Lighting people and places

Thorn Lighting Main Offices
Australia Thorn Lighting Pty Limited 43 Newton Road, Wetherill Park NSW 2164 Tel: (02) 8786 6000 Fax: (02) 9612 2700 E-mail: Website: Austria Thorn Licht GmbH Donau-City-Straße 11, 1220 Wien, Austria Tel: (43) 1 202 66 11 Fax: (43) 1 202 66 11 12 E-mail: Website: China Thorn Lighting (Guangzhou) Operations Ltd, No.12 Lian Yun Road, Eastern Section, GETDD, Guangzhou 510530, China Tel: (86) 20 3228 2706 Fax: (86) 20 3228 1777 E-mail: Thorn Lighting (Tianjin) Co. Ltd 332 Hongqi Road, Tianjin 300190, China Tel: (86) 22 8369 2303 Fax: (86) 22 8369 2302 E-mail: Czech Republic Thorn Lighting CS spol. s.r.o., Na Březince 6/930, 150 00 Praha 5 Czech Republic Tel: (420) 224 315 252 Fax: (420) 233 326 313 E-mail: Website: Denmark Thorn Lighting A/S Albuen 44, 6000 Kolding, Denmark Tel: (45) 7696 3600 Fax: (45) 7696 3601 E-mail: Website: France Thorn Europhane SA 156 Boulevard Haussmann, Cedex 08, Paris 75379, France Tel: (33) 1 49 53 6262 Fax: (33) 1 49 53 6240 Website: Hong Kong Thorn Lighting (Hong Kong) Limited Unit 4301, Level 43, Tower 1, Metroplaza,223 Hing Fong Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., Hong Kong Tel: (852) 2578 4303 Fax: (852) 2887 0247 E-mail: India Thorn Lighting India Pvt. Ltd RH-2 Nirav CHS, 636A, 90 Ft. D.P. Road, Near Thakur Polytechnic 400 101 Mumbai, India Tel: (91) 22285 41056 Fax: (91) 22285 1120 E-mail: Website: Ireland Thorn Lighting (Ireland) Limited 320 Harold’s Cross Road, Dublin 6W, Ireland Tel: (353) 1 4922 877 Fax: (353) 1 4922 724 E-mail: Website: Italy Thorn Europhane Spa Via G Di Vittorio, 2, Cadriano di Granarolo, Bologna 40057, Italy Tel: (39) 051 763391 Fax: (39) 051 763088 E-mail: Website: New Zealand Thorn Lighting (NZ) Ltd 399 Rosebank Road, P O Box 71134, Rosebank, Auckland 7, New Zealand Tel: (64) 9 828 7155 Fax: (64) 9 828 7591 E-mail: Website: Norway Thorn Lighting AS Strømsveien 344, 1081 Oslo, Norway Tel: (47) 22 82 07 00 Fax: (47) 22 82 07 01 E-mail: Website: Poland Thorn Lighting Polska Sp.z.o.o., Ul. Gazowa 26A, Wrocław 50-513, Poland Tel: (48) 71 7833 740 Fax: (48) 71 3366 029 E-mail: Website: Russia Thorn Lighting Novoslobodskaya Str., 21, office 406 Business Center “Novoslobodskaya 21”, Moscow 127030, Russia Tel: (7) 495 981 35 41 Fax: (7) 495 981 35 42 E-mail: Website: Singapore Thorn Lighting (Singapore) Pte Ltd 5 Kaki Bukit Crescent, 04-02 Koyotech Building, 416238 Singapore Tel: (65) 6844 5800 Fax: (65) 6745 7707 E-mail: Sweden Thorn Lighting AB Industrigatan, Box 305, SE-261 23 Landskrona, Sweden Tel: (46) 418 520 00 Fax: (46) 418 265 74 E-mail: Website: United Arab Emirates Thorn Lighting Ltd Dubai Al Shoala Building, Office 301, Block E, Airport road, P.O. Box 1200, Deira, Dubai, UAE Tel: (971) 4 2940181 Fax: (971) 4 2948838 E-mail: Website: Thorn Gulf LLC Al Shoala Building, Office 301/2, Block E, Airport road, P.O. Box 22672, Deira, Dubai, UAE Tel: (971) 4 2948938 Fax: (971) 4 2948838 E-mail: Website: United Kingdom Thorn Lighting Limited Silver Screens, Elstree Way, Borehamwood, Hertfordshire, WD6 1FE, UK Tel: (44) 20 8732 9800 Fax: (44) 20 8732 9801 E-mail: Thorn Olympics Sports Lighting Team Tel: 07796 303176 E-mail: International Sales Thorn Lighting Limited Silver Screens, Elstree Way, Borehamwood, Hertfordshire, WD6 1FE, UK Tel: (44) 20 8732 1915 Fax: (44) 20 8732 1911 E-mail: Website:

Technical Handbook

Technical Handbook

Thorn Lighting is constantly developing and improving its products. All descriptions, illustrations, drawings and specifications in this publication present only general particulars and shall not form part of any contract. The right is reserved to change specifications without prior notification or public announcement. All goods supplied by the company are supplied subject to the company’s General Conditions of Sale, a copy of which is available on request. All measurements are in millimetres and weights in kilograms unless otherwise stated. Publication Date: 07/09

Editor Peter Thorns BSc(Hons) CEng MCIBSE MSLL Contributors Patricia El-Baamrani; Lou Bedocs; Karl Flax; Stefan Hauer; Pat Holley; Hugh King; Jan-Erik Jerleke; Iain Macrae; Robin Ostlin; Paul Stranks This is the fifth edition of the Technical Handbook Copyright © Thorn Lighting. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, without prior permission in writing from Thorn Lighting, except for the quotation of brief passages in reviews. While Thorn has made every effort to credit the copyright owners for the illustrations and photographs used herein, there may be omissions, for which the company apologises. Spill Light Stray light from a luminaire that incidentally illuminates nearby objects or surfaces within the public environment. Can be a cause of ‘light trespass’. Spine See batten Track A linear bus bar system providing one to three main circuits or a low voltage supply to which display lighting (spotlights) can be connected and disconnected at will along the length of the system. Transformer Transformers reduce the line voltage (for instance 230V) to the lower voltage required for operating low-voltage halogen lamps. This will generally be 12V. Trunking Trunking usually provides mechanical fixings for the luminaires as well as electrical connection. Uniformity The ratio of the minimum illuminance to the average illuminance over the specified area. Visual performance The ability to perceive detail and carry out the visual tasks. Visual comfort Our feeling of ease or well being within the visual field. Visual satisfaction The qualitative impression of a lit space.

Picture credits: Danny Maddocks; Chris Gascoigne; Mike Gee; Richard Seymour and Alan Turner

Graphics: Juice Creative

Price £15 GBP/€20 EUR. Not for resale.



| 251

1 2 Introduction The 2.1 2.2 2.3 Mechanics of Seeing What is light? The eye and vision Lighting fundamentals 5 7 7 7 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 41 41 44 50 57 64 71 80 88 96 107 111 127 127 133 135 139 147 151


Controlling Light 3.1 Reflection 3.2 Transmission 3.3 Refraction Australian Standards 4.1 Luminaire Manufacture 4.2 Interior Lighting Standards 4.3 Building Code of Australia 4.4 Exterior Lighting Standards Recommendations for Good Lighting 5.1 Indoor workplaces 5.2 Outdoor workplaces 5.3 Sports 5.4 Emergency 5.5 Roads 5.6 Tunnel Applications and Techniques 6.1 General Considerations 6.2 Office 6.3 Education 6.4 Industry indoor 6.5 Industry outdoor 6.6 Healthcare 6.7 Super/hypermarket 6.8 Road lighting 6.9 Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas 6.10 Urban – architectural floodlighting 6.11 Sports lighting Specific Techniques 7.1 Indoor lighting controls (ILC) 7.2 Lighting for display screen equipment 7.3 Light for learning 7.4 Emergency lighting 7.5 Low mount road lighting 7.6 Road tunnel lighting






7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 8

Lighting maintenance Control of obtrusive light Lighting for crime prevention Lighting and health Sustainability Outdoor lighting controls (OLC)

154 164 169 173 176 179 183 183 185 187 193 193 195 195 198 199 200 201 202 202 206 208 221 221 225 227 228 229 231 235 235 237 239 242 245 245 248

Checklists 8.1 Life cycle analysis 8.2 Economics 8.3 Lighting energy numeric indicator (LENI) Lamps, LEDs and Circuits 9.1 Choosing the right lamp 9.2 Tungsten halogen lamps 9.3 Fluorescent lamps 9.4 Compact fluorescent lamps 9.5 Metal halide lamps 9.6 Sodium vapour high pressure lamps 9.7 Mercury vapour lamps 9.8 Induction lamps 9.9 Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) 9.10 Lamp coding systems – LBS/ILCOS 9.11 Characteristic values of the major lamps 9.12 Energy efficiency of luminaires 9.13 Circuits 9.14 Properties of electronic ballasts 9.15 Voltage drop 9.16 Fusing 9.17 Wiring regulations 9.18 Fault detection


10 Standards and Directives 10.1 Directives 10.2 Standards 10.3 Quality and safety marks 10.4 Product/corrosion compatibility guide 11 Tools 11.1 Tools 12 Glossary


1 Introduction
Light is life, without light we could not live. Our human physiology is based upon light and the complex structure of our earth relies upon light to function. And as we have progressed technologically we have taken this further, turning the dark into light, from using fire to the electric light. Electric lighting is the basis for our modern society, turning darkness into light in windowless or deep-plan offices, in our city streets at night, in numerous leisure and amenity facilities. Our society exists as it does because of light. Our patterns of work and leisure are made possible through our ability to control our environment and supply light on demand. As we have developed the technology of lighting we have also developed our understanding of how to use light. Through standards we lay down limits for safety and adequacy, through guides we direct lighting toward established good practice, show how to transcend the adequate. We have learnt how to give light meaning, transforming spaces by giving them a lit atmosphere, applying light to give beauty to a scene. But the use of light is constantly challenging us. It is no longer enough to ensure good task visibility, or a comfortable environment. It is not even enough to produce an environment that gives a sense of well-being. We need to do all these, but also in a way that minimises harm to the environment. Therefore stricter rules are being applied to product design, use and disposal. We have to minimise the carbon footprint of a product or an installation and maximise sustainability. Therefore, all aspects of design, whether for a luminaire or lighting installation, is a balance of factors, a balance of performance, efficiency and comfort (PEC). Performance is the achievement of visual effectiveness, meeting requirements and targets. It is quantifiable through known lighting measures such as illuminance, luminance, glare rating, colour rendition and uniformity. These measures are generally defined through national and international standards and recommendations.

Fig. 1.1 Amenity lighting creating a pleasant balanced scene



that give the design its individuality. percent recycled element. welcoming and pleasant. and many others. This is the PEC philosophy. The criteria for assessing comfort are subjective and are the criteria that differentiate the design. reducing CO2 emissions and waste. percent maintenance link. producing a system that is practical and efficient to install. its own character. such as cost. CO2 kg/year. operate and maintain. the architecture of the space. and in this handbook we supply some of this information to help the designer in their task. providing a stimulating atmosphere that gives sustainable wellness. and the physical design of the luminaires? This is the point where the engineering and art are blended to produce good lighting. So in their job the designer needs to know a wide selection of information and how to blend this to deliver better lighting. Is it calming/stimulating/inspiring. Efficiency can also be quantified. such as energy efficiency or the ecodesign of products. Some of these measures are defined through national and international standards and recommendations. Comfort is the achievement of complete satisfaction. reassuring. 6 | Introduction . whilst others are concerns for the end-user.Efficiency is conserving energy and effort. fulfilling? Does it have a pleasing flow of light and give a well balanced ambient? Do all parts of the design complement each other. cost/m2. through units such as lumens/watt. the lit effect. with better efficiency and a better environment in a sustainable manner.

2 The eye and vision Rays of light entering the eye are directed onto the retina. This is the part of the spectrum whose rays are visible to the human eye and lies between infrared and ultra-violet. Therefore we see a less brightly coloured view as we are using a mixture of the rod and cone cells. These concepts are important as we consider the appearance of a space under different lighting conditions with respect to the amount of light and the colour spectrum of the light. from blue at 400nm to red at 700nm. the cones become less effective and are assisted by the more sensitive rods (mesopic vision). Light may be further divided as the wavelength of the light relates to the colour we see. hearing. However. and light is a very small part of this spectrum with wavelengths from 380 to 760 nanometres (1nm=10-9m). These cells have different properties.1 What is light? To see we need light.2 The electromagnetic spectrum 100% Photopic vision (day) 400 500 600 700 800 Scotopic vision (dark adapted eye) 100% Photopic vision (day) 400 500 600 700 800 Fig. GAMMA X RAYS RAYS VISIBLE LIGHT ULTRA VOILET INFRA RED RADIO Fig. and light is an emission of electromagnetic radiation. the rods only give black and white vision.2 The Mechanics of Seeing Our discernment of the world is via our five senses of sight. The electromagnetic spectrum varies from radio waves through infrared. 2. The retina is composed of two basic types of light sensitive cells.3 Photopic and Scotopic visual response curves The Mechanics of Seeing |7 . taste. say that of dim moonlight. Of these sight is the most important. 2. Vision 80% Other senses 20% Fig. touch and smell. and our vision becomes totally monochromatic using just the rods (scotopic vision). The unit for this measure of light is the lumen.1 The importance of vision WAVELENGTH (nanometers) 500 600 700 380 400 760 2. At much lower light levels. the rods and the cones. the cones cease to function at all. X-rays and finally to gamma rays. which is a layer of light sensitive cells within the eye. As the wavelength changes so does the colour of the light. 2. Over 80 per cent of our experience of the world comes via our sight. say to that of a well-lit street. ultra-violet. the relative mixture varying depending upon the actual light level. But how do we see? 2. Cones operate during the day and enable us to see in detailed colour (photopic vision). As the light level drops.

It is the amount of luminous flux (F) that is received by a surface of given area. All of these methods. It is the amount of luminous flux (F.Glare is the result of excessive contrasts of luminance in the field of view. 2. reflection.5 Luminance 8 | The Mechanics of Seeing . When the ability to see is impaired this is called disability glare.1 Illuminance (E) .This is a measure of the amount of light falling onto an object. lumens) that is emitted by a surface of given area and is dependant upon the properties of the surface (e. Fig. Glare may be calculated in a variety of ways depending upon the application.4 Illuminance L Fig. The effect may vary from mild discomfort to an actual impairment of the ability to see.3. and is measured in lux.g. 2.3. So for example in interiors the Unified Glare Rating (UGR) is calculated. The value of luminance at a point on a surface can therefore vary dependant upon the observer viewpoint.6 Glare from indoor luminaires with poor optical control E Fig. Discomfort glare refers to the discomfort or distraction caused by bright windows or luminaires.This is a measure of the amount of light reflected by an object and is measured in cd/m². refraction and transmission.3 Glare . Similarly for sports lighting applications Glare Rating (GR) is used and for street lighting Threshold Increment (TI) is calculated.3 Lighting fundamentals 2.2 Luminance (L) . whilst using different parameters are essentially the ratio of luminaire brightness to background brightness.3. 2.2. 2. 2. See section 3 on controlling light).

the principal ways materials react to light. With specular reflection the light reflects from a surface as if from a mirror. For any ray of light striking a specular surface the angle of incidence of the light is equal to the angle at which the ray of light is reflected. With diffuse reflection the light reflected from a surface is scattered equally in all directions. be it a space such as a room or a sports field.3 Controlling Light When we light an object. showing a fuzzy mirrored image. 3. 3. or part of a luminaire such as a louvre or diffuser.1 Reflection As mentioned above paper reflects light differently to polished metal.2 Specular reflection Fig. This is because paper exhibits what we term matt or diffuse reflection whilst polished metal exhibits what we term specular reflection. Fig. 3. To understand how a surface or object will look we need a basic understanding of reflection. 3. What we actually see is the effect of light upon the object. Some surfaces exhibit a mixture of diffuse and specular reflection. producing a sharp-mirrored image. Different materials affect light in different ways. we do not see the light that falls onto a surface or object. For this the peak reflection still obeys the rule of angle of incidence equals angle of reflection but light is also diffusely scattered around this peak. for example paper reflects light differently to polished metal and the lit effect is different again for glass. transmission and refraction.1 Diffuse reflection Fig.3 Mixed specular and diffuse reflection Controlling Light |9 .

such as clear glass. for example using prisms. (See Fig. 3.4) 3. therefore spreading the brightness of the light ray over a larger area. and some light will pass through the material.5) Fig. thereby making the luminaire more efficient at illuminating a task or object. When light falls on a translucent (light transmitting) material some light will be reflected in a specular manner. 3. the light will pass through with a minimum of scattering.4 Transmission of a ray of light through a translucent material Fig. air to glass) it bends.5 Refraction of a ray of light through a prismatic panel 10 | Controlling Light . In luminaires prisms are used to direct light away from areas that could cause glare or waste light and into areas that produce more useful light. (See Fig.3.2 Transmission Certain materials have the ability to transmit and diffuse light. This is known as refraction and this principle is used to control light.g.3.3 Refraction When light passes from one transparent medium to another of different density (e. 3. However for materials such as opal plastic the light is scattered or diffused. For a clear material.

This information has been included as a general guide or refer to Thorn’s Building Code of Australia . Standards. ASNZS CISPR15 Compliance with electromagnetic radiation standard as in C-Tick.1 AS1680. Controlling Light | 11 .3 AS1680.1 Luminaire Manufacture ASNZS60598 Safety Compliance verified by self-certification based on in-house or NATA report. designs and products outlined in other sections within this Technical Handbook may not be applicable in Australia.2 Interior Lighting Standards AS1680.5 General principles and recommendations Circulation spaces and other general areas Office and screen based tasks Educational and Training Facilities Industrial tasks and purposes Hospital and medical tasks 4. 4.2 AS1680.A Contractor’s Guide handbook. AS1680.2.2 Provisions for all new constructions and refurbishments projects .2.minimum efficiency requirements. For more information visit AS1680.4 Australian Standards This section of the Technical handbook outlines some of the key standards that apply to lighting installations in Australia. Note that other regulations may also apply and it is the responsibility of the respective party to ensure compliance with all Australian standards.2.3 Building Code of Australia Part J6.

2.2. ASNZS 1158.7 AS2560.Performance and design requirements.6 AS2560.4 The lighting of urban roads and other public thoroughfares .4 Exterior Lighting Standards ASNZS 1158.1 AS2560.3 AS2560.1 AS2560.Performance and design requirements.2.Supplementary lighting at pedestrian crossings AS4282 Control of the obtrusive effects of outdoor lighting.2.5 Sports Lighting AS2560.2.4.8 AS4282 General Tennis Multipurpose Sports Hall Football Netball & Basketball Swimming Pools Baseball & Softball Hockey Bowling Greens Control of the obtrusive effects of outdoor lighting 12 | Controlling Light .2.3 Lighting for roads and public spaces Pedestrian area (Category P) lighting . ASNZS 1158.2.2.5 AS2560. 4.1 Lighting for roads and public spaces Vehicular traffic (Category V) lighting .2 AS2560.4 AS2560.

The recommendations are drawn from a variety of documents.5 Recommendations for Good Lighting The recommendations for good lighting give practical values for various lighting criteria.6 Tunnel CR 14380:2003 Lighting Applications – Tunnel Lighting Note that these recommendations are based upon the European norms and local regulations may stipulate different values. the principle documents being: Section 5. Recommendations for Good Lighting | 13 .2 Outdoor workplaces EN 12464-2:2007 Lighting of work places – Part 2 : Outdoor work places and CIE S 015:2005 Section 5.1 Indoor workplaces EN 12464-1:2002 Light and Lighting – Lighting of work places – Part 1: Indoor work places and CIE S 008:2001 Section 5. depending upon the application.3 Sports EN 12193: 2007 Light and Lighting – Sports Lighting Section 5.4 Emergency EN 1838:1999 and CIE S 020/E:2007 Emergency Lighting Section 5.5 Roads EN 13201 1-4 Road lighting practice Section 5.

The criteria used in the recommendations are defined below. This is the minimum value of illuminance that is permissible within any calculation or measurement grid. This is maximum value of glare rating that is permissible in any direction within any measurement or calculation grid. Emin GRL Lm Ra SR TI UGRL This is the limiting maximum value of glare calculated by the unified glare rating method. This is the colour rendering index for a lamp and defines the ability of a lamp to show different colours correctly. Some of these factors are described in other sections of this book. Em This is the maintained average illuminance. that is the minimum value for average luminance provided during the maintenance cycle of the installation. Ul This is the uniformity of illuminance along a line. which is a measure of the loss of visibility caused by the disability glare of the luminaires in an installation. This is the uniformity of illuminance across any calculation or measurement grid. This is the maintained average luminance. that is the minimum value for average illuminance provided during the maintenance cycle of the installation. which is a value used in the design of road lighting applications.Recommendations for good lighting Whilst these limiting values may be considered to be the minimum design criteria additional factors should be taken into account to ensure a good lighting installation. It is the ratio of the average illuminance of a strip just outside the carriageway compared to the average illuminance of a strip just inside the carriageway This is the threshold increment. This is the surround ratio. being defined as the minimum illuminance value within a grid of measurement points divided by the average illuminance value of a grid of measurement points (Emin/Em). Uo 14 | Recommendations for Good Lighting . being defined as the minimum illuminance value within a line of measurement points divided by the average illuminance value of the line of measurement points (Emin_line/Em_line).

tiles. engraving. travalators Loading ramps/bays Rest. sanitation and first aid rooms Canteens. decorating Cement. escalators. cold stores Store and stockrooms Dispatch packing handling areas Storage rack areas Gangways : unmanned Gangways : manned Control stations Industrial activities and crafts Agriculture Loading and operating of goods. rolling.Recommendations for good lighting 5. shaping simple parts. hand grinding and engraving Precision work e. decorative grinding. bricks Drying Preparation of materials. glazing.1 Indoor workplaces Type of task or activity Traffic zones and general areas inside buildings Traffic Zones Circulation areas and corridors Stairs. glass blowing Grinding. glass. crystal. pressing. hand painting Manufacture of synthetic precious stones Em UGRL Ra 100 150 150 200 100 300 200 500 500 200 500 100 300 20 150 150 28 25 25 22 22 22 25 19 16 25 19 25 25 22 22 40 40 40 80 80 80 80 80 90 60 80 60 60 40 60 60 200 50 200 200 300 500 50 200 300 300 50 300 300 750 750 1000 1500 25 25 25 22 22 28 28 25 25 28 25 25 19 16 16 16 80 40 80 80 80 80 20 40 80 80 20 80 80 80 80 90 90 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 15 . general machine work Enamelling. dairy. glazing. cement goods. pantries Rest rooms Rooms for physical exercise Cloakrooms. glassware Drying Preparation. work on kilns and mixers General machine work Rough forms Ceramics. calving stalls Food preparation. glass polishing. manufacture of glass instruments Grinding of optical glass. handling equipment and machinery Buildings for livestock Sick animal pens. toilets Sick bay Rooms for medical attention Control rooms Plant rooms. shaping precision parts. switchboard Store rooms. utensil washing Bakeries Preparation and baking Finishing. washrooms. concrete. switch gear rooms Post room.g. bathrooms.

milling. etc. packing Work places and critical zones in slaughter houses. cleaning. peeling -Cooking in preserve and chocolate factories -Work places and zones in sugar factories -For drying and fermenting raw tobacco. sieving. testing. measuring equipment Electronic workshops.g. decoration Laboratories Colour inspection Foundries and metal casting Man-size underfloor tunnels. finishing. inspection Electrical industry Cable and wire manufacture Winding -Large coils -Medium-sized coils -Small coils Coil impregnating Galvanising Assembly work -Rough e.g. mixing. sorting. cellars.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Chemical. product control. kitchen work. dairies mills. large transformers -Medium e. trimming. malting floor -For washing.5. plastics and rubber industry Remote-operated processing installations Processing installations with limited manual intervention Constantly manned work places in processing installations Precision measuring rooms. manufacture of cigars and cigarettes Inspection of glasses and bottles.g. adjusting Food stuffs and luxury food industry Work places and zone in -Breweries. Platforms Sand preparation Dressing room Work places at cupola and mixer Casting bay Shake out areas Machine moulding Em 50 150 300 500 500 500 1000 750 300 300 300 500 750 300 300 300 500 750 1000 1500 UGRL 28 25 19 22 22 16 19 25 25 25 22 19 25 25 25 22 19 16 16 Ra 20 40 80 80 80 80 90 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 200 200 200 200 200 300 500 300 500 500 500 1000 50 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 22 22 19 16 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 90 20 40 80 80 80 80 80 80 16 | Recommendations for Good Lighting . butchers.g. laboratories Pharmaceutical production Tyre production Colour inspection Cutting. barrel filling. switchboards -Fine e. telephones -Precision e. on filtering floor in sugar refineries Cutting and sorting of fruit and vegetables Manufacture of delicatessen foods. fermentation cellar Sorting and washing of products.

cutting. template and jig making. pulp mills Paper manufacture and processing. cardboard manufacture Standard bookbinding work e.1mm Scribing. paper and corrugating machines. rubbing. stitching. punching Sorting Leather dyeing (machine) Quality control Colour inspection Shoe making Glove making Metal working and processing Open die forging Drop forging Welding Rough and average machining: tolerances ≥ 0. pressing Inspection and repairs Leather and leather goods Work on vats. cutting. pits Fleshing. gluing.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Hand and core moulding Die casting Model building Hairdressers Hairdressing Jewellery manufacturing Working with precious stones Manufacture of jewellery Watch making (manual) Watch making (automatic) Laundries and dry cleaning Goods in.5. sewing Em 300 300 500 500 1500 1000 1500 500 300 300 300 750 200 300 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 200 300 300 300 500 750 300 200 300 750 200 300 500 750 300 750 750 200 300 500 UGRL 25 25 22 19 16 16 16 19 25 25 25 19 25 25 22 22 22 19 16 22 22 25 25 25 22 19 19 25 26 22 19 25 25 22 19 25 25 25 25 25 22 Ra 80 80 80 90 90 90 80 80 80 80 80 80 40 80 80 90 80 80 90 80 80 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 17 . sewing.g. barrels. micromechanics Paper and paper goods Edge runners. shaping. sorting. skiving. precision mechanics. cold forming Plate machining: thickness ≥ 5mm Sheet metalwork: thickness < 5mm Tool making.1mm Precision machining. cutting equipment manufacture Assembly • Rough • Medium • Fine • Precision Galvanising Surface preparation and painting Tool. marking and sorting Washing and dry cleaning Ironing. shoe manufacturer. embossing. polishing. folding. tumbling of skins Saddlery work. grinding: tolerances < 0. inspection Wire and pipe drawing shops.

measurement and inspection Underfloor man-sized tunnels. gluing. knitting Sewing. weaving. cellars. combing. dyeing Drying room Automatic fabric printing Burling.5. retouching.g. trimming Colour inspection. taking up stitches Manual design. iron and steel works Production plants without manual operation Production plants with occasional manual operation Production plants with continuous manual operation Slab store Furnaces Mill train. inspection Upholstery manufacture (manned) Final inspection Wood working and processing Automatic processing e. drawing. card cutting. plywood manufacturing Steam pits Saw frame Work at joiners bench. control panels Test. belt sections. matrix making Paper sorting and hand printing Type setting. devilling machine work. sizing. drawing patterns Finishing. pump rooms. lithography Colour inspection in multicoloured printing Steel and copper engraving Rolling mills. embossing. reeling. coiler. pre-spinning. switchboards (inside buildings) Control rooms Outdoor switch gear Printers Cutting. fabric control Invisible mending Hat manufacturing Vehicle construction Body work and assembly Painting. polishing chamber Painting. ironing. etc. washing.g. plying. winding Warping. block engraving. jute and hemp spinning Spinning. gilding. etc. work on stones and platens. drying. Textile manufacture and processing Work places and zones in baths. spraying chamber. touch-up. picking. fine knitting.. assembly Em 50 100 200 200 500 20 500 500 1000 1500 2000 50 150 200 50 200 300 300 500 50 200 300 500 500 750 750 500 100 500 1000 1000 1500 500 500 750 1000 1000 1000 50 150 300 300 UGRL 28 25 25 16 19 19 19 16 16 28 25 25 25 22 22 25 22 22 22 22 22 22 28 25 19 16 19 22 22 22 19 19 19 28 28 25 25 Ra 20 40 80 60 80 20 80 80 80 90 80 20 40 80 20 20 40 80 80 20 60 80 80 80 80 90 80 60 80 80 90 90 80 80 80 90 80 80 40 40 60 80 18 | Recommendations for Good Lighting . shear line Control platforms. braiding.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Power stations Fuel supply plant Boiler house Machine halls Side rooms e. condenser rooms. printing machines. bale opening Carding.

5. dining room. fancy joinery Work on wood working machines e. fluting. sinking Selection of veneer woods Marquetry. function room Self-service restaurant Buffet Conference rooms Corridors Theatres. Writing. cinemas Practice rooms.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Polishing. copying. dressing. inlay work Quality control. dressing rooms Trade fairs. concert halls. typing. inspection Offices Offices Filing. sawing. rebating. etc. data processing Technical drawing CAD work stations Conference and meeting rooms Reception desk Archives Retail premises Retail premises Sales area Till area Wrapper table Places of public assembly General areas Entrance halls Cloakrooms Lounges Ticket offices Restaurants and hotels Reception/cashier desk.g. porters desk Kitchen Restaurant. grooving. painting. exhibition halls General lighting Libraries Bookshelves Reading area Counters Public car parks (indoor) In/out ramps (during the day) In/out ramps (at night) Traffic lanes Parking areas Ticket office Em 750 500 750 750 1000 UGRL 22 19 22 22 19 Ra 80 80 90 90 90 300 500 750 500 500 300 200 19 19 16 19 19 22 25 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 300 500 500 22 19 19 80 80 80 100 200 200 300 300 500 200 300 500 100 300 300 200 500 500 300 75 75 75 300 22 25 22 22 22 22 22 22 19 25 22 22 19 19 19 25 25 25 19 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 20 20 20 20 80 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 19 . reading. turning. cutting.

gymnasiums. tutorial rooms Classroom for evening classes and adult education Lecture hall Black board Demonstration table Art rooms Art rooms in art schools Technical drawing rooms Practical rooms and laboratories Handicraft rooms Teaching workshop Music practice rooms Computer practice rooms (menu driven) Language laboratory Preparation rooms and workshops Entrance halls Circulation areas.5. maternity wards General lighting Reading lighting Simple examinations Examination and treatment Night lighting. swimming pools (general use) School canteens Kitchen Health care premises Rooms for general use Waiting rooms Corridors (during the day) Corridors (at night) Day rooms Staff rooms Staff office Staff rooms Wards. observation lighting Bathrooms and toilets for patients Em UGRL Ra 300 300 300 300 500 500 500 500 500 750 750 500 500 500 300 300 300 500 200 100 150 200 300 200 500 100 300 200 500 500 750 200 200 50 200 500 300 100 300 300 1000 5 200 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 16 19 19 19 19 19 19 22 22 25 25 22 19 19 19 25 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 19 19 19 19 19 19 22 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 90 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 90 80 80 20 | Recommendations for Good Lighting . play school Play room Nursery Handicraft room Educational buildings Classrooms. corridors Stairs Student common rooms and assembly halls Teachers rooms Library: bookshelves Library: reading areas Stock rooms for teaching materials Sports halls.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Educational premises Nursery school.

1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Examination rooms (general) General lighting Examination and treatment Eye examination rooms General lighting Examination of the outer eye Reading and colour vision tests with vision charts Ear examination rooms General lighting Ear examination Scanner rooms General lighting Scanners with image enhancers and television systems Delivery rooms General lighting Examination and treatment Treatment rooms (general) Dialysis Dermatology Endoscopy rooms Plaster rooms Medical baths Massage and radiotherapy Operating areas Pre-op and recovery rooms Operating theatre Intensive care unit General lighting Simple examinations Examination and treatment Night watch Dentists General lighting At the patient Operating cavity White teeth matching Laboratories and pharmacies General lighting Colour inspection Decontamination rooms Sterilisation rooms Disinfection rooms Autopsy rooms and mortuaries General lighting Autopsy table and dissecting table Em 500 1000 300 1000 500 750 300 1000 300 50 300 1000 500 500 300 500 300 300 500 1000 100 300 1000 20 200 500 1000 5000 5000 500 1000 300 300 300 500 5000 UGRL 19 19 19 16 22 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 25 19 19 19 22 22 22 19 Ra 90 90 80 90 90 80 80 90 80 80 80 80 80 90 80 80 80 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 90 90 80 90 80 80 80 90 90 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 21 .5.

travolators Information desks.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Transportation areas Airports Arrival and departure halls. check-in desks Customs and passport control desks Waiting areas Luggage store rooms Security check areas Air traffic control tower Testing and repair hangers Measuring areas in hangers Railway installations Covered platforms and passenger subways Ticket hall and concourse Ticket and luggage offices and counters Waiting rooms Em 300 200 150 500 500 200 200 300 500 500 500 50 200 300 200 UGRL 22 22 22 19 19 22 25 19 16 22 22 28 28 19 22 Ra 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 40 40 80 80 22 | Recommendations for Good Lighting .5. baggage claim areas Connecting areas. escalators.

vehicle turning.25 0.10 0. waiting areas Outport embankment ballasting at canals and locks Lock control area Cargo handling. loading and unloading Passenger areas in passenger harbours Coupling of hoses. electric piping and cabling Element jointing.5. trucks and excavators Regular vehicle traffic (max 40km/h) Pedestrian passages. excavation and loading Drain pipes mounting. loading and unloading of freight.20 0.2 Outdoor workplaces Type of area.e. demanding electrical. covered loading platforms.25 0.50 55 50 45 45 Uo 0.g.25 0.25 0.20 0. inspection Em 5 10 20 50 20 30 50 50 200 50 20 50 100 200 10 10 20 20 50 50 50 50 20 50 50 5 20 50 150 150 500 20 50 100 200 Ra 20 20 20 20 20 40 40 40 60 20 20 20 40 40 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 80 20 20 20 60 0. task or activity General circulation areas Walkways exclusively for pedestrians Traffic areas for slowly moving vehicles (max 10km/h) e.25 0.40 0. ordinary reinforcement and casting tasks in concrete plants Demanding electrical.40 0. loading and unloading of solid bulk goods Continuous handling of large units and raw materials. pipes and ropes Dangerous part of walkways and driveways (see also parking areas) Farms Farm yard Equipment shed (open) Animals sorting pen Fuel filling service stations Vehicle parking and storage areas Entry and exit driveways – dark environment Entry and exit driveways – light environment (i.25 0.10 0.40 0.40 0.40 0. locks and harbours Waiting quays at canals and locks Gangways and passages exclusively for pedestrians.40 55 50 45 45 50 50 55 55 55 50 50 45 55 55 45 50 45 45 45 45 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 23 .40 0.40 0.25 0. light reinforcement work.40 0.50 0. auxiliary and storage tasks Framework element mounting. loading and unloading points Airports Hanger apron Terminal apron Loading areas Fuel depot Aircraft maintenance stands Building sites General lighting at building sites Clearance.40 0. urban) Air pressure and water checking points and other service areas Meter reading area Industrial sites and storage areas Short term handling of large units and raw materials.50 GRL 50 50 45 50 55 50 50 50 45 0. bicycles. wooden mould and framework mounting.50 0. machine and pipe mountings Canals.25 0. transport.20 0.25 0. lifting and descending location for cranes. open loading platforms Reading of addresses. use of tools.40 0. machine and piping installations.20 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.

50 0.25 0. coal Overall inspection General servicing work and reading of instruments Wind tunnels – servicing and maintenance Repair of electric devices Railway areas Open platforms . replacements of pump packing.40 0.50 0.large stations Walkways Em 300 500 20 50 100 300 200 200 300 100 100 300 100 200 30 100 Ra 40 40 20 20 40 40 40 20 40 40 20 40 20 20 20 20 Uo 0. stairs.40 0.g.40 0.50 0. general service work.25 0.2 Outdoor workplaces (continued) Type of area.5. lighting of burners Filling and emptying of container trucks and wagons with risk free substances. utilisation of manually regulated valves. parking areas of major shopping centres. churches.large stations. suburban and regional trains Covered platforms .50 0. schools.25 0. gas and heat plants Pedestrian movements within electrically safe areas Handling of servicing tools.50 0.40 0.25 55 50 50 20 50 100 200 100 5 20 50 100 100 200 15 20 50 50 100 50 100 20 20 20 40 60 20 20 20 20 40 40 60 20 20 20 40 40 40 40 20 0.40 0. wellhead Process areas Pumping areas Crude oil pumps Treatment areas Ladders. walkways Plant areas Boat landing areas transport areas Life boat areas Sea surface below the rig Helideck Parking lots Light traffic e.small stations. reading of instruments Repair of machines and electrical devices Fuel loading and unloading sites Power.40 GRL 40 40 45 50 45 40 45 45 45 45 45 40 50 50 50 45 5 10 20 20 20 20 0. inter-city services Covered platforms .25 0.small and medium size stations Stairs .40 0.g.40 0.25 0. inter-city services Stairs . electricity. terraced and apartment houses Medium traffic e. inspection of leakage. task or activity Off-shore gas and oil structures Drill floor and monkey board Rotary table Regular vehicle traffic (max 40km/h) Pedestrian passages. loading and unloading points Derrick Mud sampling room Test station. vehicle turning.25 0.40 0.25 0. starting and stopping motors.40 0.large stations.25 0. sports and multipurpose building complexes Heavy traffic e.25 0.50 0.50 0. parking areas of department stores.50 0.50 0.medium size stations.g.40 0. rural and local trains Open platforms . parking areas of shops. office buildings. major sports and multipurpose building complexes Petrochemical and other hazardous industries Handling of servicing tools.40 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.medium size stations.40 0.40 0. suburban and regional trains Open platforms .40 55 50 45 45 45 50 55 50 45 45 45 50 45 45 45 45 45 45 50 24 | Recommendations for Good Lighting .50 0. piping and packing Filling and emptying of container trucks and wagons with dangerous substances. shale shaker.

general servicing work.25 GRL 50 50 50 45 45 50 50 45 40 45 50 50 45 55 50 45 45 45 55 50 45 45 55 50 100 200 20 40 60 0.40 0. retarder and classification yards Hump areas Wagon inspection pit Coupling area Tracks in passenger station areas. utilisation of manually operated valves. storage areas for prefabricated goods Water and sewage plants Handling of service tools.40 0.40 0.40 0.50 0.50 0.5.40 0. including stabling Servicing trains and locomotives Level crossings Saw mills Timber handling on land and in water. timber unloading points and sawn timber loading points.50 45 45 45 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 25 .25 0.50 0. task or activity Freight areas Freight track – short duration operations Freight track – continuous operation Open platforms Covered platform – short duration operations Covered platform – continuous operation Railway yards handling areas Railway yards – flat marshalling.25 0.2 Outdoor workplaces (continued) Type of area.40 0.40 0.40 0.25 0. sawdust and chip conveyors Sorting of timber on land or in water.40 0.40 0.40 0. inspection of leakage. reading of instruments Repair of motors and electric devices Em 10 20 20 50 100 30 10 10 100 30 10 20 20 20 50 100 200 300 20 50 100 200 20 Ra 20 20 20 20 40 20 20 20 40 20 20 40 20 20 20 40 40 40 20 20 60 60 40 Uo 0. piping packing and raking plants Handling of chemicals.50 0.50 0. starting and stopping of motors.40 0. changing of pumps. mechanical lifting to timber conveyor Reading of addresses and marking of sawn timber Grading and packaging Feeding into stripping and chopping machines Shipyards and docks Short term handling of large units Cleaning of ship hull Painting and welding of ship hull Mounting of electrical and mechanical components General lighting of shipyard area.40 0.40 0.25 0.25 0.

70 0.60 0.70 0.50 GRL Class II Class III Level of competition III International or national Regional Local Training Recreational/education Type of area. task or activity Aerobics (recreational) Archery (lane/target) Athletics (indoor) 26 | Recommendations for Good Lighting .50 0.50 0.70 0.70 500 200 100 60 60 20 0.8 0. There are three lighting classes: Class I Top level competition that will generally involve a large amount of spectators and may involve long viewing distances Medium level competition that will generally involve a medium amount of spectators and may involve medium viewing distances. all disciplines) Class I Class II Class III Badminton Class I Class II Class III 750 500 300 60 60 20 0.50 50 55 55 500 300 200 Ra 20 60 60 60 20 Uo 0.5/0.70 0.5.3 Sports This table contains lighting recommendations for a variety of sports. Lighting requirements may differ according to the level of competition of a sport. and therefore requirements are shown for different lighting classes. Professional level training may also be class II. Low level competition that will generally involve small amounts Lighting Class I II 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Class Em 200 200/Ev 750 Class I Class II Class III Athletics (outdoor.

Type of area.70 0.70 0.70 0.80 0.80 0.50 50 50 55 300 200 200 60 60 20 0.50 200 100 50 60 20 20 0.80 0.50 0.70 0.80 0.80 0.70 0.80 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.50 GRL Basketball 50 50 55 Billiards Class I Class II Class III Boccia (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Boccia (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Boules (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Boules (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III 10 pin/9 pin bowling Lanes Pins 25m lane Pins 50m lane Boxing Class I Class II Class III Climbing Class I Class II Class III Cricket (infield/outfield) Class I Class II Class III Cricket nets Class I Class II Class III 1500 1000 750 60 60 20 0.60 0.70 0.70 0.50 50 50 55 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 27 .80 0.50 0.80 50 50 55 750/500 500/300 300/200 60 60 20 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.50 2000 1000 500 80 80 60 0.70 0.70 0.50 200 Ev 1000 Ev 2000 60 0.80 200 100 50 60 20 20 0.80 0. task or activity Basketball (indoor) Class Class I Class II Class III Class I Class II Class III Em 750 500 200 500 200 75 750 500 500 300 200 200 Ra 60 60 20 60 60 20 80 80 80 60 60 20 Uo 0.70 50 50 55 750 500 300 60 60 20 0.

70 0.Type of area.50 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 Uo 0.50 0.70 50 50 55 50 50 55 50 50 55 28 | Recommendations for Good Lighting .50 50 50 55 0.70 0.70 0.50 0.50 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.70 0.70 GRL 50 Class I Class II Class III Cycling (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Dancing Class I Class II Class III Darts Class I Class II Class III Fencing Class I Class II Class III Football (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Football (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Gymnastics Class I Class II Class III Handball (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Handball (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Hockey (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Hockey (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III 750 500 200 500 300 100 500 300 200 Eh 200/Ev 750 Eh 100/Ev 500 Eh 50/Ev 300 Eh 750/Ev 500 Eh 500/Ev 300 Eh 300/Ev 200 750 500 200 500 200 75 500 300 200 750 500 200 500 200 75 750 500 300 500 200 200 0.70 0.70 0.60 0.60 0.70 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.60 0. task or activity Curling (target / playing area) Cycling (indoor) Class Em 300/200 Ra 0.

70 0.70 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.50 GRL Ice hockey (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Ice skating Class I Class II Class III Judo Class I Class II Class III Kendo / Karate Class I Class II Class III Netball (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Netball (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Petanque (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Petanque (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Racketball Class I Class II Class III Roller skating Class I Class II Class III School sports Class I Class II Class III 50 50 55 50 50 55 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 29 .70 0.Type of area.70 0. task or activity Ice hockey (indoor) Class Class I Class II Class III Em 750 500 300 750 500 200 750 500 300 750 500 200 750 500 200 750 500 200 500 200 75 300 200 200 200 100 50 750 500 300 500 300 200 750 500 200 Ra 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 20 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 Uo 0.70 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.50 0.60 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.50 0.70 0.60 0.

70 0.70 0.60 0.70 0.5/0.50 0.70 0.80 0.50 GRL Class I Class II Class III Speed skating Class I Class II Class III Squash Class I Class II Class III Swimming Class I Class II Class III Table tennis Class I Class II Class III Tennis (indoor) Class I Class II Class III Tennis (outdoor) Class I Class II Class III Weight lifting Class I Class II Class III Wrestling Class I Class II Class III 750 500 500 500 300 200 750 500 300 500 300 200 750 500 300 750 500 300 500 300 200 750 500 200 750 500 200 50 50 55 30 | Recommendations for Good Lighting .50 0. task or activity Shooting (lane/target) Snooker Class Em 200/Ev 750 Ra 60 80 80 80 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 60 60 20 Uo 0.Type of area.60 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.80 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.50 0.8 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.80 0.50 0.

