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La Obesidad Infantil Tesis

La Obesidad Infantil Tesis

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Publicado porDavid Tornel

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Published by: David Tornel on Jun 12, 2011
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Lc

CLe:iccc
lnfcnIi| en
Chi|e


Nombre: Dcvic Ic(ne|
Curso: lV mecic
Fecho: 2º/04/2011
Fro|esor(o): Deni::e 8cezc
lNDlCE


Introducc|on

Copítu|o I. E| ccnIexIc ce |c lnve:Iicccicn
F|cnIecmienIc ce| F(cL|emc
CLjeIivc: ce lnve:Iicccicn
Ju:Iificccicn
/nIececenIe:

Copítu|o II. FunccmenIccicn
CcncepIuc|izccicn
Hi:Ic(ic ce| ce:c((c||c ce| ccnccimienIc
Mc(cc Iec(icc
Mc(cc ce Fefe(encic

Copítu|o III. MeIccc|cc|c
HipcIe:i:
Vc(icL|e:
Iipc ce E:Iucic
Uniccc ce cnc|i:i:
McIe(ic|e: y F(ccecimienIc:

Copítu|o IV. Fe:u|Iccc:
Fe:umen
Iipc: ce cnc|i:i:
F(cce:cmienIc ce DcIc:
/pc(Iccc:
Ccnc|u:icne:
Suce(encic:
/nexc:
8iL|icc(cf|c

lnI(ccuccicn


Lc cLe:iccc e: unc enfe(meccc c(cnicc
I(cIcL|e.
Se p(ccuce cucncc exi:Ie un exce:c ce Iejicc
ccipc:c {c(c:c) en e| cue(pc. /pc(Ie ce|
p(cL|emc cue ce pc( :| (ep(e:enIc |c cLe:iccc.
|c: expe(Ic: ccvie(Ien ce cue :u: efecIc: mc:
neccIivc: :e p(ccucen pc(cue ccIúc ccmc un
ccenIe cue excce(c y cc(cvc c cc(Ic p|czc y
ce fc(mc muy evicenIe pcIc|cc|c: c(cve: ccmc
|c cicLeIe:. |c hipe(Ien:icn. |c: ccmp|icccicne:
cc(cicvc:cu|c(e: {e:pecic|menIe |c cc(cicpcI|c
i:cuémicc). e inc|u:c c|cunc: Iipc: ce ccnce(
ccmc |c: cc:I(cinIe:Iinc|e:.
Lc cLe:iccc e: un p(cL|emc ce :c|uc.
E: unc enfe(meccc en :| mi:mc ccu:cnIe c :u
vez ce c(cnce: ccmp|icccicne:: hipe(Ien:icn.
cicLeIe:. cc|e:Ie(c|. Lc cLe:iccc nc e: un
p(cL|emc e:IéIicc. Lc pec( e: ju:IcmenIe |c cue
nc :e ve. Lc: cc|c(|c: en exce:c y |c c(c:c cue
ccmemc: :e ccnvie(Ien en c(c:c cc(pc(c|.



Ccp|Iu|c l: E| CcnIexIc
ce |c lnve:Iicccicn

¿For qué se do |o Obes|dod en Ch||e?

1-. F|cnIecmienIc ce| F(cL|emc

En nue:I(c: Iiempc: |c cLe:iccc e: un p(cL|emc muy
ccmún yc cue |c mcyc(|c ce |c: pe(:cnc: yc :cn
cLe:c: muchc: vece: :e puece :e( cLe:c pc( fc|Ic ce
eje(cicic c pc( ccme( cemc:iccc yc cue muchc:
vece: |c pe(:cnc: IcmLién ccmen pc( ne(vic: cue e:
unc ce |c: cc:c: mc: ccmune: hcy en c|c.
Lc: ccu:c: ce e:Ic enfe(meccc e: p(incipc|menIe |c
fc|Ic ce eje(cicic c e| Iipc ce c|imenIccicn ce |c
pe(:cnc yc cue IcmLién pcc(|c :e( pc( cenéIicc c
pc( :u meIcLc|i:mc c IcmLién e:Ic yc puece :e(
he(eciIc(ic. |c mejc( e: cue unc pe(:cnc :e mcnIencc
nc f|ccc :inc ccn un Luen pe:c cue cyuce c :u
e:IcIu(c.
Lc cLe:iccc puece :e( mc|c yc cue Ie puece I(ce(
enfe(meccce: ccmc pcc(|c :e( |c cicLeIe:. IcmLién
Ie hcce :enIi( ccn:ccc Iu cue(pc yc cue IcmLién
puece :e( muy pe:ccc y c| ccminc( nc cvcnzc(c:
muchc y yc e:Ié: ccn:ccc. IcmLién |c cLe:iccc e:Ic
(e|ccicnccc ccn p(cL|emc: (e:pi(cIc(ic: ccmc pcc(|c
:e( e| c:mc y p(cL|emc: en |c: (cci||c: y en |c
ci(cu|ccicn.
Lc: pe(:cnc: pe(jucicccc: pcc(|cn :e( :u: pcc(e:
cpc(Ie ce |c pe(:cnc cue Iiene e:Ic enfe(meccc yc
cue :u: pcc(e: :cn |c: cue ven pc( |c pe(:cnc. e:Ic
enfe(meccc cpc(Ie Ie Lcjc |c cuIce:Iimc yc cue |c:
pe(:cnc: Ie ven cife(enIe y c vece: :e Lu(|cn ce unc
|c mejc( e: ccme( :c|uccL|emenIe. muchc: pcc(e:
ccnfuncen e| e:Ic( :c|uccL|e ccn e:Ic( cLe:c. e:Ic
e:Ic cfecIcncc c(cvemenIe c nue:I(c pcL|ccicn. yc
cue cccc vez :cn mc: |c: pe(:cnc: ccn cLe:iccc.
Se (e|ccicncn cI(c: c:pecIc: ccmc |c e: |c mc|c
c|imenIccicn ce hcy en c|c yc cue muchc: envé: ce
ccme( c|cc :c|uccL|e ccmc |c :cn ve(cu(c: p(efie(en
ccme( |c cue :cn f(iIu(c: y cccc: en |c mcncnc envé:
ce c|mc(zc( ceLiccmenIe. IcmLién e:Ic en e: cu|pc
ce |c: pcc(e: yc cue nc |e: en:encn c :u: hijc: c
ccme( ceLiccmenIe. cI(c cc:c IcmLién cue cy cue
Icmc( en cuenIc e: |c fc|Ic ce eje(cicic yc cue |e:
cyucc c cuemc( cc|c(|c: y c:e cue Iencc: un Luen
cue(pc y Iencc: Luenc ficu(c.
Lc cLe:iccc e: c|cc muy ccmún hcy en c|c yc cue
nccie |e cu:Ic(|c e:Ic( cLe:c yc cue e:Ic enfe(meccc
c| pc:c ce |c: cnc: puece I(ce( muchc:
enfe(meccce: cue puci:Ie hcLe( eviIccc cucncc
e(c: pecuenc yc cue c nccie |e cu:Ic(|c e:Ic( cLe:c
Iccc |c cue Ie p(cpcne: :e puece nccc mc: e: fue(zc
ce vc|unIcc y e:Ic( cecicicc en |c cue vc: hcce( :e
cice cue e| º5 pc( cienIc ce |c: pe(:cnc: ce |c mi:mc
eccc y :exc :cn cLe:c: {Iienen :cL(epe:c).
Lc ve(ccc c m| ccmc pe(:cnc nc me cu:Ic(|c :e(
cLe:c yc cue yc cue hccc eje(cicic pc(c
mcnIene(me en fc(mc y nc Iene( nincunc
enfe(meccc cue :e me puecc ce:c((c||c( c| pc:c ce|
Iiempc yc cue |c: enfe(meccce: cue I(ce |c
cLe:iccc c :cL(epe:c :cn mc|c: cue Ie puecen
hcce( mc: cc(Ic |c vicc ccmc cucncc :e Iiene
cicLeIe: e: muy fec yc cue Iiene: cue e:Ic(Ie
checuecncc e inyecIc(Ie in:u|inc pc(c pcce(
ccnI(c|c(Ie.
Lc cLe:iccc :e cc(ccIe(izc pc( e| exce:c ce c(c:c
unc pe(:cnc cLe:c e: ccue||c cue Iiene muchc c(c:c
cue nc puece cuemc( yc cue pc( IcnIc ccmicc
c|mccenc muchc: cc|c(|c: y cue pc( fc|Ic ce
eje(cicic nc |cc(c cuemc( |c: ccu:c: ce |c cLe:iccc
hc:Ic e| c|c ce hcy nc hcn :icc ce| Iccc
ccmp(encicc: pe(c :e :cLen cue exi:Ien muchc:
fccIc(e: ccu:cnIe: ce e:Ic c(cve enfe(meccc cue
muchc: pe(:cnc: yc |c Iienen.
Lc mc: impc(IcnIe ce Iene( un pe:c nc(mc| nc e:
:imp|emenIe pc(c cu:Ic(|e c |c: ninc:{c:) c pc(
c(ee(:e muchc :inc :imp|emenIe pc(c e:Ic( :c|uccL|e
y :enIi(:e Lien. Iene( cemc:iccc c(c:c cc(pc(c| e:
ccninc pc(c |c :c|uc y pc(c e| cue(pc ce muchc:
mcne(c:.
Lc Luenc ncIicic e: cue nuncc e: Ic(ce pc(c
mccificc( nue:I(c fc(mc ce c|imenIccicn y ce
eje(cicic pc(c ccnI(c|c( e| pe:c. y e:c: ccmLic: nc
Iienen pc( cué :e( Icn c(cnce: ccmc p(cLcL|emenIe
c(ec: :imp|emenIe nc e: pcne(:e cienIc pc(c
cce|cczc( :inc ccme( ve(cu(c: y nc muchc :inc
mcce(cccmenIe.
Fc( |c IcnIc :i c|cuien c cuien ccncce: e: cLe:c c
e:Ic excecicc ce pe:c puecc: cyucc(|c cf(eciéncc|e
infc(mccicn.
Muchc: vece: |c cLe:iccc puece :e( he(eciIc(ic pe(c
e: cif|ci| ceIe(minc( hc:Ic cue punIc cepence ce |c:
cene:. muchc: fcmi|ic: ccmen |c: mi:mc: c|imenIc:
Iienen |c: mi:mc: hcLiIc: ccmc ccme( pizzc f(enIe c
|c Ie|evi:icn IcmLién puece :e( un ejemp|c |c
in:i:IenIe c |c: ninc: cue ccmcn pc(c pcne(:e fue(Ie:.
Sc|cmenIe |e cicc cue hcy cue ccme( Lien pc(c e:Ic(
:c|uccL|e: y nc Iene( nincunc enfe(meccc c| pc:c
ce| Iiempc.
E| (e:pcn:cL|e ce ccIiviccce: cepc(Iivc: ce |c
unive(:iccc cuIcncmc ce |c ciuccc ce
Méxicc. /nIcnic Icvc( Scnchez c|e(Ic cue 70 7 ce |c
pcL|ccicn ccu|Ic pccece cLe:iccc
En e| mc(cc ce| D|c Muncic| ce |c /cIiviccc F|:icc.
cue :e ce|eL(c e:Ie ó ce cL(i|. Icvc( Scnchez exp|icc
cue |c inccIiviccc e: un fccIc( ccncicicncnIe en |c
(ecuccicn ce| cc:Ic ene(céIicc IcIc| {GEI). |c cue
fcvc(ece |c cpc(icicn ce |c cLe:iccc.
En un ccmunicccc :e incicc cue en |c: ú|Iimc: cc:
cécccc: en Chi|e e:e pccecimienIc :e hc
inc(emenIccc ce mcne(c c|c(mcnIe. pue: cc: ce
cccc ciez ninc: :cn cLe:c:. mienI(c: cue en ccu|Ic:
|c cif(c c|ccnzc c 70 pc( cienIc ce |c pcL|ccicn.
De ccue(cc ccn cif(c: ce |c: c(ccnizccicne: Muncic|
ce |c Sc|uc {CMS) y Fcncme(iccnc ce |c Sc|uc {CFS).
en |c: ú|Iimc: :ei: cécccc: :e hc (eci:I(ccc e:Ie
cumenIc p(cc(e:ivc ce |c cLe:iccc en Chi|e.
Nc cL:IcnIe. hc :icc en |c: ú|Iimc: 20 cnc: cucncc
e:Ic enfe(meccc c(cnicc nuI(icicnc| :e hc
inc(emenIccc. y cfecIc c un cmp|ic :ecIc( ce |c
pcL|ccicn.
/nccic cue e| :ecenIc(i:mc e: unc ce |c: ccu:c: cue
fcvc(ecen e| :cL(epe:c y |c cLe:iccc -cunccc c |c
ince:Ic exce:ivc ce cc|c(|c:-. y pcnen c| c(ccni:mc
en unc :iIuccicn vu|ne(cL|e cue ccn||evc c
enfe(meccce: ce Iipc cc(cicvc:cu|c(. Ien:icn c(Ie(ic|.
cicLeIe:. enI(e cI(c:.
Dijc cue enI(e |c: ccIiviccce: cue puece (ec|izc(
cuc|cuie( pe(:cnc pc(c eviIc( :uLi( ce pe:c e:Icn |c
ccmincIc. e| I(cIe. Licic|eIc. :uLi( e:cc|e(c:. Lci|c(.
enI(e cI(c: pc:iLi|iccce:. mi:mc: cue ceLen :e(
cccmpcnccc: ce hcLiIc: c|imenIicic: :c|uccL|e:.

Lc: e:I(cIecic: pc(c |c ccIiviccc f|:icc. :enc|c. ceLen
e:Ic( ci(icicc: c |c pcL|ccicn ce ccue(cc ccn |c
eccc. pue: pc( |c: eIcpc: ce ce:c((c||c :cn cife(enIe:
|c: (ecue(imienIc: nuI(icicnc|e:. c:| ccmc |c:
mcvimienIc: cc(pc(c|e:.
Icvc( Scnchez p(eci:c cue cuncue |c: cenI(c:
ecuccIivc: nc Ienccn e:pccic: cepc(Iivc:. |c
ccIiviccc f|:icc puece (ec|izc(:e en |c: pcIic: ce |c:
mi:mc:. ccn ejemp|c: cmenc: ccmc :c|Ic( |c cue(cc.
cI(cpc( pe|cIc:. |cnzc( y cc((e(. enI(e cI(c:
ccIiviccce:.
/cemc: ccmenIc cue pc(c e| cc:c ce |c: ccu|Ic:
mcyc(e: :e (eccmienccn 30 minuIc: ce ccIiviccc ce
mcne(c ccumu|ccc cu(cnIe e| c|c. ccmc ccminc( c
e:Ii(cmienIc:. c fin ce p(eveni( enfe(meccce:
c(cnicc: c:cciccc: ccn e| envejecimienIc y ce e:Ic
fc(mc mejc(c( :u cc|iccc ce vicc.
Lc cLe:iccc e:Ic (e|ccicnccc ccn |c: :icuienIe:
c:pecIc: y ccn:ecuencic::
E| 157 ce |c pcL|ccicn cecicc mc: ce 2 hc(c: cic(ic:
c ve( |c Ie|evi:icn. y ccincice ccn e| pc(cenIcje cue
pc:ee un lncice ce Mc:c Cc(pc(c| mcyc(.
E| 827 ccn:ice(c cue e:Ic pec( vi:Ic :ccic|menIe unc
muje( cLe:c cue un hcmL(e en |c mi:mc :iIuccicn.
Un ó57 cpinc cue unc pe(:cnc ce|cccc |c Iiene mc:
fcci| c |c hc(c ce enccnI(c( un I(cLcjc cue unc
pe(:cnc ccn exce:c ce pe:c.
Un 727. IcnIc hcmL(e: ccmc muje(e:. c(ee cue e|
exce:c ce pe:c e: un impecimenIc c |c hc(c ce
enccnI(c( pc(ejc :enIimenIc|.
Icn impc(IcnIe pc(c ccnI(c|c( |c cLe:iccc ce |c
pcL|ccicn en cene(c| nc: enccnI(cmc: ccn un 1ó7
cue nc (ec|izc nincún Iipc ce ccIiviccc. ni hcLiIuc| ni
e:pc(ccicc.
De Iccc: |c: cue ce:ecn pe(ce( pe:c. ce(cc ce| 407
|c hcce mcIivccc pc( cue:Iicne: e:IéIicc: y nc ce
:c|uc.
De |c: pe(:cnc: ccn :cL(epe:c. :c|c e| 577 hc
inIenIccc :c|ucicnc( :u p(cL|emc y ce Iccc: e||c:.
menc: ce| ó7 cccn:ejc(|c c c|cuien ce :u enIc(nc cue
ccucie(c c| mécicc c :c|ucicnc( un p(cL|emc :imi|c(.
De |c: cue ce:ecn cce|cczc(. e| 877 cpIc pc( |c
ncIu(c| y |c :enci||c. y p(efie(e I(cIc(:e ccn p(ccucIc:
ncIu(c|e: y nc ccn fc(mccc:. Fe:e c e||c:
E| º27 ccpic(|c e| méIccc cue hc funcicnccc ccn
c|cuien ccnccicc.
Sc|c e| 207 ccuci(|c c| mécicc pc(c cce|cczc( y.
:iemp(e. ccmc ú|Iimc (ecu(:c.
E| 517 ccnfie:c cue hc inIenIccc pe(ce( pe:c
hcciencc c|cc cue pcc(|c pcne( en pe|ic(c :u :c|uc.
Lc cLe:iccc e: e| (e:u|Iccc ce| ccn:umc ce unc
ccnIiccc ce cc|c(|c: mcyc( cue |c: cue e| cue(pc
uIi|izc. Lc: fccIc(e: cenéIicc: y cmLienIc|e: inf|uyen
en e| pe:c ce| cue(pc. pe(c :u inIe(ccIuccicn pc(c
ceIe(minc( e| pe:c ce unc pe(:cnc nc e:Ic Icccv|c
cc|c(ccc.
Lc cLe:iccc cene(c|menIe :e mice c pc(Ii( ce
incicccc(e: ce :cL(epe:c. ccmc e| |ncice ce mc:c
cc(pc(c| {pe:c en ki|cc(cmc: :cL(e Ic||c en meI(c: c|
cucc(ccc). c Lien pc( mecic ce incicccc(e: ce
pc(cenIcje y ci:I(iLucicn ce Iejicc ccipc:c en e|
c(ccni:mc {ccmc |c: ci:IinIc: p|iecue: :uLcuIcnec:. c
|c (czcn ci(cunfe(encic ce cinIu(c :cL(e
ci(cunfe(encic ce ccce(c).
En |c Ciuccc ce Chi|e.

En un e:Iucic ce:c((c||ccc en pcL|ccicn ccu|Ic ce
nive| :cciceccncmicc Lcjc :e enccnI(c(cn Ic:c: ce
p(evc|encic ce cLe:iccc ce 377 en hcmL(e: y ó07
en muje(e:.
E:Iucic: en pcL|ccicn ccu|Ic Chi|enc hcn enccnI(ccc
Ic:c: ce p(evc|encic ce :cL(epe:c cju:Iccc pc(
eccc ce 3º.17 en hcmL(e: y 47.27 en muje(e: y e:
ceLicc c p(cL|emc: éInicc: y c ccmLic: en |c cieIc.
Si nc :e mccificcn e:Ic: hcLiIc: ce ccn:umc. en ciez
cnc: º07 ce |c pcL|ccicn :uf(i(c cLe:iccc y
:cL(epe:c.
Secún expe(Ic: e:Ic :iIuccicn ¨e: c|c(mcnIe¨ ceLicc c
|c ceficiencic en |c nuI(icicn y |c fc|Ic ce ccIiviccc
f|:icc cue cfecIc c Iccc: |c: eccce:.

Secún ccIc: ce| ln:IiIuIc Nccicnc| ce Sc|uc FúL|icc
ccIuc|menIe mc: ce 70 mi||cne: ce mexiccnc: Iiene
p(cL|emc: ce :cL(epe:c u cLe:iccc.
Mc: ce 4 mi||cne: ce ninc: ce enI(e 5 y 11 cnc:. y mc:
ce 5 mi||cne: ce jcvene: y
ccc|e:cenIe:. :uf(en IcmLién e:Ic: I(c:Ic(nc:.
¨E| p(cL|emc e: muy c(cve¨ cijc c 88C Ciencic e|
cccIc( /Le|c(cc Ávi|c. inve:Iicccc( ce| ln:IiIuIc
Nccicnc| ce Ciencic: Mécicc: y NuI(icicn Sc|vccc(
SuLi(cn.
Lcc expe(Ic: cfi(mcn cue |c mcyc(|c ce |c: mexiccnc:
hcn cpIccc pc( ccmLic( :u cieIc I(ccicicnc| Lc:ccc
en mc|z. ce(ec|e: y |ecuminc:c: pc( unc cieIc ce
ccmicc (cpicc ccmc |c :cn |c: hcmLu(cue:c:. pizzc:
f(iIu(c: eIc.
E| :exIc pc|: mc: cLe:c ce| muncc
Sei: ce cccc ciez chi|enc: pccecen ce :cL(epe:c. |c
cue ccnvie(Ie c e:Ie pc|: en e| :exIc ce| muncc en
e:Ie c:pecIc. infc(mc |c :ec(eIc(ic ce :c|uc.
E| 30 pc( cienIc ce |c: mexiccnc: :uf(en cLe:iccc
ccucc. |c cue ccnvie(Ie c e:Ie pc|: en e| :exIc mc:
cLe:c ce| muncc.
Un mccc :enci||c ce :cLe( :i unc pe(:cnc Iiene
:cL(epe:c e: meci( |c cinIu(c. Si :u pe(|meI(c e:
:upe(ic( c ncvenIc cenI|meI(c: e| pccienIe :e
ccn:ice(c(|c cLe:c. En e| Hc:piIc| Mcnue| Gec
Gcnzc|ez ce:ce hcce cc: cnc: :e p(ccIicc en
pccienIe: e:Ic Iécnicc ccn |c cue :e hcn I(cIccc c
125 pccienIe: ¨ce |c: cuc|e: º0 pc( cienIc hcn
|cc(ccc :u pe:c nc(mc|¨. ccnc|uyc |c Sec(eIc(|c ce
Sc|uc.
E| :ecenIc(i:mc e: unc ce |c: p(incipc|e: ccu:c: ce |c
C8ESlD/D.
Y e:Ic ccmp(cLccc cue |c ccIiviccc f|:icc e: unc ce
|c: mcyc(e: ceIe(mincnIe: ce| u:c ce |c ene(c|c ce|
cue(pc. E| hechc ce inc(emenIc( |c ccIiviccc f|:icc
hcce cue e| cue(pc Iencc cue uIi|izc( mc: cc|c(|c: y
|cc(c cue e| Lc|cnce cc|c(icc ce| cue(pc :ec mc:
fcvc(cL|e pc(c nc p(e:enIc( cLe:iccc.
E:Ie e:Iucic vc c I(cIc( :cL(e |c: c(|cene: ce |c
cLe:iccc en Chi|e. c:| ccmc cuc|e: :cn |c: ccu:c: ce
cLe:iccc en unc pe(:cnc ce Iccc: |c: eccce: en
cene(c|. |c: enfe(meccce: cue ||eccn c p(cvccc(
e:Ic: enfe(meccce: c:| IcmLién e| pc(cenIcje ce
cLe:iccc cue hcy en Chi|e.
E:Ie e:Iucic nc vc c I(cIc( :cL(e |c: imccene: ce |c
cLe:iccc ni Icmpccc :cL(e ceci(|e c |c cenIe unc pc(
unc pc(c cue ccmcn :cncmenIe. Icmpccc vc c
I(cIc( :cL(e e| e:Iccc f|:icc ce |c pe(:cnc ni c(iIicc(|c
:c|cmenIe cyucc(|e en |c cue :e |e puecc cyucc(
c:iencc e:Ic Ie:i: :cL(e e:Ie Iemc.
E:Ie e:Iucic |e fcci|iIc c |c :ccieccc infc(mccicn :cL(e
|c cLe:iccc e:Ic cyucc(c c cLIene( mcyc(
infc(mccicn ce| Iemc y c:| cyucc( c e:Ic: pe(:cnc: en
:u enfe(meccc y pcce( cyucc(|e.


CLjeIivc: ce |c lnve:Iicccicn


Ara||za(e |as causas de ooes|dad er |a poo|ac|ór.

lrvesl|da(e cue po(cerlaje de |a poo|ac|ór er Véx|co padece de
ooes|dad.

lrvesl|da(e cua|es sor |as corsecuerc|as de padece( ooes|dad.

lrvesl|da(e cua| es e| ird|ce de ro(lardad po( causa de |a ooes|dad.

Ara||za(e cua| se(ia ura ouera a||rerlac|ór pa(a ev|la( |a ooes|dad.





¿I|ene su h|jo sobrepeso?

E| lMC {|ncice ce mc:c cc(pc(c|) uIi|izc |c: mecicc: ce
e:IcIu(c y pe:c pc(c e:Iimc( cucnIc c(c:c cc(pc(c|
Iiene unc pe(:cnc. Fc(c cc|cu|c( e| lMC ce :u hijc.
civicc :u pe:c {en ki|cc(cmc:) enI(e e| cucc(ccc ce
:u e:IcIu(c {en meI(c:). e: ceci(. pe:c/e:IcIu(c2. Unc
vez hcyc ceIe(minccc e| lMC ce :u hijc. puece
(ep(e:enIc(|c en unc c(cficc e:Icncc( ce lMC. Su hijc
pe(Ienece(c c unc ce |c: :icuienIe: cucI(c
ccIecc(|c::
1.Fe:c pc( ceLcjc ce |c nc(mc|: lMC infe(ic( c|
cenIi| 5.
2. Fe:c nc(mc|: lMC enI(e |c: cenIi|e: 5 y 85.
3. ScL(epe:c: lMC enI(e |c: cenIi|e: 85 y º5.
4. CLe:iccc: lMC :upe(ic( c| cenIi| º5.

E| lMC nc e: unc mecicc pe(fecIc ce |c c(c:c
cc(pc(c| y hcy :iIuccicne: en cue puece ||evc( c
ccnfu:icn.
Si c u:Iec |e p(eccupc cue :u hijc puecc Iene(
:cL(epe:c. ||éve|c c| pecicI(c. Si :u hijc Iiene
:cL(epe:c. p(cLcL|emenIe e| pecicI(c |e fc(mu|c(c
c|cunc: p(ecunIc: :cL(e :u: hcLiIc: c|imenIc(ic: y ce
ccIiviccc f|:icc y |e hc(c cive(:c: (eccmencccicne:
pc(c cue inI(ccuzcc ccmLic: pc:iIivc: en :u e:Ii|c ce
vicc. /|cunc: ninc: ccn :cL(epe:c u cLe:iccc
nece:iIcn pc(Iicipc( en p(cc(cmc: c|cLc|e: ce
ccnI(c| ce pe:c.



