click the toggle to standard/enhanced to change the postscript file resolution to print blended contours. The resolution is displayed in the header bar. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. In order for the functions to work correctly.cfg. Printing Screen Images Using Keyboard Commands You can also use the following function keys in combination with the CTRL key to print and/or save screen images without accessing the postscript sub-panel. the default installation does not spool the bitmap file to the printer.page width = image size = line width = print it standard/enhanced Click page width = and enter the new size to alter the page width. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer.5 inches. hm. Select line width = and enter the new width to alter the line width. please contact your systems administrator. a slider bar is displayed.) Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file.cfg.0 User’s Guide 149 . It creates a smaller PS file. If you select enhanced. Click image size = and enter the new size to scale the image on the page to your specifications. your systems administrator must configure these functions for your system. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. On UNIX platforms. This command executes the operating system command in the *postcopy() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. (Note: This works only in UNIX.cfg. Generates a *. Select print it to send a copy of the file to the printer when you generate the PostScript file. The slider controls the smoothness of the gradient fill of the blended contour. CTRL-F1 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. If the functions do not create output. hm.jpg screen capture or animation file. but takes longer to generate. The standard page width is 8. CTRL-F2 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk.

Using the Card Previewer A control card may be in one of three states: State Undefined Defined (See note. Default values for attributes are common throughout the card previewer. A default value field has two states: State Default = ON Default = OVERRIDDEN Description In this state. the field label color is yellow and no data entry is allowed. To override a default value field. Those control cards that are defined (green in the control card editor) are output. A card that has been defined may be disabled. and allows you to enter data in the field. however.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Any control card viewed in the card previewer is activated. pick the yellow field label. 150 HyperMesh 8. The attributes for that card remain. the label text color changes to cyan. the control card is not output. When you override a default value field.) Inactive Note: Color Gray Green Red Explanation The control card was either never created or has been deleted.

0 User’s Guide 151 .General Process for Building Models This section describes how to build a finite element model in HyperMesh. the following building process is used: • • • • • • Create collectors Obtain line and surface geometry from an external file. In general. or hand digitize the data Reconcile conflicts in the geometry and prepare it for use Build the model by using element-building panels Verify the quality of the model Create boundary conditions and systems Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

The collectors panel allows you to create and update collectors and assign and edit card images or dictionaries. Note: For more information about the types of collectors used in HyperMesh. Select the create sub-panel. create a component collector for the lines and surfaces. Select the create sub-panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh uses the definitions contained in the dictionaries or card image to translate models to external analysis codes. To create a component: 1. 3. Click the upper switch and select comps. Click create. To create a collector: 1. You are not required to provide a material name when you create a component or property. 4. select material = and enter a name for the material.Creating Collectors All entities in a HyperMesh database are stored in collectors. if desired. Click name = and enter a name for the collector. 4. Click name= and enter comp1. Before you build a model in HyperMesh. Select the collectors panel. Click the switch under creation method:. each collector may use a dictionary or card image to define the attributes assigned to the collector. 6. Click create. HyperMesh automatically creates a material for you and gives it the same name as the component or property. click color and select the desired color for the component from the pop-up menu. refer to Collectors in Database Design. For collector type:. 2. Select dictionary or card image and then click dictionary = or card image = to select the dictionary or card image from a list. 5. Based on the assigned template. 7. 6. If you choose not to. Select the collectors panel. 7. Click return. click the switch and select the type of collector that you want to create. Click the switch under creation method: and select no card image. If you are creating a component or property collector. Select same as and then click same as = to select the collector whose type and dictionary or card image information you want to copy from an existing collector. 2. 152 HyperMesh 8. 5. 8. Where available. 3. − − − Select no dictionary or no card image if you do not want to assign a dictionary or card image.

ACIS and STEP. and point data) in the following formats: CATIA (V4 and V5). Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. 2. To import geometry: 1. Using the toggle. IGES. When the geometry is read into the current database. Click import… to invoke the file browser and select the file that contains your geometry data. DXF. VDAFS. The types of geometric entities and organizational information imported vary for different formats. select use automatic cleanup tol to use the cleanup tolerance associated with the geometry of the imported file. Parasolid. Select the Geom option. or select cleanup tol and enter a tolerance value.Reading Geometry HyperMesh imports CAD geometry (such as lines. 5. Pro/E. HyperMesh creates a new component if an active component does not already exist. Click Open to import the model into HyperMesh. Select the appropriate file format to be imported from the pop-up menu. Unigraphics. Blanked components are geometric data that exists in the CAD file but is marked as not displayed or turned on. 3. − − Using the toggle. please review the individual CAD translator topics for additional information. select create blanked component or no blanked component. PDGS. surface data. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 153 . 4.

extending. point/node creation and editing panels nodes temp nodes Create new nodes. Create standard shaped surfaces or solid entities. Edit existing lines in a variety of methods such as combine. Edit existing surfaces by removing individual features such as holes or fillets. smooth. Creating NURBS surfaces A NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) surface is a parametric surface defined by control points. The spline option creates a surface through 3-D lines. you can create or edit geometry using the line and surface builders. knots and weights.Creating Geometry Data If geometry is not available from a CAD system. spheres. and drag/spin sub-panels of the surfaces panel can be used to create NURBS surfaces. The ruled. spline/filler. 154 HyperMesh 8. cones. The panels used in this process are listed below: lines creation and editing panels lines line edit circles Create lines in a variety of methods. Edit existing surfaces by trimming. or shrinking. If you select a set of lines that do not form a closed loop. such as spline. Add or remove nodes used only for geometry creation or editing. drag. and at the intersection of other geometry. Create circles or arcs. surfaces creation and editing panels surfaces primitives surface edit defeature Create surfaces from existing lines or nodes by different methods. There is no limit on the number of lines used to create a mesh/surface. or extend. These lines form one path because they intersect at four points. and cylinders. HyperMesh will connect the disconnected lines with straight lines. including: from points.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . including squares. or spin. and create a spline surface and/or mesh in the enclosed area. Several methods are available. split. at tangents.

These sharp edges are sometimes the result of data created on other CAD/CAM systems and brought into HyperMesh via a translator. which takes longer to create. The tolerance setting on the options panel is used to determine the intersections between lines. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Creating a surface with these lines results in a relatively complex surface. HyperMesh reports an error when you attempt to create the surface. Lines that contain sharp edges can cause problems when you create a surface.0 User’s Guide 155 . These lines may need to be "smoothed" by using the line edit panel or replaced with a new. If the tolerance is too small and an intersection cannot be found.These lines form more than one path and cause an error. line by using the lines panel. smooth. and slows the automeshing process. These lines result in a more complex surface.

The "circular" shaped line has been replaced with a smooth line. Lines used to define a skinned surface. which results in a much simpler surface. A skinned surface created from the lines. 156 HyperMesh 8. In some cases the sharp edges are required to represent the model and should not be smoothed. The skin option can create a skinned surface through a set of lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

The ruled option can create a ruled surface between two lines. Lines used to create a ruled surface.0 User’s Guide 157 . A ruled surface created from the lines. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

there are three functions: • • • add clear clear all • • • Adds selected individual nodes to the temporary node list. Surface edges may be used in the same way as lines in any surface creation panel.Temporary Nodes A temporary node list retains nodes that are not attached to an element.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you use any surface edge lines in the line edit panel. In the temp nodes panel. Each surface highlights as selected. i. protecting them from automatic removal by HyperMesh’s database management (except for some panels that automatically clear all temporary nodes. you can select any one of them by clicking on the edge. duplicates of the lines are created and the operation is applied to the duplicates. In shaded mode. Release the mouse button when the desired surface is highlighted. you can display surfaces in wireframe mode or in shaded mode. and release it to confirm the selection. In wireframe mode. 158 HyperMesh 8. The temp nodes panel allows you to modify the temporary node list. edges. click anywhere on the surface to select it. Picking Surfaces In HyperMesh.e. There may be times when you wish to use an unattached node later in the modeling process. Removes selected individual nodes from the temporary node list. and while holding the mouse button down. moving the mouse slightly from side to side. the easiest method of selecting a surface is to pick the surface near its edges or surface visualization lines. Similar to wireframe mode. If several surfaces share an edge.. faces. you can hold the left mouse button down until the surface of interest is highlighted. Removes all the temporary nodes from the database. where appropriate. edit elements).

A circle and a surface (represented with surface lines) before trimming. You must select the surface and the line and specify a direction vector. The surface is trimmed by sweeping the line along the vector and intersecting the surface with the sweep. You can use the surface edit panel to modify surface geometry when it is necessary to make changes before you generate a mesh. This allows them to be meshed at the same time. to trim a surface with a line.0 User’s Guide 159 . the surface is not trimmed. For example. use the trim with line sub-panel of the surface edit panel. After the circle is used to trim the surface. The features and automesh panels have a cleanup sub-panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If the sweep does not intersect the surface. It is usually preferable to combine multiple faces into one surface entity before you use the meshing tools.Editing Surfaces Each HyperMesh surface contains one or more faces. two new surfaces are created (shown highlighted) and the original surface is trimmed. which contain surface editing tools.

use the trim with surf sub-panel. 160 HyperMesh 8. The smaller surface is split into two surfaces after it is trimmed with the larger surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .To trim one surface with another. Two surfaces before trimming.

0 User’s Guide 161 . such as translate. Some operations break associativity. use the node edit or project panel. the nodes are automatically associated to the surface. Associativity is also broken if you trim a surface. a surface. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When you create a mesh with the automesher. associativity is broken. However. Note: Re-associating nodes to a surface is usually a time consuming task. the associativity is not broken. node. When nodes are associated to a surface. If you transform. you can use the smooth panel to smooth elements on the surface and the node edit panel to move the nodes along the surface. which allows you to select all the nodes and/or elements associated to a surface.Associativity Nodes and elements can be associated to surfaces. To re-associate a node to a surface. or element. if you transform a component that contains both a surface and its associated nodes/elements. Associated nodes and elements can be selected by surface.

analysts need to combine a number of faces into a single smooth surface. edge edit. To make the geometry more appropriate for meshing. A single smooth surface is typically split into smaller patches.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The initial CAD geometry often contains gaps. or pinholes. each a separate mathematical face. misalignments. their priorities are different from those of analysts trying to use the data. point edit. and autocleanup panels contain tools to help you prepare surface geometry for meshing. These features can distort the elements or demand a finer mesh. The juncture between two surfaces often contains gaps. and prevents unnecessary artificial or accidental edges from being present in the final mesh. 162 HyperMesh 8. The quick edit.Geometry Cleanup When designers create CAD geometry. overlaps. This allows the elements to be created on the entire region at once. or other misalignments.

combine surfaces into large meshing regions. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and eliminate pinholes.With the tools of the geometry cleanup panels.0 User’s Guide 163 . you can easily build a much better mesh. you can close the gaps between surfaces. Using the simpler. cleaner geometry.

Building 0-D Elements The 0-D elements currently supported in HyperMesh are masses. Supports complex beams. rbe3s. Purpose Supports complex beams.Building Elements After you create or obtain geometry data. Supports simple beams. edges. welds. plots. and a property reference. Note: bar3s contain a third node designed to supported second order beams. Supports display type elements. and joints. Supports NASTRAN RBE3 elements. Building 1-D Elements One-dimensional elements currently supported in HyperMesh include bar2s.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Plot elements are generated in the edit element. Supports gap elements. you can build elements directly on the geometry. rigids. Altair Engineering 164 HyperMesh 8. rods. line mesh. springs. bar3s. Supports springs or damper. elem offset. or features panel. rigid links. Supports rigid elements with multiple nodes. a value of mass. This section describes the element types and indicates which panels you can use to build the elements. Masses have the ability to store one node. Weld Note: Supports weld elements. gaps. 1-D Element Bar2 Stores A property reference A local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Bar3 Property reference Local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Gap Joint Property reference Property reference Optional orientation nodes or system(s) Plot RBE3 Rigid link A reference to two nodes A degree of freedom at each node Weight at each node A degree of freedom code One independent node Multiple dependent nodes Rigid Rod Spring A degree of freedom code A property reference A property reference A degree of freedom code An optional orientation vector A degree of freedom code Supports rigid elements. Masses can be created in the masses panel. The 1-D element-building panels are located on the 1D page of the default main menu. Supports kinematic joint definitions supplied with Safety Analysis Codes. The following list indicates the storage capabilities and purpose of each of the 1-D elements.

Builds elements between two rows of nodes. but second order parabolic elements may be generated by changing the element order in the global panel. or two lines. a row of nodes and a line. Builds elements on spherical surfaces. row of nodes. or group of elements about a vector. and eight-noded quads can all be built in HyperMesh. Builds elements by spinning a line. Builds elements by dragging a line. By default. row of nodes. four-noded quads.Building 2-D Elements Three-noded trias. Builds elements on square or trimmed planar surfaces. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These two-dimensional elements can be built in any of the following panels: automesh cones drag edit element elem offset line drag planes ruled spheres spin spline torus Note: Builds elements on surfaces according to user specifications. six-noded trias. Builds elements on toroidal surfaces. Builds elements on conic or cylindrical surfaces. Builds elements by dragging a line or group of elements along or about a control line.0 User’s Guide 165 . or group of elements along a vector. Builds elements by offsetting a group of elements in the direction of their normals. first order linear elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. Builds elements that lie on a surface defined by lines. Builds elements by hand.

By default. first order elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. and 8. Builds solid elements between a variable number of lines. Fills with tetra elements a volume that is enclosed by tria elements or surfaces. Propagates split hexas. but second order solids may be generated by switching the element order in the global panel. Creates solid elements between two-dimensional elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Builds elements by hand.and 20-noded hexa elements. 166 HyperMesh 8. Tetras can be built in the edit element panel by hand or by using the tetramesh panel. Creates solid elements by offsetting a group of two-dimensional elements normal to the surface formed by the group of two-dimensional elements. Spins a group of two-dimensional elements about a vector to create solids. Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a line. lines.and 15-noded pentas. Pentas and hexas can be built in any of the following panels: drag edit element line drag linear solid solid map solid mesh elem offset spin split tetramesh Note: Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a vector to create solids. Builds solid elements between nodes.and 10-noded tetras. 6. and surfaces.Building 3-D Elements HyperMesh builds 4.

and NASTRAN-style aspect ratio The time sub-panel allows you to check for elements whose small size might cause problems for an explicit solver. The user sub-panel allows you to verify element quality by using a template file that checks for userspecified conditions. The group sub-panel provides a tool to check for and eliminate group or interface elements whose underlying structural element has changed and left them detached. aspect ratio. skew. you can use the check elems panel to verify the geometric quality of the elements in the model. skew.0 User’s Guide 167 . and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check tetra elements for collapse. You can check your model for connectivity and duplicate elements. CFD-style volumetric skew.Checking Model Quality After you build your model. aspect ratio. The 1-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check one-dimensional elements for free ends Determine if a group of rigid elements form a loop Check weld and rigid elements for double dependency Check all elements for a minimum length of a side The 2-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check a mesh of elements for its maximum chordal deviation from a real or inferred surface The 3-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage.

HyperMesh transforms the loads appropriately to any local nodal output coordinate system. Applies a concentrated moment about a user-defined vector at a node. The size of loads and constraints is based on model units and can be modified from within the boundary condition panels. create a load collector. Depending on the analysis code being used to calculate results. Accelerations are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. flux. Moments are displayed as a double-headed arrow with an optional label. Applies a pressure on an element or geometry. M. The label may include the magnitude of the force. T. Pressures are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. Equations are displayed with the label. The label may include the magnitude of the moment. • constraints • • • equations fluxes • • • forces • • moments • • pressures • • temperatures • • velocities • Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. The label may also display the magnitude of the acceleration. 168 HyperMesh 8. with an optional label. EQ. Loads are displayed in the color assigned to the load collector. The label may include the magnitude of the flux. Before you apply loads. reviewing. HyperMesh stores and displays all loads in the global coordinate system. Constraints are displayed as a triangle with an optional label that displays the degrees of freedom effected by the constraint. Temperatures are displayed as a straight line starting at the node at which the temperature is applied extending upward. P. Applies a general equation constraint between nodes. A.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . V. Applies a flux load at a node. Fluxes are displayed as a thick arrow with an optional label. HyperMesh currently supports the following load types: • accelerations • Applies an acceleration at a node. The label may include the magnitude of the velocity. Forces are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label F. Applies a concentrated force along any user-defined vector at a node. Applies a temperature constraint at a node.Applying Loads The final step in the model building process is to apply constraints and forces and to create or assign coordinate systems. Applies a velocity at a node. and updating loads and constraints. Velocities are displayed as a singleheaded arrow with an optional label. The label may include the magnitude of the pressure. Applies a constraint or enforced displacement at a node.

cylindrical. and other systems are eligible entities for a reference system.Creating Systems Systems in HyperMesh are referred to as coordinate systems and may be rectangular. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or spherical. Note: System collectors collect system entities. Reference systems transform geometric location or input vectors from the global system to a local system. Systems are built and referenced in the systems panel. HyperMesh supports reference and analysis systems. Nodes. Analysis systems transform the output system of a node entity. mass elements.0 User’s Guide 169 . forces. A system collector must exist and be current in order to build a system.

you can use any of viewing tools on the visual options menu to simplify the visualization of complex structures in your model. • For either method. or mixed and whether they should be first or second order elements. depending on whether or not you use surfaces as the basis for the operation. Most of the functions are still available and operate in the same way. You may choose from several mesh generation algorithms. You can adjust the node biasing on each edge to force more elements to be created near one end than near the other. have more flexibility in specifying the algorithm parameters. There are two approaches to the automeshing secondary panel. While you are in the meshing module. A solid model created by dragging automeshed plate elements.Automatic Mesh Generation HyperMesh has a centralized plate and shell mesh generation tool called the automeshing secondary panel. there are situations in which it is not possible or not desirable to create a surface. You can adjust interactively a wide variety of parameters and choose from a suite of algorithms.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Most of the element creation panels use this module. • If you use surfaces. Mesh smoothing is also available and you may select the algorithm for that operation as well. you can specify the mesh generation and visualization options to use on each individual surface. HyperMesh responds with immediate feedback on the effects of the changes. If you use surfaces. You control interactively the number of elements on each edge or side and can determine immediately the nodes that are used to create the mesh. 170 HyperMesh 8. until you are satisfied with the resulting mesh. the module operates the same. the meshing process is usually faster and uses less memory. which allows you to see immediately the locations of the new nodes. trias. If you do not use surfaces. and employ the mesh-smoothing operation to improve element quality. The created mesh can be previewed. Furthermore. which allows you to evaluate it for element quality before choosing to store it in the HyperMesh database. You can also specify whether the new elements should be quads. which supplies as much automated assistance as possible. you may choose from a greater variety of algorithms.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 171 .The automeshing secondary panel can make second order elements for boundary element solutions.

172 HyperMesh 8.Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel The functions of the automeshing secondary panel are divided into six sub-panels. undo. as well as the local view pop-up menu. density algorithm type biasing details checks Each automeshing sub-panel has the mesh. smooth. abort.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can switch freely between the sub-panels. the screen display changes to present only the information applicable to the current operation. reject. and return functions (see Automeshing Secondary Panel in the Panels section).

In this case. a submapping algorithm is used. Map as Triangle. Applies repeatedly the selected smoothing algorithm until no node is moved farther than the specified smoothing tolerance. HyperMesh attempts to produce an all-quads mesh. For most configurations. The mesh generation algorithms include: Autodecide If you are meshing a surface. HyperMesh analyzes the geometry of each face and the element densities specified for each edge. Such an operation is exceedingly fast. and where applicable. but there are some situations in which one or more trias are included: • • • If the total number of elements specified for the perimeter of the face is odd. Sometimes two or more trias are needed because of the particular order in which the elements were generated. at least one tria always needed. HyperMesh uses a streamlined version of this algorithm that is optimized for the different shape and connectivity requirements of tria elements. or Pentagon If the region is free from internal holes and the boundary is clearly triangular. HyperMesh chooses a standard template based on the element densities around the perimeter of the region. The Free meshing algorithm is a general-purpose formula that works for most meshing conditions. if that is the case. the default mesh generation algorithm is Autodecide. If trias is the selected element type. Eventually the entire region is filled with elements. or pentagonal in shape. The surface can have interior holes or edges and any number of sides. it chooses the Free algorithm. rectangular. If there is a tight corner on the boundary that would require a poor quality quad. placing elements along the edges as it proceeds. HyperMesh first creates a quads mesh and then divides each element along its shortest diagonal. gives quality results rapidly. and chooses the algorithm that will give the best results.Mesh Generation Algorithms The mesh generation algorithms are divided into two types: those that require the presence of a surface to provide a context of operation. If quads or trias is the selected element type. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 173 . you can usually eliminate them by changing some of the meshing parameters and then remeshing the region. or those working entirely from node and/or line data. Examines the groups of elements to see if a local change in the connectivity might improve element quality. Free • • If quads is the selected element type for the current face. an advancing front algorithm is used. If mixed is the element type. Ignoring rotations. HyperMesh recognizes more than 18 different configurations requiring distinct templates. To make tria elements. Rectangle. The advancing front algorithm uses the following process: • Traverses the perimeter of the region. the best choice of algorithm is usually to map a standard mesh onto the region using transfinite interpolation. HyperMesh uses a single tria. Each site where an element could be placed is measured and one of several possible elements is chosen.

If you use the spin panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 174 HyperMesh 8.Map without Surface If you are creating a mesh entirely from line and/or node data. You can still use the density and biasing manipulation tools but some edges will be linked together. and if you use the spheres panel. so that the configuration always satisfies the balancing requirements of the intended mapping. with no surface. the algorithm is to map a sphere-covering mesh. the algorithm is to spin. the algorithm is to drag. If you use the drag panel. the mesh generation algorithm is decided by the tool that was used to describe the desired operation.

allowing variation in element size.0 User’s Guide 175 . If the element spacing around the perimeter is roughly uniform. HyperMesh uses a modified Laplacian over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. usually in the form of worsened aspect ratios from the stretching of elements. HyperMesh uses a modified isoparametric-centroidal over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. The size-corrected smoothing algorithm attempts to even out the sizes of the elements at the cost of some element quality. HyperMesh traverses the perimeter of the region looking for variations in element edge length and choose between size-correcting and shape-correcting smoothing algorithms. this choice usually gives the best results. Size Corrected Shape Corrected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Smoothing Algorithms There are three smoothing algorithms used by HyperMesh: Autodecide By default. If there is a transition from small elements to large elements in the region. this choice usually gives the best results. The shape-correcting smoothing algorithm attempts to correct the elements’ shapes.

176 HyperMesh 8. the biasing intensity corresponds to the positive slope of a straight line over the interval [0. then: . Element biasing allows you to moderate the changes in aspect ratio from the start to the end. near the end of the edge.1] of the Real Line. Linear Biasing In linear biasing.Element Biasing The automeshing process allows you to bias the placement of nodes so that their intervals are not uniform in size. In linear solids. the mesh at one end could be scaled several times larger than at the other end. This interval is uniformly divided into as many subintervals as specified by the element density and they are mapped along the edge so that the length of the image interval is proportional to the height of the line over the midpoint of the source interval. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. Each image interval corresponds to the side of an element. you may want to use biasing to improve element quality when transitioning from smaller to larger element sizes. If m is the slope of the line. and b is its y-intercept.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or near the middle of the edge. Specifically. When you use the drag and solid offset panels. let n be the element density and let . You can designate that the smaller intervals go near the start of the edge. There are three methods you can use to calculate the biasing of node positions: Use biasing to preserve element quality in complex regions. near both ends with larger intervals in the middle. Within the automesher. you can use biasing to cluster several layers of elements near the surface of a solid.

the sizes of the intervals grow geometrically. Negative biasing intensities just reverse the edge. and x(1) = 1. let n be the element density and let . That factor is 1. Thus. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. and convenient values will fall in the range [0. the nodes are placed according to 1 . This formula was chosen so that an intensity of zero will still represent no biasing. Thus.20]. Exponential Biasing In exponential biasing. We need a function Let then: so that: which gives the proper interval lengths.20]. progressing along the edge.1]. a positiv biasing intensity puts small elements at the start of e the interval.0 plus 1/10 of the absolute value of the biasing intensity. we find: so. We can use b to scale the behavior of the function so that convenient values are in the range [0. The value used is b = 1. m is the absolute value of the biasing intensity.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) =1.x(s).0 User’s Guide 177 . then x(s) scales them to the range of [0.Using x(0) = 0. For this. If the biasing intensity is negative. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. . with each successive interval being a constant factor larger than the previous. Specifically. Let be the geometric growth factor.5. . placing the smaller elements at the end instead of the beginning.

x(1) = 1. If the biasing intensity is positive. Specifically. and if it is negative. nodes are distributed long the edge in a pattern that is symmetric across the midpoint of the edge. the smaller intervals are placed at the beginning and end of the edge. then x(s) becomes: where erf() is the statistical error function. We need so that takes values in [0. .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Bellcurve Biasing In bellcurve biasing. 178 HyperMesh 8. If we use: for positive biasing intensity r.1] with x(0) = 0. they are placed at the middle of the edge. let n be the element density and . and has the behavior noted above.

it has no effect.Linked or Locked Edges Most of the surface-less mesh generation algorithms requires that some edges have exactly the same element density and biasing values as other edges. Any change to one of the edges is immediately applied to all others that are linked to it. If you try to adjust the element density numbers corresponding to these locked edges. "The value of this number cannot be changed" is displayed. The resulting edge is locked and you cannot change the element density or biasing. The error message. HyperMesh automatically links those edges together so that they stay balanced. In these circumstances.0 User’s Guide 179 . Use the automeshing secondary panel to prepare input for solid offset. Some of the surface creation panels allow you to use a node list to define one or more sides of a surface. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh uses those nodes directly to make elements within the automeshing secondary panel.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The characteristics of connector entities can be divided into four categories: Connector Terminology Connector Definition Connector Realization Connector Review 180 HyperMesh 8. you can create an FE weld by realizing a connector. Just as you can create an FE shell mesh by meshing a surface.Connector Entity Connectors are geometric entities (not FE) primarily used to create welds.

A connector that was realized can revert back to being unrealized if. The connector icon is created at the center of the selected line. or the weld element is deleted. The color code provides an easier way to visualize and filter connectors based on their state.0 User’s Guide 181 . The connector is created at the point location. Only one connector is created for each line. The connector is displayed in green. The connector is displayed in red. and lines can be used to define connector location. Only nodes. nodes points lines The connector is created at the node location.Connector Terminology Connector State The connector state is defined as one of the following types: unrealized The initial definition of the connector entity after it is created. realized failed Note: Connector Location The position in space at which a connector entity is created. but the line may be split into multiple projection locations as specified by the offset. Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a link entity is suppressed from its definition. points. The connector is considered realized only if weld creation at the connector was successful. for example. The connector location option is set in the create panel. The connector is considered failed if the weld creation at the connector was not successful. The connector is displayed in yellow. and density values. spacing.

elements. The connectors can hold a single entity or a combination of these entities. A node facilitates a node-node weld connector. elems Note: 182 HyperMesh 8.Link Entity A reference to a separate HyperMesh entity that can be added to a connector. and components can be added to connectors. An element facilitates a patch-patch weld connector. surfaces. geom Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its geometry (connect surfaces only). tags. components Components can be used to connect elements or surfaces. The surfaces can be either meshed or unmeshed. Only nodes. The HyperMesh entities to which the link entities refer are welded together during realization. The welds create fixed points for the mesh. The link entity state options are set in the create and add Links panels. The elems option connects the mesh on the component or surface and the geom option connects the geometry on the component or surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The tag entity can be used to define a weld connector to either a node. or an element that it holds. The following entities are supported. Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its mesh. A part that needs to be welded is often represented as a component. The link entity options are set in the create and add links panels. elements surfaces nodes tags Note: Link Entity State Specifies if the HyperMesh entity referenced by the link entity is meshed or unmeshed. Surfaces can be used to create welds to connect geometry before meshing. The above states are applicable to only surfaces and components added to the connector entity.

Re-connect Rules
Defines how a connector should protect its link entity information. none If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity is then removed from the connector. If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity retains the ID of the HyperMesh entity. The link entity remains in the connector. Same as the by id rule except that the entity name is retained.

by id

by name Note:

These rules are useful for applications such as part replacement. A part can be added to a connector ith the use id or use name reconnect rule and can be replaced with a redesigned part with the same ID or name, without having to change the connector definition. The re-connect rule options are set in the create and add links panels.

Number of Layers
The total number of thicknesses (layers) to connect at the connector. total T Sets the number of thickness to connect (2T/3T/4T/nT). This influences the number of welds created at a connector. Sets the total number of link entities that can be added to the connector. The number of link entities added to a connector is always less than or equal to the total thickness. The number of layers option is set in the create and add links panels.

Note:

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 183

Connector Rules
Shapes the definition of a connector entity. none The connector is created with no link entities and no thickness defined. In this state, the connector must first be updated with more information before it can be successfully realized. This option requires link entities to be specified before the connector is created. The link entities are added to the connector based on the user-supplied criteria. For this option, the connector only remembers what type of link entity it is to connect, rather than a specific link entity. During the fe realize process, the connector searches the HyperMesh database to generate the best (usually the closest) link entity it can using the supplied information.

now

at fe realize

Note:

The connector rules (connect when:) option is set in the Create and Add Links panels.

Connector Realization
Creating welds at a connector. fe realize The process of creating welds (FE) to connect the HyperMesh entities referenced by the link entities added to a connector.

Note:

The connector entity can be used to create only welds at this time.

Request for Connection
A set of parameters used during realization to create a physical connection between link entities.

184 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Connector Definition
The connector is simply a database of information defining a specific request for connection at a specific location. A connector definition describes the connector between multiple HyperMesh entities at a specific location. Entities that are to be connected are referred to as link entities. The connector location is defined as a node, a geometric point, or a geometric line. In the following example, there are two components (Top and Bottom) that are to be connected at the location of a point (with an id of 10). In this case, both components are considered to be link entities, since they are to be linked together. The point defines the location of the connector.

After a connector is created, the connector icon is placed at point 10, and components 1 and 2 are incorporated into the request for connection. The following diagram shows the connector after it is created (with an id of 7) at the location of point 10 (point 10 is not visible).

In this example, connector 7 has been defined and no welds have been created. The connector stores the following information: • • • Which link entities the request for connection is to connect (Comp 1 and Comp 2) The thickness of the realization (Thickness = 2) Where to connect the link entities (the connectors current location)

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 185

HyperMesh entities currently supported as link entities include COMPS, ELEMS, SURFS, NODES, and TAGS. Any number of link entities of differing types can be added to a connector in any order. The connector sets the order of link entities during the realization process. The example above is a simple case where we have added two link entities of the same type (COMPS) to a single connector. Note: An element-to-tag-t o-component connector is possible, as is any other combination of the supported link entities.

186 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Connector Realization
During connector realization, welds are created using the connector definition. Note: In HyperMesh, the only form of realization currently supported is fe realization (weld creation). For successful realization, the connector must be populated with all the relevant details required for its realization type. For example, fe realization requires the connector to be populated with a projection tolerance and an FE configuration type.

The following diagram shows connector 7 realized with a valid tolerance value, and a config value of type 21 (spring).

One advantage of separating weld fe realization from the connector definition, is that a connector can be re-realized as a weld of a different configuration (or possibly, a user-defined weld) without having to redefine the connector. If you edit the connector definition (i.e. add or delete a link entity from the connector), the connector removes the welds it created, and reverts back to an unrealized state. The connector is unrealized only if its user-control mode is turned off. By default, the connector mode is off but it can be turned on by registering custom FE with a connector. Connectors store all FE information that they create, allowing advanced find, mask, delete, and organizational functionality in a number of common HyperMesh panels. If the weld creation is unsuccessful (due to low tolerance, insufficient link entities, etc.) the connector icon is displayed as failed (red). An unrealized connector is yellow, a realized connector is green, and a failed connector is red.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 187

Connector Review
There are many advantages to the way connectors store information. Not only does this local storage allow you to edit the connector definition, it also allows you to review connector details and the quality of the realization. There are a number of tools that can be useful in the review process. The visualization pop-up allows you to update the visual appearance of a connector based on its state, thickness (number of layers), or the component in which it is located. In addition, the vis opts panel also allows you to filter the displayed connectors by various criteria (such as thickness). This filter can then be used for “displayed” mark creation. HyperMesh includes a connector information table that creates a table of connector definitions from a mark and allows you to delete link entities. The quality panel allows you to check the quality of welds created from the connectors. The connector database can also be queried through Tcl functions.

Connectors User Control Mode
Each individual connector can be placed in a user control mode using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. This user control mode is most useful for automated Tcl scripts. Once in user control mode, the following procedures are possible for a given connector: • • • Pre-existing FE can be registered as a given connector’s realization by using the *CE_FE_Register command. Connectors can be edited without automatically unrealizing (as happens most notably when a link is added or removed from a connector, or when an FE realization entity is deleted). A connector’s state can be manually changed from realized to failed, or from failed to realized by using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. A connector’s state will not change to or from the unrealized state using this method.

Once a connector is placed into the user control mode, the user control mode remains active until an unrealize command is called (such as *CE_Unrealize), an already realized connector is rerealized, or the user control mode is manually turned off with either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. While a given connector is in user control mode, it may not behave the same as a normal connector. Specifically, there are a number of scenarios where a user-controlled connector will not auto unrealize in response to database changes that would cause a normal connector to auto unrealize. Note: It is strongly recommended that when FE is registered to a user-controlled connector, that the connector links and other necessary details should also be set with a given connector (so that the connector can properly re-realize if a user interactively requests it to). At the bare minimum, connectors should know which links they are to connect.

188 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Master Connectors File
Most of the information stored in the connector entity can be exported to a master connectors file. This file contains connector entity information such as location, link entity, link entity state, link entity rules (see Connector Terminology). The exported file may also contain metadata information stored in the connector. The master connectors file contains welding information at a given location and also assists in the weld automation process. An exported master connectors file can be re-imported using the connectors reader to re-create connectors. The master connectors file is exported in a single format. The outline of a generic HyperMesh master connectors file is provided below: • • Master connectors files can have comments beginning with the characters # or $, or there can be blank lines in between. The format of the file is fixed and the order of heading definitions cannot be changed. The column information is shown below:

Notes: • • • The header at the beginning of the file specifies information about the column data. Number of layers defines the thickness to connect at the specified location (X, Y, Z). The data between the brackets are repeated for each link entity. For standard HyperMesh FE types such as ACM and CWELD, the FE Config will have a number of 1001, which defines the user-defined type number specified in FE Config File. The FE Type will be the number defined in the FE Config File (for CWELD it is 72). For a detailed explanation of custom FE Configurations see FE Configuration File. The data between the brackets (link entity information) in the table are repeated for the number of links (NumLinks). The NumLinks variable must be equal to the number of link entities.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 189

Metadata is an attribute type that can be stored on a HyperMesh entity. User-defined information (such as Station Id or Gun Id) can be stored on the connector entity as metadata. The Metadata is defined by a name-value pair and is supported for multiple data types (int, double, string, etc.). Please see the HyperMesh on-line help for more information on Metadata. The Metadata name is written to the master connectors file in the following format ~<Sturct><DataType>Name. <Struct> represents whether the value associated is a single variable or an array. <DataType> represents the type of data stored in the value. For example, a Metadata of name Assembly containing an array of integers is written out as ~AIAssembly. The only delimiter supported in the entire file is the double semicolon “::”. The entire column of data in the file should be of the same type. The connectors reader uses the templex template to read the master connectors file. See weld templates for more information. By default, the file is read into HyperMesh through the HMIN function call, HMIN_CE_CreateDefined.

• • • •

The connector entity is created with the information specified in the master connectors file and displayed as unrealized (yellow). To realize the connectors as welds, the fe realize panel must be used.

Multiple Weld File Format
In addition to the master connectors file, the connectors reader also supports master weld file formats previously supported by the spotweld reader.

190 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

a spotweld_format directory must exist in the same location as the master weld file. The following example shows the template for a simple format file with two semi colons as delimiters. For custom templates.Import Templates Templates work with the connectors reader to import multiple file formats.0 :: 3:: 2:: 1:: int num header { type "CONNECTORS" set mark find "[0-9]+::" rewind set num = 0 if { do 1000000 { if { isdigit } then { set num = sum(num. Each template works on only one specific format file. The spotweld. An example for a specific master weld file format is shown below: # Index::T::X::Y::Z::EID1:: EID2:: EID3:: 1:: 3:: 48.cfg file under the same directory. The templates are stored in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/feinput/spotweld_format and are registered in the spotweld. To read in metadata. 1) } readln null } } set numrecords = num set numrequests = 9 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the required headings must be added to the template requests and record blocks.4375:: 9.375 Weld Template :: 2.cfg file must contain only the names of all the registered weld templates.0 User’s Guide 191 .

requests "ID/T/X/Y/Z/EID1/EID2/EID3/EID4" set numcomponents = 1 components "Value" } record { read request // ID qfind "::" set mark read request rewind read num qfind "::" read request // X qfind "::" read request // Y qfind "::" read request // Z do num { qfind "::" read request // EID } set num = diff(4. num) do num { read constant 0 // fake EID } readln null } //T 192 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Spot. ansys.FE Configuration File The FE configuration file (feconfig. marc.g. The FE configuration file has a pre-defined format that must be used to define different weld configurations. The weld definition in the file includes the type of weld to create and the surrounding connector to shells.). Supported solvers are: abaqus. etc). The data can be separated using a space. See FE Definition Examples for information regarding the format and options for FE definition. dyna. The weld definition is solver dependant (NASTRAN. By default. SOLVER The solver template for which FE needs to be created. and pamcrash2g. USER_FE_TYPE USER_FE_NAME Note: This should be the first line in the user FE definition. The user-specified name for the FE combination. pamcrash.> *style <style_type> *head <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <RIGID_FLAG> *body <BODY_FLAG> <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG> [<HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG>] *post <POST_SCRIPT_NAME> The template parameters are defined below. The user-defined number for the FE combination.cfg) is used to define custom welds such as ACM (Area Contact Method) and other special types. nastran. optistruct. The specific solver template for the type of weld must be loaded in HyperMesh before the welds can be created using a connector entity.cfg file from the <install_directory>/hm/bin directory is loaded in each of the panels related to each connector type (e. The specified name is saved and displayed in the info table during connector review process. This is input in the fe realize template as FE Type. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. FE Definition Template The FE definition template is shown below: CFG <SOLVER> <USER_FE_TYPE> <USER_FE_NAME> *filter <filter_type1> <filter_type2> <etc. Area. the feconfig. LSDYNA.0 User’s Guide 193 . etc. Seam.

this option is used as a filter when displaying FE configurations in the type = field of respective realize panels. For example. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE HM_FE_TYPE RIGID_FLAG CONNECT_FLAG 194 HyperMesh 8. Note: *HEAD Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. This option indicates that the configurations have specific behaviors associated during realization. rigidlink. Note: *STYLE A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. Defines how the weld node is to be connected to the surrounding shell element. If rigid flag = 0. A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment.*FILTER This option can be used to allow only the specified connector types to realize the configuration. *FILTER spot seam indicates that this configuration can be realized only by the spot and seam connector types. This option is not applicable to equation and rbe3. The string head is required to specify that a rigid is to be created to connect the weld node to the surrounding shell element. equation and rbe3 do not have a type defined. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. rbe3. For example. plot. In addition. HM_FE_CONFIG The config for the rigid currently supported by HyperMesh. The various types supported for rigids are equation. *style bolts 1 indicates that this is a bolt connection of type 1 that creates a specific bolted connection between the parts. the weld node is connected to only one of the shell element vertex using the rigid. For example. etc. If the rigid flag = 1. a zero should be input.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If the type is not defined. the weld node is connected to all the vertices of the shell elements using rigid to form a spider. so the type field should be zero. and that they are native types. Note: The style definition line for these configurations must not be edited.

0 User’s Guide 195 . and other solver specific details. the length is calculated based on the average thickness of the connecting layers (link entities). CBUSH is of config spring and type 6. The various types supported for welds are. The flag specifies the length factor to be used for series welds. attributes. Note. The *post lines are optional. the users home directory (UNIX only). this option can also be used to specify a property script for the configuration. or the scripts/connectors/ directory. welds are created in parallel. This postscript will be automatically executed post FE realization and it can be used to edit weld properties. if you choose to type in a property script instead of specifying a CFG file in the connector’s generation panel. If the length location flag is >= 0 and < 1. Starting with HyperMesh 8. If the body flag = 1. The length location flag is used to specify if the weld created should be of type series or parallel. the length is calculated based on the distance between the connecting layers (link entities). hexa8. The body flag is used to calculate the length of the weld. If the length location flag = 1. The type number is defined in respective solver templates and differs. This Tcl script must be located in the current working directory.0). Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment.0. a series weld is created. based on the solver. that metadata is still created and saved if you do not use POST to assign a property script (for example. plot. The series weld definition has more than one weld between the link entities.tcl extension. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For example. but if specified it must be followed by the name (excluding path) of a valid Tcl script with a . The config for the weld currently supported by HyperMesh. If the body flag = 0. however. spring. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG Note: *POST A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment.*BODY BODY_FLAG The string body is required to specify that a weld is to be created to connect the link entities added to the connector. etc. This allows HyperMesh to parse the CFG file for configuration instead of relying on metadata saved individually with each connector (as was done prior to 8. There can be more than one weld in a series. rod.

5 (50%) each.0 (100%). Series welds are not supported where the link entities are coincident.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .FE Specification Rules • • • • • • • • Each solver will have a specific definition so the same user-defined types can be repeated for each solver. Hence there cannot be three welds specified in series having a length factor of 0. Therefore. 1D and 3D element combinations are not supported. The total length of series welds cannot exceed 1. Multiple solid element combinations are not currently supported. Series welds are not created when the distance between the connecting link entities is zero. Series and parallel weld element combinations are not supported. User comments should start with a hash character “#”. The head and the body definition must begin with a “*” to define rigid and weld definitions. 196 HyperMesh 8. an ACM can have only one hexa weld element specified in the definition.

0 User’s Guide 197 . Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.5 The series weld is created at the center with length equal to half the distance between the link entities.FE Definition Examples Washers CFG nastran 56 bolts *filter bolt *style bolt 0 *head rigidlink 1 1 dofs=123 rigidlink 1 3 *body 0 rigid 1 1 dofs=456 ACM Welds CFG nastran 71 acm *head rbe3 0 0 *body 1 hex8 1 1 The above definition creates ACMs with HEXA8 solid elements as welds and RBE3 elements as rigids. The length of the hexa is equal to the distance between the connecting shell elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.5 The two series welds are created with a length equal to half the distance between the link entities.5 spring 6 0.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or "2".Parallel Welds CFG dyna 101 parallel *head plot 0 0 *body 0 bar2 1 1 bar2 1 1 The bar elements are created at the same location and connect the same link entities. The behavior for each value is as follows. then it is placed at the center of the proposed 1-D element path. 0-D Welds CFG pamcrash2g 1 plink (ce loc) *head plot 0 0 *body 0 mass 5 2 plot 0 1 *post prop_plink. "0" places the 0-D element along the proposed 1-D element path. 198 HyperMesh 8.tcl Supported values for the length location flag are "0". "1". "1" has the same behavior as "0" except only a single 0-D element is created even if multiple bodies are created (as happens in >2T welds) and "2" places the 0-D element at the connector location. If this 0-D element is the only config given in the *body.

During the morphing process. which can be used for subsequent design optimization studies. HyperMorph also allows the creation of shape variables. logical and intuitive.HyperMorph Strategies HyperMorph is a tool in HyperMesh to morph the shape of a finite element model in ways that are useful. It enables rapid shape changes on the finite element mesh without severely sacrificing the mesh quality.0 User’s Guide 199 . Overview: The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing • The Domains and Handles Concept • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Global Domain and Global Handles Local Domains and Handles Partitioning Dependent Handles Working with Shapes Setting Up Optimization Creating morph volumes Registering nodes Altering Morph Volumes Tangency Morphing by Moving Nodes Morphing by Using Other Panels Sculpting The Domains and Handles Concept The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Space Frame Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • • Matching a Mesh or Line or Surface Data Making Parametric Changes Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Mirror Images: Using 1-Plane Symmetry Reducing 3D to 2D: Using Linear Symmetry Reducing 3D to 1D: Using Planar Symmetry Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Shell Model Strategies • • • • • • Creating Handles and Domains Morphing on Local Domains Section Mapping Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing Solid Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • Viewing Solid Models Morphing on Local Domains Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing 200 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

allowing the user to do virtually any kind of morphing. When the handles are moved. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. allowing for rapid changes to any mesh. The HyperMorph Strategy Guide is intended illustrate the capabilities of HyperMorph and introduce you to both the basic and advanced functionality to help you get the most out of the tool. radii. such as translation.The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing HyperMorph contains six exclusive entity types and a wide array of functionality. The Morph Volume Concept This approach involves surrounding the mesh with one or more morph volumes. The morph volume approach is quick and intuitive and is most useful for making large scale changes to complex meshes. and the freehand concept. the morph volume concept. This approach is most useful for making detailed changes to any mesh (local domains) as well as general changes to space frame type meshes (global domains). You have great flexibility in how the moving nodes are moved. angles.0 User’s Guide 201 . The domains and handles approach also allows parametric morphing of distances. The freehand approach is an ideal introduction to HyperMorph since it allows morphing without the creation of new entities while implying the concepts of domains and handles. The domains and handles approach is the most difficult approach to learn but it is also the most powerful. dividing the mesh into logical domains. While all the entities and functions are fully compatible and may be used in a complementary fashion they can be divided into three basic approaches to morphing: the domains and handles concept. the nodes which will stay fixed. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses when dealing with the numerous applications of morphing and you are advised to gain a basic understanding of each approach so that you can decide which approach is best for your needs. You are also able to turn node manipulations made in any panel. the shape of the mesh changes according to the domain boundaries. and projection to geometry as well as using a "tool" to "sculpt" the mesh into the desired shape. Morph volumes support tangency between adjoining edges and allow for multiple control points along the edges. such as scaling or node projection. or you can define your own domains and handles. into morphs using the record sub-panel. and arc angles as well as morphing the mesh to match geometric data and other meshes. The basics of the three concepts are summarized below: The Domains and Handles Concept This approach involves dividing the mesh into domains made up of elements or nodes and placing handles at the corners of those domains. You define the nodes which will move. HyperMorph can do this automatically. rotation. on-screen method. The freehand approach also allows for "customized" morphing. A number of methods exist to create the morph volumes including single and matrix creation as well as the interactive. The Freehand Concept This approach involves morphing by moving the nodes directly without needing to create any HyperMorph entities. Handles placed at the corners and along the edges of the morph volumes allow for the morphing of the morph volumes which in turn morph the mesh inside the morph volumes. and the affected elements manually. which are highly deformable six-sided prisms.

Domains and handles are divided into two basic groups. The local group consists of five types of local domains: 1D domains. the actual morphing occurs quickly. the model is divided into domains where handles are used to control its shapes. Therefore. Dependent global handles are also smaller than the handles on which they are dependent. the mesh is stretched or compressed to match the desired shape. When the handles are moved. Global handles and domains are best for making large scale shape changes to the model. A model can contain both global and local handles and domains. 3D. The process for calculating the influence coefficients is somewhat time consuming. Thus. These local handles can only influence nodes contained in any domains that they are either associated with or are touching. During the morphing process the mesh morphs in a logical way with nodes near the moving handles moving more and nodes near the stationary handles moving less. or elements. for very large domains. the process of calculating influences can be too slow or too memory intensive and so the large domain solver makes it possible to morph such domains. You cannot edit the color of the handles nor the relative size between the dependent and independent handles. 202 HyperMesh 8. Global handles are the largest handles in the model and they are red if they are not dependent on other handles. the shape of the domains touching those handles change. edge domains. calculating influence coefficients is too time-consuming. or yellow. the color indicating their level of dependency. 3D domains. but when handles are moved in order to morph the model no calculations are necessary. in the case of global domains. thus making morphing slower. You can adjust the base size of all the handles in the model in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels or in the handles panel. For very large domains. The global group consists of global domains. Global Domains and Global Handles Global domains are represented by a cube made up of dashed lines. and general domains. Each domain is associated with any number of local handles. or violet if they are dependent on other handles. It is located at the centroid of the nodes selected when you create the global domain. The size given is used as the radius for the independent global handles as well as the diameter of the independent local handles. changes the positions of the nodes inside those domains. cyan. However. Local handles are intended to be used to make small scale. The amount each node moves with respect to each handle is relative to an internally calculated influence coefficient. Global handles will only influence the nodes in the global domain to which they are associated. parametric changes to the model.000 elements (although you can change this default limit) the large domain solver is used. Domains consist of nodes. but once they are calculated they can be stored and applied rapidly. HyperMorph spends an amount of time proportional to the size of the new or edited domains calculating the handle influences. but it is not necessary to have both types of domains and handles in a model. edge. you can edit the color of the domains in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels. even for large models. which in turn. each of which is associated with a number of global handles. In the areas between the handles. The advantage of the large domain solver is that it is faster for morphing large domains but the drawback is that it must be invoked every time you wish to morph. The advantage of this approach is that it makes morphing an interactive process. 2D.The Domains and Handles Concept When using the domains and handles approach. global and local. However. which allows you to make both large and small scale morphs and have them combine logically. For domains that have more than 50.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and general domains. The nodes in each domain move as a function of the handles that are either associated with the domain or are touching the domain. in the case of 1D. 2D domains. when handles and domains are initially set up or edited.

or use the generate auto-function. If the handles are not generated in the positions where you want them to be. By movi ng the handles you can stretch or deform the model along all three axes. The automatic global handle generation works particularly well for space frame models such as full car models. Example of a model with a global domain and global handles Eight handles are placed at the corners of a box enclosing the model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 203 . you can always delete them.When a global domain and handles are generated automatically. or create new handles. HyperMorph generally creates no more than about 30 global handles for models of any size. HyperMorph creates a global handle at each of the eight corners of a box surrounding the model laid out along the global axes. such as when you create a global domain with the create handles option turned on. HyperMorph also places at least one global handle within the box in areas of peak nodal density within the model. These global handles are named corner followed by a number from one to eight. reposition them. These handles are named handle followed by a number. HyperMorph generates a number of global handles.

In the hierarchical method. There are subtle differences in how the global handles influence the nodes for each method with the main difference being that the parts of the model defined by local edge domains have their shape preserved when using the hierarchical method. which in turn influence nodes. and the mixed method. the space frame morphs in a way such that the bars run between the handles. global handles influence the local handles found at nodes inside the global domain. 204 HyperMesh 8. There are three options for determining how global handles in global domains influence the mesh: the hierarchical method. global handles influence the nodes in the model directly. In the mixed method. the direct method. If you are willing to accept distortions in the local geometry. Straight edges will remain straight and circular holes will remain circular for the hierarchical method. global handles will influence every node inside the global domain using the hierarchical method if the node is inside a local domain. choose the hierarchical or mixed method. choose the direct method. or the direct method if the node is not in a local domain The method used can be selected in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel and the parameters sub-panel in the domains panel with the default being the direct method.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In the direct method.A space frame with six manually created global handles When the handles are moved. You should select which method is right for the type of morphing that you want to perform. while the direct method may bend or warp these features into curved edges and elliptical holes. If you wish to preserve the local geometry.

the mesh is affected directly. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. it moves the local handles. which move the mesh. Note the resulting distortion of the edge and circle.0 User’s Guide 205 .An example of global morphing using the hierarchical method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. An example of global morphing using the direct method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. Note how the straight edge remains straight and the circle remains round.

and a line for edge domains. The color of the domains can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. HyperMorph automatically places local handles at the ends of all edge domains. The colors of the handles cannot be changed. two joined rectangles for 2D domains. but may produce more desirable influences. The geometric method can be slow for large models or large numbers of global handles. the angular shape of the morph becomes rounded. Both methods attempt to determine how a global handle affects nodes or local handles in the space surrounding it. Independent local handles are orange and have a radius of one half the value of the handle size parameter.An example of global morphing using the direct method and biasing factors By increasing the biasing factor for the highlighted (white) handle. Local Domains and Handles Local domains are represented by a single rectangle for 1D domains.. a cube for 3D domains. 206 HyperMesh 8. The spatial method is the default. The geometric method is the method that was originally used for the Tcl/Tk interface of HyperMorph and HyperMesh and generates influences based on the geometric relationship between a given node or local handle and the surrounding global handles. and is the fastest and most robust method for generating global influences based on a spatial formulation for the entire model. Dependent local handles are smaller than the independent local handles and are different colors depending on the level of their dependency. The placement of local handles depends on the type of domain created and the partitioning options if partitioning is selected. or for the entire model by using the generate auto-function. When local domains are created. Local domains can be created individually by selecting nodes or elements in the create sub-panel of the domains panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . These local handles are named local followed by a number. four joined rectangles for general domains. The influences between the global handles and local handles (using the hierarchical method) or nodes (using the direct method) can be calculated using either the spatial method or the geometric method.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. such as bars and rigid elements. The independent handle is larger and orange. Finally. 1D elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 1D domains. The solid elements have been placed in a 3D domain. Also note that 2D domains have been created on the faces of the 3D domain and that edge domains have been create on the edges of all the 2D domains. This dependency relationship means that moving the independent handle also results in moving the dependent handles the same amount in the same direction. These elements are placed in a component named ^morphface. Domains made up of 1D elements. This is done to preserve the unique relationship established for groups of 1D elements. All the dependent handles in a given 1D domain are directly dependent on the independent handle. The higher biasing factor given to dependent handles on 1D domains is intended to prevent mesh distortion when the 1D elements connect to nodes in 2D and 3D domains. are called 1D domains. Additionally. Note that shell elements have been created on the faces of the 3D domain. handles have been placed at the ends of all the edge domains.Example of a model with local domains and local handles with partitioning. In the example above. the bias factors for the dependent handles for a 1D domain are given an initial value of 3. while the dependent handles are smaller and green. All other handles in the model are given a biasing factor of 1. the rigid elements have been placed in a 1D domain with the center node having an independent (orange) handle and the other nodes having dependent (green) handles. The shell elements have been placed in two 2D domains separated at the bend line due to partitioning.0 User’s Guide 207 . A higher biasing factor means that a given handle will have greater influence over the surrounding mesh than the others. An independent local handle is placed at the centermost node of the 1D domain and dependent local handles are placed at every other node of the elements in the 1D domain. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function.

HyperMorph tries to predict where the handles should be placed to reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare your model for morphing. maintaining the proper shape and connectivity for the rigid spider. Note that it is possible to create a handle on a node that is not touching the domain to which it is associated. This is true even if the handle is associated with the 2D domain.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. such as floating in space near the domain. By moving the orange handle. these domains are subdivided into smaller domains along break angles and curvature changes according to the partitioning parameters. Local handles are placed at the ends of all the edge domains. 208 HyperMesh 8. This allows you to place a handle outside of a domain. Domains made up of shell elements are called 2D domains. edit them. Edge domains are placed along the edges of the 2D domains and are also partitioned. and have it influence the nodes within its domain. shell elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 2D domains. or create new ones. even though the generated local handles are associated with the edge domains. The intent is to make it faster and easier for you to apply parametric changes to the model. they will influence the nodes in any domain that shares the node at which it is placed. In general. A handle associated with any domain will always influence the nodes in domains that it is touching. it helps to have handles already at the positions where you want them. the entire spider is moved.A rigid spider becomes a 1D domain An independent local handle (orange) is placed at the centroid of the 1D domain and dependent handles (green) are placed at each node. If partitioning has been selected. the local handles are placed at the corners of the 2D domains and at other useful positions. Also. If the handles or domains are not laid out in the positions where you want them to be. you can delete them. Since you morph the model by moving handles.

It is recommended that you do not delete or edit these elements nor rename or delete the ^morphface component. Handles are created at the corners of the 2D domains. solid elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 3D domains. Note that these elements will not be written out to any FEM formatted deck since the component name begins with a “^”. even at nodes not on the associated domain. A block of solid elements is made into a 3D domain The gray shell elements on the face of the 3D domain are the ^morphface component. The elements on the face of each 3D domain are placed into a 2D domain that is then partitioned if the partitioning option is active. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The ^morphface component has been partitioned into 2D domains. HyperMorph will not create ^morphface elements coincident with the existing elements. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. The color of the ^morphface component can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. However. In cases where shell elements that are attached to the faces of solid elements are present in the model. The model on the right shows the addition of four new handles. Edge elements are placed around each 2D domain and local handles are created at the ends of each edge domain. Handles can be placed anywhere.0 User’s Guide 209 .Two 2D domains with edge domains and handles The model on the left shows the initial handle positions. if you do. Domains made up of solid elements are called 3D domains. Elements are created on the faces of each 3D domain and placed into a component called ^morphface. these elements and their 2D domains will be regenerated the next time you enter or exit a HyperMorph panel or the delete panel.

it is partitioned and handles are placed at the ends and joints. or choose to create the domain as a general domain instead. This makes it easier for you to tell which domain you are selecting. nodes in a 2D domain on the face of a 3D domain will only move as a function of the handles touching the 2D domain. This preserves the boundaries of 2D and 3D domains such that straight edges remain straight. If you do not want to have the boundaries of a domain preserved you can delete the edges for a given domain. Also.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In the model at the right an edge domain has been created inside a 2D domain.Domains made up of a list of nodes are called edge domains. When creating local domains or using the generate aut o-function. Note that when an edge domain is created. 210 HyperMesh 8. flat surfaces remain flat. edge domains are placed around the edges of all 2D domains. When you release the mouse button. Nodes on edge domains will only move as a function of the handles touching the edge domain. When you are selecting domains and are holding the mouse button down while placing the mouse over the icon of a 2D or 3D domain (or an element in the domain). HyperMesh will highlight both the domain icon and the surrounding edge domains. It allows you to move handles within a 2D or 3D domain without affecting the edges. Examples of edge domains Edge domains are placed around the edges of 2D domains. the boundaries may not be preserved during morphing. No other handles will affect the nodes on the edges. Similarly. Edge domains and 2D domains on the faces of 3D domains play an important function in determining the influences for the handles over a given domain. and curved edges retain their curvature. non-reflective symmetries allow the influences of handles to extend through edges and faces depending on the type of symmetry. For domains that have non-reflective symmetry types. only the icon for the domain remains highlighted.

general domains respect all neighboring edge domains and 2D domains and thus if you create 2D and edge domains for your general domains they will impose restrictions on handle influences for the general domain. no 2D domains are created on the faces of any 3D elements and no edge domains are created either. Like all other domains. 2D. Another use is for meshes where precise changes are required for one section. Otherwise. and 3D domains are used. General domains are not automatically created when generating local domains or using the generate auto-function. allowing it to stretch and deform in an unbounded manner with morphing extending across differences in element type. When a general domain is created. but the rest of the mesh (where a general domain is used) can simply follow along. preserving the shape of the feature. 2D. However. In the bottom frames. two handles connected by an edge domain are created and moved.How edge domains affect morphing In the top two frames two handles inside a 2D domain are created and moved. the elements within a single general domain must touch one another. where 1D. Note that the edge domain remains straight. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. General domains can be made up of any combination of 1D. and 3D elements. handles on a general domain freely influence all of the nodes inside the general domain.0 User’s Guide 211 . thus no handles are created for the domain. General domains are very useful for realized connectors which are often represented as clusters of different element types.

or where the angle between elements exceeds a certain value. If there are no surfaces in the model. Two handles have been placed within the general domain at the ends of the rigid spiders. or edit the domains by hand using the create and organize sub-panels in the domains panel. and solid elements. You can invoke partitioning when creating 2D or 3D domains by activating the partition 2D domains check box. partitioning will ideally divide your model such that every radius and straight or flat section is placed into a separate domain. Note how the shell elements in the general domain morph. If you are unsatisfied with the partitioning.Example of interaction between a general domain and 2D domains In the top frame. partitioning is not an exact science and there will be areas where elements are not placed into the desired domains. you may change the partitioning parameters in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel and try again (using the redo last button). In the bottom frame the two handles inside the general domain are translated. 212 HyperMesh 8. shell. bounded only by the edge of the 2D domains with the other edges free to follow the handles Partitioning Partitioning can be applied directly to 2D domains and indirectly to 3D domains (3D domains are created with 2D domains on their faces). However. or where the domain changes from flat to curved.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or the use geometry option in the partitioning sub-panel is unchecked. two 2D domains are created for parts of two shell meshes and a general domain is creating from the remaining rigid. Partitioning is a method of dividing 2D domains into smaller 2D domains at logical places. such as at the edges of surfaces associated with the mesh. Partitioning allows you to prepare your model for morphing more quickly and easily since it divides your model into sections where parametric changes can be applied.

the curve tolerance controls the angle of which values less than it are considered straight for curvature measuring purposes. All other elements will be partitioned using one of the partitioning algorithms. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is greater than this value. In either case. If you have also selected add to geometry. Note that in order for a new partition to be created. For instance. In general. the domain angle controls the break angle along which a partitioning break is made. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This option is helpful when surface data is incomplete of some of the nodes have been moved away from their surfaces. If the curvature changes from straight to curved. the 2D domain was created without partitioning. Note how the 2D domains are divided along angle and curvature change boundaries. domain angle and curve tolerance have a roughly similar meaning as the element based method. changes direction. otherwise they are considered to be curved. partitioning was used. These can be set individually for quad/mixed meshes and for tria/tetra meshes. they are considered flat. element-based and node-based. although exact performance for each method depends heavily on the features in your model.Example of partitioning For the model on the left. so if one method is not producing the partitions that you desire. The node based method tends to create fewer partitions than the element based method. For the model on the right. Each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. then any partitions created outside of the surfaces will be added to the partitions created using the surfaces if the partitioning algorithm does not find a break along the edges or the surfaces. Also note that the edge domains are partitioned regardless of whether the partitioning option is on or off.0 User’s Guide 213 . There are also several parameters that govern the creation of domains for either algorithm. or changes curvature by more than the curvature tolerance. Partitioning can be angle-based or curvature-based. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. the other method might work better. There are two algorithms you can use to partition. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. For the node based method. They are found in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. the element-based algorithm works better for quad/mixed meshes and second order meshes. all elements whose nodes are associated to surfaces in the model will be partitioned along the edges of the surfaces. while the node-based algorithm works better for tria/tetra meshes. When using curvature-based partitioning. If you have selected use geometry. the node based method seems to work better on first order tria and tetra meshes while the element based method seems to work better on mixed quad and tria meshes. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is less than this value. a break due to angle or curvature must be found along its entire edge.

the dependent handle moves along as if it was not there. it inherits the full movement of the higher level handle. independent (red) and dependent (yellow. and then make those handles dependent on one or more other handles. Handles that are dependent on other handles appear smaller and in a color different from the handles on which they are dependent. but dependency loops are not allowed. and pink) The conditions for handle dependency are as follows: • • • A handle that is dependent on another handle inherits the movements applied to the higher level handle. blue. 214 HyperMesh 8. independent (orange) and dependent (green. These dependencies are calculated internally and cannot be modified manually.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This allows you to combine the changes easily without having to apply separate perturbations for all of the handles. This means that movements applied to the dependent handle are not applied to the independent handles. A handle may be dependent on any number of handles. Global handles. If a handle is dependent on more than one handle. A dependent handle can be moved independently of the handles on which it is dependent. • • Transparent control of domain edges and faces You can create a dependent handle on an edge domain that is dependent on the handles at the ends of the domain. it will inherit a percentage of the movements applied to each higher level handle. • • • Handle dependencies are useful for several different applications. cyan. In the hierarchical method. If a handle is dependent on only one other handle. This system allows you to create any number of dependency layers. The percentage is based on the distance between the dependent and independent handles. Making a handle dependent has no affect on the way it influences nodes. The review button in the update sub-panel of the handles panel allows you to view the handles on which a specific handle is dependent. When the dependent handle is moved. all local handles are dependent on global handles.Dependent Handles You can make a handle dependent on one or more other handles. the shape of the edge can be changed. When the handle at either end of the edge domain is moved. This allows you to add the movements of dependent and independent handles in a logical manner. and violet) Local handles. biasing will affect them. and so on.