5 2. and 100% within 60s (if the visual task or risk to people requires a shorter response time then it should be shortened to 50% of the required illuminance within 5s) with a minimum duration of 1 hour (if the visual task or risk to people requires a longer duration then it should be extended to 3 hours) For high risk task areas response times and durations are.5s.5.5 3.5 ≤ H Escape route and open area (anti panic) lighting maximum luminous intensity Imax in cd 500 900 1600 2500 3500 5000 High risk task area lighting maximum luminous intensity Imax in cd 1000 1800 3200 5000 7000 10000 For escape routes and open areas response times and durations are.025 (1:40) 0.0 ≤ H < 3. depending upon the application with a minimum duration of 1 hour Note that these values may differ across countries.5lx ≥ 10% maintained level but not less than15. CEN 1838:1999 50% of the required illuminance within 5s.5s. depending upon the application with a minimum duration covering the time the risk exists CIE S 020/E:2007 Either 100% required illuminance permanently or within 0.5 ≤ H < 4.0lx Diversity limits (Imin / Imax) 0. For example.0 ≤ H < 4.0 4.5 4.1lx Recommendations for Good Lighting | 31 .4 Emergency Illuminance limits (CEN 1838:1999 and CIE S 020/E:2007) Description of space Escape route Open area High risk task area Illuminance limits (lux) Along centre line ≥ 1. UK (CEN 1838:1999) Escape route along centre line ≥ 0.025 (1:40) 0.5 ≤ H < 3.2lx in central band ≥ 0. and 100% within 60s with a minimum duration of 1 hour CIE S 020/E:2007 50% of the required illuminance within 20s. CEN 1838:1999 Either 100% required illuminance permanently or within 0.1 (1:10) Disability glare limits (CEN 1838:1999 and CIE S 020/E:2007) Mounting height above floor level H in m H < 2.0 3.0lx In central band ≥ 0.5lx Across area ≥ 0.

75 cd/m2 ≥ 0.0 cd/m2 ≥ 1. 5. difficulty of the navigational task.50 0.50 0.70 0. The class has a range of sub-classes.15 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.0 cd/m2 ≥ 1.40 ≥ 0.35 ≥ 0.50 0.50 ≥ 0.50 0. whilst these values may be used for guidance local regulations should be consulted.Escape route and open area duration may be extended from 5s to 15s in premises for the most part likely to be occupied by persons who are familiar with them France (CEN 1838:1999) Certified luminaires only may be used On escape routes maximum spacing of luminaires is 15m For open areas 5lm/m2 (luminaire lumens) is required and luminaires may not be spaced more than 4 times their mounting height apart. Traffic speeds are medium to high.5 Roads For road lighting the lighting criteria are selected dependant upon the class of road being lit. from the strictest to the most relaxed.5 cd/m2 - ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ UL 0.50 0.15 ≥ 0. The basic lighting classes are defined as: ME This class is intended for users of motorised vehicles on traffic routes.0 cd/m2 ≥ 0. and these are chosen dependant upon factors.70 0.60 - ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ SR 0. Luminance U0 ≥ 0.50 0.60 0.50 ≥ 0.0 cd/m2 ≥ 1.50 0.5 cd/m2 ≥ 1.70 0.60 0.75 cd/m2 ≥ 0.50 0.50 ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ TI 10% 10% 15% 15% 15% 15% 15% 15% 15% 10% ≤ 10% ≤ 15% ≤ 15% ≤ 15% - ≥ 0.75 cd/m2 ≥ 0. such as typical speed of users.60 ≥ 0.40 0.15 KEY Emin Em Lm Uo UL TI SR - minimum illuminance maintained average illuminance maintained average luminance overall uniformity longitudinal uniformity threshold increment surround ratio ME1 ME2 ME3A ME3B ME3C ME4A ME4B ME5 ME6 MEW1D MEW1W MEW2D MEW2W MEW3D MEW3W MEW4D MEW4W MEW5D MEW5W Lm ≥ 2.40 ≥ 0.0 cd/m2 ≥ 1. typical volumes of traffic flow.50 0.50 0.40 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.50 32 | Recommendations for Good Lighting .40 ≥ 0.50 0.50 ≥ 0.15 ≥ 0.40 0.40 ≥ 0. with ME1 defining the strictest requirements.40 ≥ 0.60 0.0 cd/m2 ≥ 0.60 ≥ 0.50 0.50 ≥ 0. etc.3 cd/m2 ≥ 2.40 ≥ 0.5 cd/m2 ≥ 1. The ME classes go from ME1 to ME6. For wet road conditions the MEW classes go from MEW1 to MEW6.35 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.50 cd/m2 ≥ 0.50 0.40 ≥ 0.15 ≥ 0. with a minimum of 2 luminaires per room Therefore.50 0.35 ≥ 0. In some countries this class also applies to residential roads.

15 ≥ 3. CE0 CE1 CE2 CE3 CE5 ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ Horizontal illuminance Em Emin Uo 50.0 lux ≥ 2. parking areas. cycle paths. S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 Horizontal illuminance Em Emin ≥ 15. A and S classes for those situations requiring good visibility of vertical surfaces. ≤ 11.0 lux ≥ 0.0 lux ≥ 0. cycle paths.0 lux.40 S This class is intended for cyclists and pedestrians on footpaths.0 lux.0 lux ≥ 0.0 lux ≥ 1. with A1 defining the strictest requirements. ≤ 7.40 15. pedestrian streets.CE This class is intended for users of motorised vehicles in conflict areas such as road intersections.75 lux ≥ 0. with EV1 defining the strictest requirements. The CE classes go from CE0 to CE5. etc.0 lux ≥ 0.5 lux ≥ 1.0 lux ≥ 0.40 20. for example in high crime risk areas. with S1 defining the strictest requirements.5 lux ≥ 1.0 lux ≥ 0.0 lux. etc.40 7.15 ≥ 1.25 lux ≥ 1.5 lux.5 lux ≥ 5. The EV classes go from EV1 to EV6. residential roads.5 lux ≥ 0.15 ≥ 1.0 lux ≥ 0.0 lux ≥ 10. ≤ 15. etc. with CE0 defining the strictest requirements.5 lux ≥ 0.0 lux ≥ 3. ≤ 3. The ES classes go from ES1 to ES9.40 30. for example toll booths. ≤ 22. The A classes go from A1 to A5.50 lux ≥ 0. The S class and the A class are for similar situations.15 ES This class is an extension of the A and S classes for those situations where the identification of people or objects is particularly necessary.0 lux ≥ 10.0 lux ≥ 7. residential roads. The criteria are in terms of semi-cylindrical illuminance and are used in addition to the S or A class criteria.6 lux ≥ 2. roundabouts. The S classes go from S1 to S6. with ES1 defining the strictest requirements. but the S class criteria are defined in terms of horizontal illuminance as preferred by certain countries. A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 Hemispherical illuminance Uo Em ≥ 5. pedestrian streets.0 lux ≥ 0. The A class and the S class are for similar situations but the A class criteria are defined in terms of hemispherical illuminance as preferred by certain countries.5 lux ≥ 5.15 ≥ 2. parking areas.0 lux. EV1 EV2 EV3 EV4 EV5 EV6 Vertical illuminance Emin ≥ 50.5 lux ≥ 5.0 lux ≥ 0.50 lux EV This class is an extension of the CE. ES1 ES2 ES3 ES4 ES5 ES6 ES7 ES8 ES9 Semi-cylindrical illuminance Emin ≥ 10.6 lux Uo - A This class is intended for cyclists and pedestrians on footpaths. The criteria are in terms of vertical illuminance and are used in addition to the CE.0 lux.0 lux ≥ 7.0 lux ≥ 3.0 lux ≥ 0.5 lux Recommendations for Good Lighting | 33 . These areas also allow provision for cyclists and pedestrians.0 lux ≥ 30.0 lux ≥ 0. S or A class criteria.0 lux ≥ 7. ≤4.0 lux ≥ 3.5 lux ≥ 5.

A class (hemispherical illuminance) compared to S class (horizontal illuminance) Reference class Alternative class S1 S2 A1 S3 A2 S4 A3 S5 A4 S6 A5 ES class (semi-cylindrical illuminance) and EV class (vertical illuminance) compared to CE and S class (horizontal illuminance) Reference class Alternative class CE0 ES1 CE1 ES2 EV3 CE2 ES3 EV4 CE3 S1 ES4 EV5 CE4 S2 ES5 CE5 S3 ES6 S4 ES7 S5 ES8 S6 ES9 34 | Recommendations for Good Lighting . To help apply this when adjacent area are lit to different lighting classes the table below shows lighting classes for comparable lighting levels. with the area with the highest recommended lighting level being taken as the reference area. ME1 MEW1 CE1 ME2 MEW2 CE2 ME3 MEW3 CE3 S1 ME4 MEW4 CE4 S2 ME5 MEW5 CE5 S3 ME6 CE0 S4 S5 S6 Lighting classes of comparable lighting level In some countries there is a preference for a particular measure of illuminance over others (for example hemispherical illuminance in preference to horizontal illuminance).Recommended lighting levels When lighting adjacent areas there should not be a difference greater than two comparable classes between the areas. The following two tables show comparable alternative lighting classes to aid in designing to local preferences.

0 15.0 15 30 30 Eminimum (lux) 50 75 50 5 10 10 Recommendations for Good Lighting | 35 .6 Amenity There is little standardised information for lighting requirements in amenity areas. corners.0 Eminimum (lux) 1.0 5.0 5.30 0.10 Lighting levels for underground. Local standards and regulations should be checked to ensure compliance.0 0. access area Ramps. intersections Entrance/exit zones (vehicular) Pedestrian areas.30 Diversity (Emin/Emax) 0. multi-storey and outdoor car parks zones Type Underground and multi-storey excluding roof level Area Parking bays. Lighting classes for pedestrian areas in urban centres (see road section above) Traffic flow pedestrians Normal Environmental zone E3 Pedestrian only traffic Mixed pedestrian and vehicular traffic CE3 CE2 E4 CE2 CE1 High Environmental zone E3 CE2 CE1 E4 CE1 CE1 Pedestrian zones Area Pedestrian precincts Squares/open areas Squares (high pedestrian use) Level footpaths Footpaths with steps Outdoor staircase Underpass Em (lux) 5.5. lifts Outdoor and multi-storey roof level Rural zones E1 and E2 Urban zones E3 and E4 Multi-storey roof level Em (lux) 75 150 75 night 300 day 100 60.0 10. and therefore this information should be considered guidance.08 0.0 60.10 0. stairs.

lane) > 1500 500 – 1500 < 500 Two way traffic (vehicles/hour.6 36 | Recommendations for Good Lighting .6 on road tunnel lighting. Glare restriction Time of day Day-time Night Threshold zone TI <15% TI <15% Interior zone TI <15% TI <15% Exit zone TI <15% Traffic flow classification Traffic flow High Medium Low One way traffic (vehicles/hour.lane) > 400 100 – 400 < 100 Interior zone average luminance levels (Lav) Stopping distance (≅ speed in m/s) 160m 100m 60m Low ≥ 5 cd/m² ≥ 2 cd/m² ≥ 1 cd/m² Traffic flow Medium ≥ 10 cd/m² ≥ 4 cd/m² ≥ 2 cd/m² High ≥ 15 cd/m² ≥ 6 cd/m² ≥ 3 cd/m² Threshold zones average luminance levels (Lav) Maximum permitted average luminance ratio passing between transition zones is 3:1 Maximum permitted average luminance ratio passing from transition zones to interior zone is 1.4 Longitudinal uniformity along centre line of each lane ≥ 0.7 Tunnel For guidance on tunnel lighting you should also refer to section 7.5.5:1 Note: During night hours the entire tunnel is treated as one interior zone Uniformity requirements Minimum luminance to average luminance for road surface and lower 2m of tunnel walls ≥ 0.

should be noted With regard to the luminaires − The luminaire manufacturer and manufacturers’ code − Details of the lamps (number. It therefore needs to be calibrated. It also needs to have a suitable range of sensitivity to be able to measure the light levels present in the installation. model. etc. So to measure emergency light levels a more sensitive meter would be necessary that could measure low light levels. manufacturer. tape measures. which is the lighting equipment and the space the lighting is in. To perform a survey adequate equipment is required. serial number and calibration date − Details of any additional equipment.5. This is generally either an illuminance meter or a luminance meter. It is essential that the equipment used is suitable for the task.) Examples of information of note are: With regard to the measuring equipment − Type of meter. type and age) − The supply voltage (value and stability) − The state of maintenance of the installation (lamps and luminaires) − Details of luminaire control systems being used − Geometric details of the luminaire positioning Recommendations for Good Lighting | 37 .8 Lighting scheme surveys When a lighting scheme has been designed and installed it is normally necessary to perform a survey as part of the commissioning process. When making a scheme survey it is essential to keep a complete and accurate record of the state of the whole installation at the time of the survey. These grid points are the measurement points at which a reading of light will be taken. A survey would also be necessary in the case of any dispute over the performance of an installation. dependant upon the criteria used during the design of the installation. with a current calibration certificate from a competent company with traceability to national standards. such as tripods. When performing a survey a grid of points is generally placed over the area to be surveyed. (Photographs are a valuable addition to a written record.

Interior measurement grids Frequently for sports lighting the grid definition is defined by the sports governing body. Therefore the lighting should ideally be operated for one hour before taking any measurements. 38 | Recommendations for Good Lighting . including a background reading of luminance/illuminance with daylight only (luminaires turned off). so for an indoor sports facility any requirements specific to a particular sport should be used. Additionally to ensure the stability of the meter photocell it should be exposed to the stable light levels for approximately five minutes before taking any measurements. the same measurement plane should be used for verification. and at least 30 minutes. Therefore. or the installation is not a sports facility. When defining a measurement grid this is dependant upon the application being surveyed. Note that during design it should be ensured that the grid spacing does not coincide with the spacing of the luminaires in the installation as this can distort the calculated results. and therefore the scheme performance.With regard to the space − The condition of reflective surfaces − The surface reflectances − The presence of any significant obstructions − The presence/absence of daylight. However. the measurement points for verification of the design should be in the same location and plane as the calculation points used during the design. if a measurement plane was calculated which was tilted to mimic the orientation of the task. Note that the quantity of daylight may vary significantly over time so ideally daylight should be excluded from measurements of electric light unless the aim is to measure a constant illuminance installation (daylight control) − The ambient temperature in the space − Any other factors which could influence the measurement Before taking any measurements it is important that the output of the luminaires is stable. if no specific requirements exist.

the measurement points for verification of the design should be in the same location and plane as the calculation points used during the design. To record the measured values a diagram should be used to assign reference numbers to each grid point. The method of marking out the grid should be recorded with details of equipment used and fixed reference points used to locate the grid. When marking the measurement grid in the area to be measured the method of marking is dependant upon the measurements to be taken. A table of values may then be completed containing the grid reference number and the measured value. Therefore the relevant standard should be referenced for the grid definition which should be the same as the grid used for calculation during design. When taking luminance readings in a road lighting installation the position of the meter will be a significant distance from the measurement point. − The grid markings must be visible from a large distance. However. However when measuring luminance this would invalidate the reading and so for luminance readings markings should be used to sight the luminance meter. Recommendations for Good Lighting | 39 . Therefore three-dimensional objects should be used to mark the grid points and removed individually as each grid point is measured. or the installation is not a sports facility. This has two implications: − The luminance meter must be able to restrict the angle of measurement to allow only the relevant grid position to be measured. Therefore.Exterior measurement grids – sports and area Frequently for sports lighting the grid definition is defined by the sports governing body. typically to two minutes of arc in the vertical plane and 20 minutes of arc in the horizontal plane. if a measurement plane was calculated which was tilted to mimic the orientation of the task. and then moved before the reading is taken. so any requirements specific to a particular sport should be used. Exterior measurement grids – road For road lighting the grid is normally defined in the relevant standard and is generally related to the spacing of the road lighting lanterns. the same measurement plane should be used for verification. When measuring illuminance small markers (such as sticky dots) may be placed upon the surface to show the measurement point. if no specific requirements exist.

− It is good practice to measure the background light levels without the lighting installation turned on. can help ensure a photocell is correctly positioned at a measurement position.Some points of note when taking the readings are − When taking measurements it should be ensured that no additional shadowing is introduced due to the measurement technique. care should be taken to minimise light reflection onto the photocell. Also to take these measurements after measuring the installation with the lights turned on. especially for luminance readings or readings using heavy equipment. However. at the correct height and orientation for the task plane. − For measurement grids that are not at ground level the use of a stand. − When taking measurements it is advisable to wear dark matt clothing to prevent light reflecting from clothing onto the photocell. as the background light levels may vary considerably during the warm-up time for the lighting. − Correction factors should be applied to readings to compensate for the lamp type used in the schemes. 40 | Recommendations for Good Lighting . Even moonlight can have a noticeable effect on light levels. if safety requirements require high visibility clothing. giving abnormally high readings. However. especially in outdoor applications. − When measuring horizontal illuminance it cannot be assumed that the ground is horizontal. Care must be taken to ensure the photocell is horizontal. highly coloured or monochromatic light sources will give erroneous readings using conventional light meters. even if this is not a true representation of the ground. − The use of a tripod is advisable.

Once the task analyses have been completed and listed the required lighting design criteria can be selected and the lighting design process can start. roads. visual amenity. energy efficiency.attributes and fulfilment. This means addressing all the lighting design parameters and balancing the requirements and constraints to yield the best possible solution. super and hypermarkets.1 General Considerations The application of the right light is paramount in lighting design. dynamics and ergonomics. architectural integration. activity and people involved. The visual tasks can differ in character. It recommends the most appropriate lighting design techniques and suitable lighting solutions. but they Applications and Techniques | 41 . education buildings. The individual elements may not carry equal weight.6 Applications and Techniques 6. The list of application segments is not exhaustive but the main types covered include the lighting of indoor and outdoor industry. This section of the handbook gives an insight to the activities and visual tasks found in the various lighting application segments and gives advise on the important points to consider. It is very important to assess these parameters and to formulate the right design objectives for the specific lighting application area. efficiency and comfort . In the holistic framework the key elements for consideration are visual function. See also the list of recommendations within the appropriate lighting application standards referenced in this book. duration. installation costs and maintenance. architectural elements and healthcare premises. amenity areas. offices. For each case the lighting techniques employed should start by considering a holistic approach to design and should include PEC – performance. size. location. This rule is valid for all places where lighting for people is needed so that they can see and perform the visual tasks efficiently and in comfort. The specific lighting requirements of people and places vary according to the type of place. The simple golden rule for design considerations is to provide the right light to the right place at the right time. colour.

with high operating energy efficiency. lighting for display screen equipment. stimulation and total satisfaction. lighting maintenance and tunnel lighting.Applications and Techniques all need consideration separately and combined with each other. manage and service the scheme through it’s life. It is well proven that good lighting is essential to mankind. In the section “Specific Techniques” guidance is given on techniques that are applicable to several application segments. and give people comfort. emergency lighting. Much of the success of a lighting installation depends on making the right decisions at the design stage. By fulfilling PEC we ensure that quality lighting will be provided that gives effective light for visual performance. These include. lighting for education. road and amenity lighting. without this the human activity will be seriously impaired and valuable energy and resource will be wasted. controlling obtrusive light. selecting the right equipment and providing adequate instructions on how to operate. PEC extends this consideration to include the changing human factors and environmental challenges. The consideration of these form an integral part of the design process to yield the most appropriate lighting solution. be sustainable and kind to the environment. 42 | Applications and Techniques . lighting for crime prevention. lighting for health. It is also important to recognise that this lighting not only illuminates the task but will also contribute to the quality of the visual environment and wellbeing of the people. lighting controls.

Applications and Techniques | 43 .2 Sports lighting Section 5. This section gives hints on lighting techniques for each of these application areas.9 Office Section 5.1 City plan showing the diversity of lighting needs.5 Fig.Healthcare Section 5.3 Urban – decorative roadlighting & amenity areas Section 5.6 Education Section 5.7 Urban – architectural floodlighting Section 5.8 Super/ Hypermarket Section 5.10 Industry – indoor Section 5.11 Road lighting Section 5.4 Industry – outdoor Section 5. 6. helping the reader to tackle such everyday projects with greater understanding.

ensuring wall lighting levels are 50% of the horizontal task lighting level and ceiling levels are 30% of the horizontal task level will give a good balance. For rooms containing display screen equipment luminaires with suitable optical control to remove any bright luminance above 65° should be used.6. Careful use of wall-washing luminaires and indirect lighting can help produce a positive environment. Lamps with a colour-rendering index of 80 or more should be used to enhance visual performance and visual satisfaction. Therefore they will be looking in essentially the same direction for large amounts of time. computer screen. A balanced ambience creates a pleasant work environment. For areas that may be reconfigured lighting controls may be used to set the light levels for individual luminaires in an array of luminaires to achieve the same effect. Poor lighting can cause various health problems. These tasks can use different mediums such as paper. but less lighting to circulation areas. Generally. If the positions of the workstations are known and fixed it is more efficient to design the lighting to supply the correct amount of lighting to the task. Care must be taken to design a lighting installation that minimises discomfort caused by lighting. or involve face-to-face meetings. Points of note are: Office workers tend to have a sedentary work routine. from headaches due to discomfort glare to muscle strain due to sitting at an awkward angle to avoid reflections in computer screens or glossy publications. Additionally the tasks can vary in content and may be mainly clerical in nature or may be more specialised such as engineering tasks and CAD work. Ensuring light falls onto the walls and ceiling helps prevent dark surfaces creating an oppressive atmosphere.2 Office Techniques General Office lighting is a general term that covers many tasks. 44 | Applications and Techniques .

angles close to the horizontal plane of the luminaire). Key luminaires: Reception desk Main objective is to provide visitors with a visible first point of contact and employees with a transition zone from exterior and interior lighting levels. both of which tend to provide good modelling. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 45 . Light naturally attracts people so a well lit reception area and reception desk will help orientate visitors by giving them a visible point of reference. Although drawing boards are becoming less common some offices do still use them.g. In such cases the lighting should provide adequate light levels over a reasonable range of tilt angles of the board. For CAD workstations luminaires should be chosen which have a minimal luminance at high angles from the downward vertical (e. and be positioned so as to minimise shadowing onto the board. When using indirect or direct/indirect luminaires care should be taken to ensure that the ceiling luminance is not too high as this can produce images on the computer screen. Luminaires should be placed to help orientation by providing a luminous pathway Entrances with high ceilings lend themselves to the use of uplighting or suspended lighting. Any error in a drawing could be costly and potentially dangerous.Office Drawing office Lighting for technical areas is critical to minimise errors.

Office Conference rooms Main objectives are to ensure that people have adequate light to perform their tasks (such as reading. Moderately strong modelling is desirable for formal communication. Whilst recommendations and standards define suitable lighting levels for office based work consideration should also be given to the demands of the task. Specialised lighting for whiteboards may be installed to ensure good visibility for all participants. 46 | Applications and Techniques . If audio-visual projectors are used the luminaires should not impede the projector beam and cause shadowing. writing). These luminaires should not cause glare for the user of the whiteboard and should be positioned to minimise shadowing during use. For work involving small or complex detail lighting levels required for accurate working will be higher than those necessary for more general office tasks. that any presentation aids used are clearly visible. Modelling is of special importance in areas that may be used by people with special needs who may utilise lip-reading or signing. If a minority of people in a large office perform these tasks local lighting may be suitable for these workers. whilst softer modelling is more suitable for informal or close contact. Key luminaires: General office Main objective is to ensure that people have adequate light to perform their tasks quickly and accurately without any stress or strain caused by poor light levels or poorly positioned lighting causing visual disability or discomfort. A good vertical illuminance component should exist to aid the visibility of wall-displays and improve modelling. and that modelling is suitable to allow good communication between people. Flexible luminaire controls should be employed to allow the use of projectors or other audio-visual equipment and to set a luminous environment suitable for the meeting purpose.

When filing or retrieving information from a storage system it is frequently necessary to read information on a vertical surface. The CRF is sensitive to the geometry between the luminaires. typing or reading paper-based material the contrast rendering factor (CRF) of the task is important. Ensuring that all workstations are lit by more than one luminaire and from a variety of directions can prevent this occurring. task and observer and should either be calculated or measured. When writing. etc. Therefore it must be ensured that the vertical illuminance is sufficient to allow good visibility of the paper-based task. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 47 . However. This indicates how effectively the lighting system minimises unwanted shiny reflections in the task. Tasks frequently involve the transfer of paper-based information onto a computer. whiteboards. It should be ensured that light levels on the walls are suitable for comfortable use of notice boards. adequate vertical illuminance levels should be provided. In many instances special attachments are used to hold the paper next to the computer screen in a vertical or near vertical orientation. Therefore. Luminaires should be positioned to ensure that the user does not create shadowing over filing systems or copiers when standing in front of them. overly aggressive or poorly designed lighting of shiny artefacts on the walls (such as whiteboards or glazed pictures) may result in some workers having problems with reflected glare. such as the front of a drawer of a filing cabinet.Office Care should be taken when positioning luminaires and workstations to ensure that the worker does not create shadows on the task. If the CRF is too low altering the lighting layout or moving the location of the task should be considered.

8m wide x 2. 4. 7m x 6.41 Scheme: Boardroom. (1m above floor) 48 | Applications and Techniques .8m high Luminaire(s) used: Indi-Quattro 2x36W TC-L on 3m centres Desk: Eav = 255 lux . Emin/Eav = 0. Emin/Eav = 0.4m x 4.5m x 2.5m x 2.8m Luminaire(s) used: 12 Corsa 200 2x26W TC-D and 16 Chalice LV 50W Desk: Eav = 479 lux .4m x 2. Emin/Eav = 0.8m Luminaire(s) used: 9 Corsa 200 2x26W TC-D Desk: Eav = 468 lux .62 Scheme: Civil circuit judge court. 2. 7m x 6.86 Scheme: Circulation routes.8m Luminaire(s) used: 23 MenloSoft 3x24W T16 and 5 Planor 2x24W T16 wall mounted Workplane: Eav = 569 lux.Office Schemes Office lighting Scheme: Meeting room.

2) and allows a clean uncluttered feel to the ceiling. Care needs to be taken to prevent dark walls and ceiling making the room feel gloomy and uninviting. Recessed luminaires controlled by the SensaLink system (see Section 6. which might otherwise appear uninteresting. A good distribution of light prevents walls appearing dark and uninviting.Office Recessed MenloSoft luminaires lighting a large open plan office. Quattro T Line luminaires with reflector optics in a large open plan office. Applications and Techniques | 49 . Small offices frequently feel enclosed and cramped. The luminaires have integrated detectors allowing them to adjust the lighting levels according to the amount of daylight flowing in from the large window on the edge of the office. and the fittings seem to float in the space. The appearance of the luminaire gives a lively feel to the ceiling. This minimises potential problems of the lighting causing reflections in computer screens (see Section 6. Pendant Planor luminaires lighting a small office area.1). The light distribution from the luminaire lights the ceiling and walls. making the space feel larger and more cheerful.

Emergency lighting will be required in many parts of the building.6. both of which tend to provide good modelling. Additional consideration should be given to any uses of the teaching space for extra-curricular activities or adult learning classes. not easily damaged. and easy to maintain The ambience of different areas should be suitable for the activity performed there.3 Education Techniques: General The purpose of a school or college building is to provide a facility that aids and promotes learning for all age groups in a safe and fulfilling environment. Light naturally attracts people so a well lit reception area and reception desk will help orientate visitors by giving them a visible point of reference. The lighting should support this aim in all teaching and ancillary areas. Luminaires should be placed to help orientation by providing a luminous pathway Entrances with high ceilings lend themselves to the use of uplighting or suspended lighting. Luminaires need to be physically robust. taking into account deterioration of the eye with age. For example by treating an art or music room as more than just another classroom the lighting can contribute to providing an inspiring atmosphere. Entrance hall Main objective is to provide visitors with a visible first point of contact and students and staff with a transition zone from exterior and interior lighting levels. Key luminaires: 50 | Applications and Techniques . If a large number of older students use the space light levels should be suitable.

As corridors and staircases are also main exit routes for emergency situations good emergency lighting with way-guidance is necessary. Lighting should prevent heavy shadowing of steps. Modelling is of special importance in areas for students with special needs who may utilise lip-reading or signing. Stairs should be well lit and glare free. Points of note are: Bright ceilings and walls can make corridor areas seem more open and appealing. whilst softer modelling is more suitable for informal or close contact. Applications and Techniques | 51 . Luminaires should be placed to help orientation by providing a luminous pathway For walls with an interesting texture using luminaires with a significant downlight component positioned close to the wall can create an interesting effect. that modelling is suitable to allow good communication between students and staff. Key luminaires: Classrooms/Lecture halls Main objectives are to ensure that students and staff have adequate light to perform their tasks (such as reading. but must allow sufficient contrast for people to easily identify changes in level. writing).Education Corridors/Staircases Main objective is to allow students and staff to move around the building safely. A good vertical illuminance component should exist to aid the visibility of wall-displays and improve modelling. Display lighting in corridors should be glare free for corridor users. Wall mounted fittings can model peoples faces better. Moderately strong modelling is desirable for formal communication. that students can see any teaching aids used (such as a whiteboard or projected information). Special care is needed near stairs to prevent display lights causing glare to people on the staircase.

Key luminaires: Laboratories/Workshops Main objectives are to ensure that students and staff have adequate light to perform their tasks (such as science experiments or craft projects) and that the lighting aids good visibility and therefore safety. These luminaires should not cause glare for the user of the blackboard or whiteboard and be positioned to minimise shadowing during use. Key luminaires: 52 | Applications and Techniques . as patterns of light and shade are essential to allow objects to be correctly discerned and to create an interesting environment. For rooms containing display screen equipment luminaires with suitable optical control to remove any bright luminance above 65° should be used Flexible luminaire controls should be employed to allow the use of projectors or other audio-visual equipment. For areas using machinery high frequency control gear should be used to prevent any problems with stroboscopic effects resulting in rotating machinery appearing to be stationary.Education To help in the visibility of written text and diagrams a high contrast rendering factor (CRF) should exist at all desks. Good colour rendering is required. Specialised lighting for blackboards and whiteboards should be installed to ensure good visibility for all students. Points of note are: Light falling on any position should be from multiple sources to prevent heavy shadowing of the task by the student. Flexible controls can also maximise the benefits of daylight by dimming selected luminaires under good daylight conditions. If audio-visual projectors are used the luminaires should not impede the projector beam and cause shadowing. However a general drift of light should be present to help with modelling.

The infinitely variable viewing positions of sports participants require good glare control. Applications and Techniques | 53 . rehearsals and performances of school productions. The lighting should illuminate the entire three dimensional space. A good component of vertical illuminance should exist to aid the modelling of objects and people. Lighting should be designed to project a suitable image for the school. Points of note are: This is a place where the school presents itself to visitors at open events such as school open days.Education Sports halls Main objectives are to ensure that students and staff have adequate light to safely participate in sporting activities. or others. Good colour rendering aids in the discrimination of team colours and sporting equipment such as balls. Ideally luminaires should be designed and mounted to minimise the risks of object becoming trapped within or behind them. These may be school meetings. meetings with parents or school productions and concerts. Key luminaires: Assembly halls Main objectives are to produce a suitable visual environment for all activities required within the space. These may require visibility of relatively small objects moving at high speed. a space for formal written examinations. Luminaires should be robust and have protection against stray objects striking them (such as a wire guard to protect the lamps). etc. Points of note are: All required sports should be defined and a design produced for the most stringent requirements. against the hall background. Lighting controls should be flexible to produce optimum conditions for all required sports. allowing high objects to be easily seen. or visual conditions suitable for the use of gymnastic equipment.

Glare free viewing in this direction should be ensured under all lit conditions. Lighting should have no flicker to minimise possible stress in examination conditions. and also lighting that provides the flexibility of a small theatre for public productions and concerts. good vertical illuminance and colour rendering are required to aid in modelling and discrimination. Key luminaires: 54 | Applications and Techniques . Generally a viewing direction is defined by the hall design. Lighting should also gives a good CRF to ensure good visibility of written text and diagrams. Lighting should prevent shadowing of the task by the student. such as question papers in formal examinations.Education Lighting control should be flexible to allow for lighting suitable for public meetings. For areas designed for presentations or performances. such as staging.

Luminaire(s) used: Chalice 190 2x26W TC-D on 2.Education Schemes Classrooms Scheme: Design and Technology classroom. Emin/Eav = 0.75 Sche m e: Circul ation rout es. E 2.4m = ntres.6m Luminaire(s) used: 6 Omega BD/MB 4x18W T26 and 2 Punch 1x58W T26 lighting front board Desks: Eav = 518 lux .70 Applications and Techniques | 55 . 1. Emin/Eav = 0.7m x 3.88 Scheme: Circulation routes.22 Luminaire(s) used: 1 Diffusalux II 1x35W T16 Floor: Eav = 96 lux .5m x 2. E min /E av = 0. varies x 2. Emin/Eav = 0. 15m x 7m x 2.22 190 2x26W TC-D .5m x 5. 7.7m high Lumi naire(s) use d: Ch alice Floor: Eav = 143 lux o n min/Eav ce 0.8m Floor: E av = 143lux. Scheme: Storeroom.4m varies x 2.7m Luminaire(s) used: 15 custom 2x35W T16 luminaire Floor: Eav = 558 lux .7m high Scheme: Classroom.5m x 2.

also producing a component of uplight that lights up the ceiling and give it life. Recessed fluorescent luminaires lighting a classroom. However. The luminaires are laid out to permit maximum flexibility within the space and the walls are pleasantly lit to exhibit poster and displays children’s work. and their appearance brightens the space and visually lifts the ceiling. The ceiling adds significantly to the visual interest of the scene and the linear luminaires mimic the architecture of the ceiling beams. The line of luminaires helps give guidance as to the shape of the corridor. 56 | Applications and Techniques . Lyric ceiling mounted luminaires lighting a school corridor. making the corridor appear pleasant and airy. a lack of controls mean luminaires remain lit in unused sections of the room.Education Suspended linear direct/indirect luminaires in a university library. and are unable to save energy by using the daylight spilling in from windows on the right of the photograph.

In areas containing rotating machinery stroboscopic effects should be eliminated or reduced by either using high frequency control gear (if available) or by having alternate luminaires on different electrical phases and ensuring that critical areas receive light in approximately equal proportions from more than one luminaire. Applications and Techniques | 57 . If the space contains multiple or extensive obstructions the spacing between luminaires will need to be reduced to counteract these and additional low level supplementary lighting may be required. safely. Therefore the extent of the task area needs to be determined.6. In some industrial applications there is an additional requirement to ensure all processes are in a safe and stable state before evacuating the area. Emergency lighting will be required to aid in the safe evacuation of the building when the normal lighting fails. Points of note are: Illuminance on the task is the main criteria used for industrial lighting. For others there is a need to continue operations.4 Industry indoor Techniques General The purpose of industrial lighting is to enable quick and accurate work. For overhead obstructions where possible install lighting below the obstruction. the size and complexity of the site and the processes involved. If the area contains a few large obstructions ensure that all parts of the space are lit by at least two luminaires. In all cases care should be taken to ensure obstructions do not cause shadowing on the task. Illuminance on a vertical surface is much more sensitive to changes in the spacing between luminaires than illuminance on a horizontal surface. For lamps used in industrial lighting a colour-rendering index of not less than 80 is required for all continuously occupied spaces. Illuminance is often required for a vertical task. The extent and nature of the emergency lighting required is determined by the type of occupancy. and in a good visual environment. An exception is high bay applications where HST/HSE lamps are acceptable. even though the normal lighting has failed. Industrial areas generally contain obstructions that affect the lighting. Alternatively lighting of the machinery may be supplemented using local luminaires.

Points of note are. Traditional factory spaces for heavy engineering and manufacturing have high ceilings combined with a dirty environment. vibration or a corrosive atmosphere. At the design stage consideration should be given as to how the lighting installation is to be maintained. Linear fluorescent lighting is suitable for these areas and a selection of mounting methods exist. Lighting should take into account the possibility of moving overhead gantries and moving vehicles such as forklift trucks.Industry indoor Luminaires should be chosen to ensure they are suitable for the environmental conditions in the space. Key luminaires: 58 | Applications and Techniques . In conditions with poor quality of power low loss magnetic ballasts should be considered instead of electronic ballasts as they could be more durable and tolerant. along with use of technology that minimises the necessity for intervention for maintenance. Many industrial spaces have conditions of excessive heat. access to light fittings is difficult and methods to improve ease of access should be considered. Factory spaces . or couplers connecting/disconnecting huge loads giving spikes and voltage fluctuations. cold. Alternatively industrial high frequency circuits with extra protection may be available. Frequently. More modern manufacturing areas tend to have lower ceilings and a cleaner environment. Information on any airborne chemicals is important as plastics and rubbers have differing resistance to specific chemicals. High bay lighting is most suitable in these areas. from track mounting to catenary systems. Additionally in hazardous environments the lighting equipment has to be carefully selected to ensure it does not pose a risk of fire or explosion (see chapter on directives and standards). Many industrial environments have impurities in the power supply due to electrical motors running.

Points of note are. For bulk storage at floor level it is generally important to avoid dense shadows. Tasks in a workshop vary from large tasks with little visual difficulty to small task with high visual difficulty. Applications and Techniques | 59 . For ceiling heights of 6m or less. Store rooms . The designer needs to understand the degree of difficulty of the task to ensure that the task is adequately lit for the degree of difficulty. The designer needs to understand the degree of difficulty of the task to ensure that the task is adequately lit for the degree of difficulty.Industry indoor Workshops . care should be taken when using low bay luminaires to prevent excessive glare. A reasonable illuminance on vertical surfaces is required if the reading of identification marks or labels is frequently necessary. and the ease of using lighting controls and emergency lighting. Generally ceiling heights are intermediate to low. a wide choice of lamps of different colour rendering capabilities and colour appearance. Therefore either linear fluorescent reflector luminaires or low bay luminaires with HID lamps are suitable Key luminaires: Assembly work . The advantages of this are the ability to produce fairly shadow free conditions. In areas with lower ceilings fluorescent lighting is most suitable. Assembly work can vary from large tasks with little visual difficulty to small task with high visual difficulty. and uniform lighting is required across the entire space.Points of note are.Points of note are. Additionally colour discrimination may be of little importance or essential. Lighting should take into account the safety of pedestrians in the presence of moving vehicles such as forklift trucks.

The food and drink industry covers a vast range of working areas.Points of note are. It is good practice to light narrow aisles with runs of fluorescent luminaires with narrow distributions arranged along the aisles to even out the vertical illuminance from top to bottom of the racking whilst giving adequate illumination along the aisle. where ambient temperatures can range from –30°C to 50°C. Lighting should take into account the safety of pedestrians in the presence of moving vehicles such as forklift trucks.Points of note are. 60 | Applications and Techniques .Industry indoor A suitable method of lighting these spaces is to use a closely spaced overhead layout of luminaires with a wide distribution. Thermally insulated fluorescent lamps may be used. Alternatively high pressure sodium lamps can operate reliably at –40°C. For mounting heights above 15m HID lamps may be used in luminaires with a narrow lighting distribution across the aisle and a wide lighting distribution along the aisle. The luminaire should be easily cleaned. High racking can reduce lighting levels by up to 50%. having minimum horizontal surface area upon which dust can rest and smooth lines with no crevices in which fungus can grow (IP55 minimum).Points of note are. Therefore an empty space calculated for 300 lux will only achieve approximately 150 lux if high racks are installed with narrow aisles. Cold stores . Storage rack areas . from oil or fat vapour laden atmospheres to hazardous environments where the lighting equipment has to be carefully selected to ensure it does not pose a risk of fire or explosion. Where food product is processed luminaires near the product should be housed in an enclosure that prevents the lamp or any part of the luminaire accidentally falling into the product. Food and drink processing plants . maintained and re-lamped. Therefore great care must be taken to ensure a suitable luminaire is chosen for the specific conditions. It must be ensured that the lamp and luminaire chosen are capable of operating within the low temperatures involved.

mounting height 9m and Concavia L 250W HIE. 125m x 40m. Concavia L 400W HIE.Industry indoor Schemes Aircraft Hanger Scheme: Aircraft maintenance hanger. mounting height 15m. mounting height 7m Hanger area floor: Eav = 591 lux . Emin/Eav = 0. varying height Luminaire(s) used: Concavia XL 1000W HIE.71 Applications and Techniques | 61 .

1m long x 6m high Luminaire(s) used: 12 Indus RDx 2x49W T16. It may therefore be easily adjusted to suit the requirements or any changes to the layout of the factory space. The luminaires are track mounted to allow easy modification of the lighting layout. mounting height 6m Racking: Eav (vertical) = 137 lux A train workshop lit using fluorescent battens mounted on trunking.Industry indoor Schemes Storage racking Scheme: Storage racking. 62 | Applications and Techniques . Factory lighting using Popular Range luminaires. racks 5. The luminaires are positioned between the trains to give a good vertical component of light falling on the sides of the carriages.

The luminaires need to be able to cope with the relatively hostile and dirty environment. and the use of high pressure sodium lamps ensures a long lamp life. and due to problems of access maintenance requirements for the luminaires need to be minimal. Hi-bay luminaires lighting a large factory space. The Lopak luminaires provide a good even illumination. If this was the case the lamp type should be chosen to show colours correctly. directing air within the reflector to help remove dirt. The shape of the luminaire aids in self-cleaning. Applications and Techniques | 63 . allowing work upon complex machines with minimum shadowing.Industry indoor Low-bay luminaires lighting a machine workshop. Note that this task has no special requirement for colour discrimination.

Luminaires should be chosen to ensure they are suitable for the environmental conditions in the space. along with use of technology that minimises the necessity for intervention for maintenance. and in a good visual environment. Information on any airborne chemicals is important as plastics and rubbers have differing resistance to specific chemicals.5 Industry outdoor Techniques General The purpose of industrial lighting is to enable quick and accurate work. or couplers connecting/disconnecting huge loads giving spikes and voltage fluctuations. Many industrial spaces have conditions of excessive heat. safely. Frequently access to light fittings is difficult and methods to improve ease of access should be considered. cold. Points of note are: Illuminance on the task is the main criteria used for industrial lighting. At the design stage consideration should be given as to how the lighting installation is to be maintained. Illuminance on a vertical surface is much more sensitive to changes in the spacing between luminaires than illuminance on a horizontal surface. Alternatively industrial high frequency circuits with extra protection may be available. For overhead obstructions where possible install lighting below the obstruction. In all cases care should be taken to ensure obstructions do not cause shadowing on the task. Additionally in hazardous environments the lighting equipment has to be carefully selected to ensure it does not pose a risk of fire or explosion (section 9 . Many industrial environments have impurities in the power supply due to electrical motors running. If the area contains a few large obstructions ensure that all parts of the space are lit by at least two luminaires. Illuminance is often required for a vertical task. Therefore the extent of the task area needs to be determined. If the space contains multiple or extensive obstructions the spacing between luminaires will need to be reduced to counteract these and additional low level supplementary lighting may be required. vibration or a corrosive atmosphere.Directives and Standards). 64 | Applications and Techniques . Industrial areas generally contain obstructions that affect the lighting.6. In conditions with poor quality of power low loss magnetic ballasts should be considered instead of electronic ballasts as they could be more durable and tolerant.

Care should be taken to avoid lighting obscuring or decreasing the visibility of signalling equipment. motorised vehicles and pedestrians. Building sites can provide a special environment. This can include direct light and reflected light from other surfaces. Key luminaires: Cargo handling. Higher light levels are required in areas where goods are loaded/unloaded and for potential conflict areas where cargo is sorted into handling bays or railway sidings. This excludes the use of high-pressure discharge fixtures except where installed at a height that excludes access by normal site personnel. Temporary lighting is normally by special linear fluorescent or tungsten halogen luminaires. along with building materials. and should not be in too close proximity to electrified lines.Industry outdoor Building sites Main objective is to provide a safe work environment in an area which may contain machinery. Luminaires should be sited to allow for vehicular access to all necessary areas. storage areas Main objective is to provide a safe work environment in an area which may contain machinery. excavations and incomplete structures. motorised vehicles and pedestrians and in which the size and position of obstructions may vary over time. Lighting equipment should be sited to ensure it does not obstruct movement of cargo handling equipment. Applications and Techniques | 65 . in that it is common for a maximum permissible voltage of 110V to be stipulated for all equipment that is accessible to site workers.

It should be ensured that the transition between areas with higher light levels to those with lower light levels is gradual to allow the eye to adapt to the changed light level. Key luminaires: Petrochemical and other hazardous areas Main objective is to provide a safe work environment in an area which may contain a hazardous atmosphere. machinery. Additional task lighting in the form of floodlights mounted on crane structures. Environments are classified using the ATEX system and luminaires should be adequate for the ATEX classification of the environment (section 9.Industry outdoor For large container storage areas general area lighting may be insufficient for giving adequate light on the task. Directives and Standards). or low voltage sealed beam units mounted on forklift trucks can be used. motorised vehicles and pedestrians and in which the consequences of safety issues may be especially serious. Additional task lighting may be required for specific locations. For petrochemical facilities and tank farms plant layout is normally complex with major light obstruction and work being performed at many levels above ground level. Additional local lighting can also be used mounted on fixed hoppers and conveyors. 66 | Applications and Techniques . Luminaires used should be correct for the environment they are used in. High mounted floodlights in a number of positions situated outside the main area can provide adequate light for safe movement and some task work.

safety is also very important and local regulations for these should be consulted. As the workings increase in size re-aiming of existing luminaires may be required. both in size and depth of workings. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 67 . pedestrians and uneven and loose ground conditions. A high vertical component of light is generally required to show the sales goods. With quarries and open cast mines the dimensions of the area to light will change over time. For areas such as petrol filling stations. This will help prevent the need to relocate lighting masts. Key luminaires: Sales areas Main objective is to advertise the presence of the sales area.Industry outdoor Quarries and open cast workings Main objective is to provide a safe work environment in an area that may contain machinery. Additionally the colour rendering qualities of the lighting should be chosen to ensure the goods are displayed with a good colour appearance. motorised vehicles. If the sales area is adjacent to a road care should be taken to ensure the lighting does not introduce glare to motorists or pedestrians. Therefore the lighting installation should be designed for the expected maximum dimensions of the excavations. and will allow forward planning for additional lighting to be installed as the workings increase in size. The illuminance of the sales area should be proportional to the brightness of the surrounding district and should respect the requirements for the environmental lighting zone classification (see section on control of obtrusive light). and to allow customers to examine and purchase goods.

Where possible lorry parks should be lit from the boundaries of the parking area. Ease of maintenance should be considered during design.Industry outdoor Lorry parks Main objective is to provide a safe environment in an area that contains large motorised vehicles and pedestrians. and head-frames that may be raised and lowered should be considered. Lighting should be mounted as high as possible (12m or more above ground level) to minimise shadowing from lorry trailers. If columns have to be mounted within the parking area they should be protected by crash barriers or similar. Key luminaires: 68 | Applications and Techniques . This minimises the risk of columns and lighting being damaged by manoeuvring vehicles.

Industry outdoor Schemes Transformer sub-station Scheme: Transformer sub-station Luminaire(s) used: Troika 400W HST (main building) and PRT 500W QT-DE with 3m mounting height (transformer areas) Typical transformer area: Eav = 23 lux Applications and Techniques | 69 .

whilst additional floodlights mounted below the walkway prevent deep shadows being cast by the walkway onto the dockside. Columns spaced at 25m Track area: Eav = 41 lux .22 Floodlighting at a port facility.3m mounting height. Emin/Eav = 0.Industry outdoor Schemes Railway lighting Scheme: Railway lighting. 1 luminaire per column. 70 | Applications and Techniques .3m mounting height. and 250W HST mounted columns with 10. The floodlights mounted on the top of the structure light the suspended walkway. section 100m x 24m Luminaire(s) used: Victor Stora 150W HST catenary mounted with 7. 3 luminaires per wire.

waiting. Given that good levels of daylight should be expected in areas for treatment. administration. Thus it is common practice for modern spaces to include good daylight design. In areas of high infection risk. lighting both for an enormous range of tasks. the use of lighting controls offers not only added comfort but also impacts heavily on energy. Daylight Research shows that daylight and window view can have positive effects on patients. the fundamental requirements for lighting for healthcare and lighting requirements for specific locations. their sleep patterns.5µm can transfer harmful bacteria. Applications and Techniques | 71 . The addition of lighting controls can allow for changing tasks. luminaires with only downward and vertical faces or those specifically designed for clean environments. In addition. transmission by the touch of a hand can add to the spread of infection. Such luminaires will utilise materials impervious to bacteria. The choice of lighting can affect task performance.6 Healthcare Techniques General The lighting of healthcare spaces presents one of the most difficult tasks for any lighting designer. The fundamental requirements for lighting for healthcare could be as follows: Cleanliness Infection control is of prime importance in all healthcare buildings. staff and visitors. circadian rhythms and recovery rates form many illnesses. well-being and whether patients and visitors feel the space is clean and safe. circulation and overnight stay. All luminaires that could collect dust or be touched by hand should be designed to be easily cleaned. The information given below is in two sections. changes in daylight and add levels of user comfort to a space. some times requiring extreme levels of visual performance and yet creating a space that satisfies today’s energy requirements and just as importantly the comfort needs of the patients.6. Airborne particulates as small as 0. In lighting terms we need to defend against this by using luminaires that have the minimum area of horizontal or near horizontal surfaces on which dust may collect. and also designed with suitable ingress protection for dust and moisture both into the luminaire and from the ceiling void through the luminaire into the clean space.

Emergency lighting for these situations should be sufficient to allow progressive evacuation. and a consistent. high quality source of colour rendering should be provided. The other aspect to colour is that of colour temperature. Common practice is to use 4000K lamps in all healthcare spaces. but in areas where there is a wish to provide a more homely feel. this is called Standby lighting. In critical areas. Similarly different colour temperatures should not be mixed in any one space. for example nearer 2700K for the UK. A generator will generally supply standby lighting and special account of the changeover and run up time will be needed. Other important tasks but in non-critical areas will require standby lighting generally to 50% of the normal level. Colour Skin tone and eye colour in many healthcare establishments are often important in diagnosis. the colour temperature may need to be matched to that prevalent at home. such as operating theatres. This is extended to include flesh and other colours during invasive treatments. but on no account should lamps of different colour rendering be mixed in the same space. Emergency lighting Emergency lighting is required for the movement of patients. In other spaces where diagnosis and treatment is not carried out colour rendering can be relaxed to an Ra of 80. In this case it is likely that the condition of patients will mean it is difficult to evacuate them in an emergency. or to allow time at points of refuge. Apart from the above emergency lighting should be designed to meet the requirements of EN1838. All lamps within these areas should have an Ra of at least 90. Hence the ability of light sources to render true colours is vital in all areas where diagnosis and treatment is carried out. delivery rooms and high dependency units. The point of view of a recumbent patient will need to be thought about to limit discomfort glare in many circulation and treatment spaces. In certain healthcare buildings the emergency lighting will need to take account of tasks that have to continue even when other spaces may be evacuated. 72 | Applications and Techniques . Some patients will almost certainly be physically or mentally incapacitated. the illuminance provided by the standby lighting should equal 90% of the normal mains illuminance or there about. staff and visitors to a place of safety. Escape routes generally will be covered by luminaires with integral emergency control gear.Healthcare Fields of view Remember that the field of view in many healthcare spaces may include the ceiling and upper walls and often may include luminaires.

and especially bright light of the correct wavelengths. the modern fashions (greys and browns) may be under stimulating for long-term patients. not only in terms of reflected light but also energy efficiency and wellbeing. Equally areas of strong colour. using both artificial light and by designing the environment to aid access to natural light and to make the outdoor environment more attractive and friendly. Importantly. the colour of light and human comfort. For instance warm colour temperatures make patients look healthier and improve patient moral. especially at the blue end of the spectrum. to preserve the bodies sleep cycle. Artificial lighting should incorporate features to help provide sufficient light during waking hours for health benefits. otherwise the surface and hence the space itself will appear dark. but during the night only provide minimum light for safety. Also consider colour psychology e. Also in the elderly the reduction in mobility and tolerance of adverse weather (such as cold. Recent research also indicates that light therapy may have potential for improving the quality of life for elderly people. preferable amber. However the use of blue biased white light for health is still a relatively new concept with limited knowledge on benefits and potential side-effects so at present blue biased white light should be used sparingly and with care. High chroma colours will affect clinical diagnosis – Grey is a good. Colour and reflectance High reflectance materials are required to give visual lightness. Therefore they receive less exposure to bright light. the consequences of any artificial lighting on the carers should be carefully considered to prevent further problems. orange or red in colour. wind and rain) mean elderly people experience a reduction in ability to go out of doors. All of these result in poor quality of sleep. Use of blues and green (used for calming effect in mental health institutions) may actually exacerbate depression. if boring. For instance colour should be chosen to flatter the patients appearance. will need to be well lit to give full vibrancy. but care must be taken to prevent compromising the ability for clinical diagnosis.g. soft lighting enhances this. The reception of blue light decreases with age due to the aging of the eye reducing its efficiency. But the effect of surface colour can be immense. clinical background and has been shown to relax and reduce stress. such as murals in children’s wards.Healthcare Light for comfort Recent research shows strong links between good lighting. Applications and Techniques | 73 . Additionally the circadian functions may be compromised through age and damage caused by small strokes. Light therapy may be used to help improve sleep quality.

access for wheel chairs. 74 | Applications and Techniques . should make the patient and visitor feel welcome and provide both staff and visitors with good facial modelling through good vertical illuminance.2.Healthcare The lighting requirements for specific locations could be as follows: Entrance canopies It is important that entrances are clearly lit to advertise the way into the building whilst providing sufficient light for the task perhaps including driving. waiting areas and lift lobbies Lighting here should emphasise points of interest such as reception desks. Staff here will often have to use computer display screens. signage and onward routes. flooring or other decoration. and so on. This is can be achieved either through dimming or switching. Lighting solutions should provide good vertical illumination avoiding down lights with harsh cut-offs. Where there is sufficient daylight savings can be made using daylight linked dimming controls. care being needed to maintain uniformity above 0. In many corridors. including enquiry and patient reception. An approach focused on the many tasks and points of view is important. certainly those in areas occupied by patient’s overnight. the lighting should enhance this where ever possible Reception These areas. Streets will have relatively high use and will be wider and often higher than conventional corridors. Where there are a number of routes to different departments signage may take the form of coloured lines. This will provide good facial recognition for CCTV. Entrance halls. the lighting will require dimming or switching to a lower level at night. the latter being achieved through asymmetric luminaires mounted along one side of the corridor. but the emphasis on this should never out weigh user comfort. unloading ambulances. Hospital streets and other circulation routes Hospital “streets” form the major links between clinical departments with smaller corridors often running off to other areas. Spill light and glare to patient rooms and to trolley bourn patients must also be considered.

whereas soffit mounted luminaires often create installation and maintenance problems. normally IP54 or better. measured at floor level. Lighting of bedded areas The general lighting must be adequate for the care of the patients by the nursing staff. Suspended luminaires: The ceiling height for suspended luminaires should not be less than 3m to ensure adequate clearance for mobile apparatus used at the bedside. Treads need clear and reasonably uniform lighting with some element of contrast to the riser.5m. WCs. The balance of brightness and colour of the surroundings should help to provide a visually pleasing interior. though higher ceiling and wall reflectance is essential when lighting the ward from the bed head position.7 for the ceiling.5 for the walls and 0. washrooms and changing areas Lighting should be sympathetic avoiding harsh directional light or shadowing.2 for the floor. For these duties to be performed efficiently the illuminance inside a curtained bedded area should be no less than 300 lux from a combination of ambient and task lighting and the illuminance in the central space between the bed foot rails should be not less than 100 lux (75 lux when all curtains are closed). Stairs Stairs require careful lighting and tread colour design to ensure the tread is clear to all users including those with visual disability. However. Good glare control is needed with UGR limited to 19. Three hour self-contained emergency lighting is needed on all escape routes. mirrors sinks and make up areas with the task. Applications and Techniques | 75 . Glare from wall-mounted fittings should be limited by using lower brightness light sources. Lighting should be positioned for lockers. facial modelling and veiling reflections in mind. In wet or humid environments the lighting should be of a suitable ingress protection. To achieve this the reflectance of the major surfaces should be of the order of 0. The lighting near the doors to bedded wards will require careful illuminance and luminance control.Healthcare Ward corridors need specific night lighting techniques to allow safe movement of staff without affecting patient rest.7m nor greater than 3. 0. Stairs will need careful emergency lighting. The mounting height above the floor should not be less than 2. note that in some countries additional luminaire luminance limits are also specified.

If treatment is given at the bedside requiring an illuminance exceeding 300 lux. Hand-held switches. should be of the extra low voltage type.7m. which would be caused by the patient’s reading light. either a mobile examination luminaire is required or the reading light is to be designed to provide this illuminance by switching. Reading lights are usually provided for all beds in hospitals. Reading lights/examination lighting: The patient’s reading light is required to give 300 lux directly on a task area in front of the patient. For such circumstances. 76 | Applications and Techniques . ceiling mounted luminaires may still be suitable. The illuminance for the circulation space should be an average 5 lux on circulation spaces. The luminance of any luminaire left on during the night should not exceed 30 cd/m2 as seen by patients from their beds. if used.5 lux Watch lighting: The purpose of watch lighting is to allow continuous observation of a particular patient after the general lighting has been switched off. but it may be undesirable to have them within easy reach of children and mentally ill patients. If these luminaires will not provide the illuminance required at the bedhead a dual system will be required. 0.7m.4m and 3m high. high-level wall or ceiling mounted luminaires should be used and the switches should be out of the patient’s reach.85m off the floor and a maximum of 10lux. In areas with ceiling heights between 2. it is possible to provide the recommended illuminance at the bedhead only by using ceiling mounted luminaires. Recessed and semi-recessed luminaires: Recessed and semi-recessed luminaires may be used in ceilings between 2.4m and 2. The illuminance on the bedhead should not exceed 0. It should not disturb lightly sleeping patients. Staff or nursing tasks at the bedhead can also use the reading light. An illuminance of 15-20 lux is adequate. Night lighting: Night lighting is required to provide enough light for safe movement of patients and staff. without the disturbance. The most suitable height for wall-mounted luminaires is a minimum of 1. the cut off angle being 20° within the curtained area and 35° in central zones. Wall mounted luminaires: Modern lighting systems comply with the general recommendations using only semi direct wall mounted luminaires with fluorescent lamps.Healthcare Ceiling mounted luminaires: The ceiling height may be 3m or less. Dual systems: For dual systems in which supplementary lighting along the side walls of the bedded area is used.

be dimmable to suit the surgical need and take account of the high number of monitoring screens. Lighting should allow for all these tasks both during the day and at night. Luminaires chosen for these spaces must be easy to clean and maintain and should have an IP rating of 65 from below and 54 or better from above. Lighting also needs to provide good uniformity. Ancillary areas & other specialist spaces Healthcare buildings contain many ancillary areas to do with the efficient and safe functioning of the whole building. To do so will require lighting that has good luminance control both to reduce glare to PC users and patients sleeping nearby. noise and EMC control in scanner and audiology and electromedical screening rooms.Healthcare Nurses’ stations and staff bases Nurses’ stations provide for a number of tasks including dispensing medicine. preparation. this will include good vertical illuminance from the ambient lighting. Many of these are covered elsewhere. Dimming control is essential to allow staff to reduce the illuminance at night. greeting visitors and PC use. often using negative polarity displays. In specialist treatment and examination rooms not mentioned above there may be other requirements too. In an emergency all lighting should be retained at full brightness. Lighting colour rendering and temperature should be chosen for clinical diagnosis rather than energy efficiency. ad hoc meetings. Operating Theatres and associated clinical spaces Lighting here needs to provide for clinical examination. but special care may need to be paid to protecting healthcare environments from hospital bourn diseases. such as dimming and glare control in ophthalmic rooms. treatment and movement. Applications and Techniques | 77 . Improved IP ratings or luminaires suitable for regular wash down and cleaning may need to be considered. The theatre surgical lights are specialist and should be provided as part of the overall theatre equipment.

7m Luminaire(s) used: Bedhead mounted uplight and reading light Ward floor: Eav = 141 lux . 8m x 3m x 2. 7.7 78 | Applications and Techniques .Healthcare Schemes Healthcare rooms Scheme: 4-bed ward.6m x 6. Emin/Eav = 0.7m Luminaire(s) used: 3 Diffusalux Hospital 2x35W T16 Desk height: Eav = 440 lux .68 Scheme: Consulting room.6m x 2. Emin/Eav = 0.

unlike bed head systems. When using ceiling recessed lighting it is important that it is planned in conjunction with other services to ensure a clear space in the ceiling void for the luminaire.Healthcare Lighting in hospital wards may use bed head luminaires with integrated services such as oxygen. The advantage of a bed head luminaire is the flexibility of lighting. or ceiling mounted luminaires (either surface mounted or recessed). and looking into luminaires whilst travelling down the corridor may create an unpleasant flicker effect. An additional advantage for bed head systems is ease of access for maintenance and cleaning. and differing amounts of down light allowing a patient to read or a doctor to examine the patient. etc. they do not rely on uplight being reflected from the ceiling to give ambient lighting to the room. Corridors and circulation areas should be well lit and airy. with uplighting supplying ambient light to the ward. Applications and Techniques | 79 . Ceiling mounted luminaires allow easier centralised control of lighting by nursing staff and may be a more energy efficient solution as. electricity. Ideally ceiling mounted lighting should avoid the centre of the corridor as recumbent patients being wheeled along the corridor should not be looking directly into a luminaire as this may be glaring.

especially in the case of frequent modifications to the store layout or promotions. As well as good horizontal light levels vertical light levels are important as shop goods tend to be held in vertical shelving units As this is background store lighting a high uniformity is required Luminaires should be placed perpendicular to shelving in order to facilitate any reorganisation of the shelving and the possibility of variable spacing of shelving due to different types of goods being sold in different areas. General lighting Main objective is to provide a background ambience and to give light for guidance. Colour appearance of the light determines the overall ambience but colour rendering characteristics have a direct impact on ensuring that the objects are shown to their best advantage. as well as the general atmosphere. The fundamental requirements for shop lighting could be as follows: Creating atmosphere: the way goods are presented and lit. can positively influence a customer. It also needs to satisfy more down-to-earth requirements such as facilitating orientation or to attract customer attention to special displays or points of interests. Flexibility: marketing trends and initiatives change frequently and in order to influence customers into rediscovering a shop it should be possible to easily adapt the lighting to new requirements.7 Super/hypermarket Techniques General The purpose of a super/hypermarket lighting scheme is to make the store as appealing as possible to customers.6. 80 | Applications and Techniques . Visual guidance: the lighting must help the customer navigate around the shop. Luminaires have to be chosen in order to underline and reinforce the individual character of the shop brand or chain of stores. Creating interest: using accent lighting to create areas that make a customer curious and wanting to see more. Lighting should allow consumers to examine the merchandise and should help complete the sale.

mid. Focal-point lighting. The market positioning of the store (high. When lighting clothing a flexible lighting solution is needed to allow the lighting to be reconfigured when displays are altered or moved. enhancing form. should be 10x brighter than the surround and generally uses spotlighting Display case lighting illuminates merchandise in glass or open cases and shelves. product and customer in order to enhance the prospects of a sale. as clothing Applications and Techniques | 81 . such as vertical shelving and can use valance systems or linear wall-washing systems Key luminaires: Lighting clothing The primary purpose of lighting is to make merchandise look good. which highlights a specific central display with feature merchandise. and also the possible options for display. increasing the desirability of the item leading to a sale. Accent lighting should be at least 3x brighter than the surround to be noticeable or 5x brighter to be meaningful. Ideally this should optimise the relationship between space.Super/hypermarket Key luminaires: Accent lighting By locally increasing or decreasing the quantity of light it is possible to create variation in shadows and brightness. It can be linear fluorescent or spotlighting depending on the type of display Perimeter lighting provides vertical illumination for merchandise along walls. The aim of this is to give a maximum expression to merchandise. texture and colour in contrast with the surroundings. low-tier) should be considered when designing the installation.

This kind of light is often realised with suspended structures hanging above the displays allowing spotlights integration. Customers need to see the items they are thinking of buying in a quality of light that shows the garment correctly. Warm accents are preferred with a low content of actinic radiations (to prevent fading of colour in goods) and low heat radiation. Key luminaires: 82 | Applications and Techniques . downlights and track mounted spotlights remain the most common fixtures. One of the main issues with clothing is colour rendering and colour temperature.Super/hypermarket may be hung on rails. displayed on shelves or shown in an entirely novel way. and should be as efficient as practicable. Any post purchase dissatisfaction when seeing the article in the daylight must be avoided. New generations of metal halide lamp offer a wide choice of warm or cool white light. LEDs with their improved performance are also becoming more widely used. However lighting should remain discrete to ensure the main focus is the merchandise. Using specific type of lamps that create colourful accents can bring out freshness of produce. LED luminaires can be smaller and easy to blend into the background. The Ra of the lamp must be at least 85 so that colours are reproduced as faithfully as possible. Differing materials used in the design of the display fittings and the size of the displays will require differing lighting techniques. Key luminaires: Greengrocery Main objectives are to ensure that fruits and vegetables are shown under the best colour rendering bright light. However. Also note that the UV characteristics of the lamp should be checked to ensure that it is suitable for the material being lit and will cause no effects such as fading of colours.

With lower dark ceilings mounted with fluorescent downlights the atmosphere may be emphasised further. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 83 . Key luminaires: Fresh food counters The ceiling is often lower than in the rest of the hypermarket. Recessed luminaires provide a good illuminance level. Key luminaires: Wines and spirits A lower lighting level helps to recreate the atmosphere of a wine cellar. cheese and delicatessen A warm. accentuating the freshness of the displays with a combination of different high Ra colour lamps.Super/hypermarket Bakery. while cream pastries appear appetising when illuminated by halogen lamps or warm white metal halide. oven-fresh appearance can be created on the bread.

due to the diversity of goods a clear communication with colours. The area beyond the checkout should be lit to a level that provides a transition zone for shoppers leaving the supermarket and going into daylight or the dark of night. Key luminaires: Guidance Indoor guidance . logos. etc. facades. Key luminaires: Signage Additional to guidance the use of lighting to signal locations and features is important. This is not to be confused with accent or focal-point lighting. For outdoor lighting. Particular attention has to be paid to avoid any glare at the cashier position in order to assure a comfortable activity with no mistakes. Key luminaires: 84 | Applications and Techniques . and lighting has to be established in order to guide customers. communication. graphemes. This guidance is sometimes mandatory for safety reasons: exit ways being indicated in case of emergency evacuations. help present the sales policy and brand positioning.Super/hypermarket Task lighting This provides illumination for a specific functional area such as the checkout counter.

37m x 51m x 7m Luminaire(s) used: Primata II 2x58W T26 with 5m mounting height. Sirios 150W HIT-DE (spotlight) and 2x55W Voyager Twinspot (emergency lighting) Sales area: Eav = 802 lux .Super/hypermarket Schemes Super-store Scheme: Computer super-store.68 Applications and Techniques | 85 . Emin/Eav = 0.

Emin/Eav = 0. Emin/Eav = 0. It is important to ensure a good level of vertical illuminance on shelving so that products are adequately lit.83 Wall-washing luminaires illuminating food products on shelving.76 Scheme: Hypermarket.Super/hypermarket Schemes Hypermarket Scheme: Hypermarket. Colour of light can make a large impact on the appearance of goods and should be carefully matched to the requirements of the product on display. 80m x 63m Luminaire(s) used: Arena 2x70W T26 Floor: Eav = 980 lux . 80m x 63m Luminaire(s) used: Arena 2x70W T26 Floor: Eav = 560 lux . 86 | Applications and Techniques .

Glass and crystal objects should be made to sparkle. Accent lighting along the front of counters can make them stand out and appear more welcoming. Consideration should be given as to the goods being lit. whilst solid objects such as clothes need to have light projected onto them. Applications and Techniques | 87 . with differing store configuration and colour needs. light appearing to come from inside the object. Lighting demands may vary across the store.Super/hypermarket The lighting should allow for large obstructions such as signage and seasonal decorations to be displayed without causing shadowing.

and research has shown that good road lighting will significantly reduce accidents. pedestrians and obstructions depends upon the amount or density of traffic. preferably HST/E ones. vehicles. the speed of the traffic and if pedestrians are present – mixed usage areas. Additionally latest technology has improved efficacy in lamps with a higher colour rendering such as CFL and HIT-CE and some of the latest standards benefit this technology and allows using a lower class but improving the quality of the light. This can be reinforced by the use of different lamp colours to distinguish a change of road classification or area definition. Lighting control systems can provide even further savings by allowing switching or dimming of lamps at of-peak or night time situations.6. Lamps with a high luminous efficacy are mainly used. 88 | Applications and Techniques . Operating costs and environmental impact are important and the use of photocells to reduce the number of hours the lighting is used can be very economical. As one of main concerns in road lighting is extended maintenance operations luminaires with high IP ratings are recommended In addition to extended maintenance periods it is also desirable to reduce the maintenance and installation operations to a minimum. Crime rates also determine the lighting level required.8 Road lighting Techniques General The human eye does not perform well in the dark or at dusk when visual performance is impaired by lower visual acuity.e. therefore the use of a tool-free lantern is suggested. Road lighting provides guidance through conflict areas such as junctions. For traffic routes a silhouette vision system is used. so the road characteristics and the observer positions needs to be determined. If illuminance has to be considered all the involved areas have to be taken into account including vehicles and pedestrian. poorer colour discrimination and a much lower tolerance to disability glare – hence the increased accident risk to drivers and pedestrians. Road lighting can also have a secondary effect of preventing crime. Points of note are: Luminance is the main criteria for traffic route lighting. Road lighting plays a very important role in reducing accidents. The amount of light required on a road to reveal objects i.

a polycarbonate bowl is highly recommended and the use of vandal proof screws to fix the luminaire to the column and reinforced closing clips secured by special screws are also recommended. In low mounting height installations with a risk of vandal attacks. from a single fitting controlled by a photocell to a large-scale installation monitored from a remote control point and managing luminaire data in real time. use of brackets and low glare fittings are a highly recommended although this may not lead to be the best functional solution. Applications and Techniques | 89 . in all cases the adjacent areas should be taken into account and that will define the best option. In these cases it is good to introduce newer technologies without confusing the users. mounting height. When houses and the road are close to each other low mounting heights. Polycarbonate enclosures are more resistant to vandal attacks. Traditional mounting heights are above 12 m to properly light a twin carriageway with 3 or 4 lanes plus a hard shoulder at either side. Better optical fittings can be used but try to keep a similar layout. cyclists or slow vehicles are involved. Lighting controls for road lighting applications cover a wide range of applications.Points of note are. shallow glass maximises optical performance and flat glass reduces possible glare issues. Many projects are a continuation of previous installations or new parts from a previously light area. These roads are designed for high speeds (>60km/h) and no pedestrians. At the design stage not only the requirements for the road have to be considered. etc. When considering a possible proposal for a road it is recommended to have information of the existing road lighting. There are no intersections and access is controlled.Road lighting The use of electronic control gear is recommended. Therefore lighting controls should be considered because in addition to reducing power consumption they extend lamp life and give the possibility to remotely identify failures and optimise maintenance operations. Brackets should be considered to optimise performance. Although this increases initial investment it is shortly repaid by extending lamp life and maintenance periods. Highways and high speed roads . Multiple fitting enclosures are available although each has an optimal application.

Key luminaires: Main Roads . an opposite installation with columns behind the hard shoulder can improve maintenance operations and reduce traffic disruption when in process. The main usage of the road is for vehicles at high speed (>60km/h) but pedestrians. A common installation is using columns around 10m high and in an opposite or twin central configuration but it needs to always be related to the road layout. As glare becomes a major concern an optimised designed optic and/or the use of flat glass enclosures are necessary. Intersections can be present and need special attention. the number of lanes involved and the lighting criteria to achieve. Where cycle and pedestrian pathways are present the use of luminaires with different lamp settings is beneficial to comply with requirements for the road and also to be able to correctly light the pathways without needing to change the pole characteristics. Key luminaires: 90 | Applications and Techniques .Road lighting Although traditionally columns have been installed in a central reservation. As in all road lighting applications a high IP rating has to be considered to extend maintenance periods. cyclists or slow vehicles may also be present on footpaths.Points of note are. cycle paths and slow lanes.

For regional roads low luminance classes should be applied and illuminance classes where pedestrian usage is relevant. In these cases using different light sources for motorised and other traffic (such as high pressure sodium and a white light lamp) can help to differentiate between the two areas. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 91 .e. In some cases. Intersections are very common. These are usually medium speed roads and high-speed urban roads where pedestrians and cyclists are common. These are normally medium to low speed roads with a large number of slow vehicles and pedestrians. when a road has many lanes and cycle and/or pedestrian pathways are also present the use of twin poles may be considered (i. Columns no higher than 8m are commonly used in a single sided or staggered layout. although in some commercial streets with wide footpaths an additional column and luminaire may be used to achieve high quality lighting and differentiate areas. Regional roads and urban roads are mainly part of this group as well as commercial streets. Key luminaires: Mixed traffic roads . using an additional luminaire at a separate mounting height to light the adjacent pathways) or alternatively the use of bollards which also provide a physical separation between traffic types.Points of note are. although many other possibilities can be considered due to the multiple layouts of these roads.Road lighting Ring roads and radial roads . Luminaire mounting heights around 8 and 10m in a staggered or single sided arrangement are usual.Points of note are. As these roads can be of multiple lanes the main concern is the common use by cyclist and pedestrians usage.

Lighting classes tend to be from lower categories and in residential areas the use of high colour rendering lamps to improve perception is recommended. Low mounting heights are common. The use of staggered layouts is common when parking lanes and wide footpaths are present. using the highest class of the incoming roads. Low glare luminaires should be considered to reduce light trespass onto adjacent residential housing. Lighting in these areas has to increase awareness and guidance to drivers and pedestrians regarding the geometry of the area and the position of other users.Points of note are. In applications where crime ratios are high and facial recognition is required vertical and semi-cylindrical illuminance classes should be applied. 92 | Applications and Techniques . Additionally the location and the orientation of the luminaires can help avoid any light trespass into houses. Pedestrian areas and local and residential roads are mainly part of this group. In these areas traffic. In terms of lighting the highest applicable class should be used in these areas. Key luminaires: Conflict areas and junctions . either motorised or pedestrian.Points of note are. Single sided layouts may be used to reduce installation costs although layouts may vary due to multiple access points to private car parks or properties. These roads are normally used by low speed mixed traffic. converges from many directions. with column height usually under 6m.Road lighting Residential and local roads .

including a short section of these lanes away from the conflict area. Columns can play a major role not only in terms of providing lighting but also to give guidance to the geometry of the area. On roundabouts columns placed in a single sided configuration around the outer part of a curve provide a clear guidance for a driver as they approach the area.Road lighting Access and exit lanes should be highlighted. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 93 . This is to ensure any obstacle in these areas is visible. A common technique is to increase the height of the columns in the conflict area and on the approaches. When positioning the luminaires the main aim is to help the incoming vehicles visibility. When entering a junction from a minor road a luminaire should be positioned to make vehicles visible as they approach the conflict area.

0. Threshold increment = 2% Scheme: Access ramp.95m Luminaire(s) used: Triumph 1 150W HST. opposite arrangement. Emin/Eav = 0. 10m mounting height. width 4m Luminaire(s) used: Orus 70W CDM-T. Emin = 15 lux 94 | Applications and Techniques .9m mounting height.5m spacing Road: Eav = 33 lux . 5° tilt Road: Lav = 5. 3 lanes.75 cd/m² . 36m spacing. 10.Road lighting Schemes Traffic Scheme: Traffic route.59. Total width 10.

Road lighting Lighting columns and fixtures may be themed to blend into and complement the area they are situated within. and may cause weakening of the column and structural failure. and therefore adding additional objects to the column will increase the windage loading. However. Frequently lighting columns collect additional street furniture. Catenary lighting solutions in which the lanterns are suspended along the centre of the carriageway are popular in many countries and remove the need for lighting columns and brackets. Windage is directly related to the surface area of any furniture mounted on or fixed to the column. Whenever designing an installation the impact of the lighting hardware on a scene during daylight hours should be considered. This can create a less cluttered environment at street level. a column height that is too low will reduce installation performance and require additional lanterns. such as banners or signage. although in architecturally interesting areas thought should be given as to the effect of the additional cabling on the field of view. Lighting columns are constructed to withstand a defined windage (that is the force of the wind on the column). Applications and Techniques | 95 . Careful choice of column height is necessary to prevent lighting becoming excessively visible and detracting from the view. as well as the performance of the lighting during darkness.

precincts. However it is important to ensure the pavements are adequately illuminated. residential streets. The mix of slow moving vehicles and pedestrians creates a challenge and the main emphasis is towards pedestrians. pedestrian crossings. Lighting can fulfil both functional and decorative elements by providing sufficient lighting to provide orientation and direction with security after dark. vehicles and property. Feeder Roads generally use asymmetric light distribution street lanterns on 8–10m columns with outreach arms to position the lantern in the optimum location for road geometry. elderly. whether by using styled lighting equipment or by the use of different colour appearance light sources to provide aesthetic interest. particularly where children. car parks both indoor and outdoor. partially sighted and handicapped pedestrians are present. Lighting control systems can provide even further savings by allowing switching or dimming of lamps at of-peak or night time situations. town squares. Alternatively lanterns can be post top mounted (without the outreach arm) but the lanterns will need the ability to re-direct the lantern peak intensity (typically using an adjustable lampholder) into road centre to improve efficiency and reduce installation and running costs. 96 | Applications and Techniques . For dual carriageway installations lanterns mounted back to back on centrally mounted lighting columns provide good economy and lighting efficiency. Correctly designed lighting systems however will help drivers and pedestrians recognise potentially dangerous situations and will also help reduce crime against people.6. Good amenity lighting can provide guidance through city or town areas by the use of themed lighting. underpasses and general security lighting. cycle paths. The risk of accidents is much greater on feeder roads from the high volume and speed of vehicles. parks. reducing accidents and helping prevent crime and the fear of crime.Points of note are. Operating costs and environmental impact are important and the use of photocells to reduce the number of hours the lighting is used can be very economical. Feeder Roads .9 Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Techniques General Amenity lighting provides the essential lighting for the city or town shopping centres.

Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas White light sources – Metal halide. Lanterns can be themed or styled to suit neighbourhood road and architectural layout. Vandalism should not be a problem to lanterns mounted at 8-10m but in extreme cases polycarbonate bowls might be required. Narrow pavements may need lanterns mounted using wall brackets. Vandal and impact resistant luminaires may be required using polycarbonate. improve efficiency and create less glare to drivers and residents.Points of note are. White light sources provide good colour rendering conditions for drivers and pedestrians improving visual perception and helping to provide early warning of impending situations. For local and residential roads post top lanterns on 5-8m poles with a symmetric or asymmetric distribution will help provide good vertical illuminance. Light above the horizontal should be avoided to reduce sky glow. High-pressure sodium light sources are more efficient but suffer from poorer colour rendering characteristics. Strongly themed lanterns may require a lower mounting height 4-5m. Key luminaires: Local and residential roads . compact fluorescent and induction lamps provide good colour rendering conditions for drivers and pedestrians. improving visual perception and helping to provide early warning of impending situations. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 97 .

Creating visual interest can help to highlight architectural features within the areas and can also provide guidance through the area. A pleasing effect may be created using decorative or themed post top lanterns mounted on 5-6m high columns with architectural/themed styling. Wall mounted luminaires or recessed IP rated downlights can be used to reduce installation costs associated with lighting columns. This is especially important where daytime integration needs to be considered in architecturally sensitive areas. Key luminaires: Squares/Open areas The object of the lighting should promote easy movement of pedestrian’s with a feeling of general security and well-being. 98 | Applications and Techniques . Points of note are: Access to squares is often through mixed vehicle and pedestrian access routes requiring high levels of illuminance for safety.Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Open Pedestrian/Shopping Precincts The object of the lighting should promote easy movement of pedestrian’s with a feeling of general security and well-being. Good colour rendering is important and therefore compact fluorescent and metal halide white light sources are preferred. Architecturally/period styled lighting equipment will provide a good integration into the surrounding building architecture. Points of note are: For arcades and canopied areas lighting levels should be relatively high to match those of the surrounding shop windows. Vandal and impact resistant luminaires may be required. improve the efficiency of the installation and help prevent glare to drivers. Post top lanterns on 4-6m high columns with a symmetric lighting distribution will help provide a good balance between the horizontal and vertical surfaces. Light above the horizontal should be avoided to reduce sky glow.

Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Additional feature lighting for fountains. guidance and interest. Fountains can be effectively lit using submersible floodlights beneath the falling water to make the light refract and spread over a wider area. trees and flowerbeds can benefit from localised lighting to provide a contrasting effect at night. even in winter. particularly when using colour and movement. Points of note are: The level of lighting is primarily determined by the crime risk whilst also providing guidance and the ability to negotiate obstructions and stairways. trees/shrubs and pathways should be used. Applications and Techniques | 99 . Care must be taken to ensure good drainage is allowed for all inset uplights. The lighting of statues and adjacent buildings must be co-ordinated with the general ambient lighting level within the square so they compliment the overall effect. The use of colour filters will also help the effect. Shrubberies. Dark patches and high light/dark contrasts should be avoided as they can affect adaptation and impair visibility. However care must be taken in positioning high brightness light sources at almost the same height as a car driver’s eye-line. Fibre optics and LED’s can be used to create colour and movement. The use of LED or low wattage metal halide ground inset uplights can create exciting lighting effects. The use of colour filters can also help. helping to attract pedestrians into the square. The use of internal louvres or refractors will help reduce glare by shielding the bare lamp. Light and shadow can be effective particularly on trees. Lighting bollards can help to reduce the visual impact of lighting equipment during the day. The lighting of areas adjacent to footpaths will help to improve the feeling of safety. but too much colour will reduce the efficiency of the lighting system. Key luminaires: Footpaths The object of the lighting should promote easy movement of pedestrian’s with a feeling of general security and well-being. particularly if the light emitting elements are positioned adjacent or inside the fountain spouts.

Good vertical light onto adjacent areas to reveal shrubs and risk areas will help create a feeling of safety. high-pressure sodium and compact fluorescent light sources will provide the correct optical and economic running cost solutions. Metal halide. This can comprise 5-6m high columns with asymmetric post top lanterns that have a wide angled distribution to provide a minimum number of lighting points. or by low-level bollards. Key luminaires: Cyclepaths . With increasing numbers of cycle paths being built from re-claimed railway track beds and new build in city centres and housing developments it is important that the safety of the cyclist is considered against possible collisions with other cyclists. At speeds of up to 40km/h good uniformity of the cycle path surface is paramount to allow reasonable perception of danger as early as possible. bulkhead or amenity lanterns mounted on adjacent walls or surfaces. 100 | Applications and Techniques . If cycle paths are set back from a main road or outside built up areas a separate lighting system is required. White light sources provide good colour rendering conditions for pedestrians. potholes or bumps on the pathway.Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas For open areas such as parks the same lighting principles apply however crime prevention may require a higher uniformity and extra lighting to the sides of the footpath to create a safer feel to the pathway. However. Vandal and impact resistant luminaires will be required. the use of “white” light is preferred.Points of note are. The wide beam distribution will also provide a good vertical illuminance helping guidance along the path. Lighting is generally either by post top symmetric lanterns mounted on 5-6m columns. For areas with a high crime rate high level floodlighting may be required. improving visual perception.

The lighting distribution should be narrow along the road axis and wider along the axis of the pedestrian crossing to ensure pedestrians on the edges of the crossing are visible.Points of note are. whether they are routes with heavy volumes of traffic. It is important to ensure that all pedestrian crossings are lit to provide a safe route to users across all traffic routes.0 times the mounting height from each side of the pedestrian crossing good positive contrast is achieved in the zone helping motorists quickly see pedestrians.6m and need to have a double asymmetric light distribution with good glare control to ensure drivers are not dazzled. In some instances additional baffling may be required on the lanterns.Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Key luminaires: Pedestrian crossings . Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 101 . Light sources having a different colour to the general road lighting create additional alertness or signalling effects. or relatively rural areas where traffic density is much lower. When lighting a pedestrian crossing the lanterns are normally mounted between 5. In the dark it must be as safe as during the daytime and safety is enhanced by the use of additional signalling and the use of a separate lighting system. By positioning lighting columns 0. High-pressure sodium light sources should be considered if white light metal halide or compact fluorescent lamps are used for the general road lighting.5 -1.

especially for approach roads. Metal halide and high-pressure lamp luminaires may be used but care must be taken to control glare and to ensure a separate lamp emergency lighting system is provided. The provision of good lighting will aid in user orientation. ensure high levels of visibility of vehicles and pedestrians and give a feeling of safety to pedestrians. and induction lamps all have good colour rendering and will provide good colour perception. Emergency lighting will be required to allow the safe evacuation of pedestrians in the event of an emergency. metal halide. Key luminaires: 102 | Applications and Techniques . Fluorescent. Additional or supplementary lighting should be installed in the access and exit zones of the car park and also on ramps. Good quality T16 or T26 fluorescent luminaires will provide good uniformity and levels of vertical illuminance combined with low luminaire brightness to prevent glare issues. Good vertical lighting is required for all these criteria.Points of note are. entrances and exits.Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Indoor multi-storey car-parks . Integration of emergency lighting is a normal requirement. When using T16 luminaires additional thermal protection of the lamps may be necessary. The orientation and location of luminaires in the driver’s line of sight should be arranged to prevent glare or distracting visual effects. corners and intersections for additional guidance. This is particularly important in multi-storey car parks that identify floors by colour theme. All lighting equipment should be vandal-resistant.

Access routes. Outdoor car parks are more likely to be subject to high crime rates of both car theft and robbery. The use of street lanterns with double asymmetrical light distribution is also suitable. Supplementary white lighting at ticket dispensers. They are normally situated on the periphery of towns. Metal halide. particularly if reading is required. schools and retail centres.Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Outdoor car-parks . stations. entrance barriers and exits all need good lighting to ensure pedestrians and drivers safety. either on the edge of the car park or centrally mounted using double asymmetric low glare flat glass floodlights to provide a good level of horizontal and vertical illuminance at ground level. railway lines or other sensitive transport areas. All lighting equipment should be vandal-resistant. A common approach for lighting is to use 6–8m lighting columns. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 103 . Care must be taken to avoid spill light onto adjacent housing. high-pressure sodium and compact fluorescent lamps are the preferred lighting sources to ensure low running and maintenance costs as many car parks are illuminated through the night. ticket dispensers. however more centrally positioned lanterns will be required to achieve good illuminance uniformity across the car park. Multi-storey car park roof levels use a similar approach to outdoor car parks where the column height is 6-8m and their location is co-ordinated into the structural elements of the roof structure. entrance barriers and exits will help colour and perception. Luminaires should be double asymmetric distribution street lanterns as they have better glare and spill light control.Points of note are.

which means daylight decreases rapidly. Key luminaires: 104 | Applications and Techniques . Discharge lamps may be used but good glare control is important to prevent any loss of discrimination by pedestrians of other users of the underpass due to glare. Care should be taken in the use of high-pressure sodium lamps where good colour rendering is required. As underpasses can remain illuminated throughout the night metal halide. Fluorescent cornice mounted luminaires generally provide good uniformity of illuminance and a good vertical component of illuminance. Light wall surfaces improve the vertical illuminance important for facial recognition. Depending upon the size and complexity of the underpass emergency lighting may be required to allow the safe evacuation of pedestrians in the event of an emergency. Easy access with a security key is essential to ensure good maintenance practice.Points of note are. Lighting equipment can be surface mounted or recessed. These can be inset into cladding or decorative mouldings to create a clean appearance with additional security protection against vandalism. even so the entrance zone of an underpass should be well lit. Adaptation is less of a problem for pedestrians as they move slowly compared to motorists. All equipment must be fully vandal proof including electrical feeds. either individually or in a continuous line. All pedestrian underpasses require artificial lighting as they have a small cross section. high-pressure sodium and fluorescent lamps are the preferred lighting sources to ensure low running and maintenance costs. Lighting should help pedestrians see the faces of other people to help give a feeling of security.Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Underpasses / pedestrian tunnels .

3m mounting height Footpath: Eav = 21 lux.25 Applications and Techniques | 105 .Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Schemes Footpaths Scheme: Amenity park area. 10m spacing. Emin/Eav = 0. 70W HIT-CE. 1m mounting height Footpath: Eav = 8 lux . path width 8. path width 2m Luminaire(s) used: 26 x Promenade 42W CFL bollards. Emin/Eav = 0.4m Luminaire(s) used: 27 x Avenue Virtual.26 Scheme: Amenity park area.

