P. 1
HyperMesh 8 0 User s Guide

HyperMesh 8 0 User s Guide

|Views: 441|Likes:
Publicado porsachin_sawant1985

More info:

Published by: sachin_sawant1985 on Apr 27, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/26/2011

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • Hardware and Operating Systems
  • Starting HyperMesh
  • Starting HyperMesh Batch Version
  • Start-up Options
  • Configuring HyperMesh
  • Configuration File Commands
  • Start-up Files
  • Specifying a Temporary File Directory
  • HyperMesh Database Design
  • Database Names
  • Using and Saving a Database
  • Nodes
  • Fixed Points
  • Free Points
  • Collectors
  • Elements
  • Lines
  • Surfaces and Faces
  • Systems
  • Loads
  • Cards
  • Vectors
  • Title
  • HyperMesh Environment
  • Pull-Down menus
  • Graphics Area
  • Toolbar Area
  • Header Bar
  • Main Menu Area
  • Page Menu
  • Tab Area
  • Model Browser
  • Include Browser
  • Modules
  • Loadsteps Browser
  • Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles
  • Panels
  • Sub-panels
  • Input Controls
  • File Browser
  • The Mouse
  • Rapid Menu
  • Keyboard
  • Secondary Menu
  • Utility Menu
  • BOM comparison tool
  • Quick TetraMesh
  • User Profiles
  • HyperMesh User Profile
  • Using HyperMesh
  • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database
  • Picking Entities on the Screen
  • Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements
  • Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu
  • Viewing Models
  • Using the disp (display) Panel
  • Setting View Options
  • Setting Tolerances
  • Setting Global Parameters
  • Importing and Exporting Data
  • Printing Screen Images
  • Using the Card Previewer
  • General Process for Building Models
  • Creating Collectors
  • Reading Geometry
  • Creating Geometry Data
  • Temporary Nodes
  • Picking Surfaces
  • Editing Surfaces
  • Associativity
  • Geometry Cleanup
  • Building Elements
  • Checking Model Quality
  • Applying Loads
  • Creating Systems
  • Automatic Mesh Generation
  • Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel
  • Mesh Generation Algorithms
  • Smoothing Algorithms
  • Element Biasing
  • Linked or Locked Edges
  • Connector Entity
  • Connector Terminology
  • Connector Definition
  • Connector Realization
  • Connector Review
  • Connectors User Control Mode
  • Master Connectors File
  • Multiple Weld File Format
  • Import Templates
  • FE Configuration File
  • FE Definition Examples
  • HyperMorph Strategies
  • The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing
  • Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains
  • Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • HyperBeam Module
  • Example of the Three-Step Process
  • Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam
  • HyperBeam Environment
  • Section Browser
  • Shell Section Graphics Pane
  • Results/Spreadsheet Pane
  • HyperBeam Menu Bar
  • HyperBeam Toolbar
  • Beam Cross Section Property Solver
  • Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements
  • Defining a Cross Section
  • Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties
  • Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver
  • Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers
  • HyperLaminate Module
  • HyperLaminate Environment
  • HyperLaminate Menus
  • HyperLaminate Toolbar
  • Laminate Browser
  • Define/Edit Pane
  • Review Pane
  • Finite Difference Module
  • Creating a Finite Difference Block
  • Creating a Structured Mesh
  • Loads on Geometry
  • Terminology and Definitions
  • Application of Loads to Geometry
  • Exporting Loads
  • Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh
  • Distributed Load Mapper
  • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results
  • Select a data type and a mapping method
  • Set the scale factor
  • Set the mapping algorithm
  • Mathematical Loading
  • Post-Processing Analysis
  • HyperMesh Results Database
  • Specifying the Results File
  • Creating Deformed Geometry Plots
  • Creating Animations
  • Creating Vector Plots
  • Creating Contour Plots
  • Creating Assigned Plots
  • Adding Plot Identification
  • Inspecting the Results
  • XY Plotting
  • XY Plots Module
  • Creating an XY Plot
  • Modifying an XY Plot
  • Working with Multiple XY Plots
  • Modifying Multiple XY Plots
  • Creating Curves on XY Plots
  • Modifying Curve Attributes
  • Displaying Selected Curves on Plots
  • Using the Curve Editor
  • AutoDV Introduction
  • Generation of Perturbation Vectors
  • Manual Perturbation
  • Polynomial Perturbation Vectors
  • Primary Domain Model
  • Primary Domain Node Sets
  • Control Perturbations
  • Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets
  • Harmonic Perturbation Vectors
  • Generation of Variable Loads
  • Running AutoDV Stand-alone
  • Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
  • To create an H3D file from HyperMesh:
  • H3D FAQ's
  • Free Body Diagrams
  • FBD Set Manager
  • FBD Displacements
  • FBD Forces
  • FBD Cross-section manager
  • FBD Resultant Force and Moment
  • FBD Results Manager
  • FBD Export Manager
  • FBD Grid Point Force Balance

HyperMesh 8.

0 User's Guide

HyperWorks

Altair Engineering Contact Information
Web site FTP site www.altair.com Address: ftp.altair.com or ftp2.altair.com or http://ftp.altair.com/ftp Login: ftp Password: <your e-mail address>

Location
North America China France Germany India

Telephone
248.614.2425 86.21.5393.0011 33.1.4133.0990 49.7031.6208.22 91.80.6629.4500 1.800.425.0234 (toll free) 39.800.905.595 81.3.5396.1341 81.3.5396.2881 82.31.716.4321 46.46.286.2052 44.1926.468.600 55.11.4223.5733 64.9.413.7981 64.9.413.7981

e-mail
hwsupport@altair.com support@altair.com.cn francesupport@altair.com hwsupport@altair.de support@india.altair.com

Italy Japan Korea Scandinavia United Kingdom Brazil Australia New Zealand

support@altairtorino.it support@altairjp.co.jp support@altair.co.kr support@altair.se support@uk.altair.com br_support@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com

The following countries have distributors for Altair Engineering: Mexico, Romania, Russia, South Korea, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan and Turkey. See www.altair.com for complete contact information. © 2007 Altair Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated to another language without the written permission of Altair Engineering, Inc. To obtain this permission, write to the attention Altair Engineering legal department at: 1820 E. Big Beaver, Troy, Michigan, USA, or call +1-248-614-2400.

Trademark and Registered Trademark Acknowledgments
Listed below are Altair HyperWorks applications. Copyright Altair Engineering Inc., All Rights Reserved for: HyperMesh 1990-2006; HyperView 1999-2006; OptiStruct 1996-2006; HyperStudy 1999-2006; ® ® ® HyperGraph 1995-2006; HyperGraph 3D 2005-2006; MotionView 1993-2006; MotionSolve 2002-2006; ® ® ® ® HyperForm 1998-2006; HyperXtrude 1999-2006; HyperOpt 1996-2006; HyperView Player 2001-2006; ® Process Manager™ 2003-2006; HyperWeb 2002-2004; Data Manager™ 2005-2006; Templex™ 19902006; Manufacturing Solutions ™ 2005-2006 All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
® ® ® ® ® ® ©

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Starting and Configuring HyperMesh
Hardware and Operating Systems ......................................................................................1 Starting HyperMesh .............................................................................................................2 Starting HyperMesh Batch Version .....................................................................................5 Start-up Options ...................................................................................................................6 Configuring HyperMesh.......................................................................................................7 Configuration File Commands .............................................................................................9 Start-up Files ......................................................................................................................21 Specifying a Temporary File Directory ..............................................................................21

HyperMesh Database and Environment
HyperMesh Database Design............................................................................................22 Database Names ...............................................................................................................22 Using and Saving a Database...........................................................................................22 Nodes .................................................................................................................................22 Fixed Points .......................................................................................................................22 Free Points .........................................................................................................................22 Collectors ...........................................................................................................................23 Elements ............................................................................................................................27 Lines ...................................................................................................................................30 Surfaces and Faces...........................................................................................................32 Systems..............................................................................................................................33 Loads..................................................................................................................................33 Cards..................................................................................................................................33 Vectors ...............................................................................................................................33 Title.....................................................................................................................................34 HyperMesh Environment ...................................................................................................35 Pull-Down menus...............................................................................................................37 Graphics Area ....................................................................................................................39 Toolbar Area ......................................................................................................................40 Header Bar .........................................................................................................................44 Main Menu Area.................................................................................................................46 Page Menu .........................................................................................................................46
Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide i

Tab Area.............................................................................................................................47 Model Browser ...................................................................................................................48 Include Browser .................................................................................................................57 Modules ..............................................................................................................................63 Loadsteps Browser............................................................................................................64 Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles ............................................................65 Panels ................................................................................................................................69 Sub-panels .........................................................................................................................70 Input Controls.....................................................................................................................71 File Browser .......................................................................................................................77 The Mouse .........................................................................................................................79 Rapid Menu ........................................................................................................................81 Keyboard ............................................................................................................................82 Secondary Menu ................................................................................................................86 Utility Menu ........................................................................................................................87 BOM comparison tool ........................................................................................................95 Quick TetraMesh..............................................................................................................112

User Profiles
User Profiles.....................................................................................................................127 HyperMesh User Profile...................................................................................................128

Using HyperMesh
Using HyperMesh ............................................................................................................128 Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database ..............................................................129 Picking Entities on the Screen .........................................................................................130 Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements .......................................................................132 Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu .....................................................................133 Viewing Models ................................................................................................................137 Using the disp (display) Panel .........................................................................................140 Setting View Options........................................................................................................142 Setting Tolerances ...........................................................................................................145 Setting Global Parameters...............................................................................................145 Importing and Exporting Data ..........................................................................................146 Printing Screen Images ...................................................................................................148 Using the Card Previewer................................................................................................150
ii HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Building Models
General Process for Building Models ..............................................................................151 Creating Collectors ..........................................................................................................152 Reading Geometry...........................................................................................................153 Creating Geometry Data ..................................................................................................154 Temporary Nodes ............................................................................................................158 Picking Surfaces ..............................................................................................................158 Editing Surfaces ...............................................................................................................159 Associativity .....................................................................................................................161 Geometry Cleanup ...........................................................................................................162 Building Elements ............................................................................................................164 Checking Model Quality ...................................................................................................167 Applying Loads.................................................................................................................168 Creating Systems.............................................................................................................169

Automatic 2-D Mesh Generation
Automatic Mesh Generation ............................................................................................170 Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel.......................................................................172 Mesh Generation Algorithms ...........................................................................................173 Smoothing Algorithms......................................................................................................175 Element Biasing ...............................................................................................................176 Linked or Locked Edges ..................................................................................................179

Connectors
Connector Entity...............................................................................................................180 Connector Terminology ...................................................................................................181 Connector Definition ........................................................................................................185 Connector Realization......................................................................................................187 Connector Review............................................................................................................188 Connectors User Control Mode .......................................................................................188 Master Connectors File....................................................................................................189 Multiple Weld File Format ................................................................................................190 Import Templates .............................................................................................................191 FE Configuration File .......................................................................................................193 FE Definition Examples ...................................................................................................197

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide iii

HyperMorph and Morphing Strategies
HyperMorph Strategies ....................................................................................................199 The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing......................................................................201 Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains ..................................................220 Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................237 Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................263

Calculating Beam Properties
HyperBeam Module .........................................................................................................272 Example of the Three-Step Process................................................................................274 Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam ..............................................279 HyperBeam Environment.................................................................................................282 Section Browser...............................................................................................................283 Shell Section Graphics Pane...........................................................................................284 Results/Spreadsheet Pane..............................................................................................285 HyperBeam Menu Bar .....................................................................................................287 HyperBeam Toolbar .........................................................................................................294 Beam Cross Section Property Solver ..............................................................................296 Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements..................................................297 Defining a Cross Section .................................................................................................298 Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties .................300 Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver .........................................................................301 Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers ................................................................303

HyperLaminate and Composites
HyperLaminate Module....................................................................................................304 HyperLaminate Environment ...........................................................................................305 HyperLaminate Menus .....................................................................................................306 HyperLaminate Toolbar ...................................................................................................308 Laminate Browser............................................................................................................309 Define/Edit Pane ..............................................................................................................313 Review Pane ....................................................................................................................323

iv HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Finite Difference Module
Finite Difference Module ..................................................................................................324 Creating a Finite Difference Block...................................................................................324 Creating a Structured Mesh.............................................................................................325

Boundary Conditions
Loads on Geometry .........................................................................................................327 Terminology and Definitions ............................................................................................328 Application of Loads to Geometry ...................................................................................329 Exporting Loads ...............................................................................................................330 Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh ..............................................330 Distributed Load Mapper .................................................................................................331 Load an input file containing CFD analysis results .........................................................333 Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, or ANSYS input file format) ...............................................................................................................334 Select a data type and a mapping method......................................................................334 Set the scale factor ..........................................................................................................334 Set the mapping algorithm ...............................................................................................335 Mathematical Loading......................................................................................................336

Post-Processing and XY Plots
Post-Processing Analysis ................................................................................................338 HyperMesh Results Database.........................................................................................338 Specifying the Results File ..............................................................................................339 Creating Deformed Geometry Plots ................................................................................339 Creating Animations.........................................................................................................339 Creating Vector Plots .......................................................................................................340 Creating Contour Plots.....................................................................................................340 Creating Assigned Plots ..................................................................................................340 Adding Plot Identification .................................................................................................341 Inspecting the Results......................................................................................................341 XY Plotting .......................................................................................................................342 XY Plots Module...............................................................................................................343 Creating an XY Plot .........................................................................................................344 Modifying an XY Plot........................................................................................................344 Working with Multiple XY Plots ........................................................................................344
Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide v

Modifying Multiple XY Plots .............................................................................................344 Creating Curves on XY Plots ...........................................................................................345 Modifying Curve Attributes...............................................................................................347 Displaying Selected Curves on Plots ..............................................................................347 Using the Curve Editor.....................................................................................................348

AutoDV
AutoDV Introduction .........................................................................................................351 Generation of Perturbation Vectors.................................................................................352 Manual Perturbation.........................................................................................................352 Polynomial Perturbation Vectors .....................................................................................353 Primary Domain Model ....................................................................................................353 Primary Domain Node Sets .............................................................................................354 Control Perturbations .......................................................................................................355 Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets ....................................................................357 Harmonic Perturbation Vectors .......................................................................................359 Generation of Variable Loads ..........................................................................................361 Running AutoDV Stand-alone .........................................................................................363

H3D Writer
Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh ...........................................................................365 H3D FAQ's .......................................................................................................................369

Free Body Diagrams
Free Body Diagrams........................................................................................................370 FBD Set Manager ............................................................................................................371 FBD Displacements .........................................................................................................375 FBD Forces ......................................................................................................................378 FBD Cross-section manager ...........................................................................................381 FBD Resultant Force and Moment ..................................................................................383 FBD Results Manager......................................................................................................386 FBD Export Manager .......................................................................................................388 FBD Grid Point Force Balance ........................................................................................390

vi HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

a small portion of source code that controls the graphically oriented operations. HP-PARISC (HPUX) running 11.3. 5. LINUX running RH 7.1. or information concerning future platforms. IBM running AIX 4. needs to be "ported" to each hardware platform on which HyperMesh runs. However.11. Silicon Graphics family of workstations running IRIX 6.13 m. HP-ITANIUM (HPUX_IA32) running 11. which prevents HyperMesh from redrawing immediately when a destructive windowing operation is performed.5.0 or 11. Notes for PC Users If you are running Windows NT (depending on model size or processor speed) you may wish to turn the full drag option off.8. Most of the HyperMesh source code is independent and can be compiled on various systems.3. All UNIX ports are built around OpenGL.23. SUN workstations running Solaris 2. Some platforms may have limitations or extensions. such as drawing a line on the screen. or 5. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 1 .Hardware and Operating Systems HyperMesh is not tied to a specific set of computer hardware or operating system and presents the same appearance on all platforms. This option is found in the Desktop icon in the Control Panel group. please contact your HyperMesh sales representative.5.2.0.0.3 or RH 8.11 m and IRIX 6. For more specific information concerning your hardware/software configuration. The following hardware platforms are currently supported: • • • • • • • Pentium-based PC or compatible running Windows WIN NT 4. depending on their level of sophistication. HyperMesh has an identical appearance and behavior on all platforms. WIN 2000/XP. In general.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. see Start-up Files.cshrc file: alias hm ‘/homes/applications/hm8. Windows 2000. Note: For more information about creating and using start-up files. For example. enter hm at the command prompt to invoke HyperMesh. 2.cshrc file in the user home directory. see Configuring HyperMesh. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh.0/altair/script/hm’ Once an alias is created. For more information about the hm. add the following line in the .alias or .alias or . hm. At the operating system prompt. Starting HyperMesh in UNIX This section contains the instructions and optional arguments for starting HyperMesh on a UNIX workstation..Starting HyperMesh This section explains how to start HyperMesh on UNIX.g.cfg configuration file. enter the full path of the HyperMesh script (e.cfg. and Windows XP platforms. You can create a start-up file or alter the HyperMesh configuration file. 2 HyperMesh 8. to have HyperMesh start and run according to the standards and preferences of your particular work site. <altair_home>/altair/scripts/hm) and press the ENTER key. To start HyperMesh: 1. Or Create an alias for HyperMesh in the user .

The default working directory specified by the HyperMesh icon is the Windows default My Documents directory. Choose the desired user profile and then click OK. a window opens prompting you to choose a user profile. Uncheck always show at startup to prevent this window from opening each time you load HyperMesh. By default. or Click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. To start HyperMesh: 1. 3.0 User’s Guide 3 . an Altair HyperWorks group is created in Programs on the Start menu. The user profiles window is also accessible from the view pull-down menu. 2. Since HyperMesh creates user files. HyperMesh starts and the main menu is displayed on the screen. you may wish to change this directory. To exit HyperMesh. 5. click quit.Starting HyperMesh on PC During installation. 4. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. The quit button is located on the upper right-hand corner of the panel area on any of the main menu pages. click Start and choose Programs. From the Altair HyperWorks group: select HyperMesh. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. From the Start menu. User profiles affect the HyperMesh layout as well as features such as element quality checks.

cmf and hmmenu. Select the Shortcut tab. The path to the HyperMesh executable displays after Target:. 3. command. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. Select Properties. To change/use startup options: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 4. 2. Select the Shortcut tab. enter the name and path of the directory in which you want to run HyperMesh. are created in this directory. Append the startup options to the path listed in Target:. Your user files. if you do not want HyperMesh to write a command file. 4. 2. 3.set. 4 HyperMesh 8. After Start in:. Select Properties. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. enter -nocommand after the HyperMesh path. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. 5. Click Apply.To change the working directory: 1. For example.

Append the option. Select the programs tab. the path to the hmbatch executable is displayed. to this path.Starting HyperMesh Batch Version HyperMesh batch version (hmbatch) allows you to invoke HyperMesh in batch mode at the command line and run a command file.cmf and press ENTER. Locate and right-click on the hmbatch(. type hmbatch –ccommand. Select Properties.g. fit.com) executable file in the /hm/bin directory. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh. 3. 4.) are ignored. At the operating system prompt. create. 6. Right -click on the hmbatch icon on the desktop. To start HyperMesh batch version on UNIX: 1. etc. Click Apply. 2. Since this batch version does not have graphical display. command. 5.0 User’s Guide 5 . Note: See Start-up Options for more information about the start-up arguments you can use. plot.cmf contains the HyperMesh commands to be executed. hmbatch terminates when it reaches the end of the command file or when it encounters *quit( ) in the command file.cmf. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. After Cmd line:. HyperMesh commands that require display (e. –ccommand. postscript. To start HyperMesh batch version on PC: 1.

Print this message.cmf file. Sets the name of the HyperMesh results file database to either the input filename with a . fl.hm -c<filename> -continue Read the HyperMesh file.msf -nobg -nocommand -psdhm -r[filename] -rres -s<width><height> -templex -t<filename> -titlepause -u<profile> -writemastermenu 6 HyperMesh 8. Sets the global template file to the specified file.set. Otherwise. Automatically load the specified HyperMesh binary file. Do not prompt via a pop-up box. Always continue on error when processing a command file. Set the text input field in the export panel to the specified file. Causes HyperMesh to pause on the title splash screen until you press a key on the keyboard.msf file.msf file Other options that can be specified after the start-up command allow you to specify model or results files or run command or mouse files. nodes are not drawn. Opens the application in a window of the specified width and height in pixels (PC only). Causes HyperMesh to draw nodes to the PostScript file as circles. -uAnsys to start HyperMesh under the Ansys user profile. Prevents HyperMesh from creating or writing to the command. Use the results file. Plays back the mouse commands in the mouse. These options include: fl. Forces HyperMesh to run in the foreground.Start-up Options You can enter arguments after the hm command that allow you to specify which command file to run. -e<filename> <filename> -mmouse. Allows you to write a master hmmenu.res suffix. Write the mouse commands to a mouse.hm. change screen resolutions.res). Start HyperMesh under a specific user profile: for example. or the specified file. or to print messages. Automatically run the specified command file.set file to replace the installed hmmenu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The format of the command is: hm [ -version ] [-h] [-m] where: -version -h -m Display the current version. Allows Templex within command files. pre-set export paths. res (-r alone specifies the file fl.

The commands in the hm.cfg file exists in multiple directories. They may begin in any column.cfg file: *menufont(2) *titlefont(3) *graphicfont(1) Note: HyperMesh accesses the configuration file.cfg file allow you to: • • • • • Specify an absolute pointing deviceabsolutepointer_configuration_command>Config Enable buttonbuttons_configuration_command>Config and dialdials_configuration_command>Config input Specify default translatorsfeinput_default_configuration_command>Config and templatesfeoutput_default_configuration_command>Config Specify the default solversregistersolver_configuration_command>Config Specify default graphicsgraphicfont_configuration_command>Config. If the hm. A command can be turned into a comment by removing the asterisk (*) preceding the command. The commands are not sensitive to location in the file. Each of the hm. only on start -up.cfg file are acknowledged.cfg commands begins with an asterisk and is followed by a set of parentheses that enclose a variable number of arguments. menumenufont_configuration_command>Config. You can edit the commands in the hm. The following commands are an example of a partial hm.0 User’s Guide 7 . HyperMesh uses the following order of precedence: PC customization path current (local) directory installation directory UNIX current (local) directory home directory installation directory All running copies of HyperMesh must be restarted before any changes to the hm.cfg.Configuring HyperMesh HyperMesh has a default configuration file named hm. or all of the commands may be on one line. which is read on start-up and is located in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/ directory. The hm. with each command occupying one line. hm.cfg file controls certain aspects of how HyperMesh runs at your particular site.cfg file to save your preferences. and titlestitlefont_configuration_command>Config fonts Specify the default legend colorlegendcolorfile_configuration_command>Config Specify a color to use for entities with no resultsnoresultcolor_configuration_command>Config Change cursor sizebigcursors_configuration_command>Config Turn element and geom handlesnopickhandles_configuration_command>Config off by default Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending PostScript files to a PostScript printerpostcopy_configuration_command>Config Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending black and white PostScript filespostcopyblackandwhite_configuration_command>Config to a PostScript printer • • • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.cfg.

tabs which are visible (e.mac file hmmenu.set file Cadreader. This prevents them from being overwritten when you install a new HyperWorks update. However.altair on Unix and Linux. Hmsettings.cfg).cfg file userpage. Multiple paths can be specified as variable values within this variable name. hmcustom.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Note: Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending ASCII files to a PostScript printerprintfile_configuration_command>Config Specify how to create a PostScript file of the screenpostfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Specify how to create a bitmap file of the screenscreenfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Indicate to HyperMesh the method for creating bitmap files Set reverse video when your printer cannot be set to reverse black and white. HyperMesh creates this file automatically when upon exiting the program.ini files.tcl should not be edited and its format will change between releases.ini. key bindings. called hmsettings. The configuration files which can be used in conjunction with customization paths are: hm.cfg file hyperlaminate. in order to use configuration files stored in a different file path.ini.tcl.tcl file 8 HyperMesh 8. recent files imported and recent files loaded. or ug. model or include browser). However. such as tab locations (left/right/both/none).ini Fatigue.cfg file hmexec file feconfig.cfg file Any printer settings (which may also exist in hm. HyperMesh uses this file to record various GUI settings for each user. such as catia. deleting this file can restore your HyperMesh settings to the default state if you encounter problems within the HyperMesh user interface that you cannot rectify by any other means. administrators must set up an environment variable called HW_CONFIG_PATH to specify the path.g. Customization paths You can store configuration files in a file path other than the ones to which they are installed by default. iges.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Set the screen size Specify the colormap version Set the default graphics simplification mode Tells HyperMesh to load the 3D Writer Specify the input translator and component format Specifies which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system Display the Utility menu when HyperMesh starts Include intermediate (not just the final choice) rotation commands There is another configuration file stored in "My Documents" on the Windows platform and in ~/.

0 User’s Guide 9 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. under Windows.Configuration File Commands The following is a list of the configuration commands that you can use to control how HyperMesh runs at your particular site: *absolutepointer() Use this command if you have a digitizing tablet or any other type of absolute pointing device. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. (An absolute pointer usually has six buttons. *boldmenufont () Description Syntax To force the menu font to bold on windows. You can also change the cursor size by selecting large or standard under cursor size: on the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. This command allows you to force the menu system to use a bold font. *boldmenufont(state) state 1 = bold 0 = use current value Comments The menu system in HyperMesh.) *bigcursors() Informs HyperMesh that pointing cursors should be double-sized when they are displayed on the screen.

there may be a delay in the operation while the display list is being built. A value of 1 (default) to the function aligns the Y-axis of the coordinate system in the direction of FE and a value of 0 defines Xaxis and a value 2 defines Z-axis. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations.*buttons() Informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with buttons that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode. Syntax Arguments Example *dynamicrotatemode(mode) mode Set to 1 or 0. the following output is generated: *dynamicviewbegin() *quatrotate(-0.-5. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations.00170778765. but a lower frame rate (slower). HyperMesh does not respond to dial input. *controlkeyviewmode() Specify whether display listing should be done during control key assisted viewing.7397916e005.00994070323.0. When mode is set to 1.999966514) *quatrotate(0.00529684395. but the operation will have a higher frame rate (faster).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .0047803938. Syntax *controlkeyviewmode(mode) mode Note: 0 = immediate mode 1 = use display listing (default) When display listing is used. *ce_fe_orientaxis() This command is called from the HyperMesh configuration file to specify the axis of the system that needs to be aligned in the direction of FE during connector realization. if the *dials() command is not added to the configuration file. HyperMesh does not respond to button input. if the *buttons() command is not added to the configuration file. See *CE_FE_SetDetailsandRealize() for information on creating a coordinate system during realization.00228960797.0. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu.999985423) 10 HyperMesh 8.0. In this case.0.0. Immediate mode results in a faster initial response time.0.0.000673180986. *dynamicrotatemode() Sets mode for output of intermediate rotation commands. In this case. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu (See *buttons()).00785649346.000802068982.0.999937705) *quatrotate(-0. *dials() This command informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with dials that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode.

000000.299006.000000.485656.*quatrotate(0.000395387048. *feinputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which translator in the import/CUSTOM sub-panel is the default. Comments A symbolic name begins with a '#' character followed by the specification of the translator.999996393) *dynamicviewend() When mode is set to 0. By default. -3.623743. -0.0.000327769044.000230328525.00263644785.886445. the following output is generated: *viewset(-0.657815. 0. Otherwise. 2.575689. 8. 0.0. The specification contains two parts separated with a '\'. -0.000000.9 99998898) *quatrotate(-0. 0. reducing the size of the command file.213868. 1.583235. When the mode is set to 1.964252. *enablemacromenu() This specifies whether or not the macro Utility Menu should display when the program loads.0.030465. -3. 0. 0. only the finial position is output. 1 = on (default). The symbolic name for each translator is listed below: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 0 = off. intermediate *quadrotate() rotation commands are output to the command file. Comments 0.0. 0.722177. 0.612440.761037.000000.0 User’s Guide 11 .00100703597.0. 0. or a symbolic name for the translator.703590.0.756111. The first part is the type of translator and the second part is a specific version of the translator. 0.621393) 5. Syntax *feinputdefault(filename) Arguments entity_type The name of any file found in the feinput directory. the Utility menu is displayed.00106667981. You can display or hide the utility menu from within HyperMesh by selecting Utility Menu from the View pull-down menu. -8.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 12 HyperMesh 8. This command requires one argument which can be set to the name of any file found in the template/feoutput directory.FE: #abaqus\abaqus #ansys\ansys #cmold\cmold #moldflow\moldflow #nastran\nastran #patran\patran #marc\marc #optistruct\optistruct #ls-dyna\dynakey #ls-dyna\\dynaseq #pamcrash\pamcrash #ideas\ideas #autodv\autodv #stl\stl #hmascii\hmascii GEOM: #catia\catia #iges\iges #ug\ug_16 #ug\ug_15 #stl\stl #vdafs\vdafs #hmascii\hmascii WELD: #spotweld\spotweld *feoutputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which template is the default.

0 User’s Guide 13 .*forceoldmenufonts () To force the menu font to the old style. The default simplification mode for performance graphics can also be set in the graphics subpanel in the options panel. style is set using the simplification style switch and curComp is set using the simplify current comp check box. under Windows. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). element handles. Syntax *graphicengine(mode) mode 0 = standard graphics 1 = performance graphics *graphicfont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display numbers. This command allows you to force the menu system to use the historical fonts. and legends in the graphics area. Syntax *graphicsimplificationmode(mode. style. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. where: mode is set using view acceleration and when view acceleration is set to automatic or Ctrl-Shift. *graphicsimplificationmode() Sets the default simplification mode for performance graphics. style and curComp are not required. *graphicengine() Sets the default graphics mode. curComp) mode 0 = none 1 = automatic (default) 2 = Ctrl-Shift 0 1 2 3 4 5 = no simplification = feature lines (default) = bounding box = node cloud = element centroid = simplified shading style curComp 0 = do not simplify current component (default) 1 = simplify current component Note: If mode = 0. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. The font size may also be changed during a HyperMesh session using the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. Syntax Note: *forceoldmenufonts() The menu system in HyperMesh. This option can also be set using the engine: toggle in the graphics sub-panel of the options panel.

or khaki (210. Pick handles will be turned off when HyperMesh is started and turned off whenever a new file is loaded.255). The default gray color values are *noresultcolor(80. Green and Blue. *nopickhandles() Informs HyperMesh that you wish to have element and geometry pick handles off by default. The complete *postcopy() command of the above example is *postfile("postprt *filename"). and B are the intensity values for Red. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing.0). then you would use *postcopy("postprt junk"). You can experiment with the values in the color sub-panel of the options panel. This command links the PostScript capability of HyperMesh and allows plots of the currently displayed screen to be printed directly from HyperMesh.0. The font size may also be changed in the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. *postcopy() Informs HyperMesh how to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. if this command is specified. The color must be between 1 and 64. inclusively 14 HyperMesh 8.80. 0-D elements (such as contact slave elements and mass elements) cannot be seen easily. The string is sent to the operating system and should be the standard command which you would use to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer.100). where R.cfg file.0.B). Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. For testing purposes.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name.128). The command requires one parameter. if you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command postprt junk. *postcopy() is invoked when you press CTRL-F3. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2).255. *noresultcolor() Elements or nodes for which no results were found are assigned a color (default = gray) to distinguish them from an actual 0 result.175. This improves graphic performance. Syntax legendcolorfile(file) *legendsetbordercolor() Allows you to set the border color. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. black (0. The color assigned to these no result entities is specified in the hm. For example. You can copy this file into your home directory and customize many of the default settings. The default color is specified with *noresultcolor(R.*legendcolorfile() Informs HyperMesh which legend color file should be the default.80). The element and geometry pick handles can be set in the modeling sub-panel of the options panel. Other colors include: dark blue (0. however. G. Syntax *legendsetbordercolor(color) Comments *menufont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display the menu. This command requires one argument that can be set to the name of any file found in the <install_directory>/hm/colors directory. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *postcopy() command to the operating system. The only information unknown at startup is the name of the file. white (255. a character string closed in double quotes "". To circumvent this.G.

use *printfile("print_it junk").S. *rapidmenus() The rapid menu functionality for the middle mouse button may be turned off with this command. *printfile() Informs HyperMesh how to send an ASCII file to a printer. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. *postfile() Sends the currently displayed screen to a PostScript file. The complete *printfile() command of the above example is *printfile("print_it *filename"). you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. *postcopyblackandwhite() is invoked when you press CTRL-F5."Hyper3Dwrite". *register3dwriter() Tells HyperMesh to activate the H3D writer. rapid menu functionality is enabled. Provided for consistency with the *screenfile() and *screencopy() commands./non-HyperMesh) tasks.dll"}. For testing purposes. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *printfile() command to the operating system.g. the string parameter required is set to a zero length string. In general. *printfile() is invoked in the summary panel on the Post page. PC Users: *register3dwriter({bin_dir+"/hm3dwriter31. Syntax Argument *rapidmenus(mode) mode 0 1 Comments Disable rapid menus."Hyper3Dwrite". ""."Hyper3D") UNIX Users: *register3dwriter({bindir+"/hm3dwriter3. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. This command is only used in the command file. but allows you to use a different command to send a black and white PostScript file to a printer.0 User’s Guide 15 . "Hyper3D") Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. By default. For testing purposes.*postcopyblackandwhite() Identical to the *postcopy() command. If you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command print_it junk.1"}. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. Enable rapid menus. This command requires one parameter. O. The only information unknown at start-up is the name of the file. Disabling it may be desirable if you use the middle mouse button for other (e. To circumvent this. a character string closed in double quotes. The string provided is sent to the operating system and should be the command which you normally use to send a file to a printer.

fem. For more information on spooling bitmapped files directly to the printer. *solver is replaced by the solver executable name. "value:memory in MB". This command allows you to set up and customize the solver panel in HyperMesh.) *memory in MB is replaced by the value. A character string that is of type file or value. one for the input file name. The solver field can be of type value or file."infile:input file". "file:input". On UNIX platforms. The number of strings is identical to the substitutable fields in the third argument. By default.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which is a value."*solver *input file *output file *options". *output is replaced with the user-selected output file (the extension for output file is always . A file named sliden. optistruct. The third parameter undergoes the substitution with the user-input values.*registersolver() Informs HyperMesh which solvers are available and how to invoke them. the colors representing black and white should be reversed. This command takes several arguments: Syntax *registersolver({solver}. A character string that is passed to the operating system to invoke the solver. Example *registersolver(OPTISTRUCT. "file:output") Arguments This command creates a solver panel with four user-input fields.sdp is created by HyperMesh. and one for the output file name. *input is replaced by the input file (the extension is always . *reversevideo() Informs HyperMesh that before the strings provided as parameters in the *screencopy() and *screenfile() commands are sent to the operating system.out". "*solver *input.fem *memory in MB. a file is created but not spooled to the print device (the CTRL-F1 and CTRL-F2 keys function identically) and you must click the active HyperMesh window to trigger the screen capture. Functionally. one for the solver executable. This command is necessary only if the hard copy device on your system is not reverse video capable."{home}\ {solver}"."outfile:output file". 16 HyperMesh 8.out). where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. contact your systems administrator. *screencopy() Tells HyperMesh how to create a temporary bitmap file of the screen and send it to a hard copy device. depending on the expected input. a site-specific operating system utility is called to create and spool the image to the printing device. Each character string represents an input field. > *output. The status bar indicates when the screen grab is complete. A maximum of six fields are allowed per solver. one for the memory in MB. after substituting the user-input parameters."value:options") solver The name that you want to appear on the toggle in the solver panel. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. Reverse video can also be set in the postscript sub-panel of the options panel. The name of the solver executable file.

(0 through 255) The color’s blue component. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. width). A message on the status bar indicates when the screen capture is complete. Circles may look like ovals. change the two values to any numbers that have the same aspect ratio of the screen resolution that you use. After you press CTRL-F2. The *screensize() option changes the aspect ratio of the images drawn in the graphics area. The numbers are physical measurements of the display area of the screen (width. Syntax *setcolor(index. The name of the file can be accessed with the characters *filename. thus. Remember that the command parameters represent height and width respectively. *setcolor() Set a colormap entry for each of the entity colors. the length/width ratio of the objects may be distorted. height). if your desktop runs at a resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels (an aspect ratio of 1.*screenfile() Informs HyperMesh how to create a bitmap file of the screen that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device (such as a printer).8. For example. In such cases. The first parameter is the horizontal (x) dimension of the screen. On the PC. On UNIX platforms. it’s important to remember to use the correct order for the command (e. The second parameter is the vertical (y) dimension of the screen. A file named sliden. a bitmap file is generated using the utility defined in the *screenfile() function (typically xwd) and output to a unique file using the same process as above. If you use a wide aspect ratio screen. (0 through 255) The color’s green component. the proportions of the objects is corrected. To determine this value. height.1920) should allow HyperMesh to render undistorted images.bmp file that can be read into wordprocessing programs. *screensize() Informs HyperMesh of the physical size of your monitor. (0 through 255) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh generates a *. For more information about creating bitmap screen images.6). Note: in some cases. even after specifying the screen measurements the display can still appear distorted.30) is implemented. Functionally. The units used are not important but must be consistent. *screensize(1200. green.75. although the look of HyperMesh doesn’t change. red. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. while screen resolutions are typically listed width by height.sdf is created by HyperMesh. When *screensize(14. blue) index red green blue Specifies the color location. To find this value.g. follow the same method as described above and measure the vertical dimension of the screen. measure the horizontal dimension of the usable portion of the screen excluding any borders in the default window that HyperMesh creates (or the entire screen if your system does not use windows). The command requires two parameters in real format separated by a comma. (1 through 64) The color’s red component. you must select the HyperMesh window to indicate which window to capture. contact your system administrator.0 User’s Guide 17 .

Place the real number here.*setcomponentformat() The first parameter of this command specifies which feinput translator you would like to use. Z axis location.0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . while the second parameter specifies the format you want your components to follow when importing them to HyperMesh. This command may be used in either the hm. Place the section ID number here. a-z. y. vertical direction of screen. "TYPE%t-MAT%m-REAL%r<-SECID%s>-ESYS%e") %t %m %r % <> %e Place the type number here. Place the material number here. spaces. Symbols mean that everything encapsulated between the two symbols is displayed only if the element uses a section ID. Syntax *setlightsource(x. 18 HyperMesh 8. Example: *setcomponentformat(ansys. *setlightsource() Set direction of the global light source. in/out of screen. Y axis location.0. z) x y z Comments X axis location. only the ANSYS feinput translator supports this command.( ) _ = + \ | [ ] } . The default setting is 0. which represents lighting the model as you are looking at it. : ‘ / ? . 0.0. . and the following: ‘ ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * . Here are some examples of what the component above will show: TYPE3-MAT2 -REAL2-ESYS2 TYPE1-MAT1 -REAL1-ESYS0 TYPE2-MAT2 -REAL3-SECID1-ESYS0 The following characters can be used to customize the name of the components: A-Z. horizontal direction of screen.cfg file or from a command file. Place the element coordinate system number here. 1. Currently. 0-9.

but small in another direction.0 – 1. the smaller and brighter the highlight (range 0 – 128) shininess Comments This command may be used in either the hm. 5 is the default).0.0. green.5.0) The shininess value.1. The amount of specular reflection seen depends on the location of the viewpoint.5. Example Settings may be used to simulate different materials: Glass *setspecularity(1. After altering this value you must restart HyperMesh to see the changes. The higher the value.0) The green component of the reflected light (range 0.7.7.*setperformancenormalmode() Set the performance graphics normal mode.0) The blue component of the reflected light (range 0. Specular reflection from an object produces highlights. *setspecularity(0.32) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. this usually occurs in models that are large in one direction.5. shininess) red green blue The red component of the reflected light (range 0.cfg file.1.0. however. *setspecularity() Set the global specular highlight values for performance graphics mode. Syntax *setspecularity(red. that N does not need to be an integer—decimal values are acceptable.0.0 – 1. It is brightest along direct angle of reflection.128) Plastic *setspecularity(0.0.64) Lead *shadingquality() Shaded geometry visualization sometimes does not follow the actual geometry. Note. blue.cfg file (where N is a number between 1 and 10. Raising or decreasing shading quality by 1 roughly doubles or halves the quality. Add or modify the *shadingquality(N) command in the hm.0 User’s Guide 19 .0. Syntax *setperformancenormalmode(mode) mode Comments 0 = flat normals (default) 1 = smooth normals This command can only be used in the configuration file. or from a command file.7.0 – 1.0.

*titlefont() Informs HyperMesh which font size should be used to display titles. This program. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). *. This parameter may range from 1 to 4. characters in the name. This string may contain wild card. On some platforms. the X Lib utilities are usually distributed with a program called xfontsel. displays the possible X Lib font sets interactively. Note that the font size may also be changed in the titles panel on the Post page. With a shared colormap. The X version of HyperMesh requires a 256 color palette.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . *xfontname() Informs HyperMesh which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system.*sharedcolormap() Informs HyperMesh which colormap method should be used in the X version. However. In general. The second parameter is a string which locates the X Lib font which you want to assign to the HyperMesh font. or a similar one. 20 HyperMesh 8. This command requires two parameters. the *xfontname() command must be modified. if your system is unique or if HyperMesh warns about one of the default fonts. A non-shared colormap can be used. the system colormap does not have 256 colors available. but may cause the rest of the system’s colors to change when the HyperMesh window is active and HyperMesh’s colors to change when the window is not active. the configuration file should have the appropriate fonts for your system. some colors in HyperMesh may not be available and appear as black. To assist you in determining the best X Lib font to assign to HyperMesh. The first parameter indicates which of the four HyperMesh fonts is being assigned.

5. your home directory (where your home directory is assumed to be specified in the environment variable. To set the environment variable in UNIX: SETENV TMPDIR <directory path> To set the environment variable in Windows: 1.0 User’s Guide 21 . 2. When HyperMesh is invoked. The file must be a HyperMesh command file and is named . Execute any task that you want the start-up file to automatically perform when HyperMesh opens.cmf file when HyperMesh is started.hmexec on UNIX systems and hmexec on Windows systems. All commands executed by the HyperMesh command processor are written to the command file command. Edit the text after Value: to specify the correct path to the directory in which you want temporary files created.. including those generated by your start-up file.hmexec or hmexec. On the Control panel. the commands which were written when the start-up file was executed initially. you can either not generate any entities in the start-up file. Start-up files allow you to automatically define global parameters for the current session of HyperMesh. If the environment variable is set. 3.Start-up Files HyperMesh allows you to create a start-up file that can be used to either execute a series of commands or to define global parameters. . Rename command. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select the Environment tab. Click the TMP line under User variables for . Start HyperMesh. if it exists. 3. After you have generated all of the necessary commands. it generates the entities specified in the start-up file.cmf file created during your HyperMesh session. then the temporary files are created with an HM prefix in the referenced directory. quit HyperMesh. 4. If you rerun the command. and the directory from which HyperMesh was invoked. Delete the command.cmf before you run it. To avoid this problem. it looks for this file and then processes the commands within the file. The directories searched include your customization path (if one is set up).cmf to the file name particular to your system. or delete the start-up file commands in command.cmf file.. Click OK. the directory where HyperMesh is installed.cmf file.cmf. Although start-up files may contain any of the commands considered valid in a command file. To create a start-up file: 1. and then generates the same entities as specified by the command. 4. double click the System folder. 5. be aware that if you create entities in the start-up file. HOME). Specifying a Temporary File Directory You can set the environment variable to control where temporary HyperMesh files are created. problems may arise if you later want to rerun the command. 2.

Fixed points are displayed in the same color as the surface to which they belong. Nodes represent physical positions on the structure being modeled and are used by the element entity to define the location and shape of the element. Nodes contain a pointer to a surface and are therefore associated to a surface. are organized within collectors. A fixed point is associated with a surface and is labeled with a small "o".HyperMesh Database Design A HyperMesh database stores information about many different entity types. Free points are not associated with a surface and are labeled with a small "x. or group. Nodes are considered "used" if they are part of an element. This allows you to select nodes and elements by surface. lines. If you exit HyperMesh without saving the current database. loads. if the current database has been modified but not saved. See Using and Saving a Database for more information about saving HyperMesh files. Fixed points may appear anywhere on a surface. elements. The original database does not change until you save the model. Nodes The node is the most basic finite element entity.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . However. There are several types of collectors and each collector stores the model data relative to its type. or are referenced by a card image." 22 HyperMesh 8. all the changes that you have made during your work session are lost. Using and Saving a Database While you work on a model. Fixed Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. including nodes. All HyperMesh entities. The automesher always places nodes at fixed points.hm for all HyperMesh binary databases. at Altair we use the extension . points. HyperMesh prompts you for confirmation before you exit. HyperMesh automatically deletes from the database unused nodes and any loads that were attached to the unused nodes. HyperMesh copies the database into system memory. Vertices along the edges of a surface are always marked by fixed points. HyperMesh entities include: Database Names There are no restrictions placed on HyperMesh database names other than those imposed by the operating system. vector. This convention allows you to determine easily which of the files in a directory are HyperMesh databases. Free Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. Note: See Database Names for more information about naming conventions. and systems.

the elements are assigned properties from the property which they reference. and surfaces that belong to the component. or deleted. for example. This restricted access lets HyperMesh translate special collections of entities as a unit and allows it to support advanced features of analysis codes. In this case. You can use the collectors panel to modify the attributes of the auto1 component and the rename panel to change the name. rotated. All the elements in a component collector are assigned the same properties and materials except when the elements have a property reference. HyperMesh automatically creates a component. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. If you have not created a component first. and surface data. auto1. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information in the header bar. elements. Note: Collector names are limited to 160 characters. Note: Use the display panel to control the screen display of the collectors in your model. line. Configurations 1-4 are created in the interfaces panel. Operations performed on a component affect all the elements. see the organize panel. Group Collectors Groups are collectors that are restricted to certain types of elements. Entities can belong to only one collector. lines. for those entities. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. an element cannot exist in two different collectors. Component Collectors Components are collectors that contain element.Collectors A collector gathers related data and allows you to handle the data as one unit. For more information about reorganizing collectors. Collectors can be modified and the entities within them can be reorganized. This allows you to organize geometry data into units that can be translated. and surfaces cannot exist unless a component collector exists. Component collectors also retain property and material information about the entities that belong to it. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh automatically creates a collector for new entities if you do not create a collector first.0 User’s Guide 23 . All entities within HyperMesh must belong to a collector. Configuration 5 is created in the rigid wall panel. Lines. assigned colors.

Plot Curve Block 24 HyperMesh 8. including its walls and cells. Material Material collectors contain information about the materials in a HyperMesh model. you can select and display all the components that belong to it by selecting the assembly. You can set a component or property to the correct material collector by entering the collector name after material =. If a model contains any non-rigid elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This information includes the name and color of the curve and the line style used to display the curve. After an assembly is created. A curve is referenced by selecting the plot collector. then the model should have at least one material collector.Assembly Collectors Assemblies are collectors that contain several components organized into a single logical unit. Properties for all other element types. One plot collector is created for each plot in the database. Block collectors contain information relating to a finite difference block. A plot collector contains information associated with an xy plot. you can assign the specified properties to new 1-D elements by entering the collector name after property = when you create or update the elements. Operations performed on an assembly do not affect the components in the assembly. are assigned by the component to which the elements belong. Entity Information Collectors These collectors maintain information about the entities assigned to them: Property Property collectors contain property information about 1-D elements and are required only when a model contains one or more of the following elements: bar2 bar3 gap joint masses rod spring After you create a property collector. if you delete an assembly. See the Finite Difference Module section for more information. 2-D or 3-D. Plot collectors contain pointers to curve collectors. Curve collectors contain information about the curves of an xy plot. Components can belong to more than one assembly. For example. the components in the assembly are not deleted.

Multibody Collectors Setting collector type to multibodies in the collectors panel provides functionality for the creation and modification of multibody collectors. The output blocks entity is used to store these nodes. The method by which loads are organized may depend on the analysis code that is used to solve the problem. and mbjoints entities. Hold and define rigid body properties for multi-body analysis. Output Blocks Some solvers allow you to request output results for specific nodes or elements. Load Collectors Load collectors allow you to organize loads. Sets Collectors Set collectors contain lists of entity IDs. A load can belong to only one load collector. which allows you to access them as a unit. or components (each set can contain only one type of entity). Typically. then HyperMesh creates a collector called auto1. which can be composed of specified elements.System Collectors System collectors allow you to organize local coordinate systems. Note: If no collector has been created prior to the creation of vectors. mbplanes. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. and planes. Typically. systems. Provide the rigid body reference for ellipsoids. Multibody collectors serve multiple purposes: • • • Organizing HyperMesh’s ellipsoids. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of systems. which allows you to access a group of systems as a unit. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. nodes. A system collector can hold any number of systems. Vector Collectors Vector collectors allow you to organize vectors. components. A system can belong to only one system collector. elements. Note: A load cannot exist unless a load collector exists. a load collector contains loads that are to be applied at the same time. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of loads. cylinders. A vector collector can hold any number of vectors. Additional information that can be included in sets are the name of the set and the type of entity contained within the set. groups. or materials. Note: A system cannot exist unless a system collector exists. the set of load collectors represents a system loading condition. Load Steps The load steps entity allows you to select a set of load collectors.0 User’s Guide 25 . simulating a system loading condition.

and z. The same fields and options available in the create sub-panel are also available in the update subpanel. Moments of inertia and other rigid body properties are defined in the multibody collector’s card image. creation method: assigns the multibody type specified in the card image= field. Define. body local system: defines the body local coordinate system of the created body by assigning a local coordinate system entity to the multibody collector. review and reset the multibody collector type. click and hold left mouse button in the model window until the cursor becomes a square. which is access through the card panel after the multibody collector has been created. Update a Multibody Collector The update sub-panel is provided to modify the body’s local coordinate system and center of gravity. location of the center of gravity. and Reset a Multibody Collector The card image sub-panel is used to define. the rename panel is available in the far left column of every HyperMesh page. Review. y. Using or not using a card image has no bearing on how multibody collectors behave within HyperMesh and only effect data being exported.Create a Multibody Collector The create sub-panel is used for creating multibody collectors. create provides four data blocks for defining: the collector’s name. drag the cursor over geometry to select it. release the mouse button.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . y=. click on the edit button under the N1 selection box to bring up x=. center of gravity: provides an N1 node/geometry selection box to define the x. Note: The element handles option in the modeling sub-panel (options panel) allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. There are three ways to define the body’s orientation. To define a center of gravity location. 26 HyperMesh 8. The N1 box contains the same functionality as the N1 selection buttons found elsewhere in HyperMesh. card image type. To modify the name of a multibody collector. For an alternative method to define the center of gravity. If only surfaces or lines are available for selection. Change. use system assigns the selected system to the created body. The name= text field is provided for specifying a name for the multibody collector being created and for reviewing the names of already existing multibodies. The name= field supports names up to 160 characters in length. Setting creation method: to no card image specifies that a multibody collector type is to be assigned at the time of creation but one can be assigned later in the card image sub-panel. center of gravity. duplicate system ensures a unique coordinate system is assigned to the created body by creating a duplicate of the selected coordinate system and assigning this duplicated coordinate system to the created body. change. The multibody types available are based on the template loaded in the global panel. body system assigns a copy of the local coordinate system assigned to the current multibody collector specified in the global panel. and the body’s local coordinate system. The types of multibody collectors available are dependent on the loaded solver interface specified as a template file in the global panel. select a node on in the model window. Setting creation method: to same as assigns a copy of the card image of another multibody collector to the created collector. click anywhere on the geometry to define a location. and z= entry fields. The most common type of multibody collector is a "rigid body".

store. HyperMesh can transfer the model to several different analysis codes. quads.. and rigids. the model is not considered generic and does not transfer between analysis codes.0 User’s Guide 27 . trias. and work with the element.. The element type allows you to define multiple analysis elements for each HyperMesh element. Each element has two associated variables: an element configuration and an element type. hex) of the element. i. Element Configuration The element configuration defines the physical geometry (i. The element configuration tells HyperMesh how to draw. If a model uses only the basic element types.e. In modeling situations where specific analysis codes are used because of their unique capabilities.Elements Each element entity performs a specific task to facilitate a controlled and complete interface between HyperMesh and the analysis codes. Element configurations include: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.e. quad.

The type of the element controls the number of nodes used in the element and the permissible orientations of the element (configuration 22). 2-. refer to Template Design. Note: For more specific information about using the HyperMesh templates. local vector. or orientation node. 8-noded brick solid element (configuration 208). 3-noded master interface element (configuration 123).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . (Must be Type 1.) 4-noded master interface element (configuration 124). Supported Element Types HyperMesh supports the following element configurations: Bar2 Bar3 Gap Hex20 Hex8 Joint 2-noded bar element with property reference. and pin flags (configuration 63). 3-noded bar element with property reference. or 6-noded element with property and orientation systems or nodes. (Must be Type 1. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mass Master3 Master4 Penta15 Penta6 Pyramid5 Type Name Spherical Revolute Cylindrical Planar Universal Translational Locking # nodes 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 Orientation none/systems/nodes none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems 1-noded mass element (configuration 1). and pin flags (configuration 60). which allows the template. assign type1 to the first type of quad element and type 2 to the second type of quad element. to distinguish between the different types. 20-noded brick solid element (configuration 220). offsets. local vector. 5-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 205). 28 HyperMesh 8. 6-noded wedge solid element (configuration 206). For example.Element Type Defines the category of the element. offsets. 4-. Examples of different types of quads within ABAQUS are S4R and S4R5. or orientation node. The template file HyperMesh uses to write the analysis deck recognizes the different element types and outputs them as configured. or output translator. if an analysis code has two different quad elements and you wish to use both in a model. 2-noded gap element with property reference and vector (configuration 70). A joint element does not allow types other than specified below.) 15-noded wedge solid element (configuration 215).

) 4-noded slave interface element (configuration 134). Each node contains a coefficient (weighting factor) and a user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 56).) 2-noded spring element with user-defined degrees of freedom. 2-noded rigid element (configuration 3). 4-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 204). 2-noded rigid element with user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 5).) 3-noded slave interface element (configuration 133). 1-noded slave interface element (configuration 135). 3-noded triangular shell element (configuration 103). The independent node has user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 55).Pyramid13 Plot Quad4 Quad8 RBE3 13-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 213) 2-noded plot element used for display purposes (configuration 2). 10-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 210). (Must be Type 1. 2-noded beam element with property reference (configuration 61). an orientation vector. Multi-noded element with one independent node and a variable number of dependent nodes. (Must be Type 1. and a property reference (configuration 21). 8-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 108). Multi-noded element with one dependent node and a variable number of independent nodes.0 User’s Guide 29 . 6-noded triangular shell element (configuration 106). (Must be Type 1. Rigid Rigidlink Rod Slave1 Slave3 Slave4 Spring Tetra10 Tetra4 Tria3 Tria6 Weld Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 4-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 104).