When the highlighted handle on the left is moved (center frame). the center handle is moved independently. in essence.• • • Grouping features together to move as a unit You can make all the handles at one cross section of a beam dependent on a single handle. the center handle follows along.0 User’s Guide 215 .example 1 The center global handle is dependent on the two outer global handles. Dependencies . performing localized “global” morphing. In the lower frame. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This allows you to stretch all of the domains uniformly by moving the independent handles. This allows you to move an entire cross section while only having to select one handle. Linking several domains together You can make all of the handles within several domains dependent on a few at the corners of the domain.

When the independent handle is moved. Note that the dependencies can extend beyond the 2D domain boundaries. each hole can be positioned separately by moving the dependent handle associated with it. Also. Dependencies . The bottom has similar dependencies. The top and bottom halves of the cross sections are controlled by just two handles.Dependencies . In the model on the right.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .example 2 In the model on the left. The entire cross section is controlled by one handle. the three green handles on the top are dependent on the orange handle on the top. both holes move with it. 216 HyperMesh 8. all of the green handles are dependent on the orange handle.example 3 An independent handle was created between the two holes and the handles governing the positions of the holes are made dependent on it.

To get to the current state of the model from the initial state. In the case of freehand morphing. all of these shapes must be applied. the handle and/or node perturbations are stored in the new shape entity along with biasing factors for the handle perturbations and details such as the biasing style. each morph on the undo/redo list will be saved as a separate shape. node perturbations are required to fully describe the shape. The dependent handles were constrained along vectors parallel to the sides of the part. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMorph takes the difference between the initial state of the model and the current state of the model when creating a new shape. or create a shape in the shapes panel with the save current state option turned on. the morph consists only of handle perturbations. the dependent handles follow and reduce mesh distortion by spreading the morph across the entire part instead of only around the hole. If you save the model using the save each morph step option in the shapes panel. However. Note that while shapes with handle perturbations will move nodes when they are applied. if constraints are being used. Creating shapes allows you to generate shape variables for optimization and store model changes for parametric studies. For many morphing operations. HyperMorph stores the morph internally as a collection of perturbations which you can then undo or redo.0 User’s Guide 217 . If you create a shape in either the morph or freehand panels. When you morph your model. When the handle at the hole is moved downward. the morph consists only of node perturbations. When you create a shape using the save as shape or save shape sub-panels.Using dependencies to reduce mesh distortion In this example two dependent handles were created on the edges of the part near the center hole. When you create a shape. or the morph is a mapping or radius changing operation. The vectors are drawn the exact length of the perturbation and the vectors for the handle perturbations are drawn with thicker lines to denote that they are different from node perturbations. Working with Shapes Shapes are collections of handle and/or node perturbations. those shapes do not contain node perturbations and thus vectors are not drawn at those nodes. vectors are drawn for each handle and node perturbation for the shape.

or vice-versa: 1. Morph your model into the shape of the first shape variable.When you are saving a shape. 7. Shapes saved as node perturbations are not affected by changes to domains and handles. 5. If you plan to make changes to domains and handles. To convert shapes saved with handle perturbations to shapes saved with node perturbations. 8. the shape will be saved as node perturbations only. Click create. save shapes as handle perturbations and they will require less memory and disk space. Whenever you make a change to your model. The difference between the two types comes into play if you change the handles or domains in your model. If not. 4. select the shapes panel. select the morph panel. Click convert. select the shape panel. Setting Up Optimization Morphing can be used to create shape variables for optimization. Each desvar is given a unique name. If you select handle perturbations. Save your morph as a shape. you can apply it to your model with any given scaling factor. 3. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. Click undo all to return to your base model shape. Select the type of conversion that you wish to perform. 3. or saved as part of another shape. From the BCs page. 4. Once a shape is saved. it becomes a shape variable. while shapes saved as handle perturbations will differ from shapes that have been saved with changes to the handle influences. 5. 218 HyperMesh 8. Select the save shape sub-panel. 10. To create shape variables for an optimization run: 1. Applying a shape in this way is like any other morphing operation and can be undone. Select the shapes to be converted. 9. 2. Set the toggle to multiple desvars. If you later decide that you want to change a shape from node perturbations to handle perturbations or vice versa you can do so in the convert sub-panel of the shapes panel. 6. the shape will be saved as either handle perturbations only. you can select whether to save it as handle perturbations or node perturbations. 2. If you select node perturbations. but by adding a desvar which points to the shape. Select the convert sub-panel. HyperMorph will ask you if you want to preserve any existing shapes saved as handle perturbations by converting them to node perturbations. The shape is converted. or a combination of handle and node perturbations if node perturbations are required to describe the shape. Select the shapes for which you want to create shape variables. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for each shape variable you want to create. optimization module. A desvar for each shape is created with the initial value and bounds in the panel. you should save shapes as node perturbations. redone. Note: A shape is not a shape variable.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Once you have created shape variables for your shapes.0 User’s Guide 219 . The deformed panel displays. The Morph Volume Concept Morph Volume strategies are still being created. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Morph Volume concepts and strategies. Click animate. Animate the shape variables: Click undo morphing if you did not click undo all after saving the last shape. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. allowing you to view each shape variable by animating it. The Freehand Concept Freehand strategies are still being created. you can set up the rest of your optimization problem within the optimization module. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Freehand concepts and strategies.11.

You should place global handles both in areas where you want to apply perturbations and in areas that you want to stay fixed. Set the toggle to all nodes.Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains Space frames are models that have a sparse distribution of elements. delete them and add global handles elsewhere: Press F2 or go to the delete panel. these changes can be performed by placing a handle at each joint in the frame and moving those handles to the desired locations. From the Tool page. A new global handle is created at each node or at the specified xyz location. If more than one handle is created at a time. If you want a part of your model to move as a rigid body. Type in a name. 5. select the HyperMorph module. You can also use morph constraints to fix nodes in place during global morphing but if you want them to affect the surrounding mesh you must select the stretch mesh around nodes option when creating the morph constraint. Set the selector to global domain. Select the domains panel. such as a car body. In many cases. Delete any unwanted handles. use a cluster type morph constraint. Click create. Since local handles and domains for large models can consume a great deal of resources. Local handles are not required since local changes to the frame components are not necessary. 2. Creating Handles and Domains . 6. Select an xyz position or any number of nodes where you want global handles. If not. From the HyperMorph module. such as making it smaller. Space frame models can generally have element counts in the hundreds of thousands. For these types of models. but their basic structure is rather simple. A global domain and global handles are created at useful positions throughout the space frame. you should avoid creating them unless it is necessary. all that is necessary is to create a global domain and global handles. the handles will each be given a unique name by appending a number after the name you have given. Set the toggle to create handles. 4. such as a wheel or the engine block. 3. these handles will be where you want them to be. or altering the basic positions of components within the frame. wider. 7. Often the desired shape changes are general.space frame model 1. 220 HyperMesh 8. Click create. Select create. select the handles panel. In many instances. shorter.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

For large models or large changes. makes it necessary for HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences.A global domain and global handles for a full car model Exiting any panel in the HyperMorph module or the delete panel automatically triggers HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. domains. or deleting handles. this can be time consuming. The best one to use depends on the results that you want to achieve: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. editing. There are many options available for moving the handles. so you will want to make all the changes you desire within each panel before exiting. or symmetries.0 User’s Guide 221 . Adding. if necessary.

select the morph constraints panel. If the handle position needs to be changed again. 8. 3. Select the create/update sub-panel. Line. Change the lower middle selector from on domains to along vector. Since on release was selected. Note that if you check the stretch mesh around nodes option. the nodes between the constrained nodes and the handles will be affected regardless of whether the mesh is continuous between them. the handle follows along the selected vector. As you drag the mouse. 2. Select a vector. only the graphics for the handle are updated. From the HyperMorph module. 3. the morph is applied to the model and the graphics are updated for the entire model. One of the most enjoyable ways to morph is interactively. To morph interactively by moving the handle and releasing the mouse button: 1. Select the nodes on the target mesh. If you are going to match a mesh you need to make sure that the mesh does not get morphed when you are moving the handles. As you drag a handle across the screen and you can watch the mesh move along with it. 7. 2. When you release the mouse button. For large models it may be too slow to morph interactively in real time. Switch the selector to fixed. Move the handle to the new location and release the mouse button. 222 HyperMesh 8.Matching a Mesh. or Surface Data The basic approach for HyperMorph is to move the handles into positions that change the shape of the model to match the mesh or geometry data. Select a handle on the screen and hold the mouse button down. 9. But you can still morph interactively with any size model by setting HyperMorph to perform the morphing after you move the handle and release the mouse button. To constrain the nodes on the target mesh: 1. Change the upper middle selector to interactive. which leaves a dark trail through the mesh. All the nodes in the target mesh are constrained to remain fixed during morphing operations as long as the constraint is active and the use constraints box is checked (see the morph options panel).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . repeat steps 7 through 9. Make sure that the stretch mesh around nodes option is unchecked. This can be accomplished by constraining the nodes on the target mesh. Click morph. select the morph panel. 5. Change the rightmost toggle from real time to on release. 6. Select move handles. From the HyperMorph module. 6. 4. 4. 5. Click create.

The result is a morphed vehicle model that closely matches the profile line. select several handles on the screen. Morphing to a profile line In the top frame. In the bottom frame the process has been repeated for the other handles on the roof. When you release the mouse. Move more than one handle at the same time: Before clicking morph.10. the global handles on either side of top of the windshield are selected. Perform steps 7 through 9. all of the selected handles are moved the same distance in the same direction.0 User’s Guide 223 . In the middle frame they are interactively moved upwards along a vector to a point matching with the profile line. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Hold the mouse button down and drag the mouse over a line or surface until it is highlighted. any shapes saved as handle perturbations may not yield the same morphed shape after handles have been added or deleted. HyperMorph uses the position of the mouse on the screen to figure out where you want to move the handle. A node will be created and the handle will immediately be moved to the node. 2. edit. 2. Change the upper middle selector from interactive to move to node. You can use this feature to position a handle anywhere you want line or surface data. Altair Engineering 224 HyperMesh 8. To create nodes on the fly on lines and surfaces: 1. Click on the line or surface where you want the node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . To match a target mesh or geometric data by moving the handles to a specified node location: 1. a plane. HyperMorph will give you the option of converting existing shapes from handle perturbations to node perturbations automatically after you add. Select a handle. You can also select other features to drag the handle along such as a line. However. or delete any morphing entities. The handle is moved to the position where the node was prior to morphing and the rest of the mesh morphs accordingly. 3. If you intend to add or delete handles in your model. save your shapes as node perturbations. or a surface. Handles may always be added or deleted from a model without affecting the current morphed state of the model.Morphing to a profile line A handle is added to the center of the rear windshield and is moved to better match the profile line. Select a node.

Or Select the desired xyz translation. node a will not move (same for node b).0 User’s Guide 225 . To translate or rotate handles: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select a vector and distance. If the left selector is set to hold end a. One way to do this is by translating or rotating handles. Rotate the handles. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. Specify dimensions more precisely in the alter dimensions sub-panel. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. Click rotate. The handles move the specified distance in the specified direction and the model morphs accordingly. Click translate. both node a and node b will move the same distance. Set the rotation angle. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b.Making Parametric Changes Dimensions such as distance and angle can be changed easily in HyperMorph. Change the upper middle selector from move to node to translate. 3. From the HyperMorph module. Change the upper middle selector from translate to rotate. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for node a as a group and the follower handles for node b as a group either towards each other or away from each other so that the new distance between node a and node b is equal to the specified distance. Select an axis of rotation. Select a few handles. If the left selector is set to hold middle. 2. Select a few handles. Translate the handles. The handles rotate about the axis the specified angle and the model morph accordingly. Select alter dimensions. Change the distance value. Set the upper left selector to distance. Select node a and node b at nodes whose distance you want to change. Click morph. select the morph panel.

HyperMorph will iterate to achieve the desired angle. and node b are the specified angle. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. 2. The distance is changed and the model morphs. 226 HyperMesh 8. 6.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To change the angle: 1. Click morph.Morphing by altering the distance between two nodes The width of the car is found by placing node a (green dot) on the right hand door and node b (blue dot) on the left hand door. The handles on the right side of the model are selected as followers for node a and the handles on the left side of the model are selected as followers for node b. iterattion is not necessary. Select node a. 4. vertex. 7. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for each end in a way so that the new angle between node a. If necessary. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. If node a and node b are selected coincident with one of the follower handles. Set the upper left selector to angle. Change the angle value. 3. or at least get close. the vertex. 5. and node b at nodes whose angle you want to change.

the space between your fingers on the two finger side will be pulled towards the three finger side. However. you will need to place several handles across both of sides of the zone of influence. When you perform global morphing operations. If you place three fingers on one side and two on the other and try to stretch the sheet. Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Global morphing differs from local morphing in that there are no definite boundaries between the handles that restrict their zones of influence. You can visualize the handles as places on a sheet of rubber where you are placing your fingers. for cases where you are trying to morph a mesh that covers a wide area. The angle is changed from 160 degrees to 150 degrees. selecting two handles at the front of the car as followers for node a (green). For the general space frame cases. the parts of the model that are morphed are those that lie between the handles that are moving and those that are not. Note that the handles on either side of the windshield were constrained to move along the x-axis (front to back) thus maintaining the height of the roof. and red). and selecting two handles on either side of the windshield as followers for node b (red node). you allow for even stretching to occur between each set of fingers. In morphing this is accomplished by placing handles evenly along both sides of the mesh to be stretched. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Morphing by altering the angle formed by three nodes The slope of the windshield is altered by defining an angle using three nodes (green. positioning handles at the joints between the members of the space frame restricts the handle influences to the parts of the frame that they are touching.0 User’s Guide 227 . blue. By placing three fingers on each side.

Now when the handle on the roof is moved upwards. only the part of the car between the roof and the handles along the midline of the car is stretched.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 228 HyperMesh 8. Controlling global morphing with handles – part 2 A handle is added directly below the handle on the roof near the center of the car.Controlling global morphing with handles – part 1 The handle on the roof is moved upwards and the center section of the car is morphed along with it.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 229 .

morph volumes will usually yield better results.Using 1-Plane Symmetry If your space frame is symmetric. Select the system you created. you can create a plane of symmetry at the center of your space frame and have your morphs applied in a symmetric fashion. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry. Select the global domain icon. 230 HyperMesh 8. To set up a plane of symmetry: 1. 6. 9. From the HyperMorph module. Also note that in cases where detailed shape changes are required. the fender of the model is morphed. Return to the HyperMorph module. 7. 2. Mirror Images . Create a system at a node where the plane of symmetry is to be located and have the x-axis pointing normal to the plane to be created. 8. 4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Enter a name. Change the left toggle from approximate to enforced. 3. 5. Note that dependent handles are used to simplify the morphing operation. select the symmetry panel. select the systems panel. Switch the selector from none to 1 plane.Adding handles to control global morphing Using several handles on either side.

HyperMorph automatically applies the handle movements to the handles on the other side of the plane of symmetry through the symmetry link. When handles are created or deleted. Click create. System and 1-plane symmetry The plane of symmetry is positioned at the origin of the system and perpendicular to the x-axis. HyperMorph also links any handles that it finds that are reflections of the other. Since enforced was selected. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the enforced option will automatically create or delete handles on the other side of the symmetric link in order to enforce symmetry of the handles. A plane of symmetry is created at the origin of the system and based perpendicular to the x-axis. use the approximate option instead. The symmetry will be applied to the handles and handle perturbations that will influence the mesh in a symmetric fashion.10. If you have the symmetry links check box activated. yet still have symmetry active for the symmetric handles. Now when you perform a morphing operation you only need to move the handles on one side of the plane of symmetry. As a result. The icon for a 1-plane symmetry is a rectangle positioned like a small mirror for the symmetry system. HyperMorph creates new handles that are reflections of ones that are not linked to any others and creates a symmetric link between them. the model maintains symmetry across the symmetry plane. The mesh itself does not need to be symmetric to use the symmetry options. The perturbations applied to handles on one side of the plane of symmetry will be mirrored on to the other side.0 User’s Guide 231 . If you want to add handles to one side of the plane of symmetry and not the other.

Using 1-plane symmetry Three handles on the right hand side of the roof are selected and moved towards the centerline. HyperMorph automatically moves the corresponding nodes on the left hand side of the roof in a symmetric fashion.

Reducing 3D to 2D - Using Linear Symmetry
You can use linear symmetry to apply morphs to the model in such a way that the model is essentially reduced to two dimensions. To create a linear symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be reduced. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from 1 plane to linear. Select the system you created.

232 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

9.

Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. A linear symmetry is created along the x-axis of the system. The icon for a linear symmetry consists of two parallel lines along the dimension to be reduced. The origin of the system is irrelevant. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a line extending along the system xaxis. If two handles lie along a line parallel to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same y and z coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since linear is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others that are linked via the symmetry. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and linear symmetry The linear symmetry icon consists of two parallel lines along the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a linear symmetry system does not matter; the effect of the linear symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a linear symmetry is very useful for making profile changes to a space frame model. It does not matter where the handles are placed along the x-axis, greatly simplifying the model set up. You only need to look at the model from one view to set up the handles and to morph the model. For models with a large number of elements this can save a great deal of time.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 233

Using linear symmetry The handle on the rear part of the roof is selected and the entire rear portion of the roof is morphed along with it. With linear symmetry you only need to place handles on one side of the model to affect the entire profile.

Reducing 3D to 1D - Using Planar Symmetry
Planar symmetry is similar to linear symmetry accept that it reduces two dimensions instead of one. This enables you to morph your model along a single axis with only two or more handles. To create a planar symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be retained. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from linear to planar. Select the system you created. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. 234 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

11. Return to the HyperMorph module. 12. Select the symmetry panel. 13. Select update by domain. 14. Select the global domain. 15. Select the planar symmetry. 16. Click update. A planar symmetry is created and the other two symmetries from the global domain are removed. You are allowed to have any number of symmetries associated with a domain and all will apply, but combining linear and planar symmetry in the same direction results in an unrealistic situation and poor influence calculations. The planar symmetry icon is displayed as a filled-in rectangle perpendicular to the system x-axis. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a plane perpendicular to the x-axis. If two handles lie in a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same x coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since planar is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and planar symmetry The planar symmetry icon is a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a planar symmetry system does not matter, the effect of the planar symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a planar symmetry greatly simplifies a model. Essentially, it reduces the model to a lying along single axis. This symmetry type is very useful for changing dimensions along one axis through the entire model.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 235

Using planar symmetry The handle at the rear of the model is selected and the entire trunk of the car is morphed. With planar symmetry you only need a row of handles lying roughly along the planar symmetry system x-axis.

236 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
Shell models are models that are made up primarily of shell elements, namely, quads, and trias. In general, a shell model represents many parts, each with numerous features such as holes and edges, and connected together using 1D elements such as bars and rigids. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shapes of the shell model features. This is done using one of the following methods: • Moving the handles on the part to new locations • • Moving the global handles around the parts to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the parts, or mapping the nodes of a part to line or surface data

For most models you only need to create 2D domains for the entire part, but you can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature.

Creating Handles and Domains - shell model
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Change the toggle to all elements or select all the elements in the model. Click create. A 2D domain is created for each group of continuous shell elements. Parts joined by 1D or 3D elements are separated into different domains. If partition domains is checked, the 2D domains will be partitioned according to the settings selected in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. Once partitioned, edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. All of this is automatic, but 1D and 3D elements will not be placed into 1D and 3D domains unless you set the selector to local domains instead of 2D domains. In many cases, the domains and handles will be generated where you want them to be. If not you can always add, edit, or delete the handles and domains to meet your needs.

A shell model is partitioned into 2D domains 6. If you wish to generate a global domain as well as local domains for your model with a single button click, either change the selector to global and local and click create, or to auto functions and click generate.

In the case of the generate auto function, if there are any domains or handles in the model, HyperMorph will first ask if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. If you say “yes”, or if there are no morphing entities in the model, HyperMorph automatically generates 1D, 2D, 3D, and edge domains for the entire model and a global domain and handles as well.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 237

For tria meshes which lack underlying geometry, both the node-based and element based partitioning algorithms may prove unsatisfactory. In these cases you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when partitioning. To accomplish this, go to the partitioning sub-panel, select element based as the algorithm for tria/tetra meshes, and change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. HyperMorph will then only make partitions along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. You can then go in and manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should go. This method is almost mandatory for meshes that began as first order meshes but were transformed into second order meshes. For these meshes, HyperMorph will detect a curvature break at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. The result will be a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Solving the influence coefficients for 2D domains which contain more than 20,000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. In these cases you may want to divide the large domains into multiple domains or lower the limit for the large domain solver. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. However, even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid, morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming, and thus subdividing 2D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. To divide your shell model, do this: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Select the elements to be placed into a new 2D domain. Click create. When selecting the elements for the new domain you do not need to select only shell elements. HyperMorph automatically removes any other elements before creating the domain. It does not matter if the elements selected are already in a 2D domain. When the new domain is created, the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Handle influences need to be recalculated every time handles, domains, or symmetries are added, edited, or deleted. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. These calculations occur when you enter or leave any HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. Thus, for models with large domains you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. HyperMorph only recalculates the handle influences for handles in regions that have been edited. If the domains are not created exactly how you want them to be, you can edit them in the domains panel. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. The organize subpanel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split, merge, and place handles along edge domains. It is suggested that you create and edit all the 2D domains, then create and edit the edge domains. This order works better since creating or editing 2D domains will result in the regeneration of the surrounding edge domains with the previous modifications to those edge domains being discarded. Sometimes partitioning does not divide the mesh in the ways that would be most useful to you. Occasionally, elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Partitioning is not an exact science, so some cleanup is sometimes required.

238 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

To move elements from one domain to another: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select organize. Change the selector to add nodes/elems . Change the toggle to local domain. Select the elements to be moved. Select the target domain. Click organize. This will move the elements from the domain that they are currently in to the selected domain. HyperMorph also refreshes the edge domains around both domains as well as the edge domains at the interface. New handles may also be created during this process, and if retain handles is not checked, handles may be deleted. It is suggested that you keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing.

Partitioning problems The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. For this example the retain handles option was left unchecked resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. Note that the edge domains are always partitioned for any new domain and handles are placed at the end of the edge domains. For the example above, a handle was created in a new location due to the edge partitioning being different for the two domain configurations. When you hold the mouse button down and the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D domain or over an element inside a domain, the edge domains surrounding the domain are highlighted as well. This allows you to better visualize the domain that you are selecting. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain, and some domains can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 239

Select the domains to be grouped together. If you do your edge editing first. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D domains. The selected domains are combined into a single domain and the surrounding domains and handles are updated.To group two or more domains together: 1. Change the selector to combine domains. 5. Two domains are organized into one Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. This is why any editing of the edge domains should come after the editing of the other domains. 240 HyperMesh 8. select the domains panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . From the HyperMorph module. 4. 2. HyperMorph tries to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. 3. Click organize. but in some cases it may not identify the proper starting and ending points. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. You may need to correct this by hand. Select organize.

Select an edge domain. 3. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. Change the selector to split. Select edit edges. Change the selector to merge. 3.0 User’s Guide 241 . select the domains panel. A handle is created at the selected node. select the domains panel.To split edge domains: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 5. Click merge. 4. 2. 6. From the HyperMorph module. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end to end such that the resultant edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. Splitting an edge domain . 2. 4. To merge edge domains: 1. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge.a circular edge domain is divided into two half circles A handle was created at the joint to allow you to manipulate the edges. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. Select edit edges. Select any number of connected edge domains. 5. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. Click split. From the HyperMorph module.

To place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change: 1. 3. select the domains panel. 4. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. 5.Merging two edge domains The two half circles are merged into a single domain. the handle at the joint was deleted. The dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. Select edit edges. 2. Since retain handles was unchecked. This feature is quite useful for saving time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. Select one or more domains. Change the selector to add handles. If the domain containing the radius to be changed is very large you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change before you go into the morph panel. Click create.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 242 HyperMesh 8. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. From the HyperMorph module.

The first is that since they are dependent. During influence calculation you might run out of available memory. . record.Creating handles on an edge domain A dependent handle is created on each node of the edge domain. line and surface difference. and sculpting Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. plane. the influences do not need to be recalculated. surface. and element offset Using freehand morphing capabilities such as move nodes. click return. delete unnecessary handles. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. or arc angle of an edge domain Mapping nodes to a line. Morphing on Local Domains You can change the shape of a model with local domains and handles using one or more of the following methods: • • • • • • Moving the local handles Changing a distance or angle Changing the radius. Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. It will be as if they were not there. HyperMorph calculates the influences for the handles and you are ready to begin morphing. In these cases you should divide large domains. Secondly. curvature. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models.0 User’s Guide 243 . movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge will be transparently applied to the dependent handles. or mesh Using section mapping. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes.When you are satisfied with your domains. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles.

You select an entity such as a vector. plane. translate rotate move to XYZ move to node. surfaces. it is better to use a non-interactive option. If you want to move a handle a specific distance or to a specific position. This option allows you to position handles at specific XYZ locations or place them on lines. and move a handle by clicking on it and dragging it to a new location. surfaces. These options allow you to position handles at specific node or point locations. line. to orient the mouse location in 3D space. This option allows you to translate handles along a vector or element normals.There are six ways to move handles in the move handles sub-panel of the morph panel: interactive This option allows you to move handles interactively by dragging the mouse across the screen. Interactive morphing is most effective for visualizing how the mesh will react when a handle is moved and for making approximate shape changes. move to point 244 HyperMesh 8. This option allows you to rotate handles about an axis. or another mesh. surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or another mesh. or domains. or place them on lines.

0 User’s Guide 245 . the length of the flange is reduced. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Morphing by translating handles By selecting the two handles along the edge of the flange and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section (green and blue nodes).

Morphing by translating handles By selecting the three handles and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section. the width of the channel is increased. 246 HyperMesh 8. Morphing by translating handles By selecting the handles at the bottom of the part and translating them upwards. the thickness of the lower section is reduced.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

the position of the bolt boss is modified.Morphing by translating handles By selecting all the handles around the bolt boss and translating them horizontally.constant The right end of the block is given a constant rotation. Morphing by rotating handles . the end angle of the section is modified. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 247 . Morphing by rotating handles .constant By selecting all the handles at the end of the section and rotating them about a point (violet node).

Note how the magnitude of the twist increases linearly with the distance from the base (purple) node.Morphing by rotating handles . To correct this situation. Although it could be argued that true rotation is the "correct" way to morph via rotation of the handles.normal Although the highlighted handles are rotated. the circle at the center of the model remains on the same plane as before. it is important to note that the nodes in the model follow the movements of the handles according to the influence coefficients. Morphing by rotating handles . After rotating handles you may find areas in the model (particularly those defined by curved edges) that are not rotated the same as the neighboring handles. When applying handle perturbations to your model. 248 HyperMesh 8. This will cause the nodes to be rotated as well as the handles with the amount of rotation being equal to the influence coefficient. check the true rotation checkbox.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This is because the nodes have followed the handles instead of being rotated about the axis.linear The entire block is given a linear rotation. This concept comes into play when you are using the rotate function. not all morphing applications are best done using true rotation.

You must select at least one handle for each end and the handle may be coincident with one of the nodes.Morphing by rotating handles .true rotation During "true rotation" the nodes rotate along with the handles. such as the distance between nodes. the angle between nodes. While morphing a model.0 User’s Guide 249 . Would you like to ignore dependencies for this operation?”. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The basic concept is as follows: Select two nodes (node a and node b). If you click yes the given perturbation is applied to each handle and the dependent handles are not given an additional perturbation inherited from another handle. For most cases you will want to click yes. the following message may be displayed: “Some handles selected are dependent on others. Select handles corresponding to those nodes. the given perturbation and any inherited perturbation is applied to each dependent node. The alter dimensions sub-panel of the morph panel allows you to change one of the parameters in the model. controlling a particular dimension often involves moving more than one handle for each end. or the radius or curvature of an edge domain. For solid models. If you click no. The handles selected are the ones that will move to make the distance between node a and node b (or angle with a vertex selected) equal the specified value. This occurs when both a dependent handle and the handle on which it is dependent are selected to be morphed.

the thickness of the block between the radius and the back face is altered from 15 to 25 by moving the entire back face.Morphing by altering dimensions .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the width of the bottom of the channel can be changed from 60 to 30 with the rest of the channel changing along with it.distance By selecting the thickness of the block as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the radius (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles on the back face (highlighted) to follow the blue node.distance By selecting the width of the bottom of the channel as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the left (highlighted) to follow the green node and the handles on the right (shown as gray) to follow the blue node. 250 HyperMesh 8. Morphing by altering dimensions .