Ccn:ecuencic: ce |c cLe:iccc

Lc: ninc: cLe:c: e:Icn :iIuccicn ce (ie:cc ce pccece(
c(cve: p(cL|emc: ce :c|uc. ccmc |c cicLeIe: Iipc 2. y
e| cc|e:Ie(c| c|Ic -p(cL|emc: cue en e| pc:ccc :e
ccn:ice(cLcn exc|u:ivc: ce |c: ccu|Ic:. /cemc:. |c:
ninc: ccn :cL(epe:c :cn mc: p(cpen:c: c Iene( Lcjc
cuIce:Iimc ceLicc c |c: Lu(|c:. e| ccc:c y e| (echczc
ce cue :cn cLjeIc.

Ccu:c: ce| :cL(epe:c

Hcy cive(:c: fccIc(e: cue ccnI(iLuyen c| :cL(epe:c:
Ienemc: |c: hc(c(ic: Icn cp(eIccc: cue nc: cuecc
pccc Iiempc pc(c p(epc(c( ccmicc: :c|uccL|e: c
pc(c hcce( eje(cicic.
Lc: ninc: mcyc(e: y |c: ccc|e:cenIe: :e pc:cn cc:i 4
hc(c: cic(ic: f(enIe c| Ie|evi:c(. /:imi:mc. |c //F
ce:cccn:ejc cue |c: ninc: menc(e: ce 2 cnc: vecn |c
Ie|evi:icn.
Muchc: ninc: nc hccen :uficienIe eje(cicic. Fue:Ic
cue. IcnIc |c: cene: ccmc |c: hcLiIc: :e I(cn:miIen
ce pcc(e: c hijc:. e: pc:iL|e cue vc(ic: miemL(c: ce
|c mi:mc fcmi|ic Ienccn p(cL|emc: ce :cL(epe:c.
Lc: e:Iucic: hcn mc:I(ccc cue e| (ie:cc ce cLe:iccc
ce un ninc cumenIc ccn:ice(cL|emenIe :i unc c
cmLc: p(cceniIc(e: Iienen :cL(epe:c c :cn cLe:c:.

F(eveni( e| :cL(epe:c y |c cLe:iccc

-
Lc c|cve pc(c ccn:ecui( cue |c: ninc: ce Iccc: |c:
eccce: mcnIenccn un pe:c :c|uccL|e ccn:i:Ie en
imp|icc( c Iccc |c fcmi|ic.
Nc hcL|e :cL(e ¨c|imenIc: mc|c:" c ¨c|imenIc:
p(chiLicc:¨ ni e|imine pc( ccmp|eIc Iccc: |c: cu|ce: y
IenIempié: fcvc(iIc: ce |c cieIc ce :u hijc. Lc: ninc:
puecen (eLe|c(:e y ccme( ccnIiccce: exce:ivc: ce
|c: c|imenIc: p(chiLicc: cucncc e:Icn fue(c ce cc:c
c I(ce(|c: c cc:c c e:ccncicc:.
/yúce|e c ce:c((c||c( p(efe(encic: c|imenIc(ic: :cnc:
cf(eciéncc|e un cmp|ic cLcnicc ce c|imenIc:
:c|uccL|e:. En:éne|e c p(epc(c(:e ccmicc: y
IenIempié: :c|uccL|e: y cn|me|e c e:Ic( ccIivc cccc
c|c.
Si(vc un cmp|ic cLcnicc ce c|imenIc: :c|uccL|e: y
ccmcn en fcmi|ic :iemp(e cue :ec pc:iL|e.


¿Cué e: |c CLe:iccc°

Se( cLe:c y e:Ic( excecicc ce pe:c nc e:
exccIcmenIe |c mi:mc. Lc: pe(:cnc: cLe:c: e:Icn
muy excecicc: ce pe:c y cc((en e| (ie:cc ce Iene(
c(cve: p(cL|emc: ce :c|uc.
Lc mc: impc(IcnIe ce Iene( un pe:c nc(mc| nc e: |uci(
ce ceIe(minccc mcne(c. :inc :enIi(:e Lien y
mcnIene(:e :c|uccL|e. Iene( cemc:iccc c(c:c
cc(pc(c| e: ccninc pc(c e| cue(pc ce muchc:
mcne(c:.
Lc Luenc ncIicic e: cue nuncc e: Ic(ce pc(c
mccificc( |c: hcLiIc: c|imenIicic: y ce eje(cicic pc(c
ccnI(c|c( e| pe:c. y e:c: ccmLic: nc Iienen pc( cué
:e( Icn c(cnce: ccmc p(cLcL|emenIe c(ec:. Fc( |c
IcnIc. :i Iú c c|cuien c cuien ccncce: e: cLe:c c e:Ic
excecicc ce pe:c. e:Ie c(I|cu|c Ie L(incc infc(mccicn
y ccn:ejc: pc(c enf(enIc( e| p(cL|emc cccpIcncc un
e:Ii|c ce vicc mc: :c|uccL|e.
CLe:iccc e: e| Ié(minc cue :e uIi|izc pc(c e|
:cL(epe:c exI(emc.
¿Cuc|e: :cn |c: ccu:c: ce |c cLe:iccc°
Lc: pe(:cnc: cumenIcn ce pe:c cucncc e| cue(pc
(eciLe mc: cc|c(|c: ce |c: cue cuemc. E:Ic: cc|c(|c:
ccicicnc|e: :e c|mccencn ccmc c(c:c.
Lc cLe:iccc puece :e( he(eciIc(ic. pe(c e: cif|ci|
ceIe(minc( hc:Ic cué punIc cepence ce |c: cene:.
Muchc: fcmi|ic: ccmen |c: mi:mc: c|imenIc:. Iienen
|c: mi:mc: hcLiIc: {ccmc ccme( :ncck: f(enIe c|
Ie|evi:c() y Iiencen c pen:c( ce mcne(c :imi|c( :cL(e
Iemc: (e|ccicnccc: ccn e| pe:c {pc( ejemp|c. |e:
in:i:Ien c |c: ninc: cue ccmcn muchc pc(c pcne(:e
¨c(cnce: y fue(Ie:¨). /|cunc: enfe(meccce:. ccmc |c:
p(cL|emc: ce |c c|cncu|c Ii(cice: c |c: c|Ie(ccicne:
cenéIicc: inf(ecuenIe:. :cn ccu:c: pccc ccmune: ce|
cumenIc ce pe:c.
/|cunc: vece:. |c: emccicne: IcmLién puecen
e:Iimu|c( |c cLe:iccc. Lc cenIe Iience c ccme(
cucncc e:Ic cf|icicc. cn:ic:c. I(i:Ie. e:I(e:ccc. c
inc|u:c cLu((icc. Unc ce |c: fccIc(e: mc: impc(IcnIe:
en e| cumenIc ce pe:c e: e| e:Ii|c ce vicc :ecenIc(ic.
¿Cuién cc((e e| (ie:cc ce vc|ve(:e cLe:c°
Lc ccnIiccc ce pe(:cnc: cLe:c: e:Ic cumenIcncc.
EnI(e |c: ccc|e:cenIe: y |c: ninc: mcyc(e: ce ó cnc:.
mc: ce| 157 e:Ic excecicc ce pe:c: e:Ic cif(c I(ip|icc
|c ccnIiccc ce pe(:cnc: jcvene: cue Ien|cn
:cL(epe:c en |c cécccc ce 1º70. En |c: E:Iccc:
Unicc:. c| menc: 300.000 mue(Ie: pc( cnc e:Icn
c:cciccc: ccn |c cLe:iccc.
¿De cué mcne(c |c cLe:iccc puece cfecIc( Iu :c|uc°
Lc cLe:iccc e: nccivc. IcnIc pc(c e| cue(pc ccmc
pc(c |c menIe. /cemc: ce cI(c:
pc:iL|e: p(cL|emc:. |c cenIe cLe:c Iiene mc:
p(cLcLi|iccce: ce e:Ic( cep(imicc.
¿Ccmc puece: eviIc( e| :cL(epe:c c |c cLe:iccc°
Lc mejc( mcne(c ce eviIc( e:Ic: p(cL|emc: ce :c|uc
ccn:i:Ie en mcnIene( un pe:c :c|uccL|e.
Y |c: c|cve: pc(c mcnIene( un pe:c :c|uccL|e :cn
hcce( eje(cicic en fc(mc (ecu|c( y Iene( Luenc:
hcLiIc: c|imenIicic:.
Lc ccIiviccc f|:icc Icmpccc Iiene cue :e( exIenucnIe.
EviIc |c: (e:Icu(cnIe: ce ccmicc (cpicc.
Nc incie(c: ccmicc c :ncck: mienI(c: mi(c: Ie|evi:icn
pc(cue :ecu(cmenIe Ie(minc(c: ccmiencc mc: ce |c
cue e:pe(cLc:.
F(e:Ic cIencicn c| Icmcnc ce |c: pc(cicne: cue
ccme:.
¿Cué puece: hcce( :i e:Ic: excecicc ce pe:c c e(e:
cLe:c°
Fecue(cc cue |c: ccc|e:cenIe: nece:iIcn ccme( en
fc(mc (ecu|c(. Feci:I(c cué ccme:. cucncc hcce:
eje(cicic y ccmc Ie :ienIe:.

Ju:Iificccicn

Yc hcL|c(e ce |c cLe:iccc pc(c L(incc( infc(mccicn y
cyucc( c Iccc ccue||c pe(:cnc cue Iencc e:Ic
enfe(meccc y c |c :ccieccc en cene(c| yc cue cc(c
c ccncce( cuc|e: :cn |c: ccu:c: ce |c cLe:iccc y |e:
:e(vi(c ccmc fuenIe ce infc(mccicn en cc:c ce cue
c|cuien ||ecc(c c ce:c((c||c( e:Ic enfe(meccc.





Ccp|Iu|c ll:
FunccmenIccicn

CONCEFIbALIIACIÓN

IMC
E| lMC {|ncice ce mc:c cc(pc(c|) e: un méIccc :imp|e y
cmp|icmenIe u:ccc pc(c e:Iimc( |c p(cpc(cicn ce c(c:c
cc(pc(c|. E| lMC fue ce:c((c||ccc pc( e| e:Icc|:Iicc y
cnI(cpcmeI(i:Ic Le|cc /cc|phe CueIe|eI. E:Ie e: cc|cu|ccc
civiciencc e| pe:c ce| :ujeIc {en ki|cc(cmc:) pc( e| cucc(ccc
ce :u c|Iu(c {en meI(c:). pc( |c IcnIc e: exp(e:ccc en kc / m².

$ÍNDkOME MEIA8OLICO
Se cencminc S|nc(cme meIcLc|icc c |c ccnjuncicn ce vc(ic:
enfe(meccce: c fccIc(e: ce (ie:cc en un mi:mc incivicuc
cue cumenIcn e| (ie:cc ce pccece( unc enfe(meccc
cc(cicvc:cu|c( c cicLeIe: me||iIu:.
En |c: E:Iccc: Unicc:. ce ccue(cc ccn |c cefinicicn ce
S|nc(cme meIcLc|icc hechc pc( |c NCEF. c|(ececc( ce| 257
ce |c pcL|ccicn mcyc( ce 20 cnc: pccece e:Ie :|nc(cme.
Fe:pecIc ce |c: pe(fi|e: ce |c eccc ce |c: ccnciccIc: c
pccece( ce S|nc(cme MeIcLc|icc. é:Ie hc icc Lcjcncc ce
fc(mc c(cmcIicc. Si cnIe: :e hcL|cLc ce pccienIe: cue
Lc(cecLcn |c: 50 cnc:. chc(c e| c(upc ce (ie:cc e:Ic :iIuccc
en Ic(nc c |c: 35 cnc:. e||c pc(cue ce:ce eIcpc: muy
Iemp(cnc: ce |c vicc. |c: pe(:cnc: Iienen mc|c: hcLiIc: ce
c|imenIccicn y e:cc:c eje(cicic f|:icc.

Enfe(meccc c(cnicc
En mecicinc. :e ||cmc enfe(meccc c(cnicc c ccue||c
pcIc|cc|c ce |c(cc cu(ccicn. cuyc fin c cu(ccicn nc puece
p(eve(:e c|c(cmenIe c nc ccu((i(c nuncc.
Nc hcy un ccn:en:c cce(cc ce| p|czc c pc(Ii( ce| cuc| unc
enfe(meccc pc:c c ccn:ice(c(:e c(cnicc: pe(c pc( Ié(minc
mecic. Iccc enfe(meccc cue Iencc unc cu(ccicn mcyc( c
I(e: me:e: puece ccn:ice(c(:e ccmc c(cnicc.

ENFEkMEDAD CkÓNICA

En mecicinc. :e ||cmc enfe(meccc c(cnicc c ccue||c
pcIc|cc|c ce |c(cc cu(ccicn. cuyc fin c cu(ccicn nc puece
p(eve(:e c|c(cmenIe c nc ccu((i(c nuncc.
Nc hcy un ccn:en:c cce(cc ce| p|czc c pc(Ii( ce| cuc| unc
enfe(meccc pc:c c ccn:ice(c(:e c(cnicc: pe(c pc( Ié(minc
mecic. Iccc enfe(meccc cue Iencc unc cu(ccicn mcyc( c
I(e: me:e: puece ccn:ice(c(:e ccmc c(cnicc.

I$IOkIOGkAFIA DE O8E$IDAD
En cive(:c: cu|Iu(c: humcnc:. |c cc(cu(c e:Iuvc c:cciccc ccn
e| cI(ccIivc f|:icc. |c fue(zc y |c fe(Ii|iccc. /|cunc: ce |c: piezc:
c(I|:Iicc: mc: cnIicuc:. ccnccicc: ccmc ficu(i||c: ce Venu:.
:cn e:IcIui||c: ce Icmcnc Lc|:i||c cue (ep(e:enIcn unc ficu(c
femeninc cLe:c.
/uncue :u :icnificccc cu|Iu(c| nc :e ccncce. e| u:c exIencicc
ce e:Ic imccen enI(e |c: cu|Iu(c: p(ehi:Ic(icc: meciIe((cnec:
y eu(cpec: :ucie(e un pcpe| cenI(c| ce |c muje( cLe:c en
(iIuc|e: mccicc:. y (eve|c unc p(cLcL|e ccepIccicn cu|Iu(c| {y
cuizc: ce (eve(encic) hccic e:Ic fc(mc cc(pc(c|. E:Ic e(c c:|
ceLicc c |c ccpcciccc ce |c muje( cLe:c pc(c c(ic( ninc: y
:cL(evivi( c| hcmL(e.
En |c: cu|Iu(c: ccnce e:cc:ecLc |c ccmicc. :e( cLe:c e(c
ccn:ice(ccc un :|mLc|c ce (icuezc y e:IcIu: :ccic|. E:Ic
IcmLién e(c c:| en |c: cu|Iu(c: eu(cpec: c p(incipic: ce |c e(c
mcce(nc. Luecc fue mc: :icnc vi:iL|e ce ¨|uju(ic pc( |c vicc¨.
cpeIiIc e inme(:icn en e| (einc ce |c e(cIicc. E:Ie :icnificccc
fue pc(Iicu|c(menIe u:ccc en |c: c(Ie: vi:uc|e:. ccmc pc(
ejemp|c en |c: pinIu(c: ce FuLen: ce ficu(c: femeninc:
c(cncc: {ce ccnce p(cviene e| cpe|cIivc ¨(uLene:cc¨ ccmc
:incnimc ce cc(cu(c).
Lc cLe:iccc hc :icc vi:Ic IcmLién ccmc un :|mLc|c cenI(c
ce un :i:Iemc ce p(e:Iicic. Lc c|c:e ce ccmicc. |c ccnIiccc y
|c mcne(c en |c cuc| e: :e(vicc e:Icn enI(e |c: c(iIe(ic:
impc(IcnIe: ce |c c|c:e :ccic|. En |c mcyc(|c ce |c:
:ccieccce: I(iLc|e:. inc|u:c en ccue||c: ccn un :i:Iemc :ccic|
muy e:I(cIificccc. Iccc e| muncc -|c (ec|ezc y |c:
I(cLcjccc(e:- ccm|cn e| mi:mc Iipc ce c|imenIc:. y :i hcL|c
e:cc:ez Iccc: pc:cLcn hcmL(e. Ccn e| inc(emenIc ce
cive(:iccc en |c: c|imenIc:. |c ccmicc hc ||ecccc c :e( nc
:c|c un c:unIc ce e:IcIu: :ccic| :inc IcmLién unc mc(cc ce |c
pe(:cnc|iccc y e| Luen cu:Ic.
En |c cu|Iu(c cccicenIc| mcce(nc. |c cLe:iccc :e ccn:ice(c
en cene(c| pccc cI(ccIivc. Lc: cue(pc: cLe:c: (c(cmenIe :e
(ep(e:enIcn ce fc(mc pc:iIivc en |c: mecic: ce
ccmunicccicn. Muchc: e:Ie(ecIipc: neccIivc: :e c:ccicn ccn
|c cenIe cLe:c. ccmc |c c(eencic ce cue :cn pe(ezc:c:.
:ucic:. e:Iúpicc: c inc|u:c mc|c:. Lc c|cIcne(|c. e| :ecuncc ce
|c: :ieIe pecccc: ccpiIc|e:. :e (efie(e c e:Ie ú|Iimc
e:Ie(ecIipc. Lc: ninc:. ccc|e:cenIe: y ccu|Ic: cLe:c: hccen
f(enIe c un fue(Ie e:Iicmc :ccic|. Lc: ninc: cLe:c: :cn c
menucc cLjeIivc ce ccc:ccc(e: y :uf(en |c (icicu|izccicn ce
:u: ccmpcne(c:.
Lc cLe:iccc en |c eccc ccu|Ic puece ccncuci( c mcyc(
cificu|Icc en c:cence( en e| I(cLcjc. Lc mcyc(|c ce |c cenIe
cLe:c hc Ienicc pen:cmienIc: neccIivc: cce(cc ce :u
imccen cc(pc(c|. y muchc: Icmcn mecicc: c(c:Iicc: pc(c
inIenIc( ccmLic( :u ficu(c. Nc Iccc: |c: cu|Iu(c:
ccnIempc(cnec: ce:cp(ueLcn |c cLe:iccc. /cIuc|menIe |c
cLe:iccc :e ccn:ice(c en CccicenIe unc enfe(meccc pc(c
|c cue e: nece:c(ic un I(cIcmienIc mécicc.
Hcy cI(c: cu|Iu(c:. :in emLc(cc. cue cp(ueLcn
I(ccicicnc|menIe c |c: cLe:c:. inc|uyencc c|cunc: cf(iccnc:.
c(cLe:. incic: y ce |c: i:|c: ce| Fcc|ficc.
FecienIemenIe e:Ic c:cenciencc un pecuenc pe(c vivcz
mcvimienIc ce ccepIccicn ce |c: cc(cc: en CccicenIe cue
Lu:cc cefence(:e ce |c ci:c(iminccicn Lc:ccc en e| pe:c.
E:Ie mcvimienIc y cive(:c: c(upc: ce cLccccc: hcn iniciccc
cemcncc: pc(c cefence( |c: ce(echc: ce |c cenIe cLe:c y
p(eveni( :u exc|u:icn :ccic|.
Lc cLe:iccc e: unc ccncicicn en |c cuc| |c (e:e(vc ncIu(c| ce
ene(c|c. c|mccenccc en e| Iejicc ccipc:c ce |c: :e(e:
humcnc: y cI(c: mcm|fe(c:. :e inc(emenIc hc:Ic un punIc en
e| cue :e c:ccic ccn cie(Ic: enfe(meccce: c unc e|evccicn
ce| |ncice ce mc(Ic|iccc.
Lc cLe:iccc e: unc enfe(meccc incivicuc| y IcmLién un :e(ic
p(cL|emc ce :c|uc púL|icc. E| exce:ivc pe:c cc(pc(c|
p(eci:pcne c pccece( cive(:c: enfe(meccce:. en e:pecic|
enfe(meccce: cc(cicvc:cu|c(e:. cicLeIe: me||iIu: Iipc 2.
cpnec ce| :uenc y c:Iecc(I(iIi:. /ún nc hcy ccn:en:c
cienI|ficc :cL(e |c: Iécnicc: ce mecicc pc(c e:IcL|ece( un
pe:c mcximc :c|uccL|e.
Lc pc|cL(c ¨cLe:c¨ viene ce| |cI|n cLe:u:. cue :icnificc
¨cc(pu|enIc. cc(cc c (e||enc¨. Lc (c|z :u: e: e| pc(Iicipic ce
pc:ccc ceece(e {ccme(). E| p(ime( u:c ccnccicc en |encuc
inc|e:c fue en 1ó51. en un |iL(c ce mecicinc ce Ncch 8icc:.
M/FCC IECFlCC


