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HyperMesh 8 0 User s Guide

HyperMesh 8 0 User s Guide

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Sections

  • Hardware and Operating Systems
  • Starting HyperMesh
  • Starting HyperMesh Batch Version
  • Start-up Options
  • Configuring HyperMesh
  • Configuration File Commands
  • Start-up Files
  • Specifying a Temporary File Directory
  • HyperMesh Database Design
  • Database Names
  • Using and Saving a Database
  • Nodes
  • Fixed Points
  • Free Points
  • Collectors
  • Elements
  • Lines
  • Surfaces and Faces
  • Systems
  • Loads
  • Cards
  • Vectors
  • Title
  • HyperMesh Environment
  • Pull-Down menus
  • Graphics Area
  • Toolbar Area
  • Header Bar
  • Main Menu Area
  • Page Menu
  • Tab Area
  • Model Browser
  • Include Browser
  • Modules
  • Loadsteps Browser
  • Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles
  • Panels
  • Sub-panels
  • Input Controls
  • File Browser
  • The Mouse
  • Rapid Menu
  • Keyboard
  • Secondary Menu
  • Utility Menu
  • BOM comparison tool
  • Quick TetraMesh
  • User Profiles
  • HyperMesh User Profile
  • Using HyperMesh
  • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database
  • Picking Entities on the Screen
  • Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements
  • Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu
  • Viewing Models
  • Using the disp (display) Panel
  • Setting View Options
  • Setting Tolerances
  • Setting Global Parameters
  • Importing and Exporting Data
  • Printing Screen Images
  • Using the Card Previewer
  • General Process for Building Models
  • Creating Collectors
  • Reading Geometry
  • Creating Geometry Data
  • Temporary Nodes
  • Picking Surfaces
  • Editing Surfaces
  • Associativity
  • Geometry Cleanup
  • Building Elements
  • Checking Model Quality
  • Applying Loads
  • Creating Systems
  • Automatic Mesh Generation
  • Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel
  • Mesh Generation Algorithms
  • Smoothing Algorithms
  • Element Biasing
  • Linked or Locked Edges
  • Connector Entity
  • Connector Terminology
  • Connector Definition
  • Connector Realization
  • Connector Review
  • Connectors User Control Mode
  • Master Connectors File
  • Multiple Weld File Format
  • Import Templates
  • FE Configuration File
  • FE Definition Examples
  • HyperMorph Strategies
  • The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing
  • Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains
  • Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • HyperBeam Module
  • Example of the Three-Step Process
  • Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam
  • HyperBeam Environment
  • Section Browser
  • Shell Section Graphics Pane
  • Results/Spreadsheet Pane
  • HyperBeam Menu Bar
  • HyperBeam Toolbar
  • Beam Cross Section Property Solver
  • Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements
  • Defining a Cross Section
  • Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties
  • Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver
  • Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers
  • HyperLaminate Module
  • HyperLaminate Environment
  • HyperLaminate Menus
  • HyperLaminate Toolbar
  • Laminate Browser
  • Define/Edit Pane
  • Review Pane
  • Finite Difference Module
  • Creating a Finite Difference Block
  • Creating a Structured Mesh
  • Loads on Geometry
  • Terminology and Definitions
  • Application of Loads to Geometry
  • Exporting Loads
  • Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh
  • Distributed Load Mapper
  • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results
  • Select a data type and a mapping method
  • Set the scale factor
  • Set the mapping algorithm
  • Mathematical Loading
  • Post-Processing Analysis
  • HyperMesh Results Database
  • Specifying the Results File
  • Creating Deformed Geometry Plots
  • Creating Animations
  • Creating Vector Plots
  • Creating Contour Plots
  • Creating Assigned Plots
  • Adding Plot Identification
  • Inspecting the Results
  • XY Plotting
  • XY Plots Module
  • Creating an XY Plot
  • Modifying an XY Plot
  • Working with Multiple XY Plots
  • Modifying Multiple XY Plots
  • Creating Curves on XY Plots
  • Modifying Curve Attributes
  • Displaying Selected Curves on Plots
  • Using the Curve Editor
  • AutoDV Introduction
  • Generation of Perturbation Vectors
  • Manual Perturbation
  • Polynomial Perturbation Vectors
  • Primary Domain Model
  • Primary Domain Node Sets
  • Control Perturbations
  • Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets
  • Harmonic Perturbation Vectors
  • Generation of Variable Loads
  • Running AutoDV Stand-alone
  • Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
  • To create an H3D file from HyperMesh:
  • H3D FAQ's
  • Free Body Diagrams
  • FBD Set Manager
  • FBD Displacements
  • FBD Forces
  • FBD Cross-section manager
  • FBD Resultant Force and Moment
  • FBD Results Manager
  • FBD Export Manager
  • FBD Grid Point Force Balance

HyperMesh 8.

0 User's Guide

HyperWorks

Altair Engineering Contact Information
Web site FTP site www.altair.com Address: ftp.altair.com or ftp2.altair.com or http://ftp.altair.com/ftp Login: ftp Password: <your e-mail address>

Location
North America China France Germany India

Telephone
248.614.2425 86.21.5393.0011 33.1.4133.0990 49.7031.6208.22 91.80.6629.4500 1.800.425.0234 (toll free) 39.800.905.595 81.3.5396.1341 81.3.5396.2881 82.31.716.4321 46.46.286.2052 44.1926.468.600 55.11.4223.5733 64.9.413.7981 64.9.413.7981

e-mail
hwsupport@altair.com support@altair.com.cn francesupport@altair.com hwsupport@altair.de support@india.altair.com

Italy Japan Korea Scandinavia United Kingdom Brazil Australia New Zealand

support@altairtorino.it support@altairjp.co.jp support@altair.co.kr support@altair.se support@uk.altair.com br_support@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com

The following countries have distributors for Altair Engineering: Mexico, Romania, Russia, South Korea, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan and Turkey. See www.altair.com for complete contact information. © 2007 Altair Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated to another language without the written permission of Altair Engineering, Inc. To obtain this permission, write to the attention Altair Engineering legal department at: 1820 E. Big Beaver, Troy, Michigan, USA, or call +1-248-614-2400.

Trademark and Registered Trademark Acknowledgments
Listed below are Altair HyperWorks applications. Copyright Altair Engineering Inc., All Rights Reserved for: HyperMesh 1990-2006; HyperView 1999-2006; OptiStruct 1996-2006; HyperStudy 1999-2006; ® ® ® HyperGraph 1995-2006; HyperGraph 3D 2005-2006; MotionView 1993-2006; MotionSolve 2002-2006; ® ® ® ® HyperForm 1998-2006; HyperXtrude 1999-2006; HyperOpt 1996-2006; HyperView Player 2001-2006; ® Process Manager™ 2003-2006; HyperWeb 2002-2004; Data Manager™ 2005-2006; Templex™ 19902006; Manufacturing Solutions ™ 2005-2006 All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
® ® ® ® ® ® ©

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Starting and Configuring HyperMesh
Hardware and Operating Systems ......................................................................................1 Starting HyperMesh .............................................................................................................2 Starting HyperMesh Batch Version .....................................................................................5 Start-up Options ...................................................................................................................6 Configuring HyperMesh.......................................................................................................7 Configuration File Commands .............................................................................................9 Start-up Files ......................................................................................................................21 Specifying a Temporary File Directory ..............................................................................21

HyperMesh Database and Environment
HyperMesh Database Design............................................................................................22 Database Names ...............................................................................................................22 Using and Saving a Database...........................................................................................22 Nodes .................................................................................................................................22 Fixed Points .......................................................................................................................22 Free Points .........................................................................................................................22 Collectors ...........................................................................................................................23 Elements ............................................................................................................................27 Lines ...................................................................................................................................30 Surfaces and Faces...........................................................................................................32 Systems..............................................................................................................................33 Loads..................................................................................................................................33 Cards..................................................................................................................................33 Vectors ...............................................................................................................................33 Title.....................................................................................................................................34 HyperMesh Environment ...................................................................................................35 Pull-Down menus...............................................................................................................37 Graphics Area ....................................................................................................................39 Toolbar Area ......................................................................................................................40 Header Bar .........................................................................................................................44 Main Menu Area.................................................................................................................46 Page Menu .........................................................................................................................46
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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide i

Tab Area.............................................................................................................................47 Model Browser ...................................................................................................................48 Include Browser .................................................................................................................57 Modules ..............................................................................................................................63 Loadsteps Browser............................................................................................................64 Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles ............................................................65 Panels ................................................................................................................................69 Sub-panels .........................................................................................................................70 Input Controls.....................................................................................................................71 File Browser .......................................................................................................................77 The Mouse .........................................................................................................................79 Rapid Menu ........................................................................................................................81 Keyboard ............................................................................................................................82 Secondary Menu ................................................................................................................86 Utility Menu ........................................................................................................................87 BOM comparison tool ........................................................................................................95 Quick TetraMesh..............................................................................................................112

User Profiles
User Profiles.....................................................................................................................127 HyperMesh User Profile...................................................................................................128

Using HyperMesh
Using HyperMesh ............................................................................................................128 Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database ..............................................................129 Picking Entities on the Screen .........................................................................................130 Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements .......................................................................132 Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu .....................................................................133 Viewing Models ................................................................................................................137 Using the disp (display) Panel .........................................................................................140 Setting View Options........................................................................................................142 Setting Tolerances ...........................................................................................................145 Setting Global Parameters...............................................................................................145 Importing and Exporting Data ..........................................................................................146 Printing Screen Images ...................................................................................................148 Using the Card Previewer................................................................................................150
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Building Models
General Process for Building Models ..............................................................................151 Creating Collectors ..........................................................................................................152 Reading Geometry...........................................................................................................153 Creating Geometry Data ..................................................................................................154 Temporary Nodes ............................................................................................................158 Picking Surfaces ..............................................................................................................158 Editing Surfaces ...............................................................................................................159 Associativity .....................................................................................................................161 Geometry Cleanup ...........................................................................................................162 Building Elements ............................................................................................................164 Checking Model Quality ...................................................................................................167 Applying Loads.................................................................................................................168 Creating Systems.............................................................................................................169

Automatic 2-D Mesh Generation
Automatic Mesh Generation ............................................................................................170 Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel.......................................................................172 Mesh Generation Algorithms ...........................................................................................173 Smoothing Algorithms......................................................................................................175 Element Biasing ...............................................................................................................176 Linked or Locked Edges ..................................................................................................179

Connectors
Connector Entity...............................................................................................................180 Connector Terminology ...................................................................................................181 Connector Definition ........................................................................................................185 Connector Realization......................................................................................................187 Connector Review............................................................................................................188 Connectors User Control Mode .......................................................................................188 Master Connectors File....................................................................................................189 Multiple Weld File Format ................................................................................................190 Import Templates .............................................................................................................191 FE Configuration File .......................................................................................................193 FE Definition Examples ...................................................................................................197

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide iii

HyperMorph and Morphing Strategies
HyperMorph Strategies ....................................................................................................199 The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing......................................................................201 Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains ..................................................220 Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................237 Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................263

Calculating Beam Properties
HyperBeam Module .........................................................................................................272 Example of the Three-Step Process................................................................................274 Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam ..............................................279 HyperBeam Environment.................................................................................................282 Section Browser...............................................................................................................283 Shell Section Graphics Pane...........................................................................................284 Results/Spreadsheet Pane..............................................................................................285 HyperBeam Menu Bar .....................................................................................................287 HyperBeam Toolbar .........................................................................................................294 Beam Cross Section Property Solver ..............................................................................296 Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements..................................................297 Defining a Cross Section .................................................................................................298 Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties .................300 Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver .........................................................................301 Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers ................................................................303

HyperLaminate and Composites
HyperLaminate Module....................................................................................................304 HyperLaminate Environment ...........................................................................................305 HyperLaminate Menus .....................................................................................................306 HyperLaminate Toolbar ...................................................................................................308 Laminate Browser............................................................................................................309 Define/Edit Pane ..............................................................................................................313 Review Pane ....................................................................................................................323

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Finite Difference Module
Finite Difference Module ..................................................................................................324 Creating a Finite Difference Block...................................................................................324 Creating a Structured Mesh.............................................................................................325

Boundary Conditions
Loads on Geometry .........................................................................................................327 Terminology and Definitions ............................................................................................328 Application of Loads to Geometry ...................................................................................329 Exporting Loads ...............................................................................................................330 Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh ..............................................330 Distributed Load Mapper .................................................................................................331 Load an input file containing CFD analysis results .........................................................333 Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, or ANSYS input file format) ...............................................................................................................334 Select a data type and a mapping method......................................................................334 Set the scale factor ..........................................................................................................334 Set the mapping algorithm ...............................................................................................335 Mathematical Loading......................................................................................................336

Post-Processing and XY Plots
Post-Processing Analysis ................................................................................................338 HyperMesh Results Database.........................................................................................338 Specifying the Results File ..............................................................................................339 Creating Deformed Geometry Plots ................................................................................339 Creating Animations.........................................................................................................339 Creating Vector Plots .......................................................................................................340 Creating Contour Plots.....................................................................................................340 Creating Assigned Plots ..................................................................................................340 Adding Plot Identification .................................................................................................341 Inspecting the Results......................................................................................................341 XY Plotting .......................................................................................................................342 XY Plots Module...............................................................................................................343 Creating an XY Plot .........................................................................................................344 Modifying an XY Plot........................................................................................................344 Working with Multiple XY Plots ........................................................................................344
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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide v

Modifying Multiple XY Plots .............................................................................................344 Creating Curves on XY Plots ...........................................................................................345 Modifying Curve Attributes...............................................................................................347 Displaying Selected Curves on Plots ..............................................................................347 Using the Curve Editor.....................................................................................................348

AutoDV
AutoDV Introduction .........................................................................................................351 Generation of Perturbation Vectors.................................................................................352 Manual Perturbation.........................................................................................................352 Polynomial Perturbation Vectors .....................................................................................353 Primary Domain Model ....................................................................................................353 Primary Domain Node Sets .............................................................................................354 Control Perturbations .......................................................................................................355 Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets ....................................................................357 Harmonic Perturbation Vectors .......................................................................................359 Generation of Variable Loads ..........................................................................................361 Running AutoDV Stand-alone .........................................................................................363

H3D Writer
Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh ...........................................................................365 H3D FAQ's .......................................................................................................................369

Free Body Diagrams
Free Body Diagrams........................................................................................................370 FBD Set Manager ............................................................................................................371 FBD Displacements .........................................................................................................375 FBD Forces ......................................................................................................................378 FBD Cross-section manager ...........................................................................................381 FBD Resultant Force and Moment ..................................................................................383 FBD Results Manager......................................................................................................386 FBD Export Manager .......................................................................................................388 FBD Grid Point Force Balance ........................................................................................390

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WIN 2000/XP.5.2.Hardware and Operating Systems HyperMesh is not tied to a specific set of computer hardware or operating system and presents the same appearance on all platforms.11. The following hardware platforms are currently supported: • • • • • • • Pentium-based PC or compatible running Windows WIN NT 4.13 m. IBM running AIX 4.8. which prevents HyperMesh from redrawing immediately when a destructive windowing operation is performed. depending on their level of sophistication. Most of the HyperMesh source code is independent and can be compiled on various systems. However. For more specific information concerning your hardware/software configuration. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. All UNIX ports are built around OpenGL.3. please contact your HyperMesh sales representative. SUN workstations running Solaris 2. HyperMesh has an identical appearance and behavior on all platforms.11 m and IRIX 6. 5.0 User’s Guide 1 .0. Some platforms may have limitations or extensions.3.3 or RH 8.0 or 11.1.5.0. In general. Notes for PC Users If you are running Windows NT (depending on model size or processor speed) you may wish to turn the full drag option off.23. such as drawing a line on the screen. a small portion of source code that controls the graphically oriented operations. needs to be "ported" to each hardware platform on which HyperMesh runs. HP-PARISC (HPUX) running 11. or 5. or information concerning future platforms. Silicon Graphics family of workstations running IRIX 6. This option is found in the Desktop icon in the Control Panel group. LINUX running RH 7. HP-ITANIUM (HPUX_IA32) running 11.

Starting HyperMesh in UNIX This section contains the instructions and optional arguments for starting HyperMesh on a UNIX workstation. 2. For example.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .cshrc file: alias hm ‘/homes/applications/hm8.g.cshrc file in the user home directory. At the operating system prompt. Windows 2000. 2 HyperMesh 8. to have HyperMesh start and run according to the standards and preferences of your particular work site. see Configuring HyperMesh. and Windows XP platforms.alias or .Starting HyperMesh This section explains how to start HyperMesh on UNIX. <altair_home>/altair/scripts/hm) and press the ENTER key. enter hm at the command prompt to invoke HyperMesh. see Start-up Files. To start HyperMesh: 1. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh.. You can create a start-up file or alter the HyperMesh configuration file. Note: For more information about creating and using start-up files. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. Or Create an alias for HyperMesh in the user . For more information about the hm.alias or . add the following line in the .0/altair/script/hm’ Once an alias is created.cfg. hm.cfg configuration file. enter the full path of the HyperMesh script (e.

From the Altair HyperWorks group: select HyperMesh. The user profiles window is also accessible from the view pull-down menu. By default. To exit HyperMesh. you may wish to change this directory.Starting HyperMesh on PC During installation. or Click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. To start HyperMesh: 1. 3. HyperMesh starts and the main menu is displayed on the screen. User profiles affect the HyperMesh layout as well as features such as element quality checks. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. click quit. a window opens prompting you to choose a user profile. From the Start menu. 5. 2. The default working directory specified by the HyperMesh icon is the Windows default My Documents directory. click Start and choose Programs. an Altair HyperWorks group is created in Programs on the Start menu. 4. The quit button is located on the upper right-hand corner of the panel area on any of the main menu pages. Since HyperMesh creates user files. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 3 . Choose the desired user profile and then click OK. Uncheck always show at startup to prevent this window from opening each time you load HyperMesh.

Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. if you do not want HyperMesh to write a command file.cmf and hmmenu. Select the Shortcut tab.set. enter the name and path of the directory in which you want to run HyperMesh. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. 3. are created in this directory. 5. 4. 4 HyperMesh 8. Click Apply. For example. enter -nocommand after the HyperMesh path. Select the Shortcut tab. Select Properties. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. After Start in:.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .To change the working directory: 1. 2. 2. command. 4. Your user files. Append the startup options to the path listed in Target:. The path to the HyperMesh executable displays after Target:. 3. Select Properties. To change/use startup options: 1.

command.cmf and press ENTER.cmf. HyperMesh commands that require display (e. Select the programs tab. 6. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh. To start HyperMesh batch version on UNIX: 1.0 User’s Guide 5 . the path to the hmbatch executable is displayed. Since this batch version does not have graphical display.com) executable file in the /hm/bin directory. –ccommand. To start HyperMesh batch version on PC: 1. Click Apply. 4. Note: See Start-up Options for more information about the start-up arguments you can use. hmbatch terminates when it reaches the end of the command file or when it encounters *quit( ) in the command file. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Right -click on the hmbatch icon on the desktop. After Cmd line:.) are ignored. 2.cmf contains the HyperMesh commands to be executed. create. type hmbatch –ccommand.Starting HyperMesh Batch Version HyperMesh batch version (hmbatch) allows you to invoke HyperMesh in batch mode at the command line and run a command file. At the operating system prompt.g. to this path. 5. 2. etc. plot. Select Properties. postscript. 3. fit. Locate and right-click on the hmbatch(. Append the option.

Allows Templex within command files. Otherwise. The format of the command is: hm [ -version ] [-h] [-m] where: -version -h -m Display the current version. res (-r alone specifies the file fl.msf file Other options that can be specified after the start-up command allow you to specify model or results files or run command or mouse files.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . nodes are not drawn.msf -nobg -nocommand -psdhm -r[filename] -rres -s<width><height> -templex -t<filename> -titlepause -u<profile> -writemastermenu 6 HyperMesh 8.Start-up Options You can enter arguments after the hm command that allow you to specify which command file to run.hm -c<filename> -continue Read the HyperMesh file.hm.msf file. or the specified file. Print this message. change screen resolutions. Prevents HyperMesh from creating or writing to the command. Plays back the mouse commands in the mouse. Start HyperMesh under a specific user profile: for example. Causes HyperMesh to draw nodes to the PostScript file as circles. or to print messages. Forces HyperMesh to run in the foreground.cmf file. Causes HyperMesh to pause on the title splash screen until you press a key on the keyboard.set file to replace the installed hmmenu. Use the results file. pre-set export paths. Automatically load the specified HyperMesh binary file. Do not prompt via a pop-up box. Sets the global template file to the specified file.res suffix. Opens the application in a window of the specified width and height in pixels (PC only). Allows you to write a master hmmenu.res). fl. Always continue on error when processing a command file. -e<filename> <filename> -mmouse.set. Automatically run the specified command file. Set the text input field in the export panel to the specified file. -uAnsys to start HyperMesh under the Ansys user profile. These options include: fl. Write the mouse commands to a mouse. Sets the name of the HyperMesh results file database to either the input filename with a .

cfg.cfg file exists in multiple directories.cfg file to save your preferences. Each of the hm.cfg file controls certain aspects of how HyperMesh runs at your particular site. or all of the commands may be on one line. and titlestitlefont_configuration_command>Config fonts Specify the default legend colorlegendcolorfile_configuration_command>Config Specify a color to use for entities with no resultsnoresultcolor_configuration_command>Config Change cursor sizebigcursors_configuration_command>Config Turn element and geom handlesnopickhandles_configuration_command>Config off by default Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending PostScript files to a PostScript printerpostcopy_configuration_command>Config Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending black and white PostScript filespostcopyblackandwhite_configuration_command>Config to a PostScript printer • • • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The following commands are an example of a partial hm. If the hm. hm. You can edit the commands in the hm. only on start -up. The commands in the hm.cfg. which is read on start-up and is located in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/ directory. HyperMesh uses the following order of precedence: PC customization path current (local) directory installation directory UNIX current (local) directory home directory installation directory All running copies of HyperMesh must be restarted before any changes to the hm. A command can be turned into a comment by removing the asterisk (*) preceding the command. The hm. They may begin in any column.cfg commands begins with an asterisk and is followed by a set of parentheses that enclose a variable number of arguments.cfg file are acknowledged.0 User’s Guide 7 . menumenufont_configuration_command>Config. The commands are not sensitive to location in the file. with each command occupying one line.cfg file: *menufont(2) *titlefont(3) *graphicfont(1) Note: HyperMesh accesses the configuration file.Configuring HyperMesh HyperMesh has a default configuration file named hm.cfg file allow you to: • • • • • Specify an absolute pointing deviceabsolutepointer_configuration_command>Config Enable buttonbuttons_configuration_command>Config and dialdials_configuration_command>Config input Specify default translatorsfeinput_default_configuration_command>Config and templatesfeoutput_default_configuration_command>Config Specify the default solversregistersolver_configuration_command>Config Specify default graphicsgraphicfont_configuration_command>Config.

called hmsettings.tcl file 8 HyperMesh 8.ini Fatigue.cfg file userpage.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Note: Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending ASCII files to a PostScript printerprintfile_configuration_command>Config Specify how to create a PostScript file of the screenpostfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Specify how to create a bitmap file of the screenscreenfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Indicate to HyperMesh the method for creating bitmap files Set reverse video when your printer cannot be set to reverse black and white. administrators must set up an environment variable called HW_CONFIG_PATH to specify the path. such as tab locations (left/right/both/none).g. recent files imported and recent files loaded.ini. deleting this file can restore your HyperMesh settings to the default state if you encounter problems within the HyperMesh user interface that you cannot rectify by any other means.tcl should not be edited and its format will change between releases.ini. model or include browser).altair on Unix and Linux. key bindings. HyperMesh uses this file to record various GUI settings for each user.set file Cadreader.cfg file Any printer settings (which may also exist in hm.cfg). HyperMesh creates this file automatically when upon exiting the program. in order to use configuration files stored in a different file path. Hmsettings. However. This prevents them from being overwritten when you install a new HyperWorks update.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . tabs which are visible (e. Set the screen size Specify the colormap version Set the default graphics simplification mode Tells HyperMesh to load the 3D Writer Specify the input translator and component format Specifies which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system Display the Utility menu when HyperMesh starts Include intermediate (not just the final choice) rotation commands There is another configuration file stored in "My Documents" on the Windows platform and in ~/.cfg file hyperlaminate.mac file hmmenu. Customization paths You can store configuration files in a file path other than the ones to which they are installed by default. iges.cfg file hmexec file feconfig. The configuration files which can be used in conjunction with customization paths are: hm. However. Multiple paths can be specified as variable values within this variable name.tcl. hmcustom.ini files. such as catia. or ug.

uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. under Windows. You can also change the cursor size by selecting large or standard under cursor size: on the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. *boldmenufont(state) state 1 = bold 0 = use current value Comments The menu system in HyperMesh. This command allows you to force the menu system to use a bold font.0 User’s Guide 9 . (An absolute pointer usually has six buttons.Configuration File Commands The following is a list of the configuration commands that you can use to control how HyperMesh runs at your particular site: *absolutepointer() Use this command if you have a digitizing tablet or any other type of absolute pointing device.) *bigcursors() Informs HyperMesh that pointing cursors should be double-sized when they are displayed on the screen. *boldmenufont () Description Syntax To force the menu font to bold on windows.

Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu (See *buttons()).999937705) *quatrotate(-0.000802068982.-5.0.00228960797.0. A value of 1 (default) to the function aligns the Y-axis of the coordinate system in the direction of FE and a value of 0 defines Xaxis and a value 2 defines Z-axis.00994070323. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations. *dials() This command informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with dials that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations.00170778765. Syntax *controlkeyviewmode(mode) mode Note: 0 = immediate mode 1 = use display listing (default) When display listing is used. Immediate mode results in a faster initial response time.00785649346. but the operation will have a higher frame rate (faster).0047803938.0. if the *buttons() command is not added to the configuration file.999966514) *quatrotate(0.999985423) 10 HyperMesh 8. *ce_fe_orientaxis() This command is called from the HyperMesh configuration file to specify the axis of the system that needs to be aligned in the direction of FE during connector realization. *controlkeyviewmode() Specify whether display listing should be done during control key assisted viewing. if the *dials() command is not added to the configuration file. *dynamicrotatemode() Sets mode for output of intermediate rotation commands.00529684395. In this case. but a lower frame rate (slower).0. there may be a delay in the operation while the display list is being built. See *CE_FE_SetDetailsandRealize() for information on creating a coordinate system during realization. In this case.0.7397916e005. When mode is set to 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .0.*buttons() Informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with buttons that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode. HyperMesh does not respond to button input. the following output is generated: *dynamicviewbegin() *quatrotate(-0. Syntax Arguments Example *dynamicrotatemode(mode) mode Set to 1 or 0.0. HyperMesh does not respond to dial input. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu.0.000673180986.

0. -3. When the mode is set to 1.0 User’s Guide 11 . Comments 0. intermediate *quadrotate() rotation commands are output to the command file. -0. The first part is the type of translator and the second part is a specific version of the translator.0. -8.030465. or a symbolic name for the translator.756111. 0.761037.623743. 1. 0.000000.000230328525. -3.00100703597.0.583235. By default.0. the following output is generated: *viewset(-0.657815. The symbolic name for each translator is listed below: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.703590. 8.9 99998898) *quatrotate(-0.886445.000395387048.000327769044. 1 = on (default).0.213868.000000. You can display or hide the utility menu from within HyperMesh by selecting Utility Menu from the View pull-down menu.00106667981.964252.621393) 5. *enablemacromenu() This specifies whether or not the macro Utility Menu should display when the program loads. Otherwise.999996393) *dynamicviewend() When mode is set to 0. *feinputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which translator in the import/CUSTOM sub-panel is the default.000000.299006.0. 0. 0. 2.00263644785.485656. reducing the size of the command file. the Utility menu is displayed. 0. -0.*quatrotate(0. 0.612440. Comments A symbolic name begins with a '#' character followed by the specification of the translator. 0 = off. 0.722177. Syntax *feinputdefault(filename) Arguments entity_type The name of any file found in the feinput directory.000000.575689. 0.0. The specification contains two parts separated with a '\'. only the finial position is output.

12 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .FE: #abaqus\abaqus #ansys\ansys #cmold\cmold #moldflow\moldflow #nastran\nastran #patran\patran #marc\marc #optistruct\optistruct #ls-dyna\dynakey #ls-dyna\\dynaseq #pamcrash\pamcrash #ideas\ideas #autodv\autodv #stl\stl #hmascii\hmascii GEOM: #catia\catia #iges\iges #ug\ug_16 #ug\ug_15 #stl\stl #vdafs\vdafs #hmascii\hmascii WELD: #spotweld\spotweld *feoutputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which template is the default. This command requires one argument which can be set to the name of any file found in the template/feoutput directory.

*forceoldmenufonts () To force the menu font to the old style. style is set using the simplification style switch and curComp is set using the simplify current comp check box. where: mode is set using view acceleration and when view acceleration is set to automatic or Ctrl-Shift. *graphicengine() Sets the default graphics mode. *graphicsimplificationmode() Sets the default simplification mode for performance graphics. This option can also be set using the engine: toggle in the graphics sub-panel of the options panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Syntax Note: *forceoldmenufonts() The menu system in HyperMesh. curComp) mode 0 = none 1 = automatic (default) 2 = Ctrl-Shift 0 1 2 3 4 5 = no simplification = feature lines (default) = bounding box = node cloud = element centroid = simplified shading style curComp 0 = do not simplify current component (default) 1 = simplify current component Note: If mode = 0. The font size may also be changed during a HyperMesh session using the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. and legends in the graphics area. The default simplification mode for performance graphics can also be set in the graphics subpanel in the options panel. Syntax *graphicengine(mode) mode 0 = standard graphics 1 = performance graphics *graphicfont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display numbers. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. Syntax *graphicsimplificationmode(mode. style and curComp are not required. element handles. style. under Windows. This command allows you to force the menu system to use the historical fonts.0 User’s Guide 13 .

You can experiment with the values in the color sub-panel of the options panel.0). The only information unknown at startup is the name of the file.100). The element and geometry pick handles can be set in the modeling sub-panel of the options panel.cfg file. inclusively 14 HyperMesh 8. a character string closed in double quotes "". For example. white (255. Other colors include: dark blue (0.80. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. The complete *postcopy() command of the above example is *postfile("postprt *filename"). For testing purposes.80). *postcopy() Informs HyperMesh how to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. if this command is specified. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2).B). You can copy this file into your home directory and customize many of the default settings. Green and Blue. The default gray color values are *noresultcolor(80.G. 0-D elements (such as contact slave elements and mass elements) cannot be seen easily.128). The color must be between 1 and 64.175.255. however. *postcopy() is invoked when you press CTRL-F3. then you would use *postcopy("postprt junk").0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Syntax *legendsetbordercolor(color) Comments *menufont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display the menu. The string is sent to the operating system and should be the standard command which you would use to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. Pick handles will be turned off when HyperMesh is started and turned off whenever a new file is loaded. and B are the intensity values for Red. or khaki (210. G. This command links the PostScript capability of HyperMesh and allows plots of the currently displayed screen to be printed directly from HyperMesh. The default color is specified with *noresultcolor(R. To circumvent this.*legendcolorfile() Informs HyperMesh which legend color file should be the default. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. *noresultcolor() Elements or nodes for which no results were found are assigned a color (default = gray) to distinguish them from an actual 0 result. The font size may also be changed in the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename.255). HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. black (0. if you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command postprt junk. The command requires one parameter. *nopickhandles() Informs HyperMesh that you wish to have element and geometry pick handles off by default. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name.0. Syntax legendcolorfile(file) *legendsetbordercolor() Allows you to set the border color. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *postcopy() command to the operating system. This command requires one argument that can be set to the name of any file found in the <install_directory>/hm/colors directory. where R. The color assigned to these no result entities is specified in the hm. This improves graphic performance.

Provided for consistency with the *screenfile() and *screencopy() commands.1"}. the string parameter required is set to a zero length string. *rapidmenus() The rapid menu functionality for the middle mouse button may be turned off with this command.g. To circumvent this. use *printfile("print_it junk"). you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing."Hyper3D") UNIX Users: *register3dwriter({bindir+"/hm3dwriter3. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. PC Users: *register3dwriter({bin_dir+"/hm3dwriter31. a character string closed in double quotes. For testing purposes.dll"}. *register3dwriter() Tells HyperMesh to activate the H3D writer. This command is only used in the command file. The complete *printfile() command of the above example is *printfile("print_it *filename"). If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer."Hyper3Dwrite". Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. *postfile() Sends the currently displayed screen to a PostScript file. *postcopyblackandwhite() is invoked when you press CTRL-F5. This command requires one parameter. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. For testing purposes.0 User’s Guide 15 . Before sending the string parameter provided in the *printfile() command to the operating system. By default. If you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command print_it junk. Syntax Argument *rapidmenus(mode) mode 0 1 Comments Disable rapid menus. In general."Hyper3Dwrite". "Hyper3D") Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Enable rapid menus. *printfile() is invoked in the summary panel on the Post page. The string provided is sent to the operating system and should be the command which you normally use to send a file to a printer. "". O./non-HyperMesh) tasks.S. Disabling it may be desirable if you use the middle mouse button for other (e. but allows you to use a different command to send a black and white PostScript file to a printer. *printfile() Informs HyperMesh how to send an ASCII file to a printer.*postcopyblackandwhite() Identical to the *postcopy() command. rapid menu functionality is enabled. The only information unknown at start-up is the name of the file.

Reverse video can also be set in the postscript sub-panel of the options panel.fem. one for the solver executable. > *output."{home}\ {solver}".fem *memory in MB. Each character string represents an input field. a file is created but not spooled to the print device (the CTRL-F1 and CTRL-F2 keys function identically) and you must click the active HyperMesh window to trigger the screen capture. one for the input file name. For more information on spooling bitmapped files directly to the printer."outfile:output file".out". a site-specific operating system utility is called to create and spool the image to the printing device. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. The number of strings is identical to the substitutable fields in the third argument. *output is replaced with the user-selected output file (the extension for output file is always . A file named sliden. By default. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. depending on the expected input. On UNIX platforms. Example *registersolver(OPTISTRUCT. The name of the solver executable file. The status bar indicates when the screen grab is complete."*solver *input file *output file *options". "file:output") Arguments This command creates a solver panel with four user-input fields. and one for the output file name. This command allows you to set up and customize the solver panel in HyperMesh. A maximum of six fields are allowed per solver. *reversevideo() Informs HyperMesh that before the strings provided as parameters in the *screencopy() and *screenfile() commands are sent to the operating system. after substituting the user-input parameters.*registersolver() Informs HyperMesh which solvers are available and how to invoke them. "file:input".0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .sdp is created by HyperMesh. "value:memory in MB". This command takes several arguments: Syntax *registersolver({solver}. The solver field can be of type value or file. *screencopy() Tells HyperMesh how to create a temporary bitmap file of the screen and send it to a hard copy device.) *memory in MB is replaced by the value. The third parameter undergoes the substitution with the user-input values. 16 HyperMesh 8. "*solver *input. Functionally."infile:input file"."value:options") solver The name that you want to appear on the toggle in the solver panel. A character string that is passed to the operating system to invoke the solver. A character string that is of type file or value. optistruct.out). the colors representing black and white should be reversed. This command is necessary only if the hard copy device on your system is not reverse video capable. *solver is replaced by the solver executable name. which is a value. one for the memory in MB. contact your systems administrator. *input is replaced by the input file (the extension is always .

a bitmap file is generated using the utility defined in the *screenfile() function (typically xwd) and output to a unique file using the same process as above. blue) index red green blue Specifies the color location. HyperMesh generates a *.bmp file that can be read into wordprocessing programs. although the look of HyperMesh doesn’t change.0 User’s Guide 17 . the length/width ratio of the objects may be distorted. width). you must select the HyperMesh window to indicate which window to capture. A message on the status bar indicates when the screen capture is complete.75. Syntax *setcolor(index. height.1920) should allow HyperMesh to render undistorted images. (0 through 255) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The second parameter is the vertical (y) dimension of the screen. red.sdf is created by HyperMesh. To determine this value. it’s important to remember to use the correct order for the command (e. The name of the file can be accessed with the characters *filename. Functionally. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. change the two values to any numbers that have the same aspect ratio of the screen resolution that you use. For example. *setcolor() Set a colormap entry for each of the entity colors. Note: in some cases. the proportions of the objects is corrected. The command requires two parameters in real format separated by a comma. On the PC. The units used are not important but must be consistent. To find this value. For more information about creating bitmap screen images. *screensize() Informs HyperMesh of the physical size of your monitor. contact your system administrator. while screen resolutions are typically listed width by height.g. if your desktop runs at a resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels (an aspect ratio of 1. The first parameter is the horizontal (x) dimension of the screen. green. The *screensize() option changes the aspect ratio of the images drawn in the graphics area. Circles may look like ovals.*screenfile() Informs HyperMesh how to create a bitmap file of the screen that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device (such as a printer). follow the same method as described above and measure the vertical dimension of the screen. (0 through 255) The color’s blue component. measure the horizontal dimension of the usable portion of the screen excluding any borders in the default window that HyperMesh creates (or the entire screen if your system does not use windows). After you press CTRL-F2. even after specifying the screen measurements the display can still appear distorted. (1 through 64) The color’s red component. The numbers are physical measurements of the display area of the screen (width. On UNIX platforms. A file named sliden.30) is implemented. thus. height). *screensize(1200.6). Remember that the command parameters represent height and width respectively. (0 through 255) The color’s green component. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. When *screensize(14. If you use a wide aspect ratio screen. In such cases.8.

and the following: ‘ ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * .( ) _ = + \ | [ ] } . Syntax *setlightsource(x. The default setting is 0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .cfg file or from a command file. .0. Place the material number here. 1. z) x y z Comments X axis location. : ‘ / ? . y. horizontal direction of screen. a-z. in/out of screen. 0. Here are some examples of what the component above will show: TYPE3-MAT2 -REAL2-ESYS2 TYPE1-MAT1 -REAL1-ESYS0 TYPE2-MAT2 -REAL3-SECID1-ESYS0 The following characters can be used to customize the name of the components: A-Z. Place the real number here. Z axis location. 18 HyperMesh 8.0. vertical direction of screen. Place the element coordinate system number here.0. This command may be used in either the hm. Symbols mean that everything encapsulated between the two symbols is displayed only if the element uses a section ID. Place the section ID number here. "TYPE%t-MAT%m-REAL%r<-SECID%s>-ESYS%e") %t %m %r % <> %e Place the type number here. only the ANSYS feinput translator supports this command. Y axis location. Example: *setcomponentformat(ansys. *setlightsource() Set direction of the global light source. 0-9. which represents lighting the model as you are looking at it. Currently. spaces. while the second parameter specifies the format you want your components to follow when importing them to HyperMesh.*setcomponentformat() The first parameter of this command specifies which feinput translator you would like to use.

0. The amount of specular reflection seen depends on the location of the viewpoint. blue.5. green. Raising or decreasing shading quality by 1 roughly doubles or halves the quality.0. or from a command file.0.0 – 1. The higher the value. After altering this value you must restart HyperMesh to see the changes. shininess) red green blue The red component of the reflected light (range 0.0 – 1.7. this usually occurs in models that are large in one direction.cfg file (where N is a number between 1 and 10.7. It is brightest along direct angle of reflection.*setperformancenormalmode() Set the performance graphics normal mode.0. *setspecularity(0.0) The blue component of the reflected light (range 0.0. Note.0 – 1.7. *setspecularity() Set the global specular highlight values for performance graphics mode. that N does not need to be an integer—decimal values are acceptable. Syntax *setperformancenormalmode(mode) mode Comments 0 = flat normals (default) 1 = smooth normals This command can only be used in the configuration file.128) Plastic *setspecularity(0.5.1. the smaller and brighter the highlight (range 0 – 128) shininess Comments This command may be used in either the hm.1.0 User’s Guide 19 .cfg file. 5 is the default). Add or modify the *shadingquality(N) command in the hm. but small in another direction.5.0.32) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0. Specular reflection from an object produces highlights. Syntax *setspecularity(red.64) Lead *shadingquality() Shaded geometry visualization sometimes does not follow the actual geometry.0) The green component of the reflected light (range 0. however. Example Settings may be used to simulate different materials: Glass *setspecularity(1.0) The shininess value.

20 HyperMesh 8. However. some colors in HyperMesh may not be available and appear as black. the *xfontname() command must be modified. To assist you in determining the best X Lib font to assign to HyperMesh. This string may contain wild card. In general. A non-shared colormap can be used. Note that the font size may also be changed in the titles panel on the Post page. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). *xfontname() Informs HyperMesh which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system. The first parameter indicates which of the four HyperMesh fonts is being assigned. or a similar one. but may cause the rest of the system’s colors to change when the HyperMesh window is active and HyperMesh’s colors to change when the window is not active. *titlefont() Informs HyperMesh which font size should be used to display titles. The second parameter is a string which locates the X Lib font which you want to assign to the HyperMesh font. The X version of HyperMesh requires a 256 color palette. On some platforms. the system colormap does not have 256 colors available. displays the possible X Lib font sets interactively. This command requires two parameters. if your system is unique or if HyperMesh warns about one of the default fonts. *. This program. This parameter may range from 1 to 4. the X Lib utilities are usually distributed with a program called xfontsel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . With a shared colormap.*sharedcolormap() Informs HyperMesh which colormap method should be used in the X version. characters in the name. the configuration file should have the appropriate fonts for your system.

problems may arise if you later want to rerun the command. To avoid this problem. 2. Delete the command. HOME). All commands executed by the HyperMesh command processor are written to the command file command. . To create a start-up file: 1. the directory where HyperMesh is installed. If you rerun the command. double click the System folder.cmf file created during your HyperMesh session. The directories searched include your customization path (if one is set up). On the Control panel. The file must be a HyperMesh command file and is named .cmf to the file name particular to your system.cmf file when HyperMesh is started. be aware that if you create entities in the start-up file. quit HyperMesh. Start-up files allow you to automatically define global parameters for the current session of HyperMesh. then the temporary files are created with an HM prefix in the referenced directory. it generates the entities specified in the start-up file. and the directory from which HyperMesh was invoked.cmf file. or delete the start-up file commands in command. Rename command.hmexec on UNIX systems and hmexec on Windows systems.Start-up Files HyperMesh allows you to create a start-up file that can be used to either execute a series of commands or to define global parameters.cmf file. After you have generated all of the necessary commands.cmf. Select the Environment tab. 2. Execute any task that you want the start-up file to automatically perform when HyperMesh opens. 4. Click the TMP line under User variables for .hmexec or hmexec. Start HyperMesh. your home directory (where your home directory is assumed to be specified in the environment variable..cmf before you run it. 5. Although start-up files may contain any of the commands considered valid in a command file. 3.0 User’s Guide 21 . Specifying a Temporary File Directory You can set the environment variable to control where temporary HyperMesh files are created. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 4. Edit the text after Value: to specify the correct path to the directory in which you want temporary files created.. if it exists. To set the environment variable in UNIX: SETENV TMPDIR <directory path> To set the environment variable in Windows: 1. you can either not generate any entities in the start-up file. the commands which were written when the start-up file was executed initially. 3. When HyperMesh is invoked. including those generated by your start-up file. 5. it looks for this file and then processes the commands within the file. and then generates the same entities as specified by the command. If the environment variable is set. Click OK.

at Altair we use the extension . vector." 22 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh prompts you for confirmation before you exit. are organized within collectors. This convention allows you to determine easily which of the files in a directory are HyperMesh databases. or group. points. Free points are not associated with a surface and are labeled with a small "x. Nodes The node is the most basic finite element entity. Vertices along the edges of a surface are always marked by fixed points. There are several types of collectors and each collector stores the model data relative to its type. or are referenced by a card image. HyperMesh automatically deletes from the database unused nodes and any loads that were attached to the unused nodes. HyperMesh copies the database into system memory. HyperMesh entities include: Database Names There are no restrictions placed on HyperMesh database names other than those imposed by the operating system. This allows you to select nodes and elements by surface. Free Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. all the changes that you have made during your work session are lost. All HyperMesh entities. The original database does not change until you save the model. including nodes. However. See Using and Saving a Database for more information about saving HyperMesh files. A fixed point is associated with a surface and is labeled with a small "o". Nodes contain a pointer to a surface and are therefore associated to a surface.hm for all HyperMesh binary databases. The automesher always places nodes at fixed points. Fixed Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. Fixed points are displayed in the same color as the surface to which they belong. and systems. loads. Note: See Database Names for more information about naming conventions. Nodes represent physical positions on the structure being modeled and are used by the element entity to define the location and shape of the element. if the current database has been modified but not saved. elements. Fixed points may appear anywhere on a surface. If you exit HyperMesh without saving the current database.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Using and Saving a Database While you work on a model.HyperMesh Database Design A HyperMesh database stores information about many different entity types. lines. Nodes are considered "used" if they are part of an element.

You can use the collectors panel to modify the attributes of the auto1 component and the rename panel to change the name. Component collectors also retain property and material information about the entities that belong to it. auto1. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. Note: Collector names are limited to 160 characters. Entities can belong to only one collector. Configuration 5 is created in the rigid wall panel. Group Collectors Groups are collectors that are restricted to certain types of elements. For more information about reorganizing collectors. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. In this case. Note: Use the display panel to control the screen display of the collectors in your model. All the elements in a component collector are assigned the same properties and materials except when the elements have a property reference. lines. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information in the header bar. rotated. and surfaces cannot exist unless a component collector exists. or deleted. elements. assigned colors. an element cannot exist in two different collectors. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 23 . HyperMesh automatically creates a component. HyperMesh automatically creates a collector for new entities if you do not create a collector first. Component Collectors Components are collectors that contain element. Lines. for example. This allows you to organize geometry data into units that can be translated. for those entities. If you have not created a component first. All entities within HyperMesh must belong to a collector. see the organize panel. Operations performed on a component affect all the elements. line.Collectors A collector gathers related data and allows you to handle the data as one unit. and surface data. This restricted access lets HyperMesh translate special collections of entities as a unit and allows it to support advanced features of analysis codes. Configurations 1-4 are created in the interfaces panel. the elements are assigned properties from the property which they reference. Collectors can be modified and the entities within them can be reorganized. and surfaces that belong to the component.

Entity Information Collectors These collectors maintain information about the entities assigned to them: Property Property collectors contain property information about 1-D elements and are required only when a model contains one or more of the following elements: bar2 bar3 gap joint masses rod spring After you create a property collector. 2-D or 3-D. You can set a component or property to the correct material collector by entering the collector name after material =.Assembly Collectors Assemblies are collectors that contain several components organized into a single logical unit. If a model contains any non-rigid elements. including its walls and cells. Plot collectors contain pointers to curve collectors. you can assign the specified properties to new 1-D elements by entering the collector name after property = when you create or update the elements. One plot collector is created for each plot in the database. Operations performed on an assembly do not affect the components in the assembly. See the Finite Difference Module section for more information. Curve collectors contain information about the curves of an xy plot. Material Material collectors contain information about the materials in a HyperMesh model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you can select and display all the components that belong to it by selecting the assembly. Plot Curve Block 24 HyperMesh 8. then the model should have at least one material collector. the components in the assembly are not deleted. Properties for all other element types. if you delete an assembly. A plot collector contains information associated with an xy plot. For example. Components can belong to more than one assembly. This information includes the name and color of the curve and the line style used to display the curve. A curve is referenced by selecting the plot collector. After an assembly is created. Block collectors contain information relating to a finite difference block. are assigned by the component to which the elements belong.

Vector Collectors Vector collectors allow you to organize vectors. cylinders. Sets Collectors Set collectors contain lists of entity IDs. components.0 User’s Guide 25 . then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. or materials. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. then HyperMesh creates a collector called auto1. Note: A load cannot exist unless a load collector exists. A vector collector can hold any number of vectors. Provide the rigid body reference for ellipsoids. Multibody collectors serve multiple purposes: • • • Organizing HyperMesh’s ellipsoids. systems. a load collector contains loads that are to be applied at the same time. groups. Output Blocks Some solvers allow you to request output results for specific nodes or elements. Load Collectors Load collectors allow you to organize loads. which allows you to access a group of systems as a unit. which can be composed of specified elements. A load can belong to only one load collector. Typically. which allows you to access them as a unit. Hold and define rigid body properties for multi-body analysis. mbplanes. elements. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of loads. Typically. nodes. Load Steps The load steps entity allows you to select a set of load collectors. and mbjoints entities. The output blocks entity is used to store these nodes. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of systems. Multibody Collectors Setting collector type to multibodies in the collectors panel provides functionality for the creation and modification of multibody collectors. simulating a system loading condition. The method by which loads are organized may depend on the analysis code that is used to solve the problem. A system collector can hold any number of systems. A system can belong to only one system collector. Note: If no collector has been created prior to the creation of vectors. or components (each set can contain only one type of entity).System Collectors System collectors allow you to organize local coordinate systems. the set of load collectors represents a system loading condition. Additional information that can be included in sets are the name of the set and the type of entity contained within the set. and planes. Note: A system cannot exist unless a system collector exists.

y=. review and reset the multibody collector type. Review. The multibody types available are based on the template loaded in the global panel. Update a Multibody Collector The update sub-panel is provided to modify the body’s local coordinate system and center of gravity. click anywhere on the geometry to define a location. drag the cursor over geometry to select it. change. Change. Note: The element handles option in the modeling sub-panel (options panel) allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. use system assigns the selected system to the created body. Using or not using a card image has no bearing on how multibody collectors behave within HyperMesh and only effect data being exported. If only surfaces or lines are available for selection. The types of multibody collectors available are dependent on the loaded solver interface specified as a template file in the global panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . card image type. release the mouse button. select a node on in the model window. Setting creation method: to no card image specifies that a multibody collector type is to be assigned at the time of creation but one can be assigned later in the card image sub-panel. The most common type of multibody collector is a "rigid body". body system assigns a copy of the local coordinate system assigned to the current multibody collector specified in the global panel. create provides four data blocks for defining: the collector’s name. Moments of inertia and other rigid body properties are defined in the multibody collector’s card image. the rename panel is available in the far left column of every HyperMesh page. and Reset a Multibody Collector The card image sub-panel is used to define.Create a Multibody Collector The create sub-panel is used for creating multibody collectors. Setting creation method: to same as assigns a copy of the card image of another multibody collector to the created collector. which is access through the card panel after the multibody collector has been created. y. creation method: assigns the multibody type specified in the card image= field. and z= entry fields. duplicate system ensures a unique coordinate system is assigned to the created body by creating a duplicate of the selected coordinate system and assigning this duplicated coordinate system to the created body. body local system: defines the body local coordinate system of the created body by assigning a local coordinate system entity to the multibody collector. There are three ways to define the body’s orientation. click and hold left mouse button in the model window until the cursor becomes a square. To modify the name of a multibody collector. center of gravity: provides an N1 node/geometry selection box to define the x. The same fields and options available in the create sub-panel are also available in the update subpanel. To define a center of gravity location. and z. The name= field supports names up to 160 characters in length. The N1 box contains the same functionality as the N1 selection buttons found elsewhere in HyperMesh. For an alternative method to define the center of gravity. click on the edit button under the N1 selection box to bring up x=. Define. The name= text field is provided for specifying a name for the multibody collector being created and for reviewing the names of already existing multibodies. center of gravity. 26 HyperMesh 8. and the body’s local coordinate system. location of the center of gravity.

Elements Each element entity performs a specific task to facilitate a controlled and complete interface between HyperMesh and the analysis codes. The element configuration tells HyperMesh how to draw. the model is not considered generic and does not transfer between analysis codes. In modeling situations where specific analysis codes are used because of their unique capabilities. Element Configuration The element configuration defines the physical geometry (i. The element type allows you to define multiple analysis elements for each HyperMesh element. and work with the element. store. i. Element configurations include: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. trias. quad. HyperMesh can transfer the model to several different analysis codes. If a model uses only the basic element types.e.e. and rigids... quads.0 User’s Guide 27 . Each element has two associated variables: an element configuration and an element type. hex) of the element.

to distinguish between the different types.) 15-noded wedge solid element (configuration 215).) 4-noded master interface element (configuration 124). and pin flags (configuration 60). 28 HyperMesh 8. local vector. which allows the template.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 8-noded brick solid element (configuration 208). 6-noded wedge solid element (configuration 206). offsets. For example. A joint element does not allow types other than specified below. 20-noded brick solid element (configuration 220). assign type1 to the first type of quad element and type 2 to the second type of quad element. if an analysis code has two different quad elements and you wish to use both in a model. 5-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 205). 3-noded bar element with property reference. 2-noded gap element with property reference and vector (configuration 70). or 6-noded element with property and orientation systems or nodes. offsets. Supported Element Types HyperMesh supports the following element configurations: Bar2 Bar3 Gap Hex20 Hex8 Joint 2-noded bar element with property reference. (Must be Type 1. (Must be Type 1. The template file HyperMesh uses to write the analysis deck recognizes the different element types and outputs them as configured. or orientation node. 2-. and pin flags (configuration 63). 4-. or orientation node. The type of the element controls the number of nodes used in the element and the permissible orientations of the element (configuration 22). Note: For more specific information about using the HyperMesh templates. Examples of different types of quads within ABAQUS are S4R and S4R5. refer to Template Design. 3-noded master interface element (configuration 123). local vector.Element Type Defines the category of the element. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mass Master3 Master4 Penta15 Penta6 Pyramid5 Type Name Spherical Revolute Cylindrical Planar Universal Translational Locking # nodes 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 Orientation none/systems/nodes none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems 1-noded mass element (configuration 1). or output translator.

) 2-noded spring element with user-defined degrees of freedom. Multi-noded element with one dependent node and a variable number of independent nodes. 4-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 104). (Must be Type 1. 3-noded triangular shell element (configuration 103).0 User’s Guide 29 . an orientation vector. 2-noded rigid element with user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 5).) 4-noded slave interface element (configuration 134). 2-noded beam element with property reference (configuration 61). Each node contains a coefficient (weighting factor) and a user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 56). 6-noded triangular shell element (configuration 106). 8-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 108).) 3-noded slave interface element (configuration 133). 1-noded slave interface element (configuration 135).Pyramid13 Plot Quad4 Quad8 RBE3 13-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 213) 2-noded plot element used for display purposes (configuration 2). Rigid Rigidlink Rod Slave1 Slave3 Slave4 Spring Tetra10 Tetra4 Tria3 Tria6 Weld Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Multi-noded element with one independent node and a variable number of dependent nodes. 4-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 204). 10-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 210). (Must be Type 1. (Must be Type 1. and a property reference (configuration 21). 2-noded rigid element (configuration 3). The independent node has user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 55).

You can use surface edges as a line in most panels. you can use surface edges as free lines. but are then less efficient. Nodes are placed along this edge during automeshing and recognized during meshing of bordering surfaces. their color is determined by the surfaces to which they belong.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . ruled. Under certain conditions. NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) may also be used to represent a straight or elliptical line. An edge is a trim line of a surface. so operations performed on the line affect each segment of the line. These edges (displayed yellow) are shared by more than two surfaces. NURBS can exactly represent the piecewise parametric cubic splines they replace. circles can be represented exactly in HyperMesh. A shared edge (displayed green) is a surface edge that is shared between exactly 2 surfaces. Suppressed edges allow the mesh to flow across or over these boundaries. or line drag panels. All lines in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: • • • straight elliptical NURBS • • • Note: Used to represent a straight line between two points in space. A joint is the common point between two line segments. Non-manifold edges can be turned into shared edges by deleting one of the attached surfaces. Used to represent conics such as a circle. These edges usually indicate a collapsed or very thin surface or a fully or partially duplicated surface. Surface edges include: Free A free edge (displayed red) is a surface edge that belongs to a single surface which does not have other surfaces aligned with it within the specified cleanup tolerance. ellipse. Shared Suppressed Non-Manifold /Duplicate 30 HyperMesh 8. A line can be composed of a single line type or multiple line types. However. No nodes are placed along a suppressed edge. as well as many other types of curves. or parabola. In general. By using elliptical segments or NURBS segments.Lines The line entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. Lines from CAD data are not attached to surfaces. and their color is determined by the status of the component. such as when you are working within the spline . The end point of each line segment is connected to the first point of the next segment. A suppressed edge can be changed back to a shared edge. A shared edge cannot be changed back to a free edge. Suppressed edges (displayed blue dotted) are the internal face edges within a surface. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number and type of line segments to represent the geometry. Used to represent lines that are not straight or elliptical. Each line type in a line is referred to as a segment. Line segments are maintained as a single line entity.

0 User’s Guide 31 .The following panels can be used to create lines: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • circles fillets intersect lines section surface tangents The following panels can be used to change lines: delete line permute position project reflect reparam rotate scale translate Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

NURBS may also be used to represent the above surface types but they are not as efficient. A HyperMesh surface can be made of a single surface type or of multiple surface types. Operations performed on the surface affect all the faces that comprise the surface. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number of and type of surface faces to represent the geometry. In general. All surfaces in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: plane cylinder/cone sphere torus NURBS Used to represent a planar surface. Used to represent cylindrical or conical surfaces. Multiple types are used for more complex surfaces that contain sharp corners or highly complex shapes. The following panels can be us ed to create surface entities: • • • • • • • • • • • surfaces primitives midsurface The following panels can be us ed to change surface entities: defeature permute position reflect rotate scale surface translate 32 HyperMesh 8. Used to represent a toroidal surface. Surfaces define 2-D regions that may be used in automatic mesh generation. Used to represent a spherical surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Each face contains a mathematical surface and edges to trim the surface (if required). HyperMesh maintains all of the faces as a single surface entity. Used to represent surfaces which are not definable by the above surface types. Each surface type is referred to as a face. When a surface has several faces.Surfaces and Faces The surface entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part.

the model retains its cylindrical shape and also its location in space. If a system does exist. and pressures are currently supported. After a constraint has been applied. Entities are always displayed in the transformed global system. an analysis system. HyperMesh does not maintain the proper orientation for the constraint when you create or delete local systems at the node where the constraint resides. or spherical. a reference system is used to define the geometric positions of entities. By default. applied at a node. you must set the proper orientation for element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom. Several systems may be nested. HyperMesh allows you to modify the analysis system of an entity when you define the analysis system. velocities. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If you delete a system. Entities that have a reference system are systems. Vectors The vector entity allows you to define a three dimensional vector in the database. Loads The load entity allows you to add forces and constraints to the database. and an analysis system is used to transform the nodal coordinate system. may be rectangular. A constraint. nodal points. all the entities that were defined in that system are transferred to the global system. and then delete the system in which the nodes are defined. concentrated moments. the orientation of the constraint is dictated by the local system. as HyperMesh does not maintain these in the transfer from the local system to the global system. accelerations. commonly called a coordinate system.Systems The system entity. each of these entities is defined in the global system with an ID of zero. Cards The card entity allows you to create control cards such as CPU limits or Title cards. if you define a cylindrical structure in a cylindrical coordinate system. The only entity that may be defined in an analysis system is a node. Vectors can be used for orientation of spring and gap elements or to specify a direction during selection. Additionally. temperatures. You can use the systems panel to modify the reference coordinate system of an entity. is placed in the global system only if a system does not exist at that node. For example. Control cards are defined within templates and are specific to one FE solver. and mass elements. concentrated fluxes. vectors can be created between two nodes and can change magnitude and direction as those nodes move through analysis. concentrated forces. Note: A system may be a reference system. Vectors are created in the global system unless a local coordinate system is defined. or both.0 User’s Guide 33 . Loads are applied in the global system except when the reference system has been modified. When a reference system is deleted. In HyperMesh. Constraints. the position of the entity is maintained relative to the global system in the transformation process. cylindrical. loads. When you delete an analysis system. Analysis systems are typically used to transform element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom from the global system to a local system.

34 HyperMesh 8. including the name of the title.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and the text displayed in the title. the color of the title.Title Title collectors contain title information.

A current file is determined with the following rules: • • • • Pull-down menus The last HyperMesh (.HyperMesh Environment There are several main areas in the HyperMesh window: These areas are described below: title bar Located at the top of the HyperMesh window. It also displays the path and name of the file currently open in the active HyperMesh session.0 User’s Guide 35 . this displays the current HyperMesh version. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.hm) file retrieved or saved in the active session FE or CAD import does not affect the current file Delete model clears the current file If no . Use these options to access different areas of HyperMesh functionality.hm model is retrieved or saved in the active session the current file field is empty Located just under the title bar. these menus "drop down" a list of options when clicked. Like the pull-down menus in many graphical user interface applications.

such as the Utility menu or Include browser. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. or both sides of the graphics area. these buttons provide quick access to commonly-used functions. The main menu is divided into the panel area and the page list. Located just under the graphics area. such as changing display options. Individual items (tabs) can be added to or removed from the Tab Area by selecting the item from the View pull-down menu. Depending on your display resolution and the number of buttons. these sidebars display additional tools. • • • Tab Area sidebars can be toggled on or off by use of the View pull-down menu. Main menu Command Window secondary menu 36 HyperMesh 8. Secondary menus can be accessed by using keyboard shortcuts. Graphics area Toolbar Area Located above the tool bar(s): the graphics display area is where model geometry and mesh displays. Located across the bottom of the window.Tab Area Located on the left. Tab Location sub-menu. in a tabbed format. right. It displays the name of the current panel and user profile. You can click-and-drag tabs to move them between the left and right Tab Area sidebars. this area may contain one toolbar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and model status information. You can type HyperMesh commands directly into this text box and execute them instead of using the HyperMesh Graphical User Interface. or two toolbars stacked vertically. Header bar Located between the main menu area and the toolbar area.

Toggle Command Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. enable access to many types of HyperMesh functionality. Most menu items simply execute a command when selected. Menu items can work in several different ways: Sub-Menu heading These items are marked with a triangular arrow.Pull-Down menus The pull-down menus. rather than presenting every option in a single list (which could result in very long lists). these items are marked with a checkbox and activate or deactivate a feature.0 User’s Guide 37 . such as accessing a specific HyperMesh panel. and helps prevent any single menu list from becoming excessively long. this is because some menu items have sub-menus of additional options. clicking it alternates between showing and hiding the solver browser in one of the Tab Area sidebars. Each menu contains many different options. but some options perform other tasks such as configuring the layout of the HyperMesh environment. Most menu options access HyperMesh panels. and clicking on the menu name (such as File) "pulls down" a list of the options available in that menu: Notice that there are two lists of options displayed in this screen shot. This method allows similar commands to be grouped logically. Selecting a submenu heading opens a sub-menu of options related to the submenu heading. One example is the solver browser item found in the view menu. When clicked. located just beneath the title bar. This approach sub-groups similar features together.

Keyboard (menu item) Menu items can be selected with the keyboard in two ways: or Use the arrow keys to move among list of options. use load. or constraints. 38 HyperMesh 8. Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu item. these keys are underlined (as the "F" in the File menu). such as OptiStruct. moments. among other options. Model quality checks. lighting. Access the on-line Help system. press the alt key to activate the menu area. such as automesh. connectors. Morph. To import multiple files. Then: Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu or item. etc. deleting. Meshing tools. and contact surfaces. and keyboard configuration. Edit View Organize Geometry Mesh BCs Setup Checks Tools Applications Results Preferences Help Tools for masking. save. First. including element check settings. and press enter to select a highlighted option. pressures. Translate. solid map. or Scale entities. Reflect. element edit. or visibility and location of tab area items. tetramesh. Tools for creating and renaming collectors. or Use the left and right arrow keys to move among the menu headings. Boundary Conditions such as forces. HyperMesh preferences such as User Profiles. use the multiple files option in the import sub-menu. import. etc. global options. Change the angle of view on the model. View results of solved simulations (contour or vector plots.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To add extra models to your workspace. Model properties such as materials. Each of the pull-down menus in HyperMesh groups certain types of functions: File Contains functions to load. among other options. and the up and down arrow keys to open a menu and navigate among its options. Note: To work with only one model at a time. or finding entities. for example). Tools for geometry editing and cleanup. and export models and other files. Quickly access other HyperWorks programs. assemblies.There are multiple ways to select a pull-down menu or a menu item within it: Mouse Keyboard (menu) Click the menu or menu item with the mouse. use import. these keys are underlined (as the "O" in the Open). Rotate.

and plots are displayed in this area. geometry. Note: See Entity Selection for more information about picking entities. The graphics area dominates the HyperMesh environment and is framed by all of the other interface areas.Graphics Area The graphics area occupies the upper portion of the screen. Entities on the screen are selected for use in functions by clicking the desired entity with the mouse. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Models.0 User’s Guide 39 .

or import files. Notice that the toolbar may display in one or two rows.Toolbar Area The functions on the toolbar allow you to manipulate the view of the model. The toolbar uses two different groups of visual icons to represent different HyperMesh functions. a group of buttons automatically moves to the second row. but when the toolbar is too narrow to hold all of the buttons. This accesses the files panel. Turn the display of collectors on and off. Normally all of the buttons display on a single row. Access the visual attributes panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .0. But for 1D elements such as bars and springs. if you select "by comp". This only applies when a valid template file has been specified in the global panel. use the colors panel to change the colors of properties Note: 40 HyperMesh 8. This button accesses the display panel. Create or update load collectors. Create or update property collectors. The toolbar buttons perform the following functions: Load. Use this panel to individually determine how each component of your model displays its FE mesh. Note: In versions of HyperMesh prior to release 8. For example. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to access other collector functions: Create or update material collectors. Selects the element color style. many of these functions were contained in the permanent menu. Users already familiar with earlier HyperMesh releases will find the same functionality that the permanent menu offered now located in the toolbars. For example. Other options include: • By Prop: colors the elements based on their assigned properties. save. etc) is assigned directly to the element. control which collectors are displayed in the graphics region. Access the collectors panel. Edit solver-specific data in card format. the property (PBEAM. set global modeling parameters. the two-row configuration is shown above. thus the shell elements are colored in component color even in this mode. the property color of shell elements (quads and trias) in a NASTRAN model is the same as the component. the property assigned varies based on the solver used. the model elements’ colors change based on the components that contain them. and edit solver-specific data.

bar. the faces of solids are also colored based on their topology: exterior bounding faces in transparent green. lines. 2-dimensional geometry (i. etc. 2D and 3D elements differently. suppressed edges in blue. solid faces and their edges) is colored based on its topology. surfaces) that is not part of a solid is colored based on its topology.• By Mat: colors the elements based on the material assigned to the elements. . feature lines. internal partition faces in yellow. then each piece of geometry is re-colored based on the component that contains it. By 3D Topo: In this mode. Switches the mesh rendering mode to a shaded mode. if you select "by component". etc. By Topo: In this mode. free edges in red. In panels geometry creation and editing panels (e. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between mesh lines. etc. This helps you focus on 2D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. are colored according to the components that they belong to.e. surface edit. geometry is colored based on topology.g. Some exceptions apply. 2D shell elements in blue and 3D solid elements in red. the geometry is colored based on its corresponding component. By Config: colors elements based on their configurationbeam. By 2D Topo: In this mode. The individual colors given to each configuration (such as spring or hexa) can be seen and changed in the element types panel. If geometry shading is turned on. All the 1D elements are colored in green. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between skin-only and full wire frame (including internal lines). and no lines. In most cases. For example. materials are assigned to elements via their components. automesh). quad. This helps you focus on 3D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities.0 User’s Guide 41 . trias etc. In the remaining panels (such as translate or delete). Other coloring options include: • Auto: In this mode the geometry coloring changes based on the panel you open. use the colors panel to change the colors of materials. 3-dimensional geometry (i. Note: • • . Switches the mesh rendering mode to wire-frame mode. Determines how geometry features are colored. The topology of 2D geometry is ignored and drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel. Surfaces that aren’t part of a solid are shaded in gray. 1D/2D/3D: colors 1D. By Comp: Surfaces. . • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The topology of 3D solid geometry is ignored (drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel). all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology: shared edges drawn in green.e.

right-click in the graphics area and hold the mouse button down to make the model spin. Rotate modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate dynamic rotate mode. . click-and-drag in the graphics area to pan the model view. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 42 HyperMesh 8. Zoom incrementally. Right -clicking activates the dynamic zoom feature. or when you click either button while the pointer is in the graphics area. right-click in the graphics area to change the graphics area center. Modal Zoom. in shaded mode surfaces and solid faces are shaded in their components’ color. Left-click to deactivate. Left-click to deactivate. Click the downward arrow to choose between excluding and including surface lines. etc. Resizes the model view (by zooming in or out and panning the view as needed) in order to fit the model to the graphics area. Draws model geometry in shaded mode. right-click and drag in the graphics area to zoom in/out. click-and-drag in the graphics area to rotate the model. Once active. Right -click to deactivate. Click the downward arrow for options: with edges or without them. Once active. (shared edges in green. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. left-click to zoom in. Left-click to deactivate. free edges in red. Right -click to activate dynamic spin mode. Once active. Returns to the previous view. or to alternate between two different views. right-click to zoom out.• Mixed: This mode behaves similarly to Topology mode in that all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology. this works in one of two different ways: • Left-clicking activates the circle zoom feature. Draws model geometry as a wire-frame. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Opens the visualization pop-up panel. Pan modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate pan mode. Once active. Right-click to deactivate. Circle zoom deactivates after zooming once. Once active. Right -click to activate center mode. This allows you to (for example) perform a free rotation on a model and then quickly return it to its original orientation.) In addition.

Rotate Left or Right: this is similar to pressing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard. and the right button to rotate it downward Spherical clipping: accesses the spherical clipping panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. See Keyboard for more information. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model leftward. Open a pop-up menu used to save and retrieve user-defined or standard views. Use spherical clipping to isolate portions of the model regardless of component or collector. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model upward.0 User’s Guide 43 . and the right button to rotate it rightward. Notes: See Viewing Models for more information about the viewing options available on the toolbar. You can use keyboard hot keys to access the same viewing options. Rotate Up or Down: this is similar to pressing the up and down arrow keys on the keyboard.

the header bar displays the current panel title and model status. If you access a panel by using a function key. When you are in a panel. along with the current menu page name (i. comp:) in the message bar. Panel titles display on the left side of the bar. the current include and current component (comp).g. 44 HyperMesh 8. It displays information pertaining to the currently loaded model as well as descriptions of the main menu pages and panels. Geometry) are displayed.. The current component and load collector names are displayed on the right side of the bar. The header bar also displays a brief description of the panel when you hold down the left mouse button on the panel button (see below). You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information (e. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type.. Messages also appear on the header bar and temporarily override the title and status information. When you are on one of the main menu pages (not within a panel).e.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Header Bar The header bar is located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. the bar displays the current panel name on the left (in black) and the original panel name to the right (in gray).

Messages posted on the header bar are color-coded: red green/gray Error messages.0 User’s Guide 45 . such as status updates or completed operations. Miscellaneous messages. You can also obtain a brief description of a panel’s function if you hold down the left mouse button over a panel button. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These messages appear in green when using HyperMesh classic dark menu colors and they appear in gray when using Windows light menu colors Click a mouse button to remove a message from the header bar.

or surfaces 1-D element creation. Most panels are further divided into sub-panels. then the menu items described above may not appear on the appropriate pages. and spot welds Creation and editing functions for 2-D surfaces and elements Creation and editing functions for 3-D surfaces and elements Boundary conditions. A secondary menu can be accessed by using keyboard keys. Page Menu HyperMesh panels are grouped by function on several “pages”. model checking functions. To correct this condition. and load creation functions.Main Menu Area HyperMesh functionality is organized according into pages. lines. coordinate system. Post-processing and xy plotting functions. which is located on the right-hand edge of the main menu area. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel.set from the directory you are working in (provided you are not working in the directory where HyperMesh is installed). utility functions. quit HyperMesh. masses. such as bars. and then start HyperMesh once again.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To change main menu pages: • Note: Click the radio button before the main menu page. each containing a list of panels and modules. HyperMesh presents these pages in the page menu. Model editing. The page menu. and informational functions. If you are not using the default HyperMesh menu system. delete the file hmmenu. Modules contain a collection of panels that are grouped according to functionality. 46 HyperMesh 8. Each of these pages contain panels related to the page name: Geom 1D 2D 3D Analysis Tool Post Creation and editing functions for geometry such as points.

Turn the Tab Area sidebars on and off by selecting left side.Tab Area This area of the HyperMesh environment is actually two separate sidebars which flank the Graphics Area. model browser. or none from the Tab Locations sub-menu of the view pull-down menu. both. However. To maximize available space. so you might only see one—or even none—at a time. multiple features are organized onto tabs. Each Tab Area sidebar can contain multiple complex features. each sidebar can be toggled on and off separately. and/or the solver browser. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. such as the utility menu. right side.0 User’s Guide 47 . click a tab heading to bring it to the forefront.

The browser displays on one of the Tab Area sidebars. groups. components. load collectors.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 48 HyperMesh 8. multibodies.Model Browser The model browser resides on a tab in a Tab Area sidebar and allows you to view the HyperMesh model structure by organizing assemblies. system collectors. materials. To open the model browser: Click the model browser item located within the view pull-down menu. This screenshot shows all of the entities that can display in the browser. entity sets. and beamsectcols into a tree-like display. properties. vector collectors.

properties. etc. for example. Deactivating the check box for an assembly hides all of its components and multibodies.Multiple entities of the same type are collected into folders in the tree structure. Each folder can be expanded or collapsed to display or hide its contents. and the model browser allows you to set each entity’s color without using the color panel. unchecked entities are hidden. Components. and System Collectors can all be colored individually. a specific component might appear under Components and again as a sub-item of a specific Assembly. right-click on the current color in the model browser. and its state does not affect the state of its ancestors. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. An empty assembly never displays. load cols. In this instance. Properties. The currently assigned color displays in the column. the right-click menu contains only a single option: color. Note: When the color picker palette appears. To change an entity’s color.0 User’s Guide 49 . Assemblies containing components or multibodies are considered displayed only when all of the contents are displayed. therefore it does not have a check box. so that the items related to each assembly appear within that assembly’s folder in the Assembly Hierarchy. each in their corresponding folder (for example all sets are placed as a flat list in the Sets folder). groups. groups. Load Collectors. Materials. The following rules apply: • • • • • • • • Checked entities (components. Check Boxes Items are displayed or hidden by toggling the corresponding check boxes. Colors Assemblies. Assemblies can also have sub-folders within the main Assembly folder. When appropriate. system cols. multibodies. Components and Assemblies may appear in multiple places in the tree. Materials. and beamsectcols cannot be organized into assemblies and are all placed at the top level of the tree. Deactivating the check box for an item hides all of its parent assemblies. the color and display style of entities also display in the model browser. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all of its contents. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all its components and multibodies. the mouse pointer automatically moves to its center.) display. entity sets. and click the desired color from the palette. Deactivating the check box for an item does not affect the state of its parent assembly. Select this to open the same color picker used throughout HyperMesh. vector cols. The palette automatically disappears when you move the mouse pointer beyond its boundaries.

system cols. Click a second time to remove them. The first set of filters let you restrict the tree structure to display mesh entities. Display None . Shaded topology displays with mesh lines. Transparent shaded topology displays without mesh. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. and Reverse Display buttons at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. or click the ID heading to sort numerically by entity ID. load cols. groups. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. but no mesh. system cols. repeated clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. You can select these display modes by right-clicking clicking the small icons in the column for each component. geometry entities. and vector cols. Multibodies. assemblies. system cols. Global Switches The Display All . or load collector. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the model browser’s own toolbar. multibodies. assembly. Include geometry entities in tree structure. and vector cols shown in the tree.Display Mode Components.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . components. load cols. and load cols have several display states. and vector cols have only one display state and will be shown only in element mode. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. Click a second time to remove them. the entity displays differently: Only a wireframe mesh displays. Right -clicking opens a popup menu from which you can choose the new style. In either case. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. Shaded topology displays with feature lines. multibodies (not assemblies). Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. groups. Only shaded topology displays (no mesh). groups. Depending on which option you select. or both: Include mesh entities in tree structure. 50 HyperMesh 8. based on a combination of their elements and their geometry.

Whole name only selects tree items whose entire name matches the specified text. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. Accomplish this via the matching: combo text/list box. . a down-arrow button. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the model browser. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. in this case they are used for Select All. including upper/lower case letters.The next filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. typing “pillar” in the matching field when using the whole name option will not locate a component named “CH-A-PILLAR-B-I-L”. an up-arrow button. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. For example. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. For example. For example. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. if you type “*collector” into this combo box and press <enter>. then all entity types ending with “collector” will be checked and display in the list. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). Otherwise. and Reverse Display as described under global switches above. In this way.0 User’s Guide 51 . In addition. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the model browser’s tree structure. and Reverse Selection. You can also select groups of entities based on a wildcard search. Display None. Fine-tune the search/selection by choosing an option from the ( • • ) button: Match case only selects tree items that match the entered text exactly. Select None. click OK to close the list. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. However. with the same buttons for Display All. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with.

A dragged item is added to the bottom of the list in an assembly. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. clicking third time finds match #3. Drag and Drop Components. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. and assemblies can be dragged and dropped with the left and right mouse button. clicking again finds match #2. it is deleted in all its parent assemblies and placed at the top level of the tree. it is highlighted in the model browser. multibodies. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. The left mouse button allows you to move the item into another assembly. all the items in the assembly are moved to the new location (items that are not seen in the tree due to filters are also moved). select it again to remove the checkbox. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. or “RearChassis1”. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. If an assembly is moved or copied. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. finding match #1 again. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. for example. rather than only part of the name. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. 52 HyperMesh 8. For instance. type a search string into the combination box. such as searching for whole names with matching case. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). So. with this option active. “FrontChassis”. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. To deactivate the option.To find an entity. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. Since this function works in combination with the filters. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. Note: If an item is dragged out of the tree and dropped onto empty space. For example. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. for instance. the right mouse button activates a menu that allows you to move or copy an item to the new location. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. You can drag and drop multiple items at any time using the standard shift and ctrl keys. In this way you can combine the search options. To find entities matching your specified string and options. In this way. In other words.

Most items can be deleted. and that assembly has children that are not present anywhere else. Components. All instances of the renamed item will be automatically updated. Materials. the item is automatically assigned a unique generic name that can be changed by entering the new name in the highlighted field. you will be given a choice of either deleting that item from the database entirely or only removing it from the present location. Properties. load cols. A new assembly. component. Load Collectors. Plots. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. system cols. or multibody can be created inside an assembly (activate the menu over an assembly). Folders that contain materials. multibody. property. Description A new assembly. Option New Available for: Assemblies. properties. The new name must be unique.Context Menu Clicking the right mouse button on a folder or entity within the browser’s tree structure allows you to change a variety of options. Once created. set. sets. • If a component or multibody is present in more than one assembly in the model. Delete All except the top-level of Assemblies • Rename All Any item can be renamed by entering a new name in the name text box. vector cols. Options selected in an empty space apply to the entire model. component.0 User’s Guide 53 . group. The options available depend on the entity that you right -click on. and groups cannot be renamed. or beamsectcol can be created at the top level. vector col. If you want to entirely delete an assembly. system col. those children will be automatically moved to the top level. load col. You can cancel the rename operation by pressing ESCAPE or clicking anywhere outside the entry box before editing the existing name. beamsectcols. material.

the card editor is not invoked and the appropriate message is displayed. This selects each affected item’s checkbox. cards. load collectors. Configure Browser… 54 HyperMesh 8. properties. materials.) Make Current components. beamsectcol All All Assemblies. groups. groups. system collectors. plots. components. or beamsectcol can be made current using the pop-up menu. plots. multibody. Assemblies. properties. materials. so that the item no longer displays in the graphics area. system collectors. and properties. and properties. Closes all of the folders in the tree structure. components. The current component is designated with bold font. plots. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. components. In such cases. load collectors. plots.) Show Only Deactivates the checkboxes of all items in the entire model browser except for this single item. components. materials. Opens the Model Browser’s Browser Configuration window. In such cases. load collectors. If a template is not loaded or if the entity does not have any card images associated to the loaded template. materials. components. load collectors. components. load collectors. In such cases. A component. all groups. materials. all groups. this hides everything except for the items within that branch. system collectors. etc. Display the item in the graphics area. All Collapse all Expand all Show Hide Un-checks the item’s checkbox. plots. card. Used to quickly and easily isolate single entities. plots.Edit Card… All Any single item can be card edited. Assemblies. so that only the top-most level of items displays. all materials. The card image of that entity for the solver template loaded will be displayed. groups. so that only this item displays in the graphics area. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. all materials. multibody.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . this shows all of the items within that branch (e.g. materials. and properties. which allows you to determine what entities display in the tree as well as the columns that the browser displays. exposing every item nested at every level. this hides all of the items within that branch (e. properties. Opens all of the folders in the entire tree structure.g. load collectors. etc.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. choose the radio button marked select all entity types in the current model. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired entity type.Model Browser Configuration window This window opens when you select the configure browser… option from the Model Browser’s context menu. Separate tabs organize entities and columns. click the Entity types: radio button. You can also use the select all. A checkmark indicates that the entity type will display in the browser. Use this window to change the columns and entity types that display in the model browser. and select reverse buttons in this mode. To select entity types manually. Entities Tab To show all of the entity types that the currently-loaded model possesses.0 User’s Guide 55 . select none.

To select columns manually. and select reverse buttons in this mode. select none. A checkmark indicates that the column will display in the browser. click one of the command buttons to close the window and return to HyperMesh: • • Click OK to keep the new settings and close the window.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Columns tab To show columns for all of the attributes that the currently-loaded model possesses. click the Column types: radio button. Command buttons Once you finish configuring the browser. You can also use the select all. Click Cancel to discard the changes (keeping the original settings) and close the window. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired column. 56 HyperMesh 8. choose the radio button marked Select all column types in the current model.

The contents of each include is organized (grouped) into folders containing each type. edit. etc. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. in the above example. 116 sets.dyn contains 55 vectors.0 User’s Guide 57 . organize. Data. 296 properties. The browser can be configured to show only specific entities of interest. Each include can be expanded to reveal its contents. the include named dummy. is stored in the master model. 55 systems.Include Browser The include browser can be accessed by selecting include browser from the view pull-down menu. and update the contents of a model into various include files. It allows you create. 55 system collectors. Each include file is represented with an icon along with its name and internal HyperMesh ID. which does not have any references to an include file. The Master Model is at the top level of the include browser. You can select entities (using the standard Shift and Control keys) and drag various entities between two includes or between the master model and an include. An example of a model in the include browser is shown below. next to which appears the total number of entities of each type. review. Each of the folders can be expanded to review the individual entities in that folder. For example.

system cols. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. In addition. In this way. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. and Reverse Display as described under Global Switches above. Otherwise. and vector cols. a down-arrow button. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. system cols. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. and vector cols shown in the tree. in this case they are used for Select All. components. load cols. click OK to close the list. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. an up-arrow button. with the same buttons for Display All. Display None. multibodies. For example. Multiple clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. and Reverse Display at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. load cols. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the include browser’s tree structure. Display None . composed of a combination text/list Find: box. However. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. . Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. The filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). multibodies (not assemblies). Since these functions work in combination with the filters. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. groups. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. groups. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them.Global Switches The Display All . 58 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. and Reverse Selection. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the include browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the browser’s own toolbar. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the include browser. Select None.

select it again to remove the checkbox.0 User’s Guide 59 . In this way.To find an entity. with this option active. or “RearChassis1”. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. To find entities matching your specified string and options. type a search string into the combination box. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. In other words. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. For example. such as searching for whole names with matching case. clicking again finds match #2. for instance. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. it is highlighted in the include browser. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. clicking third time finds match #3. “FrontChassis”. Since this function works in combination with the filters. finding match #1 again. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. For instance. rather than only part of the name. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. So. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. In this way you can combine the search options. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. To deactivate the option. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. for example. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed.

If a specific include is selected (highlighted). Make current When an include is selected 60 HyperMesh 8. components. Makes the selected include "current".Context Menu A context sensitive pop-up menu provides many other include browser functionalities. Right click in the browser to invoke the following pop-up menu. etc. Clicking on the selected (highlighted) include a second time also has the same effect. Deletes the selected include.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . contacts. Prompts the user with two choices: • Delete the include file The first option moves all the contents of the include file into its parent include and deletes the include file. Function New… When function is active Permanently Description Creates a new include. Delete When an include is selected • Rename When an include is selected Converts the name of the include into an editable text box ready for the new name to be entered. Thus any new entities created in HyperMesh such as new elements. Delete the include file and its contents The second option deletes all the contents within the selected include along with the include itself. The new include is created at the top level inside the master model when no include file is highlighted while selecting this option. the new include is created within it. are automatically placed in the current include.

0 User’s Guide 61 . etc. Clears the graphics region of any previous display and displays all the entities that belong to the selected include. or an entire include) into the include that is marked as current. The available options are: • • • name file name to be exported (absolute path or path relative to its parent include) Do not export flag (allows you to review the contents of an include but not export it). The contents of the chosen file are imported into include. etc. Expands all the branches of the include’s tree structure along with the various entity type folders (such as comps. Exports the contents of the selected include into the chosen file name. mats. For the remaining solvers this option is not available. or Case Control.). which subdivide their data deck into various sections such as Bulk Data.. Allows you to set the various options for a selected include. Nastran. Include file options… When an include is selected • Import include… When an include is selected Imports the content of a file into the selected include. Flag representing the section of the input deck that the include belongs in. Exports all the includes with their corresponding content (not the master model only the includes). This flag is specific to some solvers such as Optistruct.Move to current When entities are selected Moves all the selected entities (individual entities. the entire set of entities of a specific type. Includes that have this flag turned on display in the browser in italics. Collapses all the branches of the tree structure for the selected include. Executive Control. Export an include… Export all includes Collapse Include Expand include When an include is selected Permanently Permanently Permanently Display only When an include (or master model) is selected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Option prompts you to select a name and browse for the file to be imported.

• User selected entity types Allows you to select the entities that you want to display in the browser. 62 HyperMesh 8. Allows users to enable (turn on and export) control cards that have been disabled and vice versa.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Edit card Enable/Disable When a control card is selected When a control card is selected Invokes the card image of the control card in the HyperMesh window. Select from a list of all entities (except nodes and elements) in HyperMesh.Configure browser Permanently Opens a window that allows you to select which types of entities should be shown in the include browser. Two options are available: • Select all entity types available in current model Displays all the entity types available in the current model (default).

locate the module button on one of the main menu pages and click the module button.Modules Panels that are used to perform related functions are sometimes grouped together in modules. xy plots located on the Post page. A module may contain panels that are also found on the main pages. edit curves. and scale the axis of plots.0 User’s Guide 63 . the module. and are grouped to provide easy panel access without unnecessary navigational clicks. For example. The main difference between the module and a panel is the additional menu layer. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. contains panels that allow you to read curves. Note: HyperMesh does not make any special distinction between modules and panels. To select a module. perform simple math on curves.

Use this feature to limit the tree to display only loadsteps whose names match a specific text string—either partly or completely. The information is arranged into a tree structure for ease of use. while popup forms allow you to quickly enter or select relevant information. with controls for altering the Display of the information and/or exporting it. refer to the topics below: Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles Other profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. More profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. but may not be active by default.Loadsteps Browser The Loadsteps Browser is used to create. but not their visibility in the HM graphics area.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When activated. including a name filter that uses HyperMesh standard filtering syntax. OptiStruct (OS) and Nastran are supported within this framework. To alleviate this. When inactive. select none.0SR1 release. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. Instead. it can be turned on and off. Each control has its own function: Select all. the settings apply only to the current display. Display Options The display options lie in a toolbar at the top of the browser tab. manage and display HyperMesh loadsteps (sub-cases) and the associated control cards. the display settings apply to export of loadsteps. Select it from the BCs Pull-Down menu to display its tab in the tab area. keeping the browser in sinc with an actions taken within the rest of HyperMesh can require considerable processing time. Export state Sync browser Filter The main functionality of the Loadstep Browser varies depending on the active HyperMesh User Profile. and control the way that the data displays in HyperMesh (which is the default behavior) or exports (when the Export state button is active). the Loadstep Browser does not automatically sync itself with the HM database. For help specific to each profile. You can also select individual items by clicking on them. A right-click menu accesses editing and advanced options. 64 HyperMesh 8. For large models. reverse selection Use these to select the items in the tree. The Loadsteps Browser displays in its own tab in the tab area. This allows you to perform many operations inside HM without performance issues. Note that this changes the loadsteps’ export states. the Sync button becomes active whenever you make changes to the current HM database. and then sync the browser with one click. This button acts as a toggle. or select multiple items by shiftclicking or control-clicking. Note: For the 8.

this will bring up an appropriate GUI for editing of the loadstep or control card information. You can click these to toggle them back and forth: The loadcols in the loadstep display in the HyperMesh graphics area. OptiStruct In addition.Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles The browser’s tree structure lists relevant control cards and loadstep information. all of the loadsteps in the model default to the blank (unchecked) state. This loadstep will not be exported. MOTION. organized into folders. This loadstep will be exported. There are many functions available. The loadcols in the loadstep do not display in the HyperMesh graphics area. Collapses all selected folders and subfolders. Opens the OptiStruct panel in HyperMesh. Note: When you first open the loadstep browser. Depending on the entity selected. either from scratch or by creating an exact copy of an existing subcase. MLOAD. Delete the selected entity or entities. or all folders if none are selected. This launches the BCs Contour utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. Renumber the selected entity. This launches the Loads Summary utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. MPCADD and SPCADD cards auto-managed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Expands all selected folders and subfolders. This option creates a copy of loadcols with these card images and converts them into an auto-managed naming convention for easy editing/reviewing inside the Edit options popup. Review the selected entity in the HM card editor. For the OptiStruct and Nastran profiles. or all folders if none are selected. This option is for users who wish to have existing DLOAD.0 User’s Guide 65 . these options include: New subcase Edit options Edit card Delete Rename Renumber BCs Contour Loads Summary Collapse all/selection Expand all/selection Auto-manage load references Create a new subcase. LOAD. every loadstep listed in the tree has a small checkbox next to it as well as an export state indicator. accessed by right-clicking on the tree background or on individual or multiple items. Rename the selected entity.

When importing a model into HyperMesh. allowing you to edit the subcase. Name filtering is available by using standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. the Add <unavailable> load reference ID option is available. 3. • • Depending on the load reference selected in the tree. Depending on the Subcase Type. Right -click on the desired subcase folder. the list will change accordingly. A bold reference signifies that the load reference is defined. Type in a subcase name Select the same as option. then pick an existing subcase to base the new one on. A red indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and requires attention. When this option is active. A tree structure lists the load references that are available for the selected subcase type. 5. If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol does not exist in the HM database. or any subfolder in the Loadstep Browser. allowing you to edit the subcase. The table on the right lists the loadcols currently selected for that load reference. To activate an option. Another pop-up window opens. it is possible that the subcase may reference loadcols that have not been imported (they are in a separate include file). A pop-up window opens. These references are also listed in the right table with a warning message to notify you that the loadcol doesn’t exist in the database 66 HyperMesh 8. Note: This step is skipped when you create a new subcase! A popup window opens. In order to support this. 2. the new subcase is an exact copy of the existing one. a warning message appears to notify you. A green indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and is defined. The table on the left lists the loadcols that are valid for a particular load reference. Right -click anywhere in the Loadstep Browser and select New subcase. • • If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol is not appropriate for that particular load reference. To add a loadcol to the load reference.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This allows users to modify a subcase and add in references to loadcols that do not exist in the current model. and select Edit options. select the loadcol in the left table and use the right arrow to add the loadcol to the table on the right. Click create. the list of appropriate Load References will change accordingly. allowing you to: • • 2. • • • • 4. The popup has several tabs to gather the relevant information.To create a new subcase: 1. check the box next to the desired option and fill in the required fields. To edit a subcase: 1. depending on the card image or types of loads contained within. a warning message appears to notify you.

Global load references are not checked on/off by selecting or deselecting a subcase. 8. use the all/none/reverse buttons where appropriate. 1. The selected utility launches with the loadcols associated with the selected subcase automatically selected. For renaming and renumbering. renumber. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. Check/uncheck the display checkbox next to the subcase of interest. delete. To edit the Global Options of a subcase: Editing Global Options works exactly like editing a subcase. Additional control is also available at both the Global Options and Subcase Load References level: 3. To select multiple loadcols. • • All of the loads contained in a loadcol display regardless of their relevance to the load reference they are assigned to. Select the desired option from the popup menu. or edit the card of a subcase: Right click on the appropriate subcase or loadcol.6. Note: To rename. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. except that the first step is to right-click on the Global Options folder or any of its sub-folders. To display a subcase: 1. 7. instead of clicking on a specific subcase’s folder or sub-folder.0 User’s Guide 67 . It is up to you to organize their loads for proper display. an entry box appears so that you can enter the appropriate information in the browser. 2. • The Add <unavailable> load reference ID option allows you to add a reference to a loadcol ID that does not currently exist in the HM database (as described in step 5). Right -click options allow for additional functionality depending on the current selection. You can also launch the “BCs Contour” and “Loads Summary” utilities from the Loadstep Browser. Click the Display button at the bottom of the Loadstep Browser GUI. 9. 2. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. You must determine the appropriate loadcols to check on/off depending on the subcase type. These buttons select loadcols from the currently active table. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. To remove a loadcol from the load reference.

and selecting the appropriate loadcols. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. The only way to modify the loadcol is via the card editor (right-click option from the editor GUI). This option does the following: 1. based on a fixed naming convention (auto<CARD IMAGE NAME>_#). If the load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images indicated above. MLOAD. the loadcol will not be expanded or editable inside the GUI. (The original loadcol is not deleted or modified in any way. nor are they always aware of their existence. LOAD.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) The global scale factor is not 1. Assign that new loadcol to the original load reference. Looks at each subcase and at each load reference. For example. Inside the Edit options popup. MOTION. when appropriate. assigning the appropriate card image. there has traditionally only been one way to create DLOAD. To satisfy both types of users. it will: • Create a copy of that loadcol and assign it a new name. the loadcol is expanded and editable inside the GUI. However. In HyperMesh.Loadsteps: Auto-manage load references This option is recommended for all users. the Auto-manage load references option is available. if a load reference pointed to an SPCADD loadcol. a loadcol is automatically created and assigned the correct card image when any of these conditions are met: • • • More than one loadcol is selected for the load reference One loadcol is selected and the local scale factor is not 1. many HyperMesh users do not want to be responsible for managing these load collectors. a new copy would be created and named “autoSPCADD_1”.) • 2.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) 68 HyperMesh 8. Inside the Edit options popup. However.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has not been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. If the loadcol selected for the load reference already has the card image assigned (for users wishing to manually manage their loadcols and point to an existing loadcol with one of the card images listed above) no additional action takes place. MPCADD and SPCADD loadcols: by creating a loadcol.

Panels HyperMesh panels allow you to perform specific tasks by selecting options and entering variable data. To select a panel. You can also use the middle mouse click to advance through input collectors (yellow) or entry fields and then proceed to a function (green) or return (red). Each panel has a unique title that describes the main function of the panel. You can press the ESC key or click return to exit a panel. Panels with multiple functions have sub-panels that display only those menu items that are relevant to the current operation. advance to the next selection. Each panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. Returning out of a panel means accepting what was performed on the model while using the panel. locate and click the panel button on one of the main menu pages. Release the mouse button to access the panel. press the "H" key or select HyperMesh and OptiStruct from the Help pull-down menu to display the help topic for the current panel. Note: Once a panel is active.0 User’s Guide 69 . Using the middle mouse button allows you to make the required selections in the graphics region. and continue selecting or complete the operation. a message is displayed stating the error. Note: To display a brief description of the function of a panel in the header bar. thus reducing mouse movement. A description of the panel as well as instructions on how to use it display. This cannot be rejected once the panel is exited. This behavior is called rapid menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. hold the mouse button down while the cursor is over the panel name. Some panels contain several functions that perform similar tasks. If you press a function button and the data is incorrect or required information is missing.

update. Collectors .card image sub-panel. Collectors . For example. Collectors . click the radio button next to the sub-panel name on the left side of the panel. 70 HyperMesh 8. Each sub-panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform.Sub-panels Sub-panel names are listed on the left side of the panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Only one sub-panel may be selected at a time.create sub-panel. To select a sub-panel.update sub-panel. and card image or dictionary. on the collectors panel there are three sub-panels: create.

the list of options presented by a switch can be very long: In these cases. Advance one page toward the end of the list Go directly to the last page of the list Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. toggle switch In some cases. HyperMesh breaks the options up into multiple “pages” within the switch’s pop-up menu. Most panels also have toggles and switches that allow you to alternate between choices or select options from a list.Input Controls The menu items on each panel indicate the information that is needed to correctly perform the panel’s function. When you click a switch. and function buttons. data entry fields. When you click a toggle. a list of options is displayed. Each panel contains input collectors.0 User’s Guide 71 . Menu items include: Menu Buttons The color of the menu button corresponds to its purpose: green yellow red Functions or executable items Collectors Return or abort Toggles and Switches Toggles and switches appear on many HyperMesh panels. the menu item following it alternates between choices. plane collectors. The green arrow buttons on the right-hand edge of the pop-up menu advance or back-track through the list of options: << < > >> Go directly to the first page of the list. Step backward one page toward the beginning of the list.

by path.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . click the reset to deselect all selected entities. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are grayed out. Note: If the data type is a line list. you can select multiple entities via quick window selection (hold down the SHIFT key and drag your mouse to create a window. the function tries to find the closest path along the edges of that part. a data type button. and a reset (|< ) button. Allows you to select a few nodes that form a path and HyperMesh selects all the displayed nodes that lie in the shortest path of the nodes selected. see Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu. if the nodes selected are not connected by elements. displaying a list of available selection methods. See The Mouse for more details). click the data type of the input collector to see the selected entities in the order in which they were selected. show node order. by list by path Allows you to pick the nodes individually from the node list. The extended entity selection window opens. In addition to selecting one entity at a time on the screen. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). Therefore. The extended entity selection window allows you to choose various methods of selecting entities of a specified data type. An input collector is active when the data type button is enclosed in a blue rectangle. or by window. this function does not apply. Input Collector To change the data type. you can click on the collector to access a pop-up with the selections by list. If you want to reset the entity selections. show node order by window 72 HyperMesh 8. These selection options display for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. To access the options: • Click the data type button. An input collector contains a switch or toggle. Note: For more information about the extended entity options. Extended entity selection window. Allows you to view the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. If the data type is a node list. and select the type you want to use. If you select nodes on the edges of a part.Input Collectors Input collectors allow you to indicate which entities are to be modified when a function is performed. by path follows the connectivity of the elements between the nodes selected. click the input collector switch to access the pop-up menu of possible data types.

This coordinate system may be the global coordinate system. it only works with surface edges and not with free unconnected geometric lines. the resulting vector is normal to this plane following the right hand rule. switch The switch is used to select the method for defining the plane or vector. or plane (N1. Plane and Vector Selector Several HyperMesh panels require that you define a plane or a vector (direction) to perform a certain function. y-axis. Use N1.N2).The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. N2. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. and passes through either N1 or the base node (if one is specified). For example. If you select two free (red) edges. This includes vectors defining coordinate systems. just as a vector can be defined with a plane (the vector is normal to the plane specified). Double-click a node’s button (N1. Either can be defined via the plane and vector selector—a group of buttons that work in concert to define planes or vectors. Note. that not every item appears at all times. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. The options available are: • Use x-axis. N2. the translate panel requires that you define the direction of translation.N2. or N3. however. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. This selector is broken down into the following items. only the items necessary for the current HyperMesh function will display. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.N3). or a local system when one can be explicitly specified. and z-axis to define the first. or B) to type in coordinates rather than selecting existing nodes in your model. HyperMesh takes advantage of the following principle: a plane can be defined with a vector (the plane is normal to the vector specified). When defining a plane. cylindrical or spherical.0 User’s Guide 73 . Local systems may be rectangular. as needed: The Plane and vector selector. Choose vector to specify a vector entity (created in the vectors panel). N3 to define a vector (N1. second or third axis respectively of a coordinate system in your model. and loads as well. while the reflect panel requires a plane for the creation of the mirror images of the entities selected.

Select a model vector (i.. Select three nodes. N1 and N2. The resulting plane is normal to the N1-N2 vector and passes through N1 (or the base node. Note that when using the N1.e. 74 HyperMesh 8. arrows that represent a local coordinate system vector or load vector). HyperMesh uses N1 as a default base node if no other base node is specified. and N3.e. The vector is the normal of the plane defi ned by the three nodes. but serve a different purpose. reset Note: Allows you to clear your selection (vector. Some selectors may resemble the plane and vector selector. 4. To define a vector: 1. selecting a plane of projection using the x-axis does not define the location of the plane entirely. local coordinate system vectors or load vectors).N3 and base). N1 (or the base node. N2. y-. 2. Select two nodes. N1. N1 and N2. y-. For example. 2. The resulting plane is normal to the vector. or z-axis and a base node. N3. A parallel plane can be specified by selecting a base point elsewhere in the model. The base node locates a plane normal to the chosen axis..B (base node) Use this selector to define the base node—the point in space where the vector or plane is located. A base node provides the extra information. Select two nodes. N1. N3 option.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if selected). 4.N2. Select the x-. Select the x-. N2. the following selector displays in the position and linear solid panels: This selector is used in these panels to map entities from one location to another. 3. N1. For example. or z-axis. Select three nodes. Select a model vector (i. if selected) is the point on the plane through which the vector passes. N2. To define a plane: 1. 3.

After positioning the cursor in the input field. press the ENTER key. comp =. Note: If you need to specify the name of a collector for a data input field (i. If you want to edit the existing data. A description of the type of input precedes the field. Move the cursor in the input field to the left and right. HyperMesh removes any leading spaces contained in a character string. In edit mode. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the input field. plot =. and the new character is placed at the far left of the input field. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text.). click the corresponding menu item or input field (the menu item is placed in edit modea). the text currently in the input field is highlighted. select another menu item.. click the menu item or input field a second time to select the name from a list of the existing collectors. Input field. press a right or left arrow key ( or ) before pressing any other keys. characters can be inserted or deleted at the proper location. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Deletes the character to the left of the cursor and moves the cursor one space to the left. Character String Input To enter a character string. the following keys perform the corresponding functions: ESC Restores the initial text or value displayed upon entering edit mode. You can enter characters and numbers from the keyboard to modify the value. Moves the cursor to the end of the input field. Deletes the character which is above the cursor. To cut and paste character strings. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL.0 User’s Guide 75 . and use the keyboard to enter text until the proper information is displayed. and BACKSPACE HOME END DELETE TAB To exit edit mode. or click the input field a second time to access the HyperMesh calculator. respectively. Press the ESC key while the field is still active to restore the initial text or value to the input field. or press a function key. and press CTRL-v.e. title =). When you type an alphanumeric character with the keyboard. press CTRL-c. The first character in a string cannot be a space. Moves the input cursor from field to field on the panel. the value previously assigned to the field is erased. You can cut and paste text from one data field to another within HyperMesh and also from data fields in HyperMesh to a command window (except in OpenGL versions). After you click either the input field or the description.Input Fields Input fields are used to enter text or numerical values. signifying that the input field in ready for editing.

use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. HyperMesh discards input characters that are not valid numbers and subsequent numbers. Some pop-ups are displayed with a border around the menu box and some have no border. For example. the second click gives you access to the calculator). the mouse cursor is centered in the menu and the menu is made active. the view pop-up menu (view on the Toolbar Area) allows you to make multiple selections. If the pop-up menu has a border.000. HyperMesh immediately processes the selection you have made on the pop-up menu and then waits for you to make more selections. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. For example. click the menu item or input field a second time (the first click allows you to enter edit mode. Real numbers are displayed with a decimal point or in scientific notation. press CTRL-c. The pop-up menu remains on the screen until you move the mouse outside the bounds of the box. To enter numeric data. and press CTRL-v. Calculator pop-up. click numeric and function buttons on the calculator using HP-style reverse notation. You can also use the HyperMesh calculator to enter the value. In edit mode. 76 HyperMesh 8. Some pop-up menus allow multiple selections. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. If the pop-up does not have a border. if you type 123e+1q1. When the pop-up menu appears. HyperMesh interprets it as 1230.Numeric Data Input Numerical values are specified as real numbers or integers. HyperMesh automatically displays the value in scientific notation.). click the corresponding menu item or input field and enter the value using the keyboard. If a real number contains three or more leading zeros after the decimal. Pop-ups Pop-up menus are displayed when there are seve ral options from which to choose. you must make a selection before you can proceed.45. To use the calculator.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If HyperMesh expects an integer value and you enter 123. HyperMesh displays integer values without a decimal point. you can either select a menu item on the pop-up menu or move the mouse outside the bounds of the menu. HyperMesh truncates the number to eliminate the decimal point. and click exit to close the calculator. To cut and paste numeric data.

This field allows you to enter the name of the file you wish to locate. Click Cancel to close the file browser.0 User’s Guide 77 . Lists only the file name. and last date modified. Lists the file name. etc. File name Files of type Open (Save) Cancel Displays the folder at the previous level. You can open new directories from this list. import…. based on the search criteria used. Look in/Save in This drop-down menu contains the overall directory structure. It also displays the file that has been selected from the list. Click Open (or Save) to load (or save) the file shown in the File name field. Folders and/or file names within the selected directory are listed below the Look in/Save in text box. type. retrieve…. you use the standard Windows file browser.. Creates a new folder within the current directory.File Browser When you open or save a file using save as.. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. as well as the contents of the open directory. This field allows you to select the type of file you want to locate. load…. browse….. write as…. The file browser enables you to navigate through the directories on your network to locate files.

type *. etc. 2.hm extension) in the specified directory.hm* for all HyperMesh database files with extensions hm4. select the file type from the drop-down menu. *. specify the directory to search. hm5. To search for a particular filename: 1.ext where ext is the extension of the file type you wish to locate. Or For Files of Type. Press ENTER. In the File name field.* to search for all files in the directory.To search for a particular file extension: 1. For File name. 3. 2. All files beginning with the specified characters are displayed in the files list. All files ending with the specified extension are displayed. For Look in/Save in. 3. Press ENTER.hm searches for all the HyperMesh database files (files with an . Type *. specify the search directory. You can also type *. For Look in/ Save in. For example. 78 HyperMesh 8. hm6.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . type filename* where filename is any portion of the name of the file you wish to locate.

Keyboard Left mouse Middle mouse Right mouse Single click and release.The Mouse The mouse attached to your system is integral to HyperMesh and can be used in almost every aspect of user input. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be selected. Fit the displayed model to the screen. If you release the mouse. Rapid menu allows you to use the middle mouse button to quickly perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Click and move. Single click and hold. If you release the mouse. Performs selection operations on single entities. Selects a new center of rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. CTRL Single click and release. Click and move. the pre-highlighted entity is selected Dynamic rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. Aborts graphics operations. Single click and release. Single click and release. such as Penetration Checks. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Selects a new center of rotation. Some operations require pressing a keyboard key in addition to using the mouse. Deselects an entity in the graphics area. Single click and release. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be deselected (removed from selection). Aborts intensive processes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 79 . the pre-highlighted entity is deselected.

80 HyperMesh 8. Dynamically rotates the model. Click and move. Pans the model. Zooms into an area of the model. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. In entity selection mode quick window selection of entities. In display panel – turn off collectors that are inside/outside the window. Click and move. Click and move. In display panel – turn on collectors that are inside/outside the window.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Single click and release. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: Single click and release.CTRL Click and move. In entity selection mode .quick window deselection of entities. SHIFT Single click and release. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window SHIFT Click and move.

For example. The function button that is assigned to rapid menu is outlined in black. For example: in the hidden line panel shown below. In some panels. Since you do not have N1. In panels where there is a defined sequence of selections (input collectors). resulting in an error message. the middle mouse button may activate a function for which there is insufficient data. collectors/create panel with a preset collector name creates a collector when you click the middle mouse button. Some panels do not have function buttons and are repetitive. In these panels. For example in the ruled panel. For example. The rapid menu function can also vary within a panel. But once you pick a node to create the line. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. select a few nodes for your first node list or line list. allowing you to use the same entities to repeat the operation. the middle mouse button repeats the chosen function as long as the entity collector is not reset to empty. The rapid menu function is predetermined and varies between panels. the entities in the input collector are not cleared. create becomes the rapid menu function. when you enter the lines panel. thus translating/rotating the same nodes again. the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel if the active input collector (yellow collector with a blue outline) is empty.0 User’s Guide 81 . If you click the middle mouse button after you select the required nodes. rapid menu advances to the next collector. N2. clicking the middle mouse button a second time repeats the translate + or rotate + function. For example. In such cases. This allows advanced users to perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. an attempt to perform translate + is executed.Rapid Menu Rapid menu is a feature that uses the middle mouse button (a single click for each step) to move through a panel along a predetermined path. For example. if you pick two nodes. return is assigned to the rapid menu. and then click the middle mouse button to advance to the second node list so that you can begin picking more nodes. HyperMesh performs the fill plot action when you click the middle mouse button. In panels that contain multiple function buttons. it replaces one with the other and proceeds to repeat the operation with the new selection. N2 and N3 selected or may not have a magnitude value entered. rapid menu is assigned to the most commonly used function. when you try to move nodes using the N1. thus reducing "mouse miles". in the translate or rotate panels once you selected some elements/nodes/comps and direction and distance of translation. in the replace panel. using the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel. In panels where there is no clear sequence of selections. N3 vector option in the translate panel. In most panels. For example. In panels that have pre-filled defaults. an error message results. a middle mouse click performs the operation with the defaults.

Keyboard Although most HyperMesh operations are performed with the mouse. or arrow keys. -. SHIFT key. The hot keys are the same as the letters on the menu. this opens help for that panel. Arc rotate Return to a previous view Center (spherical) clipping panel display panel Fill/fit model to window. global panel Open the Help. When a panel is active. +. clockwise. Turn off the menus and display only the graphics window. In addition. from the main page menu. Rotate by increments Ctrl Incremental counterclockwise. there are several keyboard hot keys that you can use to access the viewing functions available on the Toolbar Area. Note that "+" is actually shift = on the main keyboard. Press "m" again to bring the menus back.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .a b c <ctrl>+<c> d f g h m o p r s t <ctrl>+<t> v w z Notes: 82 HyperMesh 8. You can press ESC instead of clicking return to exit a panel. it opens the Help’s table of contents. you must use the keyboard to enter new file or component names or title information. You can also use the arrow keys on the keyboard to rotate your model. and reverse view Zoom by increments. The secondary menu uses various combinations of the function keys. options panel Plot Rotate Dynamically zooms in and out when you move the mouse up and down True view transparent components panel User View pop-up menu Windows panel Circle-zoom When you use the +. and CTRL key to access panels. but simply + on the numeric keypad. press the key once and wait for HyperMesh to redraw the model before pressing the key again.

One example of this is the default mapping of the <f> key—which. You can customize the default shortcut mappings to create your own shortcuts for a variety of tasks. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Examples include: • • • • • • • Jumping to a specific HyperMesh panel Automatically performing a task using HyperMesh *commands Executing a macro The following keys are usable when defining shortcuts: Letter and number keys ("standard" keys) <ctrl> plus another "standard" key <shift> plus another "standard" key <ctrl> plus <shift> plus another "standard" key You can assign or remove a shortcut by selecting keyboard from the Preferences pull-down menu. The keyboard option opens a free-standing window with a keyboard display.Mapping Keyboard Shortcuts Keyboard shortcuts can be used to map HyperMesh functions to keys or key combinations. zooms and pans the graphics area view to fit the currently displayed model to the screen.0 User’s Guide 83 . so that you can quickly execute tasks that you use frequently simply by pressing one or more keys on the keyboard. when pressed.

Some keyboard shortcuts are mapped by default during installation. select the appropriate key by clicking in the keyboard menu or holding down that key on your keyboard. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Creates PostScript file of the screen and spools it to printer. counterclockwise and reverse view Creates bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Ctrl + Ctrl + F1 Ctrl + F2 Ctrl + F3 Ctrl + F4 Ctrl + F5 Ctrl + F6 Incremental clockwise. and some utilize functions which are only accessible via shortcut keys. and down respectively.Keys display in the Key-Command Mappings window with colors based on their mapping: To map a function to a shortcut key. Generates a *. cannot be mapped. 84 HyperMesh 8. alt. The selected key highlights in blue. Examples of such shortcuts are: Incremental rotate left. • • Any HyperMesh command file commands can be mapped to a shortcut key. backspace etc. For example. up. Notes • • Some special-function keys. ctrl. such as tab.jpg screen capture or animation file. Remapping such keys to new functionality results in loss of original functionality. right. Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. use hm_pushpanelitem {element edit} {combine} This will take you to the last used sub-panel in the specified panel. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. shift. Next. esc.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Those keys are identified with a different color: Use the hm_pushpanelitem command in a shortcut to jump to a specific sub-panel of a panel. to enter the combine sub-panel in the element edit panel. enter the appropriate command(s) and if necessary the file name (for a tcl script) in the table area of the menu located below the keyboard diagram.

"". To call the same macro. select shift from the Shortcut Key pull-down menu. *deletemark elements 1. enter the following in the command field next to the key "J": *evaltclstring "macroElementJacobian 0. 1. } else { hm_usermessage "No beam elements in this model" } } In the Key-Command Mappings window. click the "…" button to browse to and select the findbeams. To create a shortcut key "L" that accesses the lines panel. enter the following commands in the command field next to the key "E": *createmark elements 1 "all". 1). enter the following in the command field next to the key "L": hm_pushpanel {lines}. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 85 . *evaltclstring displayonlybeams In the file field. To create a shortcut key "J" that runs a macro to find all the elements with jacobian < 0.7" 0 To create a shortcut key "shift + K" that runs a macro to check whether any beam/bar elements exist in the model and display them only: Create a findbeams.7: this macro already exists in the QA page of the Utility menu.shortcut mapping examples To create a shortcut key "e" that deletes all the elements in the model.tcl file. "none". *findmark elements 1 0 1 elements 0 2. eval *createmark elements 1 $beams. Enter the following in the command field next to the key "K".tcl file with following commands: Proc displayonlybeams {} { *createmark elements 2 "by config" 60 63 set beams [hm_getmark elements 2] *clearmark elements 2 if { ![Null beams]} { *displaycollectorwithfilter(comps.

The default secondary panels are as follows: Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Note: Function key only hidden line delete replace distance mask element edit align node create node line edit check element geometry quick edit automesh plus SHIFT key color temp nodes edges translate find split project node edit surf edit normals organize smooth plus CTRL key print slide slide file print eps create eps file print b/w eps create JPEG file Function keys may be reassigned to different panels by using the build menu panel. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. it interrupts the active panel and allows you to perform a function in the secondary panel. and upon completion.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When you use the secondary menu. 86 HyperMesh 8. or in combination with the SHIFT or CTRL keys. to continue using the initial panel. Entities selected while in the secondary panel are still selected when you return to the initial panel.Secondary Menu The secondary menu is a list of panels that can be accessed by using the function keys F1 through F12.

Attributes that you can change include: • • • • • The utility menu page on which the operations appear Text to be displayed on each control Location and size of the menu The help string to be displayed on the menu bar The macro to call when each control is used. so that you can group the macros by type of operation. A userpage. radio options. it looks for a macro file named hm. to specify where the arguments should be substituted. and text that have HyperMesh-supplied and user-defined macros associated with them. HOME directory (UNIX only). Populates the QA/Model page of the utility menu. Populates the Geom/Mesh page of the utility menu. When HyperMesh starts. UNIX users also have the option of putting the userpage.mac file sources the following additional macro files: disppage.mac qamodelpage. When HyperMesh starts. etc. and can be shown or hidden from within the view pull-down menu. You may also select and run a macro file after HyperMesh starts from within the options panel. This file defines the attributes and contents of the User page of the utility menu. and are enclosed by the *beginmacro() and *endmacro() commands. each dedicated to different tasks.mac file in the directory from which it launches and then in the installation directory. clicking one of these buttons opens the page associated with it. Macros may contain any valid command file command. The *callmacro() command allows you to call a macro from within another one.mac globalpage.mac file in their home directory.0 User’s Guide 87 . Each page is associated with a button at the bottom of the utility menu. The utility menu includes several pages of its own. with optional arguments to pass The page number allows you to create multiple pages. although only one displays at a time.mac in the current directory. Only one button can be depressed at a time. by using the arguments $1.Utility Menu The utility menu allows you to customize the standard interface to include function buttons.mac file may exist in the installation directory for HyperMesh or in the directory from which HyperMesh launches. Thus it is actually a group of menus. passed to them from a control. $2. The default hm. which allows you to create groups of standard reusable macros. The menu is located on a tab of the tab area pane(s). A macro file (hm. HyperMesh runs it automatically to define the attributes and contents of the utility menu.mac userpage. Creates the button group that allows you to switch pages. If it finds this macro. Macros may accept variable arguments. similar to the way that only one radio button can be active at a time—selecting a button de-selects all of the other buttons in the group. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or the application’s base directory.mac Populates the Display page of the utility menu.mac) controls the display and available operations of the utility menu. it first looks for the userpage. Populates the User page of the utility menu.mac geommeshpage.

You can also mask and unmask portions of your model. but display of the menu is controlled by a command in the HyperMesh Configuration. To restore the utility menu. See the descriptions below for help with each type of macro. If you want to remove the Utility menu from the default screen display. in the Tab area pane. there is no way to cancel the execution or reject the results. You can also turn the utility menu off by clicking the small “x” in the upper corner of the tab area when the utility menu tab is in the forefront. Then. By combining these features. that it still might not display if the tab area pane on which it resides is not active. showing or hiding all 2-D elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 88 HyperMesh 8. if you wish. and Disp pages contain a variety of macros that allow you to quickly perform functions which would normally take several steps. until only the desired subset of entity types displays. However. Disp Utility menu The Disp utility menu contains a variety of macros that allow you to modify the graphical display of HyperMesh entities in several different ways. the utility menu will still be invisible even though you have it checked in the view menu. although it may be obscured by another tab such as the model browser or include browser. if the utility menu is on the right-hand tab area pane. you can turn the display of individual types back on as desired.cfg file. you can restrict HyperMesh to only drawing a small sub-set of the entities in your model. Note: While macros offer a great deal of flexibility. and a macro may not be called recursively. QA/Model. It contains page selection buttons at the bottom of the menu. but you have only the left-hand pane showing in the HyperMesh environment. the Utility menu displays when HyperMesh starts. For example. if that pane is open.By default. with the current page’s button depressed. simply check it in the view menu. You can turn the utility menu off completely (removing its tab from the tab area) by un-checking it in the view pull-down menu. You can also isolate only a specific entity type. Chief among these is the ability to turn the display of individual entity types on and off—for example. or even by clicking-and-dragging the tab to the HyperMesh title bar. however. you must remember that once a macro is executed. it can also be dragged-and-dropped to the right -side explorer pane. turning off the display of everything except entities of type. and save additional model views. The different pages of the utility menu are: • • • • Geom/Mesh (macros related to model geometry and FE mesh) Disp (Options related to the graphical display of entities) QA/Model (macros related to element quality and loads) User (user-created macros only) The utility menu displays by default. The Geom/Mesh. delete the * before the *enablemacromenu() command in the hm. Note. Default Utility menu The utility menu is normally located on the left side of the graphics region.

such as elements or geometry. followed by 2-3 buttons. Clicking On turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. This enables you to turn off certain entities while retaining others. Display macros: These controls form the bulk of the menu. clicking none next to the elements label turns off the display of every element type in your model. and always include any masks that you may have applied to the model. 2. These views function in addition to the user views. or slot 3. such as 2-D elements or lines. and solids). Broad categories. The All and none buttons for this category literally affect every entity in the model. slot 2. For example. or 3-D elements. including its boundary conditions. clicking none hides the entire model. The largest group possible is labeled Everything. For example. Clicking All turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. These buttons retrieve views of the model that you have previously saved via the scene (1. Scene (1. clicking Off next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every 2-D element in your model. such as elements or geometry. and allow you to turn the display of different types of entities on or off. These sub-types have buttons labeled on or off. Smaller sub-types of entity. or 3-D elements. but does not affect the display of 0. are more restrictive. 2.2. such as 2-D elements or geometry points. if you turn off the display of lines. lines. These views function just like the custom views that you can save and retrieve via the user views function (accessed from the HyperMesh toolbar).0 User’s Guide 89 . 3) Save Scene (1. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. or isolate the display of an entity type. So.3) Retrieve These buttons save the current view of the model in slot 1. regardless of entity type. This allows you to turn the display of entire classes of entity on or off in one click. These buttons perform the actual display macro functions: All These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. none On Off Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. however. There are different categories of entities whose display you can turn on and off. In other words. Each broad category or sub-type has a text label on the menu. 1. Clicking none turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. For example. control an array of several related entities (such as points. other geometry types (such as points) do not turn off. surfs. Toggling the display of these does not affect other entities within the same broad category. but does not affect the display of 0. These broad categories have buttons labeled All or none. Clicking Off turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. for example. 1. For example. clicking all next to the elements label turns on the display of every element type in your model.Scene macros: These controls allow you to save and retrieve up to three additional views of your model. such as 2-D elements or lines. such as geometry. 3) save macros. even within the same broad category. clicking all next to the 2-D label turns on the display of every 2-D element in your model. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity.

For example. you can then add other entities to the view by turning them On one-by-one. turning off all geometry. those lines would be revealed—but only a single row of elements. To exit the macro. Clicking only isolates the entity type indicated by the label by hiding every other entity type in the model. they should be deleted before the model is sent to a solver. The only exception to this accumulative usage is repeated use of the only option: since it always hides everything except the chosen entity type. These nodes are redundant because they must be created on existing geometry. etc.Only These buttons may appear for broad categories of entity or sub-types. then clicked show adjacent elems any mesh along . that entities can’t be partially hidden—so while some of the mesh elements on a surface may be masked out. masking is based on entity location rather than entity type. multiple only commands do not work accumulatively. Unmask All Clear Temp Nodes This macro removes any and all masks that you have applied to the model. Select the desired lines and click proceed to show. for this reason. or press the <esc> key. as well as removing temporary nodes. either click proceed again without selecting any lines. either by way of the mask out macro or the mask panel. rather than all of the mesh for an entire component. the surface itself will not be unless it is completely outside of the graphics display area. masking allows you to reduce the number of entities drawn onscreen. Temporary nodes are any nodes that users create during a HyperMorph session. Click Clear Temp Nodes to automatically remove all temporary nodes from the model.) displaying. Note. however. Mask Out This macro automatically applies a mask to hide every entity in the model that does not currently display in the graphics area. results in only the lines (plus FE elements. so that only 2-D elements remain visible. Similarly. however. if you choose to show only 2-D elements. hide. The By Edge… macro (under Geometry à Surfs) allows you to turn off all surfaces attached to one or more edge lines. Mask and Node macros: The final set of controls concern masking and unmasking entities. refers to the text labels for boundary conditions such as pressures and forces. then turning on lines. Clicking one of the buttons for this option causes HyperMesh to display a lines selector. if you isolated a model’s geometry lines. or isolate the surfaces touching those lines. so that only the specified entity type remains visible. boundary conditions. Comments Handle (located under the Elements category) refers to the text labels that appear on some elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This macro reveals one or more rows of elements adjacent to the entities currently displayed. clicking Only next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every entity in the model except for 2-D elements. Labels (located under the BC’s category). Show Adjacent Elems 90 HyperMesh 8. Like the display controls. This allows you to view only the adjoining mesh. Note that these functions are accumulative. such as rbe3 elements. For example.

Quickly creates an automatic tetrahedral mesh while meeting the requirements for minimum element angle and element size. The macro also creates the corresponding property card and updates the thickness. Depending on the tolerance you specify. Creates a layer of washer elements around a circular hole in the mesh. and displays a menu for entering the width of the washer. Isolates either an inner or an outer surface layer (based on the user selected surface) from a 3D model. Extracts a midsurface from a thin solid representation of sheet metal stamped parts. You can also review the thickness as a contour plot on the elements. This allows a higher quality mesh around circular holes. Scales a copy of a selected circular line to 1. Isolate Surface ThinSolid=>Midsurf Washer Adj Circ Pts The mesh macros are: Auto Connectors Midsurf Thickness A pop-up menu that allows you to automatically create connectors and FE realize them from a master connection file. Places four additional fixed points on an inner line. You select a node along the hole. the macro determines the radius of the hole.Geom/Mesh utility menu This menu contains a set of macros related to working with model geometry. Projects free points to surface edges. This macro is intended to be used with sheet metal parts with uniform thickness and does not work for molded solid parts. points may even project to multiple edges. and then trims this new line into the surface. Assigns the thickness of a midsurface geometry to FE nodes or elements. etc.5 times its original size. This can be helpful to achieve uniform meshing with regard to weld points. The other layers and thickness are then placed in a temp directory and masked. creating a higher quality mesh. Two other options available are: 1) Create a rigid spider along the hole and 2) Enforce a minimum number of nodes around the hole. Its primary use cases are solid parts with varying thickness. by offsetting one side surfaced to midplane. and then projects those points to a concentric line. You select a line whose length represents the solid thickness and a surface. The macro then creates a layer of washer elements around the hole and remeshes the surrounding elements to maintain mesh connectivity. which is part of either the inner or outer side of the solid. The geometry macros are: Preserve edges Project points Prevents specific edges from being suppressed during autocleanup or batchmeshing. with ribs (T junctions). Improves element quality by moving the mid-edge nodes of second order elements. This macro works only on the surfaces attached to the selected surface. as well as a set for working with FE mesh. Quick Tetramesh Fix 2nd Order Midnodes Add Washer Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 91 .

This is useful for reducing the model size by taking advantage of symmetry etc. Fill Hole Box Trim Bead QA/Model Utility menu The QA utility menu contains many tools to help you quickly review and clean up the quality of a preexisting mesh. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the warpage test. Length This macro checks all the displayed elements against the minimum length criteria. If any elements fail the criteria. Creates a bead of a given height and width along the selected two nodes and connects to the surrounding mesh. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the maximum internal angle. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Jacob (Jacobian) Warp (warpage) Aspect (aspect ratio) Max ang: Q (quad) 92 HyperMesh 8. Trims the model along user-defined trim lines. if necessary. The element quality criteria used by these tools comes directly from the values entered on the check elements panel. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their aspect ratio. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Since the criteria on that panel are customizable.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. the quality criteria used by these macros remains consistent with those used throughout the rest of HyperMesh—and can be indirectly adjusted by changing the settings on the check elements panel. If any elements fail the criteria.Trim Hole Creates a circular hole (of a given radius) in the mesh at the selected node (as the center of the hole). it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Fills the selected hole and remeshes the surrounding mesh to maintain connectivity. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Tools There are eight tools to isolate elements that fail certain element check criteria. it displays a message and leaves the model display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements against the maximum Jacobian value. An optional layer of washer elements can be created along with a rigid spider along the hole. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their warpage. This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that fill the hole.

The results are shown as the number of elements and percentage of elements failing each criterion. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the minimum internal angle. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each).0 User’s Guide 93 . Finds all of the elements attached to the displayed elements. It also displays a dialog that allows you to review the free edges of the component and any elements attached to the component. This macro displays the component name. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Brings up a user interface that allows you to set the various quality values and check the quality of all the 2D elements in the model. Note: Changing the criteria on this report interface does not change the settings in the check elements panel. BOM Comparison Tool Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and uses the mixed element type. The remesh uses the current size. Find Attached Remesh Smooth Quality Report Model Tour Allows you to review (tour) the selected components individually. two.Max ang: T (tria) This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the maximum internal angle. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Min ang: Q (quad) Min ang: T (tria) You can use the following macros to quickly modify any elements that fail the element checks. does not break connectivity. number of elements in that component and their ID range. They only affect the report. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). Split Warped Checks all displayed quad elements for warp exceeding the acceptable value. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. You can also export the results to a text file using save as. Allows you to remesh the selected elements plus one. If any elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Allows you to apply the smoothing algorithm to the selected elements plus one. Each element failing this criterion is then split along its diagonal to form two tria elements instead of the original quad. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the minimum internal angle. two. Reads a generic Bill Of Materials file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM as well as the corresponding FE model. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the criteria.

these elements are un-masked. If masked. Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all connectors. If masked. these elements are un-masked. pressures. Since these buttons affect all loads. Find Elems>>Loads Find Comps>>Loads Find Loads>>Comps Find Elems>>Connectors Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all load indicators. these comps are un-masked. including forces. and so on. Automatically finds all components directly attached to any and all load indicators. these loads are un-masked. If masked. constraints. 94 HyperMesh 8. Automatically finds all loads directly attached to a selected component. the numbers do not directly correspond to any specific values or ratios.The model tools included on this page are: Load Size These numbered buttons represent different display sizes for load indicators: 0 is the smallest. while 3 is the largest. Note that this only affects the graphical display of load indicators—it does not change the load magnitudes. If masked.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

property assignments. BOMs usually use Microsoft Excel® format (CSV format) or XML format. and Abaqus user profiles.0 User’s Guide 95 . see the following topics: • • • • • • • BOM Comparison Tool Graphical User Interface (GUI) BOM Comparison Tool Control Section BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section BOM Comparison Tool Master Column BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The BOM reader includes the following abilities: • • • • • Reads a generic BOM file of CSV format (comma separated values file) Provides a GUI to manipulate data in the BOM and the corresponding FE model Provides an option to update attributes in the FE model based on the data available in the BOM Provides an option to complete the existing BOM based on the data available from the model Filters out all vague information present in the BOM and provides a feature to edit the vague information into a valid data and move it back to the BOM Provides a functionality to export a new BOM file Note: The BOM Comparison Tool only applies to the Nastran. assembly. The HyperMesh BOM Comparison Tool focuses primarily on the Excel format. Since users in different design and analysis groups use BOM information. the formats and content of the BOM can vary. One BOM may contain more data than another BOM for the same program. Radioss-Block. LS-Dyna. model comparison. For an in-depth description of the parts that make up the BOM Comparison Tool user interface and how to use them.BOM comparison tool The BOM Comparison Tool located on the QA/Model utility menu reads a generic Bill of Materials (BOM) file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM and its corresponding FE model. A BOM is often used as the master document for model meshing. and updates between design iterations as well as other CAE activities.

96 HyperMesh 8. Contains filtering options for displaying tree and table info. Contains a tree structure displaying part names and ids. Contains master column selection. part of the tree section. This section contains a table to display BOM info as it is seen in the actual BOM file.BOM Comparison Tool GUI The BOM Comparison Tool’s GUI consists of seven sections as shown below: Control section: Tree section: Master column: BOM display section: Metadata display section: Failed records section: Display filter section: Contains menu items and buttons to perform various operations. Contains options for metadata management.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Displays failed records from a loaded BOM file. This section controls most tool functions.

You may also select items in the list and Delete them from the file. Invalid records can be edited to form valid data and can be moved to the BOM Display table. This option switches the BOM Display Section to Comparison mode if it is currently in BOM View mode (see below).0 User’s Guide 97 . or click an item already in the list and insert the new item just above it. Save and export the current information shown in the BOM Display section as a new BOM csv file in a user selected location.BOM Comparison Tool Control Section This portion of the interface contains drop-down menus and the toolbar. Check Model Checks the model against the BOM. If any are missing. Material Id. you can complete the BOM data by querying the HM database and extracting the data. and Gauge. Use the Complete BOM operation to either complete an existing BOM. you will be prompted select the heading from the BOM file that corresponds to each standard header. This option opens a new window listing the items to be added to the BOM file. Save and Export Exit Edit menu Update Model Complete BOM Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If the corresponding model contains the missing data. or type a new header into it and Add them. or generate a new BOM by querying the HM model in current session. details populate the relevant fields in the BOM comparison tool. Sometimes the BOM doesn’t contain all of the data you want. Show Failed Display all the invalid records that the tool encounters while reading a BOM file in a table. Part Id. click Continue to generate the new file. You can select additional items from a combo box. Update the model attributes to match the BOM. HyperMesh checks for the standard headers Part Name. Only valid records from a BOM file display in the BOM Display Section’s table. Once you had added or deleted all necessary entries. If all are found. Material. Close the BOM Comparison Tool. File menu New Open Create a new session Browse for and load a new BOM file.

98 HyperMesh 8. • • • Same function as File > Open.View menu BOM View Compare View Display section displays BOM info as it appears in the BOM file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Same function as Edit > Check Model. Different: components in BOM whose standard attributes differ from those in the model. In_BOM_Only: components found in BOM but not in model. Categorizes BOM information into four sections: • Match: components in BOM whose standard attributes match exactly with those in the model. In_Model_Only: components found in model but not in BOM. Same function as File > Show Failed. Same function as Edit > Complete BOM. Same function as Edit > Update Model. Same function as File >Save and Export.

0 User’s Guide 99 . Each tree branch is associated with a row in the BOM display table containing all standard information for the part in the tree branch. It then displays the part names. Apart from this there are filter buttons each one of which is explained below: (Select All) (Select None) (Reverse selection) Displays all the branches in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table Switch off all the branches in the tree and delete all the data in the BOM display table Switch on all the “off” branches in the tree and vice versa. and can be used to filter the BOM info anytime in the session. appended with part ids. and press the <return> key to display the desired information in the tree and BOM display table. in brackets in the form of a tree structure located on the left side of the tool window. Data associated with switched-on branches displays in the BOM display table Switch on only those branches in the tree (and associated data in the BOM display table) that correspond to the displayed parts in the model (Show displayed) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. select the desired header in the options menu. Filter options are given for displaying only the desired part info in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table.BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section When a BOM file is loaded into the tool. to affect which parts display in the tree and which parts are selected or deselected. The combo box remembers previously entered strings until you quit the tool. You can enter a string in the combo box. This section also includes selection and filtering controls. the tool identifies the part name and part id of all valid records.

e. located in the center of the tool window just below the master column section. This section allows you to select the desired master column option. The master column data is used as a key for the following operations: • • • Update model attributes as in BOM Complete BOM by querying model Check model against BOM The tool allows three master column combinations between the BOM and the model. i.BOM Comparison Tool Master Column The central top portion of the tool window contains the master column section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM info displays in a table in the BOM display section. By default information displays in BOM Only view: 100 HyperMesh 8. part name and part number. Compare by Part Name in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part name as the key. BOM info can be displayed in two different modes: BOM only. The tool queries the data in the model based on any one of these column combinations: • • • Compare Part Id in BOM with Part Id in model: the tool compares the attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part id as the key. Compare by Part Number in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part number as the key. columns containing part id. The master column is the column in the BOM file whose attributes are considered as a key in comparison and validation operations. and Comparison. Only columns with three attributes can be used as master columns.

In the Different category.0 User’s Guide 101 . Delete metadata deletes metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. remaining columns display the BOM info. which categorizes the BOM information into four categories: • • • • Match: BOM components whose standard attributes exactly match those in the model Different: BOM components whose standard attributes differ from those in the model In_BOM_Only: components found in the BOM but not in the model In_Model_Only: components found in the model but not in the BOM The screenshot below illustrates Comparison view: Column 1 shows the category name with the number of parts falling under that category enclosed in brackets. mismatched attributes between BOM and the model are highlighted in light blue.Use the toggle button located in the top-right portion of the GUI to switch to Comparison mode. Update metadata updates metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. Delete deletes the selected row in the table. Right-Click menu Right -clicking on the table opens a menu of functions: • • • • • • Display selected parts displays parts in the model corresponding to the selected rows in the BOM display table. Create metadata creates metadata of all the attributes of the parts in the model corresponding to the selected row in the table. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Display all parts will display all the parts in the model.

the whole record is considered invalid and will be stored out-of-sight. Metadata information contains all the attributes for a part in the model. 102 HyperMesh 8. and then use this combo box to select the type of information displayed in the metadata display table: None Metadata related to BOM All metadata Differences between BOM/metadata clear the table if already some data exists display BOM related metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display all the metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display two rows of info in the metadata table.BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section You can create. The metadata display section contains four display options in the form of a combo box. The tool considers the following five terms as standard attributes: • • • • • Part Name Part Id Material Material Id Gauge If at least one attribute is missing or repetitive. You have the option to edit each of those failed records to make them valid and move them to the BOM display table using the Move button. update and delete metadata using some of the menu items on the BOM display table. second row corresponds to metadata associated with the model BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section When a BOM file is loaded. First row corresponds to BOM info.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the tool checks for the validity of each standard attribute in a record (a record corresponds to one line of info in the BOM file). Click the Show failed menu item or corresponding button in the control section to see the failed records. After selecting a row in the BOM Display table. This opens a Failed records table as shown below.

Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a component selector in the HyperMesh panel area. so that autocleanup and batch mesher will know which lines must be preserved. Use the comps selector to choose the components whose boundary edges you wish preserved. When active.Preserve Edges Both the batch mesher and the autocleanup features seek to improve mesh speed and/or quality by suppressing minor features (which are assumed to be insignificant). Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a line selector in the HyperMesh panel area. Thus. However.0 User’s Guide 103 . sometimes minor features are still important to your analysis. Use the lines selector to choose the lines you wish preserved. Saves the preservation state. any previously stored feature lines will purge each time you click select lines or select comps. When you click the preserve edges button. Removes all lines from the preservation list. a new pop-up window opens to accept your settings: The following options are available for the Preserve Edges macro: Clear at start When this checkbox is active. picking a new set of lines starts over instead of adding to the selection. The preserve edges macro provides a way to ensure that specific components edges and feature lines do not accidentally get discarded during autocleanup or batch meshing. Note that this will not preserve lines inside the components—only the outer boundary edge. Click this button to highlight the lines already marked for preservation. Select Lines Show Preserved Comps selection boundary Select comps Clear all lines Save preserved Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. this checkbox prevents HyperMesh auto-cleanup from equivalencing the boundaries between adjacent components.

Discards any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. if extracted using the HyperMesh midsurface function. 104 HyperMesh 8. When you click the Midusrf thickness… menu button. using the same units as your model. After selecting surfs and clicking proceed. The thickness data can be a single value for the entire part or a varying function. have thickness information stored in their definition. Type a value into this field. The Midsurf thickness macro. Midsurf Thickness Geometric surfaces that represent the mid-plane of a solid part. use this to select the surfaces whose edges you wish to project points to.Reset highlights After clicking the show preserved button. the controls for this macro display in a new tab in the tab area. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can also review the contour plot of thickness data with this macro. Clicking this button opens a surfs selector in the HyperMesh panel area. HyperMesh displays a target element size field. only the visual highlighting effect is removed (until you click show preserved again). use this button to remove the highlight from the preserved lines. allows you to transfer thickness data from surfaces to the associated nodes/elements. Project Points Use this macro to project geometric points (such as weld points) to nearby edges. Any points within this distance of the selected surfaces’ edges will be projected to those edges. OK Cancel Accepts any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. The lines remain preserved.

Use the Nodes/Elements option to assign the thickness and Z-offset values directly to the element cards. the values will be updated on the element card for that solver. Groups the elements that have thickness values within the specified ranges into the new component based on the Range Interval or Gage File options.. The nodes option is valid for only LS-DYNA and ANSYS solvers. Creates components with name “t[thickness value]” by copying the properties of the base component t0 and assigning the appropriate thickness based on the value of the Range Interval or Gage File options. a base component named t0 must be defined. 3. The t0 component definition will be used for all created components based on the Range Interval specified in the Component Organization Method section described below. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For each User profile. Z-Offset Values Activate this checkbox to take z-offsets into account. (For example. Refer to the User profile section for more details on the unique behavior of the Midsurf Thickness utility for each User profile. the PSHELL T field will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran).. macro: Apply thickness to You can choose to assign or view the thickness values at the nodes or on elements. HyperMesh uses Z-offsets when midsurfacing parts that have variable thickness. This option is only valid for OptiStruct and Nastran User profiles. check the Z-offset values checkbox. In order to execute this mode. (For example. CQUAD4 T1-T4 and Zoff fields will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran).The following options are available in the Midsurf thickness. Use the Components option to group elements that fall within userspecified thickness intervals into common components. so this value will always be populated on the element cards for any solver that supports Z-offset. Most solvers only have Z-offset defined on the element card. then assign the thickness value to the component property card image for each User Profile. Assigns appropriate thickness values to the Component. 2.0 User’s Guide 105 . the zoffset (which is saved as part of the midsurface data) tells a solver how much of a positive-normal offset exists between the actual part surface and the midsurface: To assign Z-offset values to the element cards for supported solvers. The components option performs the following generic steps for each User profile: 1.

n is determined by the maximum thickness in model divided by the user specified tolerance and then rounding to up to the next integer. Click here for details on the format of the gauge file. it is a review/display function only. • • • Lower limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* i ) Upper limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* (i + 1)) Assigned value = tolerance*(i+1) Where i = 0……n. HyperMesh groups elements having thickness values within the specified range intervals into appropriately created components with the appropriate thickness values assigned to the component. You can specify thickness range intervals by two methods: 1. Range Interval – You must specify a thickness tolerance. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value. Closes the tab. Component Organization method This option specifies the thickness range intervals used when grouping the elements into components based on their thickness values. The thickness assigned to each created component is n*tolerance. Thickness range intervals are automatically generated based on the thickness tolerance using the following formula. You can obtain the thickness value from the surface at: Average – the average of the element’s nodes. Assign Contour Assigns the thickness from the surface definition to the nodes or elements chosen. Centroid –the element’s centroid (interpolated from its nodes) Max –the maximum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. If the Assigned Value is not specified.Thickness calculation method This option is valid only while applying the thickness to elements. This option is very useful for visualizing and verifying the results of the Midsurf Thickness utility before applying the midsurf thickness mapping operation. Close 106 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Gauge – You must specify the thickness range intervals in a Gage File. Min – the minimum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. This step does not assign the thickness to the nodes or elements. 2. Creates a contour plot of the thicknesses on the selected elements/nodes.

assign the base property card image. Change to your preferred User Profile. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. Click the Proceed button. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. 5. 5. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. 5. Change to your preferred User Profile. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of thickness for the Node/Element option. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 7. Create the base component “t0”. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping. Select the Components option. 10. 4. 2. 3. 3. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. Select the Nodes/Elements option.0 User’s Guide 107 . 9. 8. Load the desired model file. 6. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping To Contour Thickness for Node/Element Option: 1. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Pick the desired nodes. 6. Select a Component Organization method and either select a file or enter a tolerance based on the method. Change to your preferred User Profile. 2. Load the desired model file. Load the desired model file. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Components Option: 1. and enter any default values for this card. 11. 7. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. 4. Select a Thickness Calculation method. 8.To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Nodes/Elements Option: 1. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. 3. 7. 4. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 6.

Select the desired nodes. 9. Click the contour button to open the node selection panel. Load the desired model file. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 108 HyperMesh 8. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. 3. Select the desired nodes. 5. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. Click Proceed. 3. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. Activate the Z-Offset check box. 5. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. Activate the Z-Offset check box. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 8. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the components option. To Contour Thickness for Components Option: 1. 3. Select the desired elements. 6. Change to your preferred User Profile. 6. 10.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the thickness for the components option. 10. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Select the Components option. 8. 2. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the Node/Element option. 9. Click the Proceed button. 11. 7. 4. Select the Components option. 7. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. 7. To Contour Z-offset for Components Option: 1. Change to your preferred User Profile. Load the desired model file. Select the desired elements. 6. 8. 2. 4. 5. 4. 2. Click the Proceed button.To Contour Z-offset for Node/Element Option: 1. Load the desired model file. Select the desired nodes. Change to your preferred User Profile.

15 End 0. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option. • • • Unsupported Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”.05 0.05 0. Below is a specific example of a gauge file: Number of Gauges 4 End [max Thk] Assigned Value [Assigned Thk] Gauges Begin 0.1 0.1 0.15 0.0 0.Gauge file example The Gauge file uses the following format: Number of Gauges [Number of Gauge Data Lines] Gauges Begin [min Thk] … If the Assigned Value is not specified.1 0.05 0. Z-Offset value • Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3.15 0. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value.2 Assigned Value 0.2 Midsurf Utility Behavior under different user profiles Abaqus 1.0 User’s Guide 109 . Nodes/Elements Option • 2.

• • • Assigns the Thickness and Z-Offset values to the Element Card based on the user selection Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”. • • • • • 3. Z-Offset value • If Z-Offset is checked “on” Z-offset values from the midsuface will be retrieved and assigned to the elements associated to that midsurface. Nodes/Elements Option • 2.Ansys The only difference between the nodes/elements and components options are that the nodes/ elements option will group the elements which match only exact thickness values. 3. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option. • Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Components Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported OptiStruct and Nastran 1. 110 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method. The components option will group the elements with thickness intervals. 1. Nodes/Elements • • • • 2.

Nodes/Elements • 2. Nodes/Elements • 2. • • • 3.0 User’s Guide 111 . • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported PamCrash 1. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Radioss 1. • • • • • 3. Nodes/Elements • 2.Ls-Dyna 1. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Assigns the thickness value to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. • • • • • 3.

This macro is accessed on the Geom/Mesh utility menu located on the standard utility menu. and displays in a new tab in the tab area. the mesh may deviate from the underlying geometry in order to maintain good quality elements. Use this control to limit how acute the resulting elements will be. Its main objective is to quickly and automatically create a tetramesh that meets the minimum interior angle and minimum element size. The maximum feature angle protects nodes on corners with a feature angle greater than the value specified. To alleviate this. During the process of quick tetramesh. helping to better maintain the geometry. Click proceed to finalize the selection. you can select “sacred elements” so that the tetmeshing function closely follows the original geometry. The following options are available in the Quick TetraMesh macro: Volume Complist Double-click components and use the comps collector that displays in the panel area to select comps representing the geometry of the solid to be tetra meshed. if two nodes of an element share different features (as in thin steps). For example.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Altair Engineering Minimum Tria Angle Maximum feature angle 112 HyperMesh 8. The surface trias from which the tetramesh will be extrapolated will be generated with angles that measure at least this many degrees.Quick TetraMesh The Quick TetraMesh macro quickly creates a tetramesh of an enclosed volume defined by geometry and/or elements. This applies only to cases where you can maintain features while fixing minimum element size. the features may not be maintained as they do not pass minimum element criteria. Surfaces and/or elements can be used to define the volume.

This determines the meshing engine used: the one used by the automesh panel. Tet from Mesher Perform mesh cleanup only Help Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When this option is checked. Choose between automesh and batch. feature lines. Choose between chordal deviation and uniform. Choose floating. Uniform uses identically-sized elements throughout the mesh. and always uses uniform density. but only for the elements selected as sacred.0 User’s Guide 113 . Mesh size Minimum Edge Size Minimum Elem Size Sacred surface Sacred elements Mesh type Mesh Density The mesh type options are Trias Only and Mixed. Average element size of the mesh to be created. it gives special preference to trying to keep the nodes on a sacred surface. correction of sliver elements. If the feature angle exceeds the given value. or the one used by the batch mesher. but does not currently support sacred surfaces or elements. Chordal deviation uses smaller elements along curves. but requires more computing time. and edges to improve accuracy. When HyperMesh tries to move element nodes to improved element quality. Note: this does not work if two adjacent surfaces are both marked as sacred! These are existing trias that you have created according to your requirements and wish to maintain while tetrameshing the part. ignores/replaces existing elements. but may produce lowquality elements along such locations. All the cleanup steps are designed to improve the mesh quality. Minimum allowable area for any element. two adjacent elements are considered reversed and actions are performed to correct the situation.Maximum reverse angle The maximum feature angle allowed between normals of adjacent elements. With the Mixed mesh type. splitting of elements. The tetramesher will not move the nodes of these elements. in which the quick tetramesher is free to move nodes in a surface tria mesh to achieve better tetra elements based on them. Opens a pop-up window with basic information about each control that displays on the tab. No single edge of any generated element will be shorter than this. both trias and quads may be created. or fixed. Note that this setting overrides the float setting in the tet from option. The Batch mesher generally produces better results. no tetra elements are created and the macro simply goes through the cleanup steps for the shell mesh. and projections onto the original geometry. Some of the cleanup operations performed are: the suppression of free edges. even if doing so would improve element quality. This is useful in ensuring that a particular feature is captured exactly the way you want it to be. in which the mesher must keep the tria mesh unchanged.

the tool heals small cracks in the model. click this to re-run the meshing operation on the same components. 3. and Maximum angle. As a part of the cleanup. Identify problem areas. 114 HyperMesh 8. 5. Note: Moved midnodes are saved to your save list. In addition. Run with the desired mesh size. Minimum Ratio between the minimum and maximum edge length. Closes the tab. Close Debug Surface Mesh The Quick Tetramesh macro meshes the unmeshed surfaces in the model using chordal deviation and fixes all the elements that fail the criteria provided. 2. or if mesh in certain areas is not satisfactory).g. manually mesh problem areas. Load the geometry. This helps to obtain the desired mesh in critical areas. manually mesh using chordal deviation. however. Re-launch the Quick Tetramesh macro and select sacred elements to protect. and specify the quality constraints: Minimum Jacobian (evaluated at the corner nodes or integration points). Use the delete panel to delete the tetras then. You select the elements on which you want to improve the quality. moved midnodes lose any preexistent association with the underlying geometry. if any (e. For critical areas where you want to control the mesh such as bolt holes.Mesh Perform the quick tetramesh with the specified settings. Note: There is no Undo function! You can. Locate T-connections in the model. 4. improves element quality by moving the midedge nodes of second order elements. Locate entities attached to the selected components. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. any surfaces edges that were ignored. Locate features in the model that have feature angles greater than 150 degrees. 6. Fix 2nd order midnodes This macro. A series of tools that help you located problem areas which can cause poor meshing: Find Holes Find T-Con Dihedrals Attached Try TetraMesh Locate holes in your model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . After making adjustments. Launch the Quick Tetramesh macro. You can manually mesh some critical geometry and select those elements as sacred elements. this persists until you exit HyperMesh. Suggested process to effectively use quick tetramesh: 1. These sacred elements need to be trias. Select these elements as sacred elements. attempt to remesh using different settings if you do not like the initial results.

or longer—but not shorter than half the length of the longer segment. nd The Fix 2 4. and use the radio buttons to determine whether HyperMesh should evaluate each element’s Jacobian at the corner nodes or the integration points. From that point onward. See the screenshot above for an example using a value of 30 degrees. the angle between the segments at the midnode will not exceed 180 degrees minus this value). An element selector and proceed button display in the panel area. Click the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes button on the geom/mesh Utility Menu. The Fix 2 Order Midnodes window opens.Typical usage of this utility begins with use of the check elems panel to identify poorly-formed nd elements. nd Order Midnodes window. you use the Fix 2 Order Midnodes utility: 1. HyperMesh 8. while a length of 0 would mean that the shorter segment might not exist—so this value must be greater than 0. A value of 1 represents perfectly equal segment length. choose your element quality constraints: Choose a maximum angle. The utility will move midnodes such that the angle at the ends of each segment will not deviate from a straight line by more than this amount (thought of another way. nd In the Fix 2 • Order Midnodes window. 2. Click proceed. Specify a minimum Jacobian value. Click the elems selector and select retrieve to load the saved failed elements. but no greater than 1. 3. and using that panel’s save failed option.5 would allow the shorter segment to be half as long as the longer segment. Specify a limit to the ratio of minimum and maximum length for the segments of the midnodebearing edges. This pop-up window exists independently of the rest of the HyperMesh environment. so you can click-and-drag it to any desired location. Remember that this is a minimum length. so a value of 0.0 User’s Guide 115 Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering • • Altair Engineering .

Reject undoes any changes made when you pressed apply. as well as the overall results: Before clicking Apply After clicking Apply 116 HyperMesh 8. a message displays under the Results heading to inform you of exactly what HyperMesh did to the mesh.5.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The images below illustrate the before-and-after state of a specific midnode and the criteria used. Close closes the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes window. Click one of the command buttons to finalize: • • • Apply tells HyperMesh to move the midnodes to try to match the criteria you specified. When you click Apply.

Pick nodes on your model for the centers of each hole that you wish to create. temporary panel in the HyperMesh panel area.0 User’s Guide 117 . located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. If you chose varying width for the layers. with a nodes selector and a proceed button. No. the table displays one row for each of the number of layers that you specified. You can also specify a number of layers of washer elements to include. measured from the node. Clicking the Trim Hole button opens a special. and specifies whether you want mesh layers to all be the same width. Otherwise. This toggle only applies when the number of layers is more than zero. creates a circular hole of a given radius in the mesh at a node specifying the center of the hole. only one row displays because all layers will be set to the same values. The number of a specific washer layer. This is the number of layers of washer mesh elements that you want to surround each hole. or to vary from one another. then click proceed. A new window opens: The options in the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window determine the type of hole that HyperMesh creates at each chosen node: Hole radius Number of layers Uniform/Varying Each node will receive a hole of this radius. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Trim Hole Macro This macro.

Width: specify a fixed width for each layer. • Scale: you can specify each layer’s scale relative to the Hole radius. Click this button to create the new hole(s). If you don’t like the results of the last trim operation. Close Fill Hole Macro This macro. • Value Create rigid spider along the hole The scale factor or width of the layer(s). Close the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window.Scale/Width Determines the width of the washer layers. For example. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. Minimum number of nodes around the hole Trim Reject This determines the mesh density around the new hole(s). Note: This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that currently fill the hole. When you click the Fill Hole button in the utility menu. if necessary. use “0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . so it can only undo multiple holes if they were created simultaneously during a single trim operation. fills in one or more holes in your geometry with automatically-generated mesh. Each new hole will be created with at least the number of nodes that you specify in the density field. a new window opens: 118 HyperMesh 8. click this button to undo it.5” for a washer layer that’s half as wide as the hole radius. Note that this only undoes a single click of the trim button. evenly spaced around its circumference. and enables two more options: • • Choose individual rigid links to create rigid elements at each node of the new hole. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. This checkbox tells HyperMesh to create a rigid spider in each of the new holes created. Choose single rigid link to create one rigid element that connects to all of the nodes around the new hole.

There are two methods of filling holes: Manual Use this option to select the holes that you wish to fill: 1. The window temporarily minimzes. whether you chose to select your holes manually or automatically. Click proceed in t he panel area. Split the model along global Y=0. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=value and X=xmax. Fill Reject Close Box Trim Macro The Box Trim macro. HyperMesh will automatically scan you model for holes smaller than this value. Type a value into the entry field labeled Fill circular holes with radius smaller than:. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=xmin and X=value. The Filling holes with mesh window returns. and X=value and X=xmax. with the Select Nodes button now green to indicate that nodes have been chosen. Click this button to perform the fill operation.0 and Y=ymax. a full car model can be trimmed along the Y=0 axis to obtain the left or right side of the car. The selected model can be trimmed along eight standard types: left right front rear frontleft frontright rearleft rearright Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y=ymin and Y= ymiddle (ymiddle =(ymin+ymax)/2). Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y= ymiddle and Y=ymax. Close the Filling holes with mesh window. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=ymiddle. and X=value and X=xmax.0.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. For example. Click the Fill button to fill the selected holes with mesh. Click the yellow Select Nodes button.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0.0 and X=value (selected value). and X=xmin and X=value. and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=0.0 and Y=ymax. Split the model along global Y=0.0 User’s Guide 119 . If you don’t like the results of the last fill operation. Split the model along global Y=0. so it can only undo multiple fills if they were created simultaneously during a single fill operation. 3. Note that this only undoes a single click of the fill button. and X=xmin and X=value. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. and attempt to fill them with mesh. returning you to the main HyperMesh environment with a nodes selector active in the panel area. allows you to trim the model (or selected subset) along the global axis to fit the selected 3-D box. Automatic Use this option to let HyperMesh select holes automatically based on size. 4. click this button to undo it. Select nodes on the edges of the holes that you wish to fill.

120 HyperMesh 8.This macro is useful in applications where some types of analysis can be performed on one-half (or quarter) of the model using symmetry boundary conditions.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The axis directions and terminology are based on modeling standards in the automotiv industry. e The model can also be trimmed using custom box by either selecting the two corner nodes or center node and dimensions. Note: This macro is for the 1st order plate elements only.

From the Box Trim dialog. The nodes are constrained in the appropriate directions depending on the trim axes and are stored in the specified load collector (SPC collector). A large hexa element that represents the box will be created for visualization in the specified collector. . Click Trim. the constraints are created in the current load collector. 3. Using the extended entity selection. define the box by either selecting two corner nodes (Corners) or selecting the center node and dimensions (Distance from center). Then enter Delta X. the outer X. Y and Z bounds of the box. click the icon. and select the two corner nodes that define If you select Distance from center. select the node/enter value for trim location. choose the appropriate option from the Box trim type: menu. (Reject will undo all the above. From the Geom/Mesh utility menu. . 6. click Box Trim. If you select a standard type. You can also specify a Box collector. If you select custom. If no elements are selected.) 5. If no load collector is specified. 4.To box trim a model: 1. select the elements you would like to trim and click proceed or the middle mouse button. and select the center node. click the icon. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. all displayed elements are selected. You can turn on the option of creating constraints (SPCs) for all the nodes along the face of the box. 2. Delta Y and Delta Z values which is the distance from the center node to the outer bounds of the box in global X. If you select Corners. Y and Z directions.0 User’s Guide 121 .

Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog 122 HyperMesh 8.Auto Connectors Macro Note: If you are unfamiliar with HyperMesh connector entities. Virtually every option available for FE realization in the connectors module is also available in the Auto Connectors macro. The Auto Connectors macro automates the importation and FE realization of connectors from either a Master Connectors File or an older Master Weld File.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . refer to Connector Definition and Connector Realization for more information.

the user-defined FE type-t o-realize is required.cfg file) in the Fe type field.cfg file. Additional options are: • • • Build systems Snap to node Attach to shells Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog .user-defined option Input requirements for connector entity creation and FE realization are: • • • Note: Master connectors/weld file FE config Projection tolerance In the case of a user-defined FE config.cfg file and displays a list of all the appropriate user-defined FE types (found in the feconfig. The property and diameter can be specified if necessary.0 User’s Guide 123 . This script automatically reads the default HyperMesh feconfig. The user-defined FE type definitions can be found in the appropriate feconfig.

Thickness Files DvsT file (diameter vs thickness ) contains a table that associates the thickness of components and the nugget diameter of the weld.exe feinput translator. These solid elements are connected to the corresponding components using RBE3 elements.0 for the thickness range of 1.99.25: 3. The second figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method. Th e solid element is created at the exact weld location independent of the shell elements that represent the sheet metal parts. Diameter vs. The length of the Hexa element will be equal to the actual distance between the two connecting components/elements.25:: Z 1. The nugget diameter corresponding to the minimum thickness of the connecting parts is obtained from the DvsT file.0 Nugget diameter 7 8 The nugget diameter is 7. The size of the hexa is calculated to match the cross-sectional area of the weld nugget. A format example is shown below. The first figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .0 Maximum thickness 1. This creates the Hexa elements between the component/element shell surface. see Spotweld Interface Overview.25:: PartId1 2:: 2:: PartId2 3:: 3:: 5:: PartId3 The syntax is the same as used for spotweld.25:: 3.9 3.05:: Y 2. Minimum thickness 1. The size of the solid element is determined using the DvsT file.4 to 1. The equivalent area is taken to determine the side of the hexa.0:: 0. The length of the weld element is calculated using one of the following methods: (T1+T2)/2 This creates the Hexa elements with a length equal to the average component thickness it is connecting. PointId 12:: 23:: 1t/2t/3t 2:: 3:: X 2. The weld is defined using a solid (HEXA) element whose cross-sectional area is equivalent to the area of the weld nugget. ACM Welds An ACM (Area Contact Method) weld is a special representation of a spot weld. The file format includes thickness range and the corresponding diameter of the weld nugget.Master Weld Files The Master Weld File provides the weld location and parts to be connected. Project to shell 124 HyperMesh 8.4 2. For additional supported formats. T1 and T2 are the component thicknesses.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 option ACM creation using Project to Shells option The weights of the RBE3 elements are calculated based on the projection of the dependent node on the shell element. ACM creation using (T1+T2)/2.0 User’s Guide 125 .The figures below show ACM created using the two currently available methods. The nodes of the shell element closest to the dependent node are assigned a greater weight relative to the node that is farther away.

hexas are created with weld nugget diameter =1. 5. Select the connectors to be realized as ACMs in the fe realize panel of the connectors module on the 1D page. Click realize. Set the appropriate tolerance (proj tol=) value. If no DvsT file is selected. Load the Nastran user profile from the user prof… panel in Geom or Tools page. the diameter is determined from a DvsT file based on the component thickness. 3. For CWELD elements. The 1D element is not connected to the shell element.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . they can be realized as ACM spotwelds as follows: 1. Make sure all the connecting parts have PSHELL cards with correct thicknesses. Make sure that the connectors are created at each of the weld locations along with connecting parts information. 8. 2. Choose custom element config and select type = Nastran 70 ACM((T1+T2)/2) or type = Nastran 71 ACM (Shell Gap) per your requirements. 4.ACM welds can be created and managed in HyperMesh using connectors. Once a connector is created. 9. which determines the size of the hexa based on the thicknesses of the components being connected. meshless elements. In addition to the creation of CWELD elements. The appropriate property script is automatically loaded for the selected type. 126 HyperMesh 8. 7.0. 6. CWELD Elements CWELD elements are created as patch-patch. Make sure the attach to shell and snap to node options are turned off in fe options…. Select a DvsT file. a corresponding property card (PWELD) is created with an updated diameter ‘D’ attribute value. For details regarding connected shell elements or nodal information see the element card.

and an interface customized for CFD uses. The configuration can include loading a specific template. Note that the user profiles change the appearance of a panel . A set of standard user profiles is included in the HyperMesh installation. The hmmenu. however. Actran. Note: Ensure that items required for a specific function are not removed from the interface. removing unused panels or sub-panels. the appropriate template and Utility menu load (you can return to the standard HyperMesh GUI by selecting the HyperMesh profile).0 User’s Guide 127 . Radioss. Nastran.set file keeps track of which user profile was last loaded. LsDyna. renaming panels. HyperMesh. moving. or renaming panel options. Permas. and removing. Madymo. Moldflow. add functions to (or remove them from) a panel. Ansys. The current user profile displays on the header bar. User profiles for the following products are included: HyperMesh OptiStruct ABAQUS ACTRAN ANSYS LS-DYNA MADYMO NASTRAN PAM-CRASH & PAM-CRASH2G PERMAS RADIOSS CFD Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Pamcrash.User Profiles The HyperMesh user interface can be configured according to your specific needs and saved as a user profile.they do not affect the internal behavior of each function. They include Abaqus. OptiStruct. Once you choose a standard user profile. loading a specific Utility menu. They may. Select User Profiles from the Preferences pull-down menu.

Utility menu: Panel changes: The standard HyperMesh Utility menu is loaded.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If a template file exists before loading the profile. the template remains the same.HyperMesh User Profile Template: None/Unchanged This user profile does not load a template. None The HyperMesh user profile does not load a template. If a template file exists before loading the profile. Using HyperMesh This section explains how to use a typical HyperMesh panel by description and example. the template remains the same. The standard HyperMesh Utility menu (hm.mac) is loaded. It contains information about: • • • • • • • • • • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Input Collectors Viewing Models Using the Display Panel Setting View Options Setting Tolerances Setting Global Parameters Importing and Exporting Data Printing Screen Images Using the Card Previewer 128 HyperMesh 8.

. select a file using the Open file.. and click Open. Save. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To retrieve a binary HyperMesh database. Next. or type in a name for the file to be saved. click retrieve. select a path and file name. To save a database. and Save As… options located in the Files pull-down menu.. dialog. If the file being saved already exists.. You can also click save as. HyperMesh asks for confirmation before overwriting the file. This process is familiar for users of HyperMesh 7.Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Using the File pull-down menu The simplest way to open or save a HyperMesh model database is to use the Open. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button.. and then select the hm file sub-panel. updating/overwriting its older version each time you Save. but can be less efficient than using the File menu.. Save simply saves the current model under its current name. click save..0 and earlier. you can also use the hm file sub-panel on the files panel to save and retrieve HyperMesh binary databases.0 User’s Guide 129 . Next. Open and Save As… both invoke browsers so that you can navigate to the desired file directory and either select a file to open. and then select the hm file sub-panel. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. and click Save. Using the Files Panel However..