Morphing by altering dimensions .0 User’s Guide 251 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and red nodes) and by selecting the handles at and directly below the green node (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles at. near.angle By selecting the angle between two faces of the block (green.Morphing by altering dimensions . blue. the angle is altered from 126 degrees to 90 degrees. and red nodes) and by selecting the handle at the bottom right of the channel (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handle at the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. blue. and below the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. the angle of the left side of the section is changed from 110 degrees to 90 degrees.angle By selecting the angle of the left side of the channel (green.

the radius is changed from 3 to 1.fillet By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the fillet option. curvature multiplication. you need to set the curve ratio to 1. the radius is changed from 5 to 2.The radius.5 and kept in line with the edges at either end. The curvature tool is intended for domains that do not have constant curvature. Note: Morphing by altering dimensions – radius – center By selecting the edge domain around the edge of the hole.radius . Note: The curvature tool scales your radius by a factor rather than a set radius. and click morph. select the center calculation and style options. Morphing by altering dimensions . or arc angle factor for them.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . so if you want to change a radius from 5. set the new radius. curvature.0. All the domains are changed simultaneously.6. 252 HyperMesh 8. You select any number of curved edge or 2D domains.5.0 to 8. and arc angle options are used as follows. Making the bias factor retroactive does not work for radius changes.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold ends By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the hold ends option, the radius is changed from 5 to 10 with the ends held in place.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold end By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part, selecting the hold end option, and selecting a node at the end of the edge domain, the radius is changed from 5 to 8 while the held end remains in place.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 253

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - fillet By selecting all of the edge domains that form the fillet between the flat sections and the round section and changing them simultaneously, the fillet is reduced from 20 to 8.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius The radius is changed in three different ways. At the top right, the hold center option is used. At the lower left, the hold ends option is used. At the lower right, the fillet option is used. In all cases, both the top and bottom edge domains were selected as well as the 2D domain and the by normals option was used for center calculation. This option will directly calculate the radii for the nodes on the 2D domain instead of inferring them from the edge domains which makes this approach more accurate for 2D domains as well as more reliable for non-uniform meshes.

254 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the mesh is changed from 60 to 90 degrees using by axis (the vertical axis and violet base node) to calculate the center of curvature.

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the fillet is changed from 90 to 180 degrees using by normals to calculate the center of curvature. There are five methods available for calculating the center of curvature for the selected domains: • by normals - this method is the default and uses the element normals to approximate where the center of curvature is for each node in the selected domains. This method is not always accurate, but often gives good results for regular meshes. by axis - you may select an axis which will serve as the center of curvature. by line - you may select a line which will serve as the center of curvature. by node - you may select a node which will serve as the center of curvature. by edges - this method uses the edge domains to calculate the center of curvature with the center lying in the plane of the edge domains. The symmetry option refers to how the morphing of the edge domains is applied to neighboring 2D domains. The auto-symmetry option was the default for HyperMorph prior to version 8.0. In 8.0 you may choose to turn off symmetry when using this option.

• • • •

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 255

For auto-symmetry, the changes in the radii of the edge domains are applied to any 2D domain, depending on the number of edge domains you change for the 2D domains. If you change only one edge domain for a given 2D domain, the radius change will not be applied linearly across the 2D domain. If you change the radii of two edges for any given 2D domain, either a linear or planar temporary symmetry is created between the two edge domains for the 2D domain that will apply radius changes more linearly across the 2D domain. This works best if the mesh is regular. If you are changing only one edge for a 2D domain, you can increase the bias factor of any handles on an edge domain to yield a more even distribution. Mapping an edge domain to a line or a 2D mesh to a plane, surface, or mesh is done using the map to geom panel. This option is very effective for fitting a mesh to new geometric data. When mapping a domain to a geometric feature, all the nodes in neighboring domains are stretched along with it, minimizing mesh distortion. You have several options for determining how the nodes for the mapped domain are placed on the geometry. When mapping an edge domain or node list the nodes can be moved normal to the line, along a vector to the line, or distributed along the full length of the line. When mapping a 2D domain or selection of nodes to a plane, surface, or mesh, the nodes can be moved normal to the target, normal to the elements of the 2D domain or selected nodes, or along a vector. If you wish to fit a mesh to a surface, there is no option to do this automatically, however, with multiple mapping operations, or using the user control option you can fit a 2D domain to a surface. Furthermore, you have the option of creating a morph constraint between the nodes and the map target automatically after mapping. This constraint will allow you to do further morphing operations while maintaining the constrained nodes on the geometry. The map to geom panel is also effective for solid model meshing. You can create a block of solid elements roughly in the shape of the geometry that you are trying to mesh, and then use map to surface to morph the faces of the block to the geometry.

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - normal to geom The edge domain is mapped to a line by moving the nodes normal to the line.

256 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - fit to line The edge domain is mapped to the line by fitting them along the line. Any proportional spacing between the nodes will be maintained after mapping.

Morphing by mapping to surface By selecting the 2D domain on the top of the solid block to be mapped to the surface, the entire solid block is morphed to match the surface.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 257

Morphing by mapping to surface A rectangular C-section is mapped to a curved surface.

Morphing by mapping to surface - user control This example shows the user-control approach to mapping a mesh onto a surface. The surface and 2D domain are selected and the user control button is clicked. This brings up a new panel which allows you to place handles or map edges prior to the surface mapping operation. One by one each edge domain is placed on one of the lines around the target surface using the fit to line option. This stretches the 2D domain to match the surface more closely than before. When the map button is clicked, the domain is the mapped to the surface, fitting it perfectly to the geometry.

258 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Morphing Global Handles
Global handles are most effective when used to make general shape changes for a model, such as changing the basic shape of a model, stretching parts of a model, or making changes that involve the movement of many local handles. There are three methods available for affecting the way global handles influence the model, the direct method, the hierarchical method, and the mixed method. The default is the direct method, where the global handles move the nodes directly. In the hierarchical method, the global handles move the local handles which in turn move the nodes, but if any nodes lie outside of local domains they will be unaffected. In the mixed method, the hierarchical method is used for all nodes in local domains and the direct method is used for all other nodes. The hierarchical method maintains the shape of edge domains in the model, but if local handles are not evenly placed throughout the model, some parts will become distorted. The direct method gives you what you expect but often distorts the shape of the edge domains. For shell and solid models, better morphing is more likely to occur if you use the hierarchical method, and place local handles in areas where there is distortion.

Using Constraints
Morph constraints are a powerful tool that can be used to restrict the movement of nodes during morphing operations. The following types of constraints can be applied to any node: fixed, cluster, along vector, on plane, along line, on surface, and on elements. Whenever a handle is moved that influences a node, which is constrained, the node is moved according to the handle perturbation and is then projected back onto the feature to which it is constrained. This allows the nodes to slide across vectors, lines, planes, surfaces, and meshes, to remain fixed when handles are moved, or to move as a cluster along with other nodes. You may also constrain nodes where handles are located which, in effect, constrains the handles. When a perturbation is applied to a constrained handle, the handle are moved along the constraint feature regardless of the applied perturbation. This means that if you apply a translation in the x direction on a handle that is constrained along a vector x - y = 0, the handle moves along both the x and y axes. There are also morph constraints that can be applied to domains, such as the smooth constraint, which applies spline-based smoothing along the constrained edge domains, and model constraints, which allow you to set a given parametric target (such as length, angle, mass, etc.) and have HyperMorph adjust the model to meet that target. These constraints as well as bounded and set distance options for the node constraints are described more fully in the panel help. Morph constraints can be very useful for morphing a mesh that has been mapped to, projected to, or created upon a surface. Note that the map to geom operation allows you to have a morph constraint automatically created after mapping. Once you have done so, the nodes will remain on the surface during morphing operations. Note: Although morph constraints can keep nodes on a curved line or surface during morphing operations, when morphs are saved as shapes and then turned into shape variables for optimization, the nodes will not stay on the line or surface during optimization. This is because optimization is a linear process and the shapes will be treated as linear, meaning that the nodes will move directly from their original point to their maximally perturbed point without moving along any constraint.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 259

Controlling handle positions with morph constraints The angle of the lower right corner is changed from 74 to 90 degrees using the alter dimensions (angle) operation. The middle frame shows the result with no constraints. The frame on the right shows the result with the node in the upper right corner constrained to move along a vector that lies along the top edge.

Nodes tracking a line during morphing The nodes along the right edge domain are constrained to the line. When the handle is moved, it and the other constrained nodes move along the line.

260 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

In this example. HyperMorph automatically placed the handles back on the surfaces after applying the translation so that the constraint was obeyed.000 in the middle. 2. and 3.000 at the edges. If the handles were also part of the map to geom operation. they too will be moved along the surface regardless of the applied perturbation. If the biasing values for all of the handles are equal to 1. the morphing between the handles is linear.000 at the corners. which is the default value for all handles except for dependent handles on 1D domains. while lower biasing values generate harsh corners near the handles.0 User’s Guide 261 . the handles were translated linearly.000. Using Biasing Biasing allows you to control the shape of a mesh when applying handle perturbations.Morphing after mapping to surface All mapped nodes are automatically constrained to the surface. Higher biasing values generate a smooth curvature near the handles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To smoothly change the shape of a domain it is recommended that you use a biasing factor of 1. When the handles are translated. the nodes are moved along the surface a distance corresponding to the applied handle perturbations. provided both handles are global handles or they are located on edge domains. Biasing increases or decreases the influence of a handle over the nodes within its area of influence.

000 for the handle at the hole. and have the current list of applied morphs updated to reflect the new biasing values.000. Apply the morphs and change the biasing values retroactively until you get the shape that you want. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. Biasing can be applied retroactively after a morphing operation. the mesh unfolds (right frame). the mesh folds over due to the influences of the other handles (middle frame).000.Biasing for a 2D domain The model at the upper left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 1. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1.000 and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 0. and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When the biasing value of the handle at the hole is increased to 3. This is useful in selecting a good biasing value to apply for a given morph. Biasing to reduce mesh distortion When the hole is moved downward with a biasing factor of 1. The model at the lower left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 2. After applying a morph. you can change the biasing value by activating the make retroactive check box.000.000. 262 HyperMesh 8.500.000.

pentas. If partition 2D domains is checked. Select create. a solid model represents a single part with numerous features such as holes. or manually select all of the elements in the model. Once partitioned. For solid models. the domains and handles are generated where you want them to be. If they are not. and hexas. or delete the handles and domains to meet specific needs. flanges. In many cases. bosses. A 3D domain is created for a solid model Note the automatic creation and partitioning of 2D domains on the face of the solid and the creation of edge domains and handles for the 2D domains. You can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature. edit. To create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in the model: 1. each part is placed in its own 3D domain. you can add. This is done using one of the following methods: • • • • Moving the handles on the part to new locations Moving the global handles around the part to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the part Mapping the nodes of the part to line or surface data. Click create. This procedure is automatic.0 User’s Guide 263 .Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains Solid models are models that are made up of solid elements. The elements in ^morphface covering each 3D domain are placed into 2D domains. 2. 3. Creating Handles and Domains . Change the toggle to all elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 5. In general. and ribs. namely. From the HyperMorph module. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shape of features in a solid model. 4. these 2D domains are partitioned according to the settings selected in the parameter subpanel of the domains panel. select the domains panel. edges. Set the selector to 3D domains.solid model You can create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in a model. it is only necessary to create a single 3D domain for the entire part. edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. If the model is made up of more than one part. tetras. The surfaces of each 3D domain are covered with shell elements that are placed in a component named ^morphface.

If you do not select partition 2D domains when you generate a 3D domain. 264 HyperMesh 8. you are asked if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. you may find it easier to start with a blank slate rather than editing the automatically created domains. If you click yes. Set the selector to auto functions.To create a 3D domain along with a global domain and global handles to your model: 1. select the domains panel. global handles. Automatic generation of domains on a solid model Note the addition of a global domain. this approach will give you a “blank slate” 2D domain that you can partition by hand. before deciding to partition by hand. If there are any domains or handles in the model. Be sure to try both methods of partitioning. element based and node based. 1D. as well as a global domain and handles. 2D. Note: The element based method sometimes works better on second order tetras since it accounts for element curvature. the 2D domain made up of the elements on the surface of the 3D domain will not have edge domains and thus no handles will be generated for it. 4. 2. morphing cannot be performed. such as first order tetra meshes. if the second order tetras are converted first order tetras and thus have no curvature. the node based partitioning will work better. or if there are no morphing entities in the model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and 1D domain. Click generate. 3. For meshes on which the automatic partitioning does not work well. which produces dependent (green) handles. However. and 3D domains are automatically generated for the entire model. From the HyperMorph module. Select create. Without handles. However.

Morphface elements are placed at the internal interface between the new domain and the other domains and create a 2D domain for the interface. Set the selector to 3D domains. To subdivide your solid model: 1. you do not need to be concerned about selecting the morphface elements. you only need to create domains for that part. Partitions will be made only along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. Select create. This better accommodates the division of tetra meshes that cannot be divided along flat or curved internal faces and thus would be partitioned into many domains. 4. change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. or lower the limit for the large domain solver. When the new domain is created. it does not matter if the selected elements are already in a 3D domain. 5. Select update. 6. In these cases you may want to divide the domain into multiple domains using the subdivide 3D function in the update sub-panel of the domains panel. Therefore. you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when automatically partitioning. Select the 3D domains to be subdivided. the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Click create. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 5. To divide your solid model manually: 1. When selecting elements for the new domain. In these cases the 3D domain will be left undivided.0 User’s Guide 265 . Also. and thus subdividing 3D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. However. You can then manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should be located. for first order tetra meshes. 4. From the HyperMorph module. For these meshes. but it will not partition the interface. 2. you do not need to select only solid elements. 2. other elements are automatically removed before the domain is created. Set the selector to subdivide 3D. This method is very helpful for meshes that began as first order tetra meshes but then were then transformed into second order meshes. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. HyperMorph automatically subdivides the 3D domains into one or more 3D domains while leaving the 2D domains not selected as being divisible unchanged. From the HyperMorph module. in the parameters sub-panel. morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming. Select any 2D domains on the surface of the 3D domain that are permissible for HyperMorph to split into more than one 2D domain.000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. 3. Select the elements to be placed into a new 3D domain. 3. Click subdivide. if you are only going to morph a part of your 3D mesh. This results in a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid. Solving the influence coefficients for 3D domains which contain more than 20. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. select the domains panel.Also. a curvature break is detected at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. select the domains panel. Additionally. Not that in some cases HyperMorph will not be able to subdivide a 3D domain without dividing an indivisible 2D domain. To do this.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For large models you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. and place handles along edge domains. You can divide your 3D domains to restrict the handle influences and control mesh distortion. The influences for handles are only recalculated in regions that have been edited. These calculations occur when you enter or leave a HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. or deleted. The organize sub-panel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. or symmetries are added. you should perform the tasks in the following order: Create and edit all the 3D domains that you want first. Influences must be recalculated every time handles. elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. This is generally caused by handle influences extending too far through the 3D domain. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. it has the effect of partitioning the surface of the original 3D domain along seams where the divisions were made. domains.Note: When you divide a 3D domain into parts. you can edit them in the domains panel. If the domains are not created exactly the way you want them. Since creating or editing 3D domains results in the creation of 2D and edge domains. Occasionally. 266 HyperMesh 8. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split. Create and edit the 2D domains. edited. and creating or editing 2D domains results in the creation and deletion of edge domains. make sure that you divide it along lines where you want your 2D domains on the surface to be. Dividing a 3D domain into many 3D domains can be very useful for controlling the movement of nodes within the domain when the handles on the surface are moved. When some meshes are morphed. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. Create and edit the edge domains. A single 3D domain is split into four 3D domains The influences of the handles will not extend across the boundaries between the domains. So when you divide your model into 3D domains. merge. the internal elements can become distorted. Some cleanup may be required. Automatic partitioning does not always divide a mesh in the most useful ways.

Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements. select the domains panel. handles may be deleted. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. 2. 5. 4. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain. The elements are moved from their current domain to the selected domain. and if retain handles is not checked. as well as the 2D domains at the interface if solid elements are being organized. For this example. The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. 3. the retain handles option was left unchecked. and for some domains it can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. 6. This allows you to visualize the domain that you are selecting. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select the target domain. Click organize.To move elements from one domain to another: 1. The edge domains around both domains are refreshed. Change the selector to add nodes/elements.0 User’s Guide 267 . Select organize. From the HyperMorph module. You should keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing. Note: Holding the mouse button down when the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D or 3D domain or over an element inside a domain. will highlight the edge domains surrounding the domain. Select the elements to be moved. New handles may also be created during this process.

Select an edge domain. HyperMorph attempts to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. Change the selector to combine domains. Change the selector to split. 4. 268 HyperMesh 8. but in some cases. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. 3. 5. Select organize. Click split. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. which becomes a handle (right model). your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D and 3D domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it will not identify the proper starting and ending points. The lower edge domain has been split at the gray node (left model). 4. Click organize. Select edit edges. The selected domains are combined into a single domain.To group two or more domains: 1. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. A handle is created at the selected node. Now the radius of each new edge domain may be modified independently of the other. This is why you should edit the edge domains after the other domains have been edited. and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. From the HyperMorph module. 2. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. select the domains panel. select the domains panel. From the HyperMorph module. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. 5. 2. 6. You will need to correct this by hand. If you perform edge editing first. Select the domains to be grouped. Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. 3. To split edge domains: 1.

These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. select the domains panel. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. Select edit edges. 5. Dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains.0 User’s Guide 269 . the influences do not need to be recalculated. 2. It will be as if they were not there. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge are transparently applied to the dependent handles. Click create. This feature helps save time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. select the domains panel. The first is that since they are dependent. Select edit edges. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. 4. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models.To merge edge domains: 1. Secondly. 5. Select any number of edge domains. Change the selector to add handles. Select one or more domains. 3. 3. you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish to change before you enter the morphing panel. Click merge. Dependent handles created using the handles on edge feature Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. Change the selector to merge. From the HyperMorph module. 2. 4. If a model is very large. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. From the HyperMorph module. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end-to-end such that the resultant merged edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. To create dependent handles along an edge domain: 1.

270 HyperMesh 8.solid model The HyperMesh graphics engine supports different visual options for viewing models as you work on them. However. Note: During influence calculation for large models you might run out of available memory. Since HyperMorph creates a component called ^morphface. you will see the two sides of your model superimposed over each other.6. a full wire frame can make it very difficult to visualize the model because every element in the model is displayed. When you are satisfied with your domains. You can still display the surface mesh. which contains shell elements on the surface of the 3D domains. you should divide large domains. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. if desired (as shown). Viewing Solid Models . surface-only wire frame In this default mode. but only the surface elements are drawn because in a solid model. your model is displayed as a wire frame. The influences for the handles is calculated and you are ready to begin morphing. You only see the side of the model that is facing you (as if your model was a real part). solid fill The option produces a display that is similar to what you see when you perform a fill plot in the hidden line panel. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. since the viewing mode is still wire frame. click return. In these cases. delete unnecessary handles. the default setting is to display only that component—thus showing only the outer surface of your model and making it easier to work on.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

This is similar to looking at the model in a meshless wire frame mode.0 User’s Guide 271 .You can also view a solid model for morphing by turning off all the components and looking at only the domains and handles. Partitioning generally captures all the features on the surface of a solid. so by viewing only the domains you can visualize the model with minimal clutter. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Access previously defined beam cross sections for editing in the HyperBeam module. This data can be imported into the HyperMesh finite element pre-processor and used to create one-dimensional (bar. The HyperBeam panel in HyperMesh allows you to: • • • • Define the beam cross sectional plane via the existing HyperMesh vector definition methods. as dictated by the beam section template. its local coordinate system. Select the lines. Step One Step Two Step Three Beam section definition from line. It is a threestep process. rod) element property data for an FEA model. or element data takes place in the HyperBeam panel within HyperMesh. Operations that can be done this way include: • Editing section thickness Creating. Each step is described in more detail below. Step 1: Beam Section Definition. Beam section manipulation and property calculation takes place in the HyperBeam module.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Beam section properties are imported back into HyperMesh and applied to element property cards. Transfer the data into the HyperBeam module. Edit the beam section graphically via mouse clicks and drags. elements or surfaces that represent the beam cross section. including splitting and joining operations Selecting vertex coordinates when the spreadsheet display is active Edit the beam section manually via dialogs and a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates. beam. The HyperBeam module allows you to: • • View the beam section. and any beam section properties calculated. Step 2: Beam Section Manipulation. Operations that can be accomplished in this way include: Hand editing of vertex coordinate geometry and connectivity Editing section thickness Creating parts Editing part to vertex associativity Parameterizing the beam section for optimization via a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates Organizing HyperBeam sections into a single level structure of HyperBeam collectors 272 HyperMesh 8. surface. steps one and three are performed within HyperMesh and step two is performed in the HyperBeam module.HyperBeam Module The HyperBeam module allows you to calculate general beam section properties from geometry or element data. and deleting vertices Editing line segments. moving.

You can import beam section properties into HyperMesh that have been defined in HyperBeam by using the collectors panel with the properties entity selected.Step 3: Beam Property Import.0 User’s Guide 273 . The beam section characteristics are displayed in the card image of the property collector but must be edited from within the HyperBeam module. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Elements or lines can be used to describe a beam section. This plot element will be used to align the section within HyperBeam. N1. And the plane base node is chosen (change option to specify node) at N1 also. project to plane is then selected under cross section plane:. The blue lines are plot elements denoting the beam section.Example of the Three-Step Process This example illustrates how HyperBeam can be used to attach beam section properties to a OptiStruct PBAR card image. 274 HyperMesh 8. It assumes that the OptiStruct user profile is loaded. N2 and N3 locations are selected as shown in the figure below.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The shell section subpanel is selected from the HyperBeam panel. The purple line is a plot element created in the global y-direction. The selector type is set to elems and the blue plot elements are selected.

0 User’s Guide 275 . It is important to note the alignment of the local axes at this point.The vector created by N1 to N2 describes the local y-axis used in HyperBeam. N3 describes the positive sense of the z-axis. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Later we will need to know this when the beam section is aligned for bar elements. HyperBeam is invoked when you click create.

and N3 was reversed (essentially the z-direction was flipped).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .If the node selection was performed differently. HyperBeam would yield different results as shown below. 276 HyperMesh 8.

After the card image is created. the z-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section.Once HyperBeam solves the cross sectional properties. it is necessary to attach the beam section to the PBAR card image. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and the local bar element alignment axis. the HyperBeam alignment axis. In this case. The figure below illustrates the alignment of the global axis. If there were a 1 within the Z comp. The direction specified within the bars panel defines the alignment along the y-direction. This operation is performed in the bars panel. the PBAR card image must be attached to the 1-D element in question. the y-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section.0 User’s Guide 277 . Bar element alignment using HyperBeam sections is very straightforward if the section was defined using an absolute y-direction. This can be done in the collectors panel.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 278 HyperMesh 8. This option can be found in the review sections subpanel in the HyperBeam panel.The beam cross section can also be attached to the beam to visually inspect the alignment.

The coordinate system defined by the user is called the local coordinate system. Thickness warping is also neglected. the system parallel to the local coordinate system with the origin in the centroid is called the centroidal coordinate system. The x axis is defined along the beam axis.Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam The beam cross section is always defined in a y. Area Area Moments of Inertia Area Product of Inertia Radius of Gyration Elastic Section Modulus Max Coordinate Extension Plastic Section Modulus Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.z plane. the system referring to the principal bending axes is called the principal coordinate system. This means that for the calculation of the moments and product of inertia terms of higher order of the shell thickness t are neglected.0 User’s Guide 279 . For shell sections. only the theory of thin walled bars is used.

Torsional Constant Solid Shell open Shell closed Elastic Torsion Modulus Solid Shell open Shell closed Warping Constant (normalized to the shear center) Shear deformation coefficients 280 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

0 User’s Guide 281 . Lehrbuch – Hoehere Festigkeitslehre. CRC Press.D. ed.D. 1979. Pilkey and W. Leipzig. Structural Mechanics – Variational and Computational Methods. 1993.. U. Schramm. FL. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 40 (1997) 211-232. The Theory of Thin Walled Bars. 1981. A. Beam Stiffness Matrix based on the Elasticity Equations. Goeldner. Wunderlich. Pilkey. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Boca Raton.Shear stiffness factors Shear stiffness Nastran Type Notation References W. and W. Fachbuchverlag. Wiley & Sons. Gjelsvik. V. H. Rubenchik.

toolbar.HyperBeam Environment HyperBeam has three main panes: the section browser. shell section graphics pane. and status bar. It also has a menu bar. 282 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click each section of the HyperBeam window below to access detailed information about the menu areas. and results/spreadsheet sections.

right-click in the section browser pane. You can use the section browser to find a particular section of your model for displaying or editing. and select Paste from the Edit menu. thumbnail images of all the sections are shown in the graphics pane. and select Paste from the Edit menu. To view thumbnails of selected sections. and enter the new name. and dragging it to the collector where you want it to be located. click again to indicate that you want to rename it. To export sections to an external file.0 User’s Guide 283 . To copy a section. HyperBeam displays this hierarchy in a standard tree structure. right-click in the section browser pane. To view thumbnail images of the sections in a section collector. choose Create Thumbnails from the pop-up menu. choose Export Section from the pop-up menu. To move a section. select the section. and dragging and dropping it into the collector where you want it to be located Copy a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. copying sections. click Save.Section Browser This section browser presents a hierarchical view of all of the beam sections and section collectors on your database. as listed below: Shell Solid Standard Generic You can perform the following tasks in the section browser: • • • • To rename a section or section collector. click once on the item to select it. select Cut from the Edit menu. select a section by left-clicking on it. holding down the control key. select the collector where you want the section to appear. select Copy from the Edit menu. and renaming sections and section collectors. Below that are all of the collectors followed by the beam sections at the lowest level. select multiple sections by holding down the control key and left-clicking on multiple sections. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. give a filename and location in the Save As window (it is recommended to use the . select the collector branch in the section browser window. There are two ways to "drag and drop": • Move a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. select the collector where you want the section to appear. until you create thumbnail images for a different selection of sections. the thumbnail images that were just created may be viewed in the graphics pane by selecting Model in the section browser tree. At the highest level is the model. select the desired sections or section collectors in the section browser (hold down the control key to select multiple items). select the section. You can also reorganize the database by moving sections between collectors.bm extension to save beam section files). Section types are identified by icons.

each sheet metal part is drawn by lines connecting the dots that show the section's vertices. then HyperBeam underestimates the stiffness of a section. The centroid appears as a plus with a circle around it. if you have them enabled on the view menu. or equivalently. You have control (on the preferences dialog) over whether the z-axis points up or down. The preferences dialog allows you to set the font and background color to use in the text graphics pane. The section axis is always drawn with its y-axis pointing to the right. If you accidentally omit those vertices from the connectivity for a part.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if you have them enabled on the view menu. The color of the lines for each part is selected on the section's properties dialog. the metal thickness used for a flange is the sum of the thicknesses of all the parts that share it. The section's torsion and warping factor are displayed in the lower left corner of the pane. separated by a colon. The shear center appears as an x with a circle around it. 284 HyperMesh 8.The Importance of Flanges When HyperBeam computes the properties for the section. You can modify the section itself with the shell section editing tools. Each part is also marked with a slider bar that you can use to adjust the part's thickness. Shell Section Graphics Pane The graphics pane displays a representation of the geometric layout of the section. if the section's x-axis points into or out of the monitor. depending on if you have the toggle set on the toolbar or the view menu. Each vertex may or may not be labeled by its ID. For shell sections. The bar is labeled with the part's number in the section and the current numerical value of the thickness. The section's local coordinate system and its principle coordinate system (at its centroid) are displayed.

If the results are not available. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. and background color on the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's vertices and their coordinates. variables. so you may choose to add additional values to the template. such as when you have edited the section definition and dynamic update is disabled. To see the list of all the results available. it displays them in the results pane. You specify the text font. you can delete them from the template so that they are not displayed. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. Also. to toggle between them. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. consult the documentation for the results output template. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. Shell Section Spreadsheet (non-optimization version) For a shell section. You can specify a new results template by selecting the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. and optimization bounds for the section. You can change the display of text and values by editing the scripts file. then the spreadsheet displays equations.0 User’s Guide 285 . the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's variables and their current values. then HyperBeam displays the message. text color. then the spreadsheet additionally displays optimization bounds for each variable. If this section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. You will find controls for the actual format and layout of the text and results in two locations. there are more results computed than are displayed in the default template." Standard Section Spreadsheet For a standard section. The section results pane shares screen space with the section definition spreadsheets. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can type a new value into any of the coordinates. If the section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog.Results/Spreadsheet Pane Section Properties Results Whenever HyperBeam computes the section properties of the current section. but you can select it and copy it to paste it into another application such as a word processor. you can use the spreadsheet button on the toolbar. "No results to display. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. You cannot edit the text in this portion of the window. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. If there are computed values that are not necessary. and the associated vertex moves to the new location.

If you choose add. Alternatively. Each vertex coordinate now has three values: an initial value. blank spaces may be prohibited. so it must be formatted as appropriate for that solver. click the vertex coordinate to make it active and delete the text of the equation. The coordinate will be set equal to the last value it had calculated. and an upper bound. A vertex that is defined by an equation may not appear on the right-hand side of another equation. Click the coordinate and it will appear as the dependent vertex. initial value. and optimization bounds. a vertex coordinate can be defined using an equation. If all three values are equal. into which you can enter the variable's name.Optimization Shell Section Spreadsheet If the shell section has been designated an optimization section on the Properties dialog. Select delete variable on the menu. To delete a variable. a new blank line appears. it is assumed the optimizer treats that coordinate as fixed. To define a variable for use in an equation. A menu is displayed that allows you to choose between adding or deleting a variable. then the shell-section spreadsheet expands to display the rest of the necessary information. with a few restrictions.) To delete an equation. Next. The equation is passed to the optimization solver. a lower bound. variables. you can use other vertex coordinates. (For example. click the right-hand side of the equation and enter the formula. A menu is displayed. 286 HyperMesh 8. use the right mouse button to select the variable's section. click the variable with the right mouse button. arithmetic functions. In the equation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or trigonometric functions.

or generic section. Some operations such as importing and exporting are accomplished only from the menu bar. Options are provided to export all sections. The Graphics and Results tabs in the Preferences dialog allow you to set preferences for the section graphics window and the results/spreadsheet window. Edit Menu Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Delete Preferences Undo the last procedure. standard section. Opens a file browser so you can export the results for the selected section to a text file. Allows you to set up printer preferences. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 287 . Copies and removes the selected text or entity. The Preferences dialog allows you to specify the appearance and behavior of HyperBeam. On the Edit menu. Setting the Section Graphics Options The Graphics tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Specifies the main background color for the section graphics region. select Preferences to display the tabs. Copies the selected text or entity. Set the graphics and results preferences. or only selected sections. Prints the currently displayed beam cross section and the section analysis results. Paste the selected text or entity into the location of the cursor. File Menu New Save Import Section Export Section Export Results Print Print Preview Print Setup Exit Create a new section collector. select Preferences. Opens a file browser so you can export a beam cross-section. Redo the last procedure. Exit the HyperBeam module and return to HyperMesh. There are controls for the results/spreadsheet window and controls for the section graphics window available. Delete the currently selected text or entity. Displays a print preview. From the Edit window. Opens a file browser so you can import a beam cross-section. Save the beam cross-section. Other operations can be performed using either the menu bar or the corresponding tool button.HyperBeam Menu Bar The HyperBeam menu bar allows you to perform a wide variety of operations using drop-down menus.