¿QbÊ E$ LA O8E$IDAD?
E: unc enfe(meccc c(cnicc pc( muchc: ccu:c: y ccn
nume(c:c: ccmp|icccicne: :e cc(ccIe(izc pc( e| exce:c ce
c(c:c en e| c(ccni:mc y :e p(e:enIc cucncc e| |ncice ce
mc:c cc(pc(c| en e| ccu|Ic e: mcyc( ce 25 uniccce:.

OkIGENE$ DE LA O8E$IDAD
Lc cLe:iccc e: unc enfe(meccc c(cnicc c(icinccc pc(
muchc: ccu:c: y nume(c:c: ccmp|icccicne: :e cc(ccIe(izc
pc( e| exce:c ce c(c:c en e| c(ccni:mc y :e p(e:enIc cucncc
e| |ncice ce mc:c cc(pc(c| en e| ccu|Ic e: mcyc( ce 25
uniccce:.
Lc cLe:iccc nc ci:Iincue cc|c( ce pie|. eccc. nive| :ccic
eccncmicc. exce:c c :iIuccicn cecc(cficc.

ENFEkMEDADE$ DE LA O8E$IDAD
Lc cLe:iccc e: un fccIc( ce (ie:cc ccnccicc pc(
enfe(meccce: c(cnicc: ccmc pcc(cn :e( enfe(meccce:
cc(ciccc:. cicLeIe:. hipe(Ien:icn c(Ie(ic|. icIu: y c|cunc:
fc(mc: ce ccnce(.
Lc evicencic cue :e :ucie(e cue :e I(cIc ce unc enfe(meccc
ccn c(icen mu|IifccIc(ic|. cenéIicc. cmLienIc|. p:icc|ccicc
eIc.


MAYOk DE$AkkOLLO MAYOk O8E$IDAD
lnfc(mccicn p(ccecenIe IcnIc ce pc|:e: ce:c((c||ccc: ccmc
en ce:c((c||c. incicc cue e| (ie:cc ce :uf(i( cLe:iccc nc e:
hcmccénec enI(e |c: ci:IinIc: e:I(cIc: :cciceccncmicc: y
ecuccIivc: ce |c pcL|ccicn en |c: e:Iccc: unicc:. hc:Ic cnIe:
ce 1º80.|c p(evc|encic ce cLe:iccc en ninc: e(c mcyc( enI(e
e:I(cIc: :cciceccncmicc: c|Ic:.

$INDkOME MEIA8OLICO
E| ci(ecIc( ce| p(cc(cmc ce :c|uc ce| ccu|Ic y ce| cncicnc ce
|c :ec(eIc(ic ce :c|uc. pe(IenecienIe c |c ccc(cinccicn ce
vici|cncic epicemic|ccicc cenI(c ce |c pcnencic. Lc
e:I(cIecic: Chi|e e:Ic Icmcncc mecicc: ccnI(c e| :|nc(cme
meIcLc|icc.

O8E$IDAD IGbALDAD ACIA IODO$
Lc cLe:iccc nc: ci:Iincue e| cc|c( ce pie|. eccc. nive|
:cciceccncmicc. :exc c :iIuccicn cecc(cficc. /nIe(ic(menIe
:e ccn:ice(cLc c |c pe(:cnc ccn :cL(e pe:c ccmc unc
pe(:cnc cue cczcLc ce Luenc :c|uc. hcy en c|c :e :cLe cue
|c cLe:iccc Iiene mú|Iip|e: ccn:ecuencic: neccIivc: en |c
:c|uc.

O8E$IDAD $ALbD ENGAÑO$A
/nIe(ic(menIe :e ccn:ice(cLc c |c pe(:cnc ccn :cL(epe:c
ccmc unc pe(:cnc cue cczcLc ce Luenc :c|uc. :in emLc(cc
chc(c :e :cLe cue |c cLe:iccc Iiene mú|Iip|e: ccn:ecuencic:
en neuI(c :c|uc.

O8E$IDAD EN LO$ ADbLIO$ EN CILE
Fc( e| cI(c |ccc cive(:c: (ecicne: ce Chi|e :e encuenI(cn en
ci:IinIc: eIcpc: ce| p(cce:c ce I(cn:mi:icn epicemic|ccicc.
E:Ie fencmenc ccnccicc ccmc pc|c(izccicn epicemic|ccicc
(ef|ejc c(cnce: ci:pc(iccce: en |c: ccncicicne: ce :c|uc ce
ci:IinIc: c(upc: :ccic|e: ce| pc|:. Lc cLe:iccc enI(e ccu|Ic: en
|c: E.U. e: mc: f(ecuenIe enI(e pe(:cnc: ce Lcjc: (ecu(:c:
eccncmicc: enI(e |c pcL|ccicn nc(Iecme(iccnc y Chi|e.

FEk$ONA O8E$A $IM8OLO DE kIQbE$A
/nIe(ic(menIe :e ccn:ice(c c |c pe(:cnc ccn :cL(epe:c cue
c(ccnizcLc unc Luenc :c|uc. :in emLc(cc chc(c :e :cLe cue
|c cLe:iccc Iiene mú|Iip|e: ccn:ecuencic: en nue:I(c :c|uc
ccn excepcicn ce |c: pe(:cnc: cue :cn mu:cu|c:c:. ccue||c:
cue cuyc pe:c :upe(cn en un 707 c mc: e| punIc mecic ce
|c e:cc|c.

O8E$IDAD
En vc(ic: cu|Iu(c: humcnc: |c cLe:iccc e:Iuvc c:cciccc ccn
cI(ccIivc f|:icc fue(zc y fe(Ii|iccc. Lc cLe:iccc fue
ccn:ice(ccc en un :|mLc|c ce (icuezc y e:I(ucIu(c :ccic|
p(cnc: c |c e:cc:ee: ce ccmicc humcnc:. Lc mc: impc(IcnIe
ce Iene( un pe:c nc(mc| nc e: |uci( ceIe(minccc mcne(c. :i
nc :enIi(:e Lien y mcnIene(:e :c|uccL|e.

CAb$A$ DE LA O8E$IDAD (ACIIVIDADE$ FÍ$ICA$)
Lc ccIiviccc f|:icc (ecucicc e: p(cLcL|emenIe unc ce |c:
(czcne: p(incipc|e: pc(c e| inc(emenIc ce |c cLe:iccc enI(e
|c: pe(:cnc: ce |c :ccieccc cpu|enIc: IcmLién :e pcc(|c
ceci( cue |c fc|Ic ce eje(cicic yc :ec ccminc( c cc((e( yc cue
IcmLién e: Luenc pc(c mcnIene( un Luen pe:c y nc Iene(
p(cL|emc ccn |c ci(cu|ccicn ce |c :cnc(e y Iene( unc Luenc
:c|uc.

ENFEkMEDADE$ DE LA O8E$IDAD DE$DE AÑO$ FA$ADO$
E| pc|: hc expe(imenIccc un ce:cen:c en :u: Ic:c ce
fecunciccc c pc(Ii( ce |c cécccc ce |c: :eIenIc c:| ccmc
unc (ecuccicn ce |c mc(Ic|iccc y mc(Ic|iccc pc(
enfe(meccce: c(cnicc: c pc(Ii( ce |c: cnc: cincuenIc
fc:ci:mc ccLe ccn:ice(c( cc: fccIc(e: cue inIe(viene en un
p(cce:c pc( un |ccc. e| ce:c((c||c :cciceccncmicc nc e:
hcmccénec en Iccc: |c: (ecicne: ce| pc|:.

INFLbENCIA$ EN LA O8E$IDAD
E| in:icne ccn G(ecc(ic Mc(cncn yc cijc cue |c: mccc:
cLececen c unc :e(ie ce mcIivc:. Lc e:Icc|:Iicc pc( muchc:
ce e:Ic: mcIivc:. hc fc(zccc e| icec| ce ce|cccez nc
(eccnccen :u ¨cLe:iccc" nc :e ven ccmc ¨pe(:cnc: cLe:c:"
:i ccc:c ¨c|cc |iIe(c(ic:" y pccc mc:.

kIE$GO DE O8E$IDAD EN LA$ MbJEkE$

Lc cLe:iccc Iiene mcyc( (ie:cc en |c muje( ceLicc c cc(
ci(cun:Icncic: p(ime(c cue en I(e: emLc(czc: cumenIc un
p(cmecic ce I(e: ki|c: ce pe:c y :ecuncc. :u inc(e:c c |c:
ccIiviccce: |cLc(c|e: ccnce cnIe: nc pc(IicipcLcn. pue: e:Ic
ccc:icnc cue cejc(cn ce (ec|izc( ccIiviccce: f|:icc:
ce:empenccc: en e| hccc(.


$O8kEFE$O, MAYOk kIE$GO A LA MbEkIE
Nc exi:Ie un ceIe(minccc |ncice ce mc:c cc(pc(c| {lMC)
p(cpc(cicn ce pe:c c Ic||c. en e| cuc| pcc(|cmc: ceci( cue |c:
enfe(meccce: c:cciccc: cue ccc(Icn |c vicc y |c |imiIccicn
vcn c cpc(ece(. CLvicmenIe e| (ie:cc ce ce:c((c||c(|c: e:
mcyc( enI(e mc: c|Ic lMC y enI(e mc: p(cnIc |c cLe:iccc :e
cc((eci(c. mc: enfe(meccce: c:cciccc: :e(cn eviIccc: y
p(evenicc:.

O8E$IDAD EN LO$ JOVENE$
Muchc: ccc|e:cenIe: cLe:c: Iienen unc pcL(e imccen ce :i
mi:mc: y :e hccen p(cc(e:ivcmenIe mc: ce|ec(ic(ccc: y
:ccic|menIe ci:|ccc:. Su: pcc(e: c menucc :cLen ccmc
cyucc(|c:. Lc: fccIc(e: cue inf|uyen en |c cLe:iccc. ce|
ccc|e:cenIe |ice(cmenIe cLe:c ccnc pe:c ccn (cpicez y :e
hcce :u:IcncicL|e cLe:c en pccc: cnc:.


CAb$A$ DE LA O8E$IDAD
Lc cLe:iccc e: unc cmenczc pc(c |c vicc. e: unc
enfe(meccc p(cc(e:ivc y c(cnicc ce p(cpc(cicne:
epicémicc: cue cfecIcn c Iccc e| muncc. Lc cLe:iccc e: e|
(e:u|Iccc ce| ccn:umc ce unc ccnIiccc mcyc( cue |c: cue e|
cue(pc uIi|izc.

$EDENIAkI$MO
E| :ecenIc(i:mc e: unc ce |c: ccu:c: cue fcvc(ecen e|
:cL(epe:c y |c cLe:iccc cun nccc c |c ince:Ic exce:ivc ce
cc|c(|c: y pcnen c| ince:Ic exce:ivc ce cc|c(|c: y pcnen c|
c(ccni:mc en unc :iIuccicn vu|ne(cL|e cue ccn||evc c
enfe(meccce: ce Iipc cc(cicvc:cu|c(. Ien:icn c(Ie(ic|.
cicLeIe: enI(e cI(c:.


IkAN$IOkNO$F$ICOLOGICO$ CAb$A$ DE LA O8E$IDAD
Lc: fccIc(e: p:icc|ccicc: ccmc I(c:Ic(nc: emccicnc|e:. cue
cu(cnIe un Iiempc fue(cn ccn:ice(ccc: ccmc unc impc(IcnIe
ccu:c ce |c cLe:iccc. :e ccn:ice(c ccIuc|menIe ccmc unc
(ecccicn c |c: fue(Ie: p(ejuicic: y |c ci:c(iminccicn ccnI(c |c:
pe(:cnc: cLe:c:. Lc mcyc(|c ce |c: pe(:cnc: ccmen y :e
hccen cLe:c: yc :ec pc( cn:ic: c pc( p(eccupccicne:.
FACIOkE$ FAMILIAkE$
Lc: fccIc(e: fcmi|ic(e: :cn cI(c Iemc inIe(e:cnIe e| 507 ce |c:
hijc: ce 2 pcc(e: cLe:c: :cn cLe:c: e| 407 ce |c: hijc: ce un
mcI(imcnic cucncc unc ce |c pc(ejc e: cLe:c. :uf(e ce
cLe:iccc y :c|c e| 107 ce |c: pe(:cnc: :cn cLe:c: cucncc
nincunc ce :u: pcc(e: |c e:. /|cunc: cuIc(e: :e (efie(en c e:Ic
ccmc fccIc( ¨cenéIicc".

IIFO$ DE O8E$IDAD
Se puece e:IcL|ece( un |ncice ce cLe:iccc. cefinicc ccmc |c
(e|ccicn enI(e pe:c (ec| e icec|. Secún e| c(icen ce |c
cLe:iccc e:Ic :e c|c:ificc c:| :
1-cLe:iccc exccenc: |c cLe:iccc ceLicc c unc c|imenIccicn
exce:ivc
2-cLe:iccc encccenc-|c cue Iiene pc( ccu:c c|Ie(ccicne:
meIcLc|icc:.
3-cLe:iccc e:Ii|c KenneIh: |c cue ccu:c muchc cLe:iccc.

FOkCENIAJE DE FEk$ONA$ QbE COM8AIEN LA O8E$IDAD
De |c: pe(:cnc: ccn :cL(epe:c :c|c e| 577 hc inIenIccc
:c|ucicnc( :u p(cL|emc y ce Iccc: e||c: menc: ce| ó7
cccn:ejc(|cn c c|cuien ce :u enIc(nc cue ccucie(cn c|
mécicc c :c|ucicnc( un p(cL|emc :imi|c(. De |c: cue ce:ecn
cce|cczc( e| 877 cpIc pc( |c ncIu(c| y |c en:i||c y p(efie(e
I(cIc(:e ccn p(ccucIc: ncIu(c|e: y nc ccn fc(mccc:.

O8E$IDAD, MbEkIE MA$IVA
Un e:Iucic cemue:I(c cue |c: hcmL(e: ce 25 c 35 cnc: cue
pccecen ce cLe:iccc :uf(en unc mc(Ic|iccc 12 vece: mcyc(
cue :u: :emejcnIe:. Lc cLe:iccc e:Ic c:cciccc ccn un c(cn
núme(c ce ccmp|icccicne: cue (epe(cuIen muy
ce:fcvc(cL|emenIe en |c :c|uc y |c e:pe(cnzc ce vicc ce
e:Ic: pccienIe:.








M/FCC DE FEFEFENCl/


Lc cLe:iccc y e| :cL(epe:c :e cefinen ccmc unc
ccumu|ccicn cnc(mc| c exce:ivc ce c(c:c cue puece :e(
pe(jucicic| pc(c |c :c|uc.
E| |ncice ce mc:c cc(pc(c| {lMC) e| pe:c en ki|cc(cmc:
civicicc pc( e| cucc(ccc ce |c Ic||c en meI(c: {kc/m2) e: unc
incicccicn :imp|e ce |c (e|ccicn enI(e e| pe:c y |c Ic||c cue :e
uIi|izc f(ecuenIemenIe pc(c icenIificc( e| :cL(epe:c y |c
cLe:iccc en |c: ccu|Ic:. IcnIc c nive| incivicuc| ccmc
pcL|ccicnc|.
E| lMC ccn:IiIuye |c mecicc pcL|ccicnc| mc: úIi| ce|
:cL(epe:c y |c cLe:iccc. pue: |c fc(mc ce cc|cu|c(|c nc vc(|c
en funcicn ce| :exc ni ce |c eccc en |c pcL|ccicn ccu|Ic.
Nc cL:IcnIe. ceLe ccn:ice(c(:e ccmc unc cu|c
cp(cximcIivc. pue: puece nc cc((e:pcnce( c| mi:mc c(ccc
ce cc(cu(c en cife(enIe: incivicuc:.
Lc C(ccnizccicn Muncic| ce |c Sc|uc {CMS) cefine e|
:cL(epe:c ccmc un lMC icuc| c :upe(ic( c 25. y |c cLe:iccc
ccmc un lMC icuc| c :upe(ic( c 30. E:Ic: umL(c|e: :i(ven ce
(efe(encic pc(c |c: evc|uccicne: incivicuc|e:. pe(c hcy
p(ueLc: ce cue e| (ie:cc ce enfe(meccce: c(cnicc: en |c
pcL|ccicn cumenIc p(cc(e:ivcmenIe c pc(Ii( ce un lMC ce
21.
Lc: nuevc: FcI(cne: ce c(ecimienIc infcnIi| p(e:enIccc: pc( |c
CMS en cL(i| ce 200ó inc|uyen IcL|c: ce| lMC pc(c |ccIcnIe: y
ninc: ce hc:Ic 5 cnc:. Nc cL:IcnIe. |c mecicicn ce|
:cL(epe:c y |c cLe:iccc en ninc: ce 5 c 14 cnc: e: cif|ci|
pc(cue nc hcy unc cefinicicn nc(mc|izccc ce |c cLe:iccc
infcnIi| cue :e cp|icue en Iccc e| muncc. Lc CMS e:Ic
e|cLc(cncc en |c ccIuc|iccc unc (efe(encic inIe(nccicnc| ce|
c(ecimienIc ce |c: ninc: ce eccc e:cc|c( y |c: ccc|e:cenIe:.
Lc: ú|Iimc: cc|cu|c: ce |c CMS inciccn cue en 2005 hcL|c en
Iccc e| muncc:
/p(cximcccmenIe 1ó00 mi||cne: ce ccu|Ic: {mcyc(e: ce 15
cnc:) ccn :cL(epe:c.
/| menc: 400 mi||cne: ce ccu|Ic: cLe:c:.
/cemc:. |c CMS cc|cu|c cue en 2015 hcL(c /p(cx. 2300
mi||cne: ce ccu|Ic: ccn :cL(epe:c y mc: ce 700 mi||cne: ccn
cLe:iccc.

































Ccp|Iu|c lll:
MeIccc|cc|c





IFÓIE$I$


|potes|s A|ternot|vo

Lc cLe:iccc e: ccu:ccc pc( nc hcce( eje(cicic.
E| nc ccme( c|imenIc: nuI(iIivc: e: ccu:c ce cLe:iccc.
Lc cLe:iccc e: ccu:ccc pc( ||evc( unc vicc :ecenIc(ic. y unc
mc|c c|imenIccicn.

|potes|s Nu|o

Nc e: cie(Ic cue |c cLe:iccc e: ccu:ccc pc( nc hcce(
eje(cicic.
Nc e: cie(Ic cue e| nc ccme( c|imenIc: nuI(iIivc: :ec ccu:c
ce cLe:iccc.
Nc e: cie(Ic cue |c cLe:iccc :ec ccu:ccc pc( ||evc( unc vicc
:ecenIc(ic y unc mc|c c|imenIccicn.

IIFO$ DE E$IbDIO

E| Iipc ce e:Iucic cue :e e:Ic uIi|izcncc cue :e e:Ic uIi|izcncc
e: ce:c(ipIivc. yc cue :e e:Icn cnc|izcncc ci:IinIc:
ci(cun:Icncic: y Lu:cc ce:c(iLi( c|cún Iipc ce :iIuccicn. Lu:cc
e:pecificc( |c: ccu:c: c ccn:ecuencic: cue Iiene c|cunc
:iIuccicn en e:pecic|. en e:Ie cc:c :e e:Ic e:Iucicncc |c
enfe(meccc ce |c cLe:iccc.
Se e:Iucicn y :e evc|úcn Iccc: |c: ccmpcnenIe: ce|
p(cL|emc. ccmc :cn :u: ccu:c: y ccn:ecuencic:.
Lc: e:Iucic: ce:c(ipIivc: en :u mcyc(|c micen |c: ccncepIc: c
vc(icL|e: cue Iienen cue ve( ccn cichc fencmenc. Se
puecen (ec|izc( |c: mecicicne: ce |c: vc(icL|e: pc(c ceci(
ccmc e: y ccmc :e mcnifie:Ic e| fencmenc.

bNIDAD DE ANÁLI$I$
Lc uniccc ce cnc|i:i: c uIi|izc( en e:Ic inve:Iicccicn e: e|
pc((cfc.
Un pc((cfc e: unc uniccc ce ci:cu(:c en IexIc e:c(iIc cue
exp(e:c unc icec c un c(cumenIc. c (ep(ccuce |c: pc|cL(c:
ce un hcL|cnIe. E:Ic inIec(ccc pc( un ccnjunIc ce c(ccicne:
cue Iienen cie(Ic uniccc IemcIicc c cue. :in Iene(|c. :e
enuncicn junIc:. E: un ccmpcnenIe ce| IexIc cue en :u
c:pecIc exIe(nc inicic ccn unc mcyú:cu|c y Ie(minc en un
punIc y cpc(Ie. Ccmp(ence vc(ic: c(ccicne: (e|ccicnccc:
:cL(e e| mi:mc :uLIemc: unc ce e||c: exp(e:c |c icec
p(incipc|.
Un pc((cfc puece :e( Icn cc(Ic ccmc unc pc|cL(c c cLc(cc(
vc(ic: pccinc:.
Lc: IexIc: fue(cn :e|eccicnccc: ce ccue(cc c |c:
nece:iccce: cue :e fue(cn p(e:enIcncc c |c |c(cc ce |c
inve:Iicccicn.

Lc: mcIe(ic|e: cue :e uIi|izc(cn pc(c |c e|cLc(ccicn ce e:Ie
e:Iucic fue(cn unc: fichc: ce (e:umen. |c: cuc|e: hcn :icc
I(cn:c(iIc: en e| mc(cc Iec(icc.
Se hc e:Iccc :icuiencc unc :e(ie ce p(ccecimienIc:. c|cunc:
:cn: inve:Iicccicn ce c(I|cu|c:. e|cLc(ccicn ce fichc:. eIc.



MAIEkIALE$ Y FkOCEDIMIENIO$

Lc: mcIe(ic|e: cue :e uIi|izc(cn :cn IexIc: cienI|ficc: cue
fue(cn cLIenicc: ce fuenIe: ce lnIe(neI. y ce |iL(c:.
Lc infc(mccicn cue fue (eccpi|ccc ce |c: IexIc: fue
(ecccIccc y c|mccenccc en fichc: hcciencc fichc: ce Iipc:
ciIc IexIuc|. ccn:I(ucIc. (e:umen y pc(cf(c:i:.

C/FlIULC lV:
FESULI/DCS


kE$bLIADO$

Objet|vo 1: Ano||zore |os Cousos de |o Obes|dod
Lc: ccu:c: ce |c cLe:iccc :cn mú|Iip|e:. e inc|uyen fccIc(e: Ic|e: ccmc
|c he(encic cenéIicc: e| ccmpc(IcmienIc ce| :i:Iemc ne(vic:c.
enccc(inc y meIcLc|icc: y e| Iipc c e:Ii|c ce vicc cue :e ||eve.
Mcyc( ince:Ic ce cc|c(|c: ce |c: cue e| cue(pc nece:iIc.
Menc( ccIiviccc f|:icc ce |c cue e| cue(pc p(eci:c.
Si :e incie(e mcyc( ccnIiccc ce ene(c|c ce |c nece:c(ic é:Ic :e
ccumu|c en fc(mc ce c(c:c. Si :e ccn:ume mc: ene(c|c ce |c nece:c(ic
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IIFO DE ANÁLI$I$

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FkOCE$AMIENIO DE DAIO$

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AFAkIADO$:

CONCLb$IÓNE$

De ccue(cc ccn |c: cLjeIivc: p(cpue:Ic: en e:Ic
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cue e:Ic inve:Iicccicn hcL|c :cL(e cuc|e: :cn |c: ccu:c: ce
|c cLe:iccc en |c pcL|ccicn. ce icuc| mcne(c IcmLién
mencicnc cue pc(cenIcje ce |c pcL|ccicn en Chi|e pccece
ce cLe:iccc.

- IcmLién mencicnc cuc|e: :cn |c: ccn:ecuencic: ce ||evc(
unc vicc ccn cLe:iccc y hcL|c IcmLién :cL(e cuicc( e:c
c|imenIccicn pc(c ||evc( unc vicc mc: :c|uccL|e.

- Y pc( u|Iimc hcL|c :cL(e cuc| e: |c mc(Icnccc pc( ccu:c ce
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$bGEkENCIA$


WDe ccue(cc ccn e:Ic inve:Iicccicn :e (eccmiencc cue pc(c
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cue p(eccupc(:e.

/NEXCS








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