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Bab 2

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Published by: Santi Markha on Jun 09, 2011
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11/30/2014

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The global positioning system (GPS) makes use of extremely accurate measures of the time to determine position.

The times required for electronic signals to travel at the speed of light from at least four orbiting satellites to a receiver on earth is measured precisely and used to calculate the distances from the satellites to the receiver. The calculated distances are used to determine the position of the receiver through triangulation. GPS is the universal name for the navigational system owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Defense that allows users to determine position, speed, and time using GPS receivers. Originally intended solely for military purposes, use of an intentionally degraded signal was opened for general public use in the 1980’s. This intentional degradation was known as selective availability (SA) and was removed in 2000, increasing the accuracy of receivers from approximately 100 meters to approximately 10 meters [Angelo 2000]. This increased accuracy and the ability to incorporate the technology into OBI systems makes GPS a potential technology for field data collection. GPS has been used as a field data collection tool in the agricultural, transportation, and construction industries. Borgelt et al. [1996] describe the use of GPS in an OBI system to map variations in crop yield. Data was logged at onesecond intervals, including position from GPS, speed, and grain yield from other sensors. Uses of GPS by the transportation industry to gather field data are well documented [Goodchild and Fairhead 1993; Zito and Taylor 1994; D’Este et al. 1999]. The principal use of the technology is to provide position and speed data pertaining to study vehicles. The construction industry has used GPS to provide data to navigational systems and to operations monitoring systems. Lothon and Akel [1996] describe a system to audibly alert operators of excavating equipment when in danger of striking a pipeline network. The current machine position was determined using GPS and compared to the known location of pipelines. The authors note the importance of a common coordinate system for comparison purposes. GPS was used to periodically

vt. Now. Compaction operations have been monitored by GPS based systems. location awareness is becoming a fundamental requirement in many areas such as asset management. (5)-2003 (5) http://scholar. track and trace for managing asset on the move. is becoming more and more popular in outdoor environment. Essentially. The time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the satellite is. A key enabling technology for such location awareness is through positioning technologies. 1995].(1) How is it work GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. especially for asset on the move. the government made the system available for civilian use. GPS works in any weather conditions.S. relies on GPS positional data to efficiently route consstruction equipment [Tserng and Russell 1997].correct for drift in an inertial navigation system used to guide an autonomously operated excavator [Crane et al.g. IMPACT. GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the user's exact location. Oloufa et al. . are especially helpful in identification of the move paths of the asset and can help identify fake products (3) The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U. of which GPS. the receiver can determine the user's position and display it on the unit's electronic map. but in the 1980s. 24 hours a day. Department of Defense. with distance measurements from a few more satellites. GPS was originally intended for military applications. e.lib.edu/theses/available/etd-02052003-172157/ With mobile applications becoming more and more attractive. Location aware applications and services. [1997] and Pampagnin et al. an instantaneous motion planning and controlling tool. the GPS receiver compares the time a signal was transmitted by a satellite with the time it was received. anywhere in the world. There are no subscription fees or setup charges to use GPS. [1998] describe similar systems for monitoring asphalt compaction. global poisoning system.

the receiver can determine the user's 3D position (latitude. A GPS signal contains three different bits of information . assisted living for the elderly). (2) (1) 4-On GPS Tracking of Mobile Devices The presence of GPS in vehicles not only allows the vehicles to know where they are. current date and time. and resource optimization (traffic monitoring. wildlife monitoring).D.a pseudorandom code. care (e.g. meaning they will pass through clouds. contains important information about the status of the satellite (healthy or unhealthy). as it identifies which satellites it's receiving.42 MHz in the UHF band. Each satellite transmits almanac data showing the orbital information for that satellite and for every other satellite in the system. Civilian GPS uses the L1 frequency of 1575. Being able to locate a vehicle using GPS . trip distance. fleet management). distance to destination. longitude and altitude). What's the signal? GPS satellites transmit two low power radio signals. environment (e. tracking the potentially dangerous individuals such as parolees). glass and plastic but will not go through most solid objects such as buildings and mountains. sunrise and sunset time and more. Ephemeris data.g. navigation (e. The signals travel by line of sight. but also helps the owners of the vehicles to locate their vehicles. such as speed.g.g. The pseudorandom code is simply an I. which is constantly transmitted by each satellite. Once the user's position has been determined.. This is particularly true when a vehicle is stolen. code that identifies which satellite is transmitting information. You can view this number on your Garmin GPS unit's satellite page.. designated L1 and L2. This part of the signal is essential for determining a position. bearing. (1) Benefit The use of GPS tracking and monitoring in our day to day lives can be broadly classified into the following categories: security (e. securing assets. The almanac data tells the GPS receiver where each GPS satellite should be at any time throughout the day.A GPS receiver must be locked on to the signal of at least three satellites to calculate a 2D position (latitude and longitude) and track movement. With four or more satellites in view. the GPS unit can calculate other information. in-car navigation systems). ephemeris data and almanac data. track...

GPS gives fleet owners the ability to ride along with their drivers. GPS is a good pervasive positioning technology that is suitable in this outdoor environment. Some GPS tracking solutions also include features that monitor vehicle idle times and engine status. Business owners can use these tools to ensure that drivers are not wasting extensive time idling in one location or spending an excessive amount of time at a particular job. saving both time and fuel [2]. mileage. business owners can also immediately determine if a driver deviates from a direct route to a job site. By knowing the location of every vehicle. Vehicle monitoring can also help improve productivity by giving business owners a quantitative measurement of employee performance. . In essence. Bonuses based on tangible performance metrics encourage productivity and boosts morale. This eliminates the practice of employees using work hours to complete personal business. When employees know that their vehicles are monitored. By knowing the locations of vehicles. speed and engine on time to implement an employee reward program. Under direct supervision. they tend to drive and work more efficiently.can be extended to other scenarios as well. employees perform their duties faster and at a higher level. Businesses can use hard data gathered through GPS tracking like idle times. This works especially well with GPS solutions that provide in-depth historical reporting.(3) Monitor Inefficient Employee Practices Another reason productivity increases with GPS has to do with simple human nature. the nearest vehicle could be dispatched to a requesting service. Combined with an alert function. Any GPSequipped item can be located when stolen or misplaced (with appropriate software and communication support). owners can be notified if a vehicle has idled or remained inoperative after a certain amount of time and quickly determine the cause.

(4) (4) http://blog. performance can also be compared between drivers or against the company average.com/four-ways-you-can-use-gps-tracking-to-increaseproductivity-and-eliminate-payroll-issues.html .mouzella. In some cases.The best GPS solutions provide data reporting that dates back all the way to when a client first begins using the system.

(3) 8 .Developing a trusted system for tracking asset on the move . and P. Russameesawang. Keeratiwintakorn. Computer. vol. pp. 14–17. “Real-time tracking management system using GPS.Bibliografi (1) http://www8. Telecommunications and Information Technology. 1.garmin. Chadil. 2008.com/aboutGPS/ *[2] 4-On GPS Tracking of Mobile Devices (2) N. A. GPRS and Google earth.” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/ Electronics.

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