Lines Each segment of a line has pick handles along its length. Components do not have pick handles. or surface within that component. Surfaces Components Surfaces do not have pick handles. line. 1-D element pick handles are displayed as letters at the centroid of the elements: K M BAR2 BAR3 R RL W RBE3 J ROD GAP spring masses bar2 bar3 rigid rigid link weld rbe3 joint rod gap Click the element handles check box on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel to switch on or off the display of element handles. A component can be selected by picking an element.Picking Entities on the Screen After you select the correct data type. Each pick handle is displayed as a small "+. Systems 130 HyperMesh 8. see Entity Selection. a "+" is displayed at only some of the pick handles." If there are many pick handles. The pick handle for a coordinate system is located at the origin of the system. Note: For more information about picking entities. you can use the mouse to pick the desired entities in the graphics area of the screen. You can set the default mode for the graphics mode you wish to use by activating/deactivating the *graphicengine(mode) command in the hm.cfg command file. Click geom handle on the modeling sub-panel on the options subpanel to switch on or off the display of line handles. Element handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. see Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements. The following list indicates the pick handle locations for each type of entity: Nodes The pick handle for a node is located at the node. Line handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. If you need to select nodes on geometry or on an element where nodes do not currently exist. Each type of entity has a pick handle that allows you to select the entity. To select a node. move the mouse to the location on the screen where the node resides. Elements Shell and solid element pick handles are displayed as pixels at the centroid of the element.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Surfaces can be selected along their edges or on interior UV lines (also known as surface lines). You may need to change the command if the default has been changed by a prior user.

To select a system collector. simply select a system within that system collector. Blocks are drawn in shaded mode with transparency and can be selected by picking anywhere on the entity.System Collectors Loads Load Collectors Plots Blocks System collectors do not have pick handles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Load collectors do not have pick handles. A plot can be selected by picking within its border. elements. Blocks do not have pick handles. The pick handle for a load is located at the pick handle of the entity to which the load is applied. To facilitate the selection of graphical entities such as nodes. Titles Vectors Curves Note A title can be selected by picking within its bounding box. you can turn on the coincident picking option from the modeling sub-panel of the options panel (accessed from the toolbar). simply select a load within that system collector. when several of them are coincident (present at the same location). A curve can be selected by clicking anywhere along the curve. Vector pick handles are located at the arrow tip of the vector. or loads. To select a load collector.0 User’s Guide 131 .

3. A temporary node is created at that location and is selected in the node collection for the panel. This function allows you to create welds at locations that do not have pre-existing nodes. This function can be accessed from any node collector in any panel. While the line/surface is highlighted. . While the line or surface is highlighted in this manner. you can select nodes at the desired location(s) on the geometry. The cursor becomes a small white box and the element is highlighted. release the left mouse button to select it. Continue to hold the left mouse button down and use the mouse to move this special cursor box close to the desired geometry entity. 132 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The cursor becomes a small white box 2. To select new nodes on geometry: 1. To select new nodes on elements: 1. Release the left mouse button. You can create nodes on elements by holding the left mouse button down on an element handle until the cursor becomes a square and selecting the element. edges. they also allow you to create new nodes on geometry or on elements. Position the cursor on a node and press the left mouse button. 3. Then move your cursor to the exact location on the geometry where you would like the node to be placed and click the left mouse button to place a node. Then move the cursor to the exact location on the elements of that component and click the left mouse button to place the node. position the cursor on an element handle and hold the left mouse button down. You can create temporary nodes on an element (similar to creating a node on the fly on a line or surface). When you are in a node collection mode. You can create a node on geometry by holding the left mouse button down along the geometry handle until the cursor becomes a square and then selecting the geometry (lines. surfaces) on which you would like to place a node. 2.Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements Node and node list input collectors allow you to not only pick existing nodes in the model. 4. Move your cursor to the exact location on the element where you want to add a node and click the left mouse button.

These selection options are displayed for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. With all other entities. When you select by assems. When you select all. Allows you to select entities by specifying an entity among a large group of continuously connected elements. When you select by attached. To access the extended selection menu.Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu The extended entity selection menu provides a number of entity selection options. Input Collector Extended entity selection menu. loads. Allows you to select entities by assembly. If you select component collectors in regard to elements or lines. equations. You can then select an option from the extended entity selection menu. surfaces. Allows you to select elements. You may select multiple collectors from this list. vectors. HyperMesh displays a list of the available assemblies. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are displayed in dimmed text. the entities selected by this operation are those attached to the selected component. You may select multiple assemblies from this list. coordinate systems. by adjacent by assems by attached by collector Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. click the data type button on the current input collector. HyperMesh includes the entities currently displayed that are attached to the entities already selected. When you select by collector. Allows you to select entities adjacent to the entities already selected. Extended selection techniques are described in the following table: all Allows you to select all entities of the specified type. HyperMesh includes the entities that are adjacent to the entities already selected.0 User’s Guide 133 . the set to be added to the user mark includes entities displayed and those not displayed. HyperMesh displays a list of the available collectors. and points by collector. Entities that are not displayed will not be selected although they may be attached to the entity selected. When you select by adjacent. the elements or lines contained in the selected components are selected. lines.

When you select by include. When you select by id. Examples of valid lists of by id expressions: 1. Examples of valid by id expressions: 127 127 – 722 300 through 600 300 thru 600 300 t 600 1000 . The element type is dependent on the template file specified in the global panel.by config Allows you to select elements by configuration and type. 5. HyperMesh displays a list of the available includes that you may select. You may select multiple groups from this list. When you select by group. groups and mats within an outputblock. a pop-up window prompts you to type ID numbers or ranges of ID numbers. 8 . Note: Includes created via the include browser are only valid for solvers that support them. 134 HyperMesh 8. that belong to selected include. When you select by config. systs. HyperMesh displays a list of the available groups. 800.<end number> by <increment value> "through". 5. 3. It finds surfaces and elements that are attached to each other without crossing a feature line. 4. HyperMesh displays a list of the available output blocks from which you may select. by output block Allows you to select the nodes. loads. You can use keywords to specify a range that determines which entities are selected. 850 1 . 400 t 500 b 3 by face by group by id by include Allows you to select FE entities such as elements. elements. adjacent surfaces or elements are progressively selected when the angle between them is less than or equal to the specified feature angle. Allows you to select entities by group. Output blocks are created in the output blocks panel.100 by 2. Attached. comps. The feature angle parameter in the options panel’s modeling sub-panel determines the feature lines. Allows you to select entities by typing in their ID numbers. The standard format is: <start number> . or "t" may be substituted for the dash (-).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and the letter "b" may be substituted for "by" when you specify the range. 100 3.2000 b 100 You can also use a comma to separate individual entities or entity ranges. groups etc. Allows you to select entities by surface face.10. 77. HyperMesh displays a panel for specifying an element configuration and type for selection.2000 by 100 1000 . "thru". When you select by output block.

0 User’s Guide 135 . Allows you to duplicate the currently selected elements. Allows you to select the entities within a set. and selects all the nodes/lines that fall in the closest path connecting the selected ones. The initially selected entities are deselected when the duplicate elements are created and selected. Select original to place the new entities in the same component collectors as the original entities. When you select by surface. If you select two nodes on a free edge of some elements. Allows you to select surfaces by width. as shown in the global panel. Allows you to select a group of entities whose pick handles reside on a plane. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes. Similarly. a pop-up window allows you to choose a component for the newly created duplicate entities. Allows you to select entities inside a user-defined multiple-sided polygon in the plane of the screen. click select and HyperMesh selects the entities which are associated to the surfaces. the function tries to find the closest path along that free edge. either by picking a sample surface or by specifying a range of values for the width. Once the surfaces have been selected. Allows you to select all of the entities currently displayed on the screen. HyperMesh displays a list of the available sets from which you may select. Sets are created in the entity sets panel. Allows you to select the entities which are associated to a surface. This can be very useful when you use the reflect function on a model (only available for elements and lines). Entities can be saved to the user mark by selecting save in this popup window. You can associate entities to a surface in the node edit panel. by sets by surface by window by width displayed duplicate on plane retrieve Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select points in the graphics area to define a window enclosing the pick handles of the desired entities. surfaces. Allows you to retrieve previously saved entities from the user mark. all entities within collectors that are active in the disp (display) panel are selected. Click select entities to highlight the enclosed entities. When you select duplicate. Selecting by window activates the build window panel. click reject entities to deselect enclosed entities that were previously highlighted. or points. When disp is selected. or by selecting save failed in the check elems panel. Alternatively. lines. and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. HyperMesh displays a panel from which you may select one or more surfaces. by path for lines uses the connectivity of surfaces/solids and thus requires the selected lines to be surface/solid edges. Select current to place the new entities in the currently active component collector. When you select by sets.by path Allows you to pick multiple nodes or lines. This is useful when you want to apply constraints to a plane.

This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). If you select two nodes on the free edge of the elements. If you select two free (red) edges. show node order by window The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. Allows you to pick nodes (two or more) and selects all the nodes that fall in the closest path connecting the selected nodes. the function tries to find the closest path along the free edge. such as nodelist and linelist must remember the sequence in which the entities are selected. The nodelist collector displays the following extended selection options: save Notes: by list by path Allows you to select nodes individually in the desired sequence. all elements which are not on the mark and are currently active are selected.reverse Allows for a Boolean "not" to be performed on the currently displayed elements. origin in the systems panel requires only one node. Some collectors. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. Thus their extended entity selection menu is different from that of the standard extended selection menu. The extended entity selection menu is not displayed in such situations. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally. 136 HyperMesh 8. Allows you to save the currently selected entities to a holding area known as the user mark. When reverse is selected.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . all selected elements are removed from the mark. Some panels in HyperMesh require only a single entity to collect. Allows you to review the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. for example. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. it only works with surface edges and not free unconnected geometric lines. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges.

then click-and-drag on the model in the graphics area. The viewing functions allow you to: Setting Basic Views The view pop-up menu allows you to display your model in several basic views. and restore different views of your model. Click the user view button in the Toolbar Area to access the view menu. The view menu Changing the Window The window viewing options allow you to zoom in and out of the currently displayed window. The view commands are accessible even when you are using other panels. The view zooms to that circle when you release the mouse button. click-and-drag the mouse to zoom in and out. • • • Use the left. Hold down the ctrl key. right.0 User’s Guide 137 . Slide zoom. The following window viewing options are included as default keyboard shortcuts: z + and f p s Circle zoom: click-and-drag the mouse to draw a circle. up. or rotate the model in clockwise or counterclockwise directions. fill the window with the model. reverse the view. then click cw (clockwise) or ccw (counterclockwise). The save and restore options allow you to save. Using View Rotation There are multiple methods you can use to rotate a displayed model. and refresh the screen. specify an area to see in closer detail. Release the mouse button to stop zooming.Viewing Models The functions on the Toolbar Area allow you to control the view of your model. and down arrow keys to rotate the model incrementally. (Numeric keypad) Current Window Zoom Fit to screen Plot (refreshes the rendering in the Graphics Area). identify. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. View pop-up menu.

2. HyperMesh displays a message requesting you to circle the area of the model to be more closely investigated. Use the mouse to drag the model to the desired position on the screen. Slide the mouse: or 4. 2. 3. To use the mouse to zoom in and out: 1. press the p key or the plot refresh toolbar button to refresh the screen. The area circled is used to recalculate the window when the mouse button is released. To perform a circle zoom: 1. Press Z on the keyboard. If the screen appears messy or inaccurate after entities have been plotted and erased. 2. The model and/or the window are not resized when you refresh the screen. Press .on the numeric keypad to zoom out. To zoom in and out of the current window: 1. A trailer line appears wherever the mouse is moved. To refresh the screen: • Click the plot refresh toolbar button or press P on the keyboard. 138 HyperMesh 8. down to zoom in up to zoom out Release the mouse button to end the zoom function. Move the mouse to the appropriate area on the screen and hold the left mouse button down. The cursor changes to dynamic center mode. Automatic full screen refreshes are kept to a minimum. To drag the model: 1. Click and hold the mouse button. With the mouse button still depressed. 2. These two functions increase or decrease the current window by the user-defined factor specified on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel. move the mouse to circle the area to be zoomed in on. Press + on the numeric keypad to zoom in.CTRL . 3. Simultaneously press and hold the CTRL key and the right mouse button.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .right click allows you to drag the model. To fit the entire model on the screen: • Press F on the keyboard. Release the mouse button. Press the s key.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 139 . 3. You can toggle between two views of a model by clicking (or pressing) repeatedly. To change the screen center: 1.Performing View Translation Translation of the model. zoom. Move the mouse into the graphics area. click the previous view button in the Toolbar Area or press b on the keyboard. Exit by moving the mouse into the menu area. 4. This returns the screen graphic to the view before a rotation. center. The current center is indicated by a small white box. Press C on the keyboard. Move the mouse to the point where you want the new center located and click the left mouse button. or other viewing manipulation was performed. also called panning. The center relocates. or by pressing any key. Return to the Previous View To return to the previous view of your model. by clicking the right mouse button. 2. is performed by selecting a new center for the current window.

3. Click the lower switch and select name to display the collector’s name. 2. To turn all the collectors off: • Click none. the elements in the selected components are displayed if the component (on the left-hand side of the panel) is selected. Click the upper switch. Select the collector type. 2. allows you to select which components and collectors are displayed on the screen. The colors of each component display next to the component names. 2. or both: 1. The name and ID of the collector are displayed on the left side of the page. Collectors can also be turned off by moving the mouse to the graphics region and picking an entity which they collect. located on the permanent menu. 140 HyperMesh 8. Click all. 3. Select the type of collector you want to display. To turn a collector off: 1. 2. To turn a collector on: 1. Components can be turned on and off by selecting the check boxes of the components in the display list. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click the lower switch and select name (id) to display the name and the collector’s ID number. 2. At this setting.Using the disp (display) Panel The disp (display) panel. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. the switches (on the right-hand side of the panel) are set to comps and elems. Select the type of collector you want to display. Click the upper switch. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. Access it by clicking the display button in the Toolbar Area or selecting Display > Collectors from the View pull-down menu. Use the right mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want removed. The name of the collector is displayed on the left side of the page. Click the lower switch and select (id) to display the collector’s ID number instead of the name. Use the left mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want added to the display. Click the upper switch. The ID of the collector is displayed in parenthesis on the left side of the page. To change the collector list to display names. To change to another collector type: 1. To turn on all the collectors of a specified type: 1. In the default mode of the display panel. Select the type of collector you want to remove from the screen display. IDs.

2.To reverse the selection: • Click reverse to toggle between having all the selected components on or off. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click the leftmost toggle to filter =. Enter the character string to use for the filter. You can use the asterisk (*) for a wildcard. To display geometry: • Click the toggle and select geoms to display the surfaces and lines in a component.0 User’s Guide 141 . To use a filter: 1.

if multiple loads are detected at the same location. loads and systems. This does not affect the display of free points. in pixels. that the cursor can be from the pick handle of a graphical entity in order to select it. a circular insert pops up containing various loads displayed separately with their IDs turned on. For example. For smaller models. An element handle is a single-pixel dot at the centroid of an element.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The geom handles option allows you to specify whether or not to display line and surface handles. Turning off pick handles can speed up the redraw time. The surf lines parameter specifies the default number of u-v lines to draw on new surfaces when they are created. You can then pick the appropriate load. Increasing or decreasing the angle makes the model appear to rotate faster or slower. The element handles option specifies whether or not to draw element handles. This sub-panel also allows you to specify node and cleanup tolerances. This option allows you to display the element labels as template names or HyperMesh names. This function is activated by turning on coincident picking in the options panel. Viewing option settings include: rotate angle The rotate angle specifies the number of degrees that your model rotates when you use the arrow keys. The zoom factor specifies the multiplication factor that is used to increase or decrease the scale of the current view when you press the + and – keys on the numeric keypad. When the pick tolerance is increased. Fixed points can also be turned on and off from vis opts in the geometry cleanup panel. it is easier to pick an entity. setting the rotation angle to a lower value allows a smooth transition from frame to frame. The entities supported for coincident picking are nodes. for more information see Setting Tolerances.Setting View Options The modeling sub-panel on the options panel (accessible via to toolbar or the Tools pull-down menu) allows you to define several viewing options. The pick tolerance specifies the maximum distance. pick tol zoom factor surf lines element handle geom handle coincident picking template labels/ HM labels 142 HyperMesh 8. elements. fixed points The fixed points option allows you to specify whether or not to display fixed points. The element handles option also allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. Displaying surface lines can help you to visualize a surface better. The number of surface lines on existing surfaces can be changed by using the surf lines panel. but it can slow down the redraw speed of a large model. The coincident picking option allows you to graphically select a desired entity from a stack of coincident entities when there are multiple entities at the same location.

as you are not required to have a pick handle on the screen in order to pick the entity.Shrink The shrink option controls the shrink factor to be used when drawing elements. so that its corners do not appear to touch its nodes. Hidden Line with Feature Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the "feature" edges drawn in mesh line color. select the element to which the node of interest is attached. If a shrink value is applied. The display attributes that you can assign to each component are: Wireframe Element edges display with lines. the element is scaled by the specified value about its centroid. then selecting FE Styles. Shrinking elements is a convenient way to detect holes in a mesh and to improve wireframe element picking. Component Display The graphics engine treats each HyperMesh component as an independent unit. Transparent The element displays as a filled transparent polygon. Hidden Line The element displays as a filled polygon. They can be applied to individual components or sets of components through the Visual Attributes panel. For nodes that are not attached to any elements. Access this panel by opening the View pull-down menu. each element is drawn so that its corners directly connect to its nodes. If no shrink is selected. Entity Selection The graphics engine allows you to select entities by moving the mouse anywhere along the entity of interest. The shrink value must be between 0 and 1. HyperMesh selects the node closest to the point where the element was selected. HyperMesh allows you to select the node by picking the "node sphere" on the screen. Display attributes can be applied to all components by using the wireframe elements and shaded elements toolbar buttons. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The benefit of this feature is that it allows you to create zero length elements between two coincident nodes in a mesh. Hidden Line with Mesh Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the edges drawn in mesh line color. For lines and surfaces. To select a node. Another key feature in the graphics engine is the method by which nodes are selected. it is much easier to work when you are zoomed in on a particular area. This feature allows you to assign a set of display attributes to each component of your model that determines how each component is displayed.0 User’s Guide 143 .

If this occurs. since HyperMesh is creating entities that reside in the same location in space as another entity. and displays these instead of displaying all of the faces. To perform this task.User Features of the Graphics engine When you are post-processing. If swapping occurs while you are running HyperMesh. If this situation occurs. then HyperMesh draws the whole model in hidden line.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh relies on the zbuffer found on your graphics device. The cutting plane feature can be found in the hidden line. it may help to use the shrink option (modeling sub-panel on the options panel). The isosurfaces sub-panel is available on the contour and animation panels. and faces panels. Optimization The graphics engine optimizes the display of your finite element model. Isosurfaces Hidden components Memory usage 144 HyperMesh 8. To correct this situation. the graphics engine offers advanced and powerful features: Cutting plane Cutting plane functions have been expanded to allow three planes to be active simultaneously. edges. This can make it very difficult to see a node. The zbuffer allows HyperMesh to render your model in hidden line. HyperMesh graphics use some memory. When a component is set to hidden line. One problem with using the zbuffer technology is that if two entities lie in the same location in space. the display lines which represent the edges (for example) might be partially or completely blocked out by the original entity in the database. Cutting plane control is more interactive and is controlled by selecting any of the active planes with the mouse and then dragging the plane across the model. the graphics engine draws all selected or temporary nodes as spheres when one or more components are set to a display attribute other than wireframe. you can turn the zbuffer off by making all of the components in your model wireframe. you might see a "dotting" or "stitching" effect where the zbuffer considers one entity to be closer to you at one pointer. contour. this could seriously affect performance. the zbuffer may have difficulty deciding which entity to display. Potential areas of zbuffer stitching are in the features. the interior is filled with solid color. with the elements in back eliminated from the display. or nearly the same location in space. you should obtain more system memory. One of the optimizations is the removal of interior solid faces. In some cases. HyperMesh calculates where the external faces are in your model. Here. or as a value-based surface in which you specify a value that indicates where an isosurface should be displayed. If you have solid elements in your model. Isosurfaces can be displayed on a model in either a legendbased mode in which each of the legend colors generates an isosurface. and animation panels. and then another entity closer to you at another. If you encounter this problem. There are some limitations to using a zbuffer and some display output differences of which you should be aware. If one or more of the components in a model are set to a display style besides wireframe.

which is accessible from the toolbar or from the Tools pull-down menu. These tolerance values include: node tol Node tolerance is essentially the resolution to which HyperMesh maintains the finite element data in the model.0 Cleanup tolerance min.. but without additional input it uses a cautious estimate. Use this panel or the template sub-panel on the files panel to specify the template file you want to use. These parameters remain constant until changed. and eliminating extraneous vertices.1 0.01 1e-3 0. The global panel controls which components or collectors are active. accessed by selecting Global Parameters from the Model pull-down menu. HyperMesh considers any two nodes to be coincident if the distance between them is less than the value.0 10. and initializes the tolerances as appropriate.0 100. Elements are designated as first order elements by default.0 User’s Guide 145 . cleanup tol Since the objective is to make a finite element mesh for the geometry.1 10. the tolerance values are determined by the demands for that mesh.01 1e-3 0.1 10. When you specify a node tolerance. Element size Node tolerance min max 0.1 1.0 Setting Global Parameters The global panel. HyperMesh attempts to make a reasonable guess at this value when you import a CAD file.1 0.01 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you need to work with a cleanup tolerance that is less than the node tolerance used in the mesh generation. "Cleaning up" refers to cleaning up the CAD geometry data by equivalencing edges.0 1e-4 0. controls model parameters that are accessed by several different panels. The cleanup tolerance value specifies how much HyperMesh is allowed to modify the geometry in the course of "cleaning" it.0 0. deleting fillets. any entities created are stored in the active collectors. click the toggle after element order: to second.Setting Tolerances The modeling sub-panel is located on the Options panel. This sub-tab allows you to define tolerance values. If you want to create second order elements.01 1. You need to approximate the size of the elements that make up the smallest feature of importance in your model..0 0.max 1e-4 0. Since you will approximate the geometry with a finite element mesh.

hm) into the current model session. Select the desired file type. 5. The custom option can be used to import models using a translator provided with the HyperMesh installation but cannot be accessed via the pop-up menu. The CAD formats currently supported are IGES. Moldflow. Click the “open folder” icon in the directory field to open a browser. Pamcrash. you can select the ones you don’t want and then invert the selection. You can modify the existing templates to support a desired feature or create a new template to support another analysis code. and Ideas. Altair Engineering 9. 6. HyperMesh ascii. You can also use the templates to perform complex editing or data manipulation tasks. Select the desired file extension to limit the files that display in the files to import list. VDAFS. Click import to open the import sub-menu. 7. The window minimizes during the import process. HM ASCII. Marc. Nastran. Click Import to import the selected files. The export sub-panel on the files panel allows you to write information from a HyperMesh database to many finite element formats. This is useful in cases when you want to choose most of the files in the list. Ls-Dyna. Abaqus. Click the button to invert the selection (deselect any currently selected files and select any currently non-selected ones). Browse to and select the directory that contains the models you wish to import. Cmold. Patran. Click Close to close the Multiple File Import window. DXF. The HyperMesh templates can be used to create model summaries and perform some analysis calculations. Click the button to select all of the files in the list. To import multiple files: 1. and STEP. <ctrl>-click to select multiple files one at a time. Click the file pull-down menu. • Selected files are highlighted to indicate their selection. PRO/E. 2. Click multiple files. PDGS. 8. You can also import/merge HyperMesh model files (.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . The FE formats we support are Optistruct. The Multiple File Import window opens. HyperMesh uses templates to create the analysis input decks for finite element solvers. UG. but not all. 4. 3. STL. Geometry data can be written in IGES format. CATIA. The CUSTOM interface allows you to import models using your own custom-built translation package. Ansys. and a secondary window opens to show the import progress and any errors that may occur.Importing and Exporting Data The import sub-panel on the files panel allows you to input external CAD line and surface data or finite element models. Radioss. 146 HyperMesh 8. Click the button to deselect all of the files in the list. Select the desired files in the files to import list: • • • • Left-click to select a single file.

(Note that the IGES interface exports geometry only.To read data using a standard translator: 1. 3. 4.) To create an analysis deck via an external translator: 1. and use the browser to select the file containing the data. Click template = and specify the file name of the template file. For file:. Click write as. and enter the name of the output file or select.. A column of switches and toggles appears on the right. 3. For translator:. Select IGES. template = appears if it is not already present. A new input field. click import. To read data using a custom translator: 1. 2. 4. 7. or layers & groups. Select EXTERNAL. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. 5. if they are not already present.0 User’s Guide 147 . 6. Select IGES. 8. click browse… and choose the translator required to read the file. 5. Click the upper switch and select the plane format of the data. 2. 3.. 4. 6. and use the browser to select a file. 3. Click filename = and enter the name of the output file.. Click write. Click write. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. Select the FE option.. 2. Select the data format that corresponds to your input data from the pop-up menu. To write geometry data in IGES format: 1.. groups. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. 2. Click the lower switch and select layers. 9. 4. For file:. Click the toggle and choose either outer loop optional or outer loop mandatory. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. click import. Select the CUSTOM option.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .0 inches. you must have a PostScript capable printer installed. Set the options to your print specifications. Deactivate the color checkbox to print in black and white. To change PostScript settings file: 1. You can check this by selecting Print from the File menu to show the print dialog box and pressing the Properties button next to the printer name. Select fill model to expand the model to its maximum size within the graphics area of the PostScript page. press the Options button in the print dialog. The ? is a number provided for file uniqueness. Select bitmap preview to generate an image that can be viewed when you view the file in another document. 3. Select generate bitmaps to generate a bitmap PostScript file. A PostScript file with the name post?. The generate bitmaps option must be off if you select this option.Printing Screen Images The postscript sub-panel on the options panel allows you to modify the default print specifications before you create a PostScript file. and * is an extension (either eps for a PostScript file whose destination is the hard disk. To print an imported encapsulated PostScript image in MS Word. To create a PostScript file: 1. Select fill to page to fill the PostScript image to the specified page dimensions. The following options are available in the options panel. The standard page length is 11. Click page length = and enter the new size to alter the page length. plot optimize page length = 148 HyperMesh 8.* is generated. the PostScript preview or file information is printed instead of the actual PostScript image. Select Options from the Tools pull-down menu. or psp for a PostScript file whose destination is the printer). reverse video generate bitmaps fill to page fill model bitmap preview Select reverse video to indicate that your printer cannot produce reverse video images. 2. postscript sub-panel: color checkbox Activate the color checkbox to print in color. a PostScript tab is present in the properties dialog. Open the File pull-down menu. This requires processing time to optimize the image output. To set MS Word to send the imported file as a PostScript image to the printer. Select plot optimize to decrease the size of the PostScript file generated. Select Image > PostScript. 2. The color checkbox is active by default. If it is not selected. Select the PostScript sub-panel. Make sure the option Print PostScript over text is selected. If the printer selected is capable of printing PostScript.

The standard page width is 8. please contact your systems administrator.cfg. On UNIX platforms. The resolution is displayed in the header bar. hm. CTRL-F2 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. The slider controls the smoothness of the gradient fill of the blended contour. The enhanced option allows you to print blended contours (not discrete). If the functions do not create output.) Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. CTRL-F1 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Select print it to send a copy of the file to the printer when you generate the PostScript file. the default installation does not spool the bitmap file to the printer. Printing Screen Images Using Keyboard Commands You can also use the following function keys in combination with the CTRL key to print and/or save screen images without accessing the postscript sub-panel. a slider bar is displayed. (Note: This works only in UNIX. CTRL-F3 CTRL-F4 CTRL-F5 CTRL-F6 Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click image size = and enter the new size to scale the image on the page to your specifications.jpg screen capture or animation file. This command executes the operating system command in the *postcopy() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file.0 User’s Guide 149 .5 inches. your systems administrator must configure these functions for your system.page width = image size = line width = print it standard/enhanced Click page width = and enter the new size to alter the page width.cfg. hm. It creates a smaller PS file. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. If you select enhanced. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. hm.cfg. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Generates a *. Click the toggle to standard/enhanced to change the postscript file resolution to print blended contours. but takes longer to generate. In order for the functions to work correctly. Select line width = and enter the new width to alter the line width.

Default values for attributes are common throughout the card previewer. A default value field has two states: State Default = ON Default = OVERRIDDEN Description In this state. Any control card viewed in the card previewer is activated. To override a default value field. Those control cards that are defined (green in the control card editor) are output. the field label color is yellow and no data entry is allowed.) Inactive Note: Color Gray Green Red Explanation The control card was either never created or has been deleted. the control card is not output. and allows you to enter data in the field. however.Using the Card Previewer A control card may be in one of three states: State Undefined Defined (See note. the label text color changes to cyan. 150 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When you override a default value field. The attributes for that card remain. pick the yellow field label. A card that has been defined may be disabled.

the following building process is used: • • • • • • Create collectors Obtain line and surface geometry from an external file. or hand digitize the data Reconcile conflicts in the geometry and prepare it for use Build the model by using element-building panels Verify the quality of the model Create boundary conditions and systems Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 151 .General Process for Building Models This section describes how to build a finite element model in HyperMesh. In general.

Click create. Click the upper switch and select comps. 4. create a component collector for the lines and surfaces. You are not required to provide a material name when you create a component or property.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 6. Where available. 2. The collectors panel allows you to create and update collectors and assign and edit card images or dictionaries. Select the create sub-panel. Click the switch under creation method:. Select the collectors panel. 3. 6. click color and select the desired color for the component from the pop-up menu. − − − Select no dictionary or no card image if you do not want to assign a dictionary or card image. 7. Select dictionary or card image and then click dictionary = or card image = to select the dictionary or card image from a list. HyperMesh automatically creates a material for you and gives it the same name as the component or property. Click return. 4. For collector type:. Based on the assigned template. HyperMesh uses the definitions contained in the dictionaries or card image to translate models to external analysis codes. Select the collectors panel. Before you build a model in HyperMesh. 152 HyperMesh 8. refer to Collectors in Database Design. Click the switch under creation method: and select no card image. To create a collector: 1. If you are creating a component or property collector. Click name = and enter a name for the collector. To create a component: 1.Creating Collectors All entities in a HyperMesh database are stored in collectors. 5. Select the create sub-panel. Click name= and enter comp1. Select same as and then click same as = to select the collector whose type and dictionary or card image information you want to copy from an existing collector. each collector may use a dictionary or card image to define the attributes assigned to the collector. Click create. If you choose not to. 3. Note: For more information about the types of collectors used in HyperMesh. select material = and enter a name for the material. 5. 7. 2. click the switch and select the type of collector that you want to create. 8. if desired.

DXF. Parasolid. ACIS and STEP. HyperMesh creates a new component if an active component does not already exist. and point data) in the following formats: CATIA (V4 and V5). Using the toggle. The types of geometric entities and organizational information imported vary for different formats. Click Open to import the model into HyperMesh. Pro/E. VDAFS.0 User’s Guide 153 . Unigraphics. 3. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. or select cleanup tol and enter a tolerance value. When the geometry is read into the current database. Select the appropriate file format to be imported from the pop-up menu. − − Using the toggle. Click import… to invoke the file browser and select the file that contains your geometry data. 5. Select the Geom option. select create blanked component or no blanked component. Blanked components are geometric data that exists in the CAD file but is marked as not displayed or turned on. To import geometry: 1. IGES. 4. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. select use automatic cleanup tol to use the cleanup tolerance associated with the geometry of the imported file. please review the individual CAD translator topics for additional information. surface data. PDGS.Reading Geometry HyperMesh imports CAD geometry (such as lines.

or shrinking. and at the intersection of other geometry. at tangents.Creating Geometry Data If geometry is not available from a CAD system. spheres. and create a spline surface and/or mesh in the enclosed area. Edit existing surfaces by removing individual features such as holes or fillets. including: from points. There is no limit on the number of lines used to create a mesh/surface. The ruled. cones. including squares. knots and weights. Edit existing surfaces by trimming. you can create or edit geometry using the line and surface builders. Creating NURBS surfaces A NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) surface is a parametric surface defined by control points. spline/filler. The spline option creates a surface through 3-D lines. The panels used in this process are listed below: lines creation and editing panels lines line edit circles Create lines in a variety of methods. smooth. Edit existing lines in a variety of methods such as combine.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you select a set of lines that do not form a closed loop. or extend. Several methods are available. 154 HyperMesh 8. split. and cylinders. HyperMesh will connect the disconnected lines with straight lines. Create standard shaped surfaces or solid entities. drag. such as spline. Create circles or arcs. point/node creation and editing panels nodes temp nodes Create new nodes. These lines form one path because they intersect at four points. or spin. Add or remove nodes used only for geometry creation or editing. and drag/spin sub-panels of the surfaces panel can be used to create NURBS surfaces. extending. surfaces creation and editing panels surfaces primitives surface edit defeature Create surfaces from existing lines or nodes by different methods.

The tolerance setting on the options panel is used to determine the intersections between lines. These lines may need to be "smoothed" by using the line edit panel or replaced with a new. Lines that contain sharp edges can cause problems when you create a surface.These lines form more than one path and cause an error. These lines result in a more complex surface. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These sharp edges are sometimes the result of data created on other CAD/CAM systems and brought into HyperMesh via a translator. line by using the lines panel.0 User’s Guide 155 . and slows the automeshing process. smooth. which takes longer to create. Creating a surface with these lines results in a relatively complex surface. If the tolerance is too small and an intersection cannot be found. HyperMesh reports an error when you attempt to create the surface.

In some cases the sharp edges are required to represent the model and should not be smoothed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Lines used to define a skinned surface.The "circular" shaped line has been replaced with a smooth line. The skin option can create a skinned surface through a set of lines. 156 HyperMesh 8. A skinned surface created from the lines. which results in a much simpler surface.

0 User’s Guide 157 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The ruled option can create a ruled surface between two lines. Lines used to create a ruled surface. A ruled surface created from the lines.

In the temp nodes panel. edit elements). faces. protecting them from automatic removal by HyperMesh’s database management (except for some panels that automatically clear all temporary nodes. If several surfaces share an edge. i. and release it to confirm the selection. 158 HyperMesh 8. duplicates of the lines are created and the operation is applied to the duplicates. you can select any one of them by clicking on the edge. If you use any surface edge lines in the line edit panel. there are three functions: • • • add clear clear all • • • Adds selected individual nodes to the temporary node list.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The temp nodes panel allows you to modify the temporary node list. edges. Picking Surfaces In HyperMesh. Removes all the temporary nodes from the database. There may be times when you wish to use an unattached node later in the modeling process. moving the mouse slightly from side to side. where appropriate. you can display surfaces in wireframe mode or in shaded mode. Similar to wireframe mode. Removes selected individual nodes from the temporary node list. In shaded mode. you can hold the left mouse button down until the surface of interest is highlighted. and while holding the mouse button down. click anywhere on the surface to select it.Temporary Nodes A temporary node list retains nodes that are not attached to an element. In wireframe mode. Each surface highlights as selected.e. the easiest method of selecting a surface is to pick the surface near its edges or surface visualization lines. Surface edges may be used in the same way as lines in any surface creation panel.. Release the mouse button when the desired surface is highlighted.

If the sweep does not intersect the surface. You must select the surface and the line and specify a direction vector. It is usually preferable to combine multiple faces into one surface entity before you use the meshing tools.0 User’s Guide 159 . A circle and a surface (represented with surface lines) before trimming. The surface is trimmed by sweeping the line along the vector and intersecting the surface with the sweep. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can use the surface edit panel to modify surface geometry when it is necessary to make changes before you generate a mesh. to trim a surface with a line. This allows them to be meshed at the same time. The features and automesh panels have a cleanup sub-panel. two new surfaces are created (shown highlighted) and the original surface is trimmed. For example. the surface is not trimmed.Editing Surfaces Each HyperMesh surface contains one or more faces. After the circle is used to trim the surface. which contain surface editing tools. use the trim with line sub-panel of the surface edit panel.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .To trim one surface with another. The smaller surface is split into two surfaces after it is trimmed with the larger surface. use the trim with surf sub-panel. Two surfaces before trimming. 160 HyperMesh 8.

you can use the smooth panel to smooth elements on the surface and the node edit panel to move the nodes along the surface. the nodes are automatically associated to the surface. or element.Associativity Nodes and elements can be associated to surfaces. use the node edit or project panel. However. associativity is broken. When nodes are associated to a surface. If you transform. such as translate. the associativity is not broken. Note: Re-associating nodes to a surface is usually a time consuming task. a surface. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Associated nodes and elements can be selected by surface. Associativity is also broken if you trim a surface. Some operations break associativity. which allows you to select all the nodes and/or elements associated to a surface. if you transform a component that contains both a surface and its associated nodes/elements. When you create a mesh with the automesher.0 User’s Guide 161 . To re-associate a node to a surface. node.

To make the geometry more appropriate for meshing. each a separate mathematical face.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . point edit. The initial CAD geometry often contains gaps. their priorities are different from those of analysts trying to use the data. analysts need to combine a number of faces into a single smooth surface. or pinholes. misalignments.Geometry Cleanup When designers create CAD geometry. The quick edit. and autocleanup panels contain tools to help you prepare surface geometry for meshing. 162 HyperMesh 8. edge edit. A single smooth surface is typically split into smaller patches. and prevents unnecessary artificial or accidental edges from being present in the final mesh. overlaps. This allows the elements to be created on the entire region at once. The juncture between two surfaces often contains gaps. These features can distort the elements or demand a finer mesh. or other misalignments.

combine surfaces into large meshing regions. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Using the simpler.With the tools of the geometry cleanup panels. cleaner geometry. you can easily build a much better mesh.0 User’s Guide 163 . you can close the gaps between surfaces. and eliminate pinholes.

Weld Note: Supports weld elements.Building Elements After you create or obtain geometry data. edges. Supports NASTRAN RBE3 elements. Note: bar3s contain a third node designed to supported second order beams. plots. a value of mass. or features panel. Plot elements are generated in the edit element. Supports springs or damper. Supports gap elements. The 1-D element-building panels are located on the 1D page of the default main menu. springs. Masses can be created in the masses panel. and a property reference. line mesh. and joints. Altair Engineering 164 HyperMesh 8. elem offset. The following list indicates the storage capabilities and purpose of each of the 1-D elements. rbe3s. Building 1-D Elements One-dimensional elements currently supported in HyperMesh include bar2s. Purpose Supports complex beams. welds. Supports complex beams. 1-D Element Bar2 Stores A property reference A local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Bar3 Property reference Local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Gap Joint Property reference Property reference Optional orientation nodes or system(s) Plot RBE3 Rigid link A reference to two nodes A degree of freedom at each node Weight at each node A degree of freedom code One independent node Multiple dependent nodes Rigid Rod Spring A degree of freedom code A property reference A property reference A degree of freedom code An optional orientation vector A degree of freedom code Supports rigid elements. rigid links. Masses have the ability to store one node. bar3s. Supports display type elements. Supports simple beams. rods. gaps. Building 0-D Elements The 0-D elements currently supported in HyperMesh are masses. rigids. Supports kinematic joint definitions supplied with Safety Analysis Codes.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Supports rigid elements with multiple nodes. you can build elements directly on the geometry. This section describes the element types and indicates which panels you can use to build the elements.

or group of elements about a vector. four-noded quads. Builds elements that lie on a surface defined by lines. Builds elements by hand. or two lines. or group of elements along a vector.Building 2-D Elements Three-noded trias. Builds elements by spinning a line. Builds elements by offsetting a group of elements in the direction of their normals. Builds elements on square or trimmed planar surfaces. six-noded trias. Builds elements on conic or cylindrical surfaces. Builds elements between two rows of nodes. a row of nodes and a line. Builds elements by dragging a line. Builds elements on toroidal surfaces. first order linear elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. Builds elements on spherical surfaces. row of nodes.0 User’s Guide 165 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. By default. These two-dimensional elements can be built in any of the following panels: automesh cones drag edit element elem offset line drag planes ruled spheres spin spline torus Note: Builds elements on surfaces according to user specifications. and eight-noded quads can all be built in HyperMesh. but second order parabolic elements may be generated by changing the element order in the global panel. row of nodes. Builds elements by dragging a line or group of elements along or about a control line.

Tetras can be built in the edit element panel by hand or by using the tetramesh panel. Fills with tetra elements a volume that is enclosed by tria elements or surfaces. lines.and 15-noded pentas.and 20-noded hexa elements. and surfaces. Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a line.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Spins a group of two-dimensional elements about a vector to create solids. By default. Builds elements by hand. Builds solid elements between a variable number of lines. and 8. Creates solid elements by offsetting a group of two-dimensional elements normal to the surface formed by the group of two-dimensional elements. Pentas and hexas can be built in any of the following panels: drag edit element line drag linear solid solid map solid mesh elem offset spin split tetramesh Note: Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a vector to create solids. Propagates split hexas. 166 HyperMesh 8. Creates solid elements between two-dimensional elements.and 10-noded tetras. first order elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed.Building 3-D Elements HyperMesh builds 4. 6. Builds solid elements between nodes. but second order solids may be generated by switching the element order in the global panel.

and NASTRAN-style aspect ratio The time sub-panel allows you to check for elements whose small size might cause problems for an explicit solver. CFD-style volumetric skew.0 User’s Guide 167 . The group sub-panel provides a tool to check for and eliminate group or interface elements whose underlying structural element has changed and left them detached. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check tetra elements for collapse. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check a mesh of elements for its maximum chordal deviation from a real or inferred surface The 3-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage.Checking Model Quality After you build your model. skew. aspect ratio. You can check your model for connectivity and duplicate elements. The user sub-panel allows you to verify element quality by using a template file that checks for userspecified conditions. you can use the check elems panel to verify the geometric quality of the elements in the model. aspect ratio. The 1-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check one-dimensional elements for free ends Determine if a group of rigid elements form a loop Check weld and rigid elements for double dependency Check all elements for a minimum length of a side The 2-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. skew.

The label may include the magnitude of the flux. Applies a concentrated moment about a user-defined vector at a node. P. Fluxes are displayed as a thick arrow with an optional label.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Applies a pressure on an element or geometry. EQ. Forces are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label F. Moments are displayed as a double-headed arrow with an optional label. Accelerations are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. Constraints are displayed as a triangle with an optional label that displays the degrees of freedom effected by the constraint. Depending on the analysis code being used to calculate results. Pressures are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. Equations are displayed with the label. M. Applies a constraint or enforced displacement at a node. HyperMesh currently supports the following load types: • accelerations • Applies an acceleration at a node. 168 HyperMesh 8. The label may also display the magnitude of the acceleration. and updating loads and constraints. Applies a general equation constraint between nodes. A. • constraints • • • equations fluxes • • • forces • • moments • • pressures • • temperatures • • velocities • Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. The label may include the magnitude of the moment. Temperatures are displayed as a straight line starting at the node at which the temperature is applied extending upward. Loads are displayed in the color assigned to the load collector. flux. The label may include the magnitude of the velocity. Applies a concentrated force along any user-defined vector at a node. Velocities are displayed as a singleheaded arrow with an optional label. create a load collector. HyperMesh transforms the loads appropriately to any local nodal output coordinate system. Before you apply loads. HyperMesh stores and displays all loads in the global coordinate system. V. The size of loads and constraints is based on model units and can be modified from within the boundary condition panels. The label may include the magnitude of the pressure. Applies a velocity at a node.Applying Loads The final step in the model building process is to apply constraints and forces and to create or assign coordinate systems. T. The label may include the magnitude of the force. with an optional label. Applies a flux load at a node. Applies a temperature constraint at a node. reviewing.

Note: System collectors collect system entities. A system collector must exist and be current in order to build a system. Reference systems transform geometric location or input vectors from the global system to a local system. HyperMesh supports reference and analysis systems. mass elements. Nodes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Creating Systems Systems in HyperMesh are referred to as coordinate systems and may be rectangular. cylindrical. forces. and other systems are eligible entities for a reference system.0 User’s Guide 169 . Analysis systems transform the output system of a node entity. or spherical. Systems are built and referenced in the systems panel.

There are two approaches to the automeshing secondary panel. which allows you to see immediately the locations of the new nodes. A solid model created by dragging automeshed plate elements. depending on whether or not you use surfaces as the basis for the operation. You can adjust the node biasing on each edge to force more elements to be created near one end than near the other. the meshing process is usually faster and uses less memory. The created mesh can be previewed. You may choose from several mesh generation algorithms. You can also specify whether the new elements should be quads. While you are in the meshing module. Most of the functions are still available and operate in the same way. You can adjust interactively a wide variety of parameters and choose from a suite of algorithms. which supplies as much automated assistance as possible. • If you use surfaces. If you use surfaces. until you are satisfied with the resulting mesh. • For either method. Furthermore.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . have more flexibility in specifying the algorithm parameters. there are situations in which it is not possible or not desirable to create a surface. If you do not use surfaces. Most of the element creation panels use this module. You control interactively the number of elements on each edge or side and can determine immediately the nodes that are used to create the mesh. you may choose from a greater variety of algorithms. Mesh smoothing is also available and you may select the algorithm for that operation as well. you can specify the mesh generation and visualization options to use on each individual surface. which allows you to evaluate it for element quality before choosing to store it in the HyperMesh database. the module operates the same.Automatic Mesh Generation HyperMesh has a centralized plate and shell mesh generation tool called the automeshing secondary panel. 170 HyperMesh 8. or mixed and whether they should be first or second order elements. HyperMesh responds with immediate feedback on the effects of the changes. trias. you can use any of viewing tools on the visual options menu to simplify the visualization of complex structures in your model. and employ the mesh-smoothing operation to improve element quality.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 171 .The automeshing secondary panel can make second order elements for boundary element solutions.

density algorithm type biasing details checks Each automeshing sub-panel has the mesh. reject. You can switch freely between the sub-panels. and return functions (see Automeshing Secondary Panel in the Panels section).Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel The functions of the automeshing secondary panel are divided into six sub-panels. smooth.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . undo. abort. 172 HyperMesh 8. as well as the local view pop-up menu. the screen display changes to present only the information applicable to the current operation.

it chooses the Free algorithm. you can usually eliminate them by changing some of the meshing parameters and then remeshing the region. rectangular. the best choice of algorithm is usually to map a standard mesh onto the region using transfinite interpolation. HyperMesh uses a streamlined version of this algorithm that is optimized for the different shape and connectivity requirements of tria elements. HyperMesh chooses a standard template based on the element densities around the perimeter of the region. HyperMesh attempts to produce an all-quads mesh. if that is the case. Examines the groups of elements to see if a local change in the connectivity might improve element quality. gives quality results rapidly. Sometimes two or more trias are needed because of the particular order in which the elements were generated. The surface can have interior holes or edges and any number of sides. If quads or trias is the selected element type. If trias is the selected element type. The advancing front algorithm uses the following process: • Traverses the perimeter of the region. an advancing front algorithm is used. Applies repeatedly the selected smoothing algorithm until no node is moved farther than the specified smoothing tolerance. Such an operation is exceedingly fast. The Free meshing algorithm is a general-purpose formula that works for most meshing conditions. HyperMesh recognizes more than 18 different configurations requiring distinct templates. or pentagonal in shape.Mesh Generation Algorithms The mesh generation algorithms are divided into two types: those that require the presence of a surface to provide a context of operation. or those working entirely from node and/or line data. at least one tria always needed. HyperMesh uses a single tria. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the default mesh generation algorithm is Autodecide. For most configurations. Map as Triangle. If mixed is the element type. HyperMesh first creates a quads mesh and then divides each element along its shortest diagonal.0 User’s Guide 173 . HyperMesh analyzes the geometry of each face and the element densities specified for each edge. To make tria elements. The mesh generation algorithms include: Autodecide If you are meshing a surface. Rectangle. In this case. and chooses the algorithm that will give the best results. a submapping algorithm is used. Free • • If quads is the selected element type for the current face. Ignoring rotations. placing elements along the edges as it proceeds. or Pentagon If the region is free from internal holes and the boundary is clearly triangular. Each site where an element could be placed is measured and one of several possible elements is chosen. and where applicable. Eventually the entire region is filled with elements. If there is a tight corner on the boundary that would require a poor quality quad. but there are some situations in which one or more trias are included: • • • If the total number of elements specified for the perimeter of the face is odd.

the algorithm is to drag. with no surface.Map without Surface If you are creating a mesh entirely from line and/or node data. the algorithm is to spin. 174 HyperMesh 8. the mesh generation algorithm is decided by the tool that was used to describe the desired operation. and if you use the spheres panel. so that the configuration always satisfies the balancing requirements of the intended mapping. If you use the spin panel. the algorithm is to map a sphere-covering mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you use the drag panel. You can still use the density and biasing manipulation tools but some edges will be linked together.

HyperMesh traverses the perimeter of the region looking for variations in element edge length and choose between size-correcting and shape-correcting smoothing algorithms. this choice usually gives the best results. HyperMesh uses a modified isoparametric-centroidal over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. usually in the form of worsened aspect ratios from the stretching of elements. The size-corrected smoothing algorithm attempts to even out the sizes of the elements at the cost of some element quality. Size Corrected Shape Corrected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. this choice usually gives the best results. The shape-correcting smoothing algorithm attempts to correct the elements’ shapes. allowing variation in element size.0 User’s Guide 175 . HyperMesh uses a modified Laplacian over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias.Smoothing Algorithms There are three smoothing algorithms used by HyperMesh: Autodecide By default. If the element spacing around the perimeter is roughly uniform. If there is a transition from small elements to large elements in the region.

1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . There are three methods you can use to calculate the biasing of node positions: Use biasing to preserve element quality in complex regions. near the end of the edge. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. When you use the drag and solid offset panels.1] of the Real Line. let n be the element density and let . This interval is uniformly divided into as many subintervals as specified by the element density and they are mapped along the edge so that the length of the image interval is proportional to the height of the line over the midpoint of the source interval. Each image interval corresponds to the side of an element. 176 HyperMesh 8. you may want to use biasing to improve element quality when transitioning from smaller to larger element sizes. You can designate that the smaller intervals go near the start of the edge. and b is its y-intercept. In linear solids. you can use biasing to cluster several layers of elements near the surface of a solid.Element Biasing The automeshing process allows you to bias the placement of nodes so that their intervals are not uniform in size. Specifically. If m is the slope of the line. Element biasing allows you to moderate the changes in aspect ratio from the start to the end. near both ends with larger intervals in the middle. then: . the biasing intensity corresponds to the positive slope of a straight line over the interval [0. the mesh at one end could be scaled several times larger than at the other end. Linear Biasing In linear biasing. Within the automesher. or near the middle of the edge.

This formula was chosen so that an intensity of zero will still represent no biasing.x(s).0 User’s Guide 177 .1]. Thus. Thus.20]. the sizes of the intervals grow geometrically. We can use b to scale the behavior of the function so that convenient values are in the range [0. let n be the element density and let . with each successive interval being a constant factor larger than the previous.0 plus 1/10 of the absolute value of the biasing intensity. Let be the geometric growth factor. m is the absolute value of the biasing intensity. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. progressing along the edge. . We need a function Let then: so that: which gives the proper interval lengths. we find: so. and x(1) = 1. the nodes are placed according to 1 .20]. For this. If the biasing intensity is negative. Specifically. The value used is b = 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. placing the smaller elements at the end instead of the beginning. and convenient values will fall in the range [0. That factor is 1.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) =1. .Using x(0) = 0.5. a positiv biasing intensity puts small elements at the start of e the interval. Exponential Biasing In exponential biasing. then x(s) scales them to the range of [0. Negative biasing intensities just reverse the edge.

and if it is negative. x(1) = 1. let n be the element density and .1] with x(0) = 0. Specifically. . and has the behavior noted above. We need so that takes values in [0. 178 HyperMesh 8.Bellcurve Biasing In bellcurve biasing.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . they are placed at the middle of the edge. the smaller intervals are placed at the beginning and end of the edge. nodes are distributed long the edge in a pattern that is symmetric across the midpoint of the edge. If we use: for positive biasing intensity r. then x(s) becomes: where erf() is the statistical error function. If the biasing intensity is positive.

Use the automeshing secondary panel to prepare input for solid offset. HyperMesh automatically links those edges together so that they stay balanced. In these circumstances. it has no effect. If you try to adjust the element density numbers corresponding to these locked edges. "The value of this number cannot be changed" is displayed. The error message. HyperMesh uses those nodes directly to make elements within the automeshing secondary panel. The resulting edge is locked and you cannot change the element density or biasing. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 179 . Some of the surface creation panels allow you to use a node list to define one or more sides of a surface. Any change to one of the edges is immediately applied to all others that are linked to it.Linked or Locked Edges Most of the surface-less mesh generation algorithms requires that some edges have exactly the same element density and biasing values as other edges.

Just as you can create an FE shell mesh by meshing a surface. you can create an FE weld by realizing a connector.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Connector Entity Connectors are geometric entities (not FE) primarily used to create welds. The characteristics of connector entities can be divided into four categories: Connector Terminology Connector Definition Connector Realization Connector Review 180 HyperMesh 8.

realized failed Note: Connector Location The position in space at which a connector entity is created.0 User’s Guide 181 . points. The connector is displayed in yellow. The connector is considered realized only if weld creation at the connector was successful. Only one connector is created for each line. spacing. A connector that was realized can revert back to being unrealized if. for example. The connector is displayed in red. Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or the weld element is deleted. and lines can be used to define connector location. The connector is considered failed if the weld creation at the connector was not successful. Only nodes. nodes points lines The connector is created at the node location. The connector is displayed in green. but the line may be split into multiple projection locations as specified by the offset. The color code provides an easier way to visualize and filter connectors based on their state.Connector Terminology Connector State The connector state is defined as one of the following types: unrealized The initial definition of the connector entity after it is created. The connector icon is created at the center of the selected line. The connector location option is set in the create panel. a link entity is suppressed from its definition. The connector is created at the point location. and density values.

The link entity options are set in the create and add links panels. elems Note: 182 HyperMesh 8. surfaces. or an element that it holds. The elems option connects the mesh on the component or surface and the geom option connects the geometry on the component or surface. The welds create fixed points for the mesh. tags. components Components can be used to connect elements or surfaces. The surfaces can be either meshed or unmeshed. Only nodes. A node facilitates a node-node weld connector. The tag entity can be used to define a weld connector to either a node. elements surfaces nodes tags Note: Link Entity State Specifies if the HyperMesh entity referenced by the link entity is meshed or unmeshed. The following entities are supported. A part that needs to be welded is often represented as a component. and components can be added to connectors. elements. An element facilitates a patch-patch weld connector. The above states are applicable to only surfaces and components added to the connector entity. Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its mesh. The HyperMesh entities to which the link entities refer are welded together during realization.Link Entity A reference to a separate HyperMesh entity that can be added to a connector. Surfaces can be used to create welds to connect geometry before meshing.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . geom Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its geometry (connect surfaces only). The connectors can hold a single entity or a combination of these entities. The link entity state options are set in the create and add Links panels.

Re-connect Rules
Defines how a connector should protect its link entity information. none If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity is then removed from the connector. If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity retains the ID of the HyperMesh entity. The link entity remains in the connector. Same as the by id rule except that the entity name is retained.

by id

by name Note:

These rules are useful for applications such as part replacement. A part can be added to a connector ith the use id or use name reconnect rule and can be replaced with a redesigned part with the same ID or name, without having to change the connector definition. The re-connect rule options are set in the create and add links panels.