Suppressed edges (displayed blue dotted) are the internal face edges within a surface. their color is determined by the surfaces to which they belong. ellipse. A suppressed edge can be changed back to a shared edge. In general. Each line type in a line is referred to as a segment. and their color is determined by the status of the component. A shared edge cannot be changed back to a free edge. No nodes are placed along a suppressed edge. A line can be composed of a single line type or multiple line types. Under certain conditions. You can use surface edges as a line in most panels. but are then less efficient. A shared edge (displayed green) is a surface edge that is shared between exactly 2 surfaces. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number and type of line segments to represent the geometry. Shared Suppressed Non-Manifold /Duplicate 30 HyperMesh 8. NURBS can exactly represent the piecewise parametric cubic splines they replace. Lines from CAD data are not attached to surfaces. Used to represent lines that are not straight or elliptical. The end point of each line segment is connected to the first point of the next segment. Non-manifold edges can be turned into shared edges by deleting one of the attached surfaces. you can use surface edges as free lines. These edges (displayed yellow) are shared by more than two surfaces. However.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . such as when you are working within the spline . By using elliptical segments or NURBS segments. or line drag panels. A joint is the common point between two line segments. as well as many other types of curves. NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) may also be used to represent a straight or elliptical line. Nodes are placed along this edge during automeshing and recognized during meshing of bordering surfaces. Line segments are maintained as a single line entity. All lines in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: • • • straight elliptical NURBS • • • Note: Used to represent a straight line between two points in space. ruled. These edges usually indicate a collapsed or very thin surface or a fully or partially duplicated surface. Suppressed edges allow the mesh to flow across or over these boundaries.Lines The line entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. circles can be represented exactly in HyperMesh. An edge is a trim line of a surface. Surface edges include: Free A free edge (displayed red) is a surface edge that belongs to a single surface which does not have other surfaces aligned with it within the specified cleanup tolerance. so operations performed on the line affect each segment of the line. Used to represent conics such as a circle. or parabola.

The following panels can be used to create lines: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • circles fillets intersect lines section surface tangents The following panels can be used to change lines: delete line permute position project reflect reparam rotate scale translate Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 31 .

Operations performed on the surface affect all the faces that comprise the surface. Multiple types are used for more complex surfaces that contain sharp corners or highly complex shapes. All surfaces in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: plane cylinder/cone sphere torus NURBS Used to represent a planar surface. Each surface type is referred to as a face. Used to represent a spherical surface. The following panels can be us ed to create surface entities: • • • • • • • • • • • surfaces primitives midsurface The following panels can be us ed to change surface entities: defeature permute position reflect rotate scale surface translate 32 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number of and type of surface faces to represent the geometry. Used to represent surfaces which are not definable by the above surface types. Each face contains a mathematical surface and edges to trim the surface (if required). Used to represent cylindrical or conical surfaces. Used to represent a toroidal surface. When a surface has several faces. HyperMesh maintains all of the faces as a single surface entity. NURBS may also be used to represent the above surface types but they are not as efficient. Surfaces define 2-D regions that may be used in automatic mesh generation. In general.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A HyperMesh surface can be made of a single surface type or of multiple surface types.Surfaces and Faces The surface entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part.

applied at a node. Vectors can be used for orientation of spring and gap elements or to specify a direction during selection. temperatures. For example. is placed in the global system only if a system does not exist at that node. nodal points. When you delete an analysis system. vectors can be created between two nodes and can change magnitude and direction as those nodes move through analysis. In HyperMesh. you must set the proper orientation for element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom. cylindrical. and an analysis system is used to transform the nodal coordinate system. Additionally. Vectors The vector entity allows you to define a three dimensional vector in the database. accelerations. the orientation of the constraint is dictated by the local system. HyperMesh allows you to modify the analysis system of an entity when you define the analysis system. Note: A system may be a reference system.0 User’s Guide 33 . loads. If you delete a system. When a reference system is deleted. concentrated fluxes. After a constraint has been applied. HyperMesh does not maintain the proper orientation for the constraint when you create or delete local systems at the node where the constraint resides. each of these entities is defined in the global system with an ID of zero. Control cards are defined within templates and are specific to one FE solver. all the entities that were defined in that system are transferred to the global system. Constraints. The only entity that may be defined in an analysis system is a node. velocities. Entities that have a reference system are systems. concentrated forces. the model retains its cylindrical shape and also its location in space. Several systems may be nested. and then delete the system in which the nodes are defined. or spherical. and mass elements. Cards The card entity allows you to create control cards such as CPU limits or Title cards. commonly called a coordinate system. the position of the entity is maintained relative to the global system in the transformation process. if you define a cylindrical structure in a cylindrical coordinate system. Vectors are created in the global system unless a local coordinate system is defined. Entities are always displayed in the transformed global system. an analysis system. and pressures are currently supported. concentrated moments. Loads are applied in the global system except when the reference system has been modified. may be rectangular. a reference system is used to define the geometric positions of entities. By default. A constraint. Analysis systems are typically used to transform element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom from the global system to a local system. You can use the systems panel to modify the reference coordinate system of an entity.Systems The system entity. or both. If a system does exist. as HyperMesh does not maintain these in the transfer from the local system to the global system. Loads The load entity allows you to add forces and constraints to the database. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

including the name of the title. and the text displayed in the title.Title Title collectors contain title information.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 34 HyperMesh 8. the color of the title.

It also displays the path and name of the file currently open in the active HyperMesh session.0 User’s Guide 35 . A current file is determined with the following rules: • • • • Pull-down menus The last HyperMesh (.hm) file retrieved or saved in the active session FE or CAD import does not affect the current file Delete model clears the current file If no . Use these options to access different areas of HyperMesh functionality. this displays the current HyperMesh version. these menus "drop down" a list of options when clicked. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.hm model is retrieved or saved in the active session the current file field is empty Located just under the title bar. Like the pull-down menus in many graphical user interface applications.HyperMesh Environment There are several main areas in the HyperMesh window: These areas are described below: title bar Located at the top of the HyperMesh window.

in a tabbed format. Tab Location sub-menu. or two toolbars stacked vertically. • • • Tab Area sidebars can be toggled on or off by use of the View pull-down menu. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. Located across the bottom of the window. such as the Utility menu or Include browser. Header bar Located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. these buttons provide quick access to commonly-used functions. this area may contain one toolbar. such as changing display options. You can click-and-drag tabs to move them between the left and right Tab Area sidebars.Tab Area Located on the left. You can type HyperMesh commands directly into this text box and execute them instead of using the HyperMesh Graphical User Interface. Depending on your display resolution and the number of buttons. or both sides of the graphics area. Main menu Command Window secondary menu 36 HyperMesh 8. Individual items (tabs) can be added to or removed from the Tab Area by selecting the item from the View pull-down menu. It displays the name of the current panel and user profile. The main menu is divided into the panel area and the page list.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Located just under the graphics area. Graphics area Toolbar Area Located above the tool bar(s): the graphics display area is where model geometry and mesh displays. and model status information. these sidebars display additional tools. Secondary menus can be accessed by using keyboard shortcuts. right.

When clicked.0 User’s Guide 37 . clicking it alternates between showing and hiding the solver browser in one of the Tab Area sidebars. This method allows similar commands to be grouped logically. this is because some menu items have sub-menus of additional options. and clicking on the menu name (such as File) "pulls down" a list of the options available in that menu: Notice that there are two lists of options displayed in this screen shot. enable access to many types of HyperMesh functionality. and helps prevent any single menu list from becoming excessively long. Menu items can work in several different ways: Sub-Menu heading These items are marked with a triangular arrow. Toggle Command Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Pull-Down menus The pull-down menus. rather than presenting every option in a single list (which could result in very long lists). One example is the solver browser item found in the view menu. located just beneath the title bar. Most menu items simply execute a command when selected. Most menu options access HyperMesh panels. such as accessing a specific HyperMesh panel. Each menu contains many different options. This approach sub-groups similar features together. Selecting a submenu heading opens a sub-menu of options related to the submenu heading. but some options perform other tasks such as configuring the layout of the HyperMesh environment. these items are marked with a checkbox and activate or deactivate a feature.

including element check settings. To import multiple files. or Scale entities. Reflect. Tools for geometry editing and cleanup. connectors. View results of solved simulations (contour or vector plots. 38 HyperMesh 8. among other options. Each of the pull-down menus in HyperMesh groups certain types of functions: File Contains functions to load. pressures. these keys are underlined (as the "F" in the File menu). Meshing tools. for example). assemblies. Model quality checks.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh preferences such as User Profiles. Change the angle of view on the model. and export models and other files. save. these keys are underlined (as the "O" in the Open). etc. global options. or finding entities. use import. To add extra models to your workspace. Rotate. tetramesh.There are multiple ways to select a pull-down menu or a menu item within it: Mouse Keyboard (menu) Click the menu or menu item with the mouse. use the multiple files option in the import sub-menu. etc. Access the on-line Help system. and press enter to select a highlighted option. Morph. lighting. Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu item. Translate. solid map. and keyboard configuration. or Use the left and right arrow keys to move among the menu headings. Boundary Conditions such as forces. or visibility and location of tab area items. Edit View Organize Geometry Mesh BCs Setup Checks Tools Applications Results Preferences Help Tools for masking. import. element edit. or constraints. Keyboard (menu item) Menu items can be selected with the keyboard in two ways: or Use the arrow keys to move among list of options. deleting. such as OptiStruct. and the up and down arrow keys to open a menu and navigate among its options. Tools for creating and renaming collectors. press the alt key to activate the menu area. such as automesh. Note: To work with only one model at a time. Quickly access other HyperWorks programs. use load. moments. Then: Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu or item. First. among other options. Model properties such as materials. and contact surfaces.

0 User’s Guide 39 . Entities on the screen are selected for use in functions by clicking the desired entity with the mouse. geometry.Graphics Area The graphics area occupies the upper portion of the screen. and plots are displayed in this area. The graphics area dominates the HyperMesh environment and is framed by all of the other interface areas. Models. Note: See Entity Selection for more information about picking entities. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

and edit solver-specific data. For example. Turn the display of collectors on and off. save. control which collectors are displayed in the graphics region. This only applies when a valid template file has been specified in the global panel. Note: In versions of HyperMesh prior to release 8. many of these functions were contained in the permanent menu. if you select "by comp". Notice that the toolbar may display in one or two rows. Normally all of the buttons display on a single row. the property assigned varies based on the solver used. etc) is assigned directly to the element. The toolbar buttons perform the following functions: Load. But for 1D elements such as bars and springs. Other options include: • By Prop: colors the elements based on their assigned properties. This accesses the files panel. Create or update load collectors. but when the toolbar is too narrow to hold all of the buttons. Access the collectors panel. or import files.Toolbar Area The functions on the toolbar allow you to manipulate the view of the model. Selects the element color style.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For example. the two-row configuration is shown above. Edit solver-specific data in card format. Create or update property collectors. The toolbar uses two different groups of visual icons to represent different HyperMesh functions. This button accesses the display panel. a group of buttons automatically moves to the second row. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to access other collector functions: Create or update material collectors. the property (PBEAM. set global modeling parameters. Access the visual attributes panel. Use this panel to individually determine how each component of your model displays its FE mesh. thus the shell elements are colored in component color even in this mode. the model elements’ colors change based on the components that contain them. Users already familiar with earlier HyperMesh releases will find the same functionality that the permanent menu offered now located in the toolbars. the property color of shell elements (quads and trias) in a NASTRAN model is the same as the component. use the colors panel to change the colors of properties Note: 40 HyperMesh 8.0.

surfaces) that is not part of a solid is colored based on its topology. If geometry shading is turned on. By Comp: Surfaces. feature lines. etc. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between skin-only and full wire frame (including internal lines). etc. By Topo: In this mode. This helps you focus on 3D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. Switches the mesh rendering mode to a shaded mode. By 3D Topo: In this mode. the geometry is colored based on its corresponding component. the faces of solids are also colored based on their topology: exterior bounding faces in transparent green. quad. Switches the mesh rendering mode to wire-frame mode. By 2D Topo: In this mode. solid faces and their edges) is colored based on its topology. suppressed edges in blue. The topology of 3D solid geometry is ignored (drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel). Note: • • . In the remaining panels (such as translate or delete). bar. free edges in red. • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. trias etc. The topology of 2D geometry is ignored and drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel. By Config: colors elements based on their configurationbeam. automesh). This helps you focus on 2D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. Some exceptions apply. Other coloring options include: • Auto: In this mode the geometry coloring changes based on the panel you open. are colored according to the components that they belong to. In panels geometry creation and editing panels (e. and no lines. 2D and 3D elements differently. Surfaces that aren’t part of a solid are shaded in gray. In most cases. 2-dimensional geometry (i. . use the colors panel to change the colors of materials. then each piece of geometry is re-colored based on the component that contains it. surface edit.g. materials are assigned to elements via their components. if you select "by component". 1D/2D/3D: colors 1D. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between mesh lines. etc.0 User’s Guide 41 . internal partition faces in yellow. . all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology: shared edges drawn in green.e. 3-dimensional geometry (i. lines. For example.• By Mat: colors the elements based on the material assigned to the elements. geometry is colored based on topology. The individual colors given to each configuration (such as spring or hexa) can be seen and changed in the element types panel. All the 1D elements are colored in green.e. 2D shell elements in blue and 3D solid elements in red. Determines how geometry features are colored.

Rotate modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate dynamic rotate mode. in shaded mode surfaces and solid faces are shaded in their components’ color. left-click to zoom in.• Mixed: This mode behaves similarly to Topology mode in that all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Right-click to deactivate. Once active. . Once active. (shared edges in green. etc. click-and-drag in the graphics area to pan the model view. Draws model geometry in shaded mode. or to alternate between two different views. Resizes the model view (by zooming in or out and panning the view as needed) in order to fit the model to the graphics area. or when you click either button while the pointer is in the graphics area. Right -clicking activates the dynamic zoom feature. Draws model geometry as a wire-frame. Circle zoom deactivates after zooming once. right-click to zoom out. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Modal Zoom. click-and-drag in the graphics area to rotate the model. Opens the visualization pop-up panel. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Right -click to activate center mode. Once active. Left-click to deactivate. Click the downward arrow to choose between excluding and including surface lines. Pan modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate pan mode. right-click and drag in the graphics area to zoom in/out. Left-click to deactivate. This allows you to (for example) perform a free rotation on a model and then quickly return it to its original orientation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . this works in one of two different ways: • Left-clicking activates the circle zoom feature. Click the downward arrow for options: with edges or without them. Once active. Right -click to deactivate. Once active. 42 HyperMesh 8. right-click in the graphics area to change the graphics area center.) In addition. Zoom incrementally. right-click in the graphics area and hold the mouse button down to make the model spin. Right -click to activate dynamic spin mode. Left-click to deactivate. Returns to the previous view. . free edges in red.

You can use keyboard hot keys to access the same viewing options. and the right button to rotate it rightward.0 User’s Guide 43 . Notes: See Viewing Models for more information about the viewing options available on the toolbar. See Keyboard for more information.Rotate Left or Right: this is similar to pressing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Rotate Up or Down: this is similar to pressing the up and down arrow keys on the keyboard. and the right button to rotate it downward Spherical clipping: accesses the spherical clipping panel. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model upward. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model leftward. Use spherical clipping to isolate portions of the model regardless of component or collector. Open a pop-up menu used to save and retrieve user-defined or standard views.

Panel titles display on the left side of the bar. The header bar also displays a brief description of the panel when you hold down the left mouse button on the panel button (see below). You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information (e.. It displays information pertaining to the currently loaded model as well as descriptions of the main menu pages and panels. the current include and current component (comp).g. When you are on one of the main menu pages (not within a panel). 44 HyperMesh 8. Geometry) are displayed. comp:) in the message bar. the header bar displays the current panel title and model status. If you access a panel by using a function key.e. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. the bar displays the current panel name on the left (in black) and the original panel name to the right (in gray). When you are in a panel. along with the current menu page name (i. Messages also appear on the header bar and temporarily override the title and status information.Header Bar The header bar is located between the main menu area and the toolbar area.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The current component and load collector names are displayed on the right side of the bar. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu..

Miscellaneous messages. These messages appear in green when using HyperMesh classic dark menu colors and they appear in gray when using Windows light menu colors Click a mouse button to remove a message from the header bar. You can also obtain a brief description of a panel’s function if you hold down the left mouse button over a panel button. such as status updates or completed operations. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 45 .Messages posted on the header bar are color-coded: red green/gray Error messages.

46 HyperMesh 8. To change main menu pages: • Note: Click the radio button before the main menu page. and informational functions.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . model checking functions. Page Menu HyperMesh panels are grouped by function on several “pages”.Main Menu Area HyperMesh functionality is organized according into pages. HyperMesh presents these pages in the page menu. lines. If you are not using the default HyperMesh menu system. To correct this condition. masses. A secondary menu can be accessed by using keyboard keys. delete the file hmmenu. then the menu items described above may not appear on the appropriate pages. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel.set from the directory you are working in (provided you are not working in the directory where HyperMesh is installed). The page menu. Post-processing and xy plotting functions. quit HyperMesh. and spot welds Creation and editing functions for 2-D surfaces and elements Creation and editing functions for 3-D surfaces and elements Boundary conditions. coordinate system. and load creation functions. Modules contain a collection of panels that are grouped according to functionality. such as bars. and then start HyperMesh once again. or surfaces 1-D element creation. each containing a list of panels and modules. Each of these pages contain panels related to the page name: Geom 1D 2D 3D Analysis Tool Post Creation and editing functions for geometry such as points. Most panels are further divided into sub-panels. Model editing. which is located on the right-hand edge of the main menu area. utility functions.

such as the utility menu. To maximize available space. Turn the Tab Area sidebars on and off by selecting left side. and/or the solver browser.Tab Area This area of the HyperMesh environment is actually two separate sidebars which flank the Graphics Area. both. each sidebar can be toggled on and off separately. or none from the Tab Locations sub-menu of the view pull-down menu.0 User’s Guide 47 . However. model browser. multiple features are organized onto tabs. Each Tab Area sidebar can contain multiple complex features. right side. so you might only see one—or even none—at a time. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. click a tab heading to bring it to the forefront.

system collectors. The browser displays on one of the Tab Area sidebars. properties. groups. materials. To open the model browser: Click the model browser item located within the view pull-down menu. This screenshot shows all of the entities that can display in the browser. entity sets.Model Browser The model browser resides on a tab in a Tab Area sidebar and allows you to view the HyperMesh model structure by organizing assemblies. components. multibodies. 48 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and beamsectcols into a tree-like display. load collectors. vector collectors.

Load Collectors. In this instance. Each folder can be expanded or collapsed to display or hide its contents. and click the desired color from the palette. Deactivating the check box for an item hides all of its parent assemblies. Note: When the color picker palette appears. for example.0 User’s Guide 49 . Components and Assemblies may appear in multiple places in the tree. and System Collectors can all be colored individually. therefore it does not have a check box. multibodies. properties. system cols. An empty assembly never displays. right-click on the current color in the model browser. groups. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all its components and multibodies. Deactivating the check box for an assembly hides all of its components and multibodies. Select this to open the same color picker used throughout HyperMesh. The currently assigned color displays in the column. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all of its contents. the mouse pointer automatically moves to its center.Multiple entities of the same type are collected into folders in the tree structure. vector cols. Properties. Check Boxes Items are displayed or hidden by toggling the corresponding check boxes. the color and display style of entities also display in the model browser. When appropriate. the right-click menu contains only a single option: color. load cols. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Materials.) display. Colors Assemblies. so that the items related to each assembly appear within that assembly’s folder in the Assembly Hierarchy. groups. and its state does not affect the state of its ancestors. etc. a specific component might appear under Components and again as a sub-item of a specific Assembly. and beamsectcols cannot be organized into assemblies and are all placed at the top level of the tree. each in their corresponding folder (for example all sets are placed as a flat list in the Sets folder). To change an entity’s color. Deactivating the check box for an item does not affect the state of its parent assembly. unchecked entities are hidden. Assemblies containing components or multibodies are considered displayed only when all of the contents are displayed. entity sets. Components. Materials. The following rules apply: • • • • • • • • Checked entities (components. and the model browser allows you to set each entity’s color without using the color panel. The palette automatically disappears when you move the mouse pointer beyond its boundaries. Assemblies can also have sub-folders within the main Assembly folder.

and load cols have several display states. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. Click a second time to remove them. multibodies (not assemblies). load cols. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. and vector cols shown in the tree. and vector cols. assemblies. Only shaded topology displays (no mesh). Shaded topology displays with feature lines. Shaded topology displays with mesh lines. You can select these display modes by right-clicking clicking the small icons in the column for each component. Global Switches The Display All . Click a second time to remove them. or click the ID heading to sort numerically by entity ID. and Reverse Display buttons at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. Transparent shaded topology displays without mesh. load cols. Include geometry entities in tree structure. Display None . or load collector.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . groups. assembly. multibodies. system cols. or both: Include mesh entities in tree structure. repeated clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. In either case. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. Multibodies. components. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. groups. groups. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. geometry entities.Display Mode Components. and vector cols have only one display state and will be shown only in element mode. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. Depending on which option you select. system cols. Right -clicking opens a popup menu from which you can choose the new style. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the model browser’s own toolbar. but no mesh. system cols. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. the entity displays differently: Only a wireframe mesh displays. 50 HyperMesh 8. based on a combination of their elements and their geometry. The first set of filters let you restrict the tree structure to display mesh entities.

in this case they are used for Select All. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. typing “pillar” in the matching field when using the whole name option will not locate a component named “CH-A-PILLAR-B-I-L”. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. with the same buttons for Display All. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. if you type “*collector” into this combo box and press <enter>. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the model browser’s tree structure. Select None. You can also select groups of entities based on a wildcard search. For example. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. For example. then all entity types ending with “collector” will be checked and display in the list. Whole name only selects tree items whose entire name matches the specified text. and Reverse Display as described under global switches above. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. an up-arrow button. In this way. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. In addition. However. and Reverse Selection. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the model browser. Display None. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow).0 User’s Guide 51 . including upper/lower case letters. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. Otherwise. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. . a down-arrow button. Accomplish this via the matching: combo text/list box. Fine-tune the search/selection by choosing an option from the ( • • ) button: Match case only selects tree items that match the entered text exactly. click OK to close the list. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar.The next filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). composed of a combination text/list Find: box. For example. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

In this way. finding match #1 again. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. Since this function works in combination with the filters. For example. If an assembly is moved or copied. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree.To find an entity. 52 HyperMesh 8. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. “FrontChassis”. it is highlighted in the model browser. The left mouse button allows you to move the item into another assembly. clicking third time finds match #3. In this way you can combine the search options. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). In other words. the right mouse button activates a menu that allows you to move or copy an item to the new location. it is deleted in all its parent assemblies and placed at the top level of the tree. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. multibodies. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. select it again to remove the checkbox. for example. or “RearChassis1”. Note: If an item is dragged out of the tree and dropped onto empty space. such as searching for whole names with matching case. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. with this option active. So. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. clicking again finds match #2. You can drag and drop multiple items at any time using the standard shift and ctrl keys. type a search string into the combination box. To deactivate the option. all the items in the assembly are moved to the new location (items that are not seen in the tree due to filters are also moved). Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. and assemblies can be dragged and dropped with the left and right mouse button. Drag and Drop Components. rather than only part of the name. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. for instance. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. A dragged item is added to the bottom of the list in an assembly. To find entities matching your specified string and options. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. For instance. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box.

load cols. vector cols. beamsectcols. load col. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Folders that contain materials. material. group. A new assembly. Load Collectors. All instances of the renamed item will be automatically updated. Properties. Option New Available for: Assemblies. system col. Components. you will be given a choice of either deleting that item from the database entirely or only removing it from the present location. Delete All except the top-level of Assemblies • Rename All Any item can be renamed by entering a new name in the name text box. multibody. sets. If you want to entirely delete an assembly. Once created. component. and that assembly has children that are not present anywhere else. or beamsectcol can be created at the top level. those children will be automatically moved to the top level. Most items can be deleted.Context Menu Clicking the right mouse button on a folder or entity within the browser’s tree structure allows you to change a variety of options. vector col. system cols. or multibody can be created inside an assembly (activate the menu over an assembly). Materials. the item is automatically assigned a unique generic name that can be changed by entering the new name in the highlighted field. set. component. You can cancel the rename operation by pressing ESCAPE or clicking anywhere outside the entry box before editing the existing name. and groups cannot be renamed.0 User’s Guide 53 . Options selected in an empty space apply to the entire model. properties. property. Plots. • If a component or multibody is present in more than one assembly in the model. The options available depend on the entity that you right -click on. The new name must be unique. Description A new assembly.

plots. plots. materials. so that only this item displays in the graphics area. The card image of that entity for the solver template loaded will be displayed.g. groups. load collectors. cards. materials. Assemblies. which allows you to determine what entities display in the tree as well as the columns that the browser displays. properties. properties. components. components. load collectors. multibody. all materials.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . system collectors. beamsectcol All All Assemblies. In such cases. plots. materials. system collectors. groups. and properties. system collectors. This selects each affected item’s checkbox. so that only the top-most level of items displays. this hides everything except for the items within that branch. this hides all of the items within that branch (e. components. multibody. If a template is not loaded or if the entity does not have any card images associated to the loaded template. load collectors. Display the item in the graphics area. In such cases. properties. components. materials. load collectors. plots. and properties. etc. Assemblies. components.) Make Current components. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. all materials. A component. or beamsectcol can be made current using the pop-up menu. card. Opens all of the folders in the entire tree structure. and properties. In such cases. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. Configure Browser… 54 HyperMesh 8. Closes all of the folders in the tree structure. Used to quickly and easily isolate single entities. load collectors. groups. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. all groups. Opens the Model Browser’s Browser Configuration window.) Show Only Deactivates the checkboxes of all items in the entire model browser except for this single item. All Collapse all Expand all Show Hide Un-checks the item’s checkbox.g. plots. plots. etc. The current component is designated with bold font.Edit Card… All Any single item can be card edited. components. load collectors. this shows all of the items within that branch (e. the card editor is not invoked and the appropriate message is displayed. materials. so that the item no longer displays in the graphics area. materials. exposing every item nested at every level. all groups.

0 User’s Guide 55 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A checkmark indicates that the entity type will display in the browser. To select entity types manually. Use this window to change the columns and entity types that display in the model browser.Model Browser Configuration window This window opens when you select the configure browser… option from the Model Browser’s context menu. Separate tabs organize entities and columns. and select reverse buttons in this mode. You can also use the select all. choose the radio button marked select all entity types in the current model. select none. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired entity type. Entities Tab To show all of the entity types that the currently-loaded model possesses. click the Entity types: radio button.

select none. click the Column types: radio button.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A checkmark indicates that the column will display in the browser. 56 HyperMesh 8. Command buttons Once you finish configuring the browser. To select columns manually. click one of the command buttons to close the window and return to HyperMesh: • • Click OK to keep the new settings and close the window. Click Cancel to discard the changes (keeping the original settings) and close the window. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired column. You can also use the select all.Columns tab To show columns for all of the attributes that the currently-loaded model possesses. choose the radio button marked Select all column types in the current model. and select reverse buttons in this mode.

dyn contains 55 vectors. 296 properties. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Data. and update the contents of a model into various include files. edit. For example. It allows you create.Include Browser The include browser can be accessed by selecting include browser from the view pull-down menu. Each include can be expanded to reveal its contents. 55 system collectors. 116 sets. The browser can be configured to show only specific entities of interest.0 User’s Guide 57 . next to which appears the total number of entities of each type. You can select entities (using the standard Shift and Control keys) and drag various entities between two includes or between the master model and an include. An example of a model in the include browser is shown below. Each include file is represented with an icon along with its name and internal HyperMesh ID. Each of the folders can be expanded to review the individual entities in that folder. The Master Model is at the top level of the include browser. 55 systems. The contents of each include is organized (grouped) into folders containing each type. organize. is stored in the master model. the include named dummy. etc. review. in the above example. which does not have any references to an include file.

Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. The filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). Note: These buttons only affect the display state. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. Otherwise. and vector cols shown in the tree. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. and Reverse Display at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . groups. and vector cols. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. multibodies (not assemblies). Multiple clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). and Reverse Display as described under Global Switches above. an up-arrow button. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the include browser. However. click OK to close the list. system cols. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. In this way. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. and Reverse Selection. Display None. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. In addition. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the include browser’s tree structure. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. multibodies. a down-arrow button. in this case they are used for Select All. Display None .Global Switches The Display All . composed of a combination text/list Find: box. 58 HyperMesh 8. For example. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. components. . Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the include browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the browser’s own toolbar. system cols. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. Select None. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. with the same buttons for Display All. load cols. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. load cols. groups.

such as searching for whole names with matching case. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. with this option active. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). In other words. clicking third time finds match #3. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. To deactivate the option. rather than only part of the name. clicking again finds match #2. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. For example. In this way you can combine the search options. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. To find entities matching your specified string and options. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). or “RearChassis1”. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. type a search string into the combination box. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. In this way. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.To find an entity. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. for instance. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. For instance. for example. So. finding match #1 again. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. it is highlighted in the include browser. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. Since this function works in combination with the filters. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed.0 User’s Guide 59 . “FrontChassis”. select it again to remove the checkbox. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Make current When an include is selected 60 HyperMesh 8. Makes the selected include "current". etc. The new include is created at the top level inside the master model when no include file is highlighted while selecting this option.Context Menu A context sensitive pop-up menu provides many other include browser functionalities. Thus any new entities created in HyperMesh such as new elements. If a specific include is selected (highlighted). Delete the include file and its contents The second option deletes all the contents within the selected include along with the include itself. components. the new include is created within it. Deletes the selected include. contacts. Clicking on the selected (highlighted) include a second time also has the same effect. Delete When an include is selected • Rename When an include is selected Converts the name of the include into an editable text box ready for the new name to be entered. are automatically placed in the current include. Right click in the browser to invoke the following pop-up menu. Function New… When function is active Permanently Description Creates a new include. Prompts the user with two choices: • Delete the include file The first option moves all the contents of the include file into its parent include and deletes the include file.

or Case Control. the entire set of entities of a specific type.Move to current When entities are selected Moves all the selected entities (individual entities. Export an include… Export all includes Collapse Include Expand include When an include is selected Permanently Permanently Permanently Display only When an include (or master model) is selected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.). etc. etc. Expands all the branches of the include’s tree structure along with the various entity type folders (such as comps. The available options are: • • • name file name to be exported (absolute path or path relative to its parent include) Do not export flag (allows you to review the contents of an include but not export it). which subdivide their data deck into various sections such as Bulk Data. Executive Control. This flag is specific to some solvers such as Optistruct. Exports all the includes with their corresponding content (not the master model only the includes). or an entire include) into the include that is marked as current.0 User’s Guide 61 . Exports the contents of the selected include into the chosen file name. Collapses all the branches of the tree structure for the selected include. Option prompts you to select a name and browse for the file to be imported. Nastran. Includes that have this flag turned on display in the browser in italics. For the remaining solvers this option is not available. mats. Allows you to set the various options for a selected include. Clears the graphics region of any previous display and displays all the entities that belong to the selected include. Flag representing the section of the input deck that the include belongs in.. The contents of the chosen file are imported into include. Include file options… When an include is selected • Import include… When an include is selected Imports the content of a file into the selected include.

Select from a list of all entities (except nodes and elements) in HyperMesh. Edit card Enable/Disable When a control card is selected When a control card is selected Invokes the card image of the control card in the HyperMesh window. 62 HyperMesh 8. Two options are available: • Select all entity types available in current model Displays all the entity types available in the current model (default). • User selected entity types Allows you to select the entities that you want to display in the browser.Configure browser Permanently Opens a window that allows you to select which types of entities should be shown in the include browser.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Allows users to enable (turn on and export) control cards that have been disabled and vice versa.

locate the module button on one of the main menu pages and click the module button. the module. The main difference between the module and a panel is the additional menu layer. xy plots located on the Post page. contains panels that allow you to read curves. For example. A module may contain panels that are also found on the main pages. and scale the axis of plots. Note: HyperMesh does not make any special distinction between modules and panels.Modules Panels that are used to perform related functions are sometimes grouped together in modules. To select a module. perform simple math on curves. and are grouped to provide easy panel access without unnecessary navigational clicks. edit curves.0 User’s Guide 63 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

while popup forms allow you to quickly enter or select relevant information. Note: For the 8. You can also select individual items by clicking on them. but may not be active by default. Select it from the BCs Pull-Down menu to display its tab in the tab area. Display Options The display options lie in a toolbar at the top of the browser tab. refer to the topics below: Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles Other profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. 64 HyperMesh 8. Instead. or select multiple items by shiftclicking or control-clicking. Each control has its own function: Select all. When activated.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and control the way that the data displays in HyperMesh (which is the default behavior) or exports (when the Export state button is active). including a name filter that uses HyperMesh standard filtering syntax. with controls for altering the Display of the information and/or exporting it. the settings apply only to the current display. The Loadsteps Browser displays in its own tab in the tab area. it can be turned on and off. The information is arranged into a tree structure for ease of use. and then sync the browser with one click. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. Export state Sync browser Filter The main functionality of the Loadstep Browser varies depending on the active HyperMesh User Profile. Note that this changes the loadsteps’ export states. This allows you to perform many operations inside HM without performance issues. This button acts as a toggle. select none. A right-click menu accesses editing and advanced options. Use this feature to limit the tree to display only loadsteps whose names match a specific text string—either partly or completely.0SR1 release. the display settings apply to export of loadsteps. but not their visibility in the HM graphics area. More profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. When inactive. To alleviate this. manage and display HyperMesh loadsteps (sub-cases) and the associated control cards.Loadsteps Browser The Loadsteps Browser is used to create. the Sync button becomes active whenever you make changes to the current HM database. For large models. the Loadstep Browser does not automatically sync itself with the HM database. OptiStruct (OS) and Nastran are supported within this framework. reverse selection Use these to select the items in the tree. For help specific to each profile. keeping the browser in sinc with an actions taken within the rest of HyperMesh can require considerable processing time.

Note: When you first open the loadstep browser. accessed by right-clicking on the tree background or on individual or multiple items. MPCADD and SPCADD cards auto-managed. these options include: New subcase Edit options Edit card Delete Rename Renumber BCs Contour Loads Summary Collapse all/selection Expand all/selection Auto-manage load references Create a new subcase. organized into folders. Expands all selected folders and subfolders. This option creates a copy of loadcols with these card images and converts them into an auto-managed naming convention for easy editing/reviewing inside the Edit options popup. Rename the selected entity. Depending on the entity selected. LOAD. every loadstep listed in the tree has a small checkbox next to it as well as an export state indicator. This loadstep will not be exported. This launches the Loads Summary utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. The loadcols in the loadstep do not display in the HyperMesh graphics area.Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles The browser’s tree structure lists relevant control cards and loadstep information. MLOAD. either from scratch or by creating an exact copy of an existing subcase. this will bring up an appropriate GUI for editing of the loadstep or control card information. For the OptiStruct and Nastran profiles. Delete the selected entity or entities. There are many functions available. Renumber the selected entity. all of the loadsteps in the model default to the blank (unchecked) state. This loadstep will be exported. You can click these to toggle them back and forth: The loadcols in the loadstep display in the HyperMesh graphics area. or all folders if none are selected. Opens the OptiStruct panel in HyperMesh. Collapses all selected folders and subfolders. OptiStruct In addition. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 65 . MOTION. or all folders if none are selected. This launches the BCs Contour utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. This option is for users who wish to have existing DLOAD. Review the selected entity in the HM card editor.

A bold reference signifies that the load reference is defined. A tree structure lists the load references that are available for the selected subcase type. Note: This step is skipped when you create a new subcase! A popup window opens. Depending on the Subcase Type. To add a loadcol to the load reference. and select Edit options. • • • • 4.To create a new subcase: 1. allowing you to edit the subcase. To activate an option.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A green indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and is defined. Another pop-up window opens. This allows users to modify a subcase and add in references to loadcols that do not exist in the current model. When this option is active. the list will change accordingly. the new subcase is an exact copy of the existing one. The popup has several tabs to gather the relevant information. 3. Right -click anywhere in the Loadstep Browser and select New subcase. If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol does not exist in the HM database. 5. the list of appropriate Load References will change accordingly. Right -click on the desired subcase folder. Click create. depending on the card image or types of loads contained within. These references are also listed in the right table with a warning message to notify you that the loadcol doesn’t exist in the database 66 HyperMesh 8. check the box next to the desired option and fill in the required fields. To edit a subcase: 1. The table on the left lists the loadcols that are valid for a particular load reference. then pick an existing subcase to base the new one on. The table on the right lists the loadcols currently selected for that load reference. When importing a model into HyperMesh. allowing you to edit the subcase. • • If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol is not appropriate for that particular load reference. or any subfolder in the Loadstep Browser. select the loadcol in the left table and use the right arrow to add the loadcol to the table on the right. the Add <unavailable> load reference ID option is available. allowing you to: • • 2. a warning message appears to notify you. • • Depending on the load reference selected in the tree. A pop-up window opens. a warning message appears to notify you. In order to support this. Type in a subcase name Select the same as option. A red indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and requires attention. Name filtering is available by using standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. it is possible that the subcase may reference loadcols that have not been imported (they are in a separate include file). 2.

These buttons select loadcols from the currently active table. 7. Right -click options allow for additional functionality depending on the current selection. 2. • The Add <unavailable> load reference ID option allows you to add a reference to a loadcol ID that does not currently exist in the HM database (as described in step 5). To display a subcase: 1. Global load references are not checked on/off by selecting or deselecting a subcase. delete. • • All of the loads contained in a loadcol display regardless of their relevance to the load reference they are assigned to. or edit the card of a subcase: Right click on the appropriate subcase or loadcol. 1. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol.6. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 67 . use the all/none/reverse buttons where appropriate. Check/uncheck the display checkbox next to the subcase of interest. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. an entry box appears so that you can enter the appropriate information in the browser. The selected utility launches with the loadcols associated with the selected subcase automatically selected. For renaming and renumbering. To select multiple loadcols. instead of clicking on a specific subcase’s folder or sub-folder. Note: To rename. Select the desired option from the popup menu. It is up to you to organize their loads for proper display. Additional control is also available at both the Global Options and Subcase Load References level: 3. renumber. Click the Display button at the bottom of the Loadstep Browser GUI. 9. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. You must determine the appropriate loadcols to check on/off depending on the subcase type. 2. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. 8. To edit the Global Options of a subcase: Editing Global Options works exactly like editing a subcase. You can also launch the “BCs Contour” and “Loads Summary” utilities from the Loadstep Browser. except that the first step is to right-click on the Global Options folder or any of its sub-folders.

For example. MOTION.Loadsteps: Auto-manage load references This option is recommended for all users. LOAD. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has not been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. the loadcol is expanded and editable inside the GUI. the Auto-manage load references option is available. (The original loadcol is not deleted or modified in any way. The only way to modify the loadcol is via the card editor (right-click option from the editor GUI). and selecting the appropriate loadcols. Inside the Edit options popup. If the loadcol selected for the load reference already has the card image assigned (for users wishing to manually manage their loadcols and point to an existing loadcol with one of the card images listed above) no additional action takes place. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. However. a new copy would be created and named “autoSPCADD_1”. In HyperMesh. when appropriate. based on a fixed naming convention (auto<CARD IMAGE NAME>_#). if a load reference pointed to an SPCADD loadcol.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) 68 HyperMesh 8. However. Assign that new loadcol to the original load reference. Inside the Edit options popup. there has traditionally only been one way to create DLOAD. This option does the following: 1. assigning the appropriate card image.) • 2. MPCADD and SPCADD loadcols: by creating a loadcol.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) The global scale factor is not 1. many HyperMesh users do not want to be responsible for managing these load collectors.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . a loadcol is automatically created and assigned the correct card image when any of these conditions are met: • • • More than one loadcol is selected for the load reference One loadcol is selected and the local scale factor is not 1. To satisfy both types of users. MLOAD. nor are they always aware of their existence. Looks at each subcase and at each load reference. If the load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images indicated above. the loadcol will not be expanded or editable inside the GUI. it will: • Create a copy of that loadcol and assign it a new name.

Release the mouse button to access the panel. You can press the ESC key or click return to exit a panel. A description of the panel as well as instructions on how to use it display. You can also use the middle mouse click to advance through input collectors (yellow) or entry fields and then proceed to a function (green) or return (red). Note: Once a panel is active. press the "H" key or select HyperMesh and OptiStruct from the Help pull-down menu to display the help topic for the current panel. If you press a function button and the data is incorrect or required information is missing. advance to the next selection. and continue selecting or complete the operation. hold the mouse button down while the cursor is over the panel name. Each panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. Note: To display a brief description of the function of a panel in the header bar. Returning out of a panel means accepting what was performed on the model while using the panel. This cannot be rejected once the panel is exited. a message is displayed stating the error. Panels with multiple functions have sub-panels that display only those menu items that are relevant to the current operation. Using the middle mouse button allows you to make the required selections in the graphics region. locate and click the panel button on one of the main menu pages. Each panel has a unique title that describes the main function of the panel. Some panels contain several functions that perform similar tasks. This behavior is called rapid menu.Panels HyperMesh panels allow you to perform specific tasks by selecting options and entering variable data. thus reducing mouse movement. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To select a panel.0 User’s Guide 69 .

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Collectors .Sub-panels Sub-panel names are listed on the left side of the panel. and card image or dictionary. Only one sub-panel may be selected at a time. click the radio button next to the sub-panel name on the left side of the panel. Collectors .update sub-panel. 70 HyperMesh 8.create sub-panel. For example. on the collectors panel there are three sub-panels: create. To select a sub-panel. update. Each sub-panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform.card image sub-panel. Collectors .

Each panel contains input collectors. plane collectors. The green arrow buttons on the right-hand edge of the pop-up menu advance or back-track through the list of options: << < > >> Go directly to the first page of the list.Input Controls The menu items on each panel indicate the information that is needed to correctly perform the panel’s function. When you click a toggle. Menu items include: Menu Buttons The color of the menu button corresponds to its purpose: green yellow red Functions or executable items Collectors Return or abort Toggles and Switches Toggles and switches appear on many HyperMesh panels. toggle switch In some cases. When you click a switch. the menu item following it alternates between choices. a list of options is displayed. the list of options presented by a switch can be very long: In these cases.0 User’s Guide 71 . Most panels also have toggles and switches that allow you to alternate between choices or select options from a list. HyperMesh breaks the options up into multiple “pages” within the switch’s pop-up menu. and function buttons. Step backward one page toward the beginning of the list. data entry fields. Advance one page toward the end of the list Go directly to the last page of the list Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

click the input collector switch to access the pop-up menu of possible data types. by path follows the connectivity of the elements between the nodes selected.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if the nodes selected are not connected by elements. These selection options display for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. you can click on the collector to access a pop-up with the selections by list. If the data type is a node list. you can select multiple entities via quick window selection (hold down the SHIFT key and drag your mouse to create a window. by path. the function tries to find the closest path along the edges of that part. Allows you to select a few nodes that form a path and HyperMesh selects all the displayed nodes that lie in the shortest path of the nodes selected. Note: If the data type is a line list. An input collector contains a switch or toggle. a data type button. displaying a list of available selection methods. click the reset to deselect all selected entities. click the data type of the input collector to see the selected entities in the order in which they were selected. Extended entity selection window. If you select nodes on the edges of a part. see Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu. show node order by window 72 HyperMesh 8. by list by path Allows you to pick the nodes individually from the node list. Note: For more information about the extended entity options. See The Mouse for more details). show node order. and select the type you want to use. If you want to reset the entity selections. To access the options: • Click the data type button. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). Input Collector To change the data type. and a reset (|< ) button. An input collector is active when the data type button is enclosed in a blue rectangle. Allows you to view the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. or by window. The extended entity selection window opens. In addition to selecting one entity at a time on the screen. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are grayed out. this function does not apply.Input Collectors Input collectors allow you to indicate which entities are to be modified when a function is performed. The extended entity selection window allows you to choose various methods of selecting entities of a specified data type. Therefore.

the resulting vector is normal to this plane following the right hand rule. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. cylindrical or spherical. or a local system when one can be explicitly specified. and z-axis to define the first. only the items necessary for the current HyperMesh function will display. y-axis. N3 to define a vector (N1. and loads as well. This includes vectors defining coordinate systems. Either can be defined via the plane and vector selector—a group of buttons that work in concert to define planes or vectors. Choose vector to specify a vector entity (created in the vectors panel).0 User’s Guide 73 . the translate panel requires that you define the direction of translation. N2.The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. or B) to type in coordinates rather than selecting existing nodes in your model.N3). Note. just as a vector can be defined with a plane (the vector is normal to the plane specified).N2. Plane and Vector Selector Several HyperMesh panels require that you define a plane or a vector (direction) to perform a certain function. This coordinate system may be the global coordinate system. and passes through either N1 or the base node (if one is specified). • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The options available are: • Use x-axis. or plane (N1. For example. Double-click a node’s button (N1. however. as needed: The Plane and vector selector.N2). HyperMesh takes advantage of the following principle: a plane can be defined with a vector (the plane is normal to the vector specified). Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. Use N1. Local systems may be rectangular. it only works with surface edges and not with free unconnected geometric lines. or N3. while the reflect panel requires a plane for the creation of the mirror images of the entities selected. that not every item appears at all times. This selector is broken down into the following items. If you select two free (red) edges. N2. When defining a plane. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. switch The switch is used to select the method for defining the plane or vector. second or third axis respectively of a coordinate system in your model.

N1 and N2. Select a model vector (i.N3 and base). The resulting plane is normal to the vector. arrows that represent a local coordinate system vector or load vector). For example. The base node locates a plane normal to the chosen axis. N3. N3 option. if selected). The vector is the normal of the plane defi ned by the three nodes.N2. N2. Select two nodes. Select two nodes. N1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note that when using the N1. Select the x-. or z-axis. or z-axis and a base node. 4. y-. Some selectors may resemble the plane and vector selector. y-. A parallel plane can be specified by selecting a base point elsewhere in the model. 3. N1 and N2. Select three nodes. N2.B (base node) Use this selector to define the base node—the point in space where the vector or plane is located. N1 (or the base node. the following selector displays in the position and linear solid panels: This selector is used in these panels to map entities from one location to another. but serve a different purpose. local coordinate system vectors or load vectors). reset Note: Allows you to clear your selection (vector. 4. To define a vector: 1. Select the x-. N2. HyperMesh uses N1 as a default base node if no other base node is specified. The resulting plane is normal to the N1-N2 vector and passes through N1 (or the base node. selecting a plane of projection using the x-axis does not define the location of the plane entirely.e. and N3..e. 2. For example. N1. Select a model vector (i. Select three nodes. if selected) is the point on the plane through which the vector passes. 3. 2.. N1. To define a plane: 1. 74 HyperMesh 8. A base node provides the extra information.

click the corresponding menu item or input field (the menu item is placed in edit modea). the value previously assigned to the field is erased.e. the following keys perform the corresponding functions: ESC Restores the initial text or value displayed upon entering edit mode.). Note: If you need to specify the name of a collector for a data input field (i. After you click either the input field or the description. title =). Press the ESC key while the field is still active to restore the initial text or value to the input field. and the new character is placed at the far left of the input field.. respectively.0 User’s Guide 75 . Input field. A description of the type of input precedes the field. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. select another menu item. To cut and paste character strings. You can enter characters and numbers from the keyboard to modify the value. the text currently in the input field is highlighted. or click the input field a second time to access the HyperMesh calculator. HyperMesh removes any leading spaces contained in a character string. signifying that the input field in ready for editing. If you want to edit the existing data. and use the keyboard to enter text until the proper information is displayed. In edit mode. Move the cursor in the input field to the left and right. and BACKSPACE HOME END DELETE TAB To exit edit mode. When you type an alphanumeric character with the keyboard. press the ENTER key. or press a function key. Moves the cursor to the end of the input field. Deletes the character to the left of the cursor and moves the cursor one space to the left. You can cut and paste text from one data field to another within HyperMesh and also from data fields in HyperMesh to a command window (except in OpenGL versions). press CTRL-c. and press CTRL-v. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. Deletes the character which is above the cursor. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. press a right or left arrow key ( or ) before pressing any other keys. plot =. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. characters can be inserted or deleted at the proper location. Character String Input To enter a character string. The first character in a string cannot be a space. comp =. Moves the input cursor from field to field on the panel. click the menu item or input field a second time to select the name from a list of the existing collectors.Input Fields Input fields are used to enter text or numerical values. After positioning the cursor in the input field. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the input field.

Real numbers are displayed with a decimal point or in scientific notation. HyperMesh immediately processes the selection you have made on the pop-up menu and then waits for you to make more selections.000. click the menu item or input field a second time (the first click allows you to enter edit mode. you must make a selection before you can proceed. HyperMesh automatically displays the value in scientific notation. Calculator pop-up. To enter numeric data. In edit mode. you can either select a menu item on the pop-up menu or move the mouse outside the bounds of the menu. click numeric and function buttons on the calculator using HP-style reverse notation. HyperMesh truncates the number to eliminate the decimal point. For example. press CTRL-c. the second click gives you access to the calculator).Numeric Data Input Numerical values are specified as real numbers or integers. Some pop-up menus allow multiple selections. To use the calculator. When the pop-up menu appears. Pop-ups Pop-up menus are displayed when there are seve ral options from which to choose. the mouse cursor is centered in the menu and the menu is made active. If the pop-up menu has a border. To cut and paste numeric data. Some pop-ups are displayed with a border around the menu box and some have no border.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh displays integer values without a decimal point. click the corresponding menu item or input field and enter the value using the keyboard. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL.45. 76 HyperMesh 8. if you type 123e+1q1. the view pop-up menu (view on the Toolbar Area) allows you to make multiple selections.). use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. HyperMesh interprets it as 1230. If a real number contains three or more leading zeros after the decimal. You can also use the HyperMesh calculator to enter the value. HyperMesh discards input characters that are not valid numbers and subsequent numbers. and press CTRL-v. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. The pop-up menu remains on the screen until you move the mouse outside the bounds of the box. For example. If HyperMesh expects an integer value and you enter 123. If the pop-up does not have a border. and click exit to close the calculator.

you use the standard Windows file browser..0 User’s Guide 77 . based on the search criteria used. load…. The file browser enables you to navigate through the directories on your network to locate files. type. Look in/Save in This drop-down menu contains the overall directory structure.File Browser When you open or save a file using save as. File name Files of type Open (Save) Cancel Displays the folder at the previous level. Click Cancel to close the file browser. Folders and/or file names within the selected directory are listed below the Look in/Save in text box. It also displays the file that has been selected from the list.. write as…. Lists the file name. This field allows you to select the type of file you want to locate. Creates a new folder within the current directory. Click Open (or Save) to load (or save) the file shown in the File name field. This field allows you to enter the name of the file you wish to locate. Lists only the file name. You can open new directories from this list. browse…. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.. etc. import…. and last date modified. retrieve…. as well as the contents of the open directory.

type filename* where filename is any portion of the name of the file you wish to locate.ext where ext is the extension of the file type you wish to locate. For Look in/ Save in. specify the search directory. *.hm extension) in the specified directory. Or For Files of Type. All files ending with the specified extension are displayed. hm5.To search for a particular file extension: 1. You can also type *. 2. In the File name field. For File name.* to search for all files in the directory. select the file type from the drop-down menu. To search for a particular filename: 1. specify the directory to search. Press ENTER. 78 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Press ENTER. Type *.hm searches for all the HyperMesh database files (files with an . etc. type *.hm* for all HyperMesh database files with extensions hm4. 3. 3. For example. 2. hm6. For Look in/Save in. All files beginning with the specified characters are displayed in the files list.

such as Penetration Checks.0 User’s Guide 79 . CTRL Single click and release. Single click and release. Keyboard Left mouse Middle mouse Right mouse Single click and release. the pre-highlighted entity is deselected. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be selected. Aborts intensive processes. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Deselects an entity in the graphics area.The Mouse The mouse attached to your system is integral to HyperMesh and can be used in almost every aspect of user input. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Selects a new center of rotation. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. Fit the displayed model to the screen. Click and move. If you release the mouse. Performs selection operations on single entities. Single click and release. Some operations require pressing a keyboard key in addition to using the mouse. the pre-highlighted entity is selected Dynamic rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. If you release the mouse. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be deselected (removed from selection). Aborts graphics operations. Single click and release. Single click and hold. Click and move. Rapid menu allows you to use the middle mouse button to quickly perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. Selects a new center of rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes.

Single click and release. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. In entity selection mode . SHIFT Single click and release.CTRL Click and move. In entity selection mode quick window selection of entities.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: Single click and release. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window SHIFT Click and move. Click and move. Dynamically rotates the model. Click and move. 80 HyperMesh 8. Pans the model. In display panel – turn off collectors that are inside/outside the window. Zooms into an area of the model.quick window deselection of entities. In display panel – turn on collectors that are inside/outside the window. Click and move.

In panels where there is no clear sequence of selections. Some panels do not have function buttons and are repetitive. For example. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In such cases. select a few nodes for your first node list or line list. clicking the middle mouse button a second time repeats the translate + or rotate + function. The function button that is assigned to rapid menu is outlined in black. the middle mouse button repeats the chosen function as long as the entity collector is not reset to empty. N2 and N3 selected or may not have a magnitude value entered. For example. N3 vector option in the translate panel. the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel if the active input collector (yellow collector with a blue outline) is empty. But once you pick a node to create the line. resulting in an error message. If you click the middle mouse button after you select the required nodes. In panels where there is a defined sequence of selections (input collectors). rapid menu advances to the next collector. The rapid menu function is predetermined and varies between panels.Rapid Menu Rapid menu is a feature that uses the middle mouse button (a single click for each step) to move through a panel along a predetermined path. This allows advanced users to perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. rapid menu is assigned to the most commonly used function. if you pick two nodes. For example: in the hidden line panel shown below. For example. In these panels. In panels that contain multiple function buttons. an error message results. In panels that have pre-filled defaults. thus reducing "mouse miles". thus translating/rotating the same nodes again. in the translate or rotate panels once you selected some elements/nodes/comps and direction and distance of translation. the entities in the input collector are not cleared. collectors/create panel with a preset collector name creates a collector when you click the middle mouse button. For example. Since you do not have N1. HyperMesh performs the fill plot action when you click the middle mouse button. allowing you to use the same entities to repeat the operation. when you enter the lines panel. the middle mouse button may activate a function for which there is insufficient data. in the replace panel. For example in the ruled panel.0 User’s Guide 81 . using the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel. when you try to move nodes using the N1. In most panels. an attempt to perform translate + is executed. a middle mouse click performs the operation with the defaults. In some panels. For example. The rapid menu function can also vary within a panel. create becomes the rapid menu function. N2. it replaces one with the other and proceeds to repeat the operation with the new selection. return is assigned to the rapid menu. and then click the middle mouse button to advance to the second node list so that you can begin picking more nodes.

Keyboard Although most HyperMesh operations are performed with the mouse. Turn off the menus and display only the graphics window. from the main page menu. +. this opens help for that panel. You can also use the arrow keys on the keyboard to rotate your model. In addition. SHIFT key.a b c <ctrl>+<c> d f g h m o p r s t <ctrl>+<t> v w z Notes: 82 HyperMesh 8. press the key once and wait for HyperMesh to redraw the model before pressing the key again. you must use the keyboard to enter new file or component names or title information. Arc rotate Return to a previous view Center (spherical) clipping panel display panel Fill/fit model to window. The hot keys are the same as the letters on the menu. clockwise. When a panel is active. and reverse view Zoom by increments. -. Note that "+" is actually shift = on the main keyboard. options panel Plot Rotate Dynamically zooms in and out when you move the mouse up and down True view transparent components panel User View pop-up menu Windows panel Circle-zoom When you use the +. and CTRL key to access panels. Press "m" again to bring the menus back.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it opens the Help’s table of contents. there are several keyboard hot keys that you can use to access the viewing functions available on the Toolbar Area. The secondary menu uses various combinations of the function keys. but simply + on the numeric keypad. or arrow keys. You can press ESC instead of clicking return to exit a panel. global panel Open the Help. Rotate by increments Ctrl Incremental counterclockwise.

0 User’s Guide 83 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Mapping Keyboard Shortcuts Keyboard shortcuts can be used to map HyperMesh functions to keys or key combinations. You can customize the default shortcut mappings to create your own shortcuts for a variety of tasks. zooms and pans the graphics area view to fit the currently displayed model to the screen. when pressed. The keyboard option opens a free-standing window with a keyboard display. One example of this is the default mapping of the <f> key—which. Examples include: • • • • • • • Jumping to a specific HyperMesh panel Automatically performing a task using HyperMesh *commands Executing a macro The following keys are usable when defining shortcuts: Letter and number keys ("standard" keys) <ctrl> plus another "standard" key <shift> plus another "standard" key <ctrl> plus <shift> plus another "standard" key You can assign or remove a shortcut by selecting keyboard from the Preferences pull-down menu. so that you can quickly execute tasks that you use frequently simply by pressing one or more keys on the keyboard.

Creates PostScript file of the screen and spools it to printer. backspace etc. For example. right. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. enter the appropriate command(s) and if necessary the file name (for a tcl script) in the table area of the menu located below the keyboard diagram. The selected key highlights in blue. Remapping such keys to new functionality results in loss of original functionality. ctrl. Ctrl + Ctrl + F1 Ctrl + F2 Ctrl + F3 Ctrl + F4 Ctrl + F5 Ctrl + F6 Incremental clockwise. esc. up. shift. Next. alt. Examples of such shortcuts are: Incremental rotate left. Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. select the appropriate key by clicking in the keyboard menu or holding down that key on your keyboard. and some utilize functions which are only accessible via shortcut keys.Keys display in the Key-Command Mappings window with colors based on their mapping: To map a function to a shortcut key. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. such as tab. Generates a *. to enter the combine sub-panel in the element edit panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 84 HyperMesh 8. cannot be mapped. and down respectively. Notes • • Some special-function keys.jpg screen capture or animation file. Some keyboard shortcuts are mapped by default during installation. Those keys are identified with a different color: Use the hm_pushpanelitem command in a shortcut to jump to a specific sub-panel of a panel. • • Any HyperMesh command file commands can be mapped to a shortcut key. use hm_pushpanelitem {element edit} {combine} This will take you to the last used sub-panel in the specified panel. counterclockwise and reverse view Creates bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer.

*findmark elements 1 0 1 elements 0 2.0 User’s Guide 85 .shortcut mapping examples To create a shortcut key "e" that deletes all the elements in the model. } else { hm_usermessage "No beam elements in this model" } } In the Key-Command Mappings window. enter the following commands in the command field next to the key "E": *createmark elements 1 "all".tcl file with following commands: Proc displayonlybeams {} { *createmark elements 2 "by config" 60 63 set beams [hm_getmark elements 2] *clearmark elements 2 if { ![Null beams]} { *displaycollectorwithfilter(comps. To create a shortcut key "J" that runs a macro to find all the elements with jacobian < 0. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 1). 1.7" 0 To create a shortcut key "shift + K" that runs a macro to check whether any beam/bar elements exist in the model and display them only: Create a findbeams. To call the same macro. Enter the following in the command field next to the key "K". *deletemark elements 1. eval *createmark elements 1 $beams. *evaltclstring displayonlybeams In the file field. click the "…" button to browse to and select the findbeams.7: this macro already exists in the QA page of the Utility menu. To create a shortcut key "L" that accesses the lines panel. enter the following in the command field next to the key "J": *evaltclstring "macroElementJacobian 0. select shift from the Shortcut Key pull-down menu. "". "none". enter the following in the command field next to the key "L": hm_pushpanel {lines}.tcl file.

and upon completion. Entities selected while in the secondary panel are still selected when you return to the initial panel. to continue using the initial panel. When you use the secondary menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The default secondary panels are as follows: Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Note: Function key only hidden line delete replace distance mask element edit align node create node line edit check element geometry quick edit automesh plus SHIFT key color temp nodes edges translate find split project node edit surf edit normals organize smooth plus CTRL key print slide slide file print eps create eps file print b/w eps create JPEG file Function keys may be reassigned to different panels by using the build menu panel. or in combination with the SHIFT or CTRL keys. 86 HyperMesh 8. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. it interrupts the active panel and allows you to perform a function in the secondary panel.Secondary Menu The secondary menu is a list of panels that can be accessed by using the function keys F1 through F12.

mac geommeshpage.mac qamodelpage.mac userpage. etc. radio options. by using the arguments $1. Populates the QA/Model page of the utility menu. The menu is located on a tab of the tab area pane(s).mac file sources the following additional macro files: disppage. with optional arguments to pass The page number allows you to create multiple pages. $2. Attributes that you can change include: • • • • • The utility menu page on which the operations appear Text to be displayed on each control Location and size of the menu The help string to be displayed on the menu bar The macro to call when each control is used. passed to them from a control.mac file in their home directory. and are enclosed by the *beginmacro() and *endmacro() commands.mac in the current directory. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.mac Populates the Display page of the utility menu. This file defines the attributes and contents of the User page of the utility menu. it first looks for the userpage. HyperMesh runs it automatically to define the attributes and contents of the utility menu.mac globalpage. each dedicated to different tasks. Macros may contain any valid command file command. which allows you to create groups of standard reusable macros. Populates the User page of the utility menu. and text that have HyperMesh-supplied and user-defined macros associated with them. although only one displays at a time. The *callmacro() command allows you to call a macro from within another one.Utility Menu The utility menu allows you to customize the standard interface to include function buttons. HOME directory (UNIX only). The default hm.mac) controls the display and available operations of the utility menu. When HyperMesh starts.mac file in the directory from which it launches and then in the installation directory. UNIX users also have the option of putting the userpage. clicking one of these buttons opens the page associated with it. If it finds this macro. The utility menu includes several pages of its own.mac file may exist in the installation directory for HyperMesh or in the directory from which HyperMesh launches. and can be shown or hidden from within the view pull-down menu. to specify where the arguments should be substituted. Only one button can be depressed at a time. Macros may accept variable arguments. A userpage. Populates the Geom/Mesh page of the utility menu. Thus it is actually a group of menus. it looks for a macro file named hm. similar to the way that only one radio button can be active at a time—selecting a button de-selects all of the other buttons in the group.0 User’s Guide 87 . A macro file (hm. Creates the button group that allows you to switch pages. so that you can group the macros by type of operation. You may also select and run a macro file after HyperMesh starts from within the options panel. or the application’s base directory. When HyperMesh starts. Each page is associated with a button at the bottom of the utility menu.

However. it can also be dragged-and-dropped to the right -side explorer pane. you can turn the display of individual types back on as desired. Then. and a macro may not be called recursively. You can also mask and unmask portions of your model. The Geom/Mesh. It contains page selection buttons at the bottom of the menu. there is no way to cancel the execution or reject the results. or even by clicking-and-dragging the tab to the HyperMesh title bar. If you want to remove the Utility menu from the default screen display. until only the desired subset of entity types displays. with the current page’s button depressed. the utility menu will still be invisible even though you have it checked in the view menu. Note. if that pane is open. if the utility menu is on the right-hand tab area pane. By combining these features. simply check it in the view menu. but you have only the left-hand pane showing in the HyperMesh environment. For example. although it may be obscured by another tab such as the model browser or include browser. Note: While macros offer a great deal of flexibility. See the descriptions below for help with each type of macro. showing or hiding all 2-D elements. Disp Utility menu The Disp utility menu contains a variety of macros that allow you to modify the graphical display of HyperMesh entities in several different ways. you can restrict HyperMesh to only drawing a small sub-set of the entities in your model. in the Tab area pane. Chief among these is the ability to turn the display of individual entity types on and off—for example. The different pages of the utility menu are: • • • • Geom/Mesh (macros related to model geometry and FE mesh) Disp (Options related to the graphical display of entities) QA/Model (macros related to element quality and loads) User (user-created macros only) The utility menu displays by default.By default. if you wish. To restore the utility menu. turning off the display of everything except entities of type. however. and Disp pages contain a variety of macros that allow you to quickly perform functions which would normally take several steps. Default Utility menu The utility menu is normally located on the left side of the graphics region. and save additional model views. QA/Model. delete the * before the *enablemacromenu() command in the hm.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can also turn the utility menu off by clicking the small “x” in the upper corner of the tab area when the utility menu tab is in the forefront. You can turn the utility menu off completely (removing its tab from the tab area) by un-checking it in the view pull-down menu. but display of the menu is controlled by a command in the HyperMesh Configuration. the Utility menu displays when HyperMesh starts.cfg file. you must remember that once a macro is executed. 88 HyperMesh 8. You can also isolate only a specific entity type. that it still might not display if the tab area pane on which it resides is not active.

For example. These views function just like the custom views that you can save and retrieve via the user views function (accessed from the HyperMesh toolbar). such as elements or geometry. clicking all next to the 2-D label turns on the display of every 2-D element in your model. such as geometry. if you turn off the display of lines.Scene macros: These controls allow you to save and retrieve up to three additional views of your model. These buttons retrieve views of the model that you have previously saved via the scene (1. So. lines. clicking all next to the elements label turns on the display of every element type in your model. clicking none next to the elements label turns off the display of every element type in your model. and allow you to turn the display of different types of entities on or off. 3) save macros. These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. For example. Clicking none turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. Clicking Off turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. such as elements or geometry.2. Scene (1. Each broad category or sub-type has a text label on the menu. and solids). or 3-D elements. clicking Off next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every 2-D element in your model. such as 2-D elements or lines. but does not affect the display of 0. This enables you to turn off certain entities while retaining others. Clicking All turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label.0 User’s Guide 89 . These sub-types have buttons labeled on or off. or slot 3. Broad categories. 3) Save Scene (1. regardless of entity type. These broad categories have buttons labeled All or none. These views function in addition to the user views. The All and none buttons for this category literally affect every entity in the model. none On Off Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. such as 2-D elements or geometry points. For example. Clicking On turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. however. The largest group possible is labeled Everything. 1. surfs. 1. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. but does not affect the display of 0. slot 2. 2. 2. Smaller sub-types of entity. control an array of several related entities (such as points. even within the same broad category. For example. other geometry types (such as points) do not turn off. In other words. and always include any masks that you may have applied to the model. Display macros: These controls form the bulk of the menu. including its boundary conditions. for example. There are different categories of entities whose display you can turn on and off. such as 2-D elements or lines. or isolate the display of an entity type. clicking none hides the entire model. These buttons perform the actual display macro functions: All These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. are more restrictive. followed by 2-3 buttons. or 3-D elements. Toggling the display of these does not affect other entities within the same broad category. This allows you to turn the display of entire classes of entity on or off in one click.3) Retrieve These buttons save the current view of the model in slot 1.

either by way of the mask out macro or the mask panel. however. Temporary nodes are any nodes that users create during a HyperMorph session. hide. so that only 2-D elements remain visible. For example. Mask Out This macro automatically applies a mask to hide every entity in the model that does not currently display in the graphics area. etc. Note that these functions are accumulative. so that only the specified entity type remains visible. clicking Only next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every entity in the model except for 2-D elements. turning off all geometry. then turning on lines. as well as removing temporary nodes. however. results in only the lines (plus FE elements. that entities can’t be partially hidden—so while some of the mesh elements on a surface may be masked out. masking is based on entity location rather than entity type. Note. those lines would be revealed—but only a single row of elements. the surface itself will not be unless it is completely outside of the graphics display area. To exit the macro. masking allows you to reduce the number of entities drawn onscreen. such as rbe3 elements. or isolate the surfaces touching those lines. Select the desired lines and click proceed to show.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Comments Handle (located under the Elements category) refers to the text labels that appear on some elements. This macro reveals one or more rows of elements adjacent to the entities currently displayed. For example. The By Edge… macro (under Geometry à Surfs) allows you to turn off all surfaces attached to one or more edge lines. they should be deleted before the model is sent to a solver. if you isolated a model’s geometry lines. Like the display controls. Clicking one of the buttons for this option causes HyperMesh to display a lines selector. you can then add other entities to the view by turning them On one-by-one. Show Adjacent Elems 90 HyperMesh 8. for this reason. boundary conditions. then clicked show adjacent elems any mesh along . Click Clear Temp Nodes to automatically remove all temporary nodes from the model. rather than all of the mesh for an entire component. refers to the text labels for boundary conditions such as pressures and forces. multiple only commands do not work accumulatively.) displaying. either click proceed again without selecting any lines. if you choose to show only 2-D elements. The only exception to this accumulative usage is repeated use of the only option: since it always hides everything except the chosen entity type. Mask and Node macros: The final set of controls concern masking and unmasking entities. This allows you to view only the adjoining mesh.Only These buttons may appear for broad categories of entity or sub-types. Similarly. Clicking only isolates the entity type indicated by the label by hiding every other entity type in the model. Unmask All Clear Temp Nodes This macro removes any and all masks that you have applied to the model. Labels (located under the BC’s category). or press the <esc> key. These nodes are redundant because they must be created on existing geometry.

Depending on the tolerance you specify. The macro also creates the corresponding property card and updates the thickness. points may even project to multiple edges. This can be helpful to achieve uniform meshing with regard to weld points. etc. Scales a copy of a selected circular line to 1. You select a line whose length represents the solid thickness and a surface. and then projects those points to a concentric line.0 User’s Guide 91 .Geom/Mesh utility menu This menu contains a set of macros related to working with model geometry.5 times its original size. You can also review the thickness as a contour plot on the elements. Extracts a midsurface from a thin solid representation of sheet metal stamped parts. The other layers and thickness are then placed in a temp directory and masked. and displays a menu for entering the width of the washer. Its primary use cases are solid parts with varying thickness. This macro works only on the surfaces attached to the selected surface. and then trims this new line into the surface. as well as a set for working with FE mesh. Quick Tetramesh Fix 2nd Order Midnodes Add Washer Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This allows a higher quality mesh around circular holes. the macro determines the radius of the hole. Places four additional fixed points on an inner line. Improves element quality by moving the mid-edge nodes of second order elements. Two other options available are: 1) Create a rigid spider along the hole and 2) Enforce a minimum number of nodes around the hole. The geometry macros are: Preserve edges Project points Prevents specific edges from being suppressed during autocleanup or batchmeshing. You select a node along the hole. Isolate Surface ThinSolid=>Midsurf Washer Adj Circ Pts The mesh macros are: Auto Connectors Midsurf Thickness A pop-up menu that allows you to automatically create connectors and FE realize them from a master connection file. Projects free points to surface edges. The macro then creates a layer of washer elements around the hole and remeshes the surrounding elements to maintain mesh connectivity. which is part of either the inner or outer side of the solid. Assigns the thickness of a midsurface geometry to FE nodes or elements. creating a higher quality mesh. Quickly creates an automatic tetrahedral mesh while meeting the requirements for minimum element angle and element size. Creates a layer of washer elements around a circular hole in the mesh. by offsetting one side surfaced to midplane. with ribs (T junctions). This macro is intended to be used with sheet metal parts with uniform thickness and does not work for molded solid parts. Isolates either an inner or an outer surface layer (based on the user selected surface) from a 3D model.

if necessary. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Jacob (Jacobian) Warp (warpage) Aspect (aspect ratio) Max ang: Q (quad) 92 HyperMesh 8. it displays a message and leaves the model display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements against the maximum Jacobian value. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Length This macro checks all the displayed elements against the minimum length criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If any elements fail the criteria. Since the criteria on that panel are customizable. The element quality criteria used by these tools comes directly from the values entered on the check elements panel. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. the quality criteria used by these macros remains consistent with those used throughout the rest of HyperMesh—and can be indirectly adjusted by changing the settings on the check elements panel. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their aspect ratio. If any elements fail the criteria.Trim Hole Creates a circular hole (of a given radius) in the mesh at the selected node (as the center of the hole). Creates a bead of a given height and width along the selected two nodes and connects to the surrounding mesh. This is useful for reducing the model size by taking advantage of symmetry etc. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their warpage. If any elements fail the warpage test. If any elements fail the criteria. Fills the selected hole and remeshes the surrounding mesh to maintain connectivity. An optional layer of washer elements can be created along with a rigid spider along the hole.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the maximum internal angle. If any elements fail the criteria. This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that fill the hole. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Fill Hole Box Trim Bead QA/Model Utility menu The QA utility menu contains many tools to help you quickly review and clean up the quality of a preexisting mesh. Tools There are eight tools to isolate elements that fail certain element check criteria. Trims the model along user-defined trim lines.

it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the minimum internal angle. Note: Changing the criteria on this report interface does not change the settings in the check elements panel. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Brings up a user interface that allows you to set the various quality values and check the quality of all the 2D elements in the model. and uses the mixed element type. If any elements fail the criteria. They only affect the report.0 User’s Guide 93 . it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. two. Allows you to apply the smoothing algorithm to the selected elements plus one. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. The remesh uses the current size. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the minimum internal angle. Finds all of the elements attached to the displayed elements. Reads a generic Bill Of Materials file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM as well as the corresponding FE model. Find Attached Remesh Smooth Quality Report Model Tour Allows you to review (tour) the selected components individually. You can also export the results to a text file using save as. BOM Comparison Tool Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. The results are shown as the number of elements and percentage of elements failing each criterion. If any elements fail the criteria. It also displays a dialog that allows you to review the free edges of the component and any elements attached to the component. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). does not break connectivity. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Min ang: Q (quad) Min ang: T (tria) You can use the following macros to quickly modify any elements that fail the element checks. number of elements in that component and their ID range. two. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. This macro displays the component name. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each).Max ang: T (tria) This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the maximum internal angle. Allows you to remesh the selected elements plus one. If any elements fail the criteria. Split Warped Checks all displayed quad elements for warp exceeding the acceptable value. Each element failing this criterion is then split along its diagonal to form two tria elements instead of the original quad.

Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all connectors. these comps are un-masked. pressures. Since these buttons affect all loads. If masked. the numbers do not directly correspond to any specific values or ratios. Note that this only affects the graphical display of load indicators—it does not change the load magnitudes. If masked. Find Elems>>Loads Find Comps>>Loads Find Loads>>Comps Find Elems>>Connectors Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all load indicators.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . these elements are un-masked.The model tools included on this page are: Load Size These numbered buttons represent different display sizes for load indicators: 0 is the smallest. including forces. Automatically finds all loads directly attached to a selected component. these loads are un-masked. 94 HyperMesh 8. If masked. and so on. Automatically finds all components directly attached to any and all load indicators. If masked. while 3 is the largest. constraints. these elements are un-masked.

One BOM may contain more data than another BOM for the same program. For an in-depth description of the parts that make up the BOM Comparison Tool user interface and how to use them. Since users in different design and analysis groups use BOM information. Radioss-Block. and updates between design iterations as well as other CAE activities. model comparison.BOM comparison tool The BOM Comparison Tool located on the QA/Model utility menu reads a generic Bill of Materials (BOM) file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM and its corresponding FE model. and Abaqus user profiles. see the following topics: • • • • • • • BOM Comparison Tool Graphical User Interface (GUI) BOM Comparison Tool Control Section BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section BOM Comparison Tool Master Column BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The HyperMesh BOM Comparison Tool focuses primarily on the Excel format. assembly. BOMs usually use Microsoft Excel® format (CSV format) or XML format. property assignments. A BOM is often used as the master document for model meshing.0 User’s Guide 95 . The BOM reader includes the following abilities: • • • • • Reads a generic BOM file of CSV format (comma separated values file) Provides a GUI to manipulate data in the BOM and the corresponding FE model Provides an option to update attributes in the FE model based on the data available in the BOM Provides an option to complete the existing BOM based on the data available from the model Filters out all vague information present in the BOM and provides a feature to edit the vague information into a valid data and move it back to the BOM Provides a functionality to export a new BOM file Note: The BOM Comparison Tool only applies to the Nastran. LS-Dyna. the formats and content of the BOM can vary.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This section contains a table to display BOM info as it is seen in the actual BOM file. Contains master column selection. part of the tree section. Contains filtering options for displaying tree and table info. Contains options for metadata management. Contains a tree structure displaying part names and ids. 96 HyperMesh 8. Displays failed records from a loaded BOM file.BOM Comparison Tool GUI The BOM Comparison Tool’s GUI consists of seven sections as shown below: Control section: Tree section: Master column: BOM display section: Metadata display section: Failed records section: Display filter section: Contains menu items and buttons to perform various operations. This section controls most tool functions.

click Continue to generate the new file.0 User’s Guide 97 . or type a new header into it and Add them. If all are found. This option opens a new window listing the items to be added to the BOM file. File menu New Open Create a new session Browse for and load a new BOM file. or click an item already in the list and insert the new item just above it. Update the model attributes to match the BOM. Sometimes the BOM doesn’t contain all of the data you want. or generate a new BOM by querying the HM model in current session. HyperMesh checks for the standard headers Part Name. details populate the relevant fields in the BOM comparison tool. Save and Export Exit Edit menu Update Model Complete BOM Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If the corresponding model contains the missing data. Check Model Checks the model against the BOM. Material. and Gauge. You may also select items in the list and Delete them from the file. You can select additional items from a combo box. you will be prompted select the heading from the BOM file that corresponds to each standard header. This option switches the BOM Display Section to Comparison mode if it is currently in BOM View mode (see below).BOM Comparison Tool Control Section This portion of the interface contains drop-down menus and the toolbar. Invalid records can be edited to form valid data and can be moved to the BOM Display table. Only valid records from a BOM file display in the BOM Display Section’s table. If any are missing. Show Failed Display all the invalid records that the tool encounters while reading a BOM file in a table. Close the BOM Comparison Tool. Part Id. you can complete the BOM data by querying the HM database and extracting the data. Use the Complete BOM operation to either complete an existing BOM. Material Id. Once you had added or deleted all necessary entries. Save and export the current information shown in the BOM Display section as a new BOM csv file in a user selected location.

Same function as Edit > Check Model. Different: components in BOM whose standard attributes differ from those in the model.View menu BOM View Compare View Display section displays BOM info as it appears in the BOM file. Same function as File > Show Failed. • • • Same function as File > Open. In_BOM_Only: components found in BOM but not in model. In_Model_Only: components found in model but not in BOM. 98 HyperMesh 8. Same function as Edit > Complete BOM.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Categorizes BOM information into four sections: • Match: components in BOM whose standard attributes match exactly with those in the model. Same function as Edit > Update Model. Same function as File >Save and Export.

Apart from this there are filter buttons each one of which is explained below: (Select All) (Select None) (Reverse selection) Displays all the branches in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table Switch off all the branches in the tree and delete all the data in the BOM display table Switch on all the “off” branches in the tree and vice versa. The combo box remembers previously entered strings until you quit the tool.0 User’s Guide 99 . You can enter a string in the combo box. and can be used to filter the BOM info anytime in the session. select the desired header in the options menu. Filter options are given for displaying only the desired part info in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table. in brackets in the form of a tree structure located on the left side of the tool window. Each tree branch is associated with a row in the BOM display table containing all standard information for the part in the tree branch. the tool identifies the part name and part id of all valid records. It then displays the part names. This section also includes selection and filtering controls. to affect which parts display in the tree and which parts are selected or deselected. and press the <return> key to display the desired information in the tree and BOM display table. Data associated with switched-on branches displays in the BOM display table Switch on only those branches in the tree (and associated data in the BOM display table) that correspond to the displayed parts in the model (Show displayed) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section When a BOM file is loaded into the tool. appended with part ids.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The master column is the column in the BOM file whose attributes are considered as a key in comparison and validation operations. The master column data is used as a key for the following operations: • • • Update model attributes as in BOM Complete BOM by querying model Check model against BOM The tool allows three master column combinations between the BOM and the model.e. columns containing part id. i. part name and part number. The tool queries the data in the model based on any one of these column combinations: • • • Compare Part Id in BOM with Part Id in model: the tool compares the attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part id as the key.BOM Comparison Tool Master Column The central top portion of the tool window contains the master column section. By default information displays in BOM Only view: 100 HyperMesh 8. and Comparison. Compare by Part Number in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part number as the key. Only columns with three attributes can be used as master columns. located in the center of the tool window just below the master column section. BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM info displays in a table in the BOM display section. BOM info can be displayed in two different modes: BOM only. This section allows you to select the desired master column option. Compare by Part Name in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part name as the key.

Right-Click menu Right -clicking on the table opens a menu of functions: • • • • • • Display selected parts displays parts in the model corresponding to the selected rows in the BOM display table. mismatched attributes between BOM and the model are highlighted in light blue. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Use the toggle button located in the top-right portion of the GUI to switch to Comparison mode.0 User’s Guide 101 . Delete deletes the selected row in the table. remaining columns display the BOM info. Create metadata creates metadata of all the attributes of the parts in the model corresponding to the selected row in the table. which categorizes the BOM information into four categories: • • • • Match: BOM components whose standard attributes exactly match those in the model Different: BOM components whose standard attributes differ from those in the model In_BOM_Only: components found in the BOM but not in the model In_Model_Only: components found in the model but not in the BOM The screenshot below illustrates Comparison view: Column 1 shows the category name with the number of parts falling under that category enclosed in brackets. Display all parts will display all the parts in the model. Update metadata updates metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. Delete metadata deletes metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. In the Different category.

Metadata information contains all the attributes for a part in the model. After selecting a row in the BOM Display table. The tool considers the following five terms as standard attributes: • • • • • Part Name Part Id Material Material Id Gauge If at least one attribute is missing or repetitive.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . First row corresponds to BOM info. Click the Show failed menu item or corresponding button in the control section to see the failed records. update and delete metadata using some of the menu items on the BOM display table. This opens a Failed records table as shown below. the tool checks for the validity of each standard attribute in a record (a record corresponds to one line of info in the BOM file). the whole record is considered invalid and will be stored out-of-sight. The metadata display section contains four display options in the form of a combo box. You have the option to edit each of those failed records to make them valid and move them to the BOM display table using the Move button. and then use this combo box to select the type of information displayed in the metadata display table: None Metadata related to BOM All metadata Differences between BOM/metadata clear the table if already some data exists display BOM related metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display all the metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display two rows of info in the metadata table.BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section You can create. second row corresponds to metadata associated with the model BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section When a BOM file is loaded. 102 HyperMesh 8.

Use the lines selector to choose the lines you wish preserved. a new pop-up window opens to accept your settings: The following options are available for the Preserve Edges macro: Clear at start When this checkbox is active. Use the comps selector to choose the components whose boundary edges you wish preserved. When active. any previously stored feature lines will purge each time you click select lines or select comps. Thus. picking a new set of lines starts over instead of adding to the selection.0 User’s Guide 103 . The preserve edges macro provides a way to ensure that specific components edges and feature lines do not accidentally get discarded during autocleanup or batch meshing. However. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a line selector in the HyperMesh panel area. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a component selector in the HyperMesh panel area. Removes all lines from the preservation list. Note that this will not preserve lines inside the components—only the outer boundary edge. When you click the preserve edges button. Click this button to highlight the lines already marked for preservation. Select Lines Show Preserved Comps selection boundary Select comps Clear all lines Save preserved Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. this checkbox prevents HyperMesh auto-cleanup from equivalencing the boundaries between adjacent components.Preserve Edges Both the batch mesher and the autocleanup features seek to improve mesh speed and/or quality by suppressing minor features (which are assumed to be insignificant). Saves the preservation state. sometimes minor features are still important to your analysis. so that autocleanup and batch mesher will know which lines must be preserved.

Reset highlights After clicking the show preserved button. HyperMesh displays a target element size field. After selecting surfs and clicking proceed. have thickness information stored in their definition. The thickness data can be a single value for the entire part or a varying function.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Any points within this distance of the selected surfaces’ edges will be projected to those edges. 104 HyperMesh 8. using the same units as your model. only the visual highlighting effect is removed (until you click show preserved again). You can also review the contour plot of thickness data with this macro. The lines remain preserved. OK Cancel Accepts any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. Midsurf Thickness Geometric surfaces that represent the mid-plane of a solid part. Type a value into this field. Discards any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. the controls for this macro display in a new tab in the tab area. use this to select the surfaces whose edges you wish to project points to. Project Points Use this macro to project geometric points (such as weld points) to nearby edges. When you click the Midusrf thickness… menu button. Clicking this button opens a surfs selector in the HyperMesh panel area. use this button to remove the highlight from the preserved lines. if extracted using the HyperMesh midsurface function. The Midsurf thickness macro. allows you to transfer thickness data from surfaces to the associated nodes/elements.

Z-Offset Values Activate this checkbox to take z-offsets into account. the PSHELL T field will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). check the Z-offset values checkbox. the values will be updated on the element card for that solver. CQUAD4 T1-T4 and Zoff fields will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). This option is only valid for OptiStruct and Nastran User profiles. The components option performs the following generic steps for each User profile: 1.. macro: Apply thickness to You can choose to assign or view the thickness values at the nodes or on elements. The nodes option is valid for only LS-DYNA and ANSYS solvers.The following options are available in the Midsurf thickness. Groups the elements that have thickness values within the specified ranges into the new component based on the Range Interval or Gage File options. the zoffset (which is saved as part of the midsurface data) tells a solver how much of a positive-normal offset exists between the actual part surface and the midsurface: To assign Z-offset values to the element cards for supported solvers. HyperMesh uses Z-offsets when midsurfacing parts that have variable thickness. For each User profile. (For example. (For example. In order to execute this mode. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. so this value will always be populated on the element cards for any solver that supports Z-offset. Creates components with name “t[thickness value]” by copying the properties of the base component t0 and assigning the appropriate thickness based on the value of the Range Interval or Gage File options. Assigns appropriate thickness values to the Component. Use the Components option to group elements that fall within userspecified thickness intervals into common components. then assign the thickness value to the component property card image for each User Profile. 3. The t0 component definition will be used for all created components based on the Range Interval specified in the Component Organization Method section described below.0 User’s Guide 105 . Refer to the User profile section for more details on the unique behavior of the Midsurf Thickness utility for each User profile.. Use the Nodes/Elements option to assign the thickness and Z-offset values directly to the element cards. 2. Most solvers only have Z-offset defined on the element card. a base component named t0 must be defined.

Component Organization method This option specifies the thickness range intervals used when grouping the elements into components based on their thickness values.Thickness calculation method This option is valid only while applying the thickness to elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The thickness assigned to each created component is n*tolerance. Click here for details on the format of the gauge file. You can obtain the thickness value from the surface at: Average – the average of the element’s nodes. Gauge – You must specify the thickness range intervals in a Gage File. Range Interval – You must specify a thickness tolerance. n is determined by the maximum thickness in model divided by the user specified tolerance and then rounding to up to the next integer. Creates a contour plot of the thicknesses on the selected elements/nodes. This step does not assign the thickness to the nodes or elements. HyperMesh groups elements having thickness values within the specified range intervals into appropriately created components with the appropriate thickness values assigned to the component. Close 106 HyperMesh 8. Assign Contour Assigns the thickness from the surface definition to the nodes or elements chosen. Thickness range intervals are automatically generated based on the thickness tolerance using the following formula. You can specify thickness range intervals by two methods: 1. Centroid –the element’s centroid (interpolated from its nodes) Max –the maximum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. If the Assigned Value is not specified. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value. This option is very useful for visualizing and verifying the results of the Midsurf Thickness utility before applying the midsurf thickness mapping operation. • • • Lower limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* i ) Upper limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* (i + 1)) Assigned value = tolerance*(i+1) Where i = 0……n. Min – the minimum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. it is a review/display function only. Closes the tab. 2.

2. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. Change to your preferred User Profile. Pick the desired nodes. 5. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Load the desired model file. 2. To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Components Option: 1. 3. 7. 8. 4.To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Nodes/Elements Option: 1. Select a Thickness Calculation method. Change to your preferred User Profile. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. and enter any default values for this card. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab.0 User’s Guide 107 . Click the Proceed button. 4. Load the desired model file. 5. 7. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of thickness for the Node/Element option. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 4. Change to your preferred User Profile. Select the Nodes/Elements option. 3. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping To Contour Thickness for Node/Element Option: 1. Create the base component “t0”. 10. 11. 9. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 8. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. 2. 5. 3. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping. 6. 6. assign the base property card image. Select a Component Organization method and either select a file or enter a tolerance based on the method. Load the desired model file. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. 6. Select the Components option. 7.

Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. 6. Select the desired nodes. 11.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Activate the Z-Offset check box. 108 HyperMesh 8. Select the desired nodes. 4. 7. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Select the desired elements. Load the desired model file. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. Change to your preferred User Profile. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the components option. 10. Select the desired elements. Select the Nodes/Elements option. 10. 5. 3. 7. 5. Change to your preferred User Profile. To Contour Thickness for Components Option: 1. Select the desired nodes. 2. Click the Proceed button. Click the contour button to open the node selection panel. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. 2. 2. Select the Components option. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab.To Contour Z-offset for Node/Element Option: 1. 5. 9. Select the Components option. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Load the desired model file. 4. To Contour Z-offset for Components Option: 1. 7. Change to your preferred User Profile. 8. Click the Proceed button. Load the desired model file. 8. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the Node/Element option. 9. 8. Activate the Z-Offset check box. 4. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. Click Proceed. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the thickness for the components option. 3. 3. 6. 6.

Z-Offset value • Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.15 0. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value.2 Assigned Value 0.15 0.05 0. 3.05 0. Below is a specific example of a gauge file: Number of Gauges 4 End [max Thk] Assigned Value [Assigned Thk] Gauges Begin 0.2 Midsurf Utility Behavior under different user profiles Abaqus 1.1 0.15 End 0.1 0.Gauge file example The Gauge file uses the following format: Number of Gauges [Number of Gauge Data Lines] Gauges Begin [min Thk] … If the Assigned Value is not specified.1 0. Nodes/Elements Option • 2. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method. • • • Unsupported Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”.0 0.0 User’s Guide 109 . Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option.05 0.

• • • • • 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Nodes/Elements Option • 2. Z-Offset value • If Z-Offset is checked “on” Z-offset values from the midsuface will be retrieved and assigned to the elements associated to that midsurface. 3. The components option will group the elements with thickness intervals. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option. 1. • Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Components Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported OptiStruct and Nastran 1. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.Ansys The only difference between the nodes/elements and components options are that the nodes/ elements option will group the elements which match only exact thickness values. • • • Assigns the Thickness and Z-Offset values to the Element Card based on the user selection Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”. Nodes/Elements • • • • 2. 110 HyperMesh 8.

Nodes/Elements • 2. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Radioss 1. Nodes/Elements • 2. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Assigns the thickness value to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. • • • • • 3.0 User’s Guide 111 . • • • • • 3. Nodes/Elements • 2.Ls-Dyna 1. • • • 3. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported PamCrash 1.

you can select “sacred elements” so that the tetmeshing function closely follows the original geometry. For example. The surface trias from which the tetramesh will be extrapolated will be generated with angles that measure at least this many degrees. Its main objective is to quickly and automatically create a tetramesh that meets the minimum interior angle and minimum element size. the mesh may deviate from the underlying geometry in order to maintain good quality elements. Altair Engineering Minimum Tria Angle Maximum feature angle 112 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Use this control to limit how acute the resulting elements will be. The following options are available in the Quick TetraMesh macro: Volume Complist Double-click components and use the comps collector that displays in the panel area to select comps representing the geometry of the solid to be tetra meshed. Click proceed to finalize the selection.Quick TetraMesh The Quick TetraMesh macro quickly creates a tetramesh of an enclosed volume defined by geometry and/or elements. the features may not be maintained as they do not pass minimum element criteria. helping to better maintain the geometry. The maximum feature angle protects nodes on corners with a feature angle greater than the value specified. This macro is accessed on the Geom/Mesh utility menu located on the standard utility menu. if two nodes of an element share different features (as in thin steps). and displays in a new tab in the tab area. This applies only to cases where you can maintain features while fixing minimum element size. Surfaces and/or elements can be used to define the volume. During the process of quick tetramesh. To alleviate this.

Maximum reverse angle The maximum feature angle allowed between normals of adjacent elements. This determines the meshing engine used: the one used by the automesh panel. Choose between chordal deviation and uniform. All the cleanup steps are designed to improve the mesh quality. Minimum allowable area for any element. This is useful in ensuring that a particular feature is captured exactly the way you want it to be. If the feature angle exceeds the given value. even if doing so would improve element quality. ignores/replaces existing elements. in which the quick tetramesher is free to move nodes in a surface tria mesh to achieve better tetra elements based on them. Note that this setting overrides the float setting in the tet from option. no tetra elements are created and the macro simply goes through the cleanup steps for the shell mesh. in which the mesher must keep the tria mesh unchanged. The Batch mesher generally produces better results. Uniform uses identically-sized elements throughout the mesh. Some of the cleanup operations performed are: the suppression of free edges. Chordal deviation uses smaller elements along curves. When HyperMesh tries to move element nodes to improved element quality. Tet from Mesher Perform mesh cleanup only Help Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. but may produce lowquality elements along such locations. it gives special preference to trying to keep the nodes on a sacred surface. correction of sliver elements. Choose floating. feature lines.0 User’s Guide 113 . but only for the elements selected as sacred. No single edge of any generated element will be shorter than this. or fixed. two adjacent elements are considered reversed and actions are performed to correct the situation. Mesh size Minimum Edge Size Minimum Elem Size Sacred surface Sacred elements Mesh type Mesh Density The mesh type options are Trias Only and Mixed. splitting of elements. and always uses uniform density. With the Mixed mesh type. Note: this does not work if two adjacent surfaces are both marked as sacred! These are existing trias that you have created according to your requirements and wish to maintain while tetrameshing the part. The tetramesher will not move the nodes of these elements. and edges to improve accuracy. Average element size of the mesh to be created. both trias and quads may be created. Choose between automesh and batch. but does not currently support sacred surfaces or elements. but requires more computing time. Opens a pop-up window with basic information about each control that displays on the tab. or the one used by the batch mesher. When this option is checked. and projections onto the original geometry.

however. improves element quality by moving the midedge nodes of second order elements. Re-launch the Quick Tetramesh macro and select sacred elements to protect. Run with the desired mesh size.g. Minimum Ratio between the minimum and maximum edge length. Fix 2nd order midnodes This macro. or if mesh in certain areas is not satisfactory). 6. After making adjustments. and Maximum angle. In addition. Suggested process to effectively use quick tetramesh: 1. Closes the tab. Identify problem areas. For critical areas where you want to control the mesh such as bolt holes. Locate entities attached to the selected components. 4. Close Debug Surface Mesh The Quick Tetramesh macro meshes the unmeshed surfaces in the model using chordal deviation and fixes all the elements that fail the criteria provided. any surfaces edges that were ignored.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . manually mesh problem areas. As a part of the cleanup. These sacred elements need to be trias. moved midnodes lose any preexistent association with the underlying geometry. click this to re-run the meshing operation on the same components. Load the geometry. 3. Launch the Quick Tetramesh macro. 5. This helps to obtain the desired mesh in critical areas. manually mesh using chordal deviation. the tool heals small cracks in the model. You select the elements on which you want to improve the quality. this persists until you exit HyperMesh. Note: Moved midnodes are saved to your save list. Select these elements as sacred elements. 2. 114 HyperMesh 8. You can manually mesh some critical geometry and select those elements as sacred elements. Locate T-connections in the model. if any (e.Mesh Perform the quick tetramesh with the specified settings. and specify the quality constraints: Minimum Jacobian (evaluated at the corner nodes or integration points). located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Note: There is no Undo function! You can. A series of tools that help you located problem areas which can cause poor meshing: Find Holes Find T-Con Dihedrals Attached Try TetraMesh Locate holes in your model. attempt to remesh using different settings if you do not like the initial results. Locate features in the model that have feature angles greater than 150 degrees. Use the delete panel to delete the tetras then.

Typical usage of this utility begins with use of the check elems panel to identify poorly-formed nd elements. 2. Click the elems selector and select retrieve to load the saved failed elements. Click the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes button on the geom/mesh Utility Menu. Remember that this is a minimum length. or longer—but not shorter than half the length of the longer segment. A value of 1 represents perfectly equal segment length. nd In the Fix 2 • Order Midnodes window. you use the Fix 2 Order Midnodes utility: 1. nd Order Midnodes window.5 would allow the shorter segment to be half as long as the longer segment. and use the radio buttons to determine whether HyperMesh should evaluate each element’s Jacobian at the corner nodes or the integration points. choose your element quality constraints: Choose a maximum angle. This pop-up window exists independently of the rest of the HyperMesh environment. while a length of 0 would mean that the shorter segment might not exist—so this value must be greater than 0. the angle between the segments at the midnode will not exceed 180 degrees minus this value). so you can click-and-drag it to any desired location. and using that panel’s save failed option. HyperMesh 8. Specify a limit to the ratio of minimum and maximum length for the segments of the midnodebearing edges.0 User’s Guide 115 Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering • • Altair Engineering . The Fix 2 Order Midnodes window opens. See the screenshot above for an example using a value of 30 degrees. From that point onward. An element selector and proceed button display in the panel area. Click proceed. 3. nd The Fix 2 4. but no greater than 1. so a value of 0. The utility will move midnodes such that the angle at the ends of each segment will not deviate from a straight line by more than this amount (thought of another way. Specify a minimum Jacobian value.

Click one of the command buttons to finalize: • • • Apply tells HyperMesh to move the midnodes to try to match the criteria you specified. Close closes the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes window. Reject undoes any changes made when you pressed apply.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .5. When you click Apply. The images below illustrate the before-and-after state of a specific midnode and the criteria used. a message displays under the Results heading to inform you of exactly what HyperMesh did to the mesh. as well as the overall results: Before clicking Apply After clicking Apply 116 HyperMesh 8.

Clicking the Trim Hole button opens a special. or to vary from one another. with a nodes selector and a proceed button. measured from the node. and specifies whether you want mesh layers to all be the same width. only one row displays because all layers will be set to the same values. The number of a specific washer layer. Pick nodes on your model for the centers of each hole that you wish to create. You can also specify a number of layers of washer elements to include. then click proceed. If you chose varying width for the layers. creates a circular hole of a given radius in the mesh at a node specifying the center of the hole. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. temporary panel in the HyperMesh panel area. This is the number of layers of washer mesh elements that you want to surround each hole. Otherwise. No.Trim Hole Macro This macro. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. A new window opens: The options in the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window determine the type of hole that HyperMesh creates at each chosen node: Hole radius Number of layers Uniform/Varying Each node will receive a hole of this radius. the table displays one row for each of the number of layers that you specified. This toggle only applies when the number of layers is more than zero.0 User’s Guide 117 .

For example. Choose single rigid link to create one rigid element that connects to all of the nodes around the new hole. • Value Create rigid spider along the hole The scale factor or width of the layer(s). Width: specify a fixed width for each layer. When you click the Fill Hole button in the utility menu. This checkbox tells HyperMesh to create a rigid spider in each of the new holes created. • Scale: you can specify each layer’s scale relative to the Hole radius.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note: This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that currently fill the hole. If you don’t like the results of the last trim operation. Close Fill Hole Macro This macro. fills in one or more holes in your geometry with automatically-generated mesh. if necessary. evenly spaced around its circumference. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. a new window opens: 118 HyperMesh 8. Click this button to create the new hole(s). click this button to undo it. Note that this only undoes a single click of the trim button.5” for a washer layer that’s half as wide as the hole radius. Each new hole will be created with at least the number of nodes that you specify in the density field. use “0. so it can only undo multiple holes if they were created simultaneously during a single trim operation. and enables two more options: • • Choose individual rigid links to create rigid elements at each node of the new hole. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. Minimum number of nodes around the hole Trim Reject This determines the mesh density around the new hole(s).Scale/Width Determines the width of the washer layers. Close the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window.

Note that this only undoes a single click of the fill button. 3.0 and X=value (selected value). Click the yellow Select Nodes button. If you don’t like the results of the last fill operation. whether you chose to select your holes manually or automatically. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=ymiddle. Click proceed in t he panel area. allows you to trim the model (or selected subset) along the global axis to fit the selected 3-D box. and X=value and X=xmax.0 and Y=ymax. Close the Filling holes with mesh window. and X=xmin and X=value.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0.0. returning you to the main HyperMesh environment with a nodes selector active in the panel area. The Filling holes with mesh window returns. For example. 2. The selected model can be trimmed along eight standard types: left right front rear frontleft frontright rearleft rearright Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y=ymin and Y= ymiddle (ymiddle =(ymin+ymax)/2). Type a value into the entry field labeled Fill circular holes with radius smaller than:. and X=xmin and X=value. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y= ymiddle and Y=ymax. Split the model along global Y=0. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 4. The window temporarily minimzes. click this button to undo it. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=value and X=xmax. and X=value and X=xmax. so it can only undo multiple fills if they were created simultaneously during a single fill operation. Split the model along global Y=0. Select nodes on the edges of the holes that you wish to fill. Automatic Use this option to let HyperMesh select holes automatically based on size.0 User’s Guide 119 .0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=0. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Split the model along global Y=0. Fill Reject Close Box Trim Macro The Box Trim macro. HyperMesh will automatically scan you model for holes smaller than this value. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=xmin and X=value. Click the Fill button to fill the selected holes with mesh. and attempt to fill them with mesh.0 and Y=ymax. Click this button to perform the fill operation. a full car model can be trimmed along the Y=0 axis to obtain the left or right side of the car. with the Select Nodes button now green to indicate that nodes have been chosen.There are two methods of filling holes: Manual Use this option to select the holes that you wish to fill: 1.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .This macro is useful in applications where some types of analysis can be performed on one-half (or quarter) of the model using symmetry boundary conditions. Note: This macro is for the 1st order plate elements only. e The model can also be trimmed using custom box by either selecting the two corner nodes or center node and dimensions. The axis directions and terminology are based on modeling standards in the automotiv industry. 120 HyperMesh 8.

the constraints are created in the current load collector. If you select custom. Delta Y and Delta Z values which is the distance from the center node to the outer bounds of the box in global X. If no elements are selected. . If you select Corners. 4. If you select a standard type. You can also specify a Box collector. If no load collector is specified. (Reject will undo all the above. The nodes are constrained in the appropriate directions depending on the trim axes and are stored in the specified load collector (SPC collector). Click Trim. From the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Using the extended entity selection. 3. 6. select the elements you would like to trim and click proceed or the middle mouse button. Y and Z bounds of the box. . and select the center node. click the icon. choose the appropriate option from the Box trim type: menu. A large hexa element that represents the box will be created for visualization in the specified collector.To box trim a model: 1.0 User’s Guide 121 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Then enter Delta X. From the Box Trim dialog. all displayed elements are selected. the outer X. and select the two corner nodes that define If you select Distance from center.) 5. click the icon. click Box Trim. define the box by either selecting two corner nodes (Corners) or selecting the center node and dimensions (Distance from center). You can turn on the option of creating constraints (SPCs) for all the nodes along the face of the box. 2. Y and Z directions. select the node/enter value for trim location.

The Auto Connectors macro automates the importation and FE realization of connectors from either a Master Connectors File or an older Master Weld File.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Auto Connectors Macro Note: If you are unfamiliar with HyperMesh connector entities. Virtually every option available for FE realization in the connectors module is also available in the Auto Connectors macro. Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog 122 HyperMesh 8. refer to Connector Definition and Connector Realization for more information.

Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog . This script automatically reads the default HyperMesh feconfig. the user-defined FE type-t o-realize is required.cfg file) in the Fe type field.0 User’s Guide 123 . The user-defined FE type definitions can be found in the appropriate feconfig. The property and diameter can be specified if necessary.cfg file and displays a list of all the appropriate user-defined FE types (found in the feconfig.cfg file. Additional options are: • • • Build systems Snap to node Attach to shells Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.user-defined option Input requirements for connector entity creation and FE realization are: • • • Note: Master connectors/weld file FE config Projection tolerance In the case of a user-defined FE config.

0 for the thickness range of 1. The length of the Hexa element will be equal to the actual distance between the two connecting components/elements.Master Weld Files The Master Weld File provides the weld location and parts to be connected.25:: 3.05:: Y 2. A format example is shown below.25:: PartId1 2:: 2:: PartId2 3:: 3:: 5:: PartId3 The syntax is the same as used for spotweld. This creates the Hexa elements between the component/element shell surface. The nugget diameter corresponding to the minimum thickness of the connecting parts is obtained from the DvsT file. Diameter vs.25: 3. The size of the hexa is calculated to match the cross-sectional area of the weld nugget. Th e solid element is created at the exact weld location independent of the shell elements that represent the sheet metal parts.9 3.99.25:: Z 1. see Spotweld Interface Overview. The file format includes thickness range and the corresponding diameter of the weld nugget. Minimum thickness 1.exe feinput translator. For additional supported formats.0 Nugget diameter 7 8 The nugget diameter is 7. The second figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method. The weld is defined using a solid (HEXA) element whose cross-sectional area is equivalent to the area of the weld nugget. ACM Welds An ACM (Area Contact Method) weld is a special representation of a spot weld. The size of the solid element is determined using the DvsT file. The length of the weld element is calculated using one of the following methods: (T1+T2)/2 This creates the Hexa elements with a length equal to the average component thickness it is connecting. These solid elements are connected to the corresponding components using RBE3 elements. Project to shell 124 HyperMesh 8.4 2.4 to 1.0:: 0. Thickness Files DvsT file (diameter vs thickness ) contains a table that associates the thickness of components and the nugget diameter of the weld. PointId 12:: 23:: 1t/2t/3t 2:: 3:: X 2. The first figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method. T1 and T2 are the component thicknesses.0 Maximum thickness 1. The equivalent area is taken to determine the side of the hexa.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

The figures below show ACM created using the two currently available methods. The nodes of the shell element closest to the dependent node are assigned a greater weight relative to the node that is farther away.0 User’s Guide 125 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. ACM creation using (T1+T2)/2.0 option ACM creation using Project to Shells option The weights of the RBE3 elements are calculated based on the projection of the dependent node on the shell element.

8. 9. 6. Select the connectors to be realized as ACMs in the fe realize panel of the connectors module on the 1D page. CWELD Elements CWELD elements are created as patch-patch. 3. meshless elements. Select a DvsT file. Once a connector is created.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For details regarding connected shell elements or nodal information see the element card. which determines the size of the hexa based on the thicknesses of the components being connected. Load the Nastran user profile from the user prof… panel in Geom or Tools page. 5. In addition to the creation of CWELD elements. 2. Set the appropriate tolerance (proj tol=) value. Make sure the attach to shell and snap to node options are turned off in fe options…. 7. If no DvsT file is selected. they can be realized as ACM spotwelds as follows: 1. Choose custom element config and select type = Nastran 70 ACM((T1+T2)/2) or type = Nastran 71 ACM (Shell Gap) per your requirements. a corresponding property card (PWELD) is created with an updated diameter ‘D’ attribute value. The appropriate property script is automatically loaded for the selected type. the diameter is determined from a DvsT file based on the component thickness. Click realize. Make sure all the connecting parts have PSHELL cards with correct thicknesses.0. hexas are created with weld nugget diameter =1. 126 HyperMesh 8. For CWELD elements. 4. The 1D element is not connected to the shell element.ACM welds can be created and managed in HyperMesh using connectors. Make sure that the connectors are created at each of the weld locations along with connecting parts information.

User profiles for the following products are included: HyperMesh OptiStruct ABAQUS ACTRAN ANSYS LS-DYNA MADYMO NASTRAN PAM-CRASH & PAM-CRASH2G PERMAS RADIOSS CFD Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Ansys. Nastran. Select User Profiles from the Preferences pull-down menu. LsDyna. Radioss. Once you choose a standard user profile.User Profiles The HyperMesh user interface can be configured according to your specific needs and saved as a user profile. OptiStruct. The current user profile displays on the header bar. Moldflow. loading a specific Utility menu. however. A set of standard user profiles is included in the HyperMesh installation. The hmmenu.0 User’s Guide 127 . and an interface customized for CFD uses. HyperMesh. and removing. removing unused panels or sub-panels. Madymo. Pamcrash. The configuration can include loading a specific template.they do not affect the internal behavior of each function. the appropriate template and Utility menu load (you can return to the standard HyperMesh GUI by selecting the HyperMesh profile). or renaming panel options. renaming panels. Note: Ensure that items required for a specific function are not removed from the interface. They include Abaqus. Actran. moving. Permas. add functions to (or remove them from) a panel.set file keeps track of which user profile was last loaded. They may. Note that the user profiles change the appearance of a panel .

Utility menu: Panel changes: The standard HyperMesh Utility menu is loaded. If a template file exists before loading the profile. The standard HyperMesh Utility menu (hm. the template remains the same. the template remains the same. If a template file exists before loading the profile. None The HyperMesh user profile does not load a template.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .HyperMesh User Profile Template: None/Unchanged This user profile does not load a template. Using HyperMesh This section explains how to use a typical HyperMesh panel by description and example.mac) is loaded. It contains information about: • • • • • • • • • • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Input Collectors Viewing Models Using the Display Panel Setting View Options Setting Tolerances Setting Global Parameters Importing and Exporting Data Printing Screen Images Using the Card Previewer 128 HyperMesh 8.

. To save a database. and Save As… options located in the Files pull-down menu. but can be less efficient than using the File menu. you can also use the hm file sub-panel on the files panel to save and retrieve HyperMesh binary databases.Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Using the File pull-down menu The simplest way to open or save a HyperMesh model database is to use the Open. Save simply saves the current model under its current name. click retrieve.0 User’s Guide 129 . open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. or type in a name for the file to be saved. You can also click save as. Next.0 and earlier. and click Open. If the file being saved already exists. select a path and file name. Open and Save As… both invoke browsers so that you can navigate to the desired file directory and either select a file to open.. Save. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. Using the Files Panel However. and then select the hm file sub-panel. and click Save. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and then select the hm file sub-panel...... click save. Next. HyperMesh asks for confirmation before overwriting the file. This process is familiar for users of HyperMesh 7. dialog.. updating/overwriting its older version each time you Save. To retrieve a binary HyperMesh database. select a file using the Open file.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Line handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. You can set the default mode for the graphics mode you wish to use by activating/deactivating the *graphicengine(mode) command in the hm. Components do not have pick handles. The following list indicates the pick handle locations for each type of entity: Nodes The pick handle for a node is located at the node.cfg command file. you can use the mouse to pick the desired entities in the graphics area of the screen. Systems 130 HyperMesh 8. Each type of entity has a pick handle that allows you to select the entity. see Entity Selection. You may need to change the command if the default has been changed by a prior user. 1-D element pick handles are displayed as letters at the centroid of the elements: K M BAR2 BAR3 R RL W RBE3 J ROD GAP spring masses bar2 bar3 rigid rigid link weld rbe3 joint rod gap Click the element handles check box on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel to switch on or off the display of element handles. Surfaces Components Surfaces do not have pick handles. If you need to select nodes on geometry or on an element where nodes do not currently exist. see Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements. line. Elements Shell and solid element pick handles are displayed as pixels at the centroid of the element. a "+" is displayed at only some of the pick handles. move the mouse to the location on the screen where the node resides. Element handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. or surface within that component. Note: For more information about picking entities. Click geom handle on the modeling sub-panel on the options subpanel to switch on or off the display of line handles.Picking Entities on the Screen After you select the correct data type." If there are many pick handles. The pick handle for a coordinate system is located at the origin of the system. Each pick handle is displayed as a small "+. A component can be selected by picking an element. Surfaces can be selected along their edges or on interior UV lines (also known as surface lines). To select a node. Lines Each segment of a line has pick handles along its length.

To select a load collector.0 User’s Guide 131 . Titles Vectors Curves Note A title can be selected by picking within its bounding box. To select a system collector. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Blocks are drawn in shaded mode with transparency and can be selected by picking anywhere on the entity. Blocks do not have pick handles.System Collectors Loads Load Collectors Plots Blocks System collectors do not have pick handles. A plot can be selected by picking within its border. you can turn on the coincident picking option from the modeling sub-panel of the options panel (accessed from the toolbar). or loads. To facilitate the selection of graphical entities such as nodes. A curve can be selected by clicking anywhere along the curve. when several of them are coincident (present at the same location). elements. simply select a system within that system collector. simply select a load within that system collector. The pick handle for a load is located at the pick handle of the entity to which the load is applied. Vector pick handles are located at the arrow tip of the vector. Load collectors do not have pick handles.

While the line or surface is highlighted in this manner. 2. Release the left mouse button. you can select nodes at the desired location(s) on the geometry. Position the cursor on a node and press the left mouse button. To select new nodes on elements: 1. You can create nodes on elements by holding the left mouse button down on an element handle until the cursor becomes a square and selecting the element.Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements Node and node list input collectors allow you to not only pick existing nodes in the model. release the left mouse button to select it. Continue to hold the left mouse button down and use the mouse to move this special cursor box close to the desired geometry entity. edges. While the line/surface is highlighted.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 4. To select new nodes on geometry: 1. You can create temporary nodes on an element (similar to creating a node on the fly on a line or surface). 3. The cursor becomes a small white box and the element is highlighted. Move your cursor to the exact location on the element where you want to add a node and click the left mouse button. 132 HyperMesh 8. A temporary node is created at that location and is selected in the node collection for the panel. they also allow you to create new nodes on geometry or on elements. The cursor becomes a small white box 2. position the cursor on an element handle and hold the left mouse button down. surfaces) on which you would like to place a node. 3. This function can be accessed from any node collector in any panel. When you are in a node collection mode. Then move your cursor to the exact location on the geometry where you would like the node to be placed and click the left mouse button to place a node. You can create a node on geometry by holding the left mouse button down along the geometry handle until the cursor becomes a square and then selecting the geometry (lines. Then move the cursor to the exact location on the elements of that component and click the left mouse button to place the node. . This function allows you to create welds at locations that do not have pre-existing nodes.

HyperMesh includes the entities currently displayed that are attached to the entities already selected. Allows you to select elements. When you select by adjacent. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are displayed in dimmed text. When you select by assems. When you select by attached. When you select all. When you select by collector. If you select component collectors in regard to elements or lines. You may select multiple assemblies from this list. vectors. the set to be added to the user mark includes entities displayed and those not displayed. Extended selection techniques are described in the following table: all Allows you to select all entities of the specified type.0 User’s Guide 133 . equations. With all other entities. the entities selected by this operation are those attached to the selected component. Input Collector Extended entity selection menu. Allows you to select entities by assembly. Entities that are not displayed will not be selected although they may be attached to the entity selected. HyperMesh displays a list of the available collectors. Allows you to select entities adjacent to the entities already selected. These selection options are displayed for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. surfaces. Allows you to select entities by specifying an entity among a large group of continuously connected elements. coordinate systems. click the data type button on the current input collector. You can then select an option from the extended entity selection menu. the elements or lines contained in the selected components are selected. loads. You may select multiple collectors from this list. lines. To access the extended selection menu. HyperMesh displays a list of the available assemblies. by adjacent by assems by attached by collector Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and points by collector. HyperMesh includes the entities that are adjacent to the entities already selected.Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu The extended entity selection menu provides a number of entity selection options.

HyperMesh displays a list of the available includes that you may select. Note: Includes created via the include browser are only valid for solvers that support them. groups and mats within an outputblock.100 by 2. HyperMesh displays a list of the available output blocks from which you may select. "thru". comps. systs. The standard format is: <start number> .by config Allows you to select elements by configuration and type. adjacent surfaces or elements are progressively selected when the angle between them is less than or equal to the specified feature angle. 800. The feature angle parameter in the options panel’s modeling sub-panel determines the feature lines. elements. You can use keywords to specify a range that determines which entities are selected.<end number> by <increment value> "through". 5. groups etc. You may select multiple groups from this list. by output block Allows you to select the nodes. When you select by config. 4. 100 3. Examples of valid lists of by id expressions: 1. When you select by output block. 850 1 . HyperMesh displays a panel for specifying an element configuration and type for selection. The element type is dependent on the template file specified in the global panel. a pop-up window prompts you to type ID numbers or ranges of ID numbers. When you select by include. When you select by group. HyperMesh displays a list of the available groups. When you select by id. Allows you to select entities by surface face. Allows you to select entities by group. loads.2000 by 100 1000 . 5. 8 . that belong to selected include. 77. Examples of valid by id expressions: 127 127 – 722 300 through 600 300 thru 600 300 t 600 1000 . Output blocks are created in the output blocks panel.10. 134 HyperMesh 8. or "t" may be substituted for the dash (-). 400 t 500 b 3 by face by group by id by include Allows you to select FE entities such as elements. Allows you to select entities by typing in their ID numbers. 3. Attached.2000 b 100 You can also use a comma to separate individual entities or entity ranges. It finds surfaces and elements that are attached to each other without crossing a feature line. and the letter "b" may be substituted for "by" when you specify the range.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

When disp is selected. Allows you to select the entities within a set. a pop-up window allows you to choose a component for the newly created duplicate entities. Allows you to select surfaces by width. by path for lines uses the connectivity of surfaces/solids and thus requires the selected lines to be surface/solid edges. click select and HyperMesh selects the entities which are associated to the surfaces. Allows you to select all of the entities currently displayed on the screen. and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. Select points in the graphics area to define a window enclosing the pick handles of the desired entities. by sets by surface by window by width displayed duplicate on plane retrieve Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Similarly. When you select by surface. Alternatively. Once the surfaces have been selected. surfaces. Selecting by window activates the build window panel. or points. When you select duplicate. and selects all the nodes/lines that fall in the closest path connecting the selected ones. all entities within collectors that are active in the disp (display) panel are selected. the function tries to find the closest path along that free edge. HyperMesh displays a list of the available sets from which you may select. Allows you to retrieve previously saved entities from the user mark. Select current to place the new entities in the currently active component collector. Allows you to select entities inside a user-defined multiple-sided polygon in the plane of the screen. You can associate entities to a surface in the node edit panel. Entities can be saved to the user mark by selecting save in this popup window. click reject entities to deselect enclosed entities that were previously highlighted. When you select by sets. as shown in the global panel.0 User’s Guide 135 . lines. This is useful when you want to apply constraints to a plane. The initially selected entities are deselected when the duplicate elements are created and selected. If you select two nodes on a free edge of some elements. HyperMesh displays a panel from which you may select one or more surfaces. or by selecting save failed in the check elems panel. Allows you to select the entities which are associated to a surface. either by picking a sample surface or by specifying a range of values for the width. Allows you to duplicate the currently selected elements. Click select entities to highlight the enclosed entities. This can be very useful when you use the reflect function on a model (only available for elements and lines). Allows you to select a group of entities whose pick handles reside on a plane. Select original to place the new entities in the same component collectors as the original entities. Sets are created in the entity sets panel.by path Allows you to pick multiple nodes or lines. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes.

The nodelist collector displays the following extended selection options: save Notes: by list by path Allows you to select nodes individually in the desired sequence. show node order by window The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. all elements which are not on the mark and are currently active are selected. such as nodelist and linelist must remember the sequence in which the entities are selected.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . for example. all selected elements are removed from the mark. Allows you to save the currently selected entities to a holding area known as the user mark. Some collectors. If you select two nodes on the free edge of the elements. origin in the systems panel requires only one node. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally. the function tries to find the closest path along the free edge. Allows you to review the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. it only works with surface edges and not free unconnected geometric lines. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. 136 HyperMesh 8. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. Some panels in HyperMesh require only a single entity to collect.reverse Allows for a Boolean "not" to be performed on the currently displayed elements. If you select two free (red) edges. Allows you to pick nodes (two or more) and selects all the nodes that fall in the closest path connecting the selected nodes. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). Thus their extended entity selection menu is different from that of the standard extended selection menu. The extended entity selection menu is not displayed in such situations. When reverse is selected.

• • • Use the left. The following window viewing options are included as default keyboard shortcuts: z + and f p s Circle zoom: click-and-drag the mouse to draw a circle. and refresh the screen. identify. The view menu Changing the Window The window viewing options allow you to zoom in and out of the currently displayed window. reverse the view. Release the mouse button to stop zooming. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The view commands are accessible even when you are using other panels.0 User’s Guide 137 . and restore different views of your model. right. then click-and-drag on the model in the graphics area. The view zooms to that circle when you release the mouse button. The viewing functions allow you to: Setting Basic Views The view pop-up menu allows you to display your model in several basic views. Hold down the ctrl key. or rotate the model in clockwise or counterclockwise directions. and down arrow keys to rotate the model incrementally. Using View Rotation There are multiple methods you can use to rotate a displayed model. Click the user view button in the Toolbar Area to access the view menu. fill the window with the model. View pop-up menu. specify an area to see in closer detail. The save and restore options allow you to save.Viewing Models The functions on the Toolbar Area allow you to control the view of your model. click-and-drag the mouse to zoom in and out. (Numeric keypad) Current Window Zoom Fit to screen Plot (refreshes the rendering in the Graphics Area). then click cw (clockwise) or ccw (counterclockwise). up. Slide zoom.

Press + on the numeric keypad to zoom in. Automatic full screen refreshes are kept to a minimum.CTRL . Move the mouse to the appropriate area on the screen and hold the left mouse button down. With the mouse button still depressed. down to zoom in up to zoom out Release the mouse button to end the zoom function. To zoom in and out of the current window: 1. To drag the model: 1. 2. 3. To use the mouse to zoom in and out: 1. Slide the mouse: or 4. 138 HyperMesh 8. Press the s key.on the numeric keypad to zoom out. Simultaneously press and hold the CTRL key and the right mouse button. Use the mouse to drag the model to the desired position on the screen. The model and/or the window are not resized when you refresh the screen.right click allows you to drag the model. The cursor changes to dynamic center mode. 2. To refresh the screen: • Click the plot refresh toolbar button or press P on the keyboard. press the p key or the plot refresh toolbar button to refresh the screen. 2. Release the mouse button. To fit the entire model on the screen: • Press F on the keyboard. To perform a circle zoom: 1. If the screen appears messy or inaccurate after entities have been plotted and erased. The area circled is used to recalculate the window when the mouse button is released. 3. These two functions increase or decrease the current window by the user-defined factor specified on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel. Press . move the mouse to circle the area to be zoomed in on. Press Z on the keyboard. HyperMesh displays a message requesting you to circle the area of the model to be more closely investigated.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click and hold the mouse button. A trailer line appears wherever the mouse is moved. 2.

3. center. 2. is performed by selecting a new center for the current window. The center relocates.Performing View Translation Translation of the model. or by pressing any key. by clicking the right mouse button. Move the mouse into the graphics area. Exit by moving the mouse into the menu area. also called panning. 4. The current center is indicated by a small white box. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To change the screen center: 1. You can toggle between two views of a model by clicking (or pressing) repeatedly. Press C on the keyboard. zoom. Move the mouse to the point where you want the new center located and click the left mouse button.0 User’s Guide 139 . click the previous view button in the Toolbar Area or press b on the keyboard. or other viewing manipulation was performed. Return to the Previous View To return to the previous view of your model. This returns the screen graphic to the view before a rotation.

140 HyperMesh 8. The colors of each component display next to the component names. Use the right mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want removed. IDs. To turn all the collectors off: • Click none. 3. To turn a collector off: 1. 2. The name of the collector is displayed on the left side of the page. 3. To change the collector list to display names. Select the type of collector you want to display. Click the lower switch and select name to display the collector’s name. To turn on all the collectors of a specified type: 1. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. the switches (on the right-hand side of the panel) are set to comps and elems. 2. the elements in the selected components are displayed if the component (on the left-hand side of the panel) is selected. Click the upper switch. Components can be turned on and off by selecting the check boxes of the components in the display list.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Collectors can also be turned off by moving the mouse to the graphics region and picking an entity which they collect. or both: 1. To change to another collector type: 1. Select the type of collector you want to remove from the screen display. In the default mode of the display panel. 2. Click the upper switch. At this setting. The name and ID of the collector are displayed on the left side of the page. Click the lower switch and select name (id) to display the name and the collector’s ID number. Select the type of collector you want to display. To turn a collector on: 1. Access it by clicking the display button in the Toolbar Area or selecting Display > Collectors from the View pull-down menu. Select the collector type. Click the lower switch and select (id) to display the collector’s ID number instead of the name. allows you to select which components and collectors are displayed on the screen. 3. Use the left mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want added to the display. 2.Using the disp (display) Panel The disp (display) panel. 2. located on the permanent menu. Click all. Click the upper switch. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. The ID of the collector is displayed in parenthesis on the left side of the page.

To display geometry: • Click the toggle and select geoms to display the surfaces and lines in a component. To use a filter: 1.To reverse the selection: • Click reverse to toggle between having all the selected components on or off. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Enter the character string to use for the filter. You can use the asterisk (*) for a wildcard. Click the leftmost toggle to filter =.0 User’s Guide 141 . 2.

The coincident picking option allows you to graphically select a desired entity from a stack of coincident entities when there are multiple entities at the same location.Setting View Options The modeling sub-panel on the options panel (accessible via to toolbar or the Tools pull-down menu) allows you to define several viewing options. Displaying surface lines can help you to visualize a surface better. The element handles option specifies whether or not to draw element handles. Fixed points can also be turned on and off from vis opts in the geometry cleanup panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The element handles option also allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. if multiple loads are detected at the same location. When the pick tolerance is increased. This function is activated by turning on coincident picking in the options panel. The entities supported for coincident picking are nodes. fixed points The fixed points option allows you to specify whether or not to display fixed points. This does not affect the display of free points. loads and systems. For example. but it can slow down the redraw speed of a large model. The zoom factor specifies the multiplication factor that is used to increase or decrease the scale of the current view when you press the + and – keys on the numeric keypad. You can then pick the appropriate load. For smaller models. The geom handles option allows you to specify whether or not to display line and surface handles. a circular insert pops up containing various loads displayed separately with their IDs turned on. elements. This option allows you to display the element labels as template names or HyperMesh names. Viewing option settings include: rotate angle The rotate angle specifies the number of degrees that your model rotates when you use the arrow keys. in pixels. Increasing or decreasing the angle makes the model appear to rotate faster or slower. that the cursor can be from the pick handle of a graphical entity in order to select it. pick tol zoom factor surf lines element handle geom handle coincident picking template labels/ HM labels 142 HyperMesh 8. for more information see Setting Tolerances. This sub-panel also allows you to specify node and cleanup tolerances. The surf lines parameter specifies the default number of u-v lines to draw on new surfaces when they are created. Turning off pick handles can speed up the redraw time. it is easier to pick an entity. The pick tolerance specifies the maximum distance. setting the rotation angle to a lower value allows a smooth transition from frame to frame. An element handle is a single-pixel dot at the centroid of an element. The number of surface lines on existing surfaces can be changed by using the surf lines panel.

To select a node. as you are not required to have a pick handle on the screen in order to pick the entity. Display attributes can be applied to all components by using the wireframe elements and shaded elements toolbar buttons. Component Display The graphics engine treats each HyperMesh component as an independent unit. If no shrink is selected. For lines and surfaces. If a shrink value is applied. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh allows you to select the node by picking the "node sphere" on the screen. The shrink value must be between 0 and 1. This feature allows you to assign a set of display attributes to each component of your model that determines how each component is displayed. Another key feature in the graphics engine is the method by which nodes are selected. For nodes that are not attached to any elements.0 User’s Guide 143 . Hidden Line The element displays as a filled polygon. the element is scaled by the specified value about its centroid. Transparent The element displays as a filled transparent polygon. The benefit of this feature is that it allows you to create zero length elements between two coincident nodes in a mesh. Access this panel by opening the View pull-down menu. The display attributes that you can assign to each component are: Wireframe Element edges display with lines. Shrinking elements is a convenient way to detect holes in a mesh and to improve wireframe element picking. select the element to which the node of interest is attached. so that its corners do not appear to touch its nodes. each element is drawn so that its corners directly connect to its nodes. HyperMesh selects the node closest to the point where the element was selected. then selecting FE Styles. Entity Selection The graphics engine allows you to select entities by moving the mouse anywhere along the entity of interest. Hidden Line with Mesh Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the edges drawn in mesh line color. it is much easier to work when you are zoomed in on a particular area. They can be applied to individual components or sets of components through the Visual Attributes panel. Hidden Line with Feature Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the "feature" edges drawn in mesh line color.Shrink The shrink option controls the shrink factor to be used when drawing elements.

HyperMesh graphics use some memory. and then another entity closer to you at another. or as a value-based surface in which you specify a value that indicates where an isosurface should be displayed.User Features of the Graphics engine When you are post-processing. One problem with using the zbuffer technology is that if two entities lie in the same location in space. When a component is set to hidden line. If swapping occurs while you are running HyperMesh. If this situation occurs. HyperMesh relies on the zbuffer found on your graphics device. the display lines which represent the edges (for example) might be partially or completely blocked out by the original entity in the database. Cutting plane control is more interactive and is controlled by selecting any of the active planes with the mouse and then dragging the plane across the model. If you encounter this problem. then HyperMesh draws the whole model in hidden line. and animation panels. this could seriously affect performance. or nearly the same location in space. Optimization The graphics engine optimizes the display of your finite element model. If one or more of the components in a model are set to a display style besides wireframe. the graphics engine offers advanced and powerful features: Cutting plane Cutting plane functions have been expanded to allow three planes to be active simultaneously. The isosurfaces sub-panel is available on the contour and animation panels. To correct this situation. There are some limitations to using a zbuffer and some display output differences of which you should be aware. edges. To perform this task. it may help to use the shrink option (modeling sub-panel on the options panel). Here. the interior is filled with solid color.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The zbuffer allows HyperMesh to render your model in hidden line. and faces panels. Potential areas of zbuffer stitching are in the features. since HyperMesh is creating entities that reside in the same location in space as another entity. This can make it very difficult to see a node. contour. In some cases. If you have solid elements in your model. One of the optimizations is the removal of interior solid faces. HyperMesh calculates where the external faces are in your model. Isosurfaces can be displayed on a model in either a legendbased mode in which each of the legend colors generates an isosurface. the zbuffer may have difficulty deciding which entity to display. with the elements in back eliminated from the display. you might see a "dotting" or "stitching" effect where the zbuffer considers one entity to be closer to you at one pointer. The cutting plane feature can be found in the hidden line. the graphics engine draws all selected or temporary nodes as spheres when one or more components are set to a display attribute other than wireframe. Isosurfaces Hidden components Memory usage 144 HyperMesh 8. and displays these instead of displaying all of the faces. If this occurs. you can turn the zbuffer off by making all of the components in your model wireframe. you should obtain more system memory.

you need to work with a cleanup tolerance that is less than the node tolerance used in the mesh generation. and eliminating extraneous vertices.1 0.max 1e-4 0. These tolerance values include: node tol Node tolerance is essentially the resolution to which HyperMesh maintains the finite element data in the model. the tolerance values are determined by the demands for that mesh.0 0. HyperMesh attempts to make a reasonable guess at this value when you import a CAD file..0 0.0 User’s Guide 145 .1 1.1 0. When you specify a node tolerance. HyperMesh considers any two nodes to be coincident if the distance between them is less than the value. which is accessible from the toolbar or from the Tools pull-down menu.Setting Tolerances The modeling sub-panel is located on the Options panel. You need to approximate the size of the elements that make up the smallest feature of importance in your model.0 1e-4 0. accessed by selecting Global Parameters from the Model pull-down menu. If you want to create second order elements.. This sub-tab allows you to define tolerance values.1 10. click the toggle after element order: to second. These parameters remain constant until changed. cleanup tol Since the objective is to make a finite element mesh for the geometry.0 Setting Global Parameters The global panel. Since you will approximate the geometry with a finite element mesh.0 10. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. deleting fillets.01 1e-3 0. The global panel controls which components or collectors are active. controls model parameters that are accessed by several different panels. and initializes the tolerances as appropriate. Use this panel or the template sub-panel on the files panel to specify the template file you want to use. Elements are designated as first order elements by default.01 1.01 1e-3 0.1 10.01 1. but without additional input it uses a cautious estimate. The cleanup tolerance value specifies how much HyperMesh is allowed to modify the geometry in the course of "cleaning" it. Element size Node tolerance min max 0.0 Cleanup tolerance min.0 100. any entities created are stored in the active collectors. "Cleaning up" refers to cleaning up the CAD geometry data by equivalencing edges.

You can also use the templates to perform complex editing or data manipulation tasks. 2. Select the desired file extension to limit the files that display in the files to import list. You can also import/merge HyperMesh model files (. Click Import to import the selected files. You can modify the existing templates to support a desired feature or create a new template to support another analysis code. The HyperMesh templates can be used to create model summaries and perform some analysis calculations. Altair Engineering 9. Abaqus. PDGS. HyperMesh uses templates to create the analysis input decks for finite element solvers. STL. and Ideas. Click the button to invert the selection (deselect any currently selected files and select any currently non-selected ones). The window minimizes during the import process. Select the desired files in the files to import list: • • • • Left-click to select a single file. Marc. DXF. The Multiple File Import window opens. VDAFS. and STEP. Click the “open folder” icon in the directory field to open a browser. Cmold.hm) into the current model session. Click import to open the import sub-menu. Nastran. Click multiple files. but not all. UG. To import multiple files: 1. 3. Moldflow. The CUSTOM interface allows you to import models using your own custom-built translation package. 5. The export sub-panel on the files panel allows you to write information from a HyperMesh database to many finite element formats. 7. Click the file pull-down menu. CATIA. HM ASCII. Click Close to close the Multiple File Import window. Radioss. Pamcrash. Patran. PRO/E. Ls-Dyna. HyperMesh ascii. 146 HyperMesh 8. Select the desired file type.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . The CAD formats currently supported are IGES. Click the button to select all of the files in the list. Browse to and select the directory that contains the models you wish to import. • Selected files are highlighted to indicate their selection. 4. 6. 8. This is useful in cases when you want to choose most of the files in the list. and a secondary window opens to show the import progress and any errors that may occur.Importing and Exporting Data The import sub-panel on the files panel allows you to input external CAD line and surface data or finite element models. you can select the ones you don’t want and then invert the selection. Ansys. The FE formats we support are Optistruct. <ctrl>-click to select multiple files one at a time. The custom option can be used to import models using a translator provided with the HyperMesh installation but cannot be accessed via the pop-up menu. Click the button to deselect all of the files in the list. Geometry data can be written in IGES format.

8... or layers & groups. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. To write geometry data in IGES format: 1. 3. Select the FE option. For file:. 5. 2. Click the lower switch and select layers. and enter the name of the output file or select. click import. 6. A column of switches and toggles appears on the right. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. Select EXTERNAL. 9. 3. and use the browser to select the file containing the data. 2. Select IGES. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. Click filename = and enter the name of the output file. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. Select the data format that corresponds to your input data from the pop-up menu. 3. groups. For file:.0 User’s Guide 147 . 4. Select IGES. click browse… and choose the translator required to read the file.. Select the CUSTOM option. 4. 2.. if they are not already present. For translator:. To read data using a custom translator: 1. template = appears if it is not already present. (Note that the IGES interface exports geometry only. Click the toggle and choose either outer loop optional or outer loop mandatory. 6. 7. Click write. 2. click import. Click write. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. 4. 3. 5. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 4.To read data using a standard translator: 1. A new input field.) To create an analysis deck via an external translator: 1. Click the upper switch and select the plane format of the data. Click write as. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. Click template = and specify the file name of the template file. and use the browser to select a file...

Select fill to page to fill the PostScript image to the specified page dimensions. press the Options button in the print dialog. Select fill model to expand the model to its maximum size within the graphics area of the PostScript page. and * is an extension (either eps for a PostScript file whose destination is the hard disk. If the printer selected is capable of printing PostScript. postscript sub-panel: color checkbox Activate the color checkbox to print in color. 2. Select bitmap preview to generate an image that can be viewed when you view the file in another document. 2. Select Options from the Tools pull-down menu. Open the File pull-down menu. reverse video generate bitmaps fill to page fill model bitmap preview Select reverse video to indicate that your printer cannot produce reverse video images. To print an imported encapsulated PostScript image in MS Word. This requires processing time to optimize the image output. To change PostScript settings file: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Set the options to your print specifications. The ? is a number provided for file uniqueness. Deactivate the color checkbox to print in black and white. or psp for a PostScript file whose destination is the printer). 3.* is generated.0 inches. The following options are available in the options panel. you must have a PostScript capable printer installed. plot optimize page length = 148 HyperMesh 8. Select the PostScript sub-panel. Select Image > PostScript. The generate bitmaps option must be off if you select this option. a PostScript tab is present in the properties dialog. Make sure the option Print PostScript over text is selected. Click page length = and enter the new size to alter the page length. Select generate bitmaps to generate a bitmap PostScript file. A PostScript file with the name post?. The color checkbox is active by default. You can check this by selecting Print from the File menu to show the print dialog box and pressing the Properties button next to the printer name. Select plot optimize to decrease the size of the PostScript file generated. the PostScript preview or file information is printed instead of the actual PostScript image. If it is not selected. The standard page length is 11. To set MS Word to send the imported file as a PostScript image to the printer. To create a PostScript file: 1.Printing Screen Images The postscript sub-panel on the options panel allows you to modify the default print specifications before you create a PostScript file.

If you select enhanced. The enhanced option allows you to print blended contours (not discrete). Click the toggle to standard/enhanced to change the postscript file resolution to print blended contours. the default installation does not spool the bitmap file to the printer. please contact your systems administrator. If the functions do not create output.) Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk.0 User’s Guide 149 . This command executes the operating system command in the *postcopy() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. The slider controls the smoothness of the gradient fill of the blended contour. On UNIX platforms.cfg. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. In order for the functions to work correctly.jpg screen capture or animation file.cfg. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. CTRL-F3 CTRL-F4 CTRL-F5 CTRL-F6 Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. hm. a slider bar is displayed. but takes longer to generate. CTRL-F1 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. hm. your systems administrator must configure these functions for your system. hm. CTRL-F2 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. The resolution is displayed in the header bar. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. (Note: This works only in UNIX. Printing Screen Images Using Keyboard Commands You can also use the following function keys in combination with the CTRL key to print and/or save screen images without accessing the postscript sub-panel. The standard page width is 8. Click image size = and enter the new size to scale the image on the page to your specifications. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Generates a *.page width = image size = line width = print it standard/enhanced Click page width = and enter the new size to alter the page width. It creates a smaller PS file. Select line width = and enter the new width to alter the line width.5 inches.cfg. Select print it to send a copy of the file to the printer when you generate the PostScript file.

A card that has been defined may be disabled.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Those control cards that are defined (green in the control card editor) are output. Any control card viewed in the card previewer is activated. To override a default value field. and allows you to enter data in the field. Default values for attributes are common throughout the card previewer. 150 HyperMesh 8. the field label color is yellow and no data entry is allowed. however.Using the Card Previewer A control card may be in one of three states: State Undefined Defined (See note. the label text color changes to cyan.) Inactive Note: Color Gray Green Red Explanation The control card was either never created or has been deleted. The attributes for that card remain. pick the yellow field label. the control card is not output. A default value field has two states: State Default = ON Default = OVERRIDDEN Description In this state. When you override a default value field.

0 User’s Guide 151 . or hand digitize the data Reconcile conflicts in the geometry and prepare it for use Build the model by using element-building panels Verify the quality of the model Create boundary conditions and systems Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In general.General Process for Building Models This section describes how to build a finite element model in HyperMesh. the following building process is used: • • • • • • Create collectors Obtain line and surface geometry from an external file.

Click name= and enter comp1. Select dictionary or card image and then click dictionary = or card image = to select the dictionary or card image from a list. refer to Collectors in Database Design. 7. Select the collectors panel. HyperMesh uses the definitions contained in the dictionaries or card image to translate models to external analysis codes. 6. Before you build a model in HyperMesh. Based on the assigned template. 4. click color and select the desired color for the component from the pop-up menu. To create a component: 1. Note: For more information about the types of collectors used in HyperMesh. 5. To create a collector: 1. 3. If you choose not to. each collector may use a dictionary or card image to define the attributes assigned to the collector. Click the switch under creation method: and select no card image. if desired. Click create.Creating Collectors All entities in a HyperMesh database are stored in collectors. Click name = and enter a name for the collector. Click the switch under creation method:. 4. You are not required to provide a material name when you create a component or property. 2. 3. − − − Select no dictionary or no card image if you do not want to assign a dictionary or card image. 5. If you are creating a component or property collector. 8. HyperMesh automatically creates a material for you and gives it the same name as the component or property. 7. The collectors panel allows you to create and update collectors and assign and edit card images or dictionaries.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click create. Click return. Click the upper switch and select comps. Select the create sub-panel. create a component collector for the lines and surfaces. 152 HyperMesh 8. Where available. For collector type:. click the switch and select the type of collector that you want to create. Select the create sub-panel. 2. Select same as and then click same as = to select the collector whose type and dictionary or card image information you want to copy from an existing collector. 6. select material = and enter a name for the material. Select the collectors panel.

Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. Click import… to invoke the file browser and select the file that contains your geometry data. When the geometry is read into the current database. Using the toggle. select use automatic cleanup tol to use the cleanup tolerance associated with the geometry of the imported file. select create blanked component or no blanked component. Parasolid. HyperMesh creates a new component if an active component does not already exist. − − Using the toggle. ACIS and STEP. please review the individual CAD translator topics for additional information. 3. or select cleanup tol and enter a tolerance value. 4. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. DXF. To import geometry: 1. Pro/E. PDGS. and point data) in the following formats: CATIA (V4 and V5). Select the appropriate file format to be imported from the pop-up menu. surface data. Blanked components are geometric data that exists in the CAD file but is marked as not displayed or turned on. Click Open to import the model into HyperMesh. 2.Reading Geometry HyperMesh imports CAD geometry (such as lines. Unigraphics. 5. VDAFS. IGES. Select the Geom option.0 User’s Guide 153 . The types of geometric entities and organizational information imported vary for different formats.

split. These lines form one path because they intersect at four points. and at the intersection of other geometry. Create circles or arcs. The panels used in this process are listed below: lines creation and editing panels lines line edit circles Create lines in a variety of methods. Add or remove nodes used only for geometry creation or editing. Edit existing surfaces by removing individual features such as holes or fillets. The spline option creates a surface through 3-D lines. There is no limit on the number of lines used to create a mesh/surface. at tangents. Several methods are available. you can create or edit geometry using the line and surface builders. The ruled. surfaces creation and editing panels surfaces primitives surface edit defeature Create surfaces from existing lines or nodes by different methods. extending. spline/filler. If you select a set of lines that do not form a closed loop. such as spline. Creating NURBS surfaces A NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) surface is a parametric surface defined by control points. smooth. HyperMesh will connect the disconnected lines with straight lines. including squares. spheres. Edit existing surfaces by trimming.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . cones. 154 HyperMesh 8. Create standard shaped surfaces or solid entities. Edit existing lines in a variety of methods such as combine. point/node creation and editing panels nodes temp nodes Create new nodes. or spin. and drag/spin sub-panels of the surfaces panel can be used to create NURBS surfaces. drag. knots and weights. or shrinking. including: from points. and create a spline surface and/or mesh in the enclosed area. and cylinders. or extend.Creating Geometry Data If geometry is not available from a CAD system.

HyperMesh reports an error when you attempt to create the surface. Creating a surface with these lines results in a relatively complex surface. and slows the automeshing process. which takes longer to create. line by using the lines panel. The tolerance setting on the options panel is used to determine the intersections between lines. These sharp edges are sometimes the result of data created on other CAD/CAM systems and brought into HyperMesh via a translator. These lines result in a more complex surface. These lines may need to be "smoothed" by using the line edit panel or replaced with a new. If the tolerance is too small and an intersection cannot be found. Lines that contain sharp edges can cause problems when you create a surface. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. smooth.These lines form more than one path and cause an error.0 User’s Guide 155 .

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In some cases the sharp edges are required to represent the model and should not be smoothed. 156 HyperMesh 8. The skin option can create a skinned surface through a set of lines. Lines used to define a skinned surface. which results in a much simpler surface.The "circular" shaped line has been replaced with a smooth line. A skinned surface created from the lines.

A ruled surface created from the lines.The ruled option can create a ruled surface between two lines. Lines used to create a ruled surface.0 User’s Guide 157 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

moving the mouse slightly from side to side. If you use any surface edge lines in the line edit panel. and release it to confirm the selection. edit elements). duplicates of the lines are created and the operation is applied to the duplicates. In wireframe mode.e. faces. Picking Surfaces In HyperMesh. Each surface highlights as selected. there are three functions: • • • add clear clear all • • • Adds selected individual nodes to the temporary node list. In shaded mode. the easiest method of selecting a surface is to pick the surface near its edges or surface visualization lines. click anywhere on the surface to select it. There may be times when you wish to use an unattached node later in the modeling process. 158 HyperMesh 8. you can hold the left mouse button down until the surface of interest is highlighted. Removes all the temporary nodes from the database.Temporary Nodes A temporary node list retains nodes that are not attached to an element. Release the mouse button when the desired surface is highlighted. you can display surfaces in wireframe mode or in shaded mode. you can select any one of them by clicking on the edge. where appropriate.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Similar to wireframe mode. The temp nodes panel allows you to modify the temporary node list. i. Removes selected individual nodes from the temporary node list.. In the temp nodes panel. protecting them from automatic removal by HyperMesh’s database management (except for some panels that automatically clear all temporary nodes. and while holding the mouse button down. If several surfaces share an edge. edges. Surface edges may be used in the same way as lines in any surface creation panel.

the surface is not trimmed. You must select the surface and the line and specify a direction vector. A circle and a surface (represented with surface lines) before trimming. After the circle is used to trim the surface. You can use the surface edit panel to modify surface geometry when it is necessary to make changes before you generate a mesh. The surface is trimmed by sweeping the line along the vector and intersecting the surface with the sweep. to trim a surface with a line. The features and automesh panels have a cleanup sub-panel. For example.Editing Surfaces Each HyperMesh surface contains one or more faces. two new surfaces are created (shown highlighted) and the original surface is trimmed. which contain surface editing tools. If the sweep does not intersect the surface. use the trim with line sub-panel of the surface edit panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This allows them to be meshed at the same time.0 User’s Guide 159 . It is usually preferable to combine multiple faces into one surface entity before you use the meshing tools.

Two surfaces before trimming. The smaller surface is split into two surfaces after it is trimmed with the larger surface.To trim one surface with another. 160 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . use the trim with surf sub-panel.

When nodes are associated to a surface. a surface. Associated nodes and elements can be selected by surface. such as translate. or element. Note: Re-associating nodes to a surface is usually a time consuming task.0 User’s Guide 161 . Associativity is also broken if you trim a surface. When you create a mesh with the automesher. if you transform a component that contains both a surface and its associated nodes/elements. If you transform. the nodes are automatically associated to the surface.Associativity Nodes and elements can be associated to surfaces. node. To re-associate a node to a surface. Some operations break associativity. associativity is broken. the associativity is not broken. However. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. which allows you to select all the nodes and/or elements associated to a surface. use the node edit or project panel. you can use the smooth panel to smooth elements on the surface and the node edit panel to move the nodes along the surface.

analysts need to combine a number of faces into a single smooth surface. point edit. These features can distort the elements or demand a finer mesh. This allows the elements to be created on the entire region at once. and prevents unnecessary artificial or accidental edges from being present in the final mesh. edge edit. The initial CAD geometry often contains gaps. 162 HyperMesh 8. To make the geometry more appropriate for meshing. or other misalignments. overlaps. or pinholes.Geometry Cleanup When designers create CAD geometry. The quick edit. their priorities are different from those of analysts trying to use the data. misalignments. A single smooth surface is typically split into smaller patches. each a separate mathematical face.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and autocleanup panels contain tools to help you prepare surface geometry for meshing. The juncture between two surfaces often contains gaps.

Using the simpler. combine surfaces into large meshing regions.With the tools of the geometry cleanup panels.0 User’s Guide 163 . you can easily build a much better mesh. and eliminate pinholes. you can close the gaps between surfaces. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. cleaner geometry.

This section describes the element types and indicates which panels you can use to build the elements. Building 1-D Elements One-dimensional elements currently supported in HyperMesh include bar2s. or features panel. bar3s. Supports rigid elements with multiple nodes. rigids.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Masses have the ability to store one node. you can build elements directly on the geometry. Note: bar3s contain a third node designed to supported second order beams. Supports complex beams. rigid links. rbe3s. rods. Plot elements are generated in the edit element. Supports NASTRAN RBE3 elements. and a property reference. Altair Engineering 164 HyperMesh 8. Building 0-D Elements The 0-D elements currently supported in HyperMesh are masses. a value of mass. Weld Note: Supports weld elements. Supports springs or damper. gaps. 1-D Element Bar2 Stores A property reference A local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Bar3 Property reference Local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Gap Joint Property reference Property reference Optional orientation nodes or system(s) Plot RBE3 Rigid link A reference to two nodes A degree of freedom at each node Weight at each node A degree of freedom code One independent node Multiple dependent nodes Rigid Rod Spring A degree of freedom code A property reference A property reference A degree of freedom code An optional orientation vector A degree of freedom code Supports rigid elements. welds.Building Elements After you create or obtain geometry data. Supports kinematic joint definitions supplied with Safety Analysis Codes. The following list indicates the storage capabilities and purpose of each of the 1-D elements. elem offset. plots. Masses can be created in the masses panel. and joints. Supports display type elements. line mesh. Supports gap elements. Purpose Supports complex beams. springs. Supports simple beams. edges. The 1-D element-building panels are located on the 1D page of the default main menu.

Builds elements by hand. These two-dimensional elements can be built in any of the following panels: automesh cones drag edit element elem offset line drag planes ruled spheres spin spline torus Note: Builds elements on surfaces according to user specifications. or group of elements along a vector. By default. row of nodes. Builds elements by dragging a line. Builds elements by spinning a line. Builds elements on spherical surfaces. Builds elements on square or trimmed planar surfaces. but second order parabolic elements may be generated by changing the element order in the global panel. first order linear elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. Builds elements between two rows of nodes. six-noded trias.Building 2-D Elements Three-noded trias. row of nodes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or group of elements about a vector. or two lines. and eight-noded quads can all be built in HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide 165 . Builds elements by dragging a line or group of elements along or about a control line. a row of nodes and a line. Builds elements on toroidal surfaces. Builds elements on conic or cylindrical surfaces. four-noded quads. Builds elements by offsetting a group of elements in the direction of their normals. Builds elements that lie on a surface defined by lines.

Pentas and hexas can be built in any of the following panels: drag edit element line drag linear solid solid map solid mesh elem offset spin split tetramesh Note: Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a vector to create solids. and 8. Builds solid elements between a variable number of lines. lines. Propagates split hexas. 166 HyperMesh 8. Tetras can be built in the edit element panel by hand or by using the tetramesh panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Creates solid elements by offsetting a group of two-dimensional elements normal to the surface formed by the group of two-dimensional elements. By default.and 15-noded pentas. but second order solids may be generated by switching the element order in the global panel. first order elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. Spins a group of two-dimensional elements about a vector to create solids. Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a line.and 10-noded tetras. Builds solid elements between nodes.Building 3-D Elements HyperMesh builds 4. Fills with tetra elements a volume that is enclosed by tria elements or surfaces. Creates solid elements between two-dimensional elements.and 20-noded hexa elements. 6. and surfaces. Builds elements by hand.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can check your model for connectivity and duplicate elements. The group sub-panel provides a tool to check for and eliminate group or interface elements whose underlying structural element has changed and left them detached. you can use the check elems panel to verify the geometric quality of the elements in the model. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check a mesh of elements for its maximum chordal deviation from a real or inferred surface The 3-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. skew. skew. aspect ratio.0 User’s Guide 167 .Checking Model Quality After you build your model. The user sub-panel allows you to verify element quality by using a template file that checks for userspecified conditions. and NASTRAN-style aspect ratio The time sub-panel allows you to check for elements whose small size might cause problems for an explicit solver. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check tetra elements for collapse. aspect ratio. CFD-style volumetric skew. The 1-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check one-dimensional elements for free ends Determine if a group of rigid elements form a loop Check weld and rigid elements for double dependency Check all elements for a minimum length of a side The 2-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage.

The label may also display the magnitude of the acceleration. HyperMesh transforms the loads appropriately to any local nodal output coordinate system. Depending on the analysis code being used to calculate results. Before you apply loads. T. Applies a constraint or enforced displacement at a node. EQ. The label may include the magnitude of the velocity. Constraints are displayed as a triangle with an optional label that displays the degrees of freedom effected by the constraint. The label may include the magnitude of the flux. Applies a temperature constraint at a node. The label may include the magnitude of the pressure. flux.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Accelerations are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. Forces are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label F. The label may include the magnitude of the moment. Velocities are displayed as a singleheaded arrow with an optional label. P. V. The label may include the magnitude of the force. A. reviewing. The size of loads and constraints is based on model units and can be modified from within the boundary condition panels. Applies a general equation constraint between nodes. create a load collector. Moments are displayed as a double-headed arrow with an optional label. Applies a concentrated moment about a user-defined vector at a node. HyperMesh stores and displays all loads in the global coordinate system. 168 HyperMesh 8. Applies a concentrated force along any user-defined vector at a node. • constraints • • • equations fluxes • • • forces • • moments • • pressures • • temperatures • • velocities • Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. Pressures are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. Temperatures are displayed as a straight line starting at the node at which the temperature is applied extending upward. Applies a flux load at a node. HyperMesh currently supports the following load types: • accelerations • Applies an acceleration at a node.Applying Loads The final step in the model building process is to apply constraints and forces and to create or assign coordinate systems. Fluxes are displayed as a thick arrow with an optional label. Equations are displayed with the label. Loads are displayed in the color assigned to the load collector. with an optional label. Applies a pressure on an element or geometry. Applies a velocity at a node. and updating loads and constraints. M.

Reference systems transform geometric location or input vectors from the global system to a local system. Analysis systems transform the output system of a node entity. HyperMesh supports reference and analysis systems. or spherical. A system collector must exist and be current in order to build a system. forces. Systems are built and referenced in the systems panel. mass elements. Note: System collectors collect system entities. and other systems are eligible entities for a reference system.0 User’s Guide 169 . Nodes.Creating Systems Systems in HyperMesh are referred to as coordinate systems and may be rectangular. cylindrical. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

depending on whether or not you use surfaces as the basis for the operation. trias. the module operates the same. If you use surfaces. If you do not use surfaces. you can use any of viewing tools on the visual options menu to simplify the visualization of complex structures in your model. HyperMesh responds with immediate feedback on the effects of the changes. or mixed and whether they should be first or second order elements. the meshing process is usually faster and uses less memory. 170 HyperMesh 8. Most of the element creation panels use this module.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can adjust the node biasing on each edge to force more elements to be created near one end than near the other. You can adjust interactively a wide variety of parameters and choose from a suite of algorithms. A solid model created by dragging automeshed plate elements. and employ the mesh-smoothing operation to improve element quality. While you are in the meshing module. which supplies as much automated assistance as possible. there are situations in which it is not possible or not desirable to create a surface. You can also specify whether the new elements should be quads. until you are satisfied with the resulting mesh. which allows you to evaluate it for element quality before choosing to store it in the HyperMesh database. which allows you to see immediately the locations of the new nodes. Mesh smoothing is also available and you may select the algorithm for that operation as well. have more flexibility in specifying the algorithm parameters. Most of the functions are still available and operate in the same way. • If you use surfaces. There are two approaches to the automeshing secondary panel. you can specify the mesh generation and visualization options to use on each individual surface. Furthermore.Automatic Mesh Generation HyperMesh has a centralized plate and shell mesh generation tool called the automeshing secondary panel. you may choose from a greater variety of algorithms. You control interactively the number of elements on each edge or side and can determine immediately the nodes that are used to create the mesh. The created mesh can be previewed. • For either method. You may choose from several mesh generation algorithms.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The automeshing secondary panel can make second order elements for boundary element solutions.0 User’s Guide 171 .

You can switch freely between the sub-panels. the screen display changes to present only the information applicable to the current operation. smooth. undo. abort. and return functions (see Automeshing Secondary Panel in the Panels section). density algorithm type biasing details checks Each automeshing sub-panel has the mesh. reject. 172 HyperMesh 8.Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel The functions of the automeshing secondary panel are divided into six sub-panels. as well as the local view pop-up menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

In this case. and chooses the algorithm that will give the best results. The surface can have interior holes or edges and any number of sides. If there is a tight corner on the boundary that would require a poor quality quad. To make tria elements. If quads or trias is the selected element type. placing elements along the edges as it proceeds. the default mesh generation algorithm is Autodecide. HyperMesh first creates a quads mesh and then divides each element along its shortest diagonal. or those working entirely from node and/or line data. gives quality results rapidly. The Free meshing algorithm is a general-purpose formula that works for most meshing conditions. rectangular. If mixed is the element type. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 173 . If trias is the selected element type. The advancing front algorithm uses the following process: • Traverses the perimeter of the region. the best choice of algorithm is usually to map a standard mesh onto the region using transfinite interpolation. HyperMesh uses a single tria. HyperMesh recognizes more than 18 different configurations requiring distinct templates. Sometimes two or more trias are needed because of the particular order in which the elements were generated. you can usually eliminate them by changing some of the meshing parameters and then remeshing the region. Ignoring rotations. and where applicable. Eventually the entire region is filled with elements. HyperMesh analyzes the geometry of each face and the element densities specified for each edge. Such an operation is exceedingly fast. Map as Triangle. a submapping algorithm is used. Rectangle. or pentagonal in shape. For most configurations. The mesh generation algorithms include: Autodecide If you are meshing a surface. HyperMesh uses a streamlined version of this algorithm that is optimized for the different shape and connectivity requirements of tria elements. it chooses the Free algorithm. HyperMesh attempts to produce an all-quads mesh. Each site where an element could be placed is measured and one of several possible elements is chosen. but there are some situations in which one or more trias are included: • • • If the total number of elements specified for the perimeter of the face is odd. HyperMesh chooses a standard template based on the element densities around the perimeter of the region. or Pentagon If the region is free from internal holes and the boundary is clearly triangular. Examines the groups of elements to see if a local change in the connectivity might improve element quality. Applies repeatedly the selected smoothing algorithm until no node is moved farther than the specified smoothing tolerance. at least one tria always needed. if that is the case. an advancing front algorithm is used. Free • • If quads is the selected element type for the current face.Mesh Generation Algorithms The mesh generation algorithms are divided into two types: those that require the presence of a surface to provide a context of operation.

If you use the spin panel. If you use the drag panel. 174 HyperMesh 8. with no surface. the mesh generation algorithm is decided by the tool that was used to describe the desired operation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the algorithm is to drag. You can still use the density and biasing manipulation tools but some edges will be linked together. so that the configuration always satisfies the balancing requirements of the intended mapping.Map without Surface If you are creating a mesh entirely from line and/or node data. the algorithm is to spin. and if you use the spheres panel. the algorithm is to map a sphere-covering mesh.

The shape-correcting smoothing algorithm attempts to correct the elements’ shapes. HyperMesh uses a modified isoparametric-centroidal over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias.0 User’s Guide 175 . If there is a transition from small elements to large elements in the region. usually in the form of worsened aspect ratios from the stretching of elements. HyperMesh traverses the perimeter of the region looking for variations in element edge length and choose between size-correcting and shape-correcting smoothing algorithms.Smoothing Algorithms There are three smoothing algorithms used by HyperMesh: Autodecide By default. The size-corrected smoothing algorithm attempts to even out the sizes of the elements at the cost of some element quality. allowing variation in element size. If the element spacing around the perimeter is roughly uniform. this choice usually gives the best results. Size Corrected Shape Corrected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. this choice usually gives the best results. HyperMesh uses a modified Laplacian over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias.

1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1. Element biasing allows you to moderate the changes in aspect ratio from the start to the end.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If m is the slope of the line. and b is its y-intercept. you may want to use biasing to improve element quality when transitioning from smaller to larger element sizes. Within the automesher. You can designate that the smaller intervals go near the start of the edge.Element Biasing The automeshing process allows you to bias the placement of nodes so that their intervals are not uniform in size. In linear solids. near the end of the edge. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. Linear Biasing In linear biasing. the biasing intensity corresponds to the positive slope of a straight line over the interval [0. This interval is uniformly divided into as many subintervals as specified by the element density and they are mapped along the edge so that the length of the image interval is proportional to the height of the line over the midpoint of the source interval. near both ends with larger intervals in the middle. Each image interval corresponds to the side of an element. then: . There are three methods you can use to calculate the biasing of node positions: Use biasing to preserve element quality in complex regions. you can use biasing to cluster several layers of elements near the surface of a solid. When you use the drag and solid offset panels. Specifically. the mesh at one end could be scaled several times larger than at the other end. let n be the element density and let . or near the middle of the edge. 176 HyperMesh 8.1] of the Real Line.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the nodes are placed according to 1 .20]. Specifically.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) =1. Thus.Using x(0) = 0. let n be the element density and let . and x(1) = 1. we find: so. progressing along the edge. If the biasing intensity is negative. Exponential Biasing In exponential biasing. We can use b to scale the behavior of the function so that convenient values are in the range [0.x(s).1]. Let be the geometric growth factor. The value used is b = 1. m is the absolute value of the biasing intensity. then x(s) scales them to the range of [0. For this. That factor is 1.0 plus 1/10 of the absolute value of the biasing intensity. . Thus. placing the smaller elements at the end instead of the beginning. and convenient values will fall in the range [0.0 User’s Guide 177 . We need a function Let then: so that: which gives the proper interval lengths. a positiv biasing intensity puts small elements at the start of e the interval. Negative biasing intensities just reverse the edge. . the sizes of the intervals grow geometrically.20]. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. This formula was chosen so that an intensity of zero will still represent no biasing. with each successive interval being a constant factor larger than the previous.5.

let n be the element density and . and has the behavior noted above.1] with x(0) = 0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . nodes are distributed long the edge in a pattern that is symmetric across the midpoint of the edge. Specifically. . We need so that takes values in [0. If we use: for positive biasing intensity r. then x(s) becomes: where erf() is the statistical error function. the smaller intervals are placed at the beginning and end of the edge. If the biasing intensity is positive. and if it is negative. they are placed at the middle of the edge.Bellcurve Biasing In bellcurve biasing. x(1) = 1. 178 HyperMesh 8.

Linked or Locked Edges Most of the surface-less mesh generation algorithms requires that some edges have exactly the same element density and biasing values as other edges. "The value of this number cannot be changed" is displayed. HyperMesh uses those nodes directly to make elements within the automeshing secondary panel. The resulting edge is locked and you cannot change the element density or biasing. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If you try to adjust the element density numbers corresponding to these locked edges.0 User’s Guide 179 . The error message. Any change to one of the edges is immediately applied to all others that are linked to it. Use the automeshing secondary panel to prepare input for solid offset. Some of the surface creation panels allow you to use a node list to define one or more sides of a surface. In these circumstances. HyperMesh automatically links those edges together so that they stay balanced. it has no effect.

Just as you can create an FE shell mesh by meshing a surface. The characteristics of connector entities can be divided into four categories: Connector Terminology Connector Definition Connector Realization Connector Review 180 HyperMesh 8.Connector Entity Connectors are geometric entities (not FE) primarily used to create welds. you can create an FE weld by realizing a connector.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

The connector is considered realized only if weld creation at the connector was successful. Only one connector is created for each line. Only nodes. and lines can be used to define connector location. The connector is displayed in yellow. The connector icon is created at the center of the selected line. A connector that was realized can revert back to being unrealized if. and density values. realized failed Note: Connector Location The position in space at which a connector entity is created.0 User’s Guide 181 . points. The connector is displayed in red. spacing. a link entity is suppressed from its definition. The connector is considered failed if the weld creation at the connector was not successful. but the line may be split into multiple projection locations as specified by the offset. for example. The color code provides an easier way to visualize and filter connectors based on their state. The connector is displayed in green. or the weld element is deleted. The connector location option is set in the create panel.Connector Terminology Connector State The connector state is defined as one of the following types: unrealized The initial definition of the connector entity after it is created. The connector is created at the point location. Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. nodes points lines The connector is created at the node location.

The tag entity can be used to define a weld connector to either a node. The HyperMesh entities to which the link entities refer are welded together during realization. The elems option connects the mesh on the component or surface and the geom option connects the geometry on the component or surface. Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its mesh. A part that needs to be welded is often represented as a component. or an element that it holds. The surfaces can be either meshed or unmeshed. elems Note: 182 HyperMesh 8. The welds create fixed points for the mesh. The link entity state options are set in the create and add Links panels. tags. geom Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its geometry (connect surfaces only). components Components can be used to connect elements or surfaces. Surfaces can be used to create welds to connect geometry before meshing. A node facilitates a node-node weld connector. Only nodes. elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The connectors can hold a single entity or a combination of these entities. The above states are applicable to only surfaces and components added to the connector entity. The link entity options are set in the create and add links panels. elements surfaces nodes tags Note: Link Entity State Specifies if the HyperMesh entity referenced by the link entity is meshed or unmeshed. and components can be added to connectors. surfaces. The following entities are supported.Link Entity A reference to a separate HyperMesh entity that can be added to a connector. An element facilitates a patch-patch weld connector.

Re-connect Rules
Defines how a connector should protect its link entity information. none If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity is then removed from the connector. If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity retains the ID of the HyperMesh entity. The link entity remains in the connector. Same as the by id rule except that the entity name is retained.

by id

by name Note:

These rules are useful for applications such as part replacement. A part can be added to a connector ith the use id or use name reconnect rule and can be replaced with a redesigned part with the same ID or name, without having to change the connector definition. The re-connect rule options are set in the create and add links panels.

Number of Layers
The total number of thicknesses (layers) to connect at the connector. total T Sets the number of thickness to connect (2T/3T/4T/nT). This influences the number of welds created at a connector. Sets the total number of link entities that can be added to the connector. The number of link entities added to a connector is always less than or equal to the total thickness. The number of layers option is set in the create and add links panels.

Note:

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 183

Connector Rules
Shapes the definition of a connector entity. none The connector is created with no link entities and no thickness defined. In this state, the connector must first be updated with more information before it can be successfully realized. This option requires link entities to be specified before the connector is created. The link entities are added to the connector based on the user-supplied criteria. For this option, the connector only remembers what type of link entity it is to connect, rather than a specific link entity. During the fe realize process, the connector searches the HyperMesh database to generate the best (usually the closest) link entity it can using the supplied information.

now

at fe realize

Note:

The connector rules (connect when:) option is set in the Create and Add Links panels.

Connector Realization
Creating welds at a connector. fe realize The process of creating welds (FE) to connect the HyperMesh entities referenced by the link entities added to a connector.

Note:

The connector entity can be used to create only welds at this time.

Request for Connection
A set of parameters used during realization to create a physical connection between link entities.

184 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Connector Definition
The connector is simply a database of information defining a specific request for connection at a specific location. A connector definition describes the connector between multiple HyperMesh entities at a specific location. Entities that are to be connected are referred to as link entities. The connector location is defined as a node, a geometric point, or a geometric line. In the following example, there are two components (Top and Bottom) that are to be connected at the location of a point (with an id of 10). In this case, both components are considered to be link entities, since they are to be linked together. The point defines the location of the connector.

After a connector is created, the connector icon is placed at point 10, and components 1 and 2 are incorporated into the request for connection. The following diagram shows the connector after it is created (with an id of 7) at the location of point 10 (point 10 is not visible).

In this example, connector 7 has been defined and no welds have been created. The connector stores the following information: • • • Which link entities the request for connection is to connect (Comp 1 and Comp 2) The thickness of the realization (Thickness = 2) Where to connect the link entities (the connectors current location)

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 185

HyperMesh entities currently supported as link entities include COMPS, ELEMS, SURFS, NODES, and TAGS. Any number of link entities of differing types can be added to a connector in any order. The connector sets the order of link entities during the realization process. The example above is a simple case where we have added two link entities of the same type (COMPS) to a single connector. Note: An element-to-tag-t o-component connector is possible, as is any other combination of the supported link entities.

186 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Connector Realization
During connector realization, welds are created using the connector definition. Note: In HyperMesh, the only form of realization currently supported is fe realization (weld creation). For successful realization, the connector must be populated with all the relevant details required for its realization type. For example, fe realization requires the connector to be populated with a projection tolerance and an FE configuration type.

The following diagram shows connector 7 realized with a valid tolerance value, and a config value of type 21 (spring).

One advantage of separating weld fe realization from the connector definition, is that a connector can be re-realized as a weld of a different configuration (or possibly, a user-defined weld) without having to redefine the connector. If you edit the connector definition (i.e. add or delete a link entity from the connector), the connector removes the welds it created, and reverts back to an unrealized state. The connector is unrealized only if its user-control mode is turned off. By default, the connector mode is off but it can be turned on by registering custom FE with a connector. Connectors store all FE information that they create, allowing advanced find, mask, delete, and organizational functionality in a number of common HyperMesh panels. If the weld creation is unsuccessful (due to low tolerance, insufficient link entities, etc.) the connector icon is displayed as failed (red). An unrealized connector is yellow, a realized connector is green, and a failed connector is red.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 187

Connector Review
There are many advantages to the way connectors store information. Not only does this local storage allow you to edit the connector definition, it also allows you to review connector details and the quality of the realization. There are a number of tools that can be useful in the review process. The visualization pop-up allows you to update the visual appearance of a connector based on its state, thickness (number of layers), or the component in which it is located. In addition, the vis opts panel also allows you to filter the displayed connectors by various criteria (such as thickness). This filter can then be used for “displayed” mark creation. HyperMesh includes a connector information table that creates a table of connector definitions from a mark and allows you to delete link entities. The quality panel allows you to check the quality of welds created from the connectors. The connector database can also be queried through Tcl functions.

Connectors User Control Mode
Each individual connector can be placed in a user control mode using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. This user control mode is most useful for automated Tcl scripts. Once in user control mode, the following procedures are possible for a given connector: • • • Pre-existing FE can be registered as a given connector’s realization by using the *CE_FE_Register command. Connectors can be edited without automatically unrealizing (as happens most notably when a link is added or removed from a connector, or when an FE realization entity is deleted). A connector’s state can be manually changed from realized to failed, or from failed to realized by using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. A connector’s state will not change to or from the unrealized state using this method.

Once a connector is placed into the user control mode, the user control mode remains active until an unrealize command is called (such as *CE_Unrealize), an already realized connector is rerealized, or the user control mode is manually turned off with either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. While a given connector is in user control mode, it may not behave the same as a normal connector. Specifically, there are a number of scenarios where a user-controlled connector will not auto unrealize in response to database changes that would cause a normal connector to auto unrealize. Note: It is strongly recommended that when FE is registered to a user-controlled connector, that the connector links and other necessary details should also be set with a given connector (so that the connector can properly re-realize if a user interactively requests it to). At the bare minimum, connectors should know which links they are to connect.

188 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Master Connectors File
Most of the information stored in the connector entity can be exported to a master connectors file. This file contains connector entity information such as location, link entity, link entity state, link entity rules (see Connector Terminology). The exported file may also contain metadata information stored in the connector. The master connectors file contains welding information at a given location and also assists in the weld automation process. An exported master connectors file can be re-imported using the connectors reader to re-create connectors. The master connectors file is exported in a single format. The outline of a generic HyperMesh master connectors file is provided below: • • Master connectors files can have comments beginning with the characters # or $, or there can be blank lines in between. The format of the file is fixed and the order of heading definitions cannot be changed. The column information is shown below:

Notes: • • • The header at the beginning of the file specifies information about the column data. Number of layers defines the thickness to connect at the specified location (X, Y, Z). The data between the brackets are repeated for each link entity. For standard HyperMesh FE types such as ACM and CWELD, the FE Config will have a number of 1001, which defines the user-defined type number specified in FE Config File. The FE Type will be the number defined in the FE Config File (for CWELD it is 72). For a detailed explanation of custom FE Configurations see FE Configuration File. The data between the brackets (link entity information) in the table are repeated for the number of links (NumLinks). The NumLinks variable must be equal to the number of link entities.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 189

Metadata is an attribute type that can be stored on a HyperMesh entity. User-defined information (such as Station Id or Gun Id) can be stored on the connector entity as metadata. The Metadata is defined by a name-value pair and is supported for multiple data types (int, double, string, etc.). Please see the HyperMesh on-line help for more information on Metadata. The Metadata name is written to the master connectors file in the following format ~<Sturct><DataType>Name. <Struct> represents whether the value associated is a single variable or an array. <DataType> represents the type of data stored in the value. For example, a Metadata of name Assembly containing an array of integers is written out as ~AIAssembly. The only delimiter supported in the entire file is the double semicolon “::”. The entire column of data in the file should be of the same type. The connectors reader uses the templex template to read the master connectors file. See weld templates for more information. By default, the file is read into HyperMesh through the HMIN function call, HMIN_CE_CreateDefined.

• • • •

The connector entity is created with the information specified in the master connectors file and displayed as unrealized (yellow). To realize the connectors as welds, the fe realize panel must be used.

Multiple Weld File Format
In addition to the master connectors file, the connectors reader also supports master weld file formats previously supported by the spotweld reader.

190 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

a spotweld_format directory must exist in the same location as the master weld file. For custom templates.cfg file must contain only the names of all the registered weld templates.375 Weld Template :: 2.0 User’s Guide 191 . The spotweld.4375:: 9.0 :: 3:: 2:: 1:: int num header { type "CONNECTORS" set mark find "[0-9]+::" rewind set num = 0 if { do 1000000 { if { isdigit } then { set num = sum(num. The templates are stored in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/feinput/spotweld_format and are registered in the spotweld. To read in metadata. Each template works on only one specific format file.Import Templates Templates work with the connectors reader to import multiple file formats. 1) } readln null } } set numrecords = num set numrequests = 9 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the required headings must be added to the template requests and record blocks. The following example shows the template for a simple format file with two semi colons as delimiters. An example for a specific master weld file format is shown below: # Index::T::X::Y::Z::EID1:: EID2:: EID3:: 1:: 3:: 48.cfg file under the same directory.

num) do num { read constant 0 // fake EID } readln null } //T 192 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .requests "ID/T/X/Y/Z/EID1/EID2/EID3/EID4" set numcomponents = 1 components "Value" } record { read request // ID qfind "::" set mark read request rewind read num qfind "::" read request // X qfind "::" read request // Y qfind "::" read request // Z do num { qfind "::" read request // EID } set num = diff(4.

marc. nastran. The data can be separated using a space. The user-defined number for the FE combination. The specified name is saved and displayed in the info table during connector review process. optistruct.0 User’s Guide 193 .cfg) is used to define custom welds such as ACM (Area Contact Method) and other special types.> *style <style_type> *head <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <RIGID_FLAG> *body <BODY_FLAG> <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG> [<HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG>] *post <POST_SCRIPT_NAME> The template parameters are defined below. LSDYNA. Area.cfg file from the <install_directory>/hm/bin directory is loaded in each of the panels related to each connector type (e. By default. The user-specified name for the FE combination. ansys. etc. Spot. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. See FE Definition Examples for information regarding the format and options for FE definition. The weld definition is solver dependant (NASTRAN. Seam. USER_FE_TYPE USER_FE_NAME Note: This should be the first line in the user FE definition. The specific solver template for the type of weld must be loaded in HyperMesh before the welds can be created using a connector entity. SOLVER The solver template for which FE needs to be created. and pamcrash2g. dyna. This is input in the fe realize template as FE Type. pamcrash.g. the feconfig.).FE Configuration File The FE configuration file (feconfig. FE Definition Template The FE definition template is shown below: CFG <SOLVER> <USER_FE_TYPE> <USER_FE_NAME> *filter <filter_type1> <filter_type2> <etc. The weld definition in the file includes the type of weld to create and the surrounding connector to shells. The FE configuration file has a pre-defined format that must be used to define different weld configurations. etc). Supported solvers are: abaqus.

Note: *STYLE A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. the weld node is connected to only one of the shell element vertex using the rigid. and that they are native types. the weld node is connected to all the vertices of the shell elements using rigid to form a spider. The various types supported for rigids are equation. The string head is required to specify that a rigid is to be created to connect the weld node to the surrounding shell element. this option is used as a filter when displaying FE configurations in the type = field of respective realize panels. *style bolts 1 indicates that this is a bolt connection of type 1 that creates a specific bolted connection between the parts. For example. plot. equation and rbe3 do not have a type defined. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE HM_FE_TYPE RIGID_FLAG CONNECT_FLAG 194 HyperMesh 8. This option indicates that the configurations have specific behaviors associated during realization.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . *FILTER spot seam indicates that this configuration can be realized only by the spot and seam connector types. For example. HM_FE_CONFIG The config for the rigid currently supported by HyperMesh. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. Defines how the weld node is to be connected to the surrounding shell element. If rigid flag = 0. rigidlink. In addition. rbe3. For example. so the type field should be zero. A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. If the type is not defined. Note: *HEAD Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment.*FILTER This option can be used to allow only the specified connector types to realize the configuration. etc. Note: The style definition line for these configurations must not be edited. This option is not applicable to equation and rbe3. a zero should be input. If the rigid flag = 1.

Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG Note: *POST A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. spring. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If the length location flag = 1. If the body flag = 0. welds are created in parallel. The config for the weld currently supported by HyperMesh. There can be more than one weld in a series. This Tcl script must be located in the current working directory. etc.0. the length is calculated based on the distance between the connecting layers (link entities). rod. If the body flag = 1. that metadata is still created and saved if you do not use POST to assign a property script (for example. this option can also be used to specify a property script for the configuration. plot.*BODY BODY_FLAG The string body is required to specify that a weld is to be created to connect the link entities added to the connector. or the scripts/connectors/ directory. the users home directory (UNIX only). attributes. This allows HyperMesh to parse the CFG file for configuration instead of relying on metadata saved individually with each connector (as was done prior to 8. The various types supported for welds are. CBUSH is of config spring and type 6. the length is calculated based on the average thickness of the connecting layers (link entities). For example.0). but if specified it must be followed by the name (excluding path) of a valid Tcl script with a . based on the solver. a series weld is created. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. The body flag is used to calculate the length of the weld. hexa8. The series weld definition has more than one weld between the link entities. if you choose to type in a property script instead of specifying a CFG file in the connector’s generation panel. If the length location flag is >= 0 and < 1. and other solver specific details. Starting with HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 195 . The *post lines are optional. The length location flag is used to specify if the weld created should be of type series or parallel. The type number is defined in respective solver templates and differs.tcl extension. Note. The flag specifies the length factor to be used for series welds. This postscript will be automatically executed post FE realization and it can be used to edit weld properties. however.

0 (100%). The head and the body definition must begin with a “*” to define rigid and weld definitions. 1D and 3D element combinations are not supported. Series and parallel weld element combinations are not supported. User comments should start with a hash character “#”. an ACM can have only one hexa weld element specified in the definition. Series welds are not created when the distance between the connecting link entities is zero. Series welds are not supported where the link entities are coincident. Hence there cannot be three welds specified in series having a length factor of 0. Therefore.FE Specification Rules • • • • • • • • Each solver will have a specific definition so the same user-defined types can be repeated for each solver.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Multiple solid element combinations are not currently supported.5 (50%) each. The total length of series welds cannot exceed 1. 196 HyperMesh 8.

5 The two series welds are created with a length equal to half the distance between the link entities.5 The series weld is created at the center with length equal to half the distance between the link entities.FE Definition Examples Washers CFG nastran 56 bolts *filter bolt *style bolt 0 *head rigidlink 1 1 dofs=123 rigidlink 1 3 *body 0 rigid 1 1 dofs=456 ACM Welds CFG nastran 71 acm *head rbe3 0 0 *body 1 hex8 1 1 The above definition creates ACMs with HEXA8 solid elements as welds and RBE3 elements as rigids. The length of the hexa is equal to the distance between the connecting shell elements.0 User’s Guide 197 . Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.5 spring 6 0. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.

0-D Welds CFG pamcrash2g 1 plink (ce loc) *head plot 0 0 *body 0 mass 5 2 plot 0 1 *post prop_plink. 198 HyperMesh 8. "1".tcl Supported values for the length location flag are "0". "0" places the 0-D element along the proposed 1-D element path. If this 0-D element is the only config given in the *body. The behavior for each value is as follows. "1" has the same behavior as "0" except only a single 0-D element is created even if multiple bodies are created (as happens in >2T welds) and "2" places the 0-D element at the connector location. or "2". then it is placed at the center of the proposed 1-D element path.Parallel Welds CFG dyna 101 parallel *head plot 0 0 *body 0 bar2 1 1 bar2 1 1 The bar elements are created at the same location and connect the same link entities.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

0 User’s Guide 199 . logical and intuitive. which can be used for subsequent design optimization studies.HyperMorph Strategies HyperMorph is a tool in HyperMesh to morph the shape of a finite element model in ways that are useful. HyperMorph also allows the creation of shape variables. During the morphing process. It enables rapid shape changes on the finite element mesh without severely sacrificing the mesh quality. Overview: The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing • The Domains and Handles Concept • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Global Domain and Global Handles Local Domains and Handles Partitioning Dependent Handles Working with Shapes Setting Up Optimization Creating morph volumes Registering nodes Altering Morph Volumes Tangency Morphing by Moving Nodes Morphing by Using Other Panels Sculpting The Domains and Handles Concept The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Space Frame Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • • Matching a Mesh or Line or Surface Data Making Parametric Changes Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Mirror Images: Using 1-Plane Symmetry Reducing 3D to 2D: Using Linear Symmetry Reducing 3D to 1D: Using Planar Symmetry Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Shell Model Strategies • • • • • • Creating Handles and Domains Morphing on Local Domains Section Mapping Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing Solid Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • Viewing Solid Models Morphing on Local Domains Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing 200 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

The Morph Volume Concept This approach involves surrounding the mesh with one or more morph volumes. and arc angles as well as morphing the mesh to match geometric data and other meshes. The basics of the three concepts are summarized below: The Domains and Handles Concept This approach involves dividing the mesh into domains made up of elements or nodes and placing handles at the corners of those domains. the shape of the mesh changes according to the domain boundaries. A number of methods exist to create the morph volumes including single and matrix creation as well as the interactive. You define the nodes which will move. You have great flexibility in how the moving nodes are moved. The freehand approach is an ideal introduction to HyperMorph since it allows morphing without the creation of new entities while implying the concepts of domains and handles. such as scaling or node projection. into morphs using the record sub-panel. dividing the mesh into logical domains. and the affected elements manually. When the handles are moved. and the freehand concept. Handles placed at the corners and along the edges of the morph volumes allow for the morphing of the morph volumes which in turn morph the mesh inside the morph volumes. While all the entities and functions are fully compatible and may be used in a complementary fashion they can be divided into three basic approaches to morphing: the domains and handles concept. radii. The morph volume approach is quick and intuitive and is most useful for making large scale changes to complex meshes. the morph volume concept. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses when dealing with the numerous applications of morphing and you are advised to gain a basic understanding of each approach so that you can decide which approach is best for your needs. angles.The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing HyperMorph contains six exclusive entity types and a wide array of functionality. HyperMorph can do this automatically. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. allowing for rapid changes to any mesh. The domains and handles approach is the most difficult approach to learn but it is also the most powerful. which are highly deformable six-sided prisms. such as translation. This approach is most useful for making detailed changes to any mesh (local domains) as well as general changes to space frame type meshes (global domains). on-screen method. rotation. You are also able to turn node manipulations made in any panel. the nodes which will stay fixed. The HyperMorph Strategy Guide is intended illustrate the capabilities of HyperMorph and introduce you to both the basic and advanced functionality to help you get the most out of the tool. or you can define your own domains and handles. The domains and handles approach also allows parametric morphing of distances.0 User’s Guide 201 . The freehand approach also allows for "customized" morphing. The Freehand Concept This approach involves morphing by moving the nodes directly without needing to create any HyperMorph entities. and projection to geometry as well as using a "tool" to "sculpt" the mesh into the desired shape. Morph volumes support tangency between adjoining edges and allow for multiple control points along the edges. allowing the user to do virtually any kind of morphing.

2D domains. or yellow. 3D. You can adjust the base size of all the handles in the model in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels or in the handles panel. the model is divided into domains where handles are used to control its shapes. You cannot edit the color of the handles nor the relative size between the dependent and independent handles. The process for calculating the influence coefficients is somewhat time consuming. or elements. in the case of 1D. Local handles are intended to be used to make small scale. Domains consist of nodes. which allows you to make both large and small scale morphs and have them combine logically. For very large domains.000 elements (although you can change this default limit) the large domain solver is used. However. Therefore. cyan. edge. when handles and domains are initially set up or edited.The Domains and Handles Concept When using the domains and handles approach. and general domains. HyperMorph spends an amount of time proportional to the size of the new or edited domains calculating the handle influences. For domains that have more than 50. edge domains. for very large domains. thus making morphing slower. The nodes in each domain move as a function of the handles that are either associated with the domain or are touching the domain. 2D. the mesh is stretched or compressed to match the desired shape. Thus. the shape of the domains touching those handles change. but once they are calculated they can be stored and applied rapidly. calculating influence coefficients is too time-consuming. During the morphing process the mesh morphs in a logical way with nodes near the moving handles moving more and nodes near the stationary handles moving less. Dependent global handles are also smaller than the handles on which they are dependent. The amount each node moves with respect to each handle is relative to an internally calculated influence coefficient. The local group consists of five types of local domains: 1D domains. Each domain is associated with any number of local handles. Global handles are the largest handles in the model and they are red if they are not dependent on other handles. However. 3D domains. but when handles are moved in order to morph the model no calculations are necessary. When the handles are moved. In the areas between the handles. parametric changes to the model. Domains and handles are divided into two basic groups. which in turn. but it is not necessary to have both types of domains and handles in a model. changes the positions of the nodes inside those domains. the process of calculating influences can be too slow or too memory intensive and so the large domain solver makes it possible to morph such domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Global handles will only influence the nodes in the global domain to which they are associated. Global handles and domains are best for making large scale shape changes to the model. each of which is associated with a number of global handles. the actual morphing occurs quickly. and general domains. The size given is used as the radius for the independent global handles as well as the diameter of the independent local handles. Global Domains and Global Handles Global domains are represented by a cube made up of dashed lines. The advantage of the large domain solver is that it is faster for morphing large domains but the drawback is that it must be invoked every time you wish to morph. The global group consists of global domains. in the case of global domains. you can edit the color of the domains in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels. or violet if they are dependent on other handles. A model can contain both global and local handles and domains. These local handles can only influence nodes contained in any domains that they are either associated with or are touching. the color indicating their level of dependency. even for large models. The advantage of this approach is that it makes morphing an interactive process. It is located at the centroid of the nodes selected when you create the global domain. 202 HyperMesh 8. global and local.

When a global domain and handles are generated automatically. By movi ng the handles you can stretch or deform the model along all three axes. you can always delete them. such as when you create a global domain with the create handles option turned on. HyperMorph generates a number of global handles. or use the generate auto-function. Example of a model with a global domain and global handles Eight handles are placed at the corners of a box enclosing the model. HyperMorph generally creates no more than about 30 global handles for models of any size.0 User’s Guide 203 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or create new handles. The automatic global handle generation works particularly well for space frame models such as full car models. HyperMorph also places at least one global handle within the box in areas of peak nodal density within the model. These global handles are named corner followed by a number from one to eight. If the handles are not generated in the positions where you want them to be. reposition them. These handles are named handle followed by a number. HyperMorph creates a global handle at each of the eight corners of a box surrounding the model laid out along the global axes.

In the mixed method. choose the direct method. choose the hierarchical or mixed method. and the mixed method. global handles influence the nodes in the model directly. which in turn influence nodes.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the direct method. while the direct method may bend or warp these features into curved edges and elliptical holes. If you wish to preserve the local geometry. In the direct method. Straight edges will remain straight and circular holes will remain circular for the hierarchical method. In the hierarchical method. 204 HyperMesh 8. There are subtle differences in how the global handles influence the nodes for each method with the main difference being that the parts of the model defined by local edge domains have their shape preserved when using the hierarchical method. If you are willing to accept distortions in the local geometry. global handles influence the local handles found at nodes inside the global domain. You should select which method is right for the type of morphing that you want to perform. the space frame morphs in a way such that the bars run between the handles. global handles will influence every node inside the global domain using the hierarchical method if the node is inside a local domain. There are three options for determining how global handles in global domains influence the mesh: the hierarchical method.A space frame with six manually created global handles When the handles are moved. or the direct method if the node is not in a local domain The method used can be selected in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel and the parameters sub-panel in the domains panel with the default being the direct method.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. it moves the local handles.0 User’s Guide 205 . which move the mesh. the mesh is affected directly. Note how the straight edge remains straight and the circle remains round. Note the resulting distortion of the edge and circle.An example of global morphing using the hierarchical method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. An example of global morphing using the direct method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right.

Dependent local handles are smaller than the independent local handles and are different colors depending on the level of their dependency. two joined rectangles for 2D domains. the angular shape of the morph becomes rounded. Local Domains and Handles Local domains are represented by a single rectangle for 1D domains. Independent local handles are orange and have a radius of one half the value of the handle size parameter. a cube for 3D domains. or for the entire model by using the generate auto-function. These local handles are named local followed by a number. The influences between the global handles and local handles (using the hierarchical method) or nodes (using the direct method) can be calculated using either the spatial method or the geometric method. 206 HyperMesh 8. The geometric method can be slow for large models or large numbers of global handles..0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The geometric method is the method that was originally used for the Tcl/Tk interface of HyperMorph and HyperMesh and generates influences based on the geometric relationship between a given node or local handle and the surrounding global handles. HyperMorph automatically places local handles at the ends of all edge domains. When local domains are created. The placement of local handles depends on the type of domain created and the partitioning options if partitioning is selected. four joined rectangles for general domains. and a line for edge domains. Both methods attempt to determine how a global handle affects nodes or local handles in the space surrounding it. The colors of the handles cannot be changed. but may produce more desirable influences. The color of the domains can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. and is the fastest and most robust method for generating global influences based on a spatial formulation for the entire model. The spatial method is the default. Local domains can be created individually by selecting nodes or elements in the create sub-panel of the domains panel.An example of global morphing using the direct method and biasing factors By increasing the biasing factor for the highlighted (white) handle.

Finally. In the example above. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This is done to preserve the unique relationship established for groups of 1D elements. The independent handle is larger and orange. such as bars and rigid elements.0 User’s Guide 207 . These elements are placed in a component named ^morphface. 1D elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 1D domains. are called 1D domains. Also note that 2D domains have been created on the faces of the 3D domain and that edge domains have been create on the edges of all the 2D domains. handles have been placed at the ends of all the edge domains.Example of a model with local domains and local handles with partitioning. Domains made up of 1D elements. All other handles in the model are given a biasing factor of 1. The solid elements have been placed in a 3D domain. A higher biasing factor means that a given handle will have greater influence over the surrounding mesh than the others. The shell elements have been placed in two 2D domains separated at the bend line due to partitioning. All the dependent handles in a given 1D domain are directly dependent on the independent handle. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. while the dependent handles are smaller and green. The higher biasing factor given to dependent handles on 1D domains is intended to prevent mesh distortion when the 1D elements connect to nodes in 2D and 3D domains. the rigid elements have been placed in a 1D domain with the center node having an independent (orange) handle and the other nodes having dependent (green) handles. Additionally. This dependency relationship means that moving the independent handle also results in moving the dependent handles the same amount in the same direction. An independent local handle is placed at the centermost node of the 1D domain and dependent local handles are placed at every other node of the elements in the 1D domain. the bias factors for the dependent handles for a 1D domain are given an initial value of 3. Note that shell elements have been created on the faces of the 3D domain.

it helps to have handles already at the positions where you want them. Also. HyperMorph tries to predict where the handles should be placed to reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare your model for morphing. or create new ones. the local handles are placed at the corners of the 2D domains and at other useful positions. A handle associated with any domain will always influence the nodes in domains that it is touching.A rigid spider becomes a 1D domain An independent local handle (orange) is placed at the centroid of the 1D domain and dependent handles (green) are placed at each node. the entire spider is moved. shell elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 2D domains. By moving the orange handle. Since you morph the model by moving handles. If the handles or domains are not laid out in the positions where you want them to be. edit them. maintaining the proper shape and connectivity for the rigid spider. and have it influence the nodes within its domain. Local handles are placed at the ends of all the edge domains. Edge domains are placed along the edges of the 2D domains and are also partitioned. these domains are subdivided into smaller domains along break angles and curvature changes according to the partitioning parameters. you can delete them. such as floating in space near the domain. If partitioning has been selected. This allows you to place a handle outside of a domain. This is true even if the handle is associated with the 2D domain. Note that it is possible to create a handle on a node that is not touching the domain to which it is associated. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. The intent is to make it faster and easier for you to apply parametric changes to the model. they will influence the nodes in any domain that shares the node at which it is placed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 208 HyperMesh 8. In general. Domains made up of shell elements are called 2D domains. even though the generated local handles are associated with the edge domains.

Elements are created on the faces of each 3D domain and placed into a component called ^morphface. Edge elements are placed around each 2D domain and local handles are created at the ends of each edge domain. However. if you do. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. It is recommended that you do not delete or edit these elements nor rename or delete the ^morphface component. Handles can be placed anywhere. solid elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 3D domains. Handles are created at the corners of the 2D domains.Two 2D domains with edge domains and handles The model on the left shows the initial handle positions.0 User’s Guide 209 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The elements on the face of each 3D domain are placed into a 2D domain that is then partitioned if the partitioning option is active. The model on the right shows the addition of four new handles. A block of solid elements is made into a 3D domain The gray shell elements on the face of the 3D domain are the ^morphface component. even at nodes not on the associated domain. these elements and their 2D domains will be regenerated the next time you enter or exit a HyperMorph panel or the delete panel. Note that these elements will not be written out to any FEM formatted deck since the component name begins with a “^”. Domains made up of solid elements are called 3D domains. The color of the ^morphface component can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. In cases where shell elements that are attached to the faces of solid elements are present in the model. HyperMorph will not create ^morphface elements coincident with the existing elements. The ^morphface component has been partitioned into 2D domains.

210 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and curved edges retain their curvature. only the icon for the domain remains highlighted. In the model at the right an edge domain has been created inside a 2D domain. it is partitioned and handles are placed at the ends and joints. This makes it easier for you to tell which domain you are selecting. non-reflective symmetries allow the influences of handles to extend through edges and faces depending on the type of symmetry. For domains that have non-reflective symmetry types. Note that when an edge domain is created. No other handles will affect the nodes on the edges. Edge domains and 2D domains on the faces of 3D domains play an important function in determining the influences for the handles over a given domain. the boundaries may not be preserved during morphing. This preserves the boundaries of 2D and 3D domains such that straight edges remain straight. nodes in a 2D domain on the face of a 3D domain will only move as a function of the handles touching the 2D domain.Domains made up of a list of nodes are called edge domains. flat surfaces remain flat. When you release the mouse button. edge domains are placed around the edges of all 2D domains. Nodes on edge domains will only move as a function of the handles touching the edge domain. When you are selecting domains and are holding the mouse button down while placing the mouse over the icon of a 2D or 3D domain (or an element in the domain). HyperMesh will highlight both the domain icon and the surrounding edge domains. Examples of edge domains Edge domains are placed around the edges of 2D domains. If you do not want to have the boundaries of a domain preserved you can delete the edges for a given domain. When creating local domains or using the generate aut o-function. or choose to create the domain as a general domain instead. It allows you to move handles within a 2D or 3D domain without affecting the edges. Similarly. Also.

2D. General domains are very useful for realized connectors which are often represented as clusters of different element types. In the bottom frames. thus no handles are created for the domain. handles on a general domain freely influence all of the nodes inside the general domain. two handles connected by an edge domain are created and moved. However. General domains can be made up of any combination of 1D.0 User’s Guide 211 .How edge domains affect morphing In the top two frames two handles inside a 2D domain are created and moved. general domains respect all neighboring edge domains and 2D domains and thus if you create 2D and edge domains for your general domains they will impose restrictions on handle influences for the general domain. Another use is for meshes where precise changes are required for one section. General domains are not automatically created when generating local domains or using the generate auto-function. When a general domain is created. Otherwise. allowing it to stretch and deform in an unbounded manner with morphing extending across differences in element type. Like all other domains. preserving the shape of the feature. where 1D. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the elements within a single general domain must touch one another. 2D. no 2D domains are created on the faces of any 3D elements and no edge domains are created either. but the rest of the mesh (where a general domain is used) can simply follow along. and 3D elements. and 3D domains are used. Note that the edge domain remains straight.

and solid elements. partitioning will ideally divide your model such that every radius and straight or flat section is placed into a separate domain. You can invoke partitioning when creating 2D or 3D domains by activating the partition 2D domains check box. Two handles have been placed within the general domain at the ends of the rigid spiders. 212 HyperMesh 8. If there are no surfaces in the model. Note how the shell elements in the general domain morph. or edit the domains by hand using the create and organize sub-panels in the domains panel. In the bottom frame the two handles inside the general domain are translated. If you are unsatisfied with the partitioning.Example of interaction between a general domain and 2D domains In the top frame. or where the domain changes from flat to curved. such as at the edges of surfaces associated with the mesh. Partitioning allows you to prepare your model for morphing more quickly and easily since it divides your model into sections where parametric changes can be applied. shell. However. Partitioning is a method of dividing 2D domains into smaller 2D domains at logical places. or where the angle between elements exceeds a certain value. two 2D domains are created for parts of two shell meshes and a general domain is creating from the remaining rigid. bounded only by the edge of the 2D domains with the other edges free to follow the handles Partitioning Partitioning can be applied directly to 2D domains and indirectly to 3D domains (3D domains are created with 2D domains on their faces).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you may change the partitioning parameters in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel and try again (using the redo last button). or the use geometry option in the partitioning sub-panel is unchecked. partitioning is not an exact science and there will be areas where elements are not placed into the desired domains.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the other method might work better. partitioning was used. the 2D domain was created without partitioning. All other elements will be partitioned using one of the partitioning algorithms. For the node based method. In either case. Note that in order for a new partition to be created. while the node-based algorithm works better for tria/tetra meshes. They are found in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. For the model on the right.Example of partitioning For the model on the left. so if one method is not producing the partitions that you desire. or changes curvature by more than the curvature tolerance. Partitioning can be angle-based or curvature-based. Each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. Also note that the edge domains are partitioned regardless of whether the partitioning option is on or off. then any partitions created outside of the surfaces will be added to the partitions created using the surfaces if the partitioning algorithm does not find a break along the edges or the surfaces. the element-based algorithm works better for quad/mixed meshes and second order meshes. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. For instance.0 User’s Guide 213 . If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is less than this value. The node based method tends to create fewer partitions than the element based method. element-based and node-based. the curve tolerance controls the angle of which values less than it are considered straight for curvature measuring purposes. changes direction. If you have also selected add to geometry. although exact performance for each method depends heavily on the features in your model. When using curvature-based partitioning. These can be set individually for quad/mixed meshes and for tria/tetra meshes. a break due to angle or curvature must be found along its entire edge. they are considered flat. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is greater than this value. If the curvature changes from straight to curved. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. all elements whose nodes are associated to surfaces in the model will be partitioned along the edges of the surfaces. There are also several parameters that govern the creation of domains for either algorithm. This option is helpful when surface data is incomplete of some of the nodes have been moved away from their surfaces. domain angle and curve tolerance have a roughly similar meaning as the element based method. the domain angle controls the break angle along which a partitioning break is made. the node based method seems to work better on first order tria and tetra meshes while the element based method seems to work better on mixed quad and tria meshes. otherwise they are considered to be curved. In general. If you have selected use geometry. There are two algorithms you can use to partition. Note how the 2D domains are divided along angle and curvature change boundaries.

the dependent handle moves along as if it was not there. This allows you to combine the changes easily without having to apply separate perturbations for all of the handles. and so on. independent (red) and dependent (yellow. it will inherit a percentage of the movements applied to each higher level handle. If a handle is dependent on only one other handle. The percentage is based on the distance between the dependent and independent handles. A handle may be dependent on any number of handles. blue. This means that movements applied to the dependent handle are not applied to the independent handles. all local handles are dependent on global handles. Global handles. the shape of the edge can be changed. When the dependent handle is moved. These dependencies are calculated internally and cannot be modified manually. but dependency loops are not allowed. it inherits the full movement of the higher level handle.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and pink) The conditions for handle dependency are as follows: • • • A handle that is dependent on another handle inherits the movements applied to the higher level handle. This system allows you to create any number of dependency layers. Handles that are dependent on other handles appear smaller and in a color different from the handles on which they are dependent. When the handle at either end of the edge domain is moved. independent (orange) and dependent (green.Dependent Handles You can make a handle dependent on one or more other handles. Making a handle dependent has no affect on the way it influences nodes. and violet) Local handles. If a handle is dependent on more than one handle. cyan. 214 HyperMesh 8. This allows you to add the movements of dependent and independent handles in a logical manner. biasing will affect them. and then make those handles dependent on one or more other handles. • • • Handle dependencies are useful for several different applications. In the hierarchical method. The review button in the update sub-panel of the handles panel allows you to view the handles on which a specific handle is dependent. A dependent handle can be moved independently of the handles on which it is dependent. • • Transparent control of domain edges and faces You can create a dependent handle on an edge domain that is dependent on the handles at the ends of the domain.

In the lower frame. Dependencies . Linking several domains together You can make all of the handles within several domains dependent on a few at the corners of the domain. the center handle is moved independently.example 1 The center global handle is dependent on the two outer global handles. This allows you to stretch all of the domains uniformly by moving the independent handles. performing localized “global” morphing. This allows you to move an entire cross section while only having to select one handle. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 215 . When the highlighted handle on the left is moved (center frame).• • • Grouping features together to move as a unit You can make all the handles at one cross section of a beam dependent on a single handle. in essence. the center handle follows along.

example 2 In the model on the left.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In the model on the right.example 3 An independent handle was created between the two holes and the handles governing the positions of the holes are made dependent on it. the three green handles on the top are dependent on the orange handle on the top. The entire cross section is controlled by one handle. The bottom has similar dependencies. When the independent handle is moved. both holes move with it. The top and bottom halves of the cross sections are controlled by just two handles.Dependencies . each hole can be positioned separately by moving the dependent handle associated with it. Dependencies . all of the green handles are dependent on the orange handle. 216 HyperMesh 8. Also. Note that the dependencies can extend beyond the 2D domain boundaries.

or the morph is a mapping or radius changing operation.Using dependencies to reduce mesh distortion In this example two dependent handles were created on the edges of the part near the center hole. When the handle at the hole is moved downward. If you save the model using the save each morph step option in the shapes panel. When you create a shape. HyperMorph takes the difference between the initial state of the model and the current state of the model when creating a new shape. The vectors are drawn the exact length of the perturbation and the vectors for the handle perturbations are drawn with thicker lines to denote that they are different from node perturbations. vectors are drawn for each handle and node perturbation for the shape. In the case of freehand morphing. The dependent handles were constrained along vectors parallel to the sides of the part. or create a shape in the shapes panel with the save current state option turned on. if constraints are being used. the handle and/or node perturbations are stored in the new shape entity along with biasing factors for the handle perturbations and details such as the biasing style. the morph consists only of handle perturbations. HyperMorph stores the morph internally as a collection of perturbations which you can then undo or redo. If you create a shape in either the morph or freehand panels. To get to the current state of the model from the initial state. When you create a shape using the save as shape or save shape sub-panels. the dependent handles follow and reduce mesh distortion by spreading the morph across the entire part instead of only around the hole. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. all of these shapes must be applied. When you morph your model. those shapes do not contain node perturbations and thus vectors are not drawn at those nodes. Note that while shapes with handle perturbations will move nodes when they are applied. For many morphing operations. Creating shapes allows you to generate shape variables for optimization and store model changes for parametric studies. However. Working with Shapes Shapes are collections of handle and/or node perturbations. each morph on the undo/redo list will be saved as a separate shape. the morph consists only of node perturbations. node perturbations are required to fully describe the shape.0 User’s Guide 217 .

optimization module. To convert shapes saved with handle perturbations to shapes saved with node perturbations. To create shape variables for an optimization run: 1. you should save shapes as node perturbations. Each desvar is given a unique name. save shapes as handle perturbations and they will require less memory and disk space. 5. Select the convert sub-panel. Setting Up Optimization Morphing can be used to create shape variables for optimization. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. If you select node perturbations. 9. you can select whether to save it as handle perturbations or node perturbations. 10. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for each shape variable you want to create. or vice-versa: 1. If not. 2. 3. Click create. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. 8. The difference between the two types comes into play if you change the handles or domains in your model. 4. or a combination of handle and node perturbations if node perturbations are required to describe the shape. Select the shapes for which you want to create shape variables. A desvar for each shape is created with the initial value and bounds in the panel. From the BCs page. you can apply it to your model with any given scaling factor. Select the shapes to be converted. 7. The shape is converted. the shape will be saved as node perturbations only. 4. Shapes saved as node perturbations are not affected by changes to domains and handles. redone. If you later decide that you want to change a shape from node perturbations to handle perturbations or vice versa you can do so in the convert sub-panel of the shapes panel. Morph your model into the shape of the first shape variable. HyperMorph will ask you if you want to preserve any existing shapes saved as handle perturbations by converting them to node perturbations.When you are saving a shape. 5. while shapes saved as handle perturbations will differ from shapes that have been saved with changes to the handle influences. Applying a shape in this way is like any other morphing operation and can be undone. it becomes a shape variable.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Once a shape is saved. but by adding a desvar which points to the shape. If you select handle perturbations. Save your morph as a shape. If you plan to make changes to domains and handles. Select the type of conversion that you wish to perform. Click convert. select the shapes panel. Select the save shape sub-panel. 6. Note: A shape is not a shape variable. select the morph panel. Set the toggle to multiple desvars. 218 HyperMesh 8. 3. 2. select the shape panel. the shape will be saved as either handle perturbations only. Whenever you make a change to your model. or saved as part of another shape. Click undo all to return to your base model shape.

The deformed panel displays. Click animate. Animate the shape variables: Click undo morphing if you did not click undo all after saving the last shape. Once you have created shape variables for your shapes. allowing you to view each shape variable by animating it. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Freehand concepts and strategies. The Morph Volume Concept Morph Volume strategies are still being created. you can set up the rest of your optimization problem within the optimization module. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Morph Volume concepts and strategies.0 User’s Guide 219 .11. The Freehand Concept Freehand strategies are still being created.

Space frame models can generally have element counts in the hundreds of thousands. these handles will be where you want them to be. use a cluster type morph constraint. Set the toggle to create handles. 6. In many instances. such as a car body. From the Tool page. wider. all that is necessary is to create a global domain and global handles. 3.Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains Space frames are models that have a sparse distribution of elements. such as a wheel or the engine block. You should place global handles both in areas where you want to apply perturbations and in areas that you want to stay fixed. Since local handles and domains for large models can consume a great deal of resources. From the HyperMorph module. 7. Select create. A global domain and global handles are created at useful positions throughout the space frame. Delete any unwanted handles. Type in a name. 220 HyperMesh 8. Often the desired shape changes are general. or altering the basic positions of components within the frame. If not. you should avoid creating them unless it is necessary. Click create. select the handles panel. select the HyperMorph module. Creating Handles and Domains . Local handles are not required since local changes to the frame components are not necessary. If more than one handle is created at a time. If you want a part of your model to move as a rigid body. but their basic structure is rather simple. You can also use morph constraints to fix nodes in place during global morphing but if you want them to affect the surrounding mesh you must select the stretch mesh around nodes option when creating the morph constraint. shorter.space frame model 1. delete them and add global handles elsewhere: Press F2 or go to the delete panel. 2. 4. such as making it smaller. the handles will each be given a unique name by appending a number after the name you have given. Select an xyz position or any number of nodes where you want global handles. A new global handle is created at each node or at the specified xyz location. Set the toggle to all nodes. Click create.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select the domains panel. In many cases. For these types of models. these changes can be performed by placing a handle at each joint in the frame and moving those handles to the desired locations. 5. Set the selector to global domain.

The best one to use depends on the results that you want to achieve: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or symmetries.A global domain and global handles for a full car model Exiting any panel in the HyperMorph module or the delete panel automatically triggers HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. For large models or large changes. this can be time consuming. domains. or deleting handles. if necessary. so you will want to make all the changes you desire within each panel before exiting.0 User’s Guide 221 . There are many options available for moving the handles. makes it necessary for HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. editing. Adding.

Matching a Mesh. 5. To morph interactively by moving the handle and releasing the mouse button: 1. If you are going to match a mesh you need to make sure that the mesh does not get morphed when you are moving the handles. 3. Select move handles. Select the create/update sub-panel. Move the handle to the new location and release the mouse button. Select the nodes on the target mesh. 6. 6. select the morph constraints panel. If the handle position needs to be changed again. Make sure that the stretch mesh around nodes option is unchecked. the nodes between the constrained nodes and the handles will be affected regardless of whether the mesh is continuous between them. 2. Change the upper middle selector to interactive. select the morph panel. only the graphics for the handle are updated. 8. All the nodes in the target mesh are constrained to remain fixed during morphing operations as long as the constraint is active and the use constraints box is checked (see the morph options panel). 7. 3. As you drag the mouse. Click morph. From the HyperMorph module. 222 HyperMesh 8. 9.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Change the rightmost toggle from real time to on release. Switch the selector to fixed. But you can still morph interactively with any size model by setting HyperMorph to perform the morphing after you move the handle and release the mouse button. Click create. Since on release was selected. the handle follows along the selected vector. This can be accomplished by constraining the nodes on the target mesh. Select a vector. Select a handle on the screen and hold the mouse button down. Note that if you check the stretch mesh around nodes option. One of the most enjoyable ways to morph is interactively. the morph is applied to the model and the graphics are updated for the entire model. 4. When you release the mouse button. Change the lower middle selector from on domains to along vector. From the HyperMorph module. 4. 5. 2. repeat steps 7 through 9. For large models it may be too slow to morph interactively in real time. or Surface Data The basic approach for HyperMorph is to move the handles into positions that change the shape of the model to match the mesh or geometry data. Line. which leaves a dark trail through the mesh. To constrain the nodes on the target mesh: 1. As you drag a handle across the screen and you can watch the mesh move along with it.

Morphing to a profile line In the top frame. The result is a morphed vehicle model that closely matches the profile line. When you release the mouse. all of the selected handles are moved the same distance in the same direction. In the middle frame they are interactively moved upwards along a vector to a point matching with the profile line. Perform steps 7 through 9. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In the bottom frame the process has been repeated for the other handles on the roof. select several handles on the screen. Move more than one handle at the same time: Before clicking morph.10. the global handles on either side of top of the windshield are selected.0 User’s Guide 223 .

or delete any morphing entities. Click on the line or surface where you want the node. You can use this feature to position a handle anywhere you want line or surface data. The handle is moved to the position where the node was prior to morphing and the rest of the mesh morphs accordingly. HyperMorph uses the position of the mouse on the screen to figure out where you want to move the handle. Altair Engineering 224 HyperMesh 8. or a surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Select a handle. Hold the mouse button down and drag the mouse over a line or surface until it is highlighted. Select a node. To create nodes on the fly on lines and surfaces: 1. If you intend to add or delete handles in your model. 2. HyperMorph will give you the option of converting existing shapes from handle perturbations to node perturbations automatically after you add. edit. Change the upper middle selector from interactive to move to node. To match a target mesh or geometric data by moving the handles to a specified node location: 1. save your shapes as node perturbations. Handles may always be added or deleted from a model without affecting the current morphed state of the model. However.Morphing to a profile line A handle is added to the center of the rear windshield and is moved to better match the profile line. 3. A node will be created and the handle will immediately be moved to the node. You can also select other features to drag the handle along such as a line. any shapes saved as handle perturbations may not yield the same morphed shape after handles have been added or deleted. a plane. 2.

node a will not move (same for node b). 3. Select node a and node b at nodes whose distance you want to change. Set the upper left selector to distance. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. Set the rotation angle. Select a few handles. Or Select the desired xyz translation. Select a vector and distance.Making Parametric Changes Dimensions such as distance and angle can be changed easily in HyperMorph. Rotate the handles. Select alter dimensions. Click morph. If the left selector is set to hold middle. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. both node a and node b will move the same distance. 2. If the left selector is set to hold end a. The handles move the specified distance in the specified direction and the model morphs accordingly. Click rotate. Change the upper middle selector from move to node to translate.0 User’s Guide 225 . Select an axis of rotation. Change the upper middle selector from translate to rotate. Translate the handles. From the HyperMorph module. Select a few handles. select the morph panel. To translate or rotate handles: 1. Click translate. The handles rotate about the axis the specified angle and the model morph accordingly. One way to do this is by translating or rotating handles. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for node a as a group and the follower handles for node b as a group either towards each other or away from each other so that the new distance between node a and node b is equal to the specified distance. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. Change the distance value. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Specify dimensions more precisely in the alter dimensions sub-panel.

Select node a. Change the angle value. 6. The handles on the right side of the model are selected as followers for node a and the handles on the left side of the model are selected as followers for node b. The distance is changed and the model morphs. To change the angle: 1. 5. 3. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. If necessary. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for each end in a way so that the new angle between node a. and node b at nodes whose angle you want to change. 2. 4. 226 HyperMesh 8. the vertex. If node a and node b are selected coincident with one of the follower handles. 7. vertex.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. Click morph. and node b are the specified angle. iterattion is not necessary. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a.Morphing by altering the distance between two nodes The width of the car is found by placing node a (green dot) on the right hand door and node b (blue dot) on the left hand door. HyperMorph will iterate to achieve the desired angle. Set the upper left selector to angle. or at least get close.

and selecting two handles on either side of the windshield as followers for node b (red node). positioning handles at the joints between the members of the space frame restricts the handle influences to the parts of the frame that they are touching. Note that the handles on either side of the windshield were constrained to move along the x-axis (front to back) thus maintaining the height of the roof. selecting two handles at the front of the car as followers for node a (green). the space between your fingers on the two finger side will be pulled towards the three finger side. You can visualize the handles as places on a sheet of rubber where you are placing your fingers. you allow for even stretching to occur between each set of fingers. you will need to place several handles across both of sides of the zone of influence. However. the parts of the model that are morphed are those that lie between the handles that are moving and those that are not. When you perform global morphing operations. For the general space frame cases. In morphing this is accomplished by placing handles evenly along both sides of the mesh to be stretched. If you place three fingers on one side and two on the other and try to stretch the sheet. Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Global morphing differs from local morphing in that there are no definite boundaries between the handles that restrict their zones of influence. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. By placing three fingers on each side. for cases where you are trying to morph a mesh that covers a wide area.0 User’s Guide 227 . blue. The angle is changed from 160 degrees to 150 degrees.Morphing by altering the angle formed by three nodes The slope of the windshield is altered by defining an angle using three nodes (green. and red).

only the part of the car between the roof and the handles along the midline of the car is stretched. 228 HyperMesh 8. Controlling global morphing with handles – part 2 A handle is added directly below the handle on the roof near the center of the car.Controlling global morphing with handles – part 1 The handle on the roof is moved upwards and the center section of the car is morphed along with it.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Now when the handle on the roof is moved upwards.

0 User’s Guide 229 .Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Change the left toggle from approximate to enforced. the fender of the model is morphed.Using 1-Plane Symmetry If your space frame is symmetric. Select the global domain icon. select the systems panel. From the HyperMorph module. 4. morph volumes will usually yield better results. you can create a plane of symmetry at the center of your space frame and have your morphs applied in a symmetric fashion.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Enter a name. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry. 230 HyperMesh 8. Switch the selector from none to 1 plane. Create a system at a node where the plane of symmetry is to be located and have the x-axis pointing normal to the plane to be created. select the symmetry panel. Also note that in cases where detailed shape changes are required. 8. 2. 7. Mirror Images . Select the system you created. Return to the HyperMorph module.Adding handles to control global morphing Using several handles on either side. 5. 9. Note that dependent handles are used to simplify the morphing operation. 6. To set up a plane of symmetry: 1. 3.

Now when you perform a morphing operation you only need to move the handles on one side of the plane of symmetry. Click create. HyperMorph also links any handles that it finds that are reflections of the other. System and 1-plane symmetry The plane of symmetry is positioned at the origin of the system and perpendicular to the x-axis. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMorph creates new handles that are reflections of ones that are not linked to any others and creates a symmetric link between them. As a result. Since enforced was selected. use the approximate option instead. the enforced option will automatically create or delete handles on the other side of the symmetric link in order to enforce symmetry of the handles. If you want to add handles to one side of the plane of symmetry and not the other. The mesh itself does not need to be symmetric to use the symmetry options. yet still have symmetry active for the symmetric handles. the model maintains symmetry across the symmetry plane. HyperMorph automatically applies the handle movements to the handles on the other side of the plane of symmetry through the symmetry link.10. The symmetry will be applied to the handles and handle perturbations that will influence the mesh in a symmetric fashion. The icon for a 1-plane symmetry is a rectangle positioned like a small mirror for the symmetry system. If you have the symmetry links check box activated. A plane of symmetry is created at the origin of the system and based perpendicular to the x-axis. The perturbations applied to handles on one side of the plane of symmetry will be mirrored on to the other side.0 User’s Guide 231 . When handles are created or deleted.

Using 1-plane symmetry Three handles on the right hand side of the roof are selected and moved towards the centerline. HyperMorph automatically moves the corresponding nodes on the left hand side of the roof in a symmetric fashion.

Reducing 3D to 2D - Using Linear Symmetry
You can use linear symmetry to apply morphs to the model in such a way that the model is essentially reduced to two dimensions. To create a linear symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be reduced. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from 1 plane to linear. Select the system you created.

232 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

9.

Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. A linear symmetry is created along the x-axis of the system. The icon for a linear symmetry consists of two parallel lines along the dimension to be reduced. The origin of the system is irrelevant. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a line extending along the system xaxis. If two handles lie along a line parallel to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same y and z coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since linear is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others that are linked via the symmetry. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and linear symmetry The linear symmetry icon consists of two parallel lines along the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a linear symmetry system does not matter; the effect of the linear symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a linear symmetry is very useful for making profile changes to a space frame model. It does not matter where the handles are placed along the x-axis, greatly simplifying the model set up. You only need to look at the model from one view to set up the handles and to morph the model. For models with a large number of elements this can save a great deal of time.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 233

Using linear symmetry The handle on the rear part of the roof is selected and the entire rear portion of the roof is morphed along with it. With linear symmetry you only need to place handles on one side of the model to affect the entire profile.

Reducing 3D to 1D - Using Planar Symmetry
Planar symmetry is similar to linear symmetry accept that it reduces two dimensions instead of one. This enables you to morph your model along a single axis with only two or more handles. To create a planar symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be retained. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from linear to planar. Select the system you created. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. 234 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

11. Return to the HyperMorph module. 12. Select the symmetry panel. 13. Select update by domain. 14. Select the global domain. 15. Select the planar symmetry. 16. Click update. A planar symmetry is created and the other two symmetries from the global domain are removed. You are allowed to have any number of symmetries associated with a domain and all will apply, but combining linear and planar symmetry in the same direction results in an unrealistic situation and poor influence calculations. The planar symmetry icon is displayed as a filled-in rectangle perpendicular to the system x-axis. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a plane perpendicular to the x-axis. If two handles lie in a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same x coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since planar is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and planar symmetry The planar symmetry icon is a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a planar symmetry system does not matter, the effect of the planar symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a planar symmetry greatly simplifies a model. Essentially, it reduces the model to a lying along single axis. This symmetry type is very useful for changing dimensions along one axis through the entire model.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 235

Using planar symmetry The handle at the rear of the model is selected and the entire trunk of the car is morphed. With planar symmetry you only need a row of handles lying roughly along the planar symmetry system x-axis.

236 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
Shell models are models that are made up primarily of shell elements, namely, quads, and trias. In general, a shell model represents many parts, each with numerous features such as holes and edges, and connected together using 1D elements such as bars and rigids. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shapes of the shell model features. This is done using one of the following methods: • Moving the handles on the part to new locations • • Moving the global handles around the parts to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the parts, or mapping the nodes of a part to line or surface data

For most models you only need to create 2D domains for the entire part, but you can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature.

