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Important considerations when design protection system

Important considerations when design protection system.

1. Types of fault and abnormal Conditions to be protected against
2. Quantities available for measurement
3. Types of protection available
4. Speed
5. Fault position discrimination
6. Dependability / reliability
7. Security / stability
8. Overlap of protections
9. Phase discrimination / selectivity
10. CT’s and VT’s ratio required
11. Auxiliary supplies
12. Back-up protection
13. Cost
14. Duplication of protection
Types of protection
A - Fuses
For LV Systems, Distribution Feeders and Transformers, VT’s, Auxiliary

B - Over current and earth fault
Widely used in All Power Systems
1. Non-Directional
2. Directional.

For feeders, Bus-bars, Transformers, Generators etc
1. High Impedance
2. Low Impedance
3. Restricted E/F
4. Biased
5. Pilot Wire

D - Distance
For transmission and sub-transmission lines and distribution feeders, also used as back-up
protection for transformers and generators without signaling with signaling to provide unit
protection e.g.:

1. Time-stepped distance protection
2. Permissive underreach protection (PUP)
3. Permissive overreach protection (POP)
4. Unblocking overreach protection (UOP)
5. Blocking overreach protection (BOP)
6. Power swing blocking
7. Phase comparison for transmission lines
8. Directional comparison for transmission lines

E - Miscellaneous:
1. Under and over voltage
2. Under and over frequency
3. A special relay for generators, transformers, motors etc.
4. Control relays: auto-reclose, tap change control, etc.
5. tripping and auxiliary relays

Fast operation: minimizes damage and danger
Very fast operation: minimizes system instability discrimination and security can be costly to
1. differential protection
2. differential protection with digital signaling
3. distance protection with signaling
4. directional comparison with signaling

Fault position discrimination
Power system divided into protected zones must isolate only the faulty equipment or section

Dependability / reliability
Protection must operate when required to Failure to operate can be extremely damaging and
disruptive Faults are rare. Protection must operate even after years of inactivity Improved by
use of:
1. Back-up Protection and
2. duplicate Protection

Security / Stability
Protection must not operate when not required to e.g. due to:
1. Load Switching
2. Faults on other parts of the system
3. Recoverable Power Swings

Overlap of protections
1. No blind spots
2. Where possible use overlapping CTs
Phase discrimination / selectivity

Correct indication of phases involved in the fault Important for Single Phase Tripping and
auto-Reclosing applications

Current and voltage transformers
These are an essential part of the Protection Scheme. They must be suitably specified to meet
the requirements of the protective relays.
1A and 5A secondary current ratings, Saturation of current transformers during heavy fault
conditions should not exceed the limits laid down by the relay manufacturer.
Current transformers for fast operating protections must allow for any offset in the current
waveform. Output rating under fault conditions must allow for maximum transient offset. This
is a function of the system X/R ratio.
Current Transformer Standards/Classes:
British Standards: 10P, 5P, X
American: C, T.
Location of CTs should, if possible, provide for overlap of protections. Correct connection of
CTs to the protection is important. In particular for directional, distance, phase comparison and
differential protections. VT’s may be Electromagnetic or Capacitor types. Busbar VT’s:
Special consideration needed when used for Line Protection.

Auxiliary supplies

Required for:
1. Tripping circuit breakers
2. Closing circuit breakers
3. Protection and trip relays
• AC. auxiliary supplies are only used on LV and MV systems.
• DC. auxiliary supplies are more secure than ac supplies.
• Separately fused supplies used for each protection.
• Duplicate batteries are occasionally provided for extra security.
• Modern protection relays need a continuous auxiliary supply.
• During operation, they draw a large current which increases due to operation of
output elements.
Relays are given a rated auxiliary voltage and an operative auxiliary voltage range.
the rated value is marked on the relay. Refer to relay documentation for details of operative
range. it is important to make sure that the range of voltages which can appear at the relay
auxiliary supply terminals is within the operative range.
IEC recommended values (IEC 255-6):
Rated battery voltages:
12, 24, 48, 60, 11 0, 125, 220, 250, 440
Preferred operative range of relays:
80 to 10% of voltage rated
AC. component ripple in the dc supply:
<10% of voltage rated

Although important.statutory safety regulations 4. Economics cannot be ignored but is of secondary importance compared with the need for highly reliable. CT’s and VT’s 5. transformers and feeders. the consequences of maloperation or failure to operate are less serious than for transmission systems. High speed protection requires unit protection 6. Damage repair if protection fails to operate 7. Risk of security of supply should be reduced to the lowest practical levels 5. and loss of supply and customer goