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Different tools and techniques used in public


Public relation is a way of communicating with various entities like
employees, media, customers, clients, stockholders, and other
related parties. It is a formal way of sharing company information
in a well organized and effective manner. It involves informing the
related parties about topics which they are much interested in.
The information can be anything related to company's products,
policies, important matters, announcements, etc. It can even be a
subject which the media wants information on, such as
controversial topics. It helps a company to establish and maintain
relations with its customers and other public. It gives an insight
into the company and its products and services and the extent to
which the company is able to offer the same. It also shows the
spread of the company in different places and also how much a
company understands its customers and looks after building a
mutual understanding. A Company uses these different tools and
techniques to communicate with various entities and to dissolve
issues and crisis with the help of these tools and techniques.
These tools and techniques are the ways of communication for
the company with the concern public.

The tools-
1) Media relation and publicity-
Media refers collectively to all media technologies, including
the Internet, television, newspapers, and radio, which are used
for mass communications, and to the organizations which control
these technologies. Mass media play a significant role in shaping
public perceptions on a variety of important issues, both through
the information that is dispensed through them, and through the
interpretations they place upon this information. There are
various medium available for media publicity, organizations use
these medium for mass communication with the concerned public
relating to a product, policies and important matters. These
mediums are-

-Newspapers- Newspapers are the major medium of

publicity. They are read by millions, they can influence public
opinions, and they are read by most of the sections of public.
And the most important benefit of the newspapers is mass
reach and provides the opportunity for corporations and
associations to secure valuable publicity.

-Magazines-magazines are an important medium for

product news, feature stories, and pictorial publicity.
Magazines are publications, generally published on a regular
schedule, containing a variety of articles. They are generally
financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by pre-paid
magazine subscriptions, or all three.

-Radio and television broadcasting-The most

important reason why radio as a publicity medium is good is
because of its reach. Radio signals are broadcasted and can be
received almost anywhere. Unlike the video system, which
requires a television, the radio requires a small receiver. While
advertisements require lot of time and money, the more
economical option is to take part in talk shows hosted on the
radio stations. In the talk show, the person looking to promote
a product or service comes in as a special guest. radio is a
economical source of publicity with a mass reach. Television is
the most recent medium of publicity. But it is a very costly
medium. The positron of radio publicity is now being gradually
taken by T.V. advertising. T.V. publicity is probably the most
significant single new thing that has happened to advertising in
this century. T.V. provides a scientific synchronization of
features of sound, sight motion immediately that no other
medium has been able to provide so far.
2) oral communication- oral communication can be an
organization’s most effective and least expensive medium for
transmitting information to can be formal as well as
informal. The impact of the oral communication is largely
dependent upon the personality of the speaker and the force of
his delivery. Following are the forms of oral communication-

- Forms of oral communication

Formal speeches- Formal speeches by effective

speakers are among the quickest and most impressive ways to
convey information to small groups when delivered over tv or
radio then it may heard by large public

Round-table conference-Round-table conferences are

frequently used in communicating with employees, and
occasionally with stockholders, suppliers, community leaders,
educator, and dealers.

Panel discussion- panel discussion serve to present the

views of several authorities on a particular subject of interest
to the audience.

Question-and-answer discussions-A question-and-

answer discussion in which members of the audience ask
question of one or more speakers, is an effective method of
oral communication when the audience is more or less familiar
with the subject under discussion.

3) Advertising
Advertising is a major public relations tool used to
communicate with both and external has as it
primary purpose the projection of the company as a public
service institution so as to create a favorable public is
an paid and non-personal form of communication through
media through an identified can used by a company
to promote its project , or to create a favorable image of the
organization or to correct misconception or to secure and keep
good suppliers etc. newspapers, magazines, and radio and
television are the media of public relations advertising.

4) Periodicals- The public relations periodical, also called

as company magazine, house organ, or industrial publication, is
a major medium of communication used by organization to
communicate with employees, shareholders, suppliers, dealers,
customers and general public .high reader interest, flexibility,
low distribution cost are some of the advantages of the
periodicals. Internal, external, internal and external are the
types of periodicals.

5) Audio visual media-

Public relations audiovisuals media, also called documentary,
educational, and nontheatrical films, include sound motion
picture, film strips, videotapes, and other related audiovisual
materials. They constitute an important medium of public
communication. Information gained from audiovisual is
remembered longer than intelligence from other sources.
Audiovisuals are particularly effective in communicating
information to groups by giving all members of a group, even
in different locations, information simultaneously. Audiovisuals
are used in communicating with employees, educators,
stockholder, community neighbors, suppliers, and government
officials. They are an effective supplement to other methods of
communication such as speeches, exhibits, and displays.
Audiovisual media used in public relation communication
include, in addition to sound motion pictures, film strips, 2-by-
2-inch slides, 31/4-by-4-inch-slide, overhead projection,
transparencies, opaque projection, flip charts, sound tapes, and
videotape recording.

There are four techniques used in public relation-
-Issue management system- IMS is a system that enables a
company to enables a company to influence the development
public issues, trends, or symptoms that can affect company in
long run.

-Crisis management system-crisis is the time of difficulty or

danger which happens all of sudden when we don’t anticipate
them in future. CMS helps in managing these crisis.

-PR MODEL- pr models are normally applicable in a case when we

have any two or three section of public .

-PR PROCESS- pr process is normally used when we have more

section of the public involved in the problem