Creating Handles and Domains - shell model
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Change the toggle to all elements or select all the elements in the model. Click create. A 2D domain is created for each group of continuous shell elements. Parts joined by 1D or 3D elements are separated into different domains. If partition domains is checked, the 2D domains will be partitioned according to the settings selected in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. Once partitioned, edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. All of this is automatic, but 1D and 3D elements will not be placed into 1D and 3D domains unless you set the selector to local domains instead of 2D domains. In many cases, the domains and handles will be generated where you want them to be. If not you can always add, edit, or delete the handles and domains to meet your needs.

A shell model is partitioned into 2D domains 6. If you wish to generate a global domain as well as local domains for your model with a single button click, either change the selector to global and local and click create, or to auto functions and click generate.

In the case of the generate auto function, if there are any domains or handles in the model, HyperMorph will first ask if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. If you say “yes”, or if there are no morphing entities in the model, HyperMorph automatically generates 1D, 2D, 3D, and edge domains for the entire model and a global domain and handles as well.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 237

For tria meshes which lack underlying geometry, both the node-based and element based partitioning algorithms may prove unsatisfactory. In these cases you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when partitioning. To accomplish this, go to the partitioning sub-panel, select element based as the algorithm for tria/tetra meshes, and change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. HyperMorph will then only make partitions along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. You can then go in and manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should go. This method is almost mandatory for meshes that began as first order meshes but were transformed into second order meshes. For these meshes, HyperMorph will detect a curvature break at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. The result will be a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Solving the influence coefficients for 2D domains which contain more than 20,000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. In these cases you may want to divide the large domains into multiple domains or lower the limit for the large domain solver. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. However, even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid, morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming, and thus subdividing 2D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. To divide your shell model, do this: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Select the elements to be placed into a new 2D domain. Click create. When selecting the elements for the new domain you do not need to select only shell elements. HyperMorph automatically removes any other elements before creating the domain. It does not matter if the elements selected are already in a 2D domain. When the new domain is created, the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Handle influences need to be recalculated every time handles, domains, or symmetries are added, edited, or deleted. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. These calculations occur when you enter or leave any HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. Thus, for models with large domains you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. HyperMorph only recalculates the handle influences for handles in regions that have been edited. If the domains are not created exactly how you want them to be, you can edit them in the domains panel. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. The organize subpanel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split, merge, and place handles along edge domains. It is suggested that you create and edit all the 2D domains, then create and edit the edge domains. This order works better since creating or editing 2D domains will result in the regeneration of the surrounding edge domains with the previous modifications to those edge domains being discarded. Sometimes partitioning does not divide the mesh in the ways that would be most useful to you. Occasionally, elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Partitioning is not an exact science, so some cleanup is sometimes required.

238 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

To move elements from one domain to another: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select organize. Change the selector to add nodes/elems . Change the toggle to local domain. Select the elements to be moved. Select the target domain. Click organize. This will move the elements from the domain that they are currently in to the selected domain. HyperMorph also refreshes the edge domains around both domains as well as the edge domains at the interface. New handles may also be created during this process, and if retain handles is not checked, handles may be deleted. It is suggested that you keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing.

Partitioning problems The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. For this example the retain handles option was left unchecked resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. Note that the edge domains are always partitioned for any new domain and handles are placed at the end of the edge domains. For the example above, a handle was created in a new location due to the edge partitioning being different for the two domain configurations. When you hold the mouse button down and the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D domain or over an element inside a domain, the edge domains surrounding the domain are highlighted as well. This allows you to better visualize the domain that you are selecting. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain, and some domains can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 239

Change the selector to combine domains. This is why any editing of the edge domains should come after the editing of the other domains. Select organize. 240 HyperMesh 8. but in some cases it may not identify the proper starting and ending points. You may need to correct this by hand. select the domains panel. 5. HyperMorph tries to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D domains. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. If you do your edge editing first. Select the domains to be grouped together. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .To group two or more domains together: 1. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. Click organize. The selected domains are combined into a single domain and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. From the HyperMorph module. 4. 3. Two domains are organized into one Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created.

select the domains panel. Select any number of connected edge domains. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A handle is created at the selected node. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. From the HyperMorph module. select the domains panel. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end to end such that the resultant edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. Splitting an edge domain . Select edit edges. Click merge. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel.0 User’s Guide 241 . Change the selector to split. Select edit edges. 5.To split edge domains: 1. From the HyperMorph module. 6. 3. 4. 2. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. Select an edge domain. 5. Click split. 2. 4. To merge edge domains: 1. 3. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain.a circular edge domain is divided into two half circles A handle was created at the joint to allow you to manipulate the edges. Change the selector to merge.

Change the selector to add handles. Select edit edges. Select one or more domains. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. select the domains panel. Click create. 2. This feature is quite useful for saving time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. From the HyperMorph module. 5.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the handle at the joint was deleted.Merging two edge domains The two half circles are merged into a single domain. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. If the domain containing the radius to be changed is very large you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change before you go into the morph panel. 3. 4. 242 HyperMesh 8. The dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. Since retain handles was unchecked. To place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change: 1.

Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. the influences do not need to be recalculated. plane. During influence calculation you might run out of available memory. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge will be transparently applied to the dependent handles. curvature. surface. Morphing on Local Domains You can change the shape of a model with local domains and handles using one or more of the following methods: • • • • • • Moving the local handles Changing a distance or angle Changing the radius. delete unnecessary handles. and element offset Using freehand morphing capabilities such as move nodes. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. or arc angle of an edge domain Mapping nodes to a line. or mesh Using section mapping. HyperMorph calculates the influences for the handles and you are ready to begin morphing. It will be as if they were not there. Secondly.When you are satisfied with your domains. In these cases you should divide large domains. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models.0 User’s Guide 243 . This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. line and surface difference. The first is that since they are dependent.Creating handles on an edge domain A dependent handle is created on each node of the edge domain. and sculpting Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. record. . click return.

surfaces. or another mesh. translate rotate move to XYZ move to node. These options allow you to position handles at specific node or point locations. move to point 244 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . plane. surfaces. This option allows you to rotate handles about an axis. to orient the mouse location in 3D space. If you want to move a handle a specific distance or to a specific position. or domains. You select an entity such as a vector. or another mesh. Interactive morphing is most effective for visualizing how the mesh will react when a handle is moved and for making approximate shape changes.There are six ways to move handles in the move handles sub-panel of the morph panel: interactive This option allows you to move handles interactively by dragging the mouse across the screen. This option allows you to position handles at specific XYZ locations or place them on lines. and move a handle by clicking on it and dragging it to a new location. line. surface. it is better to use a non-interactive option. This option allows you to translate handles along a vector or element normals. or place them on lines.

0 User’s Guide 245 . the length of the flange is reduced.Morphing by translating handles By selecting the two handles along the edge of the flange and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section (green and blue nodes). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

246 HyperMesh 8. the thickness of the lower section is reduced.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the width of the channel is increased.Morphing by translating handles By selecting the three handles and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section. Morphing by translating handles By selecting the handles at the bottom of the part and translating them upwards.

Morphing by rotating handles .Morphing by translating handles By selecting all the handles around the bolt boss and translating them horizontally.constant The right end of the block is given a constant rotation. the position of the bolt boss is modified. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the end angle of the section is modified.constant By selecting all the handles at the end of the section and rotating them about a point (violet node).0 User’s Guide 247 . Morphing by rotating handles .

the circle at the center of the model remains on the same plane as before. To correct this situation. This is because the nodes have followed the handles instead of being rotated about the axis. Note how the magnitude of the twist increases linearly with the distance from the base (purple) node. check the true rotation checkbox. 248 HyperMesh 8. This concept comes into play when you are using the rotate function.Morphing by rotating handles . not all morphing applications are best done using true rotation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Although it could be argued that true rotation is the "correct" way to morph via rotation of the handles. After rotating handles you may find areas in the model (particularly those defined by curved edges) that are not rotated the same as the neighboring handles.linear The entire block is given a linear rotation. Morphing by rotating handles . This will cause the nodes to be rotated as well as the handles with the amount of rotation being equal to the influence coefficient. it is important to note that the nodes in the model follow the movements of the handles according to the influence coefficients. When applying handle perturbations to your model.normal Although the highlighted handles are rotated.

the angle between nodes. Select handles corresponding to those nodes. The basic concept is as follows: Select two nodes (node a and node b). The alter dimensions sub-panel of the morph panel allows you to change one of the parameters in the model. For solid models. the following message may be displayed: “Some handles selected are dependent on others.Morphing by rotating handles .true rotation During "true rotation" the nodes rotate along with the handles. This occurs when both a dependent handle and the handle on which it is dependent are selected to be morphed. the given perturbation and any inherited perturbation is applied to each dependent node.0 User’s Guide 249 . controlling a particular dimension often involves moving more than one handle for each end. The handles selected are the ones that will move to make the distance between node a and node b (or angle with a vertex selected) equal the specified value. If you click yes the given perturbation is applied to each handle and the dependent handles are not given an additional perturbation inherited from another handle. While morphing a model. Would you like to ignore dependencies for this operation?”. You must select at least one handle for each end and the handle may be coincident with one of the nodes. or the radius or curvature of an edge domain. If you click no. For most cases you will want to click yes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. such as the distance between nodes.

the width of the bottom of the channel can be changed from 60 to 30 with the rest of the channel changing along with it. 250 HyperMesh 8. Morphing by altering dimensions . the thickness of the block between the radius and the back face is altered from 15 to 25 by moving the entire back face.distance By selecting the width of the bottom of the channel as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the left (highlighted) to follow the green node and the handles on the right (shown as gray) to follow the blue node.distance By selecting the thickness of the block as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the radius (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles on the back face (highlighted) to follow the blue node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Morphing by altering dimensions .

near.angle By selecting the angle between two faces of the block (green.Morphing by altering dimensions . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the angle of the left side of the section is changed from 110 degrees to 90 degrees. and below the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. and red nodes) and by selecting the handle at the bottom right of the channel (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handle at the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node.0 User’s Guide 251 . and red nodes) and by selecting the handles at and directly below the green node (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles at. blue.angle By selecting the angle of the left side of the channel (green. blue. Morphing by altering dimensions . the angle is altered from 126 degrees to 90 degrees.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .radius . Note: Morphing by altering dimensions – radius – center By selecting the edge domain around the edge of the hole. so if you want to change a radius from 5. Making the bias factor retroactive does not work for radius changes.0. and arc angle options are used as follows. you need to set the curve ratio to 1. Note: The curvature tool scales your radius by a factor rather than a set radius. Morphing by altering dimensions . or arc angle factor for them. the radius is changed from 3 to 1. All the domains are changed simultaneously. You select any number of curved edge or 2D domains.fillet By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the fillet option.0 to 8.5. select the center calculation and style options. The curvature tool is intended for domains that do not have constant curvature.5 and kept in line with the edges at either end.The radius. set the new radius. curvature.6. curvature multiplication. 252 HyperMesh 8. and click morph. the radius is changed from 5 to 2.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold ends By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the hold ends option, the radius is changed from 5 to 10 with the ends held in place.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold end By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part, selecting the hold end option, and selecting a node at the end of the edge domain, the radius is changed from 5 to 8 while the held end remains in place.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 253

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - fillet By selecting all of the edge domains that form the fillet between the flat sections and the round section and changing them simultaneously, the fillet is reduced from 20 to 8.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius The radius is changed in three different ways. At the top right, the hold center option is used. At the lower left, the hold ends option is used. At the lower right, the fillet option is used. In all cases, both the top and bottom edge domains were selected as well as the 2D domain and the by normals option was used for center calculation. This option will directly calculate the radii for the nodes on the 2D domain instead of inferring them from the edge domains which makes this approach more accurate for 2D domains as well as more reliable for non-uniform meshes.

254 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the mesh is changed from 60 to 90 degrees using by axis (the vertical axis and violet base node) to calculate the center of curvature.

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the fillet is changed from 90 to 180 degrees using by normals to calculate the center of curvature. There are five methods available for calculating the center of curvature for the selected domains: • by normals - this method is the default and uses the element normals to approximate where the center of curvature is for each node in the selected domains. This method is not always accurate, but often gives good results for regular meshes. by axis - you may select an axis which will serve as the center of curvature. by line - you may select a line which will serve as the center of curvature. by node - you may select a node which will serve as the center of curvature. by edges - this method uses the edge domains to calculate the center of curvature with the center lying in the plane of the edge domains. The symmetry option refers to how the morphing of the edge domains is applied to neighboring 2D domains. The auto-symmetry option was the default for HyperMorph prior to version 8.0. In 8.0 you may choose to turn off symmetry when using this option.

• • • •

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 255

For auto-symmetry, the changes in the radii of the edge domains are applied to any 2D domain, depending on the number of edge domains you change for the 2D domains. If you change only one edge domain for a given 2D domain, the radius change will not be applied linearly across the 2D domain. If you change the radii of two edges for any given 2D domain, either a linear or planar temporary symmetry is created between the two edge domains for the 2D domain that will apply radius changes more linearly across the 2D domain. This works best if the mesh is regular. If you are changing only one edge for a 2D domain, you can increase the bias factor of any handles on an edge domain to yield a more even distribution. Mapping an edge domain to a line or a 2D mesh to a plane, surface, or mesh is done using the map to geom panel. This option is very effective for fitting a mesh to new geometric data. When mapping a domain to a geometric feature, all the nodes in neighboring domains are stretched along with it, minimizing mesh distortion. You have several options for determining how the nodes for the mapped domain are placed on the geometry. When mapping an edge domain or node list the nodes can be moved normal to the line, along a vector to the line, or distributed along the full length of the line. When mapping a 2D domain or selection of nodes to a plane, surface, or mesh, the nodes can be moved normal to the target, normal to the elements of the 2D domain or selected nodes, or along a vector. If you wish to fit a mesh to a surface, there is no option to do this automatically, however, with multiple mapping operations, or using the user control option you can fit a 2D domain to a surface. Furthermore, you have the option of creating a morph constraint between the nodes and the map target automatically after mapping. This constraint will allow you to do further morphing operations while maintaining the constrained nodes on the geometry. The map to geom panel is also effective for solid model meshing. You can create a block of solid elements roughly in the shape of the geometry that you are trying to mesh, and then use map to surface to morph the faces of the block to the geometry.

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - normal to geom The edge domain is mapped to a line by moving the nodes normal to the line.

256 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - fit to line The edge domain is mapped to the line by fitting them along the line. Any proportional spacing between the nodes will be maintained after mapping.

Morphing by mapping to surface By selecting the 2D domain on the top of the solid block to be mapped to the surface, the entire solid block is morphed to match the surface.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 257

Morphing by mapping to surface A rectangular C-section is mapped to a curved surface.

Morphing by mapping to surface - user control This example shows the user-control approach to mapping a mesh onto a surface. The surface and 2D domain are selected and the user control button is clicked. This brings up a new panel which allows you to place handles or map edges prior to the surface mapping operation. One by one each edge domain is placed on one of the lines around the target surface using the fit to line option. This stretches the 2D domain to match the surface more closely than before. When the map button is clicked, the domain is the mapped to the surface, fitting it perfectly to the geometry.

258 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Morphing Global Handles
Global handles are most effective when used to make general shape changes for a model, such as changing the basic shape of a model, stretching parts of a model, or making changes that involve the movement of many local handles. There are three methods available for affecting the way global handles influence the model, the direct method, the hierarchical method, and the mixed method. The default is the direct method, where the global handles move the nodes directly. In the hierarchical method, the global handles move the local handles which in turn move the nodes, but if any nodes lie outside of local domains they will be unaffected. In the mixed method, the hierarchical method is used for all nodes in local domains and the direct method is used for all other nodes. The hierarchical method maintains the shape of edge domains in the model, but if local handles are not evenly placed throughout the model, some parts will become distorted. The direct method gives you what you expect but often distorts the shape of the edge domains. For shell and solid models, better morphing is more likely to occur if you use the hierarchical method, and place local handles in areas where there is distortion.

Using Constraints
Morph constraints are a powerful tool that can be used to restrict the movement of nodes during morphing operations. The following types of constraints can be applied to any node: fixed, cluster, along vector, on plane, along line, on surface, and on elements. Whenever a handle is moved that influences a node, which is constrained, the node is moved according to the handle perturbation and is then projected back onto the feature to which it is constrained. This allows the nodes to slide across vectors, lines, planes, surfaces, and meshes, to remain fixed when handles are moved, or to move as a cluster along with other nodes. You may also constrain nodes where handles are located which, in effect, constrains the handles. When a perturbation is applied to a constrained handle, the handle are moved along the constraint feature regardless of the applied perturbation. This means that if you apply a translation in the x direction on a handle that is constrained along a vector x - y = 0, the handle moves along both the x and y axes. There are also morph constraints that can be applied to domains, such as the smooth constraint, which applies spline-based smoothing along the constrained edge domains, and model constraints, which allow you to set a given parametric target (such as length, angle, mass, etc.) and have HyperMorph adjust the model to meet that target. These constraints as well as bounded and set distance options for the node constraints are described more fully in the panel help. Morph constraints can be very useful for morphing a mesh that has been mapped to, projected to, or created upon a surface. Note that the map to geom operation allows you to have a morph constraint automatically created after mapping. Once you have done so, the nodes will remain on the surface during morphing operations. Note: Although morph constraints can keep nodes on a curved line or surface during morphing operations, when morphs are saved as shapes and then turned into shape variables for optimization, the nodes will not stay on the line or surface during optimization. This is because optimization is a linear process and the shapes will be treated as linear, meaning that the nodes will move directly from their original point to their maximally perturbed point without moving along any constraint.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 259

Controlling handle positions with morph constraints The angle of the lower right corner is changed from 74 to 90 degrees using the alter dimensions (angle) operation. The middle frame shows the result with no constraints. The frame on the right shows the result with the node in the upper right corner constrained to move along a vector that lies along the top edge.

Nodes tracking a line during morphing The nodes along the right edge domain are constrained to the line. When the handle is moved, it and the other constrained nodes move along the line.

260 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

000 at the corners.000 in the middle. When the handles are translated. In this example. they too will be moved along the surface regardless of the applied perturbation. which is the default value for all handles except for dependent handles on 1D domains. the morphing between the handles is linear. Biasing increases or decreases the influence of a handle over the nodes within its area of influence.Morphing after mapping to surface All mapped nodes are automatically constrained to the surface. the handles were translated linearly. HyperMorph automatically placed the handles back on the surfaces after applying the translation so that the constraint was obeyed. the nodes are moved along the surface a distance corresponding to the applied handle perturbations. and 3.0 User’s Guide 261 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Higher biasing values generate a smooth curvature near the handles. If the biasing values for all of the handles are equal to 1. Using Biasing Biasing allows you to control the shape of a mesh when applying handle perturbations. provided both handles are global handles or they are located on edge domains.000 at the edges. To smoothly change the shape of a domain it is recommended that you use a biasing factor of 1. while lower biasing values generate harsh corners near the handles. If the handles were also part of the map to geom operation. 2.000.

000.500.000.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The model at the lower left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 2. This is useful in selecting a good biasing value to apply for a given morph. When the biasing value of the handle at the hole is increased to 3.000 for the handle at the hole. and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 2. and have the current list of applied morphs updated to reflect the new biasing values. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. Biasing to reduce mesh distortion When the hole is moved downward with a biasing factor of 1. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1.000. you can change the biasing value by activating the make retroactive check box.000 and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 0. Apply the morphs and change the biasing values retroactively until you get the shape that you want. After applying a morph.000. Biasing can be applied retroactively after a morphing operation. the mesh unfolds (right frame). the mesh folds over due to the influences of the other handles (middle frame).Biasing for a 2D domain The model at the upper left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 1. 262 HyperMesh 8.000.

flanges. To create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in the model: 1. bosses. you can add. You can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature. 2. 3. In many cases. or manually select all of the elements in the model. each part is placed in its own 3D domain. these 2D domains are partitioned according to the settings selected in the parameter subpanel of the domains panel. select the domains panel. edit. and hexas. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. tetras. For solid models. Change the toggle to all elements. From the HyperMorph module. If they are not. namely. Once partitioned. This procedure is automatic. 5.Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains Solid models are models that are made up of solid elements. The elements in ^morphface covering each 3D domain are placed into 2D domains. The surfaces of each 3D domain are covered with shell elements that are placed in a component named ^morphface. a solid model represents a single part with numerous features such as holes. and ribs. In general. or delete the handles and domains to meet specific needs. This is done using one of the following methods: • • • • Moving the handles on the part to new locations Moving the global handles around the part to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the part Mapping the nodes of the part to line or surface data. If the model is made up of more than one part. pentas. Select create. Click create.0 User’s Guide 263 . 4. If partition 2D domains is checked.solid model You can create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in a model. edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. the domains and handles are generated where you want them to be. Set the selector to 3D domains. edges. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shape of features in a solid model. Creating Handles and Domains . it is only necessary to create a single 3D domain for the entire part. A 3D domain is created for a solid model Note the automatic creation and partitioning of 2D domains on the face of the solid and the creation of edge domains and handles for the 2D domains.

If you do not select partition 2D domains when you generate a 3D domain. the 2D domain made up of the elements on the surface of the 3D domain will not have edge domains and thus no handles will be generated for it. Select create. From the HyperMorph module. you may find it easier to start with a blank slate rather than editing the automatically created domains. However. element based and node based. If you click yes. Set the selector to auto functions. 264 HyperMesh 8.To create a 3D domain along with a global domain and global handles to your model: 1. morphing cannot be performed. Without handles. and 1D domain. such as first order tetra meshes. Be sure to try both methods of partitioning. global handles. if the second order tetras are converted first order tetras and thus have no curvature. select the domains panel. 3. the node based partitioning will work better. If there are any domains or handles in the model. Click generate. However. as well as a global domain and handles. 2D. 1D. this approach will give you a “blank slate” 2D domain that you can partition by hand. and 3D domains are automatically generated for the entire model. Automatic generation of domains on a solid model Note the addition of a global domain.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . before deciding to partition by hand. Note: The element based method sometimes works better on second order tetras since it accounts for element curvature. 4. 2. or if there are no morphing entities in the model. which produces dependent (green) handles. you are asked if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. For meshes on which the automatic partitioning does not work well.

4.0 User’s Guide 265 . if you are only going to morph a part of your 3D mesh. change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. From the HyperMorph module. In these cases the 3D domain will be left undivided. 4. Select any 2D domains on the surface of the 3D domain that are permissible for HyperMorph to split into more than one 2D domain. you do not need to be concerned about selecting the morphface elements. the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. 6. From the HyperMorph module. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. select the domains panel. or lower the limit for the large domain solver. Morphface elements are placed at the internal interface between the new domain and the other domains and create a 2D domain for the interface. Solving the influence coefficients for 3D domains which contain more than 20. other elements are automatically removed before the domain is created. Click subdivide. 3.Also. it does not matter if the selected elements are already in a 3D domain. Select the 3D domains to be subdivided. To do this. When selecting elements for the new domain. Partitions will be made only along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. However. a curvature break is detected at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. 2. Select update. In these cases you may want to divide the domain into multiple domains using the subdivide 3D function in the update sub-panel of the domains panel. When the new domain is created. To divide your solid model manually: 1. This method is very helpful for meshes that began as first order tetra meshes but then were then transformed into second order meshes. 5. 3. 2. for first order tetra meshes.000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. To subdivide your solid model: 1. select the domains panel. Also. For these meshes. morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming. Therefore. 5. you only need to create domains for that part. and thus subdividing 3D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. but it will not partition the interface. Additionally. Click create. Set the selector to 3D domains. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid. This better accommodates the division of tetra meshes that cannot be divided along flat or curved internal faces and thus would be partitioned into many domains. Not that in some cases HyperMorph will not be able to subdivide a 3D domain without dividing an indivisible 2D domain. Select create. in the parameters sub-panel. you do not need to select only solid elements. Select the elements to be placed into a new 3D domain. Set the selector to subdivide 3D. HyperMorph automatically subdivides the 3D domains into one or more 3D domains while leaving the 2D domains not selected as being divisible unchanged. you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when automatically partitioning. This results in a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can then manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should be located.

and creating or editing 2D domains results in the creation and deletion of edge domains. If the domains are not created exactly the way you want them. elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. edited. A single 3D domain is split into four 3D domains The influences of the handles will not extend across the boundaries between the domains. you can edit them in the domains panel. This is generally caused by handle influences extending too far through the 3D domain. When some meshes are morphed. it has the effect of partitioning the surface of the original 3D domain along seams where the divisions were made.Note: When you divide a 3D domain into parts. For large models you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. domains. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split. Influences must be recalculated every time handles. or symmetries are added. You can divide your 3D domains to restrict the handle influences and control mesh distortion. make sure that you divide it along lines where you want your 2D domains on the surface to be. The organize sub-panel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. the internal elements can become distorted. merge.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Since creating or editing 3D domains results in the creation of 2D and edge domains. Automatic partitioning does not always divide a mesh in the most useful ways. you should perform the tasks in the following order: Create and edit all the 3D domains that you want first. Create and edit the 2D domains. or deleted. Dividing a 3D domain into many 3D domains can be very useful for controlling the movement of nodes within the domain when the handles on the surface are moved. The influences for handles are only recalculated in regions that have been edited. These calculations occur when you enter or leave a HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. and place handles along edge domains. Create and edit the edge domains. 266 HyperMesh 8. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. So when you divide your model into 3D domains. Occasionally. Some cleanup may be required.

and for some domains it can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. Select organize. resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. Click organize. Note: Holding the mouse button down when the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D or 3D domain or over an element inside a domain. 6. For this example. 5. The elements are moved from their current domain to the selected domain. Change the selector to add nodes/elements. handles may be deleted.To move elements from one domain to another: 1. New handles may also be created during this process. 2. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements. will highlight the edge domains surrounding the domain. as well as the 2D domains at the interface if solid elements are being organized. This allows you to visualize the domain that you are selecting. You should keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing. and if retain handles is not checked. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. select the domains panel. The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. From the HyperMorph module. Select the target domain. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 267 . the retain handles option was left unchecked. Select the elements to be moved. The edge domains around both domains are refreshed. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain. 3. 4.

268 HyperMesh 8. 3. 6. 4. Select the domains to be grouped. 3. Now the radius of each new edge domain may be modified independently of the other. To split edge domains: 1.To group two or more domains: 1. 2. select the domains panel. Click split. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. 5. This is why you should edit the edge domains after the other domains have been edited. If you perform edge editing first. A handle is created at the selected node. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D and 3D domains. HyperMorph attempts to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. select the domains panel. Change the selector to split. but in some cases. Click organize. and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. The selected domains are combined into a single domain. which becomes a handle (right model). Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. Select an edge domain. Select edit edges. Select organize. The lower edge domain has been split at the gray node (left model). Change the selector to combine domains. it will not identify the proper starting and ending points. You will need to correct this by hand. 4. From the HyperMorph module. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 5. From the HyperMorph module. Edge domains are used to make radius changes.

you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish to change before you enter the morphing panel. Select one or more domains. Dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. 3. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. 2. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge are transparently applied to the dependent handles. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end-to-end such that the resultant merged edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. 5. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. From the HyperMorph module. Select edit edges. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. Select any number of edge domains. Click merge. 4. Change the selector to add handles. Secondly. Change the selector to merge. 4. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. 3. 5. the influences do not need to be recalculated.0 User’s Guide 269 . It will be as if they were not there. Dependent handles created using the handles on edge feature Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects.To merge edge domains: 1. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. The first is that since they are dependent. If a model is very large. This feature helps save time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. Select edit edges. select the domains panel. select the domains panel. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. From the HyperMorph module. To create dependent handles along an edge domain: 1. 2. Click create.

but only the surface elements are drawn because in a solid model. if desired (as shown). In these cases. 270 HyperMesh 8. click return. since the viewing mode is still wire frame. You can still display the surface mesh. You only see the side of the model that is facing you (as if your model was a real part).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which contains shell elements on the surface of the 3D domains. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles.solid model The HyperMesh graphics engine supports different visual options for viewing models as you work on them. your model is displayed as a wire frame. The influences for the handles is calculated and you are ready to begin morphing. you should divide large domains. Viewing Solid Models . Since HyperMorph creates a component called ^morphface. Note: During influence calculation for large models you might run out of available memory. a full wire frame can make it very difficult to visualize the model because every element in the model is displayed. delete unnecessary handles. When you are satisfied with your domains. solid fill The option produces a display that is similar to what you see when you perform a fill plot in the hidden line panel. However. or lower the limit of the large domain solver.6. surface-only wire frame In this default mode. the default setting is to display only that component—thus showing only the outer surface of your model and making it easier to work on. you will see the two sides of your model superimposed over each other.

0 User’s Guide 271 . so by viewing only the domains you can visualize the model with minimal clutter. Partitioning generally captures all the features on the surface of a solid. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.You can also view a solid model for morphing by turning off all the components and looking at only the domains and handles. This is similar to looking at the model in a meshless wire frame mode.

elements or surfaces that represent the beam cross section. including splitting and joining operations Selecting vertex coordinates when the spreadsheet display is active Edit the beam section manually via dialogs and a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates. surface. or element data takes place in the HyperBeam panel within HyperMesh. This data can be imported into the HyperMesh finite element pre-processor and used to create one-dimensional (bar.HyperBeam Module The HyperBeam module allows you to calculate general beam section properties from geometry or element data. and any beam section properties calculated. rod) element property data for an FEA model. Step One Step Two Step Three Beam section definition from line. beam.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . as dictated by the beam section template. The HyperBeam panel in HyperMesh allows you to: • • • • Define the beam cross sectional plane via the existing HyperMesh vector definition methods. Select the lines. its local coordinate system. moving. It is a threestep process. The HyperBeam module allows you to: • • View the beam section. Beam section manipulation and property calculation takes place in the HyperBeam module. and deleting vertices Editing line segments. Step 1: Beam Section Definition. Transfer the data into the HyperBeam module. Access previously defined beam cross sections for editing in the HyperBeam module. Each step is described in more detail below. Step 2: Beam Section Manipulation. Operations that can be accomplished in this way include: Hand editing of vertex coordinate geometry and connectivity Editing section thickness Creating parts Editing part to vertex associativity Parameterizing the beam section for optimization via a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates Organizing HyperBeam sections into a single level structure of HyperBeam collectors 272 HyperMesh 8. Beam section properties are imported back into HyperMesh and applied to element property cards. Operations that can be done this way include: • Editing section thickness Creating. Edit the beam section graphically via mouse clicks and drags. steps one and three are performed within HyperMesh and step two is performed in the HyperBeam module.

The beam section characteristics are displayed in the card image of the property collector but must be edited from within the HyperBeam module.Step 3: Beam Property Import. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 273 . You can import beam section properties into HyperMesh that have been defined in HyperBeam by using the collectors panel with the properties entity selected.

Example of the Three-Step Process This example illustrates how HyperBeam can be used to attach beam section properties to a OptiStruct PBAR card image.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Elements or lines can be used to describe a beam section. It assumes that the OptiStruct user profile is loaded. N1. 274 HyperMesh 8. The purple line is a plot element created in the global y-direction. project to plane is then selected under cross section plane:. The blue lines are plot elements denoting the beam section. And the plane base node is chosen (change option to specify node) at N1 also. N2 and N3 locations are selected as shown in the figure below. The shell section subpanel is selected from the HyperBeam panel. This plot element will be used to align the section within HyperBeam. The selector type is set to elems and the blue plot elements are selected.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The vector created by N1 to N2 describes the local y-axis used in HyperBeam. HyperBeam is invoked when you click create. It is important to note the alignment of the local axes at this point.0 User’s Guide 275 . N3 describes the positive sense of the z-axis. Later we will need to know this when the beam section is aligned for bar elements.

276 HyperMesh 8.If the node selection was performed differently. HyperBeam would yield different results as shown below. and N3 was reversed (essentially the z-direction was flipped).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

This operation is performed in the bars panel.0 User’s Guide 277 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The direction specified within the bars panel defines the alignment along the y-direction. the y-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. In this case. Bar element alignment using HyperBeam sections is very straightforward if the section was defined using an absolute y-direction. the HyperBeam alignment axis. This can be done in the collectors panel. If there were a 1 within the Z comp. it is necessary to attach the beam section to the PBAR card image. the z-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. and the local bar element alignment axis.Once HyperBeam solves the cross sectional properties. After the card image is created. The figure below illustrates the alignment of the global axis. the PBAR card image must be attached to the 1-D element in question.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 278 HyperMesh 8.The beam cross section can also be attached to the beam to visually inspect the alignment. This option can be found in the review sections subpanel in the HyperBeam panel.

The x axis is defined along the beam axis.Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam The beam cross section is always defined in a y. only the theory of thin walled bars is used. For shell sections. Thickness warping is also neglected.0 User’s Guide 279 .z plane. The coordinate system defined by the user is called the local coordinate system. This means that for the calculation of the moments and product of inertia terms of higher order of the shell thickness t are neglected. Area Area Moments of Inertia Area Product of Inertia Radius of Gyration Elastic Section Modulus Max Coordinate Extension Plastic Section Modulus Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the system parallel to the local coordinate system with the origin in the centroid is called the centroidal coordinate system. the system referring to the principal bending axes is called the principal coordinate system.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Torsional Constant Solid Shell open Shell closed Elastic Torsion Modulus Solid Shell open Shell closed Warping Constant (normalized to the shear center) Shear deformation coefficients 280 HyperMesh 8.

Structural Mechanics – Variational and Computational Methods. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. H. 1993. Pilkey. and W. Wiley & Sons. Beam Stiffness Matrix based on the Elasticity Equations. Gjelsvik.D. Goeldner. U. 1979. CRC Press. Schramm. Pilkey and W. FL. Wunderlich. Rubenchik. The Theory of Thin Walled Bars. Fachbuchverlag. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 40 (1997) 211-232. 1981. ed. Lehrbuch – Hoehere Festigkeitslehre.D. Leipzig.0 User’s Guide 281 . Boca Raton. V..Shear stiffness factors Shear stiffness Nastran Type Notation References W. A.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . toolbar. shell section graphics pane. It also has a menu bar. and status bar. and results/spreadsheet sections. 282 HyperMesh 8. Click each section of the HyperBeam window below to access detailed information about the menu areas.HyperBeam Environment HyperBeam has three main panes: the section browser.

select the section. choose Export Section from the pop-up menu. click again to indicate that you want to rename it. select Copy from the Edit menu. and enter the new name. until you create thumbnail images for a different selection of sections. the thumbnail images that were just created may be viewed in the graphics pane by selecting Model in the section browser tree. To copy a section. select the collector where you want the section to appear. and select Paste from the Edit menu. select Cut from the Edit menu. Section types are identified by icons. as listed below: Shell Solid Standard Generic You can perform the following tasks in the section browser: • • • • To rename a section or section collector. select the section. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. choose Create Thumbnails from the pop-up menu. holding down the control key. right-click in the section browser pane. and select Paste from the Edit menu. At the highest level is the model.Section Browser This section browser presents a hierarchical view of all of the beam sections and section collectors on your database. select the collector branch in the section browser window. HyperBeam displays this hierarchy in a standard tree structure. You can use the section browser to find a particular section of your model for displaying or editing. select a section by left-clicking on it. and dragging it to the collector where you want it to be located. click Save. thumbnail images of all the sections are shown in the graphics pane. To export sections to an external file. select multiple sections by holding down the control key and left-clicking on multiple sections. To move a section. click once on the item to select it. There are two ways to "drag and drop": • Move a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. select the collector where you want the section to appear. To view thumbnail images of the sections in a section collector. and dragging and dropping it into the collector where you want it to be located Copy a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move.0 User’s Guide 283 . give a filename and location in the Save As window (it is recommended to use the . and renaming sections and section collectors. Below that are all of the collectors followed by the beam sections at the lowest level. select the desired sections or section collectors in the section browser (hold down the control key to select multiple items).bm extension to save beam section files). You can also reorganize the database by moving sections between collectors. copying sections. To view thumbnails of selected sections. right-click in the section browser pane.

separated by a colon.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The color of the lines for each part is selected on the section's properties dialog. if you have them enabled on the view menu. The section axis is always drawn with its y-axis pointing to the right. If you accidentally omit those vertices from the connectivity for a part. the metal thickness used for a flange is the sum of the thicknesses of all the parts that share it. The preferences dialog allows you to set the font and background color to use in the text graphics pane.The Importance of Flanges When HyperBeam computes the properties for the section. 284 HyperMesh 8. The bar is labeled with the part's number in the section and the current numerical value of the thickness. The section's torsion and warping factor are displayed in the lower left corner of the pane. For shell sections. if the section's x-axis points into or out of the monitor. The shear center appears as an x with a circle around it. or equivalently. You have control (on the preferences dialog) over whether the z-axis points up or down. depending on if you have the toggle set on the toolbar or the view menu. The section's local coordinate system and its principle coordinate system (at its centroid) are displayed. if you have them enabled on the view menu. Each vertex may or may not be labeled by its ID. Shell Section Graphics Pane The graphics pane displays a representation of the geometric layout of the section. each sheet metal part is drawn by lines connecting the dots that show the section's vertices. You can modify the section itself with the shell section editing tools. then HyperBeam underestimates the stiffness of a section. Each part is also marked with a slider bar that you can use to adjust the part's thickness. The centroid appears as a plus with a circle around it.

then the spreadsheet additionally displays optimization bounds for each variable. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. variables. but you can select it and copy it to paste it into another application such as a word processor. You can change the display of text and values by editing the scripts file. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. you can delete them from the template so that they are not displayed. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. so you may choose to add additional values to the template. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. Also. You cannot edit the text in this portion of the window. If the results are not available. and the associated vertex moves to the new location. You can specify a new results template by selecting the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You specify the text font. consult the documentation for the results output template. Shell Section Spreadsheet (non-optimization version) For a shell section. then HyperBeam displays the message. it displays them in the results pane. To see the list of all the results available. You will find controls for the actual format and layout of the text and results in two locations.Results/Spreadsheet Pane Section Properties Results Whenever HyperBeam computes the section properties of the current section. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. text color. to toggle between them. such as when you have edited the section definition and dynamic update is disabled. there are more results computed than are displayed in the default template. If this section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog.0 User’s Guide 285 . If you select Copy from the Edit menu. You can type a new value into any of the coordinates. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's vertices and their coordinates. If the section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog." Standard Section Spreadsheet For a standard section. If there are computed values that are not necessary. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's variables and their current values. "No results to display. The section results pane shares screen space with the section definition spreadsheets. you can use the spreadsheet button on the toolbar. then the spreadsheet displays equations. and background color on the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. and optimization bounds for the section.

Optimization Shell Section Spreadsheet If the shell section has been designated an optimization section on the Properties dialog. click the variable with the right mouse button. it is assumed the optimizer treats that coordinate as fixed. so it must be formatted as appropriate for that solver. you can use other vertex coordinates. A vertex that is defined by an equation may not appear on the right-hand side of another equation. a lower bound. initial value. If all three values are equal. Next. To define a variable for use in an equation.) To delete an equation. To delete a variable. Click the coordinate and it will appear as the dependent vertex. 286 HyperMesh 8. (For example. into which you can enter the variable's name. Select delete variable on the menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Alternatively. a new blank line appears. arithmetic functions. use the right mouse button to select the variable's section. In the equation. variables. A menu is displayed that allows you to choose between adding or deleting a variable. A menu is displayed. click the vertex coordinate to make it active and delete the text of the equation. or trigonometric functions. a vertex coordinate can be defined using an equation. and an upper bound. click the right-hand side of the equation and enter the formula. Each vertex coordinate now has three values: an initial value. blank spaces may be prohibited. If you choose add. The equation is passed to the optimization solver. The coordinate will be set equal to the last value it had calculated. then the shell-section spreadsheet expands to display the rest of the necessary information. and optimization bounds. with a few restrictions.

Displays a print preview. From the Edit window. Opens a file browser so you can import a beam cross-section. select Preferences. Options are provided to export all sections. There are controls for the results/spreadsheet window and controls for the section graphics window available. Opens a file browser so you can export a beam cross-section. Exit the HyperBeam module and return to HyperMesh. On the Edit menu. Setting the Section Graphics Options The Graphics tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Specifies the main background color for the section graphics region.0 User’s Guide 287 .HyperBeam Menu Bar The HyperBeam menu bar allows you to perform a wide variety of operations using drop-down menus. Edit Menu Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Delete Preferences Undo the last procedure. Set the graphics and results preferences. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or only selected sections. Paste the selected text or entity into the location of the cursor. Copies and removes the selected text or entity. Prints the currently displayed beam cross section and the section analysis results. select Preferences to display the tabs. Delete the currently selected text or entity. The Graphics and Results tabs in the Preferences dialog allow you to set preferences for the section graphics window and the results/spreadsheet window. Redo the last procedure. standard section. Other operations can be performed using either the menu bar or the corresponding tool button. The Preferences dialog allows you to specify the appearance and behavior of HyperBeam. Some operations such as importing and exporting are accomplished only from the menu bar. Allows you to set up printer preferences. Save the beam cross-section. or generic section. Copies the selected text or entity. File Menu New Save Import Section Export Section Export Results Print Print Preview Print Setup Exit Create a new section collector. Opens a file browser so you can export the results for the selected section to a text file.

such as courier. See the Templex Reference On-line Help for additional details. The Scale Thumbnails checkbox allows thumbnail images to be displayed. Contact Altair for technical details on exchange file formats and return codes. Allows you to specify a bitmap or second color for a gradient to display as the background of the section graphics window. The distance entry field allows the distance between nodes of the grid to be adjusted. so that their sizes are relative to one another. for best formatting.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Font Background effects Displays the font dialog box. You may substitute your own solver to compute values for thin Shell sections. Allows you to specify whether HyperBeam should display the section with the x-axis coming out of the page (so z axis goes up) or going into the page (so the z-axis goes down). Displays the font dialog box. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for section graphics window. External solver for thin shell sections 288 HyperMesh 8. Allows you to display a grid behind the section image. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for the results display. It is recommended that you use a fixed-width font. Each section type can have its own custom script. x-axis direction Grid Thumbnails Specifying the Results/Spreadsheet Display The Results tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Font Select the background color for the results display. Results output templates The computed results for a section are formatted using a user-specified TEMPLEX scripts. so it can display just those values known to be relevant.

. Allows you to break a segment so that you can add a new vertex. automatically updates the display when you make changes. Part Editor. Moves the model in the selected direction. Tools Menu Break a Segment Join Segments Create a New Part Move Vertices Reorient Shell Section. Allows you to delete a vertex to join two segments. Turns on and off the display of the Torsion Factor.. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section... or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Turns on and off the display of the system coordinate axes. Allows you to modify the properties of the beam cross-sections.. Turns on and off the display of the Warping Factor. Allows you to add a new sheet metal part to the current section. Turns on and off the display of the Vertex IDs. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. Allows you to move vertices. Scales the graphic so that it exactly fits the active window.. Properties.0 User’s Guide 289 . If selected. Magnifies the graphic in the graphics pane. Allows you to specify the section that you want to zoom in on to examine in greater detail. Turns on and off the display of the status bar.View Menu Toolbar Status Bar Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit to screen Update Results Dynamic update Systems Torsion Factor Warping Factor Spreadsheets Vertex Ids Turns on and off the display of the toolbar. When selected. rearrange vertices in a part. updates results. Switches the display in the Results/Spreadsheet pane. Reduces the size of the graphic in the graphics pane.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the origin will not move with it. Likewise. If you move a defi ning vertex. or at an angle offset from the current y axis. the current shear center. To specify a new coordinate system. Specifying the y-axis You can specify the direction for the for the y-axis of the local coordinate system using vertices. or the current centroid to be the new origin. reflecting it about the y-axis. you must specify the location of its origin relative to the vertices and the direction of the y-axis. the current principle axes. if you subsequently move that vertex. or the principle axes change. Note that. You can also move the origin by a fixed amount by defining y and z offsets. if the shear center or centroid changes because of any changes to the section properties.Reorient Shell Section The reorient shell section dialog allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. reverse x-axis Activate the check box to flip the section over. the origin for the section does not follow it. 290 HyperMesh 8. Specifying the Origin You can designate a vertex. this coordinate system does not adjust with them.

2. in the section illustrated below. When you use the part editor tools for. The part features that you need to control are its thickness and the connectivity of its vertices. the currently selected part of the section is highlighted. You can add or remove vertices to change the part. To designate a segment between two vertices and a flange. 12. A part in this context is an individual piece of sheet metal that is typically welded to other parts along flanges. 14. 2. (You can also adjust thickness by using the graphic tools. include those vertices in more than one part. To set a new thickness. 5. For example..0 User’s Guide 291 . you can set upper and lower bounds for the optimization of the section's sheet metal thicknesses. 3. … and the connectivity of the bottom flange is 1. enter a value in the appropriate field. You can use the up and down arrows to review any part. The part editor also allows you to review and edit part vertex connectivities. the segment between vertices 1 and 2 is a flange. on the Tools menu and entering data in the Edit Parts dialog. 13. so the connectivity of the top part is 1. There is list of the vertex IDs at the bottom of the list.. 4.Part Editor Parts of thin-shell sections can be edited by selecting Part Editor. 15 … Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.) If you are currently in an optimization section.

Thin Shell Section Properties The Thin Shell Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single shell section. HyperBeam recognizes four types of beam cross-sections. Section type 292 HyperMesh 8. Torsion factor Warping Factor Line color Set the torsion factor. or equations tying coordinates together.Properties Properties for beam cross-sections are specified by selecting Properties on the Tools menu and entering data in the Thin-Shell Section Properties dialog. The properties that can be specified differ for each type of section. On the Tools menu. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. You can activate this option if you need to specify optimization parameters for this section. Set the warping factor. or vertex coordinates. Standard Section Properties The Standard Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single standard section. Fill color Choose the color to use for displaying the material portion of the section in the graphics pane. Specify the shape out of the available choices to use for the standard section. Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. select properties. This operation cannot be undone. See the HyperBeam panel for more information on beam cross-sections types. such as upper and lower bound on thicknesses. Optimization Solid Section Properties The Solid Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a solid section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Generic Section Properties The Generic Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a generic section.0 User’s Guide 293 . Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

HyperBeam Toolbar The toolbar allows you to quickly access some of the more commonly used functions. Enlarge the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. They control how the section is displayed in the graphics pane and the results/spreadsheet pane. if you have turned off the auto-update of section results. activate this tool and then click in the graphics area the sequence of vertices. Bring the section results up to date. activate this tool and click at approximately the place you want it to appear. Join two segments/ eliminate vertex Create a new part 294 HyperMesh 8. To finish the part.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Zoom out on the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. Pops-up the properties dialog Shell Section Editing Tools There are five tools to modify the basic definition of a shell section: Break segment If you want to add a new vertex between two existing vertices. or deactivate the tool by toggling its button on the toolbar. View Controls The view controls are available on the View menu and the toolbar. Turn on and off the display of vertex IDs in shell sections. Alternate between displaying results or the spreadsheet. activate this tool and click on the vertex. Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit Show/hide Ids Update results Show/hide spreadsheet Properties Zoom in on area of the beam section by using the mouse to draw a circle around the area of interest. Resize the display to fit the pane. double-click the last vertex. You can use any mixture of existing or new vertices in creating the part. If you want to delete a vertex. To add a new sheet metal part to the current section. Specify a new center for the graphics display.

Open the print dialog. and click and hold on the vertex to move and drag it to its new location. activate this tool.Move vertex Part-editor To reposition a vertex. Redo the last action performed.0 User’s Guide 295 . Copy an item. a short description of the action performed when you click the icon is displayed in the status bar. If you place the cursor over a toolbar icon. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Status Bar The HyperBeam status bar displays messages and information about the interface. rearrange vertices in a part. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. Paste a copied or cut item. Undo the last action performed. Open the HyperBeam on-line help. General Tools There are eight tools that allow you to manage a HyperBeam session: Save Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Print On-line Help Save the session. Cut an item and hold it in memory for pasting. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition.

The properties that HyperMesh calculates include cross sectional area. calculate its properties. shear center. HyperMesh uses a finite element methodology to calculate the properties for the cross section. center of gravity. 296 HyperMesh 8. Note: For design reasons.Beam Cross Section Property Solver The beam cross section property solver allows you to define a beam cross section. principal axes.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The tools on the beam xsect panel can help you complete the necessary property cards for finite element analysis using HyperMesh bar2 elements. moments of inertia. The panel functions also facilitate the creation of bar2 elements. and torsion and warping constants. and apply those properties to a HyperMesh model. the beam cross section functions favor NASTRAN analysis in nomenclature and bar offset calculations. This process is performed in the beam xsect panel.

or have it calculated for you. Linear weighting of the points on the selected lines. Unless you change the name of the component. Axes. HyperMesh calculates the plane for you. these elements are not output when you use the export subpanel on the files panel. the coordinate system. The save elements option allows you to save the elements defining the cross section as part of the HyperMesh model. Note: The save element option has no effect when you define sections by elements. If you use the default method. second order elements are always used. using NASTRAN conventions. this node can be referenced as an end of a bar2 element created with the panel. secondary panels called define offset parameters are opened. and the Z-axis is the cross product of the X and Y axis. In all cases the planar normal is defined as the positive X axis.Describing Cross Section Planes. If you do not specify a base point. When you pick elements. HyperMesh uses one of two methods to define the plane. These options are specified by using the toggle under plane base node:. surfaces. If you use the offset lines sub-panel. HyperMesh defines the plane base at the Center of Gravity of the cross section. offset values are calculated for you. 1 versus 2 Order Element Analysis st nd For beam cross sections that were fully defined by lines or surfaces. Save Elements Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. in this case. you may choose to have the properties calculated using first or second order elements. These specifications are applied by using the toggles under cross section plane: or plane base node:. Planes In order for properties to be calculated correctly. your N1 and N2 selections are used to define the positive Y-axis. The system is the same as the coordinate system for the plane. If you define the plane. This tells HyperMesh to ignore the contents of the component when exporting a model. Local Axes Many of the properties are defined relative to a local coordinate system. These elements are placed in a newly created component for each calculation. and Elements The following factors relating to the cross section plane. or elements is used. the cross section must be planar.and Z-axes are defined to be the principal axes of the cross section. If you create the bar2 element by using this method. If HyperMesh calculates the plane. The save element option is located on the pick geom sub-panel on the beam xsect panel. If you are using offset sections. the order of the selected HyperMesh element is used. All properties are calculated on the plane. The name of the component is preceded by a caret (^). If you define the base point by picking a node. and the element order can be defined in the beam xsect panel. This option is specified by using the toggle under analysis type: on the pick geom sub-panel. the Y.0 User’s Guide 297 . You can also use the standard HyperMesh plane collector to define the plane. the plane is determined by a "best fit" from the data provided. You may specify any existing HyperMesh node as the base point of the plane.

normal to the line. and weld points. or by entering the desired values. If weld points are not defined for offset sections. HyperMesh attempts to join four nodes per line per weld to a corresponding set of four nodes on another line. The distance from the point and the diameter of the weld may be changed graphically. or reverse normal to the line. An arrow is displayed that indicates the offset direction. use the combine lines option and specify a break angle.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The thickness used is considered to be the total thickness of the sheet metal piece. The offset direction is user-specified. By default. The initial definition of the cross section uses the user-defined nominal thickness for each line. The line sets may be changed one at a time by selecting the graphical toggle and picking the line set or all sets may be changed at once by clicking the toggle sides button. it is best to use fewer lines with the property calculator. you can define any or all line thicknesses using the thickness = option. the offset direction is centered. you may change any or all of the line thicknesses. you can also specify weld points for the cross section. Any continuous set of HyperMesh lines (as determined by HyperMesh) is considered to be a single piece of sheet metal. Holes are allowed in the section but all portions of it must touch all other portions. Offset Sections The offset sections method is designed to support thin-walled cross sections manufactured from sheet metal. The beam cross section is described by a set of lines. HyperMesh first looks for coincident node pairs to join. provided they are used in the definition of the cross section. thicknesses. Any number of lines may be selected to be part of a weld point. You can also change the offset direction after the initial cross section definition. When you use this method. The tolerance is defined as 15% of the largest distance between the weld areas on the lines minus the offset distances. Each HyperMesh line in the set can be assigned a thickness. You can change the thickness of lines interactively by using the mouse cursor or you can enter a value and apply it to specific lines or all of the lines. Weld points are used to join separate pieces of sheet metal at a point.Defining a Cross Section There are two methods you can use to describe a cross-section for analysis: by offsetting HyperMesh lines or by selecting a fully enclosed area. 298 HyperMesh 8. The choices are centered. with the line as the center of the sheet metal piece. based upon the line data in the model. After nominal = for initial thickness is defined. an offset of each line is created. When you define a weld point. Although you can use the line segments option. Then it looks for nodes within tolerance of each other. the section must be a contiguous area. With either method. Note: If you define a cross section with elements and use the intersect panel to cut elements. The weld point is located a given distance from a fixed point. After the initial cross section is defined. When this method is used in the offset lines sub-panel of the beam xsect panel. HyperMesh allows this point to be chosen at any end or joint of a selected line. the section is considered fully open and no correlation will exist between nodes on different sets of lines.

or surfaces that describe a fully closed area. If the section is defined using elements. Note: This means that all nodes along common boundaries are taken as the same and the solver does not consider moving them independently. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you can use the pick geom sub-panel of the beam xsect panel to select any set of elements. those elements are considered to be the section. lines. No alterations are made to those elements. the area is automeshed to generate elements for the cross section. Defining the section using lines or surfaces in this manner creates a fully closed section. When lines or surfaces are chosen. HyperMesh uses the connectivity provided by the elements.Fully Defined Sections For this method of beam cross section definition.0 User’s Guide 299 . aside from projecting to a common plane. If you select by elements.

At any time you can click apply results to perform all the currently specified options. The following symbols are displayed at the Center of Gravity and the Shear Center: Center of Gravity symbol Shear Center symbol The local axes of the beam are also displayed.Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties After you select the solve function in the beam xsect panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the properties are calculated. with which you can apply the calculated properties to the HyperMesh model. The following postprocessing options can be performed in any combination desired and are not exclusive of other functions. 300 HyperMesh 8. individual menu items are displayed that perform only the sub-set of desired operations. The post-processing panel displays only the menu items necessary for the current operation. Otherwise. The post-processing panel is displayed. Temporary nodes are also created at the Center of Gravity and Shear Center.

Ir A. use the FEA solver: switch to select the solver. J.0. the original value. N2 A. Is. A non unit Torsion factor will modify the value of the Torsional Constant. J. HyperMesh material data associated with the property/component is not affected. Shear Center x1 and x2 Area. OPTISTRUCT. Ist. J. independently developed over many years. CW. I2. see Save and Display Results. Izz. These constants provide a means to apply empirical "fudge factors" to the results. These factors. Display Size You can control the size of the Center of Gravity and Shear Center symbols and the local Coordinate system with the draw size = field. see Creating Collectors. ANSYS. you may select NASTRAN. or PAM-CRASH. For more information. I1. LS-DYNA. The values that are saved in summary files or displayed on the screen show the factor. Itt. It. and the spacing between welds. K1. If you already have a card image template specified in the global panel. MARC. This function does not work for dictionary solvers. Izz. I1. RADIOSS. If data exists. SHEAR CENTER R SECTION_BEAM. Centroid x1 and x2. J. K1. principal Y axis unit VECTOR ANSYS LS-DYNA/ RADIOSS PAM-CRASH MARC Property Property Component Component Torsion and Warping Factors torsion factors and warping factors are the only fields common to all operations of the postprocessing panel. The changes are applied to all HyperMesh properties and/or components. ABAQUS. For more information. Iyy. Iyy A. SA A. no changes are made to the calculated value. that solver is automatically selected. N1. Solver NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT ABAQUS Comp/Prop Property Property Component Card Name PBAR PBEAM (end A) BEAMGENERAL. All of the solver data of the property/component is deleted if you answer yes. CENTROID. The size determination is for user-viewing preference only and does not affect any of the actual values. Iss. I2. Otherwise.0 warping factor modifies the Warping Constant. When you apply the results to the properties or components. and replaced by the newly calculated data or default data for that property/component. I22. K2. you are prompted to confirm that you wish to overwrite the data on that property/component. Similarly non 1. I2. After you select the solver. Γw. K2 A. If these factors remain at the default value of 1. I12. you can specify the already created HyperMesh properties or components to which to apply the results as a card image. HyperMesh checks to see if data already exists for the currently chosen solver on that property/component. and the modified value. Irr.0 User’s Guide 301 . I1. As. elform 2 Mat’l type 202 geometry Data A. I12. relate fully welded sections to partially welded sections.Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver In order to relate the calculated properties to a card for your desired output solver. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

that is referenced by the bar element. Note: If you create a BAR2 element and it does not show on the screen. or move the bar element to that component by using the organize panel. either as a vector or by letting HyperMesh create a node along the axis. and not with summary alone.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If the solver for which you are defining a model uses components.Creating a Bar Element Another option is to create a HyperMesh BAR2 element by specifying two nodes and optionally choosing a direction vector or node and property for the element. if any. use the disp (display) panel to confirm that the elements of the current component are selected for display. If you want a permanent record of the calculations you have just performed. 10% of the length of the element away from the existing node. The cross section may be chosen as either end A or end B of the bar. you can select the summary file option and specify a file name in the field after summary file. If any properties (not components) are selected when you build a BAR2 element. Whether you choose to save a summary file and/or display it on the screen. If you want to save these. You are asked about each selected property until you answer "yes" to the question presented. The node for this end of the bar is either the centroid of the section or the user-selected base node. it creates a new node. you are asked if you want each property associated with the newly created bar element. 302 HyperMesh 8. If you use a vector orientation. you must save the results as an ASCII file. You may also create a HyperMesh vector in either the local Y or Z direction of the cross section. There are many properties calculated that are not assigned to solver cards. The properties can also be viewed on the screen in the same manner as summary templates. The element is created in the currently active component. The BAR2 element that you are creating can also be assigned an orientation. The other end of the bar may be defined by picking a node or specifying a distance along the x axis of the cross section. The sign of the distance is the direction along the x axis. to which the calculated properties were assigned. Save and Display Results All of the calculated properties may be viewed or saved to an ASCII text file. check to make sure the desired component is currently active. Manipulating them does not change the property values that may be saved and referenced by the created bar element. If only one property is selected. Coordinate Systems/Vectors A HyperMesh coordinate system may be created to save the orientation of the cross section. This option is provided to aid in understanding the orientation of the cross section relative to the overall model. that property is automatically assigned to the new BAR2 element. This feature works only with apply results. You may use the cross section’s local Y or Z axis. the information includes a named list of the properties/components. If you use a nodal orientation. to describe the bar’s orientation. it applies a global unit vector to the bar created. The system is created identical to the one displayed on the screen.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. split the HyperMesh line at the desired point and then choose the new point at the split. How do I obtain lines from a shell element model to use as my offset lines? Use the hidden line panel on the Post page and choose line plot as the desired output.Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers This section provides answers for common questions about using the beam cross section process: How do I change the number of lines on which I can define a thickness? Change the number of HyperMesh lines you are selecting. Each HyperMesh line has a different thickness.0 User’s Guide 303 . Select those lines as your section definition. Use the line edit panel on the Geom page to either split or combine existing lines. How do I define a weld point at a different location? Use the graphical controls to change its location on the line. If you need a different reference point.

component collectors and design variables) may result in synchronization problems and loss of data. Nastran. 304 HyperMesh 8. or by selecting HyperLaminate from the Setup pull-down menu. Ansys and Abaqus user profiles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The HyperLaminate module is supported for the OptiStruct. this is not advisable. In support of this process certain materials and design variables are also supported by in the HyperLaminate module. review and edition of composite laminates. so while it is possible to work in HyperMesh while HyperLaminate is running. HyperLaminate is launched from within HyperMesh either from the HyperLaminate button on the 2D page of the main menu.HyperLaminate Module HyperLaminate is a HyperMesh module that facilitates the creation. Any changes made to those entities which HyperLaminate touches (materials. which are updated simultaneously in HyperMesh and HyperLaminate). The current HyperMesh database is only updated with information from the current HyperLaminate session on exit from HyperLaminate (an exception to this rule are Abaqus materials.

This browser. Left clicking on an entity populates the Define/Edit and Review panes with details of that branch. laminates or design variables. This is the right hand pane of the HyperLaminate module. The review pane has a number of tabs that display the current state of the selected branch. as shown here: Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus that allow you to manage files. Review Pane Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. laminates and design variables. Right clicking on a branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. and access on-line help. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. paste.0 User’s Guide 305 . Toolbar Laminate Browser Define/Edit Pane This is the central pane of the HyperLaminate module. provides a vertical tree view of materials. laminate or design variable definition (depending on the selected branch in the laminate browser). and delete entries in text boxes. and to cut. Here users may enter or change data related to a material.HyperLaminate Environment The HyperLaminate environment consists of five general areas. change views. laminates and size design variables in your model. The HyperLaminate toolbar contains five tools that allow you to generate new materials. edit materials. copy.

Exports material and laminate information to a text file. This text file can be printed. Exit HyperLaminate. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table.HyperLaminate Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. Edit Cut Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. At this point the current HyperMesh database is updated with the information in the current HyperLaminate session. The following chart lists each menu option.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. 306 HyperMesh 8. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. File New Export to File Exit Generates a new entity.

contact. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and copyright information. Display/hide status bar. Allows you to select defaults for new Laminates for: • • • • • View Toolbar Status Bar Help About HyperLaminate Help Topics color convention repetitions ply thickness common thickness Display/hide toolbar. Displays version. Activates the HyperLaminate on-line help.0 User’s Guide 307 .Tools Ply lay-up options Displays the Ply lay-up Options dialog.

(a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table.HyperLaminate Toolbar The HyperLaminate toolbar is located below the menu bar and its display is controlled by the Toolbar option under the View pull-down menu. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. Cut Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 308 HyperMesh 8. Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. The toolbar is shown and described here. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. Icon Name New Function Generates a new entity.

The data is presented in a slightly different format for the various user profiles as shown here: OptiStruct & Nastran Ansys Abaqus The Laminate Browser is organized in a three level hierarchy: 1. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. SHELL99. SOLID46 and SOLID 191 c. SHELLSECTION and SHELLGENERALSECTION Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the browser also includes size design variables. for the active user profile. for Abaqus: i.0 User’s Guide 309 . and laminates in your model. These are: a. for Ansys: i. Design Variables: DESVAR b. Materials: ABAQUS_MATERIAL ii. Materials: MATERIAL and MPDATA ii. Materials: MAT1. Laminates: SOLIDSECTION. At the intermediate level are the entity subtypes or card images. laminate definitions and size design variables existing in the HyperMesh database. MAT2 and MAT8 ii.Laminate Browser The Laminate browser. Laminates and Design Variables. On launching HyperLaminate. for OptiStruct and Nastran: i. At the highest level are the entity types: Materials. the Laminate Browser is populated with all the relevant materials. Laminates: SHELL91. 2. provides a vertical tree view of the materials. Laminates: PCOMP and PCOMPG iii.

Right clicking on an already selected (highlighted) branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. Left or right clicking on a branch in the browser selects that branch and it becomes highlighted. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. It is then possible to alter and update the entity definition. Right click on selected entity sub-type. 2.3. The selected entity is highlighted. a new MAT1 entity is created. Select New from the File pull-down menu. Duplicate – which creates a copy of the selected entity. i. Click the New icon. At the intermediate level (entity sub-types) only one operation is available: New – which will create a new entity of the selected sub-type. 3. . Or 1. Rename .e. 2. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. At the lowest level are the entities. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. To review and update entities: 1. Click New. A new entity appears under the selected branch. if MAT1 is selected and we right click on it and choose New. 2. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. and Delete – which will delete the selected entity. A new entity appears under the selected branch. the Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. 310 HyperMesh 8. A new entity appears under the selected branch A default name and id are assigned to each newly created entity. displayed with the names as defined by you. When an entity (lowest level branch in the tree hierarchy) is selected.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree.which allows the entity to be renamed. Or 1. on the toolbar. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. At the lowest level (entities) three operations are available. Make the desired changes to the entity definition in the Define/Edit pane and click apply or update laminate to update the entity. 2. • • At the highest level (entity types) no operations are available. • From the Laminate Browser it is possible to: To create entities: There are three options for creating new entities in HyperLaminate: 1.

4. 2. 7. A duplicate of the entity is created and appears in the Laminate Browser. Select Delete from the Edit pull-down menu. Click Duplicate. Enter the desired new name in the text box. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it.To rename entities: 1. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. in the Laminate Browser. Or Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Duplicate. Duplicate. Click Yes. Right click on the selected entity. To duplicate entities: 1. and Delete. switches to a text box. Click Rename. 3. To delete entities: There are three options for deleting entities in HyperLaminate: 1. You can also rename an entity by altering the relevant field in the Define/Edit pane and then clicking on Apply or Update Laminate. 3. 2. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. The name of the selected entity. A confirmation dialog is displayed. Right click on selected entity.0 User’s Guide 311 . Click Delete. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. A confirmation dialog is displayed. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Or 5. 2. and Delete. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. Right click on the selected entity. 4. Duplicate. and Delete. 3. Click Yes. 6. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename.

10. To delete these undefined materials.8. as they do not really exist. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. on the toolbar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click the Delete icon. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. either complete their definition (by clicking Edit – which takes you to the HyperMesh material card previewer) or exit and restart HyperLaminate (in which case the undefined materials are purged). 312 HyperMesh 8. Note: Abaqus materials that are created but not defined (they appear in a red font in Laminate Browser) may not be deleted. A confirmation dialog is displayed. . Click Yes. 9.

all material property information for the selected material may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. allows you to edit the definition of the selected entity. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Below are screenshots showing the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct MAT8 definition and an Ansys MATERIAL definition: OptiStruct – Materials – MAT8 Ansys – Materials – MATERIAL Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Define/Edit Pane The Define/Edit Pane. To reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. Materials For OptiStruct.0 User’s Guide 313 . Nastran and Ansys materials. the central pane of the HyperLaminate window. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Define/Edit pane is populated with the current definitions. The configuration of the Define/Edit pane differs for different user profiles and sub-types (card images). Once the desired changes have been made.

to reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . where you can review and alter the definition of the selected material. Once you has finished reviewing/editing the material. Clicking the Edit button takes you to the material card previewer in the HyperMesh GUI. stacking sequence convention and the ply lay-up order to be edited. but to fully define the material properties they must click the Edit button.For Abaqus materials users may rename or redefine the color of the material in the Define/Edit pane. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus material is shown here: Abaqus – Materials – ABAQUS_MATERIAL Laminates For Laminates. HyperMesh component color. This is for all supported user profiles and laminate sub-types. clicking return will return you to the HyperLaminate GUI. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus SOLIDSECTION laminate is shown here: Abaqus – Laminates – SOLIDSECTION 314 HyperMesh 8. As with the other user profiles. the Define/Edit pane allows the laminate name.

Symmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). f. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. d. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The midlayer is not reflected. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. 180. 270 and 360 respectively). Antisymmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. the total number of plies is always odd. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0.0 User’s Guide 315 . Antisymmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). The midlayer is not reflected. 270 and 360 remain as 0. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. 90. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. 180. 270 and 360 remain as 0.There are a number of options for Convention for the stacking sequence: a. b. 270 and 360 respectively). 180. Repeat: The Ply lay-up order table describes a single sub-laminate which is repeated a number of times. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. c. Symmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. Due to the midlayer. 90. e. 90. 90. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Ansys SHELL99 laminate with variable ply thickness is shown here: Ansys – Laminates – SHELL99 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Due to the midlayer. Total: The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate in its entirety. The number of repetitions is given by the Repetitions: field (which is activated when this Convention is chosen). The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. the total number of plies is always odd. It is possible to choose between constant and variable ply thickness for certain user profiles. variable ply thickness allows up to 4 nodal thicknesses to be defined for each ply. 180.

using the toolbar. The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate from the bottom ply (most negative Z) moving upwards (increasing in positive Z direction). the Add/Update plies: fields are populated with the information common to the selected rows.It is also possible to choose a common thickness for all plies. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to request stress and failure theory output. Blank fields indicate that not all of the selected rows contain the same values for that field. which when set to YES includes the plies described by that row in the stress output and the failure theory calculation. Each row of the table defines the material. Select multiple rows by selecting one row and then. copied. or for all rows at once through the Output ply stress results: field under the Stress and failure theory output: heading. either above or below selected rows (choose from the Above Selected or Below Selected radio buttons). or repetitions field and based on the selected Convention).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . pasted or deleted to/from the table. select other rows (alternatively multiple rows may be selected with the Shift key held down. selecting a theory from the pull-down list and defining an Interlaminar shear allowable: value. Ctrl+c. Each row of the Ply lay-up order table has an SOUT field. Changes can be made to the Add/Update plies: fields and Update Selection can be clicked to update the selected rows with the updated information (no changes occur to the selected rows for blank fields). Rows may be inserted in the table. Rows may be cut. this will keep the current selection and add all the rows between the current selection and the newly selected row). Rows are added to the table by completing the Add/Update plies: entry fields and clicking the Add New Ply button. Select multiple rows as described in the previous paragraph. when multiple rows are selected the clipboard contents are pasted above each selected row. common thickness gives every ply in the laminate the same thickness. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct PCOMPG laminate is shown below: OptiStruct – Laminates – PCOMPG 316 HyperMesh 8. When multiple rows are selected. by clicking the Insert New Ply button. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Rows are always pasted above the selected rows. It is also possible to edit multiple rows at once. by checking the Failure Theory check-box. with the Ctrl key held down. ply thickness and ply orientation for a number of plies (defined by the No. All fields in the Ply lay-up order table may be edited. It is possible to set the SOUT field individually for each row. Once one or more SOUT fields are set to YES it is possible to activate failure theory calculation.

. c) Click New. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. A new material appears under the selected branch. This field is used to assign a global ply id to a ply definition (the global ply id is a post-processing aid). For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to assign a design variable to a thickness or orientation field in the Ply lay-up order table.0 User’s Guide 317 . A new material appears under the selected branch. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. A default name and id are assigned to newly created materials. To define a new material: 1. you can click the Clear button. adding extra fields to the right of the Thickness T1 and Orientation fields. 2. Checking the Optimization check-box expands the Ply 0 lay-up order table. The newly created material is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected material sub-type. the No. Design variables may be selected in these extra fields. To reset all design variable fields to their default values. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. but this is not enforced in the GUI. Design Variables For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the DESVAR design variable card is supported in HyperLaminate. on the toolbar. As this id should not be repeated within the same laminate.The Ply lay-up order table for the OptiStruct and Nastran PCOMPG laminate sub-type is different from other laminate subtypes in that it has a GPLYID field. Selecting a design variable to the right of a thickness or orientation assigns the selected design variable to that thickness or orientation. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. A new material appears under the selected branch. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. b) Click the new icon. For PCOMPG each row in the Ply lay-up order table should represent a single ply so only the Total stacking convention should be used for PCOMPG. Once the desired changes have been made. b) Right click on selected material sub-type. of repetitions field is not available for PCOMPG. Click Update Laminate to apply all the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Use one of the following three methods to create a new material in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). All information for the selected design variable may be edited in the Define/Edit pane.

Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Click return. 4. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. For the Abaqus user profile: 1. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected material definition. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. 5. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. 3. using the toolbar. For the OptiStruct. 3. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x.For the OptiStruct.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Each change is reflected in the Review pane. To review or modify an existing material: 1. 3. 2. 2. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. The final material definition is displayed in the Review tab. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Ctrl+c. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. Provide the material definition by filling in the entry fields in the Define/Edit pane. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to zero. Note: It is not possible to rename an Abaqus material until after it has been defined (edited). Data may be cut. Click on Edit and provide the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Select the material to be edited from the Laminate Browser. 318 HyperMesh 8. copied. Also it is not possible to create a new Abaqus material if an undefined material definition already exists (appears in a red font in Laminate Browser). 2. Click Apply to save the changes.

Click Apply to save the changes. 3. A default name and id are assigned to newly created laminates. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. 3. For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles define the Stress and failure theory output: information as desired. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Laminate name: field or the component color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. . A new laminate appears under the selected branch.For the Abaqus user profile: 1. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. The newly created laminate is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected laminate sub-type.0 User’s Guide 319 . 2. 6. Click on Edit to see the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. Use one of the following three methods to create a new laminate in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate Browser. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. Click return. 4. on the toolbar. Make all desired changes to the material definition in the card previewer. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. 4. c) Click New. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. 5. To define a new laminate: 1. b) Click the new icon. A new laminate appears under the selected branch.

pasted or deleted to/from selected fields. the Ply lay-up order table includes multiple thickness columns: Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness T1 T2 T3 T4 c) For Constant ply thickness. specify how many times you want to repeat the entire block of entry rows. you can check the Common Thickness box and specify a thickness to be used by all the entry rows. copied. Ctrl+c. For all user profiles define the Stacking sequence convention: information. When multiple non-sequential rows are copied and then pasted. 9. Note: The option to switch between constant or variable thickness is only available for certain laminate sub-types. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. 8. 10. Having checked the Common Thickness box and entered a common thickness value. using the toolbar. select Constant or Variable. row 1 will be pasted as row 7. the thickness fields retain the common thickness value. If Constant is selected. 6. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Complete the Ply lay-up order table. Note: 7. This is governed by the stacking convention and the number of repetitions. a) For Convention:. If rows 1 and 3 are copied and pasted at row 7.5. and what was row 7 will now be row 9. but are now editable. The number of rows in the table is not the number of plies. Data may be cut. b) For Ply thickness:. Note: Note: Rows are always pasted above selected rows. Ctrl+c. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. select one of the following stacking sequence conventions. the Ply lay-up order table includes a single thickness column: Thickness T1 If Variable is selected. if you now uncheck the box. 320 HyperMesh 8. Add/Insert rows by completing the Add/Update plies: fields and clicking Add New Ply or Insert New Ply (for Insert New Ply it is possible to choose to insert the ply above or below the selected rows). Total Symmetric Antisymmetric Symmetric-Midlayer Antisymmetric-Midlayer Repeat If you select Repeat. using the toolbar. copied. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to define thickness and orientation fields in the Ply lay-up order table as designable and to assign design variables to them. pasted or deleted. row 3 will be pasted as row 8. they will be pasted as sequential rows. Table rows may also be cut. Eg. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively.

Select the laminate to be edited from the Laminate Browser. Checking the Move limit box activates the Move limit field. (only subtype available is DESVAR). b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). (only subtype available is DESVAR). The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected laminate definition. Checking the Ddval ID box activates the Ddval ID field. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 1. A new design varaible appears under the selected branch. 2. (only subtype available is DESVAR). c) Click New. 3. To define a new design variable: Design variables are only supported for the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. b) Click the new icon. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. lower bound and upper bound values for the design variable can be entered in the appropriate data fields. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. 3. where the id of a discrete value list may be entered.5 may be entered. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. The newly created design variable is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration. A default name and id are assigned to newly created design variables. where a move limit value other than the default of 0. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. (See To define a new laminate). Use one of the following three methods to create a new design variable in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate Browser. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. 4. The laminate definition may be modified in the Define/Edit pane in a manner similar to defining a new laminate.To review and modify an existing laminate: 1. 7.0 User’s Guide 321 . Initial. 2. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. . on the toolbar. 5. 6. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Desvar: field.

322 HyperMesh 8. Select the design variable to be edited from the Laminate Browser. 2. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. The final design variable definition is displayed in the Review tab. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Each change is reflected in the Review pane.To review and modify an existing design variable: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. copied. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to their default values. using the toolbar. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected design variable definition. Data may be cut. Ctrl+c. 3.

Nastran and Ansys materials.Review Pane The Review Pane. The Review tab is headed by the laminate name. the right-hand pane of the HyperLaminate window. all material property information for the selected material is displayed in the Review pane. these are used by many finite element solvers to represent the laminated composite as a homogenized shell. Design Variables For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. the total number of plies in the laminate and the total thickness of the laminate. no information is displayed in the Review pane. Materials For OptiStruct. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Review pane is displays the current definition of that entity. The second set of matrices are the equivalent material matrices. This is followed by a description of the laminate. Laminates For laminate definitions for all user profiles. The Stiffness/Material Matrix tab provides the two sets of matrices. For Abaqus materials. so this information is only updated when the Update Laminates button is clicked.0 User’s Guide 323 . a Review tab and a Stiffness/Material Matrix tab. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. the review pane has two tabs. showing a graphical representation each ply’s orientation and listing the referenced material. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. Information displayed on these tabs is only for the saved laminate definition. allows you to review the information pertaining to the selected entity. The first set of matrices are the composite shell stiffness matrices. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. more commonly referred to as the ABD matrices. listing the plies in order from the bottom ply (most negative z). thickness and orientation. information for the selected design variable is displayed in the Review pane.

j. chemical reaction.0 and 110. a small set of coordinate axes is displayed at the corner of the block. the outer boundary of the volume.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note: The color of a block may be modified at any time by using the update function on the FD blocks panel. and k directions of the block. After you create a finite difference block. Finite difference blocks are built performing the following steps: Creating a Finite Difference Block The first step in creating a finite difference block is to create the block. fluid flow. 324 HyperMesh 8. structured mesh in a cubic volume around your model. three-dimensional. Always finalize the size of your block before beginning the next phase. You can adjust the size of the block by using the functions on the FD blocks panel.0 in each direction. Otherwise. You cannot change the shape of the finite difference block after you create the structured mesh without destroying all the grid lines. wall. Cylindrical and spherical volumes are not supported in the current release." All of these dead cells are placed in walls. you can export the grid. and solidification processes by creating an orthogonal. and a block may contain multiple walls of dead cells. If a finite element model is currently loaded. The panels in this module allow you to intersect your finite element shell model with a finite difference block. the block is created with the default bounds of -10. These axes serve as a reminder of the i. and dead cell information as an analysis input deck by using the HyperMesh template system. the block is created with a default size of ten percent larger than the model in each direction (the size of a model is determined by its nodes). creating "dead cells. When the block is displayed.Finite Difference Module The Finite Difference module allows you to perform heat transfer.

Asks for confirmation before proceeding. and k directions creates a large number of small cubic volumes called cells. meaning that the cell does not alter the flow being studied. See the FD nodes panel for more information. respectively. you can verify the aspect ratio or expansion ratio limits. and displayed in the current wall color. Cells that intersect an element are placed into the current wall. Note: Before any wall operation is begun. Displays a list of all walls in the block.or two-dimensional element intersects any part of a cell.Creating a Structured Mesh After you create a block. Initially. or k nodes has been selected. Grid lines are created in one direction at a time. Cells that alter the flow are known as dead cells. select the desired elements and click intersect. j. You may then select which walls to display and turn off by using the left or right mouse button. A cell may exist in only one wall. After you create a wall. Intersecting Elements with Cells The intersection of grid lines in the i. marked as dead. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. which also contains all the functions you can use to manipulate walls. each cell within a block is live. You must create a wall before you create dead cells. Deletes all existing walls. HyperMesh allows you to automatically intersect a finite element model with the cells in a finite difference block. the block must be selected by using the block = menu item. depending upon the restrictions enforced by the analysis code being used. j. j nodes. The intersection and modification of live and dead cells is done in the FD walls panel. and k directions. you create a structured mesh in the block by creating grid lines in the i. Updates the color of an existing wall. To intersect the model with the cells. After you create a mesh.0 User’s Guide 325 . All the one-and two-dimensional elements selected are intersected with the cells in the current block. which creates dead cells wherever a one. Deletes the specified wall. The wall functions are described below: create delete update delete all display Creates a new wall with the name and color specified in wall = and color. all or part of the finite element model may be intersected with the cells in the finite difference block. Solid elements are currently not supported in the interse ction operation. based on whether i nodes.

you can edit any cell in the block. It is possible to step through the model. plane-by-plane.Modifying Cells Cells may be changed from live to dead or dead to live individually. since only dead cells are plotted. Creating Finite Difference Hidden Line Plots Hidden line plots of cells in a finite difference block are useful in the verification phase of a finite difference model. However. or by planes. and i. If the block is displayed in planar mode. Because cells have no visible pick handle. The FD walls panel allows you to edit cells. When the entire block is plotted. and k directions must be modified to provide the plotting color for cells in each plane.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . then only cells in the currently displayed plane(s) may be edited. After edit cells is selected. use the cursor to select the cells to add or remove. j. you must click hidden line again to display the new color. the color menu items in the i. they are highlighted. where the block coordinate axes are located. When cells are selected. and k are at their minimum values. if planar mode is used to display one or more of the planes of cells. Otherwise. it is easier to see which cells are dead. 326 HyperMesh 8. by using the next and prev menu functions. or remove cells from the current wall and mark the cells as live. by volumes. Click the left mouse button to add cells and the right mouse button to remove cells from a wall. all dead cells are displayed in the color of the wall to which they belong. j. The edit cells function allows you to add individual cells to the current wall and mark them as dead. Cells do not have a visible pick handle and must be selected at the corner closest to the origin of the block. If you change the color of a plane.

You can apply loads to geometry by using the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. constraints.0 User’s Guide 327 . Use the none. from the display panel (accessed via the toolbar) select loadcols from the switch. Comments Loads on mesh and loads on geometry can be displayed together (similar to the simultaneous display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component).Loads on Geometry HyperMesh allows you to apply loads to geometrical entities and map them to the FE mesh using the load on geom panel on the Analysis Page. by exporting the FE deck. temperatures. using the files panel/export sub-panel. This means that you can control the display of both types of loads independently. The mesh (or multiple meshes) is associated with the geometrical entities to which the loads on geometry have been applied. Automatically. One advantage is that you can remesh a model without deleting complicated loads or boundary conditions. One load collector stores both loads on geometry and loads on mesh. When elems is selected. A geometrical entity can be associated with one mesh or multiple meshes (HyperMesh component or components) and/or with one load collector or multiple load collectors. See Exporting Loads for more information. There are two ways to map loads on geometry to the mesh associated with this geometry (loads on mesh): • • Manually. moments. flux. The disp (display) panel allows separate or simultaneous visualization of loads on mesh and loads on geometry. and click the toggle to select elems or geoms. and load collectors may contain one type or both types simultaneously. These are the same panels used to apply loads to a mesh. When geoms is selected. pressures. you control the display of loads applied to geometric entities. Each load type is stored in a dedicated section of the same load collector. loads or boundary conditions that have been applied to geometrical entities can be remapped to the new mesh. you control the display of loads applied to elements. using the load on geom panel. and accels. velocities. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To visualize loads on mesh and/or loads on geometry. After remeshing. all and reverse buttons to assist in selecting which loadcols should be displayed.

Loads can be applied directly to mesh or applied by mapping them from loads on geometry. Loads applied to geometrical entities. load mapping 328 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or a surface. a line. The process of mapping geometrical loads to mesh loads. Loads applied to mesh (nodes or element).Terminology and Definitions geometrical entities loads on geometry or geometry loads loads on mesh or mesh loads A point. The loads are mapped from the geometrical entities (to which the geometrical loads are applied) to the mesh that is associated with the geometrical entities.

define the load or boundary condition parameters in the same way you would for the application of the load or boundary condition on a FE mesh entity (e.Application of Loads to Geometry You can apply loads to geometrical entities in a way similar to the manner in which loads are applied to mesh. moments. points points points surfaces nodes on edge: lines (for 2-D solid elements) nodes on face: surfaces (for 3-D solid elements) points.) located on the Analysis Page. Creating a load collector by using the collector panel. forces. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The following chart specifies the geometrical entities to which loads can be applied.g. lines. reviewing. and accels. constraints. 1. flux. points. Next. constraints. Third. lines and surfaces. Panel accels constraints flux forces moments pressures Geometrical Entities points. node). and updating loads and constraints.0 User’s Guide 329 .g. lines and surfaces. 2. temperatures. and choose the create sub-panel. HyperMesh stores the loads/boundary conditions in the database and displays them in the graphical window. and click create. To apply a load to a geometrical entity. etc. velocities. temperatures velocities Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. lines and surfaces. points. Applying loads to the geometry using one of the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. access a HyperMesh load panel (e. lines and surfaces. first create a load collector in which the loads applied to geometrical entities will be stored. select a geometrical entity on which the loads will be applied (points. The process includes two basic steps. in each of the load application panels listed above. or surfaces) using the panel selection box. pressures.

only the loads on mesh are exported. When saving the model as a HyperMesh database. all load types are saved and are retrieved when you open the . and loads on mesh that have been mapped from loads on geometry. When exporting the model using an export template. The all/displayed toggle on the export sub-panel on the file panel allows you to determine which loads are exported.Exporting Loads HyperMesh sessions can contain loads on geometry. Multiple arrows represent loads on mesh (one arrow per node or element). or both. The basic length of the arrow also differs. 330 HyperMesh 8. If displayed is selected. all the displayed loads on mesh are exported. All the loads on mesh (both displayed and hidden) that are associated with the displayed loads on geometry are exported as well. For the same arrow magnitude percentage setting or uniform size setting within the load application panels. mapped from geometry to mesh. all the loads on geometry that have not been mapped (if any). If all is selected. If any loads on geometry are displayed and have not been mapped. Note: A major graphical display difference between loads on geometry and loads on mesh is the density of the arrows. an arrow that represents a load on geometry is longer than arrows representing loads on mesh. are mapped to loads on mesh and all the loads on mesh are exported.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A simultaneous display is similar to the display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component.hm file. they will automatically be mapped to loads on mesh and exported as well. Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh The disp (display) panel allows you to visualize loads on mesh and loads on geometry either individually or together by setting the collector type to loadcols and using the toggle between elems and geoms. elems controls the display of loads on mesh and geom controls the display of loads on geometry. The loads on mesh that are exported may have been applied directly to mesh. loads on mesh that have been applied directly to mesh. a single arrow for each geometrical entity represents loads on geometry.

in order. Entering data in the Distributed Load Mapper dialog requires the following steps: • • • • • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. dlm. until all data has been entered. When you enter data in the dialog you should begin with the first field and proceed..0 format or at spatial coordinates is mapped to a structural analysis mesh in OPTISTRUCT.mac. or ANSYS input file format) Select a data type and a mapping method Set the scale factors Set the mapping algorithm Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory.. to the next field below. NASTRAN. The Distributed Load Mapper dialog is displayed when you click DLM.Distributed Load Mapper The Distributed Load Mapper (DLM) macro enables you to perform structural finite element analyses by incorporating the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. NASTRAN.0 User’s Guide 331 . or ANSYS format. ABAQUS. Aerodynamic pressure loading and temperatures computed in a CFD analysis and written out either in TECPLOT 4. The Distributed Load Mapper macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file. on the macro menu. ABAQUS.

0 format file related to the structural input model. The only exception to this is when some of the DLM transformation functions are used correctly and appropriately through their selection in the DLM interface.Assumptions Regarding the DLM Interface and Mapping Process In order to map effectively. This file is related to the structural input model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . These files are always called hmimp. For instance. if you are mapping a pressure loading on a wing structure. D:\dlm_map_files\structural_model. The element normals of both the CFD mesh and the structural analysis mesh must be consistent in that all the elements should be aligned and pointing in a common direction.dat One file containing all the mapping parameters and selections detailed in the DLM interface. 332 HyperMesh 8. Examples of Typical Input Files • • Computational fluid dynamics results database file.dat Examples of Typical Output Files • A DLM specific file.dat Structural analysis model file. D:\dlm_map_files\wing_cfd_model. one of the following conditions must exist: • • The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing outward from the wings outer surface. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. wing_cfd_model_dynain • A DLM specific file. This file is related to the base CFD model. for example. structural_model_tecplot. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. the CFD base model and the structural finite element model must exist in the same position in coordinate space. A valid HyperWorks/HyperMesh license must be available on the local system or network for the DLM mapping algorithms to run. for example. The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing inward from the wings outer surface. structural_model_dynain • • A Tecplot 4. DLM Input and Output Files It is useful to understand the input and output files related to a DLM session.

.452460170E-02 1. y.854129910E-02 1. i. If the CFD file is in a Tecplot format.Load an input file containing CFD analysis results 1. The file also must have a header and footer as shown below: #XYZDATA #pressure 1. .0 User’s Guide 333 .357369840E-01-8.926119655E-02 1.. click Browse. . a DLM specific file is created so that the data being mapped can be visualized in Altair HyperView.960968852E+00 4. #ENDDATA Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. followed by the pressure or temperature value each data occupying 16 characters and a space separating them.. The data must be prescribed in a fixed format. The file is placed in the same directory as the CFD database and takes its name from the parent file. Note: • • • DLM accepts three input file formats: Tecplot 4.e.970389962E+00 4. 2.095489740E+00 .548135996E-01-8.098905325E+00 1.960631967E+00 4.0 BLOCK and POINT data formats DLM specific input file format (files which end filename_dynain) Measured pressure or temperature at xyz coordinates If the selected file is not in a DLM appropriate format. Each row should show the x.356568158E-01-8. Use the browser to locate a file. filename_dynain. a warning message is displayed. and z coordinates first. The pressure or temperature data at spatial coordinates must be distributed densely enough to have approximately one data point for each element of the structural model. For Computational fluid dynamics results database file:.105462790E+00 1. Click Open.

For example. For Mapping method:. or to simply investigate the effects of scaling the load upon the model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The PLOAD card output to the structural model files is altered appropriately to the selected nodal or elemental configuration. Once the data is mapped. These data parameters are read into the interface when you load the base CFD model file (Load an input file containing CFD analysis results). For CFD model scaling:. For example.. For Structural analysis model file:. The file is placed in the same directory as the structural model database and takes its name from the parent file. 334 HyperMesh 8. all the data mapped during the DLM session is multiplied by a factor of 1. filename_dynain. Select a data type and a mapping method 1. A DLM-specific formatted file is written out for post-processing in Altair HyperView. The data can either be mapped and related to the nodes of each element in the structural model. NASTRAN. For CFD result scaling:. if the CFD result scale factor is 1. 2..500.Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. ABAQUS. . The base CFD model file may contain up to seven different data types. 2. enter a scale factor by which to increase or decrease the results. and Z coordinates of all the nodal locations in the base CFD model is scaled. or ANSYS input file format) 1.000. The default value is 1. This could be used to apply a safety factor to the results. the X. The default is 1. or to the element centroids of each quadrilateral or triangular element in the structural mesh. select Element nodes or Element centroids.500. select the data type to be mapped. if dimensional reduction/scaling was used in the actual CFD analysis.e. This would ensure that the base CFD model would match and be positioned in the same Cartesian space as the structural analysis model. The data type is read from the information in the header block of the base CFD file. Y. Set the scale factor 1. enter a scale factor to physically scale the base CFD analysis model. If a value of 200 is entered for CFD model scaling:. it is appended to the structural model input file in the form of PLOAD or TEMP cards appended to the end of the OPTISTRUCT. ABAQUS. which would leave the coordinates of the base CFD model unchanged prior to mapping. Note: The data from the base CFD model is superimposed onto this model through the mapping process. Use the browser to locate a file. i.00 (no scaling). For Data parameter mapped:. The mapped data written to structural analysis model files can relate to two different locations on the finite elements of the model. 3. or ANSYS input deck. NASTRAN. if the XYZ dimensions of the model were scaled to 1/200 of the actual size and submitted for analysis. click Browse. Click Open. These scaled values are output to the structural model data file in the PLOAD card section. 2.

Maxima Minima Extrema Averaged extrema Delaunay-O’C 2.Set the mapping algorithm 1. Takes the maximum and minimum of the data points captured in the proximity of the data location being mapped to. Selects the minimum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and takes an average of these two values. the mapping process runs. Selects the maximum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. Accepts whichever is larger in magnitude. The mapping algorithms are accessed. the Modulus value of the data points captured in the vicinity of the element/nodal location being mapped to. and the DLM dialog closes upon completion of the mapping process. select one of the following options: Averaged Takes the data and average for data points captured in the proximity of the structural data position being mapped to. For Mapping algorithm:. for instance. The default mapping algorithm. Click OK.0 User’s Guide 335 .

Mathematical Loading Distributed pressure loads can be created at nodes via mathematical loading functions using the Mathematical Loading macro. The Mathematical Loading macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file.0 Altair Engineering ...0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering operands may be input in the following forms: corresponds to 1.0 10e-01 336 HyperMesh 8. on the macro menu. The Mathematical Loading dialog is displayed when you click Math.z) = The browser allows you to select the structural model in NASTRAN format on which to apply a mathematical function. This field allows you to enter an equation string using standard spreadsheet inputs for the various operators and operands. Mathematical Loading dialog The Mathematical Loading macro requires the following input: Structural analysis model file: Equation string fn(x.mac. dlm.y. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory. The operators for which the algorithms are programmed are listed below: Programmed Operators: Unary minus ^ Power of ln Natural Log log Log to the base 10 sin sine cos cosine tan tangent asin arcsine acos arccosine atan arctangent exp Exponential / division * Multiplication + Addition Subtraction Acceptable 1 1.0 corresponds to 1.0 corresponds to 1.

However unrecognized characters and functions will cause the loading to yield unacceptable results. Spaces and a mixture of uppercase and lower case letters are acceptable.0 User’s Guide 337 . The dialog informs you when there is an error in this instance. • Note: To create pressure loads at element centroids via mathematical functions.0 x corresponds to the coordinate position x of the nodes of the model y corresponds to the coordinate position y of the nodes of the model z corresponds to the coordinate position z of the nodes of the model The following input rules apply: • Equation strings should always have balanced parentheses to ensure that the logic of the math expression is maintained.1e+01 corresponds to 1.0. use the Field Loads macro on the Geom/Mesh macro menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

phase. If you run a nonlinear job. deformed. HyperMesh sets the results values needed for that function to zero for all of the nodes or elements that are missing. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. HyperMesh Results Database The structure of a results database allows you to access results by a method similar to that of the analysis code. if this is appropriate. offset) at an element. for more information. For example. Data types are one of the forms described below: nodal displacement nodal value Stores three floating point values at a node. This translation is done using result translators. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at an element. and vector plots. Results files can be translated into HyperMesh results databases which are then read into HyperMesh for post-processing. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. This section describes the structure of a HyperMesh results database and explains how to use the post-processing functions to create contour. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at an element. In order to complete the post-processing function being executed. assigned.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Each simulation in the results database is further subdivided into data types. if you run a linear statics problem and apply three different loading conditions to your model. A data type may contain only one type of result.Post-Processing Analysis The HyperMesh post-processing functions allow you to review the results files and databases generated by external codes. Each simulation stores the results for a model as it responds to a loading condition. Stores one floating point value at an element. each simulation in a results file may contain two data types: displacements and von Mises stress. element value complex nodal displacement complex nodal value complex element value complex nodal von Mises complex element von Mises Data types are not required to contain results for every node or element in the model. A results database is divided into sections called simulations. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. Stores one floating point value at a node. phase. If this occurs. refer to the individual translators in the Interface help system. the results file generated by the translator contains three simulations. offset) at a node. and may contain a subset of the total model. Each data type found in a simulation contains a group of results of the same type. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at a node. For example. 338 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh prints a message indicating that results for some of the entities requested were not found in the database. each load step (the response of the model to each incremental amount of load applied) translates to a simulation.

and transient. An appropriate number of frames are linearly interpolated between the first and the last positions. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. Modal animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts and ends with the original position of the structure. HyperMesh uses only one simulation and this simulation must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. Transient animation is used to animate the transient response of a structure. There are two ways to select a results file: • • From the files panel. Linear Linear animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts with the original position of the structure and ends with the fully deformed position of the structure. HyperMesh calculates the deformed geometry of the structure from the data contained within the nodal displacement records. For transient animation.. Transient animation sequences are generated in the transient panel.. HyperMesh uses a range of simulations. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Modal animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. In the global panel. to select a file using the browser. In this case. modal. Creating Deformed Geometry Plots The deformed panel allows you to display the deformed geometry of your model statically. The three types of animation include linear. for results file:. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. in either wire frame or hidden line mode..Specifying the Results File In order to perform post-processing functions. each of the simulations used in the animation sequence must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. Modal animation is most useful for displaying mode shapes. Transient animation displays the structure in its timestep positions as calculated by the analysis code. Creating Animations The HyperMesh animation functions allow you to view your model structure in motion. select the results sub-panel. you must first specify the name and location of the HyperMesh results database. It is from the data contained with the nodal displacement records that HyperMesh is able to calculate the deformed geometry of the structure. For linear and modal animation.0 User’s Guide 339 . and for file:. Linear animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel.. Modal Transient The selected simulations must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records in order for HyperMesh to create an animation sequence. The deforming frames are calculated based on a sinusoidal function. The selected simulation must have a data type in it that contains nodal displacement records. to select a file using the browser. Linear animation is usually selected when results are from a static analysis.

Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. The elements are then displayed in the solid color assigned to them. In order to accomplish this. HyperMesh averages the results at the nodes to the centroid of the elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . nodal values and displacements The results are stored at the nodes. See the vector plot panel for more information. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when element centroid values are used to create a contour plot. When a contour function is performed. so no further calculations are required. The values are located at the centroid of the element. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. The bands of color are created by calculating a value for each node in the model and then interpolating across each element. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the nodes of the elements. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the centroid of the elements. this is accomplished by adding the results at each node and dividing by the number of nodes on the element. HyperMesh can create the contour plot without modifying any of the values in the results file. HyperMesh averages the centroidal element values to the nodes of the elements. based on the values found in the results file. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the contour plot. For each element.Creating Vector Plots A vector plot displays the model with a vector at each node that has a result-based direction and magnitude. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when nodal values or nodal displacements are being used to create an assigned plot. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the assigned plot. This allows you to display elements that have values within a specified range. Creating Contour Plots The contour function in the contour panel generates color bands on a model. element values The results are already stored at the centroid of the element. In order to accomplish this. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. When the assign function is performed. based on the values in the results file. nodal values and displacements 340 HyperMesh 8. element values1 Creating Assigned Plots The assign function in the contour panel assigns a color to each element in the model. Vector plots are used to determine the direction of movement and allow you to verify the location of the center of rotation of a model.

Inspecting the Results A contour or assigned plot provides a fast. After you enter the title and create the plot. Functions on this panel allow you to move the legend to a different location on the screen. click color to change the color of the text of the descriptor. To modify the descriptor.Adding Plot Identification After you create a results-based plot. When you want to determine the actual value that an analysis code has calculated for a node or element. click font and select the size font you want to use in the descriptor. modify the colors used in the legend.0 User’s Guide 341 . the temporary title is displayed on the upper left side of the screen. The ID. Temporary titles can be added to each type of plot by entering a title in the title = field in the contour panel. change the color of the text in the legend. you can add titles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the descriptor is located in the upper left-hand corner of the plot above the legend. change the font size. To modify a legend. HyperMesh plots a legend if the results-based plot created requires it. and also change the colors used in the legend that correspond to the model. and relocate the legend and the descriptor. click within the descriptor to access the title edit panel. simulation and data type. convenient way of viewing the results of a large number of elements. reverse the colors of the legend. you can select the node or element after the results-based plot has been created. click within the displayed legend to access the legend edit panel. and value of the node or element are displayed in the menu area. By default. HyperMesh creates the "descriptor" in order to display the simulation and data type that were used to create the plot.

The plot may contain any number of curves. 342 HyperMesh 8.XY Plotting The functions in the xy plots module allow you to study the relationships between data vectors in results files.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. which are referred to as curves. Information about xy plots is stored in plot collectors. which are referred to as plots. you must assign the curve collector to a plot. To display a curve. A curve may appear on more than one plot at a time and there is no limit to the number of curves that a HyperMesh database may contain. You can create standard plots or dual plots that show real /imaginary or phase/magnitude data. Plots maintain a list of pointers to curves that are to be displayed on the plot. Procedures for creating and editing xy plots and curves include: • • • • • • • • • • • Creating an XY Plot Modifying XY Plots Working with Multiple XY Plots Modifying Multiple XY Plots Creating Curves on XY Plots Reading Curves from an ASCII File Creating Analysis Based Curves Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions Modifying Curve Attributes Displaying Selected Curves on Plots In addition. This section introduces the functions that are available in the xy plots module. There is no limit to the number of plot collectors that a HyperMesh database may contain. Information about curves is stored in curve collectors.

You can apply a scaling factor to the original data points. subtitle. The axis scaling panel allows you to modify the starting and ending values of the plot axes. This panel allows you to read data vectors from files as well as perform advanced mathematical operations on curves.). dashed. and zoom out. thickness. and number of significant places in the labels. font. Generates a curve from the currently-selected results file. To access the xy plots module. circle zoom.0 User’s Guide 343 . Allows you to create an xy plot and assign curves to the xy plot. Allows you to perform simple mathematical calculations on a curve. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can set the values explicitly or implicitly by using the panel functions such as find curves.XY Plots Module The xy plots module is a group of panels that perform operations on plots and the curves displayed on those plots. The plot titles panel allows you to change the plot title. The border panel allows you to change the thickness and color of the border around the plot. The xy plotting panels are described below: axis labels The axis labels panel allows you to modify the x and y axes titles and labels. axis scaling border curve attribs edit curves grid attribs grid labels integrate legend plot titles plots query curves read curves rename results curves simple math In addition. The grid labels panel allows you to change the color. In addition. You may also specify whether the border is displayed and the size of the margin between the border and the plot. and the line style (solid. Creates and modifies the curves in the database. Grid labels appear along the x and y axes in the plot (tick marks). The curve attribs panel allows you to change the color. Reads curves from an ASCII file. You can also change the color and font size used to display these entities. Allows you to rename curves. line style. You can also change the curve title that appears in the legend. you can change the color and font size used to display these entities. Calculates and displays the integral of a curve. The grid attribs panel allows you to change the color. thickness of the grid lines. select xy plots on the Post page of the main menu. The legend panel allows you to change the location and the font used to display the legend. and label. Allows you to determine the coordinate values of points in a curve. etc. marker style (used to indicate the point location). you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. and the margin displayed around the grid lines.

HyperMesh initially assigns default values to the xy plot attributes. HyperMesh displays the existing values of the current xy plot (the plot listed after plot =) in the data entry fields in the panel. or width of the border. Modifying an XY Plot After you create an xy plot. 344 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To modify an xy plot. the plot = field allows you to select one plot and the plots entity selector allows you to select multiple plots. the panels in the xy plots module are updated to reflect the change. This process also applies to curves. Access this panel by pressing the w key. Every time you change the current xy plot. thickness. Modifying Multiple XY Plots When several plots are contained within a database. in one step. HyperMesh immediately displays the update. This allows you to control multiple plots by resizing and moving plots around the screen. These attributes can be adjusted before or after you add curves to the plot. For example.Creating an XY Plot Each xy plot window is assigned a name when you create it. you may wish to modify one of the values on all of the plots. or a subset of the plots. Each time a panel in the xy plots module is accessed. Plot attributes include the title. You can modify one plot so that it has the desired values. and then apply those modifications to the other plots. subtitle. the grid labels and grid attributes. you can change the color. select the plot you want to change. select the panel that applies to the attribute you want to change. and also the margin and border around the xy plot. and labels. The first step in the process of creating an xy plot is to use the plots panel to name and create an xy plot collector. you may wish to change the axis titles so that they are all the same. or add a title to the plot. After each change. and change the attribute in the panel. XY plot window placement is controlled with the Windows panel. When you modify xy plots using the panels of the xy plots module. Working with Multiple XY Plots HyperMesh places every xy plot within a window.

which is displayed in the legend. After this information has been supplied. transform a curve. The block begins with the statement.TITLE X1. filters exchange data with HyperMesh. or export the curve. ENDDATA Each curve in the file is defined in a block format. In the above example. it assumes that the format of the input file is as follows: XYDATA. When you create an analysis curve. Y2 . The block ends with an ENDDATA statement. Y1 X2. Essentially. y) data pairs on each line. using the standard HyperMesh curve data file format. the title assigned to the curve. there are two blocks of data. Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Curves can be created using simple math operators in the simple math panel. . which define two curves.TITLE X1. XYDATA.Creating Curves on XY Plots You can create curves using four different methods: • • • • Read curves from an ASCII file Extract a curve directly from a results database Create curves by using a few simple math operators Read single curves from files as well as generate curves by using mathematical expressions Reading Curves from an ASCII file When HyperMesh reads curves from an ASCII file with the read curves panel. Y2 . . For every operation. HyperMesh reads the required data from the results file and generates the appropriate curve. . You can also apply external filters to curves in this panel. you select entities of interest in your model. Creating Analysis-Based Curves Analysis-based curves are generated from the HyperMesh binary results file. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Y1 X2. Examples of external filters are in the filters subdirectory that is provided when this option is selected.0 User’s Guide 345 . After XYDATA. . follows on the same line. Point data follows with a set of (x. ENDDATA XYDATA. and then select a data type for the x axis data points and a data type for the y axis data points. you can specify that the x or y values of the curve remain fixed. You can combine two curves. Analysis-based curves are generated in the results curves panel.

based on what has been modified.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . After the data request set has been selected.y To reference the x vector of curve 1. in the format curve number. 346 HyperMesh 8. and component.vector: For example: c1. Once the data type has been selected. For more information about math expressions. Type Request Component Note: Data files can consist of different types of data.x c1. you must indicate the curve number and the x or y vector. Source file data is divided into type. the data request set needs to be selected. The data sources for the x and y vectors are displayed in the x = and y = fields. For example. request. When you modify a curve. The y vector can be a function of x or the x vector can be a function of y. HyperMesh recalculates the curves in the proper order. and the data source for the y vector could be a math expression. New data can be selected from a source file or mathematically defined. the component must be selected.Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions The edit curves panel allows you to create new curves or edit existing ones. To reference the y vector of curve 1. To edit the x and y vectors of a math curve. the data source for the x vector could be a file. refer to the Altair Math Reference. Available data types depend on the data file. Each vector of a curve can be defined using either a data vector in a data file or a math expression.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The following curve attributes may be changed in the curve attribs panel. triangular. select the plots panel and click select curves. To select curves for a plot. This scale factor is used to scale the y values in a curve. HyperMesh displays a list of the available curves in the database. x scale factor y scale factor Displaying Selected Curves on Plots After you have read or created curves. This scale factor is used to scale the x values in a curve. curve title curve width curve style curve color curve marker The curve title is displayed in the legend. Modify the list by selecting the curves by name and removing or adding the curves to the current plot as desired and click return. The color used to draw the curve. The names of the curves that are already displayed on the current xy plot are highlighted. HyperMesh currently supports circular. The curve may also be displayed with no markers shown. The width of line used when the curve is drawn. HyperMesh currently supports a solid line. and square markers. no line at all. when the curve is displayed. The style of line used to draw the curve.0 User’s Guide 347 . you can select which curves in the database you want to display on an xy plot. HyperMesh currently supports either thick or thin lines.Modifying Curve Attributes Modifying curves is very similar to modifying plots. HyperMesh currently supports 15 standard colors. and four different patterns. Determines the markers drawn around each data point in the curve.

you must use the update button in the curve editor to import the changes. For this reason. To quit the curve editor. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To display curves in the graph area: 1. outlined with colored boxes in the image below: the curve list (green). graph area (red). click the close command button. Modify the curve attributes if needed. Changes made in HyperMesh do not immediately affect the curve editor. The curve’s attributes fill in the fields in the curve attributes area.Using the Curve Editor The curve editor is a pop-up window that allows you to view and modify graphed curves in a more intuitive and holistic way than the individual xy plots panels provide. Click the display checkbox in the curve atributes area. 348 HyperMesh 8. 2. and must be imported by use of the update button. The curve editor contains four main areas. and graph attributes (cyan). but changes made in a HyperMesh panel do not automatically get sent to the curve editor. The curve displays in the graph area. To summarize: • • Changes made in the curve editor immediately affect HyperMesh. if you leave the curve editor open while making changes within the HyperMesh XY plotting module. because they are automatically applied as you make them. It’s important to be aware that the curve editor is not completely symmetrical with HyperMesh. Note that any changes you make in the curve editor will be retained. Click the desired curve in the curve list. curve attributes (blue). Access the curve editor from HyperMesh’s Setup pull-down menu. in the sense that changes made in the curve editor are automatically sent back to HyperMesh.

Click the curve in the graph area.0. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. To change the graph's attributes: 1.5. if it is already set to Display.0. Click the curve that you wish to modify. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). 2. To draw the curve in a thicker line. Change the Color by clicking the colored box.0 User’s Guide 349 . modify the fields inside the X-axi s frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s X -axis label. making a finer grid. Or 2. Either click the curve in the curve list. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0.To change a curve's attributes: 1. select a symbol from the list box. For example. For example.5). Select a Line style to change the curve’s line from solid to dotted. For example. Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. In the graph attributes area. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. click the thick line checkbox. if you choose “3” then only every third point will display as a symbol. A list of available colors displays. the line’s symbol points will still display. To place a marker symbol at each point on the curve. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. you could 2 restrict the X axis to only graph accelerations from 1 to 5 m/s . and then typing in a new value. or show no line at all. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. To change the symbol spacing. Make any desired changes to the curve’s attributes: Modify each X and/or Y value by clicking it. 1. select a number from the every: list box. Modify the fields inside the Y-axis frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s Y-axis label. For example. even if your data included accelerations ranging from 0 up to 10 m/s . Click the display checkbox to toggle the display of the curve in the graph area. 2 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. click the desired color to select it. Note: If you choose no line. and 1. you could change it from “Y” to “time”. pressing the <delete> key to erase the current value. you could change it from “X” to “Acceleration”. For example.

numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. Modify the fields inside the Legends frame: Select a location to determine where the legend displays in the graph area. - Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. you could restrict the range by typing “20” into the min and “35” into the max. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a name for the new curve. Type in a name for the new curve. A confirmation window displays. 3. Click proceed. and 1. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. For example. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. 3. 3.5).5. even if your data included accelerations from 0 seconds to 60 seconds. Click Yes to confirm the deletion. 2. click the curve that you wish to delete. Undo You cannot undo a deletion. which now uses the curve’s new name. Click the hide checkbox to toggle the display of the legend on and off. 350 HyperMesh 8. you cannot recover it. 1. Click the New… command button in the curve editor window. type in the X and Y coordinates for each data point in the curve. or No to keep the curve. Click the new curve in the curve list and modify its attributes as needed. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. In the curve list.0. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. 2. but you only wish to graph the accelerations that occur between 30 and 35 seconds. To rename a curve: 1.0. Type in a new name for the curve. Click the Delete command button. 3. once you delete a curve. For example.- Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. Click the desired curve in the curve list. 4. To create a new curve: 1. making a finer grid. 2. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a new name for the chosen curve. Click proceed. For example.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). To delete a curve: 1.

the perturbation vector approach must be selected. is the vector of nodal coordinates. Starting with HyperWorks 6. Before importing AutoDV data. Nastran. Further. the structural shape is defined as a linear combination of basis vectors. input parameters of a model. HyperStudy. There are different approaches used to define the shape in an optimization setup. In size optimization. a more flexible tool to set-up and generate shape perturbations. AutoDV is now complemented by HyperMorph. The two most commonly used in commercial software packages like OptiStruct. a finite element model must be loaded into HyperMesh. AutoDV can also be used to generate distributed loads. where is the basis vector associated to the design Using the perturbation vector approach. The stand-alone solver is still available and can be used for the generation of manual perturbations. In the past. If there is a choice in the optimization code. the shape of the structure is defined by the vector of nodal coordinates. In topology optimization. The boundary shape changes must be translated into changes of the interior of the mesh to avoid mesh distortions due to shape changes. AutoDV generates perturbation vectors. the design variables define the boundary shape of the part to be optimized. usually density-related values that define the material distribution are the design variables. Shape Optimization The type of design variables that are used distinguishes different types of structural optimization. and Templex.AutoDV Introduction AutoDV is utility developed for the generation of perturbation vectors for shape optimization in optimization packages such as Altair OptiStruct. PVi is the perturbation vector associated to the design variable DVi . and spring properties are design variables. with the perturbation vector approach as the default setting.0. Nastran. x. Altair HyperStudy. HyperOpt. Altair OptiStruct and Altair HyperStudy use the perturbation vector approach. x = ∑ DVi ⋅ BVi x is the vector of nodal coordinates. are the basis vector approach and the perturbation vector approach. the shell thickness. Altair HyperOpt. In finite elements. such as beam section properties. most of AutoDV’s capability to create perturbation vectors using control perturbations is fully integrated in HyperMesh. the structural shape change is defined as a linear combination of perturbation vectors. In shape optimization. The function of creating harmonic shape functions for 2D problems only works with AutoDV. x Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Both approaches refer to the definition of the structural shape as a linear combination of vectors. Using the basis vector approach. Altair HyperOpt provides both. AutoDV has been stand-alone software.0 User’s Guide 351 . The basis vectors define nodal locations. AutoDV interfaces with HyperMesh thru the AutoDV template for export and AutoDV reader for import. Genesis. The perturbation vectors define changes of nodal locations with respect to the original finite element mesh. BVi variable DVi . x = x 0 + ∑ DVi ⋅ PVi where x 0 is the vector of nodal coordinates of the initial design. and Genesis.

Example: mymodel. retrieve the baseline HyperMesh database and complete steps 2 and 3. Run AutoDV through the solver panel using the appropriate options.base file using the baseline model of the structure using the OptiStruct template supplied in the distribution. 6. the files generated by HyperMesh contain the entire model. Polynomial perturbation vectors using design domains. 4.pert<nnn> files that contain only the perturbed grids. 2. 3.pert<nnn>. identifies the perturbed grids. using the AutoDV template. AutoDV requires that the <prefix>. Manual Perturbation To generate perturbation vectors by the manual perturbation method: 1. 5. Before these methods can be applied. 352 HyperMesh 8. Write out a perturbation file <prefix>. 7.pert006. a finite element model representing the baseline shape of the structure must be developed. AutoDV creates condensed <prefix>.pert<nnn> files contain data only for the perturbed grid points. Write a <prefix>. 2. Do not save the perturbed model. and generates the corresponding perturbation vector.base model. AutoDV compares all <prefix>. In HyperMesh.Generation of Perturbation Vectors Perturbation vectors can be generated in one of three ways: 1. Click the switch and select AutoDV as your solver. Harmonic perturbation vectors using design domains.pert<nnn> models with the <prefix>. Select the solver panel. where nnn is the design variable ID. Manual perturbation of grids in HyperMesh.pert file a different ID. To generate another perturbation vector. move the grids to define the perturbed shape. 3. However.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . giving the *.

It is recommended. 2. If needed. 3. Assign shapes to design variables. build a secondary domain model and define secondary node sets. but not necessary. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. All domain elements may be organized in more than one domain component. Select the perturbations panel. 3. Select the type of domain element. none of the domain components should include finite elements. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. DPENTA6. However. Define shapes and control perturbations.0 User’s Guide 353 . Define primary domain model elements and domain node sets. DTRIA3 DHEXA8. To create a domain element: 1. 2-D elements 3-D elements DQUAD4. 4. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 4. Pick the nodes that form the domain element. select the optimization panel. 7. Primary Domain Model This example shows how to create a primary domain model over the finite element model using the following first order 2-D and 3-D domain elements. Each domain element generally encompasses a large number of finite elements. The Domain model must encompass those finite element grids of the model that need to be perturbed. 5. that you organize 2-D and 3-D domain elements in separate components. 2.Polynomial Perturbation Vectors To create polynomial perturbation vectors: 1. Select the domain subpanel. DTETRA4 These element types are generated using the AutoDV template provided in the distribution. On the BCs page. Use the solver panel to run AutoDV. 6. 5.

2. All nodes in a given node set are perturbed using mathematical relationships based on the control perturbations applied on the Domain Model. A given node may belong to more than one node set. i. To manually create a domain node set for an existing domain element: 1.. Select the nodes for the domain node set. 354 HyperMesh 8. or they can be created manually. However. 6. Pick the domain element from the graphic display. it is identified by AutoDV. This generally happens at the common edges and corners between domain elements.Primary Domain Node Sets Node sets constitute the primary entities for generating perturbation vectors. Domain node sets can be created automatically when the domain element is created. 7. There should be exactly one domain element related to each node set. Select update.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . select the optimization panel. 8. Toggle nodeset to manual.e. 4. Click add. On the BCs page. 5. 3. This relationship is not explicitly defined by the user. you must implicitly ensure that relationship while creating domain elements and node sets by making sure that all the nodes that need to be perturbed as a shape variable are completely encompassed or parameterized by the domain model. Select the perturbations panel. Select the domain subpanel. all corner nodes of that element must belong to that node set.

AutoDV identifies the mid-side perturbations and internally changes the corresponding edge of a domain element from linear to quadratic (curvilinear edge element). For corner control points. A quadratic interpolation would use the corner as well as the mid-side control perturbations. On a given edge. That mid-side control point does not have to lie on the edge of the domain element.y) = Px(x) Py(y) Pz(z) where P x. Instead. Select the perturbations panel. Py. The order of interpolation is based on the presence of mid-side control perturbations. 8 characters) in shape =. the interpolation function is a product of three functions: P(x. Select perturbations using the toggle. defining a zero magnitude vector is the same as placing no vector.y) = Px(x) Py(y) For 3-D domains. To define control perturbations: 1. Animate the shape design variable: − Click animate. 3. In either case.g. Control perturbations are defined by creating vectors at control points. place the control perturbation on a mid-side node on an edge of the domain node set. The corner points of a domain element and mid-side nodes of the corresponding node sets constitute control points (e. They are automatically added to the shape specified in shape =. Enter a name (max. In order to generate a quadratic perturbation. For 2-D domains. 2. Click return to return to the perturbations panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The deformed panel is displayed so you can animate the design variable to validate your definition. AutoDV assigns a control perturbation of magnitude zero to the corner point. − AutoDV computes perturbations of all structural grids by interpolating control perturbations. a DQUAD4 domain has 8 control points). the interpolation is parabolic if a mid-side control perturbation is defined. you do not need to create a second order domain element. Click create vector to create the vectors.0 User’s Guide 355 .. and Pz are polynomial interpolation functions of up to quadratic order. the interpolation function is a product of two functions: P(x. Create shape design variables: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page.Control Perturbations Perturbation vectors are generated by interpolating control perturbations defined at selected control points. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. otherwise it is linear. A linear interpolation uses control perturbation at the corners. Click create shape. The interpolations are performed as follows.

Generates the corresponding list of grids to be perturbed in that variable.For mid-side control points. In the case of a zero magnitude mid-side perturbation. AutoDV computes the perturbation vectors for shape variables in the following order: • • • Identifies all domain elements and node sets attached to vector belonging to a given shape variable. Computes perturbation of each grid in the list by interpolation using the related control point perturbations. 356 HyperMesh 8. defining zero magnitude vector is not the same as placing no vector. Whereas the absence of a mid-side control perturbation yields a linear interpolation on that edge.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the presence yields a quadratic interpolation. the interpolation is quadratic with the value of zero for the mid-side node.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Identifying perturbations of the end nodes of the secondary domains. This problem is solved using a secondary domain model as follows: • • Create one rigid element (type DRBE2) between the two end nodes (G1 and G4 in this example).0 User’s Guide 357 . For example. With only primary domain. Interpolating those perturbations linearly to all the grids of the secondary domain. the perturbation vector for this model is as shown in the illustration below. illustrated below.Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets A secondary domain model allows computation of perturbation vectors for grids on 1-D elements connecting two different components. Here. Move the end nodes as well as all intermediate nodes into an independent node set. The domain model for each plate contains one element each. grid points G2 and G3 are generally coincident. consider the two sheet metal components connected using gum-drops. because grids G2 and G3 are not part of any node set. The perturbation vectors are also shown in the illustration. the control perturbation causes grids G1 and G4 to be perturbed as shown. Here. The gum-drops are modeled using a rigid (R1)-spring (K)-rigid (R2) representation. they remain unperturbed. You may use the secondary domain model where two nodes belonging to the primary domain are connected using several 1-D elements in a series. AutoDV responds by: • • • Computing pert urbations on the primary domain model using the control perturbations. However. Secondary domain is not required if the nodes are connected using a single 1-D element.

358 HyperMesh 8. Note: A DRBE2 element does not have to be connected to a control point.Using the example illustrated above.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and no control perturbations are required at the two nodes of the DRBE2 element. this yields the perturbation shown below.

Y_ORDER. The design variable label should not have more than four characters. These are part of the vector collector card. 4. The orders m and n of harmonic functions are user-controlled. Select the DQUAD4 element on which harmonic perturbation vectors are desired and create a shape with exactly four vectors . one at each corner point of the DQUAD4. Then the shape variable is reduced to the polynomial shape variable. The harmonic shape variables are computed using a product of the following two functions: V(x.y) = P (x. one DQUAD4 element at a time. To define harmonic perturbation vectors: 1. the harmonic component of the shape variable has a value of 1.Harmonic Perturbation Vectors Harmonic shape variables are defined using a process similar to that for polynomial shape variables. create a design variable using that shape. y) = Xm(x) Yn(y) Where Xm(x) = cos (m*x/2) = sin (m*x/2) =1 and Yn(x) = cos (n*y/2) = sin (n*y/2) =1 for odd values of n for even values of n for n = 0 for odd values of m for even values of m for m = 0 For m = n = 0. 3. In the shape panel. There should be no other vector in that shape. and Y_TYPE: Card image X_ORDER Y_ORDER Symbol m n Default 0 0 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. Each harmonic shape variable component must contain exactly four vectors. Edit X_ORDER. Select the design variable in the card pre-viewer in the permanent menu.y) T (x.0 User’s Guide 359 . modeling requirements for generating harmonic variables are very stringent.one at each corner control point of that element. Harmonic variables are defined only on DQUAD4 domains. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. 2. X_TYPE. However. Generate domain elements and node sets as described in the previous section. y) Where P is the polynomial function described in the previous section. and T is the harmonic function given by: T(x.

even Default all all For given values of m and n. even all.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . odd. modify the setting in the harmonic subpanel. AutoDV generates a series of independent perturbation vectors. Examples of the naming procedure follow: Example 1: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv01 2 0 1 dv010001 X_TYPE = all Y_TYPE = all 3 1 0 dv010100 4 1 1 dv010101 5 2 0 dv010200 6 2 1 dv010201 desvar name = dv01 Example 2: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv02 X_TYPE = even Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv020001 3 2 0 dv020200 4 2 1 dv020201 desvar name = dv02 Example 3: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv03 X_TYPE = odd Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv030001 3 1 0 dv030100 4 1 1 dv030101 desvar name = dv03 360 HyperMesh 8. odd. Accordingly. or even harmonics by entering the appropriate harmonics types in the vector collector.You have the option of generating all. odd. It generates shape variable names by appending the x and y orders to the component name. Card image X_TYPE Y_TYPE Options all.

Create control perturbations to define the characteristic of the variable load: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page.animate suffix. Variable loads are generated by interpolating control vectors defined at selected control points.0 User’s Guide 361 . Select AUTODV as the solver. On the Post page. Run AutoDV to generate the variable loads: Before you run AutoDV. 4. Enter a name (max. Click simulation = and select the variable loading condition wants to apply. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − − Select perturbations using the toggle. Click solve to create the interpolated variable loads. The control points can be the corner points of a domain element or the mid-side nodes along the edge of domain elements. Creating control perturbations at the corner nodes of the domain element yields a linear interpolation.Generation of Variable Loads Generating variable loads with AutoDV is similar to generating perturbation vectors.dv. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. − − − − On the BCs page. Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. 8 characters) in desvar =. Click file = and enter the result file with the . Select all the displayed nodes and set mult = to 1. select the solver panel. Select the perturbations panel. Click create. select the results subpanel. Apply the variable loads: − − − − − − − On the files panel. 3. moments and temperatures. A quadratic interpolation can be generated by creating control vectors either on the mid-side control points or on both. To generate a variable load: 1. AutoDV computes the variable loads on each structural grid by interpolating the control perturbations defined on control points. Select desvar using the toggle. Domain elements and domain node sets for the domain where the load is applied must be created before you can generate a variable load. Select the create load subpanel. the corner and mid-side control points. select the apply result panel. you must write an AutoDV input deck using the AutoDV template. They are automatically added to the design variable specified in desvar =. Click name = and enter the name of the AutoDV input deck. Click create to create the vectors. 2. Variable loading can be generated for forces. Click apply to apply the variable loads.

Examples: 362 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Running AutoDV Stand-alone
To run AutoDV, select AUTODV as the solver in the solver panel and then give the prefix of the input file name along with the options. The input file name should be prefix.base. autodv -file <prefix> -inp opt1 -ent opt2 -code opt3

The valid entries and default values for options are given in the following table. Note that these parameters could be given in any order. Entity <prefix> Valid Options Prefix of the input file name, or input file name. OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS, HYPERSTUDY, TEMPLEX, HYPEROPT FORC, MOMT, TEMP, LONG OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, PAMCRASH, RADIOSS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MARC, ANSYS, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT Default Value Solver Panel input file =

Opt1

analysis code =

Opt2 Opt3

NONE NONE

component = subcode type =

The interdependency of options on each other is explained in the following table. For example, for a given opt1, it gives the possible values for opt2 and opt3. Opt1 OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS HYPERSTUDY TEMPLEX Opt2 None Long Opt3 Ignored Remarks For shape optimization None – Standard format Long – Long format For variable loading

FORC, MOMT, TEMP Ignored

Ignored

OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, RADIOSS, PAMCRASH, MARC, ANSYS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT, ABAQUS, NASTRAN

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/Generic and HyperStudy

HYPEROPT

Ignored

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/OPTISTRUCT, HyperOpt/ABAQUS, and HyperOpt/NASTRAN

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 363

After AutoDV runs, it creates the following files: prefix.dat A bulk data file that contains the DVGRID and LOAD information, respectively depending on opt2. A bulk data file for the perturbed model corresponding to the shape variable nnn. This file originally contained the manually generated perturbed file. After the program runs, this file contains only the GRID data for all perturbed grid points. This file contains the shape design variables in the HyperMesh results format. This file can be loaded to HyperMesh and results can be viewed. Note: The animation should be used only as a check for the shape of the perturbation vector. It will not display the upper and lower bounds for the shape variable. The file prefix.dat becomes part of an input file for the respective native analysis package. Note: If you create a perturbed model file, prefix.pertnnn, and also a set of control perturbations with an identical shape variable ID, nnn, the resultant perturbation vector from AutoDV is a union of the manual as well as the interpolated grid perturbations. For the common nodes in the two sets, the manual grid perturbations given in prefix.pertnnn override those generated by using interpolation. prefix.subcode.node.tpl Templex template to replace the nodal coordinates in the original input deck. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX. Contains nodal coordinates and perturbation vectors for use in the file, prefix.subcode.node.tpl. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX.

prefix.autonnn

prefix.dv.animate

prefix.shp

364 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
Using an H3D file, you can save 3-D animations from HyperMesh in the .h3d format for viewing with the HyperView Player. HyperView Player is an Internet browser plug-in for visualizing 3-D Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models and results. Using product data in Altair's compact .h3d format allows you to incorporate animated images in an HTML document for presentation or engineering reports. Simulation results can be sent by e-mail, or placed on the web for others to open and review. HyperView Player is available as a free download on Altair's Web site at http://www.altair.com. To create an H3D file from HyperMesh: 1. 2. Select one of the following panels: contour, deformed, hidden line, transient, or geom cleanup. To control the display attributes for your model: 3. Specify your desired display attributes using visual options or the visual panel.

Click the Hyper3d button or H3D>HV. Two files are created. One is an H3D file, using anim#.h3d as the file name. The symbol # is automatically assigned to the H3D file. The other is a sample HTML file including an <EMBED> statement for the corresponding H3D file. H3D>HV loads the newly created H3D file into HyperView. You can define this option in the options panel under modeling.

4.

To review the model in a web browser: Double click the HTML file to launch a browser. or Click H3D to activate the standalone HyperView Player.

You can customize the external HTML template, h3d_template.html, located in the altair/hm/html directory, to suit your needs. Note: In the HyperMesh geom cleanup panel, the Hyper3D button is displayed when you select the shaded option in the visual options subpanel.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 365

Embedding a HyperView Player Object in HTML Documentation The following section defines the arguments and provides an example for embedding statements in an HTML document in order to view a HyperView Player graphic object. Note the following updates to HyperView Player: Simplified HTML File Statement Since the H3D file created from HyperView, and HyperMesh includes scene information, the arguments in the old statements for model readers and result readers are no longer needed. The HTML statements have been simplified in this release. However, the HTML files created for HyperView Player 3.1 are still supported. HyperView Player only supports H3D direct readers. You can create an H3D file using: • • • • Note HyperView HyperMesh HyperMesh result translators, such as hmnast, hmnasto2, hmdyna, hmradioss, hmpam, hmansys, and hmabaqus OptiStruct You may need to modify your HTM L files created for HyperView Player 3.1 if you were using direct readers other that h3d.dll, such as adams.dll, gfile.dll, lsdyna.dll, and madymo.dll, since those readers are no longer supported in HyperView Player.

Direct Readers

To embed a HyperView Player object, the <EMBED> statement in HTML is used. All arguments are case insensitive.

General Arguments for EMBED Statements
type width/height SRC="URL" Application/x-h3d Measured in pixels The location of the plug-in data file as indicated by its URL.

Embedded Statement Example
<EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="HTTP:\\www.altair.com\h3d\bumper.h3d"> <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="../bumper.h3d">

More examples can be found in the HyperView Player demo directory, and our Web site, http://www.altair.com.

366 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Using an HTML File
You can use HyperView Player to share information by embedding it in an HTML file. You can use either a relative path or a standard Uniform Resource Locator (URL) to specify the path for the H3D file in the <EMBED> statement. There are three different ways to define file transfer protocol: FILE, HTTP and FTP. This section describes how to select a protocol for file transfer using files, anim1.html and anim1.h3d as examples.

Embedded Mode
FILE://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="File://c:\Altair\demos\hvp\anim1.h3d"> An absolute path is required for File:// and the H3D file must reside in the specified path. When you distribute the files, you may need to modify the HTML file for the path.

HTTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="http://www:8080/~John/anim1.h3d> Others can access your public web area on the Internet. When sharing an H3D file, you can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files in your public HTML directory and send the link to others in the company by email. The link can be, for example, http://www:8080/~John/anim1.html. By doing this, you do not need to distribute the H3D file and can guarantee the path is working correctly. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click the link in the email, the model will be displayed.

FTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="FTP://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html> You can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files on your FTP site. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click ftp://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html, the model is displayed.

Relative Path
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="../anim/.h3d> Using a relative path allows you to distribute an HTML file easily. You can create a folder with the necessary HTML and h3d files for distribution.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 367

Full page mode
In an HTML file, you can easily hyperlink a string to an H3D file. When you click the hyperlink, the plug-in loads a model in full-page mode.

Using E-mail
You can attach an H3D file to an email. If the recipient is using a PC, he or she can click the attachment and the H3D file will load automatically. You can also save the H3D file and at a later time, double-click the file to invoke the standalone version of HyperView Player. Another available option is to drag the H3D file and drop it into a browser to view the model in a full window.

368 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

H3D FAQ's
How can I view a model with shaded display in HyperView Player? The model display settings are recorded during H3D creation. Set up the desired model display, with such options as mesh lines and feature lines, in the Vis panel under the Performance Graphics mode in HyperMesh.

Why doesn’t the legend setting in HyperView player reflect the setting in HyperMesh? HyperView Player only supports default settings for the legend display from HyperMesh. The specified Max and Min values in HyperMesh are not recorded in the H3D file of this version.

Can I view complex result animation in HyperView player? No, the H3D writer does not support complex result data.

What types of element are not supported in the H3D file? Second order elements, rigidlinks, and RBE3s are not supported in this version. The mid-side node of a second order element is ignored when it is read into HyperView Player.

How can I change the window size for viewing HyperView Player in the browser? You can modify the width and height values in the <EMBED> statement in the HTML file. (For example, width = 600, height = 600)

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 369

Free Body Diagrams
HyperMesh allows you to create or edit Free Body Diagrams (FBD) using several tools that display in the tab area. Each FBD tool displays on a separate tab, which opens when you activate that tool. Location: Results menu, Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tools) Tool menu (to access the FBD Set Manager only) Tab Area (for the tools themselves)

Free Body Diagram (FBD) utilities facilitate the extraction and post-processing of Grid Point Force (GPFORCE) results. FBD utilities currently support OptiStruct and Nastran .op2 files, and are only available in the OptiStruct or Nastran user profiles. FBD extractions are typically utilized for breakout and/or sub-modeling analysis schemes, where balanced “free body” sub-cases are extracted from a coarse grid model and applied to a fine grid sub-model for eventual optimization and/or analysis. FBD is also used to extract cross-sectional resultant forces and moments (typically at the centroid of a cross-section) for use in traditional strength calculations. Each tool has a separate entry in the menu. In addition, see the overview on Grid Point Force Balance tables to gain further understanding of FBD operations within HyperMesh, while the Set Manager utility assists in generating the element and node sets which the FBD utilities analyze.

This coarse grid model is typical for FBD extractions.

Typical FBD – Forces output on a wing rib

Typical Result Force and Moment output on a floor beam

370 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

as desired: • • • • Use <ctrl>-click and <shift>-click to select multiple items in the tree structure. The filter buttons allow for additional selection control. See To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display for details. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. 2. From the Tools pull-down menu. Use the toolbar buttons in the Set Manager tab to manipulate the display options. along with the entity set display and export states. or export state) that the filter buttons apply to. Nastran. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. The selection type options allow you to control the entities (elements. To set display options for the Set Manager: 1. The sync button synchronizes the entity set display states with the current HyperMesh display. and changing the export state of entity sets. The set manager displays in the tab area. creating. and ABAQUS user profiles. The Set Manager utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct. renaming.0 User’s Guide 371 . select Set Manager. It also includes functions for displaying. geometry. deleting. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. Location: Tools menu (to access the Set Manager) Tab Area (to use the Set Manager) The Set Manager consists of a tree structure listing the current entity sets in the model. Nastran. or Abaqus user profile.FBD Set Manager Use the Set Manager tool to automate the grouping and display of model components through HyperMesh entity set functionality. appending entities to.

Rename: Rename the selected set.To use the Set Manager right-click functionality: 1. Right -click anywhere within the tree structure to open the right-click menu: There are many functions available. Add Entities to Set: Adds entities into the currently selected set. Delete Reference: Removes a set reference from a entity set type of sets. Expand All: Expands all branches of the tree. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. From the Tools pull-down menu. 2. Nastran. including: • • • • • • • New: Create a new entity set of the specified type.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The graphic above shows all of the available options. accessed by right clicking in the background. 372 HyperMesh 8. Supported entity set types are shown above. on folders. The set manager displays in the tab area. select Set Manager. Multiple sets may be selected by using standard Ctrl/Shift-click functionality. or on individual or multiple items within folders. grouped in folders by type. Collapse All: Collapses all branches of the tree. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to add to the set. or Abaqus user profile. Delete: Deletes the currently selected set(s). 3. HyperMesh prompts you to type in a name for the set or accept a default name.

2. click the Synch toolbar button to update the HyperMesh display with the current selection. Display IDs: Displays a popup window showing the IDs of all entities contained in the selected set.0 User’s Guide 373 . Export Session File: Saves a session file (. The set manager displays in the tab area. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. The display and export icons associated with each entity set are described below: • The display toggle determines whether the entities contained within the entity set are displayed in HyperMesh. The Blank State signifies that the entity set will be exported.ses) containing group definitions. which control the display of each of these entities separately. Nastran. grouped in folders by type. Display Options: Determines how the sets display in the Set Manager tree.ses). to the disk. Hide: This operation removes the entities contained in the selected set(s) from the HyperMesh display. and is only available for component and element sets. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to remove from the set.• Remove Entities from Set: Removes entities from the currently selected set. The Checked State signifies that the entity set will not be exported. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. Import Session File: Loads a session file (. When switching between supported solvers. Available options are shown above. 3. or Abaqus user profile. These group definitions will be converted into HyperMesh entity sets. The Checked State signifies that all entities in the entity set are currently displayed. this information is automatically converted to the new solver format when Set Manager is opened. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. For component sets there are two toggles: one for elements (first check box) and one for geometry (second check box). Show Only: This operation turns off (masks) all currently displayed entities. Show: This operation adds the entities contained in the selected set(s) to the HyperMesh display. • The export toggle determines whether the entity set definition is to be exported when the model deck is written. The export state of each entity set is stored in the HyperMesh database. Once a display toggle is changed. or by using the display options icons in the toolbar. From the Tools pull-down menu. • • • • • • • To change the Set Manager's display and export states: 1. containing group definitions for the selected node or element sets. and then displays only the currently selected set(s) in the HyperMesh display. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. select Set Manager. The display and export states of entity sets are controlled by clicking on/off the display and export icons located next to each entity set in the tree. The Blank State signifies that one or more of the entities in that entity set are not displayed.

Instead.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . in which case the Set Manager and the HyperMesh display are synchronized until another selection is made within the Set Manager. Export states synch automatically. the Set Manager utility does not automatically synchronize the display states of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display. In addition. while the Synch button in the Set Manager toolbar allows you to update the set manager to match the current state of the HyperMesh display. the Display button can be used to update the HyperMesh display to the current Set Manager selection.To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display: The Set Manager is meant to allow users to easily control the display and review of entity sets for model grouping and visualization purposes. The Synch button resides in the toolbar described by the topic To set display options for the Set Manager. To remedy these occurrences. the Display button at the bottom of the Set Manager allows you to update HyperMesh to match the Set Manager settings. constantly synchronizing the display state of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display can introduce performance issues. but display states always default to the unchecked state on startup. For large models. 374 HyperMesh 8.

a text summary table within HyperMesh.op2 file: field to specify the full path and filename of the . The sub-case display can be switched between ID and Name (ID). and a formatted .op2 file into the database (overwriting the previously selected one). 4. If no SUBTITLE exists. for Nastran and OptiStruct. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUB-CASE #”. The FBD Displacements tab displays in the tab area.LABEL(ID)”. only the LABEL is used. 3.0 User’s Guide 375 . You can select multiple sub-cases by ctrl-clicking or shift-clicking.op2 file display for selection. or if the original . then FBD Displacements. This procedure reduces the size of the . Additionally.op2 file. 2. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. To extract displacement data for a user-defined node set: 1.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages.FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility extracts displacement data for user defined node set(s). Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct or Nastran user profile. The tool also supports .op2 file containing the displacement output for the current model. This lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract displacement information. Once an . Tab Area (for the tool itself) After you define an element set with an associated node set.op2 file changes. sub-case names and IDs with displacement output are saved with the rest of the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. From the Results pull-down menu. If a new .op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Displacement extractions. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE . Only sub-cases with displacement results from the currently selected. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. you must load the new . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS io option card The FBD Displacement utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). all appropriate displacements and rotations are extracted. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Use the . including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. Note: Recommended practice is to output displacement data for the node set(s) of interest only. Location: Results menu.op2 file is required. Select a sub-case.op2 file is selected. • • Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. select Free Body Diagram. consider using STRESS = NONE to further reduce the size of the .op2 files containing displacement data from OptiStruct and Nastran.

See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card.csv file output options. Uy. It is assumed that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . otherwise modify the value as desired. automatically displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element and node sets. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the extraction. In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). Results coordinate system transformations are not performed on displacement data. and click Set Analysis. click Coordinate Systems. The Auto find interface nodes option automatically finds the nodes attached to elements that are not contained within the currently selected element set. Displacement data (Ux. • 6.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Additional nodes may be added to the node set once it is created by clicking the Node Set selector and picking additional nodes.…) is always output in the system that the results are stored with in the . Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. The Node Set selector defines the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted.z) in the summary table and . Choose Output options: The Output options section contains various options to review and display results of FBD Displacement extractions.5. 376 HyperMesh 8. This functionality allows you to verify which element and node sets are currently selected. • The Show model checkbox is a graphical review option that. On the Setup menu.op2 file. when checked. The option helps to eliminate “relatively small” values from being output to the result formats. There are several options: • The Element Set selector defines the elements that contain the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. You will be prompted to give the newly created node set a name. Situations when this behavior could occur include modification of nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. Select entities. The entity selection section allows you to select and/or create the appropriate entities required to execute the FBD Displacements utility. then all nodes within the element set are used. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used for controlling the output of results to the various formats. and toggle to the assign sub-panel. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. The FBD Displacement utility extracts and applies the displacement and rotation results from the . the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. This procedure selects the nodes interfacing with the remainder of the structure. The Set Manager utility on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets.0e-6.y. • The Zero Tolerance entry defines the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. • The Coordinate System selector determines the coordinate system used to display the nodal coordinates (x. If a coordinate system is not specified.op2 file in the output coordinate system without any further coordinate system transformations. If a node set is not selected. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database does not match those used to run the analysis then the extracted values will be incorrect.op2 file format.

• The Create Load Collectors option will extract the specified displacement data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window5. node set 1 and sub-case 1. A single load collector. but in a comma-separated file. • The Create . FBDD_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Disp would be created for element set 1.0 User’s Guide 377 . node set and sub-case IDs). You may select a new file or an existing file. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. Selecting yes will not overwrite the file. The load collector name format is FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp. The Create SPCD option will additionally create a load collector with the name “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD”. it will append/replace the data.csv file option creates a . A sample window with partial output is shown below. IN any case. and detailed displacement data at each node. This collector can be referenced as the SPC in the sub-case panel. For example. Loads in this collector are created with the SPCD load type. The loads in this load collector are created with the SPC load type. This collector can be referenced as the LOAD in the sub-case panel. If it does not exist. is created for each sub-case. If an existing file is selected there are several items to note: If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. it will be appended to the end of the file. • The Show summary table option outputs the results to a popup window for instant review.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. for the current element and node set. you will be warned that the File already exists and asked if you want to replace it. element and node set(s). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The table contains information about the sub-cases.

op2 file that contains the GPFORCE output for the current model. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . The tool supports . The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. use this to browse to and select the desired . This procedure reduces the size of the .FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data (including forces and moments) for a user-defined element set. To select a sub-case: The Sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. If a new . sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. The sub-case list can be switched between ID and Name (ID). This opens the standard file selection dialog window. for Nastran and OptiStruct. only the LABEL is used. The FBD Forces utility is currently supported by OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. and/or a formatted Comma-Separated Values (.op2 file into the database. a text summary table within HyperMesh.op2 file. The op2 file field accepts the full path and filename of the . Additionally. If no SUBTITLE exists. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards The FBD Forces utility is broken down into three major sections.op2 files containing GPFORCE data from OptiStruct and Nastran.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To select a results file: Click on the folder icon inside of the op2 file field.op2 file is required (or if the original . each of which corresponds with the process order of using the tool. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case in the format SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID).op2 file changes) you must load the new . The ID option lists the sub-cases in the format SUBCASE #. 378 HyperMesh 8. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool).op2 file. Multiple sub-cases can be selected via Ctrl-click or Shift-click functionality. Location: Results menu.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions. overwriting the previously selected.op2 file are displayed for selection only.csv) file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. Once you’ve selected an op2 file.

RROD. Applied Loads Only extracts and utilizes only the applied loads grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes.op2 file. 3.To select entities: 1. This allows you to verify which element sets is currently selected. result system and summation node. sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). and Reaction Loads Only. and RBAR. Use the Element Set selector to define the elements that make up the free body and contain the nodes at which GPFORCE data will be extracted. If a results system is not specified. SPC.0. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point force and moment result vectors are transformed and output. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. Activate the Show Model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode while highlighting the currently selected element set. On the assign sub-panel. 4. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. Available options include All Loads.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. This is useful for verifying free body behavior through zero-sum values for all force and moment components about any node. applied. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets.0) is used by default. • • • All Loads extracts and utilizes all element contribution. (See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. or when loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. To specify output options: 1. the extracted values will be incorrect. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . Use the FBD type selector to determine the grid point force and moment data to extract and utilize for FBD calculations for each node in the selected element set. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. Rigidlink. RJOINT. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This could occur when modifying a nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and. If a node is not selected. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation . the HyperMesh origin (0. 2. It is also useful for calculating the result of applied or reaction forces about any node. Applied Loads Only. In addition. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the GPFORCE data is summed for the selected element set. RBE3. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force and moment results from an . results coming from.0 User’s Guide 379 . Reaction Loads Only extracts and utilizes only SPC and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on nodes in the selected set. or output to. and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set.) If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis.

Use the Create Load Collectors option to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for visualization in the model window. therefore it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which FBD result must be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh 4. and component Fx. selecting yes will not overwrite the file—it will append/replace the data as described above. If an existing file is selected. Altair Engineering • 380 HyperMesh 8. If it does not exist. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. Use the Create . HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current element set. In addition a load collector with the Nastran/OptiStruct LOAD card is also created. sub-case 1. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. This load collector is named “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” and can be referenced in the sub-case panel as the LOAD entry for the various sub-case definitions.2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering .csv file option to create a . activate the Show summary table option. The table contains information about the sub-cases.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. sub-case IDs). element set(s). This option helps to prevent relatively small values from being output to the result formats. and there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. For example FBDF_E(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. The load collector name format is “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets. but in a comma-separated file. All calculations are performed with floating point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. 3. To maintain floating-point precision the default is set to 1. 5. • The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. You may select a new file or an existing file. Use the Zero Tolerance entry field to define the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. all FBD Forces load collectors are saved to the database. it is appended to. modify the value as desired. This allows FBD information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. it will be appended to the end of the file. When you save the HyperMesh database. To output the results to a popup window for instant review. referencing the component force and moment load collectors. A sample window with partial output is shown below. The FBD Results Manager tool can be used to review the load collectors generated from FBD Forces utility. However.0e-6.

the utility defaults to “Centroid”. If this node is deleted from the model. If multiple node sets are selected for a single element set. displays the element set. when checked. summation node. Tab Area (for the tool itself) This utility contains tools for defining cross-sections. etc…) and must have identifiable rows of nodes. The Display sections checkbox is a graphical review option that. Use the Set Manager tool on the Tools menu to create the necessary node sets. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The FBD Cross-section Manager interface has two creation methods available for cross-section definition: manual and (semi-) automatic. Use the Element Set selector to specify the elements containing the nodes that define the crosssection. the loads associated with that node are also deleted.FBD Cross-section manager The FBD Cross-section Manager (CSM) utility creates and manages cross-section definitions that are used within the Resultant Force & Moment utility. result system and summation node which define the cross-section in the graphics display area. The mesh shouldn’t have any discontinuities (holes. gaps. This auto-create cross-section capability requires a continuous mesh with rows of nodes (of any orientation) to work properly. When using the “Centroid” option. which are defined by an element set. To define a cross-section manually: 1. and a local result coordinate system. The Advanced options section provides the means to semi-automatically create cross-section element and node sets for beam-like structures with regular meshes. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the grid point data will be summed. a temporary node is created.0 User’s Guide 381 . node set. each set is added to the table as a separate cross-section definition which can be modified later by selection. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point vector results will be transformed and output. If a results system is not specified. It also features semi-automatic generation of element and node sets for defining cross-sections. If no node is selected. Location: Results menu. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the grid point extraction. The FBD Cross-section Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. 3. Use the Node Set selector to define the nodes in each currently selected element set at which grid point data will be extracted and summed from. 2. If multiple element sets are selected. HyperMesh adds separate crosssection definitions to the table with the original element set and each selected node set. 4. starting from the selected nodes and progressing along the length of the selected elements. This option calculates the nodal averaged centroid of the coordinates of all of the nodes in the node set and creates a temporary node at that location. 5. node set.

modified. When the HyperMesh database is saved. Cross-Sections can then be accessed from within the Resultant Force and Moment utility. These nodes should be at one end of the beam. Standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality can be used to select cross-sections. it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which cross-sections are to be retained within HyperMesh database. highlighting the currently selected element set. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox. 382 HyperMesh 8. Optional: activate the sets accumulate option This determines whether each progressive set also contains the elements from the previous set. If checked. where “#” increases with each new set generated. the cross-section data is saved to the HyperMesh database. To define a cross-section automatically: 1. Type a prefix for the name of each generated node set into the Node set prefix field. 7. all cross-section definitions are also saved. Type a Numbering offset into the text box.6. By default. 5. Selected crosssections can also be deleted from the database by using the Remove selection button on the right end of the filter buttons.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . where “#” increases with each new set generated. 6. 7. Comments Each time a cross-section is created. result system and summation node. you type in “ESET” each element set will be named ESET [#]. or deleted. 4.e. This is the offset value for generated set names. Therefore. 2. cross-section definitions only need to be defined once and stored in the HyperMesh database. you type in “NSET” each element set will be named NSET [#]. first cross-section). If the offset value is set to a value greater than zero. This displays the entire model in transparency mode. This allows you to verify a cross-section definition. 3. Use the Nodes selector to pick nodes for the first node set (i. the generated set names are numbered starting from that value. which utilizes the cross-section definitions to perform these calculations. Use the Elements selector to choose the elements that define the entire “beam-like” component from which cross-sections will be generated. highlighting the currently selected elements and nodes. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the crosssection names and the associated sets. the offset value is zero and HyperMesh generates numbered set names starting with one. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode. Therefore. Type a prefix for the name of each generated element set into the Element set prefix field. node set. Optional: use the filter buttons on the top of the spreadsheet to select which cross-sections are required. For example. or only the new “row” of elements. For example. each element set will contain the elements from the previous set.

Two utilities available within HyperGraph also interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. To select a results file: Use the . The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUBCASE #”. Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files.op2 file display for selection only.op2 file and helps speed up the Resultant Force and Moment extractions. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. for Nastran and OptiStruct. sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. If a new . The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID)”. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. Location: Results menu. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool).op2 file. To select a sub-case: Select the desired sub-case(s) from the list in the sub-case section.op2 file is selected. The sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . The list can be filtered using the buttons provided.0 User’s Guide 383 .op2 files containing grid point force data from OptiStruct and Nastran. The tool supports .FBD Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment (RF&M) utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data for user defined cross-sections created via the Cross-section Manager. When an . and/or a formatted . a text summary table within HyperMesh. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you must load the new . overwriting the previously selected. Multiple sub-cases can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. Additionally.op2 file into the database.op2 file is required.op2 file field to specify the full path and filename of the . If no SUBTITLE exists. The subcase list can be organized by ID or Name (ID). Tab Area (for the tool itself) The resultant force and moment utility generates input data for shear and moment (VMT) diagrams and/or to perform load-case screening with Potato plots in HyperView. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. This procedure reduces the size of the . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards.op2 file containing the desired GPFORCE output for the current model. The Resultant Force and Moment utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. or if the original .op2 file changes. only the LABEL is used.

z) in the summary table. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. Cross-sections are created using the Cross-section Manager. Activate the Create Load Collectors checkbox to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window. In addition. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this . The Resultant Force and Moment utility extracts grid point force and moment results from the . RROD. 384 HyperMesh 8. Resultant force and moment vector results are always output in the result coordinate system defined for each cross-section. 3. each made up of an element set and node set. The Cross-sections section lets you specify the cross-sections from which you wish to calculate resultant force and moment results for each selected sub-case. RBAR.csv file. Use the Zero Tolerance field to specify the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. 1. The load collector name format is “RF&M_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . results coming from or output to cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. node set 1.y. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. Multiple cross-sections can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current cross-section. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. For example RF&M_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. RJOINT. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. To specify output options: The Output Options section contains various options to review and display the results of Resultant Force and Moment extractions.op2 file. Result coordinate systems for cross-sections are defined using the Cross-section Manager.fbd file output options. sub-case 1. and component Fx. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. RBE3. Use the Coordinate System selector to determine the coordinate system used to output the nodal coordinates (x.To select a cross-section: Pick the desired cross-sections from the list in the cross-sections area of the tab. 2. (On the assign sub-panel. If a coordinate system is not specified. . and . otherwise modify the value as desired.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. operation sets the CD field on the GRID cards). the extracted values will be incorrect. and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model.0e-6. The option helps to eliminate relatively small values from being output. Rigidlink. This can occur when modifying nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.

it is appended to. it is appended to. Activate the Create . You may select a new file or an existing file. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node.fbd file.csv or .The “Color” option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. If it does not exist. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When the HyperMesh database is saved. 6.fbd file option to create a file that can be read into HyperGraph using the “Shear and Moment Plot” and “Potato Plot” utilities. You may select a new file or an existing file. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets and therefore it is important to not renumber any element or node sets for which resultant force and moment result are to be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh. This allows resultant force and moment information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. Activate the Create . If an existing file is selected. Two utilities available within HyperGraph interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility: Shear and Moment Diagrams (VMT Plots) and Potato Plot. but in a comma separated file. 4. If an existing file is selected. However. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager. These utilities are accessed from the Free Body Diagrams item within the HyperGraph Utilities menu.csv file containing the same information as the summary table. it will append/replace the data into the file as described above. 5. Comments When saving over existing . it will be appended to the end of the file. selecting ‘yes’ will not overwrite the file. Activate the Show summary table option to output the results to a popup window for instant review. all resultant force and moment load collectors are saved in the database. sub-case IDs). The table contains information about the sub-cases and cross-sections. there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set.0 User’s Guide 385 . You can also use the FBD Results Manager to review the load collectors generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file.csv file option to create a .

Select one or more Element sets. Location: Results menu. The Entity selection section allows you to select the element set for which to review FBD. Pick the desired Results type. For FBD Displacements and Resultant Force and Moment Result types. Selecting an FBD result type scans the HyperMesh database and updates the Subcases list with available sub-cases for the currently selected element set and result type.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . • The Fx. 4. the Results selection interface is modified to include a Node sets selector. You must choose an existing element set for which you wish to the review the FBD. The Results selection section lets you select the FBD result type to review. Fz…checkboxes determine which component/resultant vectors display when you click the Accept button. Displacement. and Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. The Load handles option determines whether to display the load handles. FBD Forces (Reaction Loads). Specify any desired Display options: The Display options section allows you to decide which force and moment components display in the graphics area for the current selection. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). The optional Show model checkbox. To review and manage FBD load collectors: 1. • • 386 HyperMesh 8. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Results Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. Multiple subcases can be selected using standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality. These checkboxes are disabled for the FBD Displacements Result type. FBD Forces (All Loads). Fy. This selector lists all of the node sets associated with the currently selected element set and sub-cases. The Label loads option determines whether to display the load labels (vector magnitude values as text next to the vector). Grayed-out checkboxes indicate force and moment components or results that can’t display for the currently selected element set/sub-case/node sets. when checked. Displacement. displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element set. 3. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. Select the desired Sub-cases by clicking on them. and Resultant Force and Moment. 2. only the node sets that are common to all of them will be listed. If multiple sub-cases are selected. Valid types include FBD Displacements.FBD Results Manager Use the FBD Results Manager to graphically review and manage the load collectors generated from all FBD and Resultant Force and Moment utilities. or Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. FBD Forces (Applied Loads).

The Delete button deletes the load collectors associated with the current selection. Click one of the command buttons at the bottom of the tab: The Accept button displays the selected result vectors on in the graphics area. The Close button closes the FBD Results Manager. removing it from the tab area without displaying any results in the graphics area. • 5. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The Update load collector color option will recolor the load collectors associated with the current selection to the color selected in the Color option. Magnitude % or Uniform size. each of which requires a numeric value. A popup warning tells you what will be deleted and requires you to confirm the deletion. if desired. Note that these values do not affect the vector magnitude—only their screen size.• The Vector size option allows you to control the display size of the result vectors. Click the Color box to pick a different color. Two options are available.0 User’s Guide 387 . The Reset button clears the graphics area of all result vectors and resets all of the FBD Results Manager entry fields.

Click the one(s) that you wish to export to highlight them. use <ctrl>-click or <shift>-click to select multiple results. Specify Export options:. For FBD Displacements. Select the desired node sets in the same fashion as the subcases. The LOAD = will reference the newly created LOAD load collector.FBD Export Manager The FBD Export Manager exports FBD. Click add to export to add the highlighted results to the export batch. an additional list of node sets displays. the exported data can be used for breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. This option will also create SUBTITLE and LABEL cards if they are available from the sub-case information within the currently selected . a SUBCASE will be created with LOAD = assigned to the “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” load collector which references the LOAD card pointing to each component “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)” load collector for the selected sub-case. HyperMesh prompts you to select one or the other from which to create the sub-case. and/or Resultant Force and Moment load collectors generated by other FBD utilities. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Export Manager is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles.op2 file. If you choose FBD Displacements or Resultant Force and Moment as the result type. highlighting the currently selected element set for review. Optional: activate the show model checkbox to display the entire model in transparency mode. Use the Element set selector to specify the set for which you wish to export data. If FBD Force and FBD Displacement load collectors from the same sub-case are selected for export. To export FBD.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If the SPCD option was enabled when creating the FBD Displacement loads. 5. 4. a LOAD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collectors will be assigned to it. Displacement. Location: Results menu. Displacement. If you wish to create sub-cases upon export. 388 HyperMesh 8. Choose the results type that you wish to export from the list box. or Resultant Force & Moment collectors: 1. 2. In addition. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). or type in a name for a new one. The SPC = will reference the newly created SPCADD load collector. After export. a SUBCASE will be created with SPC = assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collector for the selected sub-case. This opens a standard file browser window that you can use to browse to the desired destination directory and either select an existing file. click the Create appropriate subcases checkbox and then click the open-folder button in the Output file text box. This populates the list of subcases. LOAD = will also be assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collector for the selected sub-case. • • If the SPCD option was enabled when creating FBD Displacement loads. If multiple node sets are selected for export the following will occur: An SPCADD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collectors will be assigned to it. the Results type affects how HyperMesh creates sub-cases: For FBD Forces – All Loads. 3.

6. and/or Resultant Force and Moment loads are displayed. removing it from the tab area.0 User’s Guide 389 . Deletes the temporary mass elements from the current model. Close closes the tab. Displacement. Exports the model with the “displayed” option. and Removes unnecessary header information from the output file. meaning that clicking it: • • • • • Turns off the display of all currently displayed elements. Click the appropriate command button at the bottom of the tab: Export executes the export process. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Creates temporary mass elements on the nodes where the selected FBD. Reset clears all of the export criteria so that you can start over.

a fixed support on the left end. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding GPFORCE io option cards. several types of entries are possible depending on the forces acting at that node. output from OptiStruct and Nastran with the GPFORCE io options command. which in turn must sum to zero for the complete GPFORCE table. Location: Results menu. is the data around which all FBD-Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utility calculations are performed. 390 HyperMesh 8. including: • • • • • Applied forces and moments SPC forces and moments MPC forces and moments Element forces and moments from elements attached to the node Total summed values for each node. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). and a point load on the right end. The complete GPFORCE table for the above cantilever beam model is presented below.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This model cons ists of two elements.FBD Grid Point Force Balance The Grid Point Force Balance table. Note that for any given node within the GPFORCE table. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Shown below is a sample model which will be used to demonstrate the grid point force calculations that HyperMesh FBD utilities perform.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 391 .

for any given node. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 1 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not considered. • • 2. then the node is an “internal” node and element contributions are not extracted or utilized in FBD calculations. This information is then used to produce free bodies and/or resultant force and moments. For FBD types All loads and Applied loads only. v. if all element contributions are from elements from within the defined element set. Therefore. then the node is an “interface” node and element contributions from the elements not a part of the element set are extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. For all nodes connected to elements in the element set. SPC loads: Fx component exists (2. MPC loads: Zero iv. Node 1 i. For FBD types Applied loads only.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The element set serves several purposes: 1. The following example of FBD-Forces extraction uses an element set defined with only element: The element set contains only element 1.121e+03) and is extracted iii. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 2 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not condered. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. Furthermore. if any element contribution is not from one of the defined elements within the element set. 4. Applied loads: Zero ii. for any given node. 3. For FBD type Reaction loads only.121e+03) and is extracted iii. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set will be extracted and utilized in the FBD calculations. SPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. Node 2 i. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. For FBD types 2 Applied loads only. Fx calculation. Total FBD Value at Node 2 = -2. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. 3 and 4. FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility uses an element set to define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. Element 1 has nodes 1. v. 2.121e+03 392 HyperMesh 8.121e+03 b. all nodes connected to the elements in the element set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. Applied loads: Zero ii. MPC loads: Zero iv. applied loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. MPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. SPC loads: Fx component exists (-2. looping through all the nodes attached to elements in the element set: a. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. Total FBD Value at Node 1 = 2.Process The FBD Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utilities use element and node set definitions to define what information to extract and sum from the GPFORCE table.

d. iv. iii. Node 3 i. ii. Fz. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. Notice that the sum of all components is zero about any point in the model. My. Note that the sum of the moment components (Mx. The sum of the forces components (Fx. iii. The final FBD-Forces results are presented in the summary table output from the FBD-Forces utility. ii.0 User’s Guide 393 .085e+03 e. Mz) is not the direct sum of all nodes as the (rXF) terms for the force resultant vector about the sum point must also be added to each moment component appropriately. Fx component satisfies free body requirements) Fy. Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. iv. illustrated in the screenshot below. Mx. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. Node 4 i. however.c. is the simple sum.085e+03 Sum all nodes in Fx = 0. Mz calculations follow similar procedures.0 (ie. Fz) for each node. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. v. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. My. • Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. This verifies that the FBD-Forces extraction is indeed a “free body”.085e+03) v. Fy. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.085e+03) Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.

The following example of Resultant Force and Moment extraction uses a cross-section definition given by an element set defined with only element 1. summation node set to node 3. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. All nodes in the node set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations.085e+03) x. a node set defined with nodes 3 and 4.0 Fy calculation. The node set contains nodes 3 and 4. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set of the cross-section definition will be extracted and utilized in the Resultant Force and Moment calculations. 3. All nodes in the node set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. Applied loads: Zero ii.085e+03 b. Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. Applied loads: Zero vii. • 394 HyperMesh 8.085e+03) v. MPC loads:Zero iv. Node 4 vi. 4. 5. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. All nodes in the node set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force 2 and Moment calculations . SPC loads: Zero viii. MPC loads:Zero ix.Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment utility uses an element set and a node set (cross-section definition) define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. Node 3 i. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system: • • • The element set contains only element 1. Sum nodes in node set in Fx = 0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. For all nodes in the node set. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. The cross-section definition serves several purposes: 1. Fx calculation. SPC loads: Zero iii. 2. All values are zero in this model. All nodes in the node set must be attached to one or more elements in the element set.085e+03 c.

808e+02 xxxiii.574e+02 c. MPC loads:Zero xix. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = -1. Node 3 xi.166*1. Total Fz Value at Node 3 = 6. MPC loads:Zero xxix.• Fz calculation looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. MPC loads:Zero xxiv. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3.426e+02) xv.024e+00) xxx.0*3.000e+02. Node 3: no additional rXF contributions since it is the sum point xxxii. SPC loads: Zero xviii. looking through all the nodes in the node set: a. All values are zero in this model. Sum nodes in node set and all rXF terms in My = -2. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-8.871e+00) xxv. My calculation. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (6. SPC loads: Zero xiii. Total My Value at Node 3 = -8. Total rXF Value summed at Node 3 = -1.024e+00 c. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Node 3 xxi.574e+02) xx. Sum nodes in node set in Fz = 1.166) the following is obtained: xxxi. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.871e+00 b.426e+02 b. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. SPC loads: Zero xxiii.085e+03) + (0. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Applied loads: Zero xii.000e+03 (The value of the applied shear) Mx calculation. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-1.808e+02 d. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Node 4: rXF for My component equates to the following equation (rz*Fx) + (rx*Fz) = (-0. Node 4 xvi. Selecting node 3 as the summation node (any node in the model can be selected) and performing rXF (all element edge lengths are 0. Calculate the cross-product of all the forces about the Y-axis at node 3. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = 3. Applied loads: Zero xxii.574e+02) = -1. Node 4 xxvi. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.0 User’s Guide 395 . MPC loads:Zero xiv. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Applied loads: Zero xvii. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (3. SPC loads: Zero xxviii. Applied loads: Zero xxvii.

op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions.op2 file. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards.• Mz calculation. Additionally. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system. The element and node sets serve several purposes: 1. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . All nodes in the node set will have displacement and rotation values extracted. FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility uses an element set and a node set to define the values to extract from the Displacement table. The final Resultant Force and Moment results are presented in the graphic below. 2. MPC forces and moments are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: o RBE2 o RBE3 o Rigidlink o RJOINT o RROD o RBAR The GPFORCE and Displacement results are extracted of the . Additional Information: • Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. for a cross-section defined with element 1 (element set). The element set is for visualization and breakout modeling purposes only. for Nastran and OptiStruct.op2 file in float point precision in binary format. • • 396 HyperMesh 8. All values are zero in this model. summation node set to node 3. looping through all the nodes in the node set a. which is the summary table output from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. This maintains the integrity of the calculations as well as enhances the performance of the utilities. nodes 3 and 4 (node set).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This procedure reduces the size of the .

You're Reading a Free Preview

Descarga
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->