Contact Altair for technical details on exchange file formats and return codes. Allows you to specify a bitmap or second color for a gradient to display as the background of the section graphics window. External solver for thin shell sections 288 HyperMesh 8. You may substitute your own solver to compute values for thin Shell sections. The Scale Thumbnails checkbox allows thumbnail images to be displayed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The distance entry field allows the distance between nodes of the grid to be adjusted. x-axis direction Grid Thumbnails Specifying the Results/Spreadsheet Display The Results tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Font Select the background color for the results display. Allows you to display a grid behind the section image. so it can display just those values known to be relevant.Font Background effects Displays the font dialog box. Displays the font dialog box. Each section type can have its own custom script. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for the results display. so that their sizes are relative to one another. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for section graphics window. Allows you to specify whether HyperBeam should display the section with the x-axis coming out of the page (so z axis goes up) or going into the page (so the z-axis goes down). such as courier. See the Templex Reference On-line Help for additional details. for best formatting. Results output templates The computed results for a section are formatted using a user-specified TEMPLEX scripts. It is recommended that you use a fixed-width font.

Allows you to modify the properties of the beam cross-sections.0 User’s Guide 289 .. Switches the display in the Results/Spreadsheet pane. Scales the graphic so that it exactly fits the active window. Allows you to specify the section that you want to zoom in on to examine in greater detail. Tools Menu Break a Segment Join Segments Create a New Part Move Vertices Reorient Shell Section. Reduces the size of the graphic in the graphics pane.. automatically updates the display when you make changes. Moves the model in the selected direction..View Menu Toolbar Status Bar Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit to screen Update Results Dynamic update Systems Torsion Factor Warping Factor Spreadsheets Vertex Ids Turns on and off the display of the toolbar. Allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Turns on and off the display of the Torsion Factor. Part Editor.. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Magnifies the graphic in the graphics pane. When selected. Turns on and off the display of the Warping Factor. rearrange vertices in a part. Allows you to delete a vertex to join two segments. Allows you to add a new sheet metal part to the current section. Properties.. Allows you to break a segment so that you can add a new vertex. Turns on and off the display of the status bar. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. updates results. If selected.. Allows you to move vertices. Turns on and off the display of the system coordinate axes. Turns on and off the display of the Vertex IDs.

Reorient Shell Section The reorient shell section dialog allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. You can also move the origin by a fixed amount by defining y and z offsets. Specifying the Origin You can designate a vertex. Note that. if the shear center or centroid changes because of any changes to the section properties. if you subsequently move that vertex. the origin for the section does not follow it. If you move a defi ning vertex. you must specify the location of its origin relative to the vertices and the direction of the y-axis. or at an angle offset from the current y axis.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . this coordinate system does not adjust with them. 290 HyperMesh 8. Likewise. the origin will not move with it. or the current centroid to be the new origin. reflecting it about the y-axis. reverse x-axis Activate the check box to flip the section over. the current shear center. or the principle axes change. Specifying the y-axis You can specify the direction for the for the y-axis of the local coordinate system using vertices. the current principle axes. To specify a new coordinate system.

To set a new thickness.. The part features that you need to control are its thickness and the connectivity of its vertices. enter a value in the appropriate field. When you use the part editor tools for.0 User’s Guide 291 . you can set upper and lower bounds for the optimization of the section's sheet metal thicknesses.Part Editor Parts of thin-shell sections can be edited by selecting Part Editor. You can add or remove vertices to change the part. in the section illustrated below. on the Tools menu and entering data in the Edit Parts dialog. 2.) If you are currently in an optimization section.. To designate a segment between two vertices and a flange. You can use the up and down arrows to review any part. The part editor also allows you to review and edit part vertex connectivities. 15 … Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. There is list of the vertex IDs at the bottom of the list. 4. A part in this context is an individual piece of sheet metal that is typically welded to other parts along flanges. include those vertices in more than one part. 3. 13. … and the connectivity of the bottom flange is 1. so the connectivity of the top part is 1. 2. the currently selected part of the section is highlighted. 14. the segment between vertices 1 and 2 is a flange. 12. 5. (You can also adjust thickness by using the graphic tools. For example.

Standard Section Properties The Standard Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single standard section. The properties that can be specified differ for each type of section. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. or vertex coordinates. HyperBeam recognizes four types of beam cross-sections. See the HyperBeam panel for more information on beam cross-sections types. Set the warping factor. Thin Shell Section Properties The Thin Shell Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single shell section.Properties Properties for beam cross-sections are specified by selecting Properties on the Tools menu and entering data in the Thin-Shell Section Properties dialog. This operation cannot be undone. Torsion factor Warping Factor Line color Set the torsion factor. Section type 292 HyperMesh 8. Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. You can activate this option if you need to specify optimization parameters for this section. select properties. Fill color Choose the color to use for displaying the material portion of the section in the graphics pane. Optimization Solid Section Properties The Solid Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a solid section. such as upper and lower bound on thicknesses. On the Tools menu. or equations tying coordinates together. Specify the shape out of the available choices to use for the standard section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane.0 User’s Guide 293 .Generic Section Properties The Generic Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a generic section.

To add a new sheet metal part to the current section. Bring the section results up to date. If you want to delete a vertex. if you have turned off the auto-update of section results. Zoom out on the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. Enlarge the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. activate this tool and click at approximately the place you want it to appear. Pops-up the properties dialog Shell Section Editing Tools There are five tools to modify the basic definition of a shell section: Break segment If you want to add a new vertex between two existing vertices. Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit Show/hide Ids Update results Show/hide spreadsheet Properties Zoom in on area of the beam section by using the mouse to draw a circle around the area of interest. They control how the section is displayed in the graphics pane and the results/spreadsheet pane. activate this tool and then click in the graphics area the sequence of vertices. To finish the part. Resize the display to fit the pane. View Controls The view controls are available on the View menu and the toolbar. Alternate between displaying results or the spreadsheet. activate this tool and click on the vertex. Specify a new center for the graphics display. Join two segments/ eliminate vertex Create a new part 294 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .HyperBeam Toolbar The toolbar allows you to quickly access some of the more commonly used functions. You can use any mixture of existing or new vertices in creating the part. double-click the last vertex. or deactivate the tool by toggling its button on the toolbar. Turn on and off the display of vertex IDs in shell sections.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. General Tools There are eight tools that allow you to manage a HyperBeam session: Save Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Print On-line Help Save the session. Copy an item. a short description of the action performed when you click the icon is displayed in the status bar. Paste a copied or cut item. Undo the last action performed. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. rearrange vertices in a part. If you place the cursor over a toolbar icon. Status Bar The HyperBeam status bar displays messages and information about the interface.0 User’s Guide 295 .Move vertex Part-editor To reposition a vertex. Cut an item and hold it in memory for pasting. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Open the print dialog. Open the HyperBeam on-line help. Redo the last action performed. and click and hold on the vertex to move and drag it to its new location. activate this tool.

calculate its properties. center of gravity. moments of inertia. The panel functions also facilitate the creation of bar2 elements. The properties that HyperMesh calculates include cross sectional area.Beam Cross Section Property Solver The beam cross section property solver allows you to define a beam cross section. HyperMesh uses a finite element methodology to calculate the properties for the cross section. Note: For design reasons. The tools on the beam xsect panel can help you complete the necessary property cards for finite element analysis using HyperMesh bar2 elements. This process is performed in the beam xsect panel. and apply those properties to a HyperMesh model. and torsion and warping constants. the beam cross section functions favor NASTRAN analysis in nomenclature and bar offset calculations.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . shear center. principal axes. 296 HyperMesh 8.

you may choose to have the properties calculated using first or second order elements.Describing Cross Section Planes. When you pick elements. in this case. the plane is determined by a "best fit" from the data provided. These specifications are applied by using the toggles under cross section plane: or plane base node:. or elements is used. All properties are calculated on the plane.0 User’s Guide 297 . Note: The save element option has no effect when you define sections by elements. these elements are not output when you use the export subpanel on the files panel. The system is the same as the coordinate system for the plane. offset values are calculated for you. Axes. HyperMesh uses one of two methods to define the plane. You may specify any existing HyperMesh node as the base point of the plane. The save element option is located on the pick geom sub-panel on the beam xsect panel. If you do not specify a base point. your N1 and N2 selections are used to define the positive Y-axis. the Y. This tells HyperMesh to ignore the contents of the component when exporting a model.and Z-axes are defined to be the principal axes of the cross section. HyperMesh calculates the plane for you. Linear weighting of the points on the selected lines. These elements are placed in a newly created component for each calculation. The save elements option allows you to save the elements defining the cross section as part of the HyperMesh model. If you use the offset lines sub-panel. If you define the base point by picking a node. and the Z-axis is the cross product of the X and Y axis. second order elements are always used. If HyperMesh calculates the plane. You can also use the standard HyperMesh plane collector to define the plane. In all cases the planar normal is defined as the positive X axis. Local Axes Many of the properties are defined relative to a local coordinate system. Unless you change the name of the component. Planes In order for properties to be calculated correctly. this node can be referenced as an end of a bar2 element created with the panel. If you are using offset sections. If you define the plane. the order of the selected HyperMesh element is used. surfaces. 1 versus 2 Order Element Analysis st nd For beam cross sections that were fully defined by lines or surfaces. secondary panels called define offset parameters are opened. the cross section must be planar. and Elements The following factors relating to the cross section plane. These options are specified by using the toggle under plane base node:. using NASTRAN conventions. and the element order can be defined in the beam xsect panel. If you create the bar2 element by using this method. This option is specified by using the toggle under analysis type: on the pick geom sub-panel. The name of the component is preceded by a caret (^). or have it calculated for you. the coordinate system. Save Elements Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh defines the plane base at the Center of Gravity of the cross section. If you use the default method.

Offset Sections The offset sections method is designed to support thin-walled cross sections manufactured from sheet metal. Weld points are used to join separate pieces of sheet metal at a point. based upon the line data in the model. provided they are used in the definition of the cross section. By default. you may change any or all of the line thicknesses. Each HyperMesh line in the set can be assigned a thickness. If weld points are not defined for offset sections. You can change the thickness of lines interactively by using the mouse cursor or you can enter a value and apply it to specific lines or all of the lines. The line sets may be changed one at a time by selecting the graphical toggle and picking the line set or all sets may be changed at once by clicking the toggle sides button. HyperMesh first looks for coincident node pairs to join. When this method is used in the offset lines sub-panel of the beam xsect panel. Note: If you define a cross section with elements and use the intersect panel to cut elements. When you use this method. Holes are allowed in the section but all portions of it must touch all other portions. the offset direction is centered. normal to the line. The tolerance is defined as 15% of the largest distance between the weld areas on the lines minus the offset distances. the section must be a contiguous area. The thickness used is considered to be the total thickness of the sheet metal piece. you can define any or all line thicknesses using the thickness = option. 298 HyperMesh 8. After nominal = for initial thickness is defined. an offset of each line is created.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When you define a weld point. The offset direction is user-specified. The initial definition of the cross section uses the user-defined nominal thickness for each line. use the combine lines option and specify a break angle. The distance from the point and the diameter of the weld may be changed graphically. The weld point is located a given distance from a fixed point. You can also change the offset direction after the initial cross section definition. thicknesses. or by entering the desired values. With either method. it is best to use fewer lines with the property calculator. you can also specify weld points for the cross section. HyperMesh allows this point to be chosen at any end or joint of a selected line. and weld points. Any continuous set of HyperMesh lines (as determined by HyperMesh) is considered to be a single piece of sheet metal. The beam cross section is described by a set of lines. with the line as the center of the sheet metal piece. The choices are centered. After the initial cross section is defined. the section is considered fully open and no correlation will exist between nodes on different sets of lines.Defining a Cross Section There are two methods you can use to describe a cross-section for analysis: by offsetting HyperMesh lines or by selecting a fully enclosed area. HyperMesh attempts to join four nodes per line per weld to a corresponding set of four nodes on another line. Although you can use the line segments option. Any number of lines may be selected to be part of a weld point. or reverse normal to the line. An arrow is displayed that indicates the offset direction. Then it looks for nodes within tolerance of each other.

Note: This means that all nodes along common boundaries are taken as the same and the solver does not consider moving them independently. No alterations are made to those elements. When lines or surfaces are chosen. those elements are considered to be the section. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If you select by elements.0 User’s Guide 299 . or surfaces that describe a fully closed area. HyperMesh uses the connectivity provided by the elements. Defining the section using lines or surfaces in this manner creates a fully closed section. If the section is defined using elements. lines. the area is automeshed to generate elements for the cross section. aside from projecting to a common plane.Fully Defined Sections For this method of beam cross section definition. you can use the pick geom sub-panel of the beam xsect panel to select any set of elements.

The following symbols are displayed at the Center of Gravity and the Shear Center: Center of Gravity symbol Shear Center symbol The local axes of the beam are also displayed. The post-processing panel displays only the menu items necessary for the current operation.Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties After you select the solve function in the beam xsect panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the properties are calculated. with which you can apply the calculated properties to the HyperMesh model. individual menu items are displayed that perform only the sub-set of desired operations. Temporary nodes are also created at the Center of Gravity and Shear Center. Otherwise. The following postprocessing options can be performed in any combination desired and are not exclusive of other functions. 300 HyperMesh 8. At any time you can click apply results to perform all the currently specified options. The post-processing panel is displayed.

relate fully welded sections to partially welded sections. HyperMesh checks to see if data already exists for the currently chosen solver on that property/component. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These constants provide a means to apply empirical "fudge factors" to the results. After you select the solver. CW. These factors. Ist. I22.Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver In order to relate the calculated properties to a card for your desired output solver. ABAQUS. Iyy. I1. HyperMesh material data associated with the property/component is not affected. independently developed over many years. It. K2. Is. Izz. For more information. see Creating Collectors. Γw. OPTISTRUCT. J. Iyy A. the original value. LS-DYNA. All of the solver data of the property/component is deleted if you answer yes. and the spacing between welds. I12. As. J. I1.0 User’s Guide 301 . The size determination is for user-viewing preference only and does not affect any of the actual values. Itt. For more information. J. Izz. Similarly non 1. see Save and Display Results. I2. When you apply the results to the properties or components. J. and replaced by the newly calculated data or default data for that property/component. use the FEA solver: switch to select the solver. you are prompted to confirm that you wish to overwrite the data on that property/component. Otherwise. Display Size You can control the size of the Center of Gravity and Shear Center symbols and the local Coordinate system with the draw size = field. or PAM-CRASH. you may select NASTRAN. that solver is automatically selected. principal Y axis unit VECTOR ANSYS LS-DYNA/ RADIOSS PAM-CRASH MARC Property Property Component Component Torsion and Warping Factors torsion factors and warping factors are the only fields common to all operations of the postprocessing panel. elform 2 Mat’l type 202 geometry Data A. I12. MARC. If data exists. Shear Center x1 and x2 Area. Solver NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT ABAQUS Comp/Prop Property Property Component Card Name PBAR PBEAM (end A) BEAMGENERAL. SHEAR CENTER R SECTION_BEAM. RADIOSS. Centroid x1 and x2. SA A. and the modified value. This function does not work for dictionary solvers. I2. I1. The changes are applied to all HyperMesh properties and/or components.0 warping factor modifies the Warping Constant. If these factors remain at the default value of 1. A non unit Torsion factor will modify the value of the Torsional Constant. K1. Ir A. I2. CENTROID. Iss. ANSYS. K1. no changes are made to the calculated value. N1. K2 A.0. If you already have a card image template specified in the global panel. Irr. The values that are saved in summary files or displayed on the screen show the factor. N2 A. you can specify the already created HyperMesh properties or components to which to apply the results as a card image.

Whether you choose to save a summary file and/or display it on the screen. If the solver for which you are defining a model uses components. that is referenced by the bar element. If only one property is selected. The sign of the distance is the direction along the x axis. Note: If you create a BAR2 element and it does not show on the screen. If you want a permanent record of the calculations you have just performed. it creates a new node. 302 HyperMesh 8. 10% of the length of the element away from the existing node. Coordinate Systems/Vectors A HyperMesh coordinate system may be created to save the orientation of the cross section. it applies a global unit vector to the bar created. check to make sure the desired component is currently active. If you use a vector orientation. If you want to save these. or move the bar element to that component by using the organize panel. that property is automatically assigned to the new BAR2 element. If you use a nodal orientation. The other end of the bar may be defined by picking a node or specifying a distance along the x axis of the cross section. either as a vector or by letting HyperMesh create a node along the axis. This feature works only with apply results. The node for this end of the bar is either the centroid of the section or the user-selected base node. Save and Display Results All of the calculated properties may be viewed or saved to an ASCII text file. and not with summary alone. to which the calculated properties were assigned. The element is created in the currently active component. The properties can also be viewed on the screen in the same manner as summary templates. use the disp (display) panel to confirm that the elements of the current component are selected for display. the information includes a named list of the properties/components. You may use the cross section’s local Y or Z axis. You may also create a HyperMesh vector in either the local Y or Z direction of the cross section. you can select the summary file option and specify a file name in the field after summary file. to describe the bar’s orientation. you are asked if you want each property associated with the newly created bar element. This option is provided to aid in understanding the orientation of the cross section relative to the overall model. If any properties (not components) are selected when you build a BAR2 element. The BAR2 element that you are creating can also be assigned an orientation.Creating a Bar Element Another option is to create a HyperMesh BAR2 element by specifying two nodes and optionally choosing a direction vector or node and property for the element.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The cross section may be chosen as either end A or end B of the bar. Manipulating them does not change the property values that may be saved and referenced by the created bar element. There are many properties calculated that are not assigned to solver cards. The system is created identical to the one displayed on the screen. you must save the results as an ASCII file. You are asked about each selected property until you answer "yes" to the question presented. if any.

Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers This section provides answers for common questions about using the beam cross section process: How do I change the number of lines on which I can define a thickness? Change the number of HyperMesh lines you are selecting. How do I obtain lines from a shell element model to use as my offset lines? Use the hidden line panel on the Post page and choose line plot as the desired output. split the HyperMesh line at the desired point and then choose the new point at the split. If you need a different reference point. Use the line edit panel on the Geom page to either split or combine existing lines. Each HyperMesh line has a different thickness.0 User’s Guide 303 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select those lines as your section definition. How do I define a weld point at a different location? Use the graphical controls to change its location on the line.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 304 HyperMesh 8. HyperLaminate is launched from within HyperMesh either from the HyperLaminate button on the 2D page of the main menu. Nastran. which are updated simultaneously in HyperMesh and HyperLaminate). In support of this process certain materials and design variables are also supported by in the HyperLaminate module. The HyperLaminate module is supported for the OptiStruct.HyperLaminate Module HyperLaminate is a HyperMesh module that facilitates the creation. The current HyperMesh database is only updated with information from the current HyperLaminate session on exit from HyperLaminate (an exception to this rule are Abaqus materials. review and edition of composite laminates. component collectors and design variables) may result in synchronization problems and loss of data. Any changes made to those entities which HyperLaminate touches (materials. this is not advisable. so while it is possible to work in HyperMesh while HyperLaminate is running. Ansys and Abaqus user profiles. or by selecting HyperLaminate from the Setup pull-down menu.

change views. paste. and delete entries in text boxes. The review pane has a number of tabs that display the current state of the selected branch. laminates and size design variables in your model. Left clicking on an entity populates the Define/Edit and Review panes with details of that branch. laminates and design variables. laminates or design variables. This browser. and access on-line help. provides a vertical tree view of materials. Here users may enter or change data related to a material. edit materials. copy. This is the right hand pane of the HyperLaminate module.0 User’s Guide 305 . The HyperLaminate toolbar contains five tools that allow you to generate new materials. laminate or design variable definition (depending on the selected branch in the laminate browser).HyperLaminate Environment The HyperLaminate environment consists of five general areas. and to cut. Right clicking on a branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. as shown here: Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus that allow you to manage files. Review Pane Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Toolbar Laminate Browser Define/Edit Pane This is the central pane of the HyperLaminate module. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window.

This text file can be printed. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. 306 HyperMesh 8. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. Edit Cut Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser.HyperLaminate Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. Exit HyperLaminate. Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. File New Export to File Exit Generates a new entity. The following chart lists each menu option. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. At this point the current HyperMesh database is updated with the information in the current HyperLaminate session. Exports material and laminate information to a text file.

Displays version.Tools Ply lay-up options Displays the Ply lay-up Options dialog. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Display/hide status bar. and copyright information. Activates the HyperLaminate on-line help. contact. Allows you to select defaults for new Laminates for: • • • • • View Toolbar Status Bar Help About HyperLaminate Help Topics color convention repetitions ply thickness common thickness Display/hide toolbar.0 User’s Guide 307 .

308 HyperMesh 8. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table.HyperLaminate Toolbar The HyperLaminate toolbar is located below the menu bar and its display is controlled by the Toolbar option under the View pull-down menu. Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. The toolbar is shown and described here. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. Cut Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. Icon Name New Function Generates a new entity. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser.

for the active user profile. On launching HyperLaminate. Laminates: SHELL91. for OptiStruct and Nastran: i. Materials: MAT1. MAT2 and MAT8 ii. 2. and laminates in your model. Design Variables: DESVAR b. Materials: MATERIAL and MPDATA ii. Laminates: PCOMP and PCOMPG iii. At the intermediate level are the entity subtypes or card images. provides a vertical tree view of the materials. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. Materials: ABAQUS_MATERIAL ii. The data is presented in a slightly different format for the various user profiles as shown here: OptiStruct & Nastran Ansys Abaqus The Laminate Browser is organized in a three level hierarchy: 1. SOLID46 and SOLID 191 c. Laminates and Design Variables. for Ansys: i.Laminate Browser The Laminate browser. Laminates: SOLIDSECTION.0 User’s Guide 309 . These are: a. At the highest level are the entity types: Materials. SHELLSECTION and SHELLGENERALSECTION Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. for Abaqus: i. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the browser also includes size design variables. laminate definitions and size design variables existing in the HyperMesh database. the Laminate Browser is populated with all the relevant materials. SHELL99.

310 HyperMesh 8. Rename .3. Click New. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Or 1. Or 1. if MAT1 is selected and we right click on it and choose New. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. i. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Duplicate – which creates a copy of the selected entity. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. Right clicking on an already selected (highlighted) branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. A new entity appears under the selected branch. It is then possible to alter and update the entity definition. The selected entity is highlighted. displayed with the names as defined by you. • From the Laminate Browser it is possible to: To create entities: There are three options for creating new entities in HyperLaminate: 1. 2. At the lowest level (entities) three operations are available. Make the desired changes to the entity definition in the Define/Edit pane and click apply or update laminate to update the entity. 2. A new entity appears under the selected branch A default name and id are assigned to each newly created entity. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. • • At the highest level (entity types) no operations are available. At the lowest level are the entities. 2. 2. and Delete – which will delete the selected entity. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. A new entity appears under the selected branch. At the intermediate level (entity sub-types) only one operation is available: New – which will create a new entity of the selected sub-type. a new MAT1 entity is created. on the toolbar. Click the New icon. To review and update entities: 1. Left or right clicking on a branch in the browser selects that branch and it becomes highlighted. Select New from the File pull-down menu.which allows the entity to be renamed.e. . 3. the Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. Right click on selected entity sub-type. When an entity (lowest level branch in the tree hierarchy) is selected.

You can also rename an entity by altering the relevant field in the Define/Edit pane and then clicking on Apply or Update Laminate.0 User’s Guide 311 . 2. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Right click on the selected entity. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. Click Delete. and Delete. 4. Click Yes. Click Duplicate. Right click on selected entity. Duplicate. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. 2. Right click on the selected entity. Click Yes. and Delete.To rename entities: 1. Or 5. Or Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. A confirmation dialog is displayed. To duplicate entities: 1. in the Laminate Browser. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. 3. Duplicate. A duplicate of the entity is created and appears in the Laminate Browser. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. To delete entities: There are three options for deleting entities in HyperLaminate: 1. Enter the desired new name in the text box. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. 7. Select Delete from the Edit pull-down menu. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. 3. The name of the selected entity. 6. 2. Click Rename. Duplicate. A confirmation dialog is displayed. 4. and Delete. 3. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. switches to a text box.

either complete their definition (by clicking Edit – which takes you to the HyperMesh material card previewer) or exit and restart HyperLaminate (in which case the undefined materials are purged). . Note: Abaqus materials that are created but not defined (they appear in a red font in Laminate Browser) may not be deleted. 312 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . as they do not really exist.8. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Click the Delete icon. on the toolbar. Click Yes. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. A confirmation dialog is displayed. To delete these undefined materials. 9. 10.

Nastran and Ansys materials. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). all material property information for the selected material may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. allows you to edit the definition of the selected entity. the central pane of the HyperLaminate window. The configuration of the Define/Edit pane differs for different user profiles and sub-types (card images). To reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. Below are screenshots showing the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct MAT8 definition and an Ansys MATERIAL definition: OptiStruct – Materials – MAT8 Ansys – Materials – MATERIAL Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 313 .Define/Edit Pane The Define/Edit Pane. Materials For OptiStruct. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Define/Edit pane is populated with the current definitions. Once the desired changes have been made.

where you can review and alter the definition of the selected material. Clicking the Edit button takes you to the material card previewer in the HyperMesh GUI. Once you has finished reviewing/editing the material. HyperMesh component color. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus SOLIDSECTION laminate is shown here: Abaqus – Laminates – SOLIDSECTION 314 HyperMesh 8. the Define/Edit pane allows the laminate name. As with the other user profiles. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus material is shown here: Abaqus – Materials – ABAQUS_MATERIAL Laminates For Laminates. but to fully define the material properties they must click the Edit button.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .For Abaqus materials users may rename or redefine the color of the material in the Define/Edit pane. to reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. clicking return will return you to the HyperLaminate GUI. This is for all supported user profiles and laminate sub-types. stacking sequence convention and the ply lay-up order to be edited.

Total: The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate in its entirety. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Ansys SHELL99 laminate with variable ply thickness is shown here: Ansys – Laminates – SHELL99 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. d. 90. b. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half.There are a number of options for Convention for the stacking sequence: a. The number of repetitions is given by the Repetitions: field (which is activated when this Convention is chosen). variable ply thickness allows up to 4 nodal thicknesses to be defined for each ply. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. 180. Symmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. 270 and 360 remain as 0. Repeat: The Ply lay-up order table describes a single sub-laminate which is repeated a number of times. Symmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). 90. The midlayer is not reflected. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. e. The midlayer is not reflected. 90. the total number of plies is always odd. 180. It is possible to choose between constant and variable ply thickness for certain user profiles. Antisymmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate.0 User’s Guide 315 . The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. 270 and 360 respectively). The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. 270 and 360 respectively). Antisymmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). the total number of plies is always odd. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. 180. 90. Due to the midlayer. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. c. f. 180. Due to the midlayer. 270 and 360 remain as 0.

It is also possible to choose a common thickness for all plies. by checking the Failure Theory check-box. Rows are always pasted above the selected rows. Rows may be cut. It is possible to set the SOUT field individually for each row. using the toolbar. Rows are added to the table by completing the Add/Update plies: entry fields and clicking the Add New Ply button. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Changes can be made to the Add/Update plies: fields and Update Selection can be clicked to update the selected rows with the updated information (no changes occur to the selected rows for blank fields). either above or below selected rows (choose from the Above Selected or Below Selected radio buttons). Each row of the Ply lay-up order table has an SOUT field. select other rows (alternatively multiple rows may be selected with the Shift key held down.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct PCOMPG laminate is shown below: OptiStruct – Laminates – PCOMPG 316 HyperMesh 8. Blank fields indicate that not all of the selected rows contain the same values for that field. Ctrl+c. or repetitions field and based on the selected Convention). by clicking the Insert New Ply button. common thickness gives every ply in the laminate the same thickness. Select multiple rows by selecting one row and then. this will keep the current selection and add all the rows between the current selection and the newly selected row). when multiple rows are selected the clipboard contents are pasted above each selected row. It is also possible to edit multiple rows at once. Select multiple rows as described in the previous paragraph. All fields in the Ply lay-up order table may be edited. copied. Once one or more SOUT fields are set to YES it is possible to activate failure theory calculation. pasted or deleted to/from the table. which when set to YES includes the plies described by that row in the stress output and the failure theory calculation. or for all rows at once through the Output ply stress results: field under the Stress and failure theory output: heading. with the Ctrl key held down. the Add/Update plies: fields are populated with the information common to the selected rows. selecting a theory from the pull-down list and defining an Interlaminar shear allowable: value. When multiple rows are selected. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate from the bottom ply (most negative Z) moving upwards (increasing in positive Z direction). Each row of the table defines the material. ply thickness and ply orientation for a number of plies (defined by the No. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to request stress and failure theory output. Rows may be inserted in the table.

Design Variables For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the DESVAR design variable card is supported in HyperLaminate. .0 User’s Guide 317 . b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. Click Update Laminate to apply all the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. Checking the Optimization check-box expands the Ply 0 lay-up order table. As this id should not be repeated within the same laminate. A new material appears under the selected branch. All information for the selected design variable may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. A new material appears under the selected branch. you can click the Clear button. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. adding extra fields to the right of the Thickness T1 and Orientation fields. Once the desired changes have been made. of repetitions field is not available for PCOMPG. b) Click the new icon. To define a new material: 1. This field is used to assign a global ply id to a ply definition (the global ply id is a post-processing aid). c) Click New. To reset all design variable fields to their default values. b) Right click on selected material sub-type. A new material appears under the selected branch. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. The newly created material is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected material sub-type. Use one of the following three methods to create a new material in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to assign a design variable to a thickness or orientation field in the Ply lay-up order table.The Ply lay-up order table for the OptiStruct and Nastran PCOMPG laminate sub-type is different from other laminate subtypes in that it has a GPLYID field. 2. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). the No. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. For PCOMPG each row in the Ply lay-up order table should represent a single ply so only the Total stacking convention should be used for PCOMPG. Selecting a design variable to the right of a thickness or orientation assigns the selected design variable to that thickness or orientation. Design variables may be selected in these extra fields. A default name and id are assigned to newly created materials. on the toolbar. but this is not enforced in the GUI.

Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. Click return. using the toolbar. Provide the material definition by filling in the entry fields in the Define/Edit pane. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Click on Edit and provide the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. Click Apply to save the changes. The final material definition is displayed in the Review tab. Also it is not possible to create a new Abaqus material if an undefined material definition already exists (appears in a red font in Laminate Browser). 2. 4. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. Select the material to be edited from the Laminate Browser. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. 3. Ctrl+c. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected material definition. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. 2. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. 3. copied. 3. 2. 5. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. For the Abaqus user profile: 1. Data may be cut.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For the OptiStruct. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to zero. 318 HyperMesh 8. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette.For the OptiStruct. Note: It is not possible to rename an Abaqus material until after it has been defined (edited). To review or modify an existing material: 1.