The daylight appearance of lighting can be as important as the lit effect. The pools of light give guidance and reassurance whilst still allowing darker more intimate areas. Splashes of light on the wall reveal the texture and warmth of the stone and provide visual interest.Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas Schemes Shopping centre car parking Scheme: Shopping centre car parking.32 Mica recessed luminaires illuminating a pathway. 106 | Applications and Techniques . Emin/Eav = 0. Lighting hardware should. 8m mounting height. as far as is possible. 0° tilt Park area: Eav = 21 lux . whilst the lighting also provides good illumination for the steps. blend into the surroundings and enhance the appearance of a space even when not in use. 297m x 163m Luminaire(s) used: 96 x Dyana 2 150W HIT.

6.10 Urban – architectural floodlighting
General The purpose of architectural floodlighting is to reveal the beauty of a structure or in some cases add a dimension by showing a structure in a new way. Architectural lighting adds an aesthetic quality to a scene. Points of note are: Generally a structure will have one or more principal viewing positions. Therefore the lighting should be sympathetic for an observer positioned at these viewpoints. The light levels used on a structure should be in harmony with the light levels of the surrounding area. In darker areas comparatively little light can be used to good effect, but in areas with a large amount of ambient lighting higher light levels will be required. A coherent flow of light across a structure is often desirable, implying one general aiming orientation for the main floodlights. This direction should not coincide with the most common viewing direction for the structure as no shadows will then be visible and the scene will appear flat and uninteresting. Care should be taken when mounting the floodlighting equipment to ensure that the lighting units do not appear in silhouette against the lit scene, as this will spoil the overall effect. Structural detail The main objective is to highlight significant features of the structure whilst ensuring the structure still appears as a coherent whole. Points of note are; Light naturally attracts peoples attention so highlighting specific features will help an observer read the structure. Care should be taken to only light those details that are required, as too many highlights will destroy the effect and either makes the structure appear bland and uninteresting or disjointed and incoherent. Completeness of lighting is an important consideration to ensure a coherent whole. Care should be taken to avoid a floating appearance, caused by the base of the structure being under lit, or high level lit detail seeming unconnected due to the upper parts of the structure being insufficiently lit. Shadows can make as useful a contribution to the final lit effect as do illuminated areas. A good technique is to highlight specific features and to give a low-key wash of light to the rest of the structure. Therefore smaller lighting units are needed to highlight the detail, as well as units with a more general distribution to cover the broader area.
Applications and Techniques

| 107

Urban – architectural floodlighting
Positioning floodlights at a distance from a structure and therefore giving light closer to the horizontal will tend to reduce the visibility of the textures of the materials used in the construction of the structure. Conversely positioning floodlights in a close offset position, and therefore giving light closer to the vertical will tend to enhance the visibility of the textures of the materials used in the construction of the structure. Daylight has a generally downward bias, forming shadows from architectural details below the detail itself. Floodlighting a structure from above can mimic this effect, whilst floodlighting from below will reverse the shadows and can often give a fresh appeal to a structure by giving it an individual day time and night time appearance. Lighting laterally will enhance any vertical features of the structure. Showing features in silhouette may enhance the lit appearance of a structure. Lighting behind features such as columns will show the form of the structure and display the columns in silhouette against the lit structure. Obtrusive light The main objective is to maximise the amount of useful light (that is light falling onto the structure) and minimise waste light that spills light onto the surroundings or upwards into the sky. Points of note are: Close off set lighting will reduce waste light by minimising light lost through scatter in the air, especially in urban areas with lower air quality. When uplighting a structure the upward light ratio (ULR) is not very useful as an indication of obtrusive light. A more useful measure is the utilisation factor, that is the amount of light actually lighting the structure compared to the total amount of light produced by the scheme. This gives the percentage useful light, and therefore the percentage waste light. It should be remembered that any reflected light will be in a predominantly upward direction and can give a significant contribution to obtrusive light. Therefore where possible uplighting should be used for structures that use low reflectance materials in their construction. To minimise obtrusive light additional attachments should be used on the floodlight such as louvres or visors to shape the floodlight beam and help it conform to the shape of the structure. Where possible niches and overhangs should be used to contain obtrusive light.

108 | Applications and Techniques

Urban – architectural floodlighting
Floodlight technology The main objective is to ensure that the correct technology in terms of lamp, optic and floodlight body is chosen for the application. Points of note are: The fabric of a structure has a colour, or in many cases a mixture of colours. Light sources that are monochromatic or strongly biased towards a small range of colours can distort the structure appearance. Therefore, light sources with a wide spectrum, (such as metal halide) or with a colour temperature that blends with the structure materials (such as high-pressure sodium on sandstone) should be used. Colour filters or RGB colour mixing should be used with care but can be very effective for dramatic effects or seasonal/festive events. Floodlights have a beam distribution that is mainly relative to the shape of the reflector. A round reflector will produce a conical beam useful for long-throw requirements, typically to pick out a single feature. A rectangular reflector will produce an asymmetrical beam useful for lighting areas rather than small points. Constraints in mounting position or specific application requirements often require a modified beam distribution. Additional optical components such as refractor glasses that vary the beam shape, or louvres that reduce obtrusive light are useful in getting the correct result. Floodlighting set-ups are generally aimed at night to enable fine-tuning of the finished appearance. However maintenance will be done in daylight, and often the floodlight will need to be moved to allow access to the lamp, etc. Floodlights with a re-positioning lock system are helpful to ensure the lit appearance is maintained over successive maintenance operations. Key luminaires:

Schemes – Building facade

Scheme: Building façade Luminaire(s) used: Avenue Deco bollard 50W MBF, Avenue Deco 125W MBF at 3m mounting height, Efact LED, Mica B 70W HIT-DE and Contrast Pinspot 70W Par 30. Road Eav = 7lux Pavement: Eav = 15lux away from the façade, Eav = 35lux along store façade

Applications and Techniques

| 109

Urban – architectural floodlighting
The curved roof is washed with light, making it appear to float over the building. The structure itself glows from the interior light spilling through the glass facades. Lighting of glass facades is difficult and it is more usual to let spill light from the interior light up the building and define its night-time appearance.

The suspension tower and cabling are lit to provide a distinctive appearance. Narrow beam floodlights are directed along the cables to make then glow, whilst the central tower is washed with light. The structure seems to float above the surface of the water.

The appearance is built up using layers of light. The lower section of the building has a general wash of light with highlighting above the central columns. Lighter and darker areas give depth to the façade. The upper storey mainly comprises grand window openings, and these are lit with a white light to accentuate the detail of the window surrounds. The detail around the top of the façade (below the roof line) is lit to define the transition to the roof space, and additional windows within the roof space are lit, along with chimney work, with a small amount of spill light showing the roofline.

110 | Applications and Techniques

6.11 Sports lighting
General The purpose of sports lighting is to provide lighting that allows a sport to take place safely (i.e. designed to suit the speed of play and size of any objects used in the sport) and provide good viewing conditions, both in visibility of the sports action and comfort of the audience. Points of note are: For all sports a good level of modelling is required. Modelling is the effect of light and shadow produced when light flows from one main direction (known as key light) and additional lower levels of lighting flow from other directions (known as fill light), producing a coherent three-dimensional image of a scene. If there is insufficient key light and all the lighting is fill light objects become flat with little discernable detail. If there is insufficient fill light harsh shadowing will occur, obscuring areas in the field of view. Both cases will cause a reduction in the ability of sports participants to correctly see and react to events on the field of play, and will also cause problems for spectators and television cameras. For high-speed sports the elimination of any stroboscopic effects from high intensity discharge sources is important. Stroboscopic effects may make a moving object appear stationary, or make the object seem to jump from one position to another. For these sports the use of high frequency control gear is recommended. Lighting requirements are defined by EN 12193. Additional requirements may be defined by sports governing bodies such as FIFA, Olympic Delivery Authorities, etc. and by television authorities, such as Sky. Some sports (notably FIFA regulations for football) also define requirements for uniformity gradient (UG). This is measure of the rate of change of illuminance across an area, and is expressed as the ratio between the illuminance levels of two adjacent measurement points. That is UG = Emeasurement point 1 Emeasurement point

EN 12193 defines requirements based on the lighting class (I, II, or III). This is derived from the level of competition, international and national, regional, local, training and recreational. At the lower standard of play there is flexibility with the light source options (i.e. high pressure sodium, metal halide) but at class I and II metal halide or fluorescent light sources with high colour rendering abilities are required.

Applications and Techniques

| 111

Sports lighting
Each sport has a playing area that is the principal playing area (the area inside the line marking for tennis or football for example) and a total area that is defined as the principal playing area, plus an additional safety outside the principal playing area. Lighting levels for sports are normally defined in terms of the minimum average horizontal illuminance on a reference plane, and a uniformity of illuminance. In some instances the plane of illuminance will be relevant to the sport and the spectator viewing distance, or TV camera-viewing plane. Here the normal to camera illuminance and vertical illuminance will be relevant. As some sporting areas are large, have the need for high levels of illuminance or are used for a long period in the day, highly efficient lighting systems are required to keep energy consumption low. Maintenance is also important to ensure system efficiency and functionality and therefore all lighting equipment should be safely accessible and maintainable throughout life. When lighting exterior sports facilities to achieve good uniformity lighting equipment must be mounted on masts of sufficient height to ensure floodlight aiming angles are no greater than 70°. This will ensure a high utilisation of lamp flux, minimum electrical load, and lower installed costs. When designing lighting for sports facilities it is important to minimise obtrusive and spill light. For guidance on this see section 6.8. All sports facilities require safety lighting (that is lighting designed to allow safe movement of players and spectators in the event of a power failure or emergency). Relevant guidelines form the sports governing bodies should be consulted for this information. Sports halls - Points of note are; Most sports halls are suitable for different sports and non-sporting events, all requiring different visual requirements. The most demanding visual activity should dictate the lighting design layout and light levels. One lighting layout will generally not be sufficient to meet all requirements, as specific sports require different lighting configurations. Therefore it is essential that lighting controls are used to switch a selection of luminaires for different requirements. Luminaires should be impact resistant against balls and projectiles, and designed and mounted to minimise the risk of objects becoming trapped within or behind them.

112 | Applications and Techniques

Sports lighting The layout of a sports hall may be altered using partitions.Points of note are. surface or recessed T16 or T26 luminaires with a parabolic louvre are suitable. A good level of vertical illuminance is required to ensure visibility of any high balls. Fluorescent lighting systems provide the best arrangements for high levels of horizontal and vertical uniformity over the playing areas. As a sports hall can support many types of activity it is important to ensure good uniformity is achieved throughout the hall. the positioning of the luminaires outside the playing area may be necessary to avoid disability glare for players looking upwards.g. with and without the partitions. Additional lighting may be required when partitions are in place and this should be checked during design. Key luminaires: Applications and Techniques | 113 . Key luminaires: Table tennis and badminton . Players are continually required to visually follow the trajectory of the shuttlecock and there are therefore specific recommendations for luminaire positions and requirements for good vertical illuminance. A low ceiling reflection factor will help to improve the visibility of the shuttlecock. For aerial sports. This allows competitors to quickly and accurately monitor an opponent’s movement. e. Pendant. The elimination of any stroboscopic effects from high intensity discharge sources is important. Badminton shuttlecocks are small and fast. For competition table tennis it is important that excellent uniformity is achieved over the table top and up to five metres from the table edges. and therefore care should be taken to ensure glare is controlled along all lines of sight. particularly important in combat sports. badminton and volleyball.

Points of note are. Normally a purpose made lighting assembly will support the lighting equipment above the ring. normally between 1000 lux and 2000 lux average horizontal illuminance. Key luminaires: 114 | Applications and Techniques . Narrow beam luminaires should be used to provide the necessary high levels of illuminance efficiently. High colour rendering qualities are required from the light source.Points of note are. which is recommended to be metal halide with an Ra of 85+. surface or recessed T16 or T26 luminaires with a parabolic louvre are suitable. This is also required for video and CTV transmissions. Key luminaires: Boxing . Fencing has specific requirements for both horizontal and vertical illuminance as the movements are very fast with a fine foil blade and the visual task is the torso of the players. Fluorescent pendant. This also ensures that the referee. In boxing the speed and force of movement over extremely short distances requires very high lighting levels at competition levels. Pendant or surface narrow/medium beam metal halide floodlights are suitable with baffle/louvre attachments to control glare. judges and spectators can see adequately and comfortably.Sports lighting Fencing .

Luminaires should be impact resistant against balls and projectiles. Additional wall colouring or screening with low reflectance matt material will help players to get additional information about the balls position on the court.Sports lighting Indoor tennis halls . Alternatively pendant or surface mounted low-bay metal halide luminaires with a louvre assembly and protective grill. and an asymmetric distribution luminaire washing each of the sidewalls. Key luminaires: Squash courts . travels up to 200 km/h and bounces in any plane. Pendant or surface mounted T16 or T26 fluorescent reflector luminaires with a protective grille are suitable.Points of note are. Tennis can be a very fast sport demanding good visual conditions to allow judgement of the ball trajectory. and designed and mounted to minimise the risks of object becoming trapped within or behind them. Mounting the luminaires at 1m from the wall prevents reflected glare. and not positioned behind the baseline up to a distance of three metres where serving takes place. The ball used for squash is smaller than a tennis ball.Points of note are. Applications and Techniques | 115 . The lighting will also need to extend beyond the playing area to cover the important zones behind the baselines and sidelines. Good illuminance on all four vertical planes together with high horizontal illuminance uniformity is needed against a light vertical background to improve perception of the ball. Fluorescent lighting is most suitable with two asymmetric distribution luminaires mounted parallel to the front to wash the wall. As the walls are used to create complex trajectories with players moving very quickly across each other’s line of sight early anticipation and vision are required to hit the ball accurately. Therefore good illuminance and uniformity with the elimination of shadows and glare are a requirement from the lighting system. its speed and anticipated bounce position on the court. is dark coloured. To prevent players being dazzled when looking at high balls the luminaires should be positioned outside the playing area.

Sports lighting
Surface mounted or recessed T16 or T26 fluorescent asymmetric reflector luminaires with a protective grille are most suitable. Key luminaires:

Figure skating and ice hockey - Points of note are; Most indoor rinks are used for recreational purposes with additional events carried out on specific occasions. Therefore the lighting installation needs to be flexible. Luminaires are normally mounted over the ice in a regular array to provide good uniformity of illuminance and general average horizontal illuminance. The ice hockey puck is black and to help spectators see it when it is flying through the air high reflectance surroundings should be used around the ice. Decreasing the spacing between luminaires near the goal increases illuminance in this critical area. Luminaires should be impact resistant if mounted less than 5m above the ice. High bay style luminaires with prismatic optics and metal halide lamps will help provide a good level of vertical illuminance and a high uniformity of illuminance on the horizontal plane whilst using the minimum number of luminaires. Floodlights can also be used but care should be taken to control both direct glare and reflected glare from the surface of the ice. The use of double asymmetric beam floodlights will help. Key luminaires:

116 | Applications and Techniques

Sports lighting
Swimming pools - Points of note are; Swimming pool lighting caters for a variety of visual tasks. The competitive swimmer has a much different seeing task to other swimmers where the main attention is focussed on staying in lane and the turning point at the end of the lane. Water polo players need lighting with a good ambient lighting effect. Swimming instructors, coaches, pool attendants and spectators all need to see across the pool and into the water to identify swimmers and situations. For recreational swimming pools themed or decorative lighting effects may be required. Because water reflects direct incident light the positioning of the luminaires needs to be carefully selected to avoid luminaire reflections and disability glare. Luminaires positioned around the pool help to reduce unwanted reflections. When this is not possible asymmetric distribution luminaires positioned above the water may be used but maintenance of the luminaires should be considered. Underwater lighting will help to reduce reflected glare from the pool surface as well as improving viewing conditions on the pool bottom. Synchronised swimmers need underwater lighting to help monitor the movement and position of other swimmers. However for competitive swimming and water polo underwater luminaires should be switched off. For diving pools supplementary lighting is required to improve the vertical illuminance, particularly for judges who need to assess the divers performance at the point of entry into the water. For springboard diving the lighting in the diving zone requires a good ratio of horizontal to vertical illuminance. Luminaires for indoor swimming pools must be protected against chlorinated and possibly salty air and as such need to meet high standards of electrical reliability and protection against corrosion. Luminaires should be protected to IP65 and have fixings that are made of stabilised austenitic stainless steel. High ambient temperatures may require control gear to be mounted remotely to ensure long life and reliability. The use of floodlights will help resolve some of these issues as floodlights are mainly designed for exterior use and have a high degree of protection and resistance to the elements built in. Good colour rendering lamps are required to provide the correct ambience and visual comfort for competitors and bathers. Metal halide lamps with a warm or cool appearance can be used to good effect. Surface mounted or recessed fluorescent luminaires with an acrylic panel/ bowl are suitable, as are metal halide or high pressure sodium floodlights wall mounted or pendant mounted for uplighting or direct lighting of the pool.

Applications and Techniques

| 117

Sports lighting
Key luminaires:

Outdoor football and rugby - Points of note are; The most common approach is the use of lighting masts, approximately four each side of 12m–20m height to achieve a minimum angle above the pitch centre of 20° to the lowest floodlight, but preferably 25°. These are spaced along the long axis of the playing area, positioned away from the touchlines to avoid collisions. For football they are also positioned away from the corners to avoid glare to goalkeepers. The floodlights are normally rated 1kW– 2kW and have a double asymmetric beam shape to ensure good uniformity and glare control. An alternative option is four corner masts where long throw symmetrical narrow beam floodlights are used. The same conditions apply to mast positioning and height to achieve high utilisation of lamp flux and the avoidance of glare. For rugby pitches the dead-ball zone, which can be up to 22m long, will need to be adequately illuminated. In some instances the spill light from the playing area will be sufficient but only to a depth of 6m. This is in addition to the playing area length of up to 100m between goal lines. A total area shall include a strip the length of the pitch including the dead ball area of no less than 6m wide on each side of the pitch. Lighting can be positioned on the roofs of adjacent grandstands if they are of sufficient height and location to comply with floodlight positional requirements, and of sufficient structural strength to allow the weight of the floodlights. Double asymmetric or symmetrical beam floodlights using high-pressure sodium or metal halide lamps are suitable for this application. Key luminaires:

118 | Applications and Techniques

Sports lighting
Hockey - Points of note are; The playing area for hockey is slightly smaller than for football, but the lighting principles are the same with regards to mast positions and heights. The use of a smaller ball and the speed of the sport require a higher lighting level for Class III installations and a better uniformity for Classes II and III than for football and rugby. Double asymmetric or symmetrical beam floodlights using high-pressure sodium or metal halide lamps are suitable for this application. Key luminaires:

Track and field - Points of note are; For track and field stadiums the most cost effective solution is to locate 6-8 masts around the whole perimeter of the track with a clearance of 4.5m from the track edge. The mast height is determined as for football but with the additional requirement of a maximum mast height to ensure adequate vertical illuminance for competitors on the outside of the track. The masts mounted along the straight section of track illuminate the centre field area providing good vertical illuminance for javelin, shot, hammer and discus events. Double asymmetric or flat glass double asymmetric beam floodlights using high-pressure sodium or metal halide lamps are suitable for this application. Key luminaires:

Applications and Techniques

| 119

Sports lighting
Freestyle skiing and ski jumping - Points of note are; Downhill skiers require the whole piste uniformly illuminated from beginning to end so depressions and surface irregularities are revealed. As high speeds can be achieved the position of floodlights are important to provide the correct visual conditions, therefore floodlights are placed either side of the piste whilst being aimed across and down the slope to reduce glare to the skiers. Wide horizontal and narrow vertical angle floodlights metal halide lamps mounted on masts up to 12m high are suitable for this application. Ski-jumpers require good horizontal lighting at the take-off and at the landing or touchdown point for judging and safety. The landing area needs to have a high level of uniformity (0.7) for the class III standard of skiing. The illuminance on the jump hill is measured on the surface of the snow. Key luminaires:

120 | Applications and Techniques

81 Lighting from the edges helps prevent glare to players.Sports lighting Schemes Tennis court Scheme: Double tennis court. Applications and Techniques | 121 . 24m x 11m Luminaire(s) used: 4 x Champion 2kW HQI-TS/N/L. 12m mounting height Pitch: Eav = 397 lux. Emin/Eav = 0.

Additional luminaires on the inside of the canopy lights the seating areas and ensures the security and safety of spectators. and a mix of light distributions is used to correctly illuminate all the playing area.76 A football stadium lit using Mundial floodlights. The luminaires are mounted along the roof of the stand down two sides of the pitch. Emin/Eav = 0. Lighting levels for television are supplied by ensuring good levels of vertical illumination in the camera directions. 122 | Applications and Techniques .Sports lighting Schemes Football Stadium Scheme: Football stadium with 4 x 25m corner columns Luminaire(s) used: 48 x Mundial R 2kW HQI-TS Pitch: Eav = 538 lux.

5m x 17. officials and spectators to see the puck. 2 x 80WT16. 117. 17m mounting height Pitch: Eav = 422 lux .Sports lighting Schemes Ice Hockey Stadium Scheme: Ice hockey stadium. Applications and Techniques | 123 .3m x 23m Luminaire(s) used: 316 x Indus XS. Lighting levels by the goals are increased to aid the ability of the goalkeeper.07 A relatively high level of illumination is required due to the fast moving nature of the game and the small size of the puck. Emin/Eav = 0.

The luminaires are integrated into the architecture of the roof and are positioned to light from the edges of the playing areas. 3x49W 5m mounting height Tennis court: Eav = 531 lux .Sports lighting Schemes Indoor tennis court Scheme: Indoor tennis court. Emin/Eav = 0. 124 | Applications and Techniques . preventing players having to look directly at a luminaire. 36m x 18m x 6m Luminaire(s) used: 32 x Titus Sport.35 Indoor tennis courts lit using the Sporting luminaire.

30m x 150m Luminaire(s) used: Either 36 x Sonpak 25/40 with HIT400W or 27 x Sonpak 25/40 with HST400W Ski slope: HIT 400W Eav = 1. Emin/Eav = 0. whilst revealing the texture of the surface of the slope to ensure safety. This requires aiming away from the direction of view of skiers. Applications and Techniques | 125 . and the use of glancing angles to show surface texture. Emin/Eav = 0. Additional care should be taken to prevent reflected glare from the snow. The floodlights are positioned and aimed to prevent glare to skiers.24 lux.41 lux.Sports lighting Schemes Ski shute Scheme: Ski shute.02 A ski slope lit using 270 Mundial 2kW floodlights.02 HST 400W Eav = 1.

Emin/Eav = 0.Sports lighting Schemes Sports hall Scheme: Multi-purpose sports hall.6m.23 When lighting sports venues it is essential to consider the safety of the participants and spectators in the event of loss of power or an emergency. Emin/Eav = 0. 126 | Applications and Techniques . 7. 6m mounting height Floor: Eav = 2.61 Scheme: Multi-purpose sports hall.6m Luminaire(s) used: 18 x Titus Sport 4 x 49W.6m mounting height Floor: Eav = 364 lux. Therefore emergency lighting should be installed that complies with the relevant requirements and standards. 17m x 18m x 7.46 lux. 17m x 18m x 7. Emergency lighting Luminaire(s) used: 2 x Voyager Twinspot.

lecture and conference rooms. switch it off when vacancy is detected. after a configurable Off delay time. Thorn Pull SwitchDIM (PSWD) luminaires come with integrated pull cord momentary action switches. This product combines digital dimming with the intuitive operation known from domestic lighting controls. Industrial installations may also benefit from the energy savings provided by ILC if fluorescent luminaires such as trunking systems are being used. saving as much energy as possible.7 Specific Techniques 7. The lighting can be raised. within schools this percentage can be even higher. Potential energy savings are: Electronic ballasts + dimming: 30% Dimming + presence link: 50% Dimming + presence link + daylight link: 70% There are many different levels of controls to choose from. installed into recessed ceilings. In industrial applications that figure is between 10 and 15 per cent depending on the lighting technology used. into corners or onto walls. These detectors switch the lighting on when movement is detected. 7. Using the pull cord momentary action switch the user may manually set the light level from 100% down to 1%. The easiest way to automate lighting is the use of “SwitchLite” presence detectors. One of the most basic controls and the first step into manual dimming is “RotaryDIM”. These should be chosen to fit the needs and activities within an application and to achieve the required energy saving and comfort. Typically used in offices lit with suspended luminaires. Different SwitchLite presence Fig. and switch the light on and off. and. sport halls.1 RotaryDIM DSI dimmer Specific Techniques | 127 . or in hospitals and supermarkets. mounted onto ceilings. In offices up to 40 per cent of the energy used is needed for lighting. whilst simultaneously providing the comfort expected for any application.1 Indoor lighting controls (ILC) The purpose of Indoor Lighting Controls (ILC) is to provide the right light at the right time and place. a very simple recess wall mounted rotary DSI dimmer that can be connected to Thorn High Frequency DSI dimmable (HFD) luminaires. by turning the control knob. dimmed and dimmed to off. controlling up to 20 DSI ballasts in total. such as offices. school classrooms.

and incorporates the same functionality as described above for the SensaDigital luminaires. and additionally can provide a presence-link function as described above. and using passive infrared (PIR) or microwave technology to detect presence and absence. For applications such as classrooms and open plan offices either several remote SensaDigital heads connected to standard dimmable luminaires. This multi-sensor head can control a group of HFD luminaires incorporating up to eight DSI ballasts in total. in an office or a meeting room up to four single-ballast luminaires can be linked to maintain illuminance during the whole day (taking into account the available daylight as well as the ageing of lamps and dirt on the luminaires). reflecting the flow of daylight within a bigger area Fig.2 Presence detector Fig. These luminaires provide an integrated miniature multi-sensor head. This portfolio is called SensaDigital. staircases. and can reduce the energy usage by up to 90 per cent. 7.4 Handheld controller 128 | Specific Techniques . Some products additionally provide an integrated photocell that can be set so that the detector only switches lighting on when the ambient light level is below a preset level. Depending upon the connections provided within the luminaire HFS luminaires may also be used to control standard HFD luminaires in a so-called master and slave arrangement. This kind of presence detection is typically used in spaces such as corridors.3 HFS luminaire Fig. For the manual control of SensaDigital an infra-red handheld controller “SENSA SENRC” is available. 7. The number of DSI ballasts incorporated in the master as well as the slave luminaires can be up to four in total: E. Thorn High Frequency SensaDigital (HFS) luminaires combine manual dimming with daylight and presence link. or several master-slave arrangements of SensaDigital luminaires with standard dimmable luminaires can control several luminaire groups individually. Instead of lamps being switched on for the whole day they are automatically switched off when not needed. Alternatively for the control of a larger space with more luminaires.g. for example the “SENSA MRE SEND DSI”. warehouses. a remote SensaDigital head can be used.Specific Techniques detectors are available suitable for various mounting needs and detection patterns. as well as an infra-red programming tool “SENSA SENP” for the configuration of Off delay time. operation mode. 7. maintained illuminance level and many other settings. storerooms or lavatories.

can be connected to the controllers.5 Look down sensors 0% 25% 50% 500lx Artificial light Daylight Fig. semi-automatic or corridor) can be set via integrated rotary switches. A standard 230VAC presence detector. for example a SwitchLite detector. ideal for smaller applications such as single offices. brighten and switch each output individually.1 shows the number of ballasts that can be connected: 3-fold output controller Using DSI ballasts only Using DALI ballasts only Using DSI and DALI ballasts 50DSI + 50 DSI + 50DSI 25DALI + 25DALI + 25DALI 25DSI + 25DSI + 25DALI. SensaModular provides three possibilities. Both controllers show inputs for the connection of standard double. single momentary action or centre-off retractive switches to manually dim. and accessories for automation and operation. The large SensaModular controller shows three digital outputs. The large controller also shows a switch input for the joint operation of all three outputs. This is a Lego-like portfolio consisting of two differently sized control modules.a polarity-free 2-pole connection . the addressing feature of DALI is not used with SensaModular when DALI ballasts are connected (so called “broadcast” operation). To link the luminaire groups to the incoming daylight. or one multi-sensor head for all groups. Both control modules have DSI/ DALI auto detection outputs for the use of either HFD or HFX luminaires (“HFX” stands for High Frequency DALI dimmable). or 0% 25% 50% Daylight Artificial light Fig.the system can be extended. the small controller two digital outputs for controlling luminaire groups: Table 6.Specific Techniques and the presence of people within the different zones lit by the luminaire groups. Using the intelligent interface . and the Off delay time and operation mode (automatic.1 SensaModular Controller Capacity To keep commissioning and maintenance simple. For versatile one-room applications the “SensaModular” system may be used. all reflecting the daylight flow: • Either one look down multi-sensor head per group. 7. or 25DALI + 25DALI + 25DSI 2-fold output controller 50DSI + 50DSI 25DALI + 25DALI 25DSI + 25DALI Table 7.6 Look out sensors • Specific Techniques | 129 . ideal in larger and zoned applications such as open plan offices. 7.

one of the most versatile systems on the market. relay outputs and phase dimmers. in up to 99 rooms. Different operation and commissioning units. The configuration of Off delay time and operation mode happens the same way as when a standard detector is used (described above). 7. as well as infrared control and software to use a PC or laptop for recalling scenes. and the active scene is visualised via LED indicators. such as classrooms and sports halls. blind and screen groups. but also to presence and absence. such as wall mounted scene plates and touch panels are available. allowing the control of up to 99 luminaire. In some countries Thorn offers the “SensaAdvanced” portfolio. Different illuminance levels for the the two or three luminaire groups can be set and stored.7 SensaAdvanced components 130 | Specific Techniques . DALI. or additionally. but especially any application with ceiling heights above 3m. Time automation enables the installation to be switched at Fig. dim and brighten each luminaire group individually. ideal for applications comprising rows of luminaires and not requiring infrared control. With the SensaModular infra-red handheld controller the multi-sensor heads are allocated to the luminaire groups. Alternatively. This portfolio works with any type of luminaire and provides different DSI. the SensaModular recess wall mounted scene plate enables manual control of the luminaire groups and the setting and recall of three scenes as well. Both the multi-sensor head and the photocell are part of the SensaModular offer. and to switch. and the possibility to create up to 20 scenes per room. With the multi-sensor heads the luminaire groups are not only linked to daylight.Specific Techniques • one look out photocell for all groups. blackout blinds and projection screens may also be controlled using SensaAdvanced. Blinds. This remote control can also be used to set and recall three scenes.

Partition management enables the system to adapt to partition walls being closed or opened. and enables individual or joint control of the adjacent areas. Scheme design and commissioning of SensaLink is available as service. This portfolio also provides relay outputs for switchable luminaires. In some countries Thorn offers the “SensaLink” portfolio. enabling the linking of several groups of multi-sensors.Specific Techniques certain times and days and. direction and colour can be achieved. throughout the floor of a building or through the whole building. Additionally these groups can be linked such that a group listens to other groups. and enables the individual or joint control of the adjacent areas. The sensor groups work as described for SensaDigital above.8 SensaLink components Specific Techniques | 131 . The partition management functionality enables the system to adapt to partition walls being closed or opened. This feature is used to keep lights on in corridors or notional corridors. dynamic changes of light levels. allowing storing and recall of up to six scenes. with sequence automation. Blackout blinds and projection screens may also be controlled via SensaLink. During commissioning DSI outputs can be changed to DALI broadcast outputs if required. please contact your Thorn representative where applicable. and in staircases and common zones while one of the adjacent areas reports presence. A versatile infra-red commissioning tool is used to configure and address the system. Different operation units are available such as wall mounted scene plates and infrared control. Fig. please contact your Thorn representative where appropriate. either remote sensors or sensors integrated into HFL luminaires (“HFL” stands for high frequency SensaLink) within a larger space. Scheme design and commissioning of SensaAdvanced is available as a service. 7.

Fig. • Fig.9 A phase dimmer Using these DSI controllable devices the connected luminaires can be part of any scheme incorporating Indoor Lighting Controls.10 An electronic transformer 132 | Specific Techniques . 7. Electronic transformers allow the control of luminaires incorporating low voltage tungsten halogen lamps without transformers. can contribute to lighting scenes and much more. as well as luminaires incorporating low voltage tungsten halogen lamps plus electronic or magnetic transformers. DSI compatible transformers and phase dimmers are available and can be connected to any DSI output: • Phase dimmers allow the dimming of luminaires with high voltage incandescent or tungsten halogen lamps. 7. can be daylight-linked.Specific Techniques Instead of HFD luminaires containing DSI ballasts.

in reconfigurable areas care is still needed as removing walls may convert small office spaces into an open plan area. 7. as the geometry of small office spaces normally means that luminaires are unlikely to be seen in a display screen. This information can be used along with a luminaire manufacturers data to ensure that the luminaires chosen for an installation that contains DSE are suitable. bright text on a dark background) is more susceptible to disturbing images than positive polarity information (dark text on a light background). this is more critical in large rooms or open plan areas. Additionally the type of information being displayed has an impact on the susceptibility of the screen to bright images. thereby removing unwanted reflections. Display screen equipment is any screen used for displaying information. screen and user allowing the image of the glare source to be reflected into the users eyes. Note. measuring equipment or specialist applications. 7.12 A polar curve showing light emitted above 65° Specific Techniques | 133 .2 Lighting for display screen equipment In areas containing display screen equipment (DSE) special care must be taken to prevent bright images being reflected in the screen from bright surfaces such as windows or luminaire. These reflections are caused by the geometry between the glare source. To prevent this either the luminaire should have optical control to remove any bright luminance above 65°.12). Negative polarity information (i. If the glare source is a luminaire this tends to be the light emitted by the luminaire above 65° (above the black lines in Figure 6. or the display screen should be moved (either rotated or tilted) to alter the geometry.Specific Techniques 7.e. This table gives luminance limits dependant upon whether modern screen technology (type I and II) or older screen technology (type III) is being used. Yet. whether it is attached directly to a personal computer. To help a designer in choosing a suitable luminaire for DSE applications a table of luminance limits has been produced for angles of 65° or higher. for instance air traffic control screens. Fig.11 Reflections in a computer screen caused by lighting Fig.

mean these screens are more susceptible to problems from glare sources. Note. reducing their sharpness. these limits may need to be applied for angles of 55° or higher. This development will continue as computers develop as entertainment systems (for watching DVD’s etc. This is due to matt screen technology tending to blur images very slightly. This will. such as air traffic control screens. that whilst newer screen technology has been less likely to reflect disturbing images due to anti-glare coatings and matt screens. some new screens (notably for laptops) are improving technology and are no longer matt.Specific Techniques For critical applications. unfortunately. but highly reflective.1 Luminance limit recommendations 134 | Specific Techniques . However increasing the degree of glare control can produce gloomy spaces unless additional lighting is used to illuminate the ceiling and upper walls.). and also the technology having limited capability to correctly show black. Consequently to correctly show audio-visual content in high definition matt screen technology is not used. Table 7.

It is now widely accepted that good lighting in schools can have an important effect on educational attainment and rates of learning. Our lighting design for the future of educational facilities needs to consider the following: • • • The proven link between improved school environments and student/staff morale and staff retention The need to create schools which would represent good value for money and have a long functional life A requirement to diversify the school curriculum and to extend community use of educational facilities Fig.3 Light for learning The importance of light in our learning environments cannot be under estimated. from the use of material resources to the impact on the community and the pupil. methods of teaching. demographics. Specific Techniques | 135 .Specific Techniques 7. Lighting in schools needs to be sustainable. 7. which would have a low impact on the environment. more than ever. Lighting has a large part to play in each of these.13 A PC intensive university teaching space lit with direct/indirect luminaires There is now. computer use and so on. to continue to serve the needs of the community and future students. taking into account likely changes in curriculum. exploit natural light and ventilation and reduce use of natural resources. an imperative to create sustainable schools. We also need to consider the impact of our designs on the wider environment. and can do so by using the equipment and complying with the legislation around product application and performance. Research shows that light impacts our health and level of alertness and this extends to those spaces in which we are taught.

Specific requirements will require task lighting (i. Large group teaching. To give true sustainability lighting controls must be provided that are simple to understand and operate. 7. creating a relaxed informal atmosphere. initially by the windows.8 is desirable. the more traditional formal instruction.14 Lighting in large lecture rooms should be flexible to allow different scene setting options to be used to suit the teaching requirements 136 | Specific Techniques . The last is most specifically about ambient and task. or hearing impaired. individual practical and project work. need to be varied to account for task. but should be focused on 300 lux for the young and 500 lux for the mature student. give flexibility of use and deliver energy savings. the board and the ambient. except perhaps in dedicated computer suites. time of day and the age of the pupil. louvred fittings are not required. an ‘interactive’ approach to learning. whilst general targets to aim for.Specific Techniques Methods of teaching There a generally considered to be three methods of teaching: • • • Teacher-led discussions. Use of down lighting with a tight cut-off should be avoided as this will lead to strong modelling of facial features making it difficult for the visually. Fig. the need to specifically light the task. Levels of ‘300-500 lux should not be exceeded. The second is more focused on the tasks within the space . Lighting application Generally there are two recognised illuminance levels required in classrooms and these. The first requires flexible lighting.the teacher. rather than full mirrored louvres used. where the task lighting will be local to the student and varied according to their need. Small group learning.e. rather than creating high overall ambient lighting levels) Specular. To maintain this level and maximise efficiency all teaching spaces should use daylight as a primary source and dim the artificial light accordingly. and even here their use should be restricted and satin. A task uniformity of 0. Each creates different requirements for the space in which they happen. to see facial features and to lip-read.

so that true communicative learning can take place.Specific Techniques It is recommended that light sources should be between 2000-4000K with a colour rendering in excess of Ra80. All light fittings must be flicker-free and provide a Limiting Glare Index of 19. Primary artificial lighting choice should be direct/indirect in nature to create the right balance of performance. to create the effect of directional light that feeling of dappled sunlight through a window for instance Average supplementary wall illuminance should be around 2/3rds of the task illuminance Fig. efficiency and comfort in learning spaces.g. and in particular. but note that it has been shown recently that students do not learn well with a high proportion of self-motivated PC teaching alone. and growing. >70% for the ceiling. modern screen technology can easily handle high luminance well beyond that covered by EN 12464-1. While PC use is widespread.15 Direct/indirect lighting with good light distribution onto wall displays • • • The design approach should concentrate on providing ambient. Lighting for computer screens should not impinge on lighting for effective teaching. 7. light the face of the teacher and pupils. task and accent lighting Specific Techniques | 137 . Effective Distribution Lighting for visual comfort is not just about the light sources – it is also about the distribution of light: • • Walls and ceilings need lighting with both direct and interreflected light This requires relatively high reflectance surface finishes – e. The important thing is to put light onto all surfaces. >60% for the walls (display boards may lower this to 30-50%) and as high as practical on the floor Gloss finishes should be avoided as they can cause veiling reflections and glare Some walls and displays should have accent lighting.

7. so providing good vertical lighting on the face. good vertical illuminance is important in all teaching spaces – being able to see the face of the teacher and the facial expressions of other students is a key component of good communication – and is vital to effective learning. then we may fail to read their body language. It also can also lead to energy savings of 30-60 per cent (70 per cent if automatic blinds are used). or the board. with good brightness management. This helps to improve morale and concentration and to maintain their circadian rhythms. with daylight factors of 4-5 per cent and a minimum 20 per cent of glazing on external walls. Good design will have to cater for all the diverse ethnicities of teaching staff. this allows students and staff to retain a link to the outside weather. So ecologically and on a human level we cannot ignore daylight. distracting lighting contrasts. If we can’t see the teachers face because contrast or vertical illuminance is poor. About 80% of the information we take in is visual and in a teaching space most of that happens on the desk or within the 40° band (20° above and below the horizontal from the eye). which avoids sharp.16 An example of lighting with good vertical illuminance at the board Fig. students will probably be receiving information from a teacher at the same time.artificial lighting makes up 25 per cent of the energy costs of a typical school. 7.Specific Techniques The basic principle is to achieve a well-balanced lighting environment. Fig. Get the lighting wrong and it becomes difficult to see the teacher. As well as letting in daylight. It is important to remember that while working on PCs. Recent research in the US showed that high levels of daylight are associated with improvements in learning rates. Also consider the colour of the background compared to the teacher’s skin tone. for instance. increased attendance and 20 per cent higher results in reading and maths. environment and changing light conditions throughout the day.17 A classroom with ample daylight 138 | Specific Techniques . or in the case of the hearing-impaired. is equally important. Lighting a light skin tone against a white background presents different problems to a dark skin tone against a white background. All schools need to use daylight as their primary light source. In fact. Using Daylight Good daylighting is also paramount -. be unable to lip read. which might be viewed from any position in the classroom.

size. It also avoids panic. such as lifts. restores confidence and enables specific tasks to be made safe. Special consideration should be given to places where the elderly and those with disabilities may be present. a change of direction or crossings and places requiring emphasis. There are four main points to consider for an effective emergency lighting scheme: 1 – Exit Signage Visible safety signs and signage to indicate the escape route and final exit should be available at all material times (luminance of the sign’s safety colours must be at least 2 cd/ m²). Emergency lighting should be provided in all areas where. when the normal lights fail. kind of activities and type of people involved. such as stairs. Also for places where people may need reassurance in the event the normal lights failing. A risk assessment should be made to identify the places and routes where people may be at risk and need evacuating in the event of the normal lighting failing. The escape route signs must be located so that occupants from any part of the premises can see and identify the direction for evacuation. To provide adequate illumination they need to be mounted close to potential hazards on the route. there is insufficient daylight or borrowed light available for those people on the premises. complexity.4 Emergency lighting Emergency lighting is provided when the supply to the normal lighting fails. fire fighting appliances and marshalling points. Specific Techniques | 139 . It helps people to see their way and move to evacuate quickly to a safe place out of the building.Specific Techniques 7. toilets or closets. An emergency lighting scheme should be designed with sufficient consideration to the type of premise. such as first aid posts. 2 – Mandatory Points Emergency luminaires have to be carefully positioned to ensure a compliant emergency lighting scheme.

High-risk task areas should be illuminated to an adequate level (minimum 15 lx) within 0. To make sure installed emergency products are always fit for purpose. remember the commissioning and certification requirements for both the design and the installed scheme. or longer if required.Specific Techniques 3 – Illumination levels and infill lighting In addition to the lighting of mandatory points. and remain operative for at least 1 hour. it is essential that the luminaires are properly maintained and ready to perform in the event of an emergency. Additionally take care to illuminate the volume of space (from floor up to a height of 2. the operation and servicing and practicalities and through life economics of the installation. 4 – Maintenance and testing Once the scheme is installed and commissioned. infill luminaires may be required to achieve the correct lighting levels. for safe evacuation. Also assess and plan a schedule for servicing the lamps and batteries at required intervals.5 lx) and escape routes (minimum on centre line 1. 140 | Specific Techniques . The luminaires may be dedicated standalone types or integrated into standard lighting luminaires.0 lx) should be made available within 5 seconds of the mains failing to avoid anxiety. Illumination should be carried out with light sources having a colour rendering index of at least Ra 40 so that safety colours in an escape area or on an escape route can be seen and discriminated. Finally. Therefore consideration should be given at the design stage to the intended method .5 seconds of the normal lights failing for as long as required to complete making the task safe or whilst people pass by if it is by the escape route. automatic self-testing or an automatic remote/central controlled testing system. For example use IP65 emergency lighting luminaires outside the final exit.0m) through which people move during evacuation by mounting luminaires above head it local switch. An adequate level of illuminance on the floor of escape areas (minimum 0. Stylish luminaires should be chosen to blend in with the design of the overall lighting scheme. regular testing has to be conducted by the building operator. They can be self-contained or central power fed depending on the size and complexity of the premises. but they must suit the environmental conditions of the location.

18 Specific forms of emergency lighting Specific Techniques | 141 . When it does it must follow the rules governing escape lighting. passenger ships) low location way guidance systems are provided to supplement the escape route lighting.Specific Techniques Emergency lighting system considerations Standby lighting is used as an alternative to normal lighting but it can also form the emergency escape lighting solution. such as a chemical dip process. or some other process that requires unbroken lighting conditions for safe shut down. Open areas are defined as places where there is no clear route or where the routes are changing such as a large shop. Emergency Lighting Emergency escape lighting Standby lighting Escape route lighting Low location way guidance Open area (anti-panic) lighting High risk task area lighting Fig. In some places where there is high risk of smoke accumulation (airlines. open plan office or multi purpose hall. 7. A high-risk task area is where some uninterruptible activity is ongoing. Escape lighting covers the need for clearly defined escape routes in the premises formed by corridors or paths indicated by painted lines.

