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VLAN l g? Lm th no cu hnh mt VLAN trn Switch Cisco?

bao gi bn t t cho mnh nhng cu hi nh: mng LAN o (hay VLAN) l g? Khi no v ti sao bn cn c mt VLAN? Bi vit sau y s chia s vi cc bn nhng kin thc c bn v VLAN, gip bn c khi nim v VLAN v s hu ch ca n.

LAN l g? Chc hn phn ln cc bn u hiu th no l mt mng LAN. Tuy nhin chng ta vn nn nhc li mt cht, bi l nu bn khng nm c mng LAN l g, bn s khng th c khi nim v VLAN. LAN l mt mng cc b (vit tt ca Local Area Network), c nh ngha l tt c cc my tnh trong cng mt min qung b (broadcast domain). Cn nh rng cc router (b nh tuyn) chn bn tin qung b, trong khi switch (b chuyn mch) ch chuyn tip chng. VLAN l g? Nh gii thiu pha trn, VLAN l mt mng LAN o. V mt k thut, VLAN l mt min qung b c to bi cc switch. Bnh thng th router ng vai tr to ra min qung b. i vi VLAN, switch c th to ra min qung b.

nh minh ha: thebryantadvantage.com

Vic ny c thc hin khi bn - qun tr vin - t mt s cng switch trong VLAN ngoi tr VLAN 1 - VLAN mc nh. Tt c cc cng trong mt mng VLAN n u thuc mt min qung b duy nht. V cc switch c th giao tip vi nhau nn mt s cng trn switch A c th nm trong VLAN 10 v mt s cng trn switch B cng c th trong VLAN 10. Cc bn tin qung b gia nhng my tnh ny s khng b l trn cc cng thuc bt k VLAN no ngoi tr VLAN 10. Tuy nhin, tt c cc my tnh ny u c th giao tip vi nhau v chng thuc cng mt VLAN. Nu khng c cu hnh b sung, chng s khng th giao tip vi cc my tnh khc nm ngoi VLAN ny. VLAN c cn thit khng? C mt iu quan trng m ti cn nhn mnh, l bn khng cn cu hnh mt mng LAN o tr khi mng my tnh ca bn qu ln v c lu lng truy cp qu nhiu. Nhiu khi ngi ta dng VLAN ch n gin v l do mng my tnh m h ang lm vic s dng chng ri. Thm mt vn quan trng na, l trn switch Cisco, VLAN c kch hot mc nh v tt c cc my tnh nm trong mt VLAN. VLAN chnh l VLAN 1. Bi th m theo mc nh, bn c th s dng tt c cc cng trn switch v tt c cc my tnh u c kh nng giao tip vi nhau. Khi no bn cn mt VLAN? Bn cn cn nhc vic s dng VLAN trong cc trng hp sau:

Bn c hn 200 my tnh trong mng LAN Lu lng qung b (broadcast traffic) trong mng LAN ca bn qu ln

Cc nhm lm vic cn gia tng bo mt hoc b lm chm v qu nhiu bn tin qung b.

Cc nhm lm vic cn nm trn cng mt min qung b v h ang dng chung cc ng dng. V d nh mt cng ty s dng in thoi VoIP. Mt s ngi mun s dng in thoi c th thuc mt mng VLAN khc, khng cng vi ngi dng thng xuyn.

Hoc ch chuyn i mt switch n thnh nhiu switch o.

Ti sao khng chia subnet? Mt cu hi thng gp l ti sao khng chia subnet (mng con) thay v s dng VLAN? Mi VLAN nn subnet ca ring mnh. VLAN c u im hn subnet ch cc my tnh ti nhng v tr vt l khc nhau (khng quay li cng mt router) c th nm trong cng mt mng. Hn ch ca vic chia subnet vi mt router l tt c my tnh trn subnet phi c kt ni ti cng mt switch v switch phi c kt ni ti mt cng trn router. Vi VLAN, mt my tnh c th c kt ni ti switch ny trong khi my tnh khc c th kt ni ti switch kia m tt c cc my tnh vn nm trn VLAN chung (min qung b). Lm th no cc my tnh trn VLAN khc nhau c th giao tip vi nhau? Cc my tnh trn VLAN khc nhau c th giao tip vi mt router hoc mt switch Layer 3. Do mi VLAN l subnet ca ring n, router hoc switch Layer 3 phi c dng nh tuyn gia cc subnet. Cng trunk l g?

Khi mt lin kt gia hai switch hoc gia mt router v mt switch truyn ti lu lng ca nhiu VLAN th cng gi l cng trunk. Cng trunk phi chy giao thc ng truyn c bit. Giao thc c s dng c th l giao thc c quyn ISL ca Cisco hoc IEEE chun 802.1q. Lm th no to VLAN? Cch cu hnh mt mng VLAN c th thay i ty tng mu switch Cisco khc nhau. Mc tiu ca bn l:

To VLAN mi t mi cng vo VLAN thch hp

Gi d chng ta mun to VLAN 5 v 10. Chng ta mun t cng 2 v 3 vo VLAN 5 (Marketing) v cng 4 v 5 vo VLAN 10 (Nhn s). Sau y l cch thc hin trn switch Cisco 2950:

Ti thi im ny, ch c cng 2 v 3 l c th giao tip vi nhau cng nh ch c cng 4 v 5 c th giao tip vi nhau. L do l v chng nm trn

cng VLAN. my tnh cng 2 c th giao tip vi my tnh cng 4, bn cn phi cu hnh cng trunk ti router nhm gip n c th tho g thng tin VLAN, nh tuyn gi d liu v b sung li thng tin VLAN. VLAN cung cp nhng g? VLAN gip tng hiu sut mng LAN c trung bnh v ln v n hn ch bn tin qung b. Khi s lng my tnh v lu lng truyn ti tng cao, s lng gi tin qung b cng gia tng. Bng cch s dng VLAN, bn s hn ch c bn tin qung b. VLAN cng tng cng tnh bo mt bi v thc cht bn t mt nhm my tnh trong mt VLAN vo mng ring ca chng. Tng kt Di y l tng kt nhng chnh trong bi:

VLAN l mt min qung b to bi cc switch. Qun tr vin phi to VLAN sau ch nh cng no vo VLAN no mt cch th cng.

VLAN gip tng hiu sut cho mng LAN c va v ln. Tt c cc my tnh u nm trong VLAN 1 theo mc nh. Cng trunk l cng c bit s dng giao thc ISL hoc 802.1q, nh th n c th truyn ti lu lng ca nhiu VLAN.

cc my tnh thuc cc VLAN khc nhau giao tip vi nhau, bn cn dng mt router hoc switch Layer 3.

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