Click on Edit to see the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. Click Apply to save the changes. 6. on the toolbar. 5. To define a new laminate: 1. A default name and id are assigned to newly created laminates. 3. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. Use one of the following three methods to create a new laminate in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate Browser. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu.0 User’s Guide 319 . b) Click the new icon. Make all desired changes to the material definition in the card previewer. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. c) Click New. Click return. 4. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Laminate name: field or the component color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. 4.For the Abaqus user profile: 1. The newly created laminate is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected laminate sub-type. For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles define the Stress and failure theory output: information as desired. 2. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. 2. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser.

a) For Convention:. select one of the following stacking sequence conventions. the Ply lay-up order table includes a single thickness column: Thickness T1 If Variable is selected. Note: The option to switch between constant or variable thickness is only available for certain laminate sub-types. 320 HyperMesh 8. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. This is governed by the stacking convention and the number of repetitions. Total Symmetric Antisymmetric Symmetric-Midlayer Antisymmetric-Midlayer Repeat If you select Repeat. using the toolbar. 6. if you now uncheck the box.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Note: Note: Rows are always pasted above selected rows. you can check the Common Thickness box and specify a thickness to be used by all the entry rows. Ctrl+c. Complete the Ply lay-up order table. row 3 will be pasted as row 8. they will be pasted as sequential rows. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. pasted or deleted. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Having checked the Common Thickness box and entered a common thickness value. Data may be cut. using the toolbar. row 1 will be pasted as row 7. Eg. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). pasted or deleted to/from selected fields. specify how many times you want to repeat the entire block of entry rows. If Constant is selected. Ctrl+c. 8. b) For Ply thickness:. select Constant or Variable. copied. the Ply lay-up order table includes multiple thickness columns: Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness T1 T2 T3 T4 c) For Constant ply thickness. Note: 7. When multiple non-sequential rows are copied and then pasted. copied. 10. The number of rows in the table is not the number of plies. but are now editable. 9. Table rows may also be cut.5. If rows 1 and 3 are copied and pasted at row 7. and what was row 7 will now be row 9. Add/Insert rows by completing the Add/Update plies: fields and clicking Add New Ply or Insert New Ply (for Insert New Ply it is possible to choose to insert the ply above or below the selected rows). For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to define thickness and orientation fields in the Ply lay-up order table as designable and to assign design variables to them. the thickness fields retain the common thickness value. For all user profiles define the Stacking sequence convention: information.

where a move limit value other than the default of 0. c) Click New. Checking the Move limit box activates the Move limit field. To define a new design variable: Design variables are only supported for the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles.5 may be entered. . 3. 4. (only subtype available is DESVAR). A new design variable appears under the selected branch. lower bound and upper bound values for the design variable can be entered in the appropriate data fields. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 321 . 5. The newly created design variable is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration. 2. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). (only subtype available is DESVAR). The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected laminate definition. (See To define a new laminate). b) Click the new icon. 1. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. (only subtype available is DESVAR). A new design varaible appears under the selected branch. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. Select the laminate to be edited from the Laminate Browser. Initial. Use one of the following three methods to create a new design variable in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate Browser. A default name and id are assigned to newly created design variables. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Desvar: field. The laminate definition may be modified in the Define/Edit pane in a manner similar to defining a new laminate. 6. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. 3. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. 2. on the toolbar. where the id of a discrete value list may be entered. 7.To review and modify an existing laminate: 1. Checking the Ddval ID box activates the Ddval ID field. A new design variable appears under the selected branch.

Data may be cut. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. 322 HyperMesh 8.To review and modify an existing design variable: 1. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. 3. using the toolbar. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. copied. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). 2. Select the design variable to be edited from the Laminate Browser. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected design variable definition.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Ctrl+c. The final design variable definition is displayed in the Review tab. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to their default values.

a Review tab and a Stiffness/Material Matrix tab. This is followed by a description of the laminate. so this information is only updated when the Update Laminates button is clicked. information for the selected design variable is displayed in the Review pane. thickness and orientation. Laminates For laminate definitions for all user profiles. allows you to review the information pertaining to the selected entity. Information displayed on these tabs is only for the saved laminate definition. the review pane has two tabs. these are used by many finite element solvers to represent the laminated composite as a homogenized shell. The first set of matrices are the composite shell stiffness matrices. Design Variables For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles.Review Pane The Review Pane. Materials For OptiStruct. the total number of plies in the laminate and the total thickness of the laminate. The second set of matrices are the equivalent material matrices. The Review tab is headed by the laminate name. For Abaqus materials. no information is displayed in the Review pane. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. more commonly referred to as the ABD matrices.0 User’s Guide 323 . The Stiffness/Material Matrix tab provides the two sets of matrices. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. Nastran and Ansys materials. the right-hand pane of the HyperLaminate window. all material property information for the selected material is displayed in the Review pane. showing a graphical representation each ply’s orientation and listing the referenced material. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Review pane is displays the current definition of that entity. listing the plies in order from the bottom ply (most negative z).

When the block is displayed. These axes serve as a reminder of the i." All of these dead cells are placed in walls. the block is created with a default size of ten percent larger than the model in each direction (the size of a model is determined by its nodes). Note: The color of a block may be modified at any time by using the update function on the FD blocks panel.0 in each direction. structured mesh in a cubic volume around your model. and dead cell information as an analysis input deck by using the HyperMesh template system. You cannot change the shape of the finite difference block after you create the structured mesh without destroying all the grid lines. The panels in this module allow you to intersect your finite element shell model with a finite difference block. and k directions of the block.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Finite Difference Module The Finite Difference module allows you to perform heat transfer. you can export the grid. 324 HyperMesh 8. the outer boundary of the volume. the block is created with the default bounds of -10. Finite difference blocks are built performing the following steps: Creating a Finite Difference Block The first step in creating a finite difference block is to create the block. wall. If a finite element model is currently loaded. After you create a finite difference block. three-dimensional. fluid flow. Cylindrical and spherical volumes are not supported in the current release. and a block may contain multiple walls of dead cells. Always finalize the size of your block before beginning the next phase. creating "dead cells. j. and solidification processes by creating an orthogonal. You can adjust the size of the block by using the functions on the FD blocks panel. Otherwise. a small set of coordinate axes is displayed at the corner of the block. chemical reaction.0 and 110.

Asks for confirmation before proceeding. After you create a wall.or two-dimensional element intersects any part of a cell.0 User’s Guide 325 . Deletes the specified wall. The intersection and modification of live and dead cells is done in the FD walls panel. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. Intersecting Elements with Cells The intersection of grid lines in the i. respectively.Creating a Structured Mesh After you create a block. and displayed in the current wall color. You may then select which walls to display and turn off by using the left or right mouse button. or k nodes has been selected. you create a structured mesh in the block by creating grid lines in the i. based on whether i nodes. The wall functions are described below: create delete update delete all display Creates a new wall with the name and color specified in wall = and color. each cell within a block is live. Grid lines are created in one direction at a time. which creates dead cells wherever a one. Note: Before any wall operation is begun. You must create a wall before you create dead cells. Cells that alter the flow are known as dead cells. Cells that intersect an element are placed into the current wall. depending upon the restrictions enforced by the analysis code being used. all or part of the finite element model may be intersected with the cells in the finite difference block. the block must be selected by using the block = menu item. Displays a list of all walls in the block. A cell may exist in only one wall. Deletes all existing walls. and k directions creates a large number of small cubic volumes called cells. After you create a mesh. See the FD nodes panel for more information. Solid elements are currently not supported in the interse ction operation. All the one-and two-dimensional elements selected are intersected with the cells in the current block. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Updates the color of an existing wall. HyperMesh allows you to automatically intersect a finite element model with the cells in a finite difference block. j. meaning that the cell does not alter the flow being studied. which also contains all the functions you can use to manipulate walls. j. To intersect the model with the cells. Initially. and k directions. marked as dead. select the desired elements and click intersect. j nodes. you can verify the aspect ratio or expansion ratio limits.

use the cursor to select the cells to add or remove. j. it is easier to see which cells are dead. The edit cells function allows you to add individual cells to the current wall and mark them as dead. all dead cells are displayed in the color of the wall to which they belong. Creating Finite Difference Hidden Line Plots Hidden line plots of cells in a finite difference block are useful in the verification phase of a finite difference model. Otherwise. j. Cells do not have a visible pick handle and must be selected at the corner closest to the origin of the block. if planar mode is used to display one or more of the planes of cells. and k are at their minimum values. you can edit any cell in the block. 326 HyperMesh 8. they are highlighted. and k directions must be modified to provide the plotting color for cells in each plane. you must click hidden line again to display the new color. or by planes. It is possible to step through the model. plane-by-plane. When the entire block is plotted. Click the left mouse button to add cells and the right mouse button to remove cells from a wall. where the block coordinate axes are located. The FD walls panel allows you to edit cells. by volumes. the color menu items in the i. Because cells have no visible pick handle. After edit cells is selected. by using the next and prev menu functions. and i. If you change the color of a plane. since only dead cells are plotted. then only cells in the currently displayed plane(s) may be edited.Modifying Cells Cells may be changed from live to dead or dead to live individually. or remove cells from the current wall and mark the cells as live. However.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If the block is displayed in planar mode. When cells are selected.

When elems is selected. Comments Loads on mesh and loads on geometry can be displayed together (similar to the simultaneous display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component). using the load on geom panel. and load collectors may contain one type or both types simultaneously. This means that you can control the display of both types of loads independently. flux. One load collector stores both loads on geometry and loads on mesh. Automatically. The mesh (or multiple meshes) is associated with the geometrical entities to which the loads on geometry have been applied. There are two ways to map loads on geometry to the mesh associated with this geometry (loads on mesh): • • Manually. pressures. by exporting the FE deck. The disp (display) panel allows separate or simultaneous visualization of loads on mesh and loads on geometry. A geometrical entity can be associated with one mesh or multiple meshes (HyperMesh component or components) and/or with one load collector or multiple load collectors. After remeshing. and accels. One advantage is that you can remesh a model without deleting complicated loads or boundary conditions. and click the toggle to select elems or geoms. When geoms is selected. velocities. loads or boundary conditions that have been applied to geometrical entities can be remapped to the new mesh. constraints. using the files panel/export sub-panel. temperatures. See Exporting Loads for more information. These are the same panels used to apply loads to a mesh.0 User’s Guide 327 . Each load type is stored in a dedicated section of the same load collector. you control the display of loads applied to geometric entities. all and reverse buttons to assist in selecting which loadcols should be displayed. To visualize loads on mesh and/or loads on geometry. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can apply loads to geometry by using the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. moments. from the display panel (accessed via the toolbar) select loadcols from the switch.Loads on Geometry HyperMesh allows you to apply loads to geometrical entities and map them to the FE mesh using the load on geom panel on the Analysis Page. Use the none. you control the display of loads applied to elements.

or a surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Loads applied to mesh (nodes or element). a line.Terminology and Definitions geometrical entities loads on geometry or geometry loads loads on mesh or mesh loads A point. The process of mapping geometrical loads to mesh loads. Loads can be applied directly to mesh or applied by mapping them from loads on geometry. The loads are mapped from the geometrical entities (to which the geometrical loads are applied) to the mesh that is associated with the geometrical entities. Loads applied to geometrical entities. load mapping 328 HyperMesh 8.

and accels. temperatures velocities Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. first create a load collector in which the loads applied to geometrical entities will be stored. points. HyperMesh stores the loads/boundary conditions in the database and displays them in the graphical window. access a HyperMesh load panel (e. 2. and choose the create sub-panel. constraints. flux. reviewing. lines and surfaces. temperatures. and click create. velocities. select a geometrical entity on which the loads will be applied (points. or surfaces) using the panel selection box.0 User’s Guide 329 . The process includes two basic steps.) located on the Analysis Page. etc. Applying loads to the geometry using one of the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. moments. lines and surfaces.Application of Loads to Geometry You can apply loads to geometrical entities in a way similar to the manner in which loads are applied to mesh. The following chart specifies the geometrical entities to which loads can be applied. To apply a load to a geometrical entity.g. Creating a load collector by using the collector panel. pressures. forces. 1. Panel accels constraints flux forces moments pressures Geometrical Entities points. constraints. points.g. lines and surfaces. lines. node). lines and surfaces. Third. define the load or boundary condition parameters in the same way you would for the application of the load or boundary condition on a FE mesh entity (e. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. points points points surfaces nodes on edge: lines (for 2-D solid elements) nodes on face: surfaces (for 3-D solid elements) points. in each of the load application panels listed above. Next. and updating loads and constraints.

all the loads on geometry that have not been mapped (if any). only the loads on mesh are exported. and loads on mesh that have been mapped from loads on geometry. are mapped to loads on mesh and all the loads on mesh are exported. The loads on mesh that are exported may have been applied directly to mesh. or both.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The basic length of the arrow also differs. loads on mesh that have been applied directly to mesh. 330 HyperMesh 8. All the loads on mesh (both displayed and hidden) that are associated with the displayed loads on geometry are exported as well. If any loads on geometry are displayed and have not been mapped. all the displayed loads on mesh are exported. a single arrow for each geometrical entity represents loads on geometry. When exporting the model using an export template. For the same arrow magnitude percentage setting or uniform size setting within the load application panels. elems controls the display of loads on mesh and geom controls the display of loads on geometry.hm file. Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh The disp (display) panel allows you to visualize loads on mesh and loads on geometry either individually or together by setting the collector type to loadcols and using the toggle between elems and geoms. mapped from geometry to mesh. Note: A major graphical display difference between loads on geometry and loads on mesh is the density of the arrows. When saving the model as a HyperMesh database. an arrow that represents a load on geometry is longer than arrows representing loads on mesh.Exporting Loads HyperMesh sessions can contain loads on geometry. A simultaneous display is similar to the display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component. The all/displayed toggle on the export sub-panel on the file panel allows you to determine which loads are exported. If all is selected. they will automatically be mapped to loads on mesh and exported as well. If displayed is selected. Multiple arrows represent loads on mesh (one arrow per node or element). all load types are saved and are retrieved when you open the .

NASTRAN. When you enter data in the dialog you should begin with the first field and proceed.0 User’s Guide 331 . to the next field below.. Aerodynamic pressure loading and temperatures computed in a CFD analysis and written out either in TECPLOT 4. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory. dlm. on the macro menu.0 format or at spatial coordinates is mapped to a structural analysis mesh in OPTISTRUCT. until all data has been entered.Distributed Load Mapper The Distributed Load Mapper (DLM) macro enables you to perform structural finite element analyses by incorporating the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis.mac. in order. ABAQUS. or ANSYS format. ABAQUS. The Distributed Load Mapper macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file. or ANSYS input file format) Select a data type and a mapping method Set the scale factors Set the mapping algorithm Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.. The Distributed Load Mapper dialog is displayed when you click DLM. NASTRAN. Entering data in the Distributed Load Mapper dialog requires the following steps: • • • • • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT.

the CFD base model and the structural finite element model must exist in the same position in coordinate space.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . used to post-process in Altair HyperView. 332 HyperMesh 8. Examples of Typical Input Files • • Computational fluid dynamics results database file. wing_cfd_model_dynain • A DLM specific file. This file is related to the base CFD model. DLM Input and Output Files It is useful to understand the input and output files related to a DLM session. The only exception to this is when some of the DLM transformation functions are used correctly and appropriately through their selection in the DLM interface.dat Examples of Typical Output Files • A DLM specific file. A valid HyperWorks/HyperMesh license must be available on the local system or network for the DLM mapping algorithms to run. for example. For instance. one of the following conditions must exist: • • The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing outward from the wings outer surface. for example. structural_model_dynain • • A Tecplot 4. structural_model_tecplot. The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing inward from the wings outer surface. This file is related to the structural input model. D:\dlm_map_files\wing_cfd_model. These files are always called hmimp. The element normals of both the CFD mesh and the structural analysis mesh must be consistent in that all the elements should be aligned and pointing in a common direction.dat One file containing all the mapping parameters and selections detailed in the DLM interface. D:\dlm_map_files\structural_model.0 format file related to the structural input model.Assumptions Regarding the DLM Interface and Mapping Process In order to map effectively.dat Structural analysis model file. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. if you are mapping a pressure loading on a wing structure.

y. The pressure or temperature data at spatial coordinates must be distributed densely enough to have approximately one data point for each element of the structural model.098905325E+00 1.960968852E+00 4. and z coordinates first. Click Open.e. followed by the pressure or temperature value each data occupying 16 characters and a space separating them.356568158E-01-8. i. Each row should show the x. The file is placed in the same directory as the CFD database and takes its name from the parent file.0 User’s Guide 333 .. a warning message is displayed.926119655E-02 1. .357369840E-01-8.095489740E+00 .854129910E-02 1.Load an input file containing CFD analysis results 1.0 BLOCK and POINT data formats DLM specific input file format (files which end filename_dynain) Measured pressure or temperature at xyz coordinates If the selected file is not in a DLM appropriate format. filename_dynain.970389962E+00 4. If the CFD file is in a Tecplot format. Note: • • • DLM accepts three input file formats: Tecplot 4.452460170E-02 1. a DLM specific file is created so that the data being mapped can be visualized in Altair HyperView.960631967E+00 4.. click Browse. Use the browser to locate a file. The data must be prescribed in a fixed format. #ENDDATA Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2.548135996E-01-8. . . For Computational fluid dynamics results database file:. The file also must have a header and footer as shown below: #XYZDATA #pressure 1.105462790E+00 1.

334 HyperMesh 8. all the data mapped during the DLM session is multiplied by a factor of 1. Note: The data from the base CFD model is superimposed onto this model through the mapping process. and Z coordinates of all the nodal locations in the base CFD model is scaled. filename_dynain. For CFD result scaling:. Use the browser to locate a file. The default is 1. 3. These scaled values are output to the structural model data file in the PLOAD card section.. ABAQUS. select Element nodes or Element centroids. For example. The file is placed in the same directory as the structural model database and takes its name from the parent file.Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. 2. Set the scale factor 1. If a value of 200 is entered for CFD model scaling:. This could be used to apply a safety factor to the results. For Mapping method:. The PLOAD card output to the structural model files is altered appropriately to the selected nodal or elemental configuration. or ANSYS input deck. 2. These data parameters are read into the interface when you load the base CFD model file (Load an input file containing CFD analysis results).500. if the CFD result scale factor is 1. Y. This would ensure that the base CFD model would match and be positioned in the same Cartesian space as the structural analysis model. The data type is read from the information in the header block of the base CFD file. The data can either be mapped and related to the nodes of each element in the structural model. NASTRAN. The default value is 1. or ANSYS input file format) 1.e. which would leave the coordinates of the base CFD model unchanged prior to mapping. For CFD model scaling:. .000.. The mapped data written to structural analysis model files can relate to two different locations on the finite elements of the model. The base CFD model file may contain up to seven different data types. ABAQUS. if dimensional reduction/scaling was used in the actual CFD analysis. if the XYZ dimensions of the model were scaled to 1/200 of the actual size and submitted for analysis. Click Open. enter a scale factor to physically scale the base CFD analysis model. For example. enter a scale factor by which to increase or decrease the results. 2. or to simply investigate the effects of scaling the load upon the model.00 (no scaling). click Browse. i.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For Data parameter mapped:. it is appended to the structural model input file in the form of PLOAD or TEMP cards appended to the end of the OPTISTRUCT. the X. For Structural analysis model file:. or to the element centroids of each quadrilateral or triangular element in the structural mesh. Select a data type and a mapping method 1. select the data type to be mapped. A DLM-specific formatted file is written out for post-processing in Altair HyperView. Once the data is mapped.500. NASTRAN.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For Mapping algorithm:.Set the mapping algorithm 1. and the DLM dialog closes upon completion of the mapping process. The default mapping algorithm.0 User’s Guide 335 . The mapping algorithms are accessed. Accepts whichever is larger in magnitude. the mapping process runs. for instance. Maxima Minima Extrema Averaged extrema Delaunay-O’C 2. Takes the maximum and minimum of the data points captured in the proximity of the data location being mapped to. and takes an average of these two values. Selects the maximum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. Click OK. Selects the minimum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. select one of the following options: Averaged Takes the data and average for data points captured in the proximity of the structural data position being mapped to. the Modulus value of the data points captured in the vicinity of the element/nodal location being mapped to.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering operands may be input in the following forms: corresponds to 1.y.0 corresponds to 1. on the macro menu. The operators for which the algorithms are programmed are listed below: Programmed Operators: Unary minus ^ Power of ln Natural Log log Log to the base 10 sin sine cos cosine tan tangent asin arcsine acos arccosine atan arctangent exp Exponential / division * Multiplication + Addition Subtraction Acceptable 1 1..Mathematical Loading Distributed pressure loads can be created at nodes via mathematical loading functions using the Mathematical Loading macro. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory. This field allows you to enter an equation string using standard spreadsheet inputs for the various operators and operands.z) = The browser allows you to select the structural model in NASTRAN format on which to apply a mathematical function.. The Mathematical Loading dialog is displayed when you click Math.0 Altair Engineering . Mathematical Loading dialog The Mathematical Loading macro requires the following input: Structural analysis model file: Equation string fn(x.mac. The Mathematical Loading macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file.0 10e-01 336 HyperMesh 8. dlm.0 corresponds to 1.

However unrecognized characters and functions will cause the loading to yield unacceptable results.0 x corresponds to the coordinate position x of the nodes of the model y corresponds to the coordinate position y of the nodes of the model z corresponds to the coordinate position z of the nodes of the model The following input rules apply: • Equation strings should always have balanced parentheses to ensure that the logic of the math expression is maintained. The dialog informs you when there is an error in this instance.0 User’s Guide 337 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.1e+01 corresponds to 1. use the Field Loads macro on the Geom/Mesh macro menu.0. • Note: To create pressure loads at element centroids via mathematical functions. Spaces and a mixture of uppercase and lower case letters are acceptable.

Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at an element. Each data type found in a simulation contains a group of results of the same type. phase. and may contain a subset of the total model. If this occurs. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. offset) at an element. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. if you run a linear statics problem and apply three different loading conditions to your model. deformed. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. In order to complete the post-processing function being executed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. Stores one floating point value at a node. and vector plots. Data types are one of the forms described below: nodal displacement nodal value Stores three floating point values at a node.Post-Processing Analysis The HyperMesh post-processing functions allow you to review the results files and databases generated by external codes. Each simulation stores the results for a model as it responds to a loading condition. HyperMesh prints a message indicating that results for some of the entities requested were not found in the database. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at a node. HyperMesh Results Database The structure of a results database allows you to access results by a method similar to that of the analysis code. each load step (the response of the model to each incremental amount of load applied) translates to a simulation. If you run a nonlinear job. Stores one floating point value at an element. 338 HyperMesh 8. offset) at a node. phase. Each simulation in the results database is further subdivided into data types. A results database is divided into sections called simulations. element value complex nodal displacement complex nodal value complex element value complex nodal von Mises complex element von Mises Data types are not required to contain results for every node or element in the model. This translation is done using result translators. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. HyperMesh sets the results values needed for that function to zero for all of the nodes or elements that are missing. A data type may contain only one type of result. For example. refer to the individual translators in the Interface help system. Results files can be translated into HyperMesh results databases which are then read into HyperMesh for post-processing. each simulation in a results file may contain two data types: displacements and von Mises stress. if this is appropriate. the results file generated by the translator contains three simulations. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at an element. assigned. This section describes the structure of a HyperMesh results database and explains how to use the post-processing functions to create contour. for more information. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. For example.

enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. The deforming frames are calculated based on a sinusoidal function. In the global panel.Specifying the Results File In order to perform post-processing functions. for results file:. to select a file using the browser. Creating Animations The HyperMesh animation functions allow you to view your model structure in motion. Transient animation sequences are generated in the transient panel. The three types of animation include linear. HyperMesh uses a range of simulations. select the results sub-panel. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. Linear animation is usually selected when results are from a static analysis. you must first specify the name and location of the HyperMesh results database. It is from the data contained with the nodal displacement records that HyperMesh is able to calculate the deformed geometry of the structure. Modal animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts and ends with the original position of the structure. The selected simulation must have a data type in it that contains nodal displacement records.. HyperMesh uses only one simulation and this simulation must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. Modal Transient The selected simulations must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records in order for HyperMesh to create an animation sequence. In this case. There are two ways to select a results file: • • From the files panel. For linear and modal animation. modal. each of the simulations used in the animation sequence must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. Linear animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. Transient animation displays the structure in its timestep positions as calculated by the analysis code. Creating Deformed Geometry Plots The deformed panel allows you to display the deformed geometry of your model statically. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Modal animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. and for file:. and transient. in either wire frame or hidden line mode. Modal animation is most useful for displaying mode shapes.. An appropriate number of frames are linearly interpolated between the first and the last positions.. Linear Linear animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts with the original position of the structure and ends with the fully deformed position of the structure. Transient animation is used to animate the transient response of a structure..0 User’s Guide 339 . to select a file using the browser. HyperMesh calculates the deformed geometry of the structure from the data contained within the nodal displacement records. For transient animation.

so no further calculations are required. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. The bands of color are created by calculating a value for each node in the model and then interpolating across each element. nodal values and displacements The results are stored at the nodes. In order to accomplish this. Vector plots are used to determine the direction of movement and allow you to verify the location of the center of rotation of a model. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when nodal values or nodal displacements are being used to create an assigned plot. HyperMesh can create the contour plot without modifying any of the values in the results file. this is accomplished by adding the results at each node and dividing by the number of nodes on the element. Creating Contour Plots The contour function in the contour panel generates color bands on a model. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the contour plot. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the assigned plot. The elements are then displayed in the solid color assigned to them. This allows you to display elements that have values within a specified range. When the assign function is performed. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the centroid of the elements. In order to accomplish this. element values The results are already stored at the centroid of the element. See the vector plot panel for more information. based on the values found in the results file. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when element centroid values are used to create a contour plot. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. For each element. The values are located at the centroid of the element.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . element values1 Creating Assigned Plots The assign function in the contour panel assigns a color to each element in the model. nodal values and displacements 340 HyperMesh 8. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. When a contour function is performed. HyperMesh averages the centroidal element values to the nodes of the elements. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the nodes of the elements. HyperMesh averages the results at the nodes to the centroid of the elements. based on the values in the results file.Creating Vector Plots A vector plot displays the model with a vector at each node that has a result-based direction and magnitude.

click font and select the size font you want to use in the descriptor. and value of the node or element are displayed in the menu area. convenient way of viewing the results of a large number of elements.Adding Plot Identification After you create a results-based plot. and relocate the legend and the descriptor. Temporary titles can be added to each type of plot by entering a title in the title = field in the contour panel. click within the descriptor to access the title edit panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. change the font size. When you want to determine the actual value that an analysis code has calculated for a node or element. you can select the node or element after the results-based plot has been created. HyperMesh creates the "descriptor" in order to display the simulation and data type that were used to create the plot. modify the colors used in the legend. Functions on this panel allow you to move the legend to a different location on the screen. To modify the descriptor. and also change the colors used in the legend that correspond to the model. simulation and data type. After you enter the title and create the plot. reverse the colors of the legend. the descriptor is located in the upper left-hand corner of the plot above the legend. change the color of the text in the legend. the temporary title is displayed on the upper left side of the screen. By default. To modify a legend.0 User’s Guide 341 . HyperMesh plots a legend if the results-based plot created requires it. you can add titles. Inspecting the Results A contour or assigned plot provides a fast. click within the displayed legend to access the legend edit panel. click color to change the color of the text of the descriptor. The ID.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which are referred to as curves. 342 HyperMesh 8. Information about curves is stored in curve collectors. Information about xy plots is stored in plot collectors. A curve may appear on more than one plot at a time and there is no limit to the number of curves that a HyperMesh database may contain. You can create standard plots or dual plots that show real /imaginary or phase/magnitude data. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. This section introduces the functions that are available in the xy plots module. you must assign the curve collector to a plot. The plot may contain any number of curves. which are referred to as plots. Procedures for creating and editing xy plots and curves include: • • • • • • • • • • • Creating an XY Plot Modifying XY Plots Working with Multiple XY Plots Modifying Multiple XY Plots Creating Curves on XY Plots Reading Curves from an ASCII File Creating Analysis Based Curves Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions Modifying Curve Attributes Displaying Selected Curves on Plots In addition. There is no limit to the number of plot collectors that a HyperMesh database may contain.XY Plotting The functions in the xy plots module allow you to study the relationships between data vectors in results files. Plots maintain a list of pointers to curves that are to be displayed on the plot. To display a curve.

You can also change the color and font size used to display these entities. The grid labels panel allows you to change the color. Grid labels appear along the x and y axes in the plot (tick marks). You may also specify whether the border is displayed and the size of the margin between the border and the plot. Generates a curve from the currently-selected results file. and zoom out. thickness of the grid lines. The curve attribs panel allows you to change the color. etc. thickness. line style. circle zoom. axis scaling border curve attribs edit curves grid attribs grid labels integrate legend plot titles plots query curves read curves rename results curves simple math In addition. Allows you to create an xy plot and assign curves to the xy plot. and the line style (solid.0 User’s Guide 343 .). The grid attribs panel allows you to change the color. Creates and modifies the curves in the database. To access the xy plots module. The border panel allows you to change the thickness and color of the border around the plot. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. Allows you to determine the coordinate values of points in a curve. The axis scaling panel allows you to modify the starting and ending values of the plot axes.XY Plots Module The xy plots module is a group of panels that perform operations on plots and the curves displayed on those plots. This panel allows you to read data vectors from files as well as perform advanced mathematical operations on curves. and the margin displayed around the grid lines. and label. font. dashed. and number of significant places in the labels. Reads curves from an ASCII file. marker style (used to indicate the point location). You can set the values explicitly or implicitly by using the panel functions such as find curves. The xy plotting panels are described below: axis labels The axis labels panel allows you to modify the x and y axes titles and labels. you can change the color and font size used to display these entities. subtitle. In addition. You can apply a scaling factor to the original data points. select xy plots on the Post page of the main menu. The legend panel allows you to change the location and the font used to display the legend. Allows you to perform simple mathematical calculations on a curve. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Allows you to rename curves. You can also change the curve title that appears in the legend. Calculates and displays the integral of a curve. The plot titles panel allows you to change the plot title.

You can modify one plot so that it has the desired values. To modify an xy plot. Modifying an XY Plot After you create an xy plot. HyperMesh immediately displays the update. This process also applies to curves. HyperMesh initially assigns default values to the xy plot attributes. Plot attributes include the title. Each time a panel in the xy plots module is accessed. in one step. Every time you change the current xy plot. or width of the border. you may wish to change the axis titles so that they are all the same. and also the margin and border around the xy plot. and change the attribute in the panel. Access this panel by pressing the w key. subtitle. the plot = field allows you to select one plot and the plots entity selector allows you to select multiple plots. For example. or add a title to the plot. and labels. you can change the color. thickness. The first step in the process of creating an xy plot is to use the plots panel to name and create an xy plot collector. This allows you to control multiple plots by resizing and moving plots around the screen. the grid labels and grid attributes. and then apply those modifications to the other plots. Working with Multiple XY Plots HyperMesh places every xy plot within a window. select the panel that applies to the attribute you want to change. the panels in the xy plots module are updated to reflect the change.Creating an XY Plot Each xy plot window is assigned a name when you create it. or a subset of the plots. These attributes can be adjusted before or after you add curves to the plot. Modifying Multiple XY Plots When several plots are contained within a database. HyperMesh displays the existing values of the current xy plot (the plot listed after plot =) in the data entry fields in the panel. XY plot window placement is controlled with the Windows panel. 344 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . select the plot you want to change. When you modify xy plots using the panels of the xy plots module. you may wish to modify one of the values on all of the plots. After each change.