To avoid dazzling people the intensity limits for the luminaire should not be exceeded for the mounting height in the scheme.0 lx along centreline Fig. illuminance ratio not greater than 40:1. 7. colour and luminance criteria given in the EN1838 standard.19 Escape route plan (up to 2m wide) Exit sign must be visible from all parts of open area Fig. The diversity of illuminance should not exceed 40:1.5 lx not less than 1. In these the illuminance on the floor should be a minimum 0. 100 per cent being provided within 60 seconds of the normal lights failing.0m) so that they are not obscured. 50% of width not less than 0.5m of the perimeter area. The design illuminance is to be provided within 60 seconds. Open areas Areas where the furnishing or equipment on the floor is frequently reconfigured will not have clearly defined escape routes and are therefore treated as open areas. to min. Exit signs should be located so that they are visible from any part of the space. The signs should conform to the graphic design. 7.20 Escape route illuminance requirements 142 | Specific Techniques . Safety signs Strategically placed signs permanently indicating the escape directions from the premises are essential to alleviate anxiety and confusion by the people present.5 lx not less than 0. and the centre band of at least 50 per cent of the route width should be illuminated to at least half the centre line value.5 lx up to border of 0. but preferably within 5 seconds of the supply failure. Max.5m from the walls and 50 per cent should be provided within 5 seconds.Specific Techniques Clearly defined escape routes Clearly defined escape routes are taken to be up to 2m wide. Here the horizontal illuminance at floor level on the centre line should be not less than 1 lux. The diversity of illuminance should not exceed 40:1. To avoid dazzling people it is important not to exceed the intensity limits related to the mounting height of the luminaires. It is important that during an emergency only signs that give a positive indication to the way out should be illuminated and that the signs are mounted high enough (above 2.5 lux anywhere up to 0. as defined above. Large areas require min 0. Wider routes may be treated as 2m wide strips of escape routes but preferably as open areas.

The system duration or category is defined by the period the system is able supply power to the load. The high risk tasks areas should be illuminated as required by the task and in any event the maintained illuminance should be not less than 10 per cent of the required maintained illuminance for that task and should not be less than 15 lux and be available in full within 0. charger. The mains supply charges the battery. They can also be connected to a central managed automatic testing system and can give printed report of any defects. Power systems for emergency lighting Emergency lighting systems are usually powered from batteries or generators that are automatically triggered by a detection system as soon as the mains system fails. The two main types of electrical systems in use are self-contained and central power: Self-contained systems Each luminaire is equipped with battery. if so the box should be within 1m of the luminaire.Specific Techniques High risk task areas During the failure of the normal lighting supply. emergency lighting is required in places where machinery. 7. Each luminaire is equipped with batteries and inverter to power one lamp on mains failure The gear may be remote mounted. For this a no-break or maintained system should be considered. In some cases the escape route may be alongside these hazardous tasks and therefore needs to be highlighted. which cuts in when the mains system fails. These elements may be integral to the luminaire or housed in a separate unit mounted less than 1m from the luminaire. The uniformity should not be less than 0.1. The system may include a self.testing facility that can carry out the routine monthly and annual operational tests and give local indications of the status.21 Self-contained system Specific Techniques | 143 . Usually given as 60 minutes (1 hour) or 180 minutes (3 hours). Self-contained systems are easy to install and extend. and that must be shut down before evacuating the area. plant or other processes may present a hazard if left in operation. indicator and changeover device. There are also places where the task activity cannot be halted and needs standby emergency light (such as in an operating theatre). Fig.5 seconds. and require minimal maintenance.

These systems are best suited for large premises.21 Su m mary of mode s of oper ation The lamp is only lit when the mains fail and is operated by an Fig . mains lam p emergency lam p mains lam p is onis on emergency lam p is onis on Non-maintained (NM) y of mode s of oper ation Fig . 144 | Specific Techniques . itis charged y ofmains lam 6. The system must include monitoring of the mains supply and detection of failure of local circuits in each part of the premises to bring on the emergency lighting.216.23 Summary of modes of operation (C) on lamp is lamp is on lamp i (M)lam p is Su mary lamp is on of is .Specific Techniques Central systems Here the power is provided by remote central batteries or generators and is distributed through sub-circuits to a number of slave luminaires. The wiring of the sub-circuits has to be protected and be of high-integrity. 7.22 Central system Mains mode Em ergency mode Mains mode Em ergencyEmergency mode mode Mains mode Non-ma inta Non-ma inta inedined Non-maintained (NM) (NM) (NM) Mains mode Em ergency is off mode mode Mains is Em ergency on lamp lamp lamp is mode lamp is off off lamp is onlamp is on Non-ma inta ined Maintained Maintained (M) Maintained (NM) Mains mode Em ergency is on mode Mains mode Em ergenc (M) (M) lamp is lamp is off lamp lamp on is off is lamp lamp is on on lamp lamp is lamp is onmode Mains is on Em ergency mode MainsNon-ma inta ined ergency on on mode Em lamp is mode Combined (C) Maintained (NM) Combined Combined ined ined Non-ma Non-ma inta inta lamp(M) off lamp is on lamp is off lamp i (C) (C) (NM) (NM) is on lamp is lamp lamp is on is on lamp is p mains lam on emergency p on is on mains lam poffispoff on is lam lam on mainsMaintained emergency is on is lamp is on lamp is on is emergency lamp lamp is on lamp is lamp Combined (M) Maintained Maintained Fig. by the mains supply. As part of the high integrity considerations the luminaires with loop-in/out wiring facility must also have protected glands and terminal blocks. Fig. 6.21m mary of mode slamlam p on on Fig . Fig .21 power source. 6. 7. alternatively the luminaires may be treated as an individual spur connection to a protected emergency power ring sub-circuit. In an emergency.21 onation a battery mode s of on ation mains lam p is on emergency mode s(C)allis Suwhere Fig . an emergency power source cuts in to power the lamp. ofmains p is ation emergency lam p is on mode mains 6. mary of is lam p is oper (C) In p cases. They will require space to house the large battery sets or generator. of oper memergencypresent. when the mains fail. of of mode oper ation Su mary emergency Maintained (M) The lamp is lit at all material times and is powered by the mains supply under normal conditions.Fig(M) Su on memergency of soperoper ation Luminaire mode of operation lamp is on lamp lampCombined is on lamp is onis on (C) There are a number of ways that emergency luminaires can Combined Combined operate. During design due allowance should be made for voltage drops.21mSu m marymode s of s of oper ation 6.

16. with the output in the worst (minimum) condition. Prepare installations instruction. Prepare commissioning procedure. 14. Planning Schemes The lighting calculations involved in emergency lighting are straightforward. control rooms. 11. (It is most important that consultation with relevant bodies over the specific plans is carried out early in the design process). Mark exits and final exits 4. The EN 13032-3 European standard gives the format of the photometric data and defines the critical factors for to be used in calculations. and alarm call points. Identify closets. but this checklist indicates a possible course. Prepare logbook. fire-fighting appliances. Mark escape routes 5. Add extra luminaires to complete scheme. Note illuminance and other specification requirements. 15. 7. 17. special plant rooms and lifts 9. Check uniformity and glare. Examine building plans 3. Establish licensing requirements 2. Identify open areas and special locations 6. Select signs and escape luminaires fit for the purpose. 13.Specific Techniques Combined (C) This is a variant of the maintained luminaire in which one lamp is powered by the mains supply during normal conditions. Position luminaires at essential locations. A second lamp operates only under emergency conditions powered by an emergency power source. 1. 8. It is important to base all calculations on real photometric data for the specific lamp and luminaire. Planning Sequence There is no precise sequence to be followed. 12. Identify small toilets with no windows and toilets over 8m². Mark location of hazards. including illuminance checks. 10. Prepare operation testing service instructions. This type of luminaire provides light at all material times and is best suited for signage. Specific Techniques | 145 .

Servicing considerations are straightforward. Regular servicing will keep the systems effective and reliable for operation at all material times. At the end of each test the circuit is restored to charge conditions and the charge indicator should glow to show that the battery is on charge.Specific Techniques Inspection and Servicing Regular inspection and servicing of emergency lighting schemes is essential. The luminaires need cleaning. failed lamps changing and the batteries in self-contained luminaires replaced at the manufacturers recommended interval. In the scheme design these matters must be considered and adequately documented. The batteries or fuel tank for the generator may need topping up. Any faults noticed should be recorded in the logbook To verify that adequate emergency lighting is available at all material times the system needs to be inspected and tested monthly and to make full duration tests annually. 146 | Specific Techniques . The testing may be made by automatic systems but these must provide noticeable feedback and warning if action is required. The inspection needs to confirm that the luminaires are in place as designed. The onus for these activities falls on the competent person of the owner/user of premises. the lamp in maintained luminaires is functioning and the signs are visible. The standards EN 1838 and EN 50172 provide the framework for certification of completion of installation and certification for periodic testing and servicing.

Therefore where the use of high columns or other structures is an issue flat beam lanterns can deliver optimised performance without glare for road users. or maintenance may have to be completed at very high speeds – for example to reduce operators’ exposure to fast-moving traffic.Specific Techniques 7. Mounting heights may be restricted by structures or local regulations. and therefore offers engineers a new resource in road lighting. A flat beam lantern is designed to satisfy standard lighting criteria in a low height format. In situations such as these conventional lighting is often deficient and an alternative solution is to use a luminaire that incorporates flat beam technology. obtrusive light may be an issue. such as the Thorn Orus lantern.24 A flat beam installation on a road bridge Specific Techniques | 147 . or where downtime for service has to be reduced to the absolute minimum. Fig. In the case of the Orus lantern a mounting height of 0.5 Low mount road lighting When lighting roads there are a number of cases where conventional lanterns do not provide the best solution to the real road situation. 7.9m is standard.

but with a flat beam lantern the figure is between 10 and 18.26 Conventional versus low mount lighting 148 | Specific Techniques .5 and 5. 7. meaning that the flicker effect is maintained below 4Hz and in most cases less than 2. 7. This does not mean higher glare because the light distribution is sharply reduced.5Hz. By positioning the optical light engine below the driver’s eye line the risk of direct glare is reduced.Specific Techniques The flat beam concept Flat beam technology must address two issues unique to low-level mounting. whilst with flat beam technology the figure improves to between 8 and 13. This controlled distribution lights a road surface at ‘grazing’ incidence angles. With conventional luminaires. keeping driver discomfort to an acceptable minimum.2.8 and 1.90m 8m 24m Fig. and drivers perceive higher levels of road lighting because the peak of the reflected beam is roughly in the direction of the eye. Conventional Installation Fig. glare and performance. practically nil when the lantern is installed at the optimum height below the driver’s eye line. the ratio of spacing to mounting height is between 3.25 A flat beam lantern mounted on a bridge structure 8m 8m 24m New concept 0. which is important to prevent a flicker effect from the lanterns. between 8m and 15m for Orus. maximising performance. Therefore flat beam technology can give road users the benefits of increased perceived ‘brightness’ and visibility. With these spacings the eyes can adjust dependent on speed. This allows increased spacing of the lanterns. and by projecting light transverse to the road the optical system can offer a very sharp and controlled light distribution. An added benefit is that the low mounting height acts as a good optical and visual guide to the road layout. Similarly taking the ratio of lit width to mounting height conventional luminaires produce a figure between 0.

As the lantern is close to the road and therefore the spray caused by road traffic both optic and gear should comply with IP66. Without pedestrians. UV stabilised and scratch resistant. It is essential that the lanterns are constructed from high quality materials and engineered for low maintenance and a long operating life.27 Flat beam lighting in road configurations (upper) and pedestrian configuration (lower) Specific Techniques | 149 .Specific Techniques Application of flat beam technology As mentioned flat beam lanterns can be used where traditional road lighting using columns or façade mounting is not feasible. or in areas where the surrounding buildings are illuminated and road lighting should therefore be unobtrusive. 8m 10m Fig. Flat beam lighting is also an excellent solution where obtrusive light has to be reduced. the optical design can direct light entirely onto the road. for reasons such as: • • • • • • • Ease of access Extreme weather Structural fragility Maintenance difficulties In the vicinity of airfields or other sensitive areas Risk of obtrusive light Other environmental or resource issues 8m 10m Flat beam lanterns can be specified for use on roads with or without pedestrian traffic. Tamper resistant screws will be needed and the lantern and mounting will need a suitable IK rating. Flat beam technology is also suitable for use in parks and gardens. Durability Obviously a potential problem when using flat beam technology is the additional rigors imposed through the lanterns closeness to the road and therefore the harsh effects of road usage. Where pedestrians are present an alternative optical design that creates a ‘circle’ of light around the luminaire helps drivers to detect a pedestrian’s entire body. such as IK10/40 joules. Optical components such as the visor need to be strong. and also the ease of access for vandalism. This option also allows for facial recognition by other pedestrians. For example. 7. it can be specified in certain residential areas. Here the luminaires can spread light at low level without distracting attention from other illuminated features.

giving ample coverage for roads with multiple lanes including cycle lanes and central reservations. Because they use white light they can be used to highlight sections of the highway where care is required. Spacing options between 8 and 15m also reduce any ‘pools’ of darkness.Specific Techniques Lighting Data for the Thorn Orus lantern When flat beam technology was integrated into Orus. as in a hazard black spot or area of restricted speed. ahead and behind. In a complete installation. Orus can be installed either single-sided. Light output from Orus luminaires is surprisingly resistant to obstruction by queues of traffic.28 The Orus lantern 150 | Specific Techniques . In the latter configuration it will cover roads up to 20m wide. Orus luminaires mix perfectly with classic column mounted systems. The wide choice of lamps – from 35 to 70W HIT-CE G12. while light emitted from the system is distributed ahead of. Calculations show that TI is considerably below 10 per cent while luminance and uniformity exceed relevant standards. Tests have shown that there is no occultation nor distracting shadows. priority was given to the limitation of glare. or on both sides of the road with the same spacing. with luminaire spacing between 8 and 15m. Fig.9m. The system is designed with a specific lamp burner cap so that direct light cannot reach the eyes of a driver or the rear mirrors of a car when installed at the compulsory height of 0. 7. or 60W HIT-CE PGZ12 CosmoWhite – gives planners ample scope to adjust Orus to any project. while lighting from vehicles further maintains lighting levels. It is also reflected by the road surface. Orus offers drivers a unique ‘guidance’ effect which tracks the contours of the road. behind and beneath vehicles.

the threshold zone. The most critical requirement is to detect obstacles on the road. the threshold zone. To avoid the entrance to the tunnel appearing as a black hole and to ensure that a driver approaching the tunnel entrance can detect obstacles on the road. the transition zone. and it has a length equal to the stopping distance of a car at the traffic design speed.6 Road tunnel lighting The aim of lighting a tunnel is to create a safe environment that allows road users to pass through the tunnel without any accidents. especially when you are entering and leaving the tunnel. 7. Luminance values (Lth) should be calculated according to the calculation method shown in the document CIE 88:2004 and this is related to the luminance outside the tunnel and the speed of the traffic passing through the tunnel. the interior zone and the exit zone. the entrance zone.29 The five zones of a tunnel The entrance zone is the part of the tunnel just before the entrance.30 The entrance zone Specific Techniques | 151 . 7. To help in the design process tunnels are normally divided into five zones. Fig.Specific Techniques 7. The road luminance can be reduced after a distance of half of the stopping distance into the tunnel. and the lighting needs to be suitable for both daytime and night-time hours. During daylight hours the driver is adapted to the high luminance outside the tunnel. Entrance zone Threshhold zone Transition zone Interior zone Exit zone Portal Exit Fig. suitable lighting must be installed in the tunnel entrance. The threshold zone is the first zone inside the tunnel and has a length equal to the stopping distance of a vehicle at traffic design speed.

The second sub-zone contains the remaining length of the interior zone.Specific Techniques Between the threshold zone and the interior zone a number of transition zones occur.4 (minimum to average on the road and walls up to a height of 2m above the road surface). Uniformity of luminance in the zones must be a ratio of 0.31 The interior zone of a tunnel lit from one side by a continuous row of luminaires Fig. Fig. The interior zone is the longest part of the tunnel and the luminance level should comply with the recommendations given in the standard. 7. This generally occurs when the luminaires are not mounted in a continuous row when discomfort from flicker occurs due to the luminance changes from that of the bright luminaires to the darker surface between luminaires.32 A tunnel lit using floodlights in an opposite configuration 152 | Specific Techniques .6m/sec) and a luminaire spacing of 4m the flicker frequency is 16.5 Hz or above 15Hz. A longitudinal uniformity of 0. For all zones the lighting levels on the walls is recommended to be at least 60 per cent of the road luminance values of the relevant zone up to a height of 2 meters above the road surface. The length of the experience. The first sub-zone is equivalent to the distance of travel of a vehicle at traffic design speed. or in long tunnels. The exit zone has to follow the same luminance level as the interior zone.6/4 = 4. For very long tunnels the interior zone may be split into two subzones. it is recommended to increase the luminance level immediately prior to the exit. 7. but the last step from transition zone to interior zone should not be greater than two times the interior zones values. The luminance values can be reduced in steps of 3:1. The perception of flicker can occur in a tunnel. These recommendations give the luminance level as a function of the stopping distance and traffic flow.6 is required along the centre of each lane of the road. In these transition zones the luminance is gradually reduced until it reaches the level of the interior zone. For example: For a traffic design speed of 60Km/h (16. the amount of light (peak value and duration) and flicker frequency has an impact on the experience.2Hz. but where additional hazards may occur in the tunnel. To minimise flicker discomfort it should be ensured that the flicker frequency is either below 2.

Counter beam optics This optic type is asymmetrical and main beam is orientated against the traffic. Symmetrical optics may sometimes be placed in the junction between wall and ceiling making maintenance of the luminaires easier and removing the need to close the tunnel during maintenance time. Luminaires are placed above the traffic lanes To design a complete tunnel lighting installation takes a high amount of knowledge and experience. For this luminaires may be placed either above the road surface. Two main types of luminaire optics exist for tunnel lighting. giving a different distribution. to create a maximum contrast between the object and the road. and local standards should be consulted for relevant national requirements.34 Counter beam optics Fig.Specific Techniques Optics for a tunnel The main aim for the lighting is to provide a good contrast between the object and the road. or at the side of the road surface. 7. The international document CIE 88:2004 gives information on designing a tunnel lighting scheme.33 Symmetrical optics Specific Techniques | 153 . 7. Symmetrical optics This optic type is often placed above the lanes and the light distribution is symmetrical both along the road and transverse to the road. Fig.

and also the lighting of building facades regular cleaning can improve the performance of the lighting scheme. that is the lighting level achieved when the luminaires. However in applications such as tunnels and underpasses.35 The maintenance cycle The maintenance cycle consists of three main activities: 1. 2. 154 | Specific Techniques . lamps and reflective surfaces in the space are new and clean. lamps and reflective surfaces are at their oldest or dirtiest. 3. In exterior area lighting the impact of reflective surfaces may be negligible.Specific Techniques 7. Cleaning and maintaining the luminaire Cleaning and maintaining the lamp Cleaning and maintaining the reflective surfaces in the lit space. Consequently when designing a lighting installation it is common to design for a maintained lighting value. 7. Fig. lamps and reflective surfaces are at their oldest or dirtiest. Through the life of the installation these conditions will deteriorate as age and dirt reduce the effectiveness of the lighting. This means that the maintenance cycle for the installation must be defined.7 Lighting maintenance When a lighting installation is first commissioned conditions are at their optimal. that is the luminaires. To calculate maintained lighting levels it is necessary to calculate the light loss at the point when the luminaires.

However. Using a sealed unit prevents dirt from entering the luminaire and therefore only the external surfaces require cleaning and may be cleaned more vigorously. the installation performance also relies on all (or at least the majority) of lamps working.35. cannot be fully recovered by cleaning. The main factors that influence the loss of lighting performance through life for an installation are: • The cleanliness of the environment. Therefore. The lamp technology used within the installation. or the installation maintenance factor must include an adjustment for the percentage of broken lamps expected before relamping. in which the luminaire is cleaned every two years. The type of luminaire specified within the installation. So either a spot lamp replacement system must be used where any failed lamps are immediately replaced. In this example the installation maintenance factor is 67 per cent. and is cleaned and re-lamped and the reflective surfaces are cleaned every six years. Selecting a lamp with good lumen maintenance through life will reduce the light loss due to lamp aging. the installation will never reach the initial lighting levels achieved when new. Different lamp types have different characteristics with respect to lumen maintenance and lamp life and deciding when to relamp is a compromise between these two factors. In industrial or urban environments airborne dirt will be much higher than in clean room or rural environments. Note. so at worst case only 67 per cent of the initial lighting level is being realised. relamping must be done when the lamp lumens have reached a minimum acceptable value and the number of failed lamps in the installation has reached a maximum acceptable level.Specific Techniques An example is shown in Figure 7. as deterioration of some of the components within the luminaire. and of the surface finishes within the space. In dirty environments using an open luminaire will allow dirt deposition within the luminaire that is very difficult to clean. • • Specific Techniques | 155 . Therefore either the luminaires and reflective surfaces within the space will need cleaning more often or the maintenance factor for the installation will be reduced.

The Maintenance of Outdoor Lighting Systems Standard tables for luminaire and room surface maintenance factors exist in CIE 97 and in the absence of more comprehensive manufacturers data these may be used. They rely on the classification of the environment being lit into very clean. clean.Specific Techniques The installation maintenance factor is then the product of all the maintenance factors of the installation components. and classification of the luminaire according to its resistance to the effects of dirt (type A to G).Maintenance of Indoor Electric Lighting Systems and CIE 154:2003 . 156 | Specific Techniques . normal or dirty. Many lighting design software allow the maintenance schedule to be defined and use this to calculate an installation maintenance factor. However the data will assume the unit is operating within normal conditions as specified by the manufacturer. Operating outside these conditions could (and probably will) alter the characteristics of the unit. For example operating a lamp in a hot environment may increase the lumen output of the lamp. MFinstallation Where luminaire MF = luminaire MF x lamp lumen MF x lamp survival MF x reflective surface MF the amount of light lost due to the luminaire through aging and dirt deposition on the luminaire the amount of light lost due to a reduction in lamp flux as the lamp ages the amount of light lost due to failed lamps which are not immediately replaced the amount of light lost due to reduced reflection from surfaces within the installation lamp lumen MF lamp survival MF reflective surface MF Data for these factors should be available from manufacturers. but at expense of lumen maintenance and lamp life. However further guidance on calculating and using maintenance factors may be found in publications CIE 97-2006 .

semi conductor plants.g. foundries. The room surface maintenance factor depends upon the downward flux fraction (DFF) for the luminaire. hospital clinical areas*. along with advice on typical cleaning intervals.Specific Techniques Table 7. warehouses. polishing. Inspection interval 3 years 2 years 1 year Environment Very Clean Clean Normal Dirty Activity or Task area Clean rooms.3 Luminaire type and description When the environment and luminaire type have been determined the tables shown below may be used to give the luminaire maintenance factor and room surface maintenance factor. pendant. spotlights General purpose luminaires with closed covers and optics Dust proof IP5X (protected.3 gives guidance on deciding the type of luminaire. schools.2 Typical inspection periods for differing environmental conditions *In clinical areas more frequent inspections may be required Table 7. hospital wards Shops. downlights with open top Recessed and surface mounted luminaires (e. woodwork Table 7. which is defined as DFF = downward light output ratio / total light output ratio. restaurants. wall mounted luminaires open top and base. welding. direct-indirect luminaires with indirect reflector and closed optical device. assembly areas. Specific Techniques | 157 .2 gives help in deciding which environment should be used. with louvres). clean room luminaires) Free standing. Type A B C D E F G Luminaire type Bare batten Open top housing (natural ventilated and “self cleaning” types) Closed top housing (unventilated) Enclosed IP2X Dust proof IP5X Indirect lighting and uplight Air handling and forced ventilated Bare lamp luminaires Direct-indirect luminaires without cover. wallwashing luminaires (vertical opening). computer centres Offices. laboratories. which is then used in the luminaire maintenance table to determine the luminaire maintenance factor. wall mounted uplighters with closed base. workshops Steelworks. chemical works. downlights. cove lights Air handling body and optic used with air-conditioning or ventilation systems Luminaire description Table 7.

91 0.94 0.89 0 2.84 0.91 0.98 0.93 0.93 0.4 Luminaire maintenance factors based upon type and environment 158 | Specific Techniques .77 0.84 0.73 0.89 0.84 0.85 0.86 VC 0.89 0.93 0.86 0.5 3.Specific Techniques Elapsed time between cleanings in years Environment Luminaire type A B C D E F G Elapsed time between cleanings in years 0 0.81 0.94 0.99 C 0.65 0.91 0.77 0.85 0.75 0.82 0.96 N 0.89 0.90 0.66 0.91 0.93 0.79 0.84 0.85 0.83 0.94 1.00 C 0.90 0.91 D 0.86 0.92 0.91 0.93 VC 0.93 0.95 0.90 0.93 0.90 0.95 N 0.85 0.87 0.79 0.85 0.83 0.89 0.51 0.93 0.94 0.60 0.92 0.77 0.52 0.92 0.57 0.85 Table 7.81 0.74 0.97 N 0.89 0.96 0.92 0.00 C 0.83 0.94 0.74 0.92 0.71 0.70 0.73 0.88 0.66 0.93 1.80 0.87 VC 0.91 0.82 0.00 N 0.68 0.0 1.89 0.92 0.86 0.96 D 0.92 0.92 1.87 0.68 0.83 0.90 D 0.76 0.98 C 0.91 0.45 0.75 0.92 0.79 0.92 D 0.96 0.79 0.87 0.74 0.94 0.95 0.5 1.94 0.65 0.73 0.55 0.87 0.89 0.95 0.73 0.77 0.80 0.98 VC 0.0 Environment Any Luminaire type A 1 B C D E F G 1 1 1 1 1 1 VC 0.99 D 0.88 0.90 0.91 0.88 0.74 0.88 0.86 0.75 0.5 Any 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 VC 0.86 0.95 N 0.83 0.87 0.95 0.81 0.81 0.94 0.94 D 0.71 0.85 0.99 C 0.88 0.75 0.0 2.81 0.95 0.54 0.79 0.98 C 0.83 0.99 N 0.78 0.82 0.89 0.61 0.64 0.96 0.80 0.69 0.80 0.79 0.96 0.73 0.59 0.

81 0.97 0.81 0.92 0.00 1.95 0.86 0.93 0.91 0.00 reflectances ceiling/walls/floor environment 0.95 0.81 0.92 0.93 0.20 Specific Techniques 0.97 0.95 0.97 0.96 0.93 0.97 0.86 0.96 0.94 0.83 0.85 0.98 0.98 0.86 0.84 0.00 1.89 0.92 0.98 0.89 0.80 0.85 0.91 0.92 0.00 1.95 0.96 0.91 0.80 0.98 0.81 0.92 0.89 0.94 0.91 0.97 0.90 0.94 0.94 0.97 0.96 0.85 0.96 0.92 0.00 1.98 0.92 0.20 0.85 0.00 1.97 0.96 0.91 0.97 0.97 0.85 0.85 0.90 0.50 4.86 0.97 0.92 0.81 0.50/0.96 0.85 0.92 0.20 0.90 0.00 1.98 0.98 0.93 0.94 0.93 0.85 0.97 0.95 0.87 0.96 0.00 1.95 0.96 0.96 0.94 0.00 1.94 0.87 0.00 2.92 0.time/yrs room surface maintenance factors – utilisation plane 0.91 0.97 0.94 0.20 0.94 0.98 0.90 0.81 0.97 0.86 0.94 0.50 2.90 0.88 0.50/0.85 0.97 0.86 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.96 0.90 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.98 0.85 0.97 0.20 0.50 1.94 0.97 0.95 0.90 0.96 0.91 0.93 0.98 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.95 0.95 0.80 0.00 1.87 0.00 1.94 0.88 0.91 0.84 0.90 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.88 0.00 1.97 0.97 0.92 0.91 0.93 0.92 0.86 0.91 0.98 0.97 0.89 0.00 4.94 0.93 0.84 0.97 0.93 0.81 0.20 0.90 0.92 0.90 0.20 very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty | 159 .90 0.50/0.92 0.00 1.92 0.94 0.99 0.86 0.95 0.81 0.97 0.88 0.93 0.89 0.98 0.00 1.95 0.96 0.91 0.00 1.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.93 0.00 1.90 0.89 0.98 0.94 0.84 0.92 0.84 0.92 0.97 0.86 0.92 0.92 0.93 0.87 0.00 1.20 Table 7.94 0.93 0.91 0.98 0.91 0.85 0.95 0.87 0.80 0.96 0.90 0.96 0.97 0.91 0.93 0.96 0.95 0.00 5.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.81 0.97 0.90 0.80 0.93 0.90 0.90 0.96 0.98 0.96 0.80 0.91 0.87 0.89 0.89 0.95 0.96 0.98 0.87 0.93 0.86 0.88 0.95 0.98 0.96 0.99 0.50 5.93 0.91 0.94 0.90 0.00 1.84 0.00 3.96 0.97 0.87 0.97 0.96 0.30/0.91 0.96 0.85 0.84 0.80 0.00 1.97 0.95 0.85 0.98 0.94 0.00 1.97 0.98 0.92 0.92 0.84 0.92 0.96 0.93 0.95 0.50/0.5 Room surface maintenance factors for DFF=1.80/0.97 0.93 0.90 0.92 0.97 0.97 0.93 0.90 0.00 1.96 0.80/0.86 0.20 Specific Techniques 0.91 0.93 0.90 0.94 0.50/0.94 0.91 0.00 1.84 0.92 0.70/0.96 0.96 0.98 0.87 0.90 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.89 0.86 0.94 0.92 0.94 0.96 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.50/0.97 0.80 0.97 0.96 0.97 0.90 0.00 1.92 0.80/0.96 0.85 0.00 1.96 0.30/0.98 0.89 0.97 0.00 1.98 0.97 0.00 1.00 1.94 0.88 0.88 0.87 0.84 0.94 0.85 0.96 0.88 0.70/0.91 0.93 0.50 6.92 0.00 1.89 0.95 0.81 0.88 0.84 0.95 0.00 1.96 0.00 1.81 0.95 0.95 0.00 1.95 0.93 0.91 0.85 0.93 0.98 0.95 0.93 0.00 1.99 0.96 0.98 0.90 0.97 0.80 0.98 0.96 0.90 0.96 0.81 0.93 0.70/0.88 0.00 1.90 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.95 0.86 0.98 0.0 (direct luminaires) 1.92 0.80 0.70/0.00 1.90 0.91 0.92 0.95 0.89 0.95 0.80 0.99 0.96 0.00 0.92 0.96 0.90 0.91 0.97 0.98 0.94 0.00 1.70/0.85 0.90 0.97 0.95 0.87 0.89 0.93 0.96 0.93 0.94 0.92 0.93 0.93 0.91 0.70/0.91 0.96 0.90 0.87 0.90 0.95 0.95 0.30/0.85 0.85 0.90 0.86 0.00 1.98 0.98 0.85 0.98 0.00 0.92 0.90 0.88 0.50 3.97 0.96 0.00 1.85 0.96 0.97 0.94 0.98 0.

93 0.96 0.97 0.90 0.92 0.67 0.97 0.00 1.95 0.77 0.79 0.88 0.77 0.82 0.50 4.50 5.87 0.95 0.94 0.82 0.95 0.79 0.93 0.95 0.73 0.86 0.91 0.67 0.67 0.79 0.00 1.79 0.00 4.78 0.89 0.83 0.86 0.92 0.77 0.90 0.78 0.93 0.96 0.87 0.78 0.88 0.00 1.97 0.83 0.96 0.86 0.96 0.90 0.92 0.00 1.73 0.20 0.00 1.93 0.93 0.98 0.67 0.73 0.96 0.79 0.96 0.91 0.73 0.00 1.00 1.69 0.90 0.20 0.92 0.94 0.95 0.73 0.90 0.92 0.97 0.86 0.95 0.83 0.73 0.93 0.87 0.00 1.87 0.87 0.74 0.78 0.96 0.91 0.84 0.95 0.67 0.96 0.00 1.86 0.86 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.84 0.82 0.00 1.80 0.69 0.87 0.84 0.93 0.time/yrs room surface maintenance factors – utilisation plane 0.94 0.84 0.81 0.88 0.69 0.90 0.96 0.69 0.80 0.86 0.84 0.69 0.80 0.76 0.83 0.75 0.97 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.79 0.90 0.82 0.90 0.95 0.75 0.83 0.87 0.87 0.97 0.82 0.78 0.90 0.90 0.79 0.79 0.67 0.79 0.96 0.75 0.95 0.80 0.93 0.82 0.96 0.95 0.80 0.00 2.00 1.84 0.50/0.00 1.93 0.96 0.91 0.96 0.86 0.79 0.83 0.90 0.95 0.95 0.90 0.93 0.96 0.88 0.00 1.91 0.95 0.86 0.50/0.90 0.50/0.69 0.83 0.00 1.95 0.80/0.74 0.92 0.77 0.92 0.86 0.96 0.83 0.20 0.95 0.83 0.96 0.87 0.90 0.96 0.95 0.97 0.95 0.84 0.75 0.92 0.96 0.79 0.86 0.80 0.88 0.75 0.97 0.97 0.93 0.90 0.92 0.86 0.67 0.20 very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty .96 0.00 1.20 Specific Techniques 0.93 0.00 0.30/0.81 0.87 0.87 0.67 0.00 1.93 0.98 0.92 0.79 0.50 2.83 0.79 0.30/0.96 0.00 1.79 0.74 0.00 1.86 0.74 0.73 0.96 0.96 0.93 0.93 0.82 0.00 1.94 0.77 0.97 0.85 0.83 0.95 0.00 0.95 0.89 0.97 0.00 1.80/0.90 0.74 0.93 0.86 0.79 0.20 0.92 0.94 0.90 0.75 0.50/0.00 1.80 0.73 0.86 0.00 1.78 0.95 0.83 0.74 0.00 1.30/0.94 0.67 0.87 0.81 0.84 0.97 0.96 0.77 0.00 1.91 0.86 0.69 0.79 0.92 0.79 0.00 1.00 reflectances ceiling/walls/floor environment 160 | Specific Techniques 0.94 0.86 0.91 0.86 0.74 0.95 0.93 0.20 0.88 0.74 0.79 0.90 0.87 0.87 0.00 1.70/0.74 0.92 0.74 0.87 0.90 0.90 0.87 0.94 0.90 0.84 0.83 0.70/0.88 0.93 0.00 1.91 0.78 0.5 (direct/indirect luminaires) 1.88 0.79 0.87 0.90 0.77 0.95 0.50 3.91 0.92 0.95 0.82 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.87 0.96 0.80 0.95 0.86 0.93 0.20 Table 7.93 0.80 0.88 0.20 0.84 0.74 0.91 0.90 0.77 0.90 0.00 1.93 0.93 0.90 0.83 0.84 0.90 0.94 0.95 0.82 0.93 0.95 0.75 0.92 0.92 0.80 0.80 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.93 0.96 0.79 0.79 0.75 0.69 0.87 0.97 0.90 0.96 0.97 0.93 0.88 0.69 0.95 0.67 0.00 1.83 0.97 0.92 0.90 0.94 0.75 0.80 0.50/0.93 0.87 0.96 0.00 3.83 0.96 0.00 5.00 1.92 0.73 0.88 0.92 0.00 1.90 0.93 0.76 0.00 1.84 0.50 1.86 0.91 0.70 0.70/0.00 1.90 0.77 0.00 1.73 0.93 0.93 0.96 0.83 0.00 1.93 0.70/0.92 0.79 0.89 0.93 0.92 0.50/0.94 0.70/0.73 0.96 0.95 0.96 0.86 0.87 0.90 0.94 0.72 0.94 0.6 Room surface maintenance factors for DFF=0.82 0.75 0.00 1.50 6.95 0.70/0.78 0.69 0.90 0.85 0.91 0.75 0.93 0.82 0.78 0.90 0.94 0.93 0.95 0.83 0.83 0.80/0.97 0.83 0.67 0.87 0.83 0.88 0.83 0.95 0.93 0.96 0.87 0.69 0.78 0.96 0.84 0.91 0.91 0.

time/yrs room surface maintenance factors – utilisation plane














reflectances ceiling/walls/floor





Specific Techniques


Table 7.7 Room surface maintenance factors for DFF=0 (indirect luminaires) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.93 0.86 0.72 0.54 0.94 0.88 0.76 0.59 0.96 0.90 0.80 0.64 0.93 0.86 0.73 0.55 0.95 0.89 0.77 0.60 0.96 0.91 0.80 0.65 0.94 0.87 0.75 0.57 0.95 0.90 0.78 0.61 0.96 0.91 0.81 0.66 0.91 0.82 0.67 0.50 0.93 0.85 0.72 0.55 0.94 0.88 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.68 0.51 0.93 0.86 0.73 0.56 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.92 0.84 0.70 0.52 0.93 0.87 0.74 0.57 0.95 0.89 0.78 0.62 0.90 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.92 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.82 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.85 0.72 0.55 0.94 0.87 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.93 0.86 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.90 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.92 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.85 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.93 0.86 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.90 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.92 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.90 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61





Specific Techniques


very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty

| 161

Specific Techniques
To determine the lamp lumen maintenance factor and lamp survival factor data published by lamp manufacturers should be used. Examples are shown below.
Lumen maintenance FH/FQ and FC 120


80 Maintenance %




0 100 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Lifetime hours 12000 14000 16000 FC 18000 20000 FH/FQ

Figure 7.36 Example lumen maintenance curve (courtesy Osram)
Lumen maintenance T5 FQ HO, FH HE and FC 120


80 Maintenance %




0 100 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Lifetime hours 12000 14000 16000 FC 18000 20000 FH/FQ

Figure 7.37 Example lamp survival curve (courtesy Osram)

162 | Specific Techniques

Specific Techniques
For example, a closed top recessed louvred luminaire with an upward light output ratio of zero uses 14W T16 lamps (Osram FH), and is installed in an office with surface reflectance’s of ceiling:70%, walls:50% and floor:20%. The room and luminaires are cleaned every three years, and the lamps are replaced every 8000 hours. Therefore: Luminaire maintenance factor (LMF) Luminaire is a closed top recessed louvred fitting, which is type C. As the luminaire is installed in an office this is a clean environment. Therefore, from Table 7.4 for a cleaning interval of three years the luminaire maintenance factor is given as 0.74. Room surface maintenance factor (RSMF) As the luminaire has an upward light output ratio of zero the downward light output ratio must be the same as the total light output ratio, and therefore the DFF equals one. Using Table 7.5 for reflectance’s 0.80/0.50/0.20 gives a room surface maintenance factor of 0.94. Lamp lumen maintenance factor (LLMF) From Figure 7.36 when the lamp has been running for 8000 hours the lamp lumens has reduced to 92% of the original output (red curve). Lamp survival factor (LSF) From the red curve on Figure 7.37 when the lamps have been operating for 8000 hours 96% of the lamps will still be functional (e.g. 4% of the lamps will have failed). Thus the maintenance factor is: MF = = = MF * 0.74 * 0.614 RSMF * 0.94 * LLMF * 0.92 * LSF 0.96

Specific Techniques

| 163

Specific Techniques
7.8 Control of obtrusive light
Obtrusive light is the light that does not illuminate a task or reference area but spills onto other non-related areas. This not only reduces the efficiency of the lighting installation as a proportion of the light produced is being wasted, but can also cause inconvenience or damage in the surrounding areas. Obtrusive light may be thought of as having three components; • Spill light, which is light emitted by a lighting installation that falls outside the boundaries of the property for which the lighting is designed. Sky glow, which is light that contributes to the brightening of the night sky. Light trespass, which is a special case of spill light when light spills onto surrounding properties. An additional form of light trespass is when the direct view of bright luminaires from normal viewing directions causing annoyance, distraction or discomfort.
Fig. 7.38 An example of an installation producing sky glow

• •

Waste light Waste light ULOR DLOR Sky glow direct and reflected flux

Spill light

Light trespass

Reference area

Immediate surrounds


Fig. 7.39 The components of obtrusive light

164 | Specific Techniques

Specific Techniques
A selection of lighting technical parameters are used to define limits for obtrusive light, depending upon the type of obtrusive light being experienced or measured. All the parameters depend upon the environmental zone the installation is within, which effectively defines the amount of background brightness from the surround area. The environmental zones are shown in Table 7.8.
Zone Surrounding Lighting Environment Examples

E1 E2 E3 E4

Natural Rural Suburban Urban

Dark Low brightness Medium brightness High brightness

National parks and protected sites Industrial or residential rural areas Industrial or residential rural suburbs Town centres and commercial areas

Table 7.8 Definitions of environmental zones

The lighting technical parameters used to define limits for obtrusive light are; • ULR, the upward light ratio. This is the proportion of light that is emitted at or above the horizontal when a luminaire is mounted in its installed position. For an installation it is the sum of individual luminaire upward light ratios in their installed orientation and this indicates the contribution of an installation to sky glow.

Light Technical Parameter Upward Light Ratio (ULR)

Environmental Zones Application Conditions Ratio of luminous flux incident on horizontal plane just above luminaire in its installed position, to total luminaire flux. E1 0 E2 0–5 E3 0 – 15 E4 0 – 25

Table 7.9 Upward light ratio limits

Specific Techniques

| 165

Mind you.10 Vertical illuminance limits on properties • I. If land has been designated for dwellings but no construction has occurred these limits still apply for the potential dwellings. Limits apply to every luminaire in an installation. and are evaluated from every direction where views of bright surfaces of luminaires are likely to be disturbing to residents. but is likely to be maintained. Limits apply to nearby dwellings and special attention should be taken to vertical illuminance on windows. the maximum intensity of a luminaire in a designated direction.Specific Techniques • Ev. Light Technical Parameter Luminous intensity emitted by luminaires (I) Environmental Zones Application Conditions Pre-curfew: Post-curfew: E1 2500 cd 0 cd E2 7500 cd 500 cd E3 10000 cd 1000 cd E4 25000 cd 2500 cd Table 7. the vertical illuminance on surrounding properties.11 Luminous intensity limits in a designated direction 166 | Specific Techniques . this only applies where the viewing direction is not short-term. Light Technical Parameter Illuminance in vertical plane (Ev) Environmental Zones Application Conditions Pre-curfew: Post-curfew: E1 2 lux 0 lux E2 5 lux 1 lux E3 10 lux 2 lux E4 25 lux 5 lux Table 7.

Taken as the product of the design average illuminance and reflectance factor divided by . Road classification (see section 4. the luminance of a building façade. The limits apply where users of a transport system are subject to a reduction in visibility caused by a non-transport installation. and may be approximated using Lb = Eav x   Where Eav is the average illuminance of the building façade and  is the reflectance of the building façade. the luminance of a sign. using the average illuminance and reflectance values for the sign.12 Threshold increment limits • Lb. • Ls. This is the average luminance of a sign and may be approximated similar to that described above.1 cd/m2 M5 15 % based on adaptation luminance of 1 cd/m2 M4 / M3 15 % based on adaptation luminance of 2 cd/m2 M2 / M1 15 % based on adaptation luminance of 5 cd/m2 Light Technical Parameter Threshold Increment TI Table 7.13 Luminance limits for building facades and signs Specific Techniques | 167 . and limiting values are for positions and viewing directions relevant to the direction of travel for users of the transport system. Environmental Zones Application Conditions Taken as the product of the design average illuminance and reflectance factor divided by . the value of threshold increment. or for self-luminous signs the average luminance. E1 0 E2 5 cd/m2 E3 10 cd/m2 E4 25 cd/m2 Light Technical Parameter Building Facade Luminance (Lb) Sign Luminance (Ls) 50 cd/m2 400 cd/m2 800 cd/m2 1000cd/m2 Table 7.05) No road lighting 15 % based on adaptation luminance of 0. Threshold increment is a measure of the loss of visibility caused by the disability glare from a luminaire installation.Specific Techniques • TI. This is the average luminance of the building façade.

and can allow floodlights with tighter beam control to be used. which helps reduce spill light. with the face of the floodlight nearly horizontal and pointing downwards) reduces the impact on sky glow due to reduced upward light. This allows better control of glare and spill light. Using luminaires with lamps that have a lower lumen output leads to a reduced mounting height. Applications which can use specialist “flat-glass” floodlights (which are designed to be mounted with the front face of the floodlight horizontal) should do so. as these are ideal for controlling obtrusive light. the structures will be more intrusive during daylight hours. more luminaires will be required which may reduce the efficiency of the installation (but consider that if the control of light is better then more of the light is being usefully utilised within the scheme.Specific Techniques To control obtrusive light various strategies may be used depending upon the application. Using floodlights that allow the luminaire to be aimed close to the vertical (i. therefore less light overall may be required. This is because a scheme that has less light control is over lighting to compensate for the spill light). However. However. • Using floodlights that have a tightly controlled beam allows more precise control of the light. Similarly the closer a column is to the area to be lit the better the control of the lighting as this allows floodlights to be aimed closer to the vertical and floodlights with a wide distribution can be used with simplified shielding (such as a visor).e. A higher mounting height can allow floodlights to be aimed closer to the vertical. • • • • Relevant publications for further reading are CIE S 015/E:2005 Lighting of Outdoor Work Places EN12464-2:2007 Lighting of workplaces – part 2: outdoor work places 168 | Specific Techniques . Therefore the best level of beam control for the application should be used.