Number of Layers
The total number of thicknesses (layers) to connect at the connector. total T Sets the number of thickness to connect (2T/3T/4T/nT). This influences the number of welds created at a connector. Sets the total number of link entities that can be added to the connector. The number of link entities added to a connector is always less than or equal to the total thickness. The number of layers option is set in the create and add links panels.

Note:

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Connector Rules
Shapes the definition of a connector entity. none The connector is created with no link entities and no thickness defined. In this state, the connector must first be updated with more information before it can be successfully realized. This option requires link entities to be specified before the connector is created. The link entities are added to the connector based on the user-supplied criteria. For this option, the connector only remembers what type of link entity it is to connect, rather than a specific link entity. During the fe realize process, the connector searches the HyperMesh database to generate the best (usually the closest) link entity it can using the supplied information.

now

at fe realize

Note:

The connector rules (connect when:) option is set in the Create and Add Links panels.

Connector Realization
Creating welds at a connector. fe realize The process of creating welds (FE) to connect the HyperMesh entities referenced by the link entities added to a connector.

Note:

The connector entity can be used to create only welds at this time.

Request for Connection
A set of parameters used during realization to create a physical connection between link entities.

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Connector Definition
The connector is simply a database of information defining a specific request for connection at a specific location. A connector definition describes the connector between multiple HyperMesh entities at a specific location. Entities that are to be connected are referred to as link entities. The connector location is defined as a node, a geometric point, or a geometric line. In the following example, there are two components (Top and Bottom) that are to be connected at the location of a point (with an id of 10). In this case, both components are considered to be link entities, since they are to be linked together. The point defines the location of the connector.

After a connector is created, the connector icon is placed at point 10, and components 1 and 2 are incorporated into the request for connection. The following diagram shows the connector after it is created (with an id of 7) at the location of point 10 (point 10 is not visible).

In this example, connector 7 has been defined and no welds have been created. The connector stores the following information: • • • Which link entities the request for connection is to connect (Comp 1 and Comp 2) The thickness of the realization (Thickness = 2) Where to connect the link entities (the connectors current location)

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HyperMesh entities currently supported as link entities include COMPS, ELEMS, SURFS, NODES, and TAGS. Any number of link entities of differing types can be added to a connector in any order. The connector sets the order of link entities during the realization process. The example above is a simple case where we have added two link entities of the same type (COMPS) to a single connector. Note: An element-to-tag-t o-component connector is possible, as is any other combination of the supported link entities.

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Connector Realization
During connector realization, welds are created using the connector definition. Note: In HyperMesh, the only form of realization currently supported is fe realization (weld creation). For successful realization, the connector must be populated with all the relevant details required for its realization type. For example, fe realization requires the connector to be populated with a projection tolerance and an FE configuration type.

The following diagram shows connector 7 realized with a valid tolerance value, and a config value of type 21 (spring).

One advantage of separating weld fe realization from the connector definition, is that a connector can be re-realized as a weld of a different configuration (or possibly, a user-defined weld) without having to redefine the connector. If you edit the connector definition (i.e. add or delete a link entity from the connector), the connector removes the welds it created, and reverts back to an unrealized state. The connector is unrealized only if its user-control mode is turned off. By default, the connector mode is off but it can be turned on by registering custom FE with a connector. Connectors store all FE information that they create, allowing advanced find, mask, delete, and organizational functionality in a number of common HyperMesh panels. If the weld creation is unsuccessful (due to low tolerance, insufficient link entities, etc.) the connector icon is displayed as failed (red). An unrealized connector is yellow, a realized connector is green, and a failed connector is red.

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Connector Review
There are many advantages to the way connectors store information. Not only does this local storage allow you to edit the connector definition, it also allows you to review connector details and the quality of the realization. There are a number of tools that can be useful in the review process. The visualization pop-up allows you to update the visual appearance of a connector based on its state, thickness (number of layers), or the component in which it is located. In addition, the vis opts panel also allows you to filter the displayed connectors by various criteria (such as thickness). This filter can then be used for “displayed” mark creation. HyperMesh includes a connector information table that creates a table of connector definitions from a mark and allows you to delete link entities. The quality panel allows you to check the quality of welds created from the connectors. The connector database can also be queried through Tcl functions.

Connectors User Control Mode
Each individual connector can be placed in a user control mode using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. This user control mode is most useful for automated Tcl scripts. Once in user control mode, the following procedures are possible for a given connector: • • • Pre-existing FE can be registered as a given connector’s realization by using the *CE_FE_Register command. Connectors can be edited without automatically unrealizing (as happens most notably when a link is added or removed from a connector, or when an FE realization entity is deleted). A connector’s state can be manually changed from realized to failed, or from failed to realized by using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. A connector’s state will not change to or from the unrealized state using this method.

Once a connector is placed into the user control mode, the user control mode remains active until an unrealize command is called (such as *CE_Unrealize), an already realized connector is rerealized, or the user control mode is manually turned off with either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. While a given connector is in user control mode, it may not behave the same as a normal connector. Specifically, there are a number of scenarios where a user-controlled connector will not auto unrealize in response to database changes that would cause a normal connector to auto unrealize. Note: It is strongly recommended that when FE is registered to a user-controlled connector, that the connector links and other necessary details should also be set with a given connector (so that the connector can properly re-realize if a user interactively requests it to). At the bare minimum, connectors should know which links they are to connect.

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Master Connectors File
Most of the information stored in the connector entity can be exported to a master connectors file. This file contains connector entity information such as location, link entity, link entity state, link entity rules (see Connector Terminology). The exported file may also contain metadata information stored in the connector. The master connectors file contains welding information at a given location and also assists in the weld automation process. An exported master connectors file can be re-imported using the connectors reader to re-create connectors. The master connectors file is exported in a single format. The outline of a generic HyperMesh master connectors file is provided below: • • Master connectors files can have comments beginning with the characters # or $, or there can be blank lines in between. The format of the file is fixed and the order of heading definitions cannot be changed. The column information is shown below:

Notes: • • • The header at the beginning of the file specifies information about the column data. Number of layers defines the thickness to connect at the specified location (X, Y, Z). The data between the brackets are repeated for each link entity. For standard HyperMesh FE types such as ACM and CWELD, the FE Config will have a number of 1001, which defines the user-defined type number specified in FE Config File. The FE Type will be the number defined in the FE Config File (for CWELD it is 72). For a detailed explanation of custom FE Configurations see FE Configuration File. The data between the brackets (link entity information) in the table are repeated for the number of links (NumLinks). The NumLinks variable must be equal to the number of link entities.

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 189

Metadata is an attribute type that can be stored on a HyperMesh entity. User-defined information (such as Station Id or Gun Id) can be stored on the connector entity as metadata. The Metadata is defined by a name-value pair and is supported for multiple data types (int, double, string, etc.). Please see the HyperMesh on-line help for more information on Metadata. The Metadata name is written to the master connectors file in the following format ~<Sturct><DataType>Name. <Struct> represents whether the value associated is a single variable or an array. <DataType> represents the type of data stored in the value. For example, a Metadata of name Assembly containing an array of integers is written out as ~AIAssembly. The only delimiter supported in the entire file is the double semicolon “::”. The entire column of data in the file should be of the same type. The connectors reader uses the templex template to read the master connectors file. See weld templates for more information. By default, the file is read into HyperMesh through the HMIN function call, HMIN_CE_CreateDefined.

• • • •

The connector entity is created with the information specified in the master connectors file and displayed as unrealized (yellow). To realize the connectors as welds, the fe realize panel must be used.

Multiple Weld File Format
In addition to the master connectors file, the connectors reader also supports master weld file formats previously supported by the spotweld reader.

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1) } readln null } } set numrecords = num set numrequests = 9 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Each template works on only one specific format file.cfg file under the same directory.cfg file must contain only the names of all the registered weld templates.0 User’s Guide 191 . The following example shows the template for a simple format file with two semi colons as delimiters. For custom templates. the required headings must be added to the template requests and record blocks. The spotweld. The templates are stored in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/feinput/spotweld_format and are registered in the spotweld.Import Templates Templates work with the connectors reader to import multiple file formats. To read in metadata.375 Weld Template :: 2.4375:: 9. An example for a specific master weld file format is shown below: # Index::T::X::Y::Z::EID1:: EID2:: EID3:: 1:: 3:: 48. a spotweld_format directory must exist in the same location as the master weld file.0 :: 3:: 2:: 1:: int num header { type "CONNECTORS" set mark find "[0-9]+::" rewind set num = 0 if { do 1000000 { if { isdigit } then { set num = sum(num.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . num) do num { read constant 0 // fake EID } readln null } //T 192 HyperMesh 8.requests "ID/T/X/Y/Z/EID1/EID2/EID3/EID4" set numcomponents = 1 components "Value" } record { read request // ID qfind "::" set mark read request rewind read num qfind "::" read request // X qfind "::" read request // Y qfind "::" read request // Z do num { qfind "::" read request // EID } set num = diff(4.

pamcrash. and pamcrash2g. Supported solvers are: abaqus. ansys. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the feconfig. This is input in the fe realize template as FE Type.> *style <style_type> *head <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <RIGID_FLAG> *body <BODY_FLAG> <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG> [<HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG>] *post <POST_SCRIPT_NAME> The template parameters are defined below.cfg) is used to define custom welds such as ACM (Area Contact Method) and other special types. optistruct. LSDYNA. etc. The specific solver template for the type of weld must be loaded in HyperMesh before the welds can be created using a connector entity. See FE Definition Examples for information regarding the format and options for FE definition. The weld definition is solver dependant (NASTRAN.0 User’s Guide 193 . Seam. marc. Area. The data can be separated using a space. The user-defined number for the FE combination. FE Definition Template The FE definition template is shown below: CFG <SOLVER> <USER_FE_TYPE> <USER_FE_NAME> *filter <filter_type1> <filter_type2> <etc. SOLVER The solver template for which FE needs to be created.FE Configuration File The FE configuration file (feconfig. USER_FE_TYPE USER_FE_NAME Note: This should be the first line in the user FE definition. Spot. The FE configuration file has a pre-defined format that must be used to define different weld configurations. The specified name is saved and displayed in the info table during connector review process.cfg file from the <install_directory>/hm/bin directory is loaded in each of the panels related to each connector type (e.). The weld definition in the file includes the type of weld to create and the surrounding connector to shells. The user-specified name for the FE combination. dyna. By default. etc). nastran.g.

the weld node is connected to only one of the shell element vertex using the rigid. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE HM_FE_TYPE RIGID_FLAG CONNECT_FLAG 194 HyperMesh 8. If the rigid flag = 1. Note: *STYLE A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. and that they are native types.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For example. *FILTER spot seam indicates that this configuration can be realized only by the spot and seam connector types. The various types supported for rigids are equation. etc. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. equation and rbe3 do not have a type defined. If rigid flag = 0. The string head is required to specify that a rigid is to be created to connect the weld node to the surrounding shell element. In addition. the weld node is connected to all the vertices of the shell elements using rigid to form a spider. Defines how the weld node is to be connected to the surrounding shell element. This option is not applicable to equation and rbe3.*FILTER This option can be used to allow only the specified connector types to realize the configuration. For example. HM_FE_CONFIG The config for the rigid currently supported by HyperMesh. rigidlink. This option indicates that the configurations have specific behaviors associated during realization. a zero should be input. Note: The style definition line for these configurations must not be edited. For example. plot. *style bolts 1 indicates that this is a bolt connection of type 1 that creates a specific bolted connection between the parts. A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. so the type field should be zero. If the type is not defined. rbe3. this option is used as a filter when displaying FE configurations in the type = field of respective realize panels. Note: *HEAD Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment.

the users home directory (UNIX only).tcl extension. The *post lines are optional. if you choose to type in a property script instead of specifying a CFG file in the connector’s generation panel. and other solver specific details. This allows HyperMesh to parse the CFG file for configuration instead of relying on metadata saved individually with each connector (as was done prior to 8. rod.0 User’s Guide 195 .*BODY BODY_FLAG The string body is required to specify that a weld is to be created to connect the link entities added to the connector. based on the solver. but if specified it must be followed by the name (excluding path) of a valid Tcl script with a .0. Starting with HyperMesh 8. however. This postscript will be automatically executed post FE realization and it can be used to edit weld properties. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG Note: *POST A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. If the length location flag is >= 0 and < 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The config for the weld currently supported by HyperMesh. that metadata is still created and saved if you do not use POST to assign a property script (for example. The length location flag is used to specify if the weld created should be of type series or parallel. attributes.0). The type number is defined in respective solver templates and differs. The various types supported for welds are. The body flag is used to calculate the length of the weld. plot. or the scripts/connectors/ directory. The series weld definition has more than one weld between the link entities. If the body flag = 1. Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. etc. spring. If the body flag = 0. This Tcl script must be located in the current working directory. this option can also be used to specify a property script for the configuration. The flag specifies the length factor to be used for series welds. There can be more than one weld in a series. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. Note. If the length location flag = 1. the length is calculated based on the distance between the connecting layers (link entities). CBUSH is of config spring and type 6. the length is calculated based on the average thickness of the connecting layers (link entities). For example. a series weld is created. welds are created in parallel. hexa8.

Series and parallel weld element combinations are not supported. User comments should start with a hash character “#”.0 (100%).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Hence there cannot be three welds specified in series having a length factor of 0. The total length of series welds cannot exceed 1. Multiple solid element combinations are not currently supported. an ACM can have only one hexa weld element specified in the definition. Series welds are not supported where the link entities are coincident. 1D and 3D element combinations are not supported. Therefore. 196 HyperMesh 8.FE Specification Rules • • • • • • • • Each solver will have a specific definition so the same user-defined types can be repeated for each solver.5 (50%) each. The head and the body definition must begin with a “*” to define rigid and weld definitions. Series welds are not created when the distance between the connecting link entities is zero.

0 User’s Guide 197 .5 The two series welds are created with a length equal to half the distance between the link entities. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.FE Definition Examples Washers CFG nastran 56 bolts *filter bolt *style bolt 0 *head rigidlink 1 1 dofs=123 rigidlink 1 3 *body 0 rigid 1 1 dofs=456 ACM Welds CFG nastran 71 acm *head rbe3 0 0 *body 1 hex8 1 1 The above definition creates ACMs with HEXA8 solid elements as welds and RBE3 elements as rigids. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0. The length of the hexa is equal to the distance between the connecting shell elements.5 The series weld is created at the center with length equal to half the distance between the link entities.5 spring 6 0.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . "0" places the 0-D element along the proposed 1-D element path.tcl Supported values for the length location flag are "0". or "2". The behavior for each value is as follows. 0-D Welds CFG pamcrash2g 1 plink (ce loc) *head plot 0 0 *body 0 mass 5 2 plot 0 1 *post prop_plink. 198 HyperMesh 8. "1". "1" has the same behavior as "0" except only a single 0-D element is created even if multiple bodies are created (as happens in >2T welds) and "2" places the 0-D element at the connector location.Parallel Welds CFG dyna 101 parallel *head plot 0 0 *body 0 bar2 1 1 bar2 1 1 The bar elements are created at the same location and connect the same link entities. If this 0-D element is the only config given in the *body. then it is placed at the center of the proposed 1-D element path.

It enables rapid shape changes on the finite element mesh without severely sacrificing the mesh quality. HyperMorph also allows the creation of shape variables.0 User’s Guide 199 . which can be used for subsequent design optimization studies. logical and intuitive. Overview: The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing • The Domains and Handles Concept • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Global Domain and Global Handles Local Domains and Handles Partitioning Dependent Handles Working with Shapes Setting Up Optimization Creating morph volumes Registering nodes Altering Morph Volumes Tangency Morphing by Moving Nodes Morphing by Using Other Panels Sculpting The Domains and Handles Concept The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Space Frame Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • • Matching a Mesh or Line or Surface Data Making Parametric Changes Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Mirror Images: Using 1-Plane Symmetry Reducing 3D to 2D: Using Linear Symmetry Reducing 3D to 1D: Using Planar Symmetry Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.HyperMorph Strategies HyperMorph is a tool in HyperMesh to morph the shape of a finite element model in ways that are useful. During the morphing process.

Shell Model Strategies • • • • • • Creating Handles and Domains Morphing on Local Domains Section Mapping Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing Solid Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • Viewing Solid Models Morphing on Local Domains Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing 200 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

The freehand approach also allows for "customized" morphing. The HyperMorph Strategy Guide is intended illustrate the capabilities of HyperMorph and introduce you to both the basic and advanced functionality to help you get the most out of the tool. or you can define your own domains and handles. and the affected elements manually. the morph volume concept. dividing the mesh into logical domains. into morphs using the record sub-panel. which are highly deformable six-sided prisms. on-screen method.0 User’s Guide 201 . such as scaling or node projection. When the handles are moved. and projection to geometry as well as using a "tool" to "sculpt" the mesh into the desired shape. You are also able to turn node manipulations made in any panel. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses when dealing with the numerous applications of morphing and you are advised to gain a basic understanding of each approach so that you can decide which approach is best for your needs. such as translation. The domains and handles approach also allows parametric morphing of distances. The morph volume approach is quick and intuitive and is most useful for making large scale changes to complex meshes. HyperMorph can do this automatically. rotation. The Freehand Concept This approach involves morphing by moving the nodes directly without needing to create any HyperMorph entities. angles. and the freehand concept. The domains and handles approach is the most difficult approach to learn but it is also the most powerful. Morph volumes support tangency between adjoining edges and allow for multiple control points along the edges. This approach is most useful for making detailed changes to any mesh (local domains) as well as general changes to space frame type meshes (global domains). The Morph Volume Concept This approach involves surrounding the mesh with one or more morph volumes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The basics of the three concepts are summarized below: The Domains and Handles Concept This approach involves dividing the mesh into domains made up of elements or nodes and placing handles at the corners of those domains. allowing for rapid changes to any mesh. the nodes which will stay fixed. and arc angles as well as morphing the mesh to match geometric data and other meshes. allowing the user to do virtually any kind of morphing. radii. While all the entities and functions are fully compatible and may be used in a complementary fashion they can be divided into three basic approaches to morphing: the domains and handles concept. Handles placed at the corners and along the edges of the morph volumes allow for the morphing of the morph volumes which in turn morph the mesh inside the morph volumes. You define the nodes which will move. You have great flexibility in how the moving nodes are moved. A number of methods exist to create the morph volumes including single and matrix creation as well as the interactive.The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing HyperMorph contains six exclusive entity types and a wide array of functionality. the shape of the mesh changes according to the domain boundaries. The freehand approach is an ideal introduction to HyperMorph since it allows morphing without the creation of new entities while implying the concepts of domains and handles.

each of which is associated with a number of global handles. HyperMorph spends an amount of time proportional to the size of the new or edited domains calculating the handle influences. and general domains. Global handles and domains are best for making large scale shape changes to the model.The Domains and Handles Concept When using the domains and handles approach. in the case of global domains. The advantage of the large domain solver is that it is faster for morphing large domains but the drawback is that it must be invoked every time you wish to morph. Global handles are the largest handles in the model and they are red if they are not dependent on other handles. which allows you to make both large and small scale morphs and have them combine logically. In the areas between the handles. The advantage of this approach is that it makes morphing an interactive process. but once they are calculated they can be stored and applied rapidly. The nodes in each domain move as a function of the handles that are either associated with the domain or are touching the domain. which in turn. Global handles will only influence the nodes in the global domain to which they are associated. For very large domains. calculating influence coefficients is too time-consuming. you can edit the color of the domains in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels. 202 HyperMesh 8. Therefore. edge. but when handles are moved in order to morph the model no calculations are necessary. However. but it is not necessary to have both types of domains and handles in a model. in the case of 1D. changes the positions of the nodes inside those domains. the mesh is stretched or compressed to match the desired shape. 3D domains. You can adjust the base size of all the handles in the model in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels or in the handles panel. and general domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For domains that have more than 50. You cannot edit the color of the handles nor the relative size between the dependent and independent handles. when handles and domains are initially set up or edited. The amount each node moves with respect to each handle is relative to an internally calculated influence coefficient. the color indicating their level of dependency. even for large models. When the handles are moved. 2D domains. or yellow. The global group consists of global domains. Thus. for very large domains. The local group consists of five types of local domains: 1D domains. Domains and handles are divided into two basic groups. Local handles are intended to be used to make small scale. During the morphing process the mesh morphs in a logical way with nodes near the moving handles moving more and nodes near the stationary handles moving less. Each domain is associated with any number of local handles. the shape of the domains touching those handles change. cyan. A model can contain both global and local handles and domains.000 elements (although you can change this default limit) the large domain solver is used. These local handles can only influence nodes contained in any domains that they are either associated with or are touching. 3D. thus making morphing slower. Domains consist of nodes. edge domains. However. the model is divided into domains where handles are used to control its shapes. Dependent global handles are also smaller than the handles on which they are dependent. parametric changes to the model. The size given is used as the radius for the independent global handles as well as the diameter of the independent local handles. 2D. It is located at the centroid of the nodes selected when you create the global domain. The process for calculating the influence coefficients is somewhat time consuming. the process of calculating influences can be too slow or too memory intensive and so the large domain solver makes it possible to morph such domains. the actual morphing occurs quickly. or elements. or violet if they are dependent on other handles. Global Domains and Global Handles Global domains are represented by a cube made up of dashed lines. global and local.

HyperMorph also places at least one global handle within the box in areas of peak nodal density within the model. These handles are named handle followed by a number. By movi ng the handles you can stretch or deform the model along all three axes.When a global domain and handles are generated automatically. Example of a model with a global domain and global handles Eight handles are placed at the corners of a box enclosing the model. The automatic global handle generation works particularly well for space frame models such as full car models. HyperMorph generates a number of global handles. or create new handles. If the handles are not generated in the positions where you want them to be. or use the generate auto-function. HyperMorph creates a global handle at each of the eight corners of a box surrounding the model laid out along the global axes.0 User’s Guide 203 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. reposition them. such as when you create a global domain with the create handles option turned on. you can always delete them. These global handles are named corner followed by a number from one to eight. HyperMorph generally creates no more than about 30 global handles for models of any size.

If you wish to preserve the local geometry. choose the direct method. In the direct method. If you are willing to accept distortions in the local geometry. In the mixed method. There are subtle differences in how the global handles influence the nodes for each method with the main difference being that the parts of the model defined by local edge domains have their shape preserved when using the hierarchical method. the direct method. 204 HyperMesh 8. In the hierarchical method. global handles influence the local handles found at nodes inside the global domain.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or the direct method if the node is not in a local domain The method used can be selected in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel and the parameters sub-panel in the domains panel with the default being the direct method. the space frame morphs in a way such that the bars run between the handles. You should select which method is right for the type of morphing that you want to perform.A space frame with six manually created global handles When the handles are moved. There are three options for determining how global handles in global domains influence the mesh: the hierarchical method. while the direct method may bend or warp these features into curved edges and elliptical holes. which in turn influence nodes. global handles will influence every node inside the global domain using the hierarchical method if the node is inside a local domain. choose the hierarchical or mixed method. Straight edges will remain straight and circular holes will remain circular for the hierarchical method. global handles influence the nodes in the model directly. and the mixed method.

Note how the straight edge remains straight and the circle remains round.0 User’s Guide 205 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.An example of global morphing using the hierarchical method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. Note the resulting distortion of the edge and circle. it moves the local handles. which move the mesh. the mesh is affected directly. An example of global morphing using the direct method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right.

Local domains can be created individually by selecting nodes or elements in the create sub-panel of the domains panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The placement of local handles depends on the type of domain created and the partitioning options if partitioning is selected. a cube for 3D domains. Local Domains and Handles Local domains are represented by a single rectangle for 1D domains. 206 HyperMesh 8. Dependent local handles are smaller than the independent local handles and are different colors depending on the level of their dependency. two joined rectangles for 2D domains. The geometric method is the method that was originally used for the Tcl/Tk interface of HyperMorph and HyperMesh and generates influences based on the geometric relationship between a given node or local handle and the surrounding global handles. and a line for edge domains. When local domains are created. the angular shape of the morph becomes rounded. These local handles are named local followed by a number. The spatial method is the default. The color of the domains can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. and is the fastest and most robust method for generating global influences based on a spatial formulation for the entire model. The geometric method can be slow for large models or large numbers of global handles. but may produce more desirable influences. or for the entire model by using the generate auto-function. Independent local handles are orange and have a radius of one half the value of the handle size parameter.. HyperMorph automatically places local handles at the ends of all edge domains. The colors of the handles cannot be changed. four joined rectangles for general domains.An example of global morphing using the direct method and biasing factors By increasing the biasing factor for the highlighted (white) handle. The influences between the global handles and local handles (using the hierarchical method) or nodes (using the direct method) can be calculated using either the spatial method or the geometric method. Both methods attempt to determine how a global handle affects nodes or local handles in the space surrounding it.

while the dependent handles are smaller and green. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A higher biasing factor means that a given handle will have greater influence over the surrounding mesh than the others. Finally. the rigid elements have been placed in a 1D domain with the center node having an independent (orange) handle and the other nodes having dependent (green) handles. Additionally. 1D elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 1D domains.0 User’s Guide 207 . All other handles in the model are given a biasing factor of 1. These elements are placed in a component named ^morphface. are called 1D domains. The higher biasing factor given to dependent handles on 1D domains is intended to prevent mesh distortion when the 1D elements connect to nodes in 2D and 3D domains. The solid elements have been placed in a 3D domain. Note that shell elements have been created on the faces of the 3D domain. All the dependent handles in a given 1D domain are directly dependent on the independent handle. In the example above. The independent handle is larger and orange. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. Domains made up of 1D elements.Example of a model with local domains and local handles with partitioning. the bias factors for the dependent handles for a 1D domain are given an initial value of 3. handles have been placed at the ends of all the edge domains. This is done to preserve the unique relationship established for groups of 1D elements. The shell elements have been placed in two 2D domains separated at the bend line due to partitioning. such as bars and rigid elements. An independent local handle is placed at the centermost node of the 1D domain and dependent local handles are placed at every other node of the elements in the 1D domain. This dependency relationship means that moving the independent handle also results in moving the dependent handles the same amount in the same direction. Also note that 2D domains have been created on the faces of the 3D domain and that edge domains have been create on the edges of all the 2D domains.

In general. 208 HyperMesh 8. A handle associated with any domain will always influence the nodes in domains that it is touching. you can delete them. Also.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . shell elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 2D domains. Edge domains are placed along the edges of the 2D domains and are also partitioned. This allows you to place a handle outside of a domain. Since you morph the model by moving handles. Note that it is possible to create a handle on a node that is not touching the domain to which it is associated. This is true even if the handle is associated with the 2D domain. edit them. the local handles are placed at the corners of the 2D domains and at other useful positions. and have it influence the nodes within its domain. it helps to have handles already at the positions where you want them. If the handles or domains are not laid out in the positions where you want them to be. they will influence the nodes in any domain that shares the node at which it is placed. even though the generated local handles are associated with the edge domains. Local handles are placed at the ends of all the edge domains. HyperMorph tries to predict where the handles should be placed to reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare your model for morphing. the entire spider is moved. By moving the orange handle. such as floating in space near the domain. these domains are subdivided into smaller domains along break angles and curvature changes according to the partitioning parameters. or create new ones. If partitioning has been selected. maintaining the proper shape and connectivity for the rigid spider. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. The intent is to make it faster and easier for you to apply parametric changes to the model. Domains made up of shell elements are called 2D domains.A rigid spider becomes a 1D domain An independent local handle (orange) is placed at the centroid of the 1D domain and dependent handles (green) are placed at each node.

even at nodes not on the associated domain. if you do. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Elements are created on the faces of each 3D domain and placed into a component called ^morphface. Domains made up of solid elements are called 3D domains.Two 2D domains with edge domains and handles The model on the left shows the initial handle positions. Edge elements are placed around each 2D domain and local handles are created at the ends of each edge domain. The color of the ^morphface component can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. It is recommended that you do not delete or edit these elements nor rename or delete the ^morphface component. However. HyperMorph will not create ^morphface elements coincident with the existing elements. The model on the right shows the addition of four new handles. Note that these elements will not be written out to any FEM formatted deck since the component name begins with a “^”. Handles are created at the corners of the 2D domains. Handles can be placed anywhere.0 User’s Guide 209 . The ^morphface component has been partitioned into 2D domains. these elements and their 2D domains will be regenerated the next time you enter or exit a HyperMorph panel or the delete panel. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. In cases where shell elements that are attached to the faces of solid elements are present in the model. The elements on the face of each 3D domain are placed into a 2D domain that is then partitioned if the partitioning option is active. solid elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 3D domains. A block of solid elements is made into a 3D domain The gray shell elements on the face of the 3D domain are the ^morphface component.

it is partitioned and handles are placed at the ends and joints. When creating local domains or using the generate aut o-function. Edge domains and 2D domains on the faces of 3D domains play an important function in determining the influences for the handles over a given domain. only the icon for the domain remains highlighted. or choose to create the domain as a general domain instead. nodes in a 2D domain on the face of a 3D domain will only move as a function of the handles touching the 2D domain. HyperMesh will highlight both the domain icon and the surrounding edge domains. flat surfaces remain flat.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Examples of edge domains Edge domains are placed around the edges of 2D domains. It allows you to move handles within a 2D or 3D domain without affecting the edges. Also. When you are selecting domains and are holding the mouse button down while placing the mouse over the icon of a 2D or 3D domain (or an element in the domain).Domains made up of a list of nodes are called edge domains. Note that when an edge domain is created. This makes it easier for you to tell which domain you are selecting. For domains that have non-reflective symmetry types. and curved edges retain their curvature. This preserves the boundaries of 2D and 3D domains such that straight edges remain straight. If you do not want to have the boundaries of a domain preserved you can delete the edges for a given domain. When you release the mouse button. 210 HyperMesh 8. non-reflective symmetries allow the influences of handles to extend through edges and faces depending on the type of symmetry. Nodes on edge domains will only move as a function of the handles touching the edge domain. In the model at the right an edge domain has been created inside a 2D domain. No other handles will affect the nodes on the edges. the boundaries may not be preserved during morphing. edge domains are placed around the edges of all 2D domains. Similarly.

2D. When a general domain is created. Otherwise.0 User’s Guide 211 . Another use is for meshes where precise changes are required for one section. In the bottom frames. and 3D domains are used. handles on a general domain freely influence all of the nodes inside the general domain. Like all other domains. General domains can be made up of any combination of 1D. no 2D domains are created on the faces of any 3D elements and no edge domains are created either. allowing it to stretch and deform in an unbounded manner with morphing extending across differences in element type. general domains respect all neighboring edge domains and 2D domains and thus if you create 2D and edge domains for your general domains they will impose restrictions on handle influences for the general domain.How edge domains affect morphing In the top two frames two handles inside a 2D domain are created and moved. but the rest of the mesh (where a general domain is used) can simply follow along. the elements within a single general domain must touch one another. However. and 3D elements. Note that the edge domain remains straight. 2D. General domains are very useful for realized connectors which are often represented as clusters of different element types. preserving the shape of the feature. two handles connected by an edge domain are created and moved. General domains are not automatically created when generating local domains or using the generate auto-function. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. where 1D. thus no handles are created for the domain.

If you are unsatisfied with the partitioning. you may change the partitioning parameters in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel and try again (using the redo last button). partitioning will ideally divide your model such that every radius and straight or flat section is placed into a separate domain. You can invoke partitioning when creating 2D or 3D domains by activating the partition 2D domains check box. Two handles have been placed within the general domain at the ends of the rigid spiders. Partitioning is a method of dividing 2D domains into smaller 2D domains at logical places. 212 HyperMesh 8. or where the angle between elements exceeds a certain value. or the use geometry option in the partitioning sub-panel is unchecked. bounded only by the edge of the 2D domains with the other edges free to follow the handles Partitioning Partitioning can be applied directly to 2D domains and indirectly to 3D domains (3D domains are created with 2D domains on their faces). or where the domain changes from flat to curved. In the bottom frame the two handles inside the general domain are translated. partitioning is not an exact science and there will be areas where elements are not placed into the desired domains. However. or edit the domains by hand using the create and organize sub-panels in the domains panel.Example of interaction between a general domain and 2D domains In the top frame. such as at the edges of surfaces associated with the mesh. shell.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note how the shell elements in the general domain morph. Partitioning allows you to prepare your model for morphing more quickly and easily since it divides your model into sections where parametric changes can be applied. and solid elements. two 2D domains are created for parts of two shell meshes and a general domain is creating from the remaining rigid. If there are no surfaces in the model.

If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is less than this value. the 2D domain was created without partitioning.Example of partitioning For the model on the left. then any partitions created outside of the surfaces will be added to the partitions created using the surfaces if the partitioning algorithm does not find a break along the edges or the surfaces. They are found in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. the other method might work better. the domain angle controls the break angle along which a partitioning break is made. or changes curvature by more than the curvature tolerance. Note how the 2D domains are divided along angle and curvature change boundaries. although exact performance for each method depends heavily on the features in your model. partitioning was used. For the model on the right. For instance. There are two algorithms you can use to partition. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is greater than this value. When using curvature-based partitioning. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. element-based and node-based. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. the node based method seems to work better on first order tria and tetra meshes while the element based method seems to work better on mixed quad and tria meshes.0 User’s Guide 213 . domain angle and curve tolerance have a roughly similar meaning as the element based method. they are considered flat. a break due to angle or curvature must be found along its entire edge. the element-based algorithm works better for quad/mixed meshes and second order meshes. all elements whose nodes are associated to surfaces in the model will be partitioned along the edges of the surfaces. In either case. Each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. otherwise they are considered to be curved. Also note that the edge domains are partitioned regardless of whether the partitioning option is on or off. Partitioning can be angle-based or curvature-based. The node based method tends to create fewer partitions than the element based method. If you have selected use geometry. while the node-based algorithm works better for tria/tetra meshes. If the curvature changes from straight to curved. the curve tolerance controls the angle of which values less than it are considered straight for curvature measuring purposes. Note that in order for a new partition to be created. If you have also selected add to geometry. All other elements will be partitioned using one of the partitioning algorithms. In general. There are also several parameters that govern the creation of domains for either algorithm. This option is helpful when surface data is incomplete of some of the nodes have been moved away from their surfaces. changes direction. These can be set individually for quad/mixed meshes and for tria/tetra meshes. so if one method is not producing the partitions that you desire. For the node based method.

When the handle at either end of the edge domain is moved. The review button in the update sub-panel of the handles panel allows you to view the handles on which a specific handle is dependent. Handles that are dependent on other handles appear smaller and in a color different from the handles on which they are dependent. and violet) Local handles. Making a handle dependent has no affect on the way it influences nodes. A dependent handle can be moved independently of the handles on which it is dependent. In the hierarchical method. it inherits the full movement of the higher level handle. all local handles are dependent on global handles. This means that movements applied to the dependent handle are not applied to the independent handles. and so on. independent (red) and dependent (yellow. Global handles. it will inherit a percentage of the movements applied to each higher level handle. If a handle is dependent on more than one handle.Dependent Handles You can make a handle dependent on one or more other handles. This allows you to add the movements of dependent and independent handles in a logical manner.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If a handle is dependent on only one other handle. These dependencies are calculated internally and cannot be modified manually. When the dependent handle is moved. biasing will affect them. and pink) The conditions for handle dependency are as follows: • • • A handle that is dependent on another handle inherits the movements applied to the higher level handle. blue. cyan. A handle may be dependent on any number of handles. This allows you to combine the changes easily without having to apply separate perturbations for all of the handles. • • • Handle dependencies are useful for several different applications. and then make those handles dependent on one or more other handles. but dependency loops are not allowed. This system allows you to create any number of dependency layers. 214 HyperMesh 8. The percentage is based on the distance between the dependent and independent handles. the shape of the edge can be changed. the dependent handle moves along as if it was not there. independent (orange) and dependent (green. • • Transparent control of domain edges and faces You can create a dependent handle on an edge domain that is dependent on the handles at the ends of the domain.

performing localized “global” morphing. When the highlighted handle on the left is moved (center frame). Linking several domains together You can make all of the handles within several domains dependent on a few at the corners of the domain. Dependencies .• • • Grouping features together to move as a unit You can make all the handles at one cross section of a beam dependent on a single handle. This allows you to stretch all of the domains uniformly by moving the independent handles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.example 1 The center global handle is dependent on the two outer global handles. In the lower frame.0 User’s Guide 215 . the center handle is moved independently. the center handle follows along. in essence. This allows you to move an entire cross section while only having to select one handle.

all of the green handles are dependent on the orange handle. The entire cross section is controlled by one handle. Note that the dependencies can extend beyond the 2D domain boundaries. 216 HyperMesh 8. The top and bottom halves of the cross sections are controlled by just two handles. each hole can be positioned separately by moving the dependent handle associated with it. When the independent handle is moved. The bottom has similar dependencies. both holes move with it.Dependencies . Dependencies . Also.example 3 An independent handle was created between the two holes and the handles governing the positions of the holes are made dependent on it.example 2 In the model on the left.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the three green handles on the top are dependent on the orange handle on the top. In the model on the right.

or create a shape in the shapes panel with the save current state option turned on. the morph consists only of node perturbations. Note that while shapes with handle perturbations will move nodes when they are applied. HyperMorph takes the difference between the initial state of the model and the current state of the model when creating a new shape. if constraints are being used. node perturbations are required to fully describe the shape. However. or the morph is a mapping or radius changing operation. When the handle at the hole is moved downward. the handle and/or node perturbations are stored in the new shape entity along with biasing factors for the handle perturbations and details such as the biasing style. In the case of freehand morphing. Working with Shapes Shapes are collections of handle and/or node perturbations. When you morph your model. Creating shapes allows you to generate shape variables for optimization and store model changes for parametric studies. If you create a shape in either the morph or freehand panels. vectors are drawn for each handle and node perturbation for the shape. each morph on the undo/redo list will be saved as a separate shape. If you save the model using the save each morph step option in the shapes panel.0 User’s Guide 217 . all of these shapes must be applied.Using dependencies to reduce mesh distortion In this example two dependent handles were created on the edges of the part near the center hole. those shapes do not contain node perturbations and thus vectors are not drawn at those nodes. To get to the current state of the model from the initial state. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When you create a shape using the save as shape or save shape sub-panels. When you create a shape. For many morphing operations. the dependent handles follow and reduce mesh distortion by spreading the morph across the entire part instead of only around the hole. the morph consists only of handle perturbations. The vectors are drawn the exact length of the perturbation and the vectors for the handle perturbations are drawn with thicker lines to denote that they are different from node perturbations. HyperMorph stores the morph internally as a collection of perturbations which you can then undo or redo. The dependent handles were constrained along vectors parallel to the sides of the part.

you should save shapes as node perturbations. select the morph panel. Applying a shape in this way is like any other morphing operation and can be undone. 5. or saved as part of another shape. 2. but by adding a desvar which points to the shape. To create shape variables for an optimization run: 1. Note: A shape is not a shape variable. the shape will be saved as node perturbations only. If you select node perturbations. select the shapes panel. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. 10. it becomes a shape variable. while shapes saved as handle perturbations will differ from shapes that have been saved with changes to the handle influences. Click undo all to return to your base model shape. Select the save shape sub-panel. HyperMorph will ask you if you want to preserve any existing shapes saved as handle perturbations by converting them to node perturbations. Set the toggle to multiple desvars. Setting Up Optimization Morphing can be used to create shape variables for optimization. 3. Whenever you make a change to your model. Morph your model into the shape of the first shape variable. 5. the shape will be saved as either handle perturbations only. 4. select the shape panel. If you select handle perturbations. The difference between the two types comes into play if you change the handles or domains in your model. or vice-versa: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If not. Shapes saved as node perturbations are not affected by changes to domains and handles. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. Each desvar is given a unique name. If you plan to make changes to domains and handles. optimization module. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for each shape variable you want to create. The shape is converted. Select the convert sub-panel. Select the shapes to be converted.When you are saving a shape. Select the type of conversion that you wish to perform. 3. From the BCs page. 7. Click create. 218 HyperMesh 8. To convert shapes saved with handle perturbations to shapes saved with node perturbations. 4. 2. 6. A desvar for each shape is created with the initial value and bounds in the panel. Select the shapes for which you want to create shape variables. Click convert. or a combination of handle and node perturbations if node perturbations are required to describe the shape. redone. you can apply it to your model with any given scaling factor. 8. 9. If you later decide that you want to change a shape from node perturbations to handle perturbations or vice versa you can do so in the convert sub-panel of the shapes panel. you can select whether to save it as handle perturbations or node perturbations. save shapes as handle perturbations and they will require less memory and disk space. Save your morph as a shape. Once a shape is saved.

Once you have created shape variables for your shapes. The Morph Volume Concept Morph Volume strategies are still being created.11. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 219 . Click animate. Animate the shape variables: Click undo morphing if you did not click undo all after saving the last shape. you can set up the rest of your optimization problem within the optimization module. The Freehand Concept Freehand strategies are still being created. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Morph Volume concepts and strategies. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Freehand concepts and strategies. allowing you to view each shape variable by animating it. The deformed panel displays.

these handles will be where you want them to be. In many instances. From the Tool page. If not. For these types of models. you should avoid creating them unless it is necessary. wider. Often the desired shape changes are general. 2. Creating Handles and Domains . use a cluster type morph constraint.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select the domains panel. Click create. If more than one handle is created at a time.Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains Space frames are models that have a sparse distribution of elements. 5. 4. A global domain and global handles are created at useful positions throughout the space frame. Click create. Delete any unwanted handles. select the handles panel. In many cases. Space frame models can generally have element counts in the hundreds of thousands. but their basic structure is rather simple. such as a car body. select the HyperMorph module. shorter. Since local handles and domains for large models can consume a great deal of resources. From the HyperMorph module. or altering the basic positions of components within the frame. such as a wheel or the engine block. 6. 3.space frame model 1. Local handles are not required since local changes to the frame components are not necessary. Set the selector to global domain. Select create. 220 HyperMesh 8. If you want a part of your model to move as a rigid body. such as making it smaller. 7. the handles will each be given a unique name by appending a number after the name you have given. Select an xyz position or any number of nodes where you want global handles. You can also use morph constraints to fix nodes in place during global morphing but if you want them to affect the surrounding mesh you must select the stretch mesh around nodes option when creating the morph constraint. Type in a name. all that is necessary is to create a global domain and global handles. Set the toggle to all nodes. these changes can be performed by placing a handle at each joint in the frame and moving those handles to the desired locations. A new global handle is created at each node or at the specified xyz location. delete them and add global handles elsewhere: Press F2 or go to the delete panel. Set the toggle to create handles. You should place global handles both in areas where you want to apply perturbations and in areas that you want to stay fixed.

makes it necessary for HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences.A global domain and global handles for a full car model Exiting any panel in the HyperMorph module or the delete panel automatically triggers HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences.0 User’s Guide 221 . if necessary. or symmetries. There are many options available for moving the handles. The best one to use depends on the results that you want to achieve: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Adding. this can be time consuming. editing. so you will want to make all the changes you desire within each panel before exiting. or deleting handles. domains. For large models or large changes.

If you are going to match a mesh you need to make sure that the mesh does not get morphed when you are moving the handles. 6. select the morph panel. Make sure that the stretch mesh around nodes option is unchecked. For large models it may be too slow to morph interactively in real time. 2. or Surface Data The basic approach for HyperMorph is to move the handles into positions that change the shape of the model to match the mesh or geometry data. 4. Since on release was selected. the morph is applied to the model and the graphics are updated for the entire model. which leaves a dark trail through the mesh. As you drag the mouse. One of the most enjoyable ways to morph is interactively. When you release the mouse button. Line. 7. Select the nodes on the target mesh. only the graphics for the handle are updated. Note that if you check the stretch mesh around nodes option. All the nodes in the target mesh are constrained to remain fixed during morphing operations as long as the constraint is active and the use constraints box is checked (see the morph options panel).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 5. Change the upper middle selector to interactive. 5. To morph interactively by moving the handle and releasing the mouse button: 1. Select the create/update sub-panel. This can be accomplished by constraining the nodes on the target mesh. the nodes between the constrained nodes and the handles will be affected regardless of whether the mesh is continuous between them. But you can still morph interactively with any size model by setting HyperMorph to perform the morphing after you move the handle and release the mouse button. To constrain the nodes on the target mesh: 1. Move the handle to the new location and release the mouse button. Select move handles. Select a vector. 3. repeat steps 7 through 9. Change the rightmost toggle from real time to on release. From the HyperMorph module. 2. 6.Matching a Mesh. Click create. As you drag a handle across the screen and you can watch the mesh move along with it. Change the lower middle selector from on domains to along vector. select the morph constraints panel. If the handle position needs to be changed again. From the HyperMorph module. Switch the selector to fixed. 222 HyperMesh 8. the handle follows along the selected vector. 8. Click morph. 4. Select a handle on the screen and hold the mouse button down. 3. 9.

10. all of the selected handles are moved the same distance in the same direction.0 User’s Guide 223 . In the middle frame they are interactively moved upwards along a vector to a point matching with the profile line. Morphing to a profile line In the top frame. In the bottom frame the process has been repeated for the other handles on the roof. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Perform steps 7 through 9. The result is a morphed vehicle model that closely matches the profile line. the global handles on either side of top of the windshield are selected. When you release the mouse. Move more than one handle at the same time: Before clicking morph. select several handles on the screen.

However. To match a target mesh or geometric data by moving the handles to a specified node location: 1. The handle is moved to the position where the node was prior to morphing and the rest of the mesh morphs accordingly. Altair Engineering 224 HyperMesh 8. Change the upper middle selector from interactive to move to node. a plane. or a surface. any shapes saved as handle perturbations may not yield the same morphed shape after handles have been added or deleted. You can also select other features to drag the handle along such as a line. To create nodes on the fly on lines and surfaces: 1. or delete any morphing entities. You can use this feature to position a handle anywhere you want line or surface data. Click on the line or surface where you want the node. A node will be created and the handle will immediately be moved to the node. 3. If you intend to add or delete handles in your model. Select a node. Handles may always be added or deleted from a model without affecting the current morphed state of the model. HyperMorph uses the position of the mouse on the screen to figure out where you want to move the handle.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . save your shapes as node perturbations.Morphing to a profile line A handle is added to the center of the rear windshield and is moved to better match the profile line. Select a handle. 2. edit. HyperMorph will give you the option of converting existing shapes from handle perturbations to node perturbations automatically after you add. 2. Hold the mouse button down and drag the mouse over a line or surface until it is highlighted.

The handles move the specified distance in the specified direction and the model morphs accordingly. Specify dimensions more precisely in the alter dimensions sub-panel. Select a vector and distance. Or Select the desired xyz translation. both node a and node b will move the same distance. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. Set the rotation angle. To translate or rotate handles: 1. Select node a and node b at nodes whose distance you want to change. node a will not move (same for node b). Select a few handles. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for node a as a group and the follower handles for node b as a group either towards each other or away from each other so that the new distance between node a and node b is equal to the specified distance. Click translate. Rotate the handles. Change the upper middle selector from translate to rotate. Set the upper left selector to distance. select the morph panel. Change the distance value. Click rotate. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. One way to do this is by translating or rotating handles. Translate the handles. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. 2. Select a few handles. Select an axis of rotation. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. From the HyperMorph module. Change the upper middle selector from move to node to translate. The handles rotate about the axis the specified angle and the model morph accordingly. If the left selector is set to hold end a. 3.Making Parametric Changes Dimensions such as distance and angle can be changed easily in HyperMorph. Select alter dimensions.0 User’s Guide 225 . If the left selector is set to hold middle. Click morph.

3. Change the angle value. 4. HyperMorph will iterate to achieve the desired angle. and node b at nodes whose angle you want to change.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 6. If necessary. 226 HyperMesh 8.Morphing by altering the distance between two nodes The width of the car is found by placing node a (green dot) on the right hand door and node b (blue dot) on the left hand door. If node a and node b are selected coincident with one of the follower handles. Select node a. the vertex. Set the upper left selector to angle. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. 2. 7. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for each end in a way so that the new angle between node a. vertex. The handles on the right side of the model are selected as followers for node a and the handles on the left side of the model are selected as followers for node b. 5. To change the angle: 1. and node b are the specified angle. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. The distance is changed and the model morphs. Click morph. iterattion is not necessary. or at least get close. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b.

The angle is changed from 160 degrees to 150 degrees. If you place three fingers on one side and two on the other and try to stretch the sheet. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note that the handles on either side of the windshield were constrained to move along the x-axis (front to back) thus maintaining the height of the roof. selecting two handles at the front of the car as followers for node a (green). positioning handles at the joints between the members of the space frame restricts the handle influences to the parts of the frame that they are touching. For the general space frame cases. you will need to place several handles across both of sides of the zone of influence. blue.Morphing by altering the angle formed by three nodes The slope of the windshield is altered by defining an angle using three nodes (green. You can visualize the handles as places on a sheet of rubber where you are placing your fingers. and selecting two handles on either side of the windshield as followers for node b (red node). In morphing this is accomplished by placing handles evenly along both sides of the mesh to be stretched. the parts of the model that are morphed are those that lie between the handles that are moving and those that are not. Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Global morphing differs from local morphing in that there are no definite boundaries between the handles that restrict their zones of influence. When you perform global morphing operations. and red). However. for cases where you are trying to morph a mesh that covers a wide area.0 User’s Guide 227 . the space between your fingers on the two finger side will be pulled towards the three finger side. you allow for even stretching to occur between each set of fingers. By placing three fingers on each side.

Controlling global morphing with handles – part 1 The handle on the roof is moved upwards and the center section of the car is morphed along with it. 228 HyperMesh 8. only the part of the car between the roof and the handles along the midline of the car is stretched. Now when the handle on the roof is moved upwards.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Controlling global morphing with handles – part 2 A handle is added directly below the handle on the roof near the center of the car.

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Create a system at a node where the plane of symmetry is to be located and have the x-axis pointing normal to the plane to be created. Select the system you created. Switch the selector from none to 1 plane. the fender of the model is morphed. Change the left toggle from approximate to enforced. 8. select the systems panel. Select the global domain icon. select the symmetry panel. Return to the HyperMorph module. Also note that in cases where detailed shape changes are required. 5. 9. you can create a plane of symmetry at the center of your space frame and have your morphs applied in a symmetric fashion.Using 1-Plane Symmetry If your space frame is symmetric. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.Adding handles to control global morphing Using several handles on either side. Mirror Images . 3. Note that dependent handles are used to simplify the morphing operation. 4. morph volumes will usually yield better results. 7. Enter a name. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 230 HyperMesh 8. From the HyperMorph module. To set up a plane of symmetry: 1. 6.

As a result. The mesh itself does not need to be symmetric to use the symmetry options. When handles are created or deleted. If you have the symmetry links check box activated. The icon for a 1-plane symmetry is a rectangle positioned like a small mirror for the symmetry system.0 User’s Guide 231 . the enforced option will automatically create or delete handles on the other side of the symmetric link in order to enforce symmetry of the handles. HyperMorph creates new handles that are reflections of ones that are not linked to any others and creates a symmetric link between them. System and 1-plane symmetry The plane of symmetry is positioned at the origin of the system and perpendicular to the x-axis. yet still have symmetry active for the symmetric handles. The perturbations applied to handles on one side of the plane of symmetry will be mirrored on to the other side. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Since enforced was selected. HyperMorph also links any handles that it finds that are reflections of the other. The symmetry will be applied to the handles and handle perturbations that will influence the mesh in a symmetric fashion.10. If you want to add handles to one side of the plane of symmetry and not the other. Now when you perform a morphing operation you only need to move the handles on one side of the plane of symmetry. HyperMorph automatically applies the handle movements to the handles on the other side of the plane of symmetry through the symmetry link. the model maintains symmetry across the symmetry plane. use the approximate option instead. A plane of symmetry is created at the origin of the system and based perpendicular to the x-axis. Click create.

Using 1-plane symmetry Three handles on the right hand side of the roof are selected and moved towards the centerline. HyperMorph automatically moves the corresponding nodes on the left hand side of the roof in a symmetric fashion.

Reducing 3D to 2D - Using Linear Symmetry
You can use linear symmetry to apply morphs to the model in such a way that the model is essentially reduced to two dimensions. To create a linear symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be reduced. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from 1 plane to linear. Select the system you created.

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9.

Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. A linear symmetry is created along the x-axis of the system. The icon for a linear symmetry consists of two parallel lines along the dimension to be reduced. The origin of the system is irrelevant. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a line extending along the system xaxis. If two handles lie along a line parallel to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same y and z coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since linear is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others that are linked via the symmetry. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and linear symmetry The linear symmetry icon consists of two parallel lines along the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a linear symmetry system does not matter; the effect of the linear symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a linear symmetry is very useful for making profile changes to a space frame model. It does not matter where the handles are placed along the x-axis, greatly simplifying the model set up. You only need to look at the model from one view to set up the handles and to morph the model. For models with a large number of elements this can save a great deal of time.

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Using linear symmetry The handle on the rear part of the roof is selected and the entire rear portion of the roof is morphed along with it. With linear symmetry you only need to place handles on one side of the model to affect the entire profile.

Reducing 3D to 1D - Using Planar Symmetry
Planar symmetry is similar to linear symmetry accept that it reduces two dimensions instead of one. This enables you to morph your model along a single axis with only two or more handles. To create a planar symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be retained. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from linear to planar. Select the system you created. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

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11. Return to the HyperMorph module. 12. Select the symmetry panel. 13. Select update by domain. 14. Select the global domain. 15. Select the planar symmetry. 16. Click update. A planar symmetry is created and the other two symmetries from the global domain are removed. You are allowed to have any number of symmetries associated with a domain and all will apply, but combining linear and planar symmetry in the same direction results in an unrealistic situation and poor influence calculations. The planar symmetry icon is displayed as a filled-in rectangle perpendicular to the system x-axis. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a plane perpendicular to the x-axis. If two handles lie in a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same x coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since planar is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and planar symmetry The planar symmetry icon is a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a planar symmetry system does not matter, the effect of the planar symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a planar symmetry greatly simplifies a model. Essentially, it reduces the model to a lying along single axis. This symmetry type is very useful for changing dimensions along one axis through the entire model.

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Using planar symmetry The handle at the rear of the model is selected and the entire trunk of the car is morphed. With planar symmetry you only need a row of handles lying roughly along the planar symmetry system x-axis.

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Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
Shell models are models that are made up primarily of shell elements, namely, quads, and trias. In general, a shell model represents many parts, each with numerous features such as holes and edges, and connected together using 1D elements such as bars and rigids. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shapes of the shell model features. This is done using one of the following methods: • Moving the handles on the part to new locations • • Moving the global handles around the parts to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the parts, or mapping the nodes of a part to line or surface data

For most models you only need to create 2D domains for the entire part, but you can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature.

Creating Handles and Domains - shell model
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Change the toggle to all elements or select all the elements in the model. Click create. A 2D domain is created for each group of continuous shell elements. Parts joined by 1D or 3D elements are separated into different domains. If partition domains is checked, the 2D domains will be partitioned according to the settings selected in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. Once partitioned, edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. All of this is automatic, but 1D and 3D elements will not be placed into 1D and 3D domains unless you set the selector to local domains instead of 2D domains. In many cases, the domains and handles will be generated where you want them to be. If not you can always add, edit, or delete the handles and domains to meet your needs.

A shell model is partitioned into 2D domains 6. If you wish to generate a global domain as well as local domains for your model with a single button click, either change the selector to global and local and click create, or to auto functions and click generate.

In the case of the generate auto function, if there are any domains or handles in the model, HyperMorph will first ask if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. If you say “yes”, or if there are no morphing entities in the model, HyperMorph automatically generates 1D, 2D, 3D, and edge domains for the entire model and a global domain and handles as well.

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For tria meshes which lack underlying geometry, both the node-based and element based partitioning algorithms may prove unsatisfactory. In these cases you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when partitioning. To accomplish this, go to the partitioning sub-panel, select element based as the algorithm for tria/tetra meshes, and change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. HyperMorph will then only make partitions along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. You can then go in and manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should go. This method is almost mandatory for meshes that began as first order meshes but were transformed into second order meshes. For these meshes, HyperMorph will detect a curvature break at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. The result will be a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Solving the influence coefficients for 2D domains which contain more than 20,000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. In these cases you may want to divide the large domains into multiple domains or lower the limit for the large domain solver. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. However, even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid, morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming, and thus subdividing 2D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. To divide your shell model, do this: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Select the elements to be placed into a new 2D domain. Click create. When selecting the elements for the new domain you do not need to select only shell elements. HyperMorph automatically removes any other elements before creating the domain. It does not matter if the elements selected are already in a 2D domain. When the new domain is created, the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Handle influences need to be recalculated every time handles, domains, or symmetries are added, edited, or deleted. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. These calculations occur when you enter or leave any HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. Thus, for models with large domains you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. HyperMorph only recalculates the handle influences for handles in regions that have been edited. If the domains are not created exactly how you want them to be, you can edit them in the domains panel. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. The organize subpanel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split, merge, and place handles along edge domains. It is suggested that you create and edit all the 2D domains, then create and edit the edge domains. This order works better since creating or editing 2D domains will result in the regeneration of the surrounding edge domains with the previous modifications to those edge domains being discarded. Sometimes partitioning does not divide the mesh in the ways that would be most useful to you. Occasionally, elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Partitioning is not an exact science, so some cleanup is sometimes required.

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To move elements from one domain to another: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select organize. Change the selector to add nodes/elems . Change the toggle to local domain. Select the elements to be moved. Select the target domain. Click organize. This will move the elements from the domain that they are currently in to the selected domain. HyperMorph also refreshes the edge domains around both domains as well as the edge domains at the interface. New handles may also be created during this process, and if retain handles is not checked, handles may be deleted. It is suggested that you keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing.

Partitioning problems The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. For this example the retain handles option was left unchecked resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. Note that the edge domains are always partitioned for any new domain and handles are placed at the end of the edge domains. For the example above, a handle was created in a new location due to the edge partitioning being different for the two domain configurations. When you hold the mouse button down and the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D domain or over an element inside a domain, the edge domains surrounding the domain are highlighted as well. This allows you to better visualize the domain that you are selecting. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain, and some domains can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements.

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Edge domains are used to make radius changes. 3. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click organize. The selected domains are combined into a single domain and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. 240 HyperMesh 8. From the HyperMorph module. 5. 2. Select the domains to be grouped together. HyperMorph tries to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. Change the selector to combine domains. Two domains are organized into one Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. 4. select the domains panel. This is why any editing of the edge domains should come after the editing of the other domains. but in some cases it may not identify the proper starting and ending points. If you do your edge editing first. You may need to correct this by hand. Select organize. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains.To group two or more domains together: 1.

Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. From the HyperMorph module. Change the selector to merge. Change the selector to split. 5.0 User’s Guide 241 . 4. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. A handle is created at the selected node. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end to end such that the resultant edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. 2. Click split. Click merge. To merge edge domains: 1. Select any number of connected edge domains. Select edit edges. Select edit edges.a circular edge domain is divided into two half circles A handle was created at the joint to allow you to manipulate the edges. 2. 5. Select an edge domain. 3. From the HyperMorph module. select the domains panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Splitting an edge domain . select the domains panel.To split edge domains: 1. 4. 6. 3. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel.

242 HyperMesh 8. select the domains panel. If the domain containing the radius to be changed is very large you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change before you go into the morph panel. From the HyperMorph module. 4. The dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select one or more domains. Click create. Since retain handles was unchecked. Change the selector to add handles.Merging two edge domains The two half circles are merged into a single domain. Select edit edges. 2. the handle at the joint was deleted. To place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change: 1. This feature is quite useful for saving time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. 5. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain.

or lower the limit of the large domain solver. plane. or arc angle of an edge domain Mapping nodes to a line. delete unnecessary handles. or mesh Using section mapping. In these cases you should divide large domains. the influences do not need to be recalculated. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. During influence calculation you might run out of available memory. Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. and sculpting Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The first is that since they are dependent.When you are satisfied with your domains.Creating handles on an edge domain A dependent handle is created on each node of the edge domain. Secondly. click return. . movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge will be transparently applied to the dependent handles. surface. and element offset Using freehand morphing capabilities such as move nodes. HyperMorph calculates the influences for the handles and you are ready to begin morphing. record. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. Morphing on Local Domains You can change the shape of a model with local domains and handles using one or more of the following methods: • • • • • • Moving the local handles Changing a distance or angle Changing the radius. curvature.0 User’s Guide 243 . line and surface difference. It will be as if they were not there.

or another mesh. surfaces. If you want to move a handle a specific distance or to a specific position.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . line. This option allows you to translate handles along a vector or element normals. move to point 244 HyperMesh 8. Interactive morphing is most effective for visualizing how the mesh will react when a handle is moved and for making approximate shape changes. plane. or place them on lines. or domains. surfaces. surface. to orient the mouse location in 3D space. it is better to use a non-interactive option. or another mesh. These options allow you to position handles at specific node or point locations. and move a handle by clicking on it and dragging it to a new location. translate rotate move to XYZ move to node. This option allows you to rotate handles about an axis.There are six ways to move handles in the move handles sub-panel of the morph panel: interactive This option allows you to move handles interactively by dragging the mouse across the screen. You select an entity such as a vector. This option allows you to position handles at specific XYZ locations or place them on lines.

Morphing by translating handles By selecting the two handles along the edge of the flange and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section (green and blue nodes). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 245 . the length of the flange is reduced.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the thickness of the lower section is reduced. Morphing by translating handles By selecting the handles at the bottom of the part and translating them upwards. the width of the channel is increased.Morphing by translating handles By selecting the three handles and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section. 246 HyperMesh 8.

Morphing by rotating handles .constant By selecting all the handles at the end of the section and rotating them about a point (violet node). Morphing by rotating handles . the position of the bolt boss is modified. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.constant The right end of the block is given a constant rotation.0 User’s Guide 247 . the end angle of the section is modified.Morphing by translating handles By selecting all the handles around the bolt boss and translating them horizontally.

normal Although the highlighted handles are rotated. check the true rotation checkbox. Note how the magnitude of the twist increases linearly with the distance from the base (purple) node. After rotating handles you may find areas in the model (particularly those defined by curved edges) that are not rotated the same as the neighboring handles. This will cause the nodes to be rotated as well as the handles with the amount of rotation being equal to the influence coefficient.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Morphing by rotating handles . This is because the nodes have followed the handles instead of being rotated about the axis. This concept comes into play when you are using the rotate function. not all morphing applications are best done using true rotation. 248 HyperMesh 8.linear The entire block is given a linear rotation.Morphing by rotating handles . Although it could be argued that true rotation is the "correct" way to morph via rotation of the handles. the circle at the center of the model remains on the same plane as before. When applying handle perturbations to your model. To correct this situation. it is important to note that the nodes in the model follow the movements of the handles according to the influence coefficients.

If you click no. While morphing a model. Would you like to ignore dependencies for this operation?”. The alter dimensions sub-panel of the morph panel allows you to change one of the parameters in the model. the following message may be displayed: “Some handles selected are dependent on others. If you click yes the given perturbation is applied to each handle and the dependent handles are not given an additional perturbation inherited from another handle. or the radius or curvature of an edge domain. This occurs when both a dependent handle and the handle on which it is dependent are selected to be morphed. controlling a particular dimension often involves moving more than one handle for each end. the angle between nodes.Morphing by rotating handles . For most cases you will want to click yes. Select handles corresponding to those nodes. The handles selected are the ones that will move to make the distance between node a and node b (or angle with a vertex selected) equal the specified value.true rotation During "true rotation" the nodes rotate along with the handles. You must select at least one handle for each end and the handle may be coincident with one of the nodes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. such as the distance between nodes. The basic concept is as follows: Select two nodes (node a and node b). the given perturbation and any inherited perturbation is applied to each dependent node. For solid models.0 User’s Guide 249 .

distance By selecting the thickness of the block as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the radius (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles on the back face (highlighted) to follow the blue node. Morphing by altering dimensions . 250 HyperMesh 8. the width of the bottom of the channel can be changed from 60 to 30 with the rest of the channel changing along with it.Morphing by altering dimensions .distance By selecting the width of the bottom of the channel as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the left (highlighted) to follow the green node and the handles on the right (shown as gray) to follow the blue node. the thickness of the block between the radius and the back face is altered from 15 to 25 by moving the entire back face.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

blue. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and below the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. and red nodes) and by selecting the handle at the bottom right of the channel (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handle at the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. blue.angle By selecting the angle between two faces of the block (green. and red nodes) and by selecting the handles at and directly below the green node (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles at. the angle is altered from 126 degrees to 90 degrees. Morphing by altering dimensions . near.Morphing by altering dimensions .0 User’s Guide 251 .angle By selecting the angle of the left side of the channel (green. the angle of the left side of the section is changed from 110 degrees to 90 degrees.

You select any number of curved edge or 2D domains.5 and kept in line with the edges at either end. All the domains are changed simultaneously.0. Morphing by altering dimensions .radius . 252 HyperMesh 8.5. so if you want to change a radius from 5. The curvature tool is intended for domains that do not have constant curvature.fillet By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the fillet option. the radius is changed from 5 to 2. and arc angle options are used as follows. Note: The curvature tool scales your radius by a factor rather than a set radius. curvature multiplication. you need to set the curve ratio to 1.0 to 8. Making the bias factor retroactive does not work for radius changes. Note: Morphing by altering dimensions – radius – center By selecting the edge domain around the edge of the hole.6. set the new radius.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or arc angle factor for them. and click morph.The radius. select the center calculation and style options. the radius is changed from 3 to 1. curvature.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold ends By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the hold ends option, the radius is changed from 5 to 10 with the ends held in place.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold end By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part, selecting the hold end option, and selecting a node at the end of the edge domain, the radius is changed from 5 to 8 while the held end remains in place.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - fillet By selecting all of the edge domains that form the fillet between the flat sections and the round section and changing them simultaneously, the fillet is reduced from 20 to 8.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius The radius is changed in three different ways. At the top right, the hold center option is used. At the lower left, the hold ends option is used. At the lower right, the fillet option is used. In all cases, both the top and bottom edge domains were selected as well as the 2D domain and the by normals option was used for center calculation. This option will directly calculate the radii for the nodes on the 2D domain instead of inferring them from the edge domains which makes this approach more accurate for 2D domains as well as more reliable for non-uniform meshes.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the mesh is changed from 60 to 90 degrees using by axis (the vertical axis and violet base node) to calculate the center of curvature.

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the fillet is changed from 90 to 180 degrees using by normals to calculate the center of curvature. There are five methods available for calculating the center of curvature for the selected domains: • by normals - this method is the default and uses the element normals to approximate where the center of curvature is for each node in the selected domains. This method is not always accurate, but often gives good results for regular meshes. by axis - you may select an axis which will serve as the center of curvature. by line - you may select a line which will serve as the center of curvature. by node - you may select a node which will serve as the center of curvature. by edges - this method uses the edge domains to calculate the center of curvature with the center lying in the plane of the edge domains. The symmetry option refers to how the morphing of the edge domains is applied to neighboring 2D domains. The auto-symmetry option was the default for HyperMorph prior to version 8.0. In 8.0 you may choose to turn off symmetry when using this option.

• • • •

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For auto-symmetry, the changes in the radii of the edge domains are applied to any 2D domain, depending on the number of edge domains you change for the 2D domains. If you change only one edge domain for a given 2D domain, the radius change will not be applied linearly across the 2D domain. If you change the radii of two edges for any given 2D domain, either a linear or planar temporary symmetry is created between the two edge domains for the 2D domain that will apply radius changes more linearly across the 2D domain. This works best if the mesh is regular. If you are changing only one edge for a 2D domain, you can increase the bias factor of any handles on an edge domain to yield a more even distribution. Mapping an edge domain to a line or a 2D mesh to a plane, surface, or mesh is done using the map to geom panel. This option is very effective for fitting a mesh to new geometric data. When mapping a domain to a geometric feature, all the nodes in neighboring domains are stretched along with it, minimizing mesh distortion. You have several options for determining how the nodes for the mapped domain are placed on the geometry. When mapping an edge domain or node list the nodes can be moved normal to the line, along a vector to the line, or distributed along the full length of the line. When mapping a 2D domain or selection of nodes to a plane, surface, or mesh, the nodes can be moved normal to the target, normal to the elements of the 2D domain or selected nodes, or along a vector. If you wish to fit a mesh to a surface, there is no option to do this automatically, however, with multiple mapping operations, or using the user control option you can fit a 2D domain to a surface. Furthermore, you have the option of creating a morph constraint between the nodes and the map target automatically after mapping. This constraint will allow you to do further morphing operations while maintaining the constrained nodes on the geometry. The map to geom panel is also effective for solid model meshing. You can create a block of solid elements roughly in the shape of the geometry that you are trying to mesh, and then use map to surface to morph the faces of the block to the geometry.

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - normal to geom The edge domain is mapped to a line by moving the nodes normal to the line.

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Morphing by mapping to line - automap - fit to line The edge domain is mapped to the line by fitting them along the line. Any proportional spacing between the nodes will be maintained after mapping.

Morphing by mapping to surface By selecting the 2D domain on the top of the solid block to be mapped to the surface, the entire solid block is morphed to match the surface.

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Morphing by mapping to surface A rectangular C-section is mapped to a curved surface.

Morphing by mapping to surface - user control This example shows the user-control approach to mapping a mesh onto a surface. The surface and 2D domain are selected and the user control button is clicked. This brings up a new panel which allows you to place handles or map edges prior to the surface mapping operation. One by one each edge domain is placed on one of the lines around the target surface using the fit to line option. This stretches the 2D domain to match the surface more closely than before. When the map button is clicked, the domain is the mapped to the surface, fitting it perfectly to the geometry.

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Morphing Global Handles
Global handles are most effective when used to make general shape changes for a model, such as changing the basic shape of a model, stretching parts of a model, or making changes that involve the movement of many local handles. There are three methods available for affecting the way global handles influence the model, the direct method, the hierarchical method, and the mixed method. The default is the direct method, where the global handles move the nodes directly. In the hierarchical method, the global handles move the local handles which in turn move the nodes, but if any nodes lie outside of local domains they will be unaffected. In the mixed method, the hierarchical method is used for all nodes in local domains and the direct method is used for all other nodes. The hierarchical method maintains the shape of edge domains in the model, but if local handles are not evenly placed throughout the model, some parts will become distorted. The direct method gives you what you expect but often distorts the shape of the edge domains. For shell and solid models, better morphing is more likely to occur if you use the hierarchical method, and place local handles in areas where there is distortion.

Using Constraints
Morph constraints are a powerful tool that can be used to restrict the movement of nodes during morphing operations. The following types of constraints can be applied to any node: fixed, cluster, along vector, on plane, along line, on surface, and on elements. Whenever a handle is moved that influences a node, which is constrained, the node is moved according to the handle perturbation and is then projected back onto the feature to which it is constrained. This allows the nodes to slide across vectors, lines, planes, surfaces, and meshes, to remain fixed when handles are moved, or to move as a cluster along with other nodes. You may also constrain nodes where handles are located which, in effect, constrains the handles. When a perturbation is applied to a constrained handle, the handle are moved along the constraint feature regardless of the applied perturbation. This means that if you apply a translation in the x direction on a handle that is constrained along a vector x - y = 0, the handle moves along both the x and y axes. There are also morph constraints that can be applied to domains, such as the smooth constraint, which applies spline-based smoothing along the constrained edge domains, and model constraints, which allow you to set a given parametric target (such as length, angle, mass, etc.) and have HyperMorph adjust the model to meet that target. These constraints as well as bounded and set distance options for the node constraints are described more fully in the panel help. Morph constraints can be very useful for morphing a mesh that has been mapped to, projected to, or created upon a surface. Note that the map to geom operation allows you to have a morph constraint automatically created after mapping. Once you have done so, the nodes will remain on the surface during morphing operations. Note: Although morph constraints can keep nodes on a curved line or surface during morphing operations, when morphs are saved as shapes and then turned into shape variables for optimization, the nodes will not stay on the line or surface during optimization. This is because optimization is a linear process and the shapes will be treated as linear, meaning that the nodes will move directly from their original point to their maximally perturbed point without moving along any constraint.

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Controlling handle positions with morph constraints The angle of the lower right corner is changed from 74 to 90 degrees using the alter dimensions (angle) operation. The middle frame shows the result with no constraints. The frame on the right shows the result with the node in the upper right corner constrained to move along a vector that lies along the top edge.

Nodes tracking a line during morphing The nodes along the right edge domain are constrained to the line. When the handle is moved, it and the other constrained nodes move along the line.

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When the handles are translated. HyperMorph automatically placed the handles back on the surfaces after applying the translation so that the constraint was obeyed. Higher biasing values generate a smooth curvature near the handles.000 in the middle. In this example.Morphing after mapping to surface All mapped nodes are automatically constrained to the surface. the morphing between the handles is linear. Biasing increases or decreases the influence of a handle over the nodes within its area of influence. provided both handles are global handles or they are located on edge domains. they too will be moved along the surface regardless of the applied perturbation. To smoothly change the shape of a domain it is recommended that you use a biasing factor of 1. while lower biasing values generate harsh corners near the handles. which is the default value for all handles except for dependent handles on 1D domains. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and 3. the nodes are moved along the surface a distance corresponding to the applied handle perturbations.000. Using Biasing Biasing allows you to control the shape of a mesh when applying handle perturbations.000 at the corners. 2. If the handles were also part of the map to geom operation. If the biasing values for all of the handles are equal to 1.000 at the edges. the handles were translated linearly.0 User’s Guide 261 .

Biasing for a 2D domain The model at the upper left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 1. 262 HyperMesh 8. the mesh folds over due to the influences of the other handles (middle frame). and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 2.500. and have the current list of applied morphs updated to reflect the new biasing values.000.000.000. the mesh unfolds (right frame). The model at the lower left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 2. This is useful in selecting a good biasing value to apply for a given morph. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. Biasing to reduce mesh distortion When the hole is moved downward with a biasing factor of 1.000 and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Apply the morphs and change the biasing values retroactively until you get the shape that you want. When the biasing value of the handle at the hole is increased to 3.000.000. you can change the biasing value by activating the make retroactive check box.000 for the handle at the hole. After applying a morph. Biasing can be applied retroactively after a morphing operation. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1.

In many cases. If partition 2D domains is checked. A 3D domain is created for a solid model Note the automatic creation and partitioning of 2D domains on the face of the solid and the creation of edge domains and handles for the 2D domains. tetras. From the HyperMorph module. Creating Handles and Domains . pentas. The surfaces of each 3D domain are covered with shell elements that are placed in a component named ^morphface. For solid models. the domains and handles are generated where you want them to be. edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. 3. edit. and hexas. 4. This procedure is automatic. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. these 2D domains are partitioned according to the settings selected in the parameter subpanel of the domains panel. Select create. This is done using one of the following methods: • • • • Moving the handles on the part to new locations Moving the global handles around the part to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the part Mapping the nodes of the part to line or surface data. Once partitioned. and ribs. you can add.0 User’s Guide 263 . each part is placed in its own 3D domain. 5. edges. You can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature. Click create. To create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in the model: 1. In general.Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains Solid models are models that are made up of solid elements. or manually select all of the elements in the model. Change the toggle to all elements. If the model is made up of more than one part. select the domains panel.solid model You can create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in a model. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shape of features in a solid model. namely. it is only necessary to create a single 3D domain for the entire part. flanges. bosses. or delete the handles and domains to meet specific needs. The elements in ^morphface covering each 3D domain are placed into 2D domains. Set the selector to 3D domains. a solid model represents a single part with numerous features such as holes. If they are not. 2.

However. From the HyperMorph module. and 1D domain. Select create. Note: The element based method sometimes works better on second order tetras since it accounts for element curvature. Click generate. If you click yes. If there are any domains or handles in the model. 264 HyperMesh 8. such as first order tetra meshes. global handles. morphing cannot be performed. select the domains panel. 4. the 2D domain made up of the elements on the surface of the 3D domain will not have edge domains and thus no handles will be generated for it. However. Set the selector to auto functions. If you do not select partition 2D domains when you generate a 3D domain. and 3D domains are automatically generated for the entire model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Without handles. if the second order tetras are converted first order tetras and thus have no curvature. 2. you may find it easier to start with a blank slate rather than editing the automatically created domains. which produces dependent (green) handles. For meshes on which the automatic partitioning does not work well. or if there are no morphing entities in the model. 2D. you are asked if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. the node based partitioning will work better.To create a 3D domain along with a global domain and global handles to your model: 1. element based and node based. before deciding to partition by hand. 1D. 3. this approach will give you a “blank slate” 2D domain that you can partition by hand. Be sure to try both methods of partitioning. as well as a global domain and handles. Automatic generation of domains on a solid model Note the addition of a global domain.

Also. 5. To subdivide your solid model: 1. Set the selector to 3D domains. other elements are automatically removed before the domain is created. you only need to create domains for that part. From the HyperMorph module. Select update. Select any 2D domains on the surface of the 3D domain that are permissible for HyperMorph to split into more than one 2D domain. the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. 4. change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when automatically partitioning. 3.Also. To do this. However. 6. 3. Not that in some cases HyperMorph will not be able to subdivide a 3D domain without dividing an indivisible 2D domain. a curvature break is detected at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. Click subdivide. From the HyperMorph module. even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid. 2. When selecting elements for the new domain. Solving the influence coefficients for 3D domains which contain more than 20. you do not need to be concerned about selecting the morphface elements. Therefore. In these cases you may want to divide the domain into multiple domains using the subdivide 3D function in the update sub-panel of the domains panel. you do not need to select only solid elements. For these meshes. Morphface elements are placed at the internal interface between the new domain and the other domains and create a 2D domain for the interface. Partitions will be made only along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. Select create.0 User’s Guide 265 . Click create. select the domains panel. This results in a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. for first order tetra meshes. You can then manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should be located. in the parameters sub-panel. This method is very helpful for meshes that began as first order tetra meshes but then were then transformed into second order meshes. select the domains panel. Select the 3D domains to be subdivided. 5. but it will not partition the interface. and thus subdividing 3D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. it does not matter if the selected elements are already in a 3D domain. Select the elements to be placed into a new 3D domain. Additionally. morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees.000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. Set the selector to subdivide 3D. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When the new domain is created. To divide your solid model manually: 1. or lower the limit for the large domain solver. 4. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. In these cases the 3D domain will be left undivided. if you are only going to morph a part of your 3D mesh. 2. HyperMorph automatically subdivides the 3D domains into one or more 3D domains while leaving the 2D domains not selected as being divisible unchanged. This better accommodates the division of tetra meshes that cannot be divided along flat or curved internal faces and thus would be partitioned into many domains.

you should perform the tasks in the following order: Create and edit all the 3D domains that you want first. elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. When some meshes are morphed. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. Some cleanup may be required. 266 HyperMesh 8. it has the effect of partitioning the surface of the original 3D domain along seams where the divisions were made. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split. edited. These calculations occur when you enter or leave a HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. Create and edit the edge domains. domains. Since creating or editing 3D domains results in the creation of 2D and edge domains. If the domains are not created exactly the way you want them. For large models you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. and creating or editing 2D domains results in the creation and deletion of edge domains. or symmetries are added. and place handles along edge domains. Occasionally. The organize sub-panel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. Automatic partitioning does not always divide a mesh in the most useful ways. Dividing a 3D domain into many 3D domains can be very useful for controlling the movement of nodes within the domain when the handles on the surface are moved. merge. This is generally caused by handle influences extending too far through the 3D domain. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. the internal elements can become distorted. The influences for handles are only recalculated in regions that have been edited. So when you divide your model into 3D domains.Note: When you divide a 3D domain into parts. make sure that you divide it along lines where you want your 2D domains on the surface to be. you can edit them in the domains panel. or deleted. Influences must be recalculated every time handles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Create and edit the 2D domains. A single 3D domain is split into four 3D domains The influences of the handles will not extend across the boundaries between the domains. You can divide your 3D domains to restrict the handle influences and control mesh distortion.

Click organize. and for some domains it can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain. Change the selector to add nodes/elements. 4. For this example. will highlight the edge domains surrounding the domain. 5. as well as the 2D domains at the interface if solid elements are being organized. The edge domains around both domains are refreshed.0 User’s Guide 267 . Select organize. You should keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing. 2. handles may be deleted. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements. From the HyperMorph module. the retain handles option was left unchecked. Note: Holding the mouse button down when the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D or 3D domain or over an element inside a domain. Select the elements to be moved. 6. The elements are moved from their current domain to the selected domain. Select the target domain. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. select the domains panel. resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. and if retain handles is not checked. New handles may also be created during this process.To move elements from one domain to another: 1. This allows you to visualize the domain that you are selecting. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel.

select the domains panel. If you perform edge editing first. To split edge domains: 1. This is why you should edit the edge domains after the other domains have been edited. it will not identify the proper starting and ending points. A handle is created at the selected node. Change the selector to split. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. 2. Select edit edges. 5. 2. Select the domains to be grouped. You will need to correct this by hand. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. The lower edge domain has been split at the gray node (left model). Change the selector to combine domains. select the domains panel. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. HyperMorph attempts to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. 3. 4. Click split. Click organize. 6. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. 4. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. Select an edge domain. Select organize. From the HyperMorph module. 5. From the HyperMorph module. Now the radius of each new edge domain may be modified independently of the other.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. but in some cases. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D and 3D domains. 268 HyperMesh 8.To group two or more domains: 1. 3. The selected domains are combined into a single domain. and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. which becomes a handle (right model).

5. If a model is very large. Click merge. This feature helps save time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. Dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. 4. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge are transparently applied to the dependent handles. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. Change the selector to add handles. the influences do not need to be recalculated. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. 2. 2. Secondly. Click create. you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish to change before you enter the morphing panel. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes.0 User’s Guide 269 . It will be as if they were not there. From the HyperMorph module. Dependent handles created using the handles on edge feature Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects.To merge edge domains: 1. select the domains panel. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. select the domains panel. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. Select any number of edge domains. 5. Select edit edges. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end-to-end such that the resultant merged edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. Change the selector to merge. To create dependent handles along an edge domain: 1. 4. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. 3. Select one or more domains. Select edit edges. From the HyperMorph module. The first is that since they are dependent. 3.

you will see the two sides of your model superimposed over each other. you should divide large domains. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. if desired (as shown). your model is displayed as a wire frame.solid model The HyperMesh graphics engine supports different visual options for viewing models as you work on them. but only the surface elements are drawn because in a solid model. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. Since HyperMorph creates a component called ^morphface. 270 HyperMesh 8. which contains shell elements on the surface of the 3D domains. Viewing Solid Models . However. The influences for the handles is calculated and you are ready to begin morphing. click return. You can still display the surface mesh. When you are satisfied with your domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . a full wire frame can make it very difficult to visualize the model because every element in the model is displayed.6. In these cases. You only see the side of the model that is facing you (as if your model was a real part). delete unnecessary handles. since the viewing mode is still wire frame. Note: During influence calculation for large models you might run out of available memory. surface-only wire frame In this default mode. solid fill The option produces a display that is similar to what you see when you perform a fill plot in the hidden line panel. the default setting is to display only that component—thus showing only the outer surface of your model and making it easier to work on.

0 User’s Guide 271 .You can also view a solid model for morphing by turning off all the components and looking at only the domains and handles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Partitioning generally captures all the features on the surface of a solid. so by viewing only the domains you can visualize the model with minimal clutter. This is similar to looking at the model in a meshless wire frame mode.

Operations that can be accomplished in this way include: Hand editing of vertex coordinate geometry and connectivity Editing section thickness Creating parts Editing part to vertex associativity Parameterizing the beam section for optimization via a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates Organizing HyperBeam sections into a single level structure of HyperBeam collectors 272 HyperMesh 8. Step One Step Two Step Three Beam section definition from line. Select the lines. rod) element property data for an FEA model. The HyperBeam module allows you to: • • View the beam section. It is a threestep process. including splitting and joining operations Selecting vertex coordinates when the spreadsheet display is active Edit the beam section manually via dialogs and a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates. surface. Edit the beam section graphically via mouse clicks and drags. steps one and three are performed within HyperMesh and step two is performed in the HyperBeam module. Beam section properties are imported back into HyperMesh and applied to element property cards. Step 1: Beam Section Definition. its local coordinate system. Operations that can be done this way include: • Editing section thickness Creating.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Beam section manipulation and property calculation takes place in the HyperBeam module.HyperBeam Module The HyperBeam module allows you to calculate general beam section properties from geometry or element data. Each step is described in more detail below. elements or surfaces that represent the beam cross section. Transfer the data into the HyperBeam module. moving. and deleting vertices Editing line segments. Step 2: Beam Section Manipulation. This data can be imported into the HyperMesh finite element pre-processor and used to create one-dimensional (bar. and any beam section properties calculated. as dictated by the beam section template. beam. The HyperBeam panel in HyperMesh allows you to: • • • • Define the beam cross sectional plane via the existing HyperMesh vector definition methods. Access previously defined beam cross sections for editing in the HyperBeam module. or element data takes place in the HyperBeam panel within HyperMesh.

Step 3: Beam Property Import.0 User’s Guide 273 . You can import beam section properties into HyperMesh that have been defined in HyperBeam by using the collectors panel with the properties entity selected. The beam section characteristics are displayed in the card image of the property collector but must be edited from within the HyperBeam module. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

274 HyperMesh 8.Example of the Three-Step Process This example illustrates how HyperBeam can be used to attach beam section properties to a OptiStruct PBAR card image. Elements or lines can be used to describe a beam section. This plot element will be used to align the section within HyperBeam. And the plane base node is chosen (change option to specify node) at N1 also. The selector type is set to elems and the blue plot elements are selected. The blue lines are plot elements denoting the beam section. N1. The purple line is a plot element created in the global y-direction. N2 and N3 locations are selected as shown in the figure below. It assumes that the OptiStruct user profile is loaded.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The shell section subpanel is selected from the HyperBeam panel. project to plane is then selected under cross section plane:.

HyperBeam is invoked when you click create.0 User’s Guide 275 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. It is important to note the alignment of the local axes at this point. N3 describes the positive sense of the z-axis. Later we will need to know this when the beam section is aligned for bar elements.The vector created by N1 to N2 describes the local y-axis used in HyperBeam.

and N3 was reversed (essentially the z-direction was flipped). 276 HyperMesh 8. HyperBeam would yield different results as shown below.If the node selection was performed differently.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

and the local bar element alignment axis. This operation is performed in the bars panel. it is necessary to attach the beam section to the PBAR card image. This can be done in the collectors panel. The direction specified within the bars panel defines the alignment along the y-direction. the z-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. the PBAR card image must be attached to the 1-D element in question. the y-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. After the card image is created. In this case. the HyperBeam alignment axis.0 User’s Guide 277 .Once HyperBeam solves the cross sectional properties. If there were a 1 within the Z comp. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Bar element alignment using HyperBeam sections is very straightforward if the section was defined using an absolute y-direction. The figure below illustrates the alignment of the global axis.

The beam cross section can also be attached to the beam to visually inspect the alignment. This option can be found in the review sections subpanel in the HyperBeam panel. 278 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

0 User’s Guide 279 .Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam The beam cross section is always defined in a y. only the theory of thin walled bars is used. Area Area Moments of Inertia Area Product of Inertia Radius of Gyration Elastic Section Modulus Max Coordinate Extension Plastic Section Modulus Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Thickness warping is also neglected. For shell sections. the system parallel to the local coordinate system with the origin in the centroid is called the centroidal coordinate system. The x axis is defined along the beam axis. This means that for the calculation of the moments and product of inertia terms of higher order of the shell thickness t are neglected.z plane. the system referring to the principal bending axes is called the principal coordinate system. The coordinate system defined by the user is called the local coordinate system.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Torsional Constant Solid Shell open Shell closed Elastic Torsion Modulus Solid Shell open Shell closed Warping Constant (normalized to the shear center) Shear deformation coefficients 280 HyperMesh 8.

Wiley & Sons. CRC Press. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 40 (1997) 211-232. The Theory of Thin Walled Bars. Lehrbuch – Hoehere Festigkeitslehre. U.D. Goeldner. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Pilkey. 1993. Gjelsvik. 1981. V. FL. and W.0 User’s Guide 281 . ed. Fachbuchverlag. 1979. Leipzig. Boca Raton.. A. Schramm. H. Wunderlich. Pilkey and W. Rubenchik.Shear stiffness factors Shear stiffness Nastran Type Notation References W. Beam Stiffness Matrix based on the Elasticity Equations.D. Structural Mechanics – Variational and Computational Methods.

shell section graphics pane. It also has a menu bar. toolbar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click each section of the HyperBeam window below to access detailed information about the menu areas. and status bar. 282 HyperMesh 8. and results/spreadsheet sections.HyperBeam Environment HyperBeam has three main panes: the section browser.

To view thumbnails of selected sections. and enter the new name. thumbnail images of all the sections are shown in the graphics pane. and dragging it to the collector where you want it to be located. and renaming sections and section collectors. Section types are identified by icons. choose Create Thumbnails from the pop-up menu. To move a section. To copy a section. and select Paste from the Edit menu.Section Browser This section browser presents a hierarchical view of all of the beam sections and section collectors on your database. You can use the section browser to find a particular section of your model for displaying or editing. select a section by left-clicking on it. click again to indicate that you want to rename it. right-click in the section browser pane. click once on the item to select it. At the highest level is the model. To export sections to an external file. holding down the control key. select the collector branch in the section browser window. You can also reorganize the database by moving sections between collectors. select the collector where you want the section to appear. as listed below: Shell Solid Standard Generic You can perform the following tasks in the section browser: • • • • To rename a section or section collector. select Cut from the Edit menu. and select Paste from the Edit menu. select multiple sections by holding down the control key and left-clicking on multiple sections. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. select the section. select the collector where you want the section to appear. the thumbnail images that were just created may be viewed in the graphics pane by selecting Model in the section browser tree. There are two ways to "drag and drop": • Move a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. select Copy from the Edit menu. copying sections.bm extension to save beam section files).0 User’s Guide 283 . and dragging and dropping it into the collector where you want it to be located Copy a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. choose Export Section from the pop-up menu. click Save. give a filename and location in the Save As window (it is recommended to use the . until you create thumbnail images for a different selection of sections. right-click in the section browser pane. select the section. Below that are all of the collectors followed by the beam sections at the lowest level. HyperBeam displays this hierarchy in a standard tree structure. To view thumbnail images of the sections in a section collector. select the desired sections or section collectors in the section browser (hold down the control key to select multiple items).

if the section's x-axis points into or out of the monitor. or equivalently. Each vertex may or may not be labeled by its ID. then HyperBeam underestimates the stiffness of a section. You have control (on the preferences dialog) over whether the z-axis points up or down. Each part is also marked with a slider bar that you can use to adjust the part's thickness. The centroid appears as a plus with a circle around it. If you accidentally omit those vertices from the connectivity for a part.The Importance of Flanges When HyperBeam computes the properties for the section. The color of the lines for each part is selected on the section's properties dialog. The shear center appears as an x with a circle around it.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if you have them enabled on the view menu. if you have them enabled on the view menu. The section axis is always drawn with its y-axis pointing to the right. each sheet metal part is drawn by lines connecting the dots that show the section's vertices. Shell Section Graphics Pane The graphics pane displays a representation of the geometric layout of the section. separated by a colon. 284 HyperMesh 8. The section's local coordinate system and its principle coordinate system (at its centroid) are displayed. The bar is labeled with the part's number in the section and the current numerical value of the thickness. The section's torsion and warping factor are displayed in the lower left corner of the pane. The preferences dialog allows you to set the font and background color to use in the text graphics pane. depending on if you have the toggle set on the toolbar or the view menu. For shell sections. You can modify the section itself with the shell section editing tools. the metal thickness used for a flange is the sum of the thicknesses of all the parts that share it.

then HyperBeam displays the message. and optimization bounds for the section. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. If the section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog.0 User’s Guide 285 . variables. The section results pane shares screen space with the section definition spreadsheets. but you can select it and copy it to paste it into another application such as a word processor. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. then the spreadsheet displays equations. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you can use the spreadsheet button on the toolbar. and background color on the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. text color. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's vertices and their coordinates. consult the documentation for the results output template. there are more results computed than are displayed in the default template. to toggle between them. it displays them in the results pane. You will find controls for the actual format and layout of the text and results in two locations. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. If there are computed values that are not necessary. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's variables and their current values. and the associated vertex moves to the new location. If this section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. such as when you have edited the section definition and dynamic update is disabled. "No results to display. so you may choose to add additional values to the template. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. You specify the text font. You can specify a new results template by selecting the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog.Results/Spreadsheet Pane Section Properties Results Whenever HyperBeam computes the section properties of the current section. Also. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. You can type a new value into any of the coordinates. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. If the results are not available. You can change the display of text and values by editing the scripts file. Shell Section Spreadsheet (non-optimization version) For a shell section. then the spreadsheet additionally displays optimization bounds for each variable. To see the list of all the results available. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. you can delete them from the template so that they are not displayed. You cannot edit the text in this portion of the window." Standard Section Spreadsheet For a standard section.

so it must be formatted as appropriate for that solver. Click the coordinate and it will appear as the dependent vertex. variables. then the shell-section spreadsheet expands to display the rest of the necessary information. To define a variable for use in an equation. click the vertex coordinate to make it active and delete the text of the equation. If all three values are equal. initial value. 286 HyperMesh 8. you can use other vertex coordinates. A menu is displayed that allows you to choose between adding or deleting a variable. a new blank line appears. blank spaces may be prohibited. or trigonometric functions. To delete a variable. and optimization bounds.) To delete an equation. A vertex that is defined by an equation may not appear on the right-hand side of another equation. (For example. Each vertex coordinate now has three values: an initial value. with a few restrictions. it is assumed the optimizer treats that coordinate as fixed. click the variable with the right mouse button. into which you can enter the variable's name. If you choose add. a lower bound. Alternatively. click the right-hand side of the equation and enter the formula. The equation is passed to the optimization solver.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and an upper bound. arithmetic functions. Select delete variable on the menu.Optimization Shell Section Spreadsheet If the shell section has been designated an optimization section on the Properties dialog. Next. The coordinate will be set equal to the last value it had calculated. use the right mouse button to select the variable's section. A menu is displayed. In the equation. a vertex coordinate can be defined using an equation.

The Preferences dialog allows you to specify the appearance and behavior of HyperBeam.0 User’s Guide 287 . Copies the selected text or entity. or generic section. There are controls for the results/spreadsheet window and controls for the section graphics window available. standard section. Copies and removes the selected text or entity. Setting the Section Graphics Options The Graphics tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Specifies the main background color for the section graphics region. Edit Menu Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Delete Preferences Undo the last procedure. Set the graphics and results preferences. Some operations such as importing and exporting are accomplished only from the menu bar. Other operations can be performed using either the menu bar or the corresponding tool button. Opens a file browser so you can import a beam cross-section. The Graphics and Results tabs in the Preferences dialog allow you to set preferences for the section graphics window and the results/spreadsheet window. Opens a file browser so you can export a beam cross-section. Redo the last procedure. Allows you to set up printer preferences. Paste the selected text or entity into the location of the cursor. Exit the HyperBeam module and return to HyperMesh. select Preferences to display the tabs. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. File Menu New Save Import Section Export Section Export Results Print Print Preview Print Setup Exit Create a new section collector. Delete the currently selected text or entity. Prints the currently displayed beam cross section and the section analysis results. Opens a file browser so you can export the results for the selected section to a text file. From the Edit window. Options are provided to export all sections. On the Edit menu.HyperBeam Menu Bar The HyperBeam menu bar allows you to perform a wide variety of operations using drop-down menus. select Preferences. Displays a print preview. or only selected sections. Save the beam cross-section.

The distance entry field allows the distance between nodes of the grid to be adjusted. See the Templex Reference On-line Help for additional details. Results output templates The computed results for a section are formatted using a user-specified TEMPLEX scripts. Contact Altair for technical details on exchange file formats and return codes. Allows you to specify whether HyperBeam should display the section with the x-axis coming out of the page (so z axis goes up) or going into the page (so the z-axis goes down). Displays the font dialog box. Each section type can have its own custom script. for best formatting. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for section graphics window. You may substitute your own solver to compute values for thin Shell sections.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . such as courier. x-axis direction Grid Thumbnails Specifying the Results/Spreadsheet Display The Results tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Font Select the background color for the results display. Allows you to specify a bitmap or second color for a gradient to display as the background of the section graphics window. so it can display just those values known to be relevant. so that their sizes are relative to one another. It is recommended that you use a fixed-width font. The Scale Thumbnails checkbox allows thumbnail images to be displayed. External solver for thin shell sections 288 HyperMesh 8. Allows you to display a grid behind the section image. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for the results display.Font Background effects Displays the font dialog box.

Turns on and off the display of the system coordinate axes. Turns on and off the display of the Warping Factor. Allows you to modify the properties of the beam cross-sections. Turns on and off the display of the status bar.View Menu Toolbar Status Bar Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit to screen Update Results Dynamic update Systems Torsion Factor Warping Factor Spreadsheets Vertex Ids Turns on and off the display of the toolbar. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Reduces the size of the graphic in the graphics pane.. Switches the display in the Results/Spreadsheet pane.0 User’s Guide 289 . Allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section... When selected. Scales the graphic so that it exactly fits the active window. Allows you to break a segment so that you can add a new vertex. Moves the model in the selected direction. If selected. updates results. Turns on and off the display of the Torsion Factor. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Tools Menu Break a Segment Join Segments Create a New Part Move Vertices Reorient Shell Section.. Allows you to delete a vertex to join two segments. rearrange vertices in a part. Allows you to add a new sheet metal part to the current section.. automatically updates the display when you make changes. Allows you to specify the section that you want to zoom in on to examine in greater detail. Part Editor. Properties. Magnifies the graphic in the graphics pane. Turns on and off the display of the Vertex IDs. Allows you to move vertices.. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section.

reverse x-axis Activate the check box to flip the section over. the origin for the section does not follow it. You can also move the origin by a fixed amount by defining y and z offsets. Specifying the Origin You can designate a vertex. the current principle axes. Likewise. or at an angle offset from the current y axis. Specifying the y-axis You can specify the direction for the for the y-axis of the local coordinate system using vertices.Reorient Shell Section The reorient shell section dialog allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. the origin will not move with it. If you move a defi ning vertex. if the shear center or centroid changes because of any changes to the section properties. Note that. reflecting it about the y-axis. 290 HyperMesh 8. you must specify the location of its origin relative to the vertices and the direction of the y-axis. To specify a new coordinate system. if you subsequently move that vertex. or the principle axes change. or the current centroid to be the new origin. this coordinate system does not adjust with them.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the current shear center.

0 User’s Guide 291 . … and the connectivity of the bottom flange is 1. so the connectivity of the top part is 1. 12. the currently selected part of the section is highlighted.. To set a new thickness. the segment between vertices 1 and 2 is a flange.. The part features that you need to control are its thickness and the connectivity of its vertices. To designate a segment between two vertices and a flange. (You can also adjust thickness by using the graphic tools. You can use the up and down arrows to review any part. you can set upper and lower bounds for the optimization of the section's sheet metal thicknesses. 14. You can add or remove vertices to change the part. 2. 4. When you use the part editor tools for.) If you are currently in an optimization section. enter a value in the appropriate field. 3. 15 … Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 5.Part Editor Parts of thin-shell sections can be edited by selecting Part Editor. 13. include those vertices in more than one part. The part editor also allows you to review and edit part vertex connectivities. There is list of the vertex IDs at the bottom of the list. on the Tools menu and entering data in the Edit Parts dialog. For example. A part in this context is an individual piece of sheet metal that is typically welded to other parts along flanges. in the section illustrated below. 2.

such as upper and lower bound on thicknesses. Section type 292 HyperMesh 8. The properties that can be specified differ for each type of section. select properties. Optimization Solid Section Properties The Solid Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a solid section. On the Tools menu. See the HyperBeam panel for more information on beam cross-sections types. Specify the shape out of the available choices to use for the standard section.Properties Properties for beam cross-sections are specified by selecting Properties on the Tools menu and entering data in the Thin-Shell Section Properties dialog. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. Fill color Choose the color to use for displaying the material portion of the section in the graphics pane. or vertex coordinates. Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. Standard Section Properties The Standard Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single standard section. You can activate this option if you need to specify optimization parameters for this section. Set the warping factor. HyperBeam recognizes four types of beam cross-sections. This operation cannot be undone. Torsion factor Warping Factor Line color Set the torsion factor. Thin Shell Section Properties The Thin Shell Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single shell section. or equations tying coordinates together.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Generic Section Properties The Generic Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a generic section.0 User’s Guide 293 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . activate this tool and click on the vertex. Bring the section results up to date. activate this tool and click at approximately the place you want it to appear. or deactivate the tool by toggling its button on the toolbar. View Controls The view controls are available on the View menu and the toolbar. To finish the part. Turn on and off the display of vertex IDs in shell sections. Pops-up the properties dialog Shell Section Editing Tools There are five tools to modify the basic definition of a shell section: Break segment If you want to add a new vertex between two existing vertices. Enlarge the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. activate this tool and then click in the graphics area the sequence of vertices. Resize the display to fit the pane. Join two segments/ eliminate vertex Create a new part 294 HyperMesh 8. if you have turned off the auto-update of section results. double-click the last vertex. Alternate between displaying results or the spreadsheet. Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit Show/hide Ids Update results Show/hide spreadsheet Properties Zoom in on area of the beam section by using the mouse to draw a circle around the area of interest. Zoom out on the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. They control how the section is displayed in the graphics pane and the results/spreadsheet pane. To add a new sheet metal part to the current section.HyperBeam Toolbar The toolbar allows you to quickly access some of the more commonly used functions. Specify a new center for the graphics display. If you want to delete a vertex. You can use any mixture of existing or new vertices in creating the part.

Move vertex Part-editor To reposition a vertex. rearrange vertices in a part. If you place the cursor over a toolbar icon. and click and hold on the vertex to move and drag it to its new location. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Paste a copied or cut item. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a short description of the action performed when you click the icon is displayed in the status bar. Copy an item. General Tools There are eight tools that allow you to manage a HyperBeam session: Save Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Print On-line Help Save the session. Open the print dialog. Undo the last action performed. Status Bar The HyperBeam status bar displays messages and information about the interface. Redo the last action performed. activate this tool. Open the HyperBeam on-line help. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. Cut an item and hold it in memory for pasting.0 User’s Guide 295 .

Beam Cross Section Property Solver The beam cross section property solver allows you to define a beam cross section. moments of inertia. calculate its properties.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . shear center. the beam cross section functions favor NASTRAN analysis in nomenclature and bar offset calculations. 296 HyperMesh 8. The panel functions also facilitate the creation of bar2 elements. This process is performed in the beam xsect panel. center of gravity. The properties that HyperMesh calculates include cross sectional area. The tools on the beam xsect panel can help you complete the necessary property cards for finite element analysis using HyperMesh bar2 elements. HyperMesh uses a finite element methodology to calculate the properties for the cross section. principal axes. and apply those properties to a HyperMesh model. and torsion and warping constants. Note: For design reasons.

Planes In order for properties to be calculated correctly. the plane is determined by a "best fit" from the data provided.Describing Cross Section Planes. Linear weighting of the points on the selected lines. These elements are placed in a newly created component for each calculation. 1 versus 2 Order Element Analysis st nd For beam cross sections that were fully defined by lines or surfaces. and the element order can be defined in the beam xsect panel. or have it calculated for you. HyperMesh defines the plane base at the Center of Gravity of the cross section. You may specify any existing HyperMesh node as the base point of the plane. this node can be referenced as an end of a bar2 element created with the panel. If HyperMesh calculates the plane. These specifications are applied by using the toggles under cross section plane: or plane base node:. you may choose to have the properties calculated using first or second order elements. or elements is used. in this case. The save element option is located on the pick geom sub-panel on the beam xsect panel. the Y. the coordinate system. Save Elements Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If you use the default method.0 User’s Guide 297 . These options are specified by using the toggle under plane base node:. The system is the same as the coordinate system for the plane. the cross section must be planar. and Elements The following factors relating to the cross section plane. All properties are calculated on the plane. This tells HyperMesh to ignore the contents of the component when exporting a model. HyperMesh calculates the plane for you. If you do not specify a base point. HyperMesh uses one of two methods to define the plane. and the Z-axis is the cross product of the X and Y axis. surfaces. Axes. When you pick elements. If you define the plane. your N1 and N2 selections are used to define the positive Y-axis. second order elements are always used. offset values are calculated for you. You can also use the standard HyperMesh plane collector to define the plane. these elements are not output when you use the export subpanel on the files panel. If you create the bar2 element by using this method. Unless you change the name of the component. the order of the selected HyperMesh element is used. If you are using offset sections. The save elements option allows you to save the elements defining the cross section as part of the HyperMesh model. using NASTRAN conventions.and Z-axes are defined to be the principal axes of the cross section. In all cases the planar normal is defined as the positive X axis. secondary panels called define offset parameters are opened. If you use the offset lines sub-panel. This option is specified by using the toggle under analysis type: on the pick geom sub-panel. If you define the base point by picking a node. Local Axes Many of the properties are defined relative to a local coordinate system. Note: The save element option has no effect when you define sections by elements. The name of the component is preceded by a caret (^).

an offset of each line is created. An arrow is displayed that indicates the offset direction. If weld points are not defined for offset sections. HyperMesh first looks for coincident node pairs to join. You can also change the offset direction after the initial cross section definition. and weld points. When you define a weld point. After the initial cross section is defined. With either method.Defining a Cross Section There are two methods you can use to describe a cross-section for analysis: by offsetting HyperMesh lines or by selecting a fully enclosed area. or reverse normal to the line.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 298 HyperMesh 8. The line sets may be changed one at a time by selecting the graphical toggle and picking the line set or all sets may be changed at once by clicking the toggle sides button. based upon the line data in the model. you may change any or all of the line thicknesses. The thickness used is considered to be the total thickness of the sheet metal piece. Each HyperMesh line in the set can be assigned a thickness. provided they are used in the definition of the cross section. or by entering the desired values. The choices are centered. use the combine lines option and specify a break angle. When this method is used in the offset lines sub-panel of the beam xsect panel. The offset direction is user-specified. After nominal = for initial thickness is defined. with the line as the center of the sheet metal piece. you can define any or all line thicknesses using the thickness = option. you can also specify weld points for the cross section. Note: If you define a cross section with elements and use the intersect panel to cut elements. The weld point is located a given distance from a fixed point. The beam cross section is described by a set of lines. normal to the line. Any continuous set of HyperMesh lines (as determined by HyperMesh) is considered to be a single piece of sheet metal. the section is considered fully open and no correlation will exist between nodes on different sets of lines. Then it looks for nodes within tolerance of each other. Offset Sections The offset sections method is designed to support thin-walled cross sections manufactured from sheet metal. The tolerance is defined as 15% of the largest distance between the weld areas on the lines minus the offset distances. HyperMesh allows this point to be chosen at any end or joint of a selected line. When you use this method. it is best to use fewer lines with the property calculator. HyperMesh attempts to join four nodes per line per weld to a corresponding set of four nodes on another line. Weld points are used to join separate pieces of sheet metal at a point. The distance from the point and the diameter of the weld may be changed graphically. The initial definition of the cross section uses the user-defined nominal thickness for each line. the offset direction is centered. By default. Although you can use the line segments option. Holes are allowed in the section but all portions of it must touch all other portions. thicknesses. You can change the thickness of lines interactively by using the mouse cursor or you can enter a value and apply it to specific lines or all of the lines. Any number of lines may be selected to be part of a weld point. the section must be a contiguous area.

Note: This means that all nodes along common boundaries are taken as the same and the solver does not consider moving them independently. those elements are considered to be the section. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Fully Defined Sections For this method of beam cross section definition.0 User’s Guide 299 . No alterations are made to those elements. If you select by elements. Defining the section using lines or surfaces in this manner creates a fully closed section. When lines or surfaces are chosen. lines. the area is automeshed to generate elements for the cross section. aside from projecting to a common plane. you can use the pick geom sub-panel of the beam xsect panel to select any set of elements. or surfaces that describe a fully closed area. If the section is defined using elements. HyperMesh uses the connectivity provided by the elements.

The post-processing panel displays only the menu items necessary for the current operation. At any time you can click apply results to perform all the currently specified options. with which you can apply the calculated properties to the HyperMesh model. the properties are calculated.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 300 HyperMesh 8. Temporary nodes are also created at the Center of Gravity and Shear Center. The following symbols are displayed at the Center of Gravity and the Shear Center: Center of Gravity symbol Shear Center symbol The local axes of the beam are also displayed.Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties After you select the solve function in the beam xsect panel. individual menu items are displayed that perform only the sub-set of desired operations. The post-processing panel is displayed. The following postprocessing options can be performed in any combination desired and are not exclusive of other functions. Otherwise.

N1. you can specify the already created HyperMesh properties or components to which to apply the results as a card image. I1. Ir A. I12.Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver In order to relate the calculated properties to a card for your desired output solver.0 warping factor modifies the Warping Constant. Display Size You can control the size of the Center of Gravity and Shear Center symbols and the local Coordinate system with the draw size = field. K1. After you select the solver. I12. see Creating Collectors. Irr. Iss. SHEAR CENTER R SECTION_BEAM. RADIOSS. Izz. independently developed over many years. When you apply the results to the properties or components. If you already have a card image template specified in the global panel.0 User’s Guide 301 . Γw. As. and replaced by the newly calculated data or default data for that property/component. The values that are saved in summary files or displayed on the screen show the factor. J. For more information. or PAM-CRASH. Solver NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT ABAQUS Comp/Prop Property Property Component Card Name PBAR PBEAM (end A) BEAMGENERAL. Itt. you may select NASTRAN. K1. K2 A. LS-DYNA. MARC. the original value. see Save and Display Results. I2. J. J. Ist. I1. Centroid x1 and x2. Otherwise. ABAQUS. This function does not work for dictionary solvers. that solver is automatically selected.0. Shear Center x1 and x2 Area. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. All of the solver data of the property/component is deleted if you answer yes. SA A. It. If these factors remain at the default value of 1. I22. N2 A. For more information. These constants provide a means to apply empirical "fudge factors" to the results. HyperMesh checks to see if data already exists for the currently chosen solver on that property/component. K2. I1. and the spacing between welds. I2. OPTISTRUCT. relate fully welded sections to partially welded sections. Iyy A. Izz. principal Y axis unit VECTOR ANSYS LS-DYNA/ RADIOSS PAM-CRASH MARC Property Property Component Component Torsion and Warping Factors torsion factors and warping factors are the only fields common to all operations of the postprocessing panel. you are prompted to confirm that you wish to overwrite the data on that property/component. elform 2 Mat’l type 202 geometry Data A. and the modified value. ANSYS. The changes are applied to all HyperMesh properties and/or components. These factors. no changes are made to the calculated value. Iyy. CENTROID. I2. use the FEA solver: switch to select the solver. Similarly non 1. A non unit Torsion factor will modify the value of the Torsional Constant. If data exists. J. Is. HyperMesh material data associated with the property/component is not affected. CW. The size determination is for user-viewing preference only and does not affect any of the actual values.

The sign of the distance is the direction along the x axis. that is referenced by the bar element. Manipulating them does not change the property values that may be saved and referenced by the created bar element. to describe the bar’s orientation. you are asked if you want each property associated with the newly created bar element. If the solver for which you are defining a model uses components. to which the calculated properties were assigned. The element is created in the currently active component. and not with summary alone. if any. If you want to save these. it applies a global unit vector to the bar created. The cross section may be chosen as either end A or end B of the bar. The BAR2 element that you are creating can also be assigned an orientation. This option is provided to aid in understanding the orientation of the cross section relative to the overall model. You may also create a HyperMesh vector in either the local Y or Z direction of the cross section. If you want a permanent record of the calculations you have just performed. You are asked about each selected property until you answer "yes" to the question presented. If only one property is selected. The other end of the bar may be defined by picking a node or specifying a distance along the x axis of the cross section. The node for this end of the bar is either the centroid of the section or the user-selected base node. either as a vector or by letting HyperMesh create a node along the axis. There are many properties calculated that are not assigned to solver cards. Save and Display Results All of the calculated properties may be viewed or saved to an ASCII text file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . use the disp (display) panel to confirm that the elements of the current component are selected for display. that property is automatically assigned to the new BAR2 element. or move the bar element to that component by using the organize panel. If you use a nodal orientation. Note: If you create a BAR2 element and it does not show on the screen. Whether you choose to save a summary file and/or display it on the screen. Coordinate Systems/Vectors A HyperMesh coordinate system may be created to save the orientation of the cross section. This feature works only with apply results.Creating a Bar Element Another option is to create a HyperMesh BAR2 element by specifying two nodes and optionally choosing a direction vector or node and property for the element. 302 HyperMesh 8. 10% of the length of the element away from the existing node. You may use the cross section’s local Y or Z axis. The properties can also be viewed on the screen in the same manner as summary templates. If you use a vector orientation. you can select the summary file option and specify a file name in the field after summary file. check to make sure the desired component is currently active. you must save the results as an ASCII file. the information includes a named list of the properties/components. The system is created identical to the one displayed on the screen. If any properties (not components) are selected when you build a BAR2 element. it creates a new node.

Select those lines as your section definition. How do I define a weld point at a different location? Use the graphical controls to change its location on the line.Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers This section provides answers for common questions about using the beam cross section process: How do I change the number of lines on which I can define a thickness? Change the number of HyperMesh lines you are selecting. Each HyperMesh line has a different thickness. split the HyperMesh line at the desired point and then choose the new point at the split. If you need a different reference point. How do I obtain lines from a shell element model to use as my offset lines? Use the hidden line panel on the Post page and choose line plot as the desired output. Use the line edit panel on the Geom page to either split or combine existing lines.0 User’s Guide 303 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

The current HyperMesh database is only updated with information from the current HyperLaminate session on exit from HyperLaminate (an exception to this rule are Abaqus materials. component collectors and design variables) may result in synchronization problems and loss of data.HyperLaminate Module HyperLaminate is a HyperMesh module that facilitates the creation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperLaminate is launched from within HyperMesh either from the HyperLaminate button on the 2D page of the main menu. 304 HyperMesh 8. Any changes made to those entities which HyperLaminate touches (materials. this is not advisable. In support of this process certain materials and design variables are also supported by in the HyperLaminate module. so while it is possible to work in HyperMesh while HyperLaminate is running. which are updated simultaneously in HyperMesh and HyperLaminate). or by selecting HyperLaminate from the Setup pull-down menu. Ansys and Abaqus user profiles. Nastran. review and edition of composite laminates. The HyperLaminate module is supported for the OptiStruct.

Right clicking on a branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. This browser. The HyperLaminate toolbar contains five tools that allow you to generate new materials.HyperLaminate Environment The HyperLaminate environment consists of five general areas. copy. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. laminates and design variables. laminate or design variable definition (depending on the selected branch in the laminate browser). and access on-line help. Here users may enter or change data related to a material. The review pane has a number of tabs that display the current state of the selected branch. and to cut. edit materials. This is the right hand pane of the HyperLaminate module. Toolbar Laminate Browser Define/Edit Pane This is the central pane of the HyperLaminate module. paste. laminates or design variables. provides a vertical tree view of materials.0 User’s Guide 305 . change views. and delete entries in text boxes. as shown here: Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus that allow you to manage files. Review Pane Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Left clicking on an entity populates the Define/Edit and Review panes with details of that branch. laminates and size design variables in your model.

File New Export to File Exit Generates a new entity. Edit Cut Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. 306 HyperMesh 8. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. This text file can be printed. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. At this point the current HyperMesh database is updated with the information in the current HyperLaminate session. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. Exit HyperLaminate. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). Exports material and laminate information to a text file. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. The following chart lists each menu option. Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting.HyperLaminate Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus.

0 User’s Guide 307 . Allows you to select defaults for new Laminates for: • • • • • View Toolbar Status Bar Help About HyperLaminate Help Topics color convention repetitions ply thickness common thickness Display/hide toolbar. Activates the HyperLaminate on-line help. contact.Tools Ply lay-up options Displays the Ply lay-up Options dialog. Display/hide status bar. and copyright information. Displays version. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane.HyperLaminate Toolbar The HyperLaminate toolbar is located below the menu bar and its display is controlled by the Toolbar option under the View pull-down menu. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. 308 HyperMesh 8. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. The toolbar is shown and described here. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. Cut Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. Icon Name New Function Generates a new entity. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

for OptiStruct and Nastran: i.0 User’s Guide 309 . Laminates: SHELL91. Materials: ABAQUS_MATERIAL ii. Laminates and Design Variables. Laminates: SOLIDSECTION. MAT2 and MAT8 ii. and laminates in your model. At the highest level are the entity types: Materials. These are: a. SHELL99. 2. SHELLSECTION and SHELLGENERALSECTION Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. At the intermediate level are the entity subtypes or card images. SOLID46 and SOLID 191 c.Laminate Browser The Laminate browser. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the browser also includes size design variables. Materials: MATERIAL and MPDATA ii. provides a vertical tree view of the materials. The data is presented in a slightly different format for the various user profiles as shown here: OptiStruct & Nastran Ansys Abaqus The Laminate Browser is organized in a three level hierarchy: 1. Laminates: PCOMP and PCOMPG iii. for the active user profile. laminate definitions and size design variables existing in the HyperMesh database. Materials: MAT1. On launching HyperLaminate. for Ansys: i. the Laminate Browser is populated with all the relevant materials. Design Variables: DESVAR b. for Abaqus: i.

a new MAT1 entity is created. At the lowest level are the entities. The selected entity is highlighted. Or 1. and Delete – which will delete the selected entity. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree.which allows the entity to be renamed. if MAT1 is selected and we right click on it and choose New. A new entity appears under the selected branch. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. When an entity (lowest level branch in the tree hierarchy) is selected. 2. displayed with the names as defined by you. A new entity appears under the selected branch A default name and id are assigned to each newly created entity. • From the Laminate Browser it is possible to: To create entities: There are three options for creating new entities in HyperLaminate: 1. To review and update entities: 1. Right click on selected entity sub-type. At the lowest level (entities) three operations are available. Left or right clicking on a branch in the browser selects that branch and it becomes highlighted. 2. Select New from the File pull-down menu. A new entity appears under the selected branch. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. 2.3. 3. Duplicate – which creates a copy of the selected entity. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. on the toolbar. Make the desired changes to the entity definition in the Define/Edit pane and click apply or update laminate to update the entity. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. At the intermediate level (entity sub-types) only one operation is available: New – which will create a new entity of the selected sub-type. 2. i. Right clicking on an already selected (highlighted) branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Rename . . 310 HyperMesh 8. Click New. It is then possible to alter and update the entity definition. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it.e. Or 1. Click the New icon. • • At the highest level (entity types) no operations are available. the Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity.

A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. Right click on selected entity. Enter the desired new name in the text box. Or 5.To rename entities: 1. Select Delete from the Edit pull-down menu. Click Delete. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. 3. 6. and Delete. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. and Delete. Click Yes. in the Laminate Browser. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. A duplicate of the entity is created and appears in the Laminate Browser. Duplicate. Click Duplicate. and Delete. Duplicate. A confirmation dialog is displayed. Right click on the selected entity. To delete entities: There are three options for deleting entities in HyperLaminate: 1. Right click on the selected entity. Or Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. switches to a text box. Click Rename. 4. 2. The name of the selected entity. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. A confirmation dialog is displayed. Duplicate. You can also rename an entity by altering the relevant field in the Define/Edit pane and then clicking on Apply or Update Laminate. 4. 2. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. Click Yes. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. To duplicate entities: 1. 3. 2. 7. 3.0 User’s Guide 311 . Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it.

Click Yes.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click the Delete icon. 9. as they do not really exist. 10. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. 312 HyperMesh 8. . either complete their definition (by clicking Edit – which takes you to the HyperMesh material card previewer) or exit and restart HyperLaminate (in which case the undefined materials are purged). To delete these undefined materials. on the toolbar.8. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. A confirmation dialog is displayed. Note: Abaqus materials that are created but not defined (they appear in a red font in Laminate Browser) may not be deleted.

0 User’s Guide 313 . On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Define/Edit pane is populated with the current definitions. Once the desired changes have been made. allows you to edit the definition of the selected entity.Define/Edit Pane The Define/Edit Pane. the central pane of the HyperLaminate window. Materials For OptiStruct. all material property information for the selected material may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Below are screenshots showing the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct MAT8 definition and an Ansys MATERIAL definition: OptiStruct – Materials – MAT8 Ansys – Materials – MATERIAL Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. Nastran and Ansys materials. The configuration of the Define/Edit pane differs for different user profiles and sub-types (card images).

stacking sequence convention and the ply lay-up order to be edited. to reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. clicking return will return you to the HyperLaminate GUI. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus SOLIDSECTION laminate is shown here: Abaqus – Laminates – SOLIDSECTION 314 HyperMesh 8. Once you has finished reviewing/editing the material. but to fully define the material properties they must click the Edit button. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus material is shown here: Abaqus – Materials – ABAQUS_MATERIAL Laminates For Laminates. where you can review and alter the definition of the selected material.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Clicking the Edit button takes you to the material card previewer in the HyperMesh GUI. As with the other user profiles. This is for all supported user profiles and laminate sub-types.For Abaqus materials users may rename or redefine the color of the material in the Define/Edit pane. the Define/Edit pane allows the laminate name. HyperMesh component color.

Antisymmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. the total number of plies is always odd. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. variable ply thickness allows up to 4 nodal thicknesses to be defined for each ply. the total number of plies is always odd. e. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. 90. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half.0 User’s Guide 315 . The number of repetitions is given by the Repetitions: field (which is activated when this Convention is chosen). Symmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. Due to the midlayer. It is possible to choose between constant and variable ply thickness for certain user profiles. 270 and 360 remain as 0. 270 and 360 remain as 0. Total: The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate in its entirety. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The midlayer is not reflected. 270 and 360 respectively). 90. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. 90. Repeat: The Ply lay-up order table describes a single sub-laminate which is repeated a number of times. 180. Antisymmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). Symmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate.There are a number of options for Convention for the stacking sequence: a. 180. b. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. c. 90. 180. d. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Ansys SHELL99 laminate with variable ply thickness is shown here: Ansys – Laminates – SHELL99 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. f. Due to the midlayer. 270 and 360 respectively). 180. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. The midlayer is not reflected.

using the toolbar. ply thickness and ply orientation for a number of plies (defined by the No. pasted or deleted to/from the table. by checking the Failure Theory check-box. All fields in the Ply lay-up order table may be edited. this will keep the current selection and add all the rows between the current selection and the newly selected row). Each row of the Ply lay-up order table has an SOUT field.It is also possible to choose a common thickness for all plies. copied. with the Ctrl key held down. The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate from the bottom ply (most negative Z) moving upwards (increasing in positive Z direction). Rows are always pasted above the selected rows. Ctrl+c. When multiple rows are selected. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to request stress and failure theory output. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. either above or below selected rows (choose from the Above Selected or Below Selected radio buttons). Each row of the table defines the material. Select multiple rows by selecting one row and then. the Add/Update plies: fields are populated with the information common to the selected rows. which when set to YES includes the plies described by that row in the stress output and the failure theory calculation. It is also possible to edit multiple rows at once.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or repetitions field and based on the selected Convention). Rows may be cut. selecting a theory from the pull-down list and defining an Interlaminar shear allowable: value. Select multiple rows as described in the previous paragraph. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Rows are added to the table by completing the Add/Update plies: entry fields and clicking the Add New Ply button. by clicking the Insert New Ply button. when multiple rows are selected the clipboard contents are pasted above each selected row. Changes can be made to the Add/Update plies: fields and Update Selection can be clicked to update the selected rows with the updated information (no changes occur to the selected rows for blank fields). It is possible to set the SOUT field individually for each row. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct PCOMPG laminate is shown below: OptiStruct – Laminates – PCOMPG 316 HyperMesh 8. Rows may be inserted in the table. Blank fields indicate that not all of the selected rows contain the same values for that field. common thickness gives every ply in the laminate the same thickness. or for all rows at once through the Output ply stress results: field under the Stress and failure theory output: heading. Once one or more SOUT fields are set to YES it is possible to activate failure theory calculation. select other rows (alternatively multiple rows may be selected with the Shift key held down.

c) Click New. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to assign a design variable to a thickness or orientation field in the Ply lay-up order table. A default name and id are assigned to newly created materials. the No. of repetitions field is not available for PCOMPG. For PCOMPG each row in the Ply lay-up order table should represent a single ply so only the Total stacking convention should be used for PCOMPG. A new material appears under the selected branch. b) Right click on selected material sub-type. you can click the Clear button. Design variables may be selected in these extra fields. on the toolbar. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). All information for the selected design variable may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. To define a new material: 1. As this id should not be repeated within the same laminate. A new material appears under the selected branch. This field is used to assign a global ply id to a ply definition (the global ply id is a post-processing aid). but this is not enforced in the GUI. To reset all design variable fields to their default values. Click Update Laminate to apply all the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate).The Ply lay-up order table for the OptiStruct and Nastran PCOMPG laminate sub-type is different from other laminate subtypes in that it has a GPLYID field. Checking the Optimization check-box expands the Ply 0 lay-up order table. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. b) Click the new icon. Once the desired changes have been made. Selecting a design variable to the right of a thickness or orientation assigns the selected design variable to that thickness or orientation. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. The newly created material is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected material sub-type.0 User’s Guide 317 . 2. Design Variables For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the DESVAR design variable card is supported in HyperLaminate. A new material appears under the selected branch. Use one of the following three methods to create a new material in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. adding extra fields to the right of the Thickness T1 and Orientation fields. .

Data may be cut. To review or modify an existing material: 1. Click Apply to save the changes. For the OptiStruct. The final material definition is displayed in the Review tab. 2. 3. Ctrl+c. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. 5. copied. Provide the material definition by filling in the entry fields in the Define/Edit pane. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. Note: It is not possible to rename an Abaqus material until after it has been defined (edited). Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. Also it is not possible to create a new Abaqus material if an undefined material definition already exists (appears in a red font in Laminate Browser). Click return.For the OptiStruct. 3. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). 3. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected material definition. For the Abaqus user profile: 1. Select the material to be edited from the Laminate Browser.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Clicking Clear will reset all fields to zero. 318 HyperMesh 8. Click on Edit and provide the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. using the toolbar. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). 2. 4. 2.

A new laminate appears under the selected branch. 3. For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles define the Stress and failure theory output: information as desired. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. Make all desired changes to the material definition in the card previewer.For the Abaqus user profile: 1. The newly created laminate is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected laminate sub-type. 4. 4. 2. b) Click the new icon. A default name and id are assigned to newly created laminates. .0 User’s Guide 319 . To define a new laminate: 1. Click on Edit to see the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. c) Click New. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Laminate name: field or the component color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Click Apply to save the changes. 5. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. 2. Use one of the following three methods to create a new laminate in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate Browser. Click return. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. 3. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. 6. on the toolbar. A new laminate appears under the selected branch.

but are now editable. For all user profiles define the Stacking sequence convention: information. 320 HyperMesh 8. This is governed by the stacking convention and the number of repetitions. the Ply lay-up order table includes multiple thickness columns: Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness T1 T2 T3 T4 c) For Constant ply thickness. Eg. row 3 will be pasted as row 8. they will be pasted as sequential rows. a) For Convention:. Add/Insert rows by completing the Add/Update plies: fields and clicking Add New Ply or Insert New Ply (for Insert New Ply it is possible to choose to insert the ply above or below the selected rows). Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. using the toolbar. using the toolbar. If Constant is selected. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). b) For Ply thickness:. 6.5. Having checked the Common Thickness box and entered a common thickness value. 10. If rows 1 and 3 are copied and pasted at row 7. pasted or deleted to/from selected fields. Note: 7. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to define thickness and orientation fields in the Ply lay-up order table as designable and to assign design variables to them. Ctrl+c. Note: Note: Rows are always pasted above selected rows. specify how many times you want to repeat the entire block of entry rows.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The number of rows in the table is not the number of plies. if you now uncheck the box. Note: The option to switch between constant or variable thickness is only available for certain laminate sub-types. When multiple non-sequential rows are copied and then pasted. row 1 will be pasted as row 7. 9. select one of the following stacking sequence conventions. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Ctrl+c. the thickness fields retain the common thickness value. the Ply lay-up order table includes a single thickness column: Thickness T1 If Variable is selected. select Constant or Variable. pasted or deleted. Table rows may also be cut. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. copied. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. you can check the Common Thickness box and specify a thickness to be used by all the entry rows. Complete the Ply lay-up order table. Total Symmetric Antisymmetric Symmetric-Midlayer Antisymmetric-Midlayer Repeat If you select Repeat. copied. 8. Data may be cut. and what was row 7 will now be row 9.

Checking the Move limit box activates the Move limit field. 2. (See To define a new laminate). . Checking the Ddval ID box activates the Ddval ID field. 4. A new design varaible appears under the selected branch. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. (only subtype available is DESVAR). 2. 5. Initial. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected laminate definition. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. 6. c) Click New. (only subtype available is DESVAR). (only subtype available is DESVAR). The newly created design variable is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration. A default name and id are assigned to newly created design variables. Select the laminate to be edited from the Laminate Browser. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Desvar: field. b) Click the new icon. lower bound and upper bound values for the design variable can be entered in the appropriate data fields.5 may be entered.0 User’s Guide 321 . 7. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. To define a new design variable: Design variables are only supported for the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. Use one of the following three methods to create a new design variable in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate Browser. 1. 3. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. where a move limit value other than the default of 0. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate).To review and modify an existing laminate: 1. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). b) Right click on the selected sub-type. The laminate definition may be modified in the Define/Edit pane in a manner similar to defining a new laminate. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. on the toolbar. where the id of a discrete value list may be entered.

Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Select the design variable to be edited from the Laminate Browser. 322 HyperMesh 8. copied. Data may be cut. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected design variable definition. 3. 2. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane.To review and modify an existing design variable: 1. The final design variable definition is displayed in the Review tab. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Ctrl+c. using the toolbar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to their default values.

no information is displayed in the Review pane. listing the plies in order from the bottom ply (most negative z). Nastran and Ansys materials. information for the selected design variable is displayed in the Review pane. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. showing a graphical representation each ply’s orientation and listing the referenced material. Information displayed on these tabs is only for the saved laminate definition. allows you to review the information pertaining to the selected entity. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the review pane has two tabs. The first set of matrices are the composite shell stiffness matrices. This is followed by a description of the laminate. the right-hand pane of the HyperLaminate window. For Abaqus materials. The Review tab is headed by the laminate name. Design Variables For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane.0 User’s Guide 323 . The second set of matrices are the equivalent material matrices. all material property information for the selected material is displayed in the Review pane. more commonly referred to as the ABD matrices. The Stiffness/Material Matrix tab provides the two sets of matrices. so this information is only updated when the Update Laminates button is clicked. the total number of plies in the laminate and the total thickness of the laminate.Review Pane The Review Pane. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Review pane is displays the current definition of that entity. thickness and orientation. these are used by many finite element solvers to represent the laminated composite as a homogenized shell. Materials For OptiStruct. a Review tab and a Stiffness/Material Matrix tab. Laminates For laminate definitions for all user profiles.

and a block may contain multiple walls of dead cells. fluid flow. Note: The color of a block may be modified at any time by using the update function on the FD blocks panel. You cannot change the shape of the finite difference block after you create the structured mesh without destroying all the grid lines. creating "dead cells. 324 HyperMesh 8. and dead cell information as an analysis input deck by using the HyperMesh template system. structured mesh in a cubic volume around your model. chemical reaction. Cylindrical and spherical volumes are not supported in the current release. the block is created with a default size of ten percent larger than the model in each direction (the size of a model is determined by its nodes). The panels in this module allow you to intersect your finite element shell model with a finite difference block.0 in each direction. the outer boundary of the volume. you can export the grid. and solidification processes by creating an orthogonal. Always finalize the size of your block before beginning the next phase. wall. If a finite element model is currently loaded. and k directions of the block. When the block is displayed. You can adjust the size of the block by using the functions on the FD blocks panel.0 and 110. These axes serve as a reminder of the i. a small set of coordinate axes is displayed at the corner of the block.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering ." All of these dead cells are placed in walls. the block is created with the default bounds of -10. three-dimensional. After you create a finite difference block. Finite difference blocks are built performing the following steps: Creating a Finite Difference Block The first step in creating a finite difference block is to create the block. j. Otherwise.Finite Difference Module The Finite Difference module allows you to perform heat transfer.

0 User’s Guide 325 . or k nodes has been selected. Grid lines are created in one direction at a time. based on whether i nodes. all or part of the finite element model may be intersected with the cells in the finite difference block. Cells that intersect an element are placed into the current wall. you create a structured mesh in the block by creating grid lines in the i. Initially. To intersect the model with the cells. HyperMesh allows you to automatically intersect a finite element model with the cells in a finite difference block. and k directions. Displays a list of all walls in the block. respectively. depending upon the restrictions enforced by the analysis code being used. Cells that alter the flow are known as dead cells.Creating a Structured Mesh After you create a block. marked as dead. which also contains all the functions you can use to manipulate walls. each cell within a block is live. j. Note: Before any wall operation is begun. Deletes all existing walls. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. which creates dead cells wherever a one. and k directions creates a large number of small cubic volumes called cells. Solid elements are currently not supported in the interse ction operation. After you create a wall. A cell may exist in only one wall. You may then select which walls to display and turn off by using the left or right mouse button. Updates the color of an existing wall. The wall functions are described below: create delete update delete all display Creates a new wall with the name and color specified in wall = and color. Deletes the specified wall. You must create a wall before you create dead cells. See the FD nodes panel for more information. j nodes. Asks for confirmation before proceeding.or two-dimensional element intersects any part of a cell. and displayed in the current wall color. select the desired elements and click intersect. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. j. the block must be selected by using the block = menu item. All the one-and two-dimensional elements selected are intersected with the cells in the current block. After you create a mesh. you can verify the aspect ratio or expansion ratio limits. meaning that the cell does not alter the flow being studied. Intersecting Elements with Cells The intersection of grid lines in the i. The intersection and modification of live and dead cells is done in the FD walls panel.

The FD walls panel allows you to edit cells. then only cells in the currently displayed plane(s) may be edited. or remove cells from the current wall and mark the cells as live. When the entire block is plotted. or by planes. If the block is displayed in planar mode. use the cursor to select the cells to add or remove. Click the left mouse button to add cells and the right mouse button to remove cells from a wall. the color menu items in the i. j. j.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Creating Finite Difference Hidden Line Plots Hidden line plots of cells in a finite difference block are useful in the verification phase of a finite difference model. 326 HyperMesh 8. and k directions must be modified to provide the plotting color for cells in each plane.Modifying Cells Cells may be changed from live to dead or dead to live individually. plane-by-plane. Otherwise. However. they are highlighted. by volumes. The edit cells function allows you to add individual cells to the current wall and mark them as dead. all dead cells are displayed in the color of the wall to which they belong. and k are at their minimum values. where the block coordinate axes are located. if planar mode is used to display one or more of the planes of cells. It is possible to step through the model. and i. it is easier to see which cells are dead. If you change the color of a plane. by using the next and prev menu functions. Because cells have no visible pick handle. you can edit any cell in the block. you must click hidden line again to display the new color. Cells do not have a visible pick handle and must be selected at the corner closest to the origin of the block. since only dead cells are plotted. When cells are selected. After edit cells is selected.

Each load type is stored in a dedicated section of the same load collector. Comments Loads on mesh and loads on geometry can be displayed together (similar to the simultaneous display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component). This means that you can control the display of both types of loads independently. velocities. using the load on geom panel. One load collector stores both loads on geometry and loads on mesh. A geometrical entity can be associated with one mesh or multiple meshes (HyperMesh component or components) and/or with one load collector or multiple load collectors. These are the same panels used to apply loads to a mesh. Use the none.0 User’s Guide 327 . One advantage is that you can remesh a model without deleting complicated loads or boundary conditions. loads or boundary conditions that have been applied to geometrical entities can be remapped to the new mesh. See Exporting Loads for more information.Loads on Geometry HyperMesh allows you to apply loads to geometrical entities and map them to the FE mesh using the load on geom panel on the Analysis Page. The disp (display) panel allows separate or simultaneous visualization of loads on mesh and loads on geometry. and load collectors may contain one type or both types simultaneously. you control the display of loads applied to geometric entities. you control the display of loads applied to elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can apply loads to geometry by using the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. When geoms is selected. temperatures. constraints. and accels. from the display panel (accessed via the toolbar) select loadcols from the switch. When elems is selected. by exporting the FE deck. using the files panel/export sub-panel. pressures. The mesh (or multiple meshes) is associated with the geometrical entities to which the loads on geometry have been applied. There are two ways to map loads on geometry to the mesh associated with this geometry (loads on mesh): • • Manually. flux. all and reverse buttons to assist in selecting which loadcols should be displayed. and click the toggle to select elems or geoms. moments. To visualize loads on mesh and/or loads on geometry. After remeshing. Automatically.

load mapping 328 HyperMesh 8. Loads applied to geometrical entities. Loads applied to mesh (nodes or element). The loads are mapped from the geometrical entities (to which the geometrical loads are applied) to the mesh that is associated with the geometrical entities.Terminology and Definitions geometrical entities loads on geometry or geometry loads loads on mesh or mesh loads A point. a line. or a surface. The process of mapping geometrical loads to mesh loads.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Loads can be applied directly to mesh or applied by mapping them from loads on geometry.

etc. The following chart specifies the geometrical entities to which loads can be applied. Third. temperatures. lines. lines and surfaces. in each of the load application panels listed above. The process includes two basic steps. and accels. constraints. and updating loads and constraints. constraints. 1. points. reviewing. temperatures velocities Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. access a HyperMesh load panel (e. 2. Panel accels constraints flux forces moments pressures Geometrical Entities points.Application of Loads to Geometry You can apply loads to geometrical entities in a way similar to the manner in which loads are applied to mesh. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Next. define the load or boundary condition parameters in the same way you would for the application of the load or boundary condition on a FE mesh entity (e. lines and surfaces. flux. or surfaces) using the panel selection box. Applying loads to the geometry using one of the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. forces.0 User’s Guide 329 . select a geometrical entity on which the loads will be applied (points. and choose the create sub-panel. HyperMesh stores the loads/boundary conditions in the database and displays them in the graphical window. lines and surfaces. points points points surfaces nodes on edge: lines (for 2-D solid elements) nodes on face: surfaces (for 3-D solid elements) points. lines and surfaces. first create a load collector in which the loads applied to geometrical entities will be stored. moments.g.g. and click create. To apply a load to a geometrical entity.) located on the Analysis Page. velocities. node). pressures. Creating a load collector by using the collector panel. points.

The loads on mesh that are exported may have been applied directly to mesh. A simultaneous display is similar to the display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component. Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh The disp (display) panel allows you to visualize loads on mesh and loads on geometry either individually or together by setting the collector type to loadcols and using the toggle between elems and geoms. If any loads on geometry are displayed and have not been mapped. When exporting the model using an export template. or both. If all is selected. all load types are saved and are retrieved when you open the . The basic length of the arrow also differs. 330 HyperMesh 8. mapped from geometry to mesh. are mapped to loads on mesh and all the loads on mesh are exported. loads on mesh that have been applied directly to mesh.hm file. The all/displayed toggle on the export sub-panel on the file panel allows you to determine which loads are exported. elems controls the display of loads on mesh and geom controls the display of loads on geometry. they will automatically be mapped to loads on mesh and exported as well. all the displayed loads on mesh are exported. Multiple arrows represent loads on mesh (one arrow per node or element). an arrow that represents a load on geometry is longer than arrows representing loads on mesh. a single arrow for each geometrical entity represents loads on geometry. Note: A major graphical display difference between loads on geometry and loads on mesh is the density of the arrows. If displayed is selected. For the same arrow magnitude percentage setting or uniform size setting within the load application panels. all the loads on geometry that have not been mapped (if any).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and loads on mesh that have been mapped from loads on geometry. When saving the model as a HyperMesh database.Exporting Loads HyperMesh sessions can contain loads on geometry. All the loads on mesh (both displayed and hidden) that are associated with the displayed loads on geometry are exported as well. only the loads on mesh are exported.

0 User’s Guide 331 . to the next field below.0 format or at spatial coordinates is mapped to a structural analysis mesh in OPTISTRUCT. or ANSYS format. dlm.Distributed Load Mapper The Distributed Load Mapper (DLM) macro enables you to perform structural finite element analyses by incorporating the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. on the macro menu. NASTRAN.. ABAQUS. ABAQUS. or ANSYS input file format) Select a data type and a mapping method Set the scale factors Set the mapping algorithm Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. in order. The Distributed Load Mapper dialog is displayed when you click DLM.. The Distributed Load Mapper macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file. until all data has been entered. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory.mac. Aerodynamic pressure loading and temperatures computed in a CFD analysis and written out either in TECPLOT 4. NASTRAN. When you enter data in the dialog you should begin with the first field and proceed. Entering data in the Distributed Load Mapper dialog requires the following steps: • • • • • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT.

dat One file containing all the mapping parameters and selections detailed in the DLM interface. 332 HyperMesh 8. for example. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. structural_model_tecplot.Assumptions Regarding the DLM Interface and Mapping Process In order to map effectively. Examples of Typical Input Files • • Computational fluid dynamics results database file. DLM Input and Output Files It is useful to understand the input and output files related to a DLM session. if you are mapping a pressure loading on a wing structure.0 format file related to the structural input model. This file is related to the structural input model. the CFD base model and the structural finite element model must exist in the same position in coordinate space. D:\dlm_map_files\structural_model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . These files are always called hmimp. A valid HyperWorks/HyperMesh license must be available on the local system or network for the DLM mapping algorithms to run. wing_cfd_model_dynain • A DLM specific file. The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing inward from the wings outer surface. for example.dat Structural analysis model file. For instance. This file is related to the base CFD model.dat Examples of Typical Output Files • A DLM specific file. one of the following conditions must exist: • • The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing outward from the wings outer surface. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. The only exception to this is when some of the DLM transformation functions are used correctly and appropriately through their selection in the DLM interface. The element normals of both the CFD mesh and the structural analysis mesh must be consistent in that all the elements should be aligned and pointing in a common direction. structural_model_dynain • • A Tecplot 4. D:\dlm_map_files\wing_cfd_model.

The file is placed in the same directory as the CFD database and takes its name from the parent file. i. click Browse.854129910E-02 1. If the CFD file is in a Tecplot format. a warning message is displayed.960968852E+00 4.548135996E-01-8.105462790E+00 1. . Note: • • • DLM accepts three input file formats: Tecplot 4.357369840E-01-8. and z coordinates first. Each row should show the x. a DLM specific file is created so that the data being mapped can be visualized in Altair HyperView.356568158E-01-8. The file also must have a header and footer as shown below: #XYZDATA #pressure 1. 2. filename_dynain. The pressure or temperature data at spatial coordinates must be distributed densely enough to have approximately one data point for each element of the structural model..098905325E+00 1. #ENDDATA Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. . followed by the pressure or temperature value each data occupying 16 characters and a space separating them. For Computational fluid dynamics results database file:. Use the browser to locate a file.e.960631967E+00 4.0 BLOCK and POINT data formats DLM specific input file format (files which end filename_dynain) Measured pressure or temperature at xyz coordinates If the selected file is not in a DLM appropriate format..0 User’s Guide 333 .095489740E+00 .970389962E+00 4.Load an input file containing CFD analysis results 1.926119655E-02 1. The data must be prescribed in a fixed format.452460170E-02 1. y. Click Open. .

Select a data type and a mapping method 1.Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. Note: The data from the base CFD model is superimposed onto this model through the mapping process. which would leave the coordinates of the base CFD model unchanged prior to mapping. For Mapping method:. enter a scale factor by which to increase or decrease the results. This would ensure that the base CFD model would match and be positioned in the same Cartesian space as the structural analysis model. ABAQUS. NASTRAN.00 (no scaling). The mapped data written to structural analysis model files can relate to two different locations on the finite elements of the model. The data can either be mapped and related to the nodes of each element in the structural model.000. select Element nodes or Element centroids. 2. The base CFD model file may contain up to seven different data types. For CFD result scaling:. The data type is read from the information in the header block of the base CFD file. 3. or to the element centroids of each quadrilateral or triangular element in the structural mesh. For Structural analysis model file:. i. the X. Once the data is mapped. if dimensional reduction/scaling was used in the actual CFD analysis. filename_dynain. enter a scale factor to physically scale the base CFD analysis model.. 2.500. if the XYZ dimensions of the model were scaled to 1/200 of the actual size and submitted for analysis. The file is placed in the same directory as the structural model database and takes its name from the parent file.500. or ANSYS input file format) 1. Click Open. select the data type to be mapped. Y. all the data mapped during the DLM session is multiplied by a factor of 1. or ANSYS input deck. These scaled values are output to the structural model data file in the PLOAD card section. For example. NASTRAN. ABAQUS. if the CFD result scale factor is 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2. 334 HyperMesh 8. The PLOAD card output to the structural model files is altered appropriately to the selected nodal or elemental configuration. For CFD model scaling:. or to simply investigate the effects of scaling the load upon the model.e. This could be used to apply a safety factor to the results. These data parameters are read into the interface when you load the base CFD model file (Load an input file containing CFD analysis results). Use the browser to locate a file. If a value of 200 is entered for CFD model scaling:. it is appended to the structural model input file in the form of PLOAD or TEMP cards appended to the end of the OPTISTRUCT. click Browse. Set the scale factor 1. The default is 1. For Data parameter mapped:. The default value is 1.. . A DLM-specific formatted file is written out for post-processing in Altair HyperView. For example. and Z coordinates of all the nodal locations in the base CFD model is scaled.

0 User’s Guide 335 . For Mapping algorithm:. Click OK. and takes an average of these two values. Accepts whichever is larger in magnitude. The default mapping algorithm. Takes the maximum and minimum of the data points captured in the proximity of the data location being mapped to. Selects the maximum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. for instance. the mapping process runs. select one of the following options: Averaged Takes the data and average for data points captured in the proximity of the structural data position being mapped to. and the DLM dialog closes upon completion of the mapping process. the Modulus value of the data points captured in the vicinity of the element/nodal location being mapped to. Selects the minimum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to.Set the mapping algorithm 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The mapping algorithms are accessed. Maxima Minima Extrema Averaged extrema Delaunay-O’C 2.

0 Altair Engineering . dlm. The Mathematical Loading macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file.Mathematical Loading Distributed pressure loads can be created at nodes via mathematical loading functions using the Mathematical Loading macro.y.z) = The browser allows you to select the structural model in NASTRAN format on which to apply a mathematical function...0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering operands may be input in the following forms: corresponds to 1. The operators for which the algorithms are programmed are listed below: Programmed Operators: Unary minus ^ Power of ln Natural Log log Log to the base 10 sin sine cos cosine tan tangent asin arcsine acos arccosine atan arctangent exp Exponential / division * Multiplication + Addition Subtraction Acceptable 1 1.0 corresponds to 1. Mathematical Loading dialog The Mathematical Loading macro requires the following input: Structural analysis model file: Equation string fn(x. The Mathematical Loading dialog is displayed when you click Math. on the macro menu.0 10e-01 336 HyperMesh 8.mac. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory. This field allows you to enter an equation string using standard spreadsheet inputs for the various operators and operands.0 corresponds to 1.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0.0 x corresponds to the coordinate position x of the nodes of the model y corresponds to the coordinate position y of the nodes of the model z corresponds to the coordinate position z of the nodes of the model The following input rules apply: • Equation strings should always have balanced parentheses to ensure that the logic of the math expression is maintained. However unrecognized characters and functions will cause the loading to yield unacceptable results. Spaces and a mixture of uppercase and lower case letters are acceptable.0 User’s Guide 337 . • Note: To create pressure loads at element centroids via mathematical functions.1e+01 corresponds to 1. The dialog informs you when there is an error in this instance. use the Field Loads macro on the Geom/Mesh macro menu.

and vector plots. Each simulation stores the results for a model as it responds to a loading condition. phase. If you run a nonlinear job. for more information. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. Each simulation in the results database is further subdivided into data types. This translation is done using result translators. each simulation in a results file may contain two data types: displacements and von Mises stress. if this is appropriate. In order to complete the post-processing function being executed. Each data type found in a simulation contains a group of results of the same type. Stores one floating point value at a node. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at a node. assigned. offset) at a node. and may contain a subset of the total model. refer to the individual translators in the Interface help system. deformed. the results file generated by the translator contains three simulations. 338 HyperMesh 8. offset) at an element. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. Results files can be translated into HyperMesh results databases which are then read into HyperMesh for post-processing. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at an element. This section describes the structure of a HyperMesh results database and explains how to use the post-processing functions to create contour. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. if you run a linear statics problem and apply three different loading conditions to your model. element value complex nodal displacement complex nodal value complex element value complex nodal von Mises complex element von Mises Data types are not required to contain results for every node or element in the model.Post-Processing Analysis The HyperMesh post-processing functions allow you to review the results files and databases generated by external codes. Stores one floating point value at an element. each load step (the response of the model to each incremental amount of load applied) translates to a simulation. For example. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at an element. phase.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh Results Database The structure of a results database allows you to access results by a method similar to that of the analysis code. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. If this occurs. For example. A results database is divided into sections called simulations. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. HyperMesh sets the results values needed for that function to zero for all of the nodes or elements that are missing. HyperMesh prints a message indicating that results for some of the entities requested were not found in the database. Data types are one of the forms described below: nodal displacement nodal value Stores three floating point values at a node. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. A data type may contain only one type of result.

modal. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Linear Linear animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts with the original position of the structure and ends with the fully deformed position of the structure. and for file:. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. An appropriate number of frames are linearly interpolated between the first and the last positions. In this case. you must first specify the name and location of the HyperMesh results database. The three types of animation include linear.0 User’s Guide 339 . in either wire frame or hidden line mode. The selected simulation must have a data type in it that contains nodal displacement records. Modal animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts and ends with the original position of the structure. For transient animation. each of the simulations used in the animation sequence must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. It is from the data contained with the nodal displacement records that HyperMesh is able to calculate the deformed geometry of the structure. Transient animation displays the structure in its timestep positions as calculated by the analysis code. For linear and modal animation. for results file:.. Modal animation is most useful for displaying mode shapes. Transient animation is used to animate the transient response of a structure.. Linear animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. Creating Deformed Geometry Plots The deformed panel allows you to display the deformed geometry of your model statically. to select a file using the browser.Specifying the Results File In order to perform post-processing functions. HyperMesh uses only one simulation and this simulation must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. HyperMesh calculates the deformed geometry of the structure from the data contained within the nodal displacement records. In the global panel. Modal animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. Modal Transient The selected simulations must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records in order for HyperMesh to create an animation sequence. The deforming frames are calculated based on a sinusoidal function. and transient. select the results sub-panel. Creating Animations The HyperMesh animation functions allow you to view your model structure in motion. Transient animation sequences are generated in the transient panel. to select a file using the browser. HyperMesh uses a range of simulations. Linear animation is usually selected when results are from a static analysis.. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. There are two ways to select a results file: • • From the files panel..

Creating Contour Plots The contour function in the contour panel generates color bands on a model. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the nodes of the elements. When the assign function is performed. When a contour function is performed. HyperMesh can create the contour plot without modifying any of the values in the results file. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. The values are located at the centroid of the element. so no further calculations are required. HyperMesh averages the centroidal element values to the nodes of the elements. nodal values and displacements 340 HyperMesh 8. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. Vector plots are used to determine the direction of movement and allow you to verify the location of the center of rotation of a model. The elements are then displayed in the solid color assigned to them.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . See the vector plot panel for more information.Creating Vector Plots A vector plot displays the model with a vector at each node that has a result-based direction and magnitude. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. In order to accomplish this. based on the values found in the results file. based on the values in the results file. element values1 Creating Assigned Plots The assign function in the contour panel assigns a color to each element in the model. element values The results are already stored at the centroid of the element. In order to accomplish this. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. The bands of color are created by calculating a value for each node in the model and then interpolating across each element. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the contour plot. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when nodal values or nodal displacements are being used to create an assigned plot. nodal values and displacements The results are stored at the nodes. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when element centroid values are used to create a contour plot. this is accomplished by adding the results at each node and dividing by the number of nodes on the element. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the assigned plot. This allows you to display elements that have values within a specified range. HyperMesh averages the results at the nodes to the centroid of the elements. For each element. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the centroid of the elements.

the descriptor is located in the upper left-hand corner of the plot above the legend. Temporary titles can be added to each type of plot by entering a title in the title = field in the contour panel. HyperMesh plots a legend if the results-based plot created requires it. change the font size. The ID. Functions on this panel allow you to move the legend to a different location on the screen.Adding Plot Identification After you create a results-based plot. modify the colors used in the legend. and also change the colors used in the legend that correspond to the model. convenient way of viewing the results of a large number of elements. HyperMesh creates the "descriptor" in order to display the simulation and data type that were used to create the plot. and relocate the legend and the descriptor. click color to change the color of the text of the descriptor. After you enter the title and create the plot. To modify a legend. click font and select the size font you want to use in the descriptor. you can add titles. you can select the node or element after the results-based plot has been created. simulation and data type. and value of the node or element are displayed in the menu area. the temporary title is displayed on the upper left side of the screen. Inspecting the Results A contour or assigned plot provides a fast. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. change the color of the text in the legend. click within the displayed legend to access the legend edit panel. To modify the descriptor.0 User’s Guide 341 . reverse the colors of the legend. click within the descriptor to access the title edit panel. When you want to determine the actual value that an analysis code has calculated for a node or element. By default.

342 HyperMesh 8. A curve may appear on more than one plot at a time and there is no limit to the number of curves that a HyperMesh database may contain.XY Plotting The functions in the xy plots module allow you to study the relationships between data vectors in results files. which are referred to as curves. To display a curve. There is no limit to the number of plot collectors that a HyperMesh database may contain. Information about xy plots is stored in plot collectors. Information about curves is stored in curve collectors. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. You can create standard plots or dual plots that show real /imaginary or phase/magnitude data. you must assign the curve collector to a plot.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which are referred to as plots. The plot may contain any number of curves. This section introduces the functions that are available in the xy plots module. Plots maintain a list of pointers to curves that are to be displayed on the plot. Procedures for creating and editing xy plots and curves include: • • • • • • • • • • • Creating an XY Plot Modifying XY Plots Working with Multiple XY Plots Modifying Multiple XY Plots Creating Curves on XY Plots Reading Curves from an ASCII File Creating Analysis Based Curves Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions Modifying Curve Attributes Displaying Selected Curves on Plots In addition.

The axis scaling panel allows you to modify the starting and ending values of the plot axes. Calculates and displays the integral of a curve. Generates a curve from the currently-selected results file. circle zoom. Allows you to determine the coordinate values of points in a curve. thickness of the grid lines. you can change the color and font size used to display these entities. The xy plotting panels are described below: axis labels The axis labels panel allows you to modify the x and y axes titles and labels. Grid labels appear along the x and y axes in the plot (tick marks). The grid attribs panel allows you to change the color. You may also specify whether the border is displayed and the size of the margin between the border and the plot. select xy plots on the Post page of the main menu. and the line style (solid. You can also change the curve title that appears in the legend. To access the xy plots module. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. and zoom out. Allows you to create an xy plot and assign curves to the xy plot.). dashed. font. The curve attribs panel allows you to change the color. Reads curves from an ASCII file. subtitle. The grid labels panel allows you to change the color. marker style (used to indicate the point location). You can also change the color and font size used to display these entities.XY Plots Module The xy plots module is a group of panels that perform operations on plots and the curves displayed on those plots. and number of significant places in the labels. thickness. and label. In addition. The legend panel allows you to change the location and the font used to display the legend. You can apply a scaling factor to the original data points. line style. This panel allows you to read data vectors from files as well as perform advanced mathematical operations on curves. The border panel allows you to change the thickness and color of the border around the plot. You can set the values explicitly or implicitly by using the panel functions such as find curves. Allows you to rename curves. Creates and modifies the curves in the database. Allows you to perform simple mathematical calculations on a curve. axis scaling border curve attribs edit curves grid attribs grid labels integrate legend plot titles plots query curves read curves rename results curves simple math In addition. etc. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 343 . and the margin displayed around the grid lines. The plot titles panel allows you to change the plot title.

Modifying an XY Plot After you create an xy plot. you may wish to modify one of the values on all of the plots. Each time a panel in the xy plots module is accessed. To modify an xy plot. Modifying Multiple XY Plots When several plots are contained within a database. or add a title to the plot. in one step. This allows you to control multiple plots by resizing and moving plots around the screen. The first step in the process of creating an xy plot is to use the plots panel to name and create an xy plot collector. and change the attribute in the panel. you may wish to change the axis titles so that they are all the same. or width of the border. the panels in the xy plots module are updated to reflect the change. select the panel that applies to the attribute you want to change. the grid labels and grid attributes. you can change the color. Access this panel by pressing the w key. subtitle. HyperMesh initially assigns default values to the xy plot attributes. or a subset of the plots. After each change.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . These attributes can be adjusted before or after you add curves to the plot. thickness. and also the margin and border around the xy plot. Working with Multiple XY Plots HyperMesh places every xy plot within a window. HyperMesh immediately displays the update. Plot attributes include the title. and then apply those modifications to the other plots. and labels. XY plot window placement is controlled with the Windows panel.Creating an XY Plot Each xy plot window is assigned a name when you create it. Every time you change the current xy plot. the plot = field allows you to select one plot and the plots entity selector allows you to select multiple plots. When you modify xy plots using the panels of the xy plots module. select the plot you want to change. This process also applies to curves. 344 HyperMesh 8. You can modify one plot so that it has the desired values. HyperMesh displays the existing values of the current xy plot (the plot listed after plot =) in the data entry fields in the panel. For example.

. . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the title assigned to the curve. Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Curves can be created using simple math operators in the simple math panel. there are two blocks of data. For every operation. . You can also apply external filters to curves in this panel. Y2 . you can specify that the x or y values of the curve remain fixed. After this information has been supplied. HyperMesh reads the required data from the results file and generates the appropriate curve.TITLE X1. using the standard HyperMesh curve data file format. which define two curves. Essentially. y) data pairs on each line. transform a curve. Y2 . follows on the same line. which is displayed in the legend. or export the curve. You can combine two curves. The block begins with the statement. Point data follows with a set of (x. Examples of external filters are in the filters subdirectory that is provided when this option is selected. you select entities of interest in your model. Creating Analysis-Based Curves Analysis-based curves are generated from the HyperMesh binary results file. Analysis-based curves are generated in the results curves panel. When you create an analysis curve.Creating Curves on XY Plots You can create curves using four different methods: • • • • Read curves from an ASCII file Extract a curve directly from a results database Create curves by using a few simple math operators Read single curves from files as well as generate curves by using mathematical expressions Reading Curves from an ASCII file When HyperMesh reads curves from an ASCII file with the read curves panel. XYDATA. it assumes that the format of the input file is as follows: XYDATA.TITLE X1. Y1 X2.0 User’s Guide 345 . Y1 X2. . and then select a data type for the x axis data points and a data type for the y axis data points. In the above example. ENDDATA Each curve in the file is defined in a block format. filters exchange data with HyperMesh. ENDDATA XYDATA. After XYDATA. The block ends with an ENDDATA statement.

vector: For example: c1. request. the component must be selected. refer to the Altair Math Reference. To edit the x and y vectors of a math curve. the data request set needs to be selected. based on what has been modified. To reference the y vector of curve 1. you must indicate the curve number and the x or y vector.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Once the data type has been selected. HyperMesh recalculates the curves in the proper order.y To reference the x vector of curve 1.x c1. For example. Each vector of a curve can be defined using either a data vector in a data file or a math expression.Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions The edit curves panel allows you to create new curves or edit existing ones. and component. The data sources for the x and y vectors are displayed in the x = and y = fields. 346 HyperMesh 8. the data source for the x vector could be a file. Source file data is divided into type. Available data types depend on the data file. The y vector can be a function of x or the x vector can be a function of y. New data can be selected from a source file or mathematically defined. Type Request Component Note: Data files can consist of different types of data. and the data source for the y vector could be a math expression. When you modify a curve. After the data request set has been selected. For more information about math expressions. in the format curve number.

The width of line used when the curve is drawn. The names of the curves that are already displayed on the current xy plot are highlighted. curve title curve width curve style curve color curve marker The curve title is displayed in the legend. x scale factor y scale factor Displaying Selected Curves on Plots After you have read or created curves. HyperMesh displays a list of the available curves in the database. and square markers. The curve may also be displayed with no markers shown.0 User’s Guide 347 . The style of line used to draw the curve. HyperMesh currently supports a solid line. you can select which curves in the database you want to display on an xy plot. and four different patterns. This scale factor is used to scale the y values in a curve. HyperMesh currently supports circular. The color used to draw the curve. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This scale factor is used to scale the x values in a curve.Modifying Curve Attributes Modifying curves is very similar to modifying plots. select the plots panel and click select curves. Determines the markers drawn around each data point in the curve. HyperMesh currently supports either thick or thin lines. no line at all. when the curve is displayed. The following curve attributes may be changed in the curve attribs panel. To select curves for a plot. Modify the list by selecting the curves by name and removing or adding the curves to the current plot as desired and click return. HyperMesh currently supports 15 standard colors. triangular.

Click the display checkbox in the curve atributes area. The curve displays in the graph area. curve attributes (blue). The curve editor contains four main areas. if you leave the curve editor open while making changes within the HyperMesh XY plotting module. To display curves in the graph area: 1. To summarize: • • Changes made in the curve editor immediately affect HyperMesh. The curve’s attributes fill in the fields in the curve attributes area. graph area (red). Modify the curve attributes if needed. To quit the curve editor. For this reason. and must be imported by use of the update button. 2. 3. in the sense that changes made in the curve editor are automatically sent back to HyperMesh. Changes made in HyperMesh do not immediately affect the curve editor. It’s important to be aware that the curve editor is not completely symmetrical with HyperMesh. but changes made in a HyperMesh panel do not automatically get sent to the curve editor. you must use the update button in the curve editor to import the changes. click the close command button. Note that any changes you make in the curve editor will be retained. because they are automatically applied as you make them. Click the desired curve in the curve list. Access the curve editor from HyperMesh’s Setup pull-down menu.Using the Curve Editor The curve editor is a pop-up window that allows you to view and modify graphed curves in a more intuitive and holistic way than the individual xy plots panels provide.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 348 HyperMesh 8. outlined with colored boxes in the image below: the curve list (green). and graph attributes (cyan).

you could change it from “Y” to “time”. Select a Line style to change the curve’s line from solid to dotted. Modify the fields inside the Y-axis frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s Y-axis label. modify the fields inside the X-axi s frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s X -axis label. pressing the <delete> key to erase the current value. Note: If you choose no line. To change the graph's attributes: 1.5). setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. click the thick line checkbox. Make any desired changes to the curve’s attributes: Modify each X and/or Y value by clicking it. you could 2 restrict the X axis to only graph accelerations from 1 to 5 m/s . 2. if it is already set to Display. For example. To place a marker symbol at each point on the curve. you could change it from “X” to “Acceleration”. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). and 1. making a finer grid. select a number from the every: list box. For example. the line’s symbol points will still display. even if your data included accelerations ranging from 0 up to 10 m/s . The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced.0. click the desired color to select it. Click the display checkbox to toggle the display of the curve in the graph area. select a symbol from the list box.5. To change the symbol spacing. 1.0. 2 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. In the graph attributes area. and then typing in a new value. Either click the curve in the curve list. For example. For example. or show no line at all. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. Change the Color by clicking the colored box. Click the curve that you wish to modify.0 User’s Guide 349 . numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. For example. Or 2.To change a curve's attributes: 1. Click the curve in the graph area. if you choose “3” then only every third point will display as a symbol. A list of available colors displays. To draw the curve in a thicker line. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis.

- Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic.5. type in the X and Y coordinates for each data point in the curve. For example. For example. A confirmation window displays. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. In the curve list. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a new name for the chosen curve.0. 2. or No to keep the curve. To delete a curve: 1.5).0. 4. Click the desired curve in the curve list. Click proceed. To create a new curve: 1. Click Yes to confirm the deletion. which now uses the curve’s new name. Click the Delete command button. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. 1. Type in a new name for the curve. For example. - Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. 2. you could restrict the range by typing “20” into the min and “35” into the max. once you delete a curve. Modify the fields inside the Legends frame: Select a location to determine where the legend displays in the graph area. To rename a curve: 1. 3. 3. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. 350 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a name for the new curve. and 1. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click the New… command button in the curve editor window. making a finer grid. Click the new curve in the curve list and modify its attributes as needed. 3. click the curve that you wish to delete. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. Click proceed. Click the hide checkbox to toggle the display of the legend on and off. 2. but you only wish to graph the accelerations that occur between 30 and 35 seconds. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). Type in a name for the new curve. you cannot recover it. Undo You cannot undo a deletion. even if your data included accelerations from 0 seconds to 60 seconds. 3.

and Templex. PVi is the perturbation vector associated to the design variable DVi . There are different approaches used to define the shape in an optimization setup. Genesis. BVi variable DVi . usually density-related values that define the material distribution are the design variables. Altair OptiStruct and Altair HyperStudy use the perturbation vector approach. The perturbation vectors define changes of nodal locations with respect to the original finite element mesh. The boundary shape changes must be translated into changes of the interior of the mesh to avoid mesh distortions due to shape changes. the design variables define the boundary shape of the part to be optimized. AutoDV has been stand-alone software. where is the basis vector associated to the design Using the perturbation vector approach. Both approaches refer to the definition of the structural shape as a linear combination of vectors. Altair HyperStudy. HyperOpt. the perturbation vector approach must be selected. Further. Altair HyperOpt. In the past. most of AutoDV’s capability to create perturbation vectors using control perturbations is fully integrated in HyperMesh. x Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Nastran. HyperStudy. AutoDV interfaces with HyperMesh thru the AutoDV template for export and AutoDV reader for import. In finite elements. the shape of the structure is defined by the vector of nodal coordinates. The function of creating harmonic shape functions for 2D problems only works with AutoDV. The basis vectors define nodal locations. Using the basis vector approach. AutoDV can also be used to generate distributed loads.AutoDV Introduction AutoDV is utility developed for the generation of perturbation vectors for shape optimization in optimization packages such as Altair OptiStruct. are the basis vector approach and the perturbation vector approach. and spring properties are design variables. Before importing AutoDV data. Shape Optimization The type of design variables that are used distinguishes different types of structural optimization. x = ∑ DVi ⋅ BVi x is the vector of nodal coordinates. the shell thickness. In shape optimization. x = x 0 + ∑ DVi ⋅ PVi where x 0 is the vector of nodal coordinates of the initial design. and Genesis. the structural shape is defined as a linear combination of basis vectors. is the vector of nodal coordinates. AutoDV generates perturbation vectors. a more flexible tool to set-up and generate shape perturbations. with the perturbation vector approach as the default setting. The stand-alone solver is still available and can be used for the generation of manual perturbations. In size optimization. If there is a choice in the optimization code. AutoDV is now complemented by HyperMorph. Starting with HyperWorks 6.0 User’s Guide 351 . such as beam section properties. Nastran. input parameters of a model. a finite element model must be loaded into HyperMesh. x. the structural shape change is defined as a linear combination of perturbation vectors. The two most commonly used in commercial software packages like OptiStruct. Altair HyperOpt provides both. In topology optimization.0.

Manual Perturbation To generate perturbation vectors by the manual perturbation method: 1.pert file a different ID. In HyperMesh. Do not save the perturbed model. Manual perturbation of grids in HyperMesh. Run AutoDV through the solver panel using the appropriate options. Click the switch and select AutoDV as your solver. 2. 2.Generation of Perturbation Vectors Perturbation vectors can be generated in one of three ways: 1.pert<nnn> files contain data only for the perturbed grid points.pert006. Select the solver panel. 4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Write out a perturbation file <prefix>. AutoDV compares all <prefix>. where nnn is the design variable ID. 3. giving the *. However. and generates the corresponding perturbation vector.base file using the baseline model of the structure using the OptiStruct template supplied in the distribution.pert<nnn> files that contain only the perturbed grids.pert<nnn> models with the <prefix>. 3. 6.base model. a finite element model representing the baseline shape of the structure must be developed.pert<nnn>. 7. 5. To generate another perturbation vector. identifies the perturbed grids. AutoDV requires that the <prefix>. retrieve the baseline HyperMesh database and complete steps 2 and 3. using the AutoDV template. Before these methods can be applied. AutoDV creates condensed <prefix>. Example: mymodel. Polynomial perturbation vectors using design domains. 352 HyperMesh 8. Harmonic perturbation vectors using design domains. Write a <prefix>. move the grids to define the perturbed shape. the files generated by HyperMesh contain the entire model.

3. that you organize 2-D and 3-D domain elements in separate components. build a secondary domain model and define secondary node sets. 7. select the optimization panel.0 User’s Guide 353 . Primary Domain Model This example shows how to create a primary domain model over the finite element model using the following first order 2-D and 3-D domain elements. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. 5. none of the domain components should include finite elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 4. 2. 6. but not necessary. Select the perturbations panel. The Domain model must encompass those finite element grids of the model that need to be perturbed. DTRIA3 DHEXA8. Define primary domain model elements and domain node sets. 2. All domain elements may be organized in more than one domain component. On the BCs page. DPENTA6. Use the solver panel to run AutoDV. If needed. Assign shapes to design variables. 3. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. Pick the nodes that form the domain element. However. Each domain element generally encompasses a large number of finite elements. Define shapes and control perturbations.Polynomial Perturbation Vectors To create polynomial perturbation vectors: 1. DTETRA4 These element types are generated using the AutoDV template provided in the distribution. Select the domain subpanel. 5. It is recommended. 2-D elements 3-D elements DQUAD4. To create a domain element: 1. 4. Select the type of domain element.

i.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select the nodes for the domain node set. To manually create a domain node set for an existing domain element: 1.. 5. This generally happens at the common edges and corners between domain elements. or they can be created manually. select the optimization panel. Select the perturbations panel.e. Domain node sets can be created automatically when the domain element is created. 354 HyperMesh 8. This relationship is not explicitly defined by the user. Click add. all corner nodes of that element must belong to that node set. On the BCs page.Primary Domain Node Sets Node sets constitute the primary entities for generating perturbation vectors. 2. There should be exactly one domain element related to each node set. it is identified by AutoDV. 7. 3. All nodes in a given node set are perturbed using mathematical relationships based on the control perturbations applied on the Domain Model. 6. However. you must implicitly ensure that relationship while creating domain elements and node sets by making sure that all the nodes that need to be perturbed as a shape variable are completely encompassed or parameterized by the domain model. 4. Select update. Toggle nodeset to manual. Pick the domain element from the graphic display. Select the domain subpanel. 8. A given node may belong to more than one node set.

Py. Click create vector to create the vectors.g.y) = Px(x) Py(y) Pz(z) where P x.y) = Px(x) Py(y) For 3-D domains.0 User’s Guide 355 . Control perturbations are defined by creating vectors at control points. Select perturbations using the toggle. Select the perturbations panel. Enter a name (max. the interpolation is parabolic if a mid-side control perturbation is defined. A linear interpolation uses control perturbation at the corners. Click return to return to the perturbations panel. AutoDV identifies the mid-side perturbations and internally changes the corresponding edge of a domain element from linear to quadratic (curvilinear edge element). 8 characters) in shape =. For 2-D domains.Control Perturbations Perturbation vectors are generated by interpolating control perturbations defined at selected control points. In order to generate a quadratic perturbation. To define control perturbations: 1. The deformed panel is displayed so you can animate the design variable to validate your definition. the interpolation function is a product of two functions: P(x. Create shape design variables: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. Click create shape. 2. place the control perturbation on a mid-side node on an edge of the domain node set.. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. For corner control points. Instead. 3. the interpolation function is a product of three functions: P(x. Animate the shape design variable: − Click animate. defining a zero magnitude vector is the same as placing no vector. and Pz are polynomial interpolation functions of up to quadratic order. They are automatically added to the shape specified in shape =. AutoDV assigns a control perturbation of magnitude zero to the corner point. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The corner points of a domain element and mid-side nodes of the corresponding node sets constitute control points (e. A quadratic interpolation would use the corner as well as the mid-side control perturbations. That mid-side control point does not have to lie on the edge of the domain element. On a given edge. − AutoDV computes perturbations of all structural grids by interpolating control perturbations. you do not need to create a second order domain element. The order of interpolation is based on the presence of mid-side control perturbations. otherwise it is linear. a DQUAD4 domain has 8 control points). The interpolations are performed as follows. In either case.

Generates the corresponding list of grids to be perturbed in that variable. the presence yields a quadratic interpolation. In the case of a zero magnitude mid-side perturbation. defining zero magnitude vector is not the same as placing no vector. 356 HyperMesh 8. Whereas the absence of a mid-side control perturbation yields a linear interpolation on that edge. Computes perturbation of each grid in the list by interpolation using the related control point perturbations.For mid-side control points.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . AutoDV computes the perturbation vectors for shape variables in the following order: • • • Identifies all domain elements and node sets attached to vector belonging to a given shape variable. the interpolation is quadratic with the value of zero for the mid-side node.

This problem is solved using a secondary domain model as follows: • • Create one rigid element (type DRBE2) between the two end nodes (G1 and G4 in this example). they remain unperturbed. Move the end nodes as well as all intermediate nodes into an independent node set. You may use the secondary domain model where two nodes belonging to the primary domain are connected using several 1-D elements in a series.0 User’s Guide 357 . Here. because grids G2 and G3 are not part of any node set. However. Secondary domain is not required if the nodes are connected using a single 1-D element. illustrated below. With only primary domain.Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets A secondary domain model allows computation of perturbation vectors for grids on 1-D elements connecting two different components. The gum-drops are modeled using a rigid (R1)-spring (K)-rigid (R2) representation. Here. grid points G2 and G3 are generally coincident. Interpolating those perturbations linearly to all the grids of the secondary domain. Identifying perturbations of the end nodes of the secondary domains. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. AutoDV responds by: • • • Computing pert urbations on the primary domain model using the control perturbations. the perturbation vector for this model is as shown in the illustration below. consider the two sheet metal components connected using gum-drops. For example. The perturbation vectors are also shown in the illustration. the control perturbation causes grids G1 and G4 to be perturbed as shown. The domain model for each plate contains one element each.

and no control perturbations are required at the two nodes of the DRBE2 element. Note: A DRBE2 element does not have to be connected to a control point. 358 HyperMesh 8.Using the example illustrated above.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . this yields the perturbation shown below.

the harmonic component of the shape variable has a value of 1. Then the shape variable is reduced to the polynomial shape variable. and Y_TYPE: Card image X_ORDER Y_ORDER Symbol m n Default 0 0 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The orders m and n of harmonic functions are user-controlled. Generate domain elements and node sets as described in the previous section. modeling requirements for generating harmonic variables are very stringent. 2.Harmonic Perturbation Vectors Harmonic shape variables are defined using a process similar to that for polynomial shape variables. Each harmonic shape variable component must contain exactly four vectors. The harmonic shape variables are computed using a product of the following two functions: V(x. and T is the harmonic function given by: T(x. one at each corner point of the DQUAD4. In the shape panel. Y_ORDER. Each vector may have a different length and orientation.y) T (x. X_TYPE. To define harmonic perturbation vectors: 1. create a design variable using that shape. These are part of the vector collector card. Select the design variable in the card pre-viewer in the permanent menu. The design variable label should not have more than four characters. 4. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. However.one at each corner control point of that element. 3. There should be no other vector in that shape. y) = Xm(x) Yn(y) Where Xm(x) = cos (m*x/2) = sin (m*x/2) =1 and Yn(x) = cos (n*y/2) = sin (n*y/2) =1 for odd values of n for even values of n for n = 0 for odd values of m for even values of m for m = 0 For m = n = 0. Edit X_ORDER.y) = P (x. y) Where P is the polynomial function described in the previous section. Select the DQUAD4 element on which harmonic perturbation vectors are desired and create a shape with exactly four vectors . Harmonic variables are defined only on DQUAD4 domains. one DQUAD4 element at a time.0 User’s Guide 359 .

odd. Accordingly. odd. even Default all all For given values of m and n. Examples of the naming procedure follow: Example 1: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv01 2 0 1 dv010001 X_TYPE = all Y_TYPE = all 3 1 0 dv010100 4 1 1 dv010101 5 2 0 dv010200 6 2 1 dv010201 desvar name = dv01 Example 2: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv02 X_TYPE = even Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv020001 3 2 0 dv020200 4 2 1 dv020201 desvar name = dv02 Example 3: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv03 X_TYPE = odd Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv030001 3 1 0 dv030100 4 1 1 dv030101 desvar name = dv03 360 HyperMesh 8. or even harmonics by entering the appropriate harmonics types in the vector collector.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . AutoDV generates a series of independent perturbation vectors.You have the option of generating all. even all. It generates shape variable names by appending the x and y orders to the component name. Card image X_TYPE Y_TYPE Options all. odd. modify the setting in the harmonic subpanel.

On the Post page. Enter a name (max. Domain elements and domain node sets for the domain where the load is applied must be created before you can generate a variable load. 3. Click apply to apply the variable loads. you must write an AutoDV input deck using the AutoDV template. 8 characters) in desvar =. select the apply result panel.dv. Create control perturbations to define the characteristic of the variable load: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. A quadratic interpolation can be generated by creating control vectors either on the mid-side control points or on both. select the solver panel. To generate a variable load: 1. − − − − On the BCs page. Run AutoDV to generate the variable loads: Before you run AutoDV. Select AUTODV as the solver.0 User’s Guide 361 . 4.animate suffix. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. select the results subpanel. the corner and mid-side control points. Creating control perturbations at the corner nodes of the domain element yields a linear interpolation. Click simulation = and select the variable loading condition wants to apply. AutoDV computes the variable loads on each structural grid by interpolating the control perturbations defined on control points. They are automatically added to the design variable specified in desvar =. Select all the displayed nodes and set mult = to 1. The control points can be the corner points of a domain element or the mid-side nodes along the edge of domain elements. Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. Click name = and enter the name of the AutoDV input deck. 2. Select the perturbations panel.Generation of Variable Loads Generating variable loads with AutoDV is similar to generating perturbation vectors. Variable loads are generated by interpolating control vectors defined at selected control points. moments and temperatures. Select desvar using the toggle. Click create to create the vectors. Click create. Variable loading can be generated for forces. Click file = and enter the result file with the . Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − − Select perturbations using the toggle. Select the create load subpanel. Apply the variable loads: − − − − − − − On the files panel. Click solve to create the interpolated variable loads.

Examples: 362 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Running AutoDV Stand-alone
To run AutoDV, select AUTODV as the solver in the solver panel and then give the prefix of the input file name along with the options. The input file name should be prefix.base. autodv -file <prefix> -inp opt1 -ent opt2 -code opt3

The valid entries and default values for options are given in the following table. Note that these parameters could be given in any order. Entity <prefix> Valid Options Prefix of the input file name, or input file name. OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS, HYPERSTUDY, TEMPLEX, HYPEROPT FORC, MOMT, TEMP, LONG OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, PAMCRASH, RADIOSS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MARC, ANSYS, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT Default Value Solver Panel input file =

Opt1

analysis code =

Opt2 Opt3

NONE NONE

component = subcode type =

The interdependency of options on each other is explained in the following table. For example, for a given opt1, it gives the possible values for opt2 and opt3. Opt1 OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS HYPERSTUDY TEMPLEX Opt2 None Long Opt3 Ignored Remarks For shape optimization None – Standard format Long – Long format For variable loading

FORC, MOMT, TEMP Ignored

Ignored

OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, RADIOSS, PAMCRASH, MARC, ANSYS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT, ABAQUS, NASTRAN

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/Generic and HyperStudy

HYPEROPT

Ignored

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/OPTISTRUCT, HyperOpt/ABAQUS, and HyperOpt/NASTRAN

Altair Engineering
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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 363

After AutoDV runs, it creates the following files: prefix.dat A bulk data file that contains the DVGRID and LOAD information, respectively depending on opt2. A bulk data file for the perturbed model corresponding to the shape variable nnn. This file originally contained the manually generated perturbed file. After the program runs, this file contains only the GRID data for all perturbed grid points. This file contains the shape design variables in the HyperMesh results format. This file can be loaded to HyperMesh and results can be viewed. Note: The animation should be used only as a check for the shape of the perturbation vector. It will not display the upper and lower bounds for the shape variable. The file prefix.dat becomes part of an input file for the respective native analysis package. Note: If you create a perturbed model file, prefix.pertnnn, and also a set of control perturbations with an identical shape variable ID, nnn, the resultant perturbation vector from AutoDV is a union of the manual as well as the interpolated grid perturbations. For the common nodes in the two sets, the manual grid perturbations given in prefix.pertnnn override those generated by using interpolation. prefix.subcode.node.tpl Templex template to replace the nodal coordinates in the original input deck. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX. Contains nodal coordinates and perturbation vectors for use in the file, prefix.subcode.node.tpl. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX.

prefix.autonnn

prefix.dv.animate

prefix.shp

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Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
Using an H3D file, you can save 3-D animations from HyperMesh in the .h3d format for viewing with the HyperView Player. HyperView Player is an Internet browser plug-in for visualizing 3-D Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models and results. Using product data in Altair's compact .h3d format allows you to incorporate animated images in an HTML document for presentation or engineering reports. Simulation results can be sent by e-mail, or placed on the web for others to open and review. HyperView Player is available as a free download on Altair's Web site at http://www.altair.com. To create an H3D file from HyperMesh: 1. 2. Select one of the following panels: contour, deformed, hidden line, transient, or geom cleanup. To control the display attributes for your model: 3. Specify your desired display attributes using visual options or the visual panel.

Click the Hyper3d button or H3D>HV. Two files are created. One is an H3D file, using anim#.h3d as the file name. The symbol # is automatically assigned to the H3D file. The other is a sample HTML file including an <EMBED> statement for the corresponding H3D file. H3D>HV loads the newly created H3D file into HyperView. You can define this option in the options panel under modeling.

4.

To review the model in a web browser: Double click the HTML file to launch a browser. or Click H3D to activate the standalone HyperView Player.

You can customize the external HTML template, h3d_template.html, located in the altair/hm/html directory, to suit your needs. Note: In the HyperMesh geom cleanup panel, the Hyper3D button is displayed when you select the shaded option in the visual options subpanel.

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Embedding a HyperView Player Object in HTML Documentation The following section defines the arguments and provides an example for embedding statements in an HTML document in order to view a HyperView Player graphic object. Note the following updates to HyperView Player: Simplified HTML File Statement Since the H3D file created from HyperView, and HyperMesh includes scene information, the arguments in the old statements for model readers and result readers are no longer needed. The HTML statements have been simplified in this release. However, the HTML files created for HyperView Player 3.1 are still supported. HyperView Player only supports H3D direct readers. You can create an H3D file using: • • • • Note HyperView HyperMesh HyperMesh result translators, such as hmnast, hmnasto2, hmdyna, hmradioss, hmpam, hmansys, and hmabaqus OptiStruct You may need to modify your HTM L files created for HyperView Player 3.1 if you were using direct readers other that h3d.dll, such as adams.dll, gfile.dll, lsdyna.dll, and madymo.dll, since those readers are no longer supported in HyperView Player.

Direct Readers

To embed a HyperView Player object, the <EMBED> statement in HTML is used. All arguments are case insensitive.

General Arguments for EMBED Statements
type width/height SRC="URL" Application/x-h3d Measured in pixels The location of the plug-in data file as indicated by its URL.

Embedded Statement Example
<EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="HTTP:\\www.altair.com\h3d\bumper.h3d"> <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="../bumper.h3d">

More examples can be found in the HyperView Player demo directory, and our Web site, http://www.altair.com.

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Using an HTML File
You can use HyperView Player to share information by embedding it in an HTML file. You can use either a relative path or a standard Uniform Resource Locator (URL) to specify the path for the H3D file in the <EMBED> statement. There are three different ways to define file transfer protocol: FILE, HTTP and FTP. This section describes how to select a protocol for file transfer using files, anim1.html and anim1.h3d as examples.

Embedded Mode
FILE://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="File://c:\Altair\demos\hvp\anim1.h3d"> An absolute path is required for File:// and the H3D file must reside in the specified path. When you distribute the files, you may need to modify the HTML file for the path.

HTTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="http://www:8080/~John/anim1.h3d> Others can access your public web area on the Internet. When sharing an H3D file, you can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files in your public HTML directory and send the link to others in the company by email. The link can be, for example, http://www:8080/~John/anim1.html. By doing this, you do not need to distribute the H3D file and can guarantee the path is working correctly. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click the link in the email, the model will be displayed.

FTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="FTP://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html> You can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files on your FTP site. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click ftp://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html, the model is displayed.

Relative Path
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="../anim/.h3d> Using a relative path allows you to distribute an HTML file easily. You can create a folder with the necessary HTML and h3d files for distribution.

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Full page mode
In an HTML file, you can easily hyperlink a string to an H3D file. When you click the hyperlink, the plug-in loads a model in full-page mode.

Using E-mail
You can attach an H3D file to an email. If the recipient is using a PC, he or she can click the attachment and the H3D file will load automatically. You can also save the H3D file and at a later time, double-click the file to invoke the standalone version of HyperView Player. Another available option is to drag the H3D file and drop it into a browser to view the model in a full window.

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H3D FAQ's
How can I view a model with shaded display in HyperView Player? The model display settings are recorded during H3D creation. Set up the desired model display, with such options as mesh lines and feature lines, in the Vis panel under the Performance Graphics mode in HyperMesh.

Why doesn’t the legend setting in HyperView player reflect the setting in HyperMesh? HyperView Player only supports default settings for the legend display from HyperMesh. The specified Max and Min values in HyperMesh are not recorded in the H3D file of this version.

Can I view complex result animation in HyperView player? No, the H3D writer does not support complex result data.

What types of element are not supported in the H3D file? Second order elements, rigidlinks, and RBE3s are not supported in this version. The mid-side node of a second order element is ignored when it is read into HyperView Player.

How can I change the window size for viewing HyperView Player in the browser? You can modify the width and height values in the <EMBED> statement in the HTML file. (For example, width = 600, height = 600)

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Free Body Diagrams
HyperMesh allows you to create or edit Free Body Diagrams (FBD) using several tools that display in the tab area. Each FBD tool displays on a separate tab, which opens when you activate that tool. Location: Results menu, Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tools) Tool menu (to access the FBD Set Manager only) Tab Area (for the tools themselves)

Free Body Diagram (FBD) utilities facilitate the extraction and post-processing of Grid Point Force (GPFORCE) results. FBD utilities currently support OptiStruct and Nastran .op2 files, and are only available in the OptiStruct or Nastran user profiles. FBD extractions are typically utilized for breakout and/or sub-modeling analysis schemes, where balanced “free body” sub-cases are extracted from a coarse grid model and applied to a fine grid sub-model for eventual optimization and/or analysis. FBD is also used to extract cross-sectional resultant forces and moments (typically at the centroid of a cross-section) for use in traditional strength calculations. Each tool has a separate entry in the menu. In addition, see the overview on Grid Point Force Balance tables to gain further understanding of FBD operations within HyperMesh, while the Set Manager utility assists in generating the element and node sets which the FBD utilities analyze.

This coarse grid model is typical for FBD extractions.

Typical FBD – Forces output on a wing rib

Typical Result Force and Moment output on a floor beam

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appending entities to. It also includes functions for displaying. creating.FBD Set Manager Use the Set Manager tool to automate the grouping and display of model components through HyperMesh entity set functionality. 2. The sync button synchronizes the entity set display states with the current HyperMesh display. and changing the export state of entity sets. The Set Manager utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct. Nastran. as desired: • • • • Use <ctrl>-click and <shift>-click to select multiple items in the tree structure. To set display options for the Set Manager: 1.0 User’s Guide 371 . or Abaqus user profile. Use the toolbar buttons in the Set Manager tab to manipulate the display options. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. The filter buttons allow for additional selection control. Nastran. select Set Manager. See To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display for details. renaming. or export state) that the filter buttons apply to. Location: Tools menu (to access the Set Manager) Tab Area (to use the Set Manager) The Set Manager consists of a tree structure listing the current entity sets in the model. The selection type options allow you to control the entities (elements. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and ABAQUS user profiles. From the Tools pull-down menu. along with the entity set display and export states. deleting. geometry. 3. The set manager displays in the tab area.

Delete Reference: Removes a set reference from a entity set type of sets. accessed by right clicking in the background. Add Entities to Set: Adds entities into the currently selected set. The graphic above shows all of the available options. 372 HyperMesh 8. Expand All: Expands all branches of the tree. on folders. Collapse All: Collapses all branches of the tree. including: • • • • • • • New: Create a new entity set of the specified type. The set manager displays in the tab area. Supported entity set types are shown above. or Abaqus user profile. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. 3. 2. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to add to the set. Multiple sets may be selected by using standard Ctrl/Shift-click functionality.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh prompts you to type in a name for the set or accept a default name. Delete: Deletes the currently selected set(s). From the Tools pull-down menu. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. Nastran. select Set Manager. Rename: Rename the selected set.To use the Set Manager right-click functionality: 1. Right -click anywhere within the tree structure to open the right-click menu: There are many functions available. or on individual or multiple items within folders. grouped in folders by type.

Show: This operation adds the entities contained in the selected set(s) to the HyperMesh display. Import Session File: Loads a session file (. Once a display toggle is changed.• Remove Entities from Set: Removes entities from the currently selected set. and is only available for component and element sets. The Checked State signifies that the entity set will not be exported. or Abaqus user profile. select Set Manager. The Blank State signifies that one or more of the entities in that entity set are not displayed. When switching between supported solvers. Nastran. which control the display of each of these entities separately. and then displays only the currently selected set(s) in the HyperMesh display. The export state of each entity set is stored in the HyperMesh database.0 User’s Guide 373 .ses). containing group definitions for the selected node or element sets. Display Options: Determines how the sets display in the Set Manager tree. Display IDs: Displays a popup window showing the IDs of all entities contained in the selected set. The display and export icons associated with each entity set are described below: • The display toggle determines whether the entities contained within the entity set are displayed in HyperMesh. Export Session File: Saves a session file (. • • • • • • • To change the Set Manager's display and export states: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. • The export toggle determines whether the entity set definition is to be exported when the model deck is written. The set manager displays in the tab area. or by using the display options icons in the toolbar. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. Hide: This operation removes the entities contained in the selected set(s) from the HyperMesh display. Show Only: This operation turns off (masks) all currently displayed entities. 2. The Checked State signifies that all entities in the entity set are currently displayed. 3. These group definitions will be converted into HyperMesh entity sets. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. For component sets there are two toggles: one for elements (first check box) and one for geometry (second check box). this information is automatically converted to the new solver format when Set Manager is opened. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to remove from the set. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. Available options are shown above. click the Synch toolbar button to update the HyperMesh display with the current selection. The Blank State signifies that the entity set will be exported. to the disk. grouped in folders by type. The display and export states of entity sets are controlled by clicking on/off the display and export icons located next to each entity set in the tree.ses) containing group definitions. From the Tools pull-down menu.

in which case the Set Manager and the HyperMesh display are synchronized until another selection is made within the Set Manager. 374 HyperMesh 8. but display states always default to the unchecked state on startup. constantly synchronizing the display state of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display can introduce performance issues. the Display button at the bottom of the Set Manager allows you to update HyperMesh to match the Set Manager settings. Instead.To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display: The Set Manager is meant to allow users to easily control the display and review of entity sets for model grouping and visualization purposes. The Synch button resides in the toolbar described by the topic To set display options for the Set Manager. In addition.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the Set Manager utility does not automatically synchronize the display states of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display. the Display button can be used to update the HyperMesh display to the current Set Manager selection. To remedy these occurrences. For large models. while the Synch button in the Set Manager toolbar allows you to update the set manager to match the current state of the HyperMesh display. Export states synch automatically.

sub-case names and IDs with displacement output are saved with the rest of the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. or if the original . including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.op2 files containing displacement data from OptiStruct and Nastran. 3.op2 file: field to specify the full path and filename of the .op2 file containing the displacement output for the current model.op2 file is selected. and a formatted . a text summary table within HyperMesh.op2 file changes. select Free Body Diagram. 2. for Nastran and OptiStruct.op2 file is required.op2 file into the database (overwriting the previously selected one). The FBD Displacements tab displays in the tab area. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. Additionally. only the LABEL is used. Once an . Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. From the Results pull-down menu. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct or Nastran user profile.FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility extracts displacement data for user defined node set(s). The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUB-CASE #”. The tool also supports . you must load the new . Note: Recommended practice is to output displacement data for the node set(s) of interest only. You can select multiple sub-cases by ctrl-clicking or shift-clicking. then FBD Displacements.0 User’s Guide 375 . If a new .LABEL(ID)”.op2 file. The sub-case display can be switched between ID and Name (ID). This lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract displacement information.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To extract displacement data for a user-defined node set: 1. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool).op2 file display for selection. Tab Area (for the tool itself) After you define an element set with an associated node set. Location: Results menu. Only sub-cases with displacement results from the currently selected. consider using STRESS = NONE to further reduce the size of the . Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. • • Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. Use the . The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE . Select a sub-case.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Displacement extractions. This procedure reduces the size of the . all appropriate displacements and rotations are extracted. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS io option card The FBD Displacement utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. 4. If no SUBTITLE exists.

z) in the summary table and . the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. Additional nodes may be added to the node set once it is created by clicking the Node Set selector and picking additional nodes. • 6.…) is always output in the system that the results are stored with in the . Situations when this behavior could occur include modification of nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model.5. and click Set Analysis. Select entities. 376 HyperMesh 8. then all nodes within the element set are used. It is assumed that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). select the required nodes and a coordinate system. • The Zero Tolerance entry defines the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If a node set is not selected.csv file output options. The Node Set selector defines the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. This functionality allows you to verify which element and node sets are currently selected. Choose Output options: The Output options section contains various options to review and display results of FBD Displacement extractions. • The Show model checkbox is a graphical review option that. • The Coordinate System selector determines the coordinate system used to display the nodal coordinates (x. The FBD Displacement utility extracts and applies the displacement and rotation results from the .y. This procedure selects the nodes interfacing with the remainder of the structure. when checked. If a coordinate system is not specified.0e-6. There are several options: • The Element Set selector defines the elements that contain the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted.op2 file in the output coordinate system without any further coordinate system transformations. Displacement data (Ux. You will be prompted to give the newly created node set a name.op2 file format. otherwise modify the value as desired. Results coordinate system transformations are not performed on displacement data. The Auto find interface nodes option automatically finds the nodes attached to elements that are not contained within the currently selected element set. The Set Manager utility on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. The entity selection section allows you to select and/or create the appropriate entities required to execute the FBD Displacements utility. and toggle to the assign sub-panel. Uy. The option helps to eliminate “relatively small” values from being output to the result formats.op2 file. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the extraction. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used for controlling the output of results to the various formats. click Coordinate Systems. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. automatically displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element and node sets. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database does not match those used to run the analysis then the extracted values will be incorrect. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. On the Setup menu.

you will be warned that the File already exists and asked if you want to replace it. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. This collector can be referenced as the SPC in the sub-case panel. For example. and detailed displacement data at each node. FBDD_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Disp would be created for element set 1. If it does not exist. Selecting yes will not overwrite the file. but in a comma-separated file. for the current element and node set. IN any case.csv file option creates a . is created for each sub-case.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. • The Show summary table option outputs the results to a popup window for instant review.• The Create Load Collectors option will extract the specified displacement data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window5. it will append/replace the data. The table contains information about the sub-cases. it will be appended to the end of the file. You may select a new file or an existing file. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. node set and sub-case IDs). Loads in this collector are created with the SPCD load type.0 User’s Guide 377 . A single load collector. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. • The Create . The load collector name format is FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp. node set 1 and sub-case 1. The Create SPCD option will additionally create a load collector with the name “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD”. A sample window with partial output is shown below. If an existing file is selected there are several items to note: If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. This collector can be referenced as the LOAD in the sub-case panel. The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. element and node set(s). The loads in this load collector are created with the SPC load type.

overwriting the previously selected.csv) file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. only the LABEL is used. The sub-case list can be switched between ID and Name (ID).op2 file.op2 files containing GPFORCE data from OptiStruct and Nastran.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The FBD Forces utility is currently supported by OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. To select a results file: Click on the folder icon inside of the op2 file field. To select a sub-case: The Sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. This opens the standard file selection dialog window. If a new . The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case in the format SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID). consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the .op2 file that contains the GPFORCE output for the current model. Location: Results menu.op2 file. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved.FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data (including forces and moments) for a user-defined element set. for Nastran and OptiStruct. sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. each of which corresponds with the process order of using the tool. use this to browse to and select the desired .op2 file changes) you must load the new .op2 file are displayed for selection only. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. The ID option lists the sub-cases in the format SUBCASE #. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards The FBD Forces utility is broken down into three major sections.op2 file into the database. Additionally. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. 378 HyperMesh 8.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions. This procedure reduces the size of the . Multiple sub-cases can be selected via Ctrl-click or Shift-click functionality. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). and/or a formatted Comma-Separated Values (. The tool supports . The op2 file field accepts the full path and filename of the . and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. Once you’ve selected an op2 file. If no SUBTITLE exists.op2 file is required (or if the original . a text summary table within HyperMesh.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In addition. RJOINT. result system and summation node. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. SPC. the extracted values will be incorrect. Reaction Loads Only extracts and utilizes only SPC and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on nodes in the selected set. The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force and moment results from an . HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the .op2 file. If a results system is not specified. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. or when loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. applied. Applied Loads Only extracts and utilizes only the applied loads grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set.0 User’s Guide 379 . Use the FBD type selector to determine the grid point force and moment data to extract and utilize for FBD calculations for each node in the selected element set. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the GPFORCE data is summed for the selected element set. select the required nodes and a coordinate system.) If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. On the assign sub-panel. RBE3. If a node is not selected. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). and RBAR. This could occur when modifying a nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. results coming from. This is useful for verifying free body behavior through zero-sum values for all force and moment components about any node. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation . 2.To select entities: 1. the HyperMesh origin (0. This allows you to verify which element sets is currently selected.0) is used by default. Applied Loads Only.0. • • • All Loads extracts and utilizes all element contribution. (See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. Available options include All Loads. It is also useful for calculating the result of applied or reaction forces about any node. and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. RROD. Activate the Show Model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode while highlighting the currently selected element set. 3. or output to. cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. 4. and Reaction Loads Only. Rigidlink. To specify output options: 1. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point force and moment result vectors are transformed and output. Use the Element Set selector to define the elements that make up the free body and contain the nodes at which GPFORCE data will be extracted.

0e-6. This option helps to prevent relatively small values from being output to the result formats.2. and component Fx.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. All calculations are performed with floating point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. However. If an existing file is selected. The table contains information about the sub-cases. This load collector is named “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” and can be referenced in the sub-case panel as the LOAD entry for the various sub-case definitions. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. This allows FBD information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. Use the Create .csv file option to create a . Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets. element set(s). and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. To output the results to a popup window for instant review. it will be appended to the end of the file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Use the Zero Tolerance entry field to define the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. 3. For example FBDF_E(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current element set. In addition a load collector with the Nastran/OptiStruct LOAD card is also created. Use the Create Load Collectors option to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for visualization in the model window. The FBD Results Manager tool can be used to review the load collectors generated from FBD Forces utility. When you save the HyperMesh database. selecting yes will not overwrite the file—it will append/replace the data as described above. You may select a new file or an existing file. A sample window with partial output is shown below. but in a comma-separated file. Altair Engineering • 380 HyperMesh 8. sub-case IDs). 5. activate the Show summary table option. To maintain floating-point precision the default is set to 1. • The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. and there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. referencing the component force and moment load collectors. The load collector name format is “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. If it does not exist. it is appended to. all FBD Forces load collectors are saved to the database. sub-case 1. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. modify the value as desired. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. therefore it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which FBD result must be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh 4.

If this node is deleted from the model. starting from the selected nodes and progressing along the length of the selected elements. Use the Node Set selector to define the nodes in each currently selected element set at which grid point data will be extracted and summed from. the utility defaults to “Centroid”. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. displays the element set. a temporary node is created. node set. summation node. Use the Element Set selector to specify the elements containing the nodes that define the crosssection.FBD Cross-section manager The FBD Cross-section Manager (CSM) utility creates and manages cross-section definitions that are used within the Resultant Force & Moment utility. If multiple element sets are selected. result system and summation node which define the cross-section in the graphics display area. If multiple node sets are selected for a single element set. The Display sections checkbox is a graphical review option that. 5. The FBD Cross-section Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. 2. Location: Results menu. and a local result coordinate system. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the grid point data will be summed. node set. Use the Set Manager tool on the Tools menu to create the necessary node sets. To define a cross-section manually: 1. The mesh shouldn’t have any discontinuities (holes. 3. Tab Area (for the tool itself) This utility contains tools for defining cross-sections. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. each set is added to the table as a separate cross-section definition which can be modified later by selection.0 User’s Guide 381 . Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the grid point extraction. when checked. The Advanced options section provides the means to semi-automatically create cross-section element and node sets for beam-like structures with regular meshes. HyperMesh adds separate crosssection definitions to the table with the original element set and each selected node set. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point vector results will be transformed and output. It also features semi-automatic generation of element and node sets for defining cross-sections. 4. which are defined by an element set. If no node is selected. The FBD Cross-section Manager interface has two creation methods available for cross-section definition: manual and (semi-) automatic. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). This auto-create cross-section capability requires a continuous mesh with rows of nodes (of any orientation) to work properly. When using the “Centroid” option. the loads associated with that node are also deleted. etc…) and must have identifiable rows of nodes. This option calculates the nodal averaged centroid of the coordinates of all of the nodes in the node set and creates a temporary node at that location. If a results system is not specified. gaps. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

This allows you to verify a cross-section definition. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the crosssection names and the associated sets. which utilizes the cross-section definitions to perform these calculations. If checked. you type in “NSET” each element set will be named NSET [#]. For example. first cross-section). Therefore. the cross-section data is saved to the HyperMesh database. Comments Each time a cross-section is created. Cross-Sections can then be accessed from within the Resultant Force and Moment utility. Type a prefix for the name of each generated element set into the Element set prefix field. For example. Selected crosssections can also be deleted from the database by using the Remove selection button on the right end of the filter buttons. 6. Optional: use the filter buttons on the top of the spreadsheet to select which cross-sections are required. cross-section definitions only need to be defined once and stored in the HyperMesh database. 5. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox. Type a Numbering offset into the text box. This displays the entire model in transparency mode. modified. each element set will contain the elements from the previous set.e. highlighting the currently selected element set. 2. Standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality can be used to select cross-sections. or only the new “row” of elements. node set. 7. it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which cross-sections are to be retained within HyperMesh database. where “#” increases with each new set generated. highlighting the currently selected elements and nodes. These nodes should be at one end of the beam. the generated set names are numbered starting from that value. Use the Nodes selector to pick nodes for the first node set (i. Therefore. This is the offset value for generated set names. where “#” increases with each new set generated. When the HyperMesh database is saved.6. or deleted. result system and summation node. Optional: activate the sets accumulate option This determines whether each progressive set also contains the elements from the previous set. the offset value is zero and HyperMesh generates numbered set names starting with one. 382 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To define a cross-section automatically: 1. 7. 3. you type in “ESET” each element set will be named ESET [#]. Type a prefix for the name of each generated node set into the Node set prefix field. By default. Use the Elements selector to choose the elements that define the entire “beam-like” component from which cross-sections will be generated. 4. all cross-section definitions are also saved. If the offset value is set to a value greater than zero.

op2 file into the database. If no SUBTITLE exists.op2 file and helps speed up the Resultant Force and Moment extractions. Multiple sub-cases can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards.op2 file is required. To select a results file: Use the . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards.op2 file containing the desired GPFORCE output for the current model. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID)”.op2 file. The subcase list can be organized by ID or Name (ID). Additionally. The sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. The Resultant Force and Moment utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. for Nastran and OptiStruct. The tool supports .op2 file field to specify the full path and filename of the . Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). When an . consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. This procedure reduces the size of the . you must load the new . The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files.op2 files containing grid point force data from OptiStruct and Nastran. To select a sub-case: Select the desired sub-case(s) from the list in the sub-case section. or if the original . overwriting the previously selected. The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUBCASE #”. sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. a text summary table within HyperMesh. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. only the LABEL is used. Two utilities available within HyperGraph also interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility.FBD Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment (RF&M) utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data for user defined cross-sections created via the Cross-section Manager. Location: Results menu. and/or a formatted .0 User’s Guide 383 . Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The resultant force and moment utility generates input data for shear and moment (VMT) diagrams and/or to perform load-case screening with Potato plots in HyperView.op2 file changes.op2 file display for selection only. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. If a new .op2 file is selected. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review.

The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. Cross-sections are created using the Cross-section Manager. Activate the Create Load Collectors checkbox to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window. Use the Coordinate System selector to determine the coordinate system used to output the nodal coordinates (x.y. and component Fx. If a coordinate system is not specified. results coming from or output to cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes.z) in the summary table. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. each made up of an element set and node set. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. Resultant force and moment vector results are always output in the result coordinate system defined for each cross-section. otherwise modify the value as desired. The load collector name format is “RF&M_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. . RBE3. 2. This can occur when modifying nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis. operation sets the CD field on the GRID cards). Result coordinate systems for cross-sections are defined using the Cross-section Manager. and . 3. Multiple cross-sections can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . RBAR.csv file.0e-6. The Cross-sections section lets you specify the cross-sections from which you wish to calculate resultant force and moment results for each selected sub-case. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. Rigidlink. Use the Zero Tolerance field to specify the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. node set 1. For example RF&M_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. To specify output options: The Output Options section contains various options to review and display the results of Resultant Force and Moment extractions. sub-case 1.fbd file output options. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this . The Resultant Force and Moment utility extracts grid point force and moment results from the .To select a cross-section: Pick the desired cross-sections from the list in the cross-sections area of the tab.op2 file. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current cross-section. 384 HyperMesh 8. RJOINT. RROD. the extracted values will be incorrect. The option helps to eliminate relatively small values from being output. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. 1. In addition.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. (On the assign sub-panel.

sub-case IDs).csv file option to create a . 4. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. If an existing file is selected. If it does not exist. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. it will append/replace the data into the file as described above. Comments When saving over existing . This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager. selecting ‘yes’ will not overwrite the file.The “Color” option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. it is appended to. it is appended to. Activate the Show summary table option to output the results to a popup window for instant review. However.csv file containing the same information as the summary table. You may select a new file or an existing file. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. You can also use the FBD Results Manager to review the load collectors generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. all resultant force and moment load collectors are saved in the database.0 User’s Guide 385 . but in a comma separated file. Two utilities available within HyperGraph interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility: Shear and Moment Diagrams (VMT Plots) and Potato Plot. 6. When the HyperMesh database is saved.fbd file. The table contains information about the sub-cases and cross-sections. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. You may select a new file or an existing file.csv or . 5. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets and therefore it is important to not renumber any element or node sets for which resultant force and moment result are to be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh. If an existing file is selected. Activate the Create . Activate the Create . These utilities are accessed from the Free Body Diagrams item within the HyperGraph Utilities menu.fbd file option to create a file that can be read into HyperGraph using the “Shear and Moment Plot” and “Potato Plot” utilities. This allows resultant force and moment information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. it will be appended to the end of the file.

You must choose an existing element set for which you wish to the review the FBD. If multiple sub-cases are selected. Fy. This selector lists all of the node sets associated with the currently selected element set and sub-cases. These checkboxes are disabled for the FBD Displacements Result type. Select one or more Element sets. and Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. Valid types include FBD Displacements. For FBD Displacements and Resultant Force and Moment Result types. Displacement. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Results Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. Displacement. The Load handles option determines whether to display the load handles. FBD Forces (Applied Loads). or Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. To review and manage FBD load collectors: 1.FBD Results Manager Use the FBD Results Manager to graphically review and manage the load collectors generated from all FBD and Resultant Force and Moment utilities.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the Results selection interface is modified to include a Node sets selector. • • 386 HyperMesh 8. FBD Forces (All Loads). when checked. Multiple subcases can be selected using standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality. 3. Select the desired Sub-cases by clicking on them. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Pick the desired Results type. and Resultant Force and Moment. Specify any desired Display options: The Display options section allows you to decide which force and moment components display in the graphics area for the current selection. Selecting an FBD result type scans the HyperMesh database and updates the Subcases list with available sub-cases for the currently selected element set and result type. FBD Forces (Reaction Loads). The Label loads option determines whether to display the load labels (vector magnitude values as text next to the vector). 2. The Entity selection section allows you to select the element set for which to review FBD. Fz…checkboxes determine which component/resultant vectors display when you click the Accept button. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element set. • The Fx. The Results selection section lets you select the FBD result type to review. only the node sets that are common to all of them will be listed. Grayed-out checkboxes indicate force and moment components or results that can’t display for the currently selected element set/sub-case/node sets. 4. Location: Results menu. The optional Show model checkbox.

Note that these values do not affect the vector magnitude—only their screen size. The Reset button clears the graphics area of all result vectors and resets all of the FBD Results Manager entry fields. The Update load collector color option will recolor the load collectors associated with the current selection to the color selected in the Color option. each of which requires a numeric value. Click one of the command buttons at the bottom of the tab: The Accept button displays the selected result vectors on in the graphics area. Click the Color box to pick a different color. Magnitude % or Uniform size. A popup warning tells you what will be deleted and requires you to confirm the deletion.• The Vector size option allows you to control the display size of the result vectors. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Two options are available. • 5. if desired. The Delete button deletes the load collectors associated with the current selection.0 User’s Guide 387 . removing it from the tab area without displaying any results in the graphics area. The Close button closes the FBD Results Manager.

Displacement. 3. a SUBCASE will be created with LOAD = assigned to the “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” load collector which references the LOAD card pointing to each component “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)” load collector for the selected sub-case. In addition. 388 HyperMesh 8. and/or Resultant Force and Moment load collectors generated by other FBD utilities. Displacement. 5. For FBD Displacements. or type in a name for a new one. If the SPCD option was enabled when creating the FBD Displacement loads. To export FBD. After export. If FBD Force and FBD Displacement load collectors from the same sub-case are selected for export. Specify Export options:.op2 file. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Export Manager is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. This populates the list of subcases. the exported data can be used for breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. 4. a LOAD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collectors will be assigned to it. If multiple node sets are selected for export the following will occur: An SPCADD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collectors will be assigned to it. Click the one(s) that you wish to export to highlight them. 2. Location: Results menu. Click add to export to add the highlighted results to the export batch. • • If the SPCD option was enabled when creating FBD Displacement loads. If you choose FBD Displacements or Resultant Force and Moment as the result type. an additional list of node sets displays.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . a SUBCASE will be created with SPC = assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collector for the selected sub-case.FBD Export Manager The FBD Export Manager exports FBD. click the Create appropriate subcases checkbox and then click the open-folder button in the Output file text box. LOAD = will also be assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collector for the selected sub-case. Select the desired node sets in the same fashion as the subcases. If you wish to create sub-cases upon export. Optional: activate the show model checkbox to display the entire model in transparency mode. Use the Element set selector to specify the set for which you wish to export data. HyperMesh prompts you to select one or the other from which to create the sub-case. the Results type affects how HyperMesh creates sub-cases: For FBD Forces – All Loads. The LOAD = will reference the newly created LOAD load collector. or Resultant Force & Moment collectors: 1. use <ctrl>-click or <shift>-click to select multiple results. Choose the results type that you wish to export from the list box. This option will also create SUBTITLE and LABEL cards if they are available from the sub-case information within the currently selected . highlighting the currently selected element set for review. The SPC = will reference the newly created SPCADD load collector. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). This opens a standard file browser window that you can use to browse to the desired destination directory and either select an existing file.

6. Exports the model with the “displayed” option. meaning that clicking it: • • • • • Turns off the display of all currently displayed elements. and/or Resultant Force and Moment loads are displayed. Displacement. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click the appropriate command button at the bottom of the tab: Export executes the export process. removing it from the tab area. Creates temporary mass elements on the nodes where the selected FBD. and Removes unnecessary header information from the output file. Deletes the temporary mass elements from the current model. Reset clears all of the export criteria so that you can start over. Close closes the tab.0 User’s Guide 389 .

output from OptiStruct and Nastran with the GPFORCE io options command.FBD Grid Point Force Balance The Grid Point Force Balance table. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). including: • • • • • Applied forces and moments SPC forces and moments MPC forces and moments Element forces and moments from elements attached to the node Total summed values for each node. Location: Results menu. is the data around which all FBD-Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utility calculations are performed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding GPFORCE io option cards. a fixed support on the left end. 390 HyperMesh 8. The complete GPFORCE table for the above cantilever beam model is presented below. which in turn must sum to zero for the complete GPFORCE table. and a point load on the right end. Note that for any given node within the GPFORCE table. This model cons ists of two elements. several types of entries are possible depending on the forces acting at that node. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Shown below is a sample model which will be used to demonstrate the grid point force calculations that HyperMesh FBD utilities perform.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 391 .

2. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. Total FBD Value at Node 1 = 2. 3 and 4.Process The FBD Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utilities use element and node set definitions to define what information to extract and sum from the GPFORCE table. SPC loads: Fx component exists (-2. 4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if any element contribution is not from one of the defined elements within the element set. applied loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. SPC loads: Fx component exists (2. Total FBD Value at Node 2 = -2. 3. Applied loads: Zero ii. for any given node.121e+03) and is extracted iii. Node 1 i. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. For FBD type Reaction loads only. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. Fx calculation. For FBD types Applied loads only. if all element contributions are from elements from within the defined element set. Node 2 i. v. then the node is an “interface” node and element contributions from the elements not a part of the element set are extracted and utilized in FBD calculations.121e+03 392 HyperMesh 8. MPC loads: Zero iv. Therefore. MPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. for any given node. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations.121e+03 b. all nodes connected to the elements in the element set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. • • 2. FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility uses an element set to define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. v. MPC loads: Zero iv. Furthermore. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 2 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not condered. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set will be extracted and utilized in the FBD calculations. This information is then used to produce free bodies and/or resultant force and moments. The following example of FBD-Forces extraction uses an element set defined with only element: The element set contains only element 1.121e+03) and is extracted iii. For FBD types All loads and Applied loads only. Applied loads: Zero ii. SPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. For FBD types 2 Applied loads only. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 1 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not considered. Element 1 has nodes 1. looping through all the nodes attached to elements in the element set: a. then the node is an “internal” node and element contributions are not extracted or utilized in FBD calculations. For all nodes connected to elements in the element set. The element set serves several purposes: 1.

Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1.085e+03 e. Notice that the sum of all components is zero about any point in the model. iii. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. Mz calculations follow similar procedures. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Mx. iv. This verifies that the FBD-Forces extraction is indeed a “free body”. Fx component satisfies free body requirements) Fy. The sum of the forces components (Fx. My. ii. Fy. iii. iv. Fz) for each node.085e+03) Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. My. The final FBD-Forces results are presented in the summary table output from the FBD-Forces utility.0 (ie.085e+03 Sum all nodes in Fx = 0.c.085e+03) v. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. ii. Note that the sum of the moment components (Mx. illustrated in the screenshot below. v. is the simple sum. Fz.0 User’s Guide 393 . • Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. d. Node 3 i. Mz) is not the direct sum of all nodes as the (rXF) terms for the force resultant vector about the sum point must also be added to each moment component appropriately. Node 4 i. however.

The cross-section definition serves several purposes: 1.Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment utility uses an element set and a node set (cross-section definition) define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. 5. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. a node set defined with nodes 3 and 4. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. MPC loads:Zero iv. • 394 HyperMesh 8. All nodes in the node set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. summation node set to node 3. All nodes in the node set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force 2 and Moment calculations .085e+03) x. For all nodes in the node set. The node set contains nodes 3 and 4. 2. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. SPC loads: Zero viii. 4. Applied loads: Zero ii. All nodes in the node set must be attached to one or more elements in the element set. 3. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set of the cross-section definition will be extracted and utilized in the Resultant Force and Moment calculations. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3.0 Fy calculation. All nodes in the node set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. SPC loads: Zero iii. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. The following example of Resultant Force and Moment extraction uses a cross-section definition given by an element set defined with only element 1. All values are zero in this model.085e+03) v. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Sum nodes in node set in Fx = 0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Applied loads: Zero vii. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4.085e+03 c. Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. Node 4 vi. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. Fx calculation. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system: • • • The element set contains only element 1. MPC loads:Zero ix. Node 3 i.085e+03 b.

MPC loads:Zero xxix. Node 3: no additional rXF contributions since it is the sum point xxxii.808e+02 d. Total rXF Value summed at Node 3 = -1.024e+00) xxx. My calculation.166) the following is obtained: xxxi. MPC loads:Zero xix. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (6. looking through all the nodes in the node set: a. Node 3 xi.574e+02) xx.574e+02 c. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. MPC loads:Zero xiv. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = -1.000e+03 (The value of the applied shear) Mx calculation. Node 4 xxvi. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.000e+02. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. Node 4 xvi. Total My Value at Node 3 = -8. Node 3 xxi.• Fz calculation looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Calculate the cross-product of all the forces about the Y-axis at node 3. Total Fz Value at Node 3 = 6. SPC loads: Zero xviii. Sum nodes in node set and all rXF terms in My = -2.426e+02 b. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Sum nodes in node set in Fz = 1.871e+00) xxv.808e+02 xxxiii. All values are zero in this model.574e+02) = -1.426e+02) xv. Node 4: rXF for My component equates to the following equation (rz*Fx) + (rx*Fz) = (-0.0*3. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (3. Applied loads: Zero xii. Applied loads: Zero xxii.166*1. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4.024e+00 c. Applied loads: Zero xxvii. SPC loads: Zero xxiii. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.085e+03) + (0. SPC loads: Zero xxviii. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = 3. SPC loads: Zero xiii. Applied loads: Zero xvii. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-8.0 User’s Guide 395 . Since only element 2 is not in the element set.871e+00 b. MPC loads:Zero xxiv. Selecting node 3 as the summation node (any node in the model can be selected) and performing rXF (all element edge lengths are 0. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-1. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

for Nastran and OptiStruct. All values are zero in this model. for a cross-section defined with element 1 (element set). Additionally. looping through all the nodes in the node set a. The final Resultant Force and Moment results are presented in the graphic below. MPC forces and moments are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: o RBE2 o RBE3 o Rigidlink o RJOINT o RROD o RBAR The GPFORCE and Displacement results are extracted of the . nodes 3 and 4 (node set). FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility uses an element set and a node set to define the values to extract from the Displacement table. This maintains the integrity of the calculations as well as enhances the performance of the utilities. 2. Additional Information: • Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. summation node set to node 3.op2 file in float point precision in binary format. The element set is for visualization and breakout modeling purposes only. • • 396 HyperMesh 8. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. All nodes in the node set will have displacement and rotation values extracted. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This procedure reduces the size of the . The element and node sets serve several purposes: 1.op2 file. which is the summary table output from the Resultant Force and Moment utility.• Mz calculation.

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