The block ends with an ENDDATA statement. . .0 User’s Guide 345 . You can also apply external filters to curves in this panel. Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Curves can be created using simple math operators in the simple math panel. ENDDATA XYDATA. or export the curve.TITLE X1. there are two blocks of data. Y1 X2. Creating Analysis-Based Curves Analysis-based curves are generated from the HyperMesh binary results file. the title assigned to the curve. ENDDATA Each curve in the file is defined in a block format. which is displayed in the legend. using the standard HyperMesh curve data file format. and then select a data type for the x axis data points and a data type for the y axis data points. When you create an analysis curve. HyperMesh reads the required data from the results file and generates the appropriate curve. transform a curve. you select entities of interest in your model. Y2 . follows on the same line. Y1 X2.Creating Curves on XY Plots You can create curves using four different methods: • • • • Read curves from an ASCII file Extract a curve directly from a results database Create curves by using a few simple math operators Read single curves from files as well as generate curves by using mathematical expressions Reading Curves from an ASCII file When HyperMesh reads curves from an ASCII file with the read curves panel. Analysis-based curves are generated in the results curves panel. filters exchange data with HyperMesh. Essentially. After this information has been supplied. y) data pairs on each line. You can combine two curves. . After XYDATA. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The block begins with the statement. which define two curves. For every operation. XYDATA. Point data follows with a set of (x. it assumes that the format of the input file is as follows: XYDATA.TITLE X1. Examples of external filters are in the filters subdirectory that is provided when this option is selected. Y2 . In the above example. . you can specify that the x or y values of the curve remain fixed.

the data source for the x vector could be a file.y To reference the x vector of curve 1. Type Request Component Note: Data files can consist of different types of data. The y vector can be a function of x or the x vector can be a function of y. the data request set needs to be selected. After the data request set has been selected. For more information about math expressions. in the format curve number. Available data types depend on the data file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh recalculates the curves in the proper order. For example. based on what has been modified. The data sources for the x and y vectors are displayed in the x = and y = fields.vector: For example: c1. To reference the y vector of curve 1. and component. Each vector of a curve can be defined using either a data vector in a data file or a math expression. Once the data type has been selected. When you modify a curve. and the data source for the y vector could be a math expression. you must indicate the curve number and the x or y vector. 346 HyperMesh 8.Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions The edit curves panel allows you to create new curves or edit existing ones.x c1. To edit the x and y vectors of a math curve. refer to the Altair Math Reference. the component must be selected. New data can be selected from a source file or mathematically defined. request. Source file data is divided into type.

HyperMesh displays a list of the available curves in the database. no line at all. HyperMesh currently supports either thick or thin lines. and square markers. you can select which curves in the database you want to display on an xy plot. This scale factor is used to scale the x values in a curve. x scale factor y scale factor Displaying Selected Curves on Plots After you have read or created curves. when the curve is displayed.Modifying Curve Attributes Modifying curves is very similar to modifying plots. select the plots panel and click select curves. The style of line used to draw the curve. triangular. HyperMesh currently supports a solid line. Modify the list by selecting the curves by name and removing or adding the curves to the current plot as desired and click return. The width of line used when the curve is drawn.0 User’s Guide 347 . This scale factor is used to scale the y values in a curve. curve title curve width curve style curve color curve marker The curve title is displayed in the legend. To select curves for a plot. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh currently supports circular. The color used to draw the curve. The following curve attributes may be changed in the curve attribs panel. and four different patterns. HyperMesh currently supports 15 standard colors. The curve may also be displayed with no markers shown. Determines the markers drawn around each data point in the curve. The names of the curves that are already displayed on the current xy plot are highlighted.

but changes made in a HyperMesh panel do not automatically get sent to the curve editor. 3. The curve displays in the graph area. The curve’s attributes fill in the fields in the curve attributes area. curve attributes (blue). Access the curve editor from HyperMesh’s Setup pull-down menu. if you leave the curve editor open while making changes within the HyperMesh XY plotting module. For this reason. To quit the curve editor. It’s important to be aware that the curve editor is not completely symmetrical with HyperMesh. and graph attributes (cyan). graph area (red). click the close command button. in the sense that changes made in the curve editor are automatically sent back to HyperMesh. Changes made in HyperMesh do not immediately affect the curve editor. outlined with colored boxes in the image below: the curve list (green). 2. and must be imported by use of the update button. because they are automatically applied as you make them. To display curves in the graph area: 1. The curve editor contains four main areas. Click the display checkbox in the curve atributes area. Modify the curve attributes if needed. you must use the update button in the curve editor to import the changes. Note that any changes you make in the curve editor will be retained.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To summarize: • • Changes made in the curve editor immediately affect HyperMesh. 348 HyperMesh 8.Using the Curve Editor The curve editor is a pop-up window that allows you to view and modify graphed curves in a more intuitive and holistic way than the individual xy plots panels provide. Click the desired curve in the curve list.

Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. Select a Line style to change the curve’s line from solid to dotted. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. For example. and 1. click the thick line checkbox. and then typing in a new value. if it is already set to Display. Change the Color by clicking the colored box. pressing the <delete> key to erase the current value. even if your data included accelerations ranging from 0 up to 10 m/s . modify the fields inside the X-axi s frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s X -axis label. 2.0. Click the display checkbox to toggle the display of the curve in the graph area. select a symbol from the list box. In the graph attributes area. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values.0. select a number from the every: list box. Make any desired changes to the curve’s attributes: Modify each X and/or Y value by clicking it.To change a curve's attributes: 1. click the desired color to select it. Either click the curve in the curve list. Click the curve in the graph area. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. To change the graph's attributes: 1. To place a marker symbol at each point on the curve. or show no line at all. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). you could 2 restrict the X axis to only graph accelerations from 1 to 5 m/s .5. 1. To change the symbol spacing. To draw the curve in a thicker line. you could change it from “X” to “Acceleration”. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis.0 User’s Guide 349 . A list of available colors displays. Note: If you choose no line. For example. Or 2. if you choose “3” then only every third point will display as a symbol. making a finer grid. For example. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. the line’s symbol points will still display. 2 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you could change it from “Y” to “time”.5). Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. For example. Click the curve that you wish to modify. Modify the fields inside the Y-axis frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s Y-axis label. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. For example.

For example. which now uses the curve’s new name. 3. To create a new curve: 1. 3. Click the desired curve in the curve list. you cannot recover it. Click the New… command button in the curve editor window. 1. 2. - Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. Click proceed. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. 2.5).0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . click the curve that you wish to delete. Click the new curve in the curve list and modify its attributes as needed. even if your data included accelerations from 0 seconds to 60 seconds.- Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. Click the hide checkbox to toggle the display of the legend on and off. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis.0. 350 HyperMesh 8. To rename a curve: 1. making a finer grid. To delete a curve: 1. type in the X and Y coordinates for each data point in the curve. and 1. Type in a name for the new curve.5. or No to keep the curve. Click proceed. but you only wish to graph the accelerations that occur between 30 and 35 seconds. A confirmation window displays. For example. Click the Delete command button. Type in a new name for the curve. Modify the fields inside the Legends frame: Select a location to determine where the legend displays in the graph area. In the curve list. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). Click Yes to confirm the deletion. Undo You cannot undo a deletion. 3. 4. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a name for the new curve. 3. For example. you could restrict the range by typing “20” into the min and “35” into the max. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. once you delete a curve. 2. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a new name for the chosen curve.

Shape Optimization The type of design variables that are used distinguishes different types of structural optimization. PVi is the perturbation vector associated to the design variable DVi . are the basis vector approach and the perturbation vector approach. and Templex. Nastran. AutoDV can also be used to generate distributed loads. the design variables define the boundary shape of the part to be optimized. usually density-related values that define the material distribution are the design variables. Altair HyperOpt. The perturbation vectors define changes of nodal locations with respect to the original finite element mesh. In finite elements. Genesis. Altair HyperStudy. the perturbation vector approach must be selected.0 User’s Guide 351 . In topology optimization. most of AutoDV’s capability to create perturbation vectors using control perturbations is fully integrated in HyperMesh. input parameters of a model. BVi variable DVi . Both approaches refer to the definition of the structural shape as a linear combination of vectors. AutoDV generates perturbation vectors. x = ∑ DVi ⋅ BVi x is the vector of nodal coordinates. x Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. is the vector of nodal coordinates. the shell thickness. with the perturbation vector approach as the default setting. HyperStudy. If there is a choice in the optimization code.0. the structural shape change is defined as a linear combination of perturbation vectors. The stand-alone solver is still available and can be used for the generation of manual perturbations. In size optimization. AutoDV interfaces with HyperMesh thru the AutoDV template for export and AutoDV reader for import. x = x 0 + ∑ DVi ⋅ PVi where x 0 is the vector of nodal coordinates of the initial design. Altair OptiStruct and Altair HyperStudy use the perturbation vector approach. Nastran. the structural shape is defined as a linear combination of basis vectors. The function of creating harmonic shape functions for 2D problems only works with AutoDV. a more flexible tool to set-up and generate shape perturbations. such as beam section properties. the shape of the structure is defined by the vector of nodal coordinates. and Genesis. The two most commonly used in commercial software packages like OptiStruct. The basis vectors define nodal locations. Further. Before importing AutoDV data. In the past. Starting with HyperWorks 6. AutoDV is now complemented by HyperMorph. There are different approaches used to define the shape in an optimization setup. where is the basis vector associated to the design Using the perturbation vector approach. In shape optimization. and spring properties are design variables. AutoDV has been stand-alone software. Altair HyperOpt provides both. Using the basis vector approach. The boundary shape changes must be translated into changes of the interior of the mesh to avoid mesh distortions due to shape changes. a finite element model must be loaded into HyperMesh. HyperOpt. x.AutoDV Introduction AutoDV is utility developed for the generation of perturbation vectors for shape optimization in optimization packages such as Altair OptiStruct.

pert006. 3. Write a <prefix>. Write out a perturbation file <prefix>. Do not save the perturbed model. 3. giving the *. 6. AutoDV compares all <prefix>. To generate another perturbation vector. Harmonic perturbation vectors using design domains. Click the switch and select AutoDV as your solver.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2. Polynomial perturbation vectors using design domains. identifies the perturbed grids. 7. Run AutoDV through the solver panel using the appropriate options. However.Generation of Perturbation Vectors Perturbation vectors can be generated in one of three ways: 1. 5. where nnn is the design variable ID. Example: mymodel. a finite element model representing the baseline shape of the structure must be developed.pert<nnn>. Select the solver panel. using the AutoDV template.pert<nnn> files contain data only for the perturbed grid points.pert<nnn> files that contain only the perturbed grids. 2. 4.pert file a different ID. Manual Perturbation To generate perturbation vectors by the manual perturbation method: 1. retrieve the baseline HyperMesh database and complete steps 2 and 3. In HyperMesh.base model.pert<nnn> models with the <prefix>.base file using the baseline model of the structure using the OptiStruct template supplied in the distribution. move the grids to define the perturbed shape. AutoDV requires that the <prefix>. 352 HyperMesh 8. Before these methods can be applied. AutoDV creates condensed <prefix>. Manual perturbation of grids in HyperMesh. and generates the corresponding perturbation vector. the files generated by HyperMesh contain the entire model.

4. Select the domain subpanel. build a secondary domain model and define secondary node sets. Primary Domain Model This example shows how to create a primary domain model over the finite element model using the following first order 2-D and 3-D domain elements. DTETRA4 These element types are generated using the AutoDV template provided in the distribution. On the BCs page. Use the solver panel to run AutoDV. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. DPENTA6. 2.Polynomial Perturbation Vectors To create polynomial perturbation vectors: 1. All domain elements may be organized in more than one domain component. Select the type of domain element. It is recommended. none of the domain components should include finite elements. To create a domain element: 1. select the optimization panel. However. but not necessary. Each domain element generally encompasses a large number of finite elements. Select the perturbations panel. Define shapes and control perturbations. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV.0 User’s Guide 353 . 3. 2-D elements 3-D elements DQUAD4. Assign shapes to design variables. 5. The Domain model must encompass those finite element grids of the model that need to be perturbed. that you organize 2-D and 3-D domain elements in separate components. 4. 5. 7. Pick the nodes that form the domain element. 3. 2. DTRIA3 DHEXA8. 6. Define primary domain model elements and domain node sets. If needed. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV.

On the BCs page. i. There should be exactly one domain element related to each node set. 6. A given node may belong to more than one node set. Select the perturbations panel. 2.e. select the optimization panel. 3. 354 HyperMesh 8. Pick the domain element from the graphic display. To manually create a domain node set for an existing domain element: 1.Primary Domain Node Sets Node sets constitute the primary entities for generating perturbation vectors. This relationship is not explicitly defined by the user. or they can be created manually. Select update. Select the nodes for the domain node set. Click add. 5. 7.. All nodes in a given node set are perturbed using mathematical relationships based on the control perturbations applied on the Domain Model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 8. Toggle nodeset to manual. This generally happens at the common edges and corners between domain elements. Select the domain subpanel. 4. Domain node sets can be created automatically when the domain element is created. you must implicitly ensure that relationship while creating domain elements and node sets by making sure that all the nodes that need to be perturbed as a shape variable are completely encompassed or parameterized by the domain model. However. it is identified by AutoDV. all corner nodes of that element must belong to that node set.

AutoDV identifies the mid-side perturbations and internally changes the corresponding edge of a domain element from linear to quadratic (curvilinear edge element). The deformed panel is displayed so you can animate the design variable to validate your definition.Control Perturbations Perturbation vectors are generated by interpolating control perturbations defined at selected control points. On a given edge. To define control perturbations: 1. For 2-D domains. Click create vector to create the vectors. That mid-side control point does not have to lie on the edge of the domain element. Create shape design variables: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. The corner points of a domain element and mid-side nodes of the corresponding node sets constitute control points (e. you do not need to create a second order domain element. and Pz are polynomial interpolation functions of up to quadratic order. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. A linear interpolation uses control perturbation at the corners. Instead. AutoDV assigns a control perturbation of magnitude zero to the corner point.. Select the perturbations panel. defining a zero magnitude vector is the same as placing no vector. A quadratic interpolation would use the corner as well as the mid-side control perturbations. Control perturbations are defined by creating vectors at control points. the interpolation function is a product of three functions: P(x. The order of interpolation is based on the presence of mid-side control perturbations. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the interpolation is parabolic if a mid-side control perturbation is defined. Py. otherwise it is linear. In order to generate a quadratic perturbation. For corner control points. Enter a name (max.0 User’s Guide 355 . the interpolation function is a product of two functions: P(x. They are automatically added to the shape specified in shape =. Click create shape. 3. place the control perturbation on a mid-side node on an edge of the domain node set. 2.y) = Px(x) Py(y) For 3-D domains.g. Click return to return to the perturbations panel. Animate the shape design variable: − Click animate.y) = Px(x) Py(y) Pz(z) where P x. Select perturbations using the toggle. a DQUAD4 domain has 8 control points). 8 characters) in shape =. In either case. − AutoDV computes perturbations of all structural grids by interpolating control perturbations. The interpolations are performed as follows.

Generates the corresponding list of grids to be perturbed in that variable. the interpolation is quadratic with the value of zero for the mid-side node. Whereas the absence of a mid-side control perturbation yields a linear interpolation on that edge. AutoDV computes the perturbation vectors for shape variables in the following order: • • • Identifies all domain elements and node sets attached to vector belonging to a given shape variable. 356 HyperMesh 8.For mid-side control points. Computes perturbation of each grid in the list by interpolation using the related control point perturbations. In the case of a zero magnitude mid-side perturbation. defining zero magnitude vector is not the same as placing no vector.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the presence yields a quadratic interpolation.

Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets A secondary domain model allows computation of perturbation vectors for grids on 1-D elements connecting two different components. The gum-drops are modeled using a rigid (R1)-spring (K)-rigid (R2) representation. Interpolating those perturbations linearly to all the grids of the secondary domain. because grids G2 and G3 are not part of any node set. the perturbation vector for this model is as shown in the illustration below. For example. The perturbation vectors are also shown in the illustration. grid points G2 and G3 are generally coincident. Here. Secondary domain is not required if the nodes are connected using a single 1-D element. consider the two sheet metal components connected using gum-drops. With only primary domain. You may use the secondary domain model where two nodes belonging to the primary domain are connected using several 1-D elements in a series. This problem is solved using a secondary domain model as follows: • • Create one rigid element (type DRBE2) between the two end nodes (G1 and G4 in this example). Here. Identifying perturbations of the end nodes of the secondary domains. Move the end nodes as well as all intermediate nodes into an independent node set. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the control perturbation causes grids G1 and G4 to be perturbed as shown. The domain model for each plate contains one element each. illustrated below.0 User’s Guide 357 . However. AutoDV responds by: • • • Computing pert urbations on the primary domain model using the control perturbations. they remain unperturbed.

and no control perturbations are required at the two nodes of the DRBE2 element. this yields the perturbation shown below.Using the example illustrated above. Note: A DRBE2 element does not have to be connected to a control point. 358 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

y) = P (x. 4. y) Where P is the polynomial function described in the previous section. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. Then the shape variable is reduced to the polynomial shape variable. The design variable label should not have more than four characters. Generate domain elements and node sets as described in the previous section. These are part of the vector collector card. the harmonic component of the shape variable has a value of 1. In the shape panel. and T is the harmonic function given by: T(x. 3. and Y_TYPE: Card image X_ORDER Y_ORDER Symbol m n Default 0 0 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.y) T (x. However. There should be no other vector in that shape. The orders m and n of harmonic functions are user-controlled. Harmonic variables are defined only on DQUAD4 domains. one DQUAD4 element at a time.Harmonic Perturbation Vectors Harmonic shape variables are defined using a process similar to that for polynomial shape variables. Y_ORDER. The harmonic shape variables are computed using a product of the following two functions: V(x. Select the design variable in the card pre-viewer in the permanent menu. Each harmonic shape variable component must contain exactly four vectors.one at each corner control point of that element. X_TYPE. modeling requirements for generating harmonic variables are very stringent. Select the DQUAD4 element on which harmonic perturbation vectors are desired and create a shape with exactly four vectors . To define harmonic perturbation vectors: 1. one at each corner point of the DQUAD4. create a design variable using that shape. 2.0 User’s Guide 359 . y) = Xm(x) Yn(y) Where Xm(x) = cos (m*x/2) = sin (m*x/2) =1 and Yn(x) = cos (n*y/2) = sin (n*y/2) =1 for odd values of n for even values of n for n = 0 for odd values of m for even values of m for m = 0 For m = n = 0. Edit X_ORDER. Each vector may have a different length and orientation.

even all.You have the option of generating all. Accordingly. modify the setting in the harmonic subpanel. or even harmonics by entering the appropriate harmonics types in the vector collector. odd. even Default all all For given values of m and n. It generates shape variable names by appending the x and y orders to the component name. odd. Examples of the naming procedure follow: Example 1: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv01 2 0 1 dv010001 X_TYPE = all Y_TYPE = all 3 1 0 dv010100 4 1 1 dv010101 5 2 0 dv010200 6 2 1 dv010201 desvar name = dv01 Example 2: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv02 X_TYPE = even Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv020001 3 2 0 dv020200 4 2 1 dv020201 desvar name = dv02 Example 3: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv03 X_TYPE = odd Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv030001 3 1 0 dv030100 4 1 1 dv030101 desvar name = dv03 360 HyperMesh 8. AutoDV generates a series of independent perturbation vectors. Card image X_TYPE Y_TYPE Options all.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . odd.

Run AutoDV to generate the variable loads: Before you run AutoDV. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Variable loading can be generated for forces. Select the create load subpanel. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − − Select perturbations using the toggle. Create control perturbations to define the characteristic of the variable load: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. AutoDV computes the variable loads on each structural grid by interpolating the control perturbations defined on control points. Select the perturbations panel. select the results subpanel. Select all the displayed nodes and set mult = to 1. 3. 8 characters) in desvar =. Enter a name (max. Click apply to apply the variable loads. Variable loads are generated by interpolating control vectors defined at selected control points. moments and temperatures. Creating control perturbations at the corner nodes of the domain element yields a linear interpolation. − − − − On the BCs page. A quadratic interpolation can be generated by creating control vectors either on the mid-side control points or on both. The control points can be the corner points of a domain element or the mid-side nodes along the edge of domain elements. Click file = and enter the result file with the . They are automatically added to the design variable specified in desvar =. Domain elements and domain node sets for the domain where the load is applied must be created before you can generate a variable load. Apply the variable loads: − − − − − − − On the files panel. you must write an AutoDV input deck using the AutoDV template. Click simulation = and select the variable loading condition wants to apply. Select desvar using the toggle. Click solve to create the interpolated variable loads.dv.0 User’s Guide 361 . 4. 2.Generation of Variable Loads Generating variable loads with AutoDV is similar to generating perturbation vectors. Click create to create the vectors. Click create. To generate a variable load: 1. Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. Click name = and enter the name of the AutoDV input deck. Select AUTODV as the solver. On the Post page. select the apply result panel.animate suffix. the corner and mid-side control points. select the solver panel.

Examples: 362 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Running AutoDV Stand-alone
To run AutoDV, select AUTODV as the solver in the solver panel and then give the prefix of the input file name along with the options. The input file name should be prefix.base. autodv -file <prefix> -inp opt1 -ent opt2 -code opt3

The valid entries and default values for options are given in the following table. Note that these parameters could be given in any order. Entity <prefix> Valid Options Prefix of the input file name, or input file name. OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS, HYPERSTUDY, TEMPLEX, HYPEROPT FORC, MOMT, TEMP, LONG OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, PAMCRASH, RADIOSS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MARC, ANSYS, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT Default Value Solver Panel input file =

Opt1

analysis code =

Opt2 Opt3

NONE NONE

component = subcode type =

The interdependency of options on each other is explained in the following table. For example, for a given opt1, it gives the possible values for opt2 and opt3. Opt1 OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS HYPERSTUDY TEMPLEX Opt2 None Long Opt3 Ignored Remarks For shape optimization None – Standard format Long – Long format For variable loading

FORC, MOMT, TEMP Ignored

Ignored

OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, RADIOSS, PAMCRASH, MARC, ANSYS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT, ABAQUS, NASTRAN

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/Generic and HyperStudy

HYPEROPT

Ignored

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/OPTISTRUCT, HyperOpt/ABAQUS, and HyperOpt/NASTRAN

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 363

After AutoDV runs, it creates the following files: prefix.dat A bulk data file that contains the DVGRID and LOAD information, respectively depending on opt2. A bulk data file for the perturbed model corresponding to the shape variable nnn. This file originally contained the manually generated perturbed file. After the program runs, this file contains only the GRID data for all perturbed grid points. This file contains the shape design variables in the HyperMesh results format. This file can be loaded to HyperMesh and results can be viewed. Note: The animation should be used only as a check for the shape of the perturbation vector. It will not display the upper and lower bounds for the shape variable. The file prefix.dat becomes part of an input file for the respective native analysis package. Note: If you create a perturbed model file, prefix.pertnnn, and also a set of control perturbations with an identical shape variable ID, nnn, the resultant perturbation vector from AutoDV is a union of the manual as well as the interpolated grid perturbations. For the common nodes in the two sets, the manual grid perturbations given in prefix.pertnnn override those generated by using interpolation. prefix.subcode.node.tpl Templex template to replace the nodal coordinates in the original input deck. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX. Contains nodal coordinates and perturbation vectors for use in the file, prefix.subcode.node.tpl. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX.

prefix.autonnn

prefix.dv.animate

prefix.shp

364 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
Using an H3D file, you can save 3-D animations from HyperMesh in the .h3d format for viewing with the HyperView Player. HyperView Player is an Internet browser plug-in for visualizing 3-D Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models and results. Using product data in Altair's compact .h3d format allows you to incorporate animated images in an HTML document for presentation or engineering reports. Simulation results can be sent by e-mail, or placed on the web for others to open and review. HyperView Player is available as a free download on Altair's Web site at http://www.altair.com. To create an H3D file from HyperMesh: 1. 2. Select one of the following panels: contour, deformed, hidden line, transient, or geom cleanup. To control the display attributes for your model: 3. Specify your desired display attributes using visual options or the visual panel.

Click the Hyper3d button or H3D>HV. Two files are created. One is an H3D file, using anim#.h3d as the file name. The symbol # is automatically assigned to the H3D file. The other is a sample HTML file including an <EMBED> statement for the corresponding H3D file. H3D>HV loads the newly created H3D file into HyperView. You can define this option in the options panel under modeling.

4.

To review the model in a web browser: Double click the HTML file to launch a browser. or Click H3D to activate the standalone HyperView Player.

You can customize the external HTML template, h3d_template.html, located in the altair/hm/html directory, to suit your needs. Note: In the HyperMesh geom cleanup panel, the Hyper3D button is displayed when you select the shaded option in the visual options subpanel.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 365

Embedding a HyperView Player Object in HTML Documentation The following section defines the arguments and provides an example for embedding statements in an HTML document in order to view a HyperView Player graphic object. Note the following updates to HyperView Player: Simplified HTML File Statement Since the H3D file created from HyperView, and HyperMesh includes scene information, the arguments in the old statements for model readers and result readers are no longer needed. The HTML statements have been simplified in this release. However, the HTML files created for HyperView Player 3.1 are still supported. HyperView Player only supports H3D direct readers. You can create an H3D file using: • • • • Note HyperView HyperMesh HyperMesh result translators, such as hmnast, hmnasto2, hmdyna, hmradioss, hmpam, hmansys, and hmabaqus OptiStruct You may need to modify your HTM L files created for HyperView Player 3.1 if you were using direct readers other that h3d.dll, such as adams.dll, gfile.dll, lsdyna.dll, and madymo.dll, since those readers are no longer supported in HyperView Player.

Direct Readers

To embed a HyperView Player object, the <EMBED> statement in HTML is used. All arguments are case insensitive.

General Arguments for EMBED Statements
type width/height SRC="URL" Application/x-h3d Measured in pixels The location of the plug-in data file as indicated by its URL.

Embedded Statement Example
<EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="HTTP:\\www.altair.com\h3d\bumper.h3d"> <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="../bumper.h3d">

More examples can be found in the HyperView Player demo directory, and our Web site, http://www.altair.com.

366 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Using an HTML File
You can use HyperView Player to share information by embedding it in an HTML file. You can use either a relative path or a standard Uniform Resource Locator (URL) to specify the path for the H3D file in the <EMBED> statement. There are three different ways to define file transfer protocol: FILE, HTTP and FTP. This section describes how to select a protocol for file transfer using files, anim1.html and anim1.h3d as examples.

Embedded Mode
FILE://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="File://c:\Altair\demos\hvp\anim1.h3d"> An absolute path is required for File:// and the H3D file must reside in the specified path. When you distribute the files, you may need to modify the HTML file for the path.

HTTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="http://www:8080/~John/anim1.h3d> Others can access your public web area on the Internet. When sharing an H3D file, you can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files in your public HTML directory and send the link to others in the company by email. The link can be, for example, http://www:8080/~John/anim1.html. By doing this, you do not need to distribute the H3D file and can guarantee the path is working correctly. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click the link in the email, the model will be displayed.

FTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="FTP://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html> You can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files on your FTP site. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click ftp://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html, the model is displayed.

Relative Path
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="../anim/.h3d> Using a relative path allows you to distribute an HTML file easily. You can create a folder with the necessary HTML and h3d files for distribution.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 367

Full page mode
In an HTML file, you can easily hyperlink a string to an H3D file. When you click the hyperlink, the plug-in loads a model in full-page mode.

Using E-mail
You can attach an H3D file to an email. If the recipient is using a PC, he or she can click the attachment and the H3D file will load automatically. You can also save the H3D file and at a later time, double-click the file to invoke the standalone version of HyperView Player. Another available option is to drag the H3D file and drop it into a browser to view the model in a full window.

368 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

H3D FAQ's
How can I view a model with shaded display in HyperView Player? The model display settings are recorded during H3D creation. Set up the desired model display, with such options as mesh lines and feature lines, in the Vis panel under the Performance Graphics mode in HyperMesh.

Why doesn’t the legend setting in HyperView player reflect the setting in HyperMesh? HyperView Player only supports default settings for the legend display from HyperMesh. The specified Max and Min values in HyperMesh are not recorded in the H3D file of this version.

Can I view complex result animation in HyperView player? No, the H3D writer does not support complex result data.

What types of element are not supported in the H3D file? Second order elements, rigidlinks, and RBE3s are not supported in this version. The mid-side node of a second order element is ignored when it is read into HyperView Player.

How can I change the window size for viewing HyperView Player in the browser? You can modify the width and height values in the <EMBED> statement in the HTML file. (For example, width = 600, height = 600)

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 369

Free Body Diagrams
HyperMesh allows you to create or edit Free Body Diagrams (FBD) using several tools that display in the tab area. Each FBD tool displays on a separate tab, which opens when you activate that tool. Location: Results menu, Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tools) Tool menu (to access the FBD Set Manager only) Tab Area (for the tools themselves)

Free Body Diagram (FBD) utilities facilitate the extraction and post-processing of Grid Point Force (GPFORCE) results. FBD utilities currently support OptiStruct and Nastran .op2 files, and are only available in the OptiStruct or Nastran user profiles. FBD extractions are typically utilized for breakout and/or sub-modeling analysis schemes, where balanced “free body” sub-cases are extracted from a coarse grid model and applied to a fine grid sub-model for eventual optimization and/or analysis. FBD is also used to extract cross-sectional resultant forces and moments (typically at the centroid of a cross-section) for use in traditional strength calculations. Each tool has a separate entry in the menu. In addition, see the overview on Grid Point Force Balance tables to gain further understanding of FBD operations within HyperMesh, while the Set Manager utility assists in generating the element and node sets which the FBD utilities analyze.

This coarse grid model is typical for FBD extractions.

Typical FBD – Forces output on a wing rib

Typical Result Force and Moment output on a floor beam

370 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

along with the entity set display and export states. as desired: • • • • Use <ctrl>-click and <shift>-click to select multiple items in the tree structure. creating. or export state) that the filter buttons apply to. Location: Tools menu (to access the Set Manager) Tab Area (to use the Set Manager) The Set Manager consists of a tree structure listing the current entity sets in the model.0 User’s Guide 371 . The selection type options allow you to control the entities (elements. The sync button synchronizes the entity set display states with the current HyperMesh display. 3. renaming. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Nastran. deleting. select Set Manager. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. 2. See To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display for details. From the Tools pull-down menu. appending entities to. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. The Set Manager utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct. It also includes functions for displaying. or Abaqus user profile. and ABAQUS user profiles.FBD Set Manager Use the Set Manager tool to automate the grouping and display of model components through HyperMesh entity set functionality. and changing the export state of entity sets. The filter buttons allow for additional selection control. To set display options for the Set Manager: 1. Use the toolbar buttons in the Set Manager tab to manipulate the display options. geometry. Nastran. The set manager displays in the tab area.

or Abaqus user profile. including: • • • • • • • New: Create a new entity set of the specified type. Nastran. grouped in folders by type. Supported entity set types are shown above. Collapse All: Collapses all branches of the tree. Delete Reference: Removes a set reference from a entity set type of sets. Expand All: Expands all branches of the tree. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. select Set Manager. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to add to the set. HyperMesh prompts you to type in a name for the set or accept a default name.To use the Set Manager right-click functionality: 1. or on individual or multiple items within folders. Rename: Rename the selected set. Add Entities to Set: Adds entities into the currently selected set. From the Tools pull-down menu. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. Multiple sets may be selected by using standard Ctrl/Shift-click functionality. The graphic above shows all of the available options. Delete: Deletes the currently selected set(s). The set manager displays in the tab area. 3. 2. Right -click anywhere within the tree structure to open the right-click menu: There are many functions available. accessed by right clicking in the background.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 372 HyperMesh 8. on folders.