7. This is the act of a criminal event occurring. Lighting can be used to affect two aspects related to crime • Actual crime. Lighting can either inhibit crime. including car parks. Frequently the daytime appearance is completely different to that at night.40 A forbidding entrance to a pedestrian tunnel • It is important to understand that when considering lighting for a space it is not always possible to understand the problems of the space without seeing it in all conditions. either by internal fixtures and furnishings or by exterior structures or landscaping. This is the mental worry of a criminal act occurring. With the increasing prevalence of CCTV cameras in shops and public spaces lighting also has an important role in aiding the authorities in identifying suspects. Lighting columns/fixtures should not aid access. for example over perimeter fencing/walls. light fixtures and fittings should incorporate vandal resistant features such as polycarbonate or reinforced glass fittings with sources positioned out of reach. The fear of crime. and it should be accepted that improvements in lighting cannot overcome bad design of structures or of a space. Lighting can be used to create a safe and reassuring atmosphere. The effect of lighting should not be restricted.9 Lighting for crime prevention A firm body of evidence now exists to support the theory that lighting can have a positive effect on crime prevention. Fear of crime tends to be more prevalent than it used to be due to improved communications. or aid in the identification of a suspect. How can lighting be used as a tool in the fight against crime? Some general points can be made. however irrational. Specific Techniques | 169 . even before the pedestrian has entered the blackness of the tunnel). (For example the pedestrian tunnel shown has untended shrubs. Fig. These benefits however have to be designed into a lighting installation.Specific Techniques 7. For exterior areas. Knowledge of crime that occurs in a different geographical area can induce fear of crime in a totally unrelated area. and an overhang ideal for a person to hide on. a perfect hiding place. And cables and wiring serving lighting systems should be enclosed to restrict accidental damage or criminal attacks.

41). Pedestrians need to be able to see other people clearly at a maximum distance. and lamp type should be chosen carefully to ensure a good colour of light and colour rendering (white light has been shown to increase peoples feelings of security. more general increases in lighting seem to have crime prevention effects but this outcome is not universal. However. When lighting footpaths and cycle paths they should be lit in a manner that shows the direction that the path takes.41 Combined lighting units with high mount lanterns and bollard height lighting 170 | Specific Techniques . lighting should be designed for both road users and pedestrians. When considering street lighting a change in design approach is required. Hence. It should Fig. However. lower wattage lamps spaced closer together are preferable. or by separate lighting units for each task. either from facial expression. even untargeted increases in lighting generally make people less fearful of crime and more confident of their own safety. Generally street lighting is designed for maximum efficiency. Care should be taken where necessary to illuminate beyond the boundaries of the path in order to increase the visual area and provide more confidence to people using those routes. posture or objects carried (such as a knife) allowing them sufficient time to react to the threat. either by using lanterns that have a high level of performance in lighting both the road and paths.Specific Techniques When lighting for crime prevention the main requirement of lighting is to ensure a high level of visibility and modelling. using the fewest lanterns/columns and switching lanterns dependant on time. To increase visibility and modelling requires consideration to the illumination on the vertical or semi-cylindrical planes. whilst a lamp that obviously renders colour incorrectly reduces a person’s confidence in the lighting). Lighting should provide maximum quality and reduce shadows. to be able to perceive any possible threat. 7. It must be understand that whilst precisely targeted increases in lighting generally have crime reduction effects. or with combined lighting units (Figure 7. If lighting units are dimmed or switched off during the night high levels of maintenance are essential as the failure of a lighting unit will have a larger effect if only some of the lighting units are lit compared with the case if all the lighting units were on.

N.. A specific hazard for footpaths are pedestrian tunnels. Car parks should also be considered as pedestrian areas. columns and walls to maximise and reflect the effect of the lighting system Fig. • • • Cars are generally stationary at entrance and exit points. For open areas such as parks or large pedestrian spaces the lighting should give guidance on the configuration of the space. As lighting units in pedestrian subways are generally accessible by the public they should be vandal-resistant and maintained to a high standard. In urban areas it is important not to rely on lighting from commercial premises to supplement the amenity lighting as if the commercial lighting is switched off heavy shadows may occur. or light inside and dark outside during the night. 7. especially when passing from relatively bright light into darkness. Special consideration should be given to stairwells. The lighting needs to be controllable to adjust to the different lighting requirements (e. Therefore these areas need higher lighting levels. lift areas and areas with payment machines. If possible light coloured surface treatments should be applied to ceilings.Specific Techniques be recognised that steps and changes in level are also part of the path and they should not be considered as independent areas. This has implications for visibility as the eye has to adjust to the different conditions which takes time. higher light levels during the day and lower light levels at night with lighting outside the tunnel matched to the light levels inside the tunnel). dark inside and light outside during the daytime.B.g.42 Façade lighting creating areas of deep shadows Specific Techniques | 171 . These generally have two problems. Lighting of commercial buildings should be controlled to prevent high levels of illumination resulting in adjacent areas appearing gloomy or dark (as shown).

0 Ideally Ratio 4 > 0. Cameras should not be directed toward any bright light source. Ratio 1 = Ratio 2 = Ratio 3 = Ratio 4 = Upward horizontal illuminance Downward horizontal illuminance Downward horizontal illuminance Vertical illuminance towards camera Average luminance of subject Average luminance of background Vertical illuminance left Vertical illuminance right Ratio 5 = Vertical illuminance to the back Vertical illuminance toward the camera Ideally Ratio 3 > 0. right to front and left to front.Specific Techniques When lighting for CCTV cameras additional points need consideration. etc. Additionally when considering the camera position better quality may be achieved by mounting the camera in a position sympathetic to photography (e. Vertical illuminances at head height on the three sides of the head should not exceed a ratio of 3:1 between themselves (e. To aid in the production of a good image the following ratios should be checked.0 Ideally Ratio 1 > 0.43 CCTV images taken using different lighting systems 172 | Specific Techniques .g. right to left. between light fittings and with a low contrast background. 7. ensure the camera is not aimed so that dark black sky is the background.0 Ideally Ratio 5 <3. Finally always ensure the lamp used has good colour rendering capabilities to aid in discriminating colour of garments.3 and < 3. Therefore lighting should not cause heavy contrast patterns down the wall used as a backdrop to the camera sight).g.0 Ideally Ratio 2 < 5. Consider daylight as this can cause problems due to colour differences or high contrast between subject and background For exteriors the relationship between subject and background brightness should be controlled with a maximum of 3:1 (ratio 3) and the relationship between horizontal and vertical toward camera illuminance should ideally be no greater than 5:1 (ratio 2). Therefore for example.).3 and < 3.3 For interiors a luminaire with a batwing distribution will give good facial modelling. It may be possible to channel customers and would be criminals using a roped queuing system to between luminaires where more acceptable light conditions are available. Fig.

45 The pho tic. 7. reassuring. The feel of a space can affect the experience of an observer within that space.10 Lighting and health When producing a lighting design the ability of lighting to provide an atmosphere by manipulating the lit effect is one of the key skills of the designer. Recent research. scotop ic and non -im age forming rece ptor respon se curves | 173 Specific Techniques . scotopic and non-image forming receptor response curves Fig . which exists along with the rods and cones that allow us to see. Fig. welcoming. inspiring. however. balanced. This receptor does not produce a visual effect and has an action spectrum towards the blue end of the visible light spectrum (the yellow curve labelled NI in the diagram). etc. and has descriptors such as calm.Specific Techniques 7. 6.44 The photic. except under inappropriate use of lighting for a given situation. Research has discovered a third receptor in our eye. Within the Thorn PEC philosophy this is the Comfort attribute. This use of the lit experience whilst possibly affecting our mood does not normally affect our health. has shown that how we design luminaires and lighting installations does have implications on our health. glitter. lively.

affecting the body clock. with a consequent shift of responsibility towards rigorous medical ethics and testing. It is also possible to give a burst of blue light at suitable times during the day to enhance alertness. Vision roads and cones • Visual acuity • Visual performance • Emotions • Hormones (melatonin) • Sleep quality Non-vision wellness 3rd receptor Fig. The red and blue lines indicate light signal paths through the head.Specific Techniques The third receptor has direct implications on our feelings of wellness and well-being. in treating sufferers of delayed phase sleep disorder which is characterised by late sleep onset and late awakening (generally younger people) and in treating advanced phase sleep disorder which is characterised by early sleep onset and early awakening (generally elderly people). and light has shown promise in treating sleep disorders caused by illnesses such as Alzheimer’s disease. mood and others. or in a nursing home to increase sleep quality at night. • Biological clock • Mood and depression • Alertness Nevertheless it is a large step from using light therapy for treatment of specific conditions in a controlled environment to applying this knowledge in general lighting applications to aid health. thereby affecting a person’s physical health. 174 | Specific Techniques . Research shows it is quite possible to modify the biological clock to optimise its timing for night shift workers. Indeed this is already used in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) when very high levels of blue rich light are used to help alleviate this condition.45 Effects due to the visual and non-visual pathways. 7. It links into the body’s hormone mechanisms. This opens up the possibilities of using light and designing lighting to modify the operation of the body. However research also raises questions as to possible side effects. alertness.

As an example. Also given a worker will probably travel to or from work in daylight conditions. which would be inappropriate for rapidly changing shift patterns. until more is known about the effects and side effects of the non-visual effects of lighting. The implication of this is that by manipulating the bodies hormone production we would also be affecting the bodies defence against some diseases. Specific Techniques | 175 . for example. producing headaches. taking a period of approximately 15 nights for adaptation. but at the expense of care staff that may be working shift patterns at odds with their patients sleep patterns.Specific Techniques A body of knowledge indicates. It is necessary to understand and accept that people react differently to a stimulus and internal research within Thorn indicates that some people are more sensitive to blue enhanced light than others. that during periods of darkness the body produces hormones which act as inhibitors to cancer. Yet. As well as medical factors. designing to modify biological mechanisms should be treated with extreme caution. Additionally there was a case of a worker who had had eye surgery finding the blue enhanced light uncomfortable when returning to work immediately after the operation. However. and daylight normally supplies a much larger illuminance at the eye than that achieved by artificial lighting. evidence suggests that the body clock does become adjusted without any direct intervention for those doing semipermanent night shift work. Equally using lighting for health in situations such as residential care homes or nursing homes could be beneficial to the patients. practical problems arise. this would inhibit the effects of trying to reset the body clock. in blue enriched light some workers found white paper to be a glare source. Manipulating the lit effect to produce stimulating and interesting environments or controlling light to give dynamically changing spaces can improve the quality of life for users of the space. With respect to the shifting of the body clock for night workers the process of shifting the body clock can take several days.

The urgent need for action is recognised by all and there are an increasing number of national and international initiatives and legislations to drive for sustainable living. Electric lighting has a major impact on sustainability. A sustainable approach will ensure that the needs of today are fulfilled without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. is essential to life and needs to be taken seriously. Eco-design is practiced in the creation of a lighting product.11 Sustainability One of the worlds most pressing concerns is achieving a sustainable environment. Extraction Refining raw materials Sustainable design Fig. End of life is when the product is no longer required or is unable to fulfil its function. It encompasses the need to conserve resources.47 Product life cycle analysis (LCA) 176 | Specific Techniques . So what is “sustainability? Sustainability. just like light. reduce energy demands. These are fundamental considerations in the Thorn PEC programme. whilst operation is when the product is put into service in lighting schemes. 7. The key to sustainability in lighting is ecodesign. All these considerations are to protect our natural environment and life for the future.Specific Techniques 7.46 Maintain End of life Recycle LCA Design Manufacture Package Distribute Install Operate Fig. 7. limit harmful emissions. reused or renewed with no waste. reduce waste and encourage renewable processes. The ideal sustainable arrangement is when a solution can be perpetually used. efficient operation and planned recycling at the end of the product life.

48 Fig. in excess of 10 kHz thus eliminating flicker. Employing life cycle assessments will check the environmental impact of the solution through life. For every kWh of energy 0. 7. installation. use (80%) and disposal (8%). through design. and are lightweight one-piece control gear that can be dimmable and automatically controlled. Consider also the energy efficiency during the operation phase and the need to dismantle the product quickly and without waste at the end of life. can operate the lamp at high frequencies. Luminaires should be designed for disassembly and dematerialisation (eg use of snap fit connectors rather than screws) and making parts multifunctional. Fig. The most energy consumption by the product is clearly during operation and much of this can be influenced by prudent design and component selection. are more efficacious. Electronic ballasts. 7. The controls maybe a simple on/off switch or a sophisticated computer programmed system. The proportion of energy demand by lighting products can be split into three phases: creation (12%). increasing global warming. when dismantling and recycling of the materials commences. It can be linear or compact and employ poly-phosphor coatings yielding good colour and light output. use less energy. All products should be marked for easy identification and removal. however. manufacture. The generation of electrical energy required for lighting is a major contributor to CO2 emissions. The key elements of this selection are lamps and control circuit including ballast type. water and energy are used during manufacture. The lamp requires a ballast to operate. which can be magnetic or electronic. Today the most useful and efficacious light source is the fluorescent lamp.49 * EU average Specific Techniques | 177 . Magnetic ballasts (copper and iron) have the advantage of being lower in cost and recyclable. Lighting controls add much to operational efficiency.42kg * of CO2 is liberated and added to the “greenhouse” gases in the atmosphere. use and maintenance to the end of useful life.Specific Techniques Eco-design is design of product with the entire life cycle in mind. The life cycle covers consideration of the product from extraction and refining of raw materials. It ensures that care is taken during design to employ absolutely the minimum amount of restricted hazardous substances and that the minimum amount of virgin materials.

Specific Techniques Controls save energy use by providing electric light only where and when needed. correct lighting scheme design and the use of control systems substantial energy saving can be made without jeopardising the quality of the required lighting condition. make greater use of more recycled materials and plan to use more recyclable materials. 7. With efficient products. Fig. increased energy efficiency. With such practice of good management of resource.51 Recycling plant 178 | Specific Techniques . In this process sustainable product designs must use less material. The next obvious step is to protect the rapid depletion of raw materials. daylight availability and presence of people. Controls can link up to respond to constant illuminance.50 Fig. employment of new technologies and the drive for renewable energy generation will ensure good future for light and lighting. 7.

Allowing maintenance schedules to be rationalised based upon computer records of lamp burning hours. To allow lighting to easily adapt to special occasions. • Specific Techniques | 179 . The lighting is therefore inflexible and the quality of maintenance can be poor. Benefits of using lighting controls can be • A reduction in unnecessary night-time lighting by providing facilities to dim or turn-off luminaires based upon user needs. for example increasing lighting levels during busy times at road junctions. Time clocks or photocells determine if a luminaire is on or off and monitoring and reporting of luminaire faults is dependant upon local residents or street patrols. etc. • • • Additional benefits in the management of the lighting equipment may be • Allowing the status of luminaires to be monitored and failures to be automatically reported. Contributing to the reduction of traffic accidents and crime rates by providing needs-specific lighting. motorway exits or areas of mixed pedestrian and motorised traffic. so that defective components may be replaced when they fail. For example during a street festival lighting can be controlled to ensure suitable light levels based on the needs of the event (this may involve increased lighting or even a decrease in light levels if festival lights are being used). Allowing energy needs to be more accurately defined and optimised. luminaire cleaning schedules.Specific Techniques 7. The use of modern outdoor lighting controls can overcome these difficulties and supply many additional benefits. reducing energy consumption and therefore CO2 emissions and also saving money.12 Outdoor lighting controls (OLC) The prevalent technology used in conventional outdoor lighting has minimal control.

52 Components of a Telea installation 180 | Specific Techniques . In both cases there is no need to install new cables. TCP/IP Powerline Data Communication Fig. 7. removing the need for street patrols Lighting control and monitoring are the two central abilities of the Thorn Telea system.Specific Techniques • Reducing travel costs through automatic reporting of faults. A Telea installation consists of: • • • Luminaire controllers Comboxes Central Management server Powerline Data Communication Radio Frequency Data Communication Network connection. Telea offers the flexibility of two communication technologies : • • A Powerline communication system uses the mains cabling to transmit signals An RF communication system uses radio frequency to transmit data. e.g. and both systems allow instant reporting of fault conditions using SMS messages to an assigned person.

the Combox controls up to 255 luminaire controllers. Maximum distances between the Combox and the first luminaire controller. either inside the lantern or within the column. Combox features A Combox consists of the following components : • • • • • one Combox controller one transceiver (PL or RF) one 24V power supply three filters (PL only) one GSM modem Fig. Both types can control up to 255 luminaire controllers.53 Telea Powerline luminaire controller Installed at the switch cabinet.54 Telea Combox RF SMS Specific Techniques | 181 . The RF Combox does not actually need to be contained within a switch cabinet. The controller allows various operating parameters to be measured (such as burning hours. but the use of a switch cabinet is normal practice. etc) and feeds the information back to the Combox. The controller switches the lamp on and off and depending on the capabilities of the ballast may also control power reduction/dimming. The two types of controller (Powerline and Radio Frequency) may be mixed on one single installation. or between two controllers are approximately 200m for Powerline and 100m for Radio Frequency installations. lamp faults. It can send error messages reporting luminaire faults to one or several designated mobile phones. It integrates all switching programmes and feedback from the controllers and feeds information back to the central server. 7.Specific Techniques Luminaire controllers These are installed in each individual luminaire. Fig. 7. It contains an astrological clock and internal memory enables programmes to continue to operate in the event of signal breakdown. Repeater functionality integrated into Telea controllers make the communication extremely reliable and adaptable to any grid topology and also remove the need for external relays. used respectively for Powerline or Radio Frequency luminaire controllers. only requiring power to operate. There are two types of Comboxes.

55 Telea CME software 182 | Specific Techniques .Specific Techniques CME central server features Installed in the control room this comprises a hardware and the CME software. including Electro-Magnetic Compliancy (EMC). Data transfer between the server and Comboxes is achieved through telephone (GSM) or computer network (TCP/IP) communication protocols. 7. so that errors that might have arisen during the night can be visualised on the screen the following morning. Fig. the Geographical Information System (GIS) enables lighting points to be visualised on a map and faults or maintenance data such as burning hours to be easily recognisable using colour coding. Upgrading existing luminaires The Telea system can be implemented into existing as well as new lighting installations. For example. Please contact your Thorn representative for further information. The CME server can be interfaced with existing servers within technical limitations. enabling retrofit installation when mechanical and temperature constraints prevent the integration into the gear compartment. In the case of GSM communication the data transfer is usually programmed to occur at the end of night. all Powerline controllers can be supplied in boxes designed for installation in poles. The CME server is optional (an installation may run with only Comboxes and luminaire controllers) but is necessary for central monitoring and offers an intuitive interface for configuring and monitoring the installation. In addition. adding Telea functionality to the standard photocell. This completely in-house service guarantees the conformity of all of the luminaires to existing standards. Telea for new lighting installations For new installations Thorn can integrate Telea luminaire controllers into several Thorn streetlighting luminaires. For example the RF switch controller (LSRF) fits into any luminaire equipped with a NEMA socket.

as shown Section 8. If the chosen system is to be a replacement for an existing installation a cost benefit of the new system compared to the existing installation may be made by calculating the pay back period. that is over the planned life of the installation how much will each system cost. At some point a decision will have to be made as to the relative importance of these factors and a compromise reached).2. These benefits are quantified in terms of a life cycle calculation for each lighting system. Formulae used is this worksheet are: Luminaire costs = Number of luminaires x cost of one luminaire Lamp costs = number of luminaires x number of lamps per luminaire x cost of one lamp Installation costs = number of luminaires x installation cost per luminaire Room cleaning costs = cost of room cleaning x service life of system (years) room cleaning interval (years) Luminaire cleaning costs = cost of luminaire cleaning x service life of system (years) luminaire cleaning interval (years) Lamp replacement costs = cost of lamp replacement x service life of system (years) lamp replacement interval (years) Energy costs = (number of luminaires x system power of luminaire x service life of system x annual burning hours x energy cost per kWh x %energy savings due to controls)/1000 Operating costs = room cleaning costs + luminaire cleaning costs + lamp replacement costs + energy costs Annual operating costs = operating costs/service life of system (Note that the model given on the following page is a static model in that it ignores the costs of depreciation of equipment and interest payments). Worksheet 8. These values can be compared and the most favourable option chosen.1 Life cycle analysis When installing new lighting.1 aids life cycle analysis. (Note that the most favourable option from a financial viewpoint may not be the best option from a lighting viewpoint. Checklists | 183 .8 Checklists 8. or refurbishing an existing scheme. it is important to quantify and compare the benefits of possible alternative replacement lighting systems.

1 184 | Checklists .Checklists Building Project Option 1 Option 2 Luminaire type Luminaire data Number of lamps per luminaire System power of luminaire (W) Operating data Service life of system (years) Annual burning hours Lamp replacement interval (years) Luminaire cleaning interval (years) Room cleaning interval (years) Number of luminaires Lamp lumens maintenance factor Lamp survival factor Luminaire maintenance factor Room surface maintenance factor Maintenance factor [ (9)x(10)x(11)x(12) ] Number of luminaires Itemised investment costs Cost of one luminaire Cost of one lamp Installation costs per luminaire Itemised operating costs Cost of lamp replacement Cost of luminaire cleaning Cost of room cleaning Energy costs per KWh %Energy savings due to control system Investment costs Luminaire costs [ (14)x(15) ] Lamp costs [ (14)x(2)x(16) ] Installation costs [ (14)x(17) ] Investment costs [ (23)+(24)+(25) ] Operating costs Room cleaning costs [ (20)x(4) / (8) ] Luminaire cleaning costs [ (19)x(4) / (7) ] Lamp replacement costs [ (18)x(4) / (6) ] Energy costs [ (14)x(3)x(4)x(5)x(21)x(22) / 1000 ] Operating costs [ (27)+(28)+(29)+(30) ] Annual operating costs [ (31) / (4) ] Total costs over installation life [ (31)+(26) ] (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) (30) (31) (32) (33) Worksheet 8.

These benefits are quantified in terms of the payback period.Checklists 8.2 is a static model in that it ignores the costs of depreciation of equipment and interest payments). Checklists | 185 . This is a comparison of the expenditure in terms of investment costs to buy and install a new system.annual operating costs proposed installation (Note that the model given in Worksheet 8. compared with the savings in annual operating costs through having the new system.2 Economics When refurbishing an existing installation it is important to be able to quantify the benefits of the new lighting system compared with the existing system. Formulae used is this worksheet are: Luminaire costs = Number of luminaires x cost of one luminaire Lamp costs = number of luminaires x number of lamps per luminaire x cost of one lamp Installation costs = number of luminaires x installation cost per luminaire Room cleaning costs = cost of room cleaning x service life of system (years) room cleaning interval (years) Luminaire cleaning costs = cost of luminaire cleaning x service life of system (years) luminaire cleaning interval (years) Lamp replacement costs = cost of lamp replacement x service life of system (years) lamp replacement interval (years) Energy costs = (number of luminaires x system power of luminaire x service life of system x annual burning hours x energy cost per kWh x %energy savings due to controls)/1000 Operating costs = room cleaning costs + luminaire cleaning costs + lamp replacement costs + energy costs Annual operating costs = operating costs / service life of system Pay back period = investment cost proposed installation – investment cost existing installation annual operating costs existing installation . Thus if a payback time is 5 years this means that after 5 years the savings from using the new system have cancelled out the costs of buying the new system.2 aids in the calculation of this value. Worksheet 8.

Building Project Existing installation Proposed installation Luminaire type Luminaire data Number of lamps per luminaire System power of luminaire (W) Operating data Service life of system (years) Annual burning hours Lamp replacement interval (years) Luminaire cleaning interval (years) Room cleaning interval (years) Number of luminaires Lamp lumens maintenance factor Lamp survival factor Luminaire maintenance factor Room surface maintenance factor Maintenance factor [ (9)x(10)x(11)x(12) ] Number of luminaires Itemised investment costs Cost of one luminaire Cost of one lamp Installation costs per luminaire Itemised operating costs Cost of lamp replacement Cost of luminaire cleaning Cost of room cleaning Energy costs per KWh %Energy savings due to control system Investment costs Luminaire costs [ (14)x(15) ] Lamp costs [ (14)x(2)x(16) ] Installation costs [ (14)x(17) ] Investment costs [ (23)+(24)+(25) ] Operating costs Room cleaning costs [ (20)x(4) / (8) ] Luminaire cleaning costs [ (19)x(4) / (7) ] Lamp replacement costs [ (18)x(4) / (6) ] Energy costs [ (14)x(3)x(4)x(5)x(21)x(22) / 1000 ] Operating costs [ (27)+(28)+(29)+(30) ] Annual operating costs [ (31) / (4) ] Pay back period* = (26)Proposed – (26)Existing (32)Existing – (32)Proposed Pay back period* = – – *excludes depreciation and interest (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) (30) (31) (32) 0 0 0 0 Worksheet 8.2 (years) = years 186 | Checklists .

Ppc = Pci i where Pci is the parasitic power consumed by the controls when the lamps are off. given below. in watts. in watts. therefore. Units: kWh/(m2 x year). To help. of all control systems within luminaires in an area when the lamps are not operating. Units: hours. Units: W/m2. Total installed charging power for emergency lighting (Pem) – installation input charging power. Units: hours. Checklists | 187 . Note that whilst responsible use of energy is important it must not lead to inadequate lighting schemes being produced. Pn = Pi i where Pi is the luminaire power in watts. in watts. Some terminology used in the LENI calculation may be unfamiliar and is. Both the lighting requirements and energy usage requirements should be fulfilled. Units: kWh/(m2 x year). which introduces the Lighting Energy Numeric Indicator (LENI).Checklists 8. Non-daylight operating hours (tN) – installation operating hours where daylight is not present. Total installed control circuit parasitic power (Ppc) – installation input power. Daylight operating hours (tD) – installation operating hours when daylight is present. Pem = Pei i Where Pei is the emergency lighting charging power in watts. Total installed lighting power (Pn) – installation power in watts of all luminaires in an area. The document also provides guidance with notional limits derived from reference standards.3 Lighting energy numeric indicator (LENI) It is becoming increasingly important to estimate the energy requirements of lighting in buildings and to quantify these requirements against best practice. of all emergency lighting luminaires in an area. the CEN EN 15193 document has been produced.

e. Units: hours. WP is the annual parasitic energy required to provide charging energy for emergency lighting systems and standby energy for lighting control systems. Units: none The LENI formula is LENI = where W is the total energy used for lighting a room or zone in kWh/ year and A is the total useful floor area of the building in m2. Constant illuminance factor (FC) – this is a factor relating to the usage of the total installed power when constant illuminance control is in operation in the area . Emergency lighting charge time (te) – the operating hours during which the emergency lighting batteries are being charged. Units: none Daylight dependency factor (FD) – this is a factor relating the usage of the total installed lighting power to daylight availability in the area. Occupancy dependency factor (FO) – this is a factor relating the usage of the total installed lighting power when occupancy control is in operation in the area. taken as 8760 hours.Checklists Annual operating time (tO) – the annual number of hours with the lamps operating (i. turned on) to=to+tn where tD and tN are defined above. Standard year time (ty) – the time taken for one standard year to pass. Units: none. W A 188 | Checklists . When constant illuminance control is not in operation this has the value of 1. When daylight control is not in operation this has the value of 1. W is composed of two components W=WL+WP where WL is the annual lighting energy required to provide illumination so that the building may be used. When occupancy control is not in operation this has the value of 1.

Checklists | 189 .Checklists WL may be calculated using the formula WL = {(PnxFC)x[(tDxFOxFD)+(tNxFO)]}/1000 where the individual terms are defined above. Note that values entered in the spreadsheet are the total values for all luminaires in the installation. WP may be calculated using the formula WP = {{PPCx[ty – (tD + tN)]} + (Pemxte)}/1000 where the individual terms are defined above.3 helps calculate the LENI value. Worksheet 8. If more than one luminaire type is used the total energy usage value (18) should be calculated for each luminaire type and the results summed. This summed value should then be used to calculate the LENI value.

Checklists Building Project Installation 1 Installation 2 Parasitic power Total emergency charging power (Pem) Total lighting controls standby power (Ppc) Luminaire data Total installed power (Pn) Operating hours Daylight operating hours (tD) Non-daylight operating hours (tN) Standard year time (ty) Emergency lighting charge time (te) Factors Constant illuminance factor (FC) Occupancy dependency factor (FO) Daylight dependency factor (FD) Parasitic energy Lighting controls parasitic power (2) x [ (6) .3 190 | Checklists .( (4) + (5) ) ] Emergency lighting parasitic factor (1) x (7) Total parasitic energy usage ( (11) + (12) ) / 1000 Illumination energy Energy usage without daylight/occupancy control (3) x (8) Daylight energy usage (4) x (9) x (10) Non-daylight energy usage (5) x (9) Total energy usage for illumination { (14) x [ (15) + (16) ] } / 1000 Total annual energy usage (13) + (17) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) 8760 8760 (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) Total useful floor area in m2 Lighting energy numeric indicator (LENI) (18) / (19) (19) Worksheet 8.

55 + 0. Ra > 80.9 x 10.35 kWh/ m²/year Pn – (106 x 260)/2640 = 10. UGR <19.4/1000) x (1800 + 1350) + 0.19 = 30.4)/1000 x {(2500 x 0.55 + (0.36 x 3. Uo > 0.15) + 0.8) – 0.35/8760 x (8760 – (2500 + 1500)]} = (8.8 Fo (presence control manual on/auto off) – 0. Width = 48m.9 Fd (daylight link control medium daylight supply) – 0.4 x 260 x 8760)/(2640 x 1000) = 0.35/8760 x 4760) = (9.55 + {0.7.22 kWh/m²/year LENI = 30. 1500 no daylight) Standard year hours = 8760 hrs/year Lighting requirements – 500 lx on work plane.22 kWh/m²/year Checklists | 191 .4 W/luminaire Charge power for Exit sign luminaires – 10 W/luminaire Estimations Pem – {(3.Checklists Worked example – LENI calculation Project – Electronic device assembly plant Location North East England Size Length = 55m.55 kWh/m²/year Ppc – (0.9) + (1500 x 0.9)} + 0.9 LENI = (0. Lighting quality class – medium (two star) Lighting solution – 230 off Primata II 2x49W T16 lamps battens with slotted white reflector optic and DALI controlled dimmable HF ballast linked daylight detection and auto off control 30 off as above but with E3 emergency lighting capability 6 off 1x18W T26 Exit signs Required data – Circuit watts of the Primata II luminaire – 106 W Charge power for Primata II emergency lighting circuit – 3. Useful area = 2640m² Roof 20% glazed to allow entry of daylight Walls 2 sides 30% glazed to allow daylight Interior Light colour with open plan assembly line layout Operational hours = 4000 hrs/year (2500 daylight.5 x 30 x 8760) + (10 x 6 x 8760)}/(2640 x 1000) = 0.8 x 0.5 W/luminaire Standby power for DALI ballast in the Primata II – 0. H = 6m.4 W/m² Fc (constant illuminance control MF = 0.

3 42.8 1 Building LENI LENI LENI LENI no constant illumination Manual kWh/(m2/year) Manufacture 42.35 0.4 10.7 Auto constant illumination Manual Auto Gain % 10 21 0 kWh/(m2/year) 38.7 Table 8.5 83.9 0.35 5 10.55 1 Parasitic Control kWh/ (m2 x year) W 0.2 33.1 shows the parameters and results for this project in line B.7 34.3 83.4 20 Manual Auto Manual Auto - h 2500 2500 2500 h 1500 1500 1500 1 1 1 0.7 192 | Checklists .9 FO FD Quality Parasitic class Emergency kWh/ (m2 x year) Manufacture ** A ** B ** C 0. Line A shows the energy requirements if daylight was not admitted into the building and Line C show the Benchmark values for this type of project taken from EN 15193-2007 Annex F Table F1.55 0. It shows that the addition of the controls will yield a 21% reduction in the energy requirements.9 1 1 1 1 1 0.9 0.4 30.2 38.2 75.Checklists Table 8. Building Q Pm Ppc Pload tD tN Fc no constant constant illuminance illuminance 1 1 1 0.9 0.2 75.1 38.

or the lower the colour rendition group number. from relatively warm (low colour temperature with predominant red) to cool (high colour temperature with predominant blue). The rated luminous flux is measured under standard conditions at 25°C in units of lumen (lm). This describes the colour impression made by a light source. Rated life The average rated life is normally specified. half have failed) under standardised conditions. Colour rendering group 1A 1B 2 3 4 Ra 90-100 80-89 60-79 40-59 20-39 <20 Luminous flux/ luminous efficacy Rated life Light colour Colour rendition Luminous flux maintenance Burning position Lamp power Warm-up time Re-start time Dimming capability Fig.1 Choosing the right lamp Part of the expertise of the lighting designer is the ability to find the most suitable combination of lamp and luminaire to light a given environment.g.1 Considerations in choosing a lamp Increasing colour rendition Table 9. This is the time by which statistically half of a test sample of lamps are still working (e. LEDs and Circuits 9. Choosing the correct lamp depends upon what is required of the lighting. Luminous flux/luminous efficacy The total amount of light generated by the lamp. Colour rendition The spectral components present in light produced by a lamp determine how well the lamp reproduces object colours.9 Lamps. The higher the colour rendition index (Ra or CRI). and therefore the lower the contribution of the power station to global warming. The greater the efficacy for a given output. The ratio of luminous flux to electrical power consumption gives the luminous efficacy (lm/W). LEDs and Circuits | 193 . the better the colour rendition. The relevant key lighting characteristics of lamps are given below.1 Colour rendering groups linked to lamp Ra Lamps. Light colour The light colour relates to the correlated colour temperature (CCT) of a white light source. The system luminous efficiency also includes the power consumption of the control gear. the lower the electricity cost. 9.

The output of high-pressure sodium and mercury vapour lamps may be varied. Lamp power The electrical power consumed by the lamp. Luminous flux maintenance As a lamp ages through life the peak luminous flux output by the lamp decreases due to deterioration in the performance of the lamp chemicals and in the physical lamp structure.D. Dimming capability Incandescent. This has implications in applications where after a dip in the power supply instant re-strike is required. Manufacturers produce lumen maintenance curves for their lamps showing how the luminous flux depreciates over time. but in a more limited fashion and generally only by discrete levels. lamps) are turned off they need to cool down for several minutes before they can be started again. These include highpressure discharge lamps and fluorescent lamps. LEDs and Circuits Burning position Certain lamps only permit a restricted selection of mounting orientations for correct operation. Warm-up time Many lamps need between 30 seconds and several minutes to warm up and output their full luminous flux. tungsten halogen. as opposed to the electrical power consumed by a system consisting of lamp and control gear. Re-start time When high-pressure discharge lamps (also known as highintensity discharge lamps or H. LEDs and Circuits . Metal halide lamps are not approved for dimming by most manufacturers due to the effect this may have on light quality and lamp life. whilst compact fluorescent lamps may generally be mounted in any orientation (although luminous flux output may vary with burning position). 194 | Lamps. fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps may all be dimmed over almost any range.I. Manufacturers specify these permitted burning positions for their lamps. For example for some metal halide lamps only certain burning positions are allowed to prevent unstable operating conditions.Lamps.

This UV radiation is converted into Lamps. (The halogen cycle is a chemical mechanism that causes tungsten that evaporates from the filament during operation to be deposited back onto the filament. just as in incandescent lamps. The halogen cycle increases the efficiency and extends the rated life compared with traditional incandescent lamps.2 Tungsten halogen lamps Key attributes For mains or low-voltage operation Longer rated life and higher luminous efficacy than incandescent lamps Easy to dim Brilliant light Low-voltage types are very small and are ideal for precise direction of light (but do require a transformer) Excellent colour rendition Key application areas Retail and domestic Restaurants and catering How they work Current flows through a filament and heats it up.Lamps.3 Fluorescent lamps Key attributes High to very high luminous efficacy Good to excellent colour rendition Long rated life Extensive range of types Dimmable Key application areas Extensively used in most application areas How they work An alternating electric field generates UV radiation (which is in itself invisible to the human eye) between the two electrodes in the discharge tube. These lamps therefore generate a relatively large amount of heat. thereby reducing blackening of the bulb wall. which is the principal failure mechanism) Fig 9.2 Tungsten halogen lamps 9. thereby increasing the filament life. LEDs and Circuits 9. LEDs and Circuits Fig 9.3 Fluorescent lamps | 195 . Chemicals used in the halogen cycle also slow down the rate of diffusion of filament material.

Both the T16 and T26 lamps have the same basic shaped curve. which may be combined in an electronic ballast. The reason for this is that the lamp cool spot for a T16 lamp is at the end of the tube with the manufacturers label printed on it. whereas the cool spot for a T26 lamp is in the centre of the tube. and the light output decreases as the ambient temperature moves away from this optimum. LEDs and Circuits visible light in the phosphor coating on the tube wall. For the T16 lamp the maximum value of flux lies above this value. One effect of this differing optimum temperature is that the rated luminous flux quoted by manufacturers is at a standard temperature of 25°C. 9. temperature curve As with all fluorescent lamps.Lamps. and therefore the luminaire light output ratio (LOR) may have levels greater than 100%. An optimum ambient temperature exists for which the light output is a maximum. 1. 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Relative luminous flux % T16 T26 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Ambient temperature ˚C Fig. The luminous flux is highly dependent on the ambient temperature around the lamp. however the optimum temperature for a T16 is 35°C. the luminous flux produced by the lamp is temperature dependant. The lamp needs a starting aid and a current limiting device. LEDs and Circuits . The colour rendering and colour temperature attributes of the light produced depend upon the chemical composition of the phosphors.4 Curves relating luminous flux to ambient temperature for T16 and T26 linear fluorescent lamps 196 | Lamps. Application notes T16 fluorescent lamps differ from T26 versions in several characteristics that the user should be particularly aware of. whereas the optimum temperature for a T26 lamp is 25°C. Luminous flux vs.

3. particularly in installation which allow dimming. LEDs and Circuits | 197 . when the initially encapsulated mercury is vaporised and evenly distributed throughout the lamp. To ensure perfect operation a period of two to four days of operation without switching or dimming should be allowed. This is the period immediately after the lamps are switched on for the first time. In general. lamp ends should always have the same orientation (so that the lamp labels should be at the same lamp ends for all luminaires). In cold environments it could be a benefit to lamp output to have the lamp labels at opposite ends to aid heating of the lamp cold spot. Unstabilised lamps may differ in brightness and light colour. T16 Length 549mm 849mm 1149mm 1449mm Power 14W 24W 21W 39W 28W 54W 35W 49W 80W Rated luminous flux (25°C) 1200lm 1750lm 1900lm 3100lm 2600lm 4450lm 3300lm 4300lm 6150lm 1500mm 58W 5200lm 1200mm 36W 3350lm Length 590mm 895mm T26 Power 18W 30W Rated luminous flux (25°C) 1350lm 2350lm Table 9. One should also wait for proper ageing before assessing an installation for illuminance levels and light quality. Lamp Orientation Owing to the two electrodes (tube ends) not being identical in design it matters how one or more lamps are fitted in the luminaires. Ageing/burning in Brand new lamps stabilise during the initial aging phase.2 Summary of selected lamps Lamps.Lamps. LEDs and Circuits 2. and may exhibit flickering at low dimming levels.

In compact luminaires with Fig. Note that amalgam lamps are comparatively slow to run-up and should not be used for emergency lighting of dangerous workplaces (100% luminous flux required after 0.4 Compact fluorescent lamps Key attributes Compact designs High luminous efficacy Excellent colour rendition Extensive range of types Dimmable Key application areas Commercial Domestic.5 Compact fluorescent lamps 198 | Lamps. LEDs and Circuits 9. Standard types of lamp have a cool spot in the exposed lamp bend. Amalgam lamps are also unsuitable for installations with high quality dimming requirements since lamps may not dim uniformly. This helps to check the steep drop-off of luminous flux at higher or lower temperatures so that at least 90% of the maximum luminous flux is achieved over a wide temperature range. typically about +5 to +70°C. 2. Lamp orientation The luminous flux from compact fluorescent lamps is highly dependant upon the burning position. (In amalgam lamps the cool spot lies in the base). LEDs and Circuits . Amalgam lamps The strong temperature dependence of the luminous flux of traditional and compact fluorescent lamps can be compensated by adding amalgam that helps to trap mercury and slow its release. so that self-heating and convection may lead to a temperature rise here. hotels and many exteriors How they work These lamps are compact versions of the linear or circular fluorescent lamps and operate in a very similar way.5 seconds). Ensuring the lamps are correctly inserted can therefore optimise the light output ratio. The luminous flux depends upon the burning position and ambient temperature around the lamp. Above and below this range however. the light level still falls off sharply. 9.Lamps. Application notes 1.

9. The use of ceramic discharge tubes further improves the lamp properties. Ballasts The manufacturers of metal halide lamps use a range of operating principles. Some manufacturers advise no dimming of this lamp Key application areas Industrial Spotlighting Floodlighting Retail areas How they work In metal halide lamps a highly compact electric arc is produced in a discharge tube. and the current must be controlled by a ballast. An ignitor is needed to switch on the lamp. it is therefore recommended to fit the lamps with electrodes uppermost wherever possible. Fig. such as downlights. Application notes 1. resulting in different electrical operating values. LEDs and Circuits | 199 . The composition of the chemicals in the tube determines the quality of light produced. In both cases suitable ignitors are required. LEDs and Circuits horizontal lamp arrangement.5 Metal halide lamps Key attributes High luminous efficacy Good to excellent colour rendition High colour stability for ceramic discharge-tube lamps Limited dimming. Since the lamp end does not allow consistent identification of the electrode position. Some lamps are therefore approved for operation with both ballasts for metal halide lamps and with ballasts for high-pressure sodium vapour lamps.Lamps. that lamp side on which adjacent tubes are not connected should be placed uppermost – these are the two tube ends containing the internal electrodes. together with slightly altered light quality. 9.6 Metal halide lamps Lamps. The higher operating current then leads to higher luminous flux levels for the same lamps.

Good colour rendition Warm light Fig. Suitable safety devices are installed in the lamps for this purpose (e. Detailed data from the manufacturer should be used to determine suitable maintenance factors for the operation of the lamp (lamp survival factor and lamp luminous flux maintenance factor). and for metal halide lamps this is generally after approximately 15 minutes. This normally happens after the ignitor has tried to start the lamp a few times. The detailed information from the manufacturer must be observed without fail. outer protective coating). 9. 9.7 Sodium vapour high pressure lamps 200 | Lamps. LEDs and Circuits 2.6 Sodium vapour high pressure lamps Key attributes High luminous efficacy and long rated life Satisfactory to poor colour rendition Can be dimmed in discrete steps Colour improved sodium lamp . 3. A basic ignitor will do this until the lamp strikes. Glass covers In general metal halide lamps require a glass cover to protect people and property in the event of the lamp exploding.Lamps. They also depend on the switching frequency and the position of use. integral safety tube. (For high pressure sodium lamps this will be after approximately 5 minutes). LEDs and Circuits . It is the manufacturers responsibility to decide whether to permit individual lamp types to be used in uncovered luminaires. Rated life characteristics The average rated lamp life and the reduction in luminous flux with age can vary markedly between lamp types. 4.g. Ignitors An ignitor is a starting device that generates voltage pulses to start a discharge lamp. which means that if there is a problem with the lamp or circuit that prevents the lamp starting the ignitor will continue to try to start the lamp until the circuit is turned off or potentially the ballast is damaged. Modern ignitors therefore normally incorporate anti-cycling control that can sense the normal end-of–life mode of a lamp and disables the ignitor.

7 Mercury vapour lamps Key attributes No starter required.Retail areas How they work The discharge in the linearly extended ceramic discharge tube is defined by sodium. just a ballast Satisfactory to poor colour rendition Can be dimmed in discrete steps Low efficacy Key application areas Industrial Street lighting Walkways How they work The almost obsolete high-pressure mercury lamp is actually the forerunner to the modern metal halide lamp. sodium vapour low pressure lamps generate poor quality yellow light with extreme high efficacy. 9. so the light is yellowish and only suitable for certain applications although colour improved versions of the lamp do exist. LEDs and Circuits | 201 . LEDs and Circuits Key application areas Industrial Street lighting Colour improved sodium lamp . Fig.Lamps.8 Mercury vapour lamps Lamps. The lamps can be started at mains voltage. 9. and the current must be controlled by a ballast. although it provides poorer colour rendering and efficacy. An ignitor is needed to switch on the lamp (although some lamps have a built-in ignitor and do not need any external starting aids). They are often used for street lighting. and so only need a ballast to limit the current. Note.

The lamps can only be operated with special electronic ballasts and have a built in microwave screen.9 Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) Key Attributes Good luminous efficacy Long service life Low voltage Durable Emit very little heat Small dimensions Key application areas Exterior signage. As yet there are no dimmable electronic ballasts available. just as in fluorescent lamps.10 LED 202 | Lamps.9 Induction lamp 9. resin Fig. however the effects of lumen depreciation should still be considered. 9. This field excites the mercury to produce UV radiation that is then converted into visible light using phosphors. 9. display and directional lighting Dynamic colour effects How they work An LED is a small solid-state semiconductor device that emits light when an electric current passes through it. LEDs and Circuits 9. LEDs and Circuits .Lamps. The LED consists of a diode chip that is encased in an epoxy. plastic. Fig.8 Induction lamps Key attributes Rotationally symmetrical light distribution Long rated life Not dimmable Key application areas Areas where it is difficult to replace lamps Commercial and industrial interiors Retail Indoor and outdoor public areas How they work A very high-frequency electromagnetic field is coupled into the glass bulb using an antenna protruding into the bulb. Systems have a very long service life due to the absence of any electrodes. The amalgam technology used in these lamps makes their luminous flux only very slightly temperature dependant.

11 Structure of an LED Lamps. This LED housing may be in a variety of shapes and sizes and helps determine the optical characteristics of the LED. and the overall characteristics of the system. and with a cluster of different coloured diodes and the use of technology such as DMX protocols linked to a light mixing console extremely complex lighting effects may be produced. The driver can provide a quite advanced level of control. This driver must be correctly matched to the LED it is powering as incorrect voltage and current will at best provide poor light. Generally a second optical controller is used in the form of a lens mounted on the epoxy housing. The driver must also protect the LED system from voltage fluctuations that may cause damage.e.Lamps. This heat must be removed from the LED using heat sinking. from the shape and size of the LED to the configuration of the lens and distance from the diode chip to the lens define the final optical performance of the system. LEDs and Circuits or ceramic housing. and excess heat will shorten the life of the LED or cause failure. LED chip Cathode pin Heat – Copper cladding + Fig. which is then embodied into a housing. Finally to operate LEDs requires a regulated direct current supply. designing using LEDs requires careful control of heat removal from the package. and may severely reduce the life of the LED or cause instantaneous failure of the system. LEDs and Circuits | 203 . generally being supplied as a complete electrical and optical system. LEDs have reasonable electrical efficiency in terms of lumens per watt (i. So the LED is not a true lamp. as LEDs are very sensitive to the junction temperature of the internal diode. 9. the power input to the driver compared with the light produced by the LEDs) and they are improving all the time but currently they do not compare with the high values from discharge lamp technology. Whilst the ratio of light to heat produced by LEDs is much higher than for an incandescent light source (such as a GLS light bulb) they do still produce a significant amount of heat. usually supplied by a self-contained “driver” which converts the AC mains electricity to the correct DC voltage. allowing dimming down to 0%. As well as the optical control of the system.

RYGB white Phosphor downconversion RYG(B) Phosphers Blue or UV LED Fig. however. The use of a phosphor does. varying from individual LEDs to clustered or linear formats. decreasing the bin size increases manufacturing and LED costs. 9. If a random set of LEDs was taken which were all nominally white they would have differing appearances. An additional consideration is that the process for producing LEDs cannot accurately reproduce LEDs with identical colour appearances. They may also be supplied with or without a secondary lens. decrease the efficiency of the system.12 White LED using phosphor coating RYGB white Colour mixing Mixing optics RYGB LEDs Fig. green and blue. The best method in terms of quality of the spectrum of light is produced using a blue LED with a yellowish phosphor coating. yellow. either as a component to insert into a fixture or as a complete luminaire the LEDs may be supplied in various configurations. LEDs and Circuits The light produced by an LED is monochromatic and the colour of the emitted light depends on the material used in the fabrication of the LED and varies from red through orange. a larger bin size will contain a wider spread of colour appearance than a smaller bin size. LEDs and Circuits . When using groups of LEDs or LED luminaires it is essential that the LEDs come from the same bin to give a consistent appearance. in which the LEDs are sorted into groups of similar colour appearance. To produce white light a variety of methods are used. When buying LEDs. This is termed a phosphor down conversion. the configuration being chosen to suit the fixture it is to be used within. especially for white LEDs. LED packages may also be configured to produce mixed or blended light.13 White LED using colour blending 204 | Lamps. However. in principal similar to a fluorescent lamp. To overcome this a process called binning is used. either through the use of three or more different coloured LEDs (such as a mixture of red. 9. These blended systems whilst suitable for lighting within the entertainment industry or in colour changing applications should be used with caution in the wider lighting environment as while they may visually produce white light the actual spectrum of the light is still three or more monochromatic peaks of light and therefore accuracy of colour rendering can be poor.Lamps. yellow. This gives flexibility in application. The accuracy of the colour match depends upon the bin size. green and blue) or through a multicolour LED that incorporates two or more different colour chips within the same epoxy package.

15 An exampl e of an LED syst em in tegra ted w ith buil ding arch itectu re Lamps.14 Exam ples of LED packa ge and LED luminaires are good for providing guidance and configura tions emphasis due to their small size and availability in many colours of light. Whilst an LED may produce light for a long period the amount of light produced will deteriorate over time. a limitation of LEDs for this type of lighting is their monochromatic nature. 9. Therefore. The Fig. LEDs are already used extensively in signage and signaling. LEDs and Circuits | 205 . but with future developments this may come. Additionally as the light produced by an LED is “cold” it has major benefits in applications such as museums where heat produced by the lighting of an artifact may cause significant damage to that artifact. 8. and in the exterior lighting of buildings. except for phosphor white LEDs. configurations Fig . Impressive applications of LEDs may be seen. However. and in the entertainment industry. Fig. retail and social environments. Additionally. LEDs and Circuits A benefit of LED technology is the relatively long life of the systems. At the moment the technology is not suitably advanced to allow extensive use in the general lighting environment or more specialized applications such as streetlighting or floodlighting. 9. and even between colours of LEDs so manufacturers data should be consulted. care should be taken to ensure that there is still sufficient light output at end of life. Lumen depreciation and LED life varies between manufacturers. but other factors should be considered. and especially in critical applications such as emergency lighting.15 An example of an LED system integrated with building architecture Fig . 8.14 Examples of LED package use of LEDs in emergency lighting is becoming more common.000 hours life for LEDs.Lamps. This makes them ideal for effects lighting where hidden lights are used to create an atmosphere in a space. manufacturers quote upwards of 50. So how is an LED luminaire used? A major advantage of LEDs is their small size and long life. including domestic residences. This depreciation of light output is mainly due to discoloration of the epoxy housing of the LED over time.

16 LED lighting providing a ding a atmosphere to a space dis tinctive atmosp here to a space Fig. Fig. All lamp manufacturers made a direct link between their private brand code and the ILCOS system. LBS lamp code system In 1994 the Zentralverband Elektrotechnik und Elecktronikindustrie. produced a lamp coding system called Lampenbezeichnungssystem or LBS for short. The system is of simple codes and has short descriptions and is maintained by ZVEI. LEDs and Circuits . 9. called the International Lamp Coding System or ILCOS. to cover several features of the lamp. 8. the Industry Federation in Germany. The responsibility for maintaining the ILCOS system is with the IEC lamp technical committee. published in 1993 as IEC TS 61231. The system is directly linked to the IEC standard for specific lamps. The standard code “ILCOS D” gives the complete designation of the lamp.16 LED lighting providistinctive 9.3. The codes are widely used by luminaire makers and clients in Europe. better known as ZVEI.Fig .Lamps. but it is not supported by all lamp-makers or by international standards. A selection of ILCOS and equivalent LBS codes with their meanings are given in Table 9.10 Lamp coding systems – LBS/ILCOS ILCOS lamp code To support the worldwide identification of compatible lamp types the IEC has produced a generic lamp coding system standard. LEDs and Circuits 9. in code. ILCOS offers a short code “ILCOS L” that can be expanded.17 An LED ground recessed luminaire 206 | Lamps. The lamp standard has data sheets that are identified by the ILCOS code.

Lamps. Philips SDW-T.3 Selection of LBS and ILCOS lamp coding systems Lamps.g. LEDs and Circuits | 207 . linear double-ended Halogen incandescent lamps for mains voltage with reflector Low voltage halogen incandescent lamps with reflector Low voltage halogen incandescent lamp with dichroic reflector and glass cover Fluorescent lamps Ø16mm Fluorescent lamps Ø26mm Circular fluorescent lamps Ø16mm Compact fluorescent lamps (1 tube) Compact fluorescent lamps (1 tube) for electronic ballast up to 80W Compact fluorescent lamps (1 tube) up to 36W Compact fluorescent lamps (2 tubes) Compact fluorescent lamps (2 tubes) for electronic ballast Compact fluorescent lamps (3 tubes) up to 36W Compact fluorescent lamps (3 tubes) for electronic ballast up to 120W Compact fluorescent lamps (double D) Induction lamps (Philips QL type) Double ended tubular metal halide lamp Double ended tubular metal halide lamp with ceramic burner Single ended tubular metal halide lamp Single ended elliptical metal halide lamp Single ended elliptical metal halide lamp with ceramic burner High pressure mercury discharge lamp Single ended elliptical high pressure sodium lamp Single ended elliptical high pressure sodium lamp with internal ignitor Single ended tubular high pressure sodium lamp Single ended elliptical high pressure sodium lamp. LEDs and Circuits LBS (ZVEI) A R QT QT-DE QPAR QR QR-CBC T16 T26 T16-R TC-S TC-SEL TC-L TC-D TC-DEL TC-T TC-TEL TC-DD LMG-lHf HIT-DE HIT-DE-CE HIT HIE HIE-CE HME HSE HSE-I HST HSE-MF HST-MF HSE-CRI HST-CRI HST HST-DE LST ILCOS IA IRR HSG HDG HA HAG / HMG HRG FDH FD FSC FSD FSDH FSD FSQ FSQH FSM FSMH FSS FSS MD MT MT ME ME QE SE SE/I ST SE ST SEM STH STH SD LS Description General purpose incandescent lamp Reflector lamps Halogen incandescent lamps Halogen incandescent lamps. increased light output (MF = more luminous flux) Single ended tubular high pressure sodium lamp. increased light output (MF = more luminous flux) Single ended elliptical high pressure sodium lamp improved colour rendering (Philips SON Comfort Pro type) Single ended tubular high pressure sodium lamp improved colour rendering (Philips SON-T Comfort Pro type) Single ended tubular high pressure sodium lamp with high colour rendering (e. Iwasaki NHT-SDX) Double ended tubular high pressure sodium lamp Single ended tubular low pressure sodium lamp Table 9.

Lumilux FH.White(23).0 86.3 35 Starcoat.Lumilux FQ.4 13 450mm T26 FD T8 (T26) G13 Warm White.White TL 65.Super 80/840 Polylux XRL 840.TL5 HO Starcoat.Lumilux L840.TL5 HE 92.Super 80/840 Polylux 830.6 82.4 73.Super 80/830 Polylux XLR 840.TL5 HE 94.Lumilux FH. LEDs and Circuits 550mm T16 FDH T5 (T16) 850mm G5 G5 G5 G5 G13 G13 G13 G13 G13 76.7 88. Tri-phosphor (other colour temperatures available.5 65/80 Linear fluorescent.1 87.Warm White TLD 1500mm T38 FD T12 (T38) G13 White 76.TL5 HO Starcoat.5 4 300mm T16 FD T5 (T16) G5 White.Lumilux L840.7 14 850mm T16 FDH T5 (T16) 1150mm T16 FDH T5 (T16) 1450mm T16 FDH T5 (T16) Lamps.Lumilux FQ. LEDs and Circuits 3500 3500 3500 2950 3450 1B 1B/1A 1B 1B 1B 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 3 9000 5000 1200 1900 2600 3300 1750 3 3 3 3 5000 5000 5000 9000 150 400 850 950 G5 G5 G5 G5 72.Super 80/840 Polylux XLR 840.Lumilux FQ.3 15 White(30).Warm 63.1 89.7 79.Lumilux FQ.8 93.TL5 HO Lumilux FQ.halophosphate (other colour temperatures available) 150mm T16 FD T5 (T16) G5 White.Lumilux FQ.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd 208 | Lamps.9/62.White TL 37.White(23).9 24 Starcoat.TL5 HE 90. especially 6500K) 550mm T16 FDH T5 (T16) G5 Starcoat.Lumilux L840.TL5 HO Starcoat.Super 80/840 .Lumilux L840.TL5 HO Polylux XLR 840.White TL 50 8 530mm T16 FD T5 (T16) G5 White.TL5 HO Lumilux FQ.TL5 HE 85.9 28 Starcoat.8 39 49 54 80 18 38 36 58 70 T16 T16 FDH FDH T5 (T16) T5 (T16) G5 G5 66. standard .9 75.5 24 39 - 1B 1B 20000 20000 1600 3100 - T16 1450mm T16 FDH FDH T5 (T16) T5 (T16) - 1B 1B/1A 1B/1A 1B 1B 3000 4000 4000 4000 1B 1B 1B 1B 20000 20000 20000 20000 15000 12000 15000 15000 15000 2850 4300 4450 6150 1350 3300 3350 5200 6200 - 1150mm T16 FDH T5 (T16) 1150mm T16 FDH T5 (T16) 600mm T26 FD T8 (T26) 2700 4000 2700 4000 2700 4000 2700 4000 2700 4000 6000 2700 4000 6000 2700 4000 2700 4000 2700 4000 4000 1050mm T26 FD T8 (T26) 1200mm T26 FD T8 (T26) 1500mm T26 FD T8 (T26) 1800mm T26 FD T8 (T26) Starcoat.Lumilux FH.White(23).TL5 HO Starcoat.Lumilux FH.5 21 Fluorescent lamps Linear fluorescent.

2 65.3 64.8 82.PL-S/2p TC-S FSD 2L 2-pin G23 Biax S.2 75.1 66.Dulux S.90 deluxe/940 1200mm T26 FD T8 (T26) G13 Polylux Dlx 940.8 55 1B 40 1B 22 1B 16000 16000 16000 1800 3300 4500 - Lamps.PLS/4p TC-SEL FSD 2L 4-pin 2G7 Biax S/E.9 18 24 34 36 40 55 80 16 28 16 21 28 38 55 3500 3500 3500 3500 3500 3500 3000 3500 3500 3500 3500 3500 3500 3500 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 12000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 1250 1800 2800 2900 3500 4850 6000 1050 2050 1050 1350 2050 2850 3900 | 209 .0 55.PLS/4p TC-L FSD 2L 4-pin 2G11 Biax L.5 88.7 81.PL-L TC-L FSDH 2L 4-pin 2G11 Biax L.TL5C (T16-R) T16-R FSCH T5-C 2GX13 FC.PL-S/2p TC-SEL FSD 2L 4-pin 2G7 Biax S/E.8 66.3 73.CFL Square TC-DD FSS 2D 2-pin GR8 Biax 2D.Dulux L.PL-L TC-L FSDH 2L 4-pin 2G11 Biax L.0 57.90 deluxe/940 1500mm T26 FD T8 (T26) G13 Polylux Dlx 940.Dulux S.0 70. Multi-phosphor (other colour temperatures available) 600mm T26 FD T8 (T26) G13 Polylux Dlx 940.Lumilux de Luxe 940.1 50.Lumilux de Luxe 940.TL5C (T16-R) Compact fluorescent lamps (other colour temperatures available) TC-EL FBT E27 Dulux EL Integral gear TC-S FSD 2L 2-pin G23 Biax S.Lumilux de Luxe 940.CFL Square TC-DDEL FSS 2D 4-pin GR10 Biax 2D/E.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) 94.6 87.7 81.Dulux L.6 65.0 82.PL-L TC-L FSD 2L 4-pin 2G11 Biax L TC-L FSD 2L 4-pin 2G11 Biax L.7 58 4000 1A 12000 3750 36 4000 1A 12000 2350 18 4000 1A 12000 1000 100 4000 1B 12000 9400 - ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd 81.Dulux L.PL-S/2p TC-S FSD 2L 2-pin G23 Biax S. LEDs and Circuits 2400mm T38 FD T12 (T38) G13 Polylux 840 Linear fluorescent.CFL Square TC-DDEL FSS 2D 4-pin GR10 Biax 2D/E TC-DDEL FSS 2D 4-pin GR10 Biax 2D/E.Dulux L.2 75.0 65.4 80.5 81.PL-L TC-L FSD 2L 4-pin 2G11 Biax L.PL-S/2p TC-S FSD 2L 2-pin G23 Biax S.8 11 7 5 7 9 11 9 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 400 250 400 600 900 600 900 - Lamps.TL5C (T16-R) T16-R FSCH T5-C 2GX13 FC.Dulux L.6 73.Dulux S. LEDs and Circuits 2700 4000 2700 4000 3000 4000 2700 3500 3500 3500 3500 4000 4000 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 57.Dulux S.Dulux S/E.90 deluxe/940 Circular fluorescent lamps T16-R FSCH T5-C 2GX13 FC.Dulux S/E.PL-L TC-L FSDH 2L 4-pin 2G11 Biax HLBX.PL-L TC-DD FSS 2D 2-pin GR8 Biax 2D.4 75.CFL Square TC-DDEL FSS 2D 4-pin GR10 Biax 2D/E 69.CFL Square TC-DDEL FSS 2D 4-pin GR10 Biax 2D/E.6 64.Dulux L.

PL-C/2p Biax D/E.Dulux T.PL-C/2p Biax D/E.Dulux T/E Plus Biax T.PLC/4p Dulux F Biax T.4 74.PLC/4p Biax D.Dulux D.5 63.CDM-R 111 35 4-pin 4-pin 4-pin 3000 1B 6000+ - 30000 .PL-T/4p 4-pin 4-pin TC-TEL FSM 6L amalgam TC-TEL FSM 6L amalgam TC-TEL FSM 6L amalgam TC-TEL FSM 6L amalgam TC-TEL FSM 6L amalgam TC-TELI FSM 8L TC-TELI FSM 8L TC-TELI FSM 8L Metal halide discharge lamps Reflector-ceramic HIR 35/10° MR GX8.8 68.Dulux T/E IN Plus.2 13 13 3500 3500 1B 1B 10000 12000 900 900 60.Dulux D/E.9 65.PL-C/2p Biax D/E.5 68.Dulux T Plus Biax T/E amalgam.6 75.3 66. LEDs and Circuits GX24d-2 GX24q-2 GX24d-3 GX24q-3 GX24q-3 GX24q-4 GX24q-5 Dulux T/E IN Plus GX24q-6 Dulux T/E IN Plus 2G8-1 2G8-1 2G8-1 PL-H PL-H Dulux HO Constant.Dulux T/E IN Plus.Dulux D/E.8 68.0 32 42 57 70 60 85 120 26 26 18 3500 3500 3500 3500 3500 3000 4000 3000 3000 3000 18 3500 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 36 13 13 3500 3500 3500 1B 1B 1B 69.7 18 18 3500 3500 1B 1B 10000 12000 1200 1200 1800 1800 2800 890 890 1150 1150 1710 1710 2200 3200 4300 5200 4000 6000 9000 69.8 65.PLC/4p Biax D.Dulux D.0 60.Dulux D.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) G24d-1 G24q-1 G24d-1 G24q-1 G24d-2 G24q-2 G24d-3 G24q-3 77.Dulux T Plus.2 75.7 70.PL-T/4p Dulux T/E IN Plus. LEDs and Circuits TC-TEL amalgam TC-T FSM 6L 4-pin FSM 6L 2-pin 4-pin 4-pin 4-pin Biax D.0 10 10 3500 3500 1B 1B 10000 12000 600 600 - ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.PL-T/4p Biax T.2 69.Dulux T/E IN Plus.PLC/4p Biax D.2 69.PL-C/2p Biax D/E.Dulux D/E. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd TC-D TC-DEL FSQ FSQ 4L 2-pin 4L 4-pin 210 | Lamps.PL-T/4p Biax T/E.Dulux D/E.PL-H TC-D TC-DEL FSQ FSQ 4L 2-pin 4L 4-pin TC-D TC-DEL FSQ FSQ 4L 2-pin 4L 4-pin TC-D TC-DEL FSQ FSQ 4L 2-pin 4L 4-pin TC-F TC-T TC-TEL FSS FSM FSM Flat 4L4-pin 2G10 6L 2-pin GX24d-1 6L 4-pin GX24q-1 TC-T FSM 6L 2-pin Lamps.9 63.PL-T/2p amalgam Biax T/E.8 76.5 Powerball HCIR111.2 26 26 3500 3500 1B 1B 10000 12000 10000 10000 12000 10000 12000 10000 12000 12000 10000 10000 10000 20000 20000 20000 66.Dulux D.7 66.PL-T/2p amalgam Biax T/E.

CDM-R PAR20 HI-PAR 30/10° MR E27 CMH-PAR. LEDs and Circuits 74.0 80.Powerball HCITS.MH(N)-TD HIT-DE MD MBI-TD Fc2 Arcstream.2 117.0 70 150 200 60 140 20 35 70 20 4200 4200 5900 2800 2800 3000 3000 3000 3000 1B 1B 1B 2 2 1B 1B 1B 1B 6000 6000 2000 12000 12000 9000 10000 9000 9000 5200 12000 13500 6850 16500 1700 3400 6200 1500 - Powerball HCIR111.4200K) HIT-DE-CE MD MBI-TD RX7s CMH-TD.0 90.5400K) HIT-DE MD MBI-TD RX7s Arcstream.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) GX8.Mastercolour CDM-TD HIT-DE-CE MD MBI-TD RX7s CMH-TD.5 35 35 35 70 70 3000 1B 6000 3000 1B 6000 3000 1B 6000 3000 1B 6000 3000 1B 6000+ 23000 5000 68000 10000 35 3000 1B 6000+ 8500 ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.Mastercolour CDM-TD Single ended compact (choice of colour 2600 .6 75.CDM-R PAR30 HI-PAR 30/40° MR E27 CMH-PAR.Powerstar HQI-T HIT MT MBI-T GY9.5 78.Powerstar HQITS.MH(N)-TD HIT-DE MD MBI-TD RX7s Arcstream. LEDs and Circuits | 211 .ceramic HIT-TC-CE MT G8.Powerball HCITS.Powerball HCITC.5 114.ceramic (choice of colour 3000 .Powerball HCIPAR.Powerball HCIPAR.0 100.7 150 70 250 400 5100 5400 3000 3000 250 4000 150 4200 1B 1B 1A 1A 1B 1B 70 4200 1B 6000 6000 6000 6000 15000 15000 15000 5500 12000 20000 20000 36000 7000 14500 - Lamps.CDM-R PAR30 Double ended compact (choice of colour 3000 .Powerball HCIPAR.CDM-R 111 HI-PAR 20/10° MR E27 CMH-PAR.Mastercolour CDM-TC HIT-TC-CE MT PGJ5 Mastercolour CDM-TM Lamps.5 CMH-TC.5 CMH-TC.Mastercolour CDM-TC HIT-TC-CE MT MBI-T G8.1 88.Powerball HCI-TC HIT-TC-CE MT MBI-T G8. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd HIR 35/24° MR - HIR 35/45° MR - GX8.Powerball HCIPAR.Powerball HCITC.9 85.0 97.Powerstar HQITS.5 MSD HIT MT PGZ 12 CosmoWhite HIT MT PGZ 12 CosmoWhite Single ended compact .Powerstar HQI-T HIT MT MBI-T G12 Arcstream.3 80.4200K) HIT MT MBI-T G12 Arcstream.Powerstar HQITS.0 67.CDM-R PAR20 HI-PAR 20/30° MR E27 CMH-PAR.5 CMH-TC.6 80.0 80.0 96.CDM-R 111 Powerball HCI-R111 (40°).MHN-TD HIT-DE MD Fc2 Powerstar HQI-TS/D HIT-DE MD MBI-TD Fc2 Powerstar HQI-TS Double ended compact .

Powerball HCIT.0 80.Powerstar HQI-T/D HIT MT E40 HSI/TSX HIT MT MBI-T E40 Arcstream.0 80.0 92.0 76.0 90.7 97.Mastercolour CDM-T HIT-CE MT G12 Powerball HCI-T.0 250 3000 1B 9000 9000 15000 12000 10000 14000 20000 12000 3700 3700 70 250 250 84.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) 85.Powerball HCIT.0 250 400 PG12-2 Mastercolour CDM-TP PGX12-2 Mastercolour CDM-TP G12 CMH-T.4 84.0 78.0 80.0 80.0 82.0 85.for enclosed fittings only HIE ME HIE E40 Whitelux HIE ME HIE E40 Whitelux Tubular clear (other colour temperatures available) HIT MT MBI-T E27 Color Arc MT-SDW HIT MT MBI-T E40 Arcstream HIT MT E40 Arcstream. LEDs and Circuits 70.2 97.4 93.5 105.CDMSA/T HIT-CE MT G12 Mastercolour CDM-T Elliptical coated (ceramic versions also available) HIE ME MBIF E27 Powerstar HQI-E HIE ME MBIF E27 Arcstream HIE ME MBIF E40 Arcstream HIE ME E40 Powerstar HQI-E HIE ME HIE E40 WhiteLux HIE ME MBIF E40 Kolorarc HIE ME E40 Powerstar HQI-E HIE ME HIE E40 Whitelux HIE ME HIE E40 Powerstar HQI-E Elliptical coated .0 250 400 250 400 400 400 1000 1000 2000 4500 4200 5300 4000 4200 4500 4300 3700 5200 4500 6000 6000 2 2 1A 2 1A 2 2 2 2 2B 1A 2 1A 1A 15000 20000 6000 6000 6000 9000 150 4200 1A 9000 150 3000 1B 12000 14000 12900 23000 4900 8500 19500 19000 20500 32000 43000 36000 110000 21800 38800 5000 21000 20000 21000 35000 19000 35000 42000 32000 85000 80000 180000 70 3000 1B 15000 6400 70 150 35 3000 3000 3000 1B 1B 1B 10000 6000 13000 3400 - ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.0 87.Powerstar HQI-T HIT MT MBI-T E40 HPI-T+ HIT MT MBI-T E40 HPI-T+ HIT MT E40 Powerstar HQI-T/N HIT MT E40 Powerstar HQI-T/N HIT MT MBI-T E40 HPI-T HIT MT MBI-T E40 Powerstar HQI-T HIT MT E40 Powerstar T 70 100 250 250 250 400 400 400 1000 3800 3200 4000 5200 3700 4000 3800 3700 3750 1B 2 2 1A 2 2 2 2 2B .Mastercolour CDM-T HIT-CE MT MBI-T G12 CMH-T.0 85.5 90. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd 212 | Lamps. LEDs and Circuits HIT-CE HIT-CE HIT-CE MT MT MT MBI-T Lamps.3 86.0 71.0 110.Powerball HCIT.7 86.0 87.0 107.Mastercolour CDM-T HIT-CE MT MBI-T G12 CMH-T.0 87.5 76.1 91.

LEDs and Circuits HME QE/R MBFSD G38 CSI/PAR 64 (colour temperatures vary) E27 Kolorlux Standard.HPL Comfort | 213 .0 110.HPL Comfort E27 Kolorlux Deluxe.HPL-N E40 Kolorlux Standard.CDO-TT CMH-TT.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) E40 E27 E40 93.HQL DE LUXE.HPL-N E40 Kolorlux Standard. LEDs and Circuits Double ended .0 47.HQIE.HQL.HPL-N E27 Kolorlux Standard.0 50.HQL.0 36.Powerball HCITT.CDO-TT MHN-LA MHN-LA Sportlight Sportlight MHN-LA MHN-LA Powerstar HQI-TS/D/S Powerstar HQI-TS MHN-SB Sylvania HSI-TD 76.4 70 3000 1B 12000 6400 Powerstar T/N 120.Powerball HCITT.0 2000 4000 2B 240000 - ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.0 80.high wattage HIT-DE MD HIT-DE MD HIT-DE MN MBIL HIT-DE MN MBIL HIT-DE MD MBIL HIT-DE MD MBIL HIT-DE MD MBIL HIT-DE MD MBIL HIT-DE MD MBIL HIT-DE MD MBIL Compact metal halide lamps HIR 6° MR CSI High pressure mercury discharge lamps HME QE/R MBF Cable Cable RX7s Cable Cable Cable Cable Cable Cable Cable HME QE/R MBF HME QE/R MBF HME QE/R MBF HME QE/R MBF HME QE/R MBF HME QE/R MBFSD HME QE/R MBFSD Lamps.0 100.0 80 125 250 400 1000 50 80 125 50 1000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 3550 3500 3400 3350 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3500 12000 16000 20000 20000 20000 29000 16000 16000 20000 90.3 150 3000 1B 120 14000 91.HPL-N E40 Kolorlux Standard. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd HIT MT Tubular clear .4 52.HQL DE LUXE.HQL.0 52.5 50.ceramic HIT-CE MT CMH-TT.0 1000 1000 1500 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 5600 4200 5200 5200 5600 4200 5800 4400 5600 5600 1A 1B 2 2 1A 1B 1A 2B 1B 1A 6000 6000 4000 8000 3000 90000 100000 120000 200000 190000 220000 200000 225000 200000 200000 76000 1800 3800 6300 13000 22500 57000 2000 4000 6500 - - - HIT-CE MT - Lamps.HPL-N E27 Kolorlux Standard.5 100.0 100.HPL Comfort E27 Kolorlux Deluxe.0 95.HQL.HQL.HPL-N E27 Kolorlux Deluxe.0 40.0 112.3 57.0 56.0 100.0 100.HQL DE LUXE.

Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) E40 E40 60.250SON Lucalox T.7 70 2000 4 82.9 70 2000 4 28500 12000 12000 28500 28500 28500 28500 16000 28500 28500 28500 28500 28500 28500 24000 24000 68.Vialox NAVE.50SON-I Lucalox E.Vialox NAVT.Vialox NAVT.0 150 250 250 400 400 600 1000 92.600SON-T Lucalox T.7 50 70 2000 2000 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 85.0 400 3400 3 24000 24000 56.0 250 3350 3 24000 14000 - ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.0 130.70SON-I HME QE/R MBFSD High pressure sodium discharge lamps Standard Tubular and Elliptical HSE SE HPS-E HSE-I SE HPS-E-I HSE SE HPS-E HSE-I Diffuse SE HSE-I Clear SC Lamps.400SON-T Lucalox T.7 100 100 110 150 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 68.9 70 2000 4 82.Vialox NAVT.70SON-I Lucalox I. LEDs and Circuits HST HST ST ST HPS-E-I Diffuse HPS-E-I Clear HPS-T HPS-T HSE HST HSE HSE SE ST SE SE HPS-E HPS-T HPS-E HPS-E HST ST HPS-T HSE SE HPS-E HST ST HPS-T HSE SE HPS-E HST ST HPS-T HST ST HPS-T HST ST HPS-T Lucalox T Lucalox T.1000SON-T .0 50 2000 4 12000 66.Vialox NAVE.70SON-E Lucalox I.HPL Comfort E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E40 E40 E27 E40 E40 E40 E40 E40 E40 E40 E40 110.NAV-E 70/1.Vialox NAVE.Vialox NAVT.150SON-T Lucalox E.0 100.400SON Lucalox T.NAV-E 50/1.0 96. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd HME QE/R MBFSD 214 | Lamps.0 96.0 80.50SON-E Lucalox I.Vialox NAVE. LEDs and Circuits Kolorlux Deluxe.0 150.0 85.0 104.HPL Comfort Kolorlux Deluxe.150SON Lucalox T.0 50 2000 4 28500 3300 3400 5800 5800 6000 3400 6000 9200 9600 8800 14500 15000 26000 27500 47500 50000 90000 130000 Lucalox E.70SON-T Lucalox E Lucalox T Lucalox E-Z.0 118.HQL DE LUXE.Vialox NAVT.8 125.250SON-T Lucalox E.Vialox NAV-E Lucalox E.HQL DE LUXE.Vialox NAVT.Vialox NAVE.

Vialox NAV Deluxe.0 600 2000 4 NAV 141. SON Comfort “White” SON and Mini “White” SON HST-CRI STH HPSPG12-I SDW-T T(White) HST-CRI STH HPSPG12-I SDW-T T(White) Lamps.0 92.0 50 2000 4 28500 HST-MF ST HPS-T(HO) HST-MF ST HPS-T(HO) HST-MF ST HPS-T(HO) HST-MF ST HPS-T(HO) HST-MF ST HPS-T(HO) HST-MF ST HPS-T(HO) Lucalox HO.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.SON-T PLUS Lucalox HO. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm 4000 6500 10000 17500 33000 56500 - Peak intensity cd Increased light output .3 400 2000 4 NAV 132. SON Comfort HST-CRI ST HPS-T(DL) E40 Lucalox Classique.SON-T PLUS 90000 80.7 150 2000 4 28500 NAV 100.Vialox Super.Vialox NAV Deluxe.7 88. SON Comfort HST-CRI ST HPS-T(DL) E40 Lucalox Classique.0 35 50 2500 2500 1B 1B 10000 10000 1300 2300 - Improved colour rendering .0 92. SON Comfort HST-CRI ST HPS-T(DL) E40 Lucalox Classique.SON-T PLUS Lucalox HO.5 250 400 400 250 150 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 150 2200 2 2 2 2 2 2 14000 14000 14000 14000 14000 14000 12000 13000 22000 23000 36000 37000 - Lamps.Vialox NAV Deluxe.Vialox Super.Vialox Super. SON Comfort HSE-CRI SE HPS-E(DL) E40 Lucalox Classique.SON-T PLUS Lucalox HO.Vialox Super.SON-T PLUS Lucalox HO.Vialox Super.0 90.SON-T PLUS Lucalox HO. LEDs and Circuits | 215 . LEDs and Circuits 37.Vialox Super.Vialox NAV Deluxe.Tubular and Elliptical HSE-CRI SE HPS-E(DL) E40 Lucalox Classique.SON-T PLUS Lucalox HO.Vialox NAV Deluxe.Vialox NAV Deluxe.9 70 2000 4 28500 NAV 80.0 100 2000 4 28500 NAV 92.Vialox Super. SON Comfort HSE-CRI SE HPS-E(DL) E40 Lucalox Classique.0 86.Tubular HST-MF ST HPS-T(HO) E27 E27 E40 E40 E40 E40 E40 NAV 150.1 46.0 250 2000 4 28500 28500 28500 NAV 116.

4 139. LEDs and Circuits HST-DE SD Precise MR11.3 GU5.0 156.0 250 2500 1B NHT-SDX 52.8 163.0 150 1900 4 4 4 Vialox NAV-Super 91.Decostar 5l (10°).Standardline (10°) .Standardline Precise MR11 35 35 35 50 2900 2900 3100 3100 1A 1A 1A 1A 3500 3500 4000 4000 - 6300 2070 2950 8000 HPSDE(HO) HPSDE(HO) HST-DE SD HPS-DE HST-DE SD HPS-DE Low pressure sodium discharge lamps LST LS SOX LST LS SOX LST LS SOX LST LS SOX LST-HY LSE SOX-E LST-HY LSE SOX-E LST-HY LSE SOX-E Halogen lamps Halogen reflector .0 100 2500 1B 6000 5000 7800 13500 NHT-SDX 50. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd HST-CRI STH HST-CRI STH 216 | Lamps.0 50 2500 1B 10000 2300 SDW-T 50.0 150 2500 1B 9000 9000 NHT-SDX 50.3 SOX SOX SOX SOX SOX-E SOX-E SOX-E 131.0 100 2550 1B 10000 5000 ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.7 163.0 120.Decostar 5l (24°).1 141.4 70 1900 4 30000 30000 26000 26000 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000 6400 14400 25500 48000 4600 7650 12750 22000 4060 6400 10800 - HST-CRI STH HST-CRI STH HST-CRI STH HST-CRI STH HST-CRI STH HPST(White) HPST(White) HPST(White) HPST(White) HPST(White) HPST(White) HPST(White) Double ended HST-DE SD Lamps.0 250 400 2100 2100 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 Vialox NAV-Super 96.Standardline (24°) Bright MR16.2 177.6 35 55 90 135 26 36 66 Vialox NAV-TS Vialox NAV-TS 102.dichroic mirror (12V QRHRG M265 CBC35/10° QRHRG M266 CBC35/21° QRHRG M270 CBC51/18° QR-CBC51/8° HRG M249 Bright MR16.0 100 2500 1B 10000 4800 SDW-TG 46. LEDs and Circuits RX7s RX7s-24 Fc2 Fc2 BY22d BY22d BY22d BY22d BY22d BY22d BY22d supply) GU4 GU4 GU5.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) PG12-I GX12 GX12 E27 E27 E40 E40 NHT-SDX 54.0 70 2500 1B 6000 3500 SDW-TG 48.Decostar 35S.

Standardline QRHRG M271 GU5.3 Halogen metal reflector .Halospot 111. LEDs and Circuits | 217 .Standardline QRHRG M280 GU5.ALUline PRO-111 QR111/45° HMG G53 AR111.Halospot 111.Halospot 111.Decostar CBC51/60° 5l.3 QR-C51/24° HAG Silver GU5.Decostar 51 CBC51/36° (38°).Halospot 111.Halospot 111.0 Capsuleline Pro Lamps.Halospot 111 QR111/24° HMG G53 AR111.ALUline PRO-111 QR111/8° HMG G53 AR111. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd 50 50 50 50 50 35 35 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 2950 3000 3000 1A 1A 1A 3000 3500 3500 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 - 1600 3000 3000 12500 2600 45000 2500 20000 3500 30000 5300 1700 48000 8500 2800 Lamps.Standardline Halogen reflector .Standardline CBC51/10° QRHRG M281 GU5.Decostar 51 CBC51/36° (38°).0 frosted QT-LP 12-ax HSG G4 Q20T2.Decostar CBC51/18° 51 (24°).ALUline PRO-111 QR111/45° HMG G53 AR111.3 Decostar ALU QR-C51/24° HAG Black GU5.Halospot 111 QR111/8° HMG G53 AR111. 16. QRHRG M258 GU5.aluminised (12V supply) QR-51/38° HAG M58A GU5.3 Decostar 51. Halostar. LEDs and Circuits 20 20 3000 3000 1A 1A 2000 2000 300 320 - QRHRG M250 GU5.3 Bright MR16.ALUline PRO-111 QR111/8° HMG G53 AR111.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) 50 50 50 35 35 3000 1A 4000 3100 1A 4000 3100 1A 4000 3000 1A 4000 2100 950 7200 1300 3000 1A 4000 4750 ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp. Low pressure for use with open luminaires QT-LP 12-ax HSG G4 Halostar.Capsuleline Pro 15.3 Bright MR16.ALUline PRO-111 Halogen capsule (12V supply).aluminium (12V supply) QR70/8° HMG BA15d Halospot 70 QR70/24° HMG BA15d Halospot 70 QR111/4° HMG G53 Halospot 111 QR111/24° HMG G53 AR111.ALUline PRO-111 QR111/24° HMG G53 AR111.3 Bright MR16.Halospot 111.3 Bright MR16.ALUline PRO-111 QR111/24° HMG G53 AR111.Halospot 111.

35 Halostar Halogen aluminised reflector (PAR) QPAR16/25° HARI GU10 Hi-Spot 80 QPAR16/25° HARI GU10 MR16.Halogen A QPAR20/25° HAPAR E27 50PAR20. Capsuleline Pro QT-LP12-ax HSG GY6.0 20 3000 1A 2000 300 - ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.0 20 3000 1A 2000 340 Q20T3. Halostar.35 GY6.Halogen A QPAR20/25° HAPAR GU10 Hi-Spot ES63 QPAR20/50° HAPAR GU10 Hi-Spot ES63 QPAR25/10° HAPAR E27 Hi-Spot 80 QPAR25/25° HAPAR E27 Hi-Spot 80 QT-LP12-ax frosted QT-LP12-ax HSG - HSG - . Hi-Spot 50.0 22.35 M75 QT 12-tr HSG M32 GY6.TWISTline Alu QPAR16/50° HARI GU10 MR16.0 20.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) GY6.35 GY6.35 Halostar QT-LP12-ax HSG GY6.5 50 3000 1A 2000 975 950 1350 1800 2200 600 850 900 1350 2200 2150 3200 17. Capsuleline Pro QT-LP12-ax HSG GY6. Capsuleline Pro Capsuleline Pro QT-LP12-ax frosted QT-LP12-ax frosted QT-LP12-ax HSG - HSG - Lamps.35 M73 QT 12-tr HSG M28 GY6.0 18.Halostar.0 35 3000 1A 2000 630 800 1250 600 3000 1000 2500 1000 4000 1100 Capsuleline Pro 17.35 18.35 Q75T3.3 150 35 50 50 50 50 75 75 50 50 3000 2900 2800 2800 2900 2900 2700 2700 2900 2900 35 50 50 75 100 100 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 90 100 3000 3000 1A 1A 75 3000 1A 19.0 17.0 50 3000 1A 2000 2000 4000 2000 4000 3000 4000 4000 2000 4000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2500 2500 2000 2000 19.TWISTline Alu QPAR20/10° HAPAR E27 50PAR20. LEDs and Circuits Q20T3.Capsuleline Pro 18. Halostar.Halostar QT 12-ax HSG M74 GY6.Halopar 20.0 18.1 35 3000 1A 2000 600 Halostar.Hi-Spot 50. LEDs and Circuits Q50T3.5 21. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd QT-LP 12-ax HSG - HSG - 218 | Lamps.35 GY6.35 M28 QT 12-ax HSG M180 GY6.1 17.35 M32.Halopar 20 (30°).35 Capsuleline Pro Halogen capsule (12V supply) for use with closed luminaires QT 12-ax HSG M75 GY6.Halostar.0 22.35 M180 Halogen capsule (24V supply) for use with closed luminaires) QT 16-ax HSG GY6.HiSpot 63.35 M74 QT 12-ax HSG M73 GY6.0 21. Capsuleline Pro 15.35 GY6.35 GY6.

LEDs and Circuits QT-18 QT QT HSGT HSGT HSGT M38 M40 | 219 .Haloline.Halogen A 75PAR30.HiSpot 95 75PAR30.0 22.5/16.MV Capsules Halolux Ceram Halolux Ceram 10.3 20.MV Capsules Halopin.0 19.Halopar 30.0 K9.0 22.Halopar 30.TWISTline Dich Hi-Spot ESD50.Plusline K5. Hi-Spot 80.Plusline K1.TWISTline Dich Hi-Spot ESD63 Lamps.0 300 500 1000 1500 25 40 60/100 150/250 150 300 500 2900 3000 3000 3000 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2950 2950 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 2000 2000 2000 2000 1500 1500 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 4800 9500 22000 33000 255 490 820/1500 2500\ 4200 2500 5200 10000 - Lamps.7 17.5 GY9.Haloline.5 Halolux Ceram M38 M40 Halopin.Plusline K4.8 16.7/15 5.Haloline.Haloline. LEDs and Circuits QPAR30S/10° HAPAR QPAR30S/30° HAPAR QPAR30/10° HAPAR QPAR30/30° HAPAR QPAR30S/10° HAPAR QPAR30S/30° HAPAR Halogen dichroic reflector (PAR) QPARHR CB16/25° QPARHR CB16/50° QPARHRG1 CB20/25° QPARHRG1 CB20/50° Double ended halogen QT-DE 12 HDG K9 QT-DE 12 HDG K1 QT-DE 12 HDG K4 QT-DE 12 HDG K5 Single ended halogen QT-14 HS QT-14 HS QT-32 HSGT QT-32 HSGT R7s R7s R7s R7s G9 G9 E27 E27 B15d GY9.HiSpot 95 Halogen A Halogen A 100PAR30. Hi-Spot 95 Halogen A Halogen A Hi-Spot ESD50.2 12.3 13. Hi-Spot 95 100PAR30. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm Peak intensity cd QPAR25/10° QPAR25/25° HAPAR HAPAR - QPAR30/10° HAPAR - QPAR30/30° HAPAR - Hi-Spot 80 75PAR25.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 E27 GZ10 GZ10 GZ10 GZ10 Hi-Spot ESD63 75 75 2850 2850 50 2700 1A 1A 1A 50 2700 1A 2500 2500 2500 2500 75 75 100 100 100 100 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 75 2900 1A 3000 75 2900 1A 3000 6900 2200 6500 2000 10000 3500 9000 3000 1250 500 2500 1000 75 75 2900 2900 1A 1A 2000 3000 5500 1300 ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.Plusline 16.

LEDs and Circuits NOTE. Table 9.Concentra Par38 PAR38.7/15 60/100 2700 1A 1000 QL QL 70. except where stated) PAR IPAR PAR38/15° E27 PAR IPAR PAR38/30° E27 PAR IPAR 12V/ GX16 PAR56/40° terminal Induction lamps (185-255V supply) LMG-Ihf FSG1 QL - LMG-lhf FSG1 QL Lamps. LEDs and Circuits 11. rendering K group Rated life hours Initial lamp lumens lm 700/1500 7000 3000 16000 Peak intensity cd GLS PAR38.4 Characteristic values of the major lamps . For definitive values you should refer to lamp manufacturers data.6 55 60000 3500 6000 3 1B Choices 3 1B Choices Incandescent lamps A IA GLS E27 Spot (mains supply.Type Designations LBS (ZVEI) ILCOS Previous Lamp cap Lamp manufacturer brand names Luminous efficacy Lamp wattage W Colour Colour temp.Concentra Par38 PAR56 120 120 300 2700 2700 2700 1A 1A 1A 2000 2000 - 220 | Lamps. Values given in this table are generic and are indicative of performance for a given type of lamp.6 85 60000 63.

in that they are not specific to any manufacturer or make of control gear but serve to illustrate the principles. thermal conditions altering the operation of the lamp/ballast system).12 Energy efficiency considerations Most of the electrical power consumed by a luminaire is due to the lamp and its control gear.e. Class A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 C D Ballasts Dimmable electronic ballasts Reduced-loss electronic ballasts Electronic ballasts Magnetic ballasts. The energy efficiency index (EEI) classifies fluorescent lamp ballasts into seven categories as shown in Table 8.13 Circuits The circuits shown in this section are generic.5 Fluorescent lamp ballast classifications 9.Lamps. However this power consumption may be modified slightly by the operating conditions inside the luminaire (i. They are split into fluorescent and sodium/metal halide lamp circuits as these have distinct wiring and control techniques. Additionally minor luminaire losses may occur due to parasitic losses from electronic control or emergency lighting capabilities of the luminaire. Lamps. low loss (low loss ballast) Magnetic ballasts. moderate loss (conventional ballast) Prohibited from sale since 21st November 2005 Magnetic ballasts. LEDs and Circuits 9. very low loss (low loss ballast) Magnetic ballasts. LEDs and Circuits | 221 . very high loss (conventional ballast) Prohibited from sale since 21st May 2002 Table 9.6 and is used by the industry in ballast labelling.

Providing a starting voltage. intended to generate voltage pulses to start discharge lamps. which does not provide for the pre-heating of electrodes. singly or in combination. This normally happens after the ignitor has tried to start the lamp a few times. A ballast may also incorporate means of: Transforming the supply voltage. Reducing stroboscopic effects. and for metal halide lamps this is generally after approximately 15 minutes. which by means of inductance. Improving cold starting. (For high pressure sodium lamps this will be after approximately five minutes) 222 | Lamps. capacitance or resistance. Providing a pre-heating current. A basic ignitor will do this until the lamp strikes. LEDs and Circuits Definitions Ballast The general term for control gear inserted between the mains supply and one or more discharge lamps or fluorescent lamps. serves mainly to limit the current to the lamp(s) to the required value.Lamps. Modern ignitors therefore normally incorporate anti-cycling control that can sense the normal endof–life mode of a lamp and disables the ignitor. Suppressing radio interference. LEDs and Circuits . Correcting power factor. Ignitor A starting device. which means that if there is a problem with the lamp or circuit that prevents the lamp starting the ignitor will continue to try to start the lamp until the circuit is turned off or potentially the ballast is damaged.

Fig. LEDs and Circuits Starter switch A device which initiates a surge of high voltage across the lamp.19 Parallel ignitor circuit Lamps. 9. Here the lamp is wired across the ballast and the neutral in parallel with the ignitor. 9. Sodium/metal halide lamp circuits Ph Ballast Power factor capacitor Ignitor E A series ignitor circuit.18 Series ignitor circuit Ph Ballast Power factor capacitor Ignitor E A parallel ignitor circuit. This type of circuit is common when using highpressure sodium and metal halide lamps. This type of circuit is common when using low-pressure sodium lamps.Lamps. LEDs and Circuits | 223 . Here the lamp is wired across the ignitor and the neutral. Fig.

through the second end of the lamp and out to neutral. through one end of the lamp.21 Electronic circuit 224 | Lamps. The circuit is essentially a series circuit. LEDs and Circuits . Additional control lines may be used for ballasts incorporating dimming functionality. Here no power factor capacitor or starter is required as this is dealt with by the electronics. 9. through the starter.20 Typical magnetic ballast circuit Ph Ballast N Lamp A circuit typical of electronic control gear. Fig. 9. Fig. from the input phase through the ballast.Lamps. incorporating a power factor correction capacitor and a starter. LEDs and Circuits Fluorescent lamp circuits Ph Power factor capacitor Ballast E Lamp Starter A circuit typical of magnetic ballast. Wiring is according to the connector designations on the ballast with the lamp being wired across the ballast.

When the mains supply fails the lamp is driven from the inverter. an inverter and a battery pack. Two additional components are required. Battery Lamp Ph N Ph Invertor N Ballast Fig. Under normal conditions with a mains supply present the inverter supplies the ballast with a phase supply from the mains. LEDs and Circuits Figure 8. additional lamps being connected directly to the ballast. As the ballast receives no power supply during mains failure these lamps are extinguished and again the emergency lamp is lit using a supply from the batteries via the inverter. Energy costs are cut by using electronic control gear. and the inverter controls the circuit. LEDs and Circuits | 225 .22 Emergency lighting circuit For circuits with more than one lamp only the lamp used in emergency mode is connected to the inverter. and further savings may be made using presence detection and dimming technology to ensure that light is not wasted by lighting empty spaces or over lighting an area. Lamps. 9. and the lamp is driven from the ballast.Lamps.14 Properties of electronic ballasts With the implementation of European Directive 2000/55/ EC on energy efficiency requirements for ballasts for fluorescent lighting and the Energy using Products Directive 2005/32/ EC type C and D magnetic ballasts are banned for sale within the European Union. which receives power from the battery pack. via the inverter.22 shows a typical emergency lighting circuit for a maintained luminaire. 9. The benefits of using electronic technology over magnetic ballasts are: • Energy savings 1.

This prevents flickering lamps staying active or fault conditions causing a potentially dangerous situation.. Flicker free light. DSI This uses an 8-bit digital signal as a control input to the ballast. LEDs and Circuits . etc. Fewer components. and also helps prevent wiring faults as the digital control wires are polarity reversible. LEDs and Circuits • Energy saving 2. reducing the frequency of re-lamping and therefore maintenance costs. Using control gear with cathode pre-heating ensures that the length of life of lamps in a luminaire is maximised. Using less energy reduces the heating effects in a space due to the installed lighting. Using electronic control gear removes the need for starter switches and power factor correction capacitors. In the event of a fault occurring in a circuit. unlike an analogue input signal. or switch off in the event of a more general fault. such as a lamp failing. and to use a computer based graphical interface to control installations. three main methods of control are used Analogue This uses a 1-10V analogue signal as a control input to the ballast. Grouping of luminaires depends upon the hardwiring of the control lines. Electronic control gear ensures quiet operation with quiet starting and no background hum as may be produced by magnetic gear. electronic ballasts may automatically shut off a faulty lamp. Flicker from lights has been shown to be a cause of headaches and discomfort. As DSI allows bidirectional communication it is possible to interrogate luminaires about their current operating state. The main restriction on this method is interference caused by cable length or mains interference. Fault detection. Electronic control gear operates at high frequencies. 226 | Lamps. Reduced maintenance costs. Low noise operation. This reduces the load on air-conditioning and ventilation equipment. The use of a digital signal helps ensure interference free reliable communications. producing flicker free light. • • • • • For control of electronic control gear for dimming etc. fault conditions.Lamps.

This is due to the electrical resistance of the cable and means that the voltage measured at the end of the cable will be less than that measured at the start of the cable. and to use a computer based graphical interface to control installations. 2(Ix0. especially for Lamps.0175xL) A U is the voltage drop across the length of the cable where in volts I is the current being carried by the cable in amps L is the length of the cable in metres A is the cross-sectional area of a single conductor in mm2 U = Note this formula is for a twin copper conductor (phase and neutral) at 15˚C. allowing complete flexibility of control of lighting units. Grouping of luminaires is via software as every luminaire is individually addressable. LEDs and Circuits DALI DALI uses a digital communications protocol but is almost a programming language for lighting control gear.Lamps. 9. fault conditions. Note that the wiring regulations give limits on permissible voltage drop. In the absence of manufacturers data the following formula for calculating voltage drop may be used.15 Voltage drop When designing cabling for installation of luminaires it should be remembered that there will be a voltage drop along the length of the cable.. Values are normally quoted in terms of voltage drop per ampere per metre. An effect of this. LEDs and Circuits | 227 . This can have a major effect upon the lighting installation as a relatively small voltage drop can reduce the light output of the luminaire or for larger voltage drops can even prevent the luminaire from operating. As DALI allows bidirectional communication it is possible to interrogate luminaires about their current operating state. etc. The voltage drop for a given current carried is related to the cable materials and manufacturing process and is therefore individual to each cable type and manufacturer.

Longer cable runs will produce a larger voltage drop. Increasing the number of transformers will allow the transformer sizes to be reduced and also allow the length of the cable runs to be reduced. Three different categories of MCB are defined. circuit breakers are most commonly used for protecting circuits on high voltage and low voltage circuits. Therefore smaller cable runs should be used. Type B Type C Type D used with resistive loads such as tungsten lighting used where a mixture of light inductive and resistive loads are present used where strong inductive loads such as motors or switched mode power supplies are present 228 | Lamps. • The voltage drop of a cable is related to the cable gauge or cross-sectional surface area. low current applications typical of lighting installations miniature circuit breakers (MCBs) may be used to protect the final circuit. A cable with a larger cross-sectional area will have less voltage drop than a smaller cable. is that luminaires closer to the supply transformer may produce more light than those furthest from the transformer. For low voltage. Whilst they have generally been replaced by electromechanical methods of protection a benefit of fuses is that they can withstand much higher fault levels than other electromechanical methods of protection. giving different levels of performance depending upon application. for floodlighting). However. The use of lower wattage lamps or fewer luminaires on each cable run will reduce the loading on the cabling and therefore the voltage drop (as voltage drop is related to circuit current). • • • 9. To help reduce the voltage drops in an installation the following steps may be considered.16 Fusing Fuses are the simplest form of circuit protection. LEDs and Circuits . These are.Lamps. The voltage drop of a cable is related to the length of the cable.g. LEDs and Circuits installations using high-pressure discharge lamps (e.

Electronic control gear starts all lamps in a circuit simultaneously.Low-voltage electrical installations. This is of especial concern with lighting circuits using luminaires with electronic control gear. as in a choke/starter circuit lamps do not ignite simultaneously. Lamps.Lamps. When using a multi-pole fuse the number of ballasts that may be connected is typically reduced by 20% compared to a single pole fuse. LEDs and Circuits For lighting circuits generally type B MCBs are commonly used although type C variants may be present depending upon the application area. thereby causing a higher switch-on current peak than when using a choke/ starter circuit. LEDs and Circuits | 229 . and remember that a luminaire may contain multiple ballasts not necessarily of the same type. These high switch-on currents can cause problems with automatic conductor cutouts. international standards such as IEC 60364 . It should also be noted that the type of fuse used could influence the number of ballasts that may be used on one device.17 Wiring regulations It is of great importance that the electrical connections to any lighting equipment are correctly specified. Therefore only surge-current-proof automatic cutouts should be used for lighting systems. Previously three categories of electrical circuit were defined and lighting circuits generally fell within category 1. and local standards such as BS 7671. This contains the requirements for supplies to households and most commercial and industrial installations. Standards for this exist. Now however two voltage bands have replaced these categories and generally lighting installations will fall within the requirements of voltage band II. 9. You should always check manufacturers literature as to how many ballasts may be connected through one device. When a lighting circuit is switched on high transient current peaks occur due to parasitic capacitances that can accumulate with the number of luminaires. It should be noted that IEC 60364 and associated local versions do not apply to public street lighting installations and these are considered part of the public power gird.

The insulation material used in the cable determines the maximum continuous current rating. LEDs and Circuits When specifying electrical connections it is essential that the cabling used within the installation is correctly rated. for example 600/1000V. Two main factors determine the specification of cabling size or cross-section.Lamps. Glands for cable entry into electrical equipment should be of a mechanical specification suitable for the cable type. 230 | Lamps. the maximum continuous current rating and the voltage drop within the circuit. The first number is the maximum allowable voltage between any conductor and earth. When installing cable in areas with restricted airflow it is important to check with the cable manufacturers the effect this will have on the cable rating. An additional factor to consider is the degree of protection against mechanical shock required. Extra care must be taken in situations where industrial installations use high voltages as the phase to earth voltage may exceed the rating of some cable types. For long final circuits from a transformer or sub-main generally this is the voltage drop and this is especially true for large outdoor installations. In certain environments (such as industrial areas) the risk of mechanical damage to a cable is increased. and the maximum temperature rating of the insulation determines the limit on allowable current and therefore heat. Electrical currents cause a heating effect in the cable conductor. Glands for flexible cabling are normally made of nylon or plastic. LEDs and Circuits . as preventing adequate heat removal from the cable may cause the insulation to fail within the nominal cable rating. Glands should be also specified by IP rating (ingress protection). Whilst both the maximum current rating and voltage drop should be considered for all circuits generally only one of these factors will be the determining factor for cable selection. whilst glands for armoured cabling are normally brass. Voltage rating for cables is expressed as two numbers. or through the use of armoured cables. suitable for the equipment they will be used with. Protection for the cable can be either through a suitable containment system such as heavy-duty trunking or conduit. the second number is the maximum voltage allowable between any two conductors.

as due to waveform distortion other meters may give false readings. Be aware that high intensity discharge circuits incorporating an ignitor may generate 25kV pulses at the lamp holder and that components within the ignitor can operate up to 18kV. For these circuits it is important to isolate the supply before changing the ignitor and to discharge capacitors by touching all exposed metal parts and terminals to earth using an insulated probe before commencing any examination of the circuit and components. Lighting circuits can generate extremely high and potentially fatal voltages and access to a lighting installation may be difficult or require specialist equipment and training. LEDs and Circuits When installing cables care should be taken to ensure that the minimum-bending radius quoted by the manufacturer for the cable is not exceeded. Note that whilst some checks do not require any specific qualifications most of these tests should only be performed by a qualified and competent person such as a commissioning engineer or where electricity is involved an appropriately qualified electrician. or the failure of a luminaire to operate correctly. the wiring from the batteries to the luminaire should be with fire survival cables in separate or segregated circuits to minimise the risk of the loss of emergency lighting. For electrical connections to emergency services such as emergency luminaires powered from central battery systems or luminaires with external battery packs. Lamps.Lamps.18 Fault detection The following lists give common reasons for the failure of a lighting installation to perform to the expected level. otherwise damage to the insulation and also the sheathing in multicore cables may occur. and that no strain is being put on the gland due to the cable bend. When measuring lamp voltages it is essential that they are measured using a true RMS meter. Fire survival cables are defined by their resistance to fire. 9. LEDs and Circuits | 231 . If a bend occurs close to the cable entry point into electrical equipment the cable should be firmly secured by the entry point to ensure that it is straight when passing through the cable entry gland. to fire with water and to fire with mechanical shock.

tilt)? For floodlights have they been installed upside-down? Have the lamps been run for >100 hours to ensure lamp stability? Is the quality of the electrical supply suitable (voltage. harmonics)? For high-pressure discharge lamps have they been on for > 20 minutes before measurement? For fluorescent lamps have they been on for > 4 hours before measurement? Is the light meter calibrated and does it have adequate accuracy of measurement? Are the measurements being made at the correct height and orientation? Are the measurement points correctly positioned? Interior Is the space empty or furnished and was the scheme calculation for the same condition? Are the surface reflection factors the same as used in the scheme calculation? Is the ambient temperature different to that expected and is this affecting the running temperature of the lamps? Has the protective film been removed from luminaire component such as louvres and diffusers Outdoor Has the electrical supply cable been correctly sized? Is the voltage and current supplied to the lamp correct? Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No 232 | Lamps. LEDs and Circuits When faced with an inoperative luminaire it is usual first to replace the lamp with a new one. Always check the lamp type and manufacturers recommendations before operating the lamp without the luminaire fully assembled. as a possible catastrophic failure mode may cause the lamp to explode.Lamps. current. Certain types of lamp must be operated with the front glass of the luminaire in position. Lighting installation does not perform to the expected level General Have the correct luminaires and attachments been installed compared to the specification? Are the luminaires installed at the correct mounting height? Are the luminaires installed at the correct mounting position? Are the luminaires correctly orientated (rotation. voltage surges or dips. LEDs and Circuits . If the lamp has shattered or a fuse has blown it is advisable to inspect the ballast and wiring for incorrect installation or signs of overheating or damage before inserting a second lamp.

Ballast may incorporate a thermal cut-out Lamp does not light but Faulty lamp is visibly intact Faulty lamp holder Supply interruption Open circuit in wiring or ballast Circuit misconnection Ignitor fault End of lamp life Insufficient re-strike time Poor light output End of lamp life Outer of lamp or luminaire dirty Low supply voltage Outer of lamp broken or cracked Explosion Outer of lamp broken or cracked Thermal shock Mechanical damage/transit damage Light output unstable /fluctuating End of lamp life Low supply voltage Circuit misconnection Lamp holder contact Light output unstable /fluctuating Supply voltage dip Lamp orientation Lamp extinguishing Temperature Lamps. Check that the lamp has not completed a full life Some high intensity discharge lamps require a cooling period before they will re-ignite Test lamp in a working luminaire and relate to lamp usage Clean and try again Test voltage applied to luminaire/circuit. For high voltage lamps with non-screw thread connection check lamp holders are in sound condition. Check ballast for signs of overheating and damage to windings. LEDs and Circuits High intensity discharge luminaire fails to operate correctly Symptom Possible cause Test and remedy Test lamp in a working luminaire and replace if necessary Check that the lamp is properly seated in the lamp holder(s). Damage and deterioration of inner lamp components should be visible after a short period of running if the outer envelope is faulty Test lamp in a working luminaire and relate to lamp usage Check voltage applied to the luminaire Check that the circuit is wired correctly and suitably tapped. Check that there is no fault on the ballast. Lamp holders with pitting or corrosion must be replaced Lamp extinction could be associated with sudden dips in supply voltage. Check for any signs of arcing. Check that the circuit is wired correctly and suitably tapped. possibly caused by switching of heavy loads Some lamps are sensitive to burning position. For high voltage lamps with non-screw thread connection check lamp holders are in sound condition. If in doubt replace ballast and test for impedance before reusing the luminaire Check for any internal moisture due to luminaire seals failing Lamps that have incurred damage during transit may operate for a period of time before failing due to a weakened construction. For parallel ballast circuits check both ballasts are operating correctly Look for obvious signs of misuse/overload on the lamp. LEDs and Circuits | 233 .Lamps. Check any fuses and ensure cabling is correctly sized Check for voltage at lamp holder Check that the circuit is wired in accordance with manufacturers installation instructions For circuits incorporating an ignitor substitute a new ignitor Lamp could have developed a high striking characteristic towards the end of life. Check that the ballast is correctly rated and tapped. Check lamp is orientated according to manufacturers recommendations Check ballast operating temperature. Lamp holders with pitting or corrosion must be replaced Check for voltage at circuit input terminals. Check that the power factor capacitor is connected correctly Check that the lamp is properly seated in the lamp holder(s). Check that voltage is correct.

LEDs and Circuits . 234 | Lamps. increased flicker and reddish glow from cathodes Test voltage at terminal block of luminaire. If satisfactory test starter associated wiring (non-electronic switch socket and associated wiring control gear) Faulty tube (end of life) Test tube in working luminaire. LEDs and Circuits Fluorescent tube luminaire fails to operate correctly Symptom Tube does not attempt to strike – no end glow from tube Possible cause Fuse blown Faulty starter (non-electronic control gear) Faulty tube Test and remedy Check for voltage at circuit input terminals Insert starter switch in working luminaire Insert tube into working luminaire. NOTE if one or more of the cathodes are broken check for faulty wiring (short circuit to earth or wrong control gear) before inserting a new tube Test for open circuit on control gear or short to earth between control gear and tube Check that the correct lamp holders are connected to each tube Test for short circuit across lamp holder lead or for short circuit to earth on wiring Test for internal short circuits on cathode of tube Open circuit Tube fails to strike – bright glow from one end of the tube Crossed leads in twin lamp luminaires Short circuit on lamp holder Short circuit on tube Tube does not attempt to strike – bright glow from both ends of the tube Tube flashes on and off – fails to maintain discharge Short circuit on starter switch or Test starter switch in working luminaire. At end of life other symptoms are reduced light output. ballast or wiring could be faulty and should be checked. If low check external wiring for excessive voltage drop Test starter switch on working luminaire Screen open type luminaires Check that the correct lamp holders are connected to each tube Check installation of luminaire to manufacturers recommendations Check supply voltage Replace ballast Low voltage Faulty starter (non-electronic control gear) Low temperature Crossed leads in twin lamp luminaires Ballast overheats Lack of ventilation Supply volts high Fault in ballast It should be noted that some types of electronic control gear will detect fault conditions and prevent any attempt to start the lamp.Lamps. If the lamp fails to start the lamp.

reseller (in cases of re-branded product) or importer of the product. To fulfil these obligations many lighting companies have registered with third party recycling companies who then take on the Standards and Directives | 235 . Some of the directives appropriate to general lighting products are the Low Voltage Directive (LVD). This places responsibility for managing waste on the producer. Conformity to EN 60598 guarantees compliance. WEEE Directive Directive 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is an Article 175 directive and defines requirements and responsibilities for the management of waste lighting equipment within the European Union. CE marking is compulsory to indicate LVD. This demands that products are designed. Directives that follow Article 175 permit member states some local variation. Conformity can be verified by the appropriate IEC standard. the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive and the Energy Efficiency (Ballasts for Fluorescent Lighting) Directive. The prime purpose of the mark is to assist customs and market inspectors in facilitating the free trading and movement of products within the EEC.10. Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive (EMC) The ElectroMagnetic Compatibility directive requires that the product are designed and operate so that they meet limits of electrical and magnetic interference by emission and conduction with other electrical devices. but directives that follow Article 95 apply equally and unaltered to all member states. CE Marking The CE mark signifies that a product conforms to the requirements of relevant EEC directives.0 Standards and Directives 10. Also requires that adequate capacity is built in for immunity (rejection) to interference imposed by other electrical devices upon the lighting product. EMC and Ballast Efficiency conformity. Low Voltage Directive (LVD) Low Voltage directive for selling safe products.1 Directives Directives are European laws that apply to all EU member states. manufactured and tested to give proof of electrical safety.

EPB 236 | Standards and Directives . Other Directives Other important European energy efficiency directives are. etc. This applies both for existing buildings and new buildings which must pass design criteria during the planning permission process for approval to build. and when removing lighting units it must be ensured that they are handled separately and the appropriate company is contacted to remove the product. lighting products should be marked with the symbol shown to indicate that it may not be disposed of as unsorted waste. Therefore when purchasing exempted items it is important to ascertain how these items will be managed at their end of life. This is displayed using a label with energy details. (Note that when removing complete light fittings it is generally not necessary to separate out lamps. This will be performed within the overall waste management process). batteries. lead in the glass of fluorescent tubes and nickel cadmium in batteries for emergency lighting products. and products purchased within the European Union must conform to these restrictions. EELP Energy Efficiency Labelling of Product directive This requires that manufacturers add an energy class label to relevant products (fluorescent lamp and ballast) Energy Performance of Buildings directive This requires that an estimate of the energy requirements of a building and its services is made. However these exempted items are still required to be correctly disposed of. However certain exemptions exist including mercury in lamps. Irrespective of the method of waste management. Therefore when purchasing lighting products it is important to ascertain how these products will be managed at their end of life. RoHS Directive Directive 2002/95/EC on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment is and article 95 directive. and when removing exempted items it must be ensured that they are handled separately and the appropriate company is contacted to remove the product. If a company has not done this then they are themselves responsible for the recovery and handling of their waste products.Standards and directives responsibility of handling the electrical waste.

Standards and directives EuP Ecodesign of Energy-using Products directive The aim of this directive is to reduce the consumption of natural resources and energy.1. Manufacturers must practice ecodesign. and to minimise environmental impacts of products across the whole of their life cycle. Some of the relevant standards are listed in Table 10.2 Standards A variety of documents exist to ensure a product conforms to relevant directives and safety requirements. give instruction on correct and efficient product use and limit power consumption including that by stand-by devices 10. Subject Luminaires – General requirements and tests Luminaires – General types Luminaires – Recessed Luminaires – Street lighting Luminaires – Floodlights Luminaires – with transformers Luminaires – Air handling Luminaires – Emergency Luminaires Track systems Photometric Measurements Photometry and data transfer Photometry for workplace luminaires Photometry for emergency luminaires EMC Emissions-Lighting EMC Immunity-Lighting Quality Systems Emergency Lighting Electronic transformers for lamps Safety Electronic transformers for lamps Performance Safety isolating transformers Lighting Columns EN 60742 EN 40 IEC 742 EN 61047 IEC 61047 EN 10302-1: 2004 EN 10302-2: 2004 EN 13032-3: 2007 EN 55015 EN 61547 EN ISO 9000 EN 1838 EN 61347-2-2 IEC 61347-2-2 CISPR 15 IEC 61547 ISO 9000 European Standard EN 60598-1 EN 60598 2-1 EN 60598 2-2 EN 60598 2-3 EN 60598 2-5 EN 60598-2-6 EN 60598 2-19 EN 60598 2-22 EN 60570 IEC 60598-2-1 IEC 60598-2-2 IEC 60598-2-3 IEC 60598-2-5 IEC 60598-2-6 IEC 60598-2-19 IEC 60598-2-22 IEC 60570 CIE 24/CIE 27 International Standard Standards and Directives | 237 .

ENEC is important however. EN40 When designing an exterior lighting installation it must be ensured that the lighting columns are not only strong enough to support the weight of the equipment attached to them but are also strong enough to withstand the more significant loading effect from wind pressure against the project area of the complete structure. In Europe document EN40 is used to check suitability.1 Selection of relevant standards CIE S 020/E:2007 CIE S 015/E:2005 ENEC Marking For luminaires and lighting components. The ENEC mark may be awarded by any one of the recognised European approval authorities. allowing the structure to be verified against statistical data for a geographical area and thereby ensuring that the column can withstand the wind conditions.2 CIE 99 CIE 117 CIE 150 CIE 154 Table 10. The calculation process takes into account variables such as the height of the site above local ground level. the height above sea level. lighting Radiation exposure limits Maintenance of indoor electric lighting Lighting education Discomfort glare in interior lighting UGR Obtrusive light Maintenance of outdoor electric lighting EN 12464-1: 2003 EN 12464-2: 2007 EN 12193:1999 EN 1838 EN 50172: 2004 EN 13201-1/4: 2004 EN 15193: 2007 EN 14255 CIE 97. in the same way as a national approval mark. because it indicates that the product is suitable for use throughout Europe and that all of the most onerous special national conditions of test standards have been complied with. the distance from the coastline and the degree of shelter provided by local obstructions and features as all of these 12 238 | Standards and Directives . VDE or SEMKO. European harmonisation of national approval marks has been achieved through introduction of the ENEC mark. such as BSI.Standards and directives Application Lighting of workplaces – indoor workplaces Lighting of workplaces – outdoor workplaces Light and lighting – Sports lighting Emergency lighting Emergency lighting – testing and inspection Road lighting practice Energy performance of buildings.

Class II Luminaires in this class are designed and constructed so that protection against electric shock does not rely on basic insulation only. Earthing protects exposed metal parts that could become live in the event of basic insulation failure. and that controls to maintain quality in manufacture are applied. including the column and all equipment attached to it (luminaires. Some safety consideration and markings are given below. It should also be noted that a CE mark cannot be applied to a column in isolation. but applies to the complete system. brackets. Electrical safety classification Class I Luminaires in this class are electrically insulated and provided with a connection to earth. It must be emphasised that the calculation process is for the complete system. No provision for earthing is provided. 10. 50V ac rms). Standards and Directives | 239 .Standards and directives cause variations in the wind pressure at the location.) so a column cannot be certified in isolation. Quality Standard Marks (Kite Marks) A third party approval is an independent endorsement that product design is in accordance with published standards.Low Voltage (SELV) and in which voltages higher than those of SELV are not generated (max. environmental conditions and usage it will encounter. This can be achieved by means of reinforced or double insulation. Class III Here protection against electric shock relies on supply at Safety Extra . Many products carry European Test House approvals such as those shown.3 Quality and safety marks It is important that a product is suitable for the method of installation. etc. This can assist wider market acceptance in Europe.

3. as shown in Table 10.2 IP Code ATEX classification The IP rating is not sufficient as a safety criterion in areas with particularly hazardous or explosive atmospheres. 240 | Standards and Directives .5mm ø probe to live parts No entry of 1mm ø probe to live parts Dust proof. First digit of code denotes protection against dust and solid objects IP2X IP3X IP4X IP5X IP6X No entry of standard test finger to live parts No entry of 2. F mark (Thermal Insulation Covering) Recessed luminaires suitable for covering in the ceiling void with thermal insulating material (without causing overheating to the luminaire) are marked with this variation of the F mark symbol. Ingress Protection The ingress protection (IP) code denotes the protection against dust. If no code is marked the luminaire is deemed to be IP20.Standards and directives F mark F mark (mounting surface) Luminaires suitable for mounting on normally combustible surfaces (ignition temperature at least 200°C) are marked with the ‘F’ symbol. solid objects and moisture provided by the luminaire enclosure. (no dust deposit around live parts) Dust tight (no dust entry) Second digit of code denotes protection against moisture IPX0 IPX1 IPX2 IPX3 IPX4 IPX5 IPX6 IPX7 IPX8 No special protection Protection against drops of condensed water Drip-proof (vertical falling drops of liquid) Rain-proof (rain up to angles of 60°) Splash proof (spray from any angle) Water jet Heavy downpours Temporary immersion Submersion to declared depth Table 10. Equipment for use in these environments is classified according to the expected conditions using the ATEX group category.

4 compares both ratings: IK rating Joules of energy IK01 0.4 Comparison of impact resistance ratings Standards and Directives | 241 . More recently an IK rating normally used for electrical enclosures and cabinets (EN50102:1995) has emerged as manufacturers apply it to their luminaires. No ta mark indicates suitable for use in maximum 25°C ambient.0j IK10 20.0j IK08 5. Table 10.15j IK02 0.23j IK03 0. as they also enclose electrical circuits.7j 1. 0j Table 10.0j IK07 2.5j IK05 IK06 0.0j IK09 10.35j IK04 0.3 ATEX classifications Ta classification Denotes the maximum ambient temperature in which the luminaire is suitable for use. Impact Resistance The use of Joules (Newton metres .Standards and directives ATEX category 1 2 3 Equivalent zonal classification Zone 0 (gas) Zone 20 (dust) Zone 1 (gas) Zone 21 (dust Zone2 (gas) Zone 22 (dust) Level of protection provided Very high High Normal Environmental conditions for use An explosive atmosphere of gas/vapour/haze/dust is continuously present or present for long periods (> 1000 hours/year) An explosive atmosphere of gas/vapour/haze/dust is likely to be present (between 10 and 1000 hours/year) An explosive atmosphere of gas/vapour/haze/dust is unlikely to occur or could occur for a short period (< 10 hours/year) Table 10.Nm) has been common for many years. 750°/850°/950° hot wire Abbreviation for compliance with glow wire test for plastic parts tested at the stated temperature.

The risk of damage to the luminaires is dependent on the concentration of the aggressor. the duration and frequency of exposure and environmental conditions.Standards and directives 10. 242 | Standards and Directives .4 Product/corrosion compatibility guide When designing an installation in an area that is potentially harmful due to concentrations of chemicals in the atmosphere care must be taken to ensure that the materials used in the construction of the luminaire are suitable for the environment it is being used in. Occasional exposure to low concentrations of potential aggressors is unlikely to be harmful to any of these luminaires. Table 10. This information is provided to give guidance about luminaire selection assuming prolonged exposure to potentially aggressive chemicals or atmospheres.5 gives information on six luminaires suitable for use in chemically hazardous areas. If there is any doubt about the suitability of a luminaire for a particular application please enquire with details of the chemicals that will be present and the conditions of use. Different materials have differing tolerances to chemical agents and all materials used in the luminaire need to be considered.

poultry fish pork fat cooking fats (cold) cooking fats (hot) alcoholic beverages beer carbonated beverages. game. beef. lamb.Standards and directives Chemical Type Chemicals Specific ImpactForce CorrosionForce ColdForce HeatForce StormForce StormForce GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y GRP body PMMA diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y GRP body PMMA diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Acids Salts Organics (Aliphatics) (aromatics) Foodstuffs. cooking products drinks. lemonade wines & spirits water <60°C vinegar ozone sulphur dioxide industrial pollutant Standards and Directives | 243 . pork. beverages Gases acetic <30% nitric <10% sulphuric <20% hydrochloric <10% chromic <20% phosphoric <40% marine salts copper sulphate sodium chloride ethanol <30% propanol<30% methane propane formaldehyde/ formalin formic acid<5% stearic acid soap urea ethylene glycol (antifreeze) glucose sugar glycerol/glycerine milk fruit juices vegetable oils (cold) vegetable oils (hot) meats.

5 Product/corrosion compatibility guide for Thorn X-Force range A selection of the most common chemicals that are used in applications the X-Force would come into contact with. fats mineral oils fuels animal fats (cold) but not pork silicone oil diesel kerosene/paraffin oil petroleum spirit/ petroleum ether Disinfectants. The tabled information is valid under the following conditions: • The chemical substance listed in the table is an element and not part of a chemical compound • The ambient temperature is 22°C 244 | Standards and Directives . hydrogen peroxide cleaning <40% agents sodium hypochlorite <10% soaps wetting agents/ biocides (dilute) Y GRP body PMMA diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Y GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Y GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Y GRP body PMMA diffuser Stainless toggle Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Table 10. paints emulsion paints water based oil based paint white spirit/turps substitute cement Oils.Standards and directives Chemical Type Chemicals Specific ImpactForce CorrosionForce ColdForce HeatForce StormForce StormForce GRP body PC diffuser Stainless toggle Building materials.

11 Tools 11. Thorn CRF Indicator This simple to use do-it-yourself tool can indicate how effectively the lighting scheme in an office or lecture room minimises unwanted shiny reflections that reduces the contrast of printed or written visual tasks. It is integrated within the Thorn Product Explorer and an on-line version is being produced for use over the Internet. The higher the contrast the better you see.1 Tools Thorn Product Explorer The Thorn Product Explorer is available on DVD. Copies of the Product Explorer may be obtained from your local Thorn representative or downloaded from your local Thorn web-site as shown on the back of the handbook. Tools | 245 . Thorn CalcExpress Thorn CalcExpress is a one-click interior design facility that allows quick design of lighting installations for simple rectangular spaces. and can be used as a data plug-in for the programs DIALux and Relux Professional to allow lighting calculations to be performed using Thorn data within these popular design tools. Rather like using a barometer to judge the weather this measure looks at the lighting from a human dimension that will benefit the owner and occupier alike. Additional links with Dialux and Relux allow “drag and drop” functionality into these popular design tools. It features an electronic catalogue with an intuitive user interface including powerful search functions. Thorn Electronic Catalogue The Thorn Electronic Catalogue allows you to browse the complete Thorn product portfolio on-line over the internet. from installation sheets to photometric data. For each product information may be downloaded.

It is available in many languages. http://www. It is available in 26 languages (at present). It produces a bill of materials for Primata II installations and automatically includes ancillary equipment such as couplers.relux.dial.dwg format. grommets.Tools ThornQE ThornQE is a software tool for Quick and Easy design of Relux The Relux Professional calculation and light design program is an independent and manufacturer-neutral third party software available free of charge. Thorn Primata Configurator Pre-wired trunking systems save time and money. As well as allowing calculation of lighting design parameters it also allows the import of 2D and 3D objects in dxf.dxf and . This software enables product selection. and simple to install without special tools Primata II is a pre-wired continuous row system with a comprehensive selection of fluorescent luminaires and various optics. The Primata II configurator allows definition of Primata II products required in an installation. DIALux DIALux is an independent and manufacturer-neutral third party software available free of charge. 3ds and wmf format and has several add-on tools to extend the functionality of the 246 | Tools . Reports may be customised with specific company details. photo realistic visualization and creation of photo realistic films to help present a design http://www. As well as allowing calculation of lighting design parameters it also allows import and export to and from CAD programmes in . etc. end-caps. area and road lighting schemes using Thorn products for standard design criteria. lighting design and reporting of results to be performed from one simple process. vrml. They are increasingly popular in today’s cost-sensitive market because they are quick and easy to assemble.

It contains data from many manufacturers including Thorn Lighting and allows designs to be produced conforming to BS. AGI32 AGI32 is a comprehensive lighting calculation and rendering software for both interior and exterior schemes. EN and IESNA criteria. AGI32 uses the IESNA photometric file format and files in this format may be extracted from the Thorn Product Explorer or on-line using the Thorn electronic catalogue. Tools | 247 . with or without daylight.Tools Lighting Reality Lighting Reality is an independent and manufacturer neutral exterior calculation and lighting design program. AGI32 incorporates an integrated model builder capable of constructing almost any architectural environment and 3D CAD geometry may be imported via the DXF and DWG file formats.

the control gear can take the form of ballasts. up to a maximum of 100. Control gear Most artificial light sources other than incandescent lamps require special control gear to start the lamp and control the current after starting. the amount of CO2 being dependant upon the fuel used for the production of electricity. intermediate. Depending on the type of lamp involved. Colour Appearance The colour emitted by a near-white light source can be indicated by its correlated colour temperature (CCT). 3000K and are described as warm. Measured by the colour rendering index (Ra). They can be either magnetic or electronic. Suitable housings ensure that the light is directed as required and that glare is kept to a minimum. Each lamp type has a specific correlated colour temperature measured in degrees Kelvin e. Designed either as surface-mounted or pendant units. Batten and trunking systems These are generally fitted with fluorescent lamps and are primarily used in commercial and industrial environments. ignitors or transformers. The higher the number the better.g. Colour Rendering The ability of a light source to reveal the colours of an object. they are generally simple to install and can be used singly or as strip lighting. 248 | Glossary . cool and cold.12 Glossary Ballast Ballasts are electrical devices used with fluorescent or high intensity discharge (HID) lamps to supply sufficient voltage to start and operate the lamp but then to limit the current during operation. It is determined by the spectral power distribution or spectrum of the light source. Lighting designers have the power to hold down CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide (CO2) An important greenhouse gas. Countries that ratified the Kyoto agreement have committed to reduce their emissions.

Glossary Diffusers and moisture-proof fittings Luminaires of a higher protection class. Also known as “masts” and “towers”. They may feature an open reflector and/or a shielding device. but may also be surface-mounted. Luminaire efficacy is often expressed by dividing the initial lamp lumens by the combined lamp and control gear power. Contrast Rendering Factor (CRF) A measure of the degradation of contrast that is caused by veiling reflections (bright reflections in the task). chemically aggressive or dusty environments where the requirements for glare control are generally rudimentary. Contrast Subjective experience of comparative brightness between points or areas of luminance. Downlights are generally round or square and recessed into the ceiling. for applications where the addressing feature of DALI is not required. wet. These are closed luminaires for humid. Digital Addressable Lighting Interface (DALI) A lighting control protocol set out in the technical standard IEC 929 Efficacy Measured in lumens per Watt (lm/W) and a useful parameter for assessing how much light is available from the lamp for each Watt of power. Emergency lighting Lighting provided for use when the mains supply for the general lighting fails for whatever reason. seen simultaneously or successively. Digital Serial Interface (DSI) A lighting control protocol created by the Zumtobel Group. Columns Poles for mounting roadlighting lanterns or floodlights. Glossary | 249 . Downlight Ceiling luminaire that concentrates the light in a downward direction.

In summer. Dimmable versions available. provided by the luminaire enclosure. 500 lx is needed for office work. When the ability to see is impaired this is called disability glare. reduced running costs and ease of use.Glossary Glare Glare is the result of excessive contrasts of luminance in the field of view.000 lx. Generally.000 lx. wall or secondary optic. Discomfort glare is associated more with interiors. High frequency electronic control gear (HF) Most artificial light sources other than incandescent lamps require special control gear to start the lamp and control the current after starting. and a full moon produces 3 lx. They may also be used with high intensity discharge lamps. HF electronic gear operates fluorescent tube(s) at high frequency (typically at 30-60 kHz) instead of the mains frequency of 50 Hz offering benefits of higher quality lighting. the sun shines on the ground with 120. these are for use when mounting heights of around 8-10m or above are encountered. This is the case with high-pressure discharge lamps such as metal halide lamps and high-pressure sodium vapour lamps. High bay As the term implies. Illuminance (lx) The amount of light falling on an area divided by that area measured in lx. 250 | Glossary . it refers to the discomfort or distraction caused by bright windows or luminaires. combined with safe reliable operation. The effect may vary from mild discomfort to an actual impairment of the ability to see. whereas a watchmaker requires 4. Indirect Lighting System of illumination where the light from lamps and luminaires is first reflected from a ceiling. Ingress protection (IP) Denotes the protection against entry of dust/solid objects and moisture/water. Ignitor Ignitors are required for lamps that cannot be started using the normal line voltage alone.

LED/light-emitting diode An LED or light-emitting diode is a small semiconductor device which emits light. their light output or luminous flx. their luminance and their beam characteristics. As well as permitting efficient. The quick method of calculation being: LENI = W/A W is the total annual energy used for lighting {kWh/year} A is the total useful floor area of the building {m²} Lighting management Lighting management covers the entire concept of a controlled or regulated lighting system including emergency lighting and its use. their geometry. the spectral composition of the radiation emitted. usually coloured. LED light engines can generate any colour by mixing the individual spectral Lighting control system Lighting control systems are used to actively change the lighting situation. Such changes can take place automatically or as a result of intervention by a user. distinguished by the way they generate light. thus facilitating maintenance. EN 15193 as the measure for the annual lighting energy requirement for the building per square metre. when an electric current passes through it. their power consumption. it can be controlled by presence sensors to switch on or off depending whether people are in the room or can also progress through a sequence of changing scenarios. LEDs are energy saving and have a long service life. Glossary | 251 . There are many types. Lighting Energy Numeric Indicator (LENI) Defined in the European standard for assessing the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD).Glossary Lamp Lamps are artificial sources of light. their luminous efficiency. user-focused operation of the lighting system. Lighting control systems often include operating equipment. it also allows it to be monitored. Lighting can automatically respond to the level of daylight.

Lumen (lm) The unit of luminous flx or the rate of flow of light from a source or received by a surface. Luminous intensity (candelas) The amount of light that a small light source at the tip of a cone emits through a narrow cone in a given direction. Luminaire Modern term for “light fitting” or “fixture”. Lux (lx) The unit of illuminance. Optic The reflector and/or refractor system that directs the light emission from the lamp in the luminaire into required directions. structures or spaces. Low bay Luminaires housing high intensity discharge lamps mounted horizontally at low heights 4-8m. typically in industrial. equal to one lumen per square metre. A complete lighting unit that controls the distribution of light given by a lamp(s). Luminaire-lumens per circuit watt Is the luminaire efficiency factor given by LOR x (total bare lamp flx in the luminaire/circuit Watts). Includes components for fixing and protecting the lamp(s) and for connecting them to the supply circuit. the process is known as illumination. When a ray of light hits a solid surface. Luminance (cd/m2) The measured brightness of a surface. The unit is cd/m². Luminaires for road lighting are often known as lanterns. Modelling The use of light to bring out the form of three-dimensional objects. 252 | Glossary . sporting and public concourses. under stated conditions.Glossary Light Output Ratio (LOR) The ratio of the total light output of the luminaire to the output of the lamp(s).

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful