Está en la página 1de 138

ɐɟɧɬɪ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɞɢɤɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ

ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɢ


ɢɦ. Ⱥ.ɇ. ɋɟɜɟɪɰɨɜɚ ɊȺɇ

ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɊȺɇ

ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ
ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ:
ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥ ɢ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ
ɫɬɪɚɧ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ȿɜɪɚɡɢɢ

Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɹ

Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ – 2010
ȻȻɄ 28.088:65.28
ɗ40

ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ: ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥ ɢ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢ-


ɗ40 ɜɵ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ȿɜɪɚɡɢɢ: Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɹ «ɉɪɨɟɤɬ
TEEB – ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ: ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɭɱɚ-
ɫɬɢɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɇɇȽ» (Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ, 24 ɮɟɜɪɚɥɹ 2010 ɝ.) –
Ɇ.: ɂɡɞ–ɜɨ ɐɟɧɬɪɚ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɞɢɤɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ, 2010. — 136 ɫ.

ISBN 978-5-93699-077-9

ȼ ɫɛɨɪɧɢɤ ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɵ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɹ ɨ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɚɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ Ɋɨɫ-


ɫɢɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɇɇȽ ɜ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɟ «ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ
ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ» (Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ, 24.02.2010). ɉɪɨɟɤɬ ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɟ ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɢ ɧɚ-
ɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ. Ɉɛɫɭɠɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɷɤɨ-
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ȿɜɪɚɡɢɢ, ɢɯ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɜ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɢ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯ.
ɂɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɚɞɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɨ ɜɫɟɦ, ɤɬɨ ɩɨ ɞɨɥɝɭ ɫɥɭɠɛɵ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ
ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɜ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɬɚɧɨɜ-
ɥɟɧɢɹ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ.

ȻȻɄ 28.088:65.28

Ɉɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɵ: Ⱦ.ɋ. ɉɚɜɥɨɜ, ȿ.ɇ. Ȼɭɤɜɚɪɺɜɚ, Ɋ.Ⱥ. ɉɟɪɟɥɟɬ

Ʉɧɢɝɚ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɚ ɢ ɢɡɞɚɧɚ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɉɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ


ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɉɪɟɡɢɞɢɭɦɚ ɊȺɇ «Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ»
ɩɪɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɟ Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung GmbH – UFZ
ɢ Ɏɨɧɞɚ Ⱦɠɨɧɚ Ⱦ. ɢ Ʉɷɬɪɢɧ Ɍ. Ɇɚɤɚɪɬɭɪɨɜ

© ɐɟɧɬɪ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɞɢɤɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ, 2010


ISBN 978-5-93699-077-9 © ɂɉɗɗ ɢɦ. Ⱥ.ɇ. ɋɟɜɟɪɰɨɜɚ ɊȺɇ, 2010
ɋɈȾȿɊɀȺɇɂȿ
ȼɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ........................................................................................................... 5
ɗɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟ
Ⱦ.ɋ. ɉɚɜɥɨɜ, ȿ.ɇ. Ȼɭɤɜɚɪɺɜɚ. ɋɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨɰɟɧɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɹ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ................................................................................... 7
ȼ.ɂ. Ⱦɚɧɢɥɨɜ-Ⱦɚɧɢɥɶɹɧ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ .............................................................................. 19
ɋ.ɇ. Ȼɨɛɵɥɺɜ, ȼ.Ɇ. Ɂɚɯɚɪɨɜ. ɗɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɢ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɢɯ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ: ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ .................................... 27
ȼ.ȼ. ɋɚɛɚɞɚɲ. Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ ........................................................... 33
Ʌ.Ƚ. Ɇɟɥɶɧɢɤ, ɂ.Ȼ. Ⱦɟɝɬɹɪɟɜɚ, Ɉ.ɂ. Ɇɟɥɶɧɢɤ.
ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɢ ɭɱɟɬ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ
ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ......................................................... 41
Ⱦ.Ƚ. Ɂɚɦɨɥɨɞɱɢɤɨɜ. ɉɨɞɯɨɞɵ ɤ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɪɵɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ....................................................................... 49
Ɋ.Ⱥ. ɉɟɪɟɥɟɬ. Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɟɤɬ «ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ
ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ» ................................................................................... 54
Ɉ.ɂ. Ʉɚɡɚɧɰɟɜɚ. ɉɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ ɜ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɟ Ɍȿȿȼ ........... 61
ɗɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ
Ⱦ.Ƚ. Ɂɚɦɨɥɨɞɱɢɤɨɜ. ɍɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɚɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ ɥɟɫɨɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ
ɤɚɤ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ .................. 67
Ⱥ.Ⱥ. ɋɢɪɢɧ, L. Brander, Ɍ.ɘ. Ɇɢɧɚɟɜɚ. Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ .............................. 74
Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ɍɢɲɤɨɜ. Ȼɢɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ:
ɤ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ
ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɈɈɉɌ .................................................................................. 81
Ƚ.Ⱥ. Ɏɨɦɟɧɤɨ, Ɇ.Ⱥ. Ɏɨɦɟɧɤɨ. ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ
ɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ
ɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɈɈɉɌ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ..................................................................... 88
Ɋ.Ⱥ. ɉɟɪɟɥɟɬ. Ʉɚɤ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɩɨɥɶɡɭ ɨɬ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɈɈɉɌ
ɜ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ? ................................................................................. 94
Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯ
ɂ.Ɇ. ɉɨɬɪɚɜɧɵɣ, ȿ.Ⱥ. ɀɚɥɫɚɪɚɟɜɚ. Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣ
ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ .............................................................. 99
Ɉ.ȿ. Ɇɟɞɜɟɞɟɜɚ. ɂɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ................................................................ 108
Ⱥ.ɇ. Ɋɭɞɵɤ. Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ
ɪɚɣɨɧɚ Ⱥɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɨɣ Ɋɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ Ʉɪɵɦ ................................................ 114
ȿ.ɗ. ɒɢɪɤɨɜɚ, ɗ.ɂ. ɒɢɪɤɨɜ. ɂɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɧɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ
ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɟɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ ................ 121
ɂɬɨɝɨɜɚɹ ɡɚɩɢɫɤɚ ɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɹ «ɉɪɨɟɤɬ TEEB – ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ: ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ
ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɇɇȽ» (Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ, 24 ɮɟɜɪɚɥɹ 2010 ɝ.) ............................ 129
The final note of the meeting “TEEB Project – Economics of
Ecosystems and Biodiversity: participation prospects for
Russia and other NIS countries” (Moscow, February 24, 2010) .............. 131
Summary ........................................................................................................ 134
Contents ......................................................................................................... 134
ȼȼȿȾȿɇɂȿ

ɋɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɟ, ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɥɟɝɥɢ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɝɨ ɫɛɨɪɧɢɤɚ,


ɛɵɥɨ ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɨ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɦɨɣ ɧɚ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɩɪɨ-
ɛɥɟɦɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬ ɨɛ-
ɥɢɤ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ, ɧɨ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɟɝɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨ-
ɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɨɛɨɡɪɢɦɨɦ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɦ.
Ȼɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɢɟ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɣ ɷɤɨ-
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɬɚɤɢɯ ɤɚɤ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ, ɨɱɢɫɬɤɚ ɜɨɞɵ ɢ ɜɨɡɞɭ-
ɯɚ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɥɨɞɨɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɨɱɜ ɢ ɢɯ ɡɚɳɢɬɚ ɨɬ ɷɪɨɡɢɢ, ɤɪɭɝɨɜɨɪɨɬ
ɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜ, ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ȼɫɟ
ɷɬɢ ɢ ɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ «ɞɚɪɵ» ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɬ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɭ, ɧɟ ɢɦɟɹ ɩɪɢ
ɷɬɨɦ ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɹɫɶ ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɯ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ. ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɢɯ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɢɥɢ ɩɨɬɟɪɹ ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɢɤɚɤ
ɧɟ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɨɞɟɥɹɯ, ɞɚɠɟ ɩɪɢ ɹɜɧɨɣ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɨɬ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɟɯ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ.
ɗɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ, ɪɚɧɶɲɟ ɫɱɢɬɚɜɲɢɟɫɹ ɧɟɢɫɱɟɪɩɚɟɦɵɦɢ, ɧɚ ɫɚ-
ɦɨɦ ɞɟɥɟ ɧɟ ɛɟɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɵ ɢ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɦɭ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɸ, ɥɸɛɵɟ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɜɟɞɭɬ ɤ ɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨɦɭ
ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɸ ɢɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ. ɍɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɢ-
ɪɨɞɭ ɜɟɞɟɬ ɤ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɸ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɪɚɡɪɭɲɟɧɢɸ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ ɢ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɢ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ. ɗɬɨ ɩɪɢɧɨɫɢɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɭɳɟɪɛ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜ-
ɥɹɟɬ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɭɝɪɨɡɭ ɞɥɹ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɢ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɹ ɥɸɞɟɣ. ɉɪɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɫɨ-
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɦɩɨɜ ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɭɝ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɫɬɢ ɧɟɨɛɪɚɬɢɦɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ.
ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɜɧɟɞɪɟ-
ɧɢɟ ɟɝɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɜɚɠɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ.
ȼ ɢɸɧɟ 2007 ɝ. ɜ ɏɚɣɥɢɝɟɧɞɚɦɦɟ (Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɹ) ɥɢɞɟɪɵ ɫɬɪɚɧ «Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɣ
ɜɨɫɶɦɟɪɤɢ» (ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɸ) ɨɞɨɛɪɢɥɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬ «The Economics of
Ecosystems and Biodiversity – TEEB» (ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨ-
ɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ), ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɧɚ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɵɝɨɞ, ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɯ
ɞɥɹ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɦ ɢ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɦɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɦɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚ ɨɰɟɧɤɭ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɬɟɪɶ ɜ
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ. Ʉ ɫɨɠɚɥɟɧɢɸ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ

5
ɫɬɪɚɧɵ ɇɇȽ1 ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ ɜ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɟ Ɍȿȿȼ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɯ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɬɟɦɨɣ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ.
ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɫ 2009 ɝ. ɐɟɧɬɪ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɞɢɤɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ, ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɢ ɢɦ. Ⱥ.ɇ. ɋɟɜɟɪɰɨɜɚ ɊȺɇ, ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚ-
ɥɢɡɚ ɊȺɇ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɪɚɡɧɨɩɥɚɧɨɜɵɟ ɩɨɩɵɬɤɢ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɶ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɤ
ɷɬɨɣ ɬɟɦɟ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. Ȼɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɟ Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umwelt-
forschung GmbH – UFZ ɜ ɮɟɜɪɚɥɟ 2010 ɝ. ɭɞɚɥɨɫɶ ɩɪɨɜɟɫɬɢ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞ-
ɧɨɟ ɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɟ «ɉɪɨɟɤɬ TEEB – ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ:
ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɇɇȽ», ɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧɧɨɟ ɤ Ɇɟɠ-
ɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦɭ ɝɨɞɭ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ. ȿɝɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɫɬɚɥɢ ɐɟɧɬɪ ɨɯ-
ɪɚɧɵ ɞɢɤɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ, ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɢ ɢɦ. Ⱥ.ɇ. ɋɟ-
ɜɟɪɰɨɜɚ ɊȺɇ ɢ ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɊȺɇ. ȼ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɹ
ɩɪɢɧɹɥɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ 50 ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ, ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ
ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ ɢɡ Ȼɟɥɚɪɭɫɢ, Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ.
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɹ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɸɬ, ɱɬɨ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ
ɇɇȽ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɹɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɩɨ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɷɤɨ-
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɤ ɷɬɨɣ ɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɟ ɫɪɟɞɢ
ɧɚɭɱɧɨɣ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɣ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ. ɍɱɢɬɵɜɚɹ, ɱɬɨ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ ɋɟ-
ɜɟɪɧɨɣ ȿɜɪɚɡɢɢ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɦ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɦ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɨɧɢ ɧɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɨɫɬɚɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ ɨɬ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ
ɩɨ ɢɯ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ.

Ⱥɤɚɞɟɦɢɤ Ⱦ.ɋ. ɉɚɜɥɨɜ,


ɂɉɗɗ ɢɦ. Ⱥ.ɇ. ɋɟɜɟɪɰɨɜɚ ɊȺɇ
Ⱥ.ȼ. Ɂɢɦɟɧɤɨ,
ɐɟɧɬɪ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɞɢɤɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ

1
ɇɨɜɵɟ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɟ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚ.
ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆɇɕȿ ɍɋɅɍȽɂ
ȼ ɗɄɈɇɈɆɂɑȿɋɄɈɃ ɉɈɅɂɌɂɄȿ

ɋɊȿȾɈɈȻɊȺɁɍɘɓɂȿ ɎɍɇɄɐɂɂ ɀɂȼɈɃ ɉɊɂɊɈȾɕ


ɂ ɗɄɈɅɈȽɈɐȿɇɌɊɂɑȿɋɄȺə ɄɈɇɐȿɉɐɂə
ɉɊɂɊɈȾɈɉɈɅɖɁɈȼȺɇɂə

Ⱦ.ɋ. ɉɚɜɥɨɜ, ȿ.ɇ. Ȼɭɤɜɚɪɺɜɚ


ɂɉɗɗ ɊȺɇ ɢɦ. Ⱥ.ɇ. ɋɟɜɟɪɰɨɜɚ

ɋɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɚɦɵɦɢ ɜɚɠɧɵ-


ɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɫɨɡɞɚɸɬ ɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢ-
ɜɚɸɬ ɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɧɚ Ɂɟɦɥɟ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ
ɤɥɸɱɟɜɚɹ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɜ ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɟɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ
ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɨɣ.
Ɉɫɧɨɜɨɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɹɜɥɹ-
ɟɬɫɹ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ – ɤɚɤ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɟ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɢɞɨɜɨɟ. ɉɪɢ
ɥɸɛɵɯ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɹɯ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɠɢɞɚɬɶ ɞɟɝɪɚ-
ɞɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ.
ɋɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɧɟɩɨ-
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɟɣ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ
ɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɛɟɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ. ɇɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɡɚɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɞɨɪɨ-
ɠɟ, ɱɟɦ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ. Ɂɚɞɚɱɚ ɠɟ ɩɨɥɧɨɦɚɫɲɬɚɛ-
ɧɨɣ ɡɚɦɟɧɵ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɚɧɚ-
ɥɨɝɚɦɢ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ.
ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɤ ɧɨɜɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨɰɟɧɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɜɵɞɜɢɝɚɟɬ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɜɵɣ ɩɥɚɧ ɤɥɸɱɟɜɭɸ ɰɟɧ-
ɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɟɟ
ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɭ.

Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɚɹ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ


ɀɢɜɚɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɚ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɬ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨ ɜɚɠɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ,
ɛɟɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɦɵ ɧɟ ɫɦɨɝɥɢ ɛɵ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɧɚ Ɂɟɦɥɟ. ȼ ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɨɧɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɵ ɤɚɤ ɫɪɟɞɨ-
ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟ1, ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ, ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɞɭɯɨɜɧɨ-ɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ.

1
ȼ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɯ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɞɟɥɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ «ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢ-
ɜɚɸɳɢɟ» ɢ «ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ».
7
ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ ɥɭɱɲɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɨɧ-
ɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ – ɜ ɬɨɧɧɚɯ, ɤɭɛɨɦɟɬɪɚɯ, ɦɢɥɥɢɚɪɞɚɯ ɞɨɥɥɚɪɨɜ. ɉɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ
ɝɨɞɵ ɛɵɫɬɪɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢ-
ɨɧɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɭ. Ɉɛɴɟɦɵ ɦɢɪɨɜɵɯ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ
ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ2 ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɭɠɟ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚ-
ɜɢɦɵ ɫ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɟɣ ɦɨɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɚɦɢ ɢ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɨɣ, ɚ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ
ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ TEEB, ɨɛɴɟɦ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɭɠɟ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ ɪɵɧɤɢ
ɦɨɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɵ.
ɇɚɢɦɟɧɟɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɵ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛ-
ɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ. Ⱥ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɬɟɦ, ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɷɬɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɚɦɵɦɢ ɜɚɠɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ, ɩɨ-
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɚɹ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɠɢɜɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ ɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪ-
ɠɢɜɚɟɬ ɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɧɚ Ɂɟɦɥɟ.
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɦɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɹɜ-
ɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ:
 ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɝɟɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɰɢɤɥɨɜ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɚ;
 ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɝɚɡɨɜɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ ɢ ɜɥɚɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ;
 ɫɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ;
 ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɢ
ɫɚɦɨɨɱɢɳɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ;
 ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɱɜ ɢ ɡɚɳɢɬɚ ɢɯ ɨɬ ɷɪɨɡɢɢ;
 ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɫɬɪɟɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɣ (ɧɚ-
ɜɨɞɧɟɧɢɣ, ɡɚɫɭɯ, ɠɚɪɵ, ɭɪɚɝɚɧɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ.) ɢ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɨɬ ɧɢɯ;
 ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɢ ɨɛɟɡɜɪɟɠɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɬɯɨɞɨɜ;
 ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɢ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɛɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɨɨɛ-
ɳɟɫɬɜ ɢ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯ ɜɚɠɧɨɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɢ ɦɟɞɢ-
ɰɢɧɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ.
ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟɧɨ ɤ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ, ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ – ɤ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɦ ɜɵ-
ɛɪɨɫɚɦ ɋɈ2. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɦ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɬɨɪɨɦ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ Ɂɟɦɥɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɠɢ-
ɜɚɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɚ (Ȼɭɤɜɚɪɟɜɚ, 2010). Ⱥɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɵ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɥɢɲɶ
ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬɨɜ (3,4% ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɆȽɗɂɄ3, 2007) ɨɬ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɩɨɬɨɤɚ
ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɜ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɟ. ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɦɢɤɪɨɛɧɨɟ ɪɚɡɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɤɢ ɜ ɩɨɱ-
ɜɟ – ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɩɭɬɶ ɜɨɡɜɪɚɬɚ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɢɡ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɜ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟ-
ɪɭ – ɜ 7 ɪɚɡ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɦɢɫɫɢɢ (Ɂɚɜɚɪɡɢɧ, Ʉɭɞɟɹɪɨɜ,

2
ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɬɧɟɫɬɢ ɤ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɸ
ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ «ɬɨɜɚ-
ɪɨɦ» ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɤɪɚɫɨɬɚ ɧɟɬɪɨɧɭɬɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɚ, ɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɵ, ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɡɚ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦ ɦɢɪɨɦ. ȿɫɥɢ ɠɟ ɝɨ-
ɜɨɪɢɬɶ ɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɨɡɞɨɪɨɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɨɬɞɵɯɚ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɜ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɩɚɧɫɢɨɧɚɬɚɯ, ɫɚɧɚɬɨɪɢɹɯ ɢ ɧɚ ɤɭɪɨɪɬɚɯ, ɬɨ ɬɭɬ ɩɟɪɜɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ
ɢɦɟɸɬ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ.
3
ɆȽɗɂɄ – Ɇɟɠɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ; IPCC –
Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (www.ipcc.ch).
8
2006). Ɂɚɩɚɫɵ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɜ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɟ, ɩɨɱɜɟ, ɜɟɪɯɧɟɦ ɫɥɨɟ ɦɟɪɡɥɨɬɵ ɢ ɬɨɪɮɚ
ɜ ɬɵɫɹɱɢ ɪɚɡ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɸɬ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɬɨɤɨɜ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚ-
ɡɨɦ, ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɬɨɪɨɦ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɰɢɤɥɚ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɢ ɞɚɠɟ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ (ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɢɯ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɦɨɳ-
ɧɨɫɬɢ) ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɨɤɚɠɟɬ ɧɚɫɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɫɢɥɶɧɨɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɤɨɧ-
ɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɸ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ ɜ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ, ɱɬɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɜɟɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɧɟɬ ɜɫɟ
ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɩɨ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɸ ɢɯ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ. Ʉ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɟɦɭ
ɞɧɸ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ ɫɧɢɡɢɥ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɪɟɝɭ-
ɥɹɰɢɢ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɰɢɤɥɚ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɧɚɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɭ, ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɢɜ ɢɥɢ ɧɚɪɭɲɢɜ ɫɭ-
ɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ. ɗɬɨɬ ɮɚɤ-
ɬɨɪ ɢɝɪɚɟɬ ɜɚɠɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɯ ɪɚɡɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɤɢ ɤɥɢɦɚ-
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ Ɂɟɦɥɢ.
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ «ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɚɹ» ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ – ɧɟ ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ, ɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ, ɞɚɠɟ
ɧɟ ɝɥɚɜɧɚɹ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɚɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ. ɇɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ
ɜɚɠɧɵ ɛɢɨɝɟɨɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɩɨ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɩɨɬɨɤɨɜ ɷɧɟɪ-
ɝɢɢ ɢ ɜɥɚɝɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶɸ Ɂɟɦɥɢ ɢ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɨɣ.
Ɉɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɹɪɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɜ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɪɟɝɢɨ-
ɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɥɢɦɚɬ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɶ ɧɚ ɸɝɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɟ Ⱥɜɫɬɪɚɥɢɢ, ɝɞɟ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨ-
ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɥɹ ɨɝɨɪɨɠɟɧɵ ɡɚɛɨɪɨɦ ɞɥɹ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɨɬ ɜɪɟɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ («ɤɪɨ-
ɥɢɱɶɹ ɢɡɝɨɪɨɞɶ»). ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɟ ɞɪɭɝ ɤ ɞɪɭɝɭ
ɢ ɱɟɬɤɨ ɪɚɡɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɟ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɫ ɪɚɡɧɨɣ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɞɚɠɟ ɢɡ ɤɨɫɦɨɫɚ (ɪɢɫ. 1). ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɚɹ ɪɚɫɬɢ-
ɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɚɟɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɜɟɬɚ (ɜɵɝɥɹɞɢɬ ɬɟɦɧɟɟ), ɧɚɞ ɧɟɣ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɜɨɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɩɨɬɨɤɢ ɜɥɚɠɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ, ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚ-
ɹɫɶ ɜɵɲɟ, ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɨɛɥɚɤɚ. ɇɚɞ ɩɨɥɹɦɢ, ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ, ɫ ɜɵɫɨɬɵ ɨɩɭɫɤɚɟɬɫɹ
ɫɭɯɨɣ ɜɨɡɞɭɯ, ɚ ɧɢɠɧɢɣ ɫɥɨɣ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɜɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɢɫɩɚɪɟɧɧɨɣ ɜɥɚɝɨɣ, «ɡɚɬɹ-
ɝɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ» ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɸ ɫ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ. ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɣ ɰɢɪɤɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɧɚɞ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ
ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɨɫɚɞɤɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ 10%, ɚ ɧɚɞ ɩɨɥɹɦɢ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚ-
ɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ 30%. Ɋɚɡɥɢɱɢɹ ɜ ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɛɥɚɤɨɜ ɧɚɞ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɢ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨ-

ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɚɹ ɋɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣ-
ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɥɹ
Ɋɢɫ. 1. ɉɪɢɦɟɪ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɛɥɚɤɨɜ ɧɚ
ɸɝɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɟ Ⱥɜɫɬɪɚɥɢɢ. ȼɢɞ ɢɡ ɤɨɫɦɨɫɚ ɢ ɫ ɫɚɦɨɥɟɬɚ (ɩɨ Nair, 2009, ɫ ɢɡ-
ɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɦɢ)

9
ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɨɣ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɵ ɢɡ ɤɨɫɦɨɫɚ (ɪɢɫ. 1; Chapin et al.,
2008; Lyons, 2002; Nair, 2009).
ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɥɟɫɚ, ɢɫɩɚɪɹɸɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɜɥɚɝɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɫɧɨɜɚ ɜɵɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ ɜɢɞɟ ɨɫɚɞɤɨɜ. Ʉɨɷɮɮɢ-
ɰɢɟɧɬ ɰɢɪɤɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɨɫɚɞɤɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɞɨ 50% (ɞɥɹ
ɛɨɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɷɬɨ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɤ ɥɟɬɧɟɦɭ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ) (Szeto et al.,
2008; Eltahier, Bras, 1994). Ɇɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ
ɦɨɝɭɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɨɫɚɞɤɨɜ ɜɨ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɦɚɬɟɪɢɤɨ-
ɜɵɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɹɯ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ (Betts, 1999). ȿɫɥɢ ɭɱɟɫɬɶ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɸ «ɛɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɫɨɫɚ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɣ ɜɥɚɝɢ», ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɩɪɨɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɸ ɜɥɚɠɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɞɭɲɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɫ ɨɬ ɨɤɟɚɧɨɜ ɧɚ ɫɭɲɭ
(Ƚɨɪɲɤɨɜ, Ɇɚɤɚɪɶɟɜɚ, 2006), ɬɨ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɤɚɡɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɟ ɤɨɧɬɢɧɟɧɬɨɜ
ɜɨɞɚ ɟɫɬɶ, ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ, ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɨɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɦ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɦ ɷɤɨ-
ɫɢɫɬɟɦ.
ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɧɨɟ ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɜɟɞɟɬ ɤ ɢɫɫɭɲɟɧɢɸ ɪɟɝɢɨ-
ɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ. ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɷɬɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ Ⱥɦɚɡɨɧɤɢ, ɝɞɟ ɫɤɨ-
ɪɨɫɬɶ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɚ. ɉɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨ ɦɟɪɟ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɨɛɟɡ-
ɥɟɫɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɨɫɚɞɤɢ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɸɬɫɹ, ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɥɢɦɚɬ ɢɫɫɭɲɚɟɬ-
ɫɹ, ɪɚɫɬɟɬ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɩɨɠɚɪɨɜ. ɉɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɨɛɪɚɬɧɚɹ ɫɜɹɡɶ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟ-
ɧɢɟɦ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɥɟɫɚ ɢ ɢɫɫɭɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɜɟɞɟɬ ɤ ɡɚɦɟɳɟɧɢɸ ɬɪɨɩɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɝɨ ɥɟɫɚ ɫɭɯɢɦɢ ɫɚɜɚɧɧɨɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɦɢ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚɦɢ. ɉɨ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɚɦ, ɜɵ-
ɪɭɛɤɚ ɛɨɥɟɟ 30% ɚɦɚɡɨɧɫɤɢɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ ɤ ɧɟɨɛɪɚɬɢɦɨɦɭ ɢɡɦɟ-
ɧɟɧɢɸ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ (Da Silva, Avissar, 2006; Da Silva et
al., 2008; Foley et al., 2007; Ecosystems and human well-being, 2005; Oyama,
Nobre, 2003; Nepstad et al., 2008; Phillips et al., 2009). ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
ɭɳɟɪɛ ɨɬ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɱɚɫɬɨɬɵ ɢ ɫɢɥɵ ɡɚɫɭɯ ɢ ɩɨɠɚɪɨɜ, ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɪɨɡɢɢ
ɩɨɱɜ, ɩɟɪɟɫɵɯɚɧɢɹ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɜɟɥɢɤ ɭɠɟ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹ, ɢ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɧɚɪɚɫɬɚɬɶ ɜ ɛɭ-
ɞɭɳɟɦ, ɟɫɥɢ ɧɟ ɩɪɟɤɪɚɬɢɬɶɫɹ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɥɟɫɨɜ.
ȼ Ʉɢɬɚɟ ɤ ɧɚɱɚɥɭ 1990-ɯ ɝɨɞɨɜ ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɵɣ ɭɳɟɪɛ ɨɬ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɜɟɞɟ-
ɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥ 12% ȼȼɉ, ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɟɝɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ (92%) ɛɵɥɚ
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɦ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɢ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɥɟɫɚ (Yu-Shi et al.,
1997), ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɩɪɢɜɟɥɚ ɤ ɤɚɬɚɫɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɜɟɬɪɨɜɨɣ ɢ ɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɷɪɨɡɢɢ
ɩɨɱɜ, ɩɵɥɶɧɵɦ ɛɭɪɹɦ, ɨɩɭɫɬɵɧɢɜɚɧɢɸ, ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɸ ɨɤɟɚɧɚ ɪɟɱɧɵɦɢ ɜɵ-
ɧɨɫɚɦɢ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ ɢ ɩɨɱɜɵ (ɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɟ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɵ ɷɬɨɣ ɷɪɨɡɢɢ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɜɢɞɧɵ
ɧɚ ɤɨɫɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɧɢɦɤɚɯ). ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɜ Ʉɢ-
ɬɚɟ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ ɧɚ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɢ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹ 70%
ɦɢɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɫɬɚ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɯ
ɥɟɫɨɩɨɫɚɞɨɤ (Global Forest Resources…, 2006)
ȼ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ 2000-ɯ ɝɝ. ɥɟɫɧɵɟ ɢ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɟ ɩɨɠɚɪɵ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɟ ɢ ɧɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-
ɡɚɩɚɞɟ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɧɚɧɟɫɥɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɳɟɪɛ
ɢ ɜɪɟɞ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɸ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɩɨɠɚ-
ɪɨɜ, ɧɨ ɢ ɜ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɝɨɪɨɞɚɯ (Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ, ɋɚɧɤɬ-ɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝ ɢ ɞɪ.). ɗɬɨɬ ɭɳɟɪɛ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɦ ɭɬɪɚɬɵ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɯ ɡɚɥɟɠɟɣ ɢ ɨɫɭ-
ɲɟɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɢ

10
ɡɚɛɨɥɨɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ – ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ.
ɇɟ ɦɟɧɶɲɢɣ ɭɳɟɪɛ ɩɪɢɧɨɫɢɬ ɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɩɨ
ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɸ ɧɚɜɨɞɧɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɸ ɢɯ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɢ. Ɍɚɤ, ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟ-
ɧɢɟ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɨɬ ɧɚɜɨɞɧɟɧɢɣ ɜ ȿɜɪɨɩɟ ɡɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɟ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ – ɨɫɭɲɟɧɢɹ ɛɨ-
ɥɨɬ, ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɨɜ, ɤɚɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɪɟɤ, ɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɯ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɟɣ
ɬɜɟɪɞɵɦɢ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚɦɢ (ȿɠɟɝɨɞɧɢɤ Ƚɗɉ, 2006). ɉɨɫɥɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ ɧɚɜɨɞ-
ɧɟɧɢɹ ɜ 1993 ɝ. ɜ ɋɒȺ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ 2-3 ɦɥɪɞ. ɞɨɥɥɚɪɨɜ ɜ
ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ 5,3 ɦɥɧ. ɝɚ ɜɨɞɧɨ-ɛɨɥɨɬɧɵɯ ɭɝɨɞɢɣ ɢ ɡɚɛɨɥɨɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ
ɜ ɜɟɪɯɨɜɶɹɯ ɪɟɤ Ɇɢɫɫɢɫɢɩɢ ɢ Ɇɢɫɫɭɪɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɬɢɬɶ ɭɳɟɪɛ ɜ 16
ɦɥɪɞ. ɞɨɥɥɚɪɨɜ ɜ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɧɚɜɨɞɧɟɧɢɹ (Postel, 2008).
ɍɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɢ ɝɢɛɟɥɢ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɨɬ ɭɪɚɝɚɧɨɜ ɢ ɰɭ-
ɧɚɦɢ (ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ, ɨɬ ɭɪɚɝɚɧɚ Ʉɚɬɪɢɧɚ ɜ 2005 ɝ. ɢ ɨɬ ɰɭɧɚɦɢ ɜ ɂɧɞɢɣɫɤɨɦ
ɨɤɟɚɧɟ ɜ 2004 ɝ.) ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɧɨ-ɛɨɥɨɬɧɵɯ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɧɚ ɩɨɛɟɪɟɠɶɹɯ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɧɢɠɚɥɢ ɫɢɥɭ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɢ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ ɜɨɞɵ. ȼ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɜ ɪɹɞɟ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɬɪɨɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɹɫɚ ɜɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɜ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɩɪɨ-
ɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɩɨ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɦɚɧɝɪɨɜɵɯ ɡɚɪɨɫɥɟɣ ɜ ɰɟɥɹɯ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɩɨɛɟɪɟ-
ɠɶɹ ɨɬ ɭɪɚɝɚɧɨɜ (Global Environment Outlook 4, 2007). ɉɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɦ ɩɨɞ-
ɫɱɟɬɚɦ (Costanza et al., 2008), ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɚɹ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɜɨɞɧɨ-ɛɨɥɨɬ-
ɧɵɯ ɭɝɨɞɢɣ ɋɒȺ ɩɨ ɡɚɳɢɬɟ ɨɬ ɭɪɚɝɚɧɨɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 23 ɦɥɪɞ. ɞɨɥɥɚɪɨɜ.
ɇɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɨɜ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɥɟ-
ɫɨɜ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ ɜɨɞɭ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɢɫɬɨɣ, ɱɬɨ ɭɞɟɲɟɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɟɟ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɢ
(ɪɢɫ. 2).

ɋɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ 140
ɨɱɢɫɬɤɢ
120
1 ɝɚɥɥɨɧɚ,
ɞɨɥɥ. 100

80

60

40 Ɋɢɫ. 2. ɋɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ
ɨɱɢɫɬɤɢ 1 ɝɚɥɥɨɧɚ
20 (3,8 ɥ) ɜɨɞɵ. Ⱦɚɧɧɵɟ
0
ɩɨ 27 ɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɛɚɫ-
40 50 60 70 80 90 ɫɟɣɧɚɦ ɋɒȺ (Pos-
% ɨɛɟɡɥɟɫɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ tel, Thompson, 2005)

11
ɉɪɢɦɟɪ ɫ ɜɨɞɨɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɇɶɸ-Ƀɨɪɤɚ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɦɟɪɵ ɩɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɢ
ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɨɤɚɡɚɥɢɫɶ ɞɟɲɟɜɥɟ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢ-
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɮɢɥɶɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɜɨɞɵ4, ɫɬɚɥ ɯɪɟɫɬɨɦɚɬɢɣɧɵɦ.
ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɭɠɟ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɦɚɥɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɜ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɩɥɚɬɵ ɡɚ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɢ ɛɢɡɧɟɫ-ɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɰɢɣ.
ȼɨɬ ɥɢɲɶ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ (Valuing ecosystem services, 2004; Payments for
Ecosystem..., 2008):
 ɜ ɪɹɞɟ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɢ ɘɠɧɨɣ Ⱥɦɟɪɢɤɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɂɧɞɢɢ,
ɘȺɊ ɢ ɋɒȺ, ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɩɥɚɬɵ ɡɚ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ
ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɨɜ ɜ ɜɟɪɯɨɜɶɹɯ ɪɟɤ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɹɦɢ, ɜɥɚɞɟɸɳɢɦɢ Ƚɗɋ
ɧɢɠɟ ɩɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɸ – ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɤɚ;
 ɫɬɪɚɯɨɜɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢ, ɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɉɚɧɚɦɫɤɨɝɨ
ɤɚɧɚɥɚ, ɩɨɞɫɱɢɬɚɥɢ, ɱɬɨ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɜɨ-
ɤɪɭɝ ɤɚɧɚɥɚ ɜɵɝɨɞɧɟɟ, ɱɟɦ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɚ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɤɚɧɚɥɚ ɨɬ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ ɢ ɩɨɱɜɵ,
ɫɧɨɫɢɦɵɯ ɫ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɷɪɨɡɢɢ ɩɨɱɜɵ;
 ɧɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɤɟ Ɏɪɚɧɰɢɢ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɹ, ɜɵɩɭɫɤɚɸɳɚɹ ɦɢɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɭɸ
ɜɨɞɭ, ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɝɨɞɧɵɦ ɩɥɚɬɢɬɶ ɮɟɪɦɟɪɚɦ ɡɚ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɥɟ-
ɫɨɜ ɧɚ ɢɯ ɡɟɦɥɹɯ, ɜɦɟɫɬɨ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɡɚɜɨɞɨɜ ɩɨ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɟ ɜɨɞɵ.
Ȼɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɸ ɤ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɟ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɡɦɟ-
ɧɟɧɢɣ, ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɣ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɧɭɬ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɩɨ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɰɢɤɥɚ. ɗɬɨ ɤɚɫɚɟɬ-
ɫɹ, ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ, ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ REDD, ɧɚɰɟɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɜɨɫɫɬɚ-
ɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ. Ɉɧɚ ɛɵɥɚ ɡɚɩɭɳɟɧɚ ɜ
2007 ɝ. ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɛɵɫɬɪɨ, ɜɩɪɨɱɟɦ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɜɟɫɶ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɪɵ-
ɧɨɤ. ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɮɨɧɞɵ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ 169 ɦɥɧ. ɞɨɥɥɚɪɨɜ, ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢ-
ɤɚɦɢ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ 37 ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɢ 11 ɪɚɡɜɢɬɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ-
ɞɨɧɨɪɨɜ (www.un-redd.org; www.forestcarbonpartnership.org/fcp). ɉɪɨɝɧɨ-
ɡɢɪɭɟɦɵɟ ɨɛɴɟɦɵ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɟ REDD ɫɨɩɨɫ-
ɬɚɜɢɦɵ ɫ ɨɛɴɟɦɚɦɢ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɢ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɨɣ (Miles and Kapos,
2008).Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚ REDD ɧɚɰɟɥɟɧɚ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚ ɬɪɨɩɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɥɟɫɚ, ɜ ɬɨ
ɜɪɟɦɹ ɤɚɤ ɤɪɭɩɧɟɣɲɢɟ ɡɚɩɚɫɵ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɨɱɜɚɯ, ɬɨɪɮɟ, ɦɟɪɡ-
ɥɨɬɟ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɢ ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ – ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. Ⱦɥɹ ɛɨɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɤɨ-
ɫɢɫɬɟɦ – ɥɟɫɨɜ, ɛɨɥɨɬ, ɬɭɧɞɪ – ɧɭɠɧɚ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɚɹ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɬɶ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ, ɧɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ.

4
ȼɨɞɨɫɛɨɪɧɵɣ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧ Catskills/Delaware ɞɚɟɬ 90% ɩɢɬɶɟɜɨɣ ɜɨɞɵ ɞɥɹ ɇɶɸ-Ƀɨɪɤɚ.
ɍɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɨɫɜɨɟɧɢɟ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɩɪɢɜɟɥɨ ɤ
ɬɨɦɭ, ɱɬɨ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɨɞɵ ɨɩɭɫɬɢɥɨɫɶ ɧɢɠɟ ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ. Ʉ 1996 ɝ. ɇɶɸ-Ƀɨɪɤ
ɨɤɚɡɚɥɫɹ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɜɵɛɨɪɨɦ – ɫɬɪɨɢɬɶ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɡɚɜɨɞɵ ɩɨ ɮɢɥɶɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɜɨɞɵ
ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶɸ ɨɤɨɥɨ 6 ɦɥɪɞ. ɞɨɥɥɚɪɨɜ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɶ ɦɟɪɵ ɩɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɢ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟ-
ɧɢɸ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶɸ 1–1,5 ɦɥɪɞ. Ȼɵɥ ɜɵɛɪɚɧ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ (Pay-
ments for Ecosystem..., 2008). ɉɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɜ ɰɟɥɹɯ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɜɨɞɵ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɫɚɣɬɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɲɬɚɬɚ ɇɶɸ-Ƀɨɪɤ (www.nyc.gov/
html/dep/html/watershed_protection/resources.shtml).
12
ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ
ɫɬɨɤɚ,
ɦɦ

ȼɨɡɪɚɫɬ ɩɨɫɚɞɨɤ

Ɋɢɫ. 3. ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɪɟɤ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ ɩɥɚɧɬɚɰɢɣ, ɞɚɧ-


ɧɵɟ ɩɨ 26 ɜɨɞɨɫɛɨɪɧɵɦ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚɦ, 504 ɝɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ (Jackson et
al., 2007)

Ʉɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɚ ɡɚɞɚɱɟ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɋɈ2 ɜ ɚɬ-


ɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɨɲɢɛɨɱɧɵɦ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɦ. Ɍɚɤ, ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɡɚɫɭɲɥɢɜɵɯ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɪɚɫɬɭɳɢɯ ɩɨɫɚɞɨɤ ɱɭɠɟɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɞɟɪɟɜɶɟɜ ɞɥɹ ɭɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɧɢɹ
ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɩɪɢɜɟɥɨ ɤ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɸ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɪɟɤ5 (ɪɢɫ. 3) (Foley et al., 2005;
Jackson et al., 2005; Jackson et al., 2007). ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɜ ɪɹɞɟ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ ɜɟɞɟɬɫɹ
ɚɤɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɩɨ ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɧɢɸ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣ ɨɬ ɷɬɢɯ ɩɨɫɚɞɨɤ
ɢ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɯ ɤɭɫɬɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɢ ɬɪɚɜɹɧɵɯ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ
(Postel, 2008).
Ⱦɪɭɝɢɦ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɦ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɲɢɛɨɤ
ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɥɢɜɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ. ɋɱɢɬɚɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɥɢɜɨ
ɩɨɦɨɠɟɬ ɪɟɲɢɬɶ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɭ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ «ɧɭɥɟɜɨ-
ɝɨ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ», ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɢ ɫɠɢɝɚɧɢɢ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɜɵɞɟ-
ɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɛɵɥ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ
ɟɫɥɢ ɩɨɞ ɩɥɚɧɬɚɰɢɢ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ ɨɫɜɚɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ – ɜɦɟ-
ɫɬɨ «ɧɭɥɟɜɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ» ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɝɪɨɦɧɚɹ ɷɦɢɫɫɢɹ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɢɡ ɩɨɱɜɵ,
ɬɨɪɮɚ ɢ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɜ ɞɟɫɹɬɤɢ ɢ ɫɨɬɧɢ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ ɟɝɨ
«ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɸ» ɨɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ (Fargione et al., 2008).

5
Ɂɚɩɚɫɵ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɜ ɩɨɱɜɚɯ ɢ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɟ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɫɚɞɨɤ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɤɚɤ
ɪɚɫɬɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹ. Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜɵɫɨɤɚ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɡɚɩɚɫɨɜ ɭɝɥɟɪɨ-
ɞɚ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɫɚɞɤɚɯ «ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɵɯ» ɥɟɫɨɜ ɧɚ ɫɵɪɵɯ ɢ ɡɚɛɨɥɨɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ – ɜ ɷɬɢɯ
ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɢɡ ɩɨɱɜɵ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɟɜɵɫɢɬɶ ɟɝɨ ɚɤɤɭɦɭɥɹɰɢɸ ɜ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢ-
ɧɟ (Jackson et. al., 2007).
13
ȼ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɩɥɚɧɬɚɰɢɣ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɥɢɜɧɵɯ
ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɢɡ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɵ ɢ ɬɨɪɮɚ (ɫɦ. ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɫɚɣɬ
Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɥɢɜɧɨɣ ɚɫɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɢ: www.bioethanol.ru).
ɗɬɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ ɬɪɟɛɭɸɬ ɜɫɟɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɟɣ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɢɡɵ ɫ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɢɯ ɜɨɡɞɟɣ-
ɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɡɚ-
ɦɟɧɢɬɶ ɷɬɢɦɢ ɩɥɚɧɬɚɰɢɹɦɢ ɢɥɢ ɪɚɡɪɭɲɢɬɶ ɬɨɪɮɨɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚɦɢ. ȼ ɩɨɫɥɟɞ-
ɧɟɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɸ ɜɨɞɨɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɟɣ
ɪɨɥɢ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ.

Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ – ɨɫɧɨɜɚ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ


ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɫ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɦɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɦɢ ɩɪɢ
ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɛɵɥɢ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɫɚɦɵɯ ɛɵɫɬɪɨ
ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɬɟɦ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ 20 ɥɟɬ. ɐɟɧɨɣ ɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɯ
ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɫɢɥɢɣ ɛɵɥɚ ɞɨɤɚɡɚɧɚ ɜɩɨɥɧɟ ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɚɹ ɞɥɹ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɨɜ
ɡɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶ – ɱɬɨ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɭɯɭɞɲɚɟɬɫɹ, ɟɫɥɢ ɢɫ-
ɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɫɧɢɠɚɬɶ ɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ (ɫɦ. ɉɚɜɥɨɜ, Ȼɭɤɜɚɪɟɜɚ, 2007).
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɜɚɠɧɨ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɧɨ ɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɢɞɨɜɨɟ ɢ
ɜɧɭɬɪɢɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ.
Ⱦɟɥɨ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟ, ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɟɫɬɶ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɭ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɧɨ ɢ ɭ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɠɢ-
ɜɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɢ ɭ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ. ɉɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɜ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ. ɂɯ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚ
ɛɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɚɛɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɵ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɟɣ ɜɢɞɚ ɢɥɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ. ɋ ɷɬɨɣ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ
ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɤɚɤ «ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ (service-
providing units)» (Luck et al., 2003). ȼ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦ ɫɱɟɬɟ, ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶɸ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ
ɜɯɨɞɹɳɢɯ ɜ ɧɟɟ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ, ɱɬɨ, ɜ ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɢɯ
ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ. ɉɪɢɦɟɪɵ, ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɸɳɢɟ ɷɬɭ ɜɚɠɧɭɸ ɡɚɤɨ-
ɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɵ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚ-
ɧɢɣ ɉɪɟɡɢɞɢɭɦɚ ɊȺɇ ɩɨ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɸ. ȼ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧ ɫɭɳɟɫɬ-
ɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɨɪɦ ɭ ɪɹɞɚ
ɜɢɞɨɜ ɞɟɪɟɜɶɟɜ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɚ ɫɨɫɧɨɜɵɯ. ɗɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɷɬɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɜ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ,
ɚ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɚɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ ɧɚ ɨɛɲɢɪɧɨɦ ɚɪɟɚɥɟ – ɨɬ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟ-
ɧɢɹ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɡɟɪɧɵɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹ-
ɰɢɣ ɚɪɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɜ Ɂɚɛɚɣɤɚɥɶɟ (Ⱥɥɟɤɫɟɟɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 2000) ɢ ɚɥɬɚɣɫɤɢɯ
ɨɫɦɚɧɨɜ ɜ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ Ⱥɡɢɢ (Ⱦɝɟɛɭɚɞɡɟ, 2001) ɟɳɟ ɪɚɡ ɩɪɨɞɟ-
ɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɭ ɷɬɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɢɞɨɜɵɯ
ɮɨɪɦ, ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ (ɩɪɟɠɞɟ
ɜɫɟɝɨ – ɩɨ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ). ɗɬɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɸɬ ɤɥɸɱɟ-
ɜɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚ-
ɧɢɹ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɜ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɳɟɣɫɹ ɫɪɟɞɟ, ɱɬɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ ɪɚɧɟɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ

14
ɚɪɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɵɛ (Ⱦɝɟɛɭɚɞɡɟ, 2001; ɋɚɜɜɚɢɬɨɜɚ,
1989; ɉɚɜɥɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 1999). Ɉɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɹɪɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɜ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧ ɩɪɢ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɤɚɦɱɚɬɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɦɢɤɢɠɢ (ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɥɨɫɨɫɟɜɵɯ
ɪɵɛ). Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɪɟɤɚɯ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬɫɹ
ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɣ ɪɵɛ (ɪɢɫ. 4), ɱɬɨ
ɦɨɠɧɨ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɸ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɤ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦ –
ɧɚɥɢɱɢɸ ɤɨɪɦɚ ɢ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳ, ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɨɦɭ ɪɟɠɢɦɭ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚ ɢ ɞɪ.
(ɉɚɜɥɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 2001). ɋɥɨɠɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɦɢɤɢɠɟ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɫɭɪ-
ɫɨɜ ɜ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɳɟɣɫɹ ɫɪɟɞɟ. Ʉɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɵ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɣ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵ ɢ ɞɥɹ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɥɨɫɨɫɟɜɵɯ ɪɵɛ. ȿɫɥɢ ɭɱɟɫɬɶ ɢɯ ɜɟɞɭɳɭɸ
ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ ɥɨɫɨɫɟɜɵɯ ɪɟɤ ɢ ɢɯ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɟɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɜɟɳɟɫɬ-
ɜɟɧɧɨ-ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɬɨɤɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɦɢ, ɪɟɱɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɦɢ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦɢ, ɬɨ ɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ-
ɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨɣ.

Ɋɢɫ. 4. Ʉɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɵ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɣ ɦɢɤɢɠɢ ɜ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹɯ


Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ (ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɦɱɚɬɫɤɨɣ ɦɢɤɢɠɢ, 2007)

Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ, ɤɚɤ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɟ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɜɧɭɬ-


ɪɢɜɢɞɨɜɨɟ, ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɨɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ-
ɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ. ɉɪɢ ɥɸɛɵɯ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɹɯ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɫɥɟ-
ɞɭɟɬ ɨɠɢɞɚɬɶ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɨɝɪɨɦɧɭɸ ɨɩɚɫ-
ɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɨɥɧɨɟ ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ,
ɧɨ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɧɢɯ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ (ɤɚɤ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ, ɬɚɤ
ɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ) ɢ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɟ ɢɯ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ.

15
ɗɤɨɥɨɝɨɰɟɧɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɰɢɸ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɡɚɦɟɧɢɬɶ ɤɨ-
ɬɨɪɭɸ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɭ ɧɟɱɟɦ. ȼɵɲɟ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɵ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɧɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶ-
ɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɡɚɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɦɢ
ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɞɨɪɨɠɟ, ɱɟɦ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ 6. Ɂɚɞɚɱɚ
ɠɟ ɩɨɥɧɨɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɧɨɣ ɡɚɦɟɧɵ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɢɫ-
ɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɚɦɢ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɰɢɜɢɥɢ-
ɡɚɰɢɢ. Ʉɚɤ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ, ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɠɢɡɧɟɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ
ɞɚɠɟ ɞɥɹ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ ɧɚ ɤɨɫɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɹɯ ɞɨ ɫɢɯ
ɩɨɪ ɫɨɡɞɚɬɶ ɧɟ ɭɞɚɥɨɫɶ, ɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɷɬɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫ-
ɬɢ. Ⱦɨɪɨɝɨɫɬɨɹɳɢɣ ɩɪɨɟɤɬ «Ȼɢɨɫɮɟɪɚ-2» ɜ ɋɒȺ (1985 – 2007) ɡɚɤɪɵɬ ɢ
ɟɝɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɹ ɰɟɥɶ ɧɟ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɧɭɬɚ.
ɋɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɫɬɚ-
ɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɛɟɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢ-
ɬɢɟ. ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɢɯ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ
ɞɥɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɟɣ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ
ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɤ ɧɨɜɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɭɸ ɦɵ ɧɚɡɜɚɥɢ «ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨɰɟɧɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ», ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɨɧɚ ɜɵɞɜɢɝɚɟɬ ɧɚ
ɩɟɪɜɵɣ ɩɥɚɧ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ (ɉɚɜ-
ɥɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 2009; ɉɚɜɥɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 2010). ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ ɷɬɨɣ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ ɦɵ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ:
 ɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɦ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɦ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɦ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɜɫɸ ɠɢɜɭɸ ɩɪɢɪɨ-
ɞɭ (ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ, ɜɢɞɵ, ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ), ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɰɢɸ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɢ ɫɬɚɛɢ-
ɥɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ; ɷɬɨɬ ɪɟɫɭɪɫ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɫɬɚɬɭɫ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɢ;
 ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɨɣ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɢ ɷɮɮɟɤ-
ɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɠɢɡɧɟɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟ-
ɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɟ;
 ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɢ ɜɨɡ-
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɧɟɟ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛ-
ɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ (ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɨɨɛ-
ɳɟɫɬɜ, ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ) ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ;
 ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɢɡɚ ɥɸɛɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ (ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫ-
ɥɟ ɛɢɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɧɚɧɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ) ɞɨɥɠɧɚ
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ ɨɰɟɧɤɭ ɟɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɩɪɢ-
ɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ;
 ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɚɹ ɡɚɞɚɱɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɛɢɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦɢ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟ-
ɦɚɦɢ – ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ;
 ɮɨɪɦɵ ɢ ɨɛɴɟɦɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞ-
ɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ (ɩɪɨɦɵɫɟɥ ɪɵɛɵ ɢ ɦɨɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ, ɞɨɛɵɱɚ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢ-

6
ȼ ɨɬɱɟɬɚɯ TEEB ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɜ.
16
ɧɵ) ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɢɯ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚ-
ɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ; ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨ ɫɦɟ-
ɳɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɛɢɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ7.

Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
Ⱥɥɟɤɫɟɟɜ ɋ.ɋ., ɉɢɱɭɝɢɧ Ɇ.ɘ., ɋɚɦɭɫɟɧɨɤ ȼ.ɉ. 2000. Ɋɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɚɪɤɬɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɝɨɥɶɰɨɜ Ɂɚɛɚɣɤɚɥɶɹ ɩɨ ɦɟɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦ, ɢɯ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ
ɜ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɟ Salvelinus alpinus ɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɫɢɦɩɚɬɪɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢɯ ɮɨɪɦ // ȼɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɢɯɬɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ. Ɍ. 40. ʋ 3. ɋ. 293-311.
Ȼɭɤɜɚɪɟɜɚ ȿ.ɇ. 2010. Ɋɨɥɶ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɜ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɢ
ɦɟɫɬɨ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɜ ɩɨɫɬɤɢɨɬɫɤɨɦ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ. Ɇ.: ɄɆɄ. 97 ɫ. (http://optimum-
biodiversity.narod2.ru/biosphera/Bukvareva_Klimat.pdf).
Ƚɨɪɲɤɨɜ ȼ.Ƚ., Ɇɚɤɚɪɶɟɜɚ Ⱥ.Ɇ. 2006. Ȼɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɧɚɫɨɫ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɣ ɜɥɚ-
ɝɢ, ɟɝɨ ɫɜɹɡɶ ɫ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɣ ɰɢɪɤɭɥɹɰɢɟɣ ɢ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ
ɤɪɭɝɨɜɨɪɨɬɚ ɜɨɞɵ ɧɚ ɫɭɲɟ. Ƚɚɬɱɢɧɚ: ɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝɫɤɢɣ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɹɞɟɪɧɨɣ
ɮɢɡɢɤɢ ɊȺɇ. ɉɪɟɩɪɢɧɬ. 49 ɫ.
Ⱦɝɟɛɭɚɞɡɟ ɘ.ɘ. 2001. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɪɨɫ-
ɬɚ ɪɵɛ. Ɇ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ. 276 c.
ȿɠɟɝɨɞɧɢɤ Ƚɗɉ (Ƚɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɚ). 2007.Ɉɛɡɨɪ
ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ. ɉɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚ ɈɈɇ ɩɨ ɨɤɪɭ-
ɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ (UNEP). 83 ɫ.
Ɂɚɜɚɪɡɢɧ Ƚ.Ⱥ., Ʉɭɞɟɹɪɨɜ ȼ.ɇ. 2006. ɉɨɱɜɚ ɤɚɤ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɣ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤ ɭɝɥɟɤɢ-
ɫɥɨɬɵ ɢ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɭɚɪ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ // ȼɟɫɬ-
ɧɢɤ ɊȺɇ. Ɍ. 76. ʋ 1. ɋ. 14–29.
ɆȽɗɂɄ, 2007. ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ, 2007 ɝ.: Ɉɛɨɛɳɚɸɳɢɣ ɞɨɤɥɚɞ. ȼɤɥɚɞ
ɪɚɛɨɱɢɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ I, II ɢ III ɜ ɑɟɬɜɟɪɬɵɣ ɞɨɤɥɚɞ ɆȽɗɂɄ. ɉɚɱɚɭɪɢ Ɋ.Ʉ., Ɋɚɣ-
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ɗɄɈɅɈȽɂɑȿɋɄɂȿ ɐȿɇɇɈɋɌɂ ɂ ɗɄɈɇɈɆɂɑȿɋɄɂȿ ɈɐȿɇɄɂ

ȼ.ɂ. Ⱦɚɧɢɥɨɜ-Ⱦɚɧɢɥɶɹɧ
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɊȺɇ

ɏɨɬɹ ɧɚɲɚ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚ ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɚ ɫɤɨɪɟɟ ɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɵɦ ɡɚɞɚɱɚɦ, ɱɟɦ ɬɟɨɪɟ-


ɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹɦ, ɦɨɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɫɤɨ-ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ. ȼ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬ ɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ, ɨɧɨ ɧɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬ ɧɢ ɤɨɧ-
ɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ (ɜ ɫɦɵɫɥɟ: ɜɵɞɜɢɝɚɟ-
ɦɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɧɚɭɤɨɣ) ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɡɚ-
ɞɚɱ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ, ɧɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ, ɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɜ ɧɟɦ
ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɞɚɠɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯ ɡɚɞɚɱ. Ɇɟɧɹ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɭɸɬ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɵ
ɬɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɵ ɩɨ ɫɭɬɢ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɜɵɣ-

19
ɬɢ, ɯɨɬɹ ɫɚɦɢ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢ ɫɬɚɜɹɬ ɫ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ, ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɜɧɟ ɷɬɨɣ ɨɛ-
ɥɚɫɬɢ. Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɣ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɫɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɤ ɧɟɤɢɦ ɩɪɟ-
ɞɨɫɬɟɪɟɠɟɧɢɹɦ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɤɚɤ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɵ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ, ɧɚɯɨɞɹ-
ɳɢɟɫɹ ɜ ɧɟɭɫɬɪɚɧɢɦɨɦ ɧɟɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɜɵɫɲɢɦɢ ɰɟɥɹɦɢ, ɡɚɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢ-
ɦɢ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹ ɤ ɷɬɢɦ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɦ.
ȼ ɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɨ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɣ ɬɟɦɟ «ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ» ɟɫɬɶ ɞɜɟ ɤɪɚɣ-
ɧɢɟ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ. ɂɯ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɦɨɝɚɟɬ ɩɨɧɹɬɶ ɫɭɬɶ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ.
ɉɟɪɜɚɹ ɢɡ ɷɬɢɯ ɬɨɱɟɤ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɢɡ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ Ⱥ. ɉɢɝɭ, ɤɨɬɨ-
ɪɵɣ ɟɳɟ ɜ 1920 ɝ. ɧɚɩɢɫɚɥ ɫɜɨɸ ɡɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɭɸ ɤɧɢɝɭ «ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɜɫɟɨɛɳɟ-
ɝɨ ɛɥɚɝɨɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ» ɢ ɜɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɥ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ, ɢɥɢ ɷɤɫɬɟɪ-
ɧɚɥɢɢ, ɬ. ɟ. ɬɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ, ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ, ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɨɞɧɨ- ɢɥɢ
ɞɜɭɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɦɢ ɫɜɹɡɹɦɢ ɫ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɦ ɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ, ɬɟɦ ɧɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ, ɧɟ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɪɵ-
ɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɰɟɧ. ɗɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɦɢ (ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ,
ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ), ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɦɢ (ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɷɬɨ ɤɨɫ-
ɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ, ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɬ. ɩ. ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ), ɩɪɢɱɟɦ
ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ, ɧɨ ɢ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢɦɢ, ɟɫɥɢ ɨɧɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɢ ɧɟɞɨɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɪɵɧ-
ɤɨɦ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɢɯ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ.
ɉɢɝɭ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɢɥ ɞɜɚ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ, ɬ. ɟ.
ɬɚɤɢɯ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɭ, ɩɪɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɪɵɧɨɤ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɥɭɱɲɟ ɨɬɪɚ-
ɠɚɬɶ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɢ, ɩɭɫɬɶ ɞɚɠɟ ɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɨ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɩɪɹɦɨ ɨɧɢ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹ-
ɸɬɫɹ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢ ɤɭɩɥɢ-ɩɪɨɞɚɠɢ, ɧɟ «ɬɨɪɝɭɸɬɫɹ» ɧɚ ɪɵɧɤɟ. Ⱦɜɚ ɩɢɝɭɚɧ-
ɫɤɢɯ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ – ɷɬɨ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɣ ɧɚɥɨɝ ɢ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢ-
ɪɭɸɳɚɹ ɫɭɛɫɢɞɢɹ. ɉɟɪɜɵɣ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ, ɧɚ ɧɟɦ
ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ «ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɹɸɳɢɣ ɩɥɚɬɢɬ». ɑɟɪɟɡ 60 ɥɟɬ ɩɨɫɥɟ
ɉɢɝɭ ɛɵɥ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧ ɬɪɟɬɢɣ ɫɩɨɫɨɛ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ: ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɩɨ
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɸ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ. Ɉɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɞɨɛɪɨ-
ɜɨɥɶɧɵɦɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɜɦɟɧɟɧɧɵɦɢ, ɜɚɠɧɨ ɥɢɲɶ, ɱɬɨɛɵ, ɤɨɥɶ ɫɤɨɪɨ ɨɧɢ ɜɡɹɬɵ,
ɢɯ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɥɚɫɶ, ɚ ɧɟɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɬɚɤ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɚɱɟ ɤɚɪɚ-
ɥɨɫɶ. ȼɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɩɨɞ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟɦ «ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɩɭɡɵɪɹ» ɟɝɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɥɢ ɜ ɋɒȺ
ɞɥɹ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ ɜ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɭ ɞɢɨɤɫɢɞɚ
ɫɟɪɵ, ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɷɬɨɬ ɠɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚɯ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ
ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ ɜ ɬɪɟɯ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɯ: ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɟ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɧɚ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɵ ɩɚɪɧɢ-
ɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ, ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚɯ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɟ ɱɢɫɬɨɝɨ
ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ.
Ɍɨɱɤɚ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ, ɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɚɹ ɢɡ ɷɬɢɯ ɢɞɟɣ (ɥɭɱɲɟ ɫɤɚɡɚɬɶ: ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɢɡɢ-
ɪɭɸɳɚɹ ɷɬɢ ɢɞɟɢ), ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɟ ɪɚɧɨ ɢɥɢ ɩɨɡɞɧɨ ɜɫɟ
ɜɧɟɲɧɢɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɧɨ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ, ɩɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɶ
ɧɟɤɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɧɚ ɪɵɧɨɤ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬ ɜɩɨɥɧɟ ɭɞɨɜɥɟ-
ɬɜɨɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɱɟɬ ɜɫɟɯ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɣ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɰɟɧɵ. ȼ ɫɜɨɟɦ ɧɚɢ-
ɛɨɥɟɟ ɢɞɟɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɦ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɟ ɷɬɚ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɜɫɹɤɭɸ
ɰɟɧɭ ɦɨɠɧɨ «ɪɚɡɥɨɠɢɬɶ» ɧɚ ɱɚɫɬɢ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɦ ɟɟ ɮɚɤ-
ɬɨɪɚɦ, ɬ. ɟ. ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɬɨɪɝɭɟɦɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ (ɩɪɢɞɟɬɫɹ

20
ɡɚ ɧɟɢɦɟɧɢɟɦ ɥɭɱɲɟɝɨ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɷɬɨɣ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɬɟɪɦɢɧɨɥɨɝɢɟɣ ɫ ɟɟ ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨɣ ɧɚɢɜɧɨɣ ɧɟɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɫɬɶɸ), ɧɨ ɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶ-
ɡɭɟɦɵɯ ɥɢɛɨ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɟɦɵɯ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɸ ɩɪɢ ɢɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ, ɜ
ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɢ ɧɟ ɬɨɪɝɭɟɦɵɯ. ɂɧɵɦɢ ɫɥɨɜɚɦɢ, ɜɫɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɜ ɞɟɧɶɝɚɯ:
ɨɬ ɩɪɨɤɚɪɢɨɬ ɞɨ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɬɢɝɪɚ, ɨɬ ɪɟɱɭɲɤɢ ɏɪɢɩɚɧɶɤɢ ɞɨ Ȼɚɣɤɚɥɚ, ɨɬ
ɜɢɞɚ ɢɡ ɨɤɧɚ ɝɨɫɬɢɧɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɧɨɦɟɪɚ ɞɨ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɵ; ɦɨɠɧɨ ɬɚɤ ɨɬɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨ-
ɜɚɬɶ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɭɸ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɨɧɚ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢ-
ɦɚɥɚ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɫɮɟɪɭ, ɧɟ ɪɚɡɪɭɲɚɥɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɥɚ ɜɨɫɩɪɨ-
ɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ɗɬɭ ɬɨɱɤɭ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɧɚɡɜɚɬɶ
ɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɪɨɦɚɧɬɢɡɦɨɦ.
Ⱦɪɭɝɭɸ ɤɪɚɣɧɸɸ ɬɨɱɤɭ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɧɚɡɜɚɬɶ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɚɧɚɪɯɢɡ-
ɦɨɦ. Ʌɭɱɲɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɟɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɩɢɫɚɬɶ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɨɣ Ɋ. Ʉɢɩɥɢɧɝɚ (ɤɨɬɨɪɭɸ ɨɧ
ɩɪɢɞɭɦɚɥ ɞɥɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ Ɂɚɩɚɞɚ ɢ ȼɨɫɬɨɤɚ): «ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ
ɟɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ, ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɟɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ, ɢ ɜɦɟɫɬɟ ɢɦ ɧɟ ɫɨɣɬɢɫɶ ɧɢɤɨ-
ɝɞɚ». Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɧɟɜɵɪɚɡɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢɯ (ɟɫɥɢ ɭɝɨɞɧɨ – ɷɧɜɚɣɪɨɧɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ) ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɢɡɦɟɪɢɬɟɥɹɯ – ɜ ɞɟɧɶɝɚɯ, ɧɟɫɜɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɤɨ ɜɬɨɪɨɦɭ, ɧɟɢɡɴɹɫɧɢ-
ɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɧɚ ɹɡɵɤɟ ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ. Ⱥɧɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɷɬɚ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɹ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɨɦ
ɫɦɵɫɥɟ, ɱɬɨ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɟɬ ɜɥɚɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ (ɚ ɨɬɫɸɞɚ ɫɨɜɫɟɦ ɧɟɞɚɥɟɤɨ ɢ ɞɨ
ɚɧɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɧɢɹ ɜɫɹɤɨɣ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ). ɇɨ ɱɬɨ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɢɬɶ ɜɦɟ-
ɫɬɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ? Ɍɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ,
ɨɩɟɪɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ ɡɚɩɪɟɬɚɦɢ, ɥɢɦɢɬɚɦɢ, ɧɨɪɦɚɦɢ, ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɚɦɢ, ɩɪɟɞɩɢɫɚ-
ɧɢɹɦɢ ɢ ɩɪ. – ɬ. ɟ. ɩɨɥɧɨɟ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɧɢɟ ɚɧɚɪɯɢɡɦɚ. ɗɬɨ ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɨɫɨɡ-
ɧɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɧɢɤɚɦɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɨɩɢ-
ɪɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɧɚ ɪɵɧɨɤ, – ɬɨɬ ɫɚɦɵɣ ɪɵɧɨɤ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ, ɧɚ ɜɡɝɥɹɞ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢɯ ɚɧɚɪɯɢɫɬɨɜ, ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ (ɜɨ ɜɫɹɤɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ, ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ)
ɪɚɡɪɭɲɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɨɧɢ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɬ
(ɤɚɤ ɢ ɚɧɚɪɯɢɫɬɵ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɨɬɬɟɧɤɨɜ) ɧɚ ɪɨɫɬ ɫɚɦɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɹ, ɧɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɜɨɥɶ-
ɧɵɣ, ɰɟɥɟɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ, ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɨɬɤɚɡ ɨɬ ɚɧɬɢɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ,
ɨɬ ɥɸɛɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɳɢɯ ɤ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɪɚɡɪɭɲɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɦ.
ȿɫɥɢ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɢɬɶ ɤ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɭ ɚɛɫɬɪɚɤɬɧɨ-ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɫɤɢ (ɤɚɤ ɝɨɜɨɪɢɥ ɋɩɢ-
ɧɨɡɚ, «ɫ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɜɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ»), ɬɨ ɦɧɟ ɛɵɥɚ ɛɵ ɛɥɢɡɤɚ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨ-
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɚɧɚɪɯɢɫɬɨɜ. Ɇɧɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɚɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ, ɤɚɤ ɟɟ ɧɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶ, ɧɢ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ, ɞɚɠɟ ɡɚɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ, ɧɢɤɨɝɞɚ
ɧɟ ɫɦɨɠɟɬ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɬɶ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɭɫɥɭ-
ɝɚɦɢ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɛɥɚɝɚɦɢ, ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ. Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɧɟɬ ɧɢɤɚɤɨɣ
ɚɫɢɦɩɬɨɬɢɤɢ, ɧɟɬ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɩɨ ɦɟɪɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɬɚɤ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɨɣ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ (ɷɤɨɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ, ɩɨ Ʌɟɫɬɟɪɭ Ȼɪɚɭɧɭ) ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɥ
ɛɵ ɤɨ ɜɫɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɦɭ ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɦɭ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɸ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɨɣ
ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ, ɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɨɣ (ɦɨɠɧɨ ɢ ɧɭɠɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɩɨ-
ɥɚɝɚɬɶ ɟɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɞɚɠɟ ɩɪɢ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɦɵ ɧɟ ɭɦɟɟɦ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜɵɪɚ-
ɠɚɬɶ ɟɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɧɨ ɞɚɠɟ ɧɟ ɡɧɚɟɦ, ɜ ɤɚɤɢɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚɯ ɷɬɨ ɦɨɠɧɨ
ɛɵɥɨ ɛɵ ɞɟɥɚɬɶ, – ɧɟ ɜ ɪɭɛɥɹɯ ɠɟ!).

21
ɉɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɚɫɢɦɩɬɨɬɢɤɨɣ ɫɤɨɥɶ ɭɝɨɞɧɨ ɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɟɧɢɹ
ɧɟɬ ɜ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɟ ɞɚɠɟ ɛɟɫɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ. ɇɟ ɩɨɬɨɦɭ, ɱɬɨ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɢɧɹ-
ɬɨ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɧɚɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɭɱɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ, ɩɨ ɦɟɪɟ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟ-
ɧɢɹ ɩɨɡɧɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɧɚɦɢ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɬ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɧɟɩɨɡɧɚɧɧɨɝɨ, ɧɨ-
ɜɵɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɥɢ ɛɵɬɶ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɪɚɧɶɲɟ, ɢ ɬ. ɩ. ɉɨɞɨɛɧɵɣ
ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɢ ɜ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɨɣ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɫɮɟɪɟ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɢɡɨɛɪɟ-
ɬɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɵ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ ɪɚɧɟɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɜɲɢɯɫɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ ɟɳɟ ɧɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɜɲɢɯɫɹ, ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɷɬɨɝɨ
ɬɟ, ɱɬɨ ɜɱɟɪɚ ɧɟ ɧɭɠɞɚɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɡɚɳɢɬɟ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤ ɧɢɦ ɧɟ
ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɥɨ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɣ, ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɭɠɟ ɧɭɠɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɧɟɣ, ɩɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶ ɧɨɜɵɟ
ɩɪɢɱɢɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ, ɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ, ɢ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɡɚ-
ɰɢɢ. ɇɨ ɞɟɥɨ ɞɚɠɟ ɧɟ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ. Ȼɨɥɟɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɪɵɧɨɤ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜ-
ɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɫɹɤɨɦɭ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɸ, ɩɨɛɭɠɞɚɸɳɟɦɭ ɟɝɨ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɬɶ ɧɟɬɨɪɝɭɟɦɵɟ
ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɵ. Ɋɵɧɨɤ ɡɚɳɢɳɚɟɬ ɫɜɨɸ ɢɫɯɨɞɧɭɸ ɫɯɟɦɭ, ɢɦɦɚɧɟɧɬɧɭɸ ɟɦɭ ɩɪɢ
ɜɫɟɯ ɦɵɫɥɢɦɵɯ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɯ, ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹɯ ɢ ɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹɯ. ɗɬɚ ɫɯɟ-
ɦɚ ɩɪɢɦɢɬɢɜɧɚ ɞɨ ɤɪɚɣɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɧɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɡɚ ɥɸɛɨɣ
ɢɧɬɟɪɜɚɥ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɤɚɤ ɨɝɪɨɦɧɨɟ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɯ ɞɪɭɝ ɨɬ ɞɪɭɝɚ
ɫɞɟɥɨɤ ɤɭɩɥɢ-ɩɪɨɞɚɠɢ, ɤɚɠɞɚɹ ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɡɚɞɚɧɚ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣ ɨ ɬɨɦ,
ɤɬɨ, ɱɬɨ, ɡɚ ɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɢ ɤɨɦɭ ɩɪɨɞɚɥ (ɢɥɢ ɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨ: ɤɬɨ, ɱɬɨ, ɡɚ ɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ
ɢ ɭ ɤɨɝɨ ɤɭɩɢɥ – ɨ ɬɨɣ ɠɟ ɫɚɦɨɣ ɫɞɟɥɤɟ). ȼɫɟɦ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɦ, ɢ ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ
ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɧɟ ɬɨɪɝɭɟɦɵɦ, ɪɵɧɨɤ (ɬ. ɟ. ɜɫɟ ɟɝɨ «ɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ» ɚɝɟɧ-
ɬɵ) ɧɟ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɭɟɬɫɹ, ɟɫɥɢ ɧɢɤɬɨ (ɧɢɱɬɨ) ɧɟ ɡɚɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ.
Ʉɨɧɟɱɧɨ, ɟɫɥɢ ɜɜɟɫɬɢ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɣ ɧɚɥɨɝ, ɤɚɤ ɩɥɚɬɚ ɡɚ ɡɚ-
ɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɟ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɬɨ ɤɚɠɞɵɣ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɣ ɫ ɡɚ-
ɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ, ɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɢɣ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɩɪɨɞɚɜɰɚ (ɩɨ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸ ɟɫɥɢ ɧɟ ɤ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦɭ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɸ, ɬɨ, ɩɨ ɤɪɚɣɧɟɣ ɦɟɪɟ, ɤ ɨɩ-
ɬɨɜɢɤɭ ɢ ɬ. ɩ.), ɡɚɣɦɟɬɫɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɦ: ɤɚɤ ɩɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɧɢɡɢɬɶ ɞɥɹ ɫɟɛɹ
ɷɬɭ ɩɥɚɬɭ. Ɉɛɵɱɧɨ ɝɨɜɨɪɹɬ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɢɫɤɚɬɶ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɢɟ
ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɬɶ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɟ, ɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɢɬ ɢɯ, ɟɫɥɢ ɨɧɢ ɨɤɭɩɚɸɬɫɹ, ɢɧɚɱɟ ɛɭɞɟɬ
ɩɥɚɬɢɬɶ ɧɚɥɨɝ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɞɥɹ ɛɥɚɝɢɯ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ.
ɂɧɨɝɞɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɨ ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ, ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɪɚɞɢ ɷɬɨɝɨ (ɧɨ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶ-
ɤɨ) ɢ ɧɭɠɟɧ ɩɢɝɭɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɣ ɧɚɥɨɝ, ɧɨ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ,
ɱɬɨ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɢɞɢɥɥɢɹ ɞɚɥɟɤɚ ɨɬ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ. ɉɪɢɱɢɧ ɦɧɨɠɟ-
ɫɬɜɨ, ɢ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɧɟ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɹɬɶ ɢɯ. Ɇɟɧɹ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɭɟɬ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɞɧɨ ɢɡ
ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɫɥɚɛɵɯ ɦɟɫɬ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ: ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɨɢɡ-
ɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɧɚ ɩɨɢɫɤ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ
ɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɢɯ ɨɤɭɩɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ. ɇɚ ɫɚɦɨɦ ɞɟɥɟ ɭ ɧɟɝɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ-
ɫɬɢ, ɢ ɜɫɟ ɨɧɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ. ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɦɨɠɟɬ:
ɫɨɨɛɳɚɬɶ ɧɟɩɨɥɧɭɸ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ ɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɦɵɯ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɹɯ ɢ ɚɤɬɢɜ-
ɧɨ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɟɪɚɦɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ;
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɤɨɪɪɭɩɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɫɯɟɦɵ, ɩɪɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ «ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɹ» ɧɚ ɨɛɦɚɧɟ
ɞɟɥɢɬɫɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɧɢɦ ɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɟɪɚɦɢ ɢ ɬ. ɩ.; ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɢɬɶ ɤ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚ-
ɥɢɢ, ɧɟ ɨɯɜɚɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɡɚɦɟɧɹɬɶ ɜɵɛɪɨɫ ɤɨɧɬɪɨ-
ɥɢɪɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɹɸɳɟɝɨ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɦ ɧɟɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɟɦɨɝɨ) ɢ ɩɪ.

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ɉɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɣ ɢɡ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɟɣ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɜɵɩɥɚɬ ɡɚ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɧɨ-
ɫɬɶɸ ɥɟɝɚɥɟɧ. ɇɨ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɣ ɚɝɟɧɬ, ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɦɵɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɸ ɫ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟɦ
Homo economicus, ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɭɟɬɫɹ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɟɦ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɪɚɡɥɢɱ-
ɧɵɦɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɦɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ – ɪɚɡɧɢɰɟɣ ɜ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɢ (ɪɚɡɭɦɟɟɬɫɹ, ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ
ɪɢɫɤɨɜ). Ɋɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɟɝɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ ɨɬɤɥɢɤɨɜ ɧɚ ɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢ-
ɪɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɧɚɥɨɝɚ (ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɨɞɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɢɡ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɯ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯ ɨɬɤɥɢɤ
ɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬ ɰɟɥɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ) ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ, ɤɚɤɢɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɭ
ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɞɥɹ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɨɬ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɯ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɧɚ ɧɟɟ; «ɧɟɩɪɚ-
ɜɢɥɶɧɵɟ» ɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɩɪɟɤɪɚɬɹɬɫɹ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɬɨɝɞɚ,
ɤɨɝɞɚ ɜɫɟ ɨɧɢ (ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɢ ɩɨɤɭɩɚɬɟɥɢ, ɭ ɧɢɯ ɬɨɠɟ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ-
ɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɬɶ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɦ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦ) ɫɬɚɧɭɬ ɧɚɫɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɫɨɡɧɚɬɟɥɶ-
ɧɵɦɢ, ɱɬɨ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɞɨɛɪɨɫɨɜɟɫɬɧɨ ɢɫɤɚɬɶ ɥɭɱɲɢɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɹɬɶ ɢɯ
ɩɪɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɢ ɨɤɭɩɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ. ɇɨ ɜ ɬɚɤɨɦ ɢɡɭɦɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟ, ɩɨɠɚ-
ɥɭɣ, ɢ ɪɵɧɨɤ ɧɟ ɧɭɠɟɧ – ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɜɫɟ ɞɟɥɨ. ɋɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɬ-
ɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɛɢɡɧɟɫɚ – ɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɵɣ ɫɥɨɝɚɧ, ɲɚɝ ɜ ɧɭɠɧɭɸ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ, ɧɨ
ɩɨɤɚ ɜɫɟ, ɤɬɨ ɟɝɨ ɫɞɟɥɚɥ, ɨɫɬɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɧɭɬɪɢ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ.
Ⱦɟɧɟɠɧɵɟ, ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɢɫ-
ɬɢɧɧɵɦɢ, ɧɟ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɬ ɢɯ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɧɟ
ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɞɚɠɟ ɢɦɢɬɚɰɢɟɣ ɢɫɬɢɧɧɵɯ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ – ɯɨɬɹ ɛɵ ɩɨɬɨɦɭ, ɱɬɨ ɢɫɬɢɧ-
ɧɵɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ, ɧɚ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɹ ɧɚɫɬɚɢɜɚɸ, ɫɥɭɠɚɬ ɜɨɜɫɟ ɧɟ ɞɥɹ
ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɧɢɹ, ɨɧɢ ɜɨɨɛɳɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨ ɨɬ ɪɵɧɤɚ,
ɨɧɢ ɢɦɟɥɢɫɶ ɢ ɬɨɝɞɚ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɟɳɟ ɧɟ ɛɵɥɨ, ɢ ɬɨɝɞɚ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɨɧ ɛɵɥ ɤɚɤ
ɛɵ ɭɩɪɚɡɞɧɟɧ ɜ ɩɥɚɧɨɜɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ, ɨɧɢ ɨɫɬɚɧɭɬɫɹ ɢ ɬɨɝɞɚ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɪɵɧɨɤ,
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ, ɢɫɱɟɡɧɟɬ ɢɡ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɬɜɚ. Ɉɬɫɸɞɚ, ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨ, ɧɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ,
ɱɬɨ ɢɫɬɢɧɧɵɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ (ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ) ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɧɟ-
ɱɬɨ ɡɚɫɬɵɜɲɟɟ, ɧɟɢɡɦɟɧɧɨɟ, ɱɬɨ-ɬɨ ɜɪɨɞɟ ɩɥɚɬɨɧɨɜɫɤɢɯ ɢɞɟɣ. Ɉɧɢ ɩɪɟɞ-
ɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɹ (ɩɭɫɬɶ ɞɚɠɟ ɩɥɨɯɨ ɩɨ-
ɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɣ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨɦ), ɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɜɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɧɢɦ, ɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɯ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ
ɠɢɡɧɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ, ɢɯ ɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɦ, ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ ɩɪɟɬɟɪɩɟɜɚɸɳɢɦ
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ. Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɹ ɞɟɧɟɠɧɵɯ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɛɥɚɝ
ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɜɨɜɫɟ ɧɟ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨɛɵ «ɨɬɪɚɠɚɬɶ» ɢɫɬɢɧɧɵɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ,
«ɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɚɬɶɫɹ» ɤ ɧɢɦ ɢ ɬ. ɞ., ɨɬ ɧɢɯ ɷɬɨ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɟ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬɫɹ – ɷɬɨ ɜ
ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɟ ɢɦ ɧɟ ɞɚɧɨ. Ⱦɟɧɟɠɧɵɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ – ɥɢɲɶ ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬ-
ɜɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɩɨɥɟɡɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ
ɡɚɞɚɱ ɜ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ. Ɇɵ ɦɨɠɟɦ ɥɢɲɶ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɢɬɶ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɟ
ɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɟ: ɛɭɞɟɦ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɞɟɧɟɠɧɵɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɛɥɚɝ ɢ
ɭɫɥɭɝ ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɟɫɥɢ ɩɨ-
ɦɨɝɚɸɬ ɪɟɲɚɬɶ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɧɢɦɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɯɪɚɧɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ.
Ʉ ɬɚɤɢɦ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɦ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹ, ɩɨɬɨɦɭ ɱɬɨ ɧɟɥɶɡɹ ɨɬɜɥɟɱɶ-
ɫɹ ɨɬ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɩɪɟɧɟɛɪɟɱɶ ɷɤɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶ-
ɧɵɦɢ ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɦɢ, ɚ ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɢ ɧɚɫɭɳɧɵɦɢ ɡɚɞɚɱɚɦɢ. Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɢ
ɩɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ «ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ» – ɷɬɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɬɟɯɧɨɫɮɟɪɟ,
ɝɞɟ ɝɨɫɩɨɞɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ ɫɢɥɨɣ ɭɠɟ ɧɟ ɨɞɧɭ ɬɵɫɹɱɭ ɥɟɬ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɪɵɧɨɤ, ɢ ɩɨ-
ɤɚ ɤɨɧɰɚ ɷɬɨɦɭ ɝɨɫɩɨɞɫɬɜɭ ɧɟ ɜɢɞɧɨ. ȼ ɷɬɢɯ ɷɤɡɢɫɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɛɫɬɨɹ-

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ɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɯ, ɜ ɷɬɢɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɪɟɲɚɬɶ ɬɟɤɭɳɢɟ ɩɪɢ-
ɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɟ ɢ – ɛɨɥɟɟ ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɧɨ – ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ. ɉɢɝɭɚɧɫɬɜɨ ɢ
ɢɧɵɟ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɚɭɤ ɞɚɸɬ ɜ ɧɚɲɟ
ɪɚɫɩɨɪɹɠɟɧɢɟ ɧɟɤɢɟ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢ ɨɛɹɡɚɧɵ ɩɨɥɶɡɨ-
ɜɚɬɶɫɹ, ɞɥɹ ɬɨɝɨ ɱɬɨɛɵ ɞɨɫɬɢɱɶ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɫɩɟɯɨɜ ɜ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɢ ɷɬɢɯ ɡɚɞɚɱ.
Ʉɪɢɬɟɪɢɣ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɢ ɜɨɨɛɳɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɞɢɧ – ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɩɪɚɝɦɚɬɢɡɦ. ɏɨɪɨɲɨ ɬɨ ɢ ɬɨɥɶ-
ɤɨ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɦɨɝɚɟɬ ɞɨɛɢɬɶɫɹ ɧɭɠɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚ.
ɇɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɛɵ ɜɟɥɢɤɨɣ ɨɲɢɛɤɨɣ, ɟɫɥɢ ɛɵ ɦɵ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɥɢɫɶ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ
ɷɬɨɝɨ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɹ ɢ ɩɨɢɫɤɨɦ ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɹɸɳɢɯ ɟɦɭ ɞɟɧɟɠɧɵɯ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɩɪɢ-
ɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ. Ɇɵ ɧɢ ɧɚ ɦɢɧɭɬɭ ɧɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɡɚɛɵɜɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ – ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɚ, ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ – ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɚ. ɗɤɨɧɨ-
ɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɵ – ɨɧɢ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɹɬ ɢ ɭɯɨɞɹɬ. ɋɟɝɨ-
ɞɧɹ ɦɧɨɝɨɟ ɢɡ ɬɨɝɨ, ɡɚ ɱɬɨ ɟɳɟ ɜɱɟɪɚ ɩɥɚɬɢɥɢ ɦɢɥɥɢɨɧɵ ɢ ɦɢɥɥɢɚɪɞɵ,
ɧɢɱɟɝɨ ɧɟ ɫɬɨɢɬ; ɡɚɜɬɪɚ ɭɠɟ ɧɢɱɟɝɨ ɧɟ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɫɬɨɢɬɶ ɦɧɨɝɨɟ ɢɡ ɬɨɝɨ, ɡɚ ɱɬɨ
ɦɢɥɥɢɨɧɵ ɢ ɦɢɥɥɢɚɪɞɵ ɩɥɚɬɹɬ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹ. Ⱥ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ, ɥɸɛɨɣ ɷɤɨ-
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɥɸɛɨɝɨ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ, ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɚ. ɗɬɨ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɢ ɤ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɚɦ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ, ɢ ɤ
ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɧɨɣ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɨɦ ɫɬɟɥɥɟɪɨɜɨɣ ɤɨɪɨɜɟ, ɢ ɜɵɦɟɪɲɢɦ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢɦ ɜɢɞɚɦ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɢ ɬɟɦ, ɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɦɵ ɧɢɱɟɝɨ ɧɟ ɡɧɚɟɦ. ȼ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢ-
ɤɟ ɬɚɤ ɧɟ ɛɵɜɚɟɬ: ɬɨ, ɨ ɱɟɦ ɧɢɱɟɝɨ ɧɟɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɧɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ,
ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɧɢɤɚɤɨɣ ɞɟɧɟɠɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ, ɧɢɤɚɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɟɫɥɢ ɩɨɧɢ-
ɦɚɬɶ ɟɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢ.
ɉɨɩɵɬɤɢ ɜɨ ɱɬɨ ɛɵ ɬɨ ɧɢ ɫɬɚɥɨ ɧɚɜɟɫɬɢ ɧɟɤɢɣ «ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɩɨɪɹ-
ɞɨɤ» ɜɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ, ɩɭɫɬɶ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɤɚɤɨɦ-
ɥɢɛɨ ɨɞɧɨɦ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɟ, ɱɚɳɟ ɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɭɸɬ ɩɨɥɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɮɭɡ, ɱɟɦ ɤɚɤɨɣ ɛɵ
ɬɨ ɧɢ ɛɵɥɨ ɭɫɩɟɯ. ɗɬɨ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɢ ɤ ɬɟɤɫɬɚɦ, ɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɥ, ɩɪɟ-
ɤɪɚɫɧɨ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɹ ɢɯ ɢɡɴɹɧɵ, Ɋ.Ⱥ. ɉɟɪɟɥɟɬ ɜ ɫɜɨɟɦ ɞɨɤɥɚɞɟ (ɜ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯ
ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɵɟ ɢɡɴɹɧɵ ɢɫɤɨɪɟɧɢɬɶ ɧɟɥɶɡɹ, ɦɨɠɧɨ ɥɢɲɶ ɡɚɦɟɧɢɬɶ ɨɞɧɢ
ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ). ɉɪɢɜɟɞɭ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɞɢɧ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɢɡ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɣ ɫɚ-
ɦɨɝɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ. Ⱦɜɟ ɧɟɞɟɥɢ ɧɚɡɚɞ ɜ Ɇɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɥɨɫɶ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟ «ɡɚ
ɤɪɭɝɥɵɦ ɫɬɨɥɨɦ» Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ (ɜ ɬɨɦ
ɱɢɫɥɟ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɸ) ɨɬ ɫɛɪɨɫɚ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɜ ɜɨɞɧɵɟ
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɵ. ɇɟɡɚɞɨɥɝɨ ɞɨ ɬɨɝɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɚ ɛɵɥɚ ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɚ ɦɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨɦ.
Ɉɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɤɨɧɱɢɥɨɫɶ ɧɢɱɟɦ. Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɱɢɤɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ
ɦɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɚ (ɝɨɬɨɜɢɜɲɢɟ ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚ), ɫ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɢ
ɜɫɟ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣ Ɋɨɫɩɪɢ-
ɪɨɞɧɚɞɡɨɪɚ, ɫ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ, ɧɟ ɞɨɝɨɜɨɪɢɥɢɫɶ ɧɢ ɩɨ ɨɞɧɨɦɭ ɩɭɧɤɬɭ. Ⱥ ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ
ɪɚɡɧɨɝɥɚɫɢɣ ɢ ɪɚɡɝɪɨɦɧɨɣ ɤɪɢɬɢɤɢ ɛɵɥɨ ɧɟɦɚɥɨ. ɉɨɱɟɦɭ ɬɚɤ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɨɫɶ?
Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɥɢ ɩɥɨɯɭɸ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɭ? Ⱦɟɥɨ ɧɟ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ, ɚ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɯɨɪɨɲɭɸ ɫɟɣ-
ɱɚɫ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶ ɧɟɥɶɡɹ. Ɇɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɸɬ
ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɹɫɧɵɯ ɨɬɜɟɬɨɜ, ɢ ɧɟ ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɥɨ ɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ ɡɚɞɚɱɭ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ
ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ.

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ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɢ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ, ɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɡɚɛɨɬɵ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɧɚɭɤɚ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɧɟ ɦɨ-
ɠɟɬ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɢɬɶ ɧɢɤɚɤɢɯ ɪɟɰɟɩɬɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɭɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɬɶ. ȼ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɟ ɪɟɰɟɩɬɵ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɟɫɬɶ, ɧɨ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ
ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɫɬɪɚɞɚɸɬ ɧɟɨɞɧɨɡɧɚɱɧɨɫɬɶɸ, ɨɩɟɪɢɪɭɸɬ ɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ, ɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ ɧɟɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɚ,
ɧɟ ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɸɬ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɚɠɧɵɟ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɵ, ɧɚɫɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɝɪɭɛɥɹɸɬ ɪɟɚɥɶ-
ɧɨɫɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɹɫɧɵɦ, ɫɬɨɢɬ ɥɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɬɨɥɶ ɝɪɭɛɵɣ ɟɟ ɨɛ-
ɪɚɡ. ɇɚ ɭɠɟ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɨɦ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɢ ɟɞɜɚ ɥɢ ɧɟ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɨɦ ɤɪɢ-
ɬɢɤɨɜ ɛɵɥ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣ: ɟɫɥɢ ɜɢɧɨɜɧɢɤ ɝɪɹɡɧɨɝɨ ɫɛɪɨɫɚ ɧɟ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɬɫɹ ɫ
ɨɰɟɧɤɨɣ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ, ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɟ, ɬɨ ɜɵɢɝɪɚɬɶ ɭ ɧɟɝɨ ɫɭɞ ɛɭɞɟɬ
ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɨɧ ɛɟɡ ɬɪɭɞɚ ɧɚɣɞɟɬ ɫɩɨɫɨɛ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɨɣ ɠɟ
ɫɚɦɨɣ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ, ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɳɢɣ ɤ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ.
ɉɪɢɦɟɪɨɜ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤ (ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɧɵɯ, ɨɞɨɛɪɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɬ. ɩ., ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɟɳɟ ɧɟ ɨɞɨɛɪɟɧɧɵɯ, ɭɠɟ ɧɟ ɨɞɨɛɪɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɪ.) ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ
ɨɱɟɧɶ ɦɧɨɝɨ. Ʉɨɧɟɱɧɨ, ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɢ ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɵ ɡɚɞɚɱ ɷɤɨɧɨ-
ɦɢɤɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ
ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɧɨ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ, ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɞɥɹ ɢɯ ɩɪɚɤɬɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤ, ɧɟ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɭ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ ɧɢɱɟ-
ɝɨ, ɤɪɨɦɟ ɞɨɫɚɞɵ, ɤ ɫɨɠɚɥɟɧɢɸ, ɛɨɥɶɲɟ. ɉɨɩɵɬɤɢ ɢɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɞɢɫɤɪɟɞɢɬɢɪɭɸɬ ɫɚɦɭ ɢɞɟɸ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɷɤɨɧɨ-
ɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɚɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɬ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɤɨɪɪɭɩɰɢɢ, ɨɬɜɥɟɤɚɸɬ ɨɬ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ ɩɪɢɪɨ-
ɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ.
ɂɡ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɥɨɯɢɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ, ɱɬɨ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɧɟ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɬ ɢɯ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɱɬɨ ɪɵɧɨɤ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɦ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬ-
ɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɧɚ ɧɟɝɨ ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ, ɨɬɧɸɞɶ ɧɟ
ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɛɟɫɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ. ɑɢɫɥɨ ɱɚɫ-
ɬɢɱɧɨ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ (ɩɨɥɧɚɹ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ – ɧɟɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɦɚɹ
ɭɬɨɩɢɹ) ɜɧɟɲɧɢɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɪɚɫɬɢ, ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɦɟɯɚ-
ɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɜ ɨɯɪɚɧɟ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ – ɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɬɶɫɹ, ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɰɟɧ-
ɤɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɨɬɜɟɱɚɬɶ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ ɬɟɯ
ɡɚɞɚɱ, ɪɚɞɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɧɢ ɜɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ. ɇɨ ɞɟɥɨ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɯ ɷɬɢɯ
ɨɰɟɧɨɤ, ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɦɵɯ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɬɟɯ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɵɯ ɦɨɞɟɥɟɣ ɢɥɢ ɛɟɡ ɢɯ ɩɨɦɨ-
ɳɢ, ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɚɯ, ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɚɯ ɢ ɢɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɶ-
ɧɵɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɯ ɢ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɯ, ɚ ɢ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɥɢ ɢ ɤɚɤɢɦ
ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɢɯ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ, ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɥɢ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɯ
ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɤɢ. ȿɫɥɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɭɟɬ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɧɟ-
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ (ɚ ɜ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚɦɢ ɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧ-
ɧɨɫɬɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɚ, ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨ ɫ ɟɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨɦ), ɟɫɥɢ ɧɟɬ ɧɢɤɚ-
ɤɨɣ ɭɜɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟ-
ɧɢɹ, ɜ ɛɟɡɭɩɪɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤ ɢ ɬ. ɩ., ɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɟɫɥɢ ɧɟɬ ɫɨɦɧɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɧɟ-
ɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɢɱɟɦ ɝɪɭɛɨɣ, ɷɬɢɯ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɢ ɜ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ ɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɵɯ ɧɟɞɨɫ-

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ɬɚɬɤɨɜ ɭ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤ, ɬɨ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɚ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ ɡɚ ɩɪɢ-
ɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɷɬɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɢ ɧɚɥɨɝɢ, ɢ ɜɫɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɟ ɢɧɵɟ ɩɥɚɬɟɠɢ,
ɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɵ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ ɫɬɚɜɨɤ, ɧɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɨ ɢɯ ɢɫɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɟ, ɢ ɫɬɨɢɦɨ-
ɫɬɧɵɟ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɵ ɢ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɵ, ɢ ɩɪɹɦɵɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ.
ɍɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ – ɷɬɨ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶ-
ɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɛ ɢ ɨɲɢɛɨɤ, ɡɚɞɚɱɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɢɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɷɬɨɬ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɟ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɲɢɛɨɤ ɢ ɪɟɚɝɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɧɢɯ,
ɬɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɰɢɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ. ɉɟɪɜɭɸ ɡɚɞɚɱɭ ɪɟɲɚɟɬ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɜɬɨɪɭɸ – ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ. ɍ ɧɚɫ ɜɫɟ
ɡɧɚɸɬ, ɱɬɨ ɬɚɤɨɟ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɧɨ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɜɫɟ
ɭɞɢɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɫɥɵɲɚɬ ɨ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɭɩɪɚɜ-
ɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɯɪɚɧɨɣ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ (ɢ, ɬɟɦ ɛɨɥɟɟ, ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ
ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɮɟɪɚɯ). Ɇɟɠɞɭ ɬɟɦ, ɝɥɚɜɧɨɟ ɧɟ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɤɚɤɭɸ ɢɡ ɫɨɦɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤ ɜɵɛɪɚɬɶ ɢɥɢ ɤɚɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɢɬɶ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɧɨɦɭ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɭ,
ɚ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɤɚɤ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜɵɛɪɚɧɨ, – ɫ
ɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɜ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɨɛɪɚɬɧɨɣ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɬ ɨ ɤɚɤɢɯ-
ɥɢɛɨ ɫɛɨɹɯ, ɧɟɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɹɯ, ɧɟɩɨɥɚɞɤɚɯ, ɩɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɵɫɬɪɨ ɩɪɢ-
ɧɹɬɶ ɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ, ɭɥɭɱɲɚɸɳɟɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɞɟɥ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɦɨɧɢɬɨ-
ɪɢɧɝɨɦ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɬɶɫɹ ɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɜɥɚɫɬɶ, ɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɪ-
ɝɚɧɵ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ, ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ.
Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɚɹ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟ ɜɟɞɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɬɚɤɨɟ
ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɡɚɬɨ ɨ ɟɟ ɤɪɚɣɧɟɣ ɧɟɩɨɜɨ-
ɪɨɬɥɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɞɟɥɟ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɰɢɢ, ɞɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ
ɜɫɟɦ. ɇɚɲɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɵ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ, ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ, ɤɨɧɬɪɨ-
ɥɟɦ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ, ɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɜ, ɩɨɞɡɚɤɨɧɧɵɯ
ɚɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɬ. ɩ. Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ, ɤɚɤ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɟɬ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɩɥɚɬɧɨɫɬɢ
ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ, ɧɢɤɨɦɭ ɧɟ ɩɨɪɭɱɟɧɨ.
Ƚɨɫɤɨɦɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɥɚɫɶ ɤɨɝɞɚ-ɬɨ ɬɚɤɢɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɨɦ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɨ
ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɢɧɢɰɢɚɬɢɜɟ. ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɣ ɱɢɧɨɜɧɢɤ «ɫ ɢɧɢɰɢɚ-
ɬɢɜɚɦɢ» ɧɟ ɡɚɦɟɱɟɧ, ɨɧ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɟɬ (ɧɨ ɱɚɳɟ ɧɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɟɬ) ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ
ɫɜɵɲɟ. ɗɬɨ – ɜɬɨɪɚɹ ɩɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɚ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɦɟ-
ɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɯɪɚɧɨɣ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɬɚɤ ɬɪɭɞɧɨ
ɜɧɟɞɪɹɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɬɚɤ ɩɥɨɯɨ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɸɬ. ɉɟɪɜɚɹ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɚ – ɩɨɥɧɨɟ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɭ
ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚ ɤ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɦ, ɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɟ-
ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɢ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɞɜɚ-ɬɪɢ ɝɨɞɚ.
Ɋɚɡɜɢɜɚɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɷɤɨ-
ɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɯɪɚɧɨɣ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɧɢ ɧɚ ɦɢɧɭ-
ɬɭ ɧɟɥɶɡɹ ɡɚɛɵɜɚɬɶ ɨɛ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɚɦɨɣ ɩɨ ɫɟɛɟ, ɨ
ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɨɤɚɡɚɬɶɫɹ ɛɟɫɩɨɥɟɡɧɨɣ ɢ ɞɚɠɟ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɣ, ɟɫɥɢ ɧɟ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɟɟ ɯɨɞ ɫ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ. ɗɤɨɥɨ-
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ – ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɚ, ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ – ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɵ ɢ
ɧɟɬɨɱɧɵ.

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ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆɇɕȿ ɍɋɅɍȽɂ ɂ ɆȿɏȺɇɂɁɆɕ
ɂɏ ɄɈɆɉȿɇɋȺɐɂɂ: ɉɈɌȿɇɐɂȺɅ ɊɈɋɋɂɂ

ɋ.ɇ. Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜ1, ȼ.Ɇ. Ɂɚɯɚɪɨɜ2


1
ɆȽɍ ɢɦ. Ɇ.ȼ. Ʌɨɦɨɧɨɫɨɜɚ, ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɮɚɤɭɥɶɬɟɬ
2
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɊȺɇ

ȼ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯ, ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɜɫɟ


ɱɚɳɟ ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɫ ɬɚɤɢɦɢ ɧɨɜɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɚɦɢ ɤɚɤ «ɩɥɚ-
ɬɟɠɢ ɡɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ», «ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɞɨɧɨɪ», «ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧ-
ɧɵɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ», «ɞɨɥɝɢ ɜ ɨɛɦɟɧ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ» ɢ ɞɪ. ɉɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧ-
ɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ ɷɤɨɭɫ-
ɥɭɝ. ɇɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɢɦɢ ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚɦɢ, ɩɪɢɦɟɪɵ ɷɤɨɧɨ-
ɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɢ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ
ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɢ ɜ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ. Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɢɣ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥ ɜ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɟ-
ɩɟɧɢ ɫɬɚɥ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɩɨɩɵɬɤɨɣ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɟ
ɜɤɥɸɱɢɬɶ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ, ɩɥɚɬɟɠɢ ɡɚ ɧɢɯ ɢ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɸ ɨɬɞɟɥɶ-
ɧɵɦ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɦ ɜ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɨɜɵɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ
ɞɥɹ ɛɨɪɶɛɵ ɫ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ. Ɋɚɫɲɢɪɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨɩɵɬɤɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɬɶ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɩɥɚɬɟɠɟɣ ɡɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɢ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ.

ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɢ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ


Ʉɚɤɨɜɵ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɵ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ? ɇɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ
ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɦɢ, ɡɞɟɫɶ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɜɩɨɥɧɟ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɤɪɨɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɧɟɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɟ ɫɚɦɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ. ɋɪɟɞɢ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɱɢɧ
ɦɨɠɧɨ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɞɜɟ ɨɛɳɢɯ: ɧɟɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ
ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɢ ɧɟɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ. ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ ɝɥɨ-
ɛɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɤɪɢɡɢɫ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɞɢɥ ɧɟɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧ-
ɧɨɣ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ. ȼ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɬɚɤ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɟ «ɩɪɨɜɚɥɵ
ɪɵɧɤɚ». ɉɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ, ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɬɨɬ ɮɚɤɬ, ɱɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɰɟɧɵ, ɞɥɹ ɧɢɯ ɧɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ.
ɋɚɦɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟ-
ɧɢ ɞɢɫɤɭɫɫɢɨɧɧɵɦ. ȼ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɯ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ ɞɚɟɬɫɹ
ɩɪɨɫɬɨɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ: «ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ – ɷɬɨ ɜɵɝɨɞɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɥɸɞɢ
ɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬ ɨɬ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ». Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɬɚɤɨɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢ-
ɦɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ (ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɧɨɣ) ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɭɫɥɭɝ, ɱɬɨ ɫɚɦɨ
ɩɨ ɫɟɛɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɥɨɠɧɟɣɲɟɣ ɡɚɞɚɱɟɣ. ɑɚɫɬɶ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɹɦɨ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶ
ɧɚ ɛɥɚɝɨɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɥɸɞɟɣ, ɱɚɫɬɶ – ɨɩɨɫɪɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɨ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɢ ɟɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ
ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶ, ɩɨ ɤɪɚɣɧɟɣ ɦɟɪɟ, ɱɟɬɵɪɟ ɷɬɚɩɚ:
1) ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɣ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ;
2) ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɟɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɜɵɝɨɞ, ɫ ɧɟɣ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ;
3) ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɟɥɹ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɨɬ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ;
4) ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɥɚɬɟɠɟɣ (ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ) ɡɚ ɷɤɨɭɫɥɭɝɢ.

27
Ʉɬɨ ɢ ɤɚɤ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɨɩɥɚɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɨɬ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɞɥɹ ɤɨɝɨ ɨɧɢ ɰɟɧɧɵ? ȼɵɝɨɞɵ, ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɢɟ ɨɬ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɣ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɱɚɫɬɨ «ɪɚɫɩɵɥɹɸɬɫɹ/ɪɚɫɫɟɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ» ɧɚ ɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɟ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɟɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨ. Ɍɚɤɨɟ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɧɚɡɜɚɬɶ ɞɢɮɮɭɡɢ-
ɟɣ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɜɵɝɨɞ. ɗɬɚ ɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɹ ɧɚɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɢ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ
ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɜɵɝɨɞ. ȼɢɞɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɛɭɞɭɬ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɥɹ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ, ɩɪɢɜɟɞɭɬ ɤ
ɩɨɬɟɪɹɦ ɞɥɹ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ.
Ɉ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɥɚɬɟɠɟɣ/ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚ-
ɰɢɣ ɨɬ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɟɥɹ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɬɚɛɥ. 1. ȼɨɡɶɦɟɦ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɥɟɫɚ, ɧɟ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɵ. ȼɵɝɨɞɵ ɨɬ
ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɩɪɢɫɜɨɟɧɢɹ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧ ɫɟɣɱɚɫ ɭɡɤɢɦɢ ɪɚɦɤɚɦɢ Ʉɢ-
ɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ. «Ʌɟɫɧɵɟ» ɜɵɝɨɞɵ ɩɨ ɨɱɢɳɟɧɢɸ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ, ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚ-
ɳɟɧɢɸ ɧɚɜɨɞɧɟɧɢɣ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ.
Ʌɟɫɧɨɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ, ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɚɹ ɷɪɨɡɢɸ ɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɚɹ ɬɟɦ ɫɚɦɵɦ ɭɪɨɠɚɣ-
ɧɨɫɬɶ, «ɩɟɪɟɞɚɟɬ» ɫɜɨɢ ɜɵɝɨɞɵ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɦɭ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɭ. ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯ
ɥɚɬɟɧɬɧɵɯ (ɫɤɪɵɬɵɯ) ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɥɟɫɚ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɦɧɨɠɢɬɶ, ɧɨ ɜɵɜɨɞ
ɨɞɢɧ – ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ «ɜ ɥɟɫ» ɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɹ ɥɢɲɶ ɤɪɚɣɧɟ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ
ɱɚɫɬɶ ɜɵɝɨɞ.

Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1. ɗɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɥɟɫɚ ɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɟɥɢ ɜɵɝɨɞ


ɍɫɥɭɝɚ ɥɟɫɚ ȼɵɝɨɞɵ ɉɨɥɭɱɚɬɟɥɶ ɜɵɝɨɞ
ɉɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɢɡɦɟ-
ɉɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɟ ɋɈ2 Ɇɢɪɨɜɨɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨ
ɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ
ɉɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɷɪɨɡɢɢ
ɍɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɭɪɨɠɚɟɜ ɋɟɥɶɫɤɨɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ
ɜ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɦ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟ
Ɋɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɧɢɡ ɩɨ
ȼɨɞɨɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɉɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɜɨɞ- ɬɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɨ-
ɜɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɡɨɧɚɯ ɧɟɧɢɣ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ, ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢɟ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɵ
Ɉɱɢɳɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɨɬ
Ɂɞɨɪɨɜɶɟ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɣ
Ɇɢɪɨɜɨɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨ,
ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ
ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛ-
Ɇɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ, ɷɫɬɟɬɢɤɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɣ
ɪɚɡɢɹ
Ɇɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɢɣ ɫɟɤɬɨɪ
ɬɨɜɚɪɨɜ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ
ɉɪɨɞɭɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɛɨɱ- ɋɛɨɪ ɝɪɢɛɨɜ, ɹɝɨɞ, ɥɟ- ȼ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ ɥɟɫɚ ɤɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ

ɋɟɣɱɚɫ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɥɚɬɟɧɬɧɨɝɨ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɨɬ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ,


ɢɯ ɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɨɣ ɨɧɢ ɜ ɡɧɚɱɢ-
ɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɸɬɫɹ ɛɟɫɩɥɚɬɧɵɦɢ, ɢ ɢɯ ɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɞɨ-
ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɢɯ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɢ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɞɥɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ
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ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɟɣ ɡɚɞɚɱɟɣ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ ɢ «ɦɨɧɟɬɚɪɢ-
ɡɚɰɢɹ» ɜɵɝɨɞ ɨɬ ɷɤɨɭɫɥɭɝ, ɢɥɢ – ɝɨɜɨɪɹ ɫɬɪɨɝɢɦ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɹɡɵɤɨɦ –
«ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ»/ɭɱɟɬ ɥɚɬɟɧɬɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ/ɜɵɝɨɞ
ɨɬ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ. ȼɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɚ «ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ» ɭɳɟɪ-
ɛɨɜ/ɢɡɞɟɪɠɟɤ ɨɬ ɢɯ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɢɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɤ-
ɬɢɤɟ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚ «ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɢɬɟɥɶ ɩɥɚɬɢɬ».

ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ


Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɢ, ɪɚɫɩɵɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɨɬ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɢ ɞɢɮɮɟ-
ɪɟɧɰɢɚɰɢɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɨɧɹɬɶ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɭ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ. ȼ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬ-
ɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɨɦ «ɡɚɬɪɚɬɵ-ɜɵɝɨɞɵ» (ȺɁȼ) ɷɮ-
ɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟ-
ɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɢ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ. ȿɫɥɢ ɜɵɝɨɞɵ ɩɪɟ-
ɜɵɲɚɸɬ ɡɚɬɪɚɬɵ, ɬɨ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɟ ɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ.
ȼ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɡɚɬɪɚɬɵ/ɢɡɞɟɪɠɤɢ ɧɚ ɢɯ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɜɩɨɥ-
ɧɟ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɰɢɪɭɟɦɵ ɢ ɩɨɞɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ,
ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɵɝɨɞ/ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ (ɤɚɤ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ ɜɵɲɟ) ɝɨɪɚɡɞɨ
ɫɥɨɠɧɟɟ.
ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɜ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɯ ɩɪɢ-
ɧɹɬɢɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ (ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɚɧɚ-
ɥɢɡɚ ɡɚɬɪɚɬɵ-ɜɵɝɨɞɵ, ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɹ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɢ ɞɪ.) ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟ-
ɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɩɪɨɢɝɪɵɜɚɟɬ ɜ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɛɨɪɶɛɟ ɫ ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚ-
ɬɢɜɧɵɦɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɦɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ, ɝɞɟ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ
ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ. Ʉ ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɦ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɬɧɟ-
ɫɟɧɵ ɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ, ɥɟɫɨɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɤɢ, ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤ-
ɬɭɪɵ, ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɩɪ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ
ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɟɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ (ɚɝɪɟɝɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ)
ɜɵɝɨɞ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɢɯ ɢɡ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ, ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ (ɫɬɪɚɧɨɜɵɯ) ɢ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɜɵɝɨɞ, ɧɚɞ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɢɡɞɟɪɠɤɚɦɢ.
ɂɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ, ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɸɳɢɯ ɜɵɫɨɤɭɸ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɢɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ. ɉɨ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚɦ
ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɵɟ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɢ ɜ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟ 45 ɦɥɪɞ. ɞɨɥɥ. ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɬɶ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɧɚ 5 ɬɪɢɥɥɢɨɧɨɜ ɞɨɥɥ. ɧɚ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ,
ɱɬɨ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɨ ɜɵɝɨɞɧɵɦ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɶɸ ɢ
ɡɚɬɪɚɬɚɦɢ. (Ⱦɥɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɧɚ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɟ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬɫɹ ɜ 6
ɪɚɡ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ).
ɋɦɹɝɱɟɧɢɟ/ɭɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɞɢɫɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɢ ɜ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɢ ɜɵɝɨɞ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɧɚ
ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɢ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ, ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɢɞɟɧ-
ɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɸ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ (ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ) ɜɵɝɨɞ. ɗɬɢ ɜɵɝɨɞɵ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ,
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɟɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ, ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɬ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ
ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɫɚɦɵɯ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦɚɯ ɢ ɫɮɟɪɚɯ. ɂɯ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ
ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ, ɢɫɤɚɬɶ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɢɯ ɜ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɩɥɨɫ-

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ɤɨɫɬɶ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɨɯɨɞɨɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ. ɉɪɢɦɟɪɨɦ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɜ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɟ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɫɨ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɫɟɥɟ-
ɧɢɹ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɨɬ ɧɟɞɪɟɜɟɫɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ ɥɟɫɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɥɭ-
ɠɢɬɶ Ɍɨɦɫɤɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɡɚ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɵ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜɵɜɨɡɢɬɫɹ
ɝɪɢɛɨɜ, ɹɝɨɞ, ɤɟɞɪɨɜɵɯ ɨɪɟɯɨɜ, ɥɟɤɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ ɢɯ
ɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɧɚ ɫɭɦɦɭ ɨɤɨɥɨ 1 ɦɥɪɞ. ɪɭɛ. Ⱦɨɥɹ ɧɟɞɪɟɜɟɫɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɥɟɫɚ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɨɤɨɥɨ 1% ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ Ɍɨɦɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɢ ɜ
20 ɪɚɡ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪ-
ɫɨɜ. ɗɬɨ ɫɬɚɥɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɦɭ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ-
ɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɭ ɢɧɜɟ-
ɫɬɢɰɢɣ ɜ ɷɬɭ ɫɮɟɪɭ. ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɨɬ ɧɟ-
ɞɪɟɜɟɫɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɨ ɜ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨ-
ɜɚɧɢɢ ɞɢɤɨɪɨɫɨɜ ɢ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɢ ɢɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ.

ɇɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ


ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜ ɦɢɪɟ ɧɚɤɨɩɥɟɧ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɨɩɵɬ ɩɨ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚ-
ɰɢɢ (ɩɥɚɬɟɠɟɣ) ɡɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ. ɂɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɨɩɵɬ ɢ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɧɚɲɟɣ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɢɬɶ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɭɫɥɭɝ:
1) ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɮɨɧɞɵ;
2) ɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɮɨɧɞɵ;
3) ɰɟɥɟɜɵɟ ɮɨɧɞɵ ɆɉɊ;
4) ɰɟɥɟɜɵɟ ɮɨɧɞɵ ɦɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜ ɢ ɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜ;
5) ɦɟɠɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ;
6) ɩɥɚɬɟɠɢ ɡɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ (ɰɟɥɟɜɵɟ ɮɨɧɞɵ) ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ;
7) ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ (ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸ-
ɳɢɯ ɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɨɜɵɯ);
8) ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ.
Ɉɛɳɢɦ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɦ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ (ɩɥɚɬɟɠɟɣ) ɡɚ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɭɫɥɭɝ ɞɥɹ
ɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ, ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ, ɫɬɪɚɧ, ɱɬɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɨɛɳɭɸ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɭɸ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɷɬɢɯ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ
ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɚɹ/ɫɬɪɚɧɨɜɚɹ ɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɚ-
ɬɪɚɬ ɧɚ ɫɬɪɚɧɨɜɨɦ/ɦɟɫɬɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɧɟ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ
«ɢɠɞɢɜɟɧɱɟɫɬɜɚ» ɞɥɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ, ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɟɦɭ ɞɟɧɟɝ ɛɟɡ ɜɫɹɤɢɯ ɨɛɹɡɚ-
ɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ. Ɋɟɱɶ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɢɞɬɢ ɨ ɰɟɥɟɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɟ,
ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢɥɢ ɨɬɤɚɡɭ ɨɬ ɢɯ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚ-
ɧɢɹ. ɗɬɨ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚɟɬ ɢ ɞɨɥɟɜɨɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɣ ɢ ɢɡɞɟɪɠɟɤ
ɧɚ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ. Ɂɚɬɪɚɬɵ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɫɹ
ɦɟɠɞɭ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɦ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɦ, ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɜɥɚɫɬɹɦɢ,
ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɦ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɦ. ɉɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɧɚ
ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ/ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɪɨɜɧɢ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɛɵɬɶ ɬɟɫɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɢɯ ɰɟɥɟ-
ɜɵɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɧɚ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɭ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ

30
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɱɢɫɬɵɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ, «ɡɟɥɟɧɵɟ
ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɢ», ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɨɣ ɢ
ɩɟɪɟɨɛɭɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ, ɜɵɫɜɨɛɨɠɞɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɢɡ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɷɤɫ-
ɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɸɳɟɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ. ɉɨɞɨɛɧɨɟ ɰɟɥɟɜɨɟ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ «ɜɧɟɲɧɢɯ»
ɡɚɬɪɚɬ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ. Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɬɚɤ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɐɟɥɟɜɵɯ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɣ. ȼ ɪɟ-
ɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɪɨɫɬ ɞɨɯɨɞɨɜ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɬ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɢɦɨɣ
ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɬɞɚɱɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɬɶ ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɬɶ ɮɟ-
ɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɢ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɭɸ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɭɸ ɩɨɦɨɳɶ.
ɂɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɢɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɢɡ ɨɛ-
ɥɚɫɬɢ ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɩɟɪɟɣɬɢ ɜ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɭɸ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɜɵɝɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɫɬɪɚɧɚ ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɞɨɧɨɪɨɦ ɢ ɜɩɨɥɧɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɟɬɟɧɞɨ-
ɜɚɬɶ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɸ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɢ ɫɜɨɢɯ ɷɤɨɭɫɥɭɝ. Ʉɫɬɚɬɢ,
ɬɚɤɨɟ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɭɠɟ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɡɜɭɱɟɧɨ ɜɟɞɭɳɢɦɢ ɪɨɫɫɢɣ-
ɫɤɢɦɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚɦɢ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɭɦɚɯ ɈɈɇ. ȼ Ʉɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɰɢ-
ɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ (2008), ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɵ ɰɟɥɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɞɨ 2020 ɝ., ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɚɹ ɪɟɚ-
ɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɫɬɪɚɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɦ ɜɤɥɚɞɨɦ
Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɜ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ ɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ
ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɫɢɹ.
ɇɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɦ, ɧɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ ɜɚɠɧɨ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɢ
ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ. ɉɚɪɚɞɨɤɫɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ
«ɛɟɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɵ – ɛɨɝɚɬɚɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɚ» ɨɛɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɟɣ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɩɨɩɵɬɤɟ ɛɟɞɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ ɩɨɜɵɫɢɬɶ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɨ-
ɝɨ ɛɥɚɝɨɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ
ɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜ. Ɉɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ Ȼɚɣɤɚɥɚ, Ⱥɥɬɚɹ, Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ, ɬɟɪɪɢ-
ɬɨɪɢɣ ɫ ɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɛɵɬɶ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɵ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɧɚ ɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ,
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɳɢɟ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɬɚɤɢɯ
ɦɟɫɬ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɣ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ. ȼ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ,
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɸɳɢɟ ɛɨɝɚɬɭɸ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ, ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ
ɞɨɧɨɪɚɦɢ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɧɨ ɢ ɜɫɟɣ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɵ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵ-
ɜɚɟɦɵɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶ-
ɧɵɣ, ɧɨ ɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɨɜɨɣ, ɢ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ.
ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɩɨ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɦ Ɇɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɚ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ Ɋɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ Ȼɭɪɹɬɢɹ
ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɵɟ ɩɪɹɦɵɟ ɭɛɵɬɤɢ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ ɨɬ ɨɫɨɛɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɟ-
ɠɢɦɚ, ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɧɚ ɟɟ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɜ ɰɟɥɹɯ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɡɟɪɚ Ȼɚɣɤɚɥ,
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ 16-17% ȼɊɉ.
ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɥ
ɛɵ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɢ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɜɤɥɚɞ
ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɣ – ɪɚɡɥɢɱ-
ɧɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɹ, ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɦɵɟ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɦ ɢ ɧɚɧɨɫɹɳɢɟ

31
ɭɳɟɪɛ ɞɪɭɝɨɦɭ (ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɚɯ ɷɬɨ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɢ, ɜɧɟɲɧɢɟ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ – ɧɟɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɢɪɭɟɦɵɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɝɭɸ).
Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɜ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɦ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯ ɡɚɞɚɱ:
 ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ;
 ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ ɤɜɨɬ ɧɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɢ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɣ/ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯ ɢ ɫɨɫɟɞɧɢɯ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯ ɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ, ɦɟɠɞɭ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɦɢ. Ɍɚɤɢɟ ɪɵɧ-
ɤɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ, ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ, ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱ-
ɧɵɯ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɦɭ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɭ;
 ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ/ɭɳɟɪɛɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɟɫɬɟɫɬ-
ɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɨɬ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ ɜ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɟ,
ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɦ ɢ ɥɟɫɧɨɦ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚɯ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.
Ɉɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɩɟɪɜɵɯ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɰɟɞɟɧɬɨɜ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɩɨ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨ-
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɦɭ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɸ (ɨɯɨɬɧɢɤɚɦ ɢ ɪɵɛɚɤɚɦ), ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɦ
ɫ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ Ȼɟɥɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ, ɛɵɥɨ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɉɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬ-
ɜɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɨ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɢ 48 ɦɥɧ. ɪɭɛ. ɧɚ ɬɪɢ ɝɨɞɚ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɭ ɡɚɧɹɬɨɫɬɢ ɢ
ɩɟɪɟɨɛɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɡɚ ɨɬɤɚɡ ɨɬ ɨɯɨɬɵ ɧɚ ɛɟɥɶɤɚ (ɮɟɜɪɚɥɶ 2009 ɝ.).

Ɂɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ
ɋɟɣɱɚɫ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɥɚɬɟɧɬɧɨɝɨ (ɫɤɪɵɬɨɝɨ) ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɨɬ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɢɯ ɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨ-
ɦɢɤɨɣ ɨɧɢ ɜ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɸɬɫɹ ɛɟɫɩɥɚɬɧɵɦɢ, ɢ ɢɯ ɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶ
ɧɟɞɨɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɢɯ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɢ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɞɥɹ ɷɤɨɧɨ-
ɦɢɤɢ ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɟɣ ɡɚɞɚɱɟɣ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ ɢ «ɦɨ-
ɧɟɬɚɪɢɡɚɰɢɹ» ɜɵɝɨɞ ɨɬ ɷɤɨɭɫɥɭɝ. Ⱦɥɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɭɝ ɢ ɟɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɫɥɟɞɭɸ-
ɳɢɟ ɷɬɚɩɵ: ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɣ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ; ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɟɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɜɵɝɨɞ, ɫ ɧɟɣ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ; ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɟɥɹ ɜɵɝɨɞ
ɨɬ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ; ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɥɚɬɟɠɟɣ (ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ) ɡɚ ɷɤɨɭɫɥɭɝɢ.
Ⱦɥɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɢɬɶ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɷɤɨ-
ɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɭɫɥɭɝ: ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɟɧ-
ɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɮɨɧɞɵ; ɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɮɨɧɞɵ; ɰɟɥɟɜɵɟ ɮɨɧ-
ɞɵ ɆɉɊ; ɰɟɥɟɜɵɟ ɮɨɧɞɵ ɦɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜ ɢ ɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜ; ɦɟɠɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ; ɩɥɚɬɟɠɢ ɡɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ (ɰɟɥɟɜɵɟ
ɮɨɧɞɵ) ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ; ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ (ɪɚɡɜɢ-
ɬɢɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɨɜɵɯ); ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ.

Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜ ɋ.ɇ., Ɂɚɯɚɪɨɜ ȼ.Ɇ. 2009. ɗɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ. Ɇ.:
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ; ɐɗɉɊ.
Developing International Payment for Ecosystem Services: Towards a Greener
World Economy. 2007. UNEP/IUCN.
32
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB). 2008. European
Communities.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being.
UNEP, Island Press, Washington DC.
Pagiola S., von Ritter K., Bishop J. 2004. Assessing the Economic Value of
Ecosystem Conservation. World Bank.

ȺɇȺɅɂɁ ɗɎɎȿɄɌɂȼɇɈɋɌɂ
ɈɊȽȺɇɂɁȺɐɂɈɇɇɈ-ɗɄɈɇɈɆɂɑȿɋɄɈȽɈ ɂɇɋɌɊɍɆȿɇɌȺɊɂə
ɋɈɏɊȺɇȿɇɂə ɉɊɂɊɈȾɇɈ-ɊȿɋɍɊɋɇɈȽɈ ɉɈɌȿɇɐɂȺɅȺ

ȼ.ȼ. ɋɚɛɚɞɚɲ
ɋɭɦɫɤɨɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ɤɚɮɟɞɪɚ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ;
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ Ɇɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɚ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ
ɧɚɭɤɢ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ ɢ ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɢ ɧɚɭɤ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ

ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɵɣ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɦ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɦ ɫɨ-


ɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɦ ɢɯ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɡ-
ɜɢɬɢɟ. ȼ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɰɢɨ-ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɩɨ-
ɫɵɥɨɤ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɚ ɤ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɦɭ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ
ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɨɝɨ
ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɸɬ ɨɫɨɛɭɸ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ. ɗɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɦ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɨɦ1 – ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɚɹ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɤɚ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɭɫ-
ɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ (Ɉɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɚɹ..., 2002). ȼ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɸɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ, ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɭ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨɜɚ-
ɧɢɹ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɵɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɨɦ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ.
Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɦ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢ-
ɜɚɸɳɢɦ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ
ɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦ ɢɯ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɦɭ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ. Ȼɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɧɟɨɛɯɨ-
ɞɢɦɨ ɞɥɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫ-
ɥɭɝ, ɜɥɢɹɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦ ɢɬɨɝɟ ɧɚ ɛɥɚɝɨɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ.
ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ – ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɚɹ ɡɚɞɚɱɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɭɫ-
ɥɨɜɢɣ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɨɤ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ «ɋɚɦɦɢɬɟ
ɬɵɫɹɱɟɥɟɬɢɹ» (World, 2002), ɱɟɦɭ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ; ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɟ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞ-

1
ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥ – ɷɬɨ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɢɟ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɨɣ ɜ ɫɢɥɭ ɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɢɯɫɹ
ɜɨɤɪɭɝ ɧɢɯ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛ-
ɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ (Ɇɨɬɤɢɧ, 2009).
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ɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ; ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɨɩɭɫɬɵɧɢɜɚɧɢɹ; ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ ɢ
ɲɢɪɨɤɨɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɦɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɫɛɟɪɟɝɚɸɳɢɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɢ
ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦɢ.
ɇɚɭɱɧɨ-ɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɵ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ ɞɟɬɚɥɶɧɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɵ ɜ ɬɪɭɞɚɯ ɭɱɟɧɵɯ
ɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɜɟɞɭɳɢɟ ɲɤɨɥɵ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨ-
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ: ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ – ɋ.ɇ. Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜɚ, Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ƚɭɫɟɜɚ, ȼ.ɂ. Ⱦɚɧɢɥɨɜɚ-
Ⱦɚɧɢɥɶɹɧɚ, Ƚ.Ⱥ. Ɇɨɬɤɢɧɚ, Ɋ.Ⱥ. ɉɟɪɟɥɟɬɚ, ɂ.Ɇ. ɉɨɬɪɚɜɧɨɝɨ, ɇ.Ɏ. Ɋɟɣɦɟɪ-
ɫɚ ɢ ɞɪ.; ɭɤɪɚɢɧɫɤɨɣ: Ɉ.Ɏ. Ȼɚɥɚɰɤɨɝɨ, Ɉ.Ⱥ. ȼɟɤɥɢɱ, Ȼ.Ɇ. Ⱦɚɧɢɥɢɲɢɧɚ,
Ʌ.Ƚ. Ɇɟɥɶɧɢɤɚ, ɋ.Ʉ. ɏɚɪɢɱɤɨɜɚ, Ɇ.Ⱥ. ɏɜɟɫɢɤɚ ɢ ɞɪ.; ɛɟɥɨɪɭɫɫɤɨɣ: Ⱥ.ȼ. ɇɟ-
ɜɟɪɨɜɚ, Ɉ.ɋ. ɒɢɦɨɜɨɣ ɢ ɞɪ.
ȼ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɥɸɛɵɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ,
ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɟɦ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɧɟɨɬɴɟɦɥɟɦɵɦ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɦ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɣ ɫɢɫ-
ɬɟɦɵ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ. ȼ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ
ɨɧɢ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ ɜɚɠɧɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ:
 ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɦ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ;
 ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɛɢɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɮɚɤ-
ɬɨɪɨɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ;
 ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɦ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɹ ɱɟ-
ɥɨɜɟɤɚ;
 ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɦ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ.
Ɍɚɤɚɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɚ ɛɢɨɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶ ɤ ɢɯ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ. ɗɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ (ɤɚɤ, ɜɩɪɨ-
ɱɟɦ, ɥɸɛɨɝɨ ɞɪɭɝɨɝɨ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ) ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɦ
ɜɵɝɨɞ ɢ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ.
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɦɢ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɚɦɢ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɚɧɬɪɨ-
ɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɧɚ ɛɢɨɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ.
ɉɪɢɧɹɬɢɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɨɛ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɛɚɡɢɪɨ-
ɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɨɛɴɟɦɥɸɳɟɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚ ɢ ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚ-
ɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɟɝɨ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɫ ɭɱɟ-
ɬɨɦ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɜ ɫɢɥɭ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɨɬ
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ ɨɫɥɨɠɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɞɢɫɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɹɦɢ ɜ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɢ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ «ɨɛɳɢɦɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɦɢ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɚɦɢ ɜ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɫɨ-
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɧɚɭɤɢ» (Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜ, 2008).
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɨɫɬɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜ ɤ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɜɵ-
ɝɨɞ/ɢɡɞɟɪɠɟɤ ɨɬ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɧɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɦ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɦɟ-
ɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɡɚ-
ɰɢɹ ɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɢ
ɜ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ɬɪɚɧɡɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɷɤɨ-
ɧɨɦɢɤɢ. ɇɚ ɧɚɲ ɜɡɝɥɹɞ, ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛ-
ɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɸ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ.

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ɇɟɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɪɵɧɤɚ
ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɰɟɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ: ɜ ɪɵɧɨɱ-
ɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ, ɝɞɟ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɟɝɨ ɰɟɧɧɨ-
ɫɬɶɸ, ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɥɢɛɨ ɧɟɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɵ,
ɥɢɛɨ ɜɨɨɛɳɟ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ; ɬɚɤɨɟ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ «ɩɪɨɜɚɥɚɦɢ ɪɵɧɤɚ»
(Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜ, 2008).
Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ, ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɛɫɢɞɢɣ, ɧɚɥɨɝɨ-
ɜɵɯ ɥɶɝɨɬ, ɩɪ. Ʉ ɫɨɠɚɥɟɧɢɸ, ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ɫ ɧɟɪɚɡɜɢɬɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɩɟɪɟ-
ɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɨɣ ɪɟɧɬɧɵɟ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɵ ɜ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɧɟ ɨɬɜɟɱɚɸɬ
ɰɟɥɹɦ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ (Ⱦɚɧɢɥɢɲɢɧ, 2006). Ɇɧɨɝɢɟ
ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɩɪɨɬɟɤɰɢɨɧɢɫɬɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɪ, ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜ-
ɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɨɦ ɥɶɝɨɬ, ɫɭɛɫɢɞɢɣ ɧɚ ɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɟ ɡɚɜɵɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɢɡ-
ɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɢɡɞɟɪɠɟɤ, ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɯ ɫɭɛɫɢɞɢɣ, ɧɚɥɨ-
ɝɨɜɵɯ ɥɶɝɨɬ ɢ ɩɪ., ɱɬɨ ɧɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɸ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɫɛɟɪɟɝɚɸɳɢɯ
ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ.
ɋɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚ ɨɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞ-
ɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ, ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɜɵɝɨɞɵ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ, ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ
ɱɟɝɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɶ ɧɟɜɟɪɧɨɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɨ ɩɨɜɨɞɭ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ, ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɫ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɪɟɫɭɪ-
ɫɚɦɢ. ɑɚɫɬɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬ ɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɧɨ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɬ ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ
ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ (ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ) ɫ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɟɦ «ɛɵɫɬɪɨɣ»
ɜɵɝɨɞɵ ɜ ɤɪɚɬɤɨɫɪɨɱɧɨɦ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɟ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɟ ɡɟɦɥɟ- ɢ ɥɟɫɨ-
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ (ɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ, ɥɟɫɨɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɤɚ, ɨɯɨɬɚ, ɩɪ.), ɪɚɡ-
ɜɢɬɢɟ ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ (ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɞɨɪɨɝ, ɠɢɥɵɯ ɢ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ, ɩɪ.).
ɇɟɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɨ-ɩɪɚɜɨɜɵɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɚɜ
ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ – ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɜɨɡ-
ɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɨɜ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ. ɂɦɟɧɧɨ
ɬɚɤɢɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬ ɩɪɚɜɚ, ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɫɥɨɠɧɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɜ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ,
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ (ɋɚɛɚɞɚɲ, 2007). Ʉɚɤ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ
ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɨɱɟɧɶ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɨ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɢɦɟɧɟɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɢɤɨɦ (Ⱦɚɧɢɥɢɲɢɧ, 2006).
Ɉɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɥɨɝɨɨɛɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ,
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɲɬɪɚɮɨɜ, ɩɪ. ɗɬɨɬ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɧɟɷɮɮɟɤ-
ɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɪɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ, ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɦɨɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɨɦ, ɢ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɱɟɬɤɨɣ
ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨ-ɩɪɚɜɨɜɨɣ ɛɚɡɵ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɚɜ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞ-
ɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ. Ɂɚɱɚɫɬɭɸ ɫɬɚɜɤɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɛɨɪɨɜ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ
ɧɢɡɤɢɦɢ, ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɚ ɢɯ ɭɩɥɚɬɵ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬ-
ɫɹ, ɩɪɚɜɨɜɵɟ ɢ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵ ɫɛɨɪɚ ɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ ɧɟ ɭɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ.

35
ɇɟɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɚɹ ɢ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚ, ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ, ɜ
ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ, ɦɟɬɚɥɥɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɹɯ, ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɦ, ɥɟɫ-
ɧɨɦ ɢ ɪɵɛɧɨɦ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟ. Ʉɪɢɡɢɫɧɵɟ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜ
ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɟɟ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚɯ, ɢ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɸɳɢɣ ɞɟɮɢɰɢɬ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪ-
ɫɨɜ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɩɨɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ ɬɨɥɱɤɨɦ ɤ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɦɭ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɸ ɜ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɭ ɯɨ-
ɡɹɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɣ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ.
ɇɟɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɟɬ ɭ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɧɟ-
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɠɟɥɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ, ɤɚɤɨɜɵ-
ɦɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ. ȼ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ (ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɯ ɢ ɤɚɞɪɨ-
ɜɵɯ) ɢ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣ, ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ
ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɫɩɚɞɚ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɚ ɩɨɬɪɟ-
ɛɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɯ ɰɟɧ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɵ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɫɦɟɳɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟ-
ɧɢɹ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɷɤɨɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɜ ɢɯ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ.
Ɋɟɫɭɪɫɨɟɦɤɚɹ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ: ɜ ɫɥɚɛɨ ɞɢ-
ɜɟɪɫɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɟɦɤɢɟ ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɨɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ
ɫɟɤɬɨɪɵ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɛɴɟɦɵ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɯ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɣ ɜ
ɛɸɞɠɟɬɵ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɰɢɣ, ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢ ɜɟɫɶ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɭɳɟɪɛ ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ-ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɟɪɟ.
Ɋɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɬɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɡɚɞɚɱ ɩɪɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɢ ɛɢɡɧɟɫɚ, ɷɤɫ-
ɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ (ɧɟɮɬɶ, ɝɚɡ, ɥɟɫ, ɛɢɨɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ, ɪɭɞɵ
ɢ ɩɪ.). ȼ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ ɫ ɧɟɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɣ ɪɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨɣ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɧɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɸ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡ-
ɜɢɬɢɹ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɯ ɢ ɧɚɭɤɨɟɦɤɢɯ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ.

ɇɟɪɚɡɜɢɬɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɧɟɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ


ɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ
ɇɟɫɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚ, ɜɟɞɭɳɚɹ ɤ ɪɨɫɬɭ ɞɢɫ-
ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɦɢ, ɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɦɢ, ɨɛ-
ɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɢ ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɦɢ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɹɦɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ.
Ɉɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɱɟɬɤɨɣ ɢ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɩɨɥɢɬɢ-
ɤɢ, ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɣ ɢ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɣ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚ-
ɡɢɹ ɢ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ. ɇɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɚɜɢ-
ɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ (ɦɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɚ, ɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɚ,
ɤɨɦɢɬɟɬɵ, ɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɢ), ɨɬɜɟɱɚɸɳɢɟ ɡɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɨɬ-
ɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɨɤɪɭ-
ɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɨɧɢ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɜ ɫɢɥɭ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɱɢɧ ɢ
ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɜ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ
ɫɨɰɢɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɨɜ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚ. ɇɟɪɟɞ-
ɤɨ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɬ ɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ: ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧ-
ɧɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɣ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɫɹ
(ɢɥɢ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɸɬɫɹ, ɞɭɛɥɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ) ɫ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ, ɧɟ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɢɦ, ɱɬɨ

36
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɭ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ. ɑɚɫɬɵɟ ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧ-
ɧɵɯ ɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜ, ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨ «ɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɦɭ» ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭ, ɞɟɥɟɝɢɪɨ-
ɜɚɧɢɟ, ɞɪɨɛɥɟɧɢɟ, ɞɭɛɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ, ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ-
ɫɬɢ ɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɷɮɮɟɤ-
ɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɝɨ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ (Ⱦɚɧɢɥɢɲɢɧ,
2006). Ɍɚɤ, ɱɚɫɬɵɟ ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɭɤɪɚɢɧɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɜɟ-
ɞɨɦɫɬɜ ɡɚ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɥɟɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɫɧɢɡɢɥɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ
ɢɯ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ: ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɷɤɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚ ɭɬɪɚɬɢɥɚ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɪɢɟɧ-
ɬɢɪɵ ɢ ɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤɥɢ ɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɫ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɛɚɡɵ ɢ ɤɚɞɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ.
ɇɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɟ (ɚ ɜ ɪɹɞɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɢ ɧɟɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɟ) ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɨɛɳɟɫɬ-
ɜɟɧɧɵɯ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɯ
ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ. ɇɟ-
ɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɨɛɴɟ-
ɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɥɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɯ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɢ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ, ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɢɯ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɢ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ ɩɪɢ-
ɧɹɬɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɨɫɬɚɸɬɫɹ ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ ɧɢɡɤɢɦɢ, ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɠɟɥɚɬɶ ɥɭɱɲɟɝɨ. ɉɟɪɜɨɨɱɟɪɟɞɧɵɦɢ ɡɚɞɚɱɚɦɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɣ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ: ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɥɢɰ ɤ ɢɧɮɨɪ-
ɦɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɷɤɨɩɪɨɟɤɬɚɦ ɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɦ; ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɚ ɢ ɩɨɞ-
ɞɟɪɠɤɚ ɷɤɨɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɷɤɨɚɤɰɢɣ; ɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɷɤɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɜ
ɋɆɂ; ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ, ɤɚɫɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɷɤɨɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ, ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɞɟ-
ɛɚɬɨɜ ɢ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɣ ɩɨ ɧɢɦ, ɩɪ. Ɉɬɦɟɱɚɹ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɧɭɬɵɣ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫ, ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ
ɨɛɪɚɬɢɬɶ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɭɩɪɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ ɨɛɳɟ-
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɛɳɢɧ ɜ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɯ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢ-
ɹɯ ɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɯ.
ɇɟɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ/ɢɥɢ ɧɟɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɨɪɦ, ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɨɜ, ɫɨɝɥɚ-
ɲɟɧɢɣ, ɤɜɨɬ, ɥɢɰɟɧɡɢɣ, ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɫɮɟɪɭ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ. ɉɪɢ-
ɦɟɪɨɦ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵ ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɧɨɪɦ ɩɪɢ-
ɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ȿɋ ɫ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɦɢ: ɫɭ-
ɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɭɧɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ
ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ (ɈȼɈɋ), ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ (ɋɗɈ) ɢ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɡɚ-
ɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨ-ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɩɥɚɧɟ, ɧɨ ɢ ɧɚɩɨɥɧɢɬɶ ɢɯ
ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɚɜɨɜɵɦɢ ɧɨɪɦɚɦɢ, ɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɢɹɦɢ, ɩɪɚɜɚɦɢ ɢ ɨɛɹɡɚɧɧɨ-
ɫɬɹɦɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɩɨɞɤɪɟɩɢɬɶ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɫɬɚɧ-
ɞɚɪɬɚɦɢ, ɧɨɪɦɚɦɢ, ɥɢɦɢɬɚɦɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɫɬɪɨɝɨ ɫɨɛɥɸɞɚɬɶɫɹ ɭɱɚ-
ɫɬɧɢɤɚɦɢ ɪɵɧɤɚ.
ɇɟɨɫɜɟɞɨɦɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɥɢɰ (ɱɚɳɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɧɚ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶ-
ɧɨɦ ɢ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ) ɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ
(ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ, ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ, ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɝɨ, ɩɪɨɫɜɟɬɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ) ɨɬ ɫɨ-
ɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ.

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ɇɢɡɤɚɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ
ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ-ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɛɚ-
ɡɵ ɤ ɧɨɪɦɚɦ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɚ. Ʉɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ
ɩɪɢɧɹɬɵ ɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɪɚɦɨɱɧɵɟ ɡɚɤɨɧɵ ɨɛ ɨɯɪɚɧɟ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ,
ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɩɨɞɡɚɤɨɧɧɵɟ ɚɤɬɵ ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɧɟɪɟɞɤɨ ɧɨɫɹɬ ɧɟɩɨɥɧɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤ-
ɬɟɪ ɢɥɢ ɜɨɨɛɳɟ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ (ɢɯ ɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɤɚɤɨɣ-ɥɢɛɨ
ɫɪɨɤ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɜɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɢɥɭ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɤɨɧɚ). Ʉ ɬɨɦɭ ɠɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ
ɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɫ ɢɯ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɢ ɧɚɞɡɨɪɨɦ ɡɚ ɫɨɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɟɦ. Ɍɚ-
ɤɚɹ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɧɟɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɸ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨ-ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚ-
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɚɤɬɚɦɢ ɩɟɪɜɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɜɬɨɪɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶ-
ɫɬɜɚ. ɉɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɵɦ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɞɥɹ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣ-
ɲɚɹ ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɫ
ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɦɢ ɧɨɪɦɚɦɢ ɢ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɢ. ȼɚɠɧɵɦ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɨɦ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶ-
ɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɦɧɨɝɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɣ
(Ɇɉɋ) ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɞɨɩɭɳɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨ-
ɩɪɚɜɨɜɨɣ ɛɚɡɵ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɪɚɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ Ɇɉɋ, ɛɟɡ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɜ ɨɪɝɚ-
ɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ, ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ, ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɯ ɢ ɤɚɞɪɨɜɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɯ.
ɍɧɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɢ ɬɪɟɛɭɸɬ ɩɪɚɜɨɜɚɹ, ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨ-ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ
ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɛɚɡɵ.
ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɜ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɭɸ.
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɢɝɪɚɸɬ Ɇɉɋ.
ɍɤɪɚɢɧɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɦ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɣ, ɰɟɥɶ ɤɨɬɨ-
ɪɵɯ – ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ.
ɉɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɟɦɨɫɬɶ Ɇɉɋ ɧɚɩɪɹɦɭɸ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɜɨɥɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ. Ⱥɜɬɨɪɢɬɟɬ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɜɟɧ-
ɰɢɣ, ɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɨɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɟɬ: ɩɪɢɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɤ ɧɢɦ ɢ
ɢɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɢɦɢɞɠɚ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚ (ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ), ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɸ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɸ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɪɚɧɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɨ-
ɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ.
ɇɟɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ, ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɫɮɟɪɟ ɨɯ-
ɪɚɧɵ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɨɧɞɨɜ (ɮɨɧɞɨɜ
ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ). Ɍɚɤɢɟ ɮɨɧɞɵ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɵ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɯ
ɩɨɫɬɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɢɯ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɩɨ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨ-
ɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɜ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɫɥɚɛɨ. ɇɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɜɨɡɪɨɫ-
ɲɢɟ ɨɛɴɟɦɵ ɚɤɤɭɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɜ ɮɨɧɞɚɯ, ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɵɦɢ ɨɫɬɚɸɬɫɹ
ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɨɜ ɢɯ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɨɛ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ, ɱɚɫɬɵɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɢ ɢɯ ɧɟɰɟɥɟɜɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɮɨɧɞɨɜ ɫ ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ, ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵ-
ɦɢ, ɧɚɭɱɧɵɦɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦɢ ɢ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɦɢ
(ɮɢɪɦɚɦɢ, ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɹɦɢ). Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɫɚɦɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ ɤ ɮɢ-
ɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɡɚɱɚɫɬɭɸ ɫɥɢɲɤɨɦ ɛɸɪɨɤɪɚ-
ɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ, ɫɥɨɠɧɵ ɢ ɧɟɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɵ, ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɱɟɝɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ
ɩɪɚɜɨɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɤɨɪɪɭɩɰɢɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɣ ɫɮɟɪɟ. Ɂɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɭɸ

38
ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨ-ɩɪɚɜɨɜɭɸ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɭ ɷɤɨɮɨɧɞɵ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɫɨ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɞɨɧɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ ɢ ɮɨɧɞɨɜ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ,
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ ȿɋ, Ƚɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɨɥɨ-
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɮɨɧɞɚ, ɩɨɥɭɱɢɜɲɢɯ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ
ɜɪɟɦɹ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ, ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɱɚɫɬ-
ɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɨɧɞɨɜ). Ɍɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɢ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɭɸ ɩɨɦɨɳɶ ɜ ɩɪɨ-
ɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚ-
ɰɢɢ: Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɜɚɥɸɬɧɵɣ ɮɨɧɞ (ɆȼɎ), ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɣ ɛɚɧɤ ɪɟɤɨɧ-
ɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ (ȿȻɊɊ), ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɚɹ ɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɹ (ȿɄ). Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɩɪɢ-
ɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɷɬɢɯ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɯ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɨɬ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜ ɩɪɢɡɧɚ-
ɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹɯ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɨɝɨ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ, ɱɟɝɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ ɩɨɤɚ ɧɟ ɞɟɤɥɚ-
ɪɢɪɭɸɬ. ɇɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɭ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɣ ɢ ɮɢ-
ɧɚɧɫɨɜɨɣ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɧɢɡɤɚɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɯ
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɫɥɚɛɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ, ɧɟɯɜɚɬɤɚ ɤɜɚɥɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɤɚɞ-
ɪɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɢ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɱɚɫɬɵɟ ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɣ.
ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ
ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɨɜ ɧɚ ɦɟɠɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɢ ɦɟɠ-
ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ. ɂɯ ɭɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟ-
ɧɢɟɦ ɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɣ, ɩɪɢɟɦɨɜ, ɦɟ-
ɬɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ. ɂɯ ɜɵɛɨɪ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɬɢɩɚ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɨɧ-
ɮɥɢɤɬɚ, ɟɝɨ ɩɪɢɱɢɧ, ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɚ, ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɨ-
ɬɟɤɚɧɢɹ, ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɚ, ɩɪ. (ɋɚ-
ɛɚɞɚɲ, 2007, 2008).

ȼɵɜɨɞɵ
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɫɨɰɢɨ-ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢ-
ɨɧɧɨ-ɩɪɚɜɨɜɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ, ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɷɮɮɟɤ-
ɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɢ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧ-
ɰɢɚɥɚ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɜɵɜɨɞɵ.
1. ȼ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɰɢɨ-ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵ-
ɥɨɤ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɚ ɤ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɦɭ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟ-
ɞɵ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɨɝɨ ɩɨ-
ɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦɢ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɸɬ ɨɫɨɛɭɸ
ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ.
2. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɸ
ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɜ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ, ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ: ɚ) ɧɟ-
ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢ-
ɹɯ ɪɵɧɤɚ; ɛ) ɧɟɪɚɡɜɢɬɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɧɟɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɨɞɯɨ-
ɞɨɜ ɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ;
ɜ) ɧɢɡɤɚɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ, ɜ ɬɨɦ
ɱɢɫɥɟ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ.

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3. ɉɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɵɦɢ ɡɚɞɚɱɚɦɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ
ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ:
 ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɨɜ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ;
 ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ
ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ;
 ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɤ ɫɚɦɢɯ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɦɨɧɢ-
ɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ ɡɚ ɫɨɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɟɦ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ, ɩɪɟɠɞɟ
ɜɫɟɝɨ, ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ: ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨ-
ɫɬɢ, ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɟ, ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɟ, ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɦ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟ;
 ɧɟɭɤɨɫɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɫɨɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ ɩɨ Ɇɉɋ;
 ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟ-
ɧɢɣ (ɱɟɬɤɨɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ, ɩɪɚɜ, ɨɛɹɡɚɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ, ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɢ
ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɢɣ, ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɰɢɹ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɭɱɪɟɠ-
ɞɟɧɢɹɦɢ/ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦɢ/ɨɪɝɚɧɚɦɢ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ);
 ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɚɜɨɜɨɝɨ ɢ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚ;
 ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɨɧɞɨɜ, ɩɨ-
ɢɫɤ ɱɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɨɪɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɷɤɨɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɮɢɧɚɧ-
ɫɨɜɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ
ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ ɢ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɣ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ;
 ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ ɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɪɨɥɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ.

ɋɬɚɬɶɹ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɚ ɩɪɢ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɨɣ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɟ Ƚɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ


ɮɨɧɞɚ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ (ɩɪɨɟɤɬ Ɏ28.5/006
«Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɨɜ»).

Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜ ɋ.ɇ. 2008. ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨ-
ɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ // ɗɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚ-
ɡɢɹ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ: ȱȱȱ Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪ. ɧɚɭɱ.-
ɩɪɚɤɬ. ɤɨɧɮ., 4-6 ɫɟɧɬ. 2008 ɝ.: Ɍɟɡ. ɞɨɤɥ. Ȼɪɟɫɬ: Ⱥɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɚ. ɋ. 23–25.
Ⱦɚɧɢɥɢɲɢɧ Ȼ.Ɇ. 2006. ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɟɤɨɥɨɝɿɱɧɢɣ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɿɚɥ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɿʀ ɫɬɚɥɨ-
ɝɨ ɪɨɡɜɢɬɤɭ ɍɤɪɚʀɧɢ // ɇɚɭɤɚ ɬɚ ɧɚɭɤɨɡɧɚɜɫɬɜɨ. ʋ 3. ɋ. 94–100.
Ʉɨɧɜɟɧɰɢɹ ɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ. 1992 (www.ruschm.ru).
Ɇɨɬɤɢɧ Ƚ.Ⱥ. 2009. ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɬɟɨɪɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ
ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ. Ɇ.: ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɊȺɇ. 12 ɫ.
Ɉɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɚɹ ɫɪɟɞɚ ɢ ɰɟɥɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɧɚ ɬɵɫɹɱɟɥɟɬɢɟ. 2002. ȼɫɟɦɢɪɧɵɣ
ɛɚɧɤ. 21 ɫ.
ɋɚɛɚɞɚɲ ȼ.ȼ. 2007. ɋɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɨɜ ɜ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ // ɋɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨ-

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ɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ / ɉɨɞ ɪɟɞ. Ʌ.Ƚ. Ɇɟɥɶɧɢɤɚ ɢ
Ʌ. ɏɟɧɫɚ. ɋɭɦɵ: ɍɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɫɤɚɹ ɤɧɢɝɚ. ɋ. 963–982.
ɋɚɛɚɞɚɲ ȼ.ȼ. 2008. ȱɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɿɣɧɿ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɢ ɜɪɟɝɭɥɸɜɚɧɧɹ ɟɤɨɥɨɝɿɱɧɢɯ
ɤɨɧɮɥɿɤɬɿɜ (ɪɟɝɿɨɧɚɥɶɧɢɣ ɿ ɦɿɠɧɚɪɨɞɧɢɣ ɪɿɜɧɿ) // Ɇɟɯɚɧɿɡɦ ɪɟɝɭɥɸɜɚɧɧɹ
ɟɤɨɧɨɦɿɤɢ. ʋ 1. ɋ. 68–77.
World Bank. The Cost of Attaining the Millennium Development Goals. 2002.
Washington, DC, USA.

ɗɄɈɇɈɆɂɑȿɋɄȺə ɈɐȿɇɄȺ ɂ ɍɑȿɌ ȼ ɊȿȽɂɈɇȺɅɖɇɈɆ


ɉɅȺɇɂɊɈȼȺɇɂɂ ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆɇɕɏ ɍɋɅɍȽ

Ʌ.Ƚ. Ɇɟɥɶɧɢɤ, ɂ.Ȼ. Ⱦɟɝɬɹɪɟɜɚ, Ɉ.ɂ. Ɇɟɥɶɧɢɤ


ɋɭɦɫɤɨɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ɤɚɮɟɞɪɵ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɢ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜ

ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɜ ɦɢɪɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɢɞɟɬ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɭɝɚ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ,


ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɨɰɟɧɤɨɣ ɢ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ: ɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ, ɮɨɪɦɢ-
ɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ ɷɬɢɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɞɚɜɰɨɜ ɢ ɩɨɤɭ-
ɩɚɬɟɥɟɣ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ.
ȼɚɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɫɜɨɟɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ ɨɛɭɫɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬ-
ɫɹ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶɸ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɪɚɡɧɨɝɨ
ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ.
Ⱦɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɩɨɬɟɪɹ ɢɯ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ-
ɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚ ɛɥɚɝɨɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɨ ɜɚɠɧɵɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ.

Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɵ ɤ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ


ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ
Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ-
ɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ
ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɟɬ ɨɫɨɛɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ.
ɋɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɟɝɨ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ
ɭɫɥɭɝɢ (ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ), ɱɬɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɨ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɨɣ:
R Viɧ  Vɟɤ , (1)
ɝɞɟ R – ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ, ɞɟɧ. ɟɞ.;
Vɿɧ – ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ,
ɞɟɧ. ɟɞ.;
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Vɟɤ – ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɬ ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶ-
ɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚ (ɜɢɞɚ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ) ɜ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɯ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬ-
ɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɞɟɧ. ɟɞ.
ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɚ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɛɚɡɵ
ɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɧɵɯ ɩɨ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɭ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɢ ɦɟɫɬɭ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɦɵ
ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ. ɗɬɚ ɡɚɞɚɱɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɚ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɩɪɢ-
ɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɚ (k). Ɍɨɝɞɚ
ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ – ɷɬɨ ɬɨɠɟ
ɫɚɦɨɟ, ɱɬɨ ɢ R ɜ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɟ (1) ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ:
R Vɿɧ ˜ k , (2)
ɝɞɟ R – ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ;
Vɿɧ – ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚ (ɜɢɞɚ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶ-
ɧɨɫɬɢ), ɞɟɧ. ɟɞ.;
k – ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɤɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ
ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɩɨɥɨɠɢ-
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɢɥɢ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭ-
ɝɢ; ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚ-
ɬɨɜ (R/Vɿɧ). Ⱦɚɧɧɵɣ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɵɣ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɩɨɜɵ-
ɲɚɸɳɢɦ (ɟɫɥɢ ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶ-
ɧɵɣ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ – ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ)
ɢɥɢ ɩɨɧɢɠɚɸɳɢɦ (ɟɫɥɢ ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɨɬ-
ɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ – ɭɯɭɞɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɭɝ).
ɉɪɢ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɢ ɮɨɪɦɭɥ (1) ɢ (2) ɢ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɩɟ-
ɪɟɫɱɟɬɨɜ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɧɚɣɬɢ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɵɣ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ k:
Vɿɧ  Vɟɤ Vɟɤ
k 1 (3)
Vɿɧ Vɿɧ
Ȼɚɡɨɜɨɣ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɢ
ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚɦɢ (ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦɢ) ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɯɨɡɹɣ-
ɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ (ɮɨɪɦɭɥɚ 2). ɇɚɤɨɩɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ
ɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɡɚɪɭɛɟɠɧɵɯ ɭɱɟɧɵɯ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɤɢ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧ-
ɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ. ɋɟɣɱɚɫ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɧɚ ɞɜɚ ɜɢɞɚ: ɧɚɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɨɰɟɧɤɨɣ
ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ, ɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ,
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɨɰɟɧɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ.

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Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ
Ɋɚɛɨɬɵ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɫ ɨɰɟɧɤɨɣ ɷɤɨ-
ɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɛɵɬɤɚ ɨɬ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧ-
ɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɵ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ. Ɉɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɚɛɨ-
ɬɵ ɩɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɸ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɣ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨ-
ɝɨ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɨɬ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɫ
ɦɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɟɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɧɚɭɱɧɨɣ ɲɤɨɥɵ ɫɭɦɫɤɢɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɫɬɨɜ ɩɨɞ
ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪɚ Ɉ.Ɏ. Ȼɚɥɚɰɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɹ ɫ 1969 ɝ. Ɍɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɭɸ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɞɥɹ ɷɬɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɭɱɟɧɵɯ ɐɟɧ-
ɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɨ-ɦɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ ɜ Ɇɨɫɤɜɟ. ȼɟɫɨɦɵɣ
ɜɤɥɚɞ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɛɵɥ ɫɞɟɥɚɧ ɭɱɟɧɵɦɢ ȼɨɪɨɲɢɥɨɜɝɪɚɞɚ (ɧɵɧɟ – Ʌɭɝɚɧɫɤ), Ʉɢɟ-
ɜɚ, Ɉɞɟɫɫɵ, Ʌɶɜɨɜɚ ɢ Ⱦɨɧɟɰɤɚ. ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɷɬɚɩɨɦ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɦɨɠɧɨ
ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɭɸ ɪɚɛɨɬɭ ɩɨ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɳɟɪɛɨɜ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɞɨɯɨɞɚ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ. ȼ ɯɨɞɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɛɵɥɚ ɜɵ-
ɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɫ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɩɨ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɦ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ. ȼ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɛɳɚɹ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ
ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɳɟɪɛɨɜ ɩɨ «ɭɛɵɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɝɢɩɨɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧ-
ɤɟ» (Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ, 2004) ɜ 2001–2002 ɝɝ. ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ 53–54 ɦɥɪɞ.
ɝɪɧ. ɍɫɪɟɞɧɟɧɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɳɟɪɛɨɜ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɜɢɞ (ɩɨ
ɜɢɞɚɦ ɷɤɨɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɜ %): ɢɡɴɹɬɢɟ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ – 17 (ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ – 10, ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɵɯ – 7); ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɟ ɨɤ-
ɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ – 30 (ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ – 27, ɜɨɞɧɨɟ – <2,5, ɲɭɦɨ-
ɜɨɟ – <0,1, ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɦɚɝɧɢɬɧɨɟ – <0,5); ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɯɨɞɨɜ – 2; ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɟ
ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ – 32 (ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɷɪɨɡɢɹ ɢ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɹ ɝɪɭɧɬɨɜ – 18, ɩɟɪɟɭɜ-
ɥɚɠɧɟɧɢɟ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ – 6, ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɟ ɝɪɭɧɬɨɜ – 6, ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɟ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ – 2); ɜɥɢɹ-
ɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɵ – 5; ɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɵɟ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ – 3; ɪɚɫɯɨɞɵ
ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɝɨ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ – 10; ɜɧɭɬɪɢɩɪɨɢɡ-
ɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ – 1. ɂɬɨɝɨ – 100% (Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ, 2004).
ȼ ɯɨɞɟ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɛɵɥɢ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɵ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɨ-
ɝɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɧɚ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɭ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɨɬ-
ɞɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɜɢɞɚɦ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ. ɗɬɢ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ
ɦɟɬɨɞɚ «ɡɚɬɪɚɬɵ-ɜɵɩɭɫɤ», ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɛɚɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɭɱɟɬɚ
ɦɟɠɨɬɪɚɫɥɟɜɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ ȼ. Ʌɟɨɧɬɶɟɜɚ (Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ, 2004).
ɇɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɜɵɲɟɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɧɚɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɵ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱ-
ɧɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɞɥɹ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ 2005-2007 ɝɨɞɨɜ. ɍɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɱɢ-
ɬɚɬɶ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɨɣ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ
ɭɫɥɭɝɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɤ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ (ɞɨ-
ɛɚɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɨɦɭ ɜɢɞɭ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ) ɩɨ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɜɢɞɚɦ
ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ ɩɨɧɢɠɚɸɳɢɯ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɨɱ-
ɧɵɯ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɨɜ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɟ 4. ɋɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨɣ ɜɟɥɢ-
ɱɢɧɵ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚɡɜɚɬɶ ɫɨ-
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɤ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɟ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨ-

43
ɞɢɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɨɦɭ ɜɢɞɭ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ. ɇɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɨɣ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɛɵ-
ɥɢ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɵ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɧɢɠɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɚ
(ɬɚɛɥ. 1, ɫɬɨɥɛɢɤ 4).

Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1. Ɂɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɧɢɠɚɸɳɢɯ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɵɯ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɨɜ


ɩɨ ɜɢɞɚɦ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɍɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɣ ɉɨɧɢ-
ȼɢɞ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɤɪɨ- ɠɚɸɳɢɣ
ɪɟɝɢɨ- ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢ-
ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢ-
ɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɟɧɬ
ɱɟɫɤɢɣ
1. ɋɟɥɶɫɤɨɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ, ɨɯɨɬɚ 0,96 0,04 0,95-1,00
2. Ɋɵɛɧɨɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ 0,90 0,10 0,61-0,74
3. Ⱦɨɛɵɱɚ ɭɝɥɹ ɢ ɬɨɪɮɚ 0,69 0,31 0,65-0,75
4. Ⱦɨɛɵɱɚ ɭɝɥɟɜɨɞɨɪɨɞɨɜ 0,88 0,12 0,91-0,95
5. Ⱦɨɛɵɱɚ ɧɟɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ 0,80 0,20 0,71-0,78
6. ɉɢɳɟɜɚɹ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ 0,96 0,04 0,98-0,99
7. Ɍɟɤɫɬɢɥɶɧɚɹ ɢ ɤɨɠɟɜɟɧɧɚɹ
0,93 0,07 0,94-0,96
ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
8. Ⱦɟɪɟɜɨɨɛɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɚɹ ɢ ɰɟɥɥɸ-
ɥɨɡɧɨ-ɛɭɦɚɠɧɚɹ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ, 0,92 0,08 0,96-0,98
ɩɨɥɢɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
9. ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɤɨɤɫɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ,
0,83 0,17 0,91-0,94
ɧɟɮɬɟɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ
10. ɏɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ, ɩɪɨɢɡ-
ɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɪɟɡɢɧɨɜɵɯ ɢ ɩɥɚɫɬɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɯ 0,85 0,15 0,94-0,96
ɢɡɞɟɥɢɣ
11. ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɧɟɦɟɬɚɥɥɢɱɟ-
0,83 0,17 0,91-0,94
ɫɤɢɯ ɦɢɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ
12. Ɇɟɬɚɥɥɭɪɝɢɹ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɦɟɬɚɥɥɚ 0,82 0,18 0,85-0,90
13. ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɦɚɲɢɧ ɢ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ 0,88 0,12 0,96-0,98
14. Ⱦɪɭɝɢɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ 0,90 0,10 0,93-0,96
15. ɗɥɟɤɬɪɨɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɚ, ɝɚɡɨ-, ɬɟɩɥɨ-,
0,79 0,21 0,50-0,65
ɜɨɞɨɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɟ
16. ɋɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ 0,90 0,10 0,98-0,99
17. Ɍɨɪɝɨɜɥɹ 0,94 0,06 0,93-0,94
18. Ɍɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬ 0,84 0,16 0,94-0,97
19. Ɉɩɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɫ ɧɟɞɜɢɠɢɦɨɫɬɶɸ, ɭɫɥɭ-
0,83 0,17 0,97-0,98
ɝɢ ɸɪɢɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɥɢɰɚɦ
20. Ɂɞɪɚɜɨɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ 0,91 0,09 0,99-1,00

Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɦ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɧɭɠɧɨ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɢɯ


ɭɤɪɭɩɧɟɧɧɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ. ȼ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɜɢɞɵ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɪɟɞ-
ɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɜ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɟ, ɢɦɟɸɬ ɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɨ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ, ɤɨ-
ɬɨɪɵɣ ɧɟ ɞɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɭɱɟɫɬɶ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɭ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞ-

44
ɫɬɜɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɵ ɩɨɞ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɵɦ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɟɤɬɨ-
ɪɨɜ. ɉɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɞɥɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɞɟɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɭɤ-
ɪɭɩɧɟɧɧɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɜ
ɬɚɛɥɢɰɟ ɦɟɠɨɬɪɚɫɥɟɜɵɯ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɨɜ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ.

Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ


ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɨɛɡɨɪ, ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɣ ɧɚɦɢ, ɞɚɥ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨ-
ɜɚɬɶ ɩɟɪɟɱɟɧɶ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ ɤ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɸ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ. ɋɪɟɞɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɢɡ
ɬɚɤɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɧɭɠɧɨ ɧɚɡɜɚɬɶ: ɥɟɫɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ, ɥɟɫɨɦɟɥɢɨɪɚɰɢɸ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ, ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɸ, ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ, ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɫɛɟɪɟɠɟɧɢɟ. ɉɪɨ-
ɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɩɨɜɵɲɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɚ
ɦɨɠɧɨ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ. ɗɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ
ɧɟɨɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɭɤɪɚɢɧɫɤɢɦɢ ɢ ɡɚɪɭɛɟɠɧɵɦɢ ɭɱɟɧɵɦɢ
(Pimentel, 1996; Ɂɜɿɬɧɚ, 2007). ɇɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɦɢ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɵ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ ɨɬ
ɨɩɵɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɱɟɥɚɦɢ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɋɭɦɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ (ɬɚɛɥ. 2).

Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2. ɗɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ (ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ


ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɭɪɨɠɚɹ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪ ɜ ɋɭɦɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ)
ɗɮɮɟɤɬ ɨɬ ɨɩɵɥɟɧɢɹ
ɍɪɨ-
ɉɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥ
ɠɚɣ- ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ
ɋɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬ- ɐɟɧɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ
ɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɪɨɠɚɣɧɨ-
ɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɚ % 2007 ɝ. ɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ
2007 ɝ. ɫɬɢ (ǻȼ),
ɝɪɧ./ɬ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ,
(ȼ), ɰ/ɝɚ ɰ/ɝɚ
ɬɵɫ. ɝɪɧ.
Ɋɚɩɫ 10,5 25–30 13,125–13,65 2600 3549
ɉɨɞɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɢɤ 16,8 30–41 23,52–23,69 1899 4499
Ƚɪɟɱɤɚ 8,0 41–60 11,28–12,8 1650 2112
Ʉɪɚɫɧɵɣ ɤɥɟɜɟɪ 75
Ʌɸɰɟɪɧɚ 50
Ȼɚɯɱɟɜɵɟ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ 188,0 40–58 263,2–297,04 1995 59271
ɉɥɨɞɨɜɵɟ 65
Ƚɨɪɱɢɰɚ 35–61
Ɍɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
46–67
ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ
ɋɚɞɵ ɢ ɹɝɨɞɧɢɤɢ 24,8 38–55 34,224–38,44

ȼɬɨɪɨɣ ɫɬɨɥɛɢɤ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɵ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ ɨɛ ɭɪɨɠɚɣɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɭɥɶ-


ɬɭɪ ɜ ɋɭɦɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. ɉɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ, ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɦ ɜ ɬɚɛɥ. 6, ɦɨɠɧɨ ɪɚɫɫɱɢ-
ɬɚɬɶ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɋɭɦɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ.
ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɚɬɶ ɢɧɚɱɟ – ɤɚɤ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ
ɫɟɥɶɯɨɡɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɜ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬ-

45
ɜɚ. ɋɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɧɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɫɚɦɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬ-
ɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɝɨɞɚɯ ɜ ɋɭɦɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɨ ɜ 4700-
4900 ɬɵɫ. ɝɪɧ. Ʉɚɤ ɜɢɞɢɦ, ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚ ɜɨɡɞɟɣ-
ɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 14 ɤ 1.
Ⱥɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ
14-19 ɤ 1, ɩɨɯɨɠɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ. ȼɵɲɟ-
ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɚɸɬ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ
ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚɦɢ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ
ɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚɦɢ ɜ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ
14-19 ɤ 1. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɚ ɞɥɹ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɰɟɧɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ 15-20.
Ɉɩɢɪɚɹɫɶ ɧɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɯ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ, ɧɚɦɢ ɨɰɟɧɟɧɵ ɤɨɷɮɮɢ-
ɰɢɟɧɬɵ ɞɥɹ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ. ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɢ ɷɤɫɬɟɪ-
ɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɵɯ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɨɬ-
ɞɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɦ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɜ ɬɚɛɥ. 3.

Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 3. ɋɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ


ɢ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɦ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
Ʉɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨ-
ȼɢɞ ɞɟɹ- ɉɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɜɨɱɧɵɣ ɤɨɷɮ-
ɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ
ɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ (k)
Ɉɱɢɳɟɧɢɟ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɝɪɭɧɬɨɜ ɢ
ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɟ ɢɯ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ, ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɟ ɦɢɤɪɨɤɥɢ-
Ʌɟɫɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ 5,0–6,0
ɦɚɬɚ ɢ ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɢ ɞɪ. (Ȼɚɥɚɰ-
ɤɢɣ, 1979; ɇɢɤɨɥɚɟɧɤɨ, 1986; ɋɩɪɚɜɤɚ, 2006).
ɉɪɢɪɨɫɬ ɭɪɨɠɚɹ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɭɥɶ-
Ʌɟɫɨ- ɬɭɪ, ɨɱɢɳɟɧɢɟ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɝɪɭɧɬɨɜ
3,5–4,5
ɦɟɥɢɨɪɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɟ ɢɯ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɞɪ. (Ȼɚɥɚɰɤɢɣ, 1979;
ɇɢɤɨɥɚɟɧɤɨ, 1986).
ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɝɟɧɨɮɨɧɞɚ, ɫɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɮɨɪɦɢ-
ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ
ɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ, ɨɱɢɳɟ-
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ 1,7–3,2
ɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɢ ɞɪ. (ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ, 1995; Ʉɭɲɧɟɪɟɜ,
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ
2008; Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜ, 2003).
ɍɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ, ɭɜɟɥɢ-
ɱɟɧɢɟ ɬɪɭɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɯ; ɩɨɜɵɲɟ-
Ɋɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɹ ɧɢɟ ɬɪɭɞɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ, ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɹ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɜ ɧɚ 1,3–1,5
ɩɨɬɟɪɸ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɟɬɪɭɞɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɞɪ.
(Ɇɨɪɟɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ, 1991).
ɉɪɢɪɨɫɬ ɭɪɨɠɚɹ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪ,
ɉɱɟɥɨ-
ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɫɟɦɹɧ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧ- 15,0–20,0
ɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ
ɧɵɯ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪ ɢ ɞɪ. (Pimentel, 1996; Ɂɜɿɬɧɚ, 2007).
ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɹ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɜ, ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɹ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɫɨɤɪɚ-
Ɋɟɫɭɪɫɨ-
ɳɟɧɢɟ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ ɜ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɭ ɜɪɟɞɧɵɯ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜ 3,0–4,0
ɫɛɟɪɟɠɟɧɢɟ
ɢ ɞɪ. (Ⱦɟɲɤɨ, 2006; ȼɚɣɰɡɟɤɤɟɪ, 2000).

46
ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɵɯ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɦ
ɜɢɞɚɦ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɧɢɠɧɸɸ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɭ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɷɬɢɯ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɨɜ. Ɉɧɚ ɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸ-
ɳɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɨɧɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɸɬ ɜ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɦɟɪɟ ɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɨ,
ɛɟɡ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɣ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɪɚɫ-
ɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ. ɉɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɦɢ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ, ɱɬɨ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ ɜɨɡ-
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɜ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɦɟɪɟ ɭɫɢɥɟ-
ɧɵ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɟɣ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭ-
ɪɚɦɢ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ.

Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ


ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɧɚ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ
ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɨ-
ɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɞɥɹ ɋɭɦɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɚɩɪɨɛɢɪɨ-
ɜɚɧɵ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɨ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ
ɋɭɦɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ (ɍɤɪɚɢɧɚ). Ⱥɜɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɛɵɥ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢ-
ɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɋɭɦɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɷɮ-
ɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ (ɬɚɛɥ. 4).

Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 4. Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ (ɗɍ)


Ʉɨɪɪɟɤ- ɉɨɥɨɠɢ-
ɂɧɬɟɪ- ɋɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟ-
ɬɢɪɨ- ɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɇɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɢɧɜɟ- ɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɫɤɢɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ
ɜɨɱɧɵɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɜɨɡ-
ɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨ- ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ
ɤɨɷɮ- ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ
ɟɤɬɚ (Vɿɧ), ɗɍ (Rc),
ɮɢɰɢ- ɗɍ (Vɟɤ),
ɬɵɫ. ɝɪɧ. ɬɵɫ. ɝɪɧ.
ɟɧɬ (k) ɬɵɫ. ɝɪɧ.
Ɋɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɹ (ɬɭɪɢɡɦ) 1,3 15746 + 4724 20470
Ɋɟɫɭɪɫɨɫɛɟɪɟɠɟɧɢɟ 3,0 30178 + 60356 90534
ɉɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ 15,0 511 + 7159 7670
ɂɬɨɝɨ 46435 + 72239 118674
Ɋɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɹ (ɬɭɪɢɡɦ) 1,5 15746 + 7873 23619
Ɋɟɫɭɪɫɨɫɛɟɪɟɠɟɧɢɟ 4,0 30178 + 90534 120712
ɉɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ 20,0 511 + 9709 10220
ɂɬɨɝɨ 46435 + 108116 154551

Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 4 ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɨɧɹɬɶ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɟ: ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ ɦɨ-


ɝɭɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɬɶɫɹ ɨɬ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ (ɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɥɨɠɢ-
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚɯ ɢ ɦɟɧɶɲɭɸ ɩɪɢ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɤɫɬɟɪ-
ɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚɯ). ɗɬɨ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɢɯ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɮɨɪ-
ɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ ɦɨɬɢɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨ-
ɟɤɬɨɜ ɫ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɧɚɥɢɹɦɢ. ɍɱɟɬ ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ
ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɤɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ
ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɟɳɟ ɧɚ ɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɢɯ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜ-

47
ɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɚɞɪɟɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ, ɤɚɤ ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɯ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɧɟɝɚ-
ɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɩɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ
ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɯ ɫɨɡɞɚɸɬ.

ȼɵɜɨɞɵ
ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɢ ɭɱɟɬ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ – ɷɬɨ ɨɞɧɚ ɢɡ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɢɣ ɞɟɧɶ
ɡɚɞɚɱ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɪɟɲɚɬɶ ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ.
ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɢɬɶ: ɨɰɟɧ-
ɤɭ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ; ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɪɚɫɲɢ-
ɪɟɧɢɟ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɸ
ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ; ɚɤɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɪɚɡɪɚ-
ɛɨɬɤɢ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɩɨɜɵɲɚɬɶ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
ɪɟɣɬɢɧɝ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ; ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɭ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ
ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɤ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨ-
ɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ; ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨɣ ɫɨɰɢɨ-ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ; ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɚ
ɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹ.
ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɯ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɱɟɫɬ-
ɜɨ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ. ȼɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɱɟɝɨ ɭɥɭɱɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞ-
ɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ, ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɸɬ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ.

Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
Ȼɚɥɚɰɤɢɣ Ɉ. Ɏ. 1979. ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɱɢɫɬɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ. Ʉ.: ɇɚɭɤ. ɞɭɦɤɚ. 296 ɫ.
Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜ ɋ. ɇ. 2003. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɜ ɷɤɨ-
ɧɨɦɢɤɟ // ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɪɭɛɟɠɟ XXI
ɜɟɤɚ / ɉɨɞ ɪɟɞ. Ʉ. ȼ. ɉɚɩɟɧɨɜɚ. Ɇ.: Ɍȿɂɋ. ʊ C. 39-51.
ȼɚɣɰɡɟɤɤɟɪ ɗ. 2000. Ɏɚɤɬɨɪ ɱɟɬɵɪɟ. Ɂɚɬɪɚɬ-ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɚ, ɨɬɞɚɱɚ-ɞɜɨɣɧɚɹ.
ɇɨɜɵɣ ɞɨɤɥɚɞ Ɋɢɦɫɤɨɦɭ ɤɥɭɛɭ. Ɇ.: Ⱥɫɚdemia. ʊ 400 ɫ.
Ⱦɟɲɤɨ ȼ. ȱ. 2006. ȿɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɿɫɬɶ ɜɩɪɨɜɚɞɠɟɧɧɹ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɿɜ ɡ ɟɧɟɪɝɨɡɛɟɪɟɠɟɧ-
ɧɹ ɜ ɚɞɦɿɧɿɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɢɯ ɿ ɝɪɨɦɚɞɫɶɤɢɯ ɛɭɞɿɜɥɹɯ / ȼ.ȱ. Ⱦɟɲɤɨ, ɘ.ȼ. ɏɨɪɟɧ-
ɠɟɧɤɨ, Ɇ.Ɇ. ɒɨɜɤɚɥɸɤ // ȼɿɫɧɢɤ ɋɭɦȾɍ. ʋ 5 (89). – ɋ. 85-89.
Ⱦɨɜɿɞɤɚ ɩɪɨ ɫɟɤɬɨɪ ɥɿɫɨɜɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɩɨɞɚɪɫɬɜɚ. ɋɬɚɧ ɿ ɦɨɠɥɢɜɨɫɬɿ ɪɨɡ ɜɢɬɤɭ:
[ɗɥɟɤɬɪ. ɪɟɫɭɪɫ] http://siteresources.worldbank.org/intukraineinukrainian/
147271-1140785089712/20905391/Forestry_Ukr.pdf
Ɂɜɿɬɧɚ ɞɨɩɨɜɿɞɶ ɩɪɟɡɢɞɟɧɬɚ ɋɩɿɥɤɢ ɩɚɫɿɱɧɢɤɿɜ ɍɤɪɚʀɧɢ Ʌ.ȱ. Ȼɨɞɧɚɪɱɭɤɚ ɧɚ
V ɡ'ʀɡɞɿ ɩɚɫɿɱɧɢɤɿɜ ɍɤɪɚʀɧɢ: [ɗɥɟɤɬɪ. ɪɟɫɭɪɫ] / Ʌ.ȱ. Ȼɨɞɧɚɪɱɭɤ: www.honeyua.
com/korea/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=16&Itemid=31
Ɇɟɬɨɞɢ ɨɰɿɧɤɢ ɟɤɨɥɨɝɿɱɧɢɯ ɜɬɪɚɬ (ɡɚ ɪɟɞ. ɞ.ɟ.ɧ. Ʌ. Ƚ. Ɇɟɥɶɧɢɤɚ ɬɚ ɤ.ɟ.ɧ.
Ɉ.ȱ. Ʉɚɪɿɧɰɟɜɨʀ). 2004. ʊ ɋɭɦɢ: ɍɧɿɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɫɶɤɚ ɤɧɢɝɚ. ʊ 288 ɫ.
Ȼ. ȼ. Ȼɭɪɤɢɧɫɤɢɣ, ȼ. ɇ. ɋɬɟɩɚɧɨɜ, ȼ. Ⱥ. Ⱦɟɪɝɚɱɟɜ ɢ ɞɪ. 1991. Ɇɨɪɟɯɨɡɹɣɫɬ-
ɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ: ɜ 2 ɬ. ʊ Ʉɢɟɜ: ɇɚɭɤɨɜɚ ɞɭɦɤɚ. ʊ Ɍ. 1. ʊ 352 ɫ.

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ɇɢɤɨɥɚɟɧɤɨ ȼ. Ɍ. 1986. Ʌɟɫɧɵɟ ɧɚɫɚɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɦɟɥɢɨɪɚɰɢɢ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ // Ʌɟɫɧ.
ɯɨɡ-ɜɨ. ʋ 5. ʊ ɋ. 39-42.
ɉɪɨɝɪɚɦɚ ɪɨɡɜɢɬɤɭ ɝɚɥɭɡɿ ɛɞɠɿɥɶɧɢɰɬɜɚ ɜ ɍɤɪɚʀɧɿ ɞɨ 2011 ɪɨɤɭ: [ɗɥɟɤɬɪ.
ɪɟɫɭɪɫ] // Ȼɞɠɿɥɶɧɢɰɬɜɨ ɜ ɍɤɪɚʀɧɿ, http://beekeeping.com.ua/html/events/
programa/projekt2011.html
ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ. 1995. Ɇ.: Ɇɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ
ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɊɎ. ʊ 295 ɫ.
Pimentel D. 1996. Human Demorgaphy and Environmental Resources // Sus-
tainable Development / Editors: B. Nath, L. Hens, D. A. Devuyst. ʊ Brus-
sels: VUB Press. ʊ P. 111-136.

ɉɈȾɏɈȾɕ Ʉ ɈɊȽȺɇɂɁȺɐɂɂ ɇȺɐɂɈɇȺɅɖɇɈȽɈ ɊɕɇɄȺ


ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆɇɕɏ ɍɋɅɍȽ

Ⱦ.Ƚ. Ɂɚɦɨɥɨɞɱɢɤɨɜ
ɐɟɧɬɪ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɦ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɊȺɇ

Ɂɚ ɢɫɬɟɤɲɟɟ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɧɚɭɤɢ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɟ


ɫ ɨɰɟɧɤɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɜɢ-
ɬɢɟ. ɂɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɵ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɨɛ-
ɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɢ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ
ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɧɨɝɨ ɜɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɭ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚ-
ɧɢɹ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɝɨ ɫɦɟɫɬɢɬɶ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɵ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ
ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɩɨ-
ɤɚ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ. Ȼɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɶɸ, ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɨɛ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚ-
ɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɫɩɨɫɨ-
ɛɨɦ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ. ȼ ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬ-
ɧɵɯ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹɯ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɨ ɨɬɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ. ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɈɈɉɌ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɭɸɬ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ
ɥɢɦɢɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɱɬɨ, ɜ ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɭɟɬ
ɧɟɡɚɤɨɧɧɵɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɩɨɢɫɤɚ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯ
ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɭɸ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɭɸ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ (ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɧɟɥɟɝɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɯɨɬɵ ɢ ɪɵ-
ɛɚɥɤɢ). ɋɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɲɬɪɚɮɨɜ ɡɚ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶ-
ɫɬɜɚ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɭɟɬ ɥɢɲɶ ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɵɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɢ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɦ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦ ɢ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ ɨɫɧɨɜɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɣ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɫɧɢ-
ɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɜ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɩɪɢ ɧɚɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɢ ɪɚɫɬɭɳɟɣ ɧɚɰɢɨ-
ɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ. ɍɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ
ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɧɵɦɢ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɩɨ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸ ɤ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ, ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɜɥɢɹɸɳɢɯ ɧɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ.

49
Ʉɚɪɞɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɦɨɝ ɛɵ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɪɵɧɨɤ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ. Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦ ɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɬɭɪɵ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ. Ⱦɨ-
ɧɨɪɚɦɢ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɵ (ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɦɨɧɨ-
ɩɨɥɢɢ, ɤɪɭɩɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ, ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢ ɢ
ɬ. ɞ.). Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɵ ɱɟɬɤɢɟ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɢ ɨɬɧɟɫɟɧɢɹ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ
ɤ ɞɨɧɨɪɫɤɨɣ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɟ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɵ ɦɟɥɤɨɝɨ ɢ
ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɛɢɡɧɟɫɚ ɨɬ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ
ɨɫɜɨɛɨɠɞɟɧɵ. Ⱦɥɹ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧ ɛɚɡɨɜɵɣ
ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ, ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɳɢɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ.
ɉɪɢ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɟ ɛɚɡɨɜɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɨ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɜɵɛɪɨ-
ɫɨɜ ɜɫɟɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɹɸɳɢɯ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜ, ɨɛɴɟɦɵ ɢɡɵɦɚɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɟ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ. Ɉɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɚ ɫɢɫ-
ɬɟɦɚ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɧɚ ɨɤ-
ɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ, ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɵ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɜ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶ-
ɧɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚɯ (ɞɚɥɟɟ ɛɭɞɟɦ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɢɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ – ȿȼ). Ȼɚ-
ɡɨɜɵɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɢ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ, ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ȿȼ, ɫɱɢɬɚɸɬɫɹ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɦɢ
ɞɥɹ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜ ɛɭ-
ɞɭɳɟɦ. ɉɪɢ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɟɧɢɢ ɛɚɡɨɜɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬ ɞɨɥ-
ɠɟɧ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɧɟɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɚ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɬɪɟɯ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɯ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜ: 1) ɤɭ-
ɩɢɬɶ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ȿȼ ɭ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚ ɩɨ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ, ɩɪɢɱɟɦ ɜɵɫɨ-
ɤɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ; 2) ɤɭɩɢɬɶ ɫɷɤɨɧɨɦɥɟɧɧɵɟ ȿȼ ɭ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ
ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɥɢɛɨ ɪɟɫɬɪɭɤ-
ɬɭɪɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɫɧɢɡɢɥɢ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ;
3) ɤɭɩɢɬɶ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɭ ɚɤɰɟɩɬɨɪɨɜ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ,
ɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɫɤɚɡɚɧɨ ɱɭɬɶ ɧɢɠɟ. ɂɡ ɩɭɧɤɬɚ 2 ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬ-
ɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬ, ɫɧɢɠɚɹ ɭɪɨɜɧɢ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ, ɦɨ-
ɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɢ ɚɤɰɟɩɬɨɪɨɦ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ.
Ƚɥɚɜɧɵɦɢ ɚɤɰɟɩɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɚɞɦɢɧɢ-
ɫɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɸ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ. ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜ-
ɥɟɧ ɩɟɪɟɱɟɧɶ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɧɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɬɚɤɢɟ
ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɈɈɉɌ, ɥɟɫɨɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ, ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧ-
ɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɥɟɫɨɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɪɟɜɟɝɟɬɚɰɢɹ, ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɞɧɨ-ɛɨɥɨɬɧɵɦɢ
ɭɝɨɞɶɹɦɢ, ɪɟɢɧɬɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɹ ɢɫɱɟɡɧɭɜɲɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɢ ɬɚɤ ɞɚɥɟɟ. Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɵ
ɦɟɬɨɞɵ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɭɸ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɥɸɛɨɝɨ ɢɡ
ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɜ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚɯ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ (ȿɄ). Ⱥɞɦɢɧɢ-
ɫɬɪɚɰɢɹ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢ-
ɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɚɦɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ, ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɦ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɈɈɉɌ, ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦɢ ɢ ɢɧɢɰɢɚ-
ɬɢɜɧɵɦɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ. Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɚ ɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧ-
ɝɚ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ.
Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɚɯ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ
ɪɵɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɬ ɤ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨ ɢɧɨɣ,
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢ-
ɤɢ ɢ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɰɟɥɹɦ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ. ɋ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ,

50
ɬɚɤɨɣ ɪɵɧɨɤ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ ɩɪɹɦɵɟ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɵ ɞɥɹ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɩɪɨ-
ɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɟɬ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɨɨɳɪɟɧɢɟ
ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫɚ (ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɞɚɠɢ ɫɷɤɨɧɨɦɥɟɧɧɵɯ ȿȼ).
ɋ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ, ɨɧ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɜɨɡ-
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ ɬɟɦ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ, ɫɨɛɫɬ-
ɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɥɢɛɨ ɫɥɢɲɤɨɦ ɞɨɪɨɝɨ-
ɫɬɨɹɳɚ, ɥɢɛɨ ɨɬɫɬɚɟɬ ɩɨ ɬɟɦɩɚɦ ɨɬ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ. ɍɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɟ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɹ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɫɟɪɜɢɫɨɜ, ɫ ɧɚɲɟɣ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ, ɫɚɦɨɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ,
ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɢɲɚ ɢ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟ-
ɧɢɢ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ, ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚ ɢ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ. ɉɨɞɱɟɪɤɧɟɦ,
ɱɬɨ ɪɨɥɶ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɷɬɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɫɜɟɫɬɢ ɤ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɥ ɢ,
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ, ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ. Ɍɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɪɨ-
ɹɜɢɬɫɹ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨɟ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɤɚɤ ɫɚɦɨɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɟɣɫɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ.
ɉɨɤɭɩɤɚ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɜɨɬ ȿȼ ɭ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɛɵɬɶ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟ-
ɧɢɟɦ, ɱɟɦ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨɦ, ɜɜɢɞɭ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ.
ɉɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɤɚɪɬɢɧɚ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ
ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜɵɝɥɹɞɢɬ ɝɢɩɨɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɜɫɩɨɦ-
ɧɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɟɳɟ ɥɟɬ 20 ɧɚɡɚɞ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟ «ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɪɵɧɨɤ» ɬɚɤɠɟ ɤɚɡɚɥɨɫɶ
ɮɚɧɬɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ. Ʉ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɭ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɷɬɨɬ ɬɟɪɦɢɧ ɭɠɟ ɧɢɤɨɝɨ ɧɟ ɭɞɢɜ-
ɥɹɟɬ, ɚ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɨɛɨɪɨɬ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ ɜ 2008 ɝ. ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥ ɨɤɨɥɨ
125 ɦɥɪɞ. ɞɨɥɥ. ɋɒȺ (Carbon-2009, 2009). 73% ɷɬɨɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɨɬɚ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢ-
ɥɨɫɶ ɧɚ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɢ ɤɜɨɬɚɦɢ (ȿɋɌɄ), 26% – ɧɚ ɤɢɨɬ-
ɫɤɢɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɱɢɫɬɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ (ɆɑɊ), 1% – ɧɚ ɩɪɨɱɢɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ,
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɤɢɨɬɫɤɨɟ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɟ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ (ɉɋɈ). ȿɋɌɄ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɪɟ-
ɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɵɦ ɪɵɧɤɨɦ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ, ɜ ɫɢɥɭ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɢɧɬɟ-
ɝɪɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɜ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɦ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟ, ɩɨ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɫɭɬɢ ɛɥɢɠɟ ɤ
ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ. Ɉ ɩɥɚɧɚɯ ɩɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɸ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɢ
ɤɜɨɬɚɦɢ ɨɛɴɹɜɢɥɢ əɩɨɧɢɹ, Ⱥɜɫɬɪɚɥɢɹ, Ʉɚɧɚɞɚ ɢ ɪɹɞ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ. ȼ ɋɒȺ
ɫ 2009 ɝ. ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɤɜɨɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɢ ɜɵ-
ɛɪɨɫɚɦɢ (RGGI), ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɚɹ 9 ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɲɬɚɬɨɜ. ȼɫɟ ɷɬɢ ɮɚɤ-
ɬɵ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɜɵɜɨɞ, ɱɬɨ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɤ ɮɨɪɦɢ-
ɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬ ɜ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ.
ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɪɵɧɨɤ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɬɶ ɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɚɪ-
ɬɨɜɨɣ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɟɣ ɞɥɹ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ. Ɂɚɞɚɱɚ ɩɨ-
ɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɜ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɨɛɥɟɝɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟɦ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɡɚɪɭɛɟɠɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɜ. Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦ ɛɚɡɨɜɵɟ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ȿɋɌɄ (EU emissions trading scheme, 2008), ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ, ɧɚɩɨɦ-
ɧɢɦ, ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɨɤɨɥɨ 70% ɦɢɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɤɜɨɬ ɧɚ
ɜɵɛɪɨɫɵ. ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ȿɋɌɄ ɢ ɟɟ ɜɜɨɞ ɜ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɤ 2005 ɝ. ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɢɫɚɧɵ
Ⱦɢɪɟɤɬɢɜɨɣ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɩɚɪɥɚɦɟɧɬɚ ɢ ɋɨɜɟɬɚ ȿɜɪɨɩɵ 2003/87/ȿɋ. ɗɬɚ
Ⱦɢɪɟɤɬɢɜɚ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɥɚ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɜɨɬɵ ɧɚ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɵ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ
ɞɥɹ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ, ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ȿɋ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ

51
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɬɟɩɥɚ ɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɢɢ, ɧɟɮɬɟɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ,
ɦɟɬɚɥɥɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɰɟɥɥɸɥɨɡɧɨ-ɛɭɦɚɠɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɬɵ. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟ-
ɦɹ ȿɋɌɄ ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɟɬ 11000 ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ, ɧɚ ɞɨɥɸ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨ-
ɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ 50% ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɯ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ CO2 ɢ 40% ɨɬ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ ɜɫɟɣ
ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ. Ɇɟɥɤɢɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɢ (ɫ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɩɨɬɪɟɛ-
ɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɦɟɧɟɟ 20 Ɇȼɬ) ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɵ ɢɡ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɤɜɨɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ. ɉɪɟɞɩɪɢ-
ɹɬɢɹ, ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɜ ȿɋɌɄ, ɦɨɝɭɬ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨ ɩɪɨɞɚɜɚɬɶ ɧɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ
ɤɜɨɬɵ ɢ ɩɨɤɭɩɚɬɶ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɸɳɢɟ ɭ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ȿɜɪɨ-
ɩɟɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ (ȿɋ), ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚɤɚɩɥɢɜɚɬɶ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɤɜɨɬɵ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɢɬɶ
ɢɯ ɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ, ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ
ɫɚɦɢ ɪɟɲɚɬɶ: ɛɭɞɭɬ ɥɢ ɨɧɢ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɬɶ ɫɜɨɢ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɵ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɦɟɪ, ɢɥɢ ɨɧɢ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɩɨɤɭɩɚɬɶ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɢɡɛɵ-
ɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ. ȼ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɤɜɨɬɵ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɸɬɫɹ
ɲɬɪɚɮɭ ɜ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟ 100 ɟɜɪɨ ɡɚ 1 ɬ ɋO2 ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ. ɇɚɪɭɲɢɬɟɥɢ
ɨɛɹɡɚɧɵ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜɨɡɦɟɫɬɢɬɶ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɸɳɢɟ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ ɜ ɫɥɟɞɭɸ-
ɳɟɦ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ. ɍɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɰɟɧ ɧɚ ȿɋɌɄ
ɜɚɪɶɢɪɭɟɬ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ 10-30 ɟɜɪɨ ɡɚ 1 ɬ CO2, ɱɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ ɪɚɡ-
ɦɟɪɚ ɲɬɪɚɮɚ.
ȿɋɌɄ ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɦ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɦ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ
ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɦ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɦ ɫɜɨɢɯ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ ɩɨ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɦɭ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɭ.
Ⱦɢɪɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɨɛɴɟɦ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɯ ɤɜɨɬ ɧɚ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɵ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɤ 2012 ɝ. ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜ-
ɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ 2005 ɝ. ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ 6.5%. Ɏɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ, ȿɋɌɄ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɭɟɬ
ɤɚɤ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɞɜɨɣɧɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ: 1) ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɚɹ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɚɹ ɤɨɧ-
ɬɪɨɥɶ ɢ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ; 2) ɪɵɧɨɱɧɚɹ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɚɹ
ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɦɵɟ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɧɟɟ ɡɚɬɪɚɬɧɵɦɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɦɢ
ɥɢɛɨ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɶ ɩɪɢ ɭɫɩɟɯɟ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɸ ɜɵɛɪɨ-
ɫɨɜ. ȼɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɟ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ ɩɨ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɸ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ ɜ ɫɟɤɬɨ-
ɪɚɯ ɡɟɦɥɟɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚɦɢ
ȿɋɌɄ. Ɉɬɦɟɬɢɦ, ɱɬɨ ɤ ɬɨɪɝɚɦ ɧɚ ȿɋɌɄ ɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɜɨɬɵ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ
ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɆɑɊ (ɫ 2005 ɝ.) ɢ ɉɋɈ (ɫ 2008 ɝ.) ɡɚ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɜ ɫɟɤɬɨ-
ɪɚɯ ɹɞɟɪɧɨɣ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ, ɡɟɦɥɟɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ.
Ɉɩɵɬ, ɧɚɤɨɩɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɢ ȿɋɌɄ, ɦɨɠɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨ-
ɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ. ȼ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɷɬɨ
ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɟ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨ-ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɛɚɡɵ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɲɟɦ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦ
ɭɪɨɜɧɟ, ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɟɦɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɥɢɲɶ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ
ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ, ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɤ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ ɢ ɜɟɪɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɨɬɱɟɬɧɨɫɬɢ
ɩɨ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɚɦ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. Ƚɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɦ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ȿɋɌɄ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ
ɫɬɚɬɶ ɞɨɩɭɫɤ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɜ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚɯ ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɡɟɦɥɟɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ,
ɢɧɚɱɟ, ɜɵɩɨɥɧɢɜ ɫɜɨɸ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɸ ɩɨ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɫɛɟɪɟɠɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɷɧɟɪ-
ɝɨɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɣ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɪɵɧɨɤ ɬɚɤ ɢ ɧɟ ɜɧɟɫɟɬ ɜɤɥɚɞɚ ɜ
ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ.
Ɋɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɵ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɨɛ-
ɫɭɠɞɚɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɨɩɥɚɧɨɜɵɯ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɹɯ (Ⱥɧɭɮɪɢɟɜ, ɑɚɡɨɜ, 2006; Ɇɢɯɚ-
ɥɟɧɤɨ, 2009; ɉɥɭɠɧɢɤɨɜ, 2006; ɋɨɥɨɜɟɣ, 2003; Ɏɟɞɨɪɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 2009; ɘɥ-

52
ɤɢɧ, 2009, 2010; ɢ ɞɪ.), ɯɨɬɹ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɷɬɨɬ ɜɨɩɪɨɫ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɥɫɹ ɜ
ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɜ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦ ɪɵɧɤɟ ɤɜɨɬ ɧɚ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɵ.
Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɜɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ ɪɹɞɚ ɧɟɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟ-
ɫɤɢɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ ɢ ɮɨɧɞɨɜ (ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɟ ɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɟ, ɗɧɟɪ-
ɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɮɨɧɞ, ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɢ ɩɪɨ-
ɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɢ ɞɪ.). ɉɪɨɹɜɥɹɸɬ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɵ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪ-
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ: ɜ 2009 ɝ. ɨ ɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ
ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɨɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ
ɡɚɹɜɢɥ ɦɢɧɢɫɬɪ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ ɊɎ ɋ.ɂ. ɒɦɚɬɤɨ. ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ-
ɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɜɵɫɲɟɝɨ
ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ. Ⱦɨɩɭɫɤ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɸ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɸ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ
ɥɟɫɚɦɢ ɢ ɢɧɵɦɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦɢ ɩɨɫɥɭɠɢɬ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɦ,
ɱɬɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɚɹ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɟ ɨɬɪɚɠɟ-
ɧɢɟ ɜ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɚɯ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ. ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɪɵɧɨɤ
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɨɦ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ.

Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
Ⱥɧɭɮɪɢɟɜ ȼ.ɉ., ɑɚɡɨɜ Ⱥ.ȼ. 2006. ɍɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɚɹ ɜɚɥɸɬɚ. ɇɨɜɵɣ ɬɨɜɚɪ ɧɚ ɧɨ-
ɜɵɯ ɪɵɧɤɚɯ // ɗɄɈ. ʋ 1. ɋ. 61-77.
Ɇɢɯɚɥɟɧɤɨ ɉ.ȼ. 2009. ɍɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɵɧɤɢ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ: ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ, ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɟ
ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ // ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ Ɇɨɫɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ. ɋɟɪɢɹ 6:
ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ. ʋ 2. ɋ. 47-56.
ɉɥɭɠɧɢɤɨɜ Ɉ.Ȼ. 2006. ȼ «ɱɢɫɬɨɦ ɜɢɞɟ» ɜɵɛɪɨɫɚɦɢ ɬɨɪɝɭɸɬ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ȿɋ.
ɇɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɚɹ ɝɚɡɟɬɚ. 12 ɞɟɤ.
ɋɨɥɨɜɟɣ ɘ.ȼ. 2003. Ʉɢɨɬɨ ɧɚ ɩɨɪɨɝɟ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ: ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɩɪɚɜɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨ-
ɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ. Ɇ.: ɂȽ
«ɘɪɢɫɬ». 320 ɫ.
Ɏɟɞɨɪɨɜ ɘ.ɇ., ɋɚɮɨɧɨɜ Ƚ.ȼ., Ʉɨɤɨɪɢɧ Ⱥ.Ɉ. 2009. Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ ɢ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɭɝɥɟ-
ɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɪɵɧɨɤ: ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ, ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ. Ɇ.:
ɇɈɉɉɉɍ. 24 ɫ.
ɘɥɤɢɧ Ɇ.Ⱥ. 2009. ɉɥɸɫɵ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ. ɇɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɚɹ ɝɚɡɟɬɚ. 14 ɚɩɪ.
ɘɥɤɢɧ Ɇ.Ⱥ. 2010. ɂɝɪɵ ɧɚ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɩɨɥɟ. ɇɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɚɹ ɝɚɡɟɬɚ. 23
ɦɚɪɬɚ.
Carbon 2009 – Emission trading coming home. 2009. Tvinnereim E., Røine K.,
Heimdal C. (eds.). Point Carbon. 48 p.
The EU emissions trading scheme. 2008. Brussels: European Communities.
26 p.

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ɆȿɀȾɍɇȺɊɈȾɇɕɃ ɉɊɈȿɄɌ
«ɗɄɈɇɈɆɂɄȺ ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆ ɂ ȻɂɈɊȺɁɇɈɈȻɊȺɁɂə»

Ɋ.Ⱥ. ɉɟɪɟɥɟɬ
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɊȺɇ

ɂɫɬɨɪɢɹ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ
ȼɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡ-
ɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɣ ɥɢɞɟɪɨɜ ɫɬɪɚɧ «Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɣ
ɜɨɫɶɦɟɪɤɢ» ɫ 2003 ɝ. Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɟɤɬ «ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ
ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ» – ɗɗɢȻɊ (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversi-
ty – TEEB, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/biodiversity/economics)
ɛɵɥ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧ Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɟɣ ɜ ɦɚɪɬɟ 2007 ɝ. ɧɚ ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ ɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɨɜ
ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɫɬɪɚɧ «Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɜɨɫɶɦɟɪɤɢ»1, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɪɢɧɹ-
ɥɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ Ȼɪɚɡɢɥɢɹ, ɂɧɞɢɹ, Ʉɢɬɚɣ, Ɇɟɤɫɢɤɚ ɢ ɘȺɊ. ɉɪɨɟɤɬ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɥ
ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ «ɉɨɬɫɞɚɦɫɤɨɣ ɢɧɢɰɢɚɬɢɜɵ: Ȼɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ-2010» ɢ
ɡɚɬɟɦ ɛɵɥ ɨɞɨɛɪɟɧ ɥɢɞɟɪɚɦɢ ɫɬɪɚɧ «Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɜɨɫɶɦɟɪɤɢ» (ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ Ɋɨɫ-
ɫɢɸ) ɜ ɢɸɧɟ 2007 ɝ. ɜ ɏɚɣɥɢɝɟɧɞɚɦɦɟ (Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɹ)
ȼ Ⱦɟɤɥɚɪɚɰɢɢ «Ɋɨɫɬ ɢ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ» (ɩ. 61)
ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɚ ɩɟɪɜɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɚɹ ɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ (ɧɟɢɫɬɨɳɢ-
ɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ) ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɣ ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɩɪɟ-
ɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɢ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɨɝɨ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦɢ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɛɵɥɚ
ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɚ ɭɜɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɹ ɭɫɢɥɢɣ ɩɨ ɡɚɳɢɬɟ ɢ
ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɦɭ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨ-
ɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɰɟɥɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɬɟɦɩɨɜ ɟɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɤ 2010 ɝ.
ȼ ɦɚɟ 2008 ɝ. ɧɚ ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ ɜ əɩɨɧɢɢ ɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɵ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ
ɩɪɢɧɹɥɢ «ɉɪɢɡɵɜ ɤ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ», ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɣ
ɫɫɵɥɤɭ ɧɚ ɉɨɬɫɞɚɦɫɤɭɸ ɢɧɢɰɢɚɬɢɜɭ ɢ, ɬɟɦ ɫɚɦɵɦ, ɧɚ ɩɪɨɟɤɬ ɗɗɢȻɊ. ȼ
ɢɸɧɟ ɨɧ ɛɵɥ ɨɞɨɛɪɟɧ ɝɥɚɜɚɦɢ Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɜɨɫɶɦɟɪɤɢ.
ȼ ɚɩɪɟɥɟ 2009 ɝ. ɜ ɂɬɚɥɢɢ ɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɵ ɩɨ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ ɫɬɪɚɧ
«Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɜɨɫɶɦɟɪɤɢ», ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ Ⱥɜɫɬɪɚɥɢɢ, Ȼɪɚɡɢɥɢɢ, Ʉɢɬɚɹ, ɑɟɯɢɢ, ɒɜɟ-
ɰɢɢ, ȿɝɢɩɬɚ, ɂɧɞɢɢ, ɂɧɞɨɧɟɡɢɢ, Ɇɟɤɫɢɤɢ, Ʉɨɪɟɢ, ɘȺɊ ɩɪɢɧɹɥɢ «ɋɢɪɚ-
ɤɭɡɫɤɭɸ ɯɚɪɬɢɸ ɩɨ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɸ», ɝɞɟ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɚ ɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶ
ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ «Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɜɨɫɶɦɟɪɤɨɣ» ɧɚ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɯ ɜ Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɢ («ɉɨɬɫɞɚɦɫɤɚɹ ɢɧɢɰɢɚɬɢɜɚ») ɢ əɩɨɧɢɢ (ɉɪɢɡɵɜ ɤ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɸ ɩɨ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɸ ɜ Ʉɨɛɟ). ɇɚ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɟ ɝɥɚɜ «Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɜɨɫɶ-
ɦɟɪɤɢ» ɜ ɢɸɧɟ ɜ ɂɬɚɥɢɢ (ɝ. Ⱥɤɢɥɚ) ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɚ Ⱦɟɤɥɚɪɚɰɢɸ «Ɉɬɜɟɬɫɬ-
ɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɥɢɞɟɪɫɬɜɨ ɞɥɹ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɝɨ», ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɚ (ɩ. 80)
ɩɪɢɫɭɳɚɹ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɤɥɚɞ ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨ-

1
ɋɬɪɚɧɵ G8+5: ȼɟɥɢɤɨɛɪɢɬɚɧɢɹ, Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɹ, ɂɬɚɥɢɹ, Ʉɚɧɚɞɚ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ, ɋɒȺ, Ɏɪɚɧɰɢɹ,
əɩɨɧɢɹ; 5 ɥɢɞɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɫɬɪɚɧ: Ȼɪɚɡɢɥɢɹ, ɂɧɞɢɹ, Ʉɢɬɚɣ, Ɇɟɤɫɢɤɚ,
ɘɠɧɚɹ Ⱥɮɪɢɤɚ.
54
ɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɛɥɚɝɨɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɪɨɥɶ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɢ ɛɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɥɹ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɐɟɥɟɣ ɪɚɡɜɢ-
ɬɢɹ ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹ. ɇɚ ɷɬɨɣ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɟ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɚ «ɋɢɪɚɤɭɡɫɤɚɹ ɯɚɪɬɢɹ ɩɨ ɛɢɨɪɚɡ-
ɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɸ» ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɫɨ-
ɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɚ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɸɳɚɹɫɹ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɚ ɉɨɬɫɞɚɦ-
ɫɤɨɣ ɢɧɢɰɢɚɬɢɜɵ (2007) ɢ, ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɦɨɝɨ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ
ɗɗɢȻɊ (www.g8italia2009.it/static/G8_Allegato/G8_Declaration_08_07_09_
final,0.pdf).
Ȼɵɥɨ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɢ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨ-
ɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɜɵɲɥɢ ɡɚ ɪɚɦɤɢ ɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɰɢɢ ɦɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ,
ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɤɚɫɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɩɟɪɟɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ, ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ,
ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɚ, ɩɪɨɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɹ, ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ, ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɹ ɥɸɞɟɣ, ɜɧɟɲ-
ɧɟɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ.
ɑɬɨ ɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɬɨ ɧɢ Ɇɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɢ ɷɤɨ-
ɥɨɝɢɢ ɊɎ, ɧɢ ɦɟɠɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɹ ɩɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɸ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɜ «Ƚɪɭɩɩɟ
ɜɨɫɶɦɢ», ɡɧɚɹ ɤɚɤɭɸ ɜɚɠɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɩɪɢɞɚɸɬ ɥɢɞɟɪɵ «Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɜɨɫɶɦɟɪɤɢ»
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɡɚ ɞɜɚ ɝɨɞɚ ɧɟ ɫɨɡɞɚɥɢ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɭɸ ɧɚ-
ɡɵɜɚɸɬ «ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɞɨɧɨɪɨɦ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɵ»,2 ɪɚɛɨɱɭɸ ɝɪɭɩɩɭ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɭ
ɗɗɢȻɊ, ɢ ɧɟ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɥɢ ɞɥɹ ɟɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫ-
ɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜɤɥɚɞɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. Ʉɫɬɚɬɢ, Ɇɢɧɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɨɣ
ɦɟɠɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɢ ɧɟ ɜɯɨɞɢɬ (http://stavkan.ru/materials/laws/
show.php?adres=146581).
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ, ɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɨɞɨɛɪɢɜɲɚɹ ɷɬɨɬ ɩɪɨɟɤɬ ɜ ɱɢɫɥɟ
ɫɬɪɚɧ G8+5, ɧɟ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ ɜ ɟɝɨ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ. Ⱥɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɢ ɜ
ɷɬɨɦ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɟ ɩɪɨɹɜɢɥ ɐɟɧɬɪ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɞɢɤɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ (ɐɈȾɉ), ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ
ɫɜɹɡɚɥɫɹ ɫ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɥ ɜ ɮɟɜɪɚɥɟ 2010 ɝ. ɦɟɠɞɭ-
ɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɟ ɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɟ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɸ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ ɢ
Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ ɫ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɦ ɂɉɗɗ ɢɦ. Ⱥ.ɇ. ɋɟɜɟɪɰɨɜɚ ɢ ɂɋȺ ɊȺɇ.

ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɢ ɰɟɥɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɗɗɢȻɊ


ɉɪɨɟɤɬ ɗɗɢȻɊ ɩɪɢɡɜɚɧ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɶ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɧɚ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɦ, ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɢ
ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ ɢ ɤ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ ɪɚɫɬɭɳɢɦ ɭɳɟɪɛɚɦ ɨɬ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨ-
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɢ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɢɬɶ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɨɜ ɜ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɹɯ ɧɚɭɤɢ, ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɲɚ-
ɝɨɜ ɩɨ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɜ ɪɟ-
ɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɭ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɭ. Ⱦɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɨɫɜɟɳɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɢɧ-
ɬɟɪɧɟɬɟ ɩɨ ɚɞɪɟɫɭ – www.teebweb.org. ȼ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɧɵ ɨɬɱɟɬɵ
ɩɨ ɩɟɪɜɨɦɭ ɷɬɚɩɭ: «ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ» (TEEB In-
terim Report, 2008), TEEB Full Report (2009), TEEB for Policy Makers Sum-
mary (2009), TEEB Climate Issues Update (2009).

2
ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɢ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ ɞɟɥɟɝɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ȼɫɟɦɢɪɧɨɦ ɫɚɦɦɢɬɟ ɩɨ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢ-
ɜɨɦɭ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɜ 2002 ɝ. ɜ Ƀɨɯɚɧɧɟɫɛɭɪɝɟ.
55
Ɋɭɤɨɜɨɞɢɬ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɦ ɛɵɜɲɢɣ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɣ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɨɪ ɩɨ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɦ
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦ ɤɪɭɩɧɟɣɲɟɝɨ ɝɟɪɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɚɧɤɚ («Ⱦɺɣɱɟ ɛɚɧɤ») ɉɚɜɚɧ ɋɭɯɞɟɜ
(Pavan Sukhdev). ɉɪɨɟɤɬ ɛɵɥ ɧɚɱɚɬ ɜ 2007 ɝ. ɩɪɢ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ Ƚɟɪɦɚ-
ɧɢɢ ɢ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ Ʉɨɦɢɫɫɢɢ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ «ɉɨɬɫɞɚɦɫɤɨɣ ɢɧɢɰɢɚɬɢɜɵ» ɤɚɤ
ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ ɢ ɢɫɬɨɳɟɧɢɸ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ.
ȼɬɨɪɚɹ ɮɚɡɚ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɥɚɫɶ ɩɨɞ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɉɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɈɈɇ
ɩɨ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ (ɘɇȿɉ) ɩɪɢ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɨɣ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɟ ȿɜɪɨɤɨɦɢɫ-
ɫɢɢ, Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɦɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɚ ɩɨ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ, ɨɯɪɚɧɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ
ɢ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɚɬɨɦɧɵɯ ɪɟɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɢ, Ɇɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ
ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɩɪɨɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɹ ɢ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɢɯ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ȼɟɥɢɤɨɛɪɢɬɚɧɢɢ. ɒɬɚɛ-
ɤɜɚɪɬɢɪɚ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ Ȼɨɧɧɟ (Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɹ), ɚ ɧɚɭɱɧɚɹ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚ-
ɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ – ɜ ɝ. Ʌɟɣɩɰɢɝɟ (ɐɟɧɬɪ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ
ɢɦ. Ƚ. Ƚɟɥɶɦɝɨɥɶɰɚ). ɉɪɨɟɤɬ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɤɨɧɫɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɫɨɜɟɬ, ɜ ɤɨ-
ɬɨɪɵɣ ɜɯɨɞɹɬ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɢ ɘɇȿɉ, ɫɟɤɪɟɬɚɪɢɚɬɚ Ʉɨɧɜɟɧɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɛɢɨɪɚɡ-
ɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɸ, Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɸɡɚ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ, ɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɚɝɟɧɬɫɬɜɚ ɩɨ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɢ, ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨ-ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɟ ɭɱɟ-
ɧɵɟ ɋɒȺ, ȼɟɥɢɤɨɛɪɢɬɚɧɢɢ.
ȼ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɥɟɠɢɬ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɚ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɱɟ-
ɥɨɜɟɤɭ ɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɣ ɜɵɛɨɪ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ – ɩɢɳɭ, ɬɨɩɥɢɜɨ, ɱɢɫɬɭɸ
ɜɨɞɭ, ɩɥɨɞɨɪɨɞɧɭɸ ɩɨɱɜɭ, ɡɚɳɢɬɭ ɨɬ ɧɚɜɨɞɧɟɧɢɣ, ɡɚɳɢɬɭ ɨɬ ɷɪɨɡɢɢ ɩɨɱɜɵ,
ɥɟɤɚɪɫɬɜɚ, ɞɟɩɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ (ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ) ɢ ɞɪ.
ɏɨɬɹ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɢɟ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɷɬɢɯ «ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ»,
ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ «ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɬɨɜɚɪɚɦɢ», ɞɥɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɧɟɬ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ ɢ ɰɟɧ. Ɍɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɧɟ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɢɯ ɢ ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ
ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɚɹ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɩɨɬɟɪɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɛɟɡ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɛɥɚɝ.

Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɗɗɢȻɊ


ɉɪɨɟɤɬ ɗɗɢȻɊ ɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɢɡ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɛ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝɚɯ ɢ
ɢɯ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɛɥɚɝɨɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɦ ɥɸɞɟɣ, ɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞ-
ɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ «Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɧɚ ɩɨɪɨɝɟ ɬɵɫɹɱɟɥɟɬɢɹ» (ɪɢɫ. 1).
Ƚɥɚɜɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ:
 ɇɟɥɶɡɹ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɬɟɦ, ɱɟɝɨ ɧɟɥɶɡɹ ɢɡɦɟɪɢɬɶ;
 ɑɟɥɨɜɟɤ ɟɳɟ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɩɨɡɧɚɬɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ;
 ȼɚɠɧɨ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɪɨɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɧɨ ɢ ɢɫ-
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɟɟ;
 Ȼɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ – ɷɬɨ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɪɨɫɤɨɲɶ ɞɥɹ ɛɨɝɚɬɵɯ, ɧɨ ɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨ-
ɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɞɥɹ ɛɟɞɧɵɯ.
ɉɪɨɟɤɬ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧ ɧɚ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɶɡɵ ɞɥɹ
ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɨɬ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɭɝ ɢ ɩɨɬɟɪɶ ɞɥɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɨɬ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ. ɉɨɬɟɪɢ ɛɢɨ-
ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɫ ɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɧɟ
ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɜ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɧɟɞɨɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɟɝɨ
ɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ
56
ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɠɢɡɧɟɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ,
ɱɚɫɬɶ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɪɢɧɨɫɢɬ ɩɪɹɦɵɟ ɢ ɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ (ɡɚɳɢ-
ɬɚ ɨɬ ɧɚɜɨɞɧɟɧɢɣ, ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɹ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.), ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ
ɜ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ, ɢɥɢ ɧɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɜ ɧɟɣ, ɧɨ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɥɹ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɢ ɢɯ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɢɹ.

Ɋɢɫ. 1. ɗɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɢ ɛɥɚɝɨɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɥɸɞɟɣ (Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ


ɧɚ ɩɨɪɨɝɟ ɬɵɫɹɱɟɥɟɬɢɹ, 2005, www.maweb.org/ru/Synthesis.aspx)

Ɋɟɱɶ ɢɞɟɬ ɨɛ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɶɡɟ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ, ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞ-


ɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɜ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɨɬ ɧɚɜɨɞɧɟɧɢɣ, ɡɚɫɭɯ ɢ ɷɪɨɡɢɢ ɩɨɱɜ, ɨɱɢɫɬ-
ɤɢ ɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ, ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɢɬɶɟɜɨɣ ɜɨɞɨɣ, ɩɨɫɬɚɜɤɢ ɫɵɪɶɹ ɞɥɹ ɮɚɪɦɚ-
ɰɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ, ɩɚɪɮɸɦɟɪɧɨɣ, ɩɢɳɟɜɨɣ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ, ɛɢɨ-
ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ, ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɢ, ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɟɤɢɫɥɨɝɨ ɝɚɡɚ ɢɡ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ, ɨɛɟɫ-
ɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɞɪ. Ⱦɨɥɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɦ
ȼȼɉ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 6-8%, ɚ ɜ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɦ ȼȼɉ ɞɥɹ ɛɟɞɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ – 40-
50%. ɇɟɹɜɧɵɟ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɟɫɥɢ ɢɯ ɩɨɞɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ
ɫɟɣɱɚɫ ɨɤɨɥɨ 28 ɦɥɪɞ. ɟɜɪɨ ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɦɨ ɫ ɩɨɬɟɪɹɦɢ ɨɬ ɩɨ-
ɫɥɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɨɝɨ ɤɪɢɡɢɫɚ (ɪɢɫ. 2).
ɉɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɣ ɨɬɱɟɬ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɗɗɢȻɊ (ɦɚɣ 2008 ɝ.) ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɥ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɨ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɬɟɪɹɯ ɢ ɫɧɢɠɟ-
ɧɢɢ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɯ ɩɨɬɟɪɶ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɪɚɡɢɹ ɢ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚ-
ɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ.
57
$/ɝɚ

Ɋɢɫ. 2. Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ


ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɯɨɞɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ (Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɧɚ ɩɨɪɨɝɟ ɬɵɫɹɱɟɥɟɬɢɹ)

Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1. ɐɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ (ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ Deutsche Bank)


Ⱦɨɯɨɞ, Ɂɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ
Ɂɚɧɹɬɨɫɬɶ,
ɋɟɤɬɨɪ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɦɥɪɞ. ɞɨɥɥ. ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥ,
ɦɥɧ. ɱɟɥ.
ɋɒȺ ɦɥɪɞ. ɞɨɥɥ. ɋɒȺ
Ⱥɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɟɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ 1 882 2217 4,4
ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɫɬɚɥɢ 530 588 4,5
ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ
942 179 5,7
ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɵ
ɈɈɉɌ* 5000* 125000* 1,5*
* Andrew Balmford et al. Economic reasons for conserving wild nature // Science. 2002.
V. 297. N. 5583. P. 950–953.

58
ɉɟɪɜɵɣ ɷɬɚɩ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɛɵɥ ɫɜɹɡɚɧ ɫ ɥɟɫɧɵɦɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦɢ (ɩɨ-
ɬɟɪɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɩɪɢ ɨɛɟɡɥɟɫɟɧɢɢ ɢ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɢ ɥɟɫɨɜ). ɉɨɬɟɪɢ ɫɨ-
ɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ 2-4,5 ɬɪɥɧ. ɞɨɥɥ. ɋɒȺ ɜ ɝɨɞ. ɉɪɢ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ 45 ɦɥɪɞ. ɞɨɥɥ. ɜ
ɝɨɞ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɈɈɉɌ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶɸ
5 ɬɪɥɧ. ɜ ɝɨɞ.
ɉɪɨɟɤɬ ɜɵɹɜɢɥ, ɱɬɨ ɨɤɨɥɨ 40% ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɢ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɚɦɢ
ɢɥɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɦɢ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɫ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɦ, ɬɚɤɢɦɢ ɤɚɤ
ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ, ɥɟɫɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ, ɪɵɛɨɥɨɜɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɚɹ ɢɡ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ
ɮɚɪɦɚɰɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɹ, ɢ ɱɬɨ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɛɟɫɰɟɧɧɵɦ
ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɦ ɞɥɹ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɣ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɬɶ
ɨɞɧɭ ɢɡ ɜɟɪɯɧɢɯ ɫɬɪɨɤ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɢ ɞɧɹ ɢ ɛɵɬɶ ɧɟɨɬɴɟɦɥɟɦɨɣ
ɱɚɫɬɶɸ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ (ɬɚɛɥ. 1).

ɐɟɥɢ ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɷɬɚɩɚ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɗɗɢȻɊ


ɇɚ ɜɬɨɪɨɦ ɷɬɚɩɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɥɟ-
ɞɭɸɳɢɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ:
 ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɢɬɶ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭ-
ɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɨɰɟɧɤɭ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɹɯ;
 ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɨɜɚɬɶ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɨɜ;
 ɢɡɭɱɢɬɶ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢɡɞɟɪɠɤɢ ɨɬ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɢ
ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ «ɡɚɬɪɚɬɵ-ɜɵɝɨɞɵ» ɨɬ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɩɨ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɸ ɷɬɢɯ
ɩɨɬɟɪɶ;
 ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɥɢɰ, ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɳɢɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ, ɧɚ
ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦ, ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɢ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɫɩɨɫɨɛ-
ɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɦɭ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɢ ɥɭɱɲɟɦɭ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ
ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ;
 ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɛɢɡɧɟɫɭ ɥɟɝɤɢɣ ɞɨɫɬɭɩ ɤ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɦɟ-
ɬɨɞɢɤɚɦ ɞɥɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɣ ɫ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛ-
ɪɚɡɢɟɦ – ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɢɫɤɚɦɢ, ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣ-
ɫɬɜɢɣ;
 ɩɨɜɵɫɢɬɶ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɨ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɱɟ-
ɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɧɚ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɢ ɨ ɮɨɪɦɚɯ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶ-
ɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɱɬɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ.
Ɂɚɞɚɱɢ ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɷɬɚɩɚ:
 ɜɵɹɜɢɬɶ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɪɨɥɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɢɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ
ɛɥɚɝɨɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ;
 ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɬɨɜɚɪɨɜ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ
ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɫ ɚɤɰɟɧɬɨɦ ɧɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɟɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨ-
ɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɚ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ;
 ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɶ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ «ɢɡɞɟɪɠɤɢ-ɜɵɝɨɞɵ» ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧ-
ɬɨɜ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɩɥɚɬɭ ɡɚ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢɥɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ;

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 ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɢɬɶ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɧɚɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɜ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟ ɢ ɛɢɡɧɟɫɟ.
Ɉɠɢɞɚɟɦɵɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɷɬɚɩɚ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɗɗɢȻɊ:
1) Ⱦɥɹ ɥɢɰ, ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɳɢɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ, ɢ ɝɨɫɫɥɭɠɚɳɢɯ. Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɪɚɡ-
ɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɩɨ ɫɭɛɫɢɞɢɹɦ ɢ ɥɶɝɨɬɚɦ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧ-
ɧɨɫɬɢ, ɧɨɜɨɣ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ, ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɫɱɟɬɚɦ ɞɨɯɨɞɨɜ,
ɚɧɚɥɢɡɭ «ɢɡɞɟɪɠɤɢ-ɜɵɝɨɞɵ», ɚɧɚɥɢɡɭ «ɢɡɞɟɪɠɤɢ-ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ», ɦɟɬɨ-
ɞɢɤɟ ɩɥɚɬɟɠɟɣ ɡɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɦɵɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ, ɞɨɫɬɭɩɭ ɤ ɛɢɨɪɟɫɭɪ-
ɫɚɦ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɸ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ.
2) Ⱦɥɹ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ. ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɤɚɤ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ, ɫɧɢɠɚɬɶ, ɭɱɢ-
ɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ.
ɉɪɢɦɟɪɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɢɡɧɟɫɨɦ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɵɯ ɦɨɞɟɥɟɣ, ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɯ
ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ.
3) Ⱦɥɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ. ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɨ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚ-
ɡɢɹ. ɉɪɢɦɟɪɵ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɞɢɤɭɸ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ ɢ ɩɪɢ-
ɦɟɪɵ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɬɨɜɚɪɨɜ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɨɛ
ɢɯ ɩɨɤɭɩɤɟ.

ȼɵɝɨɞɵ ɨɬ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɜ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɟ


ɉɨɥɧɨɰɟɧɧɨɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɜ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɭɫɢɥɢɬɶ
ɟɟ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ
ɫɪɟɞɵ ɢ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ, ɩɨɦɨɠɟɬ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɦɭ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɤɥɸɱɟɜɨɝɨ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɧɚ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸ-
ɳɢɯ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɚɯ.
ɗɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɟɦɵɟ ɢɦɢ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ –
ɨɞɧɚ ɢɡ ɨɫɧɨɜ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɣ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ
ɧɚɲɢɯ ɛɨɝɚɬɟɣɲɢɯ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ.
ɍɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɜ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɟ ɗɗɢȻɊ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɜ Ɋɨɫ-
ɫɢɢ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɱɬɨ ɜɚɠɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɝɨ-
ɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɜ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɚ ɨɬ ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɧɨ-
ɫɵɪɶɟɜɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɤ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ – ɤɥɸɱɟɜɨɝɨ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚ Ʉɨɧ-
ɰɟɩɰɢɢ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɊɎ.
ɍɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɞɟɥɨɜɵɯ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪ (ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɣ, ɛɚɧɤɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ.) ɜ ɷɬɨɦ
ɩɪɨɟɤɬɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɨ ɛɵ ɪɨɫɬɭ ɢɯ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨ-
ɫɬɢ ɢ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɡɚɪɭɛɟɠɧɵɯ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɣ.
Ȼɵɥɨ ɛɵ ɩɨɥɟɡɧɨ ɜɤɥɸɱɢɬɶ ɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɭ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ, ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶ-
ɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɜ ɩɨɜɟɫɬɤɭ ɞɧɹ
ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɨɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ – ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɣ ɋɨɸɡ.

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ɉȿɊɋɉȿɄɌɂȼɕ ɍɑȺɋɌɂə ɆɈɅȾɈȼɕ ȼ ɉɊɈȿɄɌȿ Ɍȿȿȼ

Ɉ.ɂ. Ʉɚɡɚɧɰɟɜɚ
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɢ Ⱥɇ Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ

ɍɝɪɨɡɵ ɞɥɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ


ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛ-
ɪɚɡɢɹ Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɤɪɚɣɧɸɸ ɨɛɟɫɩɨɤɨɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ. ȼ Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɟ ɫɮɨɪɦɢ-
ɪɨɜɚɥɫɹ ɰɟɥɵɣ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ, ɜɟɞɭɳɢɯ ɤ ɪɚɡɪɭɲɟɧɢɸ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ.
ɋɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɛɢɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɥɟɞɚ1 ɧɚ ɬɟɪ-
ɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɟ ɬɟɦɩɵ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɷɤɨɥɨ-
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɥɟɞɚ ɩɪɢɜɟɥɢ ɤ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɢɫɱɟɪɩɚɧɢɸ ɡɚɩɚɫɚ ɛɢɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɢ
ɞɥɹ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɨɫɬɚ (ɪɢɫ. 1).

Ƚɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɝɚ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɫɥɟɞ
ɧɚ ɞɭɲɭ
ɛɢɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɶ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ

Ƚɨɞɵ
Ɋɢɫ. 1. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɟɦɤɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɫɥɟɞ Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ

ɉɨ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɥɟɞɚ, ɩɪɢɯɨɞɹɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɧɚ ɞɭɲɭ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ,


Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɚ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɫ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɨɣ. Ɉɞ-
ɧɚɤɨ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɜ Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɟ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɢɠɟ, ɬɨ ɜ

1
Ȼɢɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ – ɟɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɤ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɭ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɱɟɥɨɜɟ-
ɤɨɦ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ. Ȼɢɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɶ ɜɵɪɚɠɚɟɬɫɹ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨ-
ɪɢɢ ɢɥɢ ɚɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɢ ɫɨ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɞɥɹ Ɂɟɦɥɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɸ («ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶ-
ɧɵɟ ɝɟɤɬɚɪɵ»), ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɚ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨ-
ɪɵɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɸɬ ɥɸɞɢ, ɢ ɭɬɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɦɵɯ ɢɦɢ ɨɬɯɨɞɨɜ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
ɫɥɟɞ – ɢɧɞɟɤɫ, ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɥɸɞɶɦɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɢ ɷɤɨ-
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɜɵɪɚɠɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɝɟɤɬɚɪɚɯ (ɩɪɢɦ. ɪɟɞ.).
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ɩɟɪɟɫɱɟɬɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ «ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɥɟɞɚ» ɧɚ 1 ɞɨɥɥɚɪ ȼȼɉ, ɫɬɪɚɧɚ
ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɫɬɪɚɧ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɡɵɦɚɸɬ ɢɡ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ.
ȼ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɥɟɞɚ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɟɥɶ-
ɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ, ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɭɝ-
ɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫɥɟɞɚ (ɪɢɫ. 2).

Ƚɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɝɚ
- ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɩɢɳɢ, ɜɨɥɨɤɨɧ ɢ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɵ
ɧɚ ɞɭɲɭ - ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɫɥɟɞ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ - ɡɚɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɟ ɡɟɦɥɢ

Ƚɨɞɵ
Ɋɢɫ. 2. ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɥɟɞɚ Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ

Ɍɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɦ ɯɨɡɹɣ-


ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ (ɪɢɫ. 3).

ɉɪɨɱɢɟ ɡɟɦɥɢ,
9%
ȼɨɞɨɟɦɵ
ɢ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ,
3%

Ʌɟɫɧɵɟ
ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ,
14%
ɋɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ
ɭɝɨɞɶɹ,
74%

Ɋɢɫ. 3. ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɮɨɧɞɚ


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ɋɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɭɝɨɞɶɹ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ 74% ɨɬ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢ-
ɤɢ; ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɝɨɞɢɣ 72,7% ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɩɚɲɧɹ, ɚ ɜ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɩɨɫɟɜɧɵɯ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɟɣ ɞɨɥɹ ɡɟɪɧɨɜɵɯ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪ (ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ
ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɩɨɫɟɜɨɜ ɤɭɤɭɪɭɡɵ) ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɥɚɫɶ ɞɨ 67% ɢ ɞɨ 4,7% ɫɧɢɡɢɥɚɫɶ ɞɨɥɹ
ɤɨɪɦɨɜɵɯ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪ.
Ⱦɨɥɹ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɟɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬ-
ɜɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 74,3%, ɱɬɨ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨɛ ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨɣ ɟɝɨ ɧɟɫɛɚɥɚɧɫɢ-
ɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ (ɪɢɫ. 4).
%
ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɟɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ

ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ

Ɋɢɫ. 4. ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɥɢ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɟɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ


ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ

ɇɚ ɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ 15 ɥɟɬ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɟ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ


ɞɨɥɢ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ, ɨɯɨɬɵ ɢ ɥɟɫɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ȼȼɉ (ɪɢɫ. 5).

Ɋɢɫ. 5. ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɥɢ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ, ɨɯɨɬɵ ɢ ɥɟɫɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤ-


ɬɭɪɟ ȼȼɉ
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Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɨɥɢ ɡɚɧɹɬɨɝɨ ɜ
ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɦ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ (ɪɢɫ. 6), ɱɬɨ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜ-
ɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɯ ɜ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɢ.

ɋɟɥɶɫɤɨɟ
ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ

ɉɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɋɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ

ɍɫɥɭɝɢ

Ɋɢɫ. 6. Ɋɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɧɹɬɨɝɨ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚɦ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ

Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ ɧɚ ɞɭ-


ɲɭ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɬ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɸ ɟɝɨ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɭ
ɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ. ɋ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɢ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɬɨ
ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɜ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɧɚ ɮɨɧɟ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɟɣ,
ɡɚɧɹɬɵɯ ɜ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɦ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟ.
Ⱦɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ 1 ɬɵɫ. ɥɟɟɜ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ
ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ (ɜ ɰɟɧɚɯ 2002 ɝ.) ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɝɨɞɶɹɯ
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɥɚɫɶ ɡɚ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 0,44 ɞɨ 1,28 ɝɚ, ɚ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ
1 ɬɵɫ. ɥɟɟɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɜɨɞɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ – ɫ 1,16 ɞɨ 2,55 ɝɚ. ɗɬɨ ɫɜɢɞɟ-
ɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨ ɪɨɫɬɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɢ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚ, ɤɨɬɨ-
ɪɵɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɩɨɞɚɜɥɹɸɳɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ.
ɍɝɪɨɡɵ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɚ ɧɚɪɚ-
ɳɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɦɧɨɝɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɢ
ɪɹɞɨɦ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ:
 ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɚɜ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɫɨɡ-
ɞɚɟɬ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɟɳɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɝɨ ɨɫɥɚɛɥɟ-
ɧɢɹ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ ɡɚ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶ-
ɧɨɫɬɶɸ;
 ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɧɢɡɤɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ;
 ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɛɢɡɧɟ-
ɫɚ ɜ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ.
ȼ ɬɨ ɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ ɢ ɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɨ-
ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɟɦ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɢ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ. Ȼɟɡ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɤɪɭ-
64
ɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɟɧ ɧɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɨɫɬ, ɧɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨ-
ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ, ɧɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ.
Ɉɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɠɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɢ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶ-
ɧɨɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɥɢɲɶ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɢ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ ɨɛɨɫɧɨ-
ɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɢ ɫɚɦɨɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ. Ɉɛɵɱ-
ɧɨ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɪɟɱɶ ɢɞɟɬ ɨ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɨɦ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧ-
ɧɵɯ ɢ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ (ɫɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ) ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɝɨɜɨɪɹɬ ɨ 25-
30% ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɛɵɬɶ ɡɚɧɹɬɵ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɦɢ. ɋ
ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ
ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɫ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ – ɞɥɹ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ ɝɟɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ ɬɟɪ-
ɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ.
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ (ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɢ ɩɨɥɭɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ) ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɡɚɧɢ-
ɦɚɸɬ ɨɤɨɥɨ 17% ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ. Ɉɤɨɥɨ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ, ɩɪɟɞ-
ɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɥɟɫɧɵɟ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ, ɢɝɪɚɸɬ ɜɚɠɧɭɸ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɢɪɭɸɳɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ,
ɧɨ ɨɧɚ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬɫɹ. Ⱦɪɭɝɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ – ɩɚɫɬɛɢɳɚ – ɜ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɨɱɚɝɢ ɨɩɭɫɬɵɧɢɜɚɧɢɹ, ɧɨ, ɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ ɷɬɨ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ
ɛɟɡ ɫɨɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɚɜɢɥ ɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ. ȼ ɬɨ ɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɸɪɢɞɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ
ɱɚɫɬɶ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɡɟɦɥɢ ɜ Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɟ ɭɠɟ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɢɬ ɝɨɫɭ-
ɞɚɪɫɬɜɭ: ɜ ɟɝɨ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɫɬɚɥɨɫɶ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ 17,3% ɡɟɦɟɥɶ, ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
13,6% ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɧɵɣ ɮɨɧɞ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɜɨɡ-
ɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨ-
ɪɢɢ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɚ, ɱɬɨ ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɟɬ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɪɟɲɟ-
ɧɢɣ ɜ ɫɮɟɪɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ.

ɉɨɞɯɨɞɵ ɤ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ
1. Ɉɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ, ɬɪɟɛɭɸɳɢɯ ɤɚɪɞɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ,
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɧɟɫɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ. Ʌɟɫɚ
ɜ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɞɨ 9% ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ (ɩɨ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɤɟ ɨɤɨɥɨ 14%).
ɋɜɵɲɟ 74% ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ – ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɡɟɦɥɢ, ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɢɟ ɩɨ-
ɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɤ ɩɨɬɟɪɟ ɜɥɚɝɢ. Ɇɧɨɝɢɟ ɡɟɦɥɢ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɧɟ ɨɛɪɚ-
ɛɚɬɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ, ɢ ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬ ɫɟɥɶɯɨɡɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɜ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɟ ɜɪɹɞ ɥɢ ɛɭɞɟɬ
ɫɢɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɫɬɢ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɡɟɦɥɢ ɜ ɡɟɦɥɢ
ɞɪɭɝɨɝɨ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɫɥɨɠɧɨ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɟɬ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɬɨɱɤɚ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ, ɱɬɨ «ɡɟɦɥɹ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶ», ɯɨɬɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨ-
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɧɚ ɧɟ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɚ. ɉɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɟ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜɵɪɚɳɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɨɜ
(ɧɟ ɚɤɚɰɢɟɜɵɯ), ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɚɤɤɭɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɜɥɚɝɭ,
ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɩɨɞɡɟɦɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɤɪɭɝɥɨɝɨ-
ɞɢɱɧɵɣ ɫɬɨɤ ɦɚɥɵɯ ɪɟɤ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɥɟɫɚ ɭɥɭɱɲɚɸɬ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɪɟɝɢɨ-
ɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ, ɬ. ɟ. ɜ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɦɟɪɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵ ɪɟɲɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ
ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɤ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɦ.
2. Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɚ ɫɬɨɢɬ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɨɣ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɤɨ-
ɬɨɪɵɟ ɞɨ ɫɢɯ ɩɨɪ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɥɚ ɪɟɤɚ Ⱦɧɟɫɬɪ. ɗɬɨ ɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ, ɜɨ-ɩɟɪɜɵɯ, ɫɧɢɠɟ-

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ɧɢɹ ɜɨɞɨɨɱɢɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɟɤɢ, ɜɨ-ɜɬɨɪɵɯ, ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɜɥɟ-
ɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɟɤɢ ɤɚɤ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ, ɜ-ɬɪɟɬɶɢɯ, ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɢ ɪɵɛɧɵɯ
ɡɚɩɚɫɨɜ. ɋɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɨ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɜ
ɯɨɞɟ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɨɜ ɫ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɨɣ ɩɨ ɩɨɜɨɞɭ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɝɢɞɪɨɭɡɥɚ. ɋɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ
ɨɫɥɨɠɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɜ Ⱦɧɟɫɬɪɟ ɜɟɞɟɬɫɹ ɞɨɛɵɱɚ ɩɟɫɤɚ ɢ ɝɪɚɜɢɹ.
Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɦɨɞɟɥɹɦ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ, ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ Ɇɨɥɞɨ-
ɜɵ ɩɨɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɜ ɡɨɧɭ, ɝɞɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɨɫɚɞɤɨɜ ɫ ɤɚɠɞɵɦ ɝɨɞɨɦ ɛɭɞɟɬ
ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɬɶɫɹ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɶ ɢɯ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɨɟ ɩɟɪɟɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ –
ɡɢɦɨɣ ɢɯ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ, ɚ ɥɟɬɨɦ – ɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹ, ɡɚɫɭɯɢ
ɛɭɞɭɬ ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ. ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɜɨɞɧɵɣ ɫɬɨɤ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɭɲɟ, ɤɨɥɢɱɟ-
ɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɞɧɟɫɬɪɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɜɨɞɵ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɨɦ ɯɨɡɹɣ-
ɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ ɢ Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ.
3. ȿɳɟ ɨɞɧɚ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ, ɬɪɟɛɭɸɳɚɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ – ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɭɞɵ.
Ɂɚɱɚɫɬɭɸ ɨɧɢ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɵ ɛɟɡ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɜ ɬɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɤɚɤ
ɩɪɭɞɵ ɜ ɜɟɪɯɨɜɶɹɯ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɪɟɤ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɭɛɢɜɚɸɬ ɜɫɸ ɪɟɱɤɭ. ȼɫɸ
ɜɟɫɧɭ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɩɪɭɞ ɧɚɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɫɹ, ɥɟɬɨɦ ɬɚɦ ɜɵɪɚɳɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɵɛɚ, ɩɪɢɱɟɦ
ɜɨɞɚ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɧɢɡ ɞɨ ɫɚɦɨɣ ɨɫɟɧɢ, ɩɨɤɚ ɩɪɭɞ ɧɟ ɫɩɭɫɬɹɬ.
4. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɢɪɪɢɝɚɰɢɢ ɪɟɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ Ⱦɧɟɫɬɪɚ ɢɥɢ ɉɪɭɬɚ,
ɧɨ ɢ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɦɚɥɵɯ ɪɟɤ, ɨɡɟɪ, ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳ. ɂ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɩɟɪɜɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨɟ ɡɧɚ-
ɱɟɧɢɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɥɟ-
ɫɨɜ, ɭɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɜɥɚɝɭ ɢ ɜɵɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɷɬɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ.
5. ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɧɚ ɢɧɬɭɢɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ-
ɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɧɟ ɫɬɢɯɚɟɬ
ɛɨɪɶɛɚ ɡɚ ɬɟ ɧɟɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɭɝɨɥɤɢ ɞɢɤɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɟɳɟ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɫɶ.
ɂɞɟɬ ɛɨɪɶɛɚ ɡɚ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɢ, ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɳɢɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ 0,56% ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɫɬɪɚ-
ɧɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɨ ɢɧɢɰɢɚɬɢɜɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɥɨɫɶ ɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɶ
ɜ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɚɪɤɢ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ
ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɞɚɱ ɢ ɩɪɨɱɢɯ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ 80% ɢɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɨɤ ɩɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ.
ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɢ ɢɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɞɥɹ Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ
ɢɦɟɸɬ ɝɨɪɚɡɞɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ, ɱɟɦ ɢɦ ɩɪɢɞɚɟɬɫɹ. Ʌɸɛɨɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧ-
ɧɨɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɫ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ. ɗɬɨ ɧɚɫɭɳɧɨɟ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɵɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ-
ɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɭɠɟ ɜ ɛɥɢɠɚɣɲɟɣ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɟ. ȼ ɷɬɨɣ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ
Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ ɜ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɟ Ɍȿȿȼ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɨɬɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɦɟɬɨ-
ɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ
ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɢ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ, ɧɨ ɢ ɜ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɪɚɧɢɱɧɨɦ
ɚɫɩɟɤɬɟ.

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ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆɇɕȿ ɎɍɇɄɐɂɂ
ɉɊɂɊɈȾɇɕɏ ɄɈɆɉɅȿɄɋɈȼ

ɍȽɅȿɊɈȾɇȺə ɎɍɇɄɐɂə ɅȿɋɈȼ ɊɈɋɋɂɂ ɄȺɄ ɆȿɏȺɇɂɁɆ


ɗɄɈɇɈɆɂɑȿɋɄɈɃ ɈɐȿɇɄɂ ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆɇɕɏ ɍɋɅɍȽ

Ⱦ.Ƚ. Ɂɚɦɨɥɨɞɱɢɤɨɜ
ɐɟɧɬɪ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɦ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɊȺɇ

ɉɪɢɧɹɬɢɟ Ɋɚɦɨɱɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɜɟɧɰɢɢ ɈɈɇ ɨɛ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ (ɊɄɂɄ


ɈɈɇ) ɢ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ ɩɨɧɚɱɚɥɭ ɜɵɡɜɚɥɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɷɧɬɭɡɢɚɡɦ, ɫɜɹ-
ɡɚɧɧɵɣ ɫ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɫɬɨɤɨɜ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ ɜ ɥɟɫɚɯ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ.
Ʉɚɡɚɥɨɫɶ, ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɢɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ
ɨɰɟɧɤɭ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɥɟɫɨɜ, ɤɚɤ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɪɭ-
ɝɨɜɨɪɨɬɚ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɢ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɰɢɸ ɝɚɡɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ. ɉɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚ-
ɥɨɫɶ, ɱɬɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɟ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸ ɢ ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɸ
ɫɬɨɤɚ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ, ɛɭɞɟɬ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɯ ɦɟ-
ɯɚɧɢɡɦɚɯ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ ɢ ɬɟɦ ɫɚɦɵɦ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɩɪɢɬɨɤ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɫ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ. ɗɬɢ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ, ɜ
ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɛɭɞɭɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɝɨ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ, ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨ ɨɛɥɟɫɟ-
ɧɢɸ ɢ ɥɟɫɨɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɸ, ɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɹ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɸ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ. ȼ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧ-
ɧɵɯ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɯ, ɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ 15 ɥɟɬ, ɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɫɹ ɨ
ɜɵɫɨɤɨɦ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɨɩɨɝɥɨɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɟ ɥɟɫɨɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢ-
ɦɨɫɬɢ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ ɫɨ ɫɬɨ-
ɪɨɧɵ ɡɚɪɭɛɟɠɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ – ɷɦɢɬɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ, ɨɛ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɢɥɨɬɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɩɨɫɚɞɤɚɦ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɜ ɰɟɥɹɯ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟ-
ɧɢɹ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ (Ʉɨɧɞɪɚɬɶɟɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 2003; Ɇɨɢɫɟɟɜ, Ɏɢɥɢɩɱɭɤ, 2009;
ɋɬɟɰɟɧɤɨ, Ȼɭɝɞɚɟɜɚ, 2007; ɢ ɞɪ.).
ɇɟɞɚɜɧɨ ɫɬɚɪɬɨɜɚɥ ɬɪɟɬɢɣ ɝɨɞ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ ɩɨ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɦɭ
ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɭ, ɜɪɟɦɹ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɟ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɩɨɞɜɟɫɬɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɬɨɝɢ. Ɉɞɢɧ ɢɡ
ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚɦɢ
ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɹ (ɉɋɈ). ɉɋɈ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɵɦɢ
ɫɬɪɚɧɚɦɢ-ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚɦɢ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ. ɉɪɨɟɤɬ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ
ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ, ɚ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɚ-ɢɧɜɟɫɬɨɪ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬ ɩɪɚɜɚ ɧɚ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ
ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ. ɇɚ ɜɟɛ-ɫɚɣɬɟ ɊɄɂɄ ɈɈɇ (www.unfccc.int) ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɩɨɥɧɚɹ

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ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɦ ɧɵɧɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦ ɉɋɈ. Ɉɛɳɟɟ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ
ɪɚɜɧɨ 147, ɩɨ ɱɢɫɥɭ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɥɢɞɢɪɭɸɬ ɑɟɯɢɹ (44%), ɍɤɪɚɢɧɚ
(13%), ɉɨɥɶɲɚ (9%). Ɉɬɦɟɬɢɦ, ɱɬɨ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɟɣ ɩɨɤɚ ɧɟ ɩɪɢ-
ɧɹɬɨ ɧɢ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ, ɯɨɬɹ, ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ, ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɢɫɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɜ
ɛɥɢɠɚɣɲɟɦ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɦ. Ʌɢɲɶ 1 ɩɪɨɟɤɬ («Ɉɛɥɟɫɟɧɢɟ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɟɥɶ-
ɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ ɜ Ɋɭɦɵɧɢɢ») ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɫ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɭ ɡɟɦɥɟɩɨɥɶɡɨ-
ɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ, ɜɫɟ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɉɋɈ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚɯ
ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ, ɤɨɦɦɭɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ
ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɦɭ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɤɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ
ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɟ ɨɩɪɚɜɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɢ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɧɢ ɜ ɡɚɪɭ-
ɛɟɠɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ.
ɋɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɟɣ
ɤɜɨɬɚɦɢ. ɉɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ ɫɬɪɚ-
ɧɵ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟ ɢɡɥɢɲɤɢ ɤɜɨɬ ɧɚ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɵ, ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɪɨɞɚɬɶ ɢɯ ɬɟɦ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɦ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɧɟ ɫɩɪɚɜɢɥɢɫɶ. ȼ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɸ ɤɜɨɬɚɦɢ ɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɟɬɫɹ
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ ɢ ɫɬɨɤɢ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ. Ɋɨɫɫɢɣ-
ɫɤɚɹ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɹ ɜ «ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɞɨɤɥɚɞɟ ɨɛ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɨɦ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟ
ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ» (2007 ɝ.) ɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɨɛɴɹɜɢɥɚ ɨɛ ɭɱɟɬɟ ɥɟɫɨɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɨ-
ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɩɭɧɤɬɨɦ 4 ɫɬɚɬɶɢ 3 Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ.
ɉɪɟɠɞɟ ɱɟɦ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɚɬɶ ɤɜɨɬɚɦɢ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɩɨɝɥɨ-
ɳɟɧɢɹ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ, ɹɜɥɹɸɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɦ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ.
ȼ ɧɚɭɱɧɨɣ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɞɨ ɫɢɯ ɩɨɪ ɧɟɬ ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɦɧɟɧɢɣ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚɦ ɩɨ-
ɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɭɸɬ ɜ
ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɨɬ 50 ɞɨ 1000 ɦɥɧ. ɬ ɋ ɜ ɝɨɞ (Ɂɚɦɨɥɨɞɱɢɤɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 2007; Ɇɨɢɫɟɟɜ,
Ɏɢɥɢɩɱɭɤ, 2009; ɇɢɥɶɫɫɨɧ ɢ ɞɪ., 2003; ɢ ɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɞɪ.). ɇɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɫɬɨɥɶ ɫɟɪɶ-
ɟɡɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɣ, ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨ, ɦɚɥɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɥɟɫɨɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɦɵ ɨɩɢɪɚ-
ɟɦɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɸ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɦɢ
ɥɟɫɚɦɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ, ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɦ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɇɚɰɢɨ-
ɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɚɞɚɫɬɪ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ ɢɡ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ ɢ ɚɛɫɨɪɛɰɢɢ
ɩɨɝɥɨɬɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ (ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɞɨɤɥɚɞ…, 2009). Ɍɚɤɢɟ
ɤɚɞɚɫɬɪɵ ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ Ɋɨɫɫɢɟɣ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɪɚɡɜɢ-
ɬɵɦɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɦɢ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɵ ɊɄɂɄ ɈɈɇ. Ɉɧɢ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɨɛ ɷɦɢɫɫɢɹɯ
ɢ ɫɬɨɤɚɯ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɹɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɢ ɞɥɹ
ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ. Ȼɚɡɨɜɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɵ ɤ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɸ ɤɚɞɚɫɬ-
ɪɨɜɵɯ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɵ ɜ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚɯ Ɇɟɠɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ
ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ (ɆȽɗɂɄ). Ɋɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɷɦɢɫɫɢɣ ɢ ɫɬɨɤɨɜ
ɩɪɨɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɤɢ.
ȿɠɟɝɨɞɧɵɟ ɨɛɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɞɚɫɬɪɨɜ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɸɬɫɹ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɣ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɤɟ ɫɨ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɨɜ ɊɄɂɄ ɈɈɇ. ɉɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɜɟɪɫɢɢ ɞɨɤɥɚɞɨɜ ɨ ɤɚɞɚɫɬɪɚɯ
ɪɚɡɜɢɬɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ, ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɬɚɛɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ (ɬɚɤ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɟ
ɮɨɪɦɵ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɨɬɱɟɬɧɨɫɬɢ) ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɵ ɜ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɦ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɟ ɧɚ ɜɟɛ-ɫɚɣɬɟ
ɊɄɂɄ ɈɈɇ.

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ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɨɰɟɧɤɚɦ ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɞɚɫɬɪɚ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ, ɩɪɟɞ-
ɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɵ ɊɄɂɄ ɈɈɇ ɜ 2009 ɝ., ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɟ ɥɟɫɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ
Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɡɚ 1990-2007 ɝɝ. ɩɨɝɥɨɳɚɥɢ ɨɤɨɥɨ 90 ɦɥɧ. ɬ ɭɝɥɟɪɨ-
ɞɚ ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨ (ɪɢɫ. 1). Ɋɟɡɨɧɧɨ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɷɬɨɬ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɬɫɹ ɢ ɧɚ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ (2008-2012 ɝɝ.). Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɡɚɱɟɬ ɩɨ-
ɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɦɢ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɜ ɩɨɥɧɨɦ ɨɛɴɟɦɟ, ɜɟɪ-
ɧɟɟ, ɜ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚɯ ɤɚɞɚɫɬɪɨɜɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ, ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ. Ⱦɟɥɨ ɜ
ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɋɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟ-
ɧɵ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɭɱɟɬ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɦɢ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ ɪɚɡ-
ɜɢɬɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ. ȼ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɚɹ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɹ ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɡɚɱɟɫɬɶ
ɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ 33 ɦɥɧ. ɬ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ, Ʉɚɧɚɞɚ – 12, əɩɨɧɢɹ – 13, Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɹ – 1,23,
Ɏɪɚɧɰɢɹ – 0,88 ɦɥɧ. ɬ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ ɫɦɨɠɟɬ ɡɚɱɟɫɬɶ
ɥɢɲɶ ɨɤɨɥɨ 30% ɨɬ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɦɢ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ.
Ɉɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɬɚɤɚɹ ɞɢɫɤɪɢɦɢɧɚɰɢɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬ ɪɨɥɶ ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ
ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚ ɜ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɦ. Ɂɚɱɟɦ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜ-
ɥɹɬɶ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɦɟɪɵ ɩɨ ɫɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɸ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɸ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɜ ɥɟɫɚɯ,
ɟɫɥɢ ɬɟɤɭɳɢɟ ɥɟɫɧɵɟ ɫɬɨɤɢ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɜ 3 ɪɚɡɚ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɸɬ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɝ-
ɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹ?

Ȼɸɞɠɟɬ
ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ,
ɦɥɧ. ɬ ɋ
ɜ ɝɨɞ

Ƚɨɞɵ

Ɋɢɫ. 1. ɉɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɟ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɦɢ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɜ 1990-2007 ɝɝ.


ɢ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɥɢɦɢɬɚ ɧɚ ɡɚɱɟɬ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɜ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɦ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɟ

Ɂɚɱɬɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɥɢɦɢɬɨɜ ɥɟɫɧɵɟ ɫɬɨɤɢ ɤɨɧɜɟɪɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɩɟɰɢ-


ɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɹ. ȼ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɤɢɨɬɫɤɢɯ ɭɱɟɬɧɵɯ ɟɞɢ-
ɧɢɰ (ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ, ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɜɵɛɪɨ-
ɫɨɜ), ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɥɢɲɶ ɞɥɹ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ ɜɵɩɨɥ-
ɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ ɢ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɩɟɪɟɧɟɫɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ.
ɂɦɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɩɪɨɞɚɠɚ ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɢ ɤɜɨɬɚɦɢ ɩɪɟɞ-

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ɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɣ. ɉɪɢ ɥɢɦɢɬɟ 33 ɦɥɧ. ɬ ɋ ɜ ɝɨɞ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɦ
ɩɪɟɜɵɲɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɟɦ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɦɢ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ ɩɨɥɭ-
ɱɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɚ 5 ɤɢɨɬɫɤɢɯ ɥɟɬ ɡɚɱɟɫɬɶ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɚɬɶ 605 ɦɥɧ. ɬ CO2-ɷɤɜ.
Ɏɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ, ɷɬɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ, ɜ ɩɟɪɟɫɱɟɬɟ ɧɚ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ, ɢ ɩɪɟɞ-
ɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɧɭɸ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɦ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɦ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɭɸ ɨɰɟɧɤɭ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɥɟɫɨɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ.
ȼɩɨɥɧɟ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ ɜ «ɤɢɨɬɫɤɨɣ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɟ
ɤɜɨɬɚɦɢ» ɛɭɞɟɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɨɦ ɫɩɪɨɫɚ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ. ɉɨɫɥɟ ɨɬ-
ɤɚɡɚ ɋɒȺ ɨɬ ɪɚɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɞɟɮɢɰɢɬɚ ɤɜɨɬ
ɧɟ ɫɬɨɥɶ ɭɠ ɜɵɫɨɤɚ ɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɧɵɦ ɨɰɟɧɤɚɦ ɨɬ 800 ɞɨ 2300 ɦɥɧ. ɬ
CO2-ɷɤɜ. ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɭɱɟɫɬɶ, ɱɬɨ, ɩɨɦɢɦɨ ɉɋɈ ɢ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɢ ɤɜɨɬɚɦɢ, ɫɭ-
ɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɟɳɟ ɨɞɢɧ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ – ɱɢɫɬɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ
(ɆɑɊ). ɉɪɨɟɤɬɵ ɆɑɊ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɧɨɣ (ɢɧɜɟɫɬɨ-
ɪɨɦ) ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɟɣɫɹ ɫɬɪɚɧɨɣ, ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɳɟɣ ɩɪɨɟɤɬ. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɬ 2055 ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɆɑɊ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɤɜɨɬɵ ɧɚ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɵ ɜ
ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟ 1730 ɦɥɧ. ɬ CO2-ɷɤɜ. ɧɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ. Ɉɠɢɞɚ-
ɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɤ 2012 ɝ. ɱɢɫɥɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɆɑɊ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɧɟɬ 4200, ɚ ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɵɣ ɨɛɴ-
ɟɦ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɬ 2900 ɦɥɧ. ɬ CO2-ɷɤɜ. ɗɬɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ ɞɚɠɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɞɟɮɢɰɢɬɚ ɤɜɨɬ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ,
ɜɨɫɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɫɬɨɤɨɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨɫɬɶ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɢ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬ-
ɫɹ ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɱɧɵɦɢ.
ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɚɹ ɜɵɲɟ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɦɟɯɚ-
ɧɢɡɦɵ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ ɧɟ ɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɸɬ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɨ-
ɩɨɝɥɨɳɚɸɳɟɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɥɟɫɨɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɜɪɹɞ ɥɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɩɪɢ-
ɬɨɤ ɫɤɨɥɶ-ɧɢɛɭɞɶ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟ-
ɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ. ɂɡ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɩɨ ɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɹ ɹɫɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɢ ɨɬ ɧɟɝɨ ɧɟ ɫɬɨɢɬ ɨɠɢɞɚɬɶ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫɚ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ. Ɍɚɤ, ɧɚ 15-ɣ Ʉɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧ ɊɄɂɄ ɈɈɇ ɜ Ʉɨɩɟɧɝɚɝɟɧɟ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɥ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɭɩɪɚɜ-
ɥɟɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ, ɩɨɦɢɦɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ
ɥɢɦɢɬɚ, ɧɚɫɬɚɢɜɚɥɢ ɧɚ ɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ ɛɚɡɨɜɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ, ɬɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɧɚ ɜɵɱɢɬɚɧɢɢ ɢɡ
ɬɟɤɭɳɟɣ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɛɚɡɨɜɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ,
1990 ɝ.). Ⱦɥɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɫɬɨɤ ɭɝɥɟɪɨ-
ɞɚ ɜ ɥɟɫɚ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɛɵɬɶ ɫɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧ ɧɚ 50 ɦɥɧ. ɬ (ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɪɢɫ. 1,
ɬɚɤɨɜɨ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɟ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ ɜ 1990 ɝ.), ɚ ɡɚɬɟɦ ɤ ɧɚɣɞɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɡɧɚ-
ɱɟɧɢɸ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɛɵɬɶ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧ ɧɨɜɵɣ ɥɢɦɢɬ. Ʉɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɟ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɧɨɜɵɯ
ɥɢɦɢɬɨɜ ɜ Ʉɨɩɟɧɝɚɝɟɧɟ ɨɛɫɭɞɢɬɶ ɧɟ ɭɫɩɟɥɢ.
Ⱦɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɫɬɨɤɨɜ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ, ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ
ɢɯ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɦɵɟ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɵ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɝɨ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨ-
ɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɹ ɥɢɲɶ ɜ ɤɪɚɣɧɟ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɭɸɬ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶ-
ɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸ ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɸ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɜ ɥɟɫɚɯ. Ȼɵɬɶ ɦɨ-
ɠɟɬ, ɬɚɤɚɹ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɢ ɧɟ ɧɭɠɧɚ, ɚ ɥɟɫɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɨ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨɫɬɨ-
ɹɧɧɵɦ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɫɬɨɤɨɦ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɧɟ ɧɚɞɨ ɧɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ, ɧɢ
ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ? Ⱦɥɹ ɨɬɜɟɬɚ ɧɚ ɷɬɨɬ ɜɨɩɪɨɫ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɨɛɪɚɬɢɬɶɫɹ ɤ ɩɪɨ-
70
ɝɧɨɡɭ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚ-
ɦɢ ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ CBM-CFS3, ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɨɣ ɜ Ʌɟɫɧɨɣ ɫɥɭɠɛɟ
Ʉɚɧɚɞɵ. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɷɬɚ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɲɢ-
ɪɨɤɨ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɢ ɜɨɫɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɚ (Bernier et al.,
2010; Kurz et al., 2008, 2009). Ɇɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ CBM-CFS3 ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ
ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɬɱɟɬɧɨɫɬɢ Ʉɚɧɚɞɵ ɩɨ ɥɟɫɧɨɦɭ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɭ, ɩɪɟɞɨɫ-
ɬɚɜɥɹɟɦɨɣ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɵ ɊɄɂɄ ɈɈɇ. Ɋɟɲɟɧɢɟ Ʉɚɧɚɞɵ ɨɬ ɨɬɤɚɡɚ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɥɟɫɨ-
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɩɭɧɤɬɚ 4 ɫɬɚɬɶɢ 3 Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɨ ɧɚ
ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɧɵɯ ɨɰɟɧɤɚɯ CBM-CFS3, ɩɪɨɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɜɲɢɯ ɜɵɫɨɤɭɸ ɜɟɪɨ-
ɹɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɬɟɪɶ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ Ʉɚɧɚɞɵ ɜ 2008-2012 ɝɝ. ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɩɨ-
ɠɚɪɨɜ ɢ ɜɫɩɵɲɟɤ ɜɪɟɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ.
ɉɪɨɝɧɨɡɧɵɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɥɟ-
ɫɨɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɧɚ 2010-2050 ɝɝ. ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧ ɞɥɹ ɞɜɭɯ ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɟɜ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ɥɟɫɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ. ɉɟɪɜɵɣ ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɣ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɫɨɯɪɚ-
ɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɣ ɥɟɫɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɥɟɫɨɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɯ-
ɪɚɧɵ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɨɬ ɩɨɠɚɪɨɜ. ȼɬɨɪɨɣ, ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɣ ɛɚɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ
«ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ
ɞɨ 2020 ɝ.» (2008). ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɨɛɴɟɦɵ ɥɟɫɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɸɬ ɧɚ
5,7% ɜ ɝɨɞ ɜɩɥɨɬɶ ɞɨ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɣ ɥɟɫɨɫɟɤɢ, ɭɪɨɜɧɢ ɥɟɫɨɜɨɫɫɬɚ-
ɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ ɥɟɫɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɸ, ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ
ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɨɬ ɩɨɠɚɪɨɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦɭ.
ɉɪɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɬɟɤɭɳɟɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɩɭɥ ɮɢɬɨɦɚɫɫɵ ɭɩɪɚɜ-
ɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɨɬ 100 ɦɥɧ. ɬ ɋ ɜ
2010 ɝ. ɞɨ 20-30 Ɇɬ ɋ ɜ ɝɨɞ ɜ 2043-2050 ɝɝ. (ɪɢɫ. 2). ɗɬɚ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚ
ɫ ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɦ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɧɚɫɚɠɞɟɧɢɣ ɢ
ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɢɯ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɩɨ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɸ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ. ɂɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ
ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɣ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɨ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɟ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɮɢɬɨɦɚɫɫɨɣ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟ-
ɦɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɢ ɤ 2043 ɝ. ɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɟɬ ɟɟ ɜ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɫ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɦ ɝɨɞɨ-
ɜɨɣ ɷɦɢɫɫɢɢ 30-40 ɦɥɧ. ɬ ɋ ɜ ɝɨɞ. ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ
ɢɡɴɹɬɢɹ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɢɡ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɩɪɢ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɥɟɫɨɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɨɤ, ɫ ɨɩɪɟɞɟ-
ɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɚ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɸɳɢɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɭɛɵɥɢ ɭɝɥɟ-
ɪɨɞɚ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɩɪɢɪɨɫɬɚ. ɋ 2048 ɝ. ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɸɬɫɹ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ
ɤ ɷɬɨɦɭ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɧɚ ɡɚɪɨɫɲɢɯ ɥɢɛɨ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɵɪɭɛɤɚɯ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬ-
ɫɹ ɦɨɥɨɞɵɟ ɧɚɫɚɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟ, ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɦ ɞɥɹ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɜɨɡ-
ɪɨɫɲɟɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ.
ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 2 ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɵ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɜɩɨɥɧɟ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɵɦɢ, ɧɨ ɧɟ
ɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɵɦɢ. Ɉɧɢ ɧɟ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɬ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɟɪ ɩɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ
ɥɟɫɚɦɢ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɫɬɨɤɨɜ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ. Ɍɚɤɢɦɢ
ɦɟɪɚɦɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɨɬ ɩɨɠɚɪɨɜ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɋɢɛɢ-
ɪɢ ɢ ɧɚ Ⱦɚɥɶɧɟɦ ȼɨɫɬɨɤɟ, ɨɛɥɟɫɟɧɢɟ ɜɵɲɟɞɲɢɯ ɢɡ ɨɛɨɪɨɬɚ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣ-
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ, ɡɚɳɢɬɧɨɟ ɥɟɫɨɪɚɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɚɪɢɞɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ, ɪɟɤɨɧɫɬ-
ɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɟɞɢɧ, ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɜ ɥɟɫɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ
ɬ. ɞ. ɉɨɞɱɟɪɤɧɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɜɫɟ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɪɵ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɸ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ, ɚ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɩɪɢ ɡɚɳɢɬɧɨɦ
71
ɥɟɫɨɪɚɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ) ɢ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɫɨɩɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɜɵɝɨɞ. ɇɨ
ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɷɬɢɯ ɦɟɪ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɤɚɞɪɨɜɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɬɟɯɧɢɤɢ, ɩɨɫɚɞɨɱɧɨ-
ɝɨ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɢ ɦɧɨɝɨɝɨ ɞɪɭɝɨɝɨ, ɞɥɹ ɱɟɝɨ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ.

Ȼɸɞɠɟɬ
ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ, - ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɬɟɤɭɳɢɯ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ
ɦɥɧ. ɬ ɋ - ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɣ
ɜ ɝɨɞ

Ƚɨɞɵ
Ɋɢɫ. 2. ɉɪɨɝɧɨɡ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɚ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɩɨ ɩɭɥɭ ɮɢɬɨɦɚɫɫɵ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɥɟ-
ɫɨɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɧɚ 2010-2050 ɝɝ. ɩɪɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɬɟɤɭɳɢɯ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɢ ɩɪɢ
ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ

ɂɬɚɤ, ɛɟɡ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɥɟɫɧɨɦ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɟ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɬɶ ɢ


ɬɟɦ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɭɫɢɥɢɬɶ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɟ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɦɢ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ ɧɟ ɩɪɟɞ-
ɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ. ȿɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɜɵɯɨɞɨɦ ɢɡ ɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɟɣɫɹ ɫɢɬɭɚ-
ɰɢɢ ɜɢɞɢɬɫɹ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɫ ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɜ
ɧɟɝɨ ɧɚ ɩɨɥɧɨɩɪɚɜɧɨɣ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚ. ȼɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɵɣ
ɪɵɧɨɤ, ɫ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɛɭɞɟɬ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɸ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɜɵɫɲɢɦ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɩɨ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɨ-
ɫɛɟɪɟɠɟɧɢɸ ɜ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ, ɫ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ,
ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɬ ɤ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɢ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ.
Ɋɚɛɨɬɚ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ «Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡ ɤɥɢɦɚ-
ɬɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɥɟɫɨɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ» Ɏɐɉ «ɇɚɭɱɧɵɟ ɢ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɩɟɞɚɝɨ-
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɚɞɪɵ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ».

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Ɂɚɦɨɥɨɞɱɢɤɨɜ Ⱦ.Ƚ., Ʉɨɪɨɜɢɧ Ƚ.ɇ., Ƚɢɬɚɪɫɤɢɣ Ɇ.Ʌ. 2007. Ȼɸɞɠɟɬ ɭɝɥɟɪɨ-
ɞɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ // Ʌɟɫɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ. ʋ 6.
C. 23-34.
Ʉɨɧɞɪɚɬɶɟɜ Ʉ.ə., Ʌɨɫɟɜ Ʉ.ɋ., Ⱥɧɚɧɢɱɟɜɚ Ɇ.Ⱦ., ɑɟɫɧɨɤɨɜɚ ɂ.ȼ. 2003. ɐɟɧɚ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ // ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɊȺɇ. Ɍ. 73. ʋ 1. ɋ. 3-15.
Ɇɨɢɫɟɟɜ Ȼ.ɇ., Ɏɢɥɢɩɱɭɤ Ⱥ.ɇ. 2009. Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɤɚ ɆȽɗɂɄ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ ɝɨɞɢɱ-
ɧɨɝɨ ɞɟɩɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɟɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɞɥɹ ɥɟɫɨɜ Ɋɨɫ-
ɫɢɢ // Ʌɟɫɧɨɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ. ʋ 4. ɋ. 11-13.
ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɞɨɤɥɚɞ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɨ ɤɚɞɚɫɬɪɟ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ
ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ ɢɡ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ ɢ ɚɛɫɨɪɛɰɢɢ ɩɨɝɥɨɬɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ
ɧɟ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ Ɇɨɧɪɟɚɥɶɫɤɢɦ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɨɦ ɡɚ 1990–2007 ɝɝ. Ɇ., 2009.
353 ɫ.
ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɞɨɤɥɚɞ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɨɛ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɨɦ ɤɨɥɢɱɟ-
ɫɬɜɟ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ. Ɇ., 2007. 40 ɫ.
ɇɢɥɶɫɫɨɧ ɋ., ȼɝɚɧɨɜ ȿ.Ⱥ., ɒɜɢɞɟɧɤɨ Ⱥ.Ɂ. ɢ ɞɪ. 2003. ɍɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɛɸɞɠɟɬ
ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ // Ⱦɨɤɥ. Ⱥɤɚɞɟɦɢɢ ɧɚɭɤ. Ɍ. 393. ʋ 4.
ɋ. 541-543.
ɋɬɟɰɟɧɤɨ Ⱥ.ȼ., Ȼɭɝɞɚɟɜɚ Ⱥ.ȼ. 2007. ɂɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ
ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɟɣ // ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ. ʋ 6. ɋ. 46-55.
ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ
ɞɨ 2020 ɝ. ɍɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɚ ɉɪɢɤɚɡɨɦ Ɇɢɧɩɪɨɦɬɨɪɝɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ Ɇɢɧɫɟɥɶɯɨɡɚ
Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɨɬ 31 ɨɤɬɹɛɪɹ 2008 ɝ. ʋ 248/482.
Bernier, P.Y., Guindon L., Kurz W.A., Stinson G. 2010. Reconstructing and
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P. 109-118.
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Kurz W.A., Stinson G., Rampley G., Dymond C.C., Neilson E.T. 2008. Risk of
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ɈɋɈȻȿɇɇɈɋɌɂ ɗɄɈɇɈɆɂɑȿɋɄɈɃ ɈɐȿɇɄɂ
ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆ ɌɈɊɎəɇɕɏ ȻɈɅɈɌ

Ⱥ.Ⱥ. ɋɢɪɢɧ1, L. Brander2, Ɍ.ɘ. Ɇɢɧɚɟɜɚ3


1
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɥɟɫɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɊȺɇ
2
Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam
3
Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɟ ɛɸɪɨ ɩɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɜɨɞɧɨ-ɛɨɥɨɬɧɵɯ ɭɝɨɞɢɣ Wetlands
International; Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɰɟɧɬɪ ɝɟɨɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɆɉɊ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ

Ɍɨɪɮɹɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɤ ɬɢɩɚɦ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɞɥɹ


ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨɣ. ȼ ɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɢ ɥɸɞɟɣ
ɫɥɨɠɢɥɫɹ ɫɬɟɪɟɨɬɢɩ ɢɯ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ: ɛɨɥɨɬɚ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɢ
ɫɧɢɠɚɸɬ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɭɸ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɨɫɬɶ, ɢɦɟɸɬ ɧɢɡɤɨɟ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɤɚɤ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨ-
ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɥɟɫɧɵɟ ɡɟɦɥɢ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬ ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɣ ɢ ɧɟɡɞɨɪɨ-
ɜɵɣ ɦɢɤɪɨɤɥɢɦɚɬ, ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɟɦ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɨɜ
ɨɩɚɫɧɵɯ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ, ɢ, ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ, ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɨɫɜɨɟɧɢɸ ɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ. ɇɚ ɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧ-
ɫɬɜɨ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɫɟɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ ɤɚɤ ɧɟɞɪɭ-
ɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɵ, ɫ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟ ɜɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ ɜ ɤɚɤɨɣ-
ɥɢɛɨ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬ. ȼ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɣ ɮɨɧ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢ-
ɧɹɬɢɹ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɜɡɜɟɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɢ ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɟɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɛɨɥɨɬɚɦɢ ɬɨɜɚɪɨɜ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ. ɐɟɥɶ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɢ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɶ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɭ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɤɚɤ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ,
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɵ ɟɟ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɹ.
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ȽɈɋɌ 19179-73, ɛɨɥɨɬɨ – ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸ-
ɳɟɟ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɡɟɦɧɨɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɟ ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɬɨɪɮɚ, ɧɚ-
ɫɵɳɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɨɞɨɣ ɢ ɩɨɤɪɵɬɵɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ (Ɍɨɪɮɹɧɵɟ
ɛɨɥɨɬɚ…, 2001). ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɨɟ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɨɜ ɢ
ɩɨɧɹɬɢɣ, ɷɬɨ ɬɨɱɧɨɟ ɢ ɟɦɤɨɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨɦ
ɨɬɪɚɫɥɟɣ ɢ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɢɧɨɝɞɚ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɬ ɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɱɬɟɧɢɹ. ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜ ɛɨɬɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɯ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɬɨɪɮɚ ɦɨ-
ɠɟɬ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɫɹ ɨɛɵɱɧɵɦ, ɧɨ ɧɟ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɨɦ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ. ɉɨ-
ɷɬɨɦɭ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜ ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ ɩɪɢ ɪɟɚ-
ɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɨ-
ɥɨɬ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɚ «ɬɨɪɮɹɧɨɟ ɛɨɥɨɬɨ» (Ɉɫɧɨɜ-
ɧɵɟ…, 2003), ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɫɟɣɱɚɫ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɧɚɭɤɟ ɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ
(www.peatlands.ru).
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɨɞɧɚ
ɢɡ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɣ ɜɨɞɧɨ-ɛɨɥɨɬɧɵɯ ɭɝɨɞɢɣ (ȼȻɍ) – ɩɨɧɹɬɢɹ, ɩɨɥɭɱɢɜɲɟɝɨ ɪɚɫ-
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ Ʉɨɧɜɟɧɰɢɟɣ ɨ ɜɨɞɧɨ-ɛɨɥɨɬɧɵɯ ɭɝɨɞɶɹɯ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯ
ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɦɟɫɬ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɜɨ-
ɞɨɩɥɚɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɩɬɢɰ (ɬɚɤ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɚɹ Ɋɚɦɫɚɪɫɤɚɹ ɤɨɧɜɟɧɰɢɹ, 1971, ɝ. Ɋɚɦ-
ɫɚɪ, ɂɪɚɧ). ȼȻɍ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɚɭɬɟɧɬɢɱɧɵɦ ɢ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
74
ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɦ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɨɦ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɚ «wetland», ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧ-
ɜɟɧɰɢɟɣ ɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɦɨɝɨ ɤ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɦɭ ɫɩɟɤɬɪɭ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ, ɞɥɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜɨɞɚ – ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ, ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɣ ɫɨɫɬɨɹ-
ɧɢɟ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɣ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɠɢ-
ɜɨɬɧɵɯ. ȼȻɍ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɸɬ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɟ ɦɟɥɤɨɜɨɞɧɵɟ (ɫ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɨɣ ɩɪɢ ɨɬɥɢɜɟ
ɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ 6 ɦ), ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɵɟ, ɭɫɬɶɟɜɵɟ, ɨɡɟɪɧɵɟ, ɪɟɱɧɵɟ, ɛɨɥɨɬɧɵɟ ɢ ɩɨɞ-
ɡɟɦɧɵɟ (ɤɚɪɫɬɨɜɵɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɩɟɳɟɪɵ), ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɟ (ɩɪɭɞɵ,
ɨɪɨɲɚɟɦɵɟ ɡɟɦɥɢ, ɞɪɟɧɚɠɧɵɟ ɤɚɧɚɥɵ ɢ ɩɪ.) ɨɛɴɟɤɬɵ. ɉɨɞɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɟ ɱɢɫɥɨ
ɪɚɛɨɬ, ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ, ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬ ȼȻɍ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ
(Barbier et al., 1997; Brander et al., 2003). ɍɱɢɬɵɜɚɹ ɹɜɧɵɟ, ɱɚɫɬɨ ɩɪɢɧɰɢ-
ɩɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɪɚɡ-
ɧɵɯ ȼȻɍ, ɷɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɭɫɥɨɠɧɹɟɬ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɤɚɤ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤ ɢɯ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɹɦ. ɉɨ
ɪɹɞɭ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɬɶɫɹ ɨɬ
ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɣ ȼȻɍ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɢɯ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧ-
ɧɨɫɬɢ. Ʉɚɤ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥ ɜ 1936 ɝ. Ⱥ.Ⱦ. Ⱦɭɛɚɯ: «ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɨɟ ɛɨɥɨ-
ɬɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɨɞɨɟɦ, ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɨ – ɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɚɹ ɫɭɲɚ»
(Ɍɨɪɮɹɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ…, 2001).
Ȼɨɥɨɬɚ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ ɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɨ-ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨ-
ɫɬɶɸ. Ɍɪɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ – ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɟ ɢɡɛɵɬɨɱɧɨɟ ɭɜɥɚɠɧɟɧɢɟ, ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɫɩɟ-
ɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɬɨɪɮɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɟɣ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ ɬɨɪɮɚ –
ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɟɨɬɴɟɦɥɟɦɵɦɢ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɨɝɨ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ. ɂɡɛɵɬɨɤ
ɜɥɚɝɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɛɨɥɨɬɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɪɚɡ-
ɥɨɠɟɧɢɸ ɢɯ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬ ɬɨɪɮ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɫɪɟ-
ɞɭ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɷɬɢɯ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɜɨɞɨɭɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɡɛɵɬɨɤ ɜɥɚɝɢ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ
ɟɟ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɜ ɡɚɫɭɯɢ ɢɥɢ ɦɚɥɨɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɝɨɞɵ. ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ
ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɢɥɢ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɩɪɢ ɨɫɭɲɟɧɢɢ ɢ
ɨɫɜɨɟɧɢɢ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ, ɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬ ɛɚɥɚɧɫ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɚ, ɜɟɞɟɬ ɤ ɫɨ-
ɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɸ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɨɣ ɡɚɥɟɠɢ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢɯ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ ɢ ɭɫɤɨɪɟɧɢɹ ɢɯ ɪɚɡɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ, ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɟɬɪɨɜɨɣ ɢ ɜɨɞɧɨɣ
ɷɪɨɡɢɢ. ɉɨɞɨɛɧɨɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɶ ɩɨɞ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɝɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɛɨɥɨ-
ɬɚ. ɉɪɢ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɛɨɥɨɬɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɧɚɱɚɬɶ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ-
ɫɹ. ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬ-
ɧɵɦɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɢ.
Ɉɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɵɫɨɤɚɹ
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɚɰɢɹ. ɗɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɦɨɡɚɢɤɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ
ɦɨɝɭɬ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɬɶ ɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɤɚɤ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ
ɢ ɤɚɤ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɜɧɟɲɧɸɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ. ȼ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɬɪɟɬɢ 20-ɝɨ ɜɟɤɚ
ɜ ɫɤɚɧɞɢɧɚɜɫɤɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ɤɪɚɟɜɵɟ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɛɵɥɢ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ
ɨɫɭɲɟɧɵ, ɚ ɢɫɬɨɤɢ ɜɵɬɟɤɚɸɳɢɯ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ ɪɭɱɶɟɜ ɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɵ ɢ ɤɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨ-
ɜɚɧɵ. ɉɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɷɬɢ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɢ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ, ɱɟɝɨ
ɧɟɥɶɡɹ ɫɤɚɡɚɬɶ ɨɛ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɯ. Ɉɤɪɚɣɤɢ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɛɵɥɢ ɧɨ-
75
ɫɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚ-
ɥɢ ɨɫɨɛɨɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɟɠɢɦ ɩɨɜɟɪɯ-
ɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ.
ɋɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɢ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ (ɛɨ-
ɥɨɬɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɚ), ɤɚɤ ɢ ɢɯ ɜɤɥɚɞ ɜ «ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ» ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɬɨɜɚɪɨɜ
ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɬɶɫɹ, ɧɨ ɜ ɥɸɛɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɬɪɟɛɭɸɬ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬ-
ɪɟɧɢɢ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ. ȼ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚ ɛɨɥɨɬ
ɤɚɤ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɵɯ ɢ ɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɛɵɥɚ ɡɚɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɚ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɣ
ɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɢ ȼɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɞɟɤɫɚ (2006), ɝɞɟ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɨɫɨ-
ɛɵɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɧɵɣ ɜɨɞɧɵɣ ɨɛɴɟɤɬ (ɋɬ. 5), ɚ ɧɟ ɤɚɤ ɜɨɞɨɟɦ, ɤɚɤ ɷɬɨ ɛɵɥɨ
ɪɚɧɟɟ, ɚ ɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬ ɨɛɹɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɡɟɦɥɟɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɹ ɭɱɢ-
ɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɢ ɨɫɭɲɟɧɢɢ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ (ɋɬ. 57).
Ⱦɥɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜɚɠɧɚ, ɤɚɤ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ
ɲɢɪɨɤɢɦ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɦ, ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɦ ɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɹɦɢ ɫɚɦɢɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɢɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɦ. ɉɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɟ-
ɬɚ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ 8% (Ɍɨɪɮɹɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ…, 2001), ɚ
ɜɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɦɟɥɤɨɨɬɨɮɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɡɚɛɨɥɨɱɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɡɟɦɥɹɦɢ (ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ ɬɨɪɮɚ
ɦɟɧɟɟ 30 ɫɦ), ɫ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɨɧɢ ɛɥɢɡɤɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɬɪɭɞɧɨ ɨɬɞɟɥɢɦɵ, ɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɸɬ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ Ƚɂɋ «Ȼɨɥɨɬɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ» ɛɨɥɟɟ 1/5
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ (ȼɨɦɩɟɪɫɤɢɣ ɢ ɞɪ., 2005). Ȼɨɥɟɟ 20% ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɜɫɟɯ
ɛɨɥɨɬ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɦɟɪɡɥɵɟ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ – ɩɨɥɢɝɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ ɛɭɝɪɢɫɬɵɟ, ɩɟɪɟ-
ɯɨɞɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɨɤɨɥɨ 30%, ɚ ɜɟɪɯɨɜɵɟ ɢ ɧɢɡɢɧɧɵɟ – ɩɨ 18%
(ȼɨɦɩɟɪɫɤɢɣ ɢ ɞɪ., 2005). ȼ ɰɟɥɨɦ 62% ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɦɢ, 21% ɩɨɤɪɵ-
ɬɵ ɪɟɞɤɨɥɟɫɧɨɣ, ɚ 17% ɥɟɫɧɨɣ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ (ɋɚɥɶɧɢɤɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 2009).
ɗɬɨ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬ ɥɢɲɶ ɫɚɦɵɣ ɜɟɪɯɧɢɣ ɝɪɭɛɵɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɝɨ
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɛɨɥɨɬ. Ȼɨɥɨɬɚ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɶɫɹ ɤ ɪɚɡɧɵɦ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɹɦ ɡɟ-
ɦɟɥɶ – ɥɟɫɧɵɦ (72%), ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ (14%), ɡɚɩɚɫɚ (11%), ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ
ɮɨɧɞɚ (10%) ɢ ɞɪ. (Ɍɨɪɮɹɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ…, 2001) ɢ ɷɬɨ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɨ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ. ȼ ɥɟɫɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ
ɱɚɫɬɶ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɤ ɡɟɦɥɹɦ Ƚɨɫɥɟɫɮɨɧɞɚ, ɧɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɟ ɢ ɸɝɟ – ɤ ɡɟɦɥɹɦ
ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ. Ⱦɥɹ ɤɚɠɞɨɣ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɢ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ ɯɚɪɚɤ-
ɬɟɪɧɚ ɫɜɨɹ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚ ɭɱɟɬɚ, ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɛɨɥɨɬ. ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ
ɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɯ ɦɟɫɬɨɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɣ. Ʉ ɧɢɦ ɨɬɧɟɫɟɧɚ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɫɟɣɱɚɫ ɬɨɪɮ ɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɫɹ
ɨɛɳɟɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɨɥɟɡɧɵɦ ɢɫɤɨɩɚɟɦɵɦ, ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɟɦɵɦ ɧɚ
ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɊɎ. ɗɬɨ ɞɟɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɭɟɬ ɢɯ ɢɧɜɟɧɬɚɪɢɡɚɰɢɸ, ɭɱɟɬ, ɪɚɫ-
ɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɟ, ɨɰɟɧɤɭ ɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ.
ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ (A Quick Scan…,
2009) ɦɚɥɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɧɟɬɪɨɩɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ ɦɢɪɚ (Joosten,
Clark, 2002). ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɫɭɲɟɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬ-
ɜɚ, ɡɚɬɟɦ ɞɥɹ ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɢ, ɧɚɤɨɧɟɰ, ɞɥɹ ɞɨɛɵɱɢ ɬɨɪɮɚ. Ⱦɥɹ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɨɜ ɫɬɪɚ-
ɧɵ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ (ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ 10 ɦɥɧ. ɝɚ) ɧɟɥɶɡɹ ɫɱɢ-
ɬɚɬɶ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯ (ɰɟɧɬɪ ɢ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞ
76
ȿɌɊ, ɉɨɜɨɥɠɶɟ, ɸɝ Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ ɋɢɛɢɪɢ) ɷɬɚ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚ, ɚ
ɜ ɪɹɞɟ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɚ ɛóɥɶɲɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɛɨɥɨɬ (A Quick Scan…, 2009).
Ɉɫɜɨɟɧɢɟ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɦ, ɩɪɢɱɟɦ ɨɪɢɟɧ-
ɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦ ɧɚ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɛɪɚɧɧɵɣ ɪɟɫɭɪɫ. ɉɨɬɟɪɹ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸ-
ɳɢɯ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɨɥɨɬ, ɟɫɥɢ ɢ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɚɫɱɟɬ, ɬɨ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨ.
ɗɬɨ ɨɬɱɟɬɥɢɜɨ ɜɢɞɧɨ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɢ ɫɟɥɢɬɟɛɧɨɣ ɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɟ ɨɫɬɚɜ-
ɲɢɯɫɹ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɦɟɝɚɩɨɥɢɫɨɜ. ɂɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɜ
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɫɜɚɥɨɤ ɛɵɥɨ ɡɚɩɪɟɳɟɧɚ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɟɦ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɢɯ ɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ ɚɤ-
ɬɢɜɧɨ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɟɬɫɹ. Ɉɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɬɚ ɢ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɨɬ-
ɱɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɷɬɢɯ ɡɚɱɚɫɬɭɸ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɧɟɨɫɜɨɟɧɧɵɯ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ, ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɪɟ-
ɲɚɸɳɢɦ ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɨɦ ɜ ɩɨɥɶɡɭ ɢɯ ɨɫɜɨɟɧɢɹ. ɉɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
ɭɱɟɬ ɜɫɟɯ ɩɨɬɟɪɶ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɦɨɠɟɬ, ɧɚɤɨɧɟɰ, ɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ
ɛɚɪɶɟɪ ɧɚ ɩɭɬɢ ɢɯ ɛɟɡɜɨɡɜɪɚɬɧɨɣ ɭɬɪɚɬɵ.
ɉɟɪɟɱɟɧɶ ɩɨɥɟɡɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɛɵɥ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧ ɩɚɪɬ-
ɧɟɪɫɬɜɨɦ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚ ɢ
ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɪɟɡɨɥɸɰɢɢ VIII.17 Ɋɚɦɫɚɪɫɤɨɣ ɤɨɧɜɟɧɰɢɢ (Joosten, Clarke, 2002) ɢ
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɵɟ (ɬɨɪɮ ex situ, ɬɨɪɮɹɧɨɣ ɫɭɛɫɬɪɚɬ in situ, ɜɨɞɚ, ɪɚɫɬɟ-
ɧɢɹ, ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ ɢ ɩɪ.), ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ (ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ, ɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɭɚ-
ɪɵ, ɩɨɥɹ ɨɪɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɪ.), ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ (ɤɥɢɦɚɬ, ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɹ, ɝɢɞɪɨɯɢ-
ɦɢɹ ɢ ɩɪ.) ɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ (ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ, ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ, ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛ-
ɪɚɡɢɟ ɢ ɩɪ.) ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ. ɉɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸ ɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɟɱɧɹ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ
ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɟɬ ɢɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɭɸ ɢ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬ-
ɜɟɧɧɭɸ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɭ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɤɨɧɫɟɧɫɭɫ ɦɧɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ
ɫɬɪɚɧ ɢ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɟɣ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɤ ɛɨɥɨɬɚɦ ɤɚɤ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɭ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨ-
ɜɚɧɢɹ, ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ.
Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɬɨɜɚɪɨɜ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɛɨɥɨɬɚɦɢ, ɡɚ-
ɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɨɞɧɢɯ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɢɥɢ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɚ-
ɟɬ ɞɨɫɬɭɩ ɤ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ, ɱɬɨ ɧɟ ɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɹ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ, ɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ
ɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɨ-ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚ. Ʉɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɨɟ ɪɚɫ-
ɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɟ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɭɫɥɨɠɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɹɦɢ ɩɪɢ ɭɱɟɬɟ,
ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɢ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɢɯ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜ. ɗɬɨ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɹɟɬ ɨɛɳɢɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟ-
ɦɵ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɳɢɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤ
ɥɸɛɵɦ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦ, ɩɪɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɟɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ (ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ) (ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ…, 2003).
Ʉɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɹ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤ ɛɨɥɨɬɚɦ
ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɚ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦ (ɪɢɫ. 1). ɋɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɥɢɲɶ ɭɫɥɨɠ-
ɧɹɟɬ ɟɟ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɸ. ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ȼȻɍ ɜɟɞɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢ
ɱɟɬɜɟɪɬɢ ɜɟɤɚ ɧɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ ɨɰɟɧɤɨɣ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ 15 ɥɟɬ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɫɩɥɟɫɤ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ (De Groot et al., 2006). Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɟ
ɛɨɥɨɬɚ ɧɟɱɚɫɬɨ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ. ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧ-
ɧɨɦɭ ɦɟɬɚ-ɚɧɚɥɢɡɭ ɢɡ 230 ɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ȼȻɍ, ɛɨɥɨɬɚɦ
ɛɵɥɨ ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɵ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ 5 (Brander et al., 2003). ɂɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ ɟɳɟ ɨɤɨɥɨ 10
ɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɨɡɞɧɢɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ. ɂɡ 230 ɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɜ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ȼȻɍ, 80 ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɥɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ,
ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ. ɇɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ 215 ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɨɛ-
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ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ȼȻɍ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɵ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɢɯ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ: ɫɪɟɞ-
ɧɟɟ – 2800 ɞɨɥɥ. ɋɒȺ ɝɚ-1ɝɨɞ-1, ɦɟɞɢɚɧɚ – 150 ɞɨɥɥ. ɋɒȺ ɝɚ-1ɝɨɞ-1. Ȼɵɥɚ
ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ.

Ɉɛɳɚɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ


ɐɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɐɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɐɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɹɦɨɝɨ ɐɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɐɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ
x Ɍɨɪɮ, ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɚ, x ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚ- x ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨ-
ɜɨɞɚ, ɹɝɨɞɵ ɧɢɣ ɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ
x ɋɟɥɶɫɤɨɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ x Ɋɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜ x ɗɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
x Ɍɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ x ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɝɚɡɨɜɵɣ x Ʉɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɚɹ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
x Ɉɯɨɬɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ x ɐɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɥɢɝɢɢ
x Ɋɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɬɭɪɢɡɦ x ɉɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɹɸ- ɢ ɜɟɪɨɜɚɧɢɣ
x ɇɚɭɱɧɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨ- ɳɢɯ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜ ɢ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɚ x …
ɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɨɞɵ
x … x …
ɐɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɣ ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɵ

Ɋɢɫ. 1. Ɉɛɳɚɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ

ɉɪɢɦɟɪɨɦ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɡɜɟɪɧɭɬɨɣ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜ-


ɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɨɟ ɞɥɹ Ⱦɭɛɧɟɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɚ ɜ Ɇɨɫɤɨɜ-
ɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ (Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 2001). ɋɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɹɦɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɥɚ ɜɫɟ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ, ɜɨɞɭ, ɬɨɪɮ, ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɸ ɢ ɬɭɪɢɡɦ.
Ʉɨɫɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɞɟɩɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ,
ɜɨɞɨɨɱɢɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɢ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɡɚɳɢɬɧɭɸ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ, ɨɡɞɨɪɨɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɷɮ-
ɮɟɤɬ ɨɬ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɢ, ɡɚɳɢɬɭ ɨɬ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜ, ɧɚɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜ
ɜ ɬɨɪɮɟ, ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɨɤɫɢɱɧɵɯ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜ, ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɣ ɛɢɨ-
ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ. ɋɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ «ɧɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ» ɢɫɱɢɫɥɹɥɚɫɶ ɱɟɪɟɡ
ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɱɟɪɟɡ
ɨɰɟɧɤɭ «ɝɨɬɨɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɥɚɬɢɬɶ». ɋɭɦɦɚɪɧɚɹ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ ɞɥɹ 457-
744 ɞɨɥɥ. ɋɒȺ ɝɚ-1ɝɨɞ-1, ɱɬɨ ɜ 3-5 ɪɚɡ ɜɵɲɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɞɢɚɧɵ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ,
ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɦɟɬɚ-ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɞɥɹ ȼȻɍ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ (Brander et al.,
2003).
ȼɵɫɨɤɢɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɵ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɪɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫ-
ɥɭɝ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɏɚɧɬɵ-Ɇɚɧɫɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ȺɈ ɢ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ (ɞɨɥɥ. ɋɒȺ ɧɚ 1 ɝɚ ɜ ɝɨɞ): ɤɚɤ ɦɟɫɬɨɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɣ ɬɨɪɮɚ – 238
(ɏɆȺɈ); ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɧɢɟ ɋɈ2 – 19,8 (ɏɆȺɈ); ɜɨɞɨɨɱɢɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ –
37,5 (ɏɆȺɈ) ɢ 27,2 (ȿɌɊ); ɜɨɞɨɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɚɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ – 57,8 (ɏɆȺɈ) ɢ
31,6 (ȿɌɊ) (əɦɩɨɥɶɫɤɢɣ, 2004).
Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɝɨɬɨɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɥɚɬɢɬɶ ɜ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɨɦ ɜɵɲɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ɫ Ⱦɭɛɧɟɧ-
ɫɤɢɦ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɨɦ ɧɟ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɥɚ 1 ɞɨɥɥɚɪɚ ɜ ɝɨɞ. ɇɢɡɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɷɬɢɯ

78
ɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɧɚɲɟɣ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ (Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 2001). Ɂɚ ɩɪɨɲɟɞ-
ɲɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟɦ, ɛɟɡɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ, ɜɨɡɪɨɫ-
ɥɚ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɞɥɹ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɥɢɦɢɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɦ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɦ ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɬɟɪɟɨɬɢɩ ɢɯ
ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚ ɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɤ ɧɢɦ (Sirin et al., 2006).
ɋɨɰɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶ-
ɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɤ ɛɨɥɨɬɚɦ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɨɛɴɟɤ-
ɬɚɦɢ, ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɤɚɤ ɨɡɟɪɨ ɢ ɦɨɪɟ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢ-
ɦɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɚ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ (ɉɥɸɫɧɢɧ, 2006). Ʉɨɪɪɟɤ-
ɬɢɪɨɜɤɚ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɢ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɬɪɟɛɭɸɬ ɢɡɦɟ-
ɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɨ ɛɨɥɨɬɚɯ ɭ ɜɫɟɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɹ ɡɧɚ-
ɧɢɣ ɨ ɧɢɯ ɭ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ.
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɪɭɞɧɨ ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ, ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɢ
ɢ ɡɟɦɥɟɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ, ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɤ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɬɨɪɮɹ-
ɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ, ɧɟɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɧɟɩɪɢɹɬɢɟ ɢɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɣ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ. ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɨɣ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɠɨɬɪɚɫɥɟɜɚɹ
ɪɚɡɨɛɳɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚ ɮɨɧɟ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɨɝɨ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɢ-
ɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ. ȼɫɟ ɷɬɨ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɦ ɨɲɢɛɨɱɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɜ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɛɨɥɨɬ (A Quick Scan…, 2009; Parish et al., 2008). Ɋɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɢ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ ɨ ɛɨɥɨɬɚɯ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɸ ɤɨɦ-
ɩɥɟɤɫɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ, ɜ ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɫɬɚɧɟɬ ɢɧɫɬɪɭ-
ɦɟɧɬɨɦ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɩɭɬɟɣ ɢɯ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ.

ɂɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ, ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɉɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɮɭɧ-


ɞɚɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɉɪɟɡɢɞɢɭɦɚ ɊȺɇ «Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚ-
ɡɢɟ» ɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ BBI Matra Wetlands International «Ɋɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ
ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɜ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɨɝɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ».

Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜ ɋ.ɇ., ɋɢɞɨɪɟɧɤɨ ȼ.ɇ., Ʌɭɠɟɰɤɚɹ ɇ.ȼ. 2001. ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɫ-
ɧɨɜɵ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɞɧɨ-ɛɨɥɨɬɧɵɯ ɭɝɨɞɢɣ. Ɇ. 56 ɫ.
ȼɨɦɩɟɪɫɤɢɣ ɋ.ɗ., ɋɢɪɢɧ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., ɐɵɝɚɧɨɜɚ Ɉ.ɉ., ȼɚɥɹɟɜɚ ɇ.Ⱥ., Ɇɚɣɤɨɜ Ⱦ.Ⱥ.
2005. Ȼɨɥɨɬɚ ɢ ɡɚɛɨɥɨɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɡɟɦɥɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ: ɩɨɩɵɬɤɚ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧ-
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ // ɂɡɜɟɫɬɢɹ ɊȺɇ. ɋɟɪ. ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮ.
ʋ 5. ɋ. 21-33.
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɩɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɢ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɢɫ-
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. 2003. Ɇɢɧɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. Ɇ.:
Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɚɹ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚ Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɸɪɨ ɩɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɜɨɞɧɨ-
ɛɨɥɨɬɧɵɯ ɭɝɨɞɢɣ. 24 ɫ.
ɉɥɸɫɧɢɧ ɘ.Ɇ. 2006. Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ ɫɨɰɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɫɟ-
ɥɟɧɢɹ ɤ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ (Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɫɨɰɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɢɫ-
ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɤ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɦ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ: ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ
ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ) / Ɋɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɫɨ-
ɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɢ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ.
ɑ. 1. Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ: Wetlands International. 88 ɫ.
79
ɋɚɥɶɧɢɤɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., ɐɵɝɚɧɨɜɚ Ɉ.ɉ., ȼɚɥɹɟɜɚ ɇ.Ⱥ, ɋɢɪɢɧ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. 2009. Ɋɚɫɩɪɨ-
ɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɧɨɣ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɨɬɚɯ ɢ ɡɚɛɨɥɨɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɡɟɦɥɹɯ
Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ // Ɋɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɛɨɥɨɬ: ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ,
ɤɚɪɬɨɝɪɚɮɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ. Ɇɢɧɫɤ: ɉɪɚɜɨ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢ-
ɤɚ. ɋ. 219–222.
Ɍɨɪɮɹɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ: ɤ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɭ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɟɜɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ. 2001 / ɉɨɞ
ɪɟɞ. Ⱥ.Ⱥ. ɋɢɪɢɧɚ ɢ Ɍ.ɘ. Ɇɢɧɚɟɜɨɣ. Ɇ.: Ƚɟɨɫ. 190 ɫ.
ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ. ȼɜɨɞɧɵɣ ɤɭɪɫ:
ɍɱɟɛɧɨɟ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ. 2003 / ɉɨɞ ɪɟɞ. Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ƚɨɥɭɛɚ, Ƚ.ȼ. ɋɚɮɨɧɨɜɚ. Ɇ.: Ƚɍ
ȼɒɗ. 268 ɫ.
əɦɩɨɥɶɫɤɢɣ Ⱥ.Ʌ. 2004. Ʉɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨ-
ɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɬɨɪɮɹɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɨɬ // Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨ-
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ. ȼɵɩ. 7. ɋɭɪɝɭɬ: Ⱦɟɮɢɫ. ɋ. 108-119.
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ȻɂɈɋɎȿɊɇɕȿ ɎɍɇɄɐɂɂ ɂ ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆɇɕȿ ɍɋɅɍȽɂ:
Ʉ ɆȿɌɈȾɈɅɈȽɂɂ ɗɄɈɅɈȽɈ-ɗɄɈɇɈɆɂɑȿɋɄɂɏ ɈɐȿɇɈɄ
ȾȿəɌȿɅɖɇɈɋɌɂ ɈɈɉɌ

Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ɍɢɲɤɨɜ
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɢ ɊȺɇ

ȼ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ


ɈɈɉɌ ɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɚɫɶ ɤɨɪɟɧɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ. Ⱦɨɯɨɞɵ ɨɬ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɢ ɬɭɪɢ-
ɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ
ɩɚɪɤɚɦɢ ɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɚɸɬɫɹ ɤ ɫɭɦɦɟ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ, ɱɬɨ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ ɷɬɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ
ɈɈɉɌ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ. Ⱥ ɷɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɬ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨ ɦɟɪɟ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɟɣ
ɢ ɞɨɯɨɞɨɜ ɈɈɉɌ ɨɬ ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ ɢ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɢ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɛɭɞɟɬ
ɪɚɫɬɢ ɨɛɴɟɦ ɢɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɡɚɜɢɫɹɳɢɣ ɧɚɩɪɹɦɭɸ ɨɬ ɜɨɫɬɪɟɛɨ-
ɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ. Ɇɵ ɧɟɨɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɥɢ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɦɧɨ-
ɝɨɚɫɩɟɤɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ
ɈɈɉɌ (Ɍɢɲɤɨɜ, 1999, 2002, 2005). Ɉɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɩɟɯɨɜ ɪɟɚɥɢ-
ɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ȽɗɎ «ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚ-
ɰɢɢ», ɧɚ ɧɚɲ ɜɡɝɥɹɞ, ɫɬɚɥɨ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ,
ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɜ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɭ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɣ
ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ. ɂɬɨɝɨɦ ɫɬɚɥɨ ɜɵɹɜɥɟ-
ɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨ-
ɪɵɯ ɈɈɉɌ (ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ..., 2002), ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɤɚ-
ɞɚɫɬɪɨɜɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ, ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɢ ɧɚ
ɭɱɟɬɟ ɢɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ (Ɇɚɪɬɵɧɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 2002), ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɚ ɨɤɨɥɨ 60
ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ ɜ ɷɬɨɣ ɧɨɜɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ
ɫɟɦɢɧɚɪɚɯ ɜ ȼɚɲɢɧɝɬɨɧɟ ɢ Ɇɨɫɤɜɟ, ɢɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɭɱɟɛɧɵɯ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɣ ɢ ɫɩɪɚɜɨɱ-
ɧɢɤɨɜ ɜ ɷɬɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ (Ƚɭɪɦɚɧ ɢ ɞɪ., 2002; ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ…, 2002;
ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ..., 2002; Ɏɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɟ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɢ…, 2002), ɢɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɪɭɫɫɤɨɦ
ɹɡɵɤɟ ɪɚɛɨɬ ɩɨ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɦ ɭɫɥɭɝɚɦ (Ⱦɢɤɫɨɧ ɢ ɞɪ., 2000ɚ, ɛ).
ɗɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɜɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɡɞɚ-
ɧɢɹ ɈɈɉɌ ɢ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɜɚɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ ɟɝɨ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶ-
ɧɨɫɬɢ. ɇɨ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɥɢ ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɥɧɨɬɚ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ
ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɈɈɉɌ?
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ
ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ ɈɈɉɌ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɧɚɣɬɢ ɜ ɧɚɲɢɯ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɹɯ
(Ɍɢɲɤɨɜ, 2005, 2006; Ɇɚɪɬɵɧɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 2002). ȼ 1997 ɝ. ɨɫɧɨɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɢɤ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ Ɋ. Ʉɨɧɫɬɚɧɡɚ (Constanza et al., 1997) ɨɩɪɟɞɟ-
ɥɢɥ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɦɨɜ ɦɢɪɚ, ɛɚɡɢɪɭɹɫɶ ɧɚ ɭɱɟɬɟ «ɭɬɢɥɢ-
ɬɚɪɧɵɯ» ɢ «ɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɵɯ» ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ. Ⱥɜɬɨɪ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɝɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ,
ɛɭɞɭɱɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɨɦ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɢ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɜɧɨɫɢɬ ɜ ɨɰɟɧɤɭ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦ ɈɈɉɌ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ «ɛɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɧɚɱɚɥɨ» (ɬɚɛɥ. 1), ɚ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ – ɩɟɪɟ-
ɯɨɞɢɬ ɨɬ «ɚɧɚɥɨɝɨɜɵɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ» ɤ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɨɰɟɧɤɚɦ (Ɍɢɲɤɨɜ, 1999, 2005).
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Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1. Ȼɢɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɈɈɉɌ
ɢ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɢɯ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ
ɉɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɞɥɹ
Ȼɢɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɗɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ, ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ
ɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ
ɉɪɹɦɨɟ ɢ ɨɩɨɫɪɟɞɨ- ɉɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞ- Ɉɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɜɚɧɧɨɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚ ɧɨɝɨ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ (ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ) ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɛɢɨɬɵ
ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɢ ɪɟɝɢɨ- ɮɨɧɚ, ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɚɞɚɩɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɤ
ɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɥɢɦɚɬ ɡɚ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ, ɪɟɝɢɨ- ɡɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɭ ɚɝɪɚɪɧɨ-
ɫɱɟɬ ɚɥɶɛɟɞɨ, ɬɪɚɧɫɩɢ- ɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ, ɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɟɣɫɹ
ɪɚɰɢɢ, ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨ-ɝɢɝɢɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɢ
ɬɟɩɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ
ɩɪɢɡɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɫɥɨɹ
ȼɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚ ɝɚɡɨ- ɋɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɝɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɋɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɜɭɸ ɢ ɚɷɪɨɡɨɥɶɧɭɸ ɤɨɧɫɬɚɧɬ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ, ɢ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ, ɫɝɥɚɠɢ-
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɟ ɧɢɠ- ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɩɨɫɬɭ- ɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɚɧɨɦɚ-
ɧɢɯ ɫɥɨɟɜ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ ɥɢɣ, ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɩɪɢ-
ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ/- Ɂɟɦɥɢ ɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɨɣ ɪɚ- ɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɭɚɪɨɜ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ,
ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɬɟ- ɞɢɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɨɫɚɞɤɨɜ, ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɚɹ ɪɟɝɥɚɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɹ
ɧɢɹɦɢ, ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɩɵɥɟɧɧɨ- ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɨɱɚɝɨɜɵɯ
ɝɪɢɛɚɦɢ ɋɈ2, Ɉ2, ɫɨ- ɫɬɢ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɢ ɩɨ- ɛɨɥɟɡɧɟɣ, ɚɞɚɩɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ
ɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɣ ɚɡɨɬɚ, ɫɟɪɵ ɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɚɷɪɨɡɨɥɟɣ; ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɟ-
ɢ ɩɪ., ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɢɯ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɭɪɫɚɦɢ (ɜɨɞɚ, ɥɟɫ, ɛɢɨɪɟɫɭɪ-
ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ ɜ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚ ɧɚ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɟ ɫɵ ɢ ɩɪ.)
Ȼɢɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɉɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɨɥ- ɇɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚ-
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ- ɧɟɱɧɨɣ ɷɧɟɪɝɢɢ ɢ ɟɟ ɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɢɯ
ɫɬɢ, ɥɟɠɚɳɚɹ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɚ ɩɨ ɬɪɨɮɢɱɟ- ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɭɝɨɜɨɪɨɬɚ,
ɩɢɳɟɜɵɯ ɰɟɩɟɣ ɢ ɬɪɨ- ɫɤɢɦ ɰɟɩɹɦ, ɩɨɞɞɟɪ- ɛɢɨɝɟɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɟ-
ɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɢɪɚɦɢɞ – ɠɚɧɢɟ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɛɦɟɧɚ; ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟ-
ɩɟɪɜɢɱɧɨɣ ɢ ɜɬɨɪɢɱ- ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ ɡɚ ɧɢɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦɢ –
ɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ, ɜɤɥɚɞ ɫɱɟɬ ɩɟɪɜɢɱɧɨɣ ɩɪɨ- ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɨɣ, ɩɚɫɬɛɢɳɧɵɦɢ
ɜ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɛɢɨɥɨ- ɞɭɤɰɢɢ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɪɦɚɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɫɤɨɬɚ, ɩɢɳɟɜɵɦ,
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɤɪɭɝɨɜɨɪɨɬ ɦɧɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɬɪɨɮɢ- ɥɟɤɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɫɵɪɶɟɦ, ɢ ɩɪ.;
ɢ ɜ ɦɟɠɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɣ ɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡ- ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ
ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɢ ɦɨɜ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ; ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɪɢɫɤɚ
ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɨɛɦɟɧ ɷɧɞɟɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ
Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɪɟ- ȼɨɞɨɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ ɢ ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɰɢɤ-
ɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɢ ɜɨɞɨ-ɫɛɟɪɟɝɚɸɳɢɟ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɢ ɜɨ-
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ, ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟ- ɞɨɣ, ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ, ɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ
ɜɨɞ, ɜɥɚɝɨɨɛɦɟɧɚ ɫɭ- ɪɟɞɶ ɥɟɫɨɜ, ɫɬɟɩɟɣ, ɫɬɨɤɚ, ɟɝɨ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɜ,
ɲɢ ɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ, ɛɨɥɨɬ ɢ ɨɡɟɪ (ɜ ɝɨɪɚɯ ɢ ɤɨɧɫɟɪɜɚɰɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦɢ
ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɬɟɪ- ɧɚ ɪɚɜɧɢɧɚɯ), ɨɩɪɟɞɟ- ɜɨɞɵ ɢ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɟɟ ɢɫ-
ɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɥɹɸɳɢɟ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɨ- ɩɚɪɟɧɢɹ, ɫɚɦɨɨɱɢɳɚɸɳɚɹ
ɞɵ, ɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɢ ɬɪɚɧɫ- ɪɨɥɶ ɛɨɥɨɬ, ɪɟɤ, ɨɡɟɪ; ɝɚɪɚɧ-
ɝɪɚɧɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟ- ɬɢɢ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɟɝɨ ɬɪɚɧɡɢɬɚ ɢ
ɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɪɚɧɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɤɚ
Ɉɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ (ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟ- ɉɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɭɫɬɨɣ- ɉɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ, ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ
ɥɚɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɮɥɭɤ- ɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɤɨɦ- «ɪɚɛɨɬɟ» ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɛɢɨɬɵ ɢ
82
ɬɭɚɰɢɣ) ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɵ ɜ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɚɧɨɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɢ-
ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɢ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɣ – ɡɚɫɭɯ, ɧɚ-
ɫɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ ɜɨɞɧɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜ ɢ ɩɪ.
ɚɧɨɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɣ
Ɂɚɳɢɬɚ ɩɨɱɜ ɢ ɝɪɭɧ- ɉɪɨɬɢɜɨɷɪɨɡɢɨɧɧɵɟ, ɉɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɢ
ɬɨɜ ɨɬ ɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɢ ɜɟɬ- ɩɨɱɜɨɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɟ, ɛɟɪɟ- ɜɟɬɪɨɜɨɣ ɷɪɨɡɢɢ, ɜɵɧɨɫɚ ɭɝ-
ɪɨɜɨɣ ɷɪɨɡɢɢ, ɨɫɭɳɟ- ɝɨɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɟ ɢ ɫɤɥɨɧɨ- ɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɫ ɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɫɬɨɤɨɦ, ɪɨɫ-
ɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɟɪɜɢɱɧɵɯ ɢ ɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɬɚ ɨɜɪɚɝɨɜ; ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɭɝɪɨɡɵ
ɜɬɨɪɢɱɧɵɯ ɫɭɤɰɟɫɫɢɢ ɫɩɨɧɬɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜ, ɪɚɡɜɢ-
ɩɪɢ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɹɯ ɩɪɢ- ɬɢɹ ɫɤɥɨɧɨɜɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ;
ɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨ- ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɪɟɫɩɢɪɚɬɨɪ-
ɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ ɧɵɯ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ ɭ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ
Ⱥɫɫɢɦɢɥɹɰɢɹ ɢ ɧɟɣ- ɉɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɚɫɫɢɦɢ- ɇɟɣɬɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ
ɬɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɢɡɛɵɬɨɱɧɨ ɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɚɞɫɨɪɛ- ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɱɜ,
ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɷɤɨ- ɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜ ɥɚɧɞ- ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ, ɛɢɨɬɵ ɢ ɚɝ-
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜ, ɜ ɲɚɮɬɨɜ, ɢɯ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨ- ɪɚɪɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ, ɞɟɬɨɤɫɢ-
ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨ- ɫɬɢ ɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɤɚɰɢɹ ɠɢɞɤɢɯ ɢ ɬɜɟɪɞɵɯ ɨɬ-
ɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɣ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɯɨɞɨɜ, ɢɯ ɞɟɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ
ɬɨɤɫɢɱɧɵɯ, ɬɜɟɪɞɵɯ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɹ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟ- ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɚɩɪɨɬɪɨɮɧɵɯ
ɨɬɯɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɩɪ., ɜ ɬɨɦ ɪɵ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɫɟɪɵ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ, ɦɚɤɪɨɮɢɬɨɜ ɩɪɢ-
ɱɢɫɥɟ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɢ ɚɡɨɬɚ, ɷɜɬɪɨɮɢɪɨɜɚ- ɛɪɟɠɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɫɵ ɪɟɤ ɢ ɨɡɟɪ;
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɪɚ- ɧɢɟ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɡɚ
ɧɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨ- ɩɨɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɨɤɨɜ ɫ ɫɱɟɬ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɚɞɫɨɪɛɰɢɢ ɢ
ɝɨ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɚ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɦ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɦ ɚɫɫɢɦɢɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜ
ɚɡɨɬɚ ɢ ɮɨɫɮɨɪɚ ɢ ɩɪ. ɛɢɨɬɵ
ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢ- ɉɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞ- ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɞɤɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɢɡ
ɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɧɚ Ʉɪɚɫɧɨɣ ɤɧɢɝɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ; ɪɟɝɭ-
ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɧɚ ɝɟɧɟ- ɜɫɟɯ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɨ- ɥɹɰɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ, ɜɢɞɨɜɨɦ, ɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ – ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɢɞɨ- ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɠɢ-
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɦ ɢ ɜɨɦ, ɜɢɞɨɜɨɦ, ɷɤɨɫɢ- ɜɨɬɧɵɯ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜ- ɫɬɟɦɧɨɦ, ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɨɦ; ɜɢɞɨɜ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ, ɯɢɳɧɢɤɨɜ ɢ
ɧɹɯ; ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɝɟ- ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɚ ɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɶ- ɤɨɩɵɬɧɵɯ); ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɪɢɫɤɚ
ɧɨɮɨɧɞɚ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨ- ɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɬɪɨ- ɢɧɜɚɡɢɣ ɱɭɠɟɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ,
ɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪ ɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɨɪɝɚ- ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɨɱɚɝɨɜɵɯ
ɢ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɟɝɨ ɫɤɨɬɚ ɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɢ ɫɚɦɨɪɟɝɭɥɹ- ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ
ɰɢɢ, ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɣ ɜ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ; «ɛɢɨɬɢ- ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɦ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟ ɢ ɩɪɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶ» ɜ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɨɱɚɝɨɜ ɤɚɬɚɫɬ-
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɣ ɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ
ɱɭɠɟɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ
Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɛɢɨ- ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ȼɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɮɭɝɢɭɦɨɜ ɪɟɮɭɝɢɭɦɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɦɢɝ- ɦɢɝɪɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬ-
ɞɥɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɜɨɫ- ɪɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ – ɧɵɯ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜɨɞɨɩɥɚɜɚɸ-
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɦɢɝɪɢ- ɡɢɦɨɜɤɢ, ɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɜ ɳɢɯ ɢ ɯɢɳɧɵɯ ɩɬɢɰ, ɤɨɩɵɬ-
ɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɢ ɪɟ- ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɣ ɢ ɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɪ.), ɫɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɜɵ-
ɡɢɞɟɧɬɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡ- ɦɟɫɬ ɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɸ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ ɫɬɪɚɧ
ɦɨɜ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɦɢɝɪɚ- ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ (ɪɟɩɪɨ- ɩɨ ɦɟɠɝɪɚɧɢɱɧɵɦ ɫɨɝɥɚɲɟ-
ɰɢɣ, ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɪɢ- ɞɭɤɰɢɢ), ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɧɢɹɦ ɩɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɟ ɦɢɝɪɢɪɭɸ-
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ɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧ- ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳ, ɤɨɥɨɧɢɣ ɳɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɝɥɨ-
ɧɵɯ ɤɚɬɚɫɬɪɨɮɢɱɟ- ɩɬɢɰ, ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɪɚɡ- ɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ ɜɨɞɨɩɥɚ-
ɫɤɢɯ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɩɵɬɧɵɯ ɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɩɬɢɰ
ɉɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɢ- ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪ- ɇɟɢɫɱɟɪɩɚɟɦɵɟ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨ- ɠɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛ-
ɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɫɩɨ- ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɛɢɨ- ɪɚɡɢɹ ɛɢɨɬɵ ɞɥɹ ɫɟɥɟɤɰɢɢ,
ɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɛɢɨɬɵ ɜ ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛ- ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɥɟɤɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɢɹ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɛɢɨɬɵ, ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ, ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɛɢɨ-
ɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞ- ɫɟɥɟɤɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɢɧɬɟɡɚ ɧɨɜɵɯ
ɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ, ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜ ɠɢɡɧɟɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ
ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜ, ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɢɯ ɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɵ; ɜɵɝɨ-
ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ, ɩɪɨɞɭɤ- ɩɨɥɟɡɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɱɟɥɨ- ɞɵ ɨɬ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɩɪɚɜ ɧɚ
ɬɨɜ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɹɪɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɜɟɤɚ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɦɢ, ɨɫɨ- ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧ-
ɛɢɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɢɧ- ɛɟɧɧɨ ɥɟɤɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɪɟɫɭɪ-
ɬɟɡɚ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ ɫɵ ɢ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ
ȼɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɉɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɪɟ- Ɉɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɛɟɫɩɥɚɬɧɨɝɨ ɢɥɢ
ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɫɭɪ- ɫɭɪɫɧɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɣ ɩɥɚɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨ ɥɶɝɨɬɧɵɦ ɰɟɧɚɦ
ɫɨɜ, ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɨ «ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ» ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɟɧɨɤɨɫɨɜ ɢ
ɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɚɹɫɹ ɮɭɧɤ- (ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɩɚɫɬɛɢɳ; ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɨɩ-
ɰɢɹ «ɤɨɪɦɹɳɟɝɨ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɦɵɯ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɦ ɥɢɜɧɨɣ (ɞɪɨɜɚ) ɢ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶ-
ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɚ» ɞɥɹ ɦɟ- ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɚɪɨɦ – ɧɨɣ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɵ, ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ
ɫɬɧɨɝɨ – ɩɨɫɟɥɤɨɜɨɝɨ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ, ɜɨɞɧɵɯ, ɥɭɝɨ- ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ – ɩɪɨ-
ɢ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɫɟɥɟ- ɜɵɯ) ɞɥɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ ɮɚɭɧɵ, ɩɢɳɟɜɵɯ
ɧɢɹ, ɦɚɥɨɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧ- ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣ- (ɹɝɨɞɵ, ɝɪɢɛɵ, ɨɪɟɯɢ ɢ ɩɪ.),
ɧɨɝɨ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɫɟ- ɫɬɜɚ, ɛɨɪɶɛɵ ɫ ɛɟɞɧɨ- ɥɟɤɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɶɸ, ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɪɟɤ- ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ, ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶ-
ɪɟɚɰɢɢ ɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɩɵɥɢɬɟɥɟɣ (ɦɟɞ ɢ ɞɪ.)
ɉɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢ- ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ, ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ,
ɞɥɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɫɟ- ɨɧɧɵɯ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜ ɥɚɧɞ- ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɢ ɨɡɞɨɪɨɜɢ-
ɳɟɧɢɹ ɈɈɉɌ, ɫɨɯɪɚ- ɲɚɮɬɨɜ, ɢɯ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢ- ɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ ɨɬ ɪɟɤɪɟɚ-
ɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɡɞɨɪɨɜɢɬɟɥɶ- ɨɧɧɨɣ ɟɦɤɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɨ- ɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ,
ɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɢɨɪɟ- ɞɨɯɨɞɵ ɨɬ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɢɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞ- ɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ, ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɪɵ-
ɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ ɤ ɫɚɦɨɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟ- ɛɚɥɤɢ, ɨɯɨɬɵ, ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɧɢɸ; ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɩɪɨɦɵ- ɷɤɫɤɭɪɫɢɣ; ɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɨɟ
ɫɥɨɜɨɣ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɢ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɈɈɉɌ; ɪɚɛɨ-
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɩɨ- ɱɢɟ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɞɥɹ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɫɟ-
ɡɧɚɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ ɥɟɧɢɹ
ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɞɥɹ Ɉɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɞɭɯɨɜ- ɗɮɮɟɤɬ ɨɬ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨ-
ɧɟɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɵɯ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɞɵ, ɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ, ɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬ-
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɴɟɤ- ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɜɟɧɧɚɹ, ɦɟɦɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ, ɨɛɪɚ-
ɬɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɝɟɞɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɰɟɧɧɨ- ɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ, ɧɚɭɱɧɚɹ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɩɚɪɤɚ – ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫɬɟɣ ɛɢɨɬɵ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢ- ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɚ, ɞɨɯɨɞɵ ɨɬ ɩɪɟɞ-
ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜ, ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɣ ɫɬɟɦ, ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ, ɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɹ (ɜɵɛɨɪɚ) ɈɈɉɌ ɞɥɹ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɟɣɡɚɠɟɣ, ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟ- ɨɬɞɵɯɚ ɢ ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚ-
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɦɟɦɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɢɹ ɢɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɤɢɧɨ- ɢ
ɦɟɫɬ ɮɨɬɨɫɴɟɦɤɢ ɢ ɩɪ.; ɪɚɛɨɱɢɟ
ɦɟɫɬɚ ɞɥɹ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ

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ɉɪɹɦɚɹ ɢ ɨɩɨɫɪɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɫɜɹɡɶ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɢ ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɫ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɈɈɉɌ ɩɪɨɫɥɟɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶ-
ɧɨɦ ɢ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ. ɋɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ
ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬ ɤ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɤɚɬɚɫɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɦ, ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɭɹ ɪɚɡɜɢ-
ɬɢɟ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ, ɤɚɤ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɝɪɭɧɬɨɜɵɯ ɜɨɞ, ɚɧɨɦɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɚ-
ɜɨɞɤɢ, ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ ɷɪɨɡɢɢ, ɞɟɮɥɹɰɢɹ, ɡɚɫɭɯɢ ɢ ɩɪ. ɇɟɞɨɭɱɟɬ ɷɬɢɯ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɣ
ɩɪɢɜɟɥ ɤ ɬɹɠɟɥɵɦ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɡɡɪɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɩɨɬɟɪɹɦ ɞɥɹ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɬɟɩɟɪɶ «ɛɨɥɟɟɬ» ɡɚ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɬɪɨɩɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ, ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɨɤɟɚɧɚ, ɩɨɬɟɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɚɪɧɨ-
ɝɨ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ, ɧɨ ɧɢɱɟɝɨ ɧɟ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ ɪɭɛɤɢ ɜ ɜɟɪɯɨɜɶɹɯ ɪɟɤ,
ɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɫ ɩɢɬɶɟɜɨɣ ɜɨɞɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɢɯ ɠɟ ɝɨɪɨɞɚ. ɉɥɚɧɟɬɚɪ-
ɧɵɣ ɚɥɶɬɪɭɢɡɦ, ɤ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɭ ɧɚɫ ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɢɭɱɚɸɬ ɚɥɚɪɦɢɫɬɫɤɢɟ ɢɡɞɚ-
ɧɢɹ, ɡɚɬɦɟɜɚɟɬ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɟ, ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɬɶ
ɫɭɬɶ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɈɈɉɌ ɢ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɦ
ɭɪɨɜɧɟ, ɷɤɫɬɪɚɩɨɥɢɪɭɹ ɢɯ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɢ ɞɭɦɚɹ
ɨɛ ɢɯ ɜɤɥɚɞɟ ɜ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ.
ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ, ɧɚ ɧɚɲ ɜɡɝɥɹɞ, ɜɚɠɧɨ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɫɩɟɤɬɪ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɈɈɉɌ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɧɨ ɩɪɨɜɟɫɬɢ ɢɯ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɧɭɸ (ɞɟɧɟɠɧɭɸ)
ɨɰɟɧɤɭ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɨɦ ɩɪɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɢ
ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ, ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ
ɢ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɣ ɡɚ ɧɟɝɨ (ɬɚɛɥ. 2). Ⱥɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɞɥɹ
ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɫɬɚɦɢ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɚɦɢ –
ɋ.ɇ. Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜɵɦ, Ƚ.Ⱥ. Ɏɨɦɟɧɤɨ, ɂ.ɉ. Ƚɥɚɡɵɪɢɧɨɣ, Ⱥ.ȼ. ɋɬɟɰɟɧɤɨ, ɘ.ȼ. ɉɚ-
ɧɚɫɨɜɫɤɢɦ (ɉɚɧɚɫɨɜɫɤɢɣ, Ʉɢɫɥɵɣ, 1986) ɢ ɞɪ. ɇɨ ɨɧɢ ɧɢɤɨɝɞɚ ɧɟ ɜɵɯɨɞɢ-
ɥɢ ɡɚ ɪɚɦɤɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɛɥɢɡɤɢɯ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɵɯ ɢ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧ-
ɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ. ȼɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɧɚ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɭɝ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɚ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɧɚɦɢ ɫ ɤɨɥɥɟ-
ɝɚɦɢ Ƚɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɤɚɞɚɫɬɪɨɜɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ, ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɨɜ ɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶ-

Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2. Ⱦɟɧɟɠɧɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɈɈɉɌ


ɍɞɟɥɶɧɚɹ
ɗɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ- ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ,
Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ
ɧɚɹ ɭɫɥɭɝɚ ɪɭɛ. ɧɚ 1
ɝɚ ɜ ɝɨɞ
Ⱦɟɧɟɠɧɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ ɩɨɬɟɪɶ «ɭɪɨɠɚɹ ɧɚ
ɤɨɪɧɸ» ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ
Ʉɥɢɦɚɬɨɪɟ-
(ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɤ/ɢɡɛɵɬɨɤ ɬɟɩɥɚ ɢ ɜɥɚɝɢ), «ɧɟɞɨɛɨɪ» 30-45
ɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɚɹ
ɩɪɢɪɨɫɬɚ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɵ ɜ ɚɧɨɦɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦ ɝɨɞɵ
Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɬɟɪɶ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɩɪɢ ɨɛɟɡɥɟɫɢɜɚɧɢɢ,
ȼɨɞɨɪɟɝɭɥɢ-
ɨɫɭɲɤɟ ɛɨɥɨɬ, ɪɚɫɩɚɲɤɟ ɫɬɟɩɟɣ (ɱɟɪɟɡ ɡɚɬɪɚɬɵ ɧɚ 90-150
ɪɭɸɳɚɹ
ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɸ)

85
ɋɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ Ɉɰɟɧɤɢ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɜ ɞɟɩɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɚɬɦɨ- ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ 1 ɬɨɧɧɵ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɭɝ-
90-1500
ɫɮɟɪɵ (ɋɈ2 ɢ ɥɟɪɨɞɚ (ɨɬ 5 ɞɨ 50 ɞɨɥɥ. ɋɒȺ ɡɚ 1 ɬ); ɞɟɩɨɧɢɪɭɟɬ-
ɞɪ.) ɫɹ: ɥɟɫɚ ɞɨ 1,0 ɬ/ɝɚ ɜ ɝɨɞ, ɛɨɥɨɬɚ – 0,6 ɬ/ɝɚ ɜ ɝɨɞ
Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ ɧɚ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɩɨ ɡɚɳɢɬɟ ɨɬ ɷɪɨɡɢɢ, ɪɟ-
ɉɨɱɜɨɡɚɳɢɬ- ɤɭɥɶɬɢɜɚɰɢɢ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟ-
150-3750
ɧɚɹ ɧɢɸ ɪɢɫɤɚ ɷɪɨɡɢɢ – 0,1-2,5% ɨɬ ɫɬɪɚɯɨɜɨɣ ™ – ɢɡ
ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɬɚɤɨɜɨɦ ɧɭɠɞɚɟɬɫɹ 30% ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɡɚɬɪɚɬɵ ɧɚ ɥɢɤɜɢɞɚɰɢɸ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣ
ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɹ: ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɝɟɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ «ɥɨɜɭɲɟɤ»,
«ɪɚɡɛɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ» ɫɬɨɤɨɜ ɞɨ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɢ ɩɪ.;
Ⱥɫɫɢɦɢɥɹɰɢ-
ɛɚɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɢ ɢɡɞɟɪɠɟɤ ɩɨ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟ- 20-40
ɨɧɧɚɹ
ɧɢɸ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɨɜ ɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɢɯ
ɫɨɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣ ɫɪɨɤ ɢ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ
ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɢ
Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɡɚɬɪɚɬɵ ɧɚ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɝɨ
ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɩɪɢ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, 1 ɝɚ
Ȼɢɨɩɪɨɞɭɤ- ɩɨ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɚɦ: ɥɟɫɧɵɟ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ – 4 ɬɵɫ. ɪɭɛ.
72
ɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ (ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ – 3,5 ɬɵɫ. ɪɭɛ.), ɫɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ – 340 ɪɭɛ.
(ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ – 90 ɪɭɛ.). Ⱦɥɹ ɥɟɫɨɜ – ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɵɣ ɩɟ-
ɪɢɨɞ – 60 ɥɟɬ, ɞɥɹ ɬɪɚɜɹɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ – 10-15 ɥɟɬ
ɉɪɹɦɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ «ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ» ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ (ɞɪɨɜ, ɹɝɨɞ, ɝɪɢɛɨɜ,
Ȼɢɨɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɚɹ ɫɟɧɚ, ɥɟɤɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɬɪɚɜ, ɨɯɨɬɧɢɱɶɟɣ ɮɚɭɧɵ, ɩɪɨ- 90-150
ɞɭɤɬɨɜ ɪɵɛɨɥɨɜɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɩɪ.), ɢɡɵɦɚɟɦɵɯ ɛɟɡ ɩɨɫɥɟɞ-
ɫɬɜɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ
ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ
Ɉɰɟɧɤɢ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ
ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛ-
ɧɚ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɈɈɉɌ (ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ – 90-100 ɪɭɛ. ɧɚ 1 90
ɪɚɡɢɹ, ɜ ɬ. ɱ.
ɝɚ ɜ ɝɨɞ)
ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
Ɋɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɡɚɛɨɥɟ-
Ɉɡɞɨɪɨɜɢ- ɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɨɩɥɚɬɵ ɩɨ ɛɨɥɶɧɢɱɧɵɦ ɥɢɫɬɚɦ ɬɟɯ, ɤɬɨ
2-5
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɬ ɨɬɞɵɯ ɧɚ ɈɈɉɌ (ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɪɚɫɬɟɬ ɩɨ
ɦɟɪɟ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɧɬɨɜ)
Ɉɰɟɧɤɢ ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɞɥɹ ɈɈɉɌ
Ɋɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧ-
Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɞɨɯɨɞɚ ɨɬ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ
ɧɵɟ (ɤɨɦɦɟɪ-
ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ (ɡɚ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɋɨɱɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɰɢɨ- 50-60
ɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɢɫ-
ɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɚɪɤɚ ɛɸɞɠɟɬ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɈɈɉɌ ɧɚ 60%
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ)
ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɢɡ ɡɚɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ)
Ƚɟɞɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɪɚɡɧɢɰɭ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɡɟɦ-
(ɧɟɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟ-
ɥɢ ɢ ɞɟɪɟɜɟɧɫɤɢɯ ɞɨɦɨɜ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɪɹɞɨɦ ɫ
ɫɤɨɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨ-
ɈɈɉɌ ɢ ɛɟɡ ɈɈɉɌ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɱɟɪɟɡ «ɝɨɬɨɜɧɨɫɬɶ 180
ɜɚɧɢɟ, ɫɭɳɟɫɬ-
ɩɥɚɬɢɬɶ» ɬɭɪɢɫɬɨɜ ɢ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɡɚ ɜɯɨɞ ɧɚ
ɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɧɟɢɫ-
ɈɈɉɌ, ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɟ ɡɚɬɪɚɬɵ ɢ ɩɪ.
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ)
ɂɬɨɝɨ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ, ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ, ɧɚ 1 ɝɚ 864-6042

86
ɧɵɯ ɩɚɪɤɨɜ (Ɇɚɪɬɵɧɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 2002; ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ…, 2002). ɇɟɤɨɬɨ-
ɪɵɟ ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɫɜɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɭɱɚɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢ ɜ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɟ ɩɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɢɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ ɢ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɢ, ɧɨ
ɧɢɤɚɤ ɧɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢ ɟɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɞɥɹ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ.
ȼ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɢ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɦ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ-
ɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ ɈɈɉɌ – 864-6042 ɪɭɛɥɟɣ ɧɚ 1 ɝɚ ɜ ɝɨɞ ɢ
ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɵɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɈɈɉɌ 45,8–
199,2 ɦɥɪɞ. ɪɭɛɥɟɣ ɜ ɝɨɞ – ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɨɬ ɬɟɯ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɥ
Ɋ. Ʉɨɧɫɬɚɧɡɚ (Constanza et al., 1997) ɞɥɹ ɬɭɧɞɪ, ɛɨɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ, ɫɬɟɩɟɣ ɢ
ɝɨɪ ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɹɫɚ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɵ, ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭɹɫɶ ɧɚ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɞɥɹ
ɋɒȺ. ɋɪɟɞɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ ɪɟɤɨɪɞɧɨɟ ɜ 2008 ɝ.
ɱɢɫɥɨ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɟɣ Ƀɟɥɥɨɭɫɬɨɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɚɪɤɚ (3,15 ɦɥɧ.!) ɢ
ɜɵɫɨɤɢɟ ɞɨɯɨɞɵ ɨɬ ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɨɯɨɬɵ ɢ ɪɵɛɚɥɤɢ, ɩɪɟɜɪɚɬɢɜɲɢɟɫɹ ɜ
ɋɒȺ ɜ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɢ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ ɫ ɞɨɯɨɞɨɦ ɨɬ 25-35 ɞɨ 60 ɦɥɪɞ.
ɞɨɥɥɚɪɨɜ ɜ ɝɨɞ. Ɍɚɤ, ɱɬɨ ɞɥɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɢɦɟɸɳɟɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɸ ɜ 3 ɪɚɡɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ
ɢ ɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɣ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɪɟɫɭɪɫ, ɜɫɟ ɟɳɟ ɜɩɟɪɟɞɢ.

Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
Ƚɭɪɦɚɧ ȼ.ɂ, Ƚɭɫɟɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., Ʌɶɜɨɜ Ⱦ.ɋ., Ɍɢɲɤɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. 2002. Ɏɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɟ ɢɫɬɨɱ-
ɧɢɤɢ, ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞ-
ɧɵɣ ɪɵɧɨɤ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ. Ɇ.: ɂɉɊ ɊȺɇ; ɐɗɆɂ ɊȺɇ. 48 ɫ.
Ⱦɢɤɫɨɧ Ⱦ.Ⱥ., Ȼɷɤɤɷɫ ɀ., Ƚɚɦɢɥɶɬɨɧ Ʉ., Ʉɚɧɬ Ⱥ., Ʌɚɬɰ ɗ., ɉɟɞɠɢɨɥɚ ɋ.,
ɏɢ ɀ. 2000. ɇɨɜɵɣ ɜɡɝɥɹɞ ɧɚ ɛɨɝɚɬɫɬɜɨ ɧɚɪɨɞɨɜ. ɂɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɵ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ. Ɇ.: ɐɉɊɉ, ɉɪɨɟɤɬ ȽɗɎ «ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡ-
ɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ». 175 ɫ.
Ⱦɢɤɫɨɧ Ⱦ.Ⱥ., ɋɤɭɪɚ Ʌ.Ɏ., Ʉɚɪɩɟɧɬɟɪ Ɋ.Ⱥ., ɒɟɪɦɚɧ ɉ.Ȼ. 2000. ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ. Ɇ.: ȼɢɬɚ. 272 ɫ.
Ɇɚɪɬɵɧɨɜ Ⱥ.ɋ., Ɍɢɲɤɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., Ʉɨɩɵɥɨɜɚ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., Ɇɨɪɨɡɨɜɚ Ɉ.ȼ., ɐɚɪɟɜ-
ɫɤɚɹ ɇ.Ƚ. 2002. Ɍɟɯɧɢɤɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪ-
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɚɞɚɫɬɪɨɜɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɨɜ // ɇɨɜɵɟ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɟ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ. Ɇ.: ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɪɵɧɤɚ
ɊȺɇ. ɋ. 162–185.
ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ:
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɫɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɢɤ. 2002 / ɉɨɞ ɪɟɞ.: Ɉ.Ⱥ. ɇɟɫɬɟɪɨɜɨɣ, Ⱥ.Ⱥ.
Ɍɢɲɤɨɜɚ; ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ. 101 ɫ.
ɉɚɧɚɫɨɜɫɤɢɣ ɘ.ȼ., Ʉɢɫɥɵɣ ȼ.ɇ. 1986. ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɢ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ // ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ, ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɢ
ɩɪɚɜɨɜɵɟ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɵ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɨɝɨ ɞɟɥɚ. Ɇ. ɋ. 112-115.
Ɍɢɲɤɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. 1999. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦ: ɲɚɝ ɜɩɟɪɟɞ ɤ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɸ ɟɞɢɧɨɣ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ // Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɛɢɨɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦ. Ɇ.: Ƚɨɫɤɨɦɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. ɋ. 4-7.
Ɍɢɲɤɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. 2005. Ȼɢɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ.
Ɇ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ. 309 ɫ.

87
Ɍɢɲɤɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. 2006. ɗɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɜ ɨɰɟɧɤɚɯ «ɐɟɥɟɣ ɬɵɫɹ-
ɱɟɥɟɬɢɹ» ɢ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɨɜ ɟɟ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ // ɉɪɢɪɨɞɨ-
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ. Ɇ.: ɄɆɄ. ɋ. 146-176.
Ɏɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɟ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɢ, ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɜ Ɋɨɫ-
ɫɢɢ ɢ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɪɵɧɨɤ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ. 2002 / ɉɨɞ ɪɟɞ.
Ƚ.Ⱥ. Ɇɨɬɤɢɧɚ. Ɇ.: ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɊȺɇ; ɐɗɆɂ ɊȺɇ ɢ ɞɪ. 48 ɫ.
ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ: ɋɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɢɤ. 2002 / ɉɨɞ ɪɟɞ.
Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ɍɢɲɤɨɜɚ; ɧɚɭɱ. ɪɟɞ.-ɫɨɫɬ. ɋ.ɇ. Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜ, Ɉ.ȿ. Ɇɟɞɜɟɞɟɜɚ, ɋ.ȼ. ɋɨ-
ɥɨɜɶɟɜɚ. Ɇ.: ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ. 604 ɫ.
Constanza R. et al. 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and
natural capital // Nature. V. 387. P. 253-260.

ɂɇɋɌɂɌɍɐɂɈɇȺɅɖɇɕȿ ɍɋɅɈȼɂə ɂ ɉɊɈȻɅȿɆɕ


ɂɋɉɈɅɖɁɈȼȺɇɂə ɈɐȿɇɈɄ ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆɇɕɏ ɍɋɅɍȽ
ȼ ɍɉɊȺȼɅȿɇɂɂ ɈɈɉɌ ɊɈɋɋɂɂ

Ƚ.Ⱥ. Ɏɨɦɟɧɤɨ, Ɇ.Ⱥ. Ɏɨɦɟɧɤɨ


ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ «Ʉɚɞɚɫɬɪ»

ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ɦɢɪɚ ɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚ-


ɧɹɟɦɵɦɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɦɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɭɫ-
ɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ1, ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬ ɜɫɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɟ
ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɬɚɤ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɧɟ ɜɟɡɞɟ. ȼ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ɋɇȽ ɢ ɜɨ
ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɵ ɤ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɦɭ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɸ
ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɤɪɚɣɧɟ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɫɩɪɨɫɚ ɧɚ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɣ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɈɈɉɌ. Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦ ɞɜɚ ɛɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ ɤ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟ-
ɧɢɸ ɬɚɤɢɦɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɦɢ – ɢɡɨɥɹɰɢɨɧɢɫɬɫɤɢɣ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ, ɤɨɬɨ-
ɪɵɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚɦɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɨɫɨ-
ɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɈɈɉɌ (ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɡɚɩɨ-
ɜɟɞɧɢɤɨɜ ɢɥɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɚɪɤɨɜ) ɢ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɤ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦɭ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɈɈɉɌ.
ɂɡɨɥɹɰɢɨɧɢɫɬɫɤɢɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɟɬ ɜɡɝɥɹɞɵ ɧɚ ɈɈɉɌ ɤɚɤ ɧɚ ɬɟɪ-
ɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ, ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡ-
ɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɦɢɧɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜɦɟɲɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ. ȼ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶ-
ɧɨɦ ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɩɥɚɧɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɈɈɉɌ ɛɚɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɟ-
ɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɧɚ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚɯ. ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɚɪɤɢ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɟɡɟɪɜɚɬɵ

1
Ⱥɞɞɢɫ-Ⱥɛɟɛɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɢ ɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɦɭ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɸ
ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ (2004). Ɉɛɳɟɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɚɹ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɥɚɧɞ-
ɲɚɮɬɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ (ɀɟɧɟɜɚ ɢ ɋɬɪɚɫɛɭɪɝ, 7 ɮɟɜɪɚɥɹ 2006 ɝ.) ɢ ɞɪ.
88
ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɜɢɞɨɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɧɵɟ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɢ; ɢɯ ɫɨɰɢ-
ɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɜɫɩɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ.
ɗɬɨɬ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɢɡɴɹɬɢɹ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ ɢɡ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɨ-
ɪɨɬɚ ɢ ɢɡɨɥɹɰɢɢ ɢɯ ɨɬ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢ-
ɬɢɹ. Ɉɧ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ: ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɜ ɜ
ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɈɈɉɌ ɩɪɢ ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɧɢɢ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɣ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟ-
ɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ, ɛɢɡɧɟɫ-
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪ; ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ, ɜɧɟɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ, ɦɟɬɨ-
ɞɨɜ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ; ɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɸ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɚ
ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɧɨɟ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ. ɉɪɢ ɢɡɨɥɹɰɢɨɧɢɫɬɫɤɨɦ
ɩɨɞɯɨɞɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ
ɈɈɉɌ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɹɦ, ɧɟ ɜɨɫɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɚ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ
ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɚɦɚ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɫɨɰɢ-
ɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ. ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟ-
ɧɢɟɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɈɈɉɌ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɫɬɚɬɶ ɢɯ ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɱɟɬɨɜ (ɋɇɋ), ɬɨɱɧɟɟ ɜ
ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɨɜɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɱɟɬɚ (ɋɗɗɍ). Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ
ɞɥɹ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨ-
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ.
ɂɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ. ȼ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɟ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɦɢɪɚ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɞɟ-
ɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ, ɩɪɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɨɫɨɛɨɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɭɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ. Ɉɧ ɛɚɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ
ɧɚ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɢɧɨɣ ɩɚɪɚɞɢɝɦɟ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɝɨ
ɧɚɫɥɟɞɢɹ ɜ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ ɢ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ.
ɈɈɉɌ (ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɛɢɨɪɟɡɟɪɜɚɬɵ ɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɚɪɤɢ) ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬ-
ɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɨɥɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɨɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɢ ɡɚ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɦɢ ɢɯ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɝɪɚɧɢɰ. Ɍɟɦ ɫɚɦɵɦ ɜ
ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦ ɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɢ ɨɧɢ ɢɡ ɢɡɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɨɬ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ ɨɫɬɪɨɜ-
ɤɨɜ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɢɹ – «ɜɟɳɟɣ ɜ ɫɟɛɟ» – ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɜ
«ɜɟɳɢ ɞɥɹ ɧɚɫ», ɤɚɤ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɳɢɟ ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɟ ɢ ɜ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɟ
ɧɢɱɟɦ ɧɟ ɡɚɦɟɧɢɦɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɜɫɺ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɞɟɮɢ-
ɰɢɬɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ.
ɉɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɚɹ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚ ɩɪɢ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢ-
ɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɦɟɪɚɯ ɩɨ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɰɢɢ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɈɈɉɌ ɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɣ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɢ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨ-
ɫɬɢ ɈɈɉɌ ɩɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɜɫɟɦɢ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɚɦɢ ɢ ɩɨɨɳɪɟɧɢɸ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɢɧɢɰɢɚɬɢɜ. ɗɬɨɬ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧ
ɧɚ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɤ ɨɯɪɚɧɟ ɈɈɉɌ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɠɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɢ ɢɯ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɣ, ɫɬɢ-
ɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɢ ɦɚɥɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɛɢɡɧɟɫɚ, ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɪɚ-
ɛɨɱɢɯ ɦɟɫɬ. Ⱥɤɰɟɧɬ ɞɟɥɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧ-
ɧɨɝɨ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɧɨɝɨ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ. ɂɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɤ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ
ɈɈɉɌ ɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɢɡ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɚɜ ɧɚɥɨɝɨɩɥɚɬɟɥɶɳɢɤɨɜ
ɧɚ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɛɥɚɝɚ, ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɟɦɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɰɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞ-
ɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɢɹ.
89
ɂɦɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɢ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɈɈɉɌ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɹɦ
(ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɸ, ɛɢɡɧɟɫ-ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɦ, ɜɧɟɲɧɢɦ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɹɦ), ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧ-
ɧɵɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɢɝɪɚɸɬ ɜɚɠ-
ɧɟɣɲɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ. Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɪɹɞ ɤɨɧɰɟɩ-
ɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ, ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɨɥɢ
ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɢ, ɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɢɯ
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ:
 ɤɚɠɞɵɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɨɛɴɟɤɬ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬ ɩɨɬɨɤɢ ɛɥɚɝ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬ ɟɝɨ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɭɸ (ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɩɪɹɦɭɸ, ɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɭɸ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɣ
ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɵ, ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɞɪ.);
 ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɬɨɤɨɜ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡ-
ɧɨ, ɩɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɬɶ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ, ɧɨ ɢ ɜ ɞɟ-
ɧɟɠɧɵɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɯ.
ɂɫɯɨɞɹ ɢɡ ɷɬɨɝɨ, ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɬɨɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɨɫɧɨ-
ɜɭ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɈɈɉɌ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɥɭ-
ɱɟɧɢɹ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɧɚ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ. ɉɨɤɚɡɚ-
ɬɟɥɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɨɬɨɤɨɜ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɈɈɉɌ
(ɜ ɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɞɟɧɟɠɧɵɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɯ), ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɞɚɬɶ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɭɸ
ɨɰɟɧɤɭ ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɛɨɝɚɬɫɬɜɚ, ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɭɹ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɨɰɟɧ-
ɤɢ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɱɟɬɨɜ (ɋɇɋ\ɋɗɗɍ).
ɍɱɢɬɵɜɚɹ ɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɈɈɉɌ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɜ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ, ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢ ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ «Ʉɚɞɚɫɬɪ» ɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɟɦ
ɧɚ 15 ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚ-
ɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɟ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ
ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ (ɪɢɫ. 1). Ɉɧɢ ɩɪɨ-
ɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɡɚɞɚɱ – ɨɬ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶ-
ɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɞɨ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧ-
ɧɵɯ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɞɨ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɣ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɪɢɪɨ-
ɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɥɢɫɶ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɢ ɤ ɪɨɫ-
ɫɢɣɫɤɢɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɋɇɋ ɢ
ɋɗɗɍ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɸ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɛɨɝɚɬɫɬɜɚ. ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɩɨɡɜɨ-
ɥɹɸɬ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɪɹɞ ɜɵɜɨɞɨɜ, ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ
ɪɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɈɈɉɌ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɩɨ ɪɚɡ-
ɜɢɬɢɸ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ.
ȼɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɵɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ, ɜɨ-ɩɟɪɜɵɯ, ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɚɹ ɫɢɫ-
ɬɟɦɚ ɈɈɉɌ ɞɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜ
ɪɚɦɤɚɯ «ɢɡɨɥɹɰɢɨɧɢɫɬɫɤɨɝɨ» ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ. ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɨɧɚ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɝɥɭɛɨ-
ɤɨɦ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɦ ɤɪɢɡɢɫɟ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɨɛɨɫɬɪɢɥɫɹ ɫ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ 90-ɯ ɝɨɞɨɜ, ɤɨɝɞɚ
ɪɟɡɤɨ ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɥɢɫɶ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɨɛɴɟɦɚɯ, ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ ɩɪɢ ɩɥɚɧɨɜɨ-ɤɨɦɚɧɞɧɨɣ ɷɤɨ-
ɧɨɦɢɤɟ.
90
Ɋɢɫ. 1. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ "Ʉɚɞɚɫɬɪ" ɩɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ
ɜ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɟ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ
ɇɟɯɜɚɬɤɚ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɥɚɫɶ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɪɢ-
ɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɱɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɨɜ, ɱɟɦɭ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚ-
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ, ɧɨ ɢ ɫɬɟɪɟɨɬɢɩɵ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɩɨɪɹɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ,
ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɚ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɞɡɨɪɧɨ-ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɧɵɯ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɢ ɥɨɛɛɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ. Ɉɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɦɵɟ ɜ ɩɨ-
ɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɟ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɧɚ-
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɫɬɪɚ-
ɧɵ ɢ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ ɞɨ ɫɢɯ ɩɨɪ ɧɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɢ ɫɭɬɢ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɟɣɫɹ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ. ɉɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɵɟ ɡɚɬɪɚɬɵ ɧɚ ɨɯɪɚɧɭ ɈɈɉɌ ɨɬ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɠɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɢ
ɛɢɡɧɟɫɚ, ɜɦɟɫɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɯ ɤ ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɭ, ɞɟɥɚɸɬ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɭɸ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɈɈɉɌ (ɟɫɥɢ ɟɟ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɧɚ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ) ɦɟɧɟɟ ɫɨ-
ɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ, ɱɟɦ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢ ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɪɚɡ-
ɜɢɬɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ. Ɍɚɤɚɹ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɨɩɚɫɧɚ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɨɝɨ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɫ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɰɢɤɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɧɵɯ ɞɨɯɨ-
ɞɨɜ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɩɪɢ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɢ ɰɟɧ ɧɚ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɢ ɨɛɨɫɬɪɹɟɬɫɹ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɧɵɣ
ɞɟɮɢɰɢɬ, ɱɬɨ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɟɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɈɈɉɌ. Ɉɪɢɟɧɬɢ-
ɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɚ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɧɨɟ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɈɈɉɌ ɩɪɢ ɞɥɢ-
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚɯ ɧɢɡɤɢɯ ɰɟɧ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɢ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ,
ɩɚɞɟɧɢɢ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɥɟɝɚɸɳɢɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɨɤɚ-
ɡɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɭɝɪɨɡɨɣ ɫɜɨɟɦɭ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɸ.
ȼɨ-ɜɬɨɪɵɯ, ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɛɥɨɤɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɹ
ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ
ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɹ ɪɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɈɈɉɌ ɩɨ ɩɭɬɢ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶ-
ɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ ɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ
ɜ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɢ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɩɥɚɧɟ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɝɨ
ɪɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɹɦɢ ɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɳɟɣɫɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɈɈɉɌ, ɞɥɹ
ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɨɜ, ɜ ɜɢɞɭ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɧɢɹ
ɭɝɪɨɡɵ ɪɢɫɤɨɜ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ
ɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɟ ɬɨɪɦɨɡɹɳɟɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɚɦɹɬɶ, ɢɫ-
ɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɈɈɉɌ, ɬɨɱɧɟɟ «QWERTY»-ɷɮɮɟɤɬ.
ȼ-ɬɪɟɬɶɢɯ, ɛɵɥɨ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɈɈɉɌ,
ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɬɟɨɪɢɟɣ ɩɨɥɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɩɨɥɭ-
ɱɚɬɶ ɧɚɛɨɪ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ, ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɚɤ ɞɥɹ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɬɟɤɭɳɟɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ
ɩɪɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɢ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɈɈɉɌ
ɜ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ–ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɜɚɠɧɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɬɶ
ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝ ɬɟɤɭɳɟɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ. ɉɨɥɭ-
ɱɚɟɦɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɜ ɢɯ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɬ ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɧ-
ɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɢ ɩɨɜɵɫɢɬɶ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɧɵɯ
ɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɜ ɧɚ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɈɈɉɌ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ.
ȼ-ɱɟɬɜɟɪɬɵɯ, ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɨɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚ-
ɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɈɈɉɌ, ɢ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ, ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɦɵɯ
ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɢɯ ɩɨɬɨɤɨɜ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨ-
ɚɧɚɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ
ɈɈɉɌ. Ɉɧɢ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɬɶ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ
92
ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜɵɹɜɥɹɬɶ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɢ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɯ
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ) ɢ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ, ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ, ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɢɧɵɯ
ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ
ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɯ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɢ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ.
ȼ-ɩɹɬɵɯ, ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧ-
ɧɨɣ ɛɚɡɵ ɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɈɈɉɌ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɨ ɩɨɬɨɤɚɯ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɱɟɬɚ (ɋɗɗɍ),
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɹɸɳɢɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɱɟɬɨɜ (ɋɇɋ), ɝɞɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɦ
ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɫɝɪɭɩɩɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɚɤɬɢɜɨɜ (ɜ ɧɚɬɭ-
ɪɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɢ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɧɨɦ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɢ) ɤɚɤ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ
ɫɬɪɚɧɵ (ɧɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɢ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɦɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɚɦɢ). ɗɬɨ ɨɬɜɟɱɚ-
ɟɬ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɜɨɟɜɪɟ-
ɦɟɧɧɨɦ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɢ ɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɢ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɟɣ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɦ
ɫɬɚɬɭɫɨɦ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɵɦ ɝɪɭɩɩɚɦ – ɨ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚɩɚɫɨɜ, ɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɯ ɢ ɬɟɦɩɚɯ
ɢɯ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɦɵɯ ɞɨɯɨɞɚɯ.
ɉɪɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɦ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɡɚɤɚɡɟ ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɚ
ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ Ʉɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ ɢ ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɪɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɈɈɉɌ Ɋɨɫ-
ɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɉɥɚɧɚ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɩɨ ɟɟ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ. ɉɪɢ ɢɧɬɟ-
ɝɪɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɢ ɞɥɹ ɤɚɠɞɨɣ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɈɈɉɌ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵ: ɪɚɡɪɚ-
ɛɨɬɤɚ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ ɦɟɪ ɩɨ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ; ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɡɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ
ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɜ ɩɪɢɪɨ-
ɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɥɟɝɚɸɳɢɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ; ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɧɵɯ ɞɨɬɚɰɢɣ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɤɚɡɵ-
ɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɢ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ; ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɛɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɧɨɪ-
ɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ.

Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
Ɏɨɦɟɧɤɨ Ƚ.Ⱥ., Ɏɨɦɟɧɤɨ Ɇ.Ⱥ. 2007. Ɋɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɈɈɉɌ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ:
ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɬɭɩɢɤ ɢɥɢ ɪɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ // ɍɧɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɫɨ-
ɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɤ ɩɨɫɬɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ
ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɭ: ɋɛ. ɫɬɚɬɟɣ / ɂɧ-ɬ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɢ ɊȺɇ, Ɇɟɠɞ. Ⱥɤɚɞ. ɪɟɝɢɨɧ. ɪɚɡɜɢ-
ɬɢɹ ɢ ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ. Ɇ.: ɊȺɇ. ɋ. 82-96.
Ɏɨɦɟɧɤɨ Ƚ.Ⱥ. 2004. ɍɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ: Ɉɫɧɨɜɵ
ɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɣ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢ. Ɇ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ. 390 ɫ.
Ɏɨɦɟɧɤɨ Ƚ.Ⱥ., Ɏɨɦɟɧɤɨ Ɇ.Ⱥ., Ʌɨɲɚɞɤɢɧ Ʉ.Ⱥ., Ɇɢɯɚɣɥɨɜɚ Ⱥ.ȼ. 2002. Ⱦɟɧɟɠ-
ɧɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ: ɨɩɵɬ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ:
ɉɨɫɨɛɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ-ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɨɜ. əɪɨɫɥɚɜɥɶ: ɇɉɉ «Ʉɚɞɚɫɬɪ». 80 ɫ.
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting. 2003 / United Nations
European Commission; International Monetary Fund; Organisation for Eco-
nomic Co-Operation and Development; World Bank.
93
ɄȺɄ ɉɈɅɍɑɂɌɖ ɉɈɅɖɁɍ ɈɌ ɐȿɇɇɈɋɌɂ ɈɈɉɌ
ȼ ɊɕɇɈɑɇɈɃ ɋɂɋɌȿɆȿ?

Ɋ.Ⱥ. ɉɟɪɟɥɟɬ
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɊȺɇ

ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɈɈɉɌ – ɱɚɫɬɨ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɤɚɤ ɨɛɭɡɭ ɞɥɹ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɚ (ɮɟɞɟ-


ɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢɥɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɊɎ, ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɈɈɉɌ). ȼ ɱɚɫɬɧɨ-
ɫɬɢ, ɬɚɤɨɟ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɟ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɞɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬ-
ɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɯ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɨɜ. ɉɪɢ
ɷɬɨɦ ɦɚɥɨ ɱɬɨ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ ɨɛ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɶɡɟ ɈɈɉɌ, ɤɪɨɦɟ ɡɚɹɜɥɟ-
ɧɢɣ, ɢɞɭɳɢɯ ɨɬ ɭɱɟɧɵɯ ɢ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ, ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɧɚɞɨ
ɢɦɟɬɶ ɩɨɞ ɈɈɉɌ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɸ ɨɤɨɥɨ 10% ɦɢɪɚ, ɫɬɪɚɧɵ, ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.
Ɇɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɢɟ ɩɨɩɵɬɤɢ ɜɤɥɸɱɢɬɶ ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ (ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ) ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɨɛɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɜɚɥɨɦ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɫɨɨɬ-
ɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɯ ɤɚɞɪɨɜ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɩɪɢɱɢɧ. Ⱦɚ
ɢ ɧɟ ɜɫɟ ɈɈɉɌ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɢɬɶ ɞɥɹ ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ. ȼɢɞɢɦɨ, ɧɚɞɨ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ-
ɬɚɬɶ ɩɭɬɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹ ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɛɵ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚ-
ɥɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɭ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɫɚɦɨɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɈɈɉɌ ɩɪɢ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɟ ɢ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɟ.
ɇɟ ɜɟɡɞɟ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯ ɈɈɉɌ ɥɸɛɹɬ. ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɧɚ Ȼɚɣɤɚɥɶɫɤɨɦ ɮɨɪɭɦɟ
ɥɟɬɨɦ 2009 ɝ. ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɢ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɢ, ɱɬɨ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɡɚɹɜ-
ɥɹɟɬ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɈɈɉɌ – ɷɬɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɨɬ ɧɚɪɨɞɚ! ɈɈɉɌ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɛɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨ:
ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɶ, ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɡɚɧɹɬɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɛɥɚɝɨɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ
ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ɉɨɥɶɡɵ ɞɥɹ ɧɚɭɤɢ ɨɬ ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɧɵɧɟɲɧɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɦɚɥɨ – ɧɟɬ ɬɚɤɢɯ
ɭɱɟɧɵɯ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɛɵ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɞɚ ɟɳɟ ɡɚɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɥɢ ɞɟɧɶ-
ɝɢ ɢ ɞɥɹ ɫɟɛɹ, ɢ ɞɥɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ, ɧɟɬ ɞɟɧɟɝ ɧɚ ɨɩɥɚɬɭ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɬ. ɩ.
ȼ ɬɨ ɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ, ɜ ɉɪɢɛɚɣɤɚɥɶɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɛɵ ɞɨɛɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɥɟɡɧɵɟ ɢɫɤɨ-
ɩɚɟɦɵɟ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɤɚɤ ɪɚɡ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ, ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɯ ɈɈɉɌ.
ȼɫɩɨɦɧɢɦ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɡɨɥɨɬɵɯ ɦɟɫɬɨɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɸɝɟ Ⱥɪɯɚɧɝɟɥɶ-
ɫɤɢɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɈɈɉɌ – ɬɨɝɞɚ ɪɟɱɶ ɡɚɲɥɚ ɨɛ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ ɟɟ
ɝɪɚɧɢɰ.
ɂɧɨɝɞɚ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɟ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɫɜɨɢɯ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɯ – ɦɨɠɧɨ
ɨɛɴɹɜɢɬɶ ɤɚɤɭɸ-ɬɨ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɸ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɈɈɉɌ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ, ɱɬɨ-
ɛɵ ɜɵɫɟɥɢɬɶ ɫ ɧɟɟ ɩɪɨɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɟ ɬɚɦ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ, ɚ ɡɚɬɟɦ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɢɬɶ ɬɚɦ
ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ, ɹɤɨɛɵ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɟ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɈɈɉɌ. ȼ ɝɨɪɨɞɚɯ, ɧɚɩɪɢ-
ɦɟɪ, ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɞɨɤɚɡɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ, ɫɬɚɪɵɟ ɞɟɪɟɜɶɹ ɧɚ ɈɈɉɌ ɩɪɢɲɥɢ ɜ ɧɟ-
ɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ, ɢ ɱɬɨ ɢɯ ɢ ɜɫɸ ɈɈɉɌ ɧɚɞɨ ɩɟɪɟɜɟɫɬɢ ɜ ɧɢɡɲɭɸ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɸ ɡɧɚ-
ɱɢɦɨɫɬɢ, ɚ ɩɨɬɨɦ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɶ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɈɈɉɌ ɠɢɥɵɟ ɞɨɦɚ ɢɥɢ ɤɨɬ-
ɬɟɞɠɢ. ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɱɟɪɬɟ – ɷɬɨ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ «ɰɜɟɬɵ ɜ ɝɨɪɲɤɚɯ ɧɚ
ɛɚɥɤɨɧɟ»: ɩɨɫɱɢɬɚɥɚ ɯɨɡɹɣɤɚ, ɱɬɨ ɰɜɟɬɵ ɩɨɱɟɦɭ-ɬɨ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɠɢɥɢɫɶ, ɜɵɛɪɨ-
ɫɢɥɚ ɢɯ, ɨɫɬɚɜɢɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɧɚ ɛɚɥɤɨɧɟ, ɢɥɢ ɩɨɫɚɞɢɥɚ ɧɨ-
ɜɵɟ ɰɜɟɬɵ. Ƚɨɪɨɞɫɤɢɟ ɈɈɉɌ – ɷɬɨ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞ-
94
ɧɨ-ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɵɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɬɪɟɛɭɸɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɡɚɛɨɬɵ ɢ
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɧɚ ɢɯ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ.
Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɫɪɚɡɭ ɜɢɞɧɚ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɈɈɉɌ ɪɹɞɨɜɵɦ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟɦ –
ɝɪɨɲ ɰɟɧɚ ɈɈɉɌ ɢ ɢɯ ɩɫɟɜɞɨɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɸ, ɟɫɥɢ ɨɧɢ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɧɨɫɹɬ ɛɥɚɝ
ɢ ɥɭɱɲɟɝɨ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɠɢɡɧɢ. Ɇɨɠɧɨ ɞɨɥɝɨ ɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶ ɨ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɜ
ɈɈɉɌ ɢ ɜ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɯ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɰɢɮɪɵ ɞɟɧɟɠɧɵɯ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ. ɗɬɨ ɫɨ-
ɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨ ɢ ɜɚɠɧɨ – ɯɨɬɹ ɛɵ ɧɚ ɛɭɦɚɝɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɈɈɉɌ ɢ
ɢɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ – ɷɬɨ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɞɨɪɨɝɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ
ɤɨɪɦɢɬ ɢ ɨɞɟɜɚɟɬ ɥɸɞɟɣ, ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɢ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-
ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫɚ. ɇɨ ɧɢɤɬɨ ɷɬɢ ɜɵɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɟ ɞɟɧɶɝɢ ɜ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɜɵɪɭɱɢɬɶ (ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ, ɨɫɜɨɢɬɶ) ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ. ȼɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɪɚɡɪɭɯɢ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ 1990-ɯ
ɝɨɞɨɜ ɧɚ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɸɞɧɨɣ ɉɭɲɤɢɧɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɜ Ɇɨɫɤɜɟ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɦɨɥɨ-
ɞɵɯ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ ɧɚ ɬɪɨɬɭɚɪɟ ɫɬɨɥɢɤ ɢ ɫɨɛɪɚɥɢ ɫ ɩɪɨɯɨɠɢɯ ɩɪɢɥɢɱ-
ɧɵɟ ɞɨɛɪɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɞɟɧɶɝɢ ɧɚ «ɨɡɟɥɟɧɟɧɢɟ» Ʌɭɧɵ, ɩɨɤɚ ɢɯ ɧɟ
ɩɪɨɝɧɚɥɚ ɦɢɥɢɰɢɹ. Ɉɬɫɸɞɚ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɢɞɟɹ – ɜɜɟɫɬɢ ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɭɸ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ, ɧɨ ɧɟ «ɜ ɥɨɛ», ɜɵɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɹ ɡɚ ɧɢɯ ɞɟɧɶɝɢ. Ɇɨɠɧɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɛɵ ɢɫ-
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ «ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɛɚɪɬɟɪ» – ɨɛɦɟɧɢɜɚɬɶ
ɈɈɉɌ ɧɚ ɱɬɨ-ɬɨ.
Ɇɧɟ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɥɨɫɶ ɫɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ, ɩɨ ɤɪɚɣɧɟɣ ɦɟɪɟ, ɫ ɞɜɭɦɹ, ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ,
ɫɯɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚɦɢ – ɨɛɦɟɧɨɦ «ɞɨɥɝɨɜ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ» ɢ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ-
ɦɢ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɚ. ȼ ɨɛɨɢɯ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɞɟɧɟɠɧɵɟ – ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɟ –
ɨɰɟɧɤɢ, ɧɨ ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɧɢɤɬɨ ɞɟɧɟɝ ɜ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦ ɫɱɟɬɟ ɧɟ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬ ɢ ɧɟ ɨɬɞɚ-
ɟɬ. Ⱦɟɧɶɝɢ – ɷɬɨ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ «ɨɛɳɢɣ ɡɧɚɦɟɧɚɬɟɥɶ» ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɫɞɟɥɨɤ. Ʉɫɬɚɬɢ, ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɣ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɣ ɤɪɢɡɢɫ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥ, ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɱɬɨ
ɞɟɧɶɝɢ «ɠɢɜɭɬ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɠɢɡɧɶɸ». ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɞɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɡɚɜɨɞ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧ-
ɧɭɸ ɰɟɧɭ, ɚ ɡɚɜɬɪɚ ɢɯ ɜɥɚɞɟɥɟɰ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɛɚɧɤɪɨɬɨɦ, ɢ ɬɨɬ ɠɟ ɞɨɦ ɢɥɢ
ɡɚɜɨɞ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɜɥɨɠɟɧɵ ɬɪɭɞ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɯ ɢ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɨɜ, ɱɭɞɟɫɚ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-
ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫɚ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ, ɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜ-
ɥɹɟɬ ɬɟ ɠɟ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɩɨɥɟɡɧɨɫɬɢ, ɱɬɨ ɢ ɜɱɟɪɚ, ɜɞɪɭɝ ɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɜ ɰɟɧɟ ɧɚ 50%
ɢɥɢ 70%. ɉɪɢɱɟɦ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ, ɧɟ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɚɹ ɰɟɧɚ
ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɡɚɜɨɞɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɧɢɡɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ 50% ɢɥɢ 70% ɧɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣ
ɞɟɧɶ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɹɫɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɦɢɪ ɞɟɧɟɝ – ɷɬɨ ɨɞɧɨ, ɚ ɦɢɪ ɜɟɳɟɣ, ɩɪɨ-
ɞɭɤɰɢɢ, ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ – ɷɬɨ ɫɨɜɫɟɦ ɞɪɭɝɨɟ. ɇɨ ɞɟɧɶɝɢ – ɭɞɨɛɧɵɣ ɢɧɫɬ-
ɪɭɦɟɧɬ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɧɟ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɞɪɭɝ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ ɜɟɳɟɣ ɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ.
Ɇɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ «ɨɛɦɟɧɚ ɞɨɥɝɨɜ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ» – ɷɬɨ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜ ɫɩɢɫɚ-
ɧɢɹ (ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ) ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ (ɬɚɤ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɫɭɜɟɪɟɧɧɵɯ) ɞɨɥɝɨɜ:
ɤɪɟɞɢɬɨɪ ɢ ɞɨɥɠɧɢɤ ɞɨɝɨɜɚɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɣ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬ ɭ
ɫɟɛɹ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ (ɩɪɨɟɤɬ, ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɭ), ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɞɥɹ ɤɪɟɞɢɬɨɪɚ ɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɡɚ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɟ
ɞɟɧɶɝɢ (ɱɚɫɬɨ ɧɟɤɨɧɜɟɪɬɢɪɭɟɦɭɸ ɜɚɥɸɬɭ). ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɉɨɥɶɲɚ ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɥɚ
ɫɨɬɧɢ ɦɢɥɥɢɨɧɨɜ ɞɨɥɥɚɪɨɜ ɞɨɥɝɨɜ ɋɒȺ, ɒɜɟɰɢɢ, ɒɜɟɣɰɚɪɢɢ, ɂɬɚɥɢɢ ɢ
ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɦ, ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɱɢɫɬɢɜ ɫɜɨɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɩɨɛɟɪɟɠɶɹ Ȼɚɥɬɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ
ɦɨɪɹ ɨɬ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɹ (ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɛɵɥ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɒɜɟɰɢɢ) ɢ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɜ ɩɨɝɨɥɨ-
ɜɶɟ ɢɫɱɟɡɚɸɳɢɯ ɡɭɛɪɨɜ (ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɛɵɥ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɋɒȺ). ɇɚ ɫɭɦɦɭ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɣ
95
ɜɚɥɸɬɵ, ɡɚɬɪɚɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚ ɷɬɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ, ɛɵɥ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧ ɞɨɥɝ ɉɨɥɶɲɢ. Ʉɚɤ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɥɫɹ ɩɟɪɟɫɱɟɬ – ɷɬɨ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɨɩɪɨɫ – ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɭɱɢ-
ɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɪɟɚɥɢɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ, ɰɟɧɭ ɞɨɥɝɚ ɧɚ ɜɬɨɪɢɱɧɨɦ ɪɵɧɤɟ
ɞɨɥɝɨɜ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, 1 ɪɭɛɥɶ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɨɥɝɚ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ 1990-ɯ ɝɝ. «ɫɬɨɢɥ»
ɨɤɨɥɨ 20 ɰɟɧɬɨɜ) ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ. Ƚɥɚɜɧɨɟ – ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɦ ɛɵɥɢ ɞɨɜɨɥɶ-
ɧɵ ɢ ɤɪɟɞɢɬɨɪ, ɢ ɞɨɥɠɧɢɤ.
Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɢɣ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥ – ɷɬɨ, ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ, ɨɛɦɟɧ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɧɵɯ,
ɧɨ ɧɟɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ ɧɚ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ
(ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɦ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, «ɪɚɡɜɢ-
ɬɨɣ» ɢ «ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɟɣɫɹ» ɫɬɪɚɧ). ɇɚɞɟɠɞɵ ɧɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɦɢɥɥɢɨɧɨɜ ɢ
ɦɢɥɥɢɚɪɞɨɜ ɞɨɥɥɚɪɨɜ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɦɢɫɹ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɦɢ, ɨ ɱɟɦ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɩɢɫɚɥɚ
ɩɪɟɫɫɚ, ɧɟ ɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɥɢɫɶ. Ɏɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɯ ɩɨɬɨɤɨɜ (ɤɚɤ ɩɪɢ ɨɛɦɟɧɟ «ɞɨɥɝɨɜ ɧɚ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ») ɧɟɬ. ȿɫɬɶ ɥɢɲɶ «ɜɢɪɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ» ɞɟɧɶɝɢ. ɇɨ ɢ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɫɨɡɞɚɥɚɫɶ
ɪɵɧɨɱɧɚɹ ɰɟɧɚ 1 ɬ ɭɝɥɟɤɢɫɥɨɝɨ ɝɚɡɚ (ɢɥɢ 1 ɬ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ), ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɴɸɧɤɬɭɪɵ. Ⱦɟɧɶɝɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɬ, ɧɨ, ɩɨ
ɛɨɥɶɲɨɦɭ ɫɱɟɬɭ, ɷɬɨ ɛɚɪɬɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɞɟɥɤɢ. ɗɬɨ – ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɢɞ ɛɚɪɬɟɪɚ.
ȿɝɨ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɱɟɪɬɚ – ɧɢɡɤɚɹ ɤɨɪɪɭɩɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɟɦɤɨɫɬɶ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɪɟɚɥɶ-
ɧɵɯ ɩɨɬɨɤɨɜ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜ ɢ ɧɚɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɞɟɧɟɝ ɧɟɬ.
Ʉɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɜɤɥɸɱɢɬɶ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɈɈɉɌ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɜ ɚɧɚɥɨ-
ɝɢɱɧɵɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ? Ɋɚɡɜɢɬɵɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɪɚɧɶɲɟ ɧɚɫ ɩɨɧɹɥɢ
ɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ, ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɭɝ ɢ ɝɨɬɨɜɵ ɩɥɚɬɢɬɶ ɡɚ ɧɢɯ. ɍ ɧɚɫ ɠɟ ɛɢɡɧɟɫ ɫ ɦɟɧɬɚɥɢɬɟɬɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɭɫɥɨ-
ɜɢɹɦɢ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɢ ɦɚɥɨ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɭɟɬɫɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦɢ ɷɤɨɥɨ-
ɝɢɢ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɨɧɢ ɬɪɟɛɭɸɬ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɫɪɟɞɧɟ- ɢ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɵɯ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢ-
ɰɢɣ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɥɟɫ ɩɪɨɳɟ ɪɭɛɢɬɶ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɚɜɚɬɶ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɭ, ɱɟɦ ɟɝɨ ɜɵɪɚ-
ɳɢɜɚɬɶ), ɚ ɧɚɲɟ ɧɟɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɟ (ɧɟɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɟ) ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚ-
ɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɧɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɨɜ.
ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ, ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɝɨɥɨɜɭ ɢɞɟɹ «ɩɪɨɞɚɜɚɬɶ» ɈɈɉɌ – ɬɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɧɚ ɫɚ-
ɦɨɦ ɞɟɥɟ, ɨɬɞɚɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɚɪɟɧɞɭ, ɚɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɢ ɬ. ɩ. ɑɟɦ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɈɈɉɌ,
ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɨɬ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɣ ɭɝɨɥɶɧɨɣ ɲɚɯɬɵ? ɂ ɬɚ, ɢ ɞɪɭɝɚɹ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɞɟɥɨ ɫ ɩɪɢ-
ɪɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚ (ɫɨ-
ɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ – ɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ) ɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɧɚɞɨ ɨɫɜɚɢɜɚɬɶ. ɈɈɉɌ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ, ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɮɚɪɦɚ-
ɰɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɩɚɪɮɸɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢ. Ⱦɟɥɨ (ɯɨɬɹ ɢ ɧɟɩɪɨɫɬɨɟ) – ɜ ɪɚɡ-
ɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ, ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɸ-
ɳɟɝɨ ɡɚɛɨɬɭ ɢ ɭɯɨɞ ɡɚ ɈɈɉɌ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɟɫɥɢ ɪɟɱɶ ɢɞɟɬ ɨ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɤɧɢɠɧɵɯ
ɜɢɞɚɯ. ɇɚ Ɂɚɩɚɞɟ ɬɚɤɨɟ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɭɠɟ ɞɚɜɧɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɢ ɬɚɦ ɤ ɧɟɦɭ
ɩɪɢɜɵɤɥɨ ɤɚɤ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɱɚɫɬɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢ. Ɍɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚɞɨ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɷɮ-
ɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ. ɇɚɲɢ ɈɈɉɌ ɭɠɟ ɞɚɜɧɨ
ɩɪɨɢɧɜɟɧɬɚɪɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ – ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ, ɤɚɤɢɟ ɰɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɠɢɜɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ
ɢ ɤɚɤɢɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɬɚɦ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ. Ɍɚɤ ɱɬɨ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚ-
ɰɢɢ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɞɫɱɟɬɚ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɈɈɉɌ ɢ ɢɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ.
ȿɫɥɢ ɱɚɫɬɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢ ɜɨɡɶɦɭɬɫɹ ɡɚ ɷɬɭ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ, ɬɨ ɈɈɉɌ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɧɟ
ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɭɯɨɠɟɧɵ, ɧɨ ɢ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɩɪɢɧɨɫɢɬɶ ɩɪɢɛɵɬɶ ɫɜɨɢɦ ɯɨɡɹɟɜɚɦ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ
96
ɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɢ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɦ ɜɥɚɫɬɹɦ. ɉɪɢɦɟɪɨɦ ɢɡ ɛɥɢɡɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɹ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɡɟɦɥɹɦɢ.
ȼ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ 21 ɜɟɤɚ ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɫɬɚɥɚ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɹ ɜɨɞɨɧɨɫ-
ɧɵɦɢ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɡɟɦɥɹɦɢ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɫɜɨɢɯ
ɩɪɨɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɭɠɞ ɡɚ ɪɭɛɟɠɨɦ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɫɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɡɟɦɥɢ
(ɜɧɟɲɧɟ ɷɬɨ ɜɵɝɥɹɞɢɬ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɟɧɢɟ ɢɥɢ ɚɪɟɧɞɚ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ), ɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɜɨɞɚ,
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɚɹ ɫ ɧɢɦɢ. ɋ 2006 ɝ. ɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɨ 15-20 ɦɥɧ. ɝɚ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ
ɡɟɦɟɥɶ ɜ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɨɦ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɨɜ ɫ ɡɚɪɭɛɟɠ-
ɧɵɦɢ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɨɪɚɦɢ. Ɋɟɱɶ ɢɞɟɬ ɨ ɫɞɟɥɤɚɯ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɫɭɦɦɨɣ 20-30 ɦɥɪɞ. ɞɨɥɥɚ-
ɪɨɜ ɋɒȺ. ȿɫɥɢ ɭɪɨɠɚɣ ɡɟɪɧɨɜɵɯ ɫ ɷɬɢɯ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɬ 2 ɬ ɫ ɝɟɤɬɚɪɚ, ɬɨ
ɧɚ ɧɢɯ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɨ 30-40 ɦɥɧ. ɬ ɡɟɪɧɨɜɵɯ ɜ ɝɨɞ, ɬɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧ-
ɧɵɣ ɨɛɴɟɦ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɦɢɪɨɜɵɦ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɦ 220 ɦɥɧ. ɬ. ȼ 2008 ɝ.
ɲɜɟɞɫɤɚɹ ɮɢɪɦɚ «Ⱥɥɤɨɬ ɚɝɪɨ» ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɥɚ 128 ɬɵɫ. ɝɚ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ.
Ʉɪɭɩɧɟɣɲɚɹ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɚɹ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɡɟɪɧɨɜɵɯ «ɉɚɜɚ» ɫɨɛɢ-
ɪɚɥɚɫɶ ɩɪɨɞɚɬɶ 40% ɫɜɨɢɯ ɚɤɬɢɜɨɜ (500 ɬɵɫ. ɝɚ) ɢɧɜɟɫɬɨɪɚɦ ɢɡ ɡɨɧɵ ɉɟɪ-
ɫɢɞɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɥɢɜɚ. ɉɚɤɢɫɬɚɧ ɜ ɰɟɥɹɯ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɜ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɫɟɥɶ-
ɫɤɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬ 0,5 ɦɥɧ. ɝɚ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɨɪɚɦ ɢɡ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ ɉɟɪ-
ɫɢɞɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɥɢɜɚ ɢ ɞɚɠɟ ɝɨɬɨɜ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶ 100 ɬɵɫ. ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ ɞɥɹ ɢɯ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ.
Ɋɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɢ ɜ ɫɟɥɶ-
ɫɤɨɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ ɩɚɞɚɸɬ, ɢɳɭɬ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɨɪɨɜ ɡɚ ɪɭɛɟɠɨɦ. Ʉɢɬɚɣ ɨɬɤɪɵɥ
11 ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɯ ɰɟɧɬɪɨɜ ɜ Ⱥɮɪɢɤɟ ɞɥɹ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɭɪɨɠɚɣɧɨɫɬɢ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪ. ɂɧɨɝɞɚ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɟɧɢɟ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ
ɢɧɨɫɬɪɚɧɰɚɦɢ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɟɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ. Ɍɚɤ, ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɹ
ɋɚɭɞɨɜɫɤɨɣ Ⱥɪɚɜɢɢ ɩɪɢɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɥɚ ɩɪɨɟɤɬ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶɸ 1,4 ɦɥɪɞ. ɞɨɥɥ. ɩɨ
ɜɵɪɚɳɢɜɚɧɢɸ ɪɢɫɚ ɧɚ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ 500 ɬɵɫ. ɝɚ ɜ ɂɧɞɨɧɟɡɢɢ, ɚ Ʉɢɬɚɣ ɡɚɬɨɪ-
ɦɨɡɢɥ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɟɧɢɟ 1,2 ɦɥɧ. ɝɚ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ ɧɚ Ɏɢɥɢɩɩɢɧɚɯ. Ȼɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɡɟ-
ɦɟɥɶ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɦɟɠɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɞɨɝɨɜɨɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ.
Ʉɚɦɛɨɞɠɚ ɫɞɚɥɚ ɡɟɦɥɢ ɜ ɚɪɟɧɞɭ Ʉɭɜɟɣɬɭ. ɉɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ
ɋɚɭɞɨɜɫɤɨɣ Ⱥɪɚɜɢɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɥɢ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɵ ɩɨ ɡɚɤɭɩɤɟ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ ɜ Ⱥɜɫɬɪɚɥɢɢ,
Ȼɪɚɡɢɥɢɢ, ȿɝɢɩɬɟ, ɗɮɢɨɩɢɢ, Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɬɚɧɟ, ɍɤɪɚɢɧɟ, Ɍɭɪɰɢɢ, ȼɶɟɬɧɚɦɟ, ɋɭ-
ɞɚɧɟ ɢ ɘȺɊ. ɉɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɪɭɸɬ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɭɪɨɠɚɣɧɵɟ ɤɭɥɶɬɭ-
ɪɵ ɞɥɹ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨɛɵ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹ ɧɚ ɫɚɦɨɦ ɞɟɥɟ ɩɪɨɬɟɤɰɢɨɧɢɡɦ, ɨɛɨɣɬɢ ɦɢ-
ɪɨɜɵɟ ɪɵɧɤɢ. Ɉɛɵɱɧɨ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɩɟɪɜɵɯ ɥɟɬ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɨɪɵ ɨɫɜɨ-
ɛɨɠɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɧɚɥɨɝɨɜ ɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɰɟɥɢɤɨɦ ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɭɪɨɠɚɣ ɜ ɫɜɨɢ
ɫɬɪɚɧɵ. Ɍɚɤ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɞɟɥɚɸɬ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɨɪɵ ɢɡ ɋɚɭɞɨɜɫɤɨɣ Ⱥɪɚɜɢɢ.
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɣ ɜɵɲɟ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɧɟ ɫɬɨɢɬ ɛɪɚɬɶ ɧɚ ɜɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɪɨɫ-
ɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɶ ɯɨɬɹ ɛɵ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧ ɫɜɹɡɚɧ ɫ ɞɟɧɟɠɧɵɦɢ
ɩɨɬɨɤɚɦɢ ɢ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɤɨɪɪɭɩɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɟɦɤɨɫɬɶɸ.
Ʌɭɱɲɟ ɨɛɦɟɧɢɜɚɬɶ ɈɈɉɌ ɧɚ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɡɚɪɭɛɟɠɧɵɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɜ ɰɟɥɹɯ
«ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ» ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ. ɗɬɨɬ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɥɨɠɟɧ ɢ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɩɨ-
ɦɢɦɨ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ, ɱɟɬɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ ɫɨ ɫɬɨ-
ɪɨɧɵ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚ (ɧɚ ɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɢ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɊɎ). ȼɢ-
ɞɢɦɨ, ɩɪɢɞɟɬɫɹ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ ɦɟɠɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɹ (ɢɥɢ ɞɨɛɚɜ-
ɥɹɬɶ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɬɚɬɶɢ ɜ ɭɠɟ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɹ), ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɜ
97
ɷɬɨɦ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɭɱɚɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢ ɫ ɧɨɜɵɦɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹɦɢ, ɢ
ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢ, ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɟ ɤ ɠɢɜɨɦɭ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɦɭ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɭ.
ɇɚ ɫɚɦɨɦ ɞɟɥɟ, ɫɟɣɱɚɫ ɦɢɪ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɧɚ ɞɜɟ ɱɚɫɬɢ:
 ɫɬɪɚɧɵ, ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɢɟ ɧɚɢɥɭɱɲɢɦɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɵɦɢ ɬɟɯɧɨ-
ɥɨɝɢɹɦɢ, ɧɨ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟ ɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ (ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧ-
ɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥ ɭ ɧɢɯ ɦɚɥ) ɢ ɠɟɥɚɸɳɢɟ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɞɨɫɬɭɩ ɤ ɧɢɦ;
 ɫɬɪɚɧɵ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɢɦɵɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥ
(ɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɈɈɉɌ), ɧɨ ɧɟ ɜɥɚɞɟɸɳɢɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɢ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɵɦɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹɦɢ ɢ ɠɟɥɚɸɳɢɟ ɨɛɡɚɜɟɫɬɢɫɶ ɢɦɢ.
Ʉɨ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɟ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ ȻɊɂɄ: Ȼɪɚɡɢɥɢɹ,
Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ, ɂɧɞɢɹ ɢ Ʉɢɬɚɣ. Ʉ ɧɢɦ ɢɧɨɝɞɚ ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɘȺɊ. ȼ ɷɬɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ
ɫɬɪɚɧɵ ȻɊɂɄ ɦɨɝɥɢ ɛɵ ɫɨɡɞɚɬɶ ɫɜɨɣ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɤɚɪɬɟɥɶ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɛɢɨ-
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ (ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨ ɈɉȿɄ ɞɥɹ ɧɟɮɬɢ). ɉɨɩɵɬɤɚ ɫɨɡɞɚɬɶ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɤɚɪɬɟɥɶ
ɭɠɟ ɛɵɥɚ ɨɛɴɹɜɥɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɋɚɦɦɢɬɟ ɩɨ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɦɭ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɜ Ƀɨɯɚɧɧɟɫ-
ɛɭɪɝɟ (2002 ɝ.), ɧɨ ɧɟ ɛɵɥɚ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɚ. ȼ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ Ʉɨɧɜɟɧɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɛɢɨɪɚɡ-
ɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɸ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɛɵ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɣ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɦɭ ɉɪɨɬɨɤɨɥ
ɩɨ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɸ. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɡɞɟɫɶ – ɧɚɣɬɢ ɞɥɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ
ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ, ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɣ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɚɦ ɋɈ2 ɜ Ʉɢɨɬɫɤɨɦ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɟ.
Ʉɚɤ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɛɵ ɜɤɥɸɱɢɬɶ ɈɈɉɌ ɜ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɭɸ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɭ ɜɧɭɬɪɢ
Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ? Ɉɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ – ɨɛɦɟɧ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢ-
ɬɨɪɢɣ ɧɚ ɈɈɉɌ. ȼ ɋɒȺ ɢ ɜ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɦ ɫɨɸɡɟ (ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɜ
ɪɚɦɤɚɯ Ⱦɢɪɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɨɛ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ) ɩɪɢ ɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɦ ɡɚ-
ɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɢ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɣ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɟɣ (ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɣ, ɷɧɟɪ-
ɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ, ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.) ɭ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɣ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ 4 ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɵ:
 ɡɚ ɫɜɨɣ ɫɱɟɬ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɧɭɸ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ (ɪɟɚɛɢ-
ɥɢɬɚɰɢɹ);
 ɟɫɥɢ ɪɟɚɛɢɥɢɬɚɰɢɹ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɚ, ɬɨ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɦ ɷɤ-
ɜɢɜɚɥɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɭɸ ɩɨ
ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɝɞɟ-ɬɨ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɫɬɢ
ɥɟɫɨɩɨɫɚɞɤɭ, ɩɨɝɥɨɳɚɸɳɭɸ ɋɈ2);
 ɤɭɩɢɬɶ ɝɞɟ-ɬɨ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɈɈɉɌ ɢ ɡɚɛɨɬɢɬɶɫɹ ɨ ɧɟɣ (ɱɟɦ-ɬɨ ɩɨɯɨɠɟ ɧɚ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɲɟɮɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɣ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ);
 ɡɚɩɥɚɬɢɬɶ ɩɪɢɥɢɱɧɵɣ ɲɬɪɚɮ, ɟɫɥɢ ɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɬɪɢ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚ ɩɨɱɟɦɭ-ɬɨ
ɧɟ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɬ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɨ ɦɨɝɥɨ ɛɵ, ɝɞɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ, ɩɟɪɟɥɨɠɢɬɶ ɡɚɛɨ-
ɬɭ ɨɛ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ ɧɚ ɱɚɫɬɧɵɣ ɫɟɤɬɨɪ. ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜ ɋɒȺ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ
ɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɚɹ Ⱥɫɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɹ ɜɨɞɧɨ-ɛɨɥɨɬɧɵɯ ɭɝɨɞɢɣ (ȼȻɍ), ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɧɟ
ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɫɥɟɞɢɬ ɡɚ ɫɜɨɣ ɫɱɟɬ ɡɚ ȼȻɍ (ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɛɚɧɤ ȼȻɍ), ɧɨ ɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ
ɢɯ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɫɟɣɱɚɫ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ, ɱɬɨ ɨɫɭɲɟɧɢɟ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɩɪɢɧɟɫɥɨ
ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɜɪɟɞɚ, ɱɟɦ ɩɨɥɶɡɵ. ȼȻɍ ɜ ɋɒȺ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞ-
ɧɨɫɬɶ ɈɈɉɌ. ɗɬɚ ɚɫɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɹ ɩɪɨɞɚɟɬ ȼȻɍ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɹɦ, ɨɤɚɡɚɜɲɢɦɫɹ ɜ
ɜɵɲɟɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ, ɢ ɬɟɦ ɫɚɦɵɦ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɶ (ɤɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ,
ɨɧɚ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɬɭɪɢɡɦɨɦ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɜɢɞɚɦɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɢɡɧɟɫɚ).

98
ɈɐȿɇɄȺ ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆɇɕɏ ɍɋɅɍȽ
ȼ ɄɈɇɄɊȿɌɇɕɏ ɊȿȽɂɈɇȺɏ

ȺɇȺɅɂɁ ȼɈɁɆɈɀɇɈɋɌȿɃ ɂɇɌȿȽɊȺɐɂɂ


ɐȿɇɇɈɋɌɂ ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆɇɕɏ ɍɋɅɍȽ
ȼ ɉɈɅɂɌɂɄɈ-ɗɄɈɇɈɆɂɑȿɋɄɍɘ ɋɂɋɌȿɆɍ ɊɈɋɋɂɂ

ɂ.Ɇ. ɉɨɬɪɚɜɧɵɣ1, ȿ.Ⱥ. ɀɚɥɫɚɪɚɟɜɚ2


1
Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɚɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɹ ɢɦ. Ƚ.ȼ. ɉɥɟɯɚɧɨɜɚ, ɝ. Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ
2
ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɨ-ɋɢɛɢɪɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ,
ɝ. ɍɥɚɧ-ɍɞɷ

ȼ «Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɯ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɉɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ


Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɞɨ 2012 ɝɨɞɚ», ɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɯ Ɋɚɫɩɨɪɹɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɉɪɚɜɢ-
ɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɨɬ 17 ɧɨɹɛɪɹ 2008 ɝ. ʋ1663-ɪ ɜ ɰɟɥɹɯ
ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɭɫ-
ɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɭɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɨ ɪɹɞ ɦɟɪ, ɧɚ-
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɧɨ-
ɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɢ ɞɪ. ȼ ɷɬɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ
ɜɚɠɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɰɟɧ-
ɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ.
Ɉɫɨɛɭɸ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ
ɪɹɞɚ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɨɫɨɛɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɡɨɧ ɬɭɪɢɫɬ-
ɫɤɨ-ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶɸ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɹ ɩɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɸ ɢɧɜɟ-
ɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɢ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ
Ɉɥɢɦɩɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ «ɋɨɱɢ-2014» (ȼɟɝɚ, 2009; Ʌɭɤɶɹɧɱɢɤɨɜ, ɉɨ-
ɬɪɚɜɧɵɣ, 2010).
ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɩɪɢɱɢɧ ɧɟɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ, ɯɢɳɧɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ, ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ – ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ, ɪɟɤɪɟɚ-
ɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɯ ɧɟɞɨɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɨɣ. ɉɪɢɦɟ-
ɪɨɦ ɧɟɞɨɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɨɡɟɪɚ Ȼɚɣ-
ɤɚɥ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɜ 2009 ɝ. ɨ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɢ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ
Ȼɚɣɤɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɰɟɥɥɸɥɨɡɧɨ-ɛɭɦɚɠɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɬɚ, ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɱɟɝɨ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɬ

99
ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ (Ȼɨ-
ɛɵɥɟɜ, Ɂɚɯɚɪɨɜ, 2009; ȿɯɚɧɭɪɨɜɚ, 2005).
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɵ: ɩɥɚɬɚ ɡɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ (ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ ɢ ɤɚɤ ɦɨɞɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɩɥɚɬɚ
ɡɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ), ɩɥɚɬɚ ɡɚ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸ-
ɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ, ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɢ ɜɨɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɞɚ
ɢ ɞɪ. (Ʌɭɤɶɹɧɱɢɤɨɜ, ɉɨɬɪɚɜɧɵɣ, 2010; Ɇɨɬɤɢɧ, 2009; ɉɟɪɟɥɟɬ, 2009). Ɋɹɞ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɫɱɢɬɚɸɬ, ɱɬɨ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɜɚɠɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɣ ɪɨɥɢ ɩɪɢ-
ɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɪɟɝɥɚɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ (ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɣ, ɥɢɦɢɬɨɜ,
ɡɚɩɪɟɬɨɜ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.).
ȼɚɠɧɵɦ ɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɨɦ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ ɜ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɧɨ-ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɫ ɬɨɱ-
ɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɟɟ ɩɪɹɦɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ, ɧɨ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɢ-
ɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ, ɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ,
ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɚɦɢ (Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜ, Ɂɚɯɚɪɨɜ, 2009). Ʉɚɤ ɩɨɤɚɡɵ-
ɜɚɟɬ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ, ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɧɚ ɬɪɢ ɬɢɩɚ –
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ, ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɭɸ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɧɚɢ-
ɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɣ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ ɜ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɧɨ-
ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɤ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ, ɬɚɤ ɢ
ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɪɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ – ɭɱɟɬ ɢ
ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɢɡɞɟɪɠɟɤ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɹ.
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚ-
ɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɟ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ
ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɨ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢ-
ɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ. Ʉɚɤ ɫɱɢɬɚɟɬ ȿ.ȼ. Ɋɸɦɢɧɚ (2009), ɩɪɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ
ɨɫɧɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɬɚɤɨɦ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟ, ɤɚɤ ɜɪɟɞ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ, ɤɨɬɨ-
ɪɵɣ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɬ ɩɟɪɟɜɟɫɬɢ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭ-
ɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ ɢɡ ɪɚɡɪɹɞɚ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɜ ɪɚɡ-
ɪɹɞ ɟɝɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤ. ɋ ɷɬɨɣ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɬɶ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɧɚɧɨɫɹɬ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
ɭɳɟɪɛ, ɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ. Ⱦɥɹ ɩɪɨ-
ɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
ɭɳɟɪɛ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɶ ɤ ɡɚɬɪɚɬɚɦ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɭ, ɚ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɳɟɪɛ –
ɤ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ.
Ɂɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɦ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɟɜ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ,
ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɱɢɫɬɨɝɨ ɞɢɫɤɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɞɨɯɨɞɚ (ɑȾȾ), ɢɧɞɟɤɫɚ
ɞɨɯɨɞɧɨɫɬɢ, ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣ ɧɨɪɦɵ ɞɨɯɨɞɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɚɹ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɧɨɪ-
ɦɭ ɞɢɫɤɨɧɬɚ (ȿȼɇ). Ɍɨɝɞɚ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɟɜ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɷɮ-
100
ɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ (ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ) ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ ɱɢɫɬɨ-
ɝɨ ɞɢɫɤɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɞɨɯɨɞɚ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣ ɜɢɞ:
– ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ:

¦ > R  Ɂ y 1  ȿ @ ¦ ¦
t
ɑȾȾ ɑȾȾ  ɍ t t t t j
n j x tj , (1)
ɝɞɟ: ɍ – ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɭɳɟɪɛ ɨɬ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ
ɫɪɟɞɭ, ɪɭɛ.; Rt – ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ, ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɦɵɟ ɧɚ i-ɦ ɲɚɝɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ, ɪɭɛ.; Ɂt –
ɡɚɬɪɚɬɵ, ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɦɵɟ ɧɚ ɬɨɦ ɠɟ ɲɚɝɟ, ɪɭɛ.; t = 1, 2, ..., Ɍ, Ɍ – ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬ
ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ; ȿ – ɧɨɪɦɚ ɞɢɫɤɨɧɬɚ, ɪɚɜɧɚɹ ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɨɪɚ ɧɨɪɦɟ
ɞɨɯɨɞɚ ɧɚ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥ; n j – ɭɳɟɪɛ ɨɬ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ j-ɨɣ
t
ɨɬɪɚɫɥɢ; x j – ɜɵɩɭɫɤ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ j-ɝo ɜɢɞɚ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɭ ɜ ɝɨɞɭ t;

– ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ, ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ


ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɳɟɪɛ:

ɑȾȾ ¦ ^ɍ
t t
ɉ
>
 Ɂ t y 1  ȿ
t
@` , (2)
ɉ
ɝɞɟ ɍ t – ɷɬɨ ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧ-
ɧɵɯ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ ɭɳɟɪɛ, ɪɭɛ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɟɫɥɢ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɣ ɬɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɦɨɞɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ
ɑȾȾ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɟɧ, ɩɪɨɟɤɬ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɦ, ɟɫɥɢ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟ-
ɥɟɧ – ɨɬ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɤɚɡɚɬɶɫɹ.
ȼ ɰɟɥɹɯ ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ, ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɢ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɪɹɞɨɦ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢ-
ɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɡɞɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɣ ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ «ɡɟɥɟɧɵɯ» ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɨɜ,
ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɸ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɢ ɦɢɧɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɨɤɪɭ-
ɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ – ɷɧɟɪɝɨ- ɢ ɜɨɞɨɫɛɟɪɟɠɟɧɢɹ, ɭɬɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɦɭɫɨɪɚ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɱɢɫɬɵɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ.
ɑɬɨ ɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨ ɪɟɝɭɥɢ-
ɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ, ɧɚ ɧɚɲ
ɜɡɝɥɹɞ, ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ ɢ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɩɪɢ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦ ɨɫ-
ɜɨɟɧɢɢ ɤɭɪɨɪɬɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɝɪɚɞɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ. ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɟɝɨ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ
ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ: ɚ) ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɣ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɢɡɵ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɥɭɲɚɧɢɣ; ɛ) ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ-
ɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɢ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸ-
ɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤ-
ɬɨɜ; ɜ) ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɵɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝ ɢ ɚɭɞɢɬ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɩɪɢ-

101
ɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ ɤɭɪɨɪɬɧɵɯ ɡɨɧ, ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɛɴ-
ɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɞɨɛɪɨɜɨɥɶɧɭɸ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɫɟɪɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɸ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ, ɨɛɴ-
ɟɤɬɨɜ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫɨ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɚɦɢ ɂɋɈ 14 000; ɝ) ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɰɟ-
ɞɭɪɵ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɬɪɚɯɨɜɚɧɢɹ; ɞ) ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ
ɨɰɟɧɤɭ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɢ ɞɪ. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ,
ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜ ɡɨɧɟ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɨɥɢɦɩɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ «ɋɨɱɢ-1014»
ɧɚɤɨɩɥɟɧ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɨɩɵɬ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨ-
ɝɨ ɚɭɞɢɬɚ – ɈȺɈ «Ⱥɥɶɩɢɤɚ ɫɟɪɜɢɫ» (Ʉɪɚɫɧɚɹ ɉɨɥɹɧɚ Ⱥɞɥɟɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣ-
ɨɧɚ), ɷɤɨɚɭɞɢɬ Ⱥɞɥɟɪɫɤɨɣ ɫɜɚɥɤɢ ɌȻɈ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɟɪɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬ-
ɫɬɜɢɟ ɫɨ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɚɦɢ ɂɋɈ 14000. Ɂɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɤ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɟ
ɷɤɨɚɭɞɢɬɚ ɢ ɫɟɪɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɸɬ
ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɮɟɪɵ ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɢ ɝɨɫɬɢɧɢɱɧɨɝɨ
ɛɢɡɧɟɫɚ.
ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɟɦɤɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦɢ ɩɚɪɚ-
ɦɟɬɪɚɦɢ: ɚ) ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɨɛɴɟɦ ɜɨɡɞɭɲɧɨ-
ɝɨ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ, ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɢ ɜɨɞɨɬɨɤɨɜ, ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɩɥɨɳɚɞɟɣ ɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɩɨɱɜ, ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɭ ɮɥɨɪɵ ɢ ɮɚɭɧɵ ɢ ɛ) ɞɢɧɚɦɢ-
ɤɨɣ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɨɬɨɤɨɜ ɛɢɨɝɟɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɤɪɭɝɨɜɨɪɨɬɚ, ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶɸ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɝɚɡɨɨɛɦɟɧɚ, ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ
ɱɢɫɬɨɣ ɜɨɞɵ ɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɩɨɱɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ,
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɟɦɤɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɞɜɭɦɹ ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɦɢ
ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ – ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɤ ɫɚɦɨɨɱɢɳɟɧɢɸ.
ɉɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɨ-
ɟɤɬɧɨ-ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɜ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɡɴɹ-
ɬɢɹ ɢ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɢɦɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɟ
ɫɪɟɞɵ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɪɟɰɢɩɢɟɧɬɨɜ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ,
ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɟɦ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɤɭɪɨɪɬɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ
ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɫɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ ɫɨɢɡ-
ɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ:
ɉ (S, t) < ɗɌɌ, (3)
ɝɞɟ: ɉ – ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɶ ɧɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ S
ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ t, ɗɌɌ – ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɬɟɯɧɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ.
ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɚ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɬɨɝɞɚ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɜɨɜɥɟ-
ɤɚɟɦɵɟ ɜ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɨɛɨɪɨɬ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɧɟ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɩɪɟɜɵ-
ɲɚɬɶ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɞɥɹ ɢɯ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ. ɉɪɢ
ɷɬɨɦ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɹ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɣ
ɫɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɭɪɨɪɬɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɫɨɨɬ-
ɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɬɟɯɧɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɶɸ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ:
ɉ (S,t) / ɗɌɌ < Zɧɨɪɦ, (4)
ɝɞɟ: Zɧɨɪɦ – ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɣ ɫɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɢɥɢ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜ ɫɨɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ,
ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɣ ɞɥɹ ɤɚɠɞɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ.

102
ɉɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɶ ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɣ ɫɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɚɤ ɨɫɧɨ-
ɜɭ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɪɟɝɥɚɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɥɹ ɤɨɧ-
ɤɪɟɬɧɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ.
ȼ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɪɚɜɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɜ ɱɚɫɬɢ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢ-
ɬɨɪɢɣ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɞɥɹ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɤɚɞɚ-
ɫɬɪɨɜɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɧɚ ɡɟɦɥɹɯ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ.
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ
ɡɚɱɟɬɨɜ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɷɤɜɢɜɚɥɟɧɬɧɵɯ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɦɟ-
ɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ (ɉɟɪɟɥɟɬ, 2009). Ʉɚɤ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚ-
ɟɬ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɢ ɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢ, ɨɧ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɞ-
ɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ. Ɍɚɤɨɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ
ȿɋ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɣ ɷɤɜɢɜɚɥɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɢ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ. Ɍɪɭɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɧɟɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɩɪɢ-
ɜɟɥɚ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ 1990-ɯ ɝɝ. ɤ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɜɢɜɚɥɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɢ
ɦɟɠɞɭ ɭɫɥɭɝɚɦɢ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝɚɦɢ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ
(ɢɥɢ ɜɧɨɜɶ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ) ɞɥɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞ-
ɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ. Ɍɚɤɨɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɷɤɜɢɜɚɥɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɶɸ «ɪɟɫɭɪɫ ɧɚ ɪɟ-
ɫɭɪɫ», ɱɬɨ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɟ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɤɚɤ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɝɨ ɚɤɬɢɜɚ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɩɨɬɨɤ ɭɫɥɭɝ.
ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɨɧ-
ɞɨɜ, ɧɚɱɢɧɚɹ ɫ 1990 ɝ., ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨ-
ɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɡɚɱɟɬɨɜ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɨɧɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɧɟ ɫɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɫɚ-
ɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚ ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɥɚ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɳɟɪɛ, ɜɨɡɦɟɫɬɢɬɶ ɜ ɧɚɬɭɪɚɥɶ-
ɧɨɦ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɢ ɩɪɢɱɢɬɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɫ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ-ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɢɬɟɥɹ ɩɥɚɬɟɠɢ ɡɚ
ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ. ȼ ɬɨɬ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɦɟɪɵ
ɛɵɥɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɜ ɬɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɣ ɦɟɪɟ ɫ
ɞɟɫɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ ɢ ɧɟɩɥɚɬɟɠɟ-
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ. ɋɭɬɶ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɜ
ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɢ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɜɢ-
ɜɚɥɟɧɬɧɵɯ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚɯ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɧɚ
ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚ ɷɤɜɢɜɚɥɟɧɬɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɢ ɧɟɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɞɨ-
ɯɨɞɚ ɨɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɦɨɠɧɨ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ ɜ ɰɟɥɹɯ ɤɨɦ-
ɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɞɚ.
ɉɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɨɜ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ,
ɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɟ ɦɟɪɵ ɩɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ
ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɢ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɨɥɢɦɩɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ «ɋɨɱɢ-2014» ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹ-
ɸɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɜ ɩɨɥɧɨɣ ɦɟɪɟ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɚɹ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚ-
ɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɡɚɩɚɡɞɵɜɚɸɬ, ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɜ ɩɨɥɧɨɦ ɨɛɴɟɦɟ, ɩɪɨ-
ɟɤɬɧɚɹ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɹ ɧɚ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɧɟ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɜɨɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɞɚ, ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɷɤɨɥɨ-
103
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ. Ʉɪɭɩɧɵɟ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɨ-
ɟɤɬɵ, ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɟɦɵɟ ɧɚ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬ
ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɪɵ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɟ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚ-
ɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ, ɧɚɩɪɢ-
ɦɟɪ, ɩɨ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɸ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɋɨɱɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɚɪɤɚ, ɧɟ
ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɬ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɢɡɵɦɚɟɦɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨ-
ɪɢɣ. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫ ɨ ɩɪɢɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɢ ɤ ɋɨ-
ɱɢɧɫɤɨɦɭ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɩɚɪɤɭ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ʌɨɨɫɫɤɨɝɨ ɥɟɫɯɨɡɚ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɸ
20 ɬɵɫ. ɝɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɞɚɠɟ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɧɟ ɫɜɹɡɚɧ ɫ ɋɨɱɢɧɫɤɢɦ ɧɚɰɢɨ-
ɧɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɩɚɪɤɨɦ. ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɦɟɪɵ ɩɪɟɞ-
ɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɨɪɧɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɚɪɤɚ ɜ ɂɦɟɪɟɬɢɧɫɤɨɣ
ɧɢɡɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɝɞɟ ɨɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɡɢɦɭɸɬ ɩɟɪɟɥɟɬɧɵɟ ɩɬɢɰɵ, ɩɪɨɢɡɪɚ-
ɫɬɚɸɬ ɪɟɞɤɢɟ ɪɟɥɢɤɬɨɜɵɟ ɢ ɷɧɞɟɦɢɱɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɹ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɩɪɢ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟ-
ɧɢɢ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ ɧɟ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɧɟ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ
ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɢ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɦɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ. ɋ ɞɪɭ-
ɝɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɤɨɪɩɨɪɚɰɢɹ «Ɉɥɢɦɩɫɬɪɨɣ», ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɤɚɤ
ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɡɚɤɚɡɱɢɤ ɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬ ɡɚ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɨɛɴɟɤ-
ɬɨɜ ɨɥɢɦɩɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ, ɫɱɢɬɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɪɵ ɡɧɚɱɢ-
ɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɸɬ ɨɛɴɟɦ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ. ɉɨɷɬɨ-
ɦɭ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɩɪɢ-
ɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɡɚɱɟɬɨɜ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ, ɧɚ ɧɚɲ ɜɡɝɥɹɞ, ɤɚɤ ɨɞɧɨ ɢɡ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ.
ɉɪɢ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɧɚ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ, ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɹ ɢɯ ɭɹɡɜɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɯ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ, ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɫɬɪɚɯɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ. Ɋɟɱɶ ɢɞɟɬ ɨ ɫɬɪɚɯɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɢɫɤɨɜ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ
ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɣ ɜ ɫɮɟɪɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɯ-
ɪɚɧɵ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ.
Ʉɚɤ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ, ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɸɬ 4 ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɩɪɢɪɨ-
ɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɜɢɞɚ ɢɯ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɳɟɣ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɟ
ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ: 1) ɫ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɦ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɣ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ; 2) ɦɚɥɨɨɩɚɫɧɵɟ; 3) ɨɩɚɫɧɵɟ; 4) ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɩɚɫɧɵɟ (Ɇɨɬɤɢɧ,
2009). ȼɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɬɟɦ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɬɪɚɯɨɜɵɟ ɬɚɪɢɮɵ ɢ
ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ ɧɟ
ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɬ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɢ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ, ɝɞɟ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɫ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɦ Ɋɨɫ-
ɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɧɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɪɚɡɦɟɳɚɬɶɫɹ ɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɨɩɚɫɧɵɟ
ɢ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɩɚɫɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɵ.
ȼ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ Ⱥ.ȼ. ȼɟɝɢ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɨɛ ɷɤɨɧɨ-
ɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɪ. Ɇɡɵɦɬɚ ɜ ɋɨɱɢɧɫɤɨɦ ɧɚɰɢɨ-
ɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɩɚɪɤɟ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ (6 ɦɥɧ. ɟɜɪɨ, ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨ-
ɪɢɢ – 20 ɝɚ) ɛɵɥ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧ ɥɢɦɢɬ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɥɹ ɜɨɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɜɪɟɞɚ,
ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɦ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ ɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ
104
118 875 ɟɜɪɨ. Ɋɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɞɥɹ ɬɪɟɯ ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɟɜ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ:
1) ɦɚɥɨɨɩɚɫɧɨɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ, ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɨɟ ɞɥɹ ɋɨɱɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶ-
ɧɨɝɨ ɩɚɪɤɚ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ, ɧɟ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɳɟɟ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɯ
ɜɥɢɹɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɪ. Ɇɡɵɦɬɚ;
2) ɨɩɚɫɧɨɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨɜɚ-
ɧɢɹ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚ ɫ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɯ
ɭɝɪɨɡ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɦ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɦ ɪɟɤɢ;
3) ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ, ɧɚɧɨɫɹɳɟɟ ɧɟɩɨɩɪɚɜɢɦɵɟ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɹ
ɩɨɱɜɚɦ, ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɪɹɞɚ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɮɥɨɪɵ ɢ ɮɚɭɧɵ.
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɬɚɪɢɮɧɵɯ
ɫɬɚɜɨɤ ɩɪɢ ɫɬɪɚɯɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ
ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ – ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɥɹ ɜɢɞɚ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ –
ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɫ ɦɟɫɬɨɧɚɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɦ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɜ ɋɨɱɢɧɫɤɨɦ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ
ɩɚɪɤɟ (ȼɟɝɚ, 2008).

Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2. Ɍɚɪɢɮɧɚɹ ɫɬɚɜɤɚ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɬɪɚɯɨɜɚɧɢɹ


ɞɥɹ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɋɨɱɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɚɪɤɚ
ɩɪɢ ɦɚɥɨɨɩɚɫɧɨɦ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɚɹ
ɱɚɫɬɶ ɧɟɬ- ɋɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɚɹ Ȼɪɭɬɬɨ-
ȼɢɞ ɬɨ-ɫɬɚɜɤɢ Ɋɢɫɤɨɜɚɹ ɧɟɬɬɨ-ɫɬɚɜɤɚ ɫɬɚɜɤɚ ɷɤɨɥɨ-
ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨ 100 ɪɭɛ. ɧɚɞɛɚɜɤɚ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɫɬɪɚɯɨɜɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɯɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɬɪɚɯɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɫɭɦɦɵ
ɋɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ 0,2975 3,176927 3,474427 4,63257

Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɬɚɜɤɢ ɬɚɪɢɮɨɜ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚ-


ɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɬɪɚɯɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɮɟɪɟ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ
ɤɭɪɨɪɬɧɵɯ ɡɨɧɚɯ ɢ ɧɚ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ.
Ʉɚɤ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɨɩɵɬ, ɤ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɦ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɥɨɝɨɜ ɢ ɩɥɚɬɟɠɟɣ ɡɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɢ-
ɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɨɜ ɢ ɧɨɪɦ, ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨ-
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɫɧɢɠɚɬɶ ɫɜɨɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɹ-
ɧɢɟ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɩɨɨɳɪɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɣ, ɫɧɢɠɚɸɳɢɯ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɜɨɡ-
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ ɷɤɨɥɨ-
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɬɨɜɚɪɨɜ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɢ ɞɪ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ, ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶ-
ɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɛɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ. ɉɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɵɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɜɵ-
ɩɨɥɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɟɣ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ,
ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɤɢɫɥɨɪɨɞɚ, ɞɟɩɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ, ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚ-

105
ɧɢɟ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɢ ɞɪ.). Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɰɟɧɧɨ-
ɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ, ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ, ɝɨɬɨɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɫɟ-
ɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɥɚɬɢɬɶ ɜ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ. ȼɚɠɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟ-
ɧɢɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɞɨɥɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɣ ɜ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ ɜɚɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɚ. Ɋɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɩɨ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɚ ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢ-
ɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɣ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ – ɧɚ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨ-
ɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɞɥɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɟɯ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɵɯ ɢɧɜɟ-
ɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ – ɩɨ
ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɢ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ Ɉɥɢɦɩɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ
«ɋɨɱɢ-2014». ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɧɨ-ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ
ɜɚɠɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɬɢɩɨɥɨɝɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ. ɉɪɟɞɦɟɬɨɦ ɧɚɲɟɝɨ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɹ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɩɟɰɢ-
ɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ, ɫɥɭɠɚɳɢɯ ɭɱɟɬɭ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɵɯ
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɧɨɦ ɢ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ, ɩɪɢ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢ
«ɡɟɥɟɧɵɯ» ɛɢɡɧɟɫ-ɩɥɚɧɨɜ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ, ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɬɪɚɬɟ-
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɥɚɧɨɜ ɢ ɰɟɥɟɜɵɯ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ ɜ ɫɮɟɪɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɯ-
ɪɚɧɵ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɦɟɬɨ-
ɞɨɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɢ ɬ. ɩ.
Ɉɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɧɨ-ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɫɹ
ɩɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ: ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɢɥɢ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɜɨɞɨɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɹ
ɢɥɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɧɚ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚ), ɧɚ
ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɦɭɧɢɰɢɩɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ (ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ
ɫɛɨɪɚ ɨɬɯɨɞɨɜ), ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ɇɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ ɨɰɟɧɤɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɧɨ-ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ, ɬ. ɟ. ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ
ɧɚɦɟɱɚɟɦɵɯ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ, ɬɚɤɠɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɛɥɟ-
ɦɚ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ,
ɩɪɢɱɟɦ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ. ɗɬɢɦ ɰɟɥɹɦ ɨɬɜɟɱɚɸɬ ɬɚɤɢɟ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ, ɤɚɤ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɰɢɤɥɚ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ, ɷɤɨ-
ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɛɚɥɚɧɫ, ɷɤɨ-ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɥɢɧɝ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɚɭɞɢɬ ɢ ɞɪ. ɋ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɣ ɜ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɢ ɢ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɢ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɪɚɡɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ
ɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ:
 ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ-ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ (ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɨɱɢ-
ɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ ɢ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ, ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɱɢɫɬɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɢ ɬ. ɩ.);
 ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨ-ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɟ (ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ ɧɨɜɵɯ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɨɜ ɢ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɨɜ ɢ ɬ. ɩ.);
 ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɟ (ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɫɨɡ-
ɞɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɱɢɫɬɵɯ ɬɟɯɧɨ-
ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɢ ɬ. ɩ.);
 ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ-ɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ.
106
ɉɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤɨ ɜɫɟɦ ɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ (ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ, ɩɥɚɧɨɜ) ɫ
ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɤɚɠɞɵɣ ɪɚɡ ɜɫɬɚɟɬ ɡɚɞɚɱɚ ɩɨɢɫɤɚ ɢ ɨɬɛɨ-
ɪɚ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ (ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ) ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ. Ⱦɥɹ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɞɚɧ-
ɧɨɣ ɰɟɥɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ ɢɡ
ɧɢɯ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ: ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ-ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ, ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ-
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɪɢɫɤɚ ɢ ɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟ-
ɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɫɰɟɧɚɪɧɵɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ. Ȼɚɡɨɜɵɦ ɢɡ ɷɬɢɯ ɦɟɬɨ-
ɞɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɦ ɤ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦ ɬɢɧɚɦ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ,
ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɯ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ, ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ-
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɛɚɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɛɳɢɯ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɹɯ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɷɮɮɟɤ-
ɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɞɢɤɬɭɸɳɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ, ɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ (ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ) ɜ
ɞɟɧɟɠɧɵɯ ɢɡɦɟɪɢɬɟɥɹɯ ɩɪɢ ɭɱɟɬɟ ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ.
Ɋɚɛɨɬɚ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɩɪɢ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɨɣ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɟ ɝɪɚɧɬɚ ɊɎɎɂ, ɩɪɨɟɤɬ
ʋ 10-06-00081.

Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜ ɋ.ɇ., Ɂɚɯɚɪɨɜ ȼ.Ɇ. 2009. ɗɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ. Ɇ.:
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ; ɐɟɧɬɪ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ.
72 ɫ.
ȼɟɝɚ Ⱥ.ɘ. 2009. ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɨ-ɩɪɚɜɨɜɵɟ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɵ ɫɨɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɢ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟ ɨɥɢɦɩɢɣɫɤɢɯ
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ // ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨ-
ɫɬɢ: ɬɟɨɪɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ: Ɇɚɬ-ɥɵ 10-ɣ ɦɟɠɞ. ɤɨɧɮ. Ɋɨɫ. ɨɛ-ɜɚ ɷɤɨɥ. ɷɤɨɧɨ-
ɦɢɤɢ. Ɇ.; Ʉɚɥɢɥɢɧɝɪɚɞ: ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ. ɋ. 262-266.
ȼɟɝɚ Ⱥ.ɘ. 2008. ɋɬɪɚɯɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɦɟɪ ɩɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨ-
ɜɚɧɢɸ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɨɥɢɦɩɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ
ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ «ɋɨɱɢ-2014» // Ɍɟɨɪɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɬɪɚɯɨɜɚ-
ɧɢɹ: ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ: Ɇɚɬ-ɥɵ VIII ȼɫɟɪɨɫ. ɤɨɧɮ. Ɍ. 2. Ⱦɭɛɧɚ. ɋ. 33-
41.
ȿɯɚɧɭɪɨɜɚ ȿ.Ⱥ. 2005. Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ ɫ ɨɫɨ-
ɛɵɦ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɦ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ // ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ.
ʋ 3. ɋ. 28-54.
Ʌɭɤɶɹɧɱɢɤɨɜ ɇ.ɇ., ɉɨɬɪɚɜɧɵɣ ɂ.Ɇ. 2010. ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɪɢ-
ɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ: ɍɱɟɛɧɢɤ. 4-ɟ ɢɡɞ., ɩɟɪɟɪɚɛ. ɢ ɞɨɩ. Ɇ.: ɘɇɂɌɂ-ȾȺɇȺ.
687 ɫ.
Ɇɨɬɤɢɧ Ƚ.Ⱥ. 2009. ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɬɟɨɪɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ
ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ (ɥɟɤɰɢɢ ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɢ). Ɇ.: Ɍɢɫɫɨ.
347 ɫ.
ɉɟɪɟɥɟɬ Ɋ.Ⱥ. 2009. ɉɥɚɬɟɠɢ ɡɚ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɟ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ / ɉɪɨ-
ɝɪɚɦɦɚ ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ȿɋ – Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ. Ƚɚɪɦɨɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɬɚɧ-
ɞɚɪɬɨɜ (Ƚɗɋ II). Ɇ.
Ɋɸɦɢɧɚ ȿ.ȼ. 2009. ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɨɬ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚ-
ɪɭɲɟɧɢɣ. Ɇ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ. 331 ɫ.

107
ɂɋɉɈɅɖɁɈȼȺɇɂȿ ɗɄɈɇɈɆɂɑȿɋɄɂɏ ɈɐȿɇɈɄ
ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆɇɕɏ ɍɋɅɍȽ ȼ ɊɈɋɋɂɂ

Ɉ.ȿ. Ɇɟɞɜɟɞɟɜɚ
Ƚɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ

ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɧɚɭɤɨɣ ɩɨɞ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɦɢ ɭɫɥɭɝɚɦɢ ɩɨ-


ɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ ɧɟɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɵɝɨɞɵ ɢ ɛɥɚɝɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɥɸɞɢ
ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬ ɨɬ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɢ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧ-
ɬɨɜ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ. Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɢ
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɧɢɦɢ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɸɳɢɯ ɷɬɢ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ. ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ, ɤ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɞɟɣ-
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɩɥɚɬɟɠɢ ɡɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ, ɩɨɡɜɨ-
ɥɹɸɳɢɟ ɜɜɟɫɬɢ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ. Ⱦɚɧɧɵɣ
ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɟɥɶ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɨɬ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɤɨɦ-
ɩɟɧɫɢɪɭɟɬ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɨɬ ɧɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢɥɢ ɜɯɨ-
ɞɹɳɢɯ ɜ ɧɢɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ ɜ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟ, ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɜɧɟɫɟɧɢɹ
ɩɥɚɬɵ ɡɚ ɢɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ. ɋɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ ɜɵɩɥɚɱɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ
ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ, ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɥɸɞɢ ɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɥɸɞɟɣ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɪɟ-
ɝɢɨɧɵ ɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ. Ʉɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɩɥɚɬɟɠɢ
ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɵ ɜ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ ɧɚ ɜɨɫɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɢɥɢ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜ-
ɥɟɧɢɟ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɨɜ ɪɚɡɪɭɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɢɥɢ ɭɬɪɚɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɯɨɞɟ ɯɨ-
ɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɬ-
ɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɩɥɚɬɟɠɟɣ ɡɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɬɪɟɛɭ-
ɟɬɫɹ ɢɯ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɧɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɬɚɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ
ɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɭɸ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɭ ɜ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ. ɗɬɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɬɟɦ,
ɱɬɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ, ɩɪɨɞɭɰɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ
ɭɫɥɭɝɢ, ɢ ɫɚɦɢ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɰɟɧ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɧɟ ɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɵ ɜ
ɪɵɧɨɤ, ɢ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɢɯ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɹɦ ɛɟɡ ɤɚɤɢɯ ɥɢɛɨ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɣ.
ɉɨ ɷɬɨɣ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟ ɭ ɧɚɫ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɧɟɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɢɞɟɬ ɤɪɚɣɧɟ ɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɨ. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɩɪɨɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɷɧɬɭɡɢɚɫɬɚɦɢ ɥɢɲɶ ɜ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ ɰɟɧ-
ɬɪɚɯ. ȼɨɩɪɨɫ ɨ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɢɢ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɧɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɢ
ɨɪɝɚɧɚɦɢ, ɨɬɜɟɱɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɡɚ ɨɯɪɚɧɭ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ (ɆɉɊɢɗ ɊɎ), ɧɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɚɦɢ,
ɨɬɜɟɱɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɡɚ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ.
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ,
ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ
ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɸɬ ɜɩɨɥɧɟ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɟ ɩɨɬɨɤɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɜɵɝɨɞ
ɞɥɹ ɷɬɢɯ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ.
ɇɢɠɟ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɵ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ
ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ.
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Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɤɨɫɵ Ⱦɨɥɝɨɣ1
ɐɟɥɶɸ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɹɜɥɹɥɚɫɶ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɟɲɟ-
ɧɢɣ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɤɨɫɵ Ⱦɨɥɝɨɣ ɢ ɭɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɚɜɨɜɨɝɨ
ɫɬɚɬɭɫɚ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚ ɤɨɫɟ ɩɚɦɹɬɧɢɤɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɫ ɨɞɧɨɢɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɧɚ-
ɡɜɚɧɢɟɦ. Ʉɨɫɚ Ⱦɨɥɝɚɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɭɡɤɢɣ ɩɨɥɭɨɫɬɪɨɜ ɧɚ Ⱥɡɨɜɫɤɨɦ
ɦɨɪɟ. ɉɨ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɸ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɷɬɨ
ɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɦɟɫɬɨ. ɂɡ-ɡɚ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɝɨ ɧɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɨɤɚ ɨɬɞɵɯɚɸ-
ɳɢɯ, ɩɪɢɟɡɠɚɸɳɢɯ ɧɚ ɤɨɫɭ ɜ ɥɟɬɨɦ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤ ɪɹɞ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣ,
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɳɢɯ ɤ ɭɬɪɚɬɟ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɤɨɫɵ ɢ ɟɟ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɨɣ
ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɩɨ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɸ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɧɚ ɩɪɢ-
ɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɵ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɜɵɝɨɞ, ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦɢ ɤɨɫɵ. Ʉ ɜɵɝɨɞɚɦ ɨɬɧɨɫɢ-
ɥɢɫɶ ɛɭɞɭɳɢɟ ɞɨɯɨɞɵ ɨɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɤɨɫɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ
ɛɵɥɨ ɭɱɟɫɬɶ ɧɚ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ:
 ɞɨɯɨɞɵ ɨɬ ɚɪɟɧɞɵ ɡɟɦɥɢ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɦɵɟ ɚ) ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ,
ɫɞɚɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɜ ɚɪɟɧɞɭ ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɢ ɛ) ɪɨɫɬɨɦ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ
ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɡɟɦɥɢ ɧɚ ɤɨɫɟ, ɜ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟ 10,0-13,0 ɦɥɧ. ɪɭɛ.;
 ɞɨɯɨɞɵ ɨɬ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɩɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɸ ɚɜɬɨɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɚ ɬɭɪɢ-
ɫɬɨɜ ɪɹɞɨɦ ɫ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɟɣ ɩɚɦɹɬɧɢɤɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɜ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟ 7,2 ɦɥɧ. ɪɭɛ.;
 ɞɨɯɨɞɵ ɨɬ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɫɤɭɪɫɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟ 3,0-
5,0 ɦɥɧ. ɪɭɛ.;
 ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɥɨɝɨɜ (ɛɟɡ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɣ ɨɬ ɩɥɚɬɵ ɡɚ ɡɟɦɥɸ) ɜ ɪɟ-
ɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɩɭɬɟɜɨɤ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɸ
ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɜ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟ 8,6 ɦɥɧ. ɪɭɛ.
Ɉɛɳɚɹ ɫɭɦɦɚ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɜɵɝɨɞ ɨɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɩɚ-
ɦɹɬɧɢɤɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ 28,8-33,8 ɦɥɧ. ɪɭɛ.
ɉɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɨ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ Ʉɪɚɫɧɨɞɚɪɫɤɨɝɨ
ɤɪɚɹ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɜɲɟɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ ɩɪɚɜɨɜɨɣ ɫɬɚɬɭɫ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨ-
ɪɢɢ, ɝɪɚɧɢɰɵ ɡɨɧ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɡɟɦɥɢ ɢ ɢɯ ɩɪɚɜɨɜɵɟ ɪɟɠɢɦɵ;
ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɵ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ ɡɟɦɥɟɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɡɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɟ ɜ ɧɚ-
ɫɬɨɹɳɢɣ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɧɚ ɤɨɫɟ.

Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ


ɞɚɥɶɧɟɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɥɟɨɩɚɪɞɚ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ
Ɋɚɛɨɬɚ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɜ ɯɨɞɟ ɞɢɫɫɟɪɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɦɨ-
ɝɨ ɇ.ɀ. ɍɛɢɲɟɜɨɣ, ɩɨɞ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɦ Ɉ.ȿ. Ɇɟɞɜɟɞɟɜɨɣ ɧɚ ɤɚɮɟɞɪɟ ɷɤɨ-
ɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɣ Ƚɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ. ȼ ɯɨ-
ɞɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ
ɥɟɨɩɚɪɞɚ ɬɪɟɦɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɚɦɢ: ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ
«ɝɨɬɨɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɥɚɬɢɬɶ»; ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɰɟɧ; ɩɨ ɡɚɬɪɚɬɚɦ ɧɚ
ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ-ɚɧɚɥɨɝɚ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɨɦ ɜɵɝɨɞ.

1
Ɋɚɛɨɬɚ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɩɨ ɡɚɤɚɡɭ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɢ Ʉɪɚɫɧɨɞɚɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɹ ɜ 2004 ɝ.
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ȼ ɯɨɞɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɩɪɨɲɟɧɨ 500 ɪɟɫɩɨɧɞɟɧɬɨɜ ɫ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦ
ɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɦ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ, ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɚ ɢɡ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɢ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ
ɝɨɪɨɞɨɜ ɊɎ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɣ, ɨɛ ɢɯ ɝɨɬɨɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɥɚɬɢɬɶ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ
ɩɨɠɟɪɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɫɭɦɦɵ ɞɟɧɟɝ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɨ
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɥɟɨɩɚɪɞɚ. ɉɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ ɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɜɫɟ
ɪɟɫɩɨɧɞɟɧɬɵ ɛɵɥɢ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɞɜɟ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ: ɠɢɬɟɥɢ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɝɨɪɨɞɨɜ,
ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɟ ɢ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɵɟ ɞɨɯɨɞɵ (ɝɪɭɩɩɚ Ⱥ) ɢ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɨɟ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɊɎ (ɝɪɭɩɩɚ Ȼ). Ɋɟɫɩɨɧɞɟɧɬɵ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ Ⱥ ɛɵɥɢ ɝɨɬɨɜɵ ɩɨɠɟɪɬɜɨ-
ɜɚɬɶ 1047,7 ɪɭɛ., ɝɪɭɩɩɵ Ȼ – 121,88 ɪɭɛ. Ɉɛɳɚɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɥɟɨɩɚɪɞɚ ɛɵɥɚ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ: (121,88 ɪɭɛ. ×
46698736 ɱɟɥ. / k + 1047,7 ɪɭɛ. × 19202376 ɱɟɥ. / k) × 0,7 = 773 ɦɥɧ. USD,
ɝɞɟ: k = 25 – ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɚ ɪɭɛɥɟɣ ɜ USD; 0,7 – ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬ ɪɟɫɩɨɧ-
ɞɟɧɬɨɜ, ɩɪɢɧɹɜɲɢɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɜ ɨɩɪɨɫɟ; 46698736 ɱɟɥ. – ɬɪɭɞɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɟ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɊɎ, ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɟɟɫɹ ɤ ɝɪɭɩɩɟ Ȼ; 9202376 ɱɟɥ. – ɬɪɭɞɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɟ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɊɎ, ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɟɟɫɹ ɤ ɝɪɭɩɩɟ Ⱥ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɚɦɢ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ
ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɥɟɨɩɚɪɞɚ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ
ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɰɟɧ ɢ ɩɨ ɡɚɬɪɚɬɚɦ ɧɚ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɟɝɨ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ (ɬɚɛɥ. 1).

Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1. ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɥɟɨɩɚɪɞɚ


Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɨ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɦ Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɨ ɡɚɬɪɚɬɚɦ Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ
ɰɟɧɚɦ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɫɱɟɬɟ ɧɚ ɧɚ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ «ɝɨɬɨɜɧɨɫɬɶ
ɜɫɸ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɸ, USD ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ, USD ɩɥɚɬɢɬɶ», USD
109 500 21 000 000 ɨɤɨɥɨ 722 679 196

Ɉɰɟɧɤɢ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ, ɦɧɨɝɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ ɩɪɟɜɵ-


ɲɚɸɬ ɜɫɟ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ, ɱɬɨ ɝɨɜɨɪɢɬ ɨ ɧɟɞɨɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɥɚɝɚ
ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢ ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɵɦɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɚɦɢ.

Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɨɣ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ


ɪɟɞɤɢɯ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ
Ɋɚɛɨɬɚ ɛɵɥɚ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɩɨ ɡɚɤɚɡɭ ɆɉɊ ɊɎ. ȿɟ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɹɜɥɹɥɚɫɶ ɩɨɞɝɨ-
ɬɨɜɤɚ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ «Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɢɫɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚ ɜɪɟɞɚ, ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɴ-
ɟɤɬɚɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ, ɡɚɧɟɫɟɧɧɵɦ ɜ Ʉɪɚɫɧɭɸ ɤɧɢɝɭ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚ-
ɰɢɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɧɵɦ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ, ɧɟ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɦɫɹ ɤ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ
ɨɯɨɬɵ ɢ ɪɵɛɨɥɨɜɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɟ ɢɯ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ».
Ⱦɥɹ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɜɨɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɞɚ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦ
ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɢɣ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɟɫɥɢ ɧɟ
ɜɫɸ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɬɪɚɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɥɚɝ, ɬɨ ɯɨɬɹ ɛɵ
ɢɡɦɟɪɹɟɦɭɸ ɜ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɰɟɧɚɯ ɟɟ ɱɚɫɬɶ. ɇɚ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɬɚɤɨɣ
ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɥ. ɉɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɦɵɟ ɬɚɤɫɵ ɞɥɹ ɢɫɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚ ɜɡɵ-
ɫɤɚɧɢɹ ɡɚ ɭɳɟɪɛ, ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɧɧɵɣ ɧɟɡɚɤɨɧɧɵɦ ɞɨɛɵɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɢɥɢ ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɢ-
ɟɦ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ, ɧɟ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢ ɟɝɨ
110
ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ. Ɉɧɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɫɢɥɶɧɨ ɡɚɧɢɠɟɧɵ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɰɟɧɚɦɢ,
ɩɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ ɩɪɨɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɵ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ ɧɚ ɥɟɝɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɢ ɧɟɥɟɝɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɵɧɤɚɯ, ɱɬɨ ɧɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɥɨ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɨɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬ-
ɜɢɟ ɧɚ ɧɚɪɭɲɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɜɨɡɦɟɳɚɬɶ
ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɧɧɵɣ ɢɦɢ ɜɪɟɞ ɜ ɩɨɥɧɨɦ ɨɛɴɟɦɟ. ȼɪɟɞ, ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ ɨɛɢ-
ɬɚɧɢɹ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɜɨɨɛɳɟ ɧɟ
ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɥɫɹ ɢ ɧɟ ɜɨɡɦɟɳɚɥɫɹ.
ȼ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɜɪɟɞ, ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɧɧɵɣ ɪɟɞɤɢɦ ɢ
ɢɫɱɟɡɚɸɳɢɦ ɜɢɞɚɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɢɫɯɨɞɹ ɢɡ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬ-
ɧɵɯ ɢ ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ ɧɚ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ
ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ.
ȼɨɩɪɨɫ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɨ ɪɟɲɢɬɶ
ɬɪɟɦɹ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɦɢ – ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ,
ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ; ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨ-
ɜɨɱɧɨɣ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ, ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɰɟɧ;
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɹ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɚ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɞɧɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ
ɜɢɞɵ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɩɨ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɹɦ ɛɥɢɡɨɫɬɢ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɢɥɢ ɢɯ ɪɟɞɤɨɫɬɢ.
Ɉɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɚɹ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɚɹ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶɸ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɚɫɶ ɭɫɪɟɞɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɰɟɧ ɧɚ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɦɨɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɟ ɢɥɢ
ɟɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɨɝ. ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɫɛɨɪɚ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɨ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɰɟɧɚɯ ɧɚ
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɵ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɵ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɨɣ

Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2. Ɉɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɚɹ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɚɹ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ,


ɡɚɧɟɫɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ Ʉɪɚɫɧɭɸ ɤɧɢɝɭ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ
Ɉɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɚɹ
ȼɢɞɵ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɚɹ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ,
ɪɭɛ./ɷɤɡ.
ɋɤɨɩɚ – Pandion haliaetus 25 000
Ʉɪɚɫɧɵɣ ɤɨɪɲɭɧ – Milvus milvus 50 000
ɋɬɟɩɧɨɣ ɥɭɧɶ – Circus macrourus 10 000
Ʉɪɟɱɟɬ – Falco rusticolus 250 000
Ȼɚɥɨɛɚɧ – Falco cherrug 150 000
ɋɚɩɫɚɧ – Falco peregrinus 100 000
ɋɬɟɪɯ – Grus leucogeranus (ɨɛɫɤɚɹ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ) 150 000
Ȼɟɥɵɣ ɦɟɞɜɟɞɶ – Ursus maritimus 100 000
Ʉɚɜɤɚɡɫɤɚɹ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɚɹ ɧɨɪɤɚ –
40 000
Mustela lutreola turovi
Ʉɚɥɚɧ – Enhydra lutris 80 000
Ɇɚɧɭɥ – Felis manul 50 000
Ⱥɦɭɪɫɤɢɣ ɬɢɝɪ – Panthera tigris altaica 500 000
Ʌɟɨɩɚɪɞ – Panthera pardus 500 000
ɋɧɟɠɧɵɣ ɛɚɪɫ – Uncia uncia 300 000
Ʉɭɥɚɧ – Equus hemionus 150 000
111
ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɤɧɢɠɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ (ɩɪɟɢɦɭ-
ɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɬɢɰ ɢ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ), ɜɨɲɟɞɲɢɟ ɜɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɢ ɜ ɭɬɜɟɪɠ-
ɞɟɧɧɵɣ ɆɉɊ ɊɎ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬ ɩɨ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɭ ɜɪɟɞɚ, ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦ ɢ ɢɯ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹɦ. ȼ ɬɚɛɥ. 2 ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɚ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ
ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɩɨɱɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɵɟ ɪɵɧɨɱ-
ɧɵɟ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɵ ɜ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɟ ɧɚ 1 ɦ2 ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ, ɢɫɯɨɞɹ
ɢɡ ɦɚɫɫɵ, ɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɩɨɱɜɟ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ, ɢ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ
ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜɵɪɚɳɟɧɧɵɯ ɞɨɠɞɟɜɵɯ ɱɟɪɜɟɣ (ɤɚɧɚɞɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɵɩɨɥɡɤɚ), ɨɩɪɟ-
ɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɜ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟ 2,2 ɪɭɛ./ɝ, ɞɥɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɡɨɧ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ
(ɬɚɛɥ. 3). Ⱦɚɧɧɵɟ ɨ ɦɚɫɫɟ ɩɨɱɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɵ, ɤɚɤ
ɭɫɪɟɞɧɟɧɧɵɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɨ ɡɨɨɦɚɫɫɟ, ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɯɫɹ ɜ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ
ɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɱɜɨɜɟɞɨɜ (ɑɟɪɧɨɜ, Ʉɨɜɞɚ, Ⱦɨɛɪɨɜɨɥɶɫɤɢɣ).

Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 3. ɋɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɱɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ


ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɡɨɧ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ
ɋɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɜɫɟɝɨ
Ɇɚɫɫɚ ɩɨɱɜɟɧɧɵɯ
ɡɚɩɚɫɚ ɩɨɱɜɟɧɧɵɯ
ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɡɨɧɵ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ
ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ,
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɝ/ɦ2
ɪɭɛ./ɦ2
Ɂɨɧɚ ɚɪɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɭɫɬɵɧɶ 10 22
Ɂɨɧɚ ɬɭɧɞɪɵ 12 26
Ɂɨɧɚ ɥɟɫɨɬɭɧɞɪɵ 21 46
Ɂɨɧɚ ɬɚɣɝɢ 30 66
Ɂɨɧɚ ɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ 65 143
Ɂɨɧɚ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɥɢɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ 100 220
Ʌɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɧɚɹ ɡɨɧɚ 100 220
ɋɬɟɩɧɚɹ ɡɨɧɚ:
ɱɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɚɹ ɫɬɟɩɶ 220 484
ɥɭɝɨɜɚɹ ɫɬɟɩɶ 40 88
ɫɭɯɚɹ ɫɬɟɩɶ 20 44

ɉɪɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɜɪɟɞɚ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɢɢ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɠɢɜɨɬ-


ɧɵɯ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɨ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɛɭɞɭɳɢɯ ɩɨɤɨɥɟɧɢɣ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɦɨɝɥɢ ɛɵ ɠɢɬɶ ɧɚ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɦɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ. Ⱦɥɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɧɨɣ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɨ ɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɥɹɸɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɤ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɡɚɩɚɫɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ:
1
V VT u ,
1  e T  1
ɝɞɟ ɟ – ɫɬɚɜɤɚ ɞɢɫɤɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ; Ɍ – ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɠɢɡɧɢ
ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɨɥɟɧɢɹ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ; V – ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɛɭɞɭɳɢɯ ɩɨɤɨɥɟɧɢɣ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ;
VɌ – ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝɨ, ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ Ɍ ɥɟɬ.
112
ɉɨ ɢɬɨɝɚɦ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɆɉɊ ɊɎ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɚ «Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɢɫɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡ-
ɦɟɪɚ ɜɪɟɞɚ, ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ, ɡɚɧɟɫɟɧɧɵɦ ɜ Ʉɪɚɫ-
ɧɭɸ ɤɧɢɝɭ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɧɵɦ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝɨ
ɦɢɪɚ, ɧɟ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɦɫɹ ɤ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦ ɨɯɨɬɵ ɢ ɪɵɛɨɥɨɜɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɟ ɢɯ ɨɛɢɬɚ-
ɧɢɹ» (ɩɪɢɤɚɡ ɆɉɊ ɊɎ ɨɬ 28.04.2008 ʋ 107). Ʉ ɫɨɠɚɥɟɧɢɸ, ɦɟɬɨɞ ɭɫɥɨɜ-
ɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɧ ɧɟ ɛɵɥ.

Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɯ ɧɚɫɚɠɞɟɧɢɣ


ɧɚ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɭɸ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɜ Ɇɨɫɤɜɟ
Ɋɚɛɨɬɚ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɜ 1997 ɝ. ɩɨ ɡɚɤɚɡɭ ɉɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ Ɇɨɫɤɜɵ. ȿɟ ɰɟɥɶ –
ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɣ ɜ ɚɪɟɧɞɧɭɸ ɩɥɚɬɭ ɡɚ ɡɟɦɥɸ.
ɉɪɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɣ ɜ ɫɬɚɜɤɢ ɚɪɟɧɞɧɨɣ ɩɥɚɬɵ ɡɚ
ɡɟɦɥɸ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ ɢɫɯɨɞɢɥɢ ɢɡ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯ
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ:
1. ɇɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɯ ɧɚɫɚɠɞɟɧɢɣ ɩɨɜɵɲɚɟɬ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɱɚ-
ɫɬɤɨɜ ɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɨ ɤɚɤ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɨɣ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ, ɝɟɧɟ-
ɪɢɪɭɟɦɨɣ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɢɦɢ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɫɚɠɞɟɧɢɹɦɢ.
2. ɗɬɨ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɨ ɜ ɫɬɚɜɤɚɯ ɚɪɟɧɞɧɨɣ ɩɥɚɬɵ ɡɚ
ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ,
ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ ɢɯ ɜɤɥɚɞɭ ɜ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɭɸ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɡɟɦɥɢ, ɢ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɚɪɟɧɞ-
ɧɨɣ ɩɥɚɬɵ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɚɹ ɷɬɨɦɭ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɸ, ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ
ɧɚ ɰɟɥɢ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɨɯɪɚɧɨɣ ɢ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɯ ɧɚɫɚɠɞɟɧɢɣ.
ȼ ɯɨɞɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɚ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ
ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶɸ ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɢ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɸ ɡɟɥɟɧɢɦɵɯ ɧɚɫɚɠɞɟɧɢɣ ɜ
ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɡɨɧɚɯ Ɇɨɫɤɜɵ, ɢɦɟɜɲɚɹ ɜɢɞ:
6538
Pi 1926   438 U i ,
li
ɝɞɟ li – ɪɚɧɠɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɨɧɵ ɨɬ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɝɨɪɨɞɚ (ɢ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸ-
ɳɚɹ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɬ 0,6 ɞɨ 20), ȡi – ɞɨɥɹ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨ-
ɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɡɨɧ, ɡɚɧɹɬɚɹ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɫɚɠɞɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɢ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸ-
ɳɚɹ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɬ 0 ɞɨ 100%. ɂɡ ɭɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɨ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ «ɫɬɨɢɦɨ-
ɫɬɧɨɣ ɜɤɥɚɞ» ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɵ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɰɟɧɵ ɡɟɦɥɢ ɫɨ-
ɫɬɚɜɥɹɥ 7-10%. ɇɚ ɷɬɭ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɬɶ ɫɬɚɜɤɢ
ɚɪɟɧɞɧɨɣ ɩɥɚɬɵ ɡɚ ɡɟɦɥɸ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ ɝɨɪɨɞɚ, ɡɚɧɹɬɵɯ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɫɚ-
ɠɞɟɧɢɹɦɢ. ɍɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɚɪɟɧɞɧɨɣ ɩɥɚɬɵ ɡɚ ɡɟɦɥɸ ɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɧɚ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɢɯ ɩɚɪɤɨɜ ɛɵɥɨ ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɨ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸ-
ɳɢɦ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɚɤɬɨɦ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ Ɇɨɫɤɜɵ.
ɋ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɟɦ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɉɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ Ɇɨɫɤɜɵ ɜɨɡɧɢɤ ɩɟɪɜɵɣ ɢ
ɩɨɤɚ ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɩɪɟɰɟɞɟɧɬ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚ-
ɧɢɡɦɚ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɡɟɦɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟ. ɍɤɚ-
ɡɚɧɧɵɦ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ «ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶ
ɩɥɚɬɢɬ», ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɢɣ ɨɩɥɚɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɢɯ ɨɡɟ-
ɥɟɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɧɢɯ ɡɟɦɥɟɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ.
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ɈɐȿɇɄȺ ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆɇɕɏ ɍɋɅɍȽ ȻȺɏɑɂɋȺɊȺɃɋɄɈȽɈ
ɊȺɃɈɇȺ ȺȼɌɈɇɈɆɇɈɃ ɊȿɋɉɍȻɅɂɄɂ ɄɊɕɆ

Ⱥ.ɇ. Ɋɭɞɵɤ
Ɉɛɳɟɫɬɜɨ ɝɟɨɷɤɨɥɨɝɨɜ; Ɍɚɜɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ
ɢɦ. ȼ.ɂ. ȼɟɪɧɚɞɫɤɨɝɨ, ɝ. ɋɢɦɮɟɪɨɩɨɥɶ, ɍɤɪɚɢɧɚ

ɐɟɥɢ ɢ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ


Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ (ɗɍ) ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣ-
ɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ Ⱥɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɨɣ Ɋɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ Ʉɪɵɦ (ȺɊɄ) ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɚɫɶ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ
ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ (ɋɗɈ) ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡ-
ɜɢɬɢɹ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɞɨ 2017 ɝ. ɉɪɨɟɤɬ «ɂɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨ-
ɜɚɧɧɨɟ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ
ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɜ ȺɊɄ» ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɵɜɚɥɫɹ ɉɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɨɣ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ Ʉɪɵ-
ɦɚ ɉɊɈɈɇ (ɉɊɂɄ ɉɊɈɈɇ, UNDP Crimea Integration and Development
Programme) ɜ 2008-2009 ɝɝ. ɢ ɩɪɟɞɭɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɥ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɭ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɞɟɣɫɬ-
ɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɥɚɧɨɜ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ 4-ɯ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɢɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ ȺɊɄ.
ɉɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɋɗɈ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɢɜɨɣ
ɩɨ ɋɗɈ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ Ʉɨɦɢɫɫɢɢ (ȿɋ, 2001) ɢ ɉɪɨɬɨɤɨɥɨɦ ɩɨ ɋɗɈ ɤ Ʉɨɧ-
ɜɟɧɰɢɢ ɗɫɩɨ ȿɗɄ ɈɈɇ (ɩɨɞɩɢɫɚɧ ɜ 2003 ɝ. ɜ Ʉɢɟɜɟ). ȼ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɦ
ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɜɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɜ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɟ ɧɚ ɪɚɣɨɧɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɋɗɈ ɩɨ
ɩɨɥɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɟ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɜɵɲɟɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ.
ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɭɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ
ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ, ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ, ɱɬɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ ɤ
ɭɯɭɞɲɟɧɢɸ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɩɨɤɚ ɟɳɟ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɜɲɢɯɫɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɨɦ-
ɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ. 52,1% ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɩɨɤɪɵɬɵ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ, ɜɨɞɨɫɛɨɪ ɬɪɟɯ ɝɨɪ-
ɧɵɯ ɪɟɤ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɟɝɨ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɚɯ (ɪɢɫ. 1), ɩɪɢɱɟɦ,
ɤɪɨɦɟ ɠɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɪɟɤɢ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɩɢɬɶɟɜɨɣ ɜɨɞɨɣ ɞɜɚ
ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɝɨɪɨɞɚ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ, ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɵ ɩɨ ɋɗɈ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɢɥɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɫɬɢ
ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɗɍ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɤɚɤ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤ-
ɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɣ ɜ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɦ ɡɚɦɟɫɬɢɬɶ ɱɚɫɬɶ
ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ.
Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɚ ɜ ɋɗɈ ɢ, ɡɚ-
ɬɟɦ, ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɸ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɚɦɢ ɉɊɂɄ ɉɊɈɈɇ ɩɨ ɋɗɈ:
ȿ. Ȼɨɪɢɫɨɜɨɣ, Ⱥ. Ⱥɪɬɨɜɵɦ ɢ Ⱥ. Ɋɭɞɵɤɨɦ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɚɦɢ Ⱦ. ȿɩɢɯɢɧɵɦ,
Ƚ. ɉɪɨɤɨɩɨɜɵɦ ɢ Ⱥ. Ʌɵɱɚɤɨɦ (Ɍɚɜɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ).
Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɗɍ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ 1 ɦɟɫɹɰɚ ɧɚ ɮɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɷɬɚɩɟ
ɋɗɈ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɣ ɤ ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ Ȼɚɯ-
ɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ. ȼ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɝɨɫɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ
«Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɟ ɥɟɫɧɨɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ» ɢ «Ʉɭɣɛɵɲɟɜɫɤɨɟ ɥɟɫɨɨɯɨɬɧɢɱɶɟ ɯɨ-
ɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ», Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɟɠɪɚɣɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ,
ɨɬɱɟɬɨɜ ɢ ɞɨɤɥɚɞɨɜ Ɋɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɢɬɟɬɚ ɩɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɟ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɣ ɪɚɣɨɧɧɨɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬ-
ɪɚɰɢɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɨɜ.
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Ɋɢɫ. 1. Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɣɨɧ: ɛɨɥɟɟ 50% ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɩɨɤɪɵɬɨ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ (ɫɟ-
ɪɵɣ ɰɜɟɬ), ɚ 69% – ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɟɬɢ

Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ ɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ


Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɚɫɶ ɜ Ʉɪɵɦɭ ɜɩɟɪɜɵɟ. ɂɡ ɜɫɟɯ ɤɚ-
ɬɟɝɨɪɢɣ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ ɛɵɥɢ ɜɵɛɪɚɧɵ ɬɟ, ɞɥɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɥɚɬɟɠɟɣ ɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ
ɪɵɧɤɨɜ (Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 1999; Ɍɭɥɨɯɨɧɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 2006; ɂɫɚɟɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 1996).
ɗɬɨ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ ɝɨɪɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɩɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɣ ɜɨ-
ɞɵ ɞɨɥɠɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ, ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɸ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚ-
ɡɢɹ. ȼ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɯ ɧɟ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɫɬɟɩɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɟ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚ-
ɥɚɫɶ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ Ʉɪɵɦɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ ɜ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɚɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ,
ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɨɧɚ ɧɟ ɜɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɣɨɧɧɨɣ ɝɨɫɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɢ.
ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɭɫɪɟɞ-
ɧɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ, ɬɪɟɛɭɸɳɢɟ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɣ ɞɟɬɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ,
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɦɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɨɞɟɥɟɣ, ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɬɭɪɧɵɯ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ. Ɋɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɵ ɧɚ ɞɨɩɭɳɟɧɢɹɯ ɨɛɳɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɮɢɡɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɫɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɜ ɫɯɨɞɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɦɟɫɬ ɩɪɨɢɡɪɚɫɬɚɧɢɹ. ȼ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɯ ɧɟ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɫɹ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɣ ɫɨ-
ɫɬɚɜ ɧɚɫɚɠɞɟɧɢɣ. ɉɪɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɜɨɞɨɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɟɣ ɪɨɥɢ ɥɟɫɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚ-
ɥɢɫɶ ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɧɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɥɟɫɚ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɝɨɪɧɨɝɨ
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Ʉɪɵɦɚ. Ⱦɚɧɧɵɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɬɶɫɹ ɞɥɹ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ
ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɢ ɦɢɤɪɨɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɷɞɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ. ȼ
ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɜɨɞɨɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɟɣ ɪɨɥɢ ɥɟɫɚ ɜ Ʉɪɵɦɭ ɢɦɟ-
ɸɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɞɥɹ ɜɫɟɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɥɟɫɚ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɞɟɩɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɥɟɫɚɦɢ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨ-
ɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɛɵɥ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɦɵɣ ɜ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɤɨɧ-
ɜɟɪɫɢɨɧɧɨ-ɨɛɴɟɦɧɵɣ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɡɚɩɚɫɨɜ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɢ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɟɝɨ
ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɞɟɩɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɜ ɮɢɬɨɦɚɫɫɵ ɞɪɟɜɟɫ-
ɧɨɣ ɢ ɤɭɫɬɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɨɣ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ (ɂɫɚɟɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 1993, 1996; ɆȽɗɂɄ,
2003; Ɍɭɥɨɯɨɧɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 2006). ɉɨ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɦ, ɥɟɫɚ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ
ɧɚɤɚɩɥɢɜɚɸɬ ɜ ɝɨɞ 47 255,72 ɬɨɧɧɵ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ (ɨɤɨɥɨ 0,82 ɬ/ɝɚ ɜ ɝɨɞ). Ɉɬ-
ɫɸɞɚ, ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɟɦɨɝɨ ɤɢɫɥɨɪɨɞɚ ɫ 1 ɝɚ ɥɟɫɚ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 1530 ɦ3. ɂɥɢ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɫɱɟɬɟ ɧɚ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɥɟɫɨɩɨɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨ-
ɪɢɣ (57 719 ɝɚ) ɨɤɨɥɨ 88 310 070 ɦ3 Ɉ2 ɜ ɝɨɞ.
ɉɪɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɜɨɞɨɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɟɣ ɪɨɥɢ ɥɟɫɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɧɵɟ
ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɥɟɫɚ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɝɨɪɧɨɝɨ Ʉɪɵɦɚ (ɉɨɥɹɤɨɜ ɢ
ɞɪ., 2008). ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɧɵɦ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ, ɤɚɠɞɵɣ ɝɟɤɬɚɪ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɫɢ-
ɜɨɜ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɤ ɧɚ 950-3200 ɦ3 ɜ ɝɨɞ. ɍɱɢɬɵɜɚɹ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɥɟ-
ɫɨɩɨɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɜ 57 719 ɝɚ, ɥɟɫɧɵɟ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɵ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬ ɪɟɱɧɨɣ
ɫɬɨɤ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɦ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ 54 833 050 – 184 700 800 ɦ3 ɜ ɝɨɞ (ɞɥɹ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ
ɨɛɴɟɦ ɩɹɬɢ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳ ɧɚ ɪɟɤɚɯ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ
87,14 ɦɥɧ. ɦ3). ɋ ɭɜɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɤɚɡɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɛɟɡ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɪɟɤɢ ɢɫɩɵ-
ɬɵɜɚɥɢ ɛɵ ɤɚɬɚɫɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɢ ɢ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɛɵɫɬɪɨ ɩɟɪɟɫɵɯɚɥɢ.
Ɇɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɢɛɥɢɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɡɚɬɪɚɬɵ ɧɚ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɥɟɫɚ ɩɪɢ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɢ ɟɝɨ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɢɹ. ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɥɟɫɯɨɡɨɜ, ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ
ɩɨɫɚɞɤɢ 1 ɝɚ ɥɟɫɚ ɜ ɬɪɭɞɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ ɝɨɪɧɨɣ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ-
ɥɹɟɬ ɨɬ 5 ɞɨ 10 ɬɵɫ. ɝɪɧ (ɧɚ 2009 ɝ.). ɂɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɚɹ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ
57 719 ɝɚ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚ ɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɞɪɟɜɨ-
ɫɬɨɹ (ɬ. ɟ. ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɥɟɫɨɩɨɫɚɞɨɤ ɛɟɡ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚ-
ɡɢɹ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ) ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɞɨ 577 190 000 ɝɪɧ (ɛɨɥɟɟ
72 ɦɥɧ. $ ɋɒȺ). ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ, ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɥɟɫ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɜɵɩɨɥ-
ɧɹɬɶ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɧɚɦɧɨɝɨ ɯɭɠɟ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ.
Ȼɵɥɚ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ ɩɹɬɢ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ, ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɢ ɢɯ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ (ȿɦɟɥɶɹɧɨɜ, 1999; Ɍɢɦɱɟɧɤɨ, 2002, 2004; ɉɪɨ-
ɬɚɫɨɜ, 2002). Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥ, ɱɬɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ Ɂɚɝɨɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ
ɋɱɚɫɬɥɢɜɟɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɯɨɪɨɲɢɦ, Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨ-
ɝɨ – ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ, ɉɚɪɬɢɡɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ – ɩɥɨɯɢɦ, Ⱥɥɶɦɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ – ɤɚɬɚ-
ɫɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ.
Ɉ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɟ ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ ɪɟɤ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɤɪɚɣɧɟ ɬɪɭɞɧɨ ɫɭɞɢɬɶ, ɧɟ
ɢɦɟɹ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɣ (ɢɡɭɱɟɧɵ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɡɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ 1999-
2009 ɝɝ.). Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɢɡ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ ɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɨɬ-
ɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɨɞɧɵɣ ɛɚɥɚɧɫ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳ (ɪɢɫ. 2) ɧɟ ɩɨɡɜɨ-
ɥɹɟɬ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶ ɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨ-ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɩɭɫɤɢ ɜɨɞɵ ɢɡ ɷɬɢɯ ɜɨɞɨ-
116
ɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳ ɜ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɦ ɨɛɴɟɦɟ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɤ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɝɪɭɧɬɨɜɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɢ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ. ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧ-
ɧɨ ɪɟɤɢ ɧɢɠɟ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳ ɦɟɥɤɨɜɨɞɧɵ, ɛɟɞɧɵ ɮɚɭɧɨɣ ɢ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɭɹɡ-
ɜɢɦɵ ɞɥɹ ɥɸɛɵɯ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɢɬɟɥɟɣ.

ɉɪɢɯɨɞ,
ɬɵɫ. ɦ3

Ƚɨɞɵ

Ɋɚɫɯɨɞ,
ɬɵɫ. ɦ3

Ƚɨɞɵ
Ȼ
Ɋɢɫ. 2. Ⱦɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ (Ⱥ) ɢ ɢɡɴɹɬɢɹ (Ȼ) ɜɨɞɵ ɢɡ Ⱥɥɶɦɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ (ɪɢɫɭɧɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ Ƚ.Ⱥ. ɉɪɨɤɨɩɨɜɵɦ, Ɍɇɍ).

ɇɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɪɹɞ ɰɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ


ɫ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ.
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɋɯɟɦɟ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɟɬɢ ȺɊ Ʉɪɵɦ, ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧ-
ɧɨɣ ɤɪɵɦɫɤɢɦɢ ɭɱɟɧɵɦɢ ɜ 2008 ɝ., ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɵ ɫɥɟ-
ɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɷɤɨɫɟɬɢ: ɋɟɜɚɫɬɨɩɨɥɶɫɤɨ-Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɢɣ
ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɧɵɣ ɢ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨ-əɥɬɢɧɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɪɧɵɣ ɷɤɨɰɟɧɬɪɵ, Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨ-Ȼɭɥ-
ɝɚɧɚɤɫɤɢɣ, Ⱥɥɶɦɢɧɫɤɢɣ, Ʉɚɱɢɧɫɤɢɣ ɢ Ȼɟɥɶɛɟɤɫɤɢɣ ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɨɪɢ-
ɞɨɪɵ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ Ʉɚɥɚɦɢɬɫɤɢɣ ɩɪɢɦɨɪɫɤɢɣ ɷɤɨɤɨɪɢɞɨɪ (Ʉɚɪɩɟɧɤɨ, Ɋɭɞɵɤ, 2009).
ȼ ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ 30 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ, ɡɚɧɟ-
ɫɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɫɩɢɫɤɢ ɪɟɞɤɢɯ ɢ ɢɫɱɟɡɚɸɳɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ (Ʉɪɚɫɧɚɹ ɤɧɢɝɚ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ,
ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɣ ɤɪɚɫɧɵɣ ɫɩɢɫɨɤ, Ʉɪɚɫɧɵɣ ɫɩɢɫɨɤ ɆɋɈɉ ɢ ɞɪ.). ɂɡ 142 ɤɪɵɦ-
ɫɤɢɯ ɷɧɞɟɦɢɱɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ, 10 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ ɱɚɫɬɨ.
117
Ɉɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɢɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɝɪɨɡ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ,
ɧɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ ɩɨɠɚɪɚɦɢ, ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɟɡɚɤɨɧɧɵɟ ɪɭɛɤɢ ɰɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɪɨɞ ɞɟɪɟɜɶɟɜ,
ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɦɨɠɠɟɜɟɥɶɧɢɤɚ, ɢɡɞɟɥɢɹ ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɛɨɥɶ-
ɲɢɦ ɫɩɪɨɫɨɦ ɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ, ɧɨ ɢ ɡɚ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɦɢ
(ɪɢɫ. 3).

Ɋɢɫ. 3. ȼɵɪɭɛɤɚ ɦɨɠɠɟɜɟɥɶɧɢɤɚ ɧɚ ɫɭɜɟɧɢɪɵ – ɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɜɢ-


ɞɚɦ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ (ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɦ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɦ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɧɚɫɚɠɞɟ-
ɧɢɣ) ɩɪɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ (ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɵ)

Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɨɣ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɚ-


ɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ (ɢɥɢ ɜɵɝɨɞ) ɨɬ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɢɥɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚ-
ɡɢɹ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ. ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɷɤɨɧɨ-
ɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɜ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɦɟɪɟ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɵ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢ-
ɨɧɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ (ɞɨɛɵɱɚ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɵ, ɦɨɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ,
ɨɯɨɬɮɚɭɧɵ, ɩɭɲɧɢɧɵ ɢ ɬ. ɩ.).

ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ


ɧɚ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɨɛɳɢɣ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ
1. ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɋɗɈ ɛɵɥɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɵ Ɋɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɞɥɹ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɪɚɬɟ-
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ (ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɵ ɜ
ɨɬɱɟɬ ɩɨ ɋɗɈ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɜ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɟɬɟ).
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ɉɥɚɧɢɪɭɟɦɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ, ɢ ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɢɧɬɟɧ-
ɫɢɜɧɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ ɤ ɪɚɡɪɭɲɟɧɢɸ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨ-
ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ, ɢɯ ɨɛɟɞɧɟɧɢɸ, ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ, ɱɬɨ ɜ
ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ ɩɨɞɨɪɜɟɬ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɫɚɦɨɝɨ ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ. ȼɨ ɢɡɛɟɠɚɧɢɟ
ɷɬɨɝɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɢ ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɋɯɟɦɵ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɫɟɬɢ ɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɥɨ-
ɳɚɞɨɤ ɢ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɋɯɟɦɵ ɪɚɣɨɧɧɨɣ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɤɢ.
ɉɪɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɬɭɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɡɨɧ ɢ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɨɜ ɜ ɝɨɪɧɨ-ɥɟɫɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɟ
ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɬɶ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɬɢɩɨɜ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɤ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦ ɜɢɞɚɦ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ, ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɞɥɹ ɧɢɯ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɟ
ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ (ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɢ ɩɪ.). Ʌɢɲɶ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɷɬɨ-
ɝɨ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶ ɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ.
ɉɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚɦɢ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɨɝɨ ɞɟɥɚ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɫɟɬɢ ɧɚ
ɍɤɪɚɢɧɟ, ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɨɣ «Ʌɟɫɚ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ» ɩɪɟɞɭɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɩɨ-
ɜɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɥɟɫɢɫɬɨɫɬɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ. Ɂɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ȼɚɯ-
ɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɨɤɨɥɨ 10%. Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɟɫɬɶ ɯɨɪɨɲɢɣ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢ-
ɚɥ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɣ ɞɨ 20%, ɭɜɟɥɢ-
ɱɟɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɢɫɬɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ. ɉɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ
ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɜɟɫɬɢɫɶ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɢ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɢɦɢ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɫɩɟɤɬɪɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ.
Ɋɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɭɳɟɪɛ ɢ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɢɥɢ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨ-
ɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɢ ɢ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɚɦ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ ɩɨɬɟɪɶ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ ɜɫɥɟɞ-
ɫɬɜɢɟ ɢɯ ɢɡɴɹɬɢɹ (ɜɵɤɭɩɚ) ɞɥɹ ɧɭɠɞ, ɧɟ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɥɟɫɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɦ, ɧɨ ɢ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ «ɩɥɚɬɵ ɡɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ
ɭɫɥɭɝɢ». Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɷɬɨ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɜɧɟɫɟɧɢɹ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨ-ɩɪɚɜɨɜɵɟ
ɚɤɬɵ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ.
ȼ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯ ɫ ɫɨɫɟɞɧɢɦɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɦɢ ȺɊɄ ɢ ɝ. ɋɟɜɚɫɬɨɩɨɥɹ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɵ-
ɜɚɬɶ ɨɛɴɟɦɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɜɜɟɫɬɢ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ «ɩɥɚɬɵ ɡɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ», ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɟ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨ-
ɪɢɟɣ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ. ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ
ɤɚɤ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɦɢ ɠɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɢ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɫɨɫɟɞɧɢɦɢ ɬɟɪɪɢ-
ɬɨɪɢɹɦɢ – əɥɬɨɣ, ɋɢɦɮɟɪɨɩɨɥɟɦ, ɋɟɜɚɫɬɨɩɨɥɟɦ. Ɉɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɰɟɧ-
ɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ – ɱɢɫɬɚɹ ɩɪɟɫɧɚɹ ɜɨɞɚ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɳɚɹɫɹ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɜɨɞɨ-
ɫɛɨɪɨɜ ɪɟɤ Ⱥɥɶɦɚ, Ʉɚɱɚ, Ȼɟɥɶɛɟɤ, ɛɟɡɜɨɡɜɪɚɬɧɨ ɢɡɵɦɚɟɬɫɹ ɢɡ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ (ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɢɬɶɟɜɨɣ
ɜɨɞɨɣ ɋɢɦɮɟɪɨɩɨɥɹ ɢ əɥɬɵ). ȼ ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɟ ɡɚɫɭɲɥɢɜɵɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɢ ɧɢɠɧɟɦ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɢ ɪɟɤ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɤɚɬɚɫɬɪɨɮɢɱɟ-
ɫɤɨɦ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ. ɉɨ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɦ, ɜ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɟ ɜɨɞɨɞɟɮɢɰɢɬ
ɧɚ ɸɝɟ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɪɚɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɮɨɧɟ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɤɨɦ-
ɦɭɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ.
2. ȼ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɵɟ ɰɟɥɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚ ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨ-
ɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɚ ɐɟɥɶ ʋ 2 «ɗɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɟ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɡɟɦɟɥɶ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɟ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ». ɉɥɚ-
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ɧɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɢ ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɋɯɟɦɵ ɪɚɣɨɧɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɟɬɢ
ɢ ɋɯɟɦɵ ɪɚɣɨɧɧɨɣ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɤɢ, ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɢ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɨɝɨ ɮɨɧɞɚ (ɉɁɎ), ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɝɪɚɧɢɰ ɜɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ
ɡɨɧ ɪɟɤ ɢ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ, ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɉɁɎ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ, ɩɥɚɧɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɪɟɤɭɥɶɬɢɜɚɰɢɹ
ɡɟɦɟɥɶ, ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɚɪɶɟɪɧɵɦɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚɦɢ. Ⱦɥɹ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɷɬɨɣ ɰɟ-
ɥɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɚ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɐɟɥɶ 2.4 «Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɭɝ», ɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɳɚɹ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ: 2.4.1. Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɩɨ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɭ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɢ 2.4.2. Ɋɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ,
ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɣ ɩɨ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɸ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɫɟɤɬɨɪ.
Ʉ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɦ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɥɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚ «Ɋɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ» – ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɷɤɫ-
ɩɟɪɬɚɦɢ ɩɨ ɋɗɈ ɜɧɟɫɟɧɨ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ: «ɉɪɟɞɭɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶ-
ɧɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ, ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɢ
ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɯ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ».
24 ɞɟɤɚɛɪɹ 2009 ɝ. ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ Ȼɚɯɱɢɫɚɪɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ
ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɞɨ 2017 ɝ. ɛɵɥɚ ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɫɟɫɫɢɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɜɟɬɚ.

Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
Ȼɨɛɵɥɟɜ ɋ.ɇ., Ɇɟɞɜɟɞɟɜɚ Ɉ.ȿ., ɋɢɞɨɪɟɧɤɨ ȼ.ɇ. ɢ ɞɪ. 1999. ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ
ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ // ɉɪɨɟɤɬ ȽɗɎ «ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ».
Ɇ.: ɐɉɊɉ.
ȿɦɟɥɶɹɧɨɜ ɂ.Ƚ. 1999. Ɋɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢ-
ɜɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ. Ʉɢɟɜ. 168 ɫ.
ɂɫɚɟɜ Ⱥ.ɋ., Ʉɨɪɨɜɢɧ ȼ.Ƚ., ɍɬɤɢɧ Ⱥ.ɂ., ɉɪɹɠɧɢɤɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., Ɂɚɦɨɥɨɞɱɢɤɨɜ Ⱦ.Ƚ.
1993. Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɡɚɩɚɫɨɜ ɢ ɝɨɞɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɞɟɩɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ ɜ ɮɢɬɨɦɚɫɫɟ
ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ // Ʌɟɫɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ. ʋ5. ɋ. 3-10.
Ʉɚɪɩɟɧɤɨ ɋ.Ⱥ., Ɋɭɞɵɤ Ⱥ.ɇ., Ƚɥɭɳɟɧɤɨ ɂ.ȼ. ɢ ɞɪ. 2009. Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɋɯɟɦɵ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɟɬɢ Ⱥɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɨɣ Ɋɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ Ʉɪɵɦ // Ɇɚɬ-
ɥɵ V Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪ. ɧɚɭɱ.-ɩɪɚɤɬ. ɤɨɧɮ. «Ɂɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɢ Ʉɪɵɦɚ. Ɍɟɨɪɢɹ, ɩɪɚɤ-
ɬɢɤɚ ɢ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɨɝɨ ɞɟɥɚ ɜ ɑɟɪɧɨɦɨɪɫɤɨɦ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ» (ɋɢɦ-
ɮɟɪɨɩɨɥɶ, 22–23 ɨɤɬɹɛɪɹ 2009 ɝ.). ɋɢɦɮɟɪɨɩɨɥɶ. ɋ. 66-72.
ɉɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɧɵɟ ɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɵ Ʉɪɵɦɚ (ɫɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɢɤ). 2004 / ɉɨɞ. ɪɟɞ.
Ɂ.ȼ. Ɍɢɦɱɟɧɤɨ. ɋɢɦɮɟɪɨɩɨɥɶ. 113 ɫ.
ɉɨɥɹɤɨɜ Ⱥ.Ɏ., ɉɥɭɝɚɬɚɪɶ ɘ.ȼ., Ɋɭɞɶ Ⱥ.Ƚ. 2008. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɪɨɥɶ ɝɨɪ-
ɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ Ʉɪɵɦɚ // ɇɚɭɤɨɜɿ ɩɪɚɰɿ Ʌɿɫɿɜɧɢɱɨʀ ɚɤɚɞɟɦɿʀ ɧɚɭɤ ɍɤɪɚʀɧɢ:
ɡɛɿɪɧɢɤ ɧɚɭɤɨɜɢɯ ɩɪɚɰɶ. Ʌɶɜɿɜ: Ɋȼȼ ɇɅɌɍ ɍɤɪɚʀɧɢ. ȼɢɩ. 6. ɋ. 143-148.
ɉɪɨɬɚɫɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. 2002. Ȼɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ. Ʉɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɞɢ-
ɜɟɪɫɢɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ. Ʉɢɟɜ. 105 ɫ.
Ɋɭɤɨɜɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɞɥɹ ɡɟɦɥɟɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ,
ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɡɟɦɥɟɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɢ ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ: ɉɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚ ɆȽɗɂɄ
ɩɨ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɤɚɞɚɫɬɪɚɦ ɩɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ. 2003 / Ɇɟɠɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬ-
ɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ. 649 ɫ.
Ɍɢɦɱɟɧɤɨ Ɂ.ȼ. 2002. ȼɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɦɚɥɵɯ
ɪɟɤ Ʉɪɵɦɚ. ɋɢɦɮɟɪɨɩɨɥɶ: Ⱦɨɥɹ. 152 ɫ.
120
Ɍɭɥɨɯɨɧɨɜ Ⱥ.Ʉ., ɉɭɧɰɭɤɨɜɚ ɋ.Ⱦ., ɋɤɭɥɤɢɧɚ ɇ.Ⱥ., Ʉɭɡɧɟɰɨɜ ɘ.Ⱥ. 2006.
ȼɤɥɚɞ ɥɟɫɨɜ Ȼɭɪɹɬɢɢ ɜ ɛɚɥɚɧɫ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɢ ɷɦɢɫɫɢɢ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ // Ƚɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɹ ɢ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ. ʋ 2. ɋ. 41-48.
ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɟɤɢɫɥɨɝɨ ɝɚɡɚ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɥɟ-
ɫɨɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɥɟɫɨɪɚɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. 1996 / ɂɫɚɟɜ Ⱥ.ɋ., Ʉɨɪɨɜɢɧ
Ƚ.ɇ., ɋɭɯɢɯ ȼ.ɂ. ɢ ɞɪ. – Ɇ.: ɐɟɧɬɪ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. 156 ɫ.

ɂɁɆȿɊȿɇɂȿ ȼɅɂəɇɂə ɉɈɉɍɅəɐɂɈɇɇɈȽɈ


ɊȺɁɇɈɈȻɊȺɁɂə ɇȿɊɄɂ ɇȺ ȼȿɅɂɑɂɇɍ ɂ ɍɋɌɈɃɑɂȼɈɋɌɖ
ȿȿ ɑɂɋɅȿɇɇɈɋɌɂ ȼ ȻȺɋɋȿɃɇȿ ɊȿɄɂ ɄȺɆɑȺɌɄɂ

ȿ.ɗ. ɒɢɪɤɨɜɚ, ɗ.ɂ. ɒɢɪɤɨɜ


Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɫɤɢɣ ɮɢɥɢɚɥ Ɍɢɯɨɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɢ ȾȼɈ ɊȺɇ,
ɝ. ɉɟɬɪɨɩɚɜɥɨɜɫɤ-Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɫɤɢɣ

Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɵ ɭɫɤɨɪɹɸɳɟɣɫɹ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨ-


ɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɢɦɟɸɬ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɭɫɬɪɚɧɹɬɶɫɹ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟ-
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ (ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɦɢ) ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ. ȼ ɬɨ ɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ,
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɦ
ɩɪɹɦɵɯ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɛɢɨ-
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ1 ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɠɢɜɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶ-
ɧɨɣ ɦɨɥɨɞɨɫɬɶɸ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ,
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɜ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɧɟ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ «ɭɡɤɢɦ ɦɟɫɬɨɦ» ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬ-
ɜɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦɵɯ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜ ɜ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɧɚ ɜɟɥɢ-
ɱɢɧɭ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɠɢɜɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ.
ȼ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɚ ɉɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧ-
ɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɉɪɟɡɢɞɢɭɦɚ ɊȺɇ «Ȼɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ» ɚɜɬɨɪɚɦ ɭɞɚ-
ɥɨɫɶ ɧɚɣɬɢ ɨɞɧɨ ɢɡ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ, ɫɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɜ
ɨɛɳɟɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ, ɚ ɡɚɬɟɦ ɢ ɜ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ, ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ
ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɤɟɬɵ
(Oncorchynchus keta) (ɒɢɪɤɨɜɚ…, 2006).
ɋɭɬɶ ɧɚɲɟɝɨ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɧɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɢ ɭɫ-
ɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɞɚ (ɩɨ-
ɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ) ɥɨɫɨɫɟɣ ɜɥɢɹɟɬ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɟɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ,

1
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɪɢ-
ɪɨɞɵ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɬ, ɩɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ ɚɜɬɨɪɨɜ, ɜ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɢ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨ-
ɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɢɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɜ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧ-
ɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɢɯ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ.
121
ɧɨ ɢ ɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ (ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ, ɩɪɨɦɵɫɟɥ), ɞɥɹ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɢɡ-
ɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɪɨɥɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɤɚɤɢɦ-ɬɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɧɢɜɟɥɢɪɨ-
ɜɚɬɶ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɜɫɟɯ ɩɪɨɱɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ. ȼ ɧɚɬɭɪɧɵɯ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɯ ɨɛɟɫɩɟ-
ɱɢɬɶ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧ-
ɬɨɦ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɤɨɦɩɶɸɬɟɪɧɨɟ ɦɨ-
ɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɢɦɢɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɵ.
ɐɟɥɶ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɷɬɚɩɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ – ɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɟ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨ-
ɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ
ɧɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɟɝɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ.
ɇɟɪɤɚ (Oncorchynchus nerka) – ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɰɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɬɢɯɨ-
ɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɢɯ ɥɨɫɨɫɟɣ. ȼ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɚɡɢɚɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɛɟɪɟɠɶɹ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɱɚɫ-
ɬɢ Ɍɢɯɨɝɨ ɨɤɟɚɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɞɜɚ ɤɚɦɱɚɬ-
ɫɤɢɯ ɫɬɚɞɚ: ɧɟɪɤɚ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɪɟɤɢ Ɉɡɟɪɧɨɣ (ɨɡɟɪɚ Ʉɭɪɢɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ), ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɧɟɪɤɚ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ. ɉɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɫɬɚɞɨ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɦ
ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɥɨ ɟɝɨ ɜɵɛɨɪ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬ-
ɜɟ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ.
ɉɨ ɨɞɧɨɦɭ ɢɡ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɥɨɫɨ-
ɫɟɣ – ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɭ ɫɨɡɪɟɜɚɧɢɹ – ɭ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ 16 ɝɪɭɩɩ,
ɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɫɨɡɞɚɸɬ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɵɟ ɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɢɡɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ
ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ (Ȼɭɝɚɟɜ, 1995). ɍɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ ɛɢɨ-
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɵ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ (ȼɚɪɧɚɜɫɤɚɹ, 2001), ɱɬɨ ɜ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ
ɧɚɲɢɯ ɡɚɞɚɱ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɷɬɢ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɤɚɤ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ.
Ɉɫɧɨɜɭ (ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ 80%) ɡɪɟɥɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦ-
ɱɚɬɤɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɬɪɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ: Ⱥ – ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɨɡɟɪɚ Ⱥɡɚɛɚɱɶɟ, ɧɟɪɟɫɬɹ-

%
100,0 Ⱦɪɭɝɢɟ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɟ ɝɪɭɩɩɢɪɨɜɤɢ ɫɬɚɞɚ
90,0
80,0
Ⱥ
70,0
60,0
50,0
40,0 ȿ
30,0
20,0
10,0
0,0 ɋ
2002
2000
2001
1979
1980
1981
1982

1988

1990

1997
1978

1983
1984
1985
1986
1987

1989

1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996

1998
1999

Ɍɪɟɧɞɵ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɫɚ ɜɵɥɨɜɚ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ȿ ɢ ɋ.

Ɋɢɫ. 1. ɉɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɪ. Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ ɜ 1978-


2002 ɝɝ. (ɩɨ ɭɥɨɜɚɦ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɫɬɚɜɧɵɯ ɧɟɜɨɞɨɜ; ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɨ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ:
Bugayev, 2004).

122
ɳɚɹɫɹ ɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟ2 2.3.; ȿ – ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɢ ɧɢɠɧɟɝɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɤɢ, ɫɨɡɪɟɜɚɸɳɚɹ
ɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟ 1.3., ɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɋ – ɢɡ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɨɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɢ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟ 0.3. ɉɪɢ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ
ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɦɵ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɥɢɫɶ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɜ ɧɟɦ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɭɤɚ-
ɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɬɪɺɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ.
ɋ 1978 ɩɨ 2002 ɝ. ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ
ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨ, ɧɨ ɧɟɭɤɥɨɧɧɨ ɭɩɪɨɳɚɟɬɫɹ (ɪɢɫ. 1).
Ɋɢɫɭɧɨɤ 1 ɭɠɟ ɫ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɜɡɝɥɹɞɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɡɚɦɟɬɢɬɶ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɸ ɫɧɢ-
ɠɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɬɚɞɟ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɫɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ȿ ɢ ɋ ɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɜɟɫɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ Ⱥ. ɉɪɢ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɢ ɷɬɨɣ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɢ ɫɬɚɞɨ ɭɠɟ ɜ ɛɥɢ-
ɠɚɣɲɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɭɬɪɚɬɢɬɶ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ȿ (0.3) ɢ ɋ (1.3), ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜ ɧɚ-
ɱɚɥɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɢ ɜ ɫɭɦɦɟ ɞɨ 70% ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɜɫɟɣ ɡɪɟɥɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɫɬɚɞɚ. Ɍɚɤɚɹ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ɱɪɟɜɚɬɚ ɨɛɳɢɦ «ɫɬɚɪɟɧɢɟɦ» ɫɬɚ-
ɞɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜɵɜɨɞɨɦ ɢɡ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɨɜɵɯ ɢ ɜɵɪɨɫɬ-
ɧɵɯ ɥɨɫɨɫɟɜɵɯ ɭɝɨɞɢɣ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ.
ȼɫɟ ɷɬɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ ɤ ɨɛɳɟɦɭ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɸ ɨɛɴɟɦɚ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ ɩɨ ɫɚɦɨɦɭ ɰɟɧɧɨ-
ɦɭ ɜɢɞɭ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɥɨɫɨɫɟɣ. ȼ ɬɨ ɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ, ɪɟɡɤɢɟ ɤɨɥɟɛɚ-
ɧɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ ɫ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɣ ɩɟɪɢɨ-
ɞɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɸ (11-16 ɥɟɬ) ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɢɫɶ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɜɫɸ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɸ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɚ. Ɍɚɤ, ɡɚ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 1957 ɩɨ 2002 ɝɝ. ɜ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɭɪɨɠɚɣɧɵɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɨɜɵɟ ɩɨɞɯɨ-
ɞɵ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɤ ɭɫɬɶɸ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɥɢ 2,5–3,3 ɦɢɥɥɢɨɧɚ ɡɪɟɥɵɯ ɪɵɛ
(Bugayev, 2004). Ⱥ ɜ ɫɚɦɵɟ ɧɟɭɪɨɠɚɣɧɵɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɵ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɧɚ ɧɟɪɟɫɬ
ɧɟ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɥɢ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɢ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɦɢɥɥɢɨɧɚ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ (ɪɢɫ. 2).

ɬɵɫ.ɷɤɡ.
3 500
3 000
2 500
2 000
1 500
1 000
500
0
1972

1975

1978

1981

1984

1987
1963

1966

1969

2002
1990

1993
1957

1960

1996

1999

Ɉɛɳɢɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ȼɵɥɨɜ ɇɟɪɟɫɬ Ȭɦɤɨɫɬɶ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳ

Ɋɢɫ. 2. Ɉɛɳɢɟ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɵ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɤ ɭɫɬɶɸ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ, ɩɪɨɩɭɫɤ ɟɺ ɧɚ ɧɟ-


ɪɟɫɬ ɢ ɜɵɥɨɜ ɡɚ 1957-2002 ɝɝ. (ɩɨ Bugayev, 2004)

2
ȼ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟ ɥɨɫɨɫɟɣ ɩɟɪɜɚɹ ɰɢɮɪɚ ɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɥɟɬ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ, ɚ ɜɬɨɪɚɹ –
ɦɨɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ ɢɯ ɠɢɡɧɢ.
123
ɉɪɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɞɟɬɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɨɜɵɯ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜ ɜɵɹɜɥɟ-
ɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɤɪɨɦɟ ɮɥɭɤɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɜ
ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɨɦ ɢ ɦɨɪɫɤɨɦ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚɯ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɧɚ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹ ɟɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɨɱɟɧɶ ɫɢɥɶɧɨ ɜɥɢɹɥɨ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɟɟ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨ-
ɜɨɝɨ ɢ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɨɜ: ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɟɪɟɥɨɜɵ ɢɥɢ
(ɱɚɳɟ) ɧɟɞɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɚɫɚ ɢ, ɤɚɤ ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ, ɧɟɞɨɫ-
ɬɚɬɨɱɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɩɭɫɤ ɧɚ ɧɟɪɟɫɬ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɢɥɢ, ɱɬɨ ɟɳɺ ɯɭɠɟ, –
ɩɟɪɟɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɟɺ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳ.
ɉɪɢ ɥɸɛɨɦ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɟɧɢɢ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɟɦɤɨɫɬɢ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳ (§ 500 ɬɵɫ.
ɨɫɨɛɟɣ) ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɨɜɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɜɪɚɬɚ ɱɟɪɟɡ 3-4 ɝɨɞɵ ɧɟɭɤɥɨɧɧɨ ɫɧɢ-
ɠɚɥɚɫɶ.
ɉɪɢ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɢ ɞɚɠɟ ɧɟɩɨɥɧɨɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳ ɱɢɫɥɟɧ-
ɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɨɜɵɯ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɬɟ ɠɟ 3-4 ɝɨɞɚ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɥɚ.
Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɡɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢ-
ɥɢɳ ɧɟɪɤɢ, ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟ ɫɨɛɥɸɞɚɥɚɫɶ ɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢ-
ɦɚɹ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɚ ɧɚ ɧɟɪɟɫɬ ɟɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ, ɱɬɨ
ɢ ɩɪɢɜɟɥɨ ɤ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɧɨɦɭ ɧɚ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɟ 1 ɬɪɟɜɨɠɧɨɦɭ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢ-
ɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ. ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ, ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶ-
ɫɬɜɨ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɵɝɪɚɥɨ ɫɜɨɸ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɫ 2000 ɝ.
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɚɫɚ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɧɚɦɢ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɢɡ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟ-
ɦɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɧɚ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɭ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɪ. Ʉɚɦɱɚɬ-
ɤɢ, ɚɜɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɛɵɥɚ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɚ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ (132 ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧ-
ɧɵɯ) ɢɦɢɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ3 ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɧɟɪɤɢ. ȼ ɹɡɵɤɟ ɚɥɝɨ-
ɪɢɬɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɟɬɟɣ (ɂɜɚɧɢɳɟɜ ɢ ɞɪ., 1988) ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ
ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɝɪɚɮ, ɞɭɝɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɨɬɨɛɪɚɠɚɸɬ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ, ɚ ɜɟɪɲɢ-
ɧɵ (ɨɩɟɪɚɬɨɪɵ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ) – ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦɢ. ȼɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ
ɲɚɝ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ – ɨɞɢɧ ɝɨɞ.
Ɇɨɞɟɥɶ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɟɬ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɵɟ ɰɢɤɥɵ ɬɪɺɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɧɟɪ-
ɤɢ ɪ. Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ, ɢɯ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɨɜɵɟ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɨɪɦɵ ɡɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ
ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ, ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɸɸ ɤɪɚɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɫɩɪɨ-
ɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɤɚɠɞɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɢ (ɨɱɟɧɶ ɝɪɭɛɨ) ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ
ɷɬɨɣ ɤɪɚɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨ ɦɟɧɹɸɳɟɣɫɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɝɨɪɛɭɲɢ ɜ ɚɪɟɚɥɟ
ɦɨɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɝɭɥɚ ɧɟɪɤɢ. ɋ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɢɦɢɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɪɚ-
ɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɸ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɥɨɫɨɫɟɣ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢɫɤɥɸ-
ɱɚɟɬ ɤɚɤ ɩɟɪɟɥɨɜ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳ ɤɚɠɞɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ
ɷɬɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɞɚ. Ɍɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɪɢ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɧɨɟ
ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨ-
ɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɧɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɟɝɨ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ. ȼ ɬɨ ɠɟ
ɜɪɟɦɹ, ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɞɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɦɢɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɥɸɛɨɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɩɭ-
ɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɫɬɚɞɚ, ɜɩɥɨɬɶ ɞɨ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɡ ɧɟɝɨ ɤɚɤɨɝɨ-ɬɨ

3
Ʉ ɫɨɠɚɥɟɧɢɸ, ɨɬɜɟɞɟɧɧɚɹ ɞɥɹ ɧɚɲɟɝɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ ɩɟɱɚɬɧɚɹ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɧɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ
ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɟɟ ɩɨɥɧɨɟ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ.
124
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɨɝɨ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚ. ɂɦɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɢ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹ-
ɟɬ ɢɡɦɟɪɹɬɶ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ
ɫɬɚɞɚ ɨɬ ɦɟɪɵ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ (ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ) ɟɝɨ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɩɭɥɹ-
ɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ.
Ɇɨɞɟɥɶ ɜɟɪɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɧɚ ɢɦɟɸɳɟɣɫɹ ɜ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɪɟɬɪɨɫɩɟɤɬɢɜ-
ɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɨ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɢ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɫɬɚɞɚ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ ɡɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ 45 ɥɟɬ (Ȼɭɝɚɟɜ, 1995; Ȼɭɝɚɟɜ ɢ
ɞɪ., 2002; Ȼɭɝɚɟɜ, 2003). ɉɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɵ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɢ
ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɟ.
1. ɉɪɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɦ ɢ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɦ (§ 500 ɬɵɫ. ɪɵɛ) ɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɟ ɧɚ ɧɟ-
ɪɟɫɬ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɸ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɡɚ 6-7 ɥɟɬ (ɧɚɱɢ-
ɧɚɹ ɫ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣ 1984 ɝ.) ɦɨɠɧɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɛɵ
ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɬɶ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɪɟɠɧɟɝɨ ɧɟɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɚ ɢ ɭɠɟ ɫ
1990 ɝ. ɜɵɣɬɢ ɧɚ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɭɸ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɭɸ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɫ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɦ
ɨɛɳɟɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɨɝɨ ɭɥɨɜɚ ɜ 2,6 ɦɥɧ. ɪɵɛ (ɪɢɫ. 3, ɚ), ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧ-
ɧɭɸ (ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɭɸ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɨɣ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳ) ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɭɸ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ
ɫɬɚɞɚ (ɪɢɫ. 3, ɛ).
Ɍɵɫ. ɷɤɡ. ɚ % ɛ
4 500 100,0
4 000 90,0
3 500 80,0
3 000 70,0
60,0
2 500
50,0
2 000 40,0
1 500 30,0
1 000 20,0
500 10,0
0 0,0
1988

1992
1984

1986

1987

1990

1991

1987

1988

1991
1989

1990

1992
1986
1984

1985

Ɉɛɳɢɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɉɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɋ (0.3) ɉɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ ȿ (1.3)


ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɈȾɍ
ɉɪɨɩɭɫɤ ɧɚ ɧɟɪɟɫɬ ɢ ɈɁɇ ɉɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ Ⱥ (2.3)

Ɋɢɫ. 3. ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ (ɚ) ɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭ-


ɪɵ (ɛ) ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɪ. Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ ɩɪɢ ɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɡɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ
ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳ

ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɚɹ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɞɜɚ ɫ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɚ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ


ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨɞɨɜɨɣ ɨɛɳɟɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɣ ɭɥɨɜ ɩɨ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɨɦɭ
ɫɬɚɞɭ ɡɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ 45 ɥɟɬ, ɧɨ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɱɟɦ-ɬɨ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɢɠɢɦɵɦ. ȼ 1995 ɢ
1999 ɝɨɞɚɯ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɵ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɤ ɭɫɬɶɸ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɥɢ
3 ɦɥɧ. ɪɵɛ.
2. ɉɪɢ ɬɚɤ ɠɟ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɟ ɧɚ ɧɟɪɟɫɬ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɤɚɠɞɨɣ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ, ɧɨ ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨɦ (ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɦ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɬɪɟɧɞɚɦ ɧɚ
ɪɢɫ. 1) ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɜ ɫɬɚɞɟ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɫɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ȿ ɢ ɋ, ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɤ
2017-2018 ɝɝ. ɩɪɟɤɪɚɳɚɸɬ ɫɜɨɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɫɬɚɞɨ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɪ. Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ
ɛɭɞɟɬ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɬɶ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɢɡ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ Ⱥ, ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɳɟɣɫɹ ɜ

125
ɨɡɟɪɟ Ⱥɡɚɛɚɱɶɟɦ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚɯ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɨɛɳɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɲɟɝɨ
ɝɢɩɨɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɧɨɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɫɧɢɡɢɬɫɹ ɞɨ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɦɢɥɥɢɨ-
ɧɚ ɪɵɛ, ɚ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɣ ɜɵɥɨɜ ɞɨ 0,9 ɦɥɧ. ɨɫɨɛɟɣ.
Ɋɚɡɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɲɟɝɨ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɩɪɢ ɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɨ
ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɟ ɢ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɢ ɱɢɫ-
ɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɠɟ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɩɪɢ ɟɝɨ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛ-
ɪɚɡɢɢ 1,5 ɦɥɧ. ɪɵɛ – ɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ, ɧɚ ɜɡɝɥɹɞ ɚɜɬɨɪɨɜ, ɩɪɢɛɥɢɡɢ-
ɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ ɨɰɟɧɤɭ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɪɚɫ-
ɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɧɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɥɨɫɨɫɟɜɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɧɚ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ.
Ɏɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ (ɬɟɤɭɳɚɹ ɞɥɹ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ) ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ
ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɚ ɜ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɮɚɤ-
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɜ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɦɨɦ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɟ.
ɑɬɨ ɠɟ ɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɟɦɨɣ ɧɚɦɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɠɢɜɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ – ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢ-
ɜɨɫɬɢ ɢɯ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ, ɬɨ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɦɟɪɵ ɪɚɰɢɨ-
ɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɚ ɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ (ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ) ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɦɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɵ
ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɫɬɚɞɚ, ɨɧɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɧɚ-
ɲɟɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɤɚɤ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɪɹɦɨɣ (ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ 1990-1992
ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 2), ɬɚɤ ɢ ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ ɫɥɨɠɧɵɦɢ ɝɪɚɮɢɤɚɦɢ (ɪɢɫ. 4).

ɚ ɛ
3 500 2000
3 000
2 500 1500
2 000
1 500 1000
1 000
500
500
0 0
1957
1957

1962

1962
2002
1982

1987

1997
1967

1977
1972

1992

1967

1977
1972

2002
1987
1982

1997
1992

ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɨɜɵɯ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜ (ɬɵɫ. ɷɤɡ.).


ɋɪɟɞɧɟɝɨɞɨɜɨɣ (ɷɤɫɩɨɧɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ) ɬɪɟɧɞ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜ
Ɍɪɟɧɞɵ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɬɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɟɺ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ

Ɋɢɫ. 4. Ɏɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɨɜɵɯ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜ ɧɟɪɤɢ


ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɬɪɟɧɞɨɜ ɩɨ ɫɬɚɞɭ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦ-
ɱɚɬɤɢ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ (ɚ) ɢ ɩɨ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɨɡɟɪɚ Ⱥɡɚɛɚɱɶɟɝɨ (ɛ) ɜ 1957-2002 ɝɝ.

ɉɟɪɜɵɣ ɝɪɚɮɢɤ ɧɚ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɟ 4 ɨɬɪɚɠɚɟɬ ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧ-


ɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɩɪɢ ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɟɺ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɡɚ 1957-2002 ɝɝ., ɚ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ – ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɣ, ɩɪɢ ɤɨɬɨ-
ɪɨɦ ɜ ɫɬɚɞɟ ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɞɧɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ Ⱥ ɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɪɨ-
ɜɟɧɶ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɦ ɜ ɬɨɦ ɠɟ ɫɨɪɨɤɚɩɹɬɢɥɟɬɧɟɦ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɟ.

126
Ʉɚɤ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɢɡ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɝɪɚɮɢɤɨɜ, ɟɫɥɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨɞɨɜɨɣ ɪɚɡɦɚɯ ɤɨɥɟ-
ɛɚɧɢɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ ɜ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɨɦ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥ ɨɤɪɭɝɥɟɧɧɨ 245%, ɬɨ ɷɬɚ ɠɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢ-
ɜɨɫɬɢ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɨɜɵɯ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɨɡɟɪɚ Ⱥɡɚɛɚɱɶɟɝɨ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɨ-
ɝɨ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚ, ɢɦɢɬɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɸ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɨɡɟɪɚ ɜ
ɨɛɳɟɦ ɫɬɚɞɟ ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ, ɜɵɪɚɠɚɥɚɫɶ ɪɚɡɦɚɯɨɦ ɜ 325%. ɉɪɢ
ɷɬɨɦ ɜɚɠɧɨ ɡɚɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɟɫɥɢ ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɚɹ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɬ-
ɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɨɬ ɟɟ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɜɟɫɶ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɨɣ, ɬɨ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɜɨɡ-
ɦɨɠɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɜ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɟ ɷɬɚ
ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɨɬ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɤ ɤɨɧɰɭ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɟɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɟɦ ɜ 20 ɪɚɡ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɦɨɟ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɹ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɩɭ-
ɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɨɜɥɟɱɶ ɡɚ ɫɨɛɨɣ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɩɨ
ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɧɟɪɤɢ.

ȼ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɲɟɝɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ ɦɵ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɟɳɟ ɪɚɡ ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɧɭɬɶ, ɱɬɨ


ɜɫɟ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɦɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɩɪɢ-
ɛɥɢɠɟɧɧɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ4. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɷɬɨ ɧɟ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ
ɷɬɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ (ɤɚɤ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɵ) ɞɥɹ ɢɧɮɨɪ-
ɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɹɦɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɨ-
ɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɷɤɫ-
ɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ. ɉɨ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ ɮɨɪɦɚɦ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ,
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɣ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɨɬɞɟɥɶ-
ɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɬɢɯɨɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɢɯ ɥɨɫɨɫɟɣ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɧɚɦɢ ɭɠɟ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɵ
(ɒɢɪɤɨɜɚ, 2008).
ɉɨ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɦɭ ɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɸ ɚɜɬɨɪɨɜ, ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɪɹɦɚɹ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɧɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ
ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɢ ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ
ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɜ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɣ ɨɛɨɪɨɬ, ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɨɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ
ɧɚɞɺɠɧɵɦ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɨɦ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɩɪɟ-
ɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɣ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɧɚɲɟɣ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɵ.

Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
Ȼɭɝɚɟɜ ȼ.Ɏ. 1995. Ⱥɡɢɚɬɫɤɚɹ ɧɟɪɤɚ (ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɠɢɡɧɢ, ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭ-
ɪɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɞ, ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ). Ɇ.: Ʉɨɥɨɫ. 464 ɫ.
Ȼɭɝɚɟɜ ȼ.Ɏ. 2003. Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɟɪɤɢ Oncorhyn-
chus nerka ɨɡ. Ⱥɡɚɛɚɱɶɟ ɢ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶ-
ɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɟɪɤɢ ɪ. Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɚ // ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ ɢ
ɩɪɢɥɟɝɚɸɳɢɯ ɦɨɪɟɣ. Ⱦɨɤɥ. III ɧɚɭɱ. ɤɨɧɮ. 26–27 ɧɨɹɛɪɹ 2002 ɝ. ɉɟɬɪɨ-
ɩɚɜɥɨɜɫɤ–Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɫɤɢɣ: ɂɡɞ–ɜɨ ɄɚɦɱɚɬɇɂɊɈ. ɋ. 11– 23.

4
ȼɟɪɨɹɬɧɨ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɧɚɩɨɦɧɢɬɶ ɱɢɬɚɬɟɥɸ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɦɢ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɜɫɟ
ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɥɨɫɨɫɟɣ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɵ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦɢ.
127
Ȼɭɝɚɟɜ ȼ.Ɏ., Ⱦɭɛɵɧɢɧ ȼ.Ⱥ. 2002. Ɏɚɤɬɨɪɵ, ɜɥɢɹɸɳɢɟ ɧɚ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɢ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɭ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɟɪɤɢ (Oncorhynchus nerka) ɪɟɤ
Ɉɡɟɪɧɨɣ ɢ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɚ // ɂɡɜɟɫɬɢɹ Ɍɢɯɨɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶ-
ɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɵɛɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ. ȼɥɚɞɢɜɨɫɬɨɤ. Ɍ. 130. ɋ. 679-757.
ȼɚɪɧɚɜɫɤɚɹ ɇ.ȼ. 2001. ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹ-
ɰɢɣ ɬɢɯɨɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɢɯ ɥɨɫɨɫɟɣ ɪɨɞɚ Oncorhynchus ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɡɚɞɚɱɚɦɢ ɪɚ-
ɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɚ: Ⱥɜɬɨɪɟɮ. ɞɢɫ. ... ɞ. ɛ. ɧ. – Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ: ɂɈȽȿɇ ɊȺɇ.
48 ɫ.
ɂɜɚɧɢɳɟɜ ȼ. ȼ., Ɇɢɯɚɣɥɨɜ ȼ. ȼ., Ɍɭɛɨɥɶɰɟɜɚ ȼ. ȼ. 1988. ɂɧɠɟɧɟɪɧɚɹ ɷɤɨɥɨ-
ɝɢɹ. ȼɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ. Ʌ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ. 145 ɫ.
ɒɢɪɤɨɜɚ ȿ.ɗ. 2008. ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ
ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ // ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ. ʋ 8
(45). ɋ. 206-209.
ɒɢɪɤɨɜɚ ȿ.ɗ., ɒɢɪɤɨɜ ɗ.ɂ. 2006. ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ (ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ
ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɬɢɯɨɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɢɯ ɥɨɫɨɫɟɣ) // ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ
ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ ɢ ɩɪɢɥɟɝɚɸɳɢɯ ɦɨɪɟɣ: Ⱦɨɤɥ. VI ɧɚɭɱ. ɤɨɧɮ.
ɉɟɬɪɨɩɚɜɥɨɜɫɤ-Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɫɤɢɣ: Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɩɪɟɫɫ. ɋ. 151-173.
ɒɢɪɤɨɜɚ ȿ.ɗ., ɒɢɪɤɨɜ ɗ.ɂ., Ɏɟɞɨɪɨɜ ɋ.ȼ. 2006. Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢ-
ɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ (ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɬɢ-
ɯɨɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɢɯ ɥɨɫɨɫɟɣ) // ɇɚɭɱɧɵɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ
Ⱦɚɥɶɧɟɝɨ ȼɨɫɬɨɤɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ: ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɵɣ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɟɤɬ ȾȼɈ ɊȺɇ
ɩɨ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɟ ɉɪɟɡɢɞɢɭɦɚ ɊȺɇ «ɇɚɭɱɧɵɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨ-
ɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ» / ɉɨɞ ɪɟɞ. Ⱥ.ȼ. Ⱥɞɪɢɚɧɨɜɚ. – ȼɥɚɞɢɜɨɫɬɨɤ: Ⱦɚɥɶɧɚɭɤɚ.
ɋ. 313-339.
Bugayev V.F. 2004. Results of identification of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus
nerka) secondary local stocks and secondary groups of local stocks in the
coastal and river catches of Kamchatka River for 1978-2001 // Workshop on
application of stock identification in defining marine distribution and
migration of salmon. NPAFC Tec Rep 5. Vancouver, Canada. P. 114-116.
ɂɬɨɝɨɜɚɹ ɡɚɩɢɫɤɚ ɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɹ
«ɉɊɈȿɄɌ TEEB – ɗɄɈɇɈɆɂɄȺ ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆ
ɂ ȻɂɈɊȺɁɇɈɈȻɊȺɁɂə: ɉȿɊɋɉȿɄɌɂȼɕ ɍɑȺɋɌɂə
ɊɈɋɋɂɂ ɂ ȾɊɍȽɂɏ ɋɌɊȺɇ ɇɇȽ»

Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ, 24 ɮɟɜɪɚɥɹ 2010 ɝ.

24 ɮɟɜɪɚɥɹ 2010 ɝ. ɜ Ɇɨɫɤɜɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɥɨɫɶ ɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɟ «ɉɪɨɟɤɬ TEEB –


ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ: ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ
ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɇɇȽ», ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɩɪɢɧɹɥɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ 50 ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣ
ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ, ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ ɢɡ Ȼɟɥɚɪɭɫɢ,
Ɇɨɥɞɨɜɵ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ. ɋɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɟ, ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɨɟ Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦɭ
ɝɨɞɭ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɨ ɐɟɧɬɪɨɦ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɞɢɤɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ,
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɨɦ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɢ ɢɦ. Ⱥ.ɇ. ɋɟɜɟɪɰɨɜɚ ɊȺɇ ɢ
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɨɦ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɊȺɇ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɟ Helmholtz-Zentrum
für Umweltforschung GmbH – UFZ.
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɚɹ ɰɟɥɶ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystem and
Biodiversity), ɬɟɫɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɫ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɥɢɦɚ-
ɬɚ, – ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ (ɩɨɢɫɤ, ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ) ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ
ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɭ. ȼ ɢɸɧɟ 2007 ɝ. ɜ ɏɚɣɥɢ-
ɝɟɧɞɚɦɦɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬ ɛɵɥ ɨɞɨɛɪɟɧ ɥɢɞɟɪɚɦɢ ɫɬɪɚɧ «Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɜɨɫɶɦɟɪɤɢ»,
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɸ, ɧɨ ɧɚɲɚ ɫɬɪɚɧɚ ɞɨ ɫɢɯ ɩɨɪ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɩɨɥɧɨɰɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ ɜ ɟɝɨ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ.
ȼ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɟ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɟ ɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ-
ɧɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɞɨ ɫɢɯ ɩɨɪ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ ɛɟɫɩɥɚɬɧɵɟ ɢ ɧɟ-
ɢɫɱɟɪɩɚɟɦɵɟ. Ɉɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɢɯ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢ
ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ – ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɸɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɢ ɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ. Ɇɚɫɲɬɚɛɵ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫ-
ɫɚ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɬɚɤɨɜɵ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɭɝɪɨɡɭ ɞɥɹ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɝɨ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ.
ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫ-
ɥɭɝ ɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɭɱɟɬ ɢɯ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɩɨ-
ɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨ ɜɚɠɧɵɦɢ ɡɚɞɚɱɚɦɢ ɧɚ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧ-
ɧɨɦ ɷɬɚɩɟ. ɉɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɵɦɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɪɟɞɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦ ɩɨ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɢ ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɩɨɱɜ ɢ ɢɯ
ɡɚɳɢɬɟ ɨɬ ɷɪɨɡɢɢ, ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɸ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɨɬɞɵɯɚ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɢ ɞɪ., ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɢɦɟɸɬ ɤɥɸɱɟɜɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɧɚ
Ɂɟɦɥɟ. ɇɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɢɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɧɚɢɦɟɧɟɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɵ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟ-
ɧɢɸ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵɦɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɦɢ.
ȼɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɦ ɛɢɨ-
ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɦ. Ʌɸɛɵɟ ɟɝɨ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɹ ɜɟɞɭɬ ɤ ɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨɦɭ
ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɸ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɡɚɞɚɱɭ ɫɨ-
ɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ.
129
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɹ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ɇɇȽ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɹɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɩɨ
ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɤ ɷɬɨɣ ɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɟ
ɫɪɟɞɢ ɧɚɭɱɧɨɣ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɣ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɷɬɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨ-
ɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɞɨɥɠɧɨɣ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɢ ɫɨ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɜ
ɢ ɛɢɡɧɟɫ-ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ, ɢɯ ɨɛɴɟɦ ɤɪɚɣɧɟ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɟɧ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɢɦɟɸ-
ɳɢɯɫɹ ɡɚɞɚɱ.
Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ ɇɇȽ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɦɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦɢ ɝɥɨ-
ɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɧɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɨɫɬɚɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɟ ɨɬ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ.
ɍɱɢɬɵɜɚɹ ɜɫɟ ɫɤɚɡɚɧɧɨɟ ɜɵɲɟ, ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢ ɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɝɨɫɭ-
ɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɵ, ɛɢɡɧɟɫ-ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯ ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ:
1. Ɉɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɩɨɥɧɨɰɟɧɧɨɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɤɚɤ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ, ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɟɣ
ɤɪɭɩɧɟɣɲɢɦ ɜ ɦɢɪɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɦ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ, ɜ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɟ «ɗɤɨɧɨ-
ɦɢɤɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ (TEEB)».
2. Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɨɣ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɡɚɞɚɱ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ
ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ ɢ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ ɫɬɪɚɬɟ-
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ. Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶ ɢ ɭɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɷɤɨ-
ɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɜɫɟɯ ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ. ȼɧɟɞɪɢɬɶ ɷɬɢ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɜ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɭ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ.
3. ɉɪɢɫɬɭɩɢɬɶ ɤ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ɇɇȽ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɨɦɨɝɭɬ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɸ ɰɟ-
ɥɟɣ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ – ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ ɢ ɛɢɡɧɟɫɚ, ɫɧɢɠɟ-
ɧɢɹ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨ- ɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɬɨɜɚɪɨɜ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɫɬɚɧɭɬ ɜɚɠ-
ɧɵɦ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɦ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɦɟɠɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ (ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɦɢ ɫ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɨɣ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɦɢ ɫɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɦ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɦ). ɇɚɱɚɬɶ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɝɥɟ-
ɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɤɚɤ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɪɨɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ ɪɵɧɤɨɜ ɷɤɨ-
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ. Ɉɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɵɣ ɭɱɟɬ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɪɨɫ-
ɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɩɨ ɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɢ ɚɤɤɭɦɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɭɝɥɟɪɨɞɚ. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɢ
ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɨɜ ɩɨ ɪɵɧɤɚɦ ɷɤɨɫɢ-
ɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɇɇȽ.
4. ȼɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɢɡɭ ɞɥɹ ɜɫɟɯ
ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵɯ ɧɚɧɟɫɬɢ ɭɳɟɪɛ ɠɢɜɨɣ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ ɢ ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ ɤ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ, ɬ. ɟ. ɤ ɫɧɢɠɟ-
ɧɢɸ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ.
5. ȼɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɮɨɧɞ ɊɎ (ɢɥɢ ɟɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɨɝ) ɢ ɟɝɨ ɪɟɝɢɨ-
ɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨ-
ɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɜ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɬɨ-
ɞɨɜ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɚɪɡɢɹ.
130
6. ɉɪɢ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɥɸɛɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɳɟɣ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ, ɩɪɢɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɨɪɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ (Ɋɢɨ-ɞɟ-
ɀɚɧɟɣɪɨ, 1992), ɬ. ɟ. ɩɪɢ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɦ ɪɢɫɤɟ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɭɳɟɪɛɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣ
ɫɪɟɞɟ ɢ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɯɭɞɲɟɧɢɹ ɟɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɢ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɞɨɫɬɚ-
ɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚɯ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɬɢɯ ɪɢɫɤɨɜ,
ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɶɫɹ ɤ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɸ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɢ ɩɪɢ-
ɧɢɦɚɬɶ ɦɟɪɵ ɩɨ ɢɯ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɢ ɡɚɳɢɬɟ.
7. ɋɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ɇɇȽ ɦɟɠ-
ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ-
ɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɢɯ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɢ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ.
8. Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɟ ɜ 2010 ɝ.
Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɦ ɝɨɞɨɦ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɞɥɹ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚ-
ɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɭɦɚɯ (ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɯ ɥɢɞɟɪɨɜ ɫɬɪɚɧ Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɜɨɫɶɦɟɪɤɢ, ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧ-
ɰɢɹɯ ɩɨ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɸ ɢ ɞɪ.) ɩɭɬɟɣ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ.
9. Ɋɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɨɜɚɬɶ ɐɟɧɬɪɭ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɞɢɤɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɫɨɡɞɚɬɶ ɜ ɂɧɬɟɪɧɟɬɟ
ɨɛɳɟɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɪɟɫɭɪɫ ɩɨ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɦ ɭɫɥɭɝɚɦ ɢ
ɦɟɬɨɞɚɦ ɢɯ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɫɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɤɨɧɫɨ-
ɥɢɞɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ, ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɸ ɨɫɜɟɞɨɦɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚɢɧɬɟ-
ɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ.
10. Ɋɚɡɜɢɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɦɭ ɫɩɟɤɬɪɭ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ
ɫ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɦɢ ɭɫɥɭɝɚɦɢ, ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɦɢ ɧɚ ɩɨɫɬɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɦ ɩɪɨ-
ɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ.

The final note of the meeting


“TEEB PROJECT – ECONOMICS OF ECOSYSTEMS AND
BIODIVERSITY: PARTICIPATION PROSPECTS
FOR RUSSIA AND OTHER NIS COUNTRIES”

Moscow, February 24, 2010

On the 24th of February, 2010 in Moscow had been conducted the meeting
“TEEB project – Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: prospects of
participation of Russia and other NIS countries”, which was attended by over
50 representatives from academic, government and public organizations from
Belarus, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. This meeting was devoted to the In-
ternational Year of Biodiversity and was organized by the Biodiversity Con-
servation Center, A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution RAS,
and Institute of Systems Analysis RAS with the support of Helmholtz-
Zentrum für Umweltforschung GmbH – UFZ.

131
The main objective of the TEEB project is closely associated with solving
of the climate fluctuations problem – development (search, development and
implementation) of the mechanisms to integrate ecosystem functions value in
the economy. In June 2007 in Heiligendamm TEEB project was approved by
the leaders of the Group of Eight, including Russia, but our country still do
not fully participate in its implementation.
In the real economy and politics in most cases ecosystem functions are still
regarded as relatively free and inexhaustible. Lack of adequate consideration
of their value in decision making is a key factor in continuing destruction of
natural ecosystems and degradation of their functions. The scale of this pro-
cess today is so huge that it presents a threat to the continuation of sustain-
able survival of civilization.
Therefore, the development of methods of economic analysis of ecosystem
services and implementation of their value in making economic and political
decisions is vital to the modern stage. The priorities are the environment-
forming functions of ecosystems concerning climate regulation and water
balance, soil formation and their protection from erosion, creation of recrea-
tion conditions, etc., which are crucial for the possibility of human existence
on Earth. However, the methods of economic evaluation of these most impor-
tant functions are least developed compared with other ecosystem functions.
Implementation of ecosystem functions is provided by natural biological
diversity. Any violation of biodiversity leads to an inevitable decrease in effi-
ciency of ecosystem functions. Therefore, the task of preserving and restoring
biodiversity should be viewed as a necessary condition for economic deve-
lopment.
Materials of the meeting indicate that in Russia and other NIS countries
versatile research to assess the ecosystem services is being conducted and
there is high interest in this subject among the scientific and nature conserva-
tion community. However, these studies do not have adequate support from
government and business community, their volume is insufficient for solving
existing problems.
Russia and other NIS countries have ecosystem resources of which are of
global importance and must not remain aside from international processes of
the integration of ecosystem services in socio-economic development.
Given all the above, participants of the meeting call the public authorities,
business community and public environmental organizations to address the
following key issues:
1. Ensure the full participation of Russia as a country having the world's
largest resource of ecosystem functions in the project “The Economics of
Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)”.
2. Develop mechanisms for priority integration of biodiversity conserva-
tion, natural complexes and objects in the processes of strategic and opera-
tional planning of economic and socio-economic development. Develop and
improve methods of economic evaluation of all the most significant ecosys-
132
tem services. Introduce these tools and techniques in practice of decision-
making at all levels of governance.
3. Proceed to the formation of national markets for ecosystem services in
Russia and other NIS countries, which will help to achieve long-term deve-
lopment goals — greening the economy and businesses, reduce resource and
energy intensity of goods and services production. It will become an impor-
tant tool for optimizing the inter-regional relations (between the regions with
developed industry and regions with significant ecosystem resources). Start
development of national carbon market in Russia as one of the most elabo-
rated forms of markets for ecosystem services. Ensure adequate coverage of
global functions of Russian ecosystems on storage and carbon accumulation.
Identify and realize environmental benefits of Russia and other NIS countries
in practice of international negotiations on markets for ecosystem services.
4. Restore the state ecological expertise for all economic objects and pro-
jects that can harm wildlife and cause changes in ecosystem functions, i.e. to
reduce the quality of ecosystem services.
5. Restore the Environment Fund of the RF (or similar) and its regional of-
fices as a way of support for environmental projects, including development
of economic methods of valuation of ecosystem functions and biodiversity.
6. By carrying out any activity affecting the environment, it is necessary to
adhere to the precautionary principle (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), i.e. at high risk
of damage to the environment and the substantial deterioration of its condi-
tion and the absence of sufficient knowledge and information about the
mechanisms of these risks it is necessary to strive for minimum impact on
ecosystems and to take measures to preserve and protect them.
7. Encourage the formation of interdisciplinary expert community in the
field of assessment of ecosystem services and the development of methods
for their integration into the political and economic decisions at the national
and international levels in Russia and other NIS countries.
8. To maximize the opportunities provided in 2010 the International Year
of Biodiversity to discuss ways of integrating ecosystem services into eco-
nomic and social development at international forums (meetings of G8 lead-
ers, conferences on biodiversity, etc.).
9. Recommend that Biodiversity Conservation Center would create online
public information resource on ecosystem services and methods of their
evaluation, which will facilitate the activities and the consolidation of the
expert community, raising awareness of stakeholders.
10. Promote cooperation across the whole spectrum of issues related to
ecosystem services among the former Soviet Union.

133
Economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: potential and prospects of
Northern Eurasia countries: Proceedings of the meeting “TEEB Project –
Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: participation prospects for Russia
and other NIS countries” (Moscow, February 24, 2010). Moscow, Published by
Biodiversity Conservation Center — 136 p.

Edited by D.S. Pavlov, E.N. Bukvareva, R.A. Perelet

Summary. Book includes materials of the meeting concerning prospects of


Russia's and other NIS countires' participation in international project "The
Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity" (Moscow, February 24, 2010). The
project is devoted to highly acute problem of involving ecosystem services into
global and regional economics. There are discussed issues of adequate account
and assessment of ecosystem services in concrete conditions and regions in
economic policy of Northern Eurasia countries.
Edition is addressed to everybody, who is involved in solving problems of
nature management optimization and sustainable development.

* * *

CONTENTS
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 5
Ecosystem services in economic policy
D.S. Pavlov, E.N. Bukvareva. Environment forming
functions of wildlife and the ecologocentric concept
of nature management ................................................................................... 7
V.I. Danilov-Danilyan. Environmental values and
economic evaluation .................................................................................... 19
S.N. Bobylev, V.M. Zakharov. Ecosystem services and
compensation mechanisms: the potential of Russia .................................... 27
V.V. Sabadash. Analysis of the effectiveness of
organizational economic instruments for natural-resource
potential conservation ................................................................................. 33
L.G. Melnyk, I.B. Degtareva, O.I. Melnyk. Economic
evaluation and accounting in a regional planning
for ecosystem services ................................................................................. 41

134
D.G. Zamolodchikov. Approaches to national ecosystem
services market organization ....................................................................... 49
R.A. Perelet. International project “The Economics of
Ecosystems and Biodiversity” ..................................................................... 54
O.I. Kazantseva. Prospects of Moldova's participation
in TEEB project ........................................................................................... 61
Ecosystem services of natural complexes
D.G. Zamolodchikov. The carbon function of Russian forests
as a mechanism for economic evaluation of ecosystem services ................ 67
A.A. Sirin, L. Brander, T.Y. Minaeva. Peculiarities of economic
evaluation of peatland ecosystems .............................................................. 74
A.A. Tishkov. Biospheric functions and ecosystem services:
to the methodology of ecological-economic assessment of PA .................. 81
G.A. Fomenko, M.A. Fomenko. Institutional conditions
and problems of using of ecosystem services evaluation
in the management of Russian PAs ............................................................. 88
R.A. Perelet. How to benefit from the value of PAs
in a market system? ..................................................................................... 94
Valuation of ecosystem services in concrete regions
I.M. Potravny, E.A. Galsaraeva. Possibility analysis for
integration of ecosystem services value in the
politico-economic system of Russia ............................................................ 99
O.E. Medvedeva. Using of ecosystem services evaluation
in Russia .................................................................................................... 108
A.N. Rudyk. Ecosystem services evaluation for Bakhchisaraysky
District of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea ...................................... 114
E.E. Shirkov, E.I. Shirkova. Measuring the impact
of population diversity of sock-eyed salmon on the value
and sustainability of its population in the basin of Kamchatka ................. 121
The final note of the meeting “TEEB Project – Economics of
Ecosystems and Biodiversity: participation prospects for
Russia and other NIS countries” (Moscow, February 24, 2010):
in Russian .................................................................................................. 129
in English ................................................................................................... 131
Summary ........................................................................................................ 134
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