• • • • • • • To change the Set Manager's display and export states: 1. to the disk. The export state of each entity set is stored in the HyperMesh database. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. Export Session File: Saves a session file (. The display and export icons associated with each entity set are described below: • The display toggle determines whether the entities contained within the entity set are displayed in HyperMesh.ses). select Set Manager. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. 2.• Remove Entities from Set: Removes entities from the currently selected set. Show: This operation adds the entities contained in the selected set(s) to the HyperMesh display. The display and export states of entity sets are controlled by clicking on/off the display and export icons located next to each entity set in the tree. this information is automatically converted to the new solver format when Set Manager is opened. and is only available for component and element sets. Hide: This operation removes the entities contained in the selected set(s) from the HyperMesh display. Once a display toggle is changed. Display IDs: Displays a popup window showing the IDs of all entities contained in the selected set. Display Options: Determines how the sets display in the Set Manager tree.ses) containing group definitions. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. The Checked State signifies that the entity set will not be exported.0 User’s Guide 373 . 3. containing group definitions for the selected node or element sets. The Blank State signifies that one or more of the entities in that entity set are not displayed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Show Only: This operation turns off (masks) all currently displayed entities. Import Session File: Loads a session file (. From the Tools pull-down menu. and then displays only the currently selected set(s) in the HyperMesh display. grouped in folders by type. When switching between supported solvers. These group definitions will be converted into HyperMesh entity sets. or Abaqus user profile. • The export toggle determines whether the entity set definition is to be exported when the model deck is written. The Blank State signifies that the entity set will be exported. For component sets there are two toggles: one for elements (first check box) and one for geometry (second check box). Available options are shown above. or by using the display options icons in the toolbar. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to remove from the set. The Checked State signifies that all entities in the entity set are currently displayed. which control the display of each of these entities separately. Nastran. The set manager displays in the tab area. click the Synch toolbar button to update the HyperMesh display with the current selection.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the Display button at the bottom of the Set Manager allows you to update HyperMesh to match the Set Manager settings. Export states synch automatically. The Synch button resides in the toolbar described by the topic To set display options for the Set Manager. In addition. Instead. 374 HyperMesh 8. but display states always default to the unchecked state on startup. the Display button can be used to update the HyperMesh display to the current Set Manager selection. in which case the Set Manager and the HyperMesh display are synchronized until another selection is made within the Set Manager. For large models. To remedy these occurrences. while the Synch button in the Set Manager toolbar allows you to update the set manager to match the current state of the HyperMesh display. the Set Manager utility does not automatically synchronize the display states of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display.To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display: The Set Manager is meant to allow users to easily control the display and review of entity sets for model grouping and visualization purposes. constantly synchronizing the display state of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display can introduce performance issues.

consider using STRESS = NONE to further reduce the size of the .0 User’s Guide 375 . Location: Results menu.op2 file. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct or Nastran user profile. Tab Area (for the tool itself) After you define an element set with an associated node set. and a formatted . The FBD Displacements tab displays in the tab area.op2 file display for selection. all appropriate displacements and rotations are extracted. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme.op2 file is selected. The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUB-CASE #”. Once an . You can select multiple sub-cases by ctrl-clicking or shift-clicking. To extract displacement data for a user-defined node set: 1.op2 file is required.op2 file containing the displacement output for the current model.op2 files containing displacement data from OptiStruct and Nastran. Additionally. Select a sub-case. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. Use the .op2 file changes. From the Results pull-down menu. you must load the new . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. This lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract displacement information.FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility extracts displacement data for user defined node set(s). Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). The tool also supports .csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. If no SUBTITLE exists. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. select Free Body Diagram. or if the original .LABEL(ID)”. Only sub-cases with displacement results from the currently selected. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This procedure reduces the size of the .op2 file: field to specify the full path and filename of the .op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Displacement extractions. The sub-case display can be switched between ID and Name (ID). The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE . including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. 3. for Nastran and OptiStruct. then FBD Displacements. only the LABEL is used. If a new . • • Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. 2. 4. sub-case names and IDs with displacement output are saved with the rest of the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. Note: Recommended practice is to output displacement data for the node set(s) of interest only.op2 file into the database (overwriting the previously selected one). a text summary table within HyperMesh. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS io option card The FBD Displacement utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles.

and toggle to the assign sub-panel. Select entities. If a coordinate system is not specified. Results coordinate system transformations are not performed on displacement data.csv file output options.y. when checked. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. • The Coordinate System selector determines the coordinate system used to display the nodal coordinates (x. The Auto find interface nodes option automatically finds the nodes attached to elements that are not contained within the currently selected element set. • The Zero Tolerance entry defines the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. click Coordinate Systems. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. otherwise modify the value as desired.…) is always output in the system that the results are stored with in the . Uy. This procedure selects the nodes interfacing with the remainder of the structure. In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation sets the CD field on the GRID card(s).op2 file in the output coordinate system without any further coordinate system transformations. There are several options: • The Element Set selector defines the elements that contain the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. If a node set is not selected. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. automatically displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element and node sets.5. It is assumed that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . You will be prompted to give the newly created node set a name. • 6. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database does not match those used to run the analysis then the extracted values will be incorrect. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used for controlling the output of results to the various formats.0e-6.op2 file. then all nodes within the element set are used. Additional nodes may be added to the node set once it is created by clicking the Node Set selector and picking additional nodes. and click Set Analysis.op2 file format. This functionality allows you to verify which element and node sets are currently selected. Displacement data (Ux. Choose Output options: The Output options section contains various options to review and display results of FBD Displacement extractions. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the extraction. Situations when this behavior could occur include modification of nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. The entity selection section allows you to select and/or create the appropriate entities required to execute the FBD Displacements utility. • The Show model checkbox is a graphical review option that.z) in the summary table and . The FBD Displacement utility extracts and applies the displacement and rotation results from the . The Set Manager utility on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. The Node Set selector defines the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. The option helps to eliminate “relatively small” values from being output to the result formats. On the Setup menu. 376 HyperMesh 8.

is created for each sub-case. FBDD_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Disp would be created for element set 1. This collector can be referenced as the LOAD in the sub-case panel. it will append/replace the data. A single load collector. it will be appended to the end of the file. The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. You may select a new file or an existing file. If an existing file is selected there are several items to note: If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. The Create SPCD option will additionally create a load collector with the name “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD”. Loads in this collector are created with the SPCD load type. This collector can be referenced as the SPC in the sub-case panel. The table contains information about the sub-cases. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility.csv file option creates a . The load collector name format is FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp. • The Create .0 User’s Guide 377 . the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. • The Show summary table option outputs the results to a popup window for instant review. IN any case. you will be warned that the File already exists and asked if you want to replace it. but in a comma-separated file. and detailed displacement data at each node. For example. node set and sub-case IDs). element and node set(s). node set 1 and sub-case 1. Selecting yes will not overwrite the file.• The Create Load Collectors option will extract the specified displacement data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window5. The loads in this load collector are created with the SPC load type. A sample window with partial output is shown below. If it does not exist. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. for the current element and node set.

csv) file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages.op2 file into the database. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the .op2 file. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards The FBD Forces utility is broken down into three major sections.op2 file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . for Nastran and OptiStruct. use this to browse to and select the desired . overwriting the previously selected. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Once you’ve selected an op2 file. a text summary table within HyperMesh. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved.op2 file changes) you must load the new . Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.op2 file is required (or if the original .op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions. The FBD Forces utility is currently supported by OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. Multiple sub-cases can be selected via Ctrl-click or Shift-click functionality. The op2 file field accepts the full path and filename of the . The ID option lists the sub-cases in the format SUBCASE #. Location: Results menu. To select a results file: Click on the folder icon inside of the op2 file field. This opens the standard file selection dialog window.op2 file are displayed for selection only. Additionally. and/or a formatted Comma-Separated Values (. only the LABEL is used. sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. If no SUBTITLE exists. 378 HyperMesh 8. This procedure reduces the size of the . each of which corresponds with the process order of using the tool. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case in the format SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID). See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. If a new . The sub-case list can be switched between ID and Name (ID). The tool supports .op2 file that contains the GPFORCE output for the current model.op2 files containing GPFORCE data from OptiStruct and Nastran.FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data (including forces and moments) for a user-defined element set. To select a sub-case: The Sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information.

and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set.) If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. the extracted values will be incorrect. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. and RBAR. and Reaction Loads Only. Rigidlink. 4. or output to. This could occur when modifying a nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and.0 User’s Guide 379 . Applied Loads Only extracts and utilizes only the applied loads grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. If a results system is not specified.0. Applied Loads Only. RJOINT. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. RBE3. results coming from. 2. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. (See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the GPFORCE data is summed for the selected element set. On the assign sub-panel. or when loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. Available options include All Loads. RROD. This is useful for verifying free body behavior through zero-sum values for all force and moment components about any node. Reaction Loads Only extracts and utilizes only SPC and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on nodes in the selected set. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. If a node is not selected. 3. This allows you to verify which element sets is currently selected. cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation . Activate the Show Model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode while highlighting the currently selected element set.op2 file. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the .op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. applied. sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point force and moment result vectors are transformed and output. The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force and moment results from an . Use the FBD type selector to determine the grid point force and moment data to extract and utilize for FBD calculations for each node in the selected element set. Use the Element Set selector to define the elements that make up the free body and contain the nodes at which GPFORCE data will be extracted. • • • All Loads extracts and utilizes all element contribution. SPC. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To specify output options: 1. In addition. result system and summation node. It is also useful for calculating the result of applied or reaction forces about any node.0) is used by default. the HyperMesh origin (0.To select entities: 1.

For example FBDF_E(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. The FBD Results Manager tool can be used to review the load collectors generated from FBD Forces utility. A sample window with partial output is shown below.2. sub-case IDs). The table contains information about the sub-cases.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. Use the Zero Tolerance entry field to define the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. it is appended to. sub-case 1. it will be appended to the end of the file. • The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. selecting yes will not overwrite the file—it will append/replace the data as described above. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. If an existing file is selected. but in a comma-separated file. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. This option helps to prevent relatively small values from being output to the result formats. In addition a load collector with the Nastran/OptiStruct LOAD card is also created. Use the Create . The load collector name format is “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. therefore it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which FBD result must be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh 4. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. This load collector is named “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” and can be referenced in the sub-case panel as the LOAD entry for the various sub-case definitions. and there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. element set(s). When you save the HyperMesh database. If it does not exist. However. 3. and component Fx. You may select a new file or an existing file. To maintain floating-point precision the default is set to 1. Altair Engineering • 380 HyperMesh 8. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . This allows FBD information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. modify the value as desired. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current element set. All calculations are performed with floating point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. all FBD Forces load collectors are saved to the database. activate the Show summary table option. To output the results to a popup window for instant review. referencing the component force and moment load collectors.csv file option to create a . Use the Create Load Collectors option to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for visualization in the model window.0e-6. 5.

Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point vector results will be transformed and output. node set. If multiple node sets are selected for a single element set. Use the Node Set selector to define the nodes in each currently selected element set at which grid point data will be extracted and summed from. gaps. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the grid point data will be summed. result system and summation node which define the cross-section in the graphics display area. etc…) and must have identifiable rows of nodes. This option calculates the nodal averaged centroid of the coordinates of all of the nodes in the node set and creates a temporary node at that location. If multiple element sets are selected. displays the element set. When using the “Centroid” option. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.FBD Cross-section manager The FBD Cross-section Manager (CSM) utility creates and manages cross-section definitions that are used within the Resultant Force & Moment utility. 4. The FBD Cross-section Manager interface has two creation methods available for cross-section definition: manual and (semi-) automatic. The Display sections checkbox is a graphical review option that. and a local result coordinate system. the utility defaults to “Centroid”.0 User’s Guide 381 . Location: Results menu. starting from the selected nodes and progressing along the length of the selected elements. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). The Advanced options section provides the means to semi-automatically create cross-section element and node sets for beam-like structures with regular meshes. Tab Area (for the tool itself) This utility contains tools for defining cross-sections. Use the Element Set selector to specify the elements containing the nodes that define the crosssection. which are defined by an element set. Use the Set Manager tool on the Tools menu to create the necessary node sets. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. If this node is deleted from the model. node set. It also features semi-automatic generation of element and node sets for defining cross-sections. To define a cross-section manually: 1. each set is added to the table as a separate cross-section definition which can be modified later by selection. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. summation node. when checked. The FBD Cross-section Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. 5. HyperMesh adds separate crosssection definitions to the table with the original element set and each selected node set. 2. If a results system is not specified. The mesh shouldn’t have any discontinuities (holes. This auto-create cross-section capability requires a continuous mesh with rows of nodes (of any orientation) to work properly. If no node is selected. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the grid point extraction. 3. the loads associated with that node are also deleted. a temporary node is created.

This is the offset value for generated set names. 6. Optional: activate the sets accumulate option This determines whether each progressive set also contains the elements from the previous set. Type a Numbering offset into the text box. Type a prefix for the name of each generated node set into the Node set prefix field. where “#” increases with each new set generated. modified. Selected crosssections can also be deleted from the database by using the Remove selection button on the right end of the filter buttons. or deleted. it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which cross-sections are to be retained within HyperMesh database. the generated set names are numbered starting from that value. the offset value is zero and HyperMesh generates numbered set names starting with one. node set. 5. 382 HyperMesh 8. 7. the cross-section data is saved to the HyperMesh database. first cross-section). This displays the entire model in transparency mode. Use the Elements selector to choose the elements that define the entire “beam-like” component from which cross-sections will be generated. or only the new “row” of elements. cross-section definitions only need to be defined once and stored in the HyperMesh database. 3. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Comments Each time a cross-section is created. Therefore. For example. Use the Nodes selector to pick nodes for the first node set (i.e. Type a prefix for the name of each generated element set into the Element set prefix field. highlighting the currently selected elements and nodes. This allows you to verify a cross-section definition. you type in “ESET” each element set will be named ESET [#]. 2. 4. each element set will contain the elements from the previous set. When the HyperMesh database is saved. To define a cross-section automatically: 1. By default. result system and summation node. For example. Standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality can be used to select cross-sections. These nodes should be at one end of the beam. If the offset value is set to a value greater than zero. Therefore. Optional: use the filter buttons on the top of the spreadsheet to select which cross-sections are required. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the crosssection names and the associated sets. all cross-section definitions are also saved. which utilizes the cross-section definitions to perform these calculations. Cross-Sections can then be accessed from within the Resultant Force and Moment utility. If checked. 7. highlighting the currently selected element set.6. where “#” increases with each new set generated. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox. you type in “NSET” each element set will be named NSET [#].

The sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information.0 User’s Guide 383 . The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. and/or a formatted . a text summary table within HyperMesh. Multiple sub-cases can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking.op2 file is selected. The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUBCASE #”.op2 file changes. The tool supports . Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. To select a results file: Use the . Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review.op2 file is required. overwriting the previously selected.op2 file and helps speed up the Resultant Force and Moment extractions. or if the original .op2 file into the database.op2 file containing the desired GPFORCE output for the current model. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID)”. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. When an . If a new . The subcase list can be organized by ID or Name (ID). Two utilities available within HyperGraph also interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Tab Area (for the tool itself) The resultant force and moment utility generates input data for shear and moment (VMT) diagrams and/or to perform load-case screening with Potato plots in HyperView.FBD Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment (RF&M) utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data for user defined cross-sections created via the Cross-section Manager. The Resultant Force and Moment utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. If no SUBTITLE exists. This procedure reduces the size of the .op2 files containing grid point force data from OptiStruct and Nastran. To select a sub-case: Select the desired sub-case(s) from the list in the sub-case section. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. Additionally. sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.op2 file display for selection only. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. Location: Results menu.op2 file.op2 file field to specify the full path and filename of the . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. you must load the new . only the LABEL is used. for Nastran and OptiStruct.

Resultant force and moment vector results are always output in the result coordinate system defined for each cross-section. Use the Zero Tolerance field to specify the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. The option helps to eliminate relatively small values from being output. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this . 384 HyperMesh 8. RBAR. RJOINT. and .To select a cross-section: Pick the desired cross-sections from the list in the cross-sections area of the tab. For example RF&M_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. results coming from or output to cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel.op2 file.csv file.fbd file output options. . Activate the Create Load Collectors checkbox to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. RBE3. and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. otherwise modify the value as desired. Result coordinate systems for cross-sections are defined using the Cross-section Manager.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . node set 1. sub-case 1. Cross-sections are created using the Cross-section Manager. 3. 2.y. (On the assign sub-panel. Use the Coordinate System selector to determine the coordinate system used to output the nodal coordinates (x. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . If a coordinate system is not specified. Multiple cross-sections can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. RROD. each made up of an element set and node set. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2.0e-6.z) in the summary table. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. and component Fx. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current cross-section. The Cross-sections section lets you specify the cross-sections from which you wish to calculate resultant force and moment results for each selected sub-case. the extracted values will be incorrect. In addition. Rigidlink. The Resultant Force and Moment utility extracts grid point force and moment results from the . The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. To specify output options: The Output Options section contains various options to review and display the results of Resultant Force and Moment extractions. This can occur when modifying nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. operation sets the CD field on the GRID cards). The load collector name format is “RF&M_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. 1.

You can also use the FBD Results Manager to review the load collectors generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility.fbd file option to create a file that can be read into HyperGraph using the “Shear and Moment Plot” and “Potato Plot” utilities. Activate the Create . and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. it is appended to.The “Color” option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. all resultant force and moment load collectors are saved in the database. If an existing file is selected. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets and therefore it is important to not renumber any element or node sets for which resultant force and moment result are to be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh. These utilities are accessed from the Free Body Diagrams item within the HyperGraph Utilities menu. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. Two utilities available within HyperGraph interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility: Shear and Moment Diagrams (VMT Plots) and Potato Plot. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 4. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager. You may select a new file or an existing file. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. it is appended to.csv file option to create a .fbd file. If it does not exist. it will append/replace the data into the file as described above. Activate the Show summary table option to output the results to a popup window for instant review. sub-case IDs). The table contains information about the sub-cases and cross-sections. Comments When saving over existing .0 User’s Guide 385 . 5. it will be appended to the end of the file. However.csv or . This allows resultant force and moment information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. but in a comma separated file.csv file containing the same information as the summary table. selecting ‘yes’ will not overwrite the file. Activate the Create . You may select a new file or an existing file. there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. 6. When the HyperMesh database is saved. If an existing file is selected.

Select one or more Element sets. Selecting an FBD result type scans the HyperMesh database and updates the Subcases list with available sub-cases for the currently selected element set and result type.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 3. Select the desired Sub-cases by clicking on them. The optional Show model checkbox. Location: Results menu. • The Fx. FBD Forces (Reaction Loads). Valid types include FBD Displacements. You must choose an existing element set for which you wish to the review the FBD. The Label loads option determines whether to display the load labels (vector magnitude values as text next to the vector). the Results selection interface is modified to include a Node sets selector. 2. Fy.FBD Results Manager Use the FBD Results Manager to graphically review and manage the load collectors generated from all FBD and Resultant Force and Moment utilities. The Results selection section lets you select the FBD result type to review. The Load handles option determines whether to display the load handles. Grayed-out checkboxes indicate force and moment components or results that can’t display for the currently selected element set/sub-case/node sets. If multiple sub-cases are selected. For FBD Displacements and Resultant Force and Moment Result types. Specify any desired Display options: The Display options section allows you to decide which force and moment components display in the graphics area for the current selection. and Resultant Force and Moment. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Results Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. The Entity selection section allows you to select the element set for which to review FBD. Displacement. Fz…checkboxes determine which component/resultant vectors display when you click the Accept button. These checkboxes are disabled for the FBD Displacements Result type. 4. displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element set. Multiple subcases can be selected using standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality. • • 386 HyperMesh 8. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). FBD Forces (Applied Loads). FBD Forces (All Loads). only the node sets that are common to all of them will be listed. Displacement. This selector lists all of the node sets associated with the currently selected element set and sub-cases. Pick the desired Results type. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. and Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. To review and manage FBD load collectors: 1. or Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. when checked.

The Update load collector color option will recolor the load collectors associated with the current selection to the color selected in the Color option. Note that these values do not affect the vector magnitude—only their screen size. • 5. Click the Color box to pick a different color.• The Vector size option allows you to control the display size of the result vectors.0 User’s Guide 387 . The Reset button clears the graphics area of all result vectors and resets all of the FBD Results Manager entry fields. A popup warning tells you what will be deleted and requires you to confirm the deletion. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The Delete button deletes the load collectors associated with the current selection. Magnitude % or Uniform size. The Close button closes the FBD Results Manager. Click one of the command buttons at the bottom of the tab: The Accept button displays the selected result vectors on in the graphics area. if desired. removing it from the tab area without displaying any results in the graphics area. each of which requires a numeric value. Two options are available.

In addition. LOAD = will also be assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collector for the selected sub-case. This opens a standard file browser window that you can use to browse to the desired destination directory and either select an existing file. the Results type affects how HyperMesh creates sub-cases: For FBD Forces – All Loads. If you wish to create sub-cases upon export. a SUBCASE will be created with SPC = assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collector for the selected sub-case. 388 HyperMesh 8. use <ctrl>-click or <shift>-click to select multiple results. 5. or type in a name for a new one. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Export Manager is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. After export. Select the desired node sets in the same fashion as the subcases.FBD Export Manager The FBD Export Manager exports FBD. If multiple node sets are selected for export the following will occur: An SPCADD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collectors will be assigned to it. and/or Resultant Force and Moment load collectors generated by other FBD utilities. HyperMesh prompts you to select one or the other from which to create the sub-case. Specify Export options:. If you choose FBD Displacements or Resultant Force and Moment as the result type. an additional list of node sets displays. This populates the list of subcases. The LOAD = will reference the newly created LOAD load collector. 2. If FBD Force and FBD Displacement load collectors from the same sub-case are selected for export. Displacement. Optional: activate the show model checkbox to display the entire model in transparency mode. a LOAD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collectors will be assigned to it. Click add to export to add the highlighted results to the export batch. To export FBD. a SUBCASE will be created with LOAD = assigned to the “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” load collector which references the LOAD card pointing to each component “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)” load collector for the selected sub-case. If the SPCD option was enabled when creating the FBD Displacement loads. For FBD Displacements. The SPC = will reference the newly created SPCADD load collector.op2 file. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . click the Create appropriate subcases checkbox and then click the open-folder button in the Output file text box. Click the one(s) that you wish to export to highlight them. Choose the results type that you wish to export from the list box. This option will also create SUBTITLE and LABEL cards if they are available from the sub-case information within the currently selected . Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). • • If the SPCD option was enabled when creating FBD Displacement loads. 4. Displacement. or Resultant Force & Moment collectors: 1. Location: Results menu. the exported data can be used for breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. highlighting the currently selected element set for review. Use the Element set selector to specify the set for which you wish to export data.

Close closes the tab. Reset clears all of the export criteria so that you can start over. removing it from the tab area. Click the appropriate command button at the bottom of the tab: Export executes the export process. and/or Resultant Force and Moment loads are displayed. and Removes unnecessary header information from the output file. Deletes the temporary mass elements from the current model. meaning that clicking it: • • • • • Turns off the display of all currently displayed elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Creates temporary mass elements on the nodes where the selected FBD.0 User’s Guide 389 . Exports the model with the “displayed” option. Displacement.6.

a fixed support on the left end.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). output from OptiStruct and Nastran with the GPFORCE io options command.FBD Grid Point Force Balance The Grid Point Force Balance table. The complete GPFORCE table for the above cantilever beam model is presented below. 390 HyperMesh 8. This model cons ists of two elements. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Shown below is a sample model which will be used to demonstrate the grid point force calculations that HyperMesh FBD utilities perform. and a point load on the right end. Location: Results menu. including: • • • • • Applied forces and moments SPC forces and moments MPC forces and moments Element forces and moments from elements attached to the node Total summed values for each node. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding GPFORCE io option cards. is the data around which all FBD-Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utility calculations are performed. several types of entries are possible depending on the forces acting at that node. which in turn must sum to zero for the complete GPFORCE table. Note that for any given node within the GPFORCE table.

0 User’s Guide 391 .Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

applied loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 1 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not considered. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 2 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not condered. MPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. then the node is an “interface” node and element contributions from the elements not a part of the element set are extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. Applied loads: Zero ii. SPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. Applied loads: Zero ii.121e+03 b. 4. MPC loads: Zero iv. all nodes connected to the elements in the element set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. looping through all the nodes attached to elements in the element set: a.Process The FBD Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utilities use element and node set definitions to define what information to extract and sum from the GPFORCE table. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. The element set serves several purposes: 1. if any element contribution is not from one of the defined elements within the element set. For FBD type Reaction loads only. FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility uses an element set to define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. For FBD types Applied loads only. for any given node. 3. For FBD types All loads and Applied loads only. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations.121e+03) and is extracted iii.121e+03 392 HyperMesh 8. Node 1 i. Fx calculation. Total FBD Value at Node 1 = 2. 2. Therefore. Furthermore. SPC loads: Fx component exists (2. • • 2. then the node is an “internal” node and element contributions are not extracted or utilized in FBD calculations. SPC loads: Fx component exists (-2. The following example of FBD-Forces extraction uses an element set defined with only element: The element set contains only element 1. For all nodes connected to elements in the element set. Total FBD Value at Node 2 = -2. 3 and 4. if all element contributions are from elements from within the defined element set. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. for any given node.121e+03) and is extracted iii. v. Node 2 i. MPC loads: Zero iv. This information is then used to produce free bodies and/or resultant force and moments.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . v. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set will be extracted and utilized in the FBD calculations. Element 1 has nodes 1. For FBD types 2 Applied loads only.

iii. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.c. Mz) is not the direct sum of all nodes as the (rXF) terms for the force resultant vector about the sum point must also be added to each moment component appropriately.085e+03) v.085e+03 Sum all nodes in Fx = 0. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. is the simple sum. iv. Note that the sum of the moment components (Mx. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. Fz. Node 3 i. Node 4 i. Notice that the sum of all components is zero about any point in the model. Fx component satisfies free body requirements) Fy. Fy. iv. however. My. • Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. The sum of the forces components (Fx. Mz calculations follow similar procedures. This verifies that the FBD-Forces extraction is indeed a “free body”. The final FBD-Forces results are presented in the summary table output from the FBD-Forces utility. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.0 (ie. My. ii.085e+03 e. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. iii. illustrated in the screenshot below. v. Fz) for each node. d. Mx.085e+03) Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1.0 User’s Guide 393 . ii.

All nodes in the node set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force 2 and Moment calculations . Sum nodes in node set in Fx = 0. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. 5. a node set defined with nodes 3 and 4. MPC loads:Zero ix.085e+03) x. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. SPC loads: Zero iii. All nodes in the node set must be attached to one or more elements in the element set. MPC loads:Zero iv. All values are zero in this model. The cross-section definition serves several purposes: 1. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. Node 4 vi. Fx calculation. All nodes in the node set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system: • • • The element set contains only element 1. SPC loads: Zero viii.085e+03 b. All nodes in the node set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. 4. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set of the cross-section definition will be extracted and utilized in the Resultant Force and Moment calculations.0 Fy calculation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For all nodes in the node set. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1.085e+03 c. • 394 HyperMesh 8. Applied loads: Zero vii. The node set contains nodes 3 and 4. 2. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. summation node set to node 3.085e+03) v.Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment utility uses an element set and a node set (cross-section definition) define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. 3. Node 3 i. Applied loads: Zero ii. Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. The following example of Resultant Force and Moment extraction uses a cross-section definition given by an element set defined with only element 1.

MPC loads:Zero xix.871e+00) xxv. looking through all the nodes in the node set: a.808e+02 d.574e+02) xx. SPC loads: Zero xxiii.085e+03) + (0. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. My calculation. Node 3 xi. MPC loads:Zero xxix.166) the following is obtained: xxxi. All values are zero in this model. Total rXF Value summed at Node 3 = -1. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-8. Total Fz Value at Node 3 = 6. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.574e+02 c. Total My Value at Node 3 = -8. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3.426e+02 b. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = -1. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (6. Applied loads: Zero xxii.808e+02 xxxiii. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.166*1.426e+02) xv. Node 3 xxi. SPC loads: Zero xiii. Node 4: rXF for My component equates to the following equation (rz*Fx) + (rx*Fz) = (-0. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a.0*3. Node 4 xxvi. Applied loads: Zero xxvii. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. MPC loads:Zero xxiv.871e+00 b. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (3.574e+02) = -1. Selecting node 3 as the summation node (any node in the model can be selected) and performing rXF (all element edge lengths are 0. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = 3. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-1.024e+00 c. Applied loads: Zero xvii. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Node 3: no additional rXF contributions since it is the sum point xxxii. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. Sum nodes in node set in Fz = 1. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.000e+02. Node 4 xvi.024e+00) xxx.0 User’s Guide 395 .000e+03 (The value of the applied shear) Mx calculation. Applied loads: Zero xii. SPC loads: Zero xxviii. Sum nodes in node set and all rXF terms in My = -2. MPC loads:Zero xiv. SPC loads: Zero xviii.• Fz calculation looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Calculate the cross-product of all the forces about the Y-axis at node 3.

MPC forces and moments are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: o RBE2 o RBE3 o Rigidlink o RJOINT o RROD o RBAR The GPFORCE and Displacement results are extracted of the .op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions. The element and node sets serve several purposes: 1. This maintains the integrity of the calculations as well as enhances the performance of the utilities. for a cross-section defined with element 1 (element set). See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards.• Mz calculation. summation node set to node 3. 2. The final Resultant Force and Moment results are presented in the graphic below. looping through all the nodes in the node set a. nodes 3 and 4 (node set). • • 396 HyperMesh 8. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system. for Nastran and OptiStruct. The element set is for visualization and breakout modeling purposes only. All values are zero in this model. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . Additional Information: • Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only.op2 file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This procedure reduces the size of the . All nodes in the node set will have displacement and rotation values extracted. FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility uses an element set and a node set to define the values to extract from the Displacement table. which is the summary table output from the Resultant Force and Moment utility.op2 file in float point precision in binary format. Additionally.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Descarga
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->