HyperMesh 8.

0 User's Guide

HyperWorks

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Listed below are Altair HyperWorks applications. Copyright Altair Engineering Inc., All Rights Reserved for: HyperMesh 1990-2006; HyperView 1999-2006; OptiStruct 1996-2006; HyperStudy 1999-2006; ® ® ® HyperGraph 1995-2006; HyperGraph 3D 2005-2006; MotionView 1993-2006; MotionSolve 2002-2006; ® ® ® ® HyperForm 1998-2006; HyperXtrude 1999-2006; HyperOpt 1996-2006; HyperView Player 2001-2006; ® Process Manager™ 2003-2006; HyperWeb 2002-2004; Data Manager™ 2005-2006; Templex™ 19902006; Manufacturing Solutions ™ 2005-2006 All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Starting and Configuring HyperMesh
Hardware and Operating Systems ......................................................................................1 Starting HyperMesh .............................................................................................................2 Starting HyperMesh Batch Version .....................................................................................5 Start-up Options ...................................................................................................................6 Configuring HyperMesh.......................................................................................................7 Configuration File Commands .............................................................................................9 Start-up Files ......................................................................................................................21 Specifying a Temporary File Directory ..............................................................................21

HyperMesh Database and Environment
HyperMesh Database Design............................................................................................22 Database Names ...............................................................................................................22 Using and Saving a Database...........................................................................................22 Nodes .................................................................................................................................22 Fixed Points .......................................................................................................................22 Free Points .........................................................................................................................22 Collectors ...........................................................................................................................23 Elements ............................................................................................................................27 Lines ...................................................................................................................................30 Surfaces and Faces...........................................................................................................32 Systems..............................................................................................................................33 Loads..................................................................................................................................33 Cards..................................................................................................................................33 Vectors ...............................................................................................................................33 Title.....................................................................................................................................34 HyperMesh Environment ...................................................................................................35 Pull-Down menus...............................................................................................................37 Graphics Area ....................................................................................................................39 Toolbar Area ......................................................................................................................40 Header Bar .........................................................................................................................44 Main Menu Area.................................................................................................................46 Page Menu .........................................................................................................................46
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Tab Area.............................................................................................................................47 Model Browser ...................................................................................................................48 Include Browser .................................................................................................................57 Modules ..............................................................................................................................63 Loadsteps Browser............................................................................................................64 Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles ............................................................65 Panels ................................................................................................................................69 Sub-panels .........................................................................................................................70 Input Controls.....................................................................................................................71 File Browser .......................................................................................................................77 The Mouse .........................................................................................................................79 Rapid Menu ........................................................................................................................81 Keyboard ............................................................................................................................82 Secondary Menu ................................................................................................................86 Utility Menu ........................................................................................................................87 BOM comparison tool ........................................................................................................95 Quick TetraMesh..............................................................................................................112

User Profiles
User Profiles.....................................................................................................................127 HyperMesh User Profile...................................................................................................128

Using HyperMesh
Using HyperMesh ............................................................................................................128 Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database ..............................................................129 Picking Entities on the Screen .........................................................................................130 Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements .......................................................................132 Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu .....................................................................133 Viewing Models ................................................................................................................137 Using the disp (display) Panel .........................................................................................140 Setting View Options........................................................................................................142 Setting Tolerances ...........................................................................................................145 Setting Global Parameters...............................................................................................145 Importing and Exporting Data ..........................................................................................146 Printing Screen Images ...................................................................................................148 Using the Card Previewer................................................................................................150
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Building Models
General Process for Building Models ..............................................................................151 Creating Collectors ..........................................................................................................152 Reading Geometry...........................................................................................................153 Creating Geometry Data ..................................................................................................154 Temporary Nodes ............................................................................................................158 Picking Surfaces ..............................................................................................................158 Editing Surfaces ...............................................................................................................159 Associativity .....................................................................................................................161 Geometry Cleanup ...........................................................................................................162 Building Elements ............................................................................................................164 Checking Model Quality ...................................................................................................167 Applying Loads.................................................................................................................168 Creating Systems.............................................................................................................169

Automatic 2-D Mesh Generation
Automatic Mesh Generation ............................................................................................170 Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel.......................................................................172 Mesh Generation Algorithms ...........................................................................................173 Smoothing Algorithms......................................................................................................175 Element Biasing ...............................................................................................................176 Linked or Locked Edges ..................................................................................................179

Connectors
Connector Entity...............................................................................................................180 Connector Terminology ...................................................................................................181 Connector Definition ........................................................................................................185 Connector Realization......................................................................................................187 Connector Review............................................................................................................188 Connectors User Control Mode .......................................................................................188 Master Connectors File....................................................................................................189 Multiple Weld File Format ................................................................................................190 Import Templates .............................................................................................................191 FE Configuration File .......................................................................................................193 FE Definition Examples ...................................................................................................197

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HyperMorph and Morphing Strategies
HyperMorph Strategies ....................................................................................................199 The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing......................................................................201 Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains ..................................................220 Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................237 Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................263

Calculating Beam Properties
HyperBeam Module .........................................................................................................272 Example of the Three-Step Process................................................................................274 Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam ..............................................279 HyperBeam Environment.................................................................................................282 Section Browser...............................................................................................................283 Shell Section Graphics Pane...........................................................................................284 Results/Spreadsheet Pane..............................................................................................285 HyperBeam Menu Bar .....................................................................................................287 HyperBeam Toolbar .........................................................................................................294 Beam Cross Section Property Solver ..............................................................................296 Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements..................................................297 Defining a Cross Section .................................................................................................298 Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties .................300 Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver .........................................................................301 Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers ................................................................303

HyperLaminate and Composites
HyperLaminate Module....................................................................................................304 HyperLaminate Environment ...........................................................................................305 HyperLaminate Menus .....................................................................................................306 HyperLaminate Toolbar ...................................................................................................308 Laminate Browser............................................................................................................309 Define/Edit Pane ..............................................................................................................313 Review Pane ....................................................................................................................323

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Finite Difference Module
Finite Difference Module ..................................................................................................324 Creating a Finite Difference Block...................................................................................324 Creating a Structured Mesh.............................................................................................325

Boundary Conditions
Loads on Geometry .........................................................................................................327 Terminology and Definitions ............................................................................................328 Application of Loads to Geometry ...................................................................................329 Exporting Loads ...............................................................................................................330 Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh ..............................................330 Distributed Load Mapper .................................................................................................331 Load an input file containing CFD analysis results .........................................................333 Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, or ANSYS input file format) ...............................................................................................................334 Select a data type and a mapping method......................................................................334 Set the scale factor ..........................................................................................................334 Set the mapping algorithm ...............................................................................................335 Mathematical Loading......................................................................................................336

Post-Processing and XY Plots
Post-Processing Analysis ................................................................................................338 HyperMesh Results Database.........................................................................................338 Specifying the Results File ..............................................................................................339 Creating Deformed Geometry Plots ................................................................................339 Creating Animations.........................................................................................................339 Creating Vector Plots .......................................................................................................340 Creating Contour Plots.....................................................................................................340 Creating Assigned Plots ..................................................................................................340 Adding Plot Identification .................................................................................................341 Inspecting the Results......................................................................................................341 XY Plotting .......................................................................................................................342 XY Plots Module...............................................................................................................343 Creating an XY Plot .........................................................................................................344 Modifying an XY Plot........................................................................................................344 Working with Multiple XY Plots ........................................................................................344
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Modifying Multiple XY Plots .............................................................................................344 Creating Curves on XY Plots ...........................................................................................345 Modifying Curve Attributes...............................................................................................347 Displaying Selected Curves on Plots ..............................................................................347 Using the Curve Editor.....................................................................................................348

AutoDV
AutoDV Introduction .........................................................................................................351 Generation of Perturbation Vectors.................................................................................352 Manual Perturbation.........................................................................................................352 Polynomial Perturbation Vectors .....................................................................................353 Primary Domain Model ....................................................................................................353 Primary Domain Node Sets .............................................................................................354 Control Perturbations .......................................................................................................355 Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets ....................................................................357 Harmonic Perturbation Vectors .......................................................................................359 Generation of Variable Loads ..........................................................................................361 Running AutoDV Stand-alone .........................................................................................363

H3D Writer
Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh ...........................................................................365 H3D FAQ's .......................................................................................................................369

Free Body Diagrams
Free Body Diagrams........................................................................................................370 FBD Set Manager ............................................................................................................371 FBD Displacements .........................................................................................................375 FBD Forces ......................................................................................................................378 FBD Cross-section manager ...........................................................................................381 FBD Resultant Force and Moment ..................................................................................383 FBD Results Manager......................................................................................................386 FBD Export Manager .......................................................................................................388 FBD Grid Point Force Balance ........................................................................................390

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needs to be "ported" to each hardware platform on which HyperMesh runs. depending on their level of sophistication.11 m and IRIX 6. a small portion of source code that controls the graphically oriented operations. HyperMesh has an identical appearance and behavior on all platforms.0.2. HP-ITANIUM (HPUX_IA32) running 11. The following hardware platforms are currently supported: • • • • • • • Pentium-based PC or compatible running Windows WIN NT 4.23.0 or 11. However. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HP-PARISC (HPUX) running 11. please contact your HyperMesh sales representative.1. Silicon Graphics family of workstations running IRIX 6. Some platforms may have limitations or extensions.0.5.0 User’s Guide 1 . or 5.13 m. For more specific information concerning your hardware/software configuration. such as drawing a line on the screen.Hardware and Operating Systems HyperMesh is not tied to a specific set of computer hardware or operating system and presents the same appearance on all platforms. SUN workstations running Solaris 2. or information concerning future platforms.11. This option is found in the Desktop icon in the Control Panel group. Most of the HyperMesh source code is independent and can be compiled on various systems.5. IBM running AIX 4. In general.3 or RH 8. which prevents HyperMesh from redrawing immediately when a destructive windowing operation is performed. Notes for PC Users If you are running Windows NT (depending on model size or processor speed) you may wish to turn the full drag option off. All UNIX ports are built around OpenGL.3.8. LINUX running RH 7.3. 5. WIN 2000/XP.

For more information about the hm. Starting HyperMesh in UNIX This section contains the instructions and optional arguments for starting HyperMesh on a UNIX workstation. see Configuring HyperMesh.alias or .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .cfg configuration file.. 2 HyperMesh 8. 2. hm. <altair_home>/altair/scripts/hm) and press the ENTER key. Or Create an alias for HyperMesh in the user . enter hm at the command prompt to invoke HyperMesh. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. see Start-up Files.g. to have HyperMesh start and run according to the standards and preferences of your particular work site.0/altair/script/hm’ Once an alias is created. You can create a start-up file or alter the HyperMesh configuration file.cshrc file: alias hm ‘/homes/applications/hm8. add the following line in the .cfg. To start HyperMesh: 1. At the operating system prompt. and Windows XP platforms. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh. For example.alias or . enter the full path of the HyperMesh script (e. Note: For more information about creating and using start-up files.Starting HyperMesh This section explains how to start HyperMesh on UNIX.cshrc file in the user home directory. Windows 2000.

Since HyperMesh creates user files. click Start and choose Programs. To start HyperMesh: 1. you may wish to change this directory. The default working directory specified by the HyperMesh icon is the Windows default My Documents directory. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or Click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. From the Altair HyperWorks group: select HyperMesh. The quit button is located on the upper right-hand corner of the panel area on any of the main menu pages. 2. To exit HyperMesh. The user profiles window is also accessible from the view pull-down menu. Choose the desired user profile and then click OK. User profiles affect the HyperMesh layout as well as features such as element quality checks. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. 5.Starting HyperMesh on PC During installation. a window opens prompting you to choose a user profile. an Altair HyperWorks group is created in Programs on the Start menu. click quit. From the Start menu. 3.0 User’s Guide 3 . HyperMesh starts and the main menu is displayed on the screen. Uncheck always show at startup to prevent this window from opening each time you load HyperMesh. By default. 4.

4. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. 3. To change/use startup options: 1. Select the Shortcut tab. 2. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop.To change the working directory: 1. if you do not want HyperMesh to write a command file. Select Properties. 2. Click Apply. enter -nocommand after the HyperMesh path.set. 4 HyperMesh 8. For example. 5. Your user files. Append the startup options to the path listed in Target:. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. 3. The path to the HyperMesh executable displays after Target:. Select Properties.cmf and hmmenu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 4. Select the Shortcut tab. enter the name and path of the directory in which you want to run HyperMesh. After Start in:. are created in this directory. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. command.

Select the programs tab.0 User’s Guide 5 . To start HyperMesh batch version on UNIX: 1. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh. postscript. 2. Append the option. To start HyperMesh batch version on PC: 1. Locate and right-click on the hmbatch(. Note: See Start-up Options for more information about the start-up arguments you can use. HyperMesh commands that require display (e. Right -click on the hmbatch icon on the desktop. After Cmd line:.g. command. 4. At the operating system prompt. Select Properties. 3.) are ignored. to this path.cmf and press ENTER. 6. create. the path to the hmbatch executable is displayed.Starting HyperMesh Batch Version HyperMesh batch version (hmbatch) allows you to invoke HyperMesh in batch mode at the command line and run a command file. Click Apply. fit. etc.com) executable file in the /hm/bin directory. type hmbatch –ccommand. hmbatch terminates when it reaches the end of the command file or when it encounters *quit( ) in the command file. –ccommand. 5. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.cmf. 2. plot.cmf contains the HyperMesh commands to be executed. Since this batch version does not have graphical display.

msf file Other options that can be specified after the start-up command allow you to specify model or results files or run command or mouse files. Use the results file.set. The format of the command is: hm [ -version ] [-h] [-m] where: -version -h -m Display the current version. Allows you to write a master hmmenu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or to print messages. Set the text input field in the export panel to the specified file. -e<filename> <filename> -mmouse. fl. Write the mouse commands to a mouse. pre-set export paths.hm -c<filename> -continue Read the HyperMesh file. Do not prompt via a pop-up box. Automatically run the specified command file. -uAnsys to start HyperMesh under the Ansys user profile. Allows Templex within command files. Sets the name of the HyperMesh results file database to either the input filename with a . or the specified file. Opens the application in a window of the specified width and height in pixels (PC only). res (-r alone specifies the file fl. These options include: fl. change screen resolutions. Forces HyperMesh to run in the foreground. Start HyperMesh under a specific user profile: for example.msf -nobg -nocommand -psdhm -r[filename] -rres -s<width><height> -templex -t<filename> -titlepause -u<profile> -writemastermenu 6 HyperMesh 8.hm. Causes HyperMesh to pause on the title splash screen until you press a key on the keyboard.msf file. Always continue on error when processing a command file.set file to replace the installed hmmenu. Automatically load the specified HyperMesh binary file. nodes are not drawn. Plays back the mouse commands in the mouse.Start-up Options You can enter arguments after the hm command that allow you to specify which command file to run. Causes HyperMesh to draw nodes to the PostScript file as circles. Print this message.res). Sets the global template file to the specified file.res suffix. Otherwise.cmf file. Prevents HyperMesh from creating or writing to the command.

menumenufont_configuration_command>Config. If the hm. and titlestitlefont_configuration_command>Config fonts Specify the default legend colorlegendcolorfile_configuration_command>Config Specify a color to use for entities with no resultsnoresultcolor_configuration_command>Config Change cursor sizebigcursors_configuration_command>Config Turn element and geom handlesnopickhandles_configuration_command>Config off by default Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending PostScript files to a PostScript printerpostcopy_configuration_command>Config Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending black and white PostScript filespostcopyblackandwhite_configuration_command>Config to a PostScript printer • • • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The commands are not sensitive to location in the file.cfg file to save your preferences. hm.cfg file: *menufont(2) *titlefont(3) *graphicfont(1) Note: HyperMesh accesses the configuration file. They may begin in any column. with each command occupying one line.cfg file are acknowledged.cfg file allow you to: • • • • • Specify an absolute pointing deviceabsolutepointer_configuration_command>Config Enable buttonbuttons_configuration_command>Config and dialdials_configuration_command>Config input Specify default translatorsfeinput_default_configuration_command>Config and templatesfeoutput_default_configuration_command>Config Specify the default solversregistersolver_configuration_command>Config Specify default graphicsgraphicfont_configuration_command>Config. The following commands are an example of a partial hm. The hm. A command can be turned into a comment by removing the asterisk (*) preceding the command. HyperMesh uses the following order of precedence: PC customization path current (local) directory installation directory UNIX current (local) directory home directory installation directory All running copies of HyperMesh must be restarted before any changes to the hm. You can edit the commands in the hm. or all of the commands may be on one line. only on start -up.cfg.cfg file controls certain aspects of how HyperMesh runs at your particular site. which is read on start-up and is located in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/ directory.cfg file exists in multiple directories. Each of the hm.0 User’s Guide 7 .cfg. The commands in the hm.cfg commands begins with an asterisk and is followed by a set of parentheses that enclose a variable number of arguments.Configuring HyperMesh HyperMesh has a default configuration file named hm.

HyperMesh uses this file to record various GUI settings for each user.ini Fatigue. such as catia.cfg file hmexec file feconfig. Set the screen size Specify the colormap version Set the default graphics simplification mode Tells HyperMesh to load the 3D Writer Specify the input translator and component format Specifies which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system Display the Utility menu when HyperMesh starts Include intermediate (not just the final choice) rotation commands There is another configuration file stored in "My Documents" on the Windows platform and in ~/. hmcustom.cfg). tabs which are visible (e.altair on Unix and Linux. administrators must set up an environment variable called HW_CONFIG_PATH to specify the path. iges. such as tab locations (left/right/both/none). in order to use configuration files stored in a different file path. This prevents them from being overwritten when you install a new HyperWorks update. Hmsettings. However. deleting this file can restore your HyperMesh settings to the default state if you encounter problems within the HyperMesh user interface that you cannot rectify by any other means.tcl should not be edited and its format will change between releases.cfg file Any printer settings (which may also exist in hm.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Note: Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending ASCII files to a PostScript printerprintfile_configuration_command>Config Specify how to create a PostScript file of the screenpostfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Specify how to create a bitmap file of the screenscreenfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Indicate to HyperMesh the method for creating bitmap files Set reverse video when your printer cannot be set to reverse black and white. However. called hmsettings.ini files.ini.ini.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .tcl. HyperMesh creates this file automatically when upon exiting the program.set file Cadreader. Multiple paths can be specified as variable values within this variable name.cfg file userpage. Customization paths You can store configuration files in a file path other than the ones to which they are installed by default. recent files imported and recent files loaded. The configuration files which can be used in conjunction with customization paths are: hm. key bindings. model or include browser).tcl file 8 HyperMesh 8.mac file hmmenu.g. or ug.cfg file hyperlaminate.

You can also change the cursor size by selecting large or standard under cursor size: on the menu config sub-panel in the options panel.) *bigcursors() Informs HyperMesh that pointing cursors should be double-sized when they are displayed on the screen. *boldmenufont () Description Syntax To force the menu font to bold on windows. under Windows. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. This command allows you to force the menu system to use a bold font.0 User’s Guide 9 . *boldmenufont(state) state 1 = bold 0 = use current value Comments The menu system in HyperMesh.Configuration File Commands The following is a list of the configuration commands that you can use to control how HyperMesh runs at your particular site: *absolutepointer() Use this command if you have a digitizing tablet or any other type of absolute pointing device. (An absolute pointer usually has six buttons.

7397916e005.00529684395.0. *dynamicrotatemode() Sets mode for output of intermediate rotation commands. See *CE_FE_SetDetailsandRealize() for information on creating a coordinate system during realization.00785649346.0047803938. When mode is set to 1. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu. the following output is generated: *dynamicviewbegin() *quatrotate(-0.00994070323.0. *dials() This command informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with dials that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode.0. Syntax *controlkeyviewmode(mode) mode Note: 0 = immediate mode 1 = use display listing (default) When display listing is used.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .0.0.00228960797.0.-5. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations. Syntax Arguments Example *dynamicrotatemode(mode) mode Set to 1 or 0. if the *buttons() command is not added to the configuration file. but a lower frame rate (slower). In this case. HyperMesh does not respond to dial input. A value of 1 (default) to the function aligns the Y-axis of the coordinate system in the direction of FE and a value of 0 defines Xaxis and a value 2 defines Z-axis. In this case. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu (See *buttons()). *ce_fe_orientaxis() This command is called from the HyperMesh configuration file to specify the axis of the system that needs to be aligned in the direction of FE during connector realization.*buttons() Informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with buttons that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode. *controlkeyviewmode() Specify whether display listing should be done during control key assisted viewing.0.000802068982. HyperMesh does not respond to button input.999966514) *quatrotate(0.999937705) *quatrotate(-0. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations.000673180986.0. if the *dials() command is not added to the configuration file.00170778765. there may be a delay in the operation while the display list is being built. but the operation will have a higher frame rate (faster). Immediate mode results in a faster initial response time.999985423) 10 HyperMesh 8.

761037.9 99998898) *quatrotate(-0.964252.0. 0. 0 = off. *enablemacromenu() This specifies whether or not the macro Utility Menu should display when the program loads.575689.0.886445. You can display or hide the utility menu from within HyperMesh by selecting Utility Menu from the View pull-down menu.000230328525.0.703590. The symbolic name for each translator is listed below: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The specification contains two parts separated with a '\'. Syntax *feinputdefault(filename) Arguments entity_type The name of any file found in the feinput directory.0. the Utility menu is displayed. 8. Comments A symbolic name begins with a '#' character followed by the specification of the translator.00263644785. The first part is the type of translator and the second part is a specific version of the translator.485656. only the finial position is output.*quatrotate(0.000395387048.621393) 5.0.000000. -0. 0. -3.756111.000000. or a symbolic name for the translator. -8. 0.00106667981. 0. 0. -0.213868.000327769044. 0. Otherwise. 0.722177. By default. the following output is generated: *viewset(-0. 2.657815. When the mode is set to 1.030465.000000. intermediate *quadrotate() rotation commands are output to the command file. reducing the size of the command file.583235. 1. 0.999996393) *dynamicviewend() When mode is set to 0. -3.000000.299006.623743. *feinputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which translator in the import/CUSTOM sub-panel is the default. 1 = on (default).00100703597. Comments 0.612440.0.0 User’s Guide 11 . 0.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This command requires one argument which can be set to the name of any file found in the template/feoutput directory.FE: #abaqus\abaqus #ansys\ansys #cmold\cmold #moldflow\moldflow #nastran\nastran #patran\patran #marc\marc #optistruct\optistruct #ls-dyna\dynakey #ls-dyna\\dynaseq #pamcrash\pamcrash #ideas\ideas #autodv\autodv #stl\stl #hmascii\hmascii GEOM: #catia\catia #iges\iges #ug\ug_16 #ug\ug_15 #stl\stl #vdafs\vdafs #hmascii\hmascii WELD: #spotweld\spotweld *feoutputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which template is the default. 12 HyperMesh 8.

This option can also be set using the engine: toggle in the graphics sub-panel of the options panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Syntax *graphicengine(mode) mode 0 = standard graphics 1 = performance graphics *graphicfont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display numbers. Syntax Note: *forceoldmenufonts() The menu system in HyperMesh. style and curComp are not required. Syntax *graphicsimplificationmode(mode. where: mode is set using view acceleration and when view acceleration is set to automatic or Ctrl-Shift. style. *graphicsimplificationmode() Sets the default simplification mode for performance graphics. element handles. curComp) mode 0 = none 1 = automatic (default) 2 = Ctrl-Shift 0 1 2 3 4 5 = no simplification = feature lines (default) = bounding box = node cloud = element centroid = simplified shading style curComp 0 = do not simplify current component (default) 1 = simplify current component Note: If mode = 0. The font size may also be changed during a HyperMesh session using the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. style is set using the simplification style switch and curComp is set using the simplify current comp check box. *graphicengine() Sets the default graphics mode. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. under Windows. The default simplification mode for performance graphics can also be set in the graphics subpanel in the options panel. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2).0 User’s Guide 13 .*forceoldmenufonts () To force the menu font to the old style. and legends in the graphics area. This command allows you to force the menu system to use the historical fonts.

The string is sent to the operating system and should be the standard command which you would use to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. The only information unknown at startup is the name of the file. This command requires one argument that can be set to the name of any file found in the <install_directory>/hm/colors directory. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. The element and geometry pick handles can be set in the modeling sub-panel of the options panel. black (0.0. The command requires one parameter.175. Green and Blue.100). Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. white (255. G. and B are the intensity values for Red.255). *postcopy() Informs HyperMesh how to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. if this command is specified. where R.255. The complete *postcopy() command of the above example is *postfile("postprt *filename"). To circumvent this. For example. You can copy this file into your home directory and customize many of the default settings. This command links the PostScript capability of HyperMesh and allows plots of the currently displayed screen to be printed directly from HyperMesh. then you would use *postcopy("postprt junk"). or khaki (210. Syntax legendcolorfile(file) *legendsetbordercolor() Allows you to set the border color. The default color is specified with *noresultcolor(R. however.G.cfg file. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. The font size may also be changed in the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. 0-D elements (such as contact slave elements and mass elements) cannot be seen easily. Other colors include: dark blue (0. *noresultcolor() Elements or nodes for which no results were found are assigned a color (default = gray) to distinguish them from an actual 0 result.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). For testing purposes.80. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. This improves graphic performance. *nopickhandles() Informs HyperMesh that you wish to have element and geometry pick handles off by default. inclusively 14 HyperMesh 8. The default gray color values are *noresultcolor(80. Syntax *legendsetbordercolor(color) Comments *menufont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display the menu. You can experiment with the values in the color sub-panel of the options panel.128). if you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command postprt junk. Pick handles will be turned off when HyperMesh is started and turned off whenever a new file is loaded. a character string closed in double quotes "".80).0. *postcopy() is invoked when you press CTRL-F3. The color must be between 1 and 64.0).B). Before sending the string parameter provided in the *postcopy() command to the operating system. The color assigned to these no result entities is specified in the hm.*legendcolorfile() Informs HyperMesh which legend color file should be the default.

PC Users: *register3dwriter({bin_dir+"/hm3dwriter31. The string provided is sent to the operating system and should be the command which you normally use to send a file to a printer. Enable rapid menus.1"}.S. For testing purposes. By default. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. "". Before sending the string parameter provided in the *printfile() command to the operating system.g. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. The only information unknown at start-up is the name of the file. but allows you to use a different command to send a black and white PostScript file to a printer. Disabling it may be desirable if you use the middle mouse button for other (e. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. This command requires one parameter. rapid menu functionality is enabled. If you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command print_it junk. Provided for consistency with the *screenfile() and *screencopy() commands. To circumvent this. Syntax Argument *rapidmenus(mode) mode 0 1 Comments Disable rapid menus.*postcopyblackandwhite() Identical to the *postcopy() command. the string parameter required is set to a zero length string. *printfile() is invoked in the summary panel on the Post page. *register3dwriter() Tells HyperMesh to activate the H3D writer.dll"}. O. This command is only used in the command file. In general. *rapidmenus() The rapid menu functionality for the middle mouse button may be turned off with this command. For testing purposes. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. a character string closed in double quotes. The complete *printfile() command of the above example is *printfile("print_it *filename")./non-HyperMesh) tasks. *postcopyblackandwhite() is invoked when you press CTRL-F5. use *printfile("print_it junk")."Hyper3Dwrite". *printfile() Informs HyperMesh how to send an ASCII file to a printer. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer.0 User’s Guide 15 . "Hyper3D") Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8."Hyper3Dwrite"."Hyper3D") UNIX Users: *register3dwriter({bindir+"/hm3dwriter3. *postfile() Sends the currently displayed screen to a PostScript file.

one for the memory in MB.out". The third parameter undergoes the substitution with the user-input values. which is a value."outfile:output file". Each character string represents an input field. This command is necessary only if the hard copy device on your system is not reverse video capable. *screencopy() Tells HyperMesh how to create a temporary bitmap file of the screen and send it to a hard copy device. For more information on spooling bitmapped files directly to the printer. depending on the expected input."*solver *input file *output file *options".*registersolver() Informs HyperMesh which solvers are available and how to invoke them. > *output. *reversevideo() Informs HyperMesh that before the strings provided as parameters in the *screencopy() and *screenfile() commands are sent to the operating system. A file named sliden. The name of the solver executable file. Example *registersolver(OPTISTRUCT. contact your systems administrator. "file:input".fem *memory in MB. A character string that is passed to the operating system to invoke the solver. Reverse video can also be set in the postscript sub-panel of the options panel. A character string that is of type file or value.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .fem. The status bar indicates when the screen grab is complete. *solver is replaced by the solver executable name. one for the solver executable. A maximum of six fields are allowed per solver."{home}\ {solver}". "*solver *input. and one for the output file name.sdp is created by HyperMesh. 16 HyperMesh 8. Functionally.) *memory in MB is replaced by the value. a file is created but not spooled to the print device (the CTRL-F1 and CTRL-F2 keys function identically) and you must click the active HyperMesh window to trigger the screen capture."value:options") solver The name that you want to appear on the toggle in the solver panel. the colors representing black and white should be reversed.out). This command allows you to set up and customize the solver panel in HyperMesh. The number of strings is identical to the substitutable fields in the third argument. "value:memory in MB". where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. *output is replaced with the user-selected output file (the extension for output file is always . This command takes several arguments: Syntax *registersolver({solver}. a site-specific operating system utility is called to create and spool the image to the printing device. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. *input is replaced by the input file (the extension is always . By default. "file:output") Arguments This command creates a solver panel with four user-input fields. The solver field can be of type value or file. On UNIX platforms. after substituting the user-input parameters. optistruct. one for the input file name."infile:input file".

To determine this value. a bitmap file is generated using the utility defined in the *screenfile() function (typically xwd) and output to a unique file using the same process as above. change the two values to any numbers that have the same aspect ratio of the screen resolution that you use. The name of the file can be accessed with the characters *filename.75. If you use a wide aspect ratio screen. On the PC.bmp file that can be read into wordprocessing programs. HyperMesh generates a *. The units used are not important but must be consistent.1920) should allow HyperMesh to render undistorted images. contact your system administrator. even after specifying the screen measurements the display can still appear distorted. (0 through 255) The color’s green component. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. follow the same method as described above and measure the vertical dimension of the screen. Circles may look like ovals. blue) index red green blue Specifies the color location. Functionally.sdf is created by HyperMesh. *screensize(1200.8. On UNIX platforms. *screensize() Informs HyperMesh of the physical size of your monitor. (0 through 255) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. green. it’s important to remember to use the correct order for the command (e. In such cases.g. When *screensize(14.30) is implemented.6). (0 through 255) The color’s blue component. The second parameter is the vertical (y) dimension of the screen. measure the horizontal dimension of the usable portion of the screen excluding any borders in the default window that HyperMesh creates (or the entire screen if your system does not use windows).0 User’s Guide 17 . The numbers are physical measurements of the display area of the screen (width. Note: in some cases. the length/width ratio of the objects may be distorted. The *screensize() option changes the aspect ratio of the images drawn in the graphics area. the proportions of the objects is corrected. *setcolor() Set a colormap entry for each of the entity colors. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. Syntax *setcolor(index. height. while screen resolutions are typically listed width by height. After you press CTRL-F2. Remember that the command parameters represent height and width respectively. To find this value. if your desktop runs at a resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels (an aspect ratio of 1. The first parameter is the horizontal (x) dimension of the screen. you must select the HyperMesh window to indicate which window to capture. For example. For more information about creating bitmap screen images. The command requires two parameters in real format separated by a comma. thus. A message on the status bar indicates when the screen capture is complete. red. height). width). (1 through 64) The color’s red component. A file named sliden.*screenfile() Informs HyperMesh how to create a bitmap file of the screen that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device (such as a printer). although the look of HyperMesh doesn’t change.

*setlightsource() Set direction of the global light source. y. while the second parameter specifies the format you want your components to follow when importing them to HyperMesh. spaces.cfg file or from a command file.0. Example: *setcomponentformat(ansys. Syntax *setlightsource(x. which represents lighting the model as you are looking at it. Currently. 0-9. 1. "TYPE%t-MAT%m-REAL%r<-SECID%s>-ESYS%e") %t %m %r % <> %e Place the type number here. . in/out of screen. : ‘ / ? . 18 HyperMesh 8. Here are some examples of what the component above will show: TYPE3-MAT2 -REAL2-ESYS2 TYPE1-MAT1 -REAL1-ESYS0 TYPE2-MAT2 -REAL3-SECID1-ESYS0 The following characters can be used to customize the name of the components: A-Z. and the following: ‘ ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * . Place the section ID number here. 0. Place the element coordinate system number here.0. Z axis location. The default setting is 0.( ) _ = + \ | [ ] } . vertical direction of screen.0. This command may be used in either the hm. Y axis location. z) x y z Comments X axis location. Place the real number here.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . a-z. Place the material number here.*setcomponentformat() The first parameter of this command specifies which feinput translator you would like to use. horizontal direction of screen. Symbols mean that everything encapsulated between the two symbols is displayed only if the element uses a section ID. only the ANSYS feinput translator supports this command.

blue. shininess) red green blue The red component of the reflected light (range 0.7. After altering this value you must restart HyperMesh to see the changes. It is brightest along direct angle of reflection. The higher the value. Syntax *setperformancenormalmode(mode) mode Comments 0 = flat normals (default) 1 = smooth normals This command can only be used in the configuration file. or from a command file. the smaller and brighter the highlight (range 0 – 128) shininess Comments This command may be used in either the hm.0.0. *setspecularity() Set the global specular highlight values for performance graphics mode.7.0.0. Raising or decreasing shading quality by 1 roughly doubles or halves the quality.cfg file.0 – 1.cfg file (where N is a number between 1 and 10. Add or modify the *shadingquality(N) command in the hm.0 – 1.64) Lead *shadingquality() Shaded geometry visualization sometimes does not follow the actual geometry. however.0.1.0) The blue component of the reflected light (range 0.0 – 1.5.1.5. *setspecularity(0. that N does not need to be an integer—decimal values are acceptable.7.0. Example Settings may be used to simulate different materials: Glass *setspecularity(1.128) Plastic *setspecularity(0.0) The green component of the reflected light (range 0. Syntax *setspecularity(red.0. 5 is the default).0) The shininess value.5.32) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. green. Specular reflection from an object produces highlights. The amount of specular reflection seen depends on the location of the viewpoint. but small in another direction.*setperformancenormalmode() Set the performance graphics normal mode. Note.0 User’s Guide 19 . this usually occurs in models that are large in one direction.

On some platforms. This parameter may range from 1 to 4. the *xfontname() command must be modified. The X version of HyperMesh requires a 256 color palette. some colors in HyperMesh may not be available and appear as black. the X Lib utilities are usually distributed with a program called xfontsel.*sharedcolormap() Informs HyperMesh which colormap method should be used in the X version. Note that the font size may also be changed in the titles panel on the Post page. A non-shared colormap can be used.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if your system is unique or if HyperMesh warns about one of the default fonts. The first parameter indicates which of the four HyperMesh fonts is being assigned. the configuration file should have the appropriate fonts for your system. In general. *. To assist you in determining the best X Lib font to assign to HyperMesh. the system colormap does not have 256 colors available. 20 HyperMesh 8. characters in the name. but may cause the rest of the system’s colors to change when the HyperMesh window is active and HyperMesh’s colors to change when the window is not active. or a similar one. This command requires two parameters. With a shared colormap. *titlefont() Informs HyperMesh which font size should be used to display titles. This string may contain wild card. displays the possible X Lib font sets interactively. However. The second parameter is a string which locates the X Lib font which you want to assign to the HyperMesh font. This program. *xfontname() Informs HyperMesh which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2).

cmf to the file name particular to your system. problems may arise if you later want to rerun the command. 4.cmf file created during your HyperMesh session. To avoid this problem. and the directory from which HyperMesh was invoked. quit HyperMesh. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. be aware that if you create entities in the start-up file. Delete the command. it looks for this file and then processes the commands within the file. 2. you can either not generate any entities in the start-up file. 5. 3. it generates the entities specified in the start-up file.cmf file when HyperMesh is started. if it exists. If the environment variable is set.cmf file. If you rerun the command. or delete the start-up file commands in command. Specifying a Temporary File Directory You can set the environment variable to control where temporary HyperMesh files are created. 3. The directories searched include your customization path (if one is set up). 5. To set the environment variable in UNIX: SETENV TMPDIR <directory path> To set the environment variable in Windows: 1. On the Control panel. Click the TMP line under User variables for . and then generates the same entities as specified by the command..0 User’s Guide 21 . All commands executed by the HyperMesh command processor are written to the command file command. Select the Environment tab.Start-up Files HyperMesh allows you to create a start-up file that can be used to either execute a series of commands or to define global parameters. the directory where HyperMesh is installed. including those generated by your start-up file. Start-up files allow you to automatically define global parameters for the current session of HyperMesh. After you have generated all of the necessary commands.. . double click the System folder. Click OK.cmf file. 4.hmexec or hmexec. Edit the text after Value: to specify the correct path to the directory in which you want temporary files created. Rename command. Although start-up files may contain any of the commands considered valid in a command file. HOME). your home directory (where your home directory is assumed to be specified in the environment variable.cmf before you run it. The file must be a HyperMesh command file and is named .cmf. then the temporary files are created with an HM prefix in the referenced directory.hmexec on UNIX systems and hmexec on Windows systems. the commands which were written when the start-up file was executed initially. 2. Execute any task that you want the start-up file to automatically perform when HyperMesh opens. Start HyperMesh. When HyperMesh is invoked. To create a start-up file: 1.

Free points are not associated with a surface and are labeled with a small "x. Fixed points may appear anywhere on a surface. Note: See Database Names for more information about naming conventions. Nodes contain a pointer to a surface and are therefore associated to a surface. This convention allows you to determine easily which of the files in a directory are HyperMesh databases. vector. Fixed Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. Nodes represent physical positions on the structure being modeled and are used by the element entity to define the location and shape of the element. A fixed point is associated with a surface and is labeled with a small "o". HyperMesh automatically deletes from the database unused nodes and any loads that were attached to the unused nodes. and systems. The original database does not change until you save the model. The automesher always places nodes at fixed points." 22 HyperMesh 8.HyperMesh Database Design A HyperMesh database stores information about many different entity types. including nodes. Fixed points are displayed in the same color as the surface to which they belong.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . points. or group. loads. at Altair we use the extension . This allows you to select nodes and elements by surface. all the changes that you have made during your work session are lost. See Using and Saving a Database for more information about saving HyperMesh files. lines. All HyperMesh entities. Free Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. Nodes are considered "used" if they are part of an element. Vertices along the edges of a surface are always marked by fixed points. HyperMesh entities include: Database Names There are no restrictions placed on HyperMesh database names other than those imposed by the operating system. are organized within collectors. or are referenced by a card image. elements.hm for all HyperMesh binary databases. If you exit HyperMesh without saving the current database. HyperMesh prompts you for confirmation before you exit. However. HyperMesh copies the database into system memory. if the current database has been modified but not saved. Nodes The node is the most basic finite element entity. There are several types of collectors and each collector stores the model data relative to its type. Using and Saving a Database While you work on a model.

Collectors can be modified and the entities within them can be reorganized. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information in the header bar. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. If you have not created a component first. the elements are assigned properties from the property which they reference. Configurations 1-4 are created in the interfaces panel. This restricted access lets HyperMesh translate special collections of entities as a unit and allows it to support advanced features of analysis codes. HyperMesh automatically creates a collector for new entities if you do not create a collector first. elements. assigned colors. For more information about reorganizing collectors. This allows you to organize geometry data into units that can be translated. Lines. Note: Collector names are limited to 160 characters. All entities within HyperMesh must belong to a collector. and surfaces cannot exist unless a component collector exists. see the organize panel. Configuration 5 is created in the rigid wall panel. HyperMesh automatically creates a component. for example. Component collectors also retain property and material information about the entities that belong to it. auto1. lines.0 User’s Guide 23 . an element cannot exist in two different collectors. All the elements in a component collector are assigned the same properties and materials except when the elements have a property reference. and surface data. line. and surfaces that belong to the component.Collectors A collector gathers related data and allows you to handle the data as one unit. rotated. Component Collectors Components are collectors that contain element. In this case. Entities can belong to only one collector. for those entities. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. or deleted. You can use the collectors panel to modify the attributes of the auto1 component and the rename panel to change the name. Note: Use the display panel to control the screen display of the collectors in your model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Operations performed on a component affect all the elements. Group Collectors Groups are collectors that are restricted to certain types of elements.

One plot collector is created for each plot in the database. A curve is referenced by selecting the plot collector. Components can belong to more than one assembly. See the Finite Difference Module section for more information. you can select and display all the components that belong to it by selecting the assembly. If a model contains any non-rigid elements. if you delete an assembly. Operations performed on an assembly do not affect the components in the assembly. You can set a component or property to the correct material collector by entering the collector name after material =. Plot collectors contain pointers to curve collectors. Entity Information Collectors These collectors maintain information about the entities assigned to them: Property Property collectors contain property information about 1-D elements and are required only when a model contains one or more of the following elements: bar2 bar3 gap joint masses rod spring After you create a property collector. After an assembly is created. then the model should have at least one material collector. Block collectors contain information relating to a finite difference block. 2-D or 3-D. For example. This information includes the name and color of the curve and the line style used to display the curve. the components in the assembly are not deleted. Material Material collectors contain information about the materials in a HyperMesh model. A plot collector contains information associated with an xy plot. including its walls and cells.Assembly Collectors Assemblies are collectors that contain several components organized into a single logical unit. you can assign the specified properties to new 1-D elements by entering the collector name after property = when you create or update the elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Properties for all other element types. Curve collectors contain information about the curves of an xy plot. are assigned by the component to which the elements belong. Plot Curve Block 24 HyperMesh 8.

A system can belong to only one system collector. or materials. groups. A vector collector can hold any number of vectors. nodes. Additional information that can be included in sets are the name of the set and the type of entity contained within the set. which allows you to access them as a unit. The output blocks entity is used to store these nodes.System Collectors System collectors allow you to organize local coordinate systems.0 User’s Guide 25 . Multibody Collectors Setting collector type to multibodies in the collectors panel provides functionality for the creation and modification of multibody collectors. Output Blocks Some solvers allow you to request output results for specific nodes or elements. a load collector contains loads that are to be applied at the same time. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of systems. cylinders. Provide the rigid body reference for ellipsoids. simulating a system loading condition. which can be composed of specified elements. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. the set of load collectors represents a system loading condition. Multibody collectors serve multiple purposes: • • • Organizing HyperMesh’s ellipsoids. A load can belong to only one load collector. Vector Collectors Vector collectors allow you to organize vectors. A system collector can hold any number of systems. Sets Collectors Set collectors contain lists of entity IDs. Typically. Note: If no collector has been created prior to the creation of vectors. components. and mbjoints entities. Typically. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. Load Steps The load steps entity allows you to select a set of load collectors. The method by which loads are organized may depend on the analysis code that is used to solve the problem. Note: A system cannot exist unless a system collector exists. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. then HyperMesh creates a collector called auto1. which allows you to access a group of systems as a unit. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of loads. Hold and define rigid body properties for multi-body analysis. or components (each set can contain only one type of entity). systems. Note: A load cannot exist unless a load collector exists. and planes. Load Collectors Load collectors allow you to organize loads. elements. mbplanes.

drag the cursor over geometry to select it. There are three ways to define the body’s orientation. To define a center of gravity location. select a node on in the model window. Note: The element handles option in the modeling sub-panel (options panel) allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. If only surfaces or lines are available for selection. the rename panel is available in the far left column of every HyperMesh page. click and hold left mouse button in the model window until the cursor becomes a square. and the body’s local coordinate system. card image type. and Reset a Multibody Collector The card image sub-panel is used to define. The multibody types available are based on the template loaded in the global panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . review and reset the multibody collector type. duplicate system ensures a unique coordinate system is assigned to the created body by creating a duplicate of the selected coordinate system and assigning this duplicated coordinate system to the created body. y. Define. body system assigns a copy of the local coordinate system assigned to the current multibody collector specified in the global panel. and z. Review. change. and z= entry fields. which is access through the card panel after the multibody collector has been created. location of the center of gravity. The same fields and options available in the create sub-panel are also available in the update subpanel. The N1 box contains the same functionality as the N1 selection buttons found elsewhere in HyperMesh. use system assigns the selected system to the created body. center of gravity. creation method: assigns the multibody type specified in the card image= field. click anywhere on the geometry to define a location. create provides four data blocks for defining: the collector’s name. body local system: defines the body local coordinate system of the created body by assigning a local coordinate system entity to the multibody collector. center of gravity: provides an N1 node/geometry selection box to define the x. y=. Change. The types of multibody collectors available are dependent on the loaded solver interface specified as a template file in the global panel. 26 HyperMesh 8. The name= field supports names up to 160 characters in length. To modify the name of a multibody collector. release the mouse button. Setting creation method: to same as assigns a copy of the card image of another multibody collector to the created collector. For an alternative method to define the center of gravity. Update a Multibody Collector The update sub-panel is provided to modify the body’s local coordinate system and center of gravity. Setting creation method: to no card image specifies that a multibody collector type is to be assigned at the time of creation but one can be assigned later in the card image sub-panel. Using or not using a card image has no bearing on how multibody collectors behave within HyperMesh and only effect data being exported. The name= text field is provided for specifying a name for the multibody collector being created and for reviewing the names of already existing multibodies.Create a Multibody Collector The create sub-panel is used for creating multibody collectors. The most common type of multibody collector is a "rigid body". Moments of inertia and other rigid body properties are defined in the multibody collector’s card image. click on the edit button under the N1 selection box to bring up x=.

If a model uses only the basic element types. store. The element configuration tells HyperMesh how to draw. Each element has two associated variables: an element configuration and an element type. trias. quad.0 User’s Guide 27 . the model is not considered generic and does not transfer between analysis codes. The element type allows you to define multiple analysis elements for each HyperMesh element.. i. Element configurations include: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh can transfer the model to several different analysis codes..Elements Each element entity performs a specific task to facilitate a controlled and complete interface between HyperMesh and the analysis codes.e. and work with the element. In modeling situations where specific analysis codes are used because of their unique capabilities. Element Configuration The element configuration defines the physical geometry (i. quads. and rigids.e. hex) of the element.

3-noded bar element with property reference. Note: For more specific information about using the HyperMesh templates. if an analysis code has two different quad elements and you wish to use both in a model. or orientation node. 28 HyperMesh 8. 3-noded master interface element (configuration 123). refer to Template Design. and pin flags (configuration 60). or orientation node. or output translator. which allows the template. 20-noded brick solid element (configuration 220). A joint element does not allow types other than specified below. (Must be Type 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . assign type1 to the first type of quad element and type 2 to the second type of quad element. or 6-noded element with property and orientation systems or nodes. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mass Master3 Master4 Penta15 Penta6 Pyramid5 Type Name Spherical Revolute Cylindrical Planar Universal Translational Locking # nodes 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 Orientation none/systems/nodes none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems 1-noded mass element (configuration 1). to distinguish between the different types. 6-noded wedge solid element (configuration 206). 2-noded gap element with property reference and vector (configuration 70). offsets. and pin flags (configuration 63). 2-. The type of the element controls the number of nodes used in the element and the permissible orientations of the element (configuration 22). 4-.) 4-noded master interface element (configuration 124). For example. (Must be Type 1. 8-noded brick solid element (configuration 208). offsets. Examples of different types of quads within ABAQUS are S4R and S4R5.Element Type Defines the category of the element. The template file HyperMesh uses to write the analysis deck recognizes the different element types and outputs them as configured. 5-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 205). local vector. Supported Element Types HyperMesh supports the following element configurations: Bar2 Bar3 Gap Hex20 Hex8 Joint 2-noded bar element with property reference.) 15-noded wedge solid element (configuration 215). local vector.

(Must be Type 1. an orientation vector. The independent node has user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 55). Multi-noded element with one independent node and a variable number of dependent nodes. and a property reference (configuration 21). Each node contains a coefficient (weighting factor) and a user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 56).) 3-noded slave interface element (configuration 133).Pyramid13 Plot Quad4 Quad8 RBE3 13-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 213) 2-noded plot element used for display purposes (configuration 2). 4-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 104). 2-noded rigid element (configuration 3). 1-noded slave interface element (configuration 135). 4-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 204).) 2-noded spring element with user-defined degrees of freedom. (Must be Type 1. 3-noded triangular shell element (configuration 103). (Must be Type 1.0 User’s Guide 29 . 2-noded beam element with property reference (configuration 61).) 4-noded slave interface element (configuration 134). 6-noded triangular shell element (configuration 106). Multi-noded element with one dependent node and a variable number of independent nodes. Rigid Rigidlink Rod Slave1 Slave3 Slave4 Spring Tetra10 Tetra4 Tria3 Tria6 Weld Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 10-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 210). 2-noded rigid element with user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 5). 8-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 108).

ellipse. NURBS can exactly represent the piecewise parametric cubic splines they replace. or parabola. as well as many other types of curves. NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) may also be used to represent a straight or elliptical line. Line segments are maintained as a single line entity. These edges (displayed yellow) are shared by more than two surfaces. The end point of each line segment is connected to the first point of the next segment. All lines in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: • • • straight elliptical NURBS • • • Note: Used to represent a straight line between two points in space. An edge is a trim line of a surface.Lines The line entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. such as when you are working within the spline . No nodes are placed along a suppressed edge. Each line type in a line is referred to as a segment. you can use surface edges as free lines. Lines from CAD data are not attached to surfaces. Used to represent conics such as a circle. Used to represent lines that are not straight or elliptical. A shared edge (displayed green) is a surface edge that is shared between exactly 2 surfaces. but are then less efficient. A suppressed edge can be changed back to a shared edge. A joint is the common point between two line segments. Suppressed edges (displayed blue dotted) are the internal face edges within a surface. or line drag panels. A line can be composed of a single line type or multiple line types.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Nodes are placed along this edge during automeshing and recognized during meshing of bordering surfaces. These edges usually indicate a collapsed or very thin surface or a fully or partially duplicated surface. A shared edge cannot be changed back to a free edge. Under certain conditions. Non-manifold edges can be turned into shared edges by deleting one of the attached surfaces. Shared Suppressed Non-Manifold /Duplicate 30 HyperMesh 8. and their color is determined by the status of the component. ruled. so operations performed on the line affect each segment of the line. In general. Surface edges include: Free A free edge (displayed red) is a surface edge that belongs to a single surface which does not have other surfaces aligned with it within the specified cleanup tolerance. their color is determined by the surfaces to which they belong. Suppressed edges allow the mesh to flow across or over these boundaries. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number and type of line segments to represent the geometry. circles can be represented exactly in HyperMesh. By using elliptical segments or NURBS segments. However. You can use surface edges as a line in most panels.

0 User’s Guide 31 .The following panels can be used to create lines: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • circles fillets intersect lines section surface tangents The following panels can be used to change lines: delete line permute position project reflect reparam rotate scale translate Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number of and type of surface faces to represent the geometry. All surfaces in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: plane cylinder/cone sphere torus NURBS Used to represent a planar surface. Multiple types are used for more complex surfaces that contain sharp corners or highly complex shapes. Used to represent a toroidal surface. In general. A HyperMesh surface can be made of a single surface type or of multiple surface types. The following panels can be us ed to create surface entities: • • • • • • • • • • • surfaces primitives midsurface The following panels can be us ed to change surface entities: defeature permute position reflect rotate scale surface translate 32 HyperMesh 8. Each surface type is referred to as a face. Used to represent surfaces which are not definable by the above surface types.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh maintains all of the faces as a single surface entity.Surfaces and Faces The surface entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. Surfaces define 2-D regions that may be used in automatic mesh generation. Used to represent a spherical surface. Operations performed on the surface affect all the faces that comprise the surface. Used to represent cylindrical or conical surfaces. Each face contains a mathematical surface and edges to trim the surface (if required). When a surface has several faces. NURBS may also be used to represent the above surface types but they are not as efficient.

an analysis system. may be rectangular. Control cards are defined within templates and are specific to one FE solver. Loads are applied in the global system except when the reference system has been modified. is placed in the global system only if a system does not exist at that node. as HyperMesh does not maintain these in the transfer from the local system to the global system. loads. Analysis systems are typically used to transform element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom from the global system to a local system. If you delete a system. and an analysis system is used to transform the nodal coordinate system. For example. if you define a cylindrical structure in a cylindrical coordinate system. Loads The load entity allows you to add forces and constraints to the database. In HyperMesh. or spherical. HyperMesh allows you to modify the analysis system of an entity when you define the analysis system. HyperMesh does not maintain the proper orientation for the constraint when you create or delete local systems at the node where the constraint resides. By default. Vectors The vector entity allows you to define a three dimensional vector in the database. temperatures.0 User’s Guide 33 . applied at a node. a reference system is used to define the geometric positions of entities. concentrated fluxes. Several systems may be nested. Constraints. and then delete the system in which the nodes are defined.Systems The system entity. the position of the entity is maintained relative to the global system in the transformation process. You can use the systems panel to modify the reference coordinate system of an entity. If a system does exist. After a constraint has been applied. vectors can be created between two nodes and can change magnitude and direction as those nodes move through analysis. or both. all the entities that were defined in that system are transferred to the global system. accelerations. Vectors can be used for orientation of spring and gap elements or to specify a direction during selection. A constraint. commonly called a coordinate system. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note: A system may be a reference system. When you delete an analysis system. and pressures are currently supported. Entities that have a reference system are systems. Vectors are created in the global system unless a local coordinate system is defined. concentrated moments. The only entity that may be defined in an analysis system is a node. When a reference system is deleted. Additionally. and mass elements. Cards The card entity allows you to create control cards such as CPU limits or Title cards. nodal points. the model retains its cylindrical shape and also its location in space. cylindrical. you must set the proper orientation for element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom. each of these entities is defined in the global system with an ID of zero. Entities are always displayed in the transformed global system. velocities. concentrated forces. the orientation of the constraint is dictated by the local system.

and the text displayed in the title. 34 HyperMesh 8. including the name of the title.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the color of the title.Title Title collectors contain title information.

0 User’s Guide 35 . A current file is determined with the following rules: • • • • Pull-down menus The last HyperMesh (. Use these options to access different areas of HyperMesh functionality. Like the pull-down menus in many graphical user interface applications. It also displays the path and name of the file currently open in the active HyperMesh session.hm) file retrieved or saved in the active session FE or CAD import does not affect the current file Delete model clears the current file If no .hm model is retrieved or saved in the active session the current file field is empty Located just under the title bar.HyperMesh Environment There are several main areas in the HyperMesh window: These areas are described below: title bar Located at the top of the HyperMesh window. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. this displays the current HyperMesh version. these menus "drop down" a list of options when clicked.

Depending on your display resolution and the number of buttons. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. It displays the name of the current panel and user profile. The main menu is divided into the panel area and the page list. in a tabbed format. Tab Location sub-menu. or two toolbars stacked vertically. Individual items (tabs) can be added to or removed from the Tab Area by selecting the item from the View pull-down menu. such as the Utility menu or Include browser.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . such as changing display options. You can click-and-drag tabs to move them between the left and right Tab Area sidebars. You can type HyperMesh commands directly into this text box and execute them instead of using the HyperMesh Graphical User Interface. Located across the bottom of the window.Tab Area Located on the left. Graphics area Toolbar Area Located above the tool bar(s): the graphics display area is where model geometry and mesh displays. this area may contain one toolbar. Header bar Located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. Secondary menus can be accessed by using keyboard shortcuts. right. and model status information. Located just under the graphics area. or both sides of the graphics area. these buttons provide quick access to commonly-used functions. Main menu Command Window secondary menu 36 HyperMesh 8. • • • Tab Area sidebars can be toggled on or off by use of the View pull-down menu. these sidebars display additional tools.

these items are marked with a checkbox and activate or deactivate a feature. One example is the solver browser item found in the view menu. such as accessing a specific HyperMesh panel. located just beneath the title bar. Toggle Command Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. enable access to many types of HyperMesh functionality. This method allows similar commands to be grouped logically. but some options perform other tasks such as configuring the layout of the HyperMesh environment.0 User’s Guide 37 . When clicked. this is because some menu items have sub-menus of additional options. This approach sub-groups similar features together. Most menu items simply execute a command when selected. Selecting a submenu heading opens a sub-menu of options related to the submenu heading. and clicking on the menu name (such as File) "pulls down" a list of the options available in that menu: Notice that there are two lists of options displayed in this screen shot. Most menu options access HyperMesh panels. and helps prevent any single menu list from becoming excessively long. Menu items can work in several different ways: Sub-Menu heading These items are marked with a triangular arrow. clicking it alternates between showing and hiding the solver browser in one of the Tab Area sidebars. Each menu contains many different options. rather than presenting every option in a single list (which could result in very long lists).Pull-Down menus The pull-down menus.

such as automesh. press the alt key to activate the menu area. for example). HyperMesh preferences such as User Profiles. Tools for creating and renaming collectors. these keys are underlined (as the "F" in the File menu). assemblies. lighting.There are multiple ways to select a pull-down menu or a menu item within it: Mouse Keyboard (menu) Click the menu or menu item with the mouse. Keyboard (menu item) Menu items can be selected with the keyboard in two ways: or Use the arrow keys to move among list of options. deleting. or Scale entities. 38 HyperMesh 8. View results of solved simulations (contour or vector plots. or Use the left and right arrow keys to move among the menu headings. and the up and down arrow keys to open a menu and navigate among its options. Change the angle of view on the model. Edit View Organize Geometry Mesh BCs Setup Checks Tools Applications Results Preferences Help Tools for masking. etc. use import. connectors. or constraints. etc. among other options. Model quality checks. Meshing tools. or finding entities. and press enter to select a highlighted option. First. among other options. Rotate. Translate. Then: Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu or item. Morph. save. such as OptiStruct. Model properties such as materials. To add extra models to your workspace. moments. these keys are underlined (as the "O" in the Open). or visibility and location of tab area items. Quickly access other HyperWorks programs. Reflect. solid map.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Tools for geometry editing and cleanup. including element check settings. To import multiple files. tetramesh. use the multiple files option in the import sub-menu. Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu item. global options. and keyboard configuration. and export models and other files. Access the on-line Help system. Boundary Conditions such as forces. and contact surfaces. pressures. import. Note: To work with only one model at a time. use load. element edit. Each of the pull-down menus in HyperMesh groups certain types of functions: File Contains functions to load.

geometry. and plots are displayed in this area. Note: See Entity Selection for more information about picking entities. Entities on the screen are selected for use in functions by clicking the desired entity with the mouse.0 User’s Guide 39 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The graphics area dominates the HyperMesh environment and is framed by all of the other interface areas. Models.Graphics Area The graphics area occupies the upper portion of the screen.

Turn the display of collectors on and off.0. set global modeling parameters. Use this panel to individually determine how each component of your model displays its FE mesh. use the colors panel to change the colors of properties Note: 40 HyperMesh 8. The toolbar uses two different groups of visual icons to represent different HyperMesh functions. For example.Toolbar Area The functions on the toolbar allow you to manipulate the view of the model. but when the toolbar is too narrow to hold all of the buttons. The toolbar buttons perform the following functions: Load. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to access other collector functions: Create or update material collectors. Other options include: • By Prop: colors the elements based on their assigned properties. This accesses the files panel. For example. many of these functions were contained in the permanent menu. control which collectors are displayed in the graphics region. or import files.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and edit solver-specific data. Users already familiar with earlier HyperMesh releases will find the same functionality that the permanent menu offered now located in the toolbars. Edit solver-specific data in card format. Note: In versions of HyperMesh prior to release 8. Access the visual attributes panel. the property color of shell elements (quads and trias) in a NASTRAN model is the same as the component. But for 1D elements such as bars and springs. a group of buttons automatically moves to the second row. the property assigned varies based on the solver used. This button accesses the display panel. the property (PBEAM. Access the collectors panel. This only applies when a valid template file has been specified in the global panel. Create or update load collectors. thus the shell elements are colored in component color even in this mode. the two-row configuration is shown above. etc) is assigned directly to the element. if you select "by comp". Selects the element color style. the model elements’ colors change based on the components that contain them. save. Create or update property collectors. Notice that the toolbar may display in one or two rows. Normally all of the buttons display on a single row.

e. 1D/2D/3D: colors 1D. Note: • • . geometry is colored based on topology. The individual colors given to each configuration (such as spring or hexa) can be seen and changed in the element types panel. The topology of 2D geometry is ignored and drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel. Some exceptions apply. • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. internal partition faces in yellow. 3-dimensional geometry (i. If geometry shading is turned on. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between mesh lines. By Comp: Surfaces. automesh). and no lines. are colored according to the components that they belong to. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between skin-only and full wire frame (including internal lines). feature lines. suppressed edges in blue.g. By 3D Topo: In this mode.• By Mat: colors the elements based on the material assigned to the elements. quad. By 2D Topo: In this mode. Determines how geometry features are colored. etc. By Config: colors elements based on their configurationbeam. use the colors panel to change the colors of materials. This helps you focus on 2D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. . . then each piece of geometry is re-colored based on the component that contains it. etc. In most cases. The topology of 3D solid geometry is ignored (drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel). surfaces) that is not part of a solid is colored based on its topology. Switches the mesh rendering mode to a shaded mode. In the remaining panels (such as translate or delete). the faces of solids are also colored based on their topology: exterior bounding faces in transparent green. if you select "by component". By Topo: In this mode. bar. all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology: shared edges drawn in green. materials are assigned to elements via their components. 2D and 3D elements differently. For example. surface edit. Surfaces that aren’t part of a solid are shaded in gray.0 User’s Guide 41 . the geometry is colored based on its corresponding component. In panels geometry creation and editing panels (e. This helps you focus on 3D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. trias etc.e. Switches the mesh rendering mode to wire-frame mode. etc. solid faces and their edges) is colored based on its topology. lines. 2-dimensional geometry (i. free edges in red. Other coloring options include: • Auto: In this mode the geometry coloring changes based on the panel you open. 2D shell elements in blue and 3D solid elements in red. All the 1D elements are colored in green.

42 HyperMesh 8. Opens the visualization pop-up panel. Modal Zoom. click-and-drag in the graphics area to rotate the model. Left-click to deactivate. Right -click to deactivate. Draws model geometry as a wire-frame. in shaded mode surfaces and solid faces are shaded in their components’ color. Rotate modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate dynamic rotate mode. Returns to the previous view. This allows you to (for example) perform a free rotation on a model and then quickly return it to its original orientation. Left-click to deactivate. Draws model geometry in shaded mode.• Mixed: This mode behaves similarly to Topology mode in that all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology. or when you click either button while the pointer is in the graphics area. . free edges in red. . • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Left-click to deactivate. Click the downward arrow for options: with edges or without them. Resizes the model view (by zooming in or out and panning the view as needed) in order to fit the model to the graphics area. this works in one of two different ways: • Left-clicking activates the circle zoom feature. or to alternate between two different views. Once active. Pan modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate pan mode. right-click and drag in the graphics area to zoom in/out. Once active. Right -click to activate center mode. Right -click to activate dynamic spin mode. etc. Once active. left-click to zoom in. (shared edges in green. right-click in the graphics area and hold the mouse button down to make the model spin.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . click-and-drag in the graphics area to pan the model view. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. right-click to zoom out.) In addition. Once active. Zoom incrementally. Right -clicking activates the dynamic zoom feature. Right-click to deactivate. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Click the downward arrow to choose between excluding and including surface lines. Circle zoom deactivates after zooming once. right-click in the graphics area to change the graphics area center. Once active.

and the right button to rotate it downward Spherical clipping: accesses the spherical clipping panel. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model upward. Open a pop-up menu used to save and retrieve user-defined or standard views. and the right button to rotate it rightward. You can use keyboard hot keys to access the same viewing options. Notes: See Viewing Models for more information about the viewing options available on the toolbar.0 User’s Guide 43 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model leftward.Rotate Left or Right: this is similar to pressing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard. Use spherical clipping to isolate portions of the model regardless of component or collector. See Keyboard for more information. Rotate Up or Down: this is similar to pressing the up and down arrow keys on the keyboard.

the bar displays the current panel name on the left (in black) and the original panel name to the right (in gray). Panel titles display on the left side of the bar. comp:) in the message bar. along with the current menu page name (i. the header bar displays the current panel title and model status. Geometry) are displayed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Header Bar The header bar is located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. the current include and current component (comp).g. When you are in a panel.. The current component and load collector names are displayed on the right side of the bar. Messages also appear on the header bar and temporarily override the title and status information.. The header bar also displays a brief description of the panel when you hold down the left mouse button on the panel button (see below). You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information (e. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. 44 HyperMesh 8. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. If you access a panel by using a function key. It displays information pertaining to the currently loaded model as well as descriptions of the main menu pages and panels.e. When you are on one of the main menu pages (not within a panel).

These messages appear in green when using HyperMesh classic dark menu colors and they appear in gray when using Windows light menu colors Click a mouse button to remove a message from the header bar. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. such as status updates or completed operations.0 User’s Guide 45 .Messages posted on the header bar are color-coded: red green/gray Error messages. Miscellaneous messages. You can also obtain a brief description of a panel’s function if you hold down the left mouse button over a panel button.

set from the directory you are working in (provided you are not working in the directory where HyperMesh is installed). A secondary menu can be accessed by using keyboard keys. To change main menu pages: • Note: Click the radio button before the main menu page. To correct this condition. If you are not using the default HyperMesh menu system. and spot welds Creation and editing functions for 2-D surfaces and elements Creation and editing functions for 3-D surfaces and elements Boundary conditions. Model editing. delete the file hmmenu. 46 HyperMesh 8. and informational functions. quit HyperMesh. masses. which is located on the right-hand edge of the main menu area.Main Menu Area HyperMesh functionality is organized according into pages. then the menu items described above may not appear on the appropriate pages. or surfaces 1-D element creation. Most panels are further divided into sub-panels. and then start HyperMesh once again. Each of these pages contain panels related to the page name: Geom 1D 2D 3D Analysis Tool Post Creation and editing functions for geometry such as points. coordinate system. such as bars. each containing a list of panels and modules. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. lines. Modules contain a collection of panels that are grouped according to functionality. The page menu. utility functions.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Page Menu HyperMesh panels are grouped by function on several “pages”. and load creation functions. HyperMesh presents these pages in the page menu. model checking functions. Post-processing and xy plotting functions.

or none from the Tab Locations sub-menu of the view pull-down menu.0 User’s Guide 47 . multiple features are organized onto tabs. both. so you might only see one—or even none—at a time. right side. model browser. To maximize available space. click a tab heading to bring it to the forefront.Tab Area This area of the HyperMesh environment is actually two separate sidebars which flank the Graphics Area. Each Tab Area sidebar can contain multiple complex features. However. each sidebar can be toggled on and off separately. and/or the solver browser. such as the utility menu. Turn the Tab Area sidebars on and off by selecting left side. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

48 HyperMesh 8. This screenshot shows all of the entities that can display in the browser. multibodies. system collectors. properties. To open the model browser: Click the model browser item located within the view pull-down menu. and beamsectcols into a tree-like display. load collectors. materials. components. vector collectors. entity sets.Model Browser The model browser resides on a tab in a Tab Area sidebar and allows you to view the HyperMesh model structure by organizing assemblies.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The browser displays on one of the Tab Area sidebars. groups.

Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all its components and multibodies. and click the desired color from the palette. Components and Assemblies may appear in multiple places in the tree. etc. Select this to open the same color picker used throughout HyperMesh. Properties. for example. therefore it does not have a check box. properties.) display. Deactivating the check box for an item hides all of its parent assemblies.Multiple entities of the same type are collected into folders in the tree structure. vector cols.0 User’s Guide 49 . Deactivating the check box for an assembly hides all of its components and multibodies. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. entity sets. and the model browser allows you to set each entity’s color without using the color panel. multibodies. groups. so that the items related to each assembly appear within that assembly’s folder in the Assembly Hierarchy. When appropriate. Deactivating the check box for an item does not affect the state of its parent assembly. In this instance. Colors Assemblies. An empty assembly never displays. and its state does not affect the state of its ancestors. Note: When the color picker palette appears. groups. The palette automatically disappears when you move the mouse pointer beyond its boundaries. the right-click menu contains only a single option: color. the mouse pointer automatically moves to its center. right-click on the current color in the model browser. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all of its contents. Check Boxes Items are displayed or hidden by toggling the corresponding check boxes. Assemblies containing components or multibodies are considered displayed only when all of the contents are displayed. Each folder can be expanded or collapsed to display or hide its contents. each in their corresponding folder (for example all sets are placed as a flat list in the Sets folder). and beamsectcols cannot be organized into assemblies and are all placed at the top level of the tree. load cols. and System Collectors can all be colored individually. a specific component might appear under Components and again as a sub-item of a specific Assembly. system cols. Materials. Assemblies can also have sub-folders within the main Assembly folder. Components. To change an entity’s color. unchecked entities are hidden. Materials. the color and display style of entities also display in the model browser. Load Collectors. The following rules apply: • • • • • • • • Checked entities (components. The currently assigned color displays in the column.

50 HyperMesh 8. Right -clicking opens a popup menu from which you can choose the new style. and vector cols.Display Mode Components. Only shaded topology displays (no mesh). Display None . and Reverse Display buttons at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. or click the ID heading to sort numerically by entity ID. assemblies.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . load cols. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the model browser’s own toolbar. In either case. Multibodies. groups. assembly. groups. Click a second time to remove them. system cols. Shaded topology displays with feature lines. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. and vector cols have only one display state and will be shown only in element mode. Include geometry entities in tree structure. Shaded topology displays with mesh lines. or both: Include mesh entities in tree structure. and load cols have several display states. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. and vector cols shown in the tree. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. the entity displays differently: Only a wireframe mesh displays. geometry entities. Global Switches The Display All . multibodies. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. but no mesh. load cols. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. repeated clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. The first set of filters let you restrict the tree structure to display mesh entities. You can select these display modes by right-clicking clicking the small icons in the column for each component. groups. based on a combination of their elements and their geometry. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. multibodies (not assemblies). Transparent shaded topology displays without mesh. components. system cols. or load collector. system cols. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. Click a second time to remove them. Depending on which option you select.

For example. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. and Reverse Selection.The next filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). You can also select groups of entities based on a wildcard search. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. In addition. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. if you type “*collector” into this combo box and press <enter>. including upper/lower case letters. Fine-tune the search/selection by choosing an option from the ( • • ) button: Match case only selects tree items that match the entered text exactly. with the same buttons for Display All. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. click OK to close the list. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). In this way. Display None. Whole name only selects tree items whose entire name matches the specified text. then all entity types ending with “collector” will be checked and display in the list. Accomplish this via the matching: combo text/list box.0 User’s Guide 51 . the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. . click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the model browser’s tree structure. and Reverse Display as described under global switches above. For example. in this case they are used for Select All. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. Select None. Otherwise. a down-arrow button. typing “pillar” in the matching field when using the whole name option will not locate a component named “CH-A-PILLAR-B-I-L”. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. For example. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the model browser. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. an up-arrow button. However. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. multibodies. In this way. Note: If an item is dragged out of the tree and dropped onto empty space. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. for instance. or “RearChassis1”. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. For instance. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. clicking again finds match #2. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. Since this function works in combination with the filters. To deactivate the option. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. and assemblies can be dragged and dropped with the left and right mouse button. the right mouse button activates a menu that allows you to move or copy an item to the new location. You can drag and drop multiple items at any time using the standard shift and ctrl keys.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Drag and Drop Components. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. such as searching for whole names with matching case. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). To find entities matching your specified string and options. for example. all the items in the assembly are moved to the new location (items that are not seen in the tree due to filters are also moved). after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. So. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. it is deleted in all its parent assemblies and placed at the top level of the tree. The left mouse button allows you to move the item into another assembly. finding match #1 again. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. “FrontChassis”. type a search string into the combination box. In other words. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. In this way you can combine the search options. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. it is highlighted in the model browser. rather than only part of the name. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. select it again to remove the checkbox. with this option active. A dragged item is added to the bottom of the list in an assembly. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. 52 HyperMesh 8. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list).To find an entity. For example. If an assembly is moved or copied. clicking third time finds match #3.

load col. Folders that contain materials. those children will be automatically moved to the top level. system col. you will be given a choice of either deleting that item from the database entirely or only removing it from the present location. • If a component or multibody is present in more than one assembly in the model. Delete All except the top-level of Assemblies • Rename All Any item can be renamed by entering a new name in the name text box. system cols. Materials. Most items can be deleted. properties. beamsectcols.Context Menu Clicking the right mouse button on a folder or entity within the browser’s tree structure allows you to change a variety of options. sets. Option New Available for: Assemblies. Once created. vector col. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. All instances of the renamed item will be automatically updated. Options selected in an empty space apply to the entire model. or multibody can be created inside an assembly (activate the menu over an assembly). and that assembly has children that are not present anywhere else. or beamsectcol can be created at the top level. the item is automatically assigned a unique generic name that can be changed by entering the new name in the highlighted field. Load Collectors. and groups cannot be renamed. load cols. If you want to entirely delete an assembly. Properties. set. property. Plots. Description A new assembly. The new name must be unique. vector cols. The options available depend on the entity that you right -click on. You can cancel the rename operation by pressing ESCAPE or clicking anywhere outside the entry box before editing the existing name. material. group. Components. component. component. A new assembly.0 User’s Guide 53 . multibody.

all materials. system collectors. and properties. components. materials. The card image of that entity for the solver template loaded will be displayed. plots. A component. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. this hides everything except for the items within that branch. components. this hides all of the items within that branch (e. so that only this item displays in the graphics area. or beamsectcol can be made current using the pop-up menu. etc. Closes all of the folders in the tree structure. In such cases. so that only the top-most level of items displays.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. which allows you to determine what entities display in the tree as well as the columns that the browser displays. All Collapse all Expand all Show Hide Un-checks the item’s checkbox. Opens all of the folders in the entire tree structure. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. all groups. and properties. properties. the card editor is not invoked and the appropriate message is displayed. etc. materials. Assemblies. load collectors. load collectors. This selects each affected item’s checkbox. groups. materials. materials. Opens the Model Browser’s Browser Configuration window. this shows all of the items within that branch (e. so that the item no longer displays in the graphics area. Display the item in the graphics area. plots. multibody. groups. plots. Assemblies. In such cases. beamsectcol All All Assemblies. components.g. groups. plots. system collectors. components. properties. load collectors. components. cards.) Make Current components. properties. Configure Browser… 54 HyperMesh 8. all materials. plots. In such cases. load collectors. If a template is not loaded or if the entity does not have any card images associated to the loaded template.Edit Card… All Any single item can be card edited. materials. and properties. card. load collectors. multibody. all groups. components. plots. load collectors. The current component is designated with bold font. materials.g. system collectors.) Show Only Deactivates the checkboxes of all items in the entire model browser except for this single item. Used to quickly and easily isolate single entities. exposing every item nested at every level.

click the Entity types: radio button. choose the radio button marked select all entity types in the current model.0 User’s Guide 55 . select none. Separate tabs organize entities and columns. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired entity type. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can also use the select all. Use this window to change the columns and entity types that display in the model browser. Entities Tab To show all of the entity types that the currently-loaded model possesses. and select reverse buttons in this mode.Model Browser Configuration window This window opens when you select the configure browser… option from the Model Browser’s context menu. A checkmark indicates that the entity type will display in the browser. To select entity types manually.

You can also use the select all. A checkmark indicates that the column will display in the browser.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Columns tab To show columns for all of the attributes that the currently-loaded model possesses. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired column. click one of the command buttons to close the window and return to HyperMesh: • • Click OK to keep the new settings and close the window. choose the radio button marked Select all column types in the current model. Click Cancel to discard the changes (keeping the original settings) and close the window. and select reverse buttons in this mode. Command buttons Once you finish configuring the browser. To select columns manually. select none. 56 HyperMesh 8. click the Column types: radio button.

etc. An example of a model in the include browser is shown below. edit. organize. The Master Model is at the top level of the include browser. The browser can be configured to show only specific entities of interest. in the above example. the include named dummy. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 116 sets. 55 system collectors. which does not have any references to an include file. Each of the folders can be expanded to review the individual entities in that folder. review.dyn contains 55 vectors. It allows you create.0 User’s Guide 57 . The contents of each include is organized (grouped) into folders containing each type. You can select entities (using the standard Shift and Control keys) and drag various entities between two includes or between the master model and an include. and update the contents of a model into various include files. Each include file is represented with an icon along with its name and internal HyperMesh ID. 55 systems. For example. next to which appears the total number of entities of each type. is stored in the master model. Data.Include Browser The include browser can be accessed by selecting include browser from the view pull-down menu. Each include can be expanded to reveal its contents. 296 properties.

the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. and vector cols shown in the tree. The filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. and Reverse Selection. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. Display None. Multiple clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. in this case they are used for Select All. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the include browser’s tree structure. 58 HyperMesh 8. components. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. and Reverse Display as described under Global Switches above. multibodies (not assemblies). Display None . Select None. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). groups. . However. with the same buttons for Display All. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. a down-arrow button. multibodies. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. load cols. system cols. In addition. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . an up-arrow button. system cols. click OK to close the list. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the include browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the browser’s own toolbar. and Reverse Display at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. For example. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the include browser. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. load cols. Otherwise. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. and vector cols. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. In this way. groups. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with.Global Switches The Display All .

Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. for instance. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. for example. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). “FrontChassis”. For example. To deactivate the option. In this way.0 User’s Guide 59 . HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. select it again to remove the checkbox. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. it is highlighted in the include browser. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. type a search string into the combination box. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. clicking third time finds match #3. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. with this option active.To find an entity. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. For instance. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. In other words. clicking again finds match #2. or “RearChassis1”. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. such as searching for whole names with matching case. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. Since this function works in combination with the filters. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). So. rather than only part of the name. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. In this way you can combine the search options. finding match #1 again. To find entities matching your specified string and options. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match.

Context Menu A context sensitive pop-up menu provides many other include browser functionalities.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . are automatically placed in the current include. Make current When an include is selected 60 HyperMesh 8. If a specific include is selected (highlighted). Delete the include file and its contents The second option deletes all the contents within the selected include along with the include itself. Makes the selected include "current". components. Prompts the user with two choices: • Delete the include file The first option moves all the contents of the include file into its parent include and deletes the include file. contacts. The new include is created at the top level inside the master model when no include file is highlighted while selecting this option. Clicking on the selected (highlighted) include a second time also has the same effect. etc. Thus any new entities created in HyperMesh such as new elements. Function New… When function is active Permanently Description Creates a new include. Deletes the selected include. Delete When an include is selected • Rename When an include is selected Converts the name of the include into an editable text box ready for the new name to be entered. the new include is created within it. Right click in the browser to invoke the following pop-up menu.

). which subdivide their data deck into various sections such as Bulk Data. or Case Control. etc.Move to current When entities are selected Moves all the selected entities (individual entities. The available options are: • • • name file name to be exported (absolute path or path relative to its parent include) Do not export flag (allows you to review the contents of an include but not export it). or an entire include) into the include that is marked as current. Includes that have this flag turned on display in the browser in italics. Expands all the branches of the include’s tree structure along with the various entity type folders (such as comps. Collapses all the branches of the tree structure for the selected include. Option prompts you to select a name and browse for the file to be imported. Flag representing the section of the input deck that the include belongs in. Exports the contents of the selected include into the chosen file name. Include file options… When an include is selected • Import include… When an include is selected Imports the content of a file into the selected include. the entire set of entities of a specific type. mats. etc. This flag is specific to some solvers such as Optistruct. Nastran. Allows you to set the various options for a selected include. The contents of the chosen file are imported into include.. For the remaining solvers this option is not available. Executive Control. Exports all the includes with their corresponding content (not the master model only the includes). Clears the graphics region of any previous display and displays all the entities that belong to the selected include. Export an include… Export all includes Collapse Include Expand include When an include is selected Permanently Permanently Permanently Display only When an include (or master model) is selected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 61 .

Allows users to enable (turn on and export) control cards that have been disabled and vice versa. Two options are available: • Select all entity types available in current model Displays all the entity types available in the current model (default).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select from a list of all entities (except nodes and elements) in HyperMesh.Configure browser Permanently Opens a window that allows you to select which types of entities should be shown in the include browser. Edit card Enable/Disable When a control card is selected When a control card is selected Invokes the card image of the control card in the HyperMesh window. 62 HyperMesh 8. • User selected entity types Allows you to select the entities that you want to display in the browser.

contains panels that allow you to read curves. the module. For example. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. edit curves. and are grouped to provide easy panel access without unnecessary navigational clicks. locate the module button on one of the main menu pages and click the module button. and scale the axis of plots. xy plots located on the Post page. To select a module. Note: HyperMesh does not make any special distinction between modules and panels. A module may contain panels that are also found on the main pages.0 User’s Guide 63 .Modules Panels that are used to perform related functions are sometimes grouped together in modules. perform simple math on curves. The main difference between the module and a panel is the additional menu layer.

Loadsteps Browser The Loadsteps Browser is used to create. Export state Sync browser Filter The main functionality of the Loadstep Browser varies depending on the active HyperMesh User Profile. the Sync button becomes active whenever you make changes to the current HM database. For large models. The information is arranged into a tree structure for ease of use.0SR1 release. while popup forms allow you to quickly enter or select relevant information. refer to the topics below: Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles Other profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. Note: For the 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the settings apply only to the current display. keeping the browser in sinc with an actions taken within the rest of HyperMesh can require considerable processing time. and control the way that the data displays in HyperMesh (which is the default behavior) or exports (when the Export state button is active). and then sync the browser with one click. When activated. OptiStruct (OS) and Nastran are supported within this framework. 64 HyperMesh 8. You can also select individual items by clicking on them. including a name filter that uses HyperMesh standard filtering syntax. with controls for altering the Display of the information and/or exporting it. For help specific to each profile. Display Options The display options lie in a toolbar at the top of the browser tab. This allows you to perform many operations inside HM without performance issues. To alleviate this. Use this feature to limit the tree to display only loadsteps whose names match a specific text string—either partly or completely. manage and display HyperMesh loadsteps (sub-cases) and the associated control cards. reverse selection Use these to select the items in the tree. Note that this changes the loadsteps’ export states. More profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. the Loadstep Browser does not automatically sync itself with the HM database. the display settings apply to export of loadsteps. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. but may not be active by default. Each control has its own function: Select all. select none. This button acts as a toggle. or select multiple items by shiftclicking or control-clicking. but not their visibility in the HM graphics area. Instead. Select it from the BCs Pull-Down menu to display its tab in the tab area. The Loadsteps Browser displays in its own tab in the tab area. A right-click menu accesses editing and advanced options. When inactive. it can be turned on and off.

Expands all selected folders and subfolders. Opens the OptiStruct panel in HyperMesh. organized into folders. This loadstep will not be exported. Review the selected entity in the HM card editor. MOTION. For the OptiStruct and Nastran profiles. There are many functions available. This option is for users who wish to have existing DLOAD. LOAD. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can click these to toggle them back and forth: The loadcols in the loadstep display in the HyperMesh graphics area. The loadcols in the loadstep do not display in the HyperMesh graphics area. all of the loadsteps in the model default to the blank (unchecked) state. This launches the BCs Contour utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. Renumber the selected entity. This option creates a copy of loadcols with these card images and converts them into an auto-managed naming convention for easy editing/reviewing inside the Edit options popup.Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles The browser’s tree structure lists relevant control cards and loadstep information. OptiStruct In addition. Delete the selected entity or entities. these options include: New subcase Edit options Edit card Delete Rename Renumber BCs Contour Loads Summary Collapse all/selection Expand all/selection Auto-manage load references Create a new subcase.0 User’s Guide 65 . This launches the Loads Summary utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. Note: When you first open the loadstep browser. Depending on the entity selected. or all folders if none are selected. accessed by right-clicking on the tree background or on individual or multiple items. Rename the selected entity. every loadstep listed in the tree has a small checkbox next to it as well as an export state indicator. either from scratch or by creating an exact copy of an existing subcase. MPCADD and SPCADD cards auto-managed. Collapses all selected folders and subfolders. this will bring up an appropriate GUI for editing of the loadstep or control card information. or all folders if none are selected. This loadstep will be exported. MLOAD.

Another pop-up window opens. • • Depending on the load reference selected in the tree. To edit a subcase: 1. These references are also listed in the right table with a warning message to notify you that the loadcol doesn’t exist in the database 66 HyperMesh 8. To add a loadcol to the load reference. A bold reference signifies that the load reference is defined. When importing a model into HyperMesh. the list will change accordingly. A pop-up window opens.To create a new subcase: 1. When this option is active. • • If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol is not appropriate for that particular load reference. allowing you to: • • 2. a warning message appears to notify you. Note: This step is skipped when you create a new subcase! A popup window opens. A red indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and requires attention. 3. allowing you to edit the subcase. 5. depending on the card image or types of loads contained within. The table on the left lists the loadcols that are valid for a particular load reference. In order to support this. and select Edit options. The table on the right lists the loadcols currently selected for that load reference. a warning message appears to notify you. If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol does not exist in the HM database. allowing you to edit the subcase. then pick an existing subcase to base the new one on. the list of appropriate Load References will change accordingly. This allows users to modify a subcase and add in references to loadcols that do not exist in the current model. Name filtering is available by using standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. 2. Type in a subcase name Select the same as option. it is possible that the subcase may reference loadcols that have not been imported (they are in a separate include file). check the box next to the desired option and fill in the required fields. The popup has several tabs to gather the relevant information. Click create. To activate an option. select the loadcol in the left table and use the right arrow to add the loadcol to the table on the right. Right -click anywhere in the Loadstep Browser and select New subcase. Depending on the Subcase Type. • • • • 4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or any subfolder in the Loadstep Browser. the Add <unavailable> load reference ID option is available. A tree structure lists the load references that are available for the selected subcase type. the new subcase is an exact copy of the existing one. A green indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and is defined. Right -click on the desired subcase folder.

For renaming and renumbering. To display a subcase: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These buttons select loadcols from the currently active table.0 User’s Guide 67 . Click the Display button at the bottom of the Loadstep Browser GUI. Check/uncheck the display checkbox next to the subcase of interest. You must determine the appropriate loadcols to check on/off depending on the subcase type. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. • The Add <unavailable> load reference ID option allows you to add a reference to a loadcol ID that does not currently exist in the HM database (as described in step 5). 7. an entry box appears so that you can enter the appropriate information in the browser. Global load references are not checked on/off by selecting or deselecting a subcase.6. It is up to you to organize their loads for proper display. instead of clicking on a specific subcase’s folder or sub-folder. Select the desired option from the popup menu. 9. 1. You can also launch the “BCs Contour” and “Loads Summary” utilities from the Loadstep Browser. or edit the card of a subcase: Right click on the appropriate subcase or loadcol. 8. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. To edit the Global Options of a subcase: Editing Global Options works exactly like editing a subcase. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. except that the first step is to right-click on the Global Options folder or any of its sub-folders. 2. Right -click options allow for additional functionality depending on the current selection. Note: To rename. Additional control is also available at both the Global Options and Subcase Load References level: 3. renumber. The selected utility launches with the loadcols associated with the selected subcase automatically selected. To select multiple loadcols. 2. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. use the all/none/reverse buttons where appropriate. • • All of the loads contained in a loadcol display regardless of their relevance to the load reference they are assigned to. delete.

However. a loadcol is automatically created and assigned the correct card image when any of these conditions are met: • • • More than one loadcol is selected for the load reference One loadcol is selected and the local scale factor is not 1. the loadcol is expanded and editable inside the GUI. If the load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images indicated above. This option does the following: 1. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. However. based on a fixed naming convention (auto<CARD IMAGE NAME>_#).0 (DLOAD and LOAD) 68 HyperMesh 8. (The original loadcol is not deleted or modified in any way. the loadcol will not be expanded or editable inside the GUI. The only way to modify the loadcol is via the card editor (right-click option from the editor GUI). if a load reference pointed to an SPCADD loadcol. In HyperMesh. LOAD.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . nor are they always aware of their existence.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) The global scale factor is not 1. the Auto-manage load references option is available. Assign that new loadcol to the original load reference. MOTION. For example. when appropriate. Looks at each subcase and at each load reference. there has traditionally only been one way to create DLOAD. Inside the Edit options popup. MPCADD and SPCADD loadcols: by creating a loadcol. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has not been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. assigning the appropriate card image. To satisfy both types of users. Inside the Edit options popup.) • 2. If the loadcol selected for the load reference already has the card image assigned (for users wishing to manually manage their loadcols and point to an existing loadcol with one of the card images listed above) no additional action takes place.Loadsteps: Auto-manage load references This option is recommended for all users. a new copy would be created and named “autoSPCADD_1”. and selecting the appropriate loadcols. many HyperMesh users do not want to be responsible for managing these load collectors. MLOAD. it will: • Create a copy of that loadcol and assign it a new name.

You can also use the middle mouse click to advance through input collectors (yellow) or entry fields and then proceed to a function (green) or return (red). To select a panel. Returning out of a panel means accepting what was performed on the model while using the panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a message is displayed stating the error. advance to the next selection. If you press a function button and the data is incorrect or required information is missing. thus reducing mouse movement. You can press the ESC key or click return to exit a panel.Panels HyperMesh panels allow you to perform specific tasks by selecting options and entering variable data. Note: To display a brief description of the function of a panel in the header bar. Each panel has a unique title that describes the main function of the panel. Panels with multiple functions have sub-panels that display only those menu items that are relevant to the current operation. locate and click the panel button on one of the main menu pages. Release the mouse button to access the panel. A description of the panel as well as instructions on how to use it display.0 User’s Guide 69 . press the "H" key or select HyperMesh and OptiStruct from the Help pull-down menu to display the help topic for the current panel. Some panels contain several functions that perform similar tasks. Using the middle mouse button allows you to make the required selections in the graphics region. This cannot be rejected once the panel is exited. This behavior is called rapid menu. and continue selecting or complete the operation. Note: Once a panel is active. hold the mouse button down while the cursor is over the panel name. Each panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform.

Only one sub-panel may be selected at a time.create sub-panel.card image sub-panel. Collectors . click the radio button next to the sub-panel name on the left side of the panel. Each sub-panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. To select a sub-panel. For example. on the collectors panel there are three sub-panels: create. Collectors . and card image or dictionary.Sub-panels Sub-panel names are listed on the left side of the panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . update. Collectors .update sub-panel. 70 HyperMesh 8.

Each panel contains input collectors. toggle switch In some cases. When you click a toggle. and function buttons. The green arrow buttons on the right-hand edge of the pop-up menu advance or back-track through the list of options: << < > >> Go directly to the first page of the list. plane collectors. a list of options is displayed.Input Controls The menu items on each panel indicate the information that is needed to correctly perform the panel’s function.0 User’s Guide 71 . Most panels also have toggles and switches that allow you to alternate between choices or select options from a list. Step backward one page toward the beginning of the list. the menu item following it alternates between choices. When you click a switch. Advance one page toward the end of the list Go directly to the last page of the list Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the list of options presented by a switch can be very long: In these cases. HyperMesh breaks the options up into multiple “pages” within the switch’s pop-up menu. data entry fields. Menu items include: Menu Buttons The color of the menu button corresponds to its purpose: green yellow red Functions or executable items Collectors Return or abort Toggles and Switches Toggles and switches appear on many HyperMesh panels.

click the reset to deselect all selected entities.Input Collectors Input collectors allow you to indicate which entities are to be modified when a function is performed. The extended entity selection window opens. or by window. by list by path Allows you to pick the nodes individually from the node list.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are grayed out. by path. and a reset (|< ) button. Note: If the data type is a line list. An input collector is active when the data type button is enclosed in a blue rectangle. and select the type you want to use. by path follows the connectivity of the elements between the nodes selected. In addition to selecting one entity at a time on the screen. See The Mouse for more details). These selection options display for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. If you select nodes on the edges of a part. displaying a list of available selection methods. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). see Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu. If you want to reset the entity selections. Therefore. click the data type of the input collector to see the selected entities in the order in which they were selected. To access the options: • Click the data type button. Allows you to view the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. the function tries to find the closest path along the edges of that part. Input Collector To change the data type. Allows you to select a few nodes that form a path and HyperMesh selects all the displayed nodes that lie in the shortest path of the nodes selected. you can click on the collector to access a pop-up with the selections by list. if the nodes selected are not connected by elements. The extended entity selection window allows you to choose various methods of selecting entities of a specified data type. Extended entity selection window. show node order. click the input collector switch to access the pop-up menu of possible data types. Note: For more information about the extended entity options. An input collector contains a switch or toggle. a data type button. you can select multiple entities via quick window selection (hold down the SHIFT key and drag your mouse to create a window. this function does not apply. show node order by window 72 HyperMesh 8. If the data type is a node list.

This coordinate system may be the global coordinate system. Use N1. second or third axis respectively of a coordinate system in your model. This selector is broken down into the following items. and passes through either N1 or the base node (if one is specified). The options available are: • Use x-axis. or N3.N2. only the items necessary for the current HyperMesh function will display.The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. HyperMesh takes advantage of the following principle: a plane can be defined with a vector (the plane is normal to the vector specified). If you select two free (red) edges. the resulting vector is normal to this plane following the right hand rule. as needed: The Plane and vector selector. For example.N2). Choose vector to specify a vector entity (created in the vectors panel). or plane (N1. Either can be defined via the plane and vector selector—a group of buttons that work in concert to define planes or vectors. cylindrical or spherical. Note. N3 to define a vector (N1. N2. just as a vector can be defined with a plane (the vector is normal to the plane specified). or a local system when one can be explicitly specified.0 User’s Guide 73 . Plane and Vector Selector Several HyperMesh panels require that you define a plane or a vector (direction) to perform a certain function. Local systems may be rectangular. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. it only works with surface edges and not with free unconnected geometric lines. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. and loads as well. that not every item appears at all times. while the reflect panel requires a plane for the creation of the mirror images of the entities selected. Double-click a node’s button (N1. and z-axis to define the first.N3). y-axis. or B) to type in coordinates rather than selecting existing nodes in your model. switch The switch is used to select the method for defining the plane or vector. however. the translate panel requires that you define the direction of translation. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When defining a plane. N2. This includes vectors defining coordinate systems.

The resulting plane is normal to the vector. The resulting plane is normal to the N1-N2 vector and passes through N1 (or the base node. 4. The base node locates a plane normal to the chosen axis. N1 (or the base node.e. The vector is the normal of the plane defi ned by the three nodes. Select two nodes. Select a model vector (i. Note that when using the N1. N1 and N2. 2. 3. For example.. if selected) is the point on the plane through which the vector passes.B (base node) Use this selector to define the base node—the point in space where the vector or plane is located.N2. local coordinate system vectors or load vectors). A parallel plane can be specified by selecting a base point elsewhere in the model. y-. selecting a plane of projection using the x-axis does not define the location of the plane entirely. To define a plane: 1.e. if selected). N2. or z-axis. y-. 2. A base node provides the extra information. Select the x-. N3 option. N2. but serve a different purpose. N1. 4.. Select the x-. 3.N3 and base). N2. the following selector displays in the position and linear solid panels: This selector is used in these panels to map entities from one location to another. Select two nodes. Select three nodes. HyperMesh uses N1 as a default base node if no other base node is specified. Select three nodes. or z-axis and a base node. 74 HyperMesh 8. and N3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To define a vector: 1. arrows that represent a local coordinate system vector or load vector). N1. For example. Some selectors may resemble the plane and vector selector. Select a model vector (i. N1. N3. reset Note: Allows you to clear your selection (vector. N1 and N2.

). and the new character is placed at the far left of the input field. select another menu item. click the menu item or input field a second time to select the name from a list of the existing collectors. You can cut and paste text from one data field to another within HyperMesh and also from data fields in HyperMesh to a command window (except in OpenGL versions). title =). or press a function key.e.. press CTRL-c. You can enter characters and numbers from the keyboard to modify the value. If you want to edit the existing data.Input Fields Input fields are used to enter text or numerical values. After you click either the input field or the description. The first character in a string cannot be a space. Deletes the character which is above the cursor. press the ENTER key. Character String Input To enter a character string. Moves the cursor to the end of the input field. plot =. To cut and paste character strings. signifying that the input field in ready for editing. HyperMesh removes any leading spaces contained in a character string. press a right or left arrow key ( or ) before pressing any other keys. When you type an alphanumeric character with the keyboard. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. Deletes the character to the left of the cursor and moves the cursor one space to the left. A description of the type of input precedes the field. characters can be inserted or deleted at the proper location. Moves the input cursor from field to field on the panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. comp =. and BACKSPACE HOME END DELETE TAB To exit edit mode. Input field.0 User’s Guide 75 . the following keys perform the corresponding functions: ESC Restores the initial text or value displayed upon entering edit mode. or click the input field a second time to access the HyperMesh calculator. Press the ESC key while the field is still active to restore the initial text or value to the input field. and use the keyboard to enter text until the proper information is displayed. In edit mode. and press CTRL-v. respectively. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the input field. the value previously assigned to the field is erased. the text currently in the input field is highlighted. Move the cursor in the input field to the left and right. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. After positioning the cursor in the input field. Note: If you need to specify the name of a collector for a data input field (i. click the corresponding menu item or input field (the menu item is placed in edit modea).

For example. If HyperMesh expects an integer value and you enter 123. HyperMesh automatically displays the value in scientific notation. the mouse cursor is centered in the menu and the menu is made active. When the pop-up menu appears. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. To enter numeric data. click numeric and function buttons on the calculator using HP-style reverse notation. click the corresponding menu item or input field and enter the value using the keyboard. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. you must make a selection before you can proceed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If the pop-up does not have a border. If the pop-up menu has a border. the view pop-up menu (view on the Toolbar Area) allows you to make multiple selections.45. In edit mode. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. To use the calculator.Numeric Data Input Numerical values are specified as real numbers or integers. HyperMesh immediately processes the selection you have made on the pop-up menu and then waits for you to make more selections. If a real number contains three or more leading zeros after the decimal. press CTRL-c. HyperMesh displays integer values without a decimal point. HyperMesh truncates the number to eliminate the decimal point. HyperMesh discards input characters that are not valid numbers and subsequent numbers. To cut and paste numeric data. you can either select a menu item on the pop-up menu or move the mouse outside the bounds of the menu. HyperMesh interprets it as 1230. You can also use the HyperMesh calculator to enter the value. 76 HyperMesh 8. if you type 123e+1q1.). and click exit to close the calculator. For example. Real numbers are displayed with a decimal point or in scientific notation. and press CTRL-v. Calculator pop-up. Some pop-ups are displayed with a border around the menu box and some have no border. Some pop-up menus allow multiple selections. The pop-up menu remains on the screen until you move the mouse outside the bounds of the box. Pop-ups Pop-up menus are displayed when there are seve ral options from which to choose.000. click the menu item or input field a second time (the first click allows you to enter edit mode. the second click gives you access to the calculator).

Lists the file name. and last date modified. retrieve….0 User’s Guide 77 . based on the search criteria used. It also displays the file that has been selected from the list. import…..File Browser When you open or save a file using save as. as well as the contents of the open directory. you use the standard Windows file browser. Click Cancel to close the file browser. browse…. Click Open (or Save) to load (or save) the file shown in the File name field. type.. Lists only the file name. You can open new directories from this list. write as….. Folders and/or file names within the selected directory are listed below the Look in/Save in text box. This field allows you to select the type of file you want to locate. File name Files of type Open (Save) Cancel Displays the folder at the previous level. Look in/Save in This drop-down menu contains the overall directory structure. load…. Creates a new folder within the current directory. etc. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The file browser enables you to navigate through the directories on your network to locate files. This field allows you to enter the name of the file you wish to locate.

2. 2. All files ending with the specified extension are displayed. You can also type *. specify the directory to search. specify the search directory. In the File name field.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . *. hm6.To search for a particular file extension: 1. For Look in/Save in.ext where ext is the extension of the file type you wish to locate. For Look in/ Save in. For example.hm searches for all the HyperMesh database files (files with an . etc. 3. select the file type from the drop-down menu. Press ENTER.hm extension) in the specified directory. Type *.hm* for all HyperMesh database files with extensions hm4. To search for a particular filename: 1. All files beginning with the specified characters are displayed in the files list. 3. For File name. type filename* where filename is any portion of the name of the file you wish to locate. type *.* to search for all files in the directory. Or For Files of Type. hm5. Press ENTER. 78 HyperMesh 8.

such as Penetration Checks. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be selected. If you release the mouse. Single click and release. Selects a new center of rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes.0 User’s Guide 79 . Some operations require pressing a keyboard key in addition to using the mouse. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The Mouse The mouse attached to your system is integral to HyperMesh and can be used in almost every aspect of user input. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Fit the displayed model to the screen. Deselects an entity in the graphics area. the pre-highlighted entity is selected Dynamic rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. Click and move. Keyboard Left mouse Middle mouse Right mouse Single click and release. Selects a new center of rotation. If you release the mouse. Single click and release. Click and move. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Single click and hold. Aborts graphics operations. Rapid menu allows you to use the middle mouse button to quickly perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. CTRL Single click and release. Aborts intensive processes. Performs selection operations on single entities. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be deselected (removed from selection). the pre-highlighted entity is deselected. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. Single click and release.

Click and move. 80 HyperMesh 8. Dynamically rotates the model. Single click and release. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window SHIFT Click and move. In entity selection mode .CTRL Click and move. Click and move. In display panel – turn off collectors that are inside/outside the window. In display panel – turn on collectors that are inside/outside the window.quick window deselection of entities. Pans the model. SHIFT Single click and release.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Zooms into an area of the model. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: Single click and release. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. Click and move. In entity selection mode quick window selection of entities.

create becomes the rapid menu function. select a few nodes for your first node list or line list. clicking the middle mouse button a second time repeats the translate + or rotate + function.0 User’s Guide 81 . using the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel. In panels where there is a defined sequence of selections (input collectors). in the replace panel. N2 and N3 selected or may not have a magnitude value entered. the entities in the input collector are not cleared. The rapid menu function can also vary within a panel. and then click the middle mouse button to advance to the second node list so that you can begin picking more nodes. if you pick two nodes. thus translating/rotating the same nodes again. If you click the middle mouse button after you select the required nodes. For example: in the hidden line panel shown below. in the translate or rotate panels once you selected some elements/nodes/comps and direction and distance of translation. But once you pick a node to create the line. For example. In panels that have pre-filled defaults. In such cases. collectors/create panel with a preset collector name creates a collector when you click the middle mouse button.Rapid Menu Rapid menu is a feature that uses the middle mouse button (a single click for each step) to move through a panel along a predetermined path. For example. In some panels. rapid menu advances to the next collector. This allows advanced users to perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel if the active input collector (yellow collector with a blue outline) is empty. N3 vector option in the translate panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the middle mouse button may activate a function for which there is insufficient data. allowing you to use the same entities to repeat the operation. return is assigned to the rapid menu. For example in the ruled panel. a middle mouse click performs the operation with the defaults. In panels that contain multiple function buttons. In most panels. For example. when you try to move nodes using the N1. Since you do not have N1. an attempt to perform translate + is executed. HyperMesh performs the fill plot action when you click the middle mouse button. when you enter the lines panel. rapid menu is assigned to the most commonly used function. For example. The rapid menu function is predetermined and varies between panels. resulting in an error message. the middle mouse button repeats the chosen function as long as the entity collector is not reset to empty. N2. Some panels do not have function buttons and are repetitive. thus reducing "mouse miles". an error message results. In these panels. In panels where there is no clear sequence of selections. For example. it replaces one with the other and proceeds to repeat the operation with the new selection. The function button that is assigned to rapid menu is outlined in black.

there are several keyboard hot keys that you can use to access the viewing functions available on the Toolbar Area. press the key once and wait for HyperMesh to redraw the model before pressing the key again.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Rotate by increments Ctrl Incremental counterclockwise. You can press ESC instead of clicking return to exit a panel. You can also use the arrow keys on the keyboard to rotate your model. -. and reverse view Zoom by increments. Note that "+" is actually shift = on the main keyboard. you must use the keyboard to enter new file or component names or title information. this opens help for that panel. from the main page menu. global panel Open the Help. SHIFT key. Turn off the menus and display only the graphics window.a b c <ctrl>+<c> d f g h m o p r s t <ctrl>+<t> v w z Notes: 82 HyperMesh 8. The secondary menu uses various combinations of the function keys. and CTRL key to access panels. The hot keys are the same as the letters on the menu. In addition. it opens the Help’s table of contents. or arrow keys. When a panel is active. +.Keyboard Although most HyperMesh operations are performed with the mouse. clockwise. options panel Plot Rotate Dynamically zooms in and out when you move the mouse up and down True view transparent components panel User View pop-up menu Windows panel Circle-zoom When you use the +. Press "m" again to bring the menus back. Arc rotate Return to a previous view Center (spherical) clipping panel display panel Fill/fit model to window. but simply + on the numeric keypad.

The keyboard option opens a free-standing window with a keyboard display.0 User’s Guide 83 . zooms and pans the graphics area view to fit the currently displayed model to the screen.Mapping Keyboard Shortcuts Keyboard shortcuts can be used to map HyperMesh functions to keys or key combinations. One example of this is the default mapping of the <f> key—which. so that you can quickly execute tasks that you use frequently simply by pressing one or more keys on the keyboard. You can customize the default shortcut mappings to create your own shortcuts for a variety of tasks. when pressed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Examples include: • • • • • • • Jumping to a specific HyperMesh panel Automatically performing a task using HyperMesh *commands Executing a macro The following keys are usable when defining shortcuts: Letter and number keys ("standard" keys) <ctrl> plus another "standard" key <shift> plus another "standard" key <ctrl> plus <shift> plus another "standard" key You can assign or remove a shortcut by selecting keyboard from the Preferences pull-down menu.

Ctrl + Ctrl + F1 Ctrl + F2 Ctrl + F3 Ctrl + F4 Ctrl + F5 Ctrl + F6 Incremental clockwise. The selected key highlights in blue. Those keys are identified with a different color: Use the hm_pushpanelitem command in a shortcut to jump to a specific sub-panel of a panel. esc.Keys display in the Key-Command Mappings window with colors based on their mapping: To map a function to a shortcut key. Next. right. For example. select the appropriate key by clicking in the keyboard menu or holding down that key on your keyboard. up.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . counterclockwise and reverse view Creates bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Creates PostScript file of the screen and spools it to printer. to enter the combine sub-panel in the element edit panel. and some utilize functions which are only accessible via shortcut keys. use hm_pushpanelitem {element edit} {combine} This will take you to the last used sub-panel in the specified panel. backspace etc. Generates a *. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. such as tab. • • Any HyperMesh command file commands can be mapped to a shortcut key. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk.jpg screen capture or animation file. and down respectively. Notes • • Some special-function keys. 84 HyperMesh 8. Some keyboard shortcuts are mapped by default during installation. enter the appropriate command(s) and if necessary the file name (for a tcl script) in the table area of the menu located below the keyboard diagram. Remapping such keys to new functionality results in loss of original functionality. cannot be mapped. Examples of such shortcuts are: Incremental rotate left. alt. ctrl. shift.

"none".7" 0 To create a shortcut key "shift + K" that runs a macro to check whether any beam/bar elements exist in the model and display them only: Create a findbeams. To create a shortcut key "J" that runs a macro to find all the elements with jacobian < 0. click the "…" button to browse to and select the findbeams. *deletemark elements 1. 1). } else { hm_usermessage "No beam elements in this model" } } In the Key-Command Mappings window.7: this macro already exists in the QA page of the Utility menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Enter the following in the command field next to the key "K". To call the same macro. eval *createmark elements 1 $beams. 1. enter the following commands in the command field next to the key "E": *createmark elements 1 "all". To create a shortcut key "L" that accesses the lines panel. *evaltclstring displayonlybeams In the file field.shortcut mapping examples To create a shortcut key "e" that deletes all the elements in the model.0 User’s Guide 85 .tcl file with following commands: Proc displayonlybeams {} { *createmark elements 2 "by config" 60 63 set beams [hm_getmark elements 2] *clearmark elements 2 if { ![Null beams]} { *displaycollectorwithfilter(comps. "".tcl file. enter the following in the command field next to the key "J": *evaltclstring "macroElementJacobian 0. enter the following in the command field next to the key "L": hm_pushpanel {lines}. *findmark elements 1 0 1 elements 0 2. select shift from the Shortcut Key pull-down menu.

or in combination with the SHIFT or CTRL keys. The default secondary panels are as follows: Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Note: Function key only hidden line delete replace distance mask element edit align node create node line edit check element geometry quick edit automesh plus SHIFT key color temp nodes edges translate find split project node edit surf edit normals organize smooth plus CTRL key print slide slide file print eps create eps file print b/w eps create JPEG file Function keys may be reassigned to different panels by using the build menu panel. When you use the secondary menu. 86 HyperMesh 8. and upon completion.Secondary Menu The secondary menu is a list of panels that can be accessed by using the function keys F1 through F12. it interrupts the active panel and allows you to perform a function in the secondary panel. to continue using the initial panel. Entities selected while in the secondary panel are still selected when you return to the initial panel. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

mac file in their home directory. Populates the User page of the utility menu. to specify where the arguments should be substituted. passed to them from a control. When HyperMesh starts. it looks for a macro file named hm.mac file may exist in the installation directory for HyperMesh or in the directory from which HyperMesh launches. radio options. The utility menu includes several pages of its own. $2. which allows you to create groups of standard reusable macros. UNIX users also have the option of putting the userpage. Populates the Geom/Mesh page of the utility menu. and are enclosed by the *beginmacro() and *endmacro() commands. or the application’s base directory. Creates the button group that allows you to switch pages. and can be shown or hidden from within the view pull-down menu. This file defines the attributes and contents of the User page of the utility menu. HOME directory (UNIX only). Thus it is actually a group of menus. etc.mac) controls the display and available operations of the utility menu.Utility Menu The utility menu allows you to customize the standard interface to include function buttons. The *callmacro() command allows you to call a macro from within another one. Macros may contain any valid command file command.mac geommeshpage. and text that have HyperMesh-supplied and user-defined macros associated with them. so that you can group the macros by type of operation.mac globalpage.mac Populates the Display page of the utility menu. A macro file (hm. each dedicated to different tasks. A userpage. it first looks for the userpage. The menu is located on a tab of the tab area pane(s). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When HyperMesh starts. HyperMesh runs it automatically to define the attributes and contents of the utility menu. Populates the QA/Model page of the utility menu.mac qamodelpage.mac in the current directory.mac file in the directory from which it launches and then in the installation directory. Only one button can be depressed at a time.mac file sources the following additional macro files: disppage. Each page is associated with a button at the bottom of the utility menu. Attributes that you can change include: • • • • • The utility menu page on which the operations appear Text to be displayed on each control Location and size of the menu The help string to be displayed on the menu bar The macro to call when each control is used.mac userpage. although only one displays at a time. with optional arguments to pass The page number allows you to create multiple pages. by using the arguments $1.0 User’s Guide 87 . The default hm. Macros may accept variable arguments. You may also select and run a macro file after HyperMesh starts from within the options panel. clicking one of these buttons opens the page associated with it. similar to the way that only one radio button can be active at a time—selecting a button de-selects all of the other buttons in the group. If it finds this macro.

you can turn the display of individual types back on as desired. but you have only the left-hand pane showing in the HyperMesh environment. See the descriptions below for help with each type of macro. the utility menu will still be invisible even though you have it checked in the view menu. simply check it in the view menu. with the current page’s button depressed. if the utility menu is on the right-hand tab area pane. Disp Utility menu The Disp utility menu contains a variety of macros that allow you to modify the graphical display of HyperMesh entities in several different ways. or even by clicking-and-dragging the tab to the HyperMesh title bar. Default Utility menu The utility menu is normally located on the left side of the graphics region. you can restrict HyperMesh to only drawing a small sub-set of the entities in your model.By default. you must remember that once a macro is executed. If you want to remove the Utility menu from the default screen display. and Disp pages contain a variety of macros that allow you to quickly perform functions which would normally take several steps. 88 HyperMesh 8. until only the desired subset of entity types displays. Note. if you wish. but display of the menu is controlled by a command in the HyperMesh Configuration. It contains page selection buttons at the bottom of the menu. the Utility menu displays when HyperMesh starts. You can also turn the utility menu off by clicking the small “x” in the upper corner of the tab area when the utility menu tab is in the forefront. however. However. You can also mask and unmask portions of your model. it can also be dragged-and-dropped to the right -side explorer pane. Then. if that pane is open. and a macro may not be called recursively. The Geom/Mesh. that it still might not display if the tab area pane on which it resides is not active. turning off the display of everything except entities of type. The different pages of the utility menu are: • • • • Geom/Mesh (macros related to model geometry and FE mesh) Disp (Options related to the graphical display of entities) QA/Model (macros related to element quality and loads) User (user-created macros only) The utility menu displays by default. QA/Model. Note: While macros offer a great deal of flexibility. there is no way to cancel the execution or reject the results. delete the * before the *enablemacromenu() command in the hm. showing or hiding all 2-D elements. You can also isolate only a specific entity type. Chief among these is the ability to turn the display of individual entity types on and off—for example. although it may be obscured by another tab such as the model browser or include browser. By combining these features. You can turn the utility menu off completely (removing its tab from the tab area) by un-checking it in the view pull-down menu. For example. To restore the utility menu. in the Tab area pane.cfg file. and save additional model views.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Broad categories. clicking all next to the elements label turns on the display of every element type in your model.3) Retrieve These buttons save the current view of the model in slot 1. but does not affect the display of 0. regardless of entity type. For example. In other words. These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. The largest group possible is labeled Everything. if you turn off the display of lines.Scene macros: These controls allow you to save and retrieve up to three additional views of your model. For example. are more restrictive. such as 2-D elements or lines. or 3-D elements. Scene (1. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. however. lines. such as 2-D elements or lines. clicking Off next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every 2-D element in your model. clicking all next to the 2-D label turns on the display of every 2-D element in your model. such as 2-D elements or geometry points. These views function just like the custom views that you can save and retrieve via the user views function (accessed from the HyperMesh toolbar). 3) Save Scene (1. such as elements or geometry. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. This enables you to turn off certain entities while retaining others. other geometry types (such as points) do not turn off. Each broad category or sub-type has a text label on the menu. followed by 2-3 buttons. such as geometry. 1. including its boundary conditions. none On Off Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 1. slot 2. So. 2. even within the same broad category. Clicking On turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. and allow you to turn the display of different types of entities on or off. control an array of several related entities (such as points. These buttons retrieve views of the model that you have previously saved via the scene (1. These sub-types have buttons labeled on or off. 2. for example.2. such as elements or geometry. and solids). but does not affect the display of 0. 3) save macros. This allows you to turn the display of entire classes of entity on or off in one click. or 3-D elements. Display macros: These controls form the bulk of the menu. Clicking All turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label.0 User’s Guide 89 . clicking none next to the elements label turns off the display of every element type in your model. There are different categories of entities whose display you can turn on and off. These broad categories have buttons labeled All or none. For example. clicking none hides the entire model. Clicking Off turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. and always include any masks that you may have applied to the model. surfs. Smaller sub-types of entity. Toggling the display of these does not affect other entities within the same broad category. These buttons perform the actual display macro functions: All These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. The All and none buttons for this category literally affect every entity in the model. For example. These views function in addition to the user views. Clicking none turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. or slot 3. or isolate the display of an entity type.

results in only the lines (plus FE elements. The By Edge… macro (under Geometry à Surfs) allows you to turn off all surfaces attached to one or more edge lines. either by way of the mask out macro or the mask panel.Only These buttons may appear for broad categories of entity or sub-types. rather than all of the mesh for an entire component. however. The only exception to this accumulative usage is repeated use of the only option: since it always hides everything except the chosen entity type. if you choose to show only 2-D elements. then clicked show adjacent elems any mesh along .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Similarly. Note that these functions are accumulative. so that only the specified entity type remains visible. masking is based on entity location rather than entity type. or isolate the surfaces touching those lines. Labels (located under the BC’s category). either click proceed again without selecting any lines. so that only 2-D elements remain visible. etc. refers to the text labels for boundary conditions such as pressures and forces. turning off all geometry. Mask Out This macro automatically applies a mask to hide every entity in the model that does not currently display in the graphics area. For example. they should be deleted before the model is sent to a solver. the surface itself will not be unless it is completely outside of the graphics display area. such as rbe3 elements. Like the display controls. hide. as well as removing temporary nodes. Clicking one of the buttons for this option causes HyperMesh to display a lines selector. clicking Only next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every entity in the model except for 2-D elements. those lines would be revealed—but only a single row of elements. Temporary nodes are any nodes that users create during a HyperMorph session. This macro reveals one or more rows of elements adjacent to the entities currently displayed. Click Clear Temp Nodes to automatically remove all temporary nodes from the model. Show Adjacent Elems 90 HyperMesh 8. To exit the macro. boundary conditions. if you isolated a model’s geometry lines. or press the <esc> key. however. Note. Clicking only isolates the entity type indicated by the label by hiding every other entity type in the model. that entities can’t be partially hidden—so while some of the mesh elements on a surface may be masked out. you can then add other entities to the view by turning them On one-by-one. These nodes are redundant because they must be created on existing geometry.) displaying. This allows you to view only the adjoining mesh. Select the desired lines and click proceed to show. multiple only commands do not work accumulatively. masking allows you to reduce the number of entities drawn onscreen. Mask and Node macros: The final set of controls concern masking and unmasking entities. for this reason. Comments Handle (located under the Elements category) refers to the text labels that appear on some elements. then turning on lines. For example. Unmask All Clear Temp Nodes This macro removes any and all masks that you have applied to the model.

points may even project to multiple edges. This macro works only on the surfaces attached to the selected surface. Places four additional fixed points on an inner line. and then projects those points to a concentric line. This allows a higher quality mesh around circular holes. Creates a layer of washer elements around a circular hole in the mesh. with ribs (T junctions).5 times its original size. Its primary use cases are solid parts with varying thickness. This can be helpful to achieve uniform meshing with regard to weld points. Assigns the thickness of a midsurface geometry to FE nodes or elements.0 User’s Guide 91 . by offsetting one side surfaced to midplane. The geometry macros are: Preserve edges Project points Prevents specific edges from being suppressed during autocleanup or batchmeshing. You select a line whose length represents the solid thickness and a surface. Depending on the tolerance you specify. Two other options available are: 1) Create a rigid spider along the hole and 2) Enforce a minimum number of nodes around the hole. The macro then creates a layer of washer elements around the hole and remeshes the surrounding elements to maintain mesh connectivity. as well as a set for working with FE mesh. creating a higher quality mesh. etc. You can also review the thickness as a contour plot on the elements. Isolates either an inner or an outer surface layer (based on the user selected surface) from a 3D model. You select a node along the hole. and then trims this new line into the surface. Scales a copy of a selected circular line to 1. The other layers and thickness are then placed in a temp directory and masked. Extracts a midsurface from a thin solid representation of sheet metal stamped parts. Quick Tetramesh Fix 2nd Order Midnodes Add Washer Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This macro is intended to be used with sheet metal parts with uniform thickness and does not work for molded solid parts. Projects free points to surface edges. Quickly creates an automatic tetrahedral mesh while meeting the requirements for minimum element angle and element size. Isolate Surface ThinSolid=>Midsurf Washer Adj Circ Pts The mesh macros are: Auto Connectors Midsurf Thickness A pop-up menu that allows you to automatically create connectors and FE realize them from a master connection file. which is part of either the inner or outer side of the solid. Improves element quality by moving the mid-edge nodes of second order elements. The macro also creates the corresponding property card and updates the thickness. and displays a menu for entering the width of the washer.Geom/Mesh utility menu This menu contains a set of macros related to working with model geometry. the macro determines the radius of the hole.

Creates a bead of a given height and width along the selected two nodes and connects to the surrounding mesh. Tools There are eight tools to isolate elements that fail certain element check criteria. This is useful for reducing the model size by taking advantage of symmetry etc. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Length This macro checks all the displayed elements against the minimum length criteria. If any elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the criteria. Fills the selected hole and remeshes the surrounding mesh to maintain connectivity. the quality criteria used by these macros remains consistent with those used throughout the rest of HyperMesh—and can be indirectly adjusted by changing the settings on the check elements panel. If any elements fail the warpage test. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Fill Hole Box Trim Bead QA/Model Utility menu The QA utility menu contains many tools to help you quickly review and clean up the quality of a preexisting mesh.Trim Hole Creates a circular hole (of a given radius) in the mesh at the selected node (as the center of the hole). it displays a message and leaves the model display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements against the maximum Jacobian value. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their warpage. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The element quality criteria used by these tools comes directly from the values entered on the check elements panel. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Trims the model along user-defined trim lines. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Jacob (Jacobian) Warp (warpage) Aspect (aspect ratio) Max ang: Q (quad) 92 HyperMesh 8. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Since the criteria on that panel are customizable. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the maximum internal angle. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their aspect ratio. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. if necessary. An optional layer of washer elements can be created along with a rigid spider along the hole. This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that fill the hole.

If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Split Warped Checks all displayed quad elements for warp exceeding the acceptable value. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. does not break connectivity. and uses the mixed element type. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the minimum internal angle. Brings up a user interface that allows you to set the various quality values and check the quality of all the 2D elements in the model. two. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. number of elements in that component and their ID range. Finds all of the elements attached to the displayed elements. Find Attached Remesh Smooth Quality Report Model Tour Allows you to review (tour) the selected components individually. It also displays a dialog that allows you to review the free edges of the component and any elements attached to the component. Allows you to remesh the selected elements plus one. The results are shown as the number of elements and percentage of elements failing each criterion. This macro displays the component name. Each element failing this criterion is then split along its diagonal to form two tria elements instead of the original quad. They only affect the report. two. If any elements fail the criteria.Max ang: T (tria) This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the maximum internal angle. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Min ang: Q (quad) Min ang: T (tria) You can use the following macros to quickly modify any elements that fail the element checks.0 User’s Guide 93 . it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the minimum internal angle. If any elements fail the criteria. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). Allows you to apply the smoothing algorithm to the selected elements plus one. The remesh uses the current size. BOM Comparison Tool Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can also export the results to a text file using save as. Reads a generic Bill Of Materials file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM as well as the corresponding FE model. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). Note: Changing the criteria on this report interface does not change the settings in the check elements panel. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If any elements fail the criteria.

94 HyperMesh 8. the numbers do not directly correspond to any specific values or ratios.The model tools included on this page are: Load Size These numbered buttons represent different display sizes for load indicators: 0 is the smallest. constraints. these elements are un-masked. and so on. Since these buttons affect all loads. including forces. these loads are un-masked. If masked. Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all connectors. pressures. Automatically finds all loads directly attached to a selected component. Automatically finds all components directly attached to any and all load indicators. Note that this only affects the graphical display of load indicators—it does not change the load magnitudes. these comps are un-masked. If masked. these elements are un-masked.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If masked. If masked. while 3 is the largest. Find Elems>>Loads Find Comps>>Loads Find Loads>>Comps Find Elems>>Connectors Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all load indicators.

LS-Dyna. Since users in different design and analysis groups use BOM information. A BOM is often used as the master document for model meshing. For an in-depth description of the parts that make up the BOM Comparison Tool user interface and how to use them. and Abaqus user profiles. the formats and content of the BOM can vary.0 User’s Guide 95 . and updates between design iterations as well as other CAE activities. model comparison.BOM comparison tool The BOM Comparison Tool located on the QA/Model utility menu reads a generic Bill of Materials (BOM) file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM and its corresponding FE model. Radioss-Block. One BOM may contain more data than another BOM for the same program. BOMs usually use Microsoft Excel® format (CSV format) or XML format. The HyperMesh BOM Comparison Tool focuses primarily on the Excel format. see the following topics: • • • • • • • BOM Comparison Tool Graphical User Interface (GUI) BOM Comparison Tool Control Section BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section BOM Comparison Tool Master Column BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. property assignments. assembly. The BOM reader includes the following abilities: • • • • • Reads a generic BOM file of CSV format (comma separated values file) Provides a GUI to manipulate data in the BOM and the corresponding FE model Provides an option to update attributes in the FE model based on the data available in the BOM Provides an option to complete the existing BOM based on the data available from the model Filters out all vague information present in the BOM and provides a feature to edit the vague information into a valid data and move it back to the BOM Provides a functionality to export a new BOM file Note: The BOM Comparison Tool only applies to the Nastran.

Contains a tree structure displaying part names and ids. This section contains a table to display BOM info as it is seen in the actual BOM file. Displays failed records from a loaded BOM file. 96 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .BOM Comparison Tool GUI The BOM Comparison Tool’s GUI consists of seven sections as shown below: Control section: Tree section: Master column: BOM display section: Metadata display section: Failed records section: Display filter section: Contains menu items and buttons to perform various operations. part of the tree section. Contains filtering options for displaying tree and table info. Contains options for metadata management. This section controls most tool functions. Contains master column selection.

Check Model Checks the model against the BOM. Material. If any are missing. Material Id. File menu New Open Create a new session Browse for and load a new BOM file. you can complete the BOM data by querying the HM database and extracting the data. Sometimes the BOM doesn’t contain all of the data you want. Once you had added or deleted all necessary entries.0 User’s Guide 97 . Update the model attributes to match the BOM. Save and export the current information shown in the BOM Display section as a new BOM csv file in a user selected location. you will be prompted select the heading from the BOM file that corresponds to each standard header. or click an item already in the list and insert the new item just above it. Save and Export Exit Edit menu Update Model Complete BOM Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You may also select items in the list and Delete them from the file. This option switches the BOM Display Section to Comparison mode if it is currently in BOM View mode (see below). If all are found. and Gauge.BOM Comparison Tool Control Section This portion of the interface contains drop-down menus and the toolbar. Show Failed Display all the invalid records that the tool encounters while reading a BOM file in a table. click Continue to generate the new file. You can select additional items from a combo box. or type a new header into it and Add them. or generate a new BOM by querying the HM model in current session. This option opens a new window listing the items to be added to the BOM file. Only valid records from a BOM file display in the BOM Display Section’s table. details populate the relevant fields in the BOM comparison tool. HyperMesh checks for the standard headers Part Name. Part Id. Close the BOM Comparison Tool. Invalid records can be edited to form valid data and can be moved to the BOM Display table. If the corresponding model contains the missing data. Use the Complete BOM operation to either complete an existing BOM.

Categorizes BOM information into four sections: • Match: components in BOM whose standard attributes match exactly with those in the model. Different: components in BOM whose standard attributes differ from those in the model. In_BOM_Only: components found in BOM but not in model. Same function as File > Show Failed. Same function as Edit > Check Model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .View menu BOM View Compare View Display section displays BOM info as it appears in the BOM file. In_Model_Only: components found in model but not in BOM. Same function as File >Save and Export. Same function as Edit > Update Model. 98 HyperMesh 8. Same function as Edit > Complete BOM. • • • Same function as File > Open.

appended with part ids. and can be used to filter the BOM info anytime in the session. It then displays the part names. in brackets in the form of a tree structure located on the left side of the tool window. select the desired header in the options menu. Each tree branch is associated with a row in the BOM display table containing all standard information for the part in the tree branch. This section also includes selection and filtering controls.0 User’s Guide 99 . The combo box remembers previously entered strings until you quit the tool. Data associated with switched-on branches displays in the BOM display table Switch on only those branches in the tree (and associated data in the BOM display table) that correspond to the displayed parts in the model (Show displayed) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section When a BOM file is loaded into the tool. to affect which parts display in the tree and which parts are selected or deselected. Apart from this there are filter buttons each one of which is explained below: (Select All) (Select None) (Reverse selection) Displays all the branches in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table Switch off all the branches in the tree and delete all the data in the BOM display table Switch on all the “off” branches in the tree and vice versa. Filter options are given for displaying only the desired part info in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table. and press the <return> key to display the desired information in the tree and BOM display table. the tool identifies the part name and part id of all valid records. You can enter a string in the combo box.

e. columns containing part id.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . part name and part number.BOM Comparison Tool Master Column The central top portion of the tool window contains the master column section. i. and Comparison. The tool queries the data in the model based on any one of these column combinations: • • • Compare Part Id in BOM with Part Id in model: the tool compares the attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part id as the key. Compare by Part Name in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part name as the key. By default information displays in BOM Only view: 100 HyperMesh 8. Compare by Part Number in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part number as the key. The master column data is used as a key for the following operations: • • • Update model attributes as in BOM Complete BOM by querying model Check model against BOM The tool allows three master column combinations between the BOM and the model. The master column is the column in the BOM file whose attributes are considered as a key in comparison and validation operations. Only columns with three attributes can be used as master columns. BOM info can be displayed in two different modes: BOM only. This section allows you to select the desired master column option. located in the center of the tool window just below the master column section. BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM info displays in a table in the BOM display section.

mismatched attributes between BOM and the model are highlighted in light blue. Delete deletes the selected row in the table. Delete metadata deletes metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. In the Different category. Display all parts will display all the parts in the model. Right-Click menu Right -clicking on the table opens a menu of functions: • • • • • • Display selected parts displays parts in the model corresponding to the selected rows in the BOM display table. which categorizes the BOM information into four categories: • • • • Match: BOM components whose standard attributes exactly match those in the model Different: BOM components whose standard attributes differ from those in the model In_BOM_Only: components found in the BOM but not in the model In_Model_Only: components found in the model but not in the BOM The screenshot below illustrates Comparison view: Column 1 shows the category name with the number of parts falling under that category enclosed in brackets. Update metadata updates metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. Create metadata creates metadata of all the attributes of the parts in the model corresponding to the selected row in the table. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. remaining columns display the BOM info.0 User’s Guide 101 .Use the toggle button located in the top-right portion of the GUI to switch to Comparison mode.

second row corresponds to metadata associated with the model BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section When a BOM file is loaded. and then use this combo box to select the type of information displayed in the metadata display table: None Metadata related to BOM All metadata Differences between BOM/metadata clear the table if already some data exists display BOM related metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display all the metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display two rows of info in the metadata table. the whole record is considered invalid and will be stored out-of-sight. This opens a Failed records table as shown below. Click the Show failed menu item or corresponding button in the control section to see the failed records. After selecting a row in the BOM Display table. update and delete metadata using some of the menu items on the BOM display table. The tool considers the following five terms as standard attributes: • • • • • Part Name Part Id Material Material Id Gauge If at least one attribute is missing or repetitive.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 102 HyperMesh 8. the tool checks for the validity of each standard attribute in a record (a record corresponds to one line of info in the BOM file).BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section You can create. The metadata display section contains four display options in the form of a combo box. You have the option to edit each of those failed records to make them valid and move them to the BOM display table using the Move button. Metadata information contains all the attributes for a part in the model. First row corresponds to BOM info.

sometimes minor features are still important to your analysis. Note that this will not preserve lines inside the components—only the outer boundary edge. However. any previously stored feature lines will purge each time you click select lines or select comps. a new pop-up window opens to accept your settings: The following options are available for the Preserve Edges macro: Clear at start When this checkbox is active. Use the comps selector to choose the components whose boundary edges you wish preserved. Click this button to highlight the lines already marked for preservation. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a line selector in the HyperMesh panel area. so that autocleanup and batch mesher will know which lines must be preserved. picking a new set of lines starts over instead of adding to the selection. When active. Saves the preservation state. Use the lines selector to choose the lines you wish preserved. The preserve edges macro provides a way to ensure that specific components edges and feature lines do not accidentally get discarded during autocleanup or batch meshing. Removes all lines from the preservation list. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a component selector in the HyperMesh panel area. Thus. this checkbox prevents HyperMesh auto-cleanup from equivalencing the boundaries between adjacent components.Preserve Edges Both the batch mesher and the autocleanup features seek to improve mesh speed and/or quality by suppressing minor features (which are assumed to be insignificant).0 User’s Guide 103 . When you click the preserve edges button. Select Lines Show Preserved Comps selection boundary Select comps Clear all lines Save preserved Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

the controls for this macro display in a new tab in the tab area. have thickness information stored in their definition.Reset highlights After clicking the show preserved button. use this button to remove the highlight from the preserved lines. Type a value into this field.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Project Points Use this macro to project geometric points (such as weld points) to nearby edges. When you click the Midusrf thickness… menu button. The thickness data can be a single value for the entire part or a varying function. Discards any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. 104 HyperMesh 8. Midsurf Thickness Geometric surfaces that represent the mid-plane of a solid part. The Midsurf thickness macro. use this to select the surfaces whose edges you wish to project points to. only the visual highlighting effect is removed (until you click show preserved again). located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. You can also review the contour plot of thickness data with this macro. OK Cancel Accepts any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. After selecting surfs and clicking proceed. HyperMesh displays a target element size field. allows you to transfer thickness data from surfaces to the associated nodes/elements. Clicking this button opens a surfs selector in the HyperMesh panel area. Any points within this distance of the selected surfaces’ edges will be projected to those edges. The lines remain preserved. if extracted using the HyperMesh midsurface function. using the same units as your model.

This option is only valid for OptiStruct and Nastran User profiles.0 User’s Guide 105 . (For example. For each User profile. a base component named t0 must be defined. Refer to the User profile section for more details on the unique behavior of the Midsurf Thickness utility for each User profile. In order to execute this mode. then assign the thickness value to the component property card image for each User Profile. macro: Apply thickness to You can choose to assign or view the thickness values at the nodes or on elements. so this value will always be populated on the element cards for any solver that supports Z-offset. Creates components with name “t[thickness value]” by copying the properties of the base component t0 and assigning the appropriate thickness based on the value of the Range Interval or Gage File options. Assigns appropriate thickness values to the Component. The components option performs the following generic steps for each User profile: 1. Use the Components option to group elements that fall within userspecified thickness intervals into common components.The following options are available in the Midsurf thickness.. Use the Nodes/Elements option to assign the thickness and Z-offset values directly to the element cards. HyperMesh uses Z-offsets when midsurfacing parts that have variable thickness. (For example. The t0 component definition will be used for all created components based on the Range Interval specified in the Component Organization Method section described below. The nodes option is valid for only LS-DYNA and ANSYS solvers. check the Z-offset values checkbox. the zoffset (which is saved as part of the midsurface data) tells a solver how much of a positive-normal offset exists between the actual part surface and the midsurface: To assign Z-offset values to the element cards for supported solvers. the PSHELL T field will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Groups the elements that have thickness values within the specified ranges into the new component based on the Range Interval or Gage File options. 3. the values will be updated on the element card for that solver. Z-Offset Values Activate this checkbox to take z-offsets into account. Most solvers only have Z-offset defined on the element card. CQUAD4 T1-T4 and Zoff fields will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran).. 2.

Component Organization method This option specifies the thickness range intervals used when grouping the elements into components based on their thickness values.Thickness calculation method This option is valid only while applying the thickness to elements. n is determined by the maximum thickness in model divided by the user specified tolerance and then rounding to up to the next integer. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value. Thickness range intervals are automatically generated based on the thickness tolerance using the following formula. You can obtain the thickness value from the surface at: Average – the average of the element’s nodes. HyperMesh groups elements having thickness values within the specified range intervals into appropriately created components with the appropriate thickness values assigned to the component. Range Interval – You must specify a thickness tolerance. Gauge – You must specify the thickness range intervals in a Gage File. Min – the minimum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. If the Assigned Value is not specified. it is a review/display function only. Assign Contour Assigns the thickness from the surface definition to the nodes or elements chosen. This step does not assign the thickness to the nodes or elements. Click here for details on the format of the gauge file. Creates a contour plot of the thicknesses on the selected elements/nodes. Closes the tab. You can specify thickness range intervals by two methods: 1. Centroid –the element’s centroid (interpolated from its nodes) Max –the maximum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. This option is very useful for visualizing and verifying the results of the Midsurf Thickness utility before applying the midsurf thickness mapping operation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The thickness assigned to each created component is n*tolerance. Close 106 HyperMesh 8. • • • Lower limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* i ) Upper limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* (i + 1)) Assigned value = tolerance*(i+1) Where i = 0……n. 2.

6. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. Click the Proceed button. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. 8. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. Select a Component Organization method and either select a file or enter a tolerance based on the method. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. Create the base component “t0”. 5.To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Nodes/Elements Option: 1. 4. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping To Contour Thickness for Node/Element Option: 1. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of thickness for the Node/Element option. 3. 5. Load the desired model file. Change to your preferred User Profile. 9. Load the desired model file. Select the Components option. 10. Load the desired model file. 4. Change to your preferred User Profile. 6. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. 2. 8. 7. 6. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. 3. To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Components Option: 1. 7. Select a Thickness Calculation method. 3. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab.0 User’s Guide 107 . Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping. 11. 7. Select the Nodes/Elements option. 5. and enter any default values for this card. 4. Change to your preferred User Profile. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. assign the base property card image. Pick the desired nodes.

To Contour Z-offset for Node/Element Option: 1. Change to your preferred User Profile. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 108 HyperMesh 8. 2. 8. 5. Activate the Z-Offset check box. 6. 3. Select the Components option. 3. 8. 7. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. 11. 9. 6. Load the desired model file. Select the desired nodes. 2. 5. 2. Activate the Z-Offset check box. Select the desired elements. 9. 4. 4. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the thickness for the components option. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. Select the Components option. Select the desired elements. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Click the contour button to open the node selection panel. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. 7. 4. 8. 7. 5. 6. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. To Contour Thickness for Components Option: 1. 10. Click Proceed. To Contour Z-offset for Components Option: 1. Select the desired nodes. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. Click the Proceed button.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Load the desired model file. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 10. Change to your preferred User Profile. Select the desired nodes. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the Node/Element option. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the components option. Load the desired model file. 3. Change to your preferred User Profile. Click the Proceed button.

05 0.2 Midsurf Utility Behavior under different user profiles Abaqus 1.15 0.05 0. Below is a specific example of a gauge file: Number of Gauges 4 End [max Thk] Assigned Value [Assigned Thk] Gauges Begin 0.15 0.Gauge file example The Gauge file uses the following format: Number of Gauges [Number of Gauge Data Lines] Gauges Begin [min Thk] … If the Assigned Value is not specified.15 End 0. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.1 0. Nodes/Elements Option • 2. • • • Unsupported Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”.05 0. 3.0 0. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value.2 Assigned Value 0.1 0.0 User’s Guide 109 . Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option. Z-Offset value • Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.1 0.

Ansys The only difference between the nodes/elements and components options are that the nodes/ elements option will group the elements which match only exact thickness values. 110 HyperMesh 8. Nodes/Elements Option • 2. • Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Components Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported OptiStruct and Nastran 1. • • • Assigns the Thickness and Z-Offset values to the Element Card based on the user selection Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”. Z-Offset value • If Z-Offset is checked “on” Z-offset values from the midsuface will be retrieved and assigned to the elements associated to that midsurface. The components option will group the elements with thickness intervals. Nodes/Elements • • • • 2. 1. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . • • • • • 3. 3. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.

Nodes/Elements • 2. Nodes/Elements • 2.0 User’s Guide 111 . Nodes/Elements • 2. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Assigns the thickness value to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Radioss 1. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported PamCrash 1. • • • • • 3.Ls-Dyna 1. • • • 3. • • • • • 3.

if two nodes of an element share different features (as in thin steps). To alleviate this.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Click proceed to finalize the selection. and displays in a new tab in the tab area. you can select “sacred elements” so that the tetmeshing function closely follows the original geometry. Altair Engineering Minimum Tria Angle Maximum feature angle 112 HyperMesh 8. Use this control to limit how acute the resulting elements will be. The maximum feature angle protects nodes on corners with a feature angle greater than the value specified. the mesh may deviate from the underlying geometry in order to maintain good quality elements. the features may not be maintained as they do not pass minimum element criteria. helping to better maintain the geometry. The surface trias from which the tetramesh will be extrapolated will be generated with angles that measure at least this many degrees.Quick TetraMesh The Quick TetraMesh macro quickly creates a tetramesh of an enclosed volume defined by geometry and/or elements. For example. This macro is accessed on the Geom/Mesh utility menu located on the standard utility menu. The following options are available in the Quick TetraMesh macro: Volume Complist Double-click components and use the comps collector that displays in the panel area to select comps representing the geometry of the solid to be tetra meshed. Surfaces and/or elements can be used to define the volume. Its main objective is to quickly and automatically create a tetramesh that meets the minimum interior angle and minimum element size. This applies only to cases where you can maintain features while fixing minimum element size. During the process of quick tetramesh.

and always uses uniform density. Note that this setting overrides the float setting in the tet from option.Maximum reverse angle The maximum feature angle allowed between normals of adjacent elements. or the one used by the batch mesher. even if doing so would improve element quality. All the cleanup steps are designed to improve the mesh quality. feature lines. With the Mixed mesh type. no tetra elements are created and the macro simply goes through the cleanup steps for the shell mesh. Chordal deviation uses smaller elements along curves. This is useful in ensuring that a particular feature is captured exactly the way you want it to be. and projections onto the original geometry. but only for the elements selected as sacred. correction of sliver elements. Mesh size Minimum Edge Size Minimum Elem Size Sacred surface Sacred elements Mesh type Mesh Density The mesh type options are Trias Only and Mixed. in which the mesher must keep the tria mesh unchanged. or fixed. Minimum allowable area for any element. in which the quick tetramesher is free to move nodes in a surface tria mesh to achieve better tetra elements based on them. both trias and quads may be created. This determines the meshing engine used: the one used by the automesh panel. but does not currently support sacred surfaces or elements. Note: this does not work if two adjacent surfaces are both marked as sacred! These are existing trias that you have created according to your requirements and wish to maintain while tetrameshing the part. When this option is checked. Some of the cleanup operations performed are: the suppression of free edges. Average element size of the mesh to be created. Uniform uses identically-sized elements throughout the mesh. and edges to improve accuracy. The Batch mesher generally produces better results. The tetramesher will not move the nodes of these elements. If the feature angle exceeds the given value. Tet from Mesher Perform mesh cleanup only Help Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. but may produce lowquality elements along such locations.0 User’s Guide 113 . Choose between chordal deviation and uniform. Choose between automesh and batch. No single edge of any generated element will be shorter than this. Choose floating. but requires more computing time. When HyperMesh tries to move element nodes to improved element quality. two adjacent elements are considered reversed and actions are performed to correct the situation. ignores/replaces existing elements. it gives special preference to trying to keep the nodes on a sacred surface. splitting of elements. Opens a pop-up window with basic information about each control that displays on the tab.

For critical areas where you want to control the mesh such as bolt holes. 114 HyperMesh 8. Select these elements as sacred elements. You select the elements on which you want to improve the quality. manually mesh using chordal deviation. As a part of the cleanup.g. You can manually mesh some critical geometry and select those elements as sacred elements. This helps to obtain the desired mesh in critical areas. improves element quality by moving the midedge nodes of second order elements. Fix 2nd order midnodes This macro. if any (e. Run with the desired mesh size. Suggested process to effectively use quick tetramesh: 1. Note: There is no Undo function! You can.Mesh Perform the quick tetramesh with the specified settings. In addition. 3. Use the delete panel to delete the tetras then. attempt to remesh using different settings if you do not like the initial results. and specify the quality constraints: Minimum Jacobian (evaluated at the corner nodes or integration points). Closes the tab. Note: Moved midnodes are saved to your save list. or if mesh in certain areas is not satisfactory). and Maximum angle. Identify problem areas. A series of tools that help you located problem areas which can cause poor meshing: Find Holes Find T-Con Dihedrals Attached Try TetraMesh Locate holes in your model. manually mesh problem areas. the tool heals small cracks in the model. Locate entities attached to the selected components. Load the geometry. Locate features in the model that have feature angles greater than 150 degrees. however. 5. any surfaces edges that were ignored.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Minimum Ratio between the minimum and maximum edge length. this persists until you exit HyperMesh. Locate T-connections in the model. 4. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. moved midnodes lose any preexistent association with the underlying geometry. 6. These sacred elements need to be trias. After making adjustments. Re-launch the Quick Tetramesh macro and select sacred elements to protect. click this to re-run the meshing operation on the same components. Launch the Quick Tetramesh macro. 2. Close Debug Surface Mesh The Quick Tetramesh macro meshes the unmeshed surfaces in the model using chordal deviation and fixes all the elements that fail the criteria provided.

An element selector and proceed button display in the panel area. The utility will move midnodes such that the angle at the ends of each segment will not deviate from a straight line by more than this amount (thought of another way. See the screenshot above for an example using a value of 30 degrees. Click the elems selector and select retrieve to load the saved failed elements. HyperMesh 8. nd In the Fix 2 • Order Midnodes window. you use the Fix 2 Order Midnodes utility: 1. nd The Fix 2 4. or longer—but not shorter than half the length of the longer segment. Click the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes button on the geom/mesh Utility Menu. Click proceed. so a value of 0.0 User’s Guide 115 Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering • • Altair Engineering . Specify a limit to the ratio of minimum and maximum length for the segments of the midnodebearing edges. 2. From that point onward. but no greater than 1. the angle between the segments at the midnode will not exceed 180 degrees minus this value). and using that panel’s save failed option. and use the radio buttons to determine whether HyperMesh should evaluate each element’s Jacobian at the corner nodes or the integration points. 3. nd Order Midnodes window. The Fix 2 Order Midnodes window opens.Typical usage of this utility begins with use of the check elems panel to identify poorly-formed nd elements. so you can click-and-drag it to any desired location. Remember that this is a minimum length. choose your element quality constraints: Choose a maximum angle. A value of 1 represents perfectly equal segment length. Specify a minimum Jacobian value. while a length of 0 would mean that the shorter segment might not exist—so this value must be greater than 0.5 would allow the shorter segment to be half as long as the longer segment. This pop-up window exists independently of the rest of the HyperMesh environment.

as well as the overall results: Before clicking Apply After clicking Apply 116 HyperMesh 8. When you click Apply.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The images below illustrate the before-and-after state of a specific midnode and the criteria used. Reject undoes any changes made when you pressed apply. Close closes the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes window. a message displays under the Results heading to inform you of exactly what HyperMesh did to the mesh. Click one of the command buttons to finalize: • • • Apply tells HyperMesh to move the midnodes to try to match the criteria you specified.5.

0 User’s Guide 117 . measured from the node. then click proceed. A new window opens: The options in the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window determine the type of hole that HyperMesh creates at each chosen node: Hole radius Number of layers Uniform/Varying Each node will receive a hole of this radius. No. This toggle only applies when the number of layers is more than zero. the table displays one row for each of the number of layers that you specified. If you chose varying width for the layers. You can also specify a number of layers of washer elements to include. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or to vary from one another.Trim Hole Macro This macro. with a nodes selector and a proceed button. creates a circular hole of a given radius in the mesh at a node specifying the center of the hole. The number of a specific washer layer. temporary panel in the HyperMesh panel area. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. This is the number of layers of washer mesh elements that you want to surround each hole. and specifies whether you want mesh layers to all be the same width. only one row displays because all layers will be set to the same values. Pick nodes on your model for the centers of each hole that you wish to create. Otherwise. Clicking the Trim Hole button opens a special.

fills in one or more holes in your geometry with automatically-generated mesh. If you don’t like the results of the last trim operation. Note: This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that currently fill the hole. • Scale: you can specify each layer’s scale relative to the Hole radius. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. evenly spaced around its circumference. click this button to undo it. Close the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Minimum number of nodes around the hole Trim Reject This determines the mesh density around the new hole(s). Close Fill Hole Macro This macro. so it can only undo multiple holes if they were created simultaneously during a single trim operation. use “0.5” for a washer layer that’s half as wide as the hole radius. Note that this only undoes a single click of the trim button. Choose single rigid link to create one rigid element that connects to all of the nodes around the new hole.Scale/Width Determines the width of the washer layers. Click this button to create the new hole(s). Each new hole will be created with at least the number of nodes that you specify in the density field. • Value Create rigid spider along the hole The scale factor or width of the layer(s). This checkbox tells HyperMesh to create a rigid spider in each of the new holes created. and enables two more options: • • Choose individual rigid links to create rigid elements at each node of the new hole. When you click the Fill Hole button in the utility menu. Width: specify a fixed width for each layer. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. For example. if necessary. a new window opens: 118 HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide 119 . returning you to the main HyperMesh environment with a nodes selector active in the panel area. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=value and X=xmax. HyperMesh will automatically scan you model for holes smaller than this value. and X=value and X=xmax. Click proceed in t he panel area. Automatic Use this option to let HyperMesh select holes automatically based on size.There are two methods of filling holes: Manual Use this option to select the holes that you wish to fill: 1. Click the yellow Select Nodes button. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu.0. The Filling holes with mesh window returns. allows you to trim the model (or selected subset) along the global axis to fit the selected 3-D box. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=ymiddle. Click this button to perform the fill operation.0 and Y=ymax.0 and X=value (selected value). and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=0. The selected model can be trimmed along eight standard types: left right front rear frontleft frontright rearleft rearright Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y=ymin and Y= ymiddle (ymiddle =(ymin+ymax)/2). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The window temporarily minimzes. and X=xmin and X=value. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y= ymiddle and Y=ymax. 3. If you don’t like the results of the last fill operation. Split the model along global Y=0. and attempt to fill them with mesh. Close the Filling holes with mesh window. Select nodes on the edges of the holes that you wish to fill. Type a value into the entry field labeled Fill circular holes with radius smaller than:. Fill Reject Close Box Trim Macro The Box Trim macro.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. 4. whether you chose to select your holes manually or automatically. with the Select Nodes button now green to indicate that nodes have been chosen. and X=xmin and X=value.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. Note that this only undoes a single click of the fill button. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=xmin and X=value. and X=value and X=xmax. Split the model along global Y=0. 2. a full car model can be trimmed along the Y=0 axis to obtain the left or right side of the car. For example. Click the Fill button to fill the selected holes with mesh.0 and Y=ymax. so it can only undo multiple fills if they were created simultaneously during a single fill operation. click this button to undo it. Split the model along global Y=0.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . e The model can also be trimmed using custom box by either selecting the two corner nodes or center node and dimensions. 120 HyperMesh 8. Note: This macro is for the 1st order plate elements only.This macro is useful in applications where some types of analysis can be performed on one-half (or quarter) of the model using symmetry boundary conditions. The axis directions and terminology are based on modeling standards in the automotiv industry.

define the box by either selecting two corner nodes (Corners) or selecting the center node and dimensions (Distance from center). If no load collector is specified. all displayed elements are selected. The nodes are constrained in the appropriate directions depending on the trim axes and are stored in the specified load collector (SPC collector). . Delta Y and Delta Z values which is the distance from the center node to the outer bounds of the box in global X. 6. select the node/enter value for trim location. If you select custom. From the Box Trim dialog. Click Trim. You can turn on the option of creating constraints (SPCs) for all the nodes along the face of the box. (Reject will undo all the above. Y and Z directions.0 User’s Guide 121 . If you select a standard type. click the icon. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A large hexa element that represents the box will be created for visualization in the specified collector. 4. the outer X. Using the extended entity selection.To box trim a model: 1. 2.) 5. and select the center node. click Box Trim. If you select Corners. From the Geom/Mesh utility menu. If no elements are selected. Then enter Delta X. You can also specify a Box collector. and select the two corner nodes that define If you select Distance from center. the constraints are created in the current load collector. . select the elements you would like to trim and click proceed or the middle mouse button. Y and Z bounds of the box. click the icon. 3. choose the appropriate option from the Box trim type: menu.

refer to Connector Definition and Connector Realization for more information. Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog 122 HyperMesh 8.Auto Connectors Macro Note: If you are unfamiliar with HyperMesh connector entities.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Virtually every option available for FE realization in the connectors module is also available in the Auto Connectors macro. The Auto Connectors macro automates the importation and FE realization of connectors from either a Master Connectors File or an older Master Weld File.

the user-defined FE type-t o-realize is required.Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog . The property and diameter can be specified if necessary.cfg file) in the Fe type field. This script automatically reads the default HyperMesh feconfig.cfg file. The user-defined FE type definitions can be found in the appropriate feconfig.user-defined option Input requirements for connector entity creation and FE realization are: • • • Note: Master connectors/weld file FE config Projection tolerance In the case of a user-defined FE config.cfg file and displays a list of all the appropriate user-defined FE types (found in the feconfig.0 User’s Guide 123 . Additional options are: • • • Build systems Snap to node Attach to shells Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

This creates the Hexa elements between the component/element shell surface. The nugget diameter corresponding to the minimum thickness of the connecting parts is obtained from the DvsT file. T1 and T2 are the component thicknesses. The first figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method.25:: 3.25:: Z 1. A format example is shown below. Minimum thickness 1. see Spotweld Interface Overview.Master Weld Files The Master Weld File provides the weld location and parts to be connected.25: 3. The file format includes thickness range and the corresponding diameter of the weld nugget. The weld is defined using a solid (HEXA) element whose cross-sectional area is equivalent to the area of the weld nugget.25:: PartId1 2:: 2:: PartId2 3:: 3:: 5:: PartId3 The syntax is the same as used for spotweld. The length of the weld element is calculated using one of the following methods: (T1+T2)/2 This creates the Hexa elements with a length equal to the average component thickness it is connecting.0 Nugget diameter 7 8 The nugget diameter is 7. The length of the Hexa element will be equal to the actual distance between the two connecting components/elements. The equivalent area is taken to determine the side of the hexa. For additional supported formats.9 3. ACM Welds An ACM (Area Contact Method) weld is a special representation of a spot weld.0 Maximum thickness 1. Diameter vs. The size of the solid element is determined using the DvsT file.exe feinput translator. The size of the hexa is calculated to match the cross-sectional area of the weld nugget.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Thickness Files DvsT file (diameter vs thickness ) contains a table that associates the thickness of components and the nugget diameter of the weld. The second figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method.0 for the thickness range of 1.0:: 0.4 to 1. PointId 12:: 23:: 1t/2t/3t 2:: 3:: X 2.4 2.05:: Y 2. Project to shell 124 HyperMesh 8.99. Th e solid element is created at the exact weld location independent of the shell elements that represent the sheet metal parts. These solid elements are connected to the corresponding components using RBE3 elements.

ACM creation using (T1+T2)/2.The figures below show ACM created using the two currently available methods. The nodes of the shell element closest to the dependent node are assigned a greater weight relative to the node that is farther away.0 User’s Guide 125 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 option ACM creation using Project to Shells option The weights of the RBE3 elements are calculated based on the projection of the dependent node on the shell element.

4. 7. Once a connector is created. Set the appropriate tolerance (proj tol=) value. For details regarding connected shell elements or nodal information see the element card. 5. Select the connectors to be realized as ACMs in the fe realize panel of the connectors module on the 1D page. Make sure that the connectors are created at each of the weld locations along with connecting parts information. meshless elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 3. hexas are created with weld nugget diameter =1. Make sure all the connecting parts have PSHELL cards with correct thicknesses. Load the Nastran user profile from the user prof… panel in Geom or Tools page. a corresponding property card (PWELD) is created with an updated diameter ‘D’ attribute value. The appropriate property script is automatically loaded for the selected type. CWELD Elements CWELD elements are created as patch-patch. Choose custom element config and select type = Nastran 70 ACM((T1+T2)/2) or type = Nastran 71 ACM (Shell Gap) per your requirements. the diameter is determined from a DvsT file based on the component thickness. they can be realized as ACM spotwelds as follows: 1. The 1D element is not connected to the shell element.ACM welds can be created and managed in HyperMesh using connectors. which determines the size of the hexa based on the thicknesses of the components being connected. 6. 126 HyperMesh 8. 9. Click realize. Select a DvsT file. For CWELD elements.0. Make sure the attach to shell and snap to node options are turned off in fe options…. 8. In addition to the creation of CWELD elements. 2. If no DvsT file is selected.

0 User’s Guide 127 .they do not affect the internal behavior of each function. The configuration can include loading a specific template.User Profiles The HyperMesh user interface can be configured according to your specific needs and saved as a user profile. Actran. moving. however. User profiles for the following products are included: HyperMesh OptiStruct ABAQUS ACTRAN ANSYS LS-DYNA MADYMO NASTRAN PAM-CRASH & PAM-CRASH2G PERMAS RADIOSS CFD Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. removing unused panels or sub-panels. and removing. OptiStruct. HyperMesh.set file keeps track of which user profile was last loaded. Madymo. Note: Ensure that items required for a specific function are not removed from the interface. Radioss. loading a specific Utility menu. They may. A set of standard user profiles is included in the HyperMesh installation. renaming panels. LsDyna. Nastran. Moldflow. Permas. The current user profile displays on the header bar. Ansys. the appropriate template and Utility menu load (you can return to the standard HyperMesh GUI by selecting the HyperMesh profile). and an interface customized for CFD uses. or renaming panel options. Pamcrash. Select User Profiles from the Preferences pull-down menu. The hmmenu. add functions to (or remove them from) a panel. Once you choose a standard user profile. Note that the user profiles change the appearance of a panel . They include Abaqus.

Utility menu: Panel changes: The standard HyperMesh Utility menu is loaded. If a template file exists before loading the profile. None The HyperMesh user profile does not load a template. Using HyperMesh This section explains how to use a typical HyperMesh panel by description and example.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The standard HyperMesh Utility menu (hm. the template remains the same.HyperMesh User Profile Template: None/Unchanged This user profile does not load a template. If a template file exists before loading the profile. the template remains the same. It contains information about: • • • • • • • • • • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Input Collectors Viewing Models Using the Display Panel Setting View Options Setting Tolerances Setting Global Parameters Importing and Exporting Data Printing Screen Images Using the Card Previewer 128 HyperMesh 8.mac) is loaded.

open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. and Save As… options located in the Files pull-down menu.. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and then select the hm file sub-panel. dialog.0 User’s Guide 129 . You can also click save as. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. Next. updating/overwriting its older version each time you Save.... To retrieve a binary HyperMesh database.0 and earlier. click save. and click Open. Save simply saves the current model under its current name.. you can also use the hm file sub-panel on the files panel to save and retrieve HyperMesh binary databases.. select a file using the Open file. HyperMesh asks for confirmation before overwriting the file..Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Using the File pull-down menu The simplest way to open or save a HyperMesh model database is to use the Open. but can be less efficient than using the File menu. To save a database. and then select the hm file sub-panel. This process is familiar for users of HyperMesh 7. and click Save. or type in a name for the file to be saved. click retrieve.. If the file being saved already exists. Open and Save As… both invoke browsers so that you can navigate to the desired file directory and either select a file to open. Using the Files Panel However. Save. select a path and file name. Next.

line.Picking Entities on the Screen After you select the correct data type. Surfaces Components Surfaces do not have pick handles. Elements Shell and solid element pick handles are displayed as pixels at the centroid of the element. You can set the default mode for the graphics mode you wish to use by activating/deactivating the *graphicengine(mode) command in the hm. The pick handle for a coordinate system is located at the origin of the system. Click geom handle on the modeling sub-panel on the options subpanel to switch on or off the display of line handles. you can use the mouse to pick the desired entities in the graphics area of the screen. or surface within that component." If there are many pick handles. If you need to select nodes on geometry or on an element where nodes do not currently exist. see Entity Selection. Each pick handle is displayed as a small "+. Element handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. Line handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Each type of entity has a pick handle that allows you to select the entity. move the mouse to the location on the screen where the node resides. You may need to change the command if the default has been changed by a prior user. Note: For more information about picking entities. Systems 130 HyperMesh 8. A component can be selected by picking an element. Surfaces can be selected along their edges or on interior UV lines (also known as surface lines). The following list indicates the pick handle locations for each type of entity: Nodes The pick handle for a node is located at the node. a "+" is displayed at only some of the pick handles. Components do not have pick handles. To select a node. 1-D element pick handles are displayed as letters at the centroid of the elements: K M BAR2 BAR3 R RL W RBE3 J ROD GAP spring masses bar2 bar3 rigid rigid link weld rbe3 joint rod gap Click the element handles check box on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel to switch on or off the display of element handles. see Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements. Lines Each segment of a line has pick handles along its length.cfg command file.

A curve can be selected by clicking anywhere along the curve. To select a load collector. Blocks are drawn in shaded mode with transparency and can be selected by picking anywhere on the entity. simply select a load within that system collector. Vector pick handles are located at the arrow tip of the vector. elements. Load collectors do not have pick handles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A plot can be selected by picking within its border.0 User’s Guide 131 . To select a system collector. or loads. Titles Vectors Curves Note A title can be selected by picking within its bounding box. you can turn on the coincident picking option from the modeling sub-panel of the options panel (accessed from the toolbar). Blocks do not have pick handles. simply select a system within that system collector.System Collectors Loads Load Collectors Plots Blocks System collectors do not have pick handles. when several of them are coincident (present at the same location). The pick handle for a load is located at the pick handle of the entity to which the load is applied. To facilitate the selection of graphical entities such as nodes.

You can create temporary nodes on an element (similar to creating a node on the fly on a line or surface). .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Continue to hold the left mouse button down and use the mouse to move this special cursor box close to the desired geometry entity. 4. surfaces) on which you would like to place a node. you can select nodes at the desired location(s) on the geometry. Move your cursor to the exact location on the element where you want to add a node and click the left mouse button. The cursor becomes a small white box 2. The cursor becomes a small white box and the element is highlighted. Position the cursor on a node and press the left mouse button. edges. To select new nodes on geometry: 1. A temporary node is created at that location and is selected in the node collection for the panel. This function allows you to create welds at locations that do not have pre-existing nodes. You can create a node on geometry by holding the left mouse button down along the geometry handle until the cursor becomes a square and then selecting the geometry (lines. This function can be accessed from any node collector in any panel. 3.Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements Node and node list input collectors allow you to not only pick existing nodes in the model. Release the left mouse button. While the line/surface is highlighted. they also allow you to create new nodes on geometry or on elements. Then move the cursor to the exact location on the elements of that component and click the left mouse button to place the node. You can create nodes on elements by holding the left mouse button down on an element handle until the cursor becomes a square and selecting the element. release the left mouse button to select it. Then move your cursor to the exact location on the geometry where you would like the node to be placed and click the left mouse button to place a node. To select new nodes on elements: 1. 2. 3. position the cursor on an element handle and hold the left mouse button down. While the line or surface is highlighted in this manner. 132 HyperMesh 8. When you are in a node collection mode.

Entities that are not displayed will not be selected although they may be attached to the entity selected. Allows you to select elements. When you select all. HyperMesh includes the entities currently displayed that are attached to the entities already selected. With all other entities. Allows you to select entities by specifying an entity among a large group of continuously connected elements. Input Collector Extended entity selection menu. the set to be added to the user mark includes entities displayed and those not displayed. Allows you to select entities by assembly. the elements or lines contained in the selected components are selected. lines. and points by collector. Extended selection techniques are described in the following table: all Allows you to select all entities of the specified type. When you select by attached. You may select multiple assemblies from this list. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are displayed in dimmed text. click the data type button on the current input collector. equations. To access the extended selection menu. surfaces. When you select by adjacent. vectors. loads. the entities selected by this operation are those attached to the selected component. Allows you to select entities adjacent to the entities already selected. by adjacent by assems by attached by collector Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You may select multiple collectors from this list. If you select component collectors in regard to elements or lines. These selection options are displayed for all of the entity types in HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide 133 . HyperMesh displays a list of the available collectors. HyperMesh displays a list of the available assemblies. coordinate systems. When you select by collector.Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu The extended entity selection menu provides a number of entity selection options. You can then select an option from the extended entity selection menu. When you select by assems. HyperMesh includes the entities that are adjacent to the entities already selected.

The standard format is: <start number> . The element type is dependent on the template file specified in the global panel. When you select by include. that belong to selected include.10. Allows you to select entities by typing in their ID numbers. a pop-up window prompts you to type ID numbers or ranges of ID numbers. When you select by config. adjacent surfaces or elements are progressively selected when the angle between them is less than or equal to the specified feature angle. Examples of valid lists of by id expressions: 1. or "t" may be substituted for the dash (-).100 by 2. by output block Allows you to select the nodes. You may select multiple groups from this list. 400 t 500 b 3 by face by group by id by include Allows you to select FE entities such as elements. 4. Output blocks are created in the output blocks panel. Examples of valid by id expressions: 127 127 – 722 300 through 600 300 thru 600 300 t 600 1000 .<end number> by <increment value> "through". 77. Allows you to select entities by group. HyperMesh displays a list of the available includes that you may select. 3.2000 b 100 You can also use a comma to separate individual entities or entity ranges. groups etc. comps. elements. 134 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh displays a list of the available output blocks from which you may select. HyperMesh displays a panel for specifying an element configuration and type for selection.2000 by 100 1000 . It finds surfaces and elements that are attached to each other without crossing a feature line. When you select by group. 5. 800. When you select by output block. loads. Allows you to select entities by surface face.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note: Includes created via the include browser are only valid for solvers that support them. 5. When you select by id. and the letter "b" may be substituted for "by" when you specify the range. The feature angle parameter in the options panel’s modeling sub-panel determines the feature lines. "thru". Attached.by config Allows you to select elements by configuration and type. groups and mats within an outputblock. systs. You can use keywords to specify a range that determines which entities are selected. 850 1 . 8 . 100 3. HyperMesh displays a list of the available groups.

Select original to place the new entities in the same component collectors as the original entities. Entities can be saved to the user mark by selecting save in this popup window. Allows you to select the entities within a set. lines. surfaces. Similarly. and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. Allows you to select surfaces by width. When disp is selected. The initially selected entities are deselected when the duplicate elements are created and selected. or by selecting save failed in the check elems panel. When you select by sets. Allows you to select a group of entities whose pick handles reside on a plane. Once the surfaces have been selected. You can associate entities to a surface in the node edit panel. When you select by surface. Allows you to retrieve previously saved entities from the user mark. Allows you to select the entities which are associated to a surface. Alternatively. Allows you to select entities inside a user-defined multiple-sided polygon in the plane of the screen. Allows you to select all of the entities currently displayed on the screen. click select and HyperMesh selects the entities which are associated to the surfaces. a pop-up window allows you to choose a component for the newly created duplicate entities. by path for lines uses the connectivity of surfaces/solids and thus requires the selected lines to be surface/solid edges. or points. When you select duplicate. Selecting by window activates the build window panel. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes. This can be very useful when you use the reflect function on a model (only available for elements and lines). and selects all the nodes/lines that fall in the closest path connecting the selected ones. HyperMesh displays a list of the available sets from which you may select. the function tries to find the closest path along that free edge. by sets by surface by window by width displayed duplicate on plane retrieve Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This is useful when you want to apply constraints to a plane. If you select two nodes on a free edge of some elements. all entities within collectors that are active in the disp (display) panel are selected. HyperMesh displays a panel from which you may select one or more surfaces. Allows you to duplicate the currently selected elements. as shown in the global panel. either by picking a sample surface or by specifying a range of values for the width. Click select entities to highlight the enclosed entities. Sets are created in the entity sets panel.0 User’s Guide 135 . Select points in the graphics area to define a window enclosing the pick handles of the desired entities. Select current to place the new entities in the currently active component collector.by path Allows you to pick multiple nodes or lines. click reject entities to deselect enclosed entities that were previously highlighted.

Some panels in HyperMesh require only a single entity to collect. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally. Allows you to save the currently selected entities to a holding area known as the user mark. such as nodelist and linelist must remember the sequence in which the entities are selected. If you select two nodes on the free edge of the elements. for example. the function tries to find the closest path along the free edge. all elements which are not on the mark and are currently active are selected. Thus their extended entity selection menu is different from that of the standard extended selection menu. all selected elements are removed from the mark. The nodelist collector displays the following extended selection options: save Notes: by list by path Allows you to select nodes individually in the desired sequence. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. origin in the systems panel requires only one node. 136 HyperMesh 8. show node order by window The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. Allows you to review the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. If you select two free (red) edges. The extended entity selection menu is not displayed in such situations. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .reverse Allows for a Boolean "not" to be performed on the currently displayed elements. it only works with surface edges and not free unconnected geometric lines. Some collectors. When reverse is selected. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. Allows you to pick nodes (two or more) and selects all the nodes that fall in the closest path connecting the selected nodes. the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist).

reverse the view. Slide zoom. The following window viewing options are included as default keyboard shortcuts: z + and f p s Circle zoom: click-and-drag the mouse to draw a circle. Using View Rotation There are multiple methods you can use to rotate a displayed model. specify an area to see in closer detail. up. The save and restore options allow you to save.Viewing Models The functions on the Toolbar Area allow you to control the view of your model. View pop-up menu. click-and-drag the mouse to zoom in and out. Release the mouse button to stop zooming. The view zooms to that circle when you release the mouse button. and refresh the screen. or rotate the model in clockwise or counterclockwise directions. The view commands are accessible even when you are using other panels. • • • Use the left. (Numeric keypad) Current Window Zoom Fit to screen Plot (refreshes the rendering in the Graphics Area). right.0 User’s Guide 137 . identify. and down arrow keys to rotate the model incrementally. then click cw (clockwise) or ccw (counterclockwise). then click-and-drag on the model in the graphics area. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and restore different views of your model. fill the window with the model. Click the user view button in the Toolbar Area to access the view menu. The view menu Changing the Window The window viewing options allow you to zoom in and out of the currently displayed window. Hold down the ctrl key. The viewing functions allow you to: Setting Basic Views The view pop-up menu allows you to display your model in several basic views.

3. Simultaneously press and hold the CTRL key and the right mouse button. The cursor changes to dynamic center mode. With the mouse button still depressed. 138 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The area circled is used to recalculate the window when the mouse button is released.on the numeric keypad to zoom out. To refresh the screen: • Click the plot refresh toolbar button or press P on the keyboard. Release the mouse button. Slide the mouse: or 4. Automatic full screen refreshes are kept to a minimum. To perform a circle zoom: 1. 2. To fit the entire model on the screen: • Press F on the keyboard. Press the s key.CTRL . 2. 2. 2. A trailer line appears wherever the mouse is moved. 3. To drag the model: 1. Use the mouse to drag the model to the desired position on the screen. press the p key or the plot refresh toolbar button to refresh the screen. To use the mouse to zoom in and out: 1. Click and hold the mouse button. Move the mouse to the appropriate area on the screen and hold the left mouse button down. down to zoom in up to zoom out Release the mouse button to end the zoom function. Press + on the numeric keypad to zoom in. If the screen appears messy or inaccurate after entities have been plotted and erased. These two functions increase or decrease the current window by the user-defined factor specified on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel. Press Z on the keyboard. Press .right click allows you to drag the model. To zoom in and out of the current window: 1. The model and/or the window are not resized when you refresh the screen. HyperMesh displays a message requesting you to circle the area of the model to be more closely investigated. move the mouse to circle the area to be zoomed in on.

or by pressing any key. Press C on the keyboard. by clicking the right mouse button. click the previous view button in the Toolbar Area or press b on the keyboard. You can toggle between two views of a model by clicking (or pressing) repeatedly. Exit by moving the mouse into the menu area. also called panning. This returns the screen graphic to the view before a rotation.Performing View Translation Translation of the model. The center relocates. 3. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Move the mouse into the graphics area. Move the mouse to the point where you want the new center located and click the left mouse button. or other viewing manipulation was performed. To change the screen center: 1. is performed by selecting a new center for the current window. center. 2. zoom.0 User’s Guide 139 . Return to the Previous View To return to the previous view of your model. The current center is indicated by a small white box. 4.

allows you to select which components and collectors are displayed on the screen.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Use the right mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want removed. Click the lower switch and select (id) to display the collector’s ID number instead of the name. Select the type of collector you want to display. Click the upper switch. 3. IDs. 2. Access it by clicking the display button in the Toolbar Area or selecting Display > Collectors from the View pull-down menu. Click all. Select the type of collector you want to display. Components can be turned on and off by selecting the check boxes of the components in the display list. the elements in the selected components are displayed if the component (on the left-hand side of the panel) is selected. To turn on all the collectors of a specified type: 1. In the default mode of the display panel. Use the left mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want added to the display. 2. 2. To turn all the collectors off: • Click none. To change to another collector type: 1. The name of the collector is displayed on the left side of the page. The colors of each component display next to the component names. 2. To change the collector list to display names. located on the permanent menu. Click the upper switch. 3. At this setting. Click the lower switch and select name (id) to display the name and the collector’s ID number. or both: 1. To turn a collector off: 1. Select the collector type. Click the lower switch and select name to display the collector’s name.Using the disp (display) Panel The disp (display) panel. 2. The ID of the collector is displayed in parenthesis on the left side of the page. Select the type of collector you want to remove from the screen display. 140 HyperMesh 8. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. To turn a collector on: 1. the switches (on the right-hand side of the panel) are set to comps and elems. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. The name and ID of the collector are displayed on the left side of the page. Click the upper switch. 3. Collectors can also be turned off by moving the mouse to the graphics region and picking an entity which they collect.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.To reverse the selection: • Click reverse to toggle between having all the selected components on or off. Enter the character string to use for the filter. Click the leftmost toggle to filter =. To use a filter: 1.0 User’s Guide 141 . You can use the asterisk (*) for a wildcard. 2. To display geometry: • Click the toggle and select geoms to display the surfaces and lines in a component.

that the cursor can be from the pick handle of a graphical entity in order to select it. The element handles option also allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. loads and systems. This does not affect the display of free points. For example. This function is activated by turning on coincident picking in the options panel. but it can slow down the redraw speed of a large model. The entities supported for coincident picking are nodes. Fixed points can also be turned on and off from vis opts in the geometry cleanup panel. The coincident picking option allows you to graphically select a desired entity from a stack of coincident entities when there are multiple entities at the same location. The geom handles option allows you to specify whether or not to display line and surface handles. When the pick tolerance is increased. The pick tolerance specifies the maximum distance. The surf lines parameter specifies the default number of u-v lines to draw on new surfaces when they are created. This sub-panel also allows you to specify node and cleanup tolerances. An element handle is a single-pixel dot at the centroid of an element. it is easier to pick an entity. a circular insert pops up containing various loads displayed separately with their IDs turned on. For smaller models. in pixels. fixed points The fixed points option allows you to specify whether or not to display fixed points. The number of surface lines on existing surfaces can be changed by using the surf lines panel. Turning off pick handles can speed up the redraw time. setting the rotation angle to a lower value allows a smooth transition from frame to frame. Viewing option settings include: rotate angle The rotate angle specifies the number of degrees that your model rotates when you use the arrow keys. This option allows you to display the element labels as template names or HyperMesh names. elements. Increasing or decreasing the angle makes the model appear to rotate faster or slower. You can then pick the appropriate load. pick tol zoom factor surf lines element handle geom handle coincident picking template labels/ HM labels 142 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Setting View Options The modeling sub-panel on the options panel (accessible via to toolbar or the Tools pull-down menu) allows you to define several viewing options. Displaying surface lines can help you to visualize a surface better. if multiple loads are detected at the same location. The zoom factor specifies the multiplication factor that is used to increase or decrease the scale of the current view when you press the + and – keys on the numeric keypad. The element handles option specifies whether or not to draw element handles. for more information see Setting Tolerances.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For nodes that are not attached to any elements. If no shrink is selected. the element is scaled by the specified value about its centroid. then selecting FE Styles. so that its corners do not appear to touch its nodes. For lines and surfaces. Hidden Line with Mesh Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the edges drawn in mesh line color. Component Display The graphics engine treats each HyperMesh component as an independent unit. select the element to which the node of interest is attached. To select a node.0 User’s Guide 143 . Entity Selection The graphics engine allows you to select entities by moving the mouse anywhere along the entity of interest. HyperMesh selects the node closest to the point where the element was selected. Hidden Line The element displays as a filled polygon. They can be applied to individual components or sets of components through the Visual Attributes panel. HyperMesh allows you to select the node by picking the "node sphere" on the screen. Another key feature in the graphics engine is the method by which nodes are selected. The benefit of this feature is that it allows you to create zero length elements between two coincident nodes in a mesh. as you are not required to have a pick handle on the screen in order to pick the entity. Shrinking elements is a convenient way to detect holes in a mesh and to improve wireframe element picking. The shrink value must be between 0 and 1.Shrink The shrink option controls the shrink factor to be used when drawing elements. Display attributes can be applied to all components by using the wireframe elements and shaded elements toolbar buttons. If a shrink value is applied. Hidden Line with Feature Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the "feature" edges drawn in mesh line color. Access this panel by opening the View pull-down menu. each element is drawn so that its corners directly connect to its nodes. it is much easier to work when you are zoomed in on a particular area. This feature allows you to assign a set of display attributes to each component of your model that determines how each component is displayed. Transparent The element displays as a filled transparent polygon. The display attributes that you can assign to each component are: Wireframe Element edges display with lines.

or as a value-based surface in which you specify a value that indicates where an isosurface should be displayed. The zbuffer allows HyperMesh to render your model in hidden line. Optimization The graphics engine optimizes the display of your finite element model. then HyperMesh draws the whole model in hidden line. or nearly the same location in space. this could seriously affect performance. HyperMesh relies on the zbuffer found on your graphics device. and displays these instead of displaying all of the faces. Isosurfaces can be displayed on a model in either a legendbased mode in which each of the legend colors generates an isosurface. and then another entity closer to you at another. Here. the interior is filled with solid color. Potential areas of zbuffer stitching are in the features. HyperMesh calculates where the external faces are in your model. the display lines which represent the edges (for example) might be partially or completely blocked out by the original entity in the database. and animation panels. HyperMesh graphics use some memory. If one or more of the components in a model are set to a display style besides wireframe. the graphics engine draws all selected or temporary nodes as spheres when one or more components are set to a display attribute other than wireframe. with the elements in back eliminated from the display. When a component is set to hidden line. since HyperMesh is creating entities that reside in the same location in space as another entity.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it may help to use the shrink option (modeling sub-panel on the options panel). If you have solid elements in your model. edges. you can turn the zbuffer off by making all of the components in your model wireframe.User Features of the Graphics engine When you are post-processing. Isosurfaces Hidden components Memory usage 144 HyperMesh 8. If swapping occurs while you are running HyperMesh. One of the optimizations is the removal of interior solid faces. you might see a "dotting" or "stitching" effect where the zbuffer considers one entity to be closer to you at one pointer. If this occurs. The cutting plane feature can be found in the hidden line. One problem with using the zbuffer technology is that if two entities lie in the same location in space. the zbuffer may have difficulty deciding which entity to display. the graphics engine offers advanced and powerful features: Cutting plane Cutting plane functions have been expanded to allow three planes to be active simultaneously. Cutting plane control is more interactive and is controlled by selecting any of the active planes with the mouse and then dragging the plane across the model. The isosurfaces sub-panel is available on the contour and animation panels. To correct this situation. This can make it very difficult to see a node. and faces panels. you should obtain more system memory. If you encounter this problem. contour. There are some limitations to using a zbuffer and some display output differences of which you should be aware. In some cases. If this situation occurs. To perform this task.

max 1e-4 0.1 10.1 0. cleanup tol Since the objective is to make a finite element mesh for the geometry. Use this panel or the template sub-panel on the files panel to specify the template file you want to use.Setting Tolerances The modeling sub-panel is located on the Options panel.1 10. Elements are designated as first order elements by default. Element size Node tolerance min max 0.1 1.01 1.0 0.01 1.0 0.1 0.0 User’s Guide 145 .0 Setting Global Parameters The global panel. the tolerance values are determined by the demands for that mesh. which is accessible from the toolbar or from the Tools pull-down menu. accessed by selecting Global Parameters from the Model pull-down menu. You need to approximate the size of the elements that make up the smallest feature of importance in your model. HyperMesh attempts to make a reasonable guess at this value when you import a CAD file. The global panel controls which components or collectors are active. and initializes the tolerances as appropriate. This sub-tab allows you to define tolerance values.0 1e-4 0. Since you will approximate the geometry with a finite element mesh. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. but without additional input it uses a cautious estimate. and eliminating extraneous vertices.. controls model parameters that are accessed by several different panels.01 1e-3 0. If you want to create second order elements. "Cleaning up" refers to cleaning up the CAD geometry data by equivalencing edges.0 Cleanup tolerance min.. These parameters remain constant until changed. These tolerance values include: node tol Node tolerance is essentially the resolution to which HyperMesh maintains the finite element data in the model. When you specify a node tolerance.0 10. The cleanup tolerance value specifies how much HyperMesh is allowed to modify the geometry in the course of "cleaning" it.0 100. you need to work with a cleanup tolerance that is less than the node tolerance used in the mesh generation. HyperMesh considers any two nodes to be coincident if the distance between them is less than the value. any entities created are stored in the active collectors.01 1e-3 0. click the toggle after element order: to second. deleting fillets.

Select the desired file extension to limit the files that display in the files to import list. and a secondary window opens to show the import progress and any errors that may occur. HM ASCII. 7. HyperMesh uses templates to create the analysis input decks for finite element solvers. Click the “open folder” icon in the directory field to open a browser. The export sub-panel on the files panel allows you to write information from a HyperMesh database to many finite element formats. Abaqus. Altair Engineering 9. 2. Browse to and select the directory that contains the models you wish to import. Nastran. Click Import to import the selected files. Patran. This is useful in cases when you want to choose most of the files in the list. Click the button to deselect all of the files in the list. You can also import/merge HyperMesh model files (. UG. You can also use the templates to perform complex editing or data manipulation tasks. The HyperMesh templates can be used to create model summaries and perform some analysis calculations. 3. The CUSTOM interface allows you to import models using your own custom-built translation package. 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . To import multiple files: 1. Click the button to invert the selection (deselect any currently selected files and select any currently non-selected ones). 146 HyperMesh 8. 6. PRO/E. Click the button to select all of the files in the list. Click import to open the import sub-menu. Click multiple files. Pamcrash. The CAD formats currently supported are IGES. Moldflow. Click Close to close the Multiple File Import window. STL. HyperMesh ascii. Select the desired file type. VDAFS. Radioss. Ls-Dyna. • Selected files are highlighted to indicate their selection. you can select the ones you don’t want and then invert the selection. The FE formats we support are Optistruct. CATIA. Select the desired files in the files to import list: • • • • Left-click to select a single file. Ansys. The custom option can be used to import models using a translator provided with the HyperMesh installation but cannot be accessed via the pop-up menu. You can modify the existing templates to support a desired feature or create a new template to support another analysis code. Cmold. Geometry data can be written in IGES format. <ctrl>-click to select multiple files one at a time. 4. The Multiple File Import window opens. The window minimizes during the import process. 5.Importing and Exporting Data The import sub-panel on the files panel allows you to input external CAD line and surface data or finite element models. and STEP. Marc.hm) into the current model session. Click the file pull-down menu. DXF. and Ideas. but not all. PDGS.

. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. and use the browser to select the file containing the data. groups. click import. 8.To read data using a standard translator: 1. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. or layers & groups. Click template = and specify the file name of the template file. 7. 3. 3. 9. Select the data format that corresponds to your input data from the pop-up menu. Select EXTERNAL. Select IGES. Click write.0 User’s Guide 147 . Select IGES. Click filename = and enter the name of the output file. 6. 3. and use the browser to select a file. 4. 2.. To read data using a custom translator: 1. To write geometry data in IGES format: 1. click import.. Select the FE option. 2. 5. Click the lower switch and select layers. click browse… and choose the translator required to read the file. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. (Note that the IGES interface exports geometry only.) To create an analysis deck via an external translator: 1.. 5. Select the CUSTOM option. A new input field. Click write. template = appears if it is not already present. 4. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. Click write as. 2. 4.. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. Click the toggle and choose either outer loop optional or outer loop mandatory. For translator:.. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. if they are not already present. and enter the name of the output file or select. A column of switches and toggles appears on the right. Click the upper switch and select the plane format of the data. For file:. 4. 6. For file:. 3. 2.

2. Select Options from the Tools pull-down menu. The following options are available in the options panel. Select fill to page to fill the PostScript image to the specified page dimensions. The ? is a number provided for file uniqueness.* is generated. 2. Select Image > PostScript. Open the File pull-down menu. To print an imported encapsulated PostScript image in MS Word. The generate bitmaps option must be off if you select this option. 3. This requires processing time to optimize the image output. a PostScript tab is present in the properties dialog. Select plot optimize to decrease the size of the PostScript file generated. Set the options to your print specifications. reverse video generate bitmaps fill to page fill model bitmap preview Select reverse video to indicate that your printer cannot produce reverse video images. Select fill model to expand the model to its maximum size within the graphics area of the PostScript page.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The color checkbox is active by default. and * is an extension (either eps for a PostScript file whose destination is the hard disk. Select bitmap preview to generate an image that can be viewed when you view the file in another document. To set MS Word to send the imported file as a PostScript image to the printer. If the printer selected is capable of printing PostScript. Select generate bitmaps to generate a bitmap PostScript file. If it is not selected. Make sure the option Print PostScript over text is selected. Select the PostScript sub-panel. postscript sub-panel: color checkbox Activate the color checkbox to print in color. press the Options button in the print dialog.Printing Screen Images The postscript sub-panel on the options panel allows you to modify the default print specifications before you create a PostScript file. plot optimize page length = 148 HyperMesh 8. or psp for a PostScript file whose destination is the printer). To create a PostScript file: 1. the PostScript preview or file information is printed instead of the actual PostScript image. Click page length = and enter the new size to alter the page length.0 inches. Deactivate the color checkbox to print in black and white. A PostScript file with the name post?. You can check this by selecting Print from the File menu to show the print dialog box and pressing the Properties button next to the printer name. To change PostScript settings file: 1. The standard page length is 11. you must have a PostScript capable printer installed.

but takes longer to generate. hm.cfg. In order for the functions to work correctly. Select line width = and enter the new width to alter the line width. Click the toggle to standard/enhanced to change the postscript file resolution to print blended contours. hm.) Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. CTRL-F3 CTRL-F4 CTRL-F5 CTRL-F6 Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. On UNIX platforms. CTRL-F2 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. (Note: This works only in UNIX. CTRL-F1 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer.0 User’s Guide 149 . hm. The standard page width is 8. Printing Screen Images Using Keyboard Commands You can also use the following function keys in combination with the CTRL key to print and/or save screen images without accessing the postscript sub-panel. your systems administrator must configure these functions for your system. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. The slider controls the smoothness of the gradient fill of the blended contour. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Generates a *. Select print it to send a copy of the file to the printer when you generate the PostScript file. Click image size = and enter the new size to scale the image on the page to your specifications. the default installation does not spool the bitmap file to the printer. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file.cfg.5 inches. If you select enhanced. It creates a smaller PS file. please contact your systems administrator. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. This command executes the operating system command in the *postcopy() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file.cfg. If the functions do not create output. The resolution is displayed in the header bar. The enhanced option allows you to print blended contours (not discrete).jpg screen capture or animation file.page width = image size = line width = print it standard/enhanced Click page width = and enter the new size to alter the page width. a slider bar is displayed.

A default value field has two states: State Default = ON Default = OVERRIDDEN Description In this state. To override a default value field. Those control cards that are defined (green in the control card editor) are output. the field label color is yellow and no data entry is allowed. the label text color changes to cyan. the control card is not output. Any control card viewed in the card previewer is activated. 150 HyperMesh 8. and allows you to enter data in the field. A card that has been defined may be disabled. Default values for attributes are common throughout the card previewer. however. The attributes for that card remain.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .) Inactive Note: Color Gray Green Red Explanation The control card was either never created or has been deleted. pick the yellow field label. When you override a default value field.Using the Card Previewer A control card may be in one of three states: State Undefined Defined (See note.

General Process for Building Models This section describes how to build a finite element model in HyperMesh. In general.0 User’s Guide 151 . the following building process is used: • • • • • • Create collectors Obtain line and surface geometry from an external file. or hand digitize the data Reconcile conflicts in the geometry and prepare it for use Build the model by using element-building panels Verify the quality of the model Create boundary conditions and systems Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

HyperMesh uses the definitions contained in the dictionaries or card image to translate models to external analysis codes. Click name = and enter a name for the collector. 3. 4. Select dictionary or card image and then click dictionary = or card image = to select the dictionary or card image from a list. 7. The collectors panel allows you to create and update collectors and assign and edit card images or dictionaries. Click return. Click the upper switch and select comps. Click the switch under creation method:. HyperMesh automatically creates a material for you and gives it the same name as the component or property. click the switch and select the type of collector that you want to create. refer to Collectors in Database Design. − − − Select no dictionary or no card image if you do not want to assign a dictionary or card image. 4. 7. select material = and enter a name for the material. 152 HyperMesh 8. 2. You are not required to provide a material name when you create a component or property. For collector type:. To create a component: 1. If you are creating a component or property collector. Select the collectors panel. Click create. 3. 2. each collector may use a dictionary or card image to define the attributes assigned to the collector. 6. create a component collector for the lines and surfaces. Click create. Select the create sub-panel. Select same as and then click same as = to select the collector whose type and dictionary or card image information you want to copy from an existing collector. Select the create sub-panel. 5. 8. Before you build a model in HyperMesh. Note: For more information about the types of collectors used in HyperMesh. if desired. Click name= and enter comp1. If you choose not to. click color and select the desired color for the component from the pop-up menu. To create a collector: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 6.Creating Collectors All entities in a HyperMesh database are stored in collectors. Where available. Click the switch under creation method: and select no card image. 5. Based on the assigned template. Select the collectors panel.

Click import… to invoke the file browser and select the file that contains your geometry data.0 User’s Guide 153 . please review the individual CAD translator topics for additional information. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. Parasolid. Blanked components are geometric data that exists in the CAD file but is marked as not displayed or turned on. When the geometry is read into the current database. Select the Geom option. VDAFS. To import geometry: 1. Click Open to import the model into HyperMesh. ACIS and STEP. DXF. Select the appropriate file format to be imported from the pop-up menu.Reading Geometry HyperMesh imports CAD geometry (such as lines. Unigraphics. PDGS. or select cleanup tol and enter a tolerance value. Using the toggle. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 5. Pro/E. surface data. − − Using the toggle. select use automatic cleanup tol to use the cleanup tolerance associated with the geometry of the imported file. 4. select create blanked component or no blanked component. and point data) in the following formats: CATIA (V4 and V5). HyperMesh creates a new component if an active component does not already exist. IGES. 2. The types of geometric entities and organizational information imported vary for different formats. 3.

or shrinking. or extend. 154 HyperMesh 8. Edit existing lines in a variety of methods such as combine. Edit existing surfaces by removing individual features such as holes or fillets. surfaces creation and editing panels surfaces primitives surface edit defeature Create surfaces from existing lines or nodes by different methods. Create standard shaped surfaces or solid entities. Create circles or arcs. including squares. point/node creation and editing panels nodes temp nodes Create new nodes. and cylinders. spline/filler. The ruled. drag. The spline option creates a surface through 3-D lines.Creating Geometry Data If geometry is not available from a CAD system. and drag/spin sub-panels of the surfaces panel can be used to create NURBS surfaces. Edit existing surfaces by trimming. The panels used in this process are listed below: lines creation and editing panels lines line edit circles Create lines in a variety of methods. knots and weights. If you select a set of lines that do not form a closed loop. Add or remove nodes used only for geometry creation or editing. you can create or edit geometry using the line and surface builders. at tangents. spheres. and create a spline surface and/or mesh in the enclosed area. split. Several methods are available. or spin. such as spline. extending. and at the intersection of other geometry.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . smooth. These lines form one path because they intersect at four points. cones. including: from points. HyperMesh will connect the disconnected lines with straight lines. Creating NURBS surfaces A NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) surface is a parametric surface defined by control points. There is no limit on the number of lines used to create a mesh/surface.

These lines result in a more complex surface. line by using the lines panel. and slows the automeshing process. If the tolerance is too small and an intersection cannot be found. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These lines may need to be "smoothed" by using the line edit panel or replaced with a new. which takes longer to create. The tolerance setting on the options panel is used to determine the intersections between lines. These sharp edges are sometimes the result of data created on other CAD/CAM systems and brought into HyperMesh via a translator.These lines form more than one path and cause an error. Lines that contain sharp edges can cause problems when you create a surface. Creating a surface with these lines results in a relatively complex surface. smooth.0 User’s Guide 155 . HyperMesh reports an error when you attempt to create the surface.

The skin option can create a skinned surface through a set of lines. 156 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Lines used to define a skinned surface. In some cases the sharp edges are required to represent the model and should not be smoothed. A skinned surface created from the lines. which results in a much simpler surface.The "circular" shaped line has been replaced with a smooth line.

0 User’s Guide 157 . A ruled surface created from the lines. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The ruled option can create a ruled surface between two lines. Lines used to create a ruled surface.

Each surface highlights as selected. and release it to confirm the selection. There may be times when you wish to use an unattached node later in the modeling process.. If several surfaces share an edge. Removes selected individual nodes from the temporary node list. Surface edges may be used in the same way as lines in any surface creation panel. In wireframe mode. i. and while holding the mouse button down. edit elements). Release the mouse button when the desired surface is highlighted. Removes all the temporary nodes from the database. you can display surfaces in wireframe mode or in shaded mode. Similar to wireframe mode. Picking Surfaces In HyperMesh. the easiest method of selecting a surface is to pick the surface near its edges or surface visualization lines. you can hold the left mouse button down until the surface of interest is highlighted. 158 HyperMesh 8. click anywhere on the surface to select it.e. In the temp nodes panel. faces. edges. moving the mouse slightly from side to side. duplicates of the lines are created and the operation is applied to the duplicates.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . there are three functions: • • • add clear clear all • • • Adds selected individual nodes to the temporary node list.Temporary Nodes A temporary node list retains nodes that are not attached to an element. where appropriate. If you use any surface edge lines in the line edit panel. In shaded mode. protecting them from automatic removal by HyperMesh’s database management (except for some panels that automatically clear all temporary nodes. The temp nodes panel allows you to modify the temporary node list. you can select any one of them by clicking on the edge.

to trim a surface with a line. A circle and a surface (represented with surface lines) before trimming. For example. If the sweep does not intersect the surface. use the trim with line sub-panel of the surface edit panel. two new surfaces are created (shown highlighted) and the original surface is trimmed.Editing Surfaces Each HyperMesh surface contains one or more faces. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. It is usually preferable to combine multiple faces into one surface entity before you use the meshing tools. The surface is trimmed by sweeping the line along the vector and intersecting the surface with the sweep. You can use the surface edit panel to modify surface geometry when it is necessary to make changes before you generate a mesh.0 User’s Guide 159 . After the circle is used to trim the surface. The features and automesh panels have a cleanup sub-panel. You must select the surface and the line and specify a direction vector. the surface is not trimmed. This allows them to be meshed at the same time. which contain surface editing tools.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 160 HyperMesh 8. The smaller surface is split into two surfaces after it is trimmed with the larger surface.To trim one surface with another. use the trim with surf sub-panel. Two surfaces before trimming.

Associated nodes and elements can be selected by surface.Associativity Nodes and elements can be associated to surfaces. such as translate. node. or element. the associativity is not broken. To re-associate a node to a surface. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Associativity is also broken if you trim a surface. Note: Re-associating nodes to a surface is usually a time consuming task. you can use the smooth panel to smooth elements on the surface and the node edit panel to move the nodes along the surface. associativity is broken. the nodes are automatically associated to the surface. if you transform a component that contains both a surface and its associated nodes/elements. If you transform. a surface. However. which allows you to select all the nodes and/or elements associated to a surface. Some operations break associativity. use the node edit or project panel.0 User’s Guide 161 . When you create a mesh with the automesher. When nodes are associated to a surface.

or other misalignments. These features can distort the elements or demand a finer mesh.Geometry Cleanup When designers create CAD geometry. each a separate mathematical face. A single smooth surface is typically split into smaller patches. analysts need to combine a number of faces into a single smooth surface. or pinholes. and prevents unnecessary artificial or accidental edges from being present in the final mesh. 162 HyperMesh 8. The quick edit. edge edit. their priorities are different from those of analysts trying to use the data. The initial CAD geometry often contains gaps. The juncture between two surfaces often contains gaps.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . point edit. overlaps. This allows the elements to be created on the entire region at once. To make the geometry more appropriate for meshing. misalignments. and autocleanup panels contain tools to help you prepare surface geometry for meshing.

cleaner geometry. you can easily build a much better mesh. and eliminate pinholes.0 User’s Guide 163 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. combine surfaces into large meshing regions. Using the simpler.With the tools of the geometry cleanup panels. you can close the gaps between surfaces.

rbe3s. The 1-D element-building panels are located on the 1D page of the default main menu. Weld Note: Supports weld elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . springs. edges. Purpose Supports complex beams. rods. Note: bar3s contain a third node designed to supported second order beams. elem offset. welds. bar3s. Masses have the ability to store one node. and a property reference. rigids. Supports NASTRAN RBE3 elements. This section describes the element types and indicates which panels you can use to build the elements. Supports rigid elements with multiple nodes. Supports springs or damper. Building 1-D Elements One-dimensional elements currently supported in HyperMesh include bar2s. Supports complex beams. Building 0-D Elements The 0-D elements currently supported in HyperMesh are masses. 1-D Element Bar2 Stores A property reference A local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Bar3 Property reference Local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Gap Joint Property reference Property reference Optional orientation nodes or system(s) Plot RBE3 Rigid link A reference to two nodes A degree of freedom at each node Weight at each node A degree of freedom code One independent node Multiple dependent nodes Rigid Rod Spring A degree of freedom code A property reference A property reference A degree of freedom code An optional orientation vector A degree of freedom code Supports rigid elements. you can build elements directly on the geometry. plots. Supports display type elements. rigid links. Supports kinematic joint definitions supplied with Safety Analysis Codes. Supports gap elements. and joints. Plot elements are generated in the edit element. gaps. a value of mass. Supports simple beams. or features panel.Building Elements After you create or obtain geometry data. The following list indicates the storage capabilities and purpose of each of the 1-D elements. line mesh. Altair Engineering 164 HyperMesh 8. Masses can be created in the masses panel.

Builds elements by dragging a line or group of elements along or about a control line.0 User’s Guide 165 . Builds elements by spinning a line. Builds elements on spherical surfaces. Builds elements on square or trimmed planar surfaces. six-noded trias. and eight-noded quads can all be built in HyperMesh. row of nodes. or two lines. Builds elements that lie on a surface defined by lines. Builds elements by dragging a line. but second order parabolic elements may be generated by changing the element order in the global panel. Builds elements on conic or cylindrical surfaces. or group of elements about a vector. Builds elements between two rows of nodes. Builds elements by hand. first order linear elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. row of nodes. Builds elements on toroidal surfaces. These two-dimensional elements can be built in any of the following panels: automesh cones drag edit element elem offset line drag planes ruled spheres spin spline torus Note: Builds elements on surfaces according to user specifications. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or group of elements along a vector. four-noded quads. By default.Building 2-D Elements Three-noded trias. Builds elements by offsetting a group of elements in the direction of their normals. a row of nodes and a line.

and 20-noded hexa elements. and surfaces. 166 HyperMesh 8. Fills with tetra elements a volume that is enclosed by tria elements or surfaces.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Propagates split hexas. By default. lines. Builds solid elements between a variable number of lines. Tetras can be built in the edit element panel by hand or by using the tetramesh panel. Pentas and hexas can be built in any of the following panels: drag edit element line drag linear solid solid map solid mesh elem offset spin split tetramesh Note: Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a vector to create solids. 6. Creates solid elements between two-dimensional elements. Builds elements by hand. but second order solids may be generated by switching the element order in the global panel.Building 3-D Elements HyperMesh builds 4. first order elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed.and 10-noded tetras.and 15-noded pentas. Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a line. Spins a group of two-dimensional elements about a vector to create solids. Creates solid elements by offsetting a group of two-dimensional elements normal to the surface formed by the group of two-dimensional elements. Builds solid elements between nodes. and 8.

The user sub-panel allows you to verify element quality by using a template file that checks for userspecified conditions. CFD-style volumetric skew. You can check your model for connectivity and duplicate elements.0 User’s Guide 167 . The group sub-panel provides a tool to check for and eliminate group or interface elements whose underlying structural element has changed and left them detached. aspect ratio. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. skew. aspect ratio. and NASTRAN-style aspect ratio The time sub-panel allows you to check for elements whose small size might cause problems for an explicit solver.Checking Model Quality After you build your model. skew. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check a mesh of elements for its maximum chordal deviation from a real or inferred surface The 3-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. you can use the check elems panel to verify the geometric quality of the elements in the model. The 1-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check one-dimensional elements for free ends Determine if a group of rigid elements form a loop Check weld and rigid elements for double dependency Check all elements for a minimum length of a side The 2-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check tetra elements for collapse.

HyperMesh transforms the loads appropriately to any local nodal output coordinate system. The label may include the magnitude of the flux. Moments are displayed as a double-headed arrow with an optional label. Accelerations are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. Velocities are displayed as a singleheaded arrow with an optional label. Applies a temperature constraint at a node. with an optional label. The label may include the magnitude of the pressure. T. Applies a constraint or enforced displacement at a node. 168 HyperMesh 8. Applies a concentrated force along any user-defined vector at a node. V. The label may include the magnitude of the moment. Loads are displayed in the color assigned to the load collector.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Pressures are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. Fluxes are displayed as a thick arrow with an optional label. The size of loads and constraints is based on model units and can be modified from within the boundary condition panels. Applies a concentrated moment about a user-defined vector at a node. Depending on the analysis code being used to calculate results. Before you apply loads. Forces are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label F. and updating loads and constraints.Applying Loads The final step in the model building process is to apply constraints and forces and to create or assign coordinate systems. • constraints • • • equations fluxes • • • forces • • moments • • pressures • • temperatures • • velocities • Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. create a load collector. flux. M. P. Applies a velocity at a node. HyperMesh currently supports the following load types: • accelerations • Applies an acceleration at a node. Constraints are displayed as a triangle with an optional label that displays the degrees of freedom effected by the constraint. A. Applies a general equation constraint between nodes. The label may include the magnitude of the velocity. The label may also display the magnitude of the acceleration. HyperMesh stores and displays all loads in the global coordinate system. Applies a pressure on an element or geometry. reviewing. Applies a flux load at a node. EQ. The label may include the magnitude of the force. Equations are displayed with the label. Temperatures are displayed as a straight line starting at the node at which the temperature is applied extending upward.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. mass elements. HyperMesh supports reference and analysis systems. cylindrical. Systems are built and referenced in the systems panel.0 User’s Guide 169 . and other systems are eligible entities for a reference system.Creating Systems Systems in HyperMesh are referred to as coordinate systems and may be rectangular. A system collector must exist and be current in order to build a system. Reference systems transform geometric location or input vectors from the global system to a local system. Note: System collectors collect system entities. forces. Nodes. Analysis systems transform the output system of a node entity. or spherical.

which supplies as much automated assistance as possible. you can use any of viewing tools on the visual options menu to simplify the visualization of complex structures in your model. • For either method. there are situations in which it is not possible or not desirable to create a surface. or mixed and whether they should be first or second order elements. and employ the mesh-smoothing operation to improve element quality. You control interactively the number of elements on each edge or side and can determine immediately the nodes that are used to create the mesh. Mesh smoothing is also available and you may select the algorithm for that operation as well. You can also specify whether the new elements should be quads. You may choose from several mesh generation algorithms. If you use surfaces.Automatic Mesh Generation HyperMesh has a centralized plate and shell mesh generation tool called the automeshing secondary panel. which allows you to see immediately the locations of the new nodes. have more flexibility in specifying the algorithm parameters. until you are satisfied with the resulting mesh. HyperMesh responds with immediate feedback on the effects of the changes. A solid model created by dragging automeshed plate elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . While you are in the meshing module. You can adjust interactively a wide variety of parameters and choose from a suite of algorithms. The created mesh can be previewed. the module operates the same. 170 HyperMesh 8. You can adjust the node biasing on each edge to force more elements to be created near one end than near the other. • If you use surfaces. There are two approaches to the automeshing secondary panel. Furthermore. trias. the meshing process is usually faster and uses less memory. you may choose from a greater variety of algorithms. If you do not use surfaces. Most of the functions are still available and operate in the same way. Most of the element creation panels use this module. you can specify the mesh generation and visualization options to use on each individual surface. which allows you to evaluate it for element quality before choosing to store it in the HyperMesh database. depending on whether or not you use surfaces as the basis for the operation.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The automeshing secondary panel can make second order elements for boundary element solutions.0 User’s Guide 171 .

the screen display changes to present only the information applicable to the current operation. undo. and return functions (see Automeshing Secondary Panel in the Panels section). reject.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel The functions of the automeshing secondary panel are divided into six sub-panels. smooth. as well as the local view pop-up menu. 172 HyperMesh 8. You can switch freely between the sub-panels. abort. density algorithm type biasing details checks Each automeshing sub-panel has the mesh.

To make tria elements. Free • • If quads is the selected element type for the current face. Examines the groups of elements to see if a local change in the connectivity might improve element quality. Sometimes two or more trias are needed because of the particular order in which the elements were generated. the best choice of algorithm is usually to map a standard mesh onto the region using transfinite interpolation. The Free meshing algorithm is a general-purpose formula that works for most meshing conditions. The surface can have interior holes or edges and any number of sides. The mesh generation algorithms include: Autodecide If you are meshing a surface. The advancing front algorithm uses the following process: • Traverses the perimeter of the region. placing elements along the edges as it proceeds. HyperMesh attempts to produce an all-quads mesh. HyperMesh first creates a quads mesh and then divides each element along its shortest diagonal.0 User’s Guide 173 . rectangular. In this case. If quads or trias is the selected element type. HyperMesh analyzes the geometry of each face and the element densities specified for each edge. you can usually eliminate them by changing some of the meshing parameters and then remeshing the region. at least one tria always needed. if that is the case. or pentagonal in shape. an advancing front algorithm is used. it chooses the Free algorithm. HyperMesh recognizes more than 18 different configurations requiring distinct templates. or those working entirely from node and/or line data. or Pentagon If the region is free from internal holes and the boundary is clearly triangular. but there are some situations in which one or more trias are included: • • • If the total number of elements specified for the perimeter of the face is odd. Rectangle. Applies repeatedly the selected smoothing algorithm until no node is moved farther than the specified smoothing tolerance.Mesh Generation Algorithms The mesh generation algorithms are divided into two types: those that require the presence of a surface to provide a context of operation. Map as Triangle. Eventually the entire region is filled with elements. If trias is the selected element type. HyperMesh uses a single tria. Such an operation is exceedingly fast. and chooses the algorithm that will give the best results. HyperMesh uses a streamlined version of this algorithm that is optimized for the different shape and connectivity requirements of tria elements. and where applicable. gives quality results rapidly. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If mixed is the element type. For most configurations. Ignoring rotations. the default mesh generation algorithm is Autodecide. Each site where an element could be placed is measured and one of several possible elements is chosen. If there is a tight corner on the boundary that would require a poor quality quad. HyperMesh chooses a standard template based on the element densities around the perimeter of the region. a submapping algorithm is used.

You can still use the density and biasing manipulation tools but some edges will be linked together. with no surface. so that the configuration always satisfies the balancing requirements of the intended mapping. the mesh generation algorithm is decided by the tool that was used to describe the desired operation. 174 HyperMesh 8. and if you use the spheres panel. the algorithm is to map a sphere-covering mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you use the drag panel. the algorithm is to spin. the algorithm is to drag. If you use the spin panel.Map without Surface If you are creating a mesh entirely from line and/or node data.

Smoothing Algorithms There are three smoothing algorithms used by HyperMesh: Autodecide By default. The size-corrected smoothing algorithm attempts to even out the sizes of the elements at the cost of some element quality. HyperMesh uses a modified isoparametric-centroidal over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. allowing variation in element size. If the element spacing around the perimeter is roughly uniform. HyperMesh uses a modified Laplacian over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. this choice usually gives the best results. Size Corrected Shape Corrected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh traverses the perimeter of the region looking for variations in element edge length and choose between size-correcting and shape-correcting smoothing algorithms.0 User’s Guide 175 . If there is a transition from small elements to large elements in the region. this choice usually gives the best results. The shape-correcting smoothing algorithm attempts to correct the elements’ shapes. usually in the form of worsened aspect ratios from the stretching of elements.

When you use the drag and solid offset panels. Each image interval corresponds to the side of an element. or near the middle of the edge. There are three methods you can use to calculate the biasing of node positions: Use biasing to preserve element quality in complex regions. then: . you may want to use biasing to improve element quality when transitioning from smaller to larger element sizes. This interval is uniformly divided into as many subintervals as specified by the element density and they are mapped along the edge so that the length of the image interval is proportional to the height of the line over the midpoint of the source interval. and b is its y-intercept.1] of the Real Line. the mesh at one end could be scaled several times larger than at the other end. Within the automesher. the biasing intensity corresponds to the positive slope of a straight line over the interval [0. You can designate that the smaller intervals go near the start of the edge. Element biasing allows you to moderate the changes in aspect ratio from the start to the end. If m is the slope of the line.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Linear Biasing In linear biasing.Element Biasing The automeshing process allows you to bias the placement of nodes so that their intervals are not uniform in size. let n be the element density and let . 176 HyperMesh 8. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. near the end of the edge. you can use biasing to cluster several layers of elements near the surface of a solid. In linear solids.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1. near both ends with larger intervals in the middle. Specifically.

and x(1) = 1. m is the absolute value of the biasing intensity. then x(s) scales them to the range of [0. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. We can use b to scale the behavior of the function so that convenient values are in the range [0. the nodes are placed according to 1 .5. The value used is b = 1.20]. .1]. the sizes of the intervals grow geometrically. placing the smaller elements at the end instead of the beginning. This formula was chosen so that an intensity of zero will still represent no biasing. That factor is 1.0 plus 1/10 of the absolute value of the biasing intensity.x(s).Using x(0) = 0. Let be the geometric growth factor. progressing along the edge. let n be the element density and let . Thus. with each successive interval being a constant factor larger than the previous. Specifically. and convenient values will fall in the range [0. If the biasing intensity is negative. . a positiv biasing intensity puts small elements at the start of e the interval. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. we find: so. For this.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) =1.20]. We need a function Let then: so that: which gives the proper interval lengths. Exponential Biasing In exponential biasing. Thus.0 User’s Guide 177 . Negative biasing intensities just reverse the edge.

Specifically. the smaller intervals are placed at the beginning and end of the edge. If the biasing intensity is positive.Bellcurve Biasing In bellcurve biasing.1] with x(0) = 0. and if it is negative. they are placed at the middle of the edge. let n be the element density and .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . x(1) = 1. and has the behavior noted above. If we use: for positive biasing intensity r. 178 HyperMesh 8. . We need so that takes values in [0. nodes are distributed long the edge in a pattern that is symmetric across the midpoint of the edge. then x(s) becomes: where erf() is the statistical error function.

HyperMesh uses those nodes directly to make elements within the automeshing secondary panel. "The value of this number cannot be changed" is displayed.0 User’s Guide 179 . Some of the surface creation panels allow you to use a node list to define one or more sides of a surface.Linked or Locked Edges Most of the surface-less mesh generation algorithms requires that some edges have exactly the same element density and biasing values as other edges. The error message. HyperMesh automatically links those edges together so that they stay balanced. Any change to one of the edges is immediately applied to all others that are linked to it. The resulting edge is locked and you cannot change the element density or biasing. In these circumstances. it has no effect. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If you try to adjust the element density numbers corresponding to these locked edges. Use the automeshing secondary panel to prepare input for solid offset.

you can create an FE weld by realizing a connector. The characteristics of connector entities can be divided into four categories: Connector Terminology Connector Definition Connector Realization Connector Review 180 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Just as you can create an FE shell mesh by meshing a surface.Connector Entity Connectors are geometric entities (not FE) primarily used to create welds.

nodes points lines The connector is created at the node location. The color code provides an easier way to visualize and filter connectors based on their state. but the line may be split into multiple projection locations as specified by the offset. The connector is considered failed if the weld creation at the connector was not successful.0 User’s Guide 181 . The connector is displayed in red. A connector that was realized can revert back to being unrealized if. Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The connector is displayed in yellow. a link entity is suppressed from its definition. The connector is created at the point location. points. The connector is considered realized only if weld creation at the connector was successful. spacing. Only nodes. realized failed Note: Connector Location The position in space at which a connector entity is created. or the weld element is deleted. for example. The connector location option is set in the create panel. and lines can be used to define connector location. The connector icon is created at the center of the selected line. and density values. The connector is displayed in green.Connector Terminology Connector State The connector state is defined as one of the following types: unrealized The initial definition of the connector entity after it is created. Only one connector is created for each line.

The connectors can hold a single entity or a combination of these entities. The welds create fixed points for the mesh. Surfaces can be used to create welds to connect geometry before meshing. The above states are applicable to only surfaces and components added to the connector entity.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Only nodes. components Components can be used to connect elements or surfaces. surfaces. An element facilitates a patch-patch weld connector. The following entities are supported. The tag entity can be used to define a weld connector to either a node. The link entity options are set in the create and add links panels. and components can be added to connectors. The elems option connects the mesh on the component or surface and the geom option connects the geometry on the component or surface.Link Entity A reference to a separate HyperMesh entity that can be added to a connector. The link entity state options are set in the create and add Links panels. The HyperMesh entities to which the link entities refer are welded together during realization. elems Note: 182 HyperMesh 8. A part that needs to be welded is often represented as a component. The surfaces can be either meshed or unmeshed. tags. or an element that it holds. A node facilitates a node-node weld connector. geom Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its geometry (connect surfaces only). Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its mesh. elements surfaces nodes tags Note: Link Entity State Specifies if the HyperMesh entity referenced by the link entity is meshed or unmeshed. elements.

Re-connect Rules
Defines how a connector should protect its link entity information. none If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity is then removed from the connector. If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity retains the ID of the HyperMesh entity. The link entity remains in the connector. Same as the by id rule except that the entity name is retained.

by id

by name Note:

These rules are useful for applications such as part replacement. A part can be added to a connector ith the use id or use name reconnect rule and can be replaced with a redesigned part with the same ID or name, without having to change the connector definition. The re-connect rule options are set in the create and add links panels.

Number of Layers
The total number of thicknesses (layers) to connect at the connector. total T Sets the number of thickness to connect (2T/3T/4T/nT). This influences the number of welds created at a connector. Sets the total number of link entities that can be added to the connector. The number of link entities added to a connector is always less than or equal to the total thickness. The number of layers option is set in the create and add links panels.

Note:

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Connector Rules
Shapes the definition of a connector entity. none The connector is created with no link entities and no thickness defined. In this state, the connector must first be updated with more information before it can be successfully realized. This option requires link entities to be specified before the connector is created. The link entities are added to the connector based on the user-supplied criteria. For this option, the connector only remembers what type of link entity it is to connect, rather than a specific link entity. During the fe realize process, the connector searches the HyperMesh database to generate the best (usually the closest) link entity it can using the supplied information.

now

at fe realize

Note:

The connector rules (connect when:) option is set in the Create and Add Links panels.

Connector Realization
Creating welds at a connector. fe realize The process of creating welds (FE) to connect the HyperMesh entities referenced by the link entities added to a connector.

Note:

The connector entity can be used to create only welds at this time.

Request for Connection
A set of parameters used during realization to create a physical connection between link entities.

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Connector Definition
The connector is simply a database of information defining a specific request for connection at a specific location. A connector definition describes the connector between multiple HyperMesh entities at a specific location. Entities that are to be connected are referred to as link entities. The connector location is defined as a node, a geometric point, or a geometric line. In the following example, there are two components (Top and Bottom) that are to be connected at the location of a point (with an id of 10). In this case, both components are considered to be link entities, since they are to be linked together. The point defines the location of the connector.

After a connector is created, the connector icon is placed at point 10, and components 1 and 2 are incorporated into the request for connection. The following diagram shows the connector after it is created (with an id of 7) at the location of point 10 (point 10 is not visible).

In this example, connector 7 has been defined and no welds have been created. The connector stores the following information: • • • Which link entities the request for connection is to connect (Comp 1 and Comp 2) The thickness of the realization (Thickness = 2) Where to connect the link entities (the connectors current location)

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HyperMesh entities currently supported as link entities include COMPS, ELEMS, SURFS, NODES, and TAGS. Any number of link entities of differing types can be added to a connector in any order. The connector sets the order of link entities during the realization process. The example above is a simple case where we have added two link entities of the same type (COMPS) to a single connector. Note: An element-to-tag-t o-component connector is possible, as is any other combination of the supported link entities.

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Connector Realization
During connector realization, welds are created using the connector definition. Note: In HyperMesh, the only form of realization currently supported is fe realization (weld creation). For successful realization, the connector must be populated with all the relevant details required for its realization type. For example, fe realization requires the connector to be populated with a projection tolerance and an FE configuration type.

The following diagram shows connector 7 realized with a valid tolerance value, and a config value of type 21 (spring).

One advantage of separating weld fe realization from the connector definition, is that a connector can be re-realized as a weld of a different configuration (or possibly, a user-defined weld) without having to redefine the connector. If you edit the connector definition (i.e. add or delete a link entity from the connector), the connector removes the welds it created, and reverts back to an unrealized state. The connector is unrealized only if its user-control mode is turned off. By default, the connector mode is off but it can be turned on by registering custom FE with a connector. Connectors store all FE information that they create, allowing advanced find, mask, delete, and organizational functionality in a number of common HyperMesh panels. If the weld creation is unsuccessful (due to low tolerance, insufficient link entities, etc.) the connector icon is displayed as failed (red). An unrealized connector is yellow, a realized connector is green, and a failed connector is red.

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Connector Review
There are many advantages to the way connectors store information. Not only does this local storage allow you to edit the connector definition, it also allows you to review connector details and the quality of the realization. There are a number of tools that can be useful in the review process. The visualization pop-up allows you to update the visual appearance of a connector based on its state, thickness (number of layers), or the component in which it is located. In addition, the vis opts panel also allows you to filter the displayed connectors by various criteria (such as thickness). This filter can then be used for “displayed” mark creation. HyperMesh includes a connector information table that creates a table of connector definitions from a mark and allows you to delete link entities. The quality panel allows you to check the quality of welds created from the connectors. The connector database can also be queried through Tcl functions.

Connectors User Control Mode
Each individual connector can be placed in a user control mode using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. This user control mode is most useful for automated Tcl scripts. Once in user control mode, the following procedures are possible for a given connector: • • • Pre-existing FE can be registered as a given connector’s realization by using the *CE_FE_Register command. Connectors can be edited without automatically unrealizing (as happens most notably when a link is added or removed from a connector, or when an FE realization entity is deleted). A connector’s state can be manually changed from realized to failed, or from failed to realized by using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. A connector’s state will not change to or from the unrealized state using this method.

Once a connector is placed into the user control mode, the user control mode remains active until an unrealize command is called (such as *CE_Unrealize), an already realized connector is rerealized, or the user control mode is manually turned off with either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. While a given connector is in user control mode, it may not behave the same as a normal connector. Specifically, there are a number of scenarios where a user-controlled connector will not auto unrealize in response to database changes that would cause a normal connector to auto unrealize. Note: It is strongly recommended that when FE is registered to a user-controlled connector, that the connector links and other necessary details should also be set with a given connector (so that the connector can properly re-realize if a user interactively requests it to). At the bare minimum, connectors should know which links they are to connect.

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Master Connectors File
Most of the information stored in the connector entity can be exported to a master connectors file. This file contains connector entity information such as location, link entity, link entity state, link entity rules (see Connector Terminology). The exported file may also contain metadata information stored in the connector. The master connectors file contains welding information at a given location and also assists in the weld automation process. An exported master connectors file can be re-imported using the connectors reader to re-create connectors. The master connectors file is exported in a single format. The outline of a generic HyperMesh master connectors file is provided below: • • Master connectors files can have comments beginning with the characters # or $, or there can be blank lines in between. The format of the file is fixed and the order of heading definitions cannot be changed. The column information is shown below:

Notes: • • • The header at the beginning of the file specifies information about the column data. Number of layers defines the thickness to connect at the specified location (X, Y, Z). The data between the brackets are repeated for each link entity. For standard HyperMesh FE types such as ACM and CWELD, the FE Config will have a number of 1001, which defines the user-defined type number specified in FE Config File. The FE Type will be the number defined in the FE Config File (for CWELD it is 72). For a detailed explanation of custom FE Configurations see FE Configuration File. The data between the brackets (link entity information) in the table are repeated for the number of links (NumLinks). The NumLinks variable must be equal to the number of link entities.

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Metadata is an attribute type that can be stored on a HyperMesh entity. User-defined information (such as Station Id or Gun Id) can be stored on the connector entity as metadata. The Metadata is defined by a name-value pair and is supported for multiple data types (int, double, string, etc.). Please see the HyperMesh on-line help for more information on Metadata. The Metadata name is written to the master connectors file in the following format ~<Sturct><DataType>Name. <Struct> represents whether the value associated is a single variable or an array. <DataType> represents the type of data stored in the value. For example, a Metadata of name Assembly containing an array of integers is written out as ~AIAssembly. The only delimiter supported in the entire file is the double semicolon “::”. The entire column of data in the file should be of the same type. The connectors reader uses the templex template to read the master connectors file. See weld templates for more information. By default, the file is read into HyperMesh through the HMIN function call, HMIN_CE_CreateDefined.

• • • •

The connector entity is created with the information specified in the master connectors file and displayed as unrealized (yellow). To realize the connectors as welds, the fe realize panel must be used.

Multiple Weld File Format
In addition to the master connectors file, the connectors reader also supports master weld file formats previously supported by the spotweld reader.

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a spotweld_format directory must exist in the same location as the master weld file. For custom templates. The templates are stored in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/feinput/spotweld_format and are registered in the spotweld. To read in metadata. the required headings must be added to the template requests and record blocks. The spotweld. Each template works on only one specific format file.cfg file under the same directory. An example for a specific master weld file format is shown below: # Index::T::X::Y::Z::EID1:: EID2:: EID3:: 1:: 3:: 48.cfg file must contain only the names of all the registered weld templates.0 :: 3:: 2:: 1:: int num header { type "CONNECTORS" set mark find "[0-9]+::" rewind set num = 0 if { do 1000000 { if { isdigit } then { set num = sum(num.0 User’s Guide 191 .4375:: 9.375 Weld Template :: 2. 1) } readln null } } set numrecords = num set numrequests = 9 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Import Templates Templates work with the connectors reader to import multiple file formats. The following example shows the template for a simple format file with two semi colons as delimiters.

requests "ID/T/X/Y/Z/EID1/EID2/EID3/EID4" set numcomponents = 1 components "Value" } record { read request // ID qfind "::" set mark read request rewind read num qfind "::" read request // X qfind "::" read request // Y qfind "::" read request // Z do num { qfind "::" read request // EID } set num = diff(4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . num) do num { read constant 0 // fake EID } readln null } //T 192 HyperMesh 8.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. etc. Supported solvers are: abaqus. The specified name is saved and displayed in the info table during connector review process. FE Definition Template The FE definition template is shown below: CFG <SOLVER> <USER_FE_TYPE> <USER_FE_NAME> *filter <filter_type1> <filter_type2> <etc. etc). Seam.). USER_FE_TYPE USER_FE_NAME Note: This should be the first line in the user FE definition.FE Configuration File The FE configuration file (feconfig.0 User’s Guide 193 . This is input in the fe realize template as FE Type. The data can be separated using a space. Area.g.> *style <style_type> *head <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <RIGID_FLAG> *body <BODY_FLAG> <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG> [<HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG>] *post <POST_SCRIPT_NAME> The template parameters are defined below.cfg) is used to define custom welds such as ACM (Area Contact Method) and other special types. See FE Definition Examples for information regarding the format and options for FE definition. pamcrash. The user-defined number for the FE combination. marc. LSDYNA. The user-specified name for the FE combination. The specific solver template for the type of weld must be loaded in HyperMesh before the welds can be created using a connector entity. The FE configuration file has a pre-defined format that must be used to define different weld configurations. the feconfig. dyna. The weld definition is solver dependant (NASTRAN. The weld definition in the file includes the type of weld to create and the surrounding connector to shells. ansys. nastran. By default. optistruct. Spot. SOLVER The solver template for which FE needs to be created. and pamcrash2g.cfg file from the <install_directory>/hm/bin directory is loaded in each of the panels related to each connector type (e.

Note: *STYLE A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and that they are native types. This option is not applicable to equation and rbe3. this option is used as a filter when displaying FE configurations in the type = field of respective realize panels. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE HM_FE_TYPE RIGID_FLAG CONNECT_FLAG 194 HyperMesh 8. rigidlink. The string head is required to specify that a rigid is to be created to connect the weld node to the surrounding shell element. *FILTER spot seam indicates that this configuration can be realized only by the spot and seam connector types. so the type field should be zero. Defines how the weld node is to be connected to the surrounding shell element. equation and rbe3 do not have a type defined. the weld node is connected to only one of the shell element vertex using the rigid. etc. The various types supported for rigids are equation. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. If rigid flag = 0. This option indicates that the configurations have specific behaviors associated during realization. For example. In addition. plot. *style bolts 1 indicates that this is a bolt connection of type 1 that creates a specific bolted connection between the parts. Note: *HEAD Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. rbe3. A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. a zero should be input. For example.*FILTER This option can be used to allow only the specified connector types to realize the configuration. If the type is not defined. For example. If the rigid flag = 1. the weld node is connected to all the vertices of the shell elements using rigid to form a spider. HM_FE_CONFIG The config for the rigid currently supported by HyperMesh. Note: The style definition line for these configurations must not be edited.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. attributes. The *post lines are optional. etc. however. CBUSH is of config spring and type 6. spring. The flag specifies the length factor to be used for series welds.*BODY BODY_FLAG The string body is required to specify that a weld is to be created to connect the link entities added to the connector. The config for the weld currently supported by HyperMesh. The length location flag is used to specify if the weld created should be of type series or parallel. hexa8. There can be more than one weld in a series. The various types supported for welds are. a series weld is created. the length is calculated based on the distance between the connecting layers (link entities). the users home directory (UNIX only). this option can also be used to specify a property script for the configuration. This allows HyperMesh to parse the CFG file for configuration instead of relying on metadata saved individually with each connector (as was done prior to 8. and other solver specific details. The series weld definition has more than one weld between the link entities. the length is calculated based on the average thickness of the connecting layers (link entities). If the length location flag = 1. welds are created in parallel. based on the solver. that metadata is still created and saved if you do not use POST to assign a property script (for example. or the scripts/connectors/ directory. This Tcl script must be located in the current working directory. If the body flag = 1. If the length location flag is >= 0 and < 1. but if specified it must be followed by the name (excluding path) of a valid Tcl script with a . The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. This postscript will be automatically executed post FE realization and it can be used to edit weld properties.0. The type number is defined in respective solver templates and differs. Note. If the body flag = 0. For example. if you choose to type in a property script instead of specifying a CFG file in the connector’s generation panel. The body flag is used to calculate the length of the weld. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG Note: *POST A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment.0).0 User’s Guide 195 . plot.tcl extension. rod. Starting with HyperMesh 8. Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment.

Series welds are not created when the distance between the connecting link entities is zero.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Series and parallel weld element combinations are not supported. 196 HyperMesh 8. Therefore. The head and the body definition must begin with a “*” to define rigid and weld definitions. 1D and 3D element combinations are not supported. Hence there cannot be three welds specified in series having a length factor of 0. Series welds are not supported where the link entities are coincident.FE Specification Rules • • • • • • • • Each solver will have a specific definition so the same user-defined types can be repeated for each solver. The total length of series welds cannot exceed 1. an ACM can have only one hexa weld element specified in the definition. Multiple solid element combinations are not currently supported.0 (100%).5 (50%) each. User comments should start with a hash character “#”.

0 User’s Guide 197 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.5 spring 6 0. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.FE Definition Examples Washers CFG nastran 56 bolts *filter bolt *style bolt 0 *head rigidlink 1 1 dofs=123 rigidlink 1 3 *body 0 rigid 1 1 dofs=456 ACM Welds CFG nastran 71 acm *head rbe3 0 0 *body 1 hex8 1 1 The above definition creates ACMs with HEXA8 solid elements as welds and RBE3 elements as rigids. The length of the hexa is equal to the distance between the connecting shell elements.5 The series weld is created at the center with length equal to half the distance between the link entities.5 The two series welds are created with a length equal to half the distance between the link entities. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.

tcl Supported values for the length location flag are "0". If this 0-D element is the only config given in the *body. or "2". "1". 198 HyperMesh 8. The behavior for each value is as follows. then it is placed at the center of the proposed 1-D element path.Parallel Welds CFG dyna 101 parallel *head plot 0 0 *body 0 bar2 1 1 bar2 1 1 The bar elements are created at the same location and connect the same link entities. "0" places the 0-D element along the proposed 1-D element path. "1" has the same behavior as "0" except only a single 0-D element is created even if multiple bodies are created (as happens in >2T welds) and "2" places the 0-D element at the connector location.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 0-D Welds CFG pamcrash2g 1 plink (ce loc) *head plot 0 0 *body 0 mass 5 2 plot 0 1 *post prop_plink.

0 User’s Guide 199 . HyperMorph also allows the creation of shape variables. Overview: The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing • The Domains and Handles Concept • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Global Domain and Global Handles Local Domains and Handles Partitioning Dependent Handles Working with Shapes Setting Up Optimization Creating morph volumes Registering nodes Altering Morph Volumes Tangency Morphing by Moving Nodes Morphing by Using Other Panels Sculpting The Domains and Handles Concept The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Space Frame Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • • Matching a Mesh or Line or Surface Data Making Parametric Changes Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Mirror Images: Using 1-Plane Symmetry Reducing 3D to 2D: Using Linear Symmetry Reducing 3D to 1D: Using Planar Symmetry Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. which can be used for subsequent design optimization studies.HyperMorph Strategies HyperMorph is a tool in HyperMesh to morph the shape of a finite element model in ways that are useful. It enables rapid shape changes on the finite element mesh without severely sacrificing the mesh quality. logical and intuitive. During the morphing process.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Shell Model Strategies • • • • • • Creating Handles and Domains Morphing on Local Domains Section Mapping Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing Solid Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • Viewing Solid Models Morphing on Local Domains Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing 200 HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide 201 . or you can define your own domains and handles. dividing the mesh into logical domains. and arc angles as well as morphing the mesh to match geometric data and other meshes. into morphs using the record sub-panel. A number of methods exist to create the morph volumes including single and matrix creation as well as the interactive. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses when dealing with the numerous applications of morphing and you are advised to gain a basic understanding of each approach so that you can decide which approach is best for your needs. the nodes which will stay fixed. The Freehand Concept This approach involves morphing by moving the nodes directly without needing to create any HyperMorph entities. on-screen method. You are also able to turn node manipulations made in any panel. HyperMorph can do this automatically. The morph volume approach is quick and intuitive and is most useful for making large scale changes to complex meshes. the shape of the mesh changes according to the domain boundaries. You have great flexibility in how the moving nodes are moved. and projection to geometry as well as using a "tool" to "sculpt" the mesh into the desired shape. The basics of the three concepts are summarized below: The Domains and Handles Concept This approach involves dividing the mesh into domains made up of elements or nodes and placing handles at the corners of those domains. Morph volumes support tangency between adjoining edges and allow for multiple control points along the edges. such as translation. angles. The HyperMorph Strategy Guide is intended illustrate the capabilities of HyperMorph and introduce you to both the basic and advanced functionality to help you get the most out of the tool. You define the nodes which will move. allowing for rapid changes to any mesh. rotation. the morph volume concept. and the affected elements manually. When the handles are moved. While all the entities and functions are fully compatible and may be used in a complementary fashion they can be divided into three basic approaches to morphing: the domains and handles concept.The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing HyperMorph contains six exclusive entity types and a wide array of functionality. The Morph Volume Concept This approach involves surrounding the mesh with one or more morph volumes. Handles placed at the corners and along the edges of the morph volumes allow for the morphing of the morph volumes which in turn morph the mesh inside the morph volumes. radii. The domains and handles approach is the most difficult approach to learn but it is also the most powerful. The domains and handles approach also allows parametric morphing of distances. allowing the user to do virtually any kind of morphing. and the freehand concept. This approach is most useful for making detailed changes to any mesh (local domains) as well as general changes to space frame type meshes (global domains). which are highly deformable six-sided prisms. such as scaling or node projection. The freehand approach is an ideal introduction to HyperMorph since it allows morphing without the creation of new entities while implying the concepts of domains and handles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The freehand approach also allows for "customized" morphing.

Domains and handles are divided into two basic groups. each of which is associated with a number of global handles. or yellow.000 elements (although you can change this default limit) the large domain solver is used. Therefore. and general domains. Global handles are the largest handles in the model and they are red if they are not dependent on other handles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The size given is used as the radius for the independent global handles as well as the diameter of the independent local handles. parametric changes to the model. you can edit the color of the domains in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels. The global group consists of global domains. cyan. Local handles are intended to be used to make small scale. the mesh is stretched or compressed to match the desired shape. the model is divided into domains where handles are used to control its shapes. The advantage of this approach is that it makes morphing an interactive process. but once they are calculated they can be stored and applied rapidly. During the morphing process the mesh morphs in a logical way with nodes near the moving handles moving more and nodes near the stationary handles moving less. It is located at the centroid of the nodes selected when you create the global domain. calculating influence coefficients is too time-consuming. The nodes in each domain move as a function of the handles that are either associated with the domain or are touching the domain. 3D. for very large domains. However. However. thus making morphing slower. which in turn. global and local. The advantage of the large domain solver is that it is faster for morphing large domains but the drawback is that it must be invoked every time you wish to morph. Global Domains and Global Handles Global domains are represented by a cube made up of dashed lines. Thus. or elements. the shape of the domains touching those handles change. which allows you to make both large and small scale morphs and have them combine logically. edge. edge domains. 2D. the process of calculating influences can be too slow or too memory intensive and so the large domain solver makes it possible to morph such domains. Domains consist of nodes. in the case of global domains. but it is not necessary to have both types of domains and handles in a model. Each domain is associated with any number of local handles. Dependent global handles are also smaller than the handles on which they are dependent. These local handles can only influence nodes contained in any domains that they are either associated with or are touching. but when handles are moved in order to morph the model no calculations are necessary. The process for calculating the influence coefficients is somewhat time consuming. You cannot edit the color of the handles nor the relative size between the dependent and independent handles.The Domains and Handles Concept When using the domains and handles approach. The local group consists of five types of local domains: 1D domains. Global handles and domains are best for making large scale shape changes to the model. or violet if they are dependent on other handles. when handles and domains are initially set up or edited. the actual morphing occurs quickly. A model can contain both global and local handles and domains. HyperMorph spends an amount of time proportional to the size of the new or edited domains calculating the handle influences. the color indicating their level of dependency. and general domains. For very large domains. even for large models. 202 HyperMesh 8. changes the positions of the nodes inside those domains. For domains that have more than 50. The amount each node moves with respect to each handle is relative to an internally calculated influence coefficient. When the handles are moved. in the case of 1D. In the areas between the handles. You can adjust the base size of all the handles in the model in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels or in the handles panel. Global handles will only influence the nodes in the global domain to which they are associated. 3D domains. 2D domains.

When a global domain and handles are generated automatically. reposition them. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Example of a model with a global domain and global handles Eight handles are placed at the corners of a box enclosing the model. By movi ng the handles you can stretch or deform the model along all three axes. such as when you create a global domain with the create handles option turned on. or use the generate auto-function. you can always delete them. HyperMorph creates a global handle at each of the eight corners of a box surrounding the model laid out along the global axes. These handles are named handle followed by a number. The automatic global handle generation works particularly well for space frame models such as full car models.0 User’s Guide 203 . HyperMorph generally creates no more than about 30 global handles for models of any size. HyperMorph also places at least one global handle within the box in areas of peak nodal density within the model. These global handles are named corner followed by a number from one to eight. If the handles are not generated in the positions where you want them to be. HyperMorph generates a number of global handles. or create new handles.

Straight edges will remain straight and circular holes will remain circular for the hierarchical method.A space frame with six manually created global handles When the handles are moved. while the direct method may bend or warp these features into curved edges and elliptical holes. There are three options for determining how global handles in global domains influence the mesh: the hierarchical method. global handles will influence every node inside the global domain using the hierarchical method if the node is inside a local domain. choose the hierarchical or mixed method. choose the direct method.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In the mixed method. which in turn influence nodes. the space frame morphs in a way such that the bars run between the handles. If you wish to preserve the local geometry. If you are willing to accept distortions in the local geometry. In the hierarchical method. There are subtle differences in how the global handles influence the nodes for each method with the main difference being that the parts of the model defined by local edge domains have their shape preserved when using the hierarchical method. global handles influence the nodes in the model directly. and the mixed method. the direct method. You should select which method is right for the type of morphing that you want to perform. 204 HyperMesh 8. or the direct method if the node is not in a local domain The method used can be selected in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel and the parameters sub-panel in the domains panel with the default being the direct method. global handles influence the local handles found at nodes inside the global domain. In the direct method.

Note the resulting distortion of the edge and circle. Note how the straight edge remains straight and the circle remains round. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. An example of global morphing using the direct method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. it moves the local handles. which move the mesh. the mesh is affected directly.An example of global morphing using the hierarchical method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right.0 User’s Guide 205 .

HyperMorph automatically places local handles at the ends of all edge domains. The geometric method can be slow for large models or large numbers of global handles. The spatial method is the default. four joined rectangles for general domains. 206 HyperMesh 8. The placement of local handles depends on the type of domain created and the partitioning options if partitioning is selected. These local handles are named local followed by a number. When local domains are created. Local domains can be created individually by selecting nodes or elements in the create sub-panel of the domains panel. or for the entire model by using the generate auto-function. a cube for 3D domains. the angular shape of the morph becomes rounded.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The geometric method is the method that was originally used for the Tcl/Tk interface of HyperMorph and HyperMesh and generates influences based on the geometric relationship between a given node or local handle and the surrounding global handles. The colors of the handles cannot be changed. and is the fastest and most robust method for generating global influences based on a spatial formulation for the entire model. The color of the domains can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. but may produce more desirable influences. two joined rectangles for 2D domains. Independent local handles are orange and have a radius of one half the value of the handle size parameter.An example of global morphing using the direct method and biasing factors By increasing the biasing factor for the highlighted (white) handle. Dependent local handles are smaller than the independent local handles and are different colors depending on the level of their dependency. The influences between the global handles and local handles (using the hierarchical method) or nodes (using the direct method) can be calculated using either the spatial method or the geometric method. Both methods attempt to determine how a global handle affects nodes or local handles in the space surrounding it. Local Domains and Handles Local domains are represented by a single rectangle for 1D domains. and a line for edge domains..

Additionally. A higher biasing factor means that a given handle will have greater influence over the surrounding mesh than the others. while the dependent handles are smaller and green. the rigid elements have been placed in a 1D domain with the center node having an independent (orange) handle and the other nodes having dependent (green) handles. All other handles in the model are given a biasing factor of 1. This dependency relationship means that moving the independent handle also results in moving the dependent handles the same amount in the same direction. All the dependent handles in a given 1D domain are directly dependent on the independent handle. The independent handle is larger and orange. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. An independent local handle is placed at the centermost node of the 1D domain and dependent local handles are placed at every other node of the elements in the 1D domain. Domains made up of 1D elements. These elements are placed in a component named ^morphface. This is done to preserve the unique relationship established for groups of 1D elements. handles have been placed at the ends of all the edge domains.0 User’s Guide 207 . Also note that 2D domains have been created on the faces of the 3D domain and that edge domains have been create on the edges of all the 2D domains. The solid elements have been placed in a 3D domain. are called 1D domains. such as bars and rigid elements. 1D elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 1D domains.Example of a model with local domains and local handles with partitioning. The shell elements have been placed in two 2D domains separated at the bend line due to partitioning. Note that shell elements have been created on the faces of the 3D domain. the bias factors for the dependent handles for a 1D domain are given an initial value of 3. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. The higher biasing factor given to dependent handles on 1D domains is intended to prevent mesh distortion when the 1D elements connect to nodes in 2D and 3D domains. Finally. In the example above.

Domains made up of shell elements are called 2D domains. If the handles or domains are not laid out in the positions where you want them to be. A handle associated with any domain will always influence the nodes in domains that it is touching. the entire spider is moved.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Local handles are placed at the ends of all the edge domains. By moving the orange handle. such as floating in space near the domain. This allows you to place a handle outside of a domain. edit them. or create new ones. In general. these domains are subdivided into smaller domains along break angles and curvature changes according to the partitioning parameters. HyperMorph tries to predict where the handles should be placed to reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare your model for morphing. Also. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. The intent is to make it faster and easier for you to apply parametric changes to the model. 208 HyperMesh 8. shell elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 2D domains. they will influence the nodes in any domain that shares the node at which it is placed. even though the generated local handles are associated with the edge domains. Since you morph the model by moving handles. maintaining the proper shape and connectivity for the rigid spider. the local handles are placed at the corners of the 2D domains and at other useful positions. it helps to have handles already at the positions where you want them.A rigid spider becomes a 1D domain An independent local handle (orange) is placed at the centroid of the 1D domain and dependent handles (green) are placed at each node. Note that it is possible to create a handle on a node that is not touching the domain to which it is associated. Edge domains are placed along the edges of the 2D domains and are also partitioned. This is true even if the handle is associated with the 2D domain. If partitioning has been selected. and have it influence the nodes within its domain. you can delete them.

solid elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 3D domains. The color of the ^morphface component can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. The model on the right shows the addition of four new handles. even at nodes not on the associated domain. In cases where shell elements that are attached to the faces of solid elements are present in the model. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. if you do. these elements and their 2D domains will be regenerated the next time you enter or exit a HyperMorph panel or the delete panel. Handles can be placed anywhere. Domains made up of solid elements are called 3D domains. It is recommended that you do not delete or edit these elements nor rename or delete the ^morphface component. The ^morphface component has been partitioned into 2D domains.Two 2D domains with edge domains and handles The model on the left shows the initial handle positions. Elements are created on the faces of each 3D domain and placed into a component called ^morphface. However. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note that these elements will not be written out to any FEM formatted deck since the component name begins with a “^”. Handles are created at the corners of the 2D domains. A block of solid elements is made into a 3D domain The gray shell elements on the face of the 3D domain are the ^morphface component. HyperMorph will not create ^morphface elements coincident with the existing elements. Edge elements are placed around each 2D domain and local handles are created at the ends of each edge domain. The elements on the face of each 3D domain are placed into a 2D domain that is then partitioned if the partitioning option is active.0 User’s Guide 209 .

Similarly. 210 HyperMesh 8. the boundaries may not be preserved during morphing. non-reflective symmetries allow the influences of handles to extend through edges and faces depending on the type of symmetry. Also.Domains made up of a list of nodes are called edge domains. edge domains are placed around the edges of all 2D domains. No other handles will affect the nodes on the edges. HyperMesh will highlight both the domain icon and the surrounding edge domains. Note that when an edge domain is created. flat surfaces remain flat. and curved edges retain their curvature. It allows you to move handles within a 2D or 3D domain without affecting the edges. nodes in a 2D domain on the face of a 3D domain will only move as a function of the handles touching the 2D domain. For domains that have non-reflective symmetry types. it is partitioned and handles are placed at the ends and joints. This makes it easier for you to tell which domain you are selecting. In the model at the right an edge domain has been created inside a 2D domain. Edge domains and 2D domains on the faces of 3D domains play an important function in determining the influences for the handles over a given domain. or choose to create the domain as a general domain instead. When you release the mouse button. only the icon for the domain remains highlighted. Examples of edge domains Edge domains are placed around the edges of 2D domains. When you are selecting domains and are holding the mouse button down while placing the mouse over the icon of a 2D or 3D domain (or an element in the domain). When creating local domains or using the generate aut o-function. If you do not want to have the boundaries of a domain preserved you can delete the edges for a given domain. This preserves the boundaries of 2D and 3D domains such that straight edges remain straight. Nodes on edge domains will only move as a function of the handles touching the edge domain.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

the elements within a single general domain must touch one another.How edge domains affect morphing In the top two frames two handles inside a 2D domain are created and moved. When a general domain is created. two handles connected by an edge domain are created and moved. thus no handles are created for the domain. 2D. preserving the shape of the feature. handles on a general domain freely influence all of the nodes inside the general domain. In the bottom frames. but the rest of the mesh (where a general domain is used) can simply follow along. Another use is for meshes where precise changes are required for one section. Otherwise. General domains are very useful for realized connectors which are often represented as clusters of different element types. Like all other domains. where 1D. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2D. and 3D elements. and 3D domains are used.0 User’s Guide 211 . However. allowing it to stretch and deform in an unbounded manner with morphing extending across differences in element type. general domains respect all neighboring edge domains and 2D domains and thus if you create 2D and edge domains for your general domains they will impose restrictions on handle influences for the general domain. General domains are not automatically created when generating local domains or using the generate auto-function. no 2D domains are created on the faces of any 3D elements and no edge domains are created either. General domains can be made up of any combination of 1D. Note that the edge domain remains straight.

You can invoke partitioning when creating 2D or 3D domains by activating the partition 2D domains check box. or the use geometry option in the partitioning sub-panel is unchecked. 212 HyperMesh 8.Example of interaction between a general domain and 2D domains In the top frame. Note how the shell elements in the general domain morph. Partitioning is a method of dividing 2D domains into smaller 2D domains at logical places. bounded only by the edge of the 2D domains with the other edges free to follow the handles Partitioning Partitioning can be applied directly to 2D domains and indirectly to 3D domains (3D domains are created with 2D domains on their faces). such as at the edges of surfaces associated with the mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you may change the partitioning parameters in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel and try again (using the redo last button). partitioning will ideally divide your model such that every radius and straight or flat section is placed into a separate domain. In the bottom frame the two handles inside the general domain are translated. and solid elements. Two handles have been placed within the general domain at the ends of the rigid spiders. shell. or edit the domains by hand using the create and organize sub-panels in the domains panel. However. If you are unsatisfied with the partitioning. two 2D domains are created for parts of two shell meshes and a general domain is creating from the remaining rigid. If there are no surfaces in the model. or where the domain changes from flat to curved. or where the angle between elements exceeds a certain value. Partitioning allows you to prepare your model for morphing more quickly and easily since it divides your model into sections where parametric changes can be applied. partitioning is not an exact science and there will be areas where elements are not placed into the desired domains.

although exact performance for each method depends heavily on the features in your model. If you have selected use geometry. or changes curvature by more than the curvature tolerance. otherwise they are considered to be curved. the other method might work better. In either case. a break due to angle or curvature must be found along its entire edge. They are found in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. For the node based method. The node based method tends to create fewer partitions than the element based method. element-based and node-based. all elements whose nodes are associated to surfaces in the model will be partitioned along the edges of the surfaces. the node based method seems to work better on first order tria and tetra meshes while the element based method seems to work better on mixed quad and tria meshes. the element-based algorithm works better for quad/mixed meshes and second order meshes.Example of partitioning For the model on the left. Partitioning can be angle-based or curvature-based. These can be set individually for quad/mixed meshes and for tria/tetra meshes. the domain angle controls the break angle along which a partitioning break is made. In general. Note that in order for a new partition to be created. Each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. domain angle and curve tolerance have a roughly similar meaning as the element based method. For instance.0 User’s Guide 213 . Note how the 2D domains are divided along angle and curvature change boundaries. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is less than this value. while the node-based algorithm works better for tria/tetra meshes. When using curvature-based partitioning. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is greater than this value. If you have also selected add to geometry. then any partitions created outside of the surfaces will be added to the partitions created using the surfaces if the partitioning algorithm does not find a break along the edges or the surfaces. changes direction. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. If the curvature changes from straight to curved. partitioning was used. they are considered flat. All other elements will be partitioned using one of the partitioning algorithms. Also note that the edge domains are partitioned regardless of whether the partitioning option is on or off. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. There are two algorithms you can use to partition. For the model on the right. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. This option is helpful when surface data is incomplete of some of the nodes have been moved away from their surfaces. There are also several parameters that govern the creation of domains for either algorithm. the curve tolerance controls the angle of which values less than it are considered straight for curvature measuring purposes. the 2D domain was created without partitioning. so if one method is not producing the partitions that you desire.

Making a handle dependent has no affect on the way it influences nodes. it inherits the full movement of the higher level handle. If a handle is dependent on more than one handle. biasing will affect them. and pink) The conditions for handle dependency are as follows: • • • A handle that is dependent on another handle inherits the movements applied to the higher level handle. These dependencies are calculated internally and cannot be modified manually. cyan. In the hierarchical method. A dependent handle can be moved independently of the handles on which it is dependent. Global handles. independent (orange) and dependent (green. A handle may be dependent on any number of handles. 214 HyperMesh 8. all local handles are dependent on global handles. This allows you to add the movements of dependent and independent handles in a logical manner. the shape of the edge can be changed. The percentage is based on the distance between the dependent and independent handles. When the handle at either end of the edge domain is moved. When the dependent handle is moved. the dependent handle moves along as if it was not there. blue. it will inherit a percentage of the movements applied to each higher level handle. The review button in the update sub-panel of the handles panel allows you to view the handles on which a specific handle is dependent. • • • Handle dependencies are useful for several different applications.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . • • Transparent control of domain edges and faces You can create a dependent handle on an edge domain that is dependent on the handles at the ends of the domain. Handles that are dependent on other handles appear smaller and in a color different from the handles on which they are dependent. independent (red) and dependent (yellow. but dependency loops are not allowed. If a handle is dependent on only one other handle. This means that movements applied to the dependent handle are not applied to the independent handles. This system allows you to create any number of dependency layers. and violet) Local handles. This allows you to combine the changes easily without having to apply separate perturbations for all of the handles. and so on. and then make those handles dependent on one or more other handles.Dependent Handles You can make a handle dependent on one or more other handles.

example 1 The center global handle is dependent on the two outer global handles. Linking several domains together You can make all of the handles within several domains dependent on a few at the corners of the domain. This allows you to stretch all of the domains uniformly by moving the independent handles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When the highlighted handle on the left is moved (center frame).0 User’s Guide 215 . In the lower frame. the center handle follows along. performing localized “global” morphing.• • • Grouping features together to move as a unit You can make all the handles at one cross section of a beam dependent on a single handle. Dependencies . This allows you to move an entire cross section while only having to select one handle. in essence. the center handle is moved independently.

each hole can be positioned separately by moving the dependent handle associated with it. When the independent handle is moved. 216 HyperMesh 8. all of the green handles are dependent on the orange handle.example 3 An independent handle was created between the two holes and the handles governing the positions of the holes are made dependent on it. The bottom has similar dependencies. The entire cross section is controlled by one handle.example 2 In the model on the left.Dependencies . both holes move with it. In the model on the right. the three green handles on the top are dependent on the orange handle on the top.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Also. The top and bottom halves of the cross sections are controlled by just two handles. Note that the dependencies can extend beyond the 2D domain boundaries. Dependencies .

the handle and/or node perturbations are stored in the new shape entity along with biasing factors for the handle perturbations and details such as the biasing style. the dependent handles follow and reduce mesh distortion by spreading the morph across the entire part instead of only around the hole. node perturbations are required to fully describe the shape. When the handle at the hole is moved downward. vectors are drawn for each handle and node perturbation for the shape. or the morph is a mapping or radius changing operation. Creating shapes allows you to generate shape variables for optimization and store model changes for parametric studies. each morph on the undo/redo list will be saved as a separate shape. The vectors are drawn the exact length of the perturbation and the vectors for the handle perturbations are drawn with thicker lines to denote that they are different from node perturbations. To get to the current state of the model from the initial state. The dependent handles were constrained along vectors parallel to the sides of the part. Working with Shapes Shapes are collections of handle and/or node perturbations. those shapes do not contain node perturbations and thus vectors are not drawn at those nodes. all of these shapes must be applied. If you create a shape in either the morph or freehand panels. the morph consists only of handle perturbations. When you create a shape. If you save the model using the save each morph step option in the shapes panel.0 User’s Guide 217 . Note that while shapes with handle perturbations will move nodes when they are applied.Using dependencies to reduce mesh distortion In this example two dependent handles were created on the edges of the part near the center hole. However. HyperMorph stores the morph internally as a collection of perturbations which you can then undo or redo. In the case of freehand morphing. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When you create a shape using the save as shape or save shape sub-panels. When you morph your model. the morph consists only of node perturbations. or create a shape in the shapes panel with the save current state option turned on. if constraints are being used. For many morphing operations. HyperMorph takes the difference between the initial state of the model and the current state of the model when creating a new shape.

it becomes a shape variable. 7. Once a shape is saved. redone. Click create. The shape is converted. 5. If you select node perturbations. select the shapes panel. To create shape variables for an optimization run: 1. Shapes saved as node perturbations are not affected by changes to domains and handles. you can select whether to save it as handle perturbations or node perturbations. Note: A shape is not a shape variable. Select the type of conversion that you wish to perform. A desvar for each shape is created with the initial value and bounds in the panel. Select the shapes for which you want to create shape variables. 2. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. To convert shapes saved with handle perturbations to shapes saved with node perturbations. but by adding a desvar which points to the shape. the shape will be saved as either handle perturbations only. 2.When you are saving a shape. or saved as part of another shape. Morph your model into the shape of the first shape variable. Save your morph as a shape. 3. 4. If not. or vice-versa: 1. 3. 4. save shapes as handle perturbations and they will require less memory and disk space. Click convert. 10. If you select handle perturbations. Whenever you make a change to your model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you should save shapes as node perturbations. 9. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. If you plan to make changes to domains and handles. Select the save shape sub-panel. optimization module. From the BCs page. Click undo all to return to your base model shape. Select the shapes to be converted. 5. or a combination of handle and node perturbations if node perturbations are required to describe the shape. 8. the shape will be saved as node perturbations only. select the morph panel. 218 HyperMesh 8. If you later decide that you want to change a shape from node perturbations to handle perturbations or vice versa you can do so in the convert sub-panel of the shapes panel. Each desvar is given a unique name. while shapes saved as handle perturbations will differ from shapes that have been saved with changes to the handle influences. Set the toggle to multiple desvars. Applying a shape in this way is like any other morphing operation and can be undone. HyperMorph will ask you if you want to preserve any existing shapes saved as handle perturbations by converting them to node perturbations. The difference between the two types comes into play if you change the handles or domains in your model. 6. select the shape panel. you can apply it to your model with any given scaling factor. Setting Up Optimization Morphing can be used to create shape variables for optimization. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for each shape variable you want to create. Select the convert sub-panel.

Click animate. Once you have created shape variables for your shapes. The Freehand Concept Freehand strategies are still being created. Animate the shape variables: Click undo morphing if you did not click undo all after saving the last shape. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Morph Volume concepts and strategies. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you can set up the rest of your optimization problem within the optimization module.0 User’s Guide 219 . allowing you to view each shape variable by animating it. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Freehand concepts and strategies. The Morph Volume Concept Morph Volume strategies are still being created. The deformed panel displays.11.

Click create. Set the selector to global domain. such as a wheel or the engine block. You should place global handles both in areas where you want to apply perturbations and in areas that you want to stay fixed. or altering the basic positions of components within the frame. Select the domains panel. Set the toggle to all nodes. In many instances. you should avoid creating them unless it is necessary.Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains Space frames are models that have a sparse distribution of elements. For these types of models. A new global handle is created at each node or at the specified xyz location. such as making it smaller. 6. Local handles are not required since local changes to the frame components are not necessary. delete them and add global handles elsewhere: Press F2 or go to the delete panel. If you want a part of your model to move as a rigid body. select the handles panel. 5. Select create.space frame model 1. 4. If not. You can also use morph constraints to fix nodes in place during global morphing but if you want them to affect the surrounding mesh you must select the stretch mesh around nodes option when creating the morph constraint. In many cases. Type in a name. these handles will be where you want them to be. these changes can be performed by placing a handle at each joint in the frame and moving those handles to the desired locations. shorter. such as a car body. Set the toggle to create handles. A global domain and global handles are created at useful positions throughout the space frame. 2. use a cluster type morph constraint. all that is necessary is to create a global domain and global handles. From the HyperMorph module. wider. Since local handles and domains for large models can consume a great deal of resources. Delete any unwanted handles. select the HyperMorph module. but their basic structure is rather simple. 3. Click create. Space frame models can generally have element counts in the hundreds of thousands. From the Tool page. the handles will each be given a unique name by appending a number after the name you have given. If more than one handle is created at a time. Often the desired shape changes are general. 220 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select an xyz position or any number of nodes where you want global handles. 7. Creating Handles and Domains .

this can be time consuming. domains. or symmetries. Adding. makes it necessary for HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. editing. For large models or large changes. if necessary. The best one to use depends on the results that you want to achieve: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or deleting handles.0 User’s Guide 221 . There are many options available for moving the handles. so you will want to make all the changes you desire within each panel before exiting.A global domain and global handles for a full car model Exiting any panel in the HyperMorph module or the delete panel automatically triggers HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences.

222 HyperMesh 8. When you release the mouse button. the nodes between the constrained nodes and the handles will be affected regardless of whether the mesh is continuous between them. 7. 9. Make sure that the stretch mesh around nodes option is unchecked. 6. For large models it may be too slow to morph interactively in real time. Select the create/update sub-panel. 5. Switch the selector to fixed. One of the most enjoyable ways to morph is interactively. select the morph constraints panel. the morph is applied to the model and the graphics are updated for the entire model. 4. Change the upper middle selector to interactive. repeat steps 7 through 9. As you drag a handle across the screen and you can watch the mesh move along with it. 8. If you are going to match a mesh you need to make sure that the mesh does not get morphed when you are moving the handles. select the morph panel. 4. Note that if you check the stretch mesh around nodes option. From the HyperMorph module. 6. Line. All the nodes in the target mesh are constrained to remain fixed during morphing operations as long as the constraint is active and the use constraints box is checked (see the morph options panel).Matching a Mesh. 2. only the graphics for the handle are updated. Click create. Change the lower middle selector from on domains to along vector. 3. or Surface Data The basic approach for HyperMorph is to move the handles into positions that change the shape of the model to match the mesh or geometry data. Select move handles. But you can still morph interactively with any size model by setting HyperMorph to perform the morphing after you move the handle and release the mouse button. From the HyperMorph module. Click morph. Select a vector. Select a handle on the screen and hold the mouse button down. the handle follows along the selected vector. To morph interactively by moving the handle and releasing the mouse button: 1. Select the nodes on the target mesh. 2. 3. If the handle position needs to be changed again. which leaves a dark trail through the mesh. 5. Move the handle to the new location and release the mouse button. Since on release was selected.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . As you drag the mouse. Change the rightmost toggle from real time to on release. To constrain the nodes on the target mesh: 1. This can be accomplished by constraining the nodes on the target mesh.

In the middle frame they are interactively moved upwards along a vector to a point matching with the profile line.0 User’s Guide 223 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In the bottom frame the process has been repeated for the other handles on the roof. The result is a morphed vehicle model that closely matches the profile line. Morphing to a profile line In the top frame. Move more than one handle at the same time: Before clicking morph. the global handles on either side of top of the windshield are selected. Perform steps 7 through 9. select several handles on the screen. all of the selected handles are moved the same distance in the same direction.10. When you release the mouse.

HyperMorph will give you the option of converting existing shapes from handle perturbations to node perturbations automatically after you add. Handles may always be added or deleted from a model without affecting the current morphed state of the model. or delete any morphing entities. Change the upper middle selector from interactive to move to node. 3. 2. a plane.Morphing to a profile line A handle is added to the center of the rear windshield and is moved to better match the profile line. any shapes saved as handle perturbations may not yield the same morphed shape after handles have been added or deleted. 2. Click on the line or surface where you want the node. You can use this feature to position a handle anywhere you want line or surface data. save your shapes as node perturbations. However. To create nodes on the fly on lines and surfaces: 1. You can also select other features to drag the handle along such as a line. Hold the mouse button down and drag the mouse over a line or surface until it is highlighted. To match a target mesh or geometric data by moving the handles to a specified node location: 1. A node will be created and the handle will immediately be moved to the node. The handle is moved to the position where the node was prior to morphing and the rest of the mesh morphs accordingly. edit. or a surface. Select a handle.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Select a node. HyperMorph uses the position of the mouse on the screen to figure out where you want to move the handle. If you intend to add or delete handles in your model. Altair Engineering 224 HyperMesh 8.

Making Parametric Changes Dimensions such as distance and angle can be changed easily in HyperMorph. Select a few handles. The handles rotate about the axis the specified angle and the model morph accordingly. Click morph. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. Set the upper left selector to distance. Set the rotation angle. Click rotate. Specify dimensions more precisely in the alter dimensions sub-panel.0 User’s Guide 225 . One way to do this is by translating or rotating handles. Select a vector and distance. 2. Select alter dimensions. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. If the left selector is set to hold middle. If the left selector is set to hold end a. From the HyperMorph module. The handles move the specified distance in the specified direction and the model morphs accordingly. Rotate the handles. Click translate. select the morph panel. Translate the handles. Select an axis of rotation. Or Select the desired xyz translation. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. Change the distance value. To translate or rotate handles: 1. Select node a and node b at nodes whose distance you want to change. Change the upper middle selector from move to node to translate. Change the upper middle selector from translate to rotate. both node a and node b will move the same distance. Select a few handles. 3. node a will not move (same for node b). HyperMorph moves the follower handles for node a as a group and the follower handles for node b as a group either towards each other or away from each other so that the new distance between node a and node b is equal to the specified distance.

and node b are the specified angle. Set the upper left selector to angle. 4. 3. and node b at nodes whose angle you want to change. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. HyperMorph will iterate to achieve the desired angle.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or at least get close. Select node a. 5. the vertex. If necessary. iterattion is not necessary. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. Click morph. To change the angle: 1. 6. The distance is changed and the model morphs. 226 HyperMesh 8. vertex. Change the angle value. The handles on the right side of the model are selected as followers for node a and the handles on the left side of the model are selected as followers for node b. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for each end in a way so that the new angle between node a. 7.Morphing by altering the distance between two nodes The width of the car is found by placing node a (green dot) on the right hand door and node b (blue dot) on the left hand door. 2. If node a and node b are selected coincident with one of the follower handles. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b.

and selecting two handles on either side of the windshield as followers for node b (red node). You can visualize the handles as places on a sheet of rubber where you are placing your fingers.Morphing by altering the angle formed by three nodes The slope of the windshield is altered by defining an angle using three nodes (green. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the space between your fingers on the two finger side will be pulled towards the three finger side. blue. If you place three fingers on one side and two on the other and try to stretch the sheet. The angle is changed from 160 degrees to 150 degrees. When you perform global morphing operations. Note that the handles on either side of the windshield were constrained to move along the x-axis (front to back) thus maintaining the height of the roof. you will need to place several handles across both of sides of the zone of influence. Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Global morphing differs from local morphing in that there are no definite boundaries between the handles that restrict their zones of influence.0 User’s Guide 227 . for cases where you are trying to morph a mesh that covers a wide area. positioning handles at the joints between the members of the space frame restricts the handle influences to the parts of the frame that they are touching. By placing three fingers on each side. and red). you allow for even stretching to occur between each set of fingers. However. the parts of the model that are morphed are those that lie between the handles that are moving and those that are not. selecting two handles at the front of the car as followers for node a (green). In morphing this is accomplished by placing handles evenly along both sides of the mesh to be stretched. For the general space frame cases.

Now when the handle on the roof is moved upwards. Controlling global morphing with handles – part 2 A handle is added directly below the handle on the roof near the center of the car.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . only the part of the car between the roof and the handles along the midline of the car is stretched. 228 HyperMesh 8.Controlling global morphing with handles – part 1 The handle on the roof is moved upwards and the center section of the car is morphed along with it.

0 User’s Guide 229 .Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Note that dependent handles are used to simplify the morphing operation. 2. morph volumes will usually yield better results. Select the system you created. Also note that in cases where detailed shape changes are required. 8. you can create a plane of symmetry at the center of your space frame and have your morphs applied in a symmetric fashion. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry. 3. 7.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . select the systems panel. select the symmetry panel. 9.Using 1-Plane Symmetry If your space frame is symmetric. Select the global domain icon. 6. 230 HyperMesh 8. Enter a name. Return to the HyperMorph module. 5. To set up a plane of symmetry: 1. From the HyperMorph module. the fender of the model is morphed. Change the left toggle from approximate to enforced.Adding handles to control global morphing Using several handles on either side. 4. Mirror Images . Create a system at a node where the plane of symmetry is to be located and have the x-axis pointing normal to the plane to be created. Switch the selector from none to 1 plane.

HyperMorph creates new handles that are reflections of ones that are not linked to any others and creates a symmetric link between them. yet still have symmetry active for the symmetric handles. If you want to add handles to one side of the plane of symmetry and not the other.0 User’s Guide 231 . The icon for a 1-plane symmetry is a rectangle positioned like a small mirror for the symmetry system. HyperMorph also links any handles that it finds that are reflections of the other. When handles are created or deleted. the enforced option will automatically create or delete handles on the other side of the symmetric link in order to enforce symmetry of the handles. If you have the symmetry links check box activated. A plane of symmetry is created at the origin of the system and based perpendicular to the x-axis. The symmetry will be applied to the handles and handle perturbations that will influence the mesh in a symmetric fashion. HyperMorph automatically applies the handle movements to the handles on the other side of the plane of symmetry through the symmetry link. Click create. use the approximate option instead. The mesh itself does not need to be symmetric to use the symmetry options. Now when you perform a morphing operation you only need to move the handles on one side of the plane of symmetry. The perturbations applied to handles on one side of the plane of symmetry will be mirrored on to the other side. System and 1-plane symmetry The plane of symmetry is positioned at the origin of the system and perpendicular to the x-axis. Since enforced was selected. the model maintains symmetry across the symmetry plane. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.10. As a result.

Using 1-plane symmetry Three handles on the right hand side of the roof are selected and moved towards the centerline. HyperMorph automatically moves the corresponding nodes on the left hand side of the roof in a symmetric fashion.

Reducing 3D to 2D - Using Linear Symmetry
You can use linear symmetry to apply morphs to the model in such a way that the model is essentially reduced to two dimensions. To create a linear symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be reduced. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from 1 plane to linear. Select the system you created.

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9.

Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. A linear symmetry is created along the x-axis of the system. The icon for a linear symmetry consists of two parallel lines along the dimension to be reduced. The origin of the system is irrelevant. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a line extending along the system xaxis. If two handles lie along a line parallel to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same y and z coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since linear is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others that are linked via the symmetry. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and linear symmetry The linear symmetry icon consists of two parallel lines along the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a linear symmetry system does not matter; the effect of the linear symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a linear symmetry is very useful for making profile changes to a space frame model. It does not matter where the handles are placed along the x-axis, greatly simplifying the model set up. You only need to look at the model from one view to set up the handles and to morph the model. For models with a large number of elements this can save a great deal of time.

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 233

Using linear symmetry The handle on the rear part of the roof is selected and the entire rear portion of the roof is morphed along with it. With linear symmetry you only need to place handles on one side of the model to affect the entire profile.

Reducing 3D to 1D - Using Planar Symmetry
Planar symmetry is similar to linear symmetry accept that it reduces two dimensions instead of one. This enables you to morph your model along a single axis with only two or more handles. To create a planar symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be retained. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from linear to planar. Select the system you created. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

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11. Return to the HyperMorph module. 12. Select the symmetry panel. 13. Select update by domain. 14. Select the global domain. 15. Select the planar symmetry. 16. Click update. A planar symmetry is created and the other two symmetries from the global domain are removed. You are allowed to have any number of symmetries associated with a domain and all will apply, but combining linear and planar symmetry in the same direction results in an unrealistic situation and poor influence calculations. The planar symmetry icon is displayed as a filled-in rectangle perpendicular to the system x-axis. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a plane perpendicular to the x-axis. If two handles lie in a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same x coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since planar is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and planar symmetry The planar symmetry icon is a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a planar symmetry system does not matter, the effect of the planar symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a planar symmetry greatly simplifies a model. Essentially, it reduces the model to a lying along single axis. This symmetry type is very useful for changing dimensions along one axis through the entire model.

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 235

Using planar symmetry The handle at the rear of the model is selected and the entire trunk of the car is morphed. With planar symmetry you only need a row of handles lying roughly along the planar symmetry system x-axis.

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Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
Shell models are models that are made up primarily of shell elements, namely, quads, and trias. In general, a shell model represents many parts, each with numerous features such as holes and edges, and connected together using 1D elements such as bars and rigids. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shapes of the shell model features. This is done using one of the following methods: • Moving the handles on the part to new locations • • Moving the global handles around the parts to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the parts, or mapping the nodes of a part to line or surface data

For most models you only need to create 2D domains for the entire part, but you can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature.

Creating Handles and Domains - shell model
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Change the toggle to all elements or select all the elements in the model. Click create. A 2D domain is created for each group of continuous shell elements. Parts joined by 1D or 3D elements are separated into different domains. If partition domains is checked, the 2D domains will be partitioned according to the settings selected in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. Once partitioned, edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. All of this is automatic, but 1D and 3D elements will not be placed into 1D and 3D domains unless you set the selector to local domains instead of 2D domains. In many cases, the domains and handles will be generated where you want them to be. If not you can always add, edit, or delete the handles and domains to meet your needs.

A shell model is partitioned into 2D domains 6. If you wish to generate a global domain as well as local domains for your model with a single button click, either change the selector to global and local and click create, or to auto functions and click generate.

In the case of the generate auto function, if there are any domains or handles in the model, HyperMorph will first ask if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. If you say “yes”, or if there are no morphing entities in the model, HyperMorph automatically generates 1D, 2D, 3D, and edge domains for the entire model and a global domain and handles as well.

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For tria meshes which lack underlying geometry, both the node-based and element based partitioning algorithms may prove unsatisfactory. In these cases you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when partitioning. To accomplish this, go to the partitioning sub-panel, select element based as the algorithm for tria/tetra meshes, and change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. HyperMorph will then only make partitions along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. You can then go in and manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should go. This method is almost mandatory for meshes that began as first order meshes but were transformed into second order meshes. For these meshes, HyperMorph will detect a curvature break at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. The result will be a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Solving the influence coefficients for 2D domains which contain more than 20,000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. In these cases you may want to divide the large domains into multiple domains or lower the limit for the large domain solver. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. However, even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid, morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming, and thus subdividing 2D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. To divide your shell model, do this: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Select the elements to be placed into a new 2D domain. Click create. When selecting the elements for the new domain you do not need to select only shell elements. HyperMorph automatically removes any other elements before creating the domain. It does not matter if the elements selected are already in a 2D domain. When the new domain is created, the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Handle influences need to be recalculated every time handles, domains, or symmetries are added, edited, or deleted. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. These calculations occur when you enter or leave any HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. Thus, for models with large domains you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. HyperMorph only recalculates the handle influences for handles in regions that have been edited. If the domains are not created exactly how you want them to be, you can edit them in the domains panel. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. The organize subpanel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split, merge, and place handles along edge domains. It is suggested that you create and edit all the 2D domains, then create and edit the edge domains. This order works better since creating or editing 2D domains will result in the regeneration of the surrounding edge domains with the previous modifications to those edge domains being discarded. Sometimes partitioning does not divide the mesh in the ways that would be most useful to you. Occasionally, elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Partitioning is not an exact science, so some cleanup is sometimes required.

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To move elements from one domain to another: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select organize. Change the selector to add nodes/elems . Change the toggle to local domain. Select the elements to be moved. Select the target domain. Click organize. This will move the elements from the domain that they are currently in to the selected domain. HyperMorph also refreshes the edge domains around both domains as well as the edge domains at the interface. New handles may also be created during this process, and if retain handles is not checked, handles may be deleted. It is suggested that you keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing.

Partitioning problems The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. For this example the retain handles option was left unchecked resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. Note that the edge domains are always partitioned for any new domain and handles are placed at the end of the edge domains. For the example above, a handle was created in a new location due to the edge partitioning being different for the two domain configurations. When you hold the mouse button down and the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D domain or over an element inside a domain, the edge domains surrounding the domain are highlighted as well. This allows you to better visualize the domain that you are selecting. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain, and some domains can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements.

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240 HyperMesh 8. From the HyperMorph module. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D domains. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. select the domains panel. 3. This is why any editing of the edge domains should come after the editing of the other domains. Click organize. Select the domains to be grouped together. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. You may need to correct this by hand. HyperMorph tries to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. 5. If you do your edge editing first. The selected domains are combined into a single domain and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. Select organize. 4. but in some cases it may not identify the proper starting and ending points.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .To group two or more domains together: 1. 2. Change the selector to combine domains. Two domains are organized into one Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created.

select the domains panel. Select an edge domain. 6. Click split. 3.a circular edge domain is divided into two half circles A handle was created at the joint to allow you to manipulate the edges. Change the selector to split. 4. 4. 2.0 User’s Guide 241 . 3. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. Select edit edges. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click merge.To split edge domains: 1. From the HyperMorph module. 5. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end to end such that the resultant edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. select the domains panel. Change the selector to merge. Splitting an edge domain . The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. 2. 5. A handle is created at the selected node. To merge edge domains: 1. Select edit edges. From the HyperMorph module. Select any number of connected edge domains.

The dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. Change the selector to add handles. 4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the handle at the joint was deleted. From the HyperMorph module. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. 5. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. 3. To place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change: 1. 2. Click create. 242 HyperMesh 8. If the domain containing the radius to be changed is very large you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change before you go into the morph panel.Merging two edge domains The two half circles are merged into a single domain. Select edit edges. select the domains panel. Select one or more domains. This feature is quite useful for saving time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. Since retain handles was unchecked.

which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. record. the influences do not need to be recalculated. and element offset Using freehand morphing capabilities such as move nodes. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. or mesh Using section mapping. delete unnecessary handles. During influence calculation you might run out of available memory. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. In these cases you should divide large domains. click return. The first is that since they are dependent. or arc angle of an edge domain Mapping nodes to a line. curvature. HyperMorph calculates the influences for the handles and you are ready to begin morphing.When you are satisfied with your domains. surface. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. line and surface difference. plane. and sculpting Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. .Creating handles on an edge domain A dependent handle is created on each node of the edge domain.0 User’s Guide 243 . Secondly. It will be as if they were not there. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge will be transparently applied to the dependent handles. Morphing on Local Domains You can change the shape of a model with local domains and handles using one or more of the following methods: • • • • • • Moving the local handles Changing a distance or angle Changing the radius.

Interactive morphing is most effective for visualizing how the mesh will react when a handle is moved and for making approximate shape changes. or another mesh. plane. If you want to move a handle a specific distance or to a specific position. This option allows you to translate handles along a vector or element normals. surface. and move a handle by clicking on it and dragging it to a new location. This option allows you to rotate handles about an axis. or place them on lines. it is better to use a non-interactive option. surfaces. move to point 244 HyperMesh 8. This option allows you to position handles at specific XYZ locations or place them on lines. You select an entity such as a vector. to orient the mouse location in 3D space. or another mesh. or domains. These options allow you to position handles at specific node or point locations. translate rotate move to XYZ move to node.There are six ways to move handles in the move handles sub-panel of the morph panel: interactive This option allows you to move handles interactively by dragging the mouse across the screen.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . surfaces. line.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Morphing by translating handles By selecting the two handles along the edge of the flange and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section (green and blue nodes).0 User’s Guide 245 . the length of the flange is reduced.

Morphing by translating handles By selecting the handles at the bottom of the part and translating them upwards.Morphing by translating handles By selecting the three handles and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 246 HyperMesh 8. the thickness of the lower section is reduced. the width of the channel is increased.

the position of the bolt boss is modified.constant By selecting all the handles at the end of the section and rotating them about a point (violet node). the end angle of the section is modified.Morphing by translating handles By selecting all the handles around the bolt boss and translating them horizontally. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 247 . Morphing by rotating handles .constant The right end of the block is given a constant rotation. Morphing by rotating handles .

When applying handle perturbations to your model. To correct this situation.linear The entire block is given a linear rotation. it is important to note that the nodes in the model follow the movements of the handles according to the influence coefficients.Morphing by rotating handles . This is because the nodes have followed the handles instead of being rotated about the axis. This concept comes into play when you are using the rotate function. the circle at the center of the model remains on the same plane as before. This will cause the nodes to be rotated as well as the handles with the amount of rotation being equal to the influence coefficient.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 248 HyperMesh 8. After rotating handles you may find areas in the model (particularly those defined by curved edges) that are not rotated the same as the neighboring handles. Although it could be argued that true rotation is the "correct" way to morph via rotation of the handles. check the true rotation checkbox. Morphing by rotating handles .normal Although the highlighted handles are rotated. Note how the magnitude of the twist increases linearly with the distance from the base (purple) node. not all morphing applications are best done using true rotation.

the following message may be displayed: “Some handles selected are dependent on others. The alter dimensions sub-panel of the morph panel allows you to change one of the parameters in the model.true rotation During "true rotation" the nodes rotate along with the handles.0 User’s Guide 249 . Would you like to ignore dependencies for this operation?”. the angle between nodes. Select handles corresponding to those nodes. You must select at least one handle for each end and the handle may be coincident with one of the nodes. If you click no. controlling a particular dimension often involves moving more than one handle for each end. For solid models. the given perturbation and any inherited perturbation is applied to each dependent node. While morphing a model. The handles selected are the ones that will move to make the distance between node a and node b (or angle with a vertex selected) equal the specified value. For most cases you will want to click yes. This occurs when both a dependent handle and the handle on which it is dependent are selected to be morphed. or the radius or curvature of an edge domain.Morphing by rotating handles . The basic concept is as follows: Select two nodes (node a and node b). such as the distance between nodes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If you click yes the given perturbation is applied to each handle and the dependent handles are not given an additional perturbation inherited from another handle.

the width of the bottom of the channel can be changed from 60 to 30 with the rest of the channel changing along with it. 250 HyperMesh 8.Morphing by altering dimensions .distance By selecting the width of the bottom of the channel as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the left (highlighted) to follow the green node and the handles on the right (shown as gray) to follow the blue node. Morphing by altering dimensions . the thickness of the block between the radius and the back face is altered from 15 to 25 by moving the entire back face.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .distance By selecting the thickness of the block as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the radius (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles on the back face (highlighted) to follow the blue node.

Morphing by altering dimensions . the angle of the left side of the section is changed from 110 degrees to 90 degrees.Morphing by altering dimensions . near.angle By selecting the angle of the left side of the channel (green. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. blue. and red nodes) and by selecting the handles at and directly below the green node (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles at.angle By selecting the angle between two faces of the block (green. the angle is altered from 126 degrees to 90 degrees. and below the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. and red nodes) and by selecting the handle at the bottom right of the channel (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handle at the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. blue.0 User’s Guide 251 .

The curvature tool is intended for domains that do not have constant curvature. Making the bias factor retroactive does not work for radius changes.6. you need to set the curve ratio to 1. 252 HyperMesh 8. the radius is changed from 5 to 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . curvature multiplication. and arc angle options are used as follows. curvature. select the center calculation and style options. Morphing by altering dimensions .5 and kept in line with the edges at either end.0.radius . All the domains are changed simultaneously. Note: The curvature tool scales your radius by a factor rather than a set radius. the radius is changed from 3 to 1. and click morph.The radius.fillet By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the fillet option.5.0 to 8. set the new radius. so if you want to change a radius from 5. or arc angle factor for them. You select any number of curved edge or 2D domains. Note: Morphing by altering dimensions – radius – center By selecting the edge domain around the edge of the hole.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold ends By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the hold ends option, the radius is changed from 5 to 10 with the ends held in place.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold end By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part, selecting the hold end option, and selecting a node at the end of the edge domain, the radius is changed from 5 to 8 while the held end remains in place.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - fillet By selecting all of the edge domains that form the fillet between the flat sections and the round section and changing them simultaneously, the fillet is reduced from 20 to 8.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius The radius is changed in three different ways. At the top right, the hold center option is used. At the lower left, the hold ends option is used. At the lower right, the fillet option is used. In all cases, both the top and bottom edge domains were selected as well as the 2D domain and the by normals option was used for center calculation. This option will directly calculate the radii for the nodes on the 2D domain instead of inferring them from the edge domains which makes this approach more accurate for 2D domains as well as more reliable for non-uniform meshes.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the mesh is changed from 60 to 90 degrees using by axis (the vertical axis and violet base node) to calculate the center of curvature.

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the fillet is changed from 90 to 180 degrees using by normals to calculate the center of curvature. There are five methods available for calculating the center of curvature for the selected domains: • by normals - this method is the default and uses the element normals to approximate where the center of curvature is for each node in the selected domains. This method is not always accurate, but often gives good results for regular meshes. by axis - you may select an axis which will serve as the center of curvature. by line - you may select a line which will serve as the center of curvature. by node - you may select a node which will serve as the center of curvature. by edges - this method uses the edge domains to calculate the center of curvature with the center lying in the plane of the edge domains. The symmetry option refers to how the morphing of the edge domains is applied to neighboring 2D domains. The auto-symmetry option was the default for HyperMorph prior to version 8.0. In 8.0 you may choose to turn off symmetry when using this option.

• • • •

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For auto-symmetry, the changes in the radii of the edge domains are applied to any 2D domain, depending on the number of edge domains you change for the 2D domains. If you change only one edge domain for a given 2D domain, the radius change will not be applied linearly across the 2D domain. If you change the radii of two edges for any given 2D domain, either a linear or planar temporary symmetry is created between the two edge domains for the 2D domain that will apply radius changes more linearly across the 2D domain. This works best if the mesh is regular. If you are changing only one edge for a 2D domain, you can increase the bias factor of any handles on an edge domain to yield a more even distribution. Mapping an edge domain to a line or a 2D mesh to a plane, surface, or mesh is done using the map to geom panel. This option is very effective for fitting a mesh to new geometric data. When mapping a domain to a geometric feature, all the nodes in neighboring domains are stretched along with it, minimizing mesh distortion. You have several options for determining how the nodes for the mapped domain are placed on the geometry. When mapping an edge domain or node list the nodes can be moved normal to the line, along a vector to the line, or distributed along the full length of the line. When mapping a 2D domain or selection of nodes to a plane, surface, or mesh, the nodes can be moved normal to the target, normal to the elements of the 2D domain or selected nodes, or along a vector. If you wish to fit a mesh to a surface, there is no option to do this automatically, however, with multiple mapping operations, or using the user control option you can fit a 2D domain to a surface. Furthermore, you have the option of creating a morph constraint between the nodes and the map target automatically after mapping. This constraint will allow you to do further morphing operations while maintaining the constrained nodes on the geometry. The map to geom panel is also effective for solid model meshing. You can create a block of solid elements roughly in the shape of the geometry that you are trying to mesh, and then use map to surface to morph the faces of the block to the geometry.

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - normal to geom The edge domain is mapped to a line by moving the nodes normal to the line.

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Morphing by mapping to line - automap - fit to line The edge domain is mapped to the line by fitting them along the line. Any proportional spacing between the nodes will be maintained after mapping.

Morphing by mapping to surface By selecting the 2D domain on the top of the solid block to be mapped to the surface, the entire solid block is morphed to match the surface.

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Morphing by mapping to surface A rectangular C-section is mapped to a curved surface.

Morphing by mapping to surface - user control This example shows the user-control approach to mapping a mesh onto a surface. The surface and 2D domain are selected and the user control button is clicked. This brings up a new panel which allows you to place handles or map edges prior to the surface mapping operation. One by one each edge domain is placed on one of the lines around the target surface using the fit to line option. This stretches the 2D domain to match the surface more closely than before. When the map button is clicked, the domain is the mapped to the surface, fitting it perfectly to the geometry.

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Morphing Global Handles
Global handles are most effective when used to make general shape changes for a model, such as changing the basic shape of a model, stretching parts of a model, or making changes that involve the movement of many local handles. There are three methods available for affecting the way global handles influence the model, the direct method, the hierarchical method, and the mixed method. The default is the direct method, where the global handles move the nodes directly. In the hierarchical method, the global handles move the local handles which in turn move the nodes, but if any nodes lie outside of local domains they will be unaffected. In the mixed method, the hierarchical method is used for all nodes in local domains and the direct method is used for all other nodes. The hierarchical method maintains the shape of edge domains in the model, but if local handles are not evenly placed throughout the model, some parts will become distorted. The direct method gives you what you expect but often distorts the shape of the edge domains. For shell and solid models, better morphing is more likely to occur if you use the hierarchical method, and place local handles in areas where there is distortion.

Using Constraints
Morph constraints are a powerful tool that can be used to restrict the movement of nodes during morphing operations. The following types of constraints can be applied to any node: fixed, cluster, along vector, on plane, along line, on surface, and on elements. Whenever a handle is moved that influences a node, which is constrained, the node is moved according to the handle perturbation and is then projected back onto the feature to which it is constrained. This allows the nodes to slide across vectors, lines, planes, surfaces, and meshes, to remain fixed when handles are moved, or to move as a cluster along with other nodes. You may also constrain nodes where handles are located which, in effect, constrains the handles. When a perturbation is applied to a constrained handle, the handle are moved along the constraint feature regardless of the applied perturbation. This means that if you apply a translation in the x direction on a handle that is constrained along a vector x - y = 0, the handle moves along both the x and y axes. There are also morph constraints that can be applied to domains, such as the smooth constraint, which applies spline-based smoothing along the constrained edge domains, and model constraints, which allow you to set a given parametric target (such as length, angle, mass, etc.) and have HyperMorph adjust the model to meet that target. These constraints as well as bounded and set distance options for the node constraints are described more fully in the panel help. Morph constraints can be very useful for morphing a mesh that has been mapped to, projected to, or created upon a surface. Note that the map to geom operation allows you to have a morph constraint automatically created after mapping. Once you have done so, the nodes will remain on the surface during morphing operations. Note: Although morph constraints can keep nodes on a curved line or surface during morphing operations, when morphs are saved as shapes and then turned into shape variables for optimization, the nodes will not stay on the line or surface during optimization. This is because optimization is a linear process and the shapes will be treated as linear, meaning that the nodes will move directly from their original point to their maximally perturbed point without moving along any constraint.

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Controlling handle positions with morph constraints The angle of the lower right corner is changed from 74 to 90 degrees using the alter dimensions (angle) operation. The middle frame shows the result with no constraints. The frame on the right shows the result with the node in the upper right corner constrained to move along a vector that lies along the top edge.

Nodes tracking a line during morphing The nodes along the right edge domain are constrained to the line. When the handle is moved, it and the other constrained nodes move along the line.

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they too will be moved along the surface regardless of the applied perturbation. Higher biasing values generate a smooth curvature near the handles. provided both handles are global handles or they are located on edge domains. the handles were translated linearly. the nodes are moved along the surface a distance corresponding to the applied handle perturbations. In this example. Biasing increases or decreases the influence of a handle over the nodes within its area of influence. while lower biasing values generate harsh corners near the handles. If the handles were also part of the map to geom operation. and 3.Morphing after mapping to surface All mapped nodes are automatically constrained to the surface. the morphing between the handles is linear. HyperMorph automatically placed the handles back on the surfaces after applying the translation so that the constraint was obeyed.000 at the edges. which is the default value for all handles except for dependent handles on 1D domains. If the biasing values for all of the handles are equal to 1. When the handles are translated.000 in the middle.0 User’s Guide 261 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2.000 at the corners.000. To smoothly change the shape of a domain it is recommended that you use a biasing factor of 1. Using Biasing Biasing allows you to control the shape of a mesh when applying handle perturbations.

The model at the lower left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 2. the mesh folds over due to the influences of the other handles (middle frame).000 and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 0. Apply the morphs and change the biasing values retroactively until you get the shape that you want. Biasing to reduce mesh distortion When the hole is moved downward with a biasing factor of 1.500. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. This is useful in selecting a good biasing value to apply for a given morph. Biasing can be applied retroactively after a morphing operation.000.000. After applying a morph. and have the current list of applied morphs updated to reflect the new biasing values. you can change the biasing value by activating the make retroactive check box. and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 2.000.000.000 for the handle at the hole.000. When the biasing value of the handle at the hole is increased to 3. the mesh unfolds (right frame). The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1.Biasing for a 2D domain The model at the upper left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 1. 262 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

You can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature. or delete the handles and domains to meet specific needs. A 3D domain is created for a solid model Note the automatic creation and partitioning of 2D domains on the face of the solid and the creation of edge domains and handles for the 2D domains. Change the toggle to all elements. edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. the domains and handles are generated where you want them to be. pentas. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. The surfaces of each 3D domain are covered with shell elements that are placed in a component named ^morphface. select the domains panel.0 User’s Guide 263 . or manually select all of the elements in the model. The elements in ^morphface covering each 3D domain are placed into 2D domains. This is done using one of the following methods: • • • • Moving the handles on the part to new locations Moving the global handles around the part to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the part Mapping the nodes of the part to line or surface data. you can add. If they are not. namely. these 2D domains are partitioned according to the settings selected in the parameter subpanel of the domains panel. Select create. For solid models. flanges. Click create. edit. 5. 2. To create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in the model: 1. 4. and ribs. If the model is made up of more than one part. In many cases. If partition 2D domains is checked. tetras.Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains Solid models are models that are made up of solid elements. From the HyperMorph module. a solid model represents a single part with numerous features such as holes. edges. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shape of features in a solid model. Creating Handles and Domains . it is only necessary to create a single 3D domain for the entire part. bosses. Set the selector to 3D domains. Once partitioned.solid model You can create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in a model. In general. each part is placed in its own 3D domain. This procedure is automatic. and hexas.

which produces dependent (green) handles. If you click yes. 2. Be sure to try both methods of partitioning. global handles. and 3D domains are automatically generated for the entire model. select the domains panel. the 2D domain made up of the elements on the surface of the 3D domain will not have edge domains and thus no handles will be generated for it. If there are any domains or handles in the model. 3. However. From the HyperMorph module. Note: The element based method sometimes works better on second order tetras since it accounts for element curvature. Click generate. However. If you do not select partition 2D domains when you generate a 3D domain. 4. and 1D domain. 264 HyperMesh 8. such as first order tetra meshes. 1D. Select create. element based and node based. Without handles.To create a 3D domain along with a global domain and global handles to your model: 1. or if there are no morphing entities in the model. before deciding to partition by hand. you may find it easier to start with a blank slate rather than editing the automatically created domains. the node based partitioning will work better. Set the selector to auto functions. you are asked if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. if the second order tetras are converted first order tetras and thus have no curvature. For meshes on which the automatic partitioning does not work well. Automatic generation of domains on a solid model Note the addition of a global domain.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2D. morphing cannot be performed. this approach will give you a “blank slate” 2D domain that you can partition by hand. as well as a global domain and handles.

For these meshes. 4. To divide your solid model manually: 1. Set the selector to 3D domains. 5. it does not matter if the selected elements are already in a 3D domain. Select create. Click subdivide. you only need to create domains for that part. Partitions will be made only along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. To subdivide your solid model: 1. From the HyperMorph module. When the new domain is created. Select any 2D domains on the surface of the 3D domain that are permissible for HyperMorph to split into more than one 2D domain. 2. Morphface elements are placed at the internal interface between the new domain and the other domains and create a 2D domain for the interface.0 User’s Guide 265 . Select the 3D domains to be subdivided. 3. This method is very helpful for meshes that began as first order tetra meshes but then were then transformed into second order meshes. the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. other elements are automatically removed before the domain is created. or lower the limit for the large domain solver. In these cases the 3D domain will be left undivided. 5. This better accommodates the division of tetra meshes that cannot be divided along flat or curved internal faces and thus would be partitioned into many domains. Therefore. To do this. Not that in some cases HyperMorph will not be able to subdivide a 3D domain without dividing an indivisible 2D domain. This results in a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Select update. From the HyperMorph module. HyperMorph automatically subdivides the 3D domains into one or more 3D domains while leaving the 2D domains not selected as being divisible unchanged. select the domains panel. You can then manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should be located. Also. Solving the influence coefficients for 3D domains which contain more than 20. However. 6.Also. for first order tetra meshes. Click create.000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. 3. morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming. Select the elements to be placed into a new 3D domain. a curvature break is detected at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. but it will not partition the interface. 2. even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid. in the parameters sub-panel. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. When selecting elements for the new domain. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. select the domains panel. 4. you do not need to select only solid elements. you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when automatically partitioning. Set the selector to subdivide 3D. Additionally. In these cases you may want to divide the domain into multiple domains using the subdivide 3D function in the update sub-panel of the domains panel. and thus subdividing 3D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. if you are only going to morph a part of your 3D mesh. you do not need to be concerned about selecting the morphface elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based.

266 HyperMesh 8. and creating or editing 2D domains results in the creation and deletion of edge domains. Dividing a 3D domain into many 3D domains can be very useful for controlling the movement of nodes within the domain when the handles on the surface are moved. So when you divide your model into 3D domains. merge. domains. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. edited. The influences for handles are only recalculated in regions that have been edited. you can edit them in the domains panel. or deleted. elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Create and edit the 2D domains. If the domains are not created exactly the way you want them. Some cleanup may be required. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can divide your 3D domains to restrict the handle influences and control mesh distortion. For large models you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. it has the effect of partitioning the surface of the original 3D domain along seams where the divisions were made. Automatic partitioning does not always divide a mesh in the most useful ways. make sure that you divide it along lines where you want your 2D domains on the surface to be. The organize sub-panel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. Influences must be recalculated every time handles.Note: When you divide a 3D domain into parts. you should perform the tasks in the following order: Create and edit all the 3D domains that you want first. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split. This is generally caused by handle influences extending too far through the 3D domain. the internal elements can become distorted. Since creating or editing 3D domains results in the creation of 2D and edge domains. A single 3D domain is split into four 3D domains The influences of the handles will not extend across the boundaries between the domains. and place handles along edge domains. These calculations occur when you enter or leave a HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. or symmetries are added. Occasionally. Create and edit the edge domains. When some meshes are morphed.

2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.To move elements from one domain to another: 1. Change the selector to add nodes/elements. From the HyperMorph module. The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. This allows you to visualize the domain that you are selecting. Select the target domain. and if retain handles is not checked. You should keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing. will highlight the edge domains surrounding the domain. The elements are moved from their current domain to the selected domain. 6. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. New handles may also be created during this process. The edge domains around both domains are refreshed. Select the elements to be moved. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements. 3. For this example.0 User’s Guide 267 . Note: Holding the mouse button down when the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D or 3D domain or over an element inside a domain. the retain handles option was left unchecked. 5. 4. select the domains panel. and for some domains it can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. handles may be deleted. as well as the 2D domains at the interface if solid elements are being organized. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain. Click organize. Select organize.

If you perform edge editing first. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D and 3D domains. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. From the HyperMorph module. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. 5. Select organize. Click organize. The selected domains are combined into a single domain. it will not identify the proper starting and ending points. 4. 5. select the domains panel. and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. Now the radius of each new edge domain may be modified independently of the other. but in some cases. Click split. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. HyperMorph attempts to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . select the domains panel. A handle is created at the selected node. Select an edge domain. 3. 2. 268 HyperMesh 8. 2. You will need to correct this by hand. which becomes a handle (right model). 3. The lower edge domain has been split at the gray node (left model). From the HyperMorph module. Change the selector to combine domains. 4. Change the selector to split. Select the domains to be grouped. This is why you should edit the edge domains after the other domains have been edited. 6.To group two or more domains: 1. Select edit edges. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. To split edge domains: 1.

Secondly. To create dependent handles along an edge domain: 1. It will be as if they were not there. Change the selector to merge. From the HyperMorph module. Select any number of edge domains. select the domains panel. the influences do not need to be recalculated. The first is that since they are dependent. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select one or more domains. 5. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. Dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. 4. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. Select edit edges. 4. 2.To merge edge domains: 1. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. 5. Click create. 2. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge are transparently applied to the dependent handles. Click merge. If a model is very large. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end-to-end such that the resultant merged edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. Select edit edges. Dependent handles created using the handles on edge feature Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. 3. select the domains panel.0 User’s Guide 269 . From the HyperMorph module. This feature helps save time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish to change before you enter the morphing panel. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. 3. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. Change the selector to add handles.

you will see the two sides of your model superimposed over each other. Since HyperMorph creates a component called ^morphface.6. The influences for the handles is calculated and you are ready to begin morphing. the default setting is to display only that component—thus showing only the outer surface of your model and making it easier to work on. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. In these cases. 270 HyperMesh 8. which contains shell elements on the surface of the 3D domains. surface-only wire frame In this default mode. When you are satisfied with your domains. However. solid fill The option produces a display that is similar to what you see when you perform a fill plot in the hidden line panel. Note: During influence calculation for large models you might run out of available memory. your model is displayed as a wire frame. you should divide large domains. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . delete unnecessary handles.solid model The HyperMesh graphics engine supports different visual options for viewing models as you work on them. if desired (as shown). since the viewing mode is still wire frame. Viewing Solid Models . but only the surface elements are drawn because in a solid model. You can still display the surface mesh. a full wire frame can make it very difficult to visualize the model because every element in the model is displayed. You only see the side of the model that is facing you (as if your model was a real part). click return.

Partitioning generally captures all the features on the surface of a solid.You can also view a solid model for morphing by turning off all the components and looking at only the domains and handles. so by viewing only the domains you can visualize the model with minimal clutter. This is similar to looking at the model in a meshless wire frame mode. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 271 .

and deleting vertices Editing line segments. Operations that can be done this way include: • Editing section thickness Creating. Each step is described in more detail below. moving. as dictated by the beam section template. steps one and three are performed within HyperMesh and step two is performed in the HyperBeam module.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . elements or surfaces that represent the beam cross section. The HyperBeam panel in HyperMesh allows you to: • • • • Define the beam cross sectional plane via the existing HyperMesh vector definition methods. beam. This data can be imported into the HyperMesh finite element pre-processor and used to create one-dimensional (bar. Step One Step Two Step Three Beam section definition from line. Step 1: Beam Section Definition. Step 2: Beam Section Manipulation. Edit the beam section graphically via mouse clicks and drags. Select the lines. or element data takes place in the HyperBeam panel within HyperMesh. Operations that can be accomplished in this way include: Hand editing of vertex coordinate geometry and connectivity Editing section thickness Creating parts Editing part to vertex associativity Parameterizing the beam section for optimization via a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates Organizing HyperBeam sections into a single level structure of HyperBeam collectors 272 HyperMesh 8. rod) element property data for an FEA model. The HyperBeam module allows you to: • • View the beam section. surface. Transfer the data into the HyperBeam module. including splitting and joining operations Selecting vertex coordinates when the spreadsheet display is active Edit the beam section manually via dialogs and a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates. Access previously defined beam cross sections for editing in the HyperBeam module. Beam section properties are imported back into HyperMesh and applied to element property cards. and any beam section properties calculated. It is a threestep process. its local coordinate system.HyperBeam Module The HyperBeam module allows you to calculate general beam section properties from geometry or element data. Beam section manipulation and property calculation takes place in the HyperBeam module.

You can import beam section properties into HyperMesh that have been defined in HyperBeam by using the collectors panel with the properties entity selected. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Step 3: Beam Property Import. The beam section characteristics are displayed in the card image of the property collector but must be edited from within the HyperBeam module.0 User’s Guide 273 .

N2 and N3 locations are selected as shown in the figure below.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The blue lines are plot elements denoting the beam section. 274 HyperMesh 8. project to plane is then selected under cross section plane:. And the plane base node is chosen (change option to specify node) at N1 also. Elements or lines can be used to describe a beam section. This plot element will be used to align the section within HyperBeam. It assumes that the OptiStruct user profile is loaded.Example of the Three-Step Process This example illustrates how HyperBeam can be used to attach beam section properties to a OptiStruct PBAR card image. N1. The selector type is set to elems and the blue plot elements are selected. The purple line is a plot element created in the global y-direction. The shell section subpanel is selected from the HyperBeam panel.

The vector created by N1 to N2 describes the local y-axis used in HyperBeam.0 User’s Guide 275 . It is important to note the alignment of the local axes at this point. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperBeam is invoked when you click create. N3 describes the positive sense of the z-axis. Later we will need to know this when the beam section is aligned for bar elements.

276 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and N3 was reversed (essentially the z-direction was flipped).If the node selection was performed differently. HyperBeam would yield different results as shown below.

In this case. This can be done in the collectors panel. After the card image is created. If there were a 1 within the Z comp. The direction specified within the bars panel defines the alignment along the y-direction.0 User’s Guide 277 .Once HyperBeam solves the cross sectional properties. the z-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. and the local bar element alignment axis. it is necessary to attach the beam section to the PBAR card image. The figure below illustrates the alignment of the global axis. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the y-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. the PBAR card image must be attached to the 1-D element in question. the HyperBeam alignment axis. This operation is performed in the bars panel. Bar element alignment using HyperBeam sections is very straightforward if the section was defined using an absolute y-direction.

The beam cross section can also be attached to the beam to visually inspect the alignment. This option can be found in the review sections subpanel in the HyperBeam panel. 278 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Area Area Moments of Inertia Area Product of Inertia Radius of Gyration Elastic Section Modulus Max Coordinate Extension Plastic Section Modulus Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.z plane. For shell sections. only the theory of thin walled bars is used. The coordinate system defined by the user is called the local coordinate system. the system referring to the principal bending axes is called the principal coordinate system. the system parallel to the local coordinate system with the origin in the centroid is called the centroidal coordinate system. This means that for the calculation of the moments and product of inertia terms of higher order of the shell thickness t are neglected.0 User’s Guide 279 . Thickness warping is also neglected.Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam The beam cross section is always defined in a y. The x axis is defined along the beam axis.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Torsional Constant Solid Shell open Shell closed Elastic Torsion Modulus Solid Shell open Shell closed Warping Constant (normalized to the shear center) Shear deformation coefficients 280 HyperMesh 8.

Pilkey and W. 1979. H. Lehrbuch – Hoehere Festigkeitslehre. The Theory of Thin Walled Bars. Pilkey. A. Goeldner.0 User’s Guide 281 . International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 40 (1997) 211-232. Schramm. and W. CRC Press. ed.. Beam Stiffness Matrix based on the Elasticity Equations. Wiley & Sons. Boca Raton. V.D.Shear stiffness factors Shear stiffness Nastran Type Notation References W. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Leipzig. Fachbuchverlag. 1993.D. Gjelsvik. Wunderlich. Structural Mechanics – Variational and Computational Methods. Rubenchik. 1981. FL. U.

Click each section of the HyperBeam window below to access detailed information about the menu areas. 282 HyperMesh 8. shell section graphics pane. toolbar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and results/spreadsheet sections. It also has a menu bar.HyperBeam Environment HyperBeam has three main panes: the section browser. and status bar.

select the collector where you want the section to appear. as listed below: Shell Solid Standard Generic You can perform the following tasks in the section browser: • • • • To rename a section or section collector. until you create thumbnail images for a different selection of sections. To view thumbnail images of the sections in a section collector. and select Paste from the Edit menu. select multiple sections by holding down the control key and left-clicking on multiple sections. select the collector where you want the section to appear.0 User’s Guide 283 . To export sections to an external file. To move a section. There are two ways to "drag and drop": • Move a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. click once on the item to select it. and select Paste from the Edit menu. Below that are all of the collectors followed by the beam sections at the lowest level. To view thumbnails of selected sections. select a section by left-clicking on it. right-click in the section browser pane.bm extension to save beam section files). right-click in the section browser pane. select the section. choose Create Thumbnails from the pop-up menu.Section Browser This section browser presents a hierarchical view of all of the beam sections and section collectors on your database. select Copy from the Edit menu. choose Export Section from the pop-up menu. click again to indicate that you want to rename it. and dragging and dropping it into the collector where you want it to be located Copy a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. To copy a section. click Save. You can also reorganize the database by moving sections between collectors. the thumbnail images that were just created may be viewed in the graphics pane by selecting Model in the section browser tree. holding down the control key. give a filename and location in the Save As window (it is recommended to use the . copying sections. select the section. select Cut from the Edit menu. select the desired sections or section collectors in the section browser (hold down the control key to select multiple items). select the collector branch in the section browser window. and renaming sections and section collectors. and dragging it to the collector where you want it to be located. Section types are identified by icons. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperBeam displays this hierarchy in a standard tree structure. and enter the new name. At the highest level is the model. thumbnail images of all the sections are shown in the graphics pane. You can use the section browser to find a particular section of your model for displaying or editing.

The section's local coordinate system and its principle coordinate system (at its centroid) are displayed. The color of the lines for each part is selected on the section's properties dialog.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Each part is also marked with a slider bar that you can use to adjust the part's thickness. The bar is labeled with the part's number in the section and the current numerical value of the thickness. The section's torsion and warping factor are displayed in the lower left corner of the pane. The preferences dialog allows you to set the font and background color to use in the text graphics pane. depending on if you have the toggle set on the toolbar or the view menu. separated by a colon.The Importance of Flanges When HyperBeam computes the properties for the section. If you accidentally omit those vertices from the connectivity for a part. then HyperBeam underestimates the stiffness of a section. if you have them enabled on the view menu. the metal thickness used for a flange is the sum of the thicknesses of all the parts that share it. if you have them enabled on the view menu. You have control (on the preferences dialog) over whether the z-axis points up or down. 284 HyperMesh 8. The centroid appears as a plus with a circle around it. The shear center appears as an x with a circle around it. if the section's x-axis points into or out of the monitor. or equivalently. Each vertex may or may not be labeled by its ID. The section axis is always drawn with its y-axis pointing to the right. For shell sections. Shell Section Graphics Pane The graphics pane displays a representation of the geometric layout of the section. each sheet metal part is drawn by lines connecting the dots that show the section's vertices. You can modify the section itself with the shell section editing tools.

" Standard Section Spreadsheet For a standard section. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. so you may choose to add additional values to the template. You specify the text font. Shell Section Spreadsheet (non-optimization version) For a shell section. If the results are not available. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. Also. To see the list of all the results available. it displays them in the results pane. then the spreadsheet additionally displays optimization bounds for each variable. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. You can type a new value into any of the coordinates. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. variables. then HyperBeam displays the message. to toggle between them. You can change the display of text and values by editing the scripts file. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's variables and their current values. and the associated vertex moves to the new location. and optimization bounds for the section. consult the documentation for the results output template. you can delete them from the template so that they are not displayed. You can specify a new results template by selecting the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. The section results pane shares screen space with the section definition spreadsheets. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If you select Copy from the Edit menu.Results/Spreadsheet Pane Section Properties Results Whenever HyperBeam computes the section properties of the current section. you can use the spreadsheet button on the toolbar. but you can select it and copy it to paste it into another application such as a word processor. text color. there are more results computed than are displayed in the default template. You cannot edit the text in this portion of the window. then the spreadsheet displays equations. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's vertices and their coordinates. If this section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. You will find controls for the actual format and layout of the text and results in two locations. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. such as when you have edited the section definition and dynamic update is disabled. If the section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog.0 User’s Guide 285 . If there are computed values that are not necessary. "No results to display. and background color on the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications.

it is assumed the optimizer treats that coordinate as fixed. or trigonometric functions. Click the coordinate and it will appear as the dependent vertex. To define a variable for use in an equation. The coordinate will be set equal to the last value it had calculated. and optimization bounds. into which you can enter the variable's name. arithmetic functions. click the right-hand side of the equation and enter the formula. To delete a variable. a vertex coordinate can be defined using an equation. Alternatively. In the equation. Next. so it must be formatted as appropriate for that solver. a new blank line appears. A menu is displayed.) To delete an equation.Optimization Shell Section Spreadsheet If the shell section has been designated an optimization section on the Properties dialog. variables. A vertex that is defined by an equation may not appear on the right-hand side of another equation. click the vertex coordinate to make it active and delete the text of the equation. initial value. then the shell-section spreadsheet expands to display the rest of the necessary information. A menu is displayed that allows you to choose between adding or deleting a variable. If you choose add. If all three values are equal. Select delete variable on the menu. you can use other vertex coordinates. 286 HyperMesh 8. use the right mouse button to select the variable's section. with a few restrictions. Each vertex coordinate now has three values: an initial value. a lower bound. click the variable with the right mouse button. The equation is passed to the optimization solver. (For example.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and an upper bound. blank spaces may be prohibited.

The Graphics and Results tabs in the Preferences dialog allow you to set preferences for the section graphics window and the results/spreadsheet window.0 User’s Guide 287 . or generic section. Redo the last procedure. From the Edit window. Save the beam cross-section. Setting the Section Graphics Options The Graphics tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Specifies the main background color for the section graphics region. Paste the selected text or entity into the location of the cursor. There are controls for the results/spreadsheet window and controls for the section graphics window available. select Preferences. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Options are provided to export all sections. Other operations can be performed using either the menu bar or the corresponding tool button. Copies and removes the selected text or entity. standard section. Some operations such as importing and exporting are accomplished only from the menu bar. File Menu New Save Import Section Export Section Export Results Print Print Preview Print Setup Exit Create a new section collector. Exit the HyperBeam module and return to HyperMesh. Displays a print preview.HyperBeam Menu Bar The HyperBeam menu bar allows you to perform a wide variety of operations using drop-down menus. Copies the selected text or entity. Edit Menu Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Delete Preferences Undo the last procedure. Set the graphics and results preferences. Opens a file browser so you can export a beam cross-section. Allows you to set up printer preferences. Prints the currently displayed beam cross section and the section analysis results. select Preferences to display the tabs. On the Edit menu. Delete the currently selected text or entity. or only selected sections. The Preferences dialog allows you to specify the appearance and behavior of HyperBeam. Opens a file browser so you can export the results for the selected section to a text file. Opens a file browser so you can import a beam cross-section.

Results output templates The computed results for a section are formatted using a user-specified TEMPLEX scripts. Contact Altair for technical details on exchange file formats and return codes. Displays the font dialog box. Allows you to specify whether HyperBeam should display the section with the x-axis coming out of the page (so z axis goes up) or going into the page (so the z-axis goes down). You may substitute your own solver to compute values for thin Shell sections. It is recommended that you use a fixed-width font. for best formatting. Allows you to specify a bitmap or second color for a gradient to display as the background of the section graphics window. See the Templex Reference On-line Help for additional details. Each section type can have its own custom script.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which allows you to choose which font and face to use for the results display. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for section graphics window. so it can display just those values known to be relevant. such as courier. x-axis direction Grid Thumbnails Specifying the Results/Spreadsheet Display The Results tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Font Select the background color for the results display.Font Background effects Displays the font dialog box. External solver for thin shell sections 288 HyperMesh 8. so that their sizes are relative to one another. The Scale Thumbnails checkbox allows thumbnail images to be displayed. Allows you to display a grid behind the section image. The distance entry field allows the distance between nodes of the grid to be adjusted.

Turns on and off the display of the system coordinate axes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.. Allows you to move vertices. rearrange vertices in a part. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Turns on and off the display of the Torsion Factor. Magnifies the graphic in the graphics pane. Allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section.View Menu Toolbar Status Bar Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit to screen Update Results Dynamic update Systems Torsion Factor Warping Factor Spreadsheets Vertex Ids Turns on and off the display of the toolbar.. automatically updates the display when you make changes.. Properties. When selected. Allows you to break a segment so that you can add a new vertex.. Tools Menu Break a Segment Join Segments Create a New Part Move Vertices Reorient Shell Section. Allows you to delete a vertex to join two segments. Turns on and off the display of the Vertex IDs. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. Scales the graphic so that it exactly fits the active window. Allows you to modify the properties of the beam cross-sections. If selected.0 User’s Guide 289 . Turns on and off the display of the Warping Factor. Allows you to specify the section that you want to zoom in on to examine in greater detail. Reduces the size of the graphic in the graphics pane.. Part Editor. Moves the model in the selected direction. Switches the display in the Results/Spreadsheet pane. Allows you to add a new sheet metal part to the current section.. Turns on and off the display of the status bar. updates results.

Specifying the y-axis You can specify the direction for the for the y-axis of the local coordinate system using vertices. You can also move the origin by a fixed amount by defining y and z offsets. you must specify the location of its origin relative to the vertices and the direction of the y-axis. Note that.Reorient Shell Section The reorient shell section dialog allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. the origin will not move with it. or at an angle offset from the current y axis. Likewise. reverse x-axis Activate the check box to flip the section over. or the current centroid to be the new origin. To specify a new coordinate system. 290 HyperMesh 8. Specifying the Origin You can designate a vertex. or the principle axes change. if you subsequently move that vertex.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you move a defi ning vertex. reflecting it about the y-axis. the origin for the section does not follow it. the current shear center. the current principle axes. this coordinate system does not adjust with them. if the shear center or centroid changes because of any changes to the section properties.

The part editor also allows you to review and edit part vertex connectivities. 4. the segment between vertices 1 and 2 is a flange. in the section illustrated below. 13. To set a new thickness.. 15 … Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. on the Tools menu and entering data in the Edit Parts dialog. You can use the up and down arrows to review any part. When you use the part editor tools for. To designate a segment between two vertices and a flange.Part Editor Parts of thin-shell sections can be edited by selecting Part Editor. 2.. 3. For example. A part in this context is an individual piece of sheet metal that is typically welded to other parts along flanges. … and the connectivity of the bottom flange is 1. include those vertices in more than one part. enter a value in the appropriate field. the currently selected part of the section is highlighted. 12. There is list of the vertex IDs at the bottom of the list. The part features that you need to control are its thickness and the connectivity of its vertices. 14. 2. 5.0 User’s Guide 291 .) If you are currently in an optimization section. (You can also adjust thickness by using the graphic tools. you can set upper and lower bounds for the optimization of the section's sheet metal thicknesses. so the connectivity of the top part is 1. You can add or remove vertices to change the part.

This operation cannot be undone. Torsion factor Warping Factor Line color Set the torsion factor. Section type 292 HyperMesh 8. You can activate this option if you need to specify optimization parameters for this section. or vertex coordinates. such as upper and lower bound on thicknesses. Standard Section Properties The Standard Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single standard section. Specify the shape out of the available choices to use for the standard section. Optimization Solid Section Properties The Solid Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a solid section. See the HyperBeam panel for more information on beam cross-sections types. On the Tools menu. Set the warping factor. Thin Shell Section Properties The Thin Shell Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single shell section.Properties Properties for beam cross-sections are specified by selecting Properties on the Tools menu and entering data in the Thin-Shell Section Properties dialog. The properties that can be specified differ for each type of section. select properties. or equations tying coordinates together.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Fill color Choose the color to use for displaying the material portion of the section in the graphics pane. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. HyperBeam recognizes four types of beam cross-sections.

Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane.Generic Section Properties The Generic Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a generic section. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 293 .

Pops-up the properties dialog Shell Section Editing Tools There are five tools to modify the basic definition of a shell section: Break segment If you want to add a new vertex between two existing vertices. Enlarge the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. activate this tool and then click in the graphics area the sequence of vertices. Join two segments/ eliminate vertex Create a new part 294 HyperMesh 8. Specify a new center for the graphics display. Alternate between displaying results or the spreadsheet. if you have turned off the auto-update of section results. or deactivate the tool by toggling its button on the toolbar. Zoom out on the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. If you want to delete a vertex. double-click the last vertex. activate this tool and click at approximately the place you want it to appear. Resize the display to fit the pane. They control how the section is displayed in the graphics pane and the results/spreadsheet pane. Bring the section results up to date. You can use any mixture of existing or new vertices in creating the part.HyperBeam Toolbar The toolbar allows you to quickly access some of the more commonly used functions. activate this tool and click on the vertex. View Controls The view controls are available on the View menu and the toolbar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To add a new sheet metal part to the current section. To finish the part. Turn on and off the display of vertex IDs in shell sections. Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit Show/hide Ids Update results Show/hide spreadsheet Properties Zoom in on area of the beam section by using the mouse to draw a circle around the area of interest.

a short description of the action performed when you click the icon is displayed in the status bar. and click and hold on the vertex to move and drag it to its new location. Redo the last action performed. Open the print dialog. If you place the cursor over a toolbar icon. Cut an item and hold it in memory for pasting. Status Bar The HyperBeam status bar displays messages and information about the interface. activate this tool. Open the HyperBeam on-line help. Undo the last action performed. rearrange vertices in a part. Paste a copied or cut item. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition.0 User’s Guide 295 . Copy an item.Move vertex Part-editor To reposition a vertex. General Tools There are eight tools that allow you to manage a HyperBeam session: Save Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Print On-line Help Save the session.

The panel functions also facilitate the creation of bar2 elements. This process is performed in the beam xsect panel.Beam Cross Section Property Solver The beam cross section property solver allows you to define a beam cross section. moments of inertia. principal axes. HyperMesh uses a finite element methodology to calculate the properties for the cross section. and torsion and warping constants. shear center. and apply those properties to a HyperMesh model. calculate its properties. 296 HyperMesh 8. The tools on the beam xsect panel can help you complete the necessary property cards for finite element analysis using HyperMesh bar2 elements. center of gravity. the beam cross section functions favor NASTRAN analysis in nomenclature and bar offset calculations. The properties that HyperMesh calculates include cross sectional area. Note: For design reasons.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

the cross section must be planar. If you do not specify a base point. and the element order can be defined in the beam xsect panel. and the Z-axis is the cross product of the X and Y axis. your N1 and N2 selections are used to define the positive Y-axis. If you are using offset sections. This tells HyperMesh to ignore the contents of the component when exporting a model. If HyperMesh calculates the plane. Unless you change the name of the component. the plane is determined by a "best fit" from the data provided. or have it calculated for you. The save elements option allows you to save the elements defining the cross section as part of the HyperMesh model. The save element option is located on the pick geom sub-panel on the beam xsect panel. In all cases the planar normal is defined as the positive X axis. Note: The save element option has no effect when you define sections by elements. the Y.Describing Cross Section Planes. HyperMesh calculates the plane for you. second order elements are always used. These elements are placed in a newly created component for each calculation. When you pick elements. this node can be referenced as an end of a bar2 element created with the panel. The system is the same as the coordinate system for the plane. secondary panels called define offset parameters are opened. Axes. in this case. If you create the bar2 element by using this method. offset values are calculated for you. the coordinate system. You may specify any existing HyperMesh node as the base point of the plane. If you define the base point by picking a node. using NASTRAN conventions. If you use the default method.0 User’s Guide 297 . Local Axes Many of the properties are defined relative to a local coordinate system. These specifications are applied by using the toggles under cross section plane: or plane base node:. surfaces. All properties are calculated on the plane. 1 versus 2 Order Element Analysis st nd For beam cross sections that were fully defined by lines or surfaces.and Z-axes are defined to be the principal axes of the cross section. Planes In order for properties to be calculated correctly. and Elements The following factors relating to the cross section plane. or elements is used. HyperMesh uses one of two methods to define the plane. If you define the plane. the order of the selected HyperMesh element is used. These options are specified by using the toggle under plane base node:. If you use the offset lines sub-panel. This option is specified by using the toggle under analysis type: on the pick geom sub-panel. You can also use the standard HyperMesh plane collector to define the plane. these elements are not output when you use the export subpanel on the files panel. Save Elements Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Linear weighting of the points on the selected lines. you may choose to have the properties calculated using first or second order elements. HyperMesh defines the plane base at the Center of Gravity of the cross section. The name of the component is preceded by a caret (^).

You can also change the offset direction after the initial cross section definition. By default. provided they are used in the definition of the cross section. The initial definition of the cross section uses the user-defined nominal thickness for each line. Offset Sections The offset sections method is designed to support thin-walled cross sections manufactured from sheet metal. The tolerance is defined as 15% of the largest distance between the weld areas on the lines minus the offset distances. you may change any or all of the line thicknesses. When this method is used in the offset lines sub-panel of the beam xsect panel. The weld point is located a given distance from a fixed point. with the line as the center of the sheet metal piece. HyperMesh attempts to join four nodes per line per weld to a corresponding set of four nodes on another line. When you use this method. or reverse normal to the line.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Each HyperMesh line in the set can be assigned a thickness. The choices are centered. The thickness used is considered to be the total thickness of the sheet metal piece. When you define a weld point. it is best to use fewer lines with the property calculator. the offset direction is centered. Holes are allowed in the section but all portions of it must touch all other portions. and weld points. HyperMesh first looks for coincident node pairs to join. the section must be a contiguous area.Defining a Cross Section There are two methods you can use to describe a cross-section for analysis: by offsetting HyperMesh lines or by selecting a fully enclosed area. The beam cross section is described by a set of lines. an offset of each line is created. the section is considered fully open and no correlation will exist between nodes on different sets of lines. The distance from the point and the diameter of the weld may be changed graphically. Although you can use the line segments option. or by entering the desired values. 298 HyperMesh 8. You can change the thickness of lines interactively by using the mouse cursor or you can enter a value and apply it to specific lines or all of the lines. After nominal = for initial thickness is defined. If weld points are not defined for offset sections. you can also specify weld points for the cross section. Then it looks for nodes within tolerance of each other. With either method. The line sets may be changed one at a time by selecting the graphical toggle and picking the line set or all sets may be changed at once by clicking the toggle sides button. Note: If you define a cross section with elements and use the intersect panel to cut elements. HyperMesh allows this point to be chosen at any end or joint of a selected line. use the combine lines option and specify a break angle. An arrow is displayed that indicates the offset direction. based upon the line data in the model. After the initial cross section is defined. Weld points are used to join separate pieces of sheet metal at a point. Any number of lines may be selected to be part of a weld point. thicknesses. you can define any or all line thicknesses using the thickness = option. The offset direction is user-specified. normal to the line. Any continuous set of HyperMesh lines (as determined by HyperMesh) is considered to be a single piece of sheet metal.

lines. If the section is defined using elements.Fully Defined Sections For this method of beam cross section definition. those elements are considered to be the section. No alterations are made to those elements.0 User’s Guide 299 . the area is automeshed to generate elements for the cross section. When lines or surfaces are chosen. Note: This means that all nodes along common boundaries are taken as the same and the solver does not consider moving them independently. you can use the pick geom sub-panel of the beam xsect panel to select any set of elements. HyperMesh uses the connectivity provided by the elements. aside from projecting to a common plane. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or surfaces that describe a fully closed area. If you select by elements. Defining the section using lines or surfaces in this manner creates a fully closed section.

individual menu items are displayed that perform only the sub-set of desired operations. with which you can apply the calculated properties to the HyperMesh model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The post-processing panel displays only the menu items necessary for the current operation. Otherwise.Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties After you select the solve function in the beam xsect panel. The post-processing panel is displayed. the properties are calculated. At any time you can click apply results to perform all the currently specified options. The following postprocessing options can be performed in any combination desired and are not exclusive of other functions. 300 HyperMesh 8. Temporary nodes are also created at the Center of Gravity and Shear Center. The following symbols are displayed at the Center of Gravity and the Shear Center: Center of Gravity symbol Shear Center symbol The local axes of the beam are also displayed.

When you apply the results to the properties or components.Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver In order to relate the calculated properties to a card for your desired output solver. or PAM-CRASH. see Save and Display Results. Γw. N1. K1. I12. you are prompted to confirm that you wish to overwrite the data on that property/component. and the modified value. It. Irr. As. Ist. you may select NASTRAN. MARC. Solver NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT ABAQUS Comp/Prop Property Property Component Card Name PBAR PBEAM (end A) BEAMGENERAL. J. Iyy A. HyperMesh material data associated with the property/component is not affected. OPTISTRUCT. K2 A. The values that are saved in summary files or displayed on the screen show the factor. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. N2 A. Shear Center x1 and x2 Area. K1.0 User’s Guide 301 . Izz. Otherwise. CW. see Creating Collectors. I1. I2. All of the solver data of the property/component is deleted if you answer yes. Centroid x1 and x2. no changes are made to the calculated value. For more information. ANSYS. I2. Iyy. J. J. A non unit Torsion factor will modify the value of the Torsional Constant. the original value. If data exists. These constants provide a means to apply empirical "fudge factors" to the results. RADIOSS. The changes are applied to all HyperMesh properties and/or components. and replaced by the newly calculated data or default data for that property/component. I22. Itt. SA A. I1. CENTROID. J. HyperMesh checks to see if data already exists for the currently chosen solver on that property/component. Is. elform 2 Mat’l type 202 geometry Data A. K2. Iss. I2. I1. After you select the solver. SHEAR CENTER R SECTION_BEAM. If you already have a card image template specified in the global panel. Izz. you can specify the already created HyperMesh properties or components to which to apply the results as a card image. LS-DYNA. I12. If these factors remain at the default value of 1. independently developed over many years. For more information. Similarly non 1. relate fully welded sections to partially welded sections. principal Y axis unit VECTOR ANSYS LS-DYNA/ RADIOSS PAM-CRASH MARC Property Property Component Component Torsion and Warping Factors torsion factors and warping factors are the only fields common to all operations of the postprocessing panel. Ir A. that solver is automatically selected. and the spacing between welds.0 warping factor modifies the Warping Constant. use the FEA solver: switch to select the solver.0. This function does not work for dictionary solvers. The size determination is for user-viewing preference only and does not affect any of the actual values. ABAQUS. These factors. Display Size You can control the size of the Center of Gravity and Shear Center symbols and the local Coordinate system with the draw size = field.

The other end of the bar may be defined by picking a node or specifying a distance along the x axis of the cross section. that property is automatically assigned to the new BAR2 element. Whether you choose to save a summary file and/or display it on the screen. The BAR2 element that you are creating can also be assigned an orientation. 302 HyperMesh 8. the information includes a named list of the properties/components. use the disp (display) panel to confirm that the elements of the current component are selected for display. you are asked if you want each property associated with the newly created bar element. if any. You are asked about each selected property until you answer "yes" to the question presented. that is referenced by the bar element.Creating a Bar Element Another option is to create a HyperMesh BAR2 element by specifying two nodes and optionally choosing a direction vector or node and property for the element. Coordinate Systems/Vectors A HyperMesh coordinate system may be created to save the orientation of the cross section. The element is created in the currently active component. If the solver for which you are defining a model uses components. you must save the results as an ASCII file. you can select the summary file option and specify a file name in the field after summary file. The system is created identical to the one displayed on the screen. to which the calculated properties were assigned. This option is provided to aid in understanding the orientation of the cross section relative to the overall model. You may use the cross section’s local Y or Z axis. Manipulating them does not change the property values that may be saved and referenced by the created bar element. If you want a permanent record of the calculations you have just performed. If any properties (not components) are selected when you build a BAR2 element. This feature works only with apply results. You may also create a HyperMesh vector in either the local Y or Z direction of the cross section. There are many properties calculated that are not assigned to solver cards. it creates a new node. or move the bar element to that component by using the organize panel. check to make sure the desired component is currently active.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you use a nodal orientation. The cross section may be chosen as either end A or end B of the bar. If you use a vector orientation. 10% of the length of the element away from the existing node. to describe the bar’s orientation. Note: If you create a BAR2 element and it does not show on the screen. Save and Display Results All of the calculated properties may be viewed or saved to an ASCII text file. If only one property is selected. it applies a global unit vector to the bar created. If you want to save these. The node for this end of the bar is either the centroid of the section or the user-selected base node. The properties can also be viewed on the screen in the same manner as summary templates. The sign of the distance is the direction along the x axis. and not with summary alone. either as a vector or by letting HyperMesh create a node along the axis.

split the HyperMesh line at the desired point and then choose the new point at the split. How do I define a weld point at a different location? Use the graphical controls to change its location on the line. Each HyperMesh line has a different thickness. Select those lines as your section definition. How do I obtain lines from a shell element model to use as my offset lines? Use the hidden line panel on the Post page and choose line plot as the desired output.Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers This section provides answers for common questions about using the beam cross section process: How do I change the number of lines on which I can define a thickness? Change the number of HyperMesh lines you are selecting. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If you need a different reference point. Use the line edit panel on the Geom page to either split or combine existing lines.0 User’s Guide 303 .

The HyperLaminate module is supported for the OptiStruct.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .HyperLaminate Module HyperLaminate is a HyperMesh module that facilitates the creation. which are updated simultaneously in HyperMesh and HyperLaminate). review and edition of composite laminates. Nastran. component collectors and design variables) may result in synchronization problems and loss of data. The current HyperMesh database is only updated with information from the current HyperLaminate session on exit from HyperLaminate (an exception to this rule are Abaqus materials. so while it is possible to work in HyperMesh while HyperLaminate is running. HyperLaminate is launched from within HyperMesh either from the HyperLaminate button on the 2D page of the main menu. Any changes made to those entities which HyperLaminate touches (materials. 304 HyperMesh 8. or by selecting HyperLaminate from the Setup pull-down menu. In support of this process certain materials and design variables are also supported by in the HyperLaminate module. Ansys and Abaqus user profiles. this is not advisable.

This browser. laminates or design variables. and delete entries in text boxes. laminates and design variables. Left clicking on an entity populates the Define/Edit and Review panes with details of that branch.0 User’s Guide 305 . Review Pane Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. as shown here: Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus that allow you to manage files. provides a vertical tree view of materials. copy. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. edit materials. This is the right hand pane of the HyperLaminate module. and access on-line help. laminates and size design variables in your model. change views. The HyperLaminate toolbar contains five tools that allow you to generate new materials. and to cut. Right clicking on a branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. Toolbar Laminate Browser Define/Edit Pane This is the central pane of the HyperLaminate module. laminate or design variable definition (depending on the selected branch in the laminate browser). paste. Here users may enter or change data related to a material.HyperLaminate Environment The HyperLaminate environment consists of five general areas. The review pane has a number of tabs that display the current state of the selected branch.

The following chart lists each menu option. Exit HyperLaminate. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. At this point the current HyperMesh database is updated with the information in the current HyperLaminate session.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. Exports material and laminate information to a text file. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. This text file can be printed. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). Edit Cut Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. 306 HyperMesh 8. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. File New Export to File Exit Generates a new entity. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table.HyperLaminate Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane.

Displays version. Display/hide status bar. Allows you to select defaults for new Laminates for: • • • • • View Toolbar Status Bar Help About HyperLaminate Help Topics color convention repetitions ply thickness common thickness Display/hide toolbar. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Activates the HyperLaminate on-line help. contact.0 User’s Guide 307 .Tools Ply lay-up options Displays the Ply lay-up Options dialog. and copyright information.

308 HyperMesh 8. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting.HyperLaminate Toolbar The HyperLaminate toolbar is located below the menu bar and its display is controlled by the Toolbar option under the View pull-down menu. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. Cut Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. The toolbar is shown and described here. Icon Name New Function Generates a new entity. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser.

SHELLSECTION and SHELLGENERALSECTION Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These are: a.0 User’s Guide 309 . laminate definitions and size design variables existing in the HyperMesh database. provides a vertical tree view of the materials. Laminates: PCOMP and PCOMPG iii. The data is presented in a slightly different format for the various user profiles as shown here: OptiStruct & Nastran Ansys Abaqus The Laminate Browser is organized in a three level hierarchy: 1. Design Variables: DESVAR b. Laminates and Design Variables. At the intermediate level are the entity subtypes or card images. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the browser also includes size design variables. for Abaqus: i. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. 2. SHELL99. and laminates in your model. Laminates: SOLIDSECTION. At the highest level are the entity types: Materials. Materials: ABAQUS_MATERIAL ii.Laminate Browser The Laminate browser. Laminates: SHELL91. Materials: MATERIAL and MPDATA ii. for Ansys: i. MAT2 and MAT8 ii. for OptiStruct and Nastran: i. for the active user profile. the Laminate Browser is populated with all the relevant materials. SOLID46 and SOLID 191 c. Materials: MAT1. On launching HyperLaminate.

A new entity appears under the selected branch. Click the New icon. A new entity appears under the selected branch A default name and id are assigned to each newly created entity. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. 2. 2. Click New. Or 1. if MAT1 is selected and we right click on it and choose New. • • At the highest level (entity types) no operations are available.which allows the entity to be renamed. The selected entity is highlighted. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. . on the toolbar.e. At the lowest level (entities) three operations are available. Rename . Make the desired changes to the entity definition in the Define/Edit pane and click apply or update laminate to update the entity. a new MAT1 entity is created. • From the Laminate Browser it is possible to: To create entities: There are three options for creating new entities in HyperLaminate: 1. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. To review and update entities: 1. i. 2. It is then possible to alter and update the entity definition. Right clicking on an already selected (highlighted) branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. At the intermediate level (entity sub-types) only one operation is available: New – which will create a new entity of the selected sub-type. 310 HyperMesh 8. At the lowest level are the entities. Right click on selected entity sub-type. Left or right clicking on a branch in the browser selects that branch and it becomes highlighted. displayed with the names as defined by you. A new entity appears under the selected branch. Or 1. Select New from the File pull-down menu. 3. and Delete – which will delete the selected entity. the Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. Duplicate – which creates a copy of the selected entity. When an entity (lowest level branch in the tree hierarchy) is selected. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it.3.

3. 7. switches to a text box. 4. 2. Duplicate. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. and Delete. A confirmation dialog is displayed. 4. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename.To rename entities: 1. Or Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. The name of the selected entity. Duplicate. Or 5. A confirmation dialog is displayed. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. Click Yes. 6. in the Laminate Browser. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Enter the desired new name in the text box. 3. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. Click Duplicate. Right click on the selected entity. 3. Right click on the selected entity. To duplicate entities: 1.0 User’s Guide 311 . To delete entities: There are three options for deleting entities in HyperLaminate: 1. Click Delete. A duplicate of the entity is created and appears in the Laminate Browser. Click Rename. 2. You can also rename an entity by altering the relevant field in the Define/Edit pane and then clicking on Apply or Update Laminate. and Delete. Duplicate. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. and Delete. Right click on selected entity. Select Delete from the Edit pull-down menu. Click Yes.

9. To delete these undefined materials. as they do not really exist. Click the Delete icon.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. on the toolbar. 10. Click Yes. . either complete their definition (by clicking Edit – which takes you to the HyperMesh material card previewer) or exit and restart HyperLaminate (in which case the undefined materials are purged). A confirmation dialog is displayed. Note: Abaqus materials that are created but not defined (they appear in a red font in Laminate Browser) may not be deleted. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. 312 HyperMesh 8.8.

Once the desired changes have been made. The configuration of the Define/Edit pane differs for different user profiles and sub-types (card images).Define/Edit Pane The Define/Edit Pane. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Define/Edit pane is populated with the current definitions. Materials For OptiStruct. allows you to edit the definition of the selected entity.0 User’s Guide 313 . the central pane of the HyperLaminate window. Nastran and Ansys materials. Below are screenshots showing the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct MAT8 definition and an Ansys MATERIAL definition: OptiStruct – Materials – MAT8 Ansys – Materials – MATERIAL Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. all material property information for the selected material may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. To reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button.

A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus SOLIDSECTION laminate is shown here: Abaqus – Laminates – SOLIDSECTION 314 HyperMesh 8. As with the other user profiles. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus material is shown here: Abaqus – Materials – ABAQUS_MATERIAL Laminates For Laminates. clicking return will return you to the HyperLaminate GUI. the Define/Edit pane allows the laminate name.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Clicking the Edit button takes you to the material card previewer in the HyperMesh GUI. but to fully define the material properties they must click the Edit button.For Abaqus materials users may rename or redefine the color of the material in the Define/Edit pane. to reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. stacking sequence convention and the ply lay-up order to be edited. HyperMesh component color. This is for all supported user profiles and laminate sub-types. Once you has finished reviewing/editing the material. where you can review and alter the definition of the selected material.

270 and 360 respectively). 90. e. Total: The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate in its entirety. The midlayer is not reflected. 90. The midlayer is not reflected. Repeat: The Ply lay-up order table describes a single sub-laminate which is repeated a number of times. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. 270 and 360 respectively). Antisymmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. c. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. 180. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table.0 User’s Guide 315 . It is possible to choose between constant and variable ply thickness for certain user profiles. 270 and 360 remain as 0. 270 and 360 remain as 0. Symmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). the total number of plies is always odd. 90. Antisymmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. Symmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. f. Due to the midlayer. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. 180. d. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The number of repetitions is given by the Repetitions: field (which is activated when this Convention is chosen). 180.There are a number of options for Convention for the stacking sequence: a. the total number of plies is always odd. 90. Due to the midlayer. variable ply thickness allows up to 4 nodal thicknesses to be defined for each ply. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. b. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Ansys SHELL99 laminate with variable ply thickness is shown here: Ansys – Laminates – SHELL99 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 180.

common thickness gives every ply in the laminate the same thickness. which when set to YES includes the plies described by that row in the stress output and the failure theory calculation. Rows may be inserted in the table. All fields in the Ply lay-up order table may be edited. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. When multiple rows are selected. It is also possible to edit multiple rows at once.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select multiple rows as described in the previous paragraph. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct PCOMPG laminate is shown below: OptiStruct – Laminates – PCOMPG 316 HyperMesh 8. this will keep the current selection and add all the rows between the current selection and the newly selected row). select other rows (alternatively multiple rows may be selected with the Shift key held down. either above or below selected rows (choose from the Above Selected or Below Selected radio buttons). by clicking the Insert New Ply button. with the Ctrl key held down. ply thickness and ply orientation for a number of plies (defined by the No. by checking the Failure Theory check-box. Rows are always pasted above the selected rows. the Add/Update plies: fields are populated with the information common to the selected rows. Blank fields indicate that not all of the selected rows contain the same values for that field. Each row of the Ply lay-up order table has an SOUT field. Select multiple rows by selecting one row and then. copied. Rows may be cut. using the toolbar. Rows are added to the table by completing the Add/Update plies: entry fields and clicking the Add New Ply button. Changes can be made to the Add/Update plies: fields and Update Selection can be clicked to update the selected rows with the updated information (no changes occur to the selected rows for blank fields). selecting a theory from the pull-down list and defining an Interlaminar shear allowable: value. or for all rows at once through the Output ply stress results: field under the Stress and failure theory output: heading. Ctrl+c. or repetitions field and based on the selected Convention). pasted or deleted to/from the table. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Each row of the table defines the material.It is also possible to choose a common thickness for all plies. when multiple rows are selected the clipboard contents are pasted above each selected row. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to request stress and failure theory output. The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate from the bottom ply (most negative Z) moving upwards (increasing in positive Z direction). Once one or more SOUT fields are set to YES it is possible to activate failure theory calculation. It is possible to set the SOUT field individually for each row.

you can click the Clear button. A new material appears under the selected branch. Design Variables For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the DESVAR design variable card is supported in HyperLaminate. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. . Design variables may be selected in these extra fields. adding extra fields to the right of the Thickness T1 and Orientation fields. Checking the Optimization check-box expands the Ply 0 lay-up order table. on the toolbar. As this id should not be repeated within the same laminate. but this is not enforced in the GUI. A default name and id are assigned to newly created materials. the No. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New.0 User’s Guide 317 . Use one of the following three methods to create a new material in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. Click Update Laminate to apply all the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). For PCOMPG each row in the Ply lay-up order table should represent a single ply so only the Total stacking convention should be used for PCOMPG. b) Right click on selected material sub-type. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to assign a design variable to a thickness or orientation field in the Ply lay-up order table. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. This field is used to assign a global ply id to a ply definition (the global ply id is a post-processing aid). of repetitions field is not available for PCOMPG. Selecting a design variable to the right of a thickness or orientation assigns the selected design variable to that thickness or orientation. The newly created material is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected material sub-type. To reset all design variable fields to their default values. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. b) Click the new icon. Once the desired changes have been made.The Ply lay-up order table for the OptiStruct and Nastran PCOMPG laminate sub-type is different from other laminate subtypes in that it has a GPLYID field. c) Click New. A new material appears under the selected branch. 2. All information for the selected design variable may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. A new material appears under the selected branch. To define a new material: 1. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate).

The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected material definition. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. Ctrl+c. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. Select the material to be edited from the Laminate Browser. For the Abaqus user profile: 1. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to zero. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. Click return. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Note: It is not possible to rename an Abaqus material until after it has been defined (edited). pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . using the toolbar. 318 HyperMesh 8. 3. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. copied. For the OptiStruct. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. 2. 2. 3. Click Apply to save the changes. 5.For the OptiStruct. 4. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. 2. Also it is not possible to create a new Abaqus material if an undefined material definition already exists (appears in a red font in Laminate Browser). Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. The final material definition is displayed in the Review tab. Data may be cut. To review or modify an existing material: 1. 3. Provide the material definition by filling in the entry fields in the Define/Edit pane. Click on Edit and provide the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer.

4. b) Click the new icon. To define a new laminate: 1. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New.0 User’s Guide 319 . 2. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. Make all desired changes to the material definition in the card previewer. 6. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. on the toolbar. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. A default name and id are assigned to newly created laminates. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Laminate name: field or the component color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Click Apply to save the changes. Click on Edit to see the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. Use one of the following three methods to create a new laminate in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate Browser. Click return. The newly created laminate is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected laminate sub-type. 2. . 5. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. 4. 3. For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles define the Stress and failure theory output: information as desired. c) Click New. 3. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser.For the Abaqus user profile: 1.

Note: 7. Complete the Ply lay-up order table. The number of rows in the table is not the number of plies. If Constant is selected. If rows 1 and 3 are copied and pasted at row 7. When multiple non-sequential rows are copied and then pasted. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. the Ply lay-up order table includes a single thickness column: Thickness T1 If Variable is selected. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). they will be pasted as sequential rows. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Data may be cut. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to define thickness and orientation fields in the Ply lay-up order table as designable and to assign design variables to them. the Ply lay-up order table includes multiple thickness columns: Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness T1 T2 T3 T4 c) For Constant ply thickness. This is governed by the stacking convention and the number of repetitions. Note: The option to switch between constant or variable thickness is only available for certain laminate sub-types. if you now uncheck the box. the thickness fields retain the common thickness value. but are now editable. Note: Note: Rows are always pasted above selected rows. and what was row 7 will now be row 9. 9. a) For Convention:.5. Total Symmetric Antisymmetric Symmetric-Midlayer Antisymmetric-Midlayer Repeat If you select Repeat. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Having checked the Common Thickness box and entered a common thickness value. Add/Insert rows by completing the Add/Update plies: fields and clicking Add New Ply or Insert New Ply (for Insert New Ply it is possible to choose to insert the ply above or below the selected rows). Table rows may also be cut. 320 HyperMesh 8. For all user profiles define the Stacking sequence convention: information. select one of the following stacking sequence conventions. using the toolbar. b) For Ply thickness:. 10. pasted or deleted to/from selected fields. pasted or deleted. 6. you can check the Common Thickness box and specify a thickness to be used by all the entry rows.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . row 1 will be pasted as row 7. Ctrl+c. using the toolbar. Eg. Ctrl+c. select Constant or Variable. row 3 will be pasted as row 8. copied. 8. specify how many times you want to repeat the entire block of entry rows. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. copied.

3. The newly created design variable is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration. A new design varaible appears under the selected branch. 2. 7. . Initial. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Checking the Ddval ID box activates the Ddval ID field. (See To define a new laminate). 2. where the id of a discrete value list may be entered.0 User’s Guide 321 . (only subtype available is DESVAR). If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Desvar: field. Select the laminate to be edited from the Laminate Browser. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. 6. 4. 1. 3. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. where a move limit value other than the default of 0. c) Click New. (only subtype available is DESVAR).5 may be entered. lower bound and upper bound values for the design variable can be entered in the appropriate data fields. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. b) Click the new icon. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. To define a new design variable: Design variables are only supported for the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles.To review and modify an existing laminate: 1. on the toolbar. Use one of the following three methods to create a new design variable in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate Browser. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected laminate definition. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). A default name and id are assigned to newly created design variables. Checking the Move limit box activates the Move limit field. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. (only subtype available is DESVAR). b) Right click on the selected sub-type. The laminate definition may be modified in the Define/Edit pane in a manner similar to defining a new laminate. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. 5.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .To review and modify an existing design variable: 1. using the toolbar. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected design variable definition. Ctrl+c. Select the design variable to be edited from the Laminate Browser. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. copied. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to their default values. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. 322 HyperMesh 8. 2. The final design variable definition is displayed in the Review tab. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). 3. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. Data may be cut.

all material property information for the selected material is displayed in the Review pane. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. thickness and orientation. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. The second set of matrices are the equivalent material matrices. This is followed by a description of the laminate. no information is displayed in the Review pane. The Review tab is headed by the laminate name. Nastran and Ansys materials. listing the plies in order from the bottom ply (most negative z). Laminates For laminate definitions for all user profiles. For Abaqus materials. the review pane has two tabs. showing a graphical representation each ply’s orientation and listing the referenced material. Materials For OptiStruct. allows you to review the information pertaining to the selected entity. The first set of matrices are the composite shell stiffness matrices. the total number of plies in the laminate and the total thickness of the laminate. so this information is only updated when the Update Laminates button is clicked. Information displayed on these tabs is only for the saved laminate definition. these are used by many finite element solvers to represent the laminated composite as a homogenized shell. information for the selected design variable is displayed in the Review pane. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Review pane is displays the current definition of that entity. Design Variables For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. the right-hand pane of the HyperLaminate window.Review Pane The Review Pane. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a Review tab and a Stiffness/Material Matrix tab.0 User’s Guide 323 . more commonly referred to as the ABD matrices. The Stiffness/Material Matrix tab provides the two sets of matrices.

wall." All of these dead cells are placed in walls. 324 HyperMesh 8. chemical reaction. If a finite element model is currently loaded. the outer boundary of the volume.0 and 110. and a block may contain multiple walls of dead cells. you can export the grid.Finite Difference Module The Finite Difference module allows you to perform heat transfer. Finite difference blocks are built performing the following steps: Creating a Finite Difference Block The first step in creating a finite difference block is to create the block. fluid flow. and solidification processes by creating an orthogonal. Otherwise. and dead cell information as an analysis input deck by using the HyperMesh template system. a small set of coordinate axes is displayed at the corner of the block. three-dimensional. After you create a finite difference block. These axes serve as a reminder of the i. You cannot change the shape of the finite difference block after you create the structured mesh without destroying all the grid lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When the block is displayed. j.0 in each direction. You can adjust the size of the block by using the functions on the FD blocks panel. Note: The color of a block may be modified at any time by using the update function on the FD blocks panel. and k directions of the block. The panels in this module allow you to intersect your finite element shell model with a finite difference block. creating "dead cells. Cylindrical and spherical volumes are not supported in the current release. the block is created with the default bounds of -10. the block is created with a default size of ten percent larger than the model in each direction (the size of a model is determined by its nodes). structured mesh in a cubic volume around your model. Always finalize the size of your block before beginning the next phase.

j. HyperMesh allows you to automatically intersect a finite element model with the cells in a finite difference block. each cell within a block is live. j. the block must be selected by using the block = menu item. select the desired elements and click intersect. based on whether i nodes. You may then select which walls to display and turn off by using the left or right mouse button. Updates the color of an existing wall.or two-dimensional element intersects any part of a cell. To intersect the model with the cells. depending upon the restrictions enforced by the analysis code being used.Creating a Structured Mesh After you create a block. respectively. Displays a list of all walls in the block. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. which creates dead cells wherever a one. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. or k nodes has been selected. and k directions creates a large number of small cubic volumes called cells. Deletes the specified wall.0 User’s Guide 325 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The intersection and modification of live and dead cells is done in the FD walls panel. A cell may exist in only one wall. Grid lines are created in one direction at a time. all or part of the finite element model may be intersected with the cells in the finite difference block. You must create a wall before you create dead cells. Deletes all existing walls. The wall functions are described below: create delete update delete all display Creates a new wall with the name and color specified in wall = and color. you create a structured mesh in the block by creating grid lines in the i. See the FD nodes panel for more information. After you create a mesh. After you create a wall. j nodes. Cells that alter the flow are known as dead cells. Cells that intersect an element are placed into the current wall. Note: Before any wall operation is begun. and k directions. you can verify the aspect ratio or expansion ratio limits. meaning that the cell does not alter the flow being studied. Solid elements are currently not supported in the interse ction operation. which also contains all the functions you can use to manipulate walls. Initially. marked as dead. Intersecting Elements with Cells The intersection of grid lines in the i. All the one-and two-dimensional elements selected are intersected with the cells in the current block. and displayed in the current wall color.

The edit cells function allows you to add individual cells to the current wall and mark them as dead. use the cursor to select the cells to add or remove. or by planes. Cells do not have a visible pick handle and must be selected at the corner closest to the origin of the block. the color menu items in the i. j. When the entire block is plotted. If you change the color of a plane. 326 HyperMesh 8. all dead cells are displayed in the color of the wall to which they belong. j. If the block is displayed in planar mode. plane-by-plane. When cells are selected. if planar mode is used to display one or more of the planes of cells. and k are at their minimum values. then only cells in the currently displayed plane(s) may be edited. and i. Because cells have no visible pick handle. by volumes. where the block coordinate axes are located. The FD walls panel allows you to edit cells. Creating Finite Difference Hidden Line Plots Hidden line plots of cells in a finite difference block are useful in the verification phase of a finite difference model. you must click hidden line again to display the new color. you can edit any cell in the block. Otherwise.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or remove cells from the current wall and mark the cells as live.Modifying Cells Cells may be changed from live to dead or dead to live individually. However. it is easier to see which cells are dead. by using the next and prev menu functions. It is possible to step through the model. since only dead cells are plotted. After edit cells is selected. they are highlighted. and k directions must be modified to provide the plotting color for cells in each plane. Click the left mouse button to add cells and the right mouse button to remove cells from a wall.

you control the display of loads applied to elements. A geometrical entity can be associated with one mesh or multiple meshes (HyperMesh component or components) and/or with one load collector or multiple load collectors. and load collectors may contain one type or both types simultaneously. using the load on geom panel. Comments Loads on mesh and loads on geometry can be displayed together (similar to the simultaneous display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component). Automatically. After remeshing. You can apply loads to geometry by using the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. from the display panel (accessed via the toolbar) select loadcols from the switch. by exporting the FE deck. There are two ways to map loads on geometry to the mesh associated with this geometry (loads on mesh): • • Manually. temperatures. The mesh (or multiple meshes) is associated with the geometrical entities to which the loads on geometry have been applied. using the files panel/export sub-panel. When geoms is selected. One advantage is that you can remesh a model without deleting complicated loads or boundary conditions.Loads on Geometry HyperMesh allows you to apply loads to geometrical entities and map them to the FE mesh using the load on geom panel on the Analysis Page. and click the toggle to select elems or geoms. The disp (display) panel allows separate or simultaneous visualization of loads on mesh and loads on geometry. When elems is selected. all and reverse buttons to assist in selecting which loadcols should be displayed. Use the none. loads or boundary conditions that have been applied to geometrical entities can be remapped to the new mesh. moments. Each load type is stored in a dedicated section of the same load collector. constraints. To visualize loads on mesh and/or loads on geometry. This means that you can control the display of both types of loads independently. pressures. These are the same panels used to apply loads to a mesh. See Exporting Loads for more information. you control the display of loads applied to geometric entities.0 User’s Guide 327 . and accels. velocities. One load collector stores both loads on geometry and loads on mesh. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. flux.

a line. The process of mapping geometrical loads to mesh loads. load mapping 328 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Loads applied to mesh (nodes or element). Loads applied to geometrical entities. Loads can be applied directly to mesh or applied by mapping them from loads on geometry. or a surface. The loads are mapped from the geometrical entities (to which the geometrical loads are applied) to the mesh that is associated with the geometrical entities.Terminology and Definitions geometrical entities loads on geometry or geometry loads loads on mesh or mesh loads A point.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. temperatures. 1. and click create. lines and surfaces.0 User’s Guide 329 . The process includes two basic steps. lines.Application of Loads to Geometry You can apply loads to geometrical entities in a way similar to the manner in which loads are applied to mesh. and choose the create sub-panel. lines and surfaces. To apply a load to a geometrical entity. velocities. temperatures velocities Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. Third.) located on the Analysis Page. and accels.g. Applying loads to the geometry using one of the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. select a geometrical entity on which the loads will be applied (points. lines and surfaces. Creating a load collector by using the collector panel. constraints. 2. first create a load collector in which the loads applied to geometrical entities will be stored. or surfaces) using the panel selection box. The following chart specifies the geometrical entities to which loads can be applied. moments. HyperMesh stores the loads/boundary conditions in the database and displays them in the graphical window. in each of the load application panels listed above. and updating loads and constraints. points. access a HyperMesh load panel (e. points. forces. constraints. lines and surfaces. etc. pressures. node). reviewing. define the load or boundary condition parameters in the same way you would for the application of the load or boundary condition on a FE mesh entity (e. flux. Next. points points points surfaces nodes on edge: lines (for 2-D solid elements) nodes on face: surfaces (for 3-D solid elements) points.g. Panel accels constraints flux forces moments pressures Geometrical Entities points.

or both. an arrow that represents a load on geometry is longer than arrows representing loads on mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If any loads on geometry are displayed and have not been mapped. 330 HyperMesh 8. loads on mesh that have been applied directly to mesh. mapped from geometry to mesh.Exporting Loads HyperMesh sessions can contain loads on geometry. only the loads on mesh are exported. If displayed is selected. The loads on mesh that are exported may have been applied directly to mesh. all the loads on geometry that have not been mapped (if any). When exporting the model using an export template. Multiple arrows represent loads on mesh (one arrow per node or element). all the displayed loads on mesh are exported. All the loads on mesh (both displayed and hidden) that are associated with the displayed loads on geometry are exported as well. Note: A major graphical display difference between loads on geometry and loads on mesh is the density of the arrows. elems controls the display of loads on mesh and geom controls the display of loads on geometry. and loads on mesh that have been mapped from loads on geometry. The all/displayed toggle on the export sub-panel on the file panel allows you to determine which loads are exported. The basic length of the arrow also differs. If all is selected. they will automatically be mapped to loads on mesh and exported as well. are mapped to loads on mesh and all the loads on mesh are exported. A simultaneous display is similar to the display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component. a single arrow for each geometrical entity represents loads on geometry. all load types are saved and are retrieved when you open the . When saving the model as a HyperMesh database. Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh The disp (display) panel allows you to visualize loads on mesh and loads on geometry either individually or together by setting the collector type to loadcols and using the toggle between elems and geoms.hm file. For the same arrow magnitude percentage setting or uniform size setting within the load application panels.

Distributed Load Mapper The Distributed Load Mapper (DLM) macro enables you to perform structural finite element analyses by incorporating the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis.mac. or ANSYS format. in order. The Distributed Load Mapper macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory. dlm. Entering data in the Distributed Load Mapper dialog requires the following steps: • • • • • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. until all data has been entered. NASTRAN. to the next field below. The Distributed Load Mapper dialog is displayed when you click DLM. or ANSYS input file format) Select a data type and a mapping method Set the scale factors Set the mapping algorithm Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.. ABAQUS. NASTRAN.0 User’s Guide 331 . ABAQUS.. When you enter data in the dialog you should begin with the first field and proceed.0 format or at spatial coordinates is mapped to a structural analysis mesh in OPTISTRUCT. Aerodynamic pressure loading and temperatures computed in a CFD analysis and written out either in TECPLOT 4. on the macro menu.

A valid HyperWorks/HyperMesh license must be available on the local system or network for the DLM mapping algorithms to run. one of the following conditions must exist: • • The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing outward from the wings outer surface. The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing inward from the wings outer surface. The element normals of both the CFD mesh and the structural analysis mesh must be consistent in that all the elements should be aligned and pointing in a common direction. structural_model_tecplot. Examples of Typical Input Files • • Computational fluid dynamics results database file.Assumptions Regarding the DLM Interface and Mapping Process In order to map effectively. wing_cfd_model_dynain • A DLM specific file.dat One file containing all the mapping parameters and selections detailed in the DLM interface.0 format file related to the structural input model. 332 HyperMesh 8. if you are mapping a pressure loading on a wing structure. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. This file is related to the base CFD model. The only exception to this is when some of the DLM transformation functions are used correctly and appropriately through their selection in the DLM interface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the CFD base model and the structural finite element model must exist in the same position in coordinate space. This file is related to the structural input model.dat Structural analysis model file. For instance. D:\dlm_map_files\wing_cfd_model. D:\dlm_map_files\structural_model. used to post-process in Altair HyperView.dat Examples of Typical Output Files • A DLM specific file. DLM Input and Output Files It is useful to understand the input and output files related to a DLM session. for example. structural_model_dynain • • A Tecplot 4. for example. These files are always called hmimp.

y.0 BLOCK and POINT data formats DLM specific input file format (files which end filename_dynain) Measured pressure or temperature at xyz coordinates If the selected file is not in a DLM appropriate format.854129910E-02 1. Use the browser to locate a file. Note: • • • DLM accepts three input file formats: Tecplot 4. Click Open. . i..095489740E+00 . 2.098905325E+00 1.452460170E-02 1. The data must be prescribed in a fixed format.e.970389962E+00 4.357369840E-01-8. The pressure or temperature data at spatial coordinates must be distributed densely enough to have approximately one data point for each element of the structural model. filename_dynain. followed by the pressure or temperature value each data occupying 16 characters and a space separating them. . The file is placed in the same directory as the CFD database and takes its name from the parent file.960631967E+00 4.548135996E-01-8. a DLM specific file is created so that the data being mapped can be visualized in Altair HyperView. For Computational fluid dynamics results database file:. click Browse.Load an input file containing CFD analysis results 1. and z coordinates first.105462790E+00 1.960968852E+00 4.356568158E-01-8. If the CFD file is in a Tecplot format. #ENDDATA Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.926119655E-02 1. Each row should show the x.0 User’s Guide 333 .. a warning message is displayed. . The file also must have a header and footer as shown below: #XYZDATA #pressure 1.

. Note: The data from the base CFD model is superimposed onto this model through the mapping process. NASTRAN. click Browse. filename_dynain. The default value is 1. The mapped data written to structural analysis model files can relate to two different locations on the finite elements of the model. For CFD result scaling:. enter a scale factor by which to increase or decrease the results. select Element nodes or Element centroids. For Mapping method:. i. if the XYZ dimensions of the model were scaled to 1/200 of the actual size and submitted for analysis. 2. Use the browser to locate a file. ABAQUS. The file is placed in the same directory as the structural model database and takes its name from the parent file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The data type is read from the information in the header block of the base CFD file. This would ensure that the base CFD model would match and be positioned in the same Cartesian space as the structural analysis model. it is appended to the structural model input file in the form of PLOAD or TEMP cards appended to the end of the OPTISTRUCT. For example.500.000. If a value of 200 is entered for CFD model scaling:. or to simply investigate the effects of scaling the load upon the model. For CFD model scaling:. The default is 1.. or ANSYS input file format) 1. NASTRAN. For example. 3. and Z coordinates of all the nodal locations in the base CFD model is scaled. For Structural analysis model file:. Click Open. These data parameters are read into the interface when you load the base CFD model file (Load an input file containing CFD analysis results). . enter a scale factor to physically scale the base CFD analysis model. or ANSYS input deck. Y.500. 334 HyperMesh 8. ABAQUS. all the data mapped during the DLM session is multiplied by a factor of 1. The data can either be mapped and related to the nodes of each element in the structural model. Select a data type and a mapping method 1. Once the data is mapped. 2. or to the element centroids of each quadrilateral or triangular element in the structural mesh. which would leave the coordinates of the base CFD model unchanged prior to mapping.e.Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. These scaled values are output to the structural model data file in the PLOAD card section. the X. The PLOAD card output to the structural model files is altered appropriately to the selected nodal or elemental configuration. 2. select the data type to be mapped. A DLM-specific formatted file is written out for post-processing in Altair HyperView. Set the scale factor 1. For Data parameter mapped:. if dimensional reduction/scaling was used in the actual CFD analysis.00 (no scaling). The base CFD model file may contain up to seven different data types. This could be used to apply a safety factor to the results. if the CFD result scale factor is 1.

0 User’s Guide 335 . the Modulus value of the data points captured in the vicinity of the element/nodal location being mapped to. Selects the maximum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. for instance. and the DLM dialog closes upon completion of the mapping process. Selects the minimum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Maxima Minima Extrema Averaged extrema Delaunay-O’C 2. The mapping algorithms are accessed. Accepts whichever is larger in magnitude. Click OK. Takes the maximum and minimum of the data points captured in the proximity of the data location being mapped to. select one of the following options: Averaged Takes the data and average for data points captured in the proximity of the structural data position being mapped to.Set the mapping algorithm 1. and takes an average of these two values. For Mapping algorithm:. The default mapping algorithm. the mapping process runs.

This field allows you to enter an equation string using standard spreadsheet inputs for the various operators and operands.0 corresponds to 1. Mathematical Loading dialog The Mathematical Loading macro requires the following input: Structural analysis model file: Equation string fn(x. on the macro menu..0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering operands may be input in the following forms: corresponds to 1.0 Altair Engineering . The Mathematical Loading macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file.. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory. The Mathematical Loading dialog is displayed when you click Math.0 corresponds to 1.Mathematical Loading Distributed pressure loads can be created at nodes via mathematical loading functions using the Mathematical Loading macro. The operators for which the algorithms are programmed are listed below: Programmed Operators: Unary minus ^ Power of ln Natural Log log Log to the base 10 sin sine cos cosine tan tangent asin arcsine acos arccosine atan arctangent exp Exponential / division * Multiplication + Addition Subtraction Acceptable 1 1.z) = The browser allows you to select the structural model in NASTRAN format on which to apply a mathematical function.mac.y.0 10e-01 336 HyperMesh 8. dlm.

Spaces and a mixture of uppercase and lower case letters are acceptable. However unrecognized characters and functions will cause the loading to yield unacceptable results. The dialog informs you when there is an error in this instance.0 x corresponds to the coordinate position x of the nodes of the model y corresponds to the coordinate position y of the nodes of the model z corresponds to the coordinate position z of the nodes of the model The following input rules apply: • Equation strings should always have balanced parentheses to ensure that the logic of the math expression is maintained. use the Field Loads macro on the Geom/Mesh macro menu.0 User’s Guide 337 . • Note: To create pressure loads at element centroids via mathematical functions. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0.1e+01 corresponds to 1.

In order to complete the post-processing function being executed. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at an element. element value complex nodal displacement complex nodal value complex element value complex nodal von Mises complex element von Mises Data types are not required to contain results for every node or element in the model. HyperMesh Results Database The structure of a results database allows you to access results by a method similar to that of the analysis code. For example. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. A results database is divided into sections called simulations. phase. This translation is done using result translators. assigned. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at an element. This section describes the structure of a HyperMesh results database and explains how to use the post-processing functions to create contour. A data type may contain only one type of result. the results file generated by the translator contains three simulations. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at a node. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. and vector plots. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. HyperMesh prints a message indicating that results for some of the entities requested were not found in the database. deformed. each simulation in a results file may contain two data types: displacements and von Mises stress. If this occurs. offset) at an element. Each simulation in the results database is further subdivided into data types.Post-Processing Analysis The HyperMesh post-processing functions allow you to review the results files and databases generated by external codes. For example. Stores one floating point value at an element. HyperMesh sets the results values needed for that function to zero for all of the nodes or elements that are missing.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 338 HyperMesh 8. if you run a linear statics problem and apply three different loading conditions to your model. refer to the individual translators in the Interface help system. Stores one floating point value at a node. if this is appropriate. If you run a nonlinear job. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. Each data type found in a simulation contains a group of results of the same type. Results files can be translated into HyperMesh results databases which are then read into HyperMesh for post-processing. phase. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. for more information. each load step (the response of the model to each incremental amount of load applied) translates to a simulation. Each simulation stores the results for a model as it responds to a loading condition. and may contain a subset of the total model. Data types are one of the forms described below: nodal displacement nodal value Stores three floating point values at a node. offset) at a node.

Modal animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel.. HyperMesh uses only one simulation and this simulation must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. Transient animation is used to animate the transient response of a structure. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. It is from the data contained with the nodal displacement records that HyperMesh is able to calculate the deformed geometry of the structure. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse.. Creating Animations The HyperMesh animation functions allow you to view your model structure in motion. to select a file using the browser.0 User’s Guide 339 . and for file:. HyperMesh calculates the deformed geometry of the structure from the data contained within the nodal displacement records. Linear animation is usually selected when results are from a static analysis.. The three types of animation include linear. The selected simulation must have a data type in it that contains nodal displacement records. Modal Transient The selected simulations must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records in order for HyperMesh to create an animation sequence. There are two ways to select a results file: • • From the files panel. modal. Modal animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts and ends with the original position of the structure. in either wire frame or hidden line mode. you must first specify the name and location of the HyperMesh results database. to select a file using the browser. For transient animation. Transient animation sequences are generated in the transient panel. select the results sub-panel. For linear and modal animation.Specifying the Results File In order to perform post-processing functions. In the global panel. In this case. HyperMesh uses a range of simulations. and transient. Creating Deformed Geometry Plots The deformed panel allows you to display the deformed geometry of your model statically. An appropriate number of frames are linearly interpolated between the first and the last positions. for results file:. each of the simulations used in the animation sequence must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. Modal animation is most useful for displaying mode shapes. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. Transient animation displays the structure in its timestep positions as calculated by the analysis code. The deforming frames are calculated based on a sinusoidal function. Linear animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel.. Linear Linear animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts with the original position of the structure and ends with the fully deformed position of the structure.

The bands of color are created by calculating a value for each node in the model and then interpolating across each element. HyperMesh averages the centroidal element values to the nodes of the elements. element values1 Creating Assigned Plots The assign function in the contour panel assigns a color to each element in the model. this is accomplished by adding the results at each node and dividing by the number of nodes on the element. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the nodes of the elements. element values The results are already stored at the centroid of the element. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when element centroid values are used to create a contour plot. The elements are then displayed in the solid color assigned to them. This allows you to display elements that have values within a specified range. based on the values in the results file. Creating Contour Plots The contour function in the contour panel generates color bands on a model. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when nodal values or nodal displacements are being used to create an assigned plot. When a contour function is performed. Vector plots are used to determine the direction of movement and allow you to verify the location of the center of rotation of a model. so no further calculations are required. When the assign function is performed. nodal values and displacements 340 HyperMesh 8. based on the values found in the results file. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the assigned plot. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the contour plot. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the centroid of the elements.Creating Vector Plots A vector plot displays the model with a vector at each node that has a result-based direction and magnitude. HyperMesh averages the results at the nodes to the centroid of the elements. For each element. nodal values and displacements The results are stored at the nodes. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. In order to accomplish this. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. In order to accomplish this. The values are located at the centroid of the element. See the vector plot panel for more information. HyperMesh can create the contour plot without modifying any of the values in the results file.

0 User’s Guide 341 . simulation and data type. To modify the descriptor. click within the displayed legend to access the legend edit panel. After you enter the title and create the plot. and value of the node or element are displayed in the menu area. change the font size. HyperMesh creates the "descriptor" in order to display the simulation and data type that were used to create the plot. and relocate the legend and the descriptor. change the color of the text in the legend. the temporary title is displayed on the upper left side of the screen. click font and select the size font you want to use in the descriptor. click within the descriptor to access the title edit panel. The ID. the descriptor is located in the upper left-hand corner of the plot above the legend. When you want to determine the actual value that an analysis code has calculated for a node or element. To modify a legend. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh plots a legend if the results-based plot created requires it. Temporary titles can be added to each type of plot by entering a title in the title = field in the contour panel.Adding Plot Identification After you create a results-based plot. Inspecting the Results A contour or assigned plot provides a fast. click color to change the color of the text of the descriptor. you can add titles. By default. you can select the node or element after the results-based plot has been created. Functions on this panel allow you to move the legend to a different location on the screen. modify the colors used in the legend. convenient way of viewing the results of a large number of elements. and also change the colors used in the legend that correspond to the model. reverse the colors of the legend.

which are referred to as curves.XY Plotting The functions in the xy plots module allow you to study the relationships between data vectors in results files. Information about curves is stored in curve collectors. Plots maintain a list of pointers to curves that are to be displayed on the plot. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. To display a curve.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Procedures for creating and editing xy plots and curves include: • • • • • • • • • • • Creating an XY Plot Modifying XY Plots Working with Multiple XY Plots Modifying Multiple XY Plots Creating Curves on XY Plots Reading Curves from an ASCII File Creating Analysis Based Curves Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions Modifying Curve Attributes Displaying Selected Curves on Plots In addition. This section introduces the functions that are available in the xy plots module. 342 HyperMesh 8. There is no limit to the number of plot collectors that a HyperMesh database may contain. you must assign the curve collector to a plot. A curve may appear on more than one plot at a time and there is no limit to the number of curves that a HyperMesh database may contain. You can create standard plots or dual plots that show real /imaginary or phase/magnitude data. The plot may contain any number of curves. Information about xy plots is stored in plot collectors. which are referred to as plots.

Allows you to determine the coordinate values of points in a curve. The curve attribs panel allows you to change the color. The xy plotting panels are described below: axis labels The axis labels panel allows you to modify the x and y axes titles and labels. thickness of the grid lines. You can also change the curve title that appears in the legend. circle zoom. The border panel allows you to change the thickness and color of the border around the plot.0 User’s Guide 343 . The plot titles panel allows you to change the plot title. select xy plots on the Post page of the main menu.XY Plots Module The xy plots module is a group of panels that perform operations on plots and the curves displayed on those plots. You may also specify whether the border is displayed and the size of the margin between the border and the plot. The legend panel allows you to change the location and the font used to display the legend. and the margin displayed around the grid lines. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. and number of significant places in the labels. The grid attribs panel allows you to change the color.). and the line style (solid. Reads curves from an ASCII file. axis scaling border curve attribs edit curves grid attribs grid labels integrate legend plot titles plots query curves read curves rename results curves simple math In addition. and zoom out. dashed. The grid labels panel allows you to change the color. etc. Allows you to create an xy plot and assign curves to the xy plot. Allows you to perform simple mathematical calculations on a curve. and label. The axis scaling panel allows you to modify the starting and ending values of the plot axes. Generates a curve from the currently-selected results file. To access the xy plots module. You can apply a scaling factor to the original data points. Grid labels appear along the x and y axes in the plot (tick marks). This panel allows you to read data vectors from files as well as perform advanced mathematical operations on curves. In addition. You can set the values explicitly or implicitly by using the panel functions such as find curves. subtitle. you can change the color and font size used to display these entities. font. line style. Allows you to rename curves. marker style (used to indicate the point location). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can also change the color and font size used to display these entities. Calculates and displays the integral of a curve. thickness. Creates and modifies the curves in the database.

The first step in the process of creating an xy plot is to use the plots panel to name and create an xy plot collector. Access this panel by pressing the w key. subtitle. or a subset of the plots. This process also applies to curves. select the panel that applies to the attribute you want to change. select the plot you want to change. thickness. the grid labels and grid attributes. HyperMesh immediately displays the update. You can modify one plot so that it has the desired values.Creating an XY Plot Each xy plot window is assigned a name when you create it. This allows you to control multiple plots by resizing and moving plots around the screen. you may wish to change the axis titles so that they are all the same. To modify an xy plot. Each time a panel in the xy plots module is accessed. When you modify xy plots using the panels of the xy plots module. After each change. the panels in the xy plots module are updated to reflect the change. For example. the plot = field allows you to select one plot and the plots entity selector allows you to select multiple plots. and labels. Modifying an XY Plot After you create an xy plot. Plot attributes include the title. HyperMesh displays the existing values of the current xy plot (the plot listed after plot =) in the data entry fields in the panel. Every time you change the current xy plot. and change the attribute in the panel. and also the margin and border around the xy plot. XY plot window placement is controlled with the Windows panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . in one step. you can change the color. HyperMesh initially assigns default values to the xy plot attributes. you may wish to modify one of the values on all of the plots. 344 HyperMesh 8. and then apply those modifications to the other plots. Working with Multiple XY Plots HyperMesh places every xy plot within a window. Modifying Multiple XY Plots When several plots are contained within a database. or width of the border. or add a title to the plot. These attributes can be adjusted before or after you add curves to the plot.

follows on the same line. Examples of external filters are in the filters subdirectory that is provided when this option is selected. which is displayed in the legend. . In the above example. You can also apply external filters to curves in this panel. Y1 X2. Y2 . transform a curve.Creating Curves on XY Plots You can create curves using four different methods: • • • • Read curves from an ASCII file Extract a curve directly from a results database Create curves by using a few simple math operators Read single curves from files as well as generate curves by using mathematical expressions Reading Curves from an ASCII file When HyperMesh reads curves from an ASCII file with the read curves panel. After this information has been supplied. the title assigned to the curve. ENDDATA Each curve in the file is defined in a block format. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Point data follows with a set of (x. .0 User’s Guide 345 . Essentially. and then select a data type for the x axis data points and a data type for the y axis data points.TITLE X1. using the standard HyperMesh curve data file format. When you create an analysis curve.TITLE X1. . or export the curve. The block begins with the statement. Y1 X2. ENDDATA XYDATA. The block ends with an ENDDATA statement. After XYDATA. there are two blocks of data. you can specify that the x or y values of the curve remain fixed. filters exchange data with HyperMesh. Analysis-based curves are generated in the results curves panel. you select entities of interest in your model. For every operation. You can combine two curves. Creating Analysis-Based Curves Analysis-based curves are generated from the HyperMesh binary results file. which define two curves. it assumes that the format of the input file is as follows: XYDATA. XYDATA. Y2 . HyperMesh reads the required data from the results file and generates the appropriate curve. y) data pairs on each line. Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Curves can be created using simple math operators in the simple math panel. .

Each vector of a curve can be defined using either a data vector in a data file or a math expression.vector: For example: c1. based on what has been modified. the data request set needs to be selected. and the data source for the y vector could be a math expression. and component. you must indicate the curve number and the x or y vector. To edit the x and y vectors of a math curve. request. For more information about math expressions. in the format curve number. To reference the y vector of curve 1.x c1. 346 HyperMesh 8. When you modify a curve. HyperMesh recalculates the curves in the proper order. For example.y To reference the x vector of curve 1. Available data types depend on the data file. refer to the Altair Math Reference. New data can be selected from a source file or mathematically defined. Once the data type has been selected. the component must be selected. The y vector can be a function of x or the x vector can be a function of y. Source file data is divided into type. After the data request set has been selected. The data sources for the x and y vectors are displayed in the x = and y = fields.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions The edit curves panel allows you to create new curves or edit existing ones. the data source for the x vector could be a file. Type Request Component Note: Data files can consist of different types of data.

curve title curve width curve style curve color curve marker The curve title is displayed in the legend. The color used to draw the curve. The following curve attributes may be changed in the curve attribs panel. HyperMesh currently supports a solid line.0 User’s Guide 347 . The names of the curves that are already displayed on the current xy plot are highlighted. x scale factor y scale factor Displaying Selected Curves on Plots After you have read or created curves. Modify the list by selecting the curves by name and removing or adding the curves to the current plot as desired and click return. To select curves for a plot. The curve may also be displayed with no markers shown. select the plots panel and click select curves. The style of line used to draw the curve. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh currently supports circular. when the curve is displayed. and square markers. HyperMesh currently supports 15 standard colors. HyperMesh currently supports either thick or thin lines. triangular. and four different patterns. HyperMesh displays a list of the available curves in the database. This scale factor is used to scale the y values in a curve. you can select which curves in the database you want to display on an xy plot. Determines the markers drawn around each data point in the curve. no line at all. The width of line used when the curve is drawn. This scale factor is used to scale the x values in a curve.Modifying Curve Attributes Modifying curves is very similar to modifying plots.

Note that any changes you make in the curve editor will be retained. The curve’s attributes fill in the fields in the curve attributes area. curve attributes (blue). you must use the update button in the curve editor to import the changes. Changes made in HyperMesh do not immediately affect the curve editor. For this reason. Access the curve editor from HyperMesh’s Setup pull-down menu. To summarize: • • Changes made in the curve editor immediately affect HyperMesh. click the close command button. 3. but changes made in a HyperMesh panel do not automatically get sent to the curve editor. 2. outlined with colored boxes in the image below: the curve list (green). To display curves in the graph area: 1. Click the desired curve in the curve list. Modify the curve attributes if needed. because they are automatically applied as you make them. It’s important to be aware that the curve editor is not completely symmetrical with HyperMesh. To quit the curve editor.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Using the Curve Editor The curve editor is a pop-up window that allows you to view and modify graphed curves in a more intuitive and holistic way than the individual xy plots panels provide. and graph attributes (cyan). if you leave the curve editor open while making changes within the HyperMesh XY plotting module. in the sense that changes made in the curve editor are automatically sent back to HyperMesh. graph area (red). The curve displays in the graph area. 348 HyperMesh 8. and must be imported by use of the update button. Click the display checkbox in the curve atributes area. The curve editor contains four main areas.

if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. making a finer grid. 2.0. Make any desired changes to the curve’s attributes: Modify each X and/or Y value by clicking it.5). Change the Color by clicking the colored box. In the graph attributes area. the line’s symbol points will still display. even if your data included accelerations ranging from 0 up to 10 m/s . Either click the curve in the curve list. To draw the curve in a thicker line. or show no line at all. To change the symbol spacing. 1. For example. Click the display checkbox to toggle the display of the curve in the graph area. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced.To change a curve's attributes: 1. select a number from the every: list box. To place a marker symbol at each point on the curve. For example. if it is already set to Display. For example.0. select a symbol from the list box. pressing the <delete> key to erase the current value. Note: If you choose no line. you could 2 restrict the X axis to only graph accelerations from 1 to 5 m/s . Click the curve in the graph area. Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. Click the curve that you wish to modify. Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values.0 User’s Guide 349 . if you choose “3” then only every third point will display as a symbol. click the thick line checkbox. 2 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Modify the fields inside the Y-axis frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s Y-axis label. you could change it from “Y” to “time”. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. For example. and then typing in a new value. A list of available colors displays. To change the graph's attributes: 1. modify the fields inside the X-axi s frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s X -axis label. For example. click the desired color to select it. Select a Line style to change the curve’s line from solid to dotted. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. you could change it from “X” to “Acceleration”.5. Or 2. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. and 1.

Click the hide checkbox to toggle the display of the legend on and off. Click the new curve in the curve list and modify its attributes as needed. Click the desired curve in the curve list. - Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. you could restrict the range by typing “20” into the min and “35” into the max. type in the X and Y coordinates for each data point in the curve. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. For example. 2. even if your data included accelerations from 0 seconds to 60 seconds. In the curve list. 3. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. and 1.0. Type in a new name for the curve. Modify the fields inside the Legends frame: Select a location to determine where the legend displays in the graph area. Click the Delete command button. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a name for the new curve. Type in a name for the new curve.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). Click proceed. 2. To rename a curve: 1. once you delete a curve. Click Yes to confirm the deletion. 1. which now uses the curve’s new name. Click proceed.5). To create a new curve: 1. making a finer grid. 3. 3. click the curve that you wish to delete.0.- Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. Undo You cannot undo a deletion. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. 2. or No to keep the curve. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. To delete a curve: 1. Click the New… command button in the curve editor window. For example. A confirmation window displays. you cannot recover it. For example. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a new name for the chosen curve.5. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. 4. 3. 350 HyperMesh 8. but you only wish to graph the accelerations that occur between 30 and 35 seconds.

In topology optimization. If there is a choice in the optimization code. where is the basis vector associated to the design Using the perturbation vector approach. Shape Optimization The type of design variables that are used distinguishes different types of structural optimization. In shape optimization. is the vector of nodal coordinates. Genesis. and spring properties are design variables. the perturbation vector approach must be selected. most of AutoDV’s capability to create perturbation vectors using control perturbations is fully integrated in HyperMesh. HyperStudy. the structural shape change is defined as a linear combination of perturbation vectors. such as beam section properties. The stand-alone solver is still available and can be used for the generation of manual perturbations. usually density-related values that define the material distribution are the design variables.0. Starting with HyperWorks 6. with the perturbation vector approach as the default setting. and Genesis. BVi variable DVi . x. a more flexible tool to set-up and generate shape perturbations.0 User’s Guide 351 . Further. the structural shape is defined as a linear combination of basis vectors. Before importing AutoDV data. Altair OptiStruct and Altair HyperStudy use the perturbation vector approach. the design variables define the boundary shape of the part to be optimized. The perturbation vectors define changes of nodal locations with respect to the original finite element mesh.AutoDV Introduction AutoDV is utility developed for the generation of perturbation vectors for shape optimization in optimization packages such as Altair OptiStruct. AutoDV interfaces with HyperMesh thru the AutoDV template for export and AutoDV reader for import. the shell thickness. The basis vectors define nodal locations. Using the basis vector approach. are the basis vector approach and the perturbation vector approach. the shape of the structure is defined by the vector of nodal coordinates. a finite element model must be loaded into HyperMesh. Nastran. The function of creating harmonic shape functions for 2D problems only works with AutoDV. AutoDV is now complemented by HyperMorph. Both approaches refer to the definition of the structural shape as a linear combination of vectors. AutoDV generates perturbation vectors. In the past. and Templex. HyperOpt. x Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. There are different approaches used to define the shape in an optimization setup. In size optimization. AutoDV has been stand-alone software. x = ∑ DVi ⋅ BVi x is the vector of nodal coordinates. Altair HyperStudy. Altair HyperOpt. input parameters of a model. AutoDV can also be used to generate distributed loads. Nastran. The two most commonly used in commercial software packages like OptiStruct. Altair HyperOpt provides both. In finite elements. x = x 0 + ∑ DVi ⋅ PVi where x 0 is the vector of nodal coordinates of the initial design. The boundary shape changes must be translated into changes of the interior of the mesh to avoid mesh distortions due to shape changes. PVi is the perturbation vector associated to the design variable DVi .

2. Example: mymodel. Write out a perturbation file <prefix>. However. Write a <prefix>. 4. Polynomial perturbation vectors using design domains. Click the switch and select AutoDV as your solver. 6.pert<nnn>. giving the *.pert file a different ID.pert006.pert<nnn> files contain data only for the perturbed grid points. identifies the perturbed grids. a finite element model representing the baseline shape of the structure must be developed. AutoDV compares all <prefix>.pert<nnn> files that contain only the perturbed grids. To generate another perturbation vector. where nnn is the design variable ID. retrieve the baseline HyperMesh database and complete steps 2 and 3. Run AutoDV through the solver panel using the appropriate options. In HyperMesh. Select the solver panel. using the AutoDV template. Manual Perturbation To generate perturbation vectors by the manual perturbation method: 1. 3. the files generated by HyperMesh contain the entire model. Harmonic perturbation vectors using design domains.pert<nnn> models with the <prefix>. Manual perturbation of grids in HyperMesh.base model. Before these methods can be applied. AutoDV requires that the <prefix>. move the grids to define the perturbed shape. 2. and generates the corresponding perturbation vector. AutoDV creates condensed <prefix>. 352 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 7. 5.base file using the baseline model of the structure using the OptiStruct template supplied in the distribution.Generation of Perturbation Vectors Perturbation vectors can be generated in one of three ways: 1. Do not save the perturbed model. 3.

select the optimization panel. 2. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. If needed. 2-D elements 3-D elements DQUAD4. Primary Domain Model This example shows how to create a primary domain model over the finite element model using the following first order 2-D and 3-D domain elements. 4. Use the solver panel to run AutoDV. 4. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. Define primary domain model elements and domain node sets. 3. On the BCs page. 5.0 User’s Guide 353 . 5. Select the perturbations panel. 7. DTETRA4 These element types are generated using the AutoDV template provided in the distribution. Select the type of domain element. Pick the nodes that form the domain element. Each domain element generally encompasses a large number of finite elements. 3. The Domain model must encompass those finite element grids of the model that need to be perturbed. none of the domain components should include finite elements. All domain elements may be organized in more than one domain component. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Assign shapes to design variables. It is recommended. To create a domain element: 1. However. Define shapes and control perturbations.Polynomial Perturbation Vectors To create polynomial perturbation vectors: 1. 6. DTRIA3 DHEXA8. but not necessary. build a secondary domain model and define secondary node sets. that you organize 2-D and 3-D domain elements in separate components. DPENTA6. Select the domain subpanel.

Select the domain subpanel. On the BCs page. This relationship is not explicitly defined by the user. 2. This generally happens at the common edges and corners between domain elements. To manually create a domain node set for an existing domain element: 1. all corner nodes of that element must belong to that node set. Pick the domain element from the graphic display. 5. 354 HyperMesh 8. 4.. 3.Primary Domain Node Sets Node sets constitute the primary entities for generating perturbation vectors. select the optimization panel. Select the nodes for the domain node set. it is identified by AutoDV. Domain node sets can be created automatically when the domain element is created. you must implicitly ensure that relationship while creating domain elements and node sets by making sure that all the nodes that need to be perturbed as a shape variable are completely encompassed or parameterized by the domain model. Click add.e. However. 6. Toggle nodeset to manual. Select the perturbations panel. i. A given node may belong to more than one node set.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 8. All nodes in a given node set are perturbed using mathematical relationships based on the control perturbations applied on the Domain Model. 7. or they can be created manually. Select update. There should be exactly one domain element related to each node set.

A quadratic interpolation would use the corner as well as the mid-side control perturbations.. 3. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements.y) = Px(x) Py(y) For 3-D domains. Create shape design variables: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. place the control perturbation on a mid-side node on an edge of the domain node set. Py. Click create vector to create the vectors.0 User’s Guide 355 . The interpolations are performed as follows. A linear interpolation uses control perturbation at the corners. − AutoDV computes perturbations of all structural grids by interpolating control perturbations. In order to generate a quadratic perturbation. They are automatically added to the shape specified in shape =. That mid-side control point does not have to lie on the edge of the domain element. The corner points of a domain element and mid-side nodes of the corresponding node sets constitute control points (e. Enter a name (max. For corner control points. Control perturbations are defined by creating vectors at control points. Animate the shape design variable: − Click animate. a DQUAD4 domain has 8 control points). 2. Click create shape. the interpolation function is a product of three functions: P(x. To define control perturbations: 1. Select perturbations using the toggle. On a given edge.y) = Px(x) Py(y) Pz(z) where P x. 8 characters) in shape =. In either case. defining a zero magnitude vector is the same as placing no vector. The deformed panel is displayed so you can animate the design variable to validate your definition. the interpolation function is a product of two functions: P(x.Control Perturbations Perturbation vectors are generated by interpolating control perturbations defined at selected control points. For 2-D domains. otherwise it is linear. AutoDV identifies the mid-side perturbations and internally changes the corresponding edge of a domain element from linear to quadratic (curvilinear edge element). the interpolation is parabolic if a mid-side control perturbation is defined. Click return to return to the perturbations panel. Select the perturbations panel. and Pz are polynomial interpolation functions of up to quadratic order. AutoDV assigns a control perturbation of magnitude zero to the corner point.g. you do not need to create a second order domain element. The order of interpolation is based on the presence of mid-side control perturbations. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Instead.

Whereas the absence of a mid-side control perturbation yields a linear interpolation on that edge. 356 HyperMesh 8. Generates the corresponding list of grids to be perturbed in that variable. In the case of a zero magnitude mid-side perturbation. AutoDV computes the perturbation vectors for shape variables in the following order: • • • Identifies all domain elements and node sets attached to vector belonging to a given shape variable. Computes perturbation of each grid in the list by interpolation using the related control point perturbations. defining zero magnitude vector is not the same as placing no vector.For mid-side control points. the interpolation is quadratic with the value of zero for the mid-side node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the presence yields a quadratic interpolation.

Here. Here. With only primary domain. The domain model for each plate contains one element each. You may use the secondary domain model where two nodes belonging to the primary domain are connected using several 1-D elements in a series. Move the end nodes as well as all intermediate nodes into an independent node set. Identifying perturbations of the end nodes of the secondary domains.0 User’s Guide 357 . grid points G2 and G3 are generally coincident. consider the two sheet metal components connected using gum-drops. the perturbation vector for this model is as shown in the illustration below. because grids G2 and G3 are not part of any node set. For example. The perturbation vectors are also shown in the illustration. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The gum-drops are modeled using a rigid (R1)-spring (K)-rigid (R2) representation. Secondary domain is not required if the nodes are connected using a single 1-D element. This problem is solved using a secondary domain model as follows: • • Create one rigid element (type DRBE2) between the two end nodes (G1 and G4 in this example). illustrated below. Interpolating those perturbations linearly to all the grids of the secondary domain. AutoDV responds by: • • • Computing pert urbations on the primary domain model using the control perturbations. the control perturbation causes grids G1 and G4 to be perturbed as shown. they remain unperturbed. However.Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets A secondary domain model allows computation of perturbation vectors for grids on 1-D elements connecting two different components.

Using the example illustrated above. Note: A DRBE2 element does not have to be connected to a control point. this yields the perturbation shown below. and no control perturbations are required at the two nodes of the DRBE2 element.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 358 HyperMesh 8.

Select the design variable in the card pre-viewer in the permanent menu. the harmonic component of the shape variable has a value of 1. However. Y_ORDER. To define harmonic perturbation vectors: 1. Select the DQUAD4 element on which harmonic perturbation vectors are desired and create a shape with exactly four vectors . The design variable label should not have more than four characters. one at each corner point of the DQUAD4. and Y_TYPE: Card image X_ORDER Y_ORDER Symbol m n Default 0 0 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Then the shape variable is reduced to the polynomial shape variable.y) T (x. Each harmonic shape variable component must contain exactly four vectors. X_TYPE.Harmonic Perturbation Vectors Harmonic shape variables are defined using a process similar to that for polynomial shape variables. In the shape panel. The harmonic shape variables are computed using a product of the following two functions: V(x. one DQUAD4 element at a time.0 User’s Guide 359 .one at each corner control point of that element. 3. Generate domain elements and node sets as described in the previous section. There should be no other vector in that shape. 2. modeling requirements for generating harmonic variables are very stringent. create a design variable using that shape. and T is the harmonic function given by: T(x.y) = P (x. The orders m and n of harmonic functions are user-controlled. Edit X_ORDER. y) = Xm(x) Yn(y) Where Xm(x) = cos (m*x/2) = sin (m*x/2) =1 and Yn(x) = cos (n*y/2) = sin (n*y/2) =1 for odd values of n for even values of n for n = 0 for odd values of m for even values of m for m = 0 For m = n = 0. 4. These are part of the vector collector card. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. y) Where P is the polynomial function described in the previous section. Harmonic variables are defined only on DQUAD4 domains.

odd. Examples of the naming procedure follow: Example 1: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv01 2 0 1 dv010001 X_TYPE = all Y_TYPE = all 3 1 0 dv010100 4 1 1 dv010101 5 2 0 dv010200 6 2 1 dv010201 desvar name = dv01 Example 2: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv02 X_TYPE = even Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv020001 3 2 0 dv020200 4 2 1 dv020201 desvar name = dv02 Example 3: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv03 X_TYPE = odd Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv030001 3 1 0 dv030100 4 1 1 dv030101 desvar name = dv03 360 HyperMesh 8. It generates shape variable names by appending the x and y orders to the component name. Card image X_TYPE Y_TYPE Options all. odd. modify the setting in the harmonic subpanel. Accordingly.You have the option of generating all. even Default all all For given values of m and n. even all.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or even harmonics by entering the appropriate harmonics types in the vector collector. AutoDV generates a series of independent perturbation vectors. odd.

select the solver panel. − − − − On the BCs page. select the results subpanel. They are automatically added to the design variable specified in desvar =. 3. Variable loads are generated by interpolating control vectors defined at selected control points. Click simulation = and select the variable loading condition wants to apply. Select the create load subpanel. you must write an AutoDV input deck using the AutoDV template.animate suffix. Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements.0 User’s Guide 361 . Create control perturbations to define the characteristic of the variable load: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. Click file = and enter the result file with the . Variable loading can be generated for forces. On the Post page. Run AutoDV to generate the variable loads: Before you run AutoDV. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select desvar using the toggle. Click create. The control points can be the corner points of a domain element or the mid-side nodes along the edge of domain elements. Select AUTODV as the solver. Click name = and enter the name of the AutoDV input deck. To generate a variable load: 1.Generation of Variable Loads Generating variable loads with AutoDV is similar to generating perturbation vectors. Creating control perturbations at the corner nodes of the domain element yields a linear interpolation. the corner and mid-side control points. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − − Select perturbations using the toggle. Click create to create the vectors. select the apply result panel. AutoDV computes the variable loads on each structural grid by interpolating the control perturbations defined on control points.dv. Click apply to apply the variable loads. Domain elements and domain node sets for the domain where the load is applied must be created before you can generate a variable load. moments and temperatures. Apply the variable loads: − − − − − − − On the files panel. Click solve to create the interpolated variable loads. 8 characters) in desvar =. Select all the displayed nodes and set mult = to 1. 4. Select the perturbations panel. Enter a name (max. 2. A quadratic interpolation can be generated by creating control vectors either on the mid-side control points or on both.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Examples: 362 HyperMesh 8.

Running AutoDV Stand-alone
To run AutoDV, select AUTODV as the solver in the solver panel and then give the prefix of the input file name along with the options. The input file name should be prefix.base. autodv -file <prefix> -inp opt1 -ent opt2 -code opt3

The valid entries and default values for options are given in the following table. Note that these parameters could be given in any order. Entity <prefix> Valid Options Prefix of the input file name, or input file name. OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS, HYPERSTUDY, TEMPLEX, HYPEROPT FORC, MOMT, TEMP, LONG OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, PAMCRASH, RADIOSS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MARC, ANSYS, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT Default Value Solver Panel input file =

Opt1

analysis code =

Opt2 Opt3

NONE NONE

component = subcode type =

The interdependency of options on each other is explained in the following table. For example, for a given opt1, it gives the possible values for opt2 and opt3. Opt1 OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS HYPERSTUDY TEMPLEX Opt2 None Long Opt3 Ignored Remarks For shape optimization None – Standard format Long – Long format For variable loading

FORC, MOMT, TEMP Ignored

Ignored

OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, RADIOSS, PAMCRASH, MARC, ANSYS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT, ABAQUS, NASTRAN

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/Generic and HyperStudy

HYPEROPT

Ignored

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/OPTISTRUCT, HyperOpt/ABAQUS, and HyperOpt/NASTRAN

Altair Engineering
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After AutoDV runs, it creates the following files: prefix.dat A bulk data file that contains the DVGRID and LOAD information, respectively depending on opt2. A bulk data file for the perturbed model corresponding to the shape variable nnn. This file originally contained the manually generated perturbed file. After the program runs, this file contains only the GRID data for all perturbed grid points. This file contains the shape design variables in the HyperMesh results format. This file can be loaded to HyperMesh and results can be viewed. Note: The animation should be used only as a check for the shape of the perturbation vector. It will not display the upper and lower bounds for the shape variable. The file prefix.dat becomes part of an input file for the respective native analysis package. Note: If you create a perturbed model file, prefix.pertnnn, and also a set of control perturbations with an identical shape variable ID, nnn, the resultant perturbation vector from AutoDV is a union of the manual as well as the interpolated grid perturbations. For the common nodes in the two sets, the manual grid perturbations given in prefix.pertnnn override those generated by using interpolation. prefix.subcode.node.tpl Templex template to replace the nodal coordinates in the original input deck. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX. Contains nodal coordinates and perturbation vectors for use in the file, prefix.subcode.node.tpl. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX.

prefix.autonnn

prefix.dv.animate

prefix.shp

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Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
Using an H3D file, you can save 3-D animations from HyperMesh in the .h3d format for viewing with the HyperView Player. HyperView Player is an Internet browser plug-in for visualizing 3-D Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models and results. Using product data in Altair's compact .h3d format allows you to incorporate animated images in an HTML document for presentation or engineering reports. Simulation results can be sent by e-mail, or placed on the web for others to open and review. HyperView Player is available as a free download on Altair's Web site at http://www.altair.com. To create an H3D file from HyperMesh: 1. 2. Select one of the following panels: contour, deformed, hidden line, transient, or geom cleanup. To control the display attributes for your model: 3. Specify your desired display attributes using visual options or the visual panel.

Click the Hyper3d button or H3D>HV. Two files are created. One is an H3D file, using anim#.h3d as the file name. The symbol # is automatically assigned to the H3D file. The other is a sample HTML file including an <EMBED> statement for the corresponding H3D file. H3D>HV loads the newly created H3D file into HyperView. You can define this option in the options panel under modeling.

4.

To review the model in a web browser: Double click the HTML file to launch a browser. or Click H3D to activate the standalone HyperView Player.

You can customize the external HTML template, h3d_template.html, located in the altair/hm/html directory, to suit your needs. Note: In the HyperMesh geom cleanup panel, the Hyper3D button is displayed when you select the shaded option in the visual options subpanel.

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Embedding a HyperView Player Object in HTML Documentation The following section defines the arguments and provides an example for embedding statements in an HTML document in order to view a HyperView Player graphic object. Note the following updates to HyperView Player: Simplified HTML File Statement Since the H3D file created from HyperView, and HyperMesh includes scene information, the arguments in the old statements for model readers and result readers are no longer needed. The HTML statements have been simplified in this release. However, the HTML files created for HyperView Player 3.1 are still supported. HyperView Player only supports H3D direct readers. You can create an H3D file using: • • • • Note HyperView HyperMesh HyperMesh result translators, such as hmnast, hmnasto2, hmdyna, hmradioss, hmpam, hmansys, and hmabaqus OptiStruct You may need to modify your HTM L files created for HyperView Player 3.1 if you were using direct readers other that h3d.dll, such as adams.dll, gfile.dll, lsdyna.dll, and madymo.dll, since those readers are no longer supported in HyperView Player.

Direct Readers

To embed a HyperView Player object, the <EMBED> statement in HTML is used. All arguments are case insensitive.

General Arguments for EMBED Statements
type width/height SRC="URL" Application/x-h3d Measured in pixels The location of the plug-in data file as indicated by its URL.

Embedded Statement Example
<EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="HTTP:\\www.altair.com\h3d\bumper.h3d"> <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="../bumper.h3d">

More examples can be found in the HyperView Player demo directory, and our Web site, http://www.altair.com.

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Using an HTML File
You can use HyperView Player to share information by embedding it in an HTML file. You can use either a relative path or a standard Uniform Resource Locator (URL) to specify the path for the H3D file in the <EMBED> statement. There are three different ways to define file transfer protocol: FILE, HTTP and FTP. This section describes how to select a protocol for file transfer using files, anim1.html and anim1.h3d as examples.

Embedded Mode
FILE://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="File://c:\Altair\demos\hvp\anim1.h3d"> An absolute path is required for File:// and the H3D file must reside in the specified path. When you distribute the files, you may need to modify the HTML file for the path.

HTTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="http://www:8080/~John/anim1.h3d> Others can access your public web area on the Internet. When sharing an H3D file, you can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files in your public HTML directory and send the link to others in the company by email. The link can be, for example, http://www:8080/~John/anim1.html. By doing this, you do not need to distribute the H3D file and can guarantee the path is working correctly. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click the link in the email, the model will be displayed.

FTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="FTP://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html> You can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files on your FTP site. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click ftp://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html, the model is displayed.

Relative Path
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="../anim/.h3d> Using a relative path allows you to distribute an HTML file easily. You can create a folder with the necessary HTML and h3d files for distribution.

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Full page mode
In an HTML file, you can easily hyperlink a string to an H3D file. When you click the hyperlink, the plug-in loads a model in full-page mode.

Using E-mail
You can attach an H3D file to an email. If the recipient is using a PC, he or she can click the attachment and the H3D file will load automatically. You can also save the H3D file and at a later time, double-click the file to invoke the standalone version of HyperView Player. Another available option is to drag the H3D file and drop it into a browser to view the model in a full window.

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H3D FAQ's
How can I view a model with shaded display in HyperView Player? The model display settings are recorded during H3D creation. Set up the desired model display, with such options as mesh lines and feature lines, in the Vis panel under the Performance Graphics mode in HyperMesh.

Why doesn’t the legend setting in HyperView player reflect the setting in HyperMesh? HyperView Player only supports default settings for the legend display from HyperMesh. The specified Max and Min values in HyperMesh are not recorded in the H3D file of this version.

Can I view complex result animation in HyperView player? No, the H3D writer does not support complex result data.

What types of element are not supported in the H3D file? Second order elements, rigidlinks, and RBE3s are not supported in this version. The mid-side node of a second order element is ignored when it is read into HyperView Player.

How can I change the window size for viewing HyperView Player in the browser? You can modify the width and height values in the <EMBED> statement in the HTML file. (For example, width = 600, height = 600)

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Free Body Diagrams
HyperMesh allows you to create or edit Free Body Diagrams (FBD) using several tools that display in the tab area. Each FBD tool displays on a separate tab, which opens when you activate that tool. Location: Results menu, Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tools) Tool menu (to access the FBD Set Manager only) Tab Area (for the tools themselves)

Free Body Diagram (FBD) utilities facilitate the extraction and post-processing of Grid Point Force (GPFORCE) results. FBD utilities currently support OptiStruct and Nastran .op2 files, and are only available in the OptiStruct or Nastran user profiles. FBD extractions are typically utilized for breakout and/or sub-modeling analysis schemes, where balanced “free body” sub-cases are extracted from a coarse grid model and applied to a fine grid sub-model for eventual optimization and/or analysis. FBD is also used to extract cross-sectional resultant forces and moments (typically at the centroid of a cross-section) for use in traditional strength calculations. Each tool has a separate entry in the menu. In addition, see the overview on Grid Point Force Balance tables to gain further understanding of FBD operations within HyperMesh, while the Set Manager utility assists in generating the element and node sets which the FBD utilities analyze.

This coarse grid model is typical for FBD extractions.

Typical FBD – Forces output on a wing rib

Typical Result Force and Moment output on a floor beam

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FBD Set Manager Use the Set Manager tool to automate the grouping and display of model components through HyperMesh entity set functionality. or export state) that the filter buttons apply to. Nastran. or Abaqus user profile. geometry. creating. See To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display for details. The set manager displays in the tab area. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The selection type options allow you to control the entities (elements. 2. Location: Tools menu (to access the Set Manager) Tab Area (to use the Set Manager) The Set Manager consists of a tree structure listing the current entity sets in the model. The filter buttons allow for additional selection control. It also includes functions for displaying. 3. select Set Manager. and ABAQUS user profiles. and changing the export state of entity sets. along with the entity set display and export states. as desired: • • • • Use <ctrl>-click and <shift>-click to select multiple items in the tree structure. From the Tools pull-down menu. renaming. The Set Manager utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct. The sync button synchronizes the entity set display states with the current HyperMesh display. Nastran. Use the toolbar buttons in the Set Manager tab to manipulate the display options. deleting. appending entities to. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. To set display options for the Set Manager: 1. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.0 User’s Guide 371 .

3. From the Tools pull-down menu. The set manager displays in the tab area. The graphic above shows all of the available options. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. HyperMesh prompts you to type in a name for the set or accept a default name. Delete Reference: Removes a set reference from a entity set type of sets. 2. Nastran. Collapse All: Collapses all branches of the tree. Rename: Rename the selected set. or on individual or multiple items within folders. Expand All: Expands all branches of the tree. Multiple sets may be selected by using standard Ctrl/Shift-click functionality. accessed by right clicking in the background. grouped in folders by type. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to add to the set. 372 HyperMesh 8. or Abaqus user profile. Add Entities to Set: Adds entities into the currently selected set.To use the Set Manager right-click functionality: 1. select Set Manager. including: • • • • • • • New: Create a new entity set of the specified type. Right -click anywhere within the tree structure to open the right-click menu: There are many functions available.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. on folders. Delete: Deletes the currently selected set(s). Supported entity set types are shown above.

or by using the display options icons in the toolbar. which control the display of each of these entities separately. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. Display Options: Determines how the sets display in the Set Manager tree. The Checked State signifies that the entity set will not be exported. Hide: This operation removes the entities contained in the selected set(s) from the HyperMesh display. The set manager displays in the tab area. Available options are shown above. Import Session File: Loads a session file (. The display and export states of entity sets are controlled by clicking on/off the display and export icons located next to each entity set in the tree. 2. The export state of each entity set is stored in the HyperMesh database. grouped in folders by type. • The export toggle determines whether the entity set definition is to be exported when the model deck is written. 3. Export Session File: Saves a session file (.ses). this information is automatically converted to the new solver format when Set Manager is opened. click the Synch toolbar button to update the HyperMesh display with the current selection. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. Nastran. For component sets there are two toggles: one for elements (first check box) and one for geometry (second check box). When switching between supported solvers.• Remove Entities from Set: Removes entities from the currently selected set. and then displays only the currently selected set(s) in the HyperMesh display. or Abaqus user profile. From the Tools pull-down menu. The display and export icons associated with each entity set are described below: • The display toggle determines whether the entities contained within the entity set are displayed in HyperMesh. containing group definitions for the selected node or element sets. The Checked State signifies that all entities in the entity set are currently displayed. Display IDs: Displays a popup window showing the IDs of all entities contained in the selected set. Show: This operation adds the entities contained in the selected set(s) to the HyperMesh display. Show Only: This operation turns off (masks) all currently displayed entities.0 User’s Guide 373 . • • • • • • • To change the Set Manager's display and export states: 1. The Blank State signifies that one or more of the entities in that entity set are not displayed. select Set Manager. The Blank State signifies that the entity set will be exported. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. to the disk. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. and is only available for component and element sets. These group definitions will be converted into HyperMesh entity sets. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. Once a display toggle is changed. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to remove from the set.ses) containing group definitions.

374 HyperMesh 8. but display states always default to the unchecked state on startup. Instead. Export states synch automatically. The Synch button resides in the toolbar described by the topic To set display options for the Set Manager. For large models. In addition.To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display: The Set Manager is meant to allow users to easily control the display and review of entity sets for model grouping and visualization purposes. while the Synch button in the Set Manager toolbar allows you to update the set manager to match the current state of the HyperMesh display. the Display button at the bottom of the Set Manager allows you to update HyperMesh to match the Set Manager settings.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . in which case the Set Manager and the HyperMesh display are synchronized until another selection is made within the Set Manager. the Set Manager utility does not automatically synchronize the display states of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display. the Display button can be used to update the HyperMesh display to the current Set Manager selection. constantly synchronizing the display state of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display can introduce performance issues. To remedy these occurrences.

Note: Recommended practice is to output displacement data for the node set(s) of interest only.op2 file changes.op2 files containing displacement data from OptiStruct and Nastran. Select a sub-case. Use the . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS io option card The FBD Displacement utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. The sub-case display can be switched between ID and Name (ID). This procedure reduces the size of the . This lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract displacement information. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.op2 file: field to specify the full path and filename of the .op2 file is selected.op2 file display for selection. 4.op2 file is required. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. If a new . a text summary table within HyperMesh.FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility extracts displacement data for user defined node set(s). If no SUBTITLE exists. and a formatted . The tool also supports . The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUB-CASE #”. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct or Nastran user profile. Only sub-cases with displacement results from the currently selected. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control.op2 file into the database (overwriting the previously selected one). consider using STRESS = NONE to further reduce the size of the . Additionally. 2. From the Results pull-down menu. sub-case names and IDs with displacement output are saved with the rest of the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. To extract displacement data for a user-defined node set: 1.op2 file. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). then FBD Displacements. select Free Body Diagram.op2 file containing the displacement output for the current model.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Displacement extractions. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. you must load the new .LABEL(ID)”. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE . Once an . The FBD Displacements tab displays in the tab area. for Nastran and OptiStruct. all appropriate displacements and rotations are extracted.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages.0 User’s Guide 375 . or if the original . You can select multiple sub-cases by ctrl-clicking or shift-clicking. • • Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. only the LABEL is used. Tab Area (for the tool itself) After you define an element set with an associated node set. 3. Location: Results menu.

There are several options: • The Element Set selector defines the elements that contain the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. The option helps to eliminate “relatively small” values from being output to the result formats. In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. If a coordinate system is not specified. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. • The Zero Tolerance entry defines the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. Situations when this behavior could occur include modification of nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. and toggle to the assign sub-panel. The FBD Displacement utility extracts and applies the displacement and rotation results from the .y. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used for controlling the output of results to the various formats. • The Coordinate System selector determines the coordinate system used to display the nodal coordinates (x. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database does not match those used to run the analysis then the extracted values will be incorrect. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. Select entities. then all nodes within the element set are used. The Node Set selector defines the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. It is assumed that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the .5. Choose Output options: The Output options section contains various options to review and display results of FBD Displacement extractions.…) is always output in the system that the results are stored with in the . Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the extraction. Results coordinate system transformations are not performed on displacement data. If a node set is not selected.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Additional nodes may be added to the node set once it is created by clicking the Node Set selector and picking additional nodes. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default.op2 file format. The entity selection section allows you to select and/or create the appropriate entities required to execute the FBD Displacements utility.csv file output options. automatically displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element and node sets. Displacement data (Ux. click Coordinate Systems. This functionality allows you to verify which element and node sets are currently selected. • The Show model checkbox is a graphical review option that.op2 file in the output coordinate system without any further coordinate system transformations.z) in the summary table and . The Auto find interface nodes option automatically finds the nodes attached to elements that are not contained within the currently selected element set. You will be prompted to give the newly created node set a name. The Set Manager utility on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. 376 HyperMesh 8. This procedure selects the nodes interfacing with the remainder of the structure. Uy. when checked. otherwise modify the value as desired.0e-6.op2 file. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. On the Setup menu. • 6. and click Set Analysis.

0 User’s Guide 377 . • The Create . If an existing file is selected there are several items to note: If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set.• The Create Load Collectors option will extract the specified displacement data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window5. it will append/replace the data. The loads in this load collector are created with the SPC load type. A sample window with partial output is shown below. You may select a new file or an existing file. node set 1 and sub-case 1. Selecting yes will not overwrite the file. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This collector can be referenced as the LOAD in the sub-case panel. This collector can be referenced as the SPC in the sub-case panel. The Create SPCD option will additionally create a load collector with the name “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD”. The table contains information about the sub-cases. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. and detailed displacement data at each node. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. The load collector name format is FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp. For example. element and node set(s).csv file that contains the same information as the summary table.csv file option creates a . but in a comma-separated file. If it does not exist. IN any case. A single load collector. for the current element and node set. you will be warned that the File already exists and asked if you want to replace it. is created for each sub-case. node set and sub-case IDs). FBDD_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Disp would be created for element set 1. • The Show summary table option outputs the results to a popup window for instant review. it will be appended to the end of the file. Loads in this collector are created with the SPCD load type.

sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. The tool supports . a text summary table within HyperMesh. This procedure reduces the size of the . Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards.op2 files containing GPFORCE data from OptiStruct and Nastran. The ID option lists the sub-cases in the format SUBCASE #. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. The sub-case list can be switched between ID and Name (ID).op2 file. for Nastran and OptiStruct. This opens the standard file selection dialog window.op2 file.op2 file into the database. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme.op2 file changes) you must load the new .op2 file that contains the GPFORCE output for the current model. Additionally.csv) file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. To select a results file: Click on the folder icon inside of the op2 file field. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards The FBD Forces utility is broken down into three major sections. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case in the format SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID). Location: Results menu. If a new . only the LABEL is used. each of which corresponds with the process order of using the tool. To select a sub-case: The Sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information.op2 file is required (or if the original . Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.op2 file are displayed for selection only. Once you’ve selected an op2 file. If no SUBTITLE exists. The op2 file field accepts the full path and filename of the . 378 HyperMesh 8. and/or a formatted Comma-Separated Values (. The FBD Forces utility is currently supported by OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. use this to browse to and select the desired . Multiple sub-cases can be selected via Ctrl-click or Shift-click functionality. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). overwriting the previously selected.FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data (including forces and moments) for a user-defined element set. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions.

) If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. 4. and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. Applied Loads Only extracts and utilizes only the applied loads grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation . If a results system is not specified. (See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. the extracted values will be incorrect. Available options include All Loads. and RBAR. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point force and moment result vectors are transformed and output. result system and summation node. and Reaction Loads Only. or when loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. RROD.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. 2. This is useful for verifying free body behavior through zero-sum values for all force and moment components about any node. Reaction Loads Only extracts and utilizes only SPC and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on nodes in the selected set. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the GPFORCE data is summed for the selected element set. It is also useful for calculating the result of applied or reaction forces about any node. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. Rigidlink. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 379 . Use the FBD type selector to determine the grid point force and moment data to extract and utilize for FBD calculations for each node in the selected element set. or output to.0) is used by default.To select entities: 1.op2 file. This could occur when modifying a nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and. the HyperMesh origin (0. RJOINT. applied. results coming from. This allows you to verify which element sets is currently selected. In addition.0. sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). Use the Element Set selector to define the elements that make up the free body and contain the nodes at which GPFORCE data will be extracted. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . RBE3. On the assign sub-panel. To specify output options: 1. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. Activate the Show Model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode while highlighting the currently selected element set. Applied Loads Only. 3. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. SPC. The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force and moment results from an . • • • All Loads extracts and utilizes all element contribution. If a node is not selected.

This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. sub-case IDs). all FBD Forces load collectors are saved to the database. but in a comma-separated file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . However. When you save the HyperMesh database. 3. it is appended to. To maintain floating-point precision the default is set to 1. If it does not exist. modify the value as desired. Altair Engineering • 380 HyperMesh 8. sub-case 1. You may select a new file or an existing file. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current element set. If an existing file is selected.csv file option to create a . it will be appended to the end of the file.2. and component Fx. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets. This load collector is named “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” and can be referenced in the sub-case panel as the LOAD entry for the various sub-case definitions. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. and there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. To output the results to a popup window for instant review. referencing the component force and moment load collectors. All calculations are performed with floating point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. This allows FBD information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool.0e-6. 5. activate the Show summary table option. selecting yes will not overwrite the file—it will append/replace the data as described above. The load collector name format is “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. therefore it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which FBD result must be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh 4. Use the Create Load Collectors option to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for visualization in the model window. In addition a load collector with the Nastran/OptiStruct LOAD card is also created. The table contains information about the sub-cases. • The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. Use the Zero Tolerance entry field to define the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. The FBD Results Manager tool can be used to review the load collectors generated from FBD Forces utility. element set(s). For example FBDF_E(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. This option helps to prevent relatively small values from being output to the result formats. A sample window with partial output is shown below. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. Use the Create .csv file that contains the same information as the summary table.

Use the Node Set selector to define the nodes in each currently selected element set at which grid point data will be extracted and summed from. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The mesh shouldn’t have any discontinuities (holes. Location: Results menu. When using the “Centroid” option. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the grid point extraction. It also features semi-automatic generation of element and node sets for defining cross-sections. which are defined by an element set. HyperMesh adds separate crosssection definitions to the table with the original element set and each selected node set. Tab Area (for the tool itself) This utility contains tools for defining cross-sections. Use the Element Set selector to specify the elements containing the nodes that define the crosssection. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the grid point data will be summed. each set is added to the table as a separate cross-section definition which can be modified later by selection. To define a cross-section manually: 1. If multiple element sets are selected. 2. result system and summation node which define the cross-section in the graphics display area. This auto-create cross-section capability requires a continuous mesh with rows of nodes (of any orientation) to work properly. If this node is deleted from the model. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets.FBD Cross-section manager The FBD Cross-section Manager (CSM) utility creates and manages cross-section definitions that are used within the Resultant Force & Moment utility. 4. and a local result coordinate system. This option calculates the nodal averaged centroid of the coordinates of all of the nodes in the node set and creates a temporary node at that location. gaps. 5. The FBD Cross-section Manager interface has two creation methods available for cross-section definition: manual and (semi-) automatic. 3. The FBD Cross-section Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. Use the Set Manager tool on the Tools menu to create the necessary node sets.0 User’s Guide 381 . The Advanced options section provides the means to semi-automatically create cross-section element and node sets for beam-like structures with regular meshes. a temporary node is created. node set. The Display sections checkbox is a graphical review option that. If multiple node sets are selected for a single element set. summation node. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point vector results will be transformed and output. displays the element set. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). If no node is selected. the utility defaults to “Centroid”. starting from the selected nodes and progressing along the length of the selected elements. node set. the loads associated with that node are also deleted. If a results system is not specified. when checked. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. etc…) and must have identifiable rows of nodes.

or only the new “row” of elements. These nodes should be at one end of the beam. For example. cross-section definitions only need to be defined once and stored in the HyperMesh database. For example. Type a prefix for the name of each generated element set into the Element set prefix field. first cross-section). which utilizes the cross-section definitions to perform these calculations.6. 382 HyperMesh 8. Selected crosssections can also be deleted from the database by using the Remove selection button on the right end of the filter buttons. where “#” increases with each new set generated.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 4. Comments Each time a cross-section is created. 2. 7. To define a cross-section automatically: 1. the generated set names are numbered starting from that value. If the offset value is set to a value greater than zero. the cross-section data is saved to the HyperMesh database. modified. Cross-Sections can then be accessed from within the Resultant Force and Moment utility. you type in “ESET” each element set will be named ESET [#]. where “#” increases with each new set generated. This allows you to verify a cross-section definition. Type a prefix for the name of each generated node set into the Node set prefix field. Optional: activate the sets accumulate option This determines whether each progressive set also contains the elements from the previous set. 6. 5. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode. it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which cross-sections are to be retained within HyperMesh database. Use the Elements selector to choose the elements that define the entire “beam-like” component from which cross-sections will be generated. This is the offset value for generated set names. 3. Therefore. By default. node set. result system and summation node. 7. This displays the entire model in transparency mode. When the HyperMesh database is saved. highlighting the currently selected elements and nodes. each element set will contain the elements from the previous set. Standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality can be used to select cross-sections. all cross-section definitions are also saved. the offset value is zero and HyperMesh generates numbered set names starting with one. If checked. you type in “NSET” each element set will be named NSET [#]. highlighting the currently selected element set. Use the Nodes selector to pick nodes for the first node set (i.e. Therefore. Type a Numbering offset into the text box. or deleted. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the crosssection names and the associated sets. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox. Optional: use the filter buttons on the top of the spreadsheet to select which cross-sections are required.

op2 file is selected. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. and/or a formatted . overwriting the previously selected. for Nastran and OptiStruct. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. The sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. To select a results file: Use the . or if the original . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The resultant force and moment utility generates input data for shear and moment (VMT) diagrams and/or to perform load-case screening with Potato plots in HyperView. The tool supports .op2 file containing the desired GPFORCE output for the current model. When an . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards.op2 files containing grid point force data from OptiStruct and Nastran. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUBCASE #”. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. The subcase list can be organized by ID or Name (ID). including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only.op2 file into the database.op2 file field to specify the full path and filename of the . If no SUBTITLE exists. Location: Results menu. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). only the LABEL is used. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards.op2 file is required. This procedure reduces the size of the .0 User’s Guide 383 .csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. a text summary table within HyperMesh.op2 file changes. Two utilities available within HyperGraph also interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility.FBD Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment (RF&M) utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data for user defined cross-sections created via the Cross-section Manager.op2 file and helps speed up the Resultant Force and Moment extractions. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID)”. you must load the new . The Resultant Force and Moment utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. If a new . Additionally. Multiple sub-cases can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking.op2 file.op2 file display for selection only. To select a sub-case: Select the desired sub-case(s) from the list in the sub-case section.

RROD. and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. Use the Coordinate System selector to determine the coordinate system used to output the nodal coordinates (x. Activate the Create Load Collectors checkbox to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current cross-section. results coming from or output to cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. RBE3. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. 2. 384 HyperMesh 8. Use the Zero Tolerance field to specify the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. The option helps to eliminate relatively small values from being output. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. To specify output options: The Output Options section contains various options to review and display the results of Resultant Force and Moment extractions. The load collector name format is “RF&M_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. Cross-sections are created using the Cross-section Manager. This can occur when modifying nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis.op2 file. If a coordinate system is not specified. sub-case 1. In addition. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this . operation sets the CD field on the GRID cards). and component Fx.0e-6. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the .csv file. Rigidlink. each made up of an element set and node set. Multiple cross-sections can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. The Resultant Force and Moment utility extracts grid point force and moment results from the . Resultant force and moment vector results are always output in the result coordinate system defined for each cross-section.fbd file output options. Result coordinate systems for cross-sections are defined using the Cross-section Manager.To select a cross-section: Pick the desired cross-sections from the list in the cross-sections area of the tab. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. (On the assign sub-panel.y. 1. The Cross-sections section lets you specify the cross-sections from which you wish to calculate resultant force and moment results for each selected sub-case. and . RJOINT. otherwise modify the value as desired. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default.z) in the summary table. 3. the extracted values will be incorrect. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. node set 1. RBAR.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. For example RF&M_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. .op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results.

However. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. Activate the Show summary table option to output the results to a popup window for instant review.fbd file. Activate the Create . This allows resultant force and moment information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. You may select a new file or an existing file. Activate the Create . sub-case IDs). If it does not exist. Two utilities available within HyperGraph interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility: Shear and Moment Diagrams (VMT Plots) and Potato Plot. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. it will append/replace the data into the file as described above. Comments When saving over existing .fbd file option to create a file that can be read into HyperGraph using the “Shear and Moment Plot” and “Potato Plot” utilities. You may select a new file or an existing file. If an existing file is selected. You can also use the FBD Results Manager to review the load collectors generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility.csv or . 6. The table contains information about the sub-cases and cross-sections. If an existing file is selected. 4. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager. 5. When the HyperMesh database is saved. it will be appended to the end of the file. These utilities are accessed from the Free Body Diagrams item within the HyperGraph Utilities menu.csv file containing the same information as the summary table. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. selecting ‘yes’ will not overwrite the file.0 User’s Guide 385 .csv file option to create a . it is appended to. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets and therefore it is important to not renumber any element or node sets for which resultant force and moment result are to be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh.The “Color” option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. but in a comma separated file. it is appended to. all resultant force and moment load collectors are saved in the database.

Fy. FBD Forces (Applied Loads). Fz…checkboxes determine which component/resultant vectors display when you click the Accept button. • • 386 HyperMesh 8. The Label loads option determines whether to display the load labels (vector magnitude values as text next to the vector).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The Entity selection section allows you to select the element set for which to review FBD. and Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. These checkboxes are disabled for the FBD Displacements Result type. the Results selection interface is modified to include a Node sets selector. and Resultant Force and Moment. To review and manage FBD load collectors: 1. 2. Selecting an FBD result type scans the HyperMesh database and updates the Subcases list with available sub-cases for the currently selected element set and result type. Displacement. This selector lists all of the node sets associated with the currently selected element set and sub-cases. Select one or more Element sets.FBD Results Manager Use the FBD Results Manager to graphically review and manage the load collectors generated from all FBD and Resultant Force and Moment utilities. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Specify any desired Display options: The Display options section allows you to decide which force and moment components display in the graphics area for the current selection. 4. The Load handles option determines whether to display the load handles. For FBD Displacements and Resultant Force and Moment Result types. Pick the desired Results type. Multiple subcases can be selected using standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality. FBD Forces (Reaction Loads). Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. Select the desired Sub-cases by clicking on them. Valid types include FBD Displacements. If multiple sub-cases are selected. Grayed-out checkboxes indicate force and moment components or results that can’t display for the currently selected element set/sub-case/node sets. The optional Show model checkbox. when checked. The Results selection section lets you select the FBD result type to review. • The Fx. only the node sets that are common to all of them will be listed. Displacement. or Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Results Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element set. 3. Location: Results menu. You must choose an existing element set for which you wish to the review the FBD. FBD Forces (All Loads).

Two options are available. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click one of the command buttons at the bottom of the tab: The Accept button displays the selected result vectors on in the graphics area. if desired.• The Vector size option allows you to control the display size of the result vectors. removing it from the tab area without displaying any results in the graphics area. Note that these values do not affect the vector magnitude—only their screen size. The Delete button deletes the load collectors associated with the current selection. Click the Color box to pick a different color. each of which requires a numeric value. • 5. The Reset button clears the graphics area of all result vectors and resets all of the FBD Results Manager entry fields. The Close button closes the FBD Results Manager. A popup warning tells you what will be deleted and requires you to confirm the deletion. The Update load collector color option will recolor the load collectors associated with the current selection to the color selected in the Color option.0 User’s Guide 387 . Magnitude % or Uniform size.

If multiple node sets are selected for export the following will occur: An SPCADD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collectors will be assigned to it. LOAD = will also be assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collector for the selected sub-case. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click the one(s) that you wish to export to highlight them.FBD Export Manager The FBD Export Manager exports FBD. Location: Results menu. a SUBCASE will be created with SPC = assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collector for the selected sub-case. Displacement. If FBD Force and FBD Displacement load collectors from the same sub-case are selected for export. If the SPCD option was enabled when creating the FBD Displacement loads. a LOAD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collectors will be assigned to it. Select the desired node sets in the same fashion as the subcases. The SPC = will reference the newly created SPCADD load collector. click the Create appropriate subcases checkbox and then click the open-folder button in the Output file text box. highlighting the currently selected element set for review. the exported data can be used for breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. In addition. To export FBD. Choose the results type that you wish to export from the list box. or Resultant Force & Moment collectors: 1. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Export Manager is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. use <ctrl>-click or <shift>-click to select multiple results. 5. and/or Resultant Force and Moment load collectors generated by other FBD utilities. or type in a name for a new one. HyperMesh prompts you to select one or the other from which to create the sub-case. the Results type affects how HyperMesh creates sub-cases: For FBD Forces – All Loads. This opens a standard file browser window that you can use to browse to the desired destination directory and either select an existing file. 4. Optional: activate the show model checkbox to display the entire model in transparency mode. 3. This populates the list of subcases. • • If the SPCD option was enabled when creating FBD Displacement loads. 2. This option will also create SUBTITLE and LABEL cards if they are available from the sub-case information within the currently selected . a SUBCASE will be created with LOAD = assigned to the “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” load collector which references the LOAD card pointing to each component “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)” load collector for the selected sub-case. 388 HyperMesh 8. The LOAD = will reference the newly created LOAD load collector.op2 file. If you wish to create sub-cases upon export. For FBD Displacements. Use the Element set selector to specify the set for which you wish to export data. Click add to export to add the highlighted results to the export batch. If you choose FBD Displacements or Resultant Force and Moment as the result type. an additional list of node sets displays. After export. Specify Export options:. Displacement.

Exports the model with the “displayed” option. Displacement. meaning that clicking it: • • • • • Turns off the display of all currently displayed elements. Creates temporary mass elements on the nodes where the selected FBD. removing it from the tab area. and/or Resultant Force and Moment loads are displayed. Deletes the temporary mass elements from the current model. Close closes the tab. and Removes unnecessary header information from the output file.6. Reset clears all of the export criteria so that you can start over. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click the appropriate command button at the bottom of the tab: Export executes the export process.0 User’s Guide 389 .

Location: Results menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding GPFORCE io option cards. which in turn must sum to zero for the complete GPFORCE table. output from OptiStruct and Nastran with the GPFORCE io options command. is the data around which all FBD-Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utility calculations are performed. including: • • • • • Applied forces and moments SPC forces and moments MPC forces and moments Element forces and moments from elements attached to the node Total summed values for each node. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Shown below is a sample model which will be used to demonstrate the grid point force calculations that HyperMesh FBD utilities perform. and a point load on the right end.FBD Grid Point Force Balance The Grid Point Force Balance table. The complete GPFORCE table for the above cantilever beam model is presented below. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Note that for any given node within the GPFORCE table. 390 HyperMesh 8. a fixed support on the left end. several types of entries are possible depending on the forces acting at that node. This model cons ists of two elements.

0 User’s Guide 391 .Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

3 and 4. if any element contribution is not from one of the defined elements within the element set. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. Furthermore. for any given node. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 2 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not condered. Node 2 i. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 1 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not considered.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . all nodes connected to the elements in the element set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. then the node is an “interface” node and element contributions from the elements not a part of the element set are extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. MPC loads: Zero iv. For FBD types Applied loads only. v. SPC loads: Fx component exists (-2. looping through all the nodes attached to elements in the element set: a. Total FBD Value at Node 1 = 2.121e+03 392 HyperMesh 8.Process The FBD Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utilities use element and node set definitions to define what information to extract and sum from the GPFORCE table. Total FBD Value at Node 2 = -2. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set will be extracted and utilized in the FBD calculations. then the node is an “internal” node and element contributions are not extracted or utilized in FBD calculations. For FBD type Reaction loads only. Applied loads: Zero ii. • • 2. MPC loads: Zero iv. Applied loads: Zero ii. Node 1 i. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility uses an element set to define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. MPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. 3. The following example of FBD-Forces extraction uses an element set defined with only element: The element set contains only element 1. Element 1 has nodes 1. For all nodes connected to elements in the element set. v.121e+03) and is extracted iii.121e+03 b.121e+03) and is extracted iii. For FBD types All loads and Applied loads only. Fx calculation. This information is then used to produce free bodies and/or resultant force and moments. For FBD types 2 Applied loads only. Therefore. SPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. 4. 2. SPC loads: Fx component exists (2. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. applied loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. if all element contributions are from elements from within the defined element set. for any given node. The element set serves several purposes: 1.

0 (ie. Mz) is not the direct sum of all nodes as the (rXF) terms for the force resultant vector about the sum point must also be added to each moment component appropriately. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1.085e+03 Sum all nodes in Fx = 0. My. This verifies that the FBD-Forces extraction is indeed a “free body”. iii.0 User’s Guide 393 . iv. ii. however. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. • Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Fz. v. illustrated in the screenshot below.085e+03) Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. Fy. The final FBD-Forces results are presented in the summary table output from the FBD-Forces utility. Notice that the sum of all components is zero about any point in the model. Mz calculations follow similar procedures. Mx. The sum of the forces components (Fx. iii. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note that the sum of the moment components (Mx. iv. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Fz) for each node. is the simple sum. ii.085e+03 e.085e+03) v. d. Node 3 i. Fx component satisfies free body requirements) Fy.c. Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. My. Node 4 i.

Sum nodes in node set in Fx = 0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2. SPC loads: Zero iii. The cross-section definition serves several purposes: 1. • 394 HyperMesh 8.085e+03 c. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1.0 Fy calculation. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1.085e+03) x. Applied loads: Zero ii. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. Node 3 i. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. All nodes in the node set must be attached to one or more elements in the element set. summation node set to node 3. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment utility uses an element set and a node set (cross-section definition) define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Node 4 vi. All nodes in the node set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. SPC loads: Zero viii. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. All values are zero in this model. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set of the cross-section definition will be extracted and utilized in the Resultant Force and Moment calculations. All nodes in the node set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force 2 and Moment calculations . MPC loads:Zero iv. MPC loads:Zero ix. The node set contains nodes 3 and 4. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system: • • • The element set contains only element 1. a node set defined with nodes 3 and 4. All nodes in the node set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations.085e+03) v. 4. Applied loads: Zero vii. For all nodes in the node set. The following example of Resultant Force and Moment extraction uses a cross-section definition given by an element set defined with only element 1. 3.085e+03 b. Fx calculation. 5.

166) the following is obtained: xxxi. MPC loads:Zero xix. Applied loads: Zero xxvii. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = -1. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-1. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = 3. SPC loads: Zero xxiii. Node 4 xxvi. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.166*1. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (3. My calculation. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. SPC loads: Zero xxviii.085e+03) + (0. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Applied loads: Zero xxii. SPC loads: Zero xiii. MPC loads:Zero xiv. Calculate the cross-product of all the forces about the Y-axis at node 3.871e+00) xxv. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-8. Node 3: no additional rXF contributions since it is the sum point xxxii. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4.808e+02 xxxiii. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Total rXF Value summed at Node 3 = -1. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. Node 4 xvi.0*3. MPC loads:Zero xxiv.000e+02. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. SPC loads: Zero xviii. Total Fz Value at Node 3 = 6.024e+00) xxx. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Sum nodes in node set in Fz = 1.000e+03 (The value of the applied shear) Mx calculation.024e+00 c.426e+02) xv. All values are zero in this model. Node 3 xxi. Total My Value at Node 3 = -8.0 User’s Guide 395 .• Fz calculation looping through all the nodes in the node set: a.426e+02 b.871e+00 b.808e+02 d.574e+02) xx. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (6. Applied loads: Zero xvii. Node 4: rXF for My component equates to the following equation (rz*Fx) + (rx*Fz) = (-0. Node 3 xi. looking through all the nodes in the node set: a. Applied loads: Zero xii.574e+02 c. Sum nodes in node set and all rXF terms in My = -2.574e+02) = -1. MPC loads:Zero xxix. Selecting node 3 as the summation node (any node in the model can be selected) and performing rXF (all element edge lengths are 0. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3.

FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility uses an element set and a node set to define the values to extract from the Displacement table. 2. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards.• Mz calculation. for a cross-section defined with element 1 (element set). nodes 3 and 4 (node set). MPC forces and moments are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: o RBE2 o RBE3 o Rigidlink o RJOINT o RROD o RBAR The GPFORCE and Displacement results are extracted of the . All values are zero in this model. The final Resultant Force and Moment results are presented in the graphic below.op2 file. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the .op2 file in float point precision in binary format. The element and node sets serve several purposes: 1. The element set is for visualization and breakout modeling purposes only.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Additional Information: • Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. for Nastran and OptiStruct. This maintains the integrity of the calculations as well as enhances the performance of the utilities. All nodes in the node set will have displacement and rotation values extracted. summation node set to node 3. • • 396 HyperMesh 8. which is the summary table output from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. This procedure reduces the size of the . Additionally. looping through all the nodes in the node set a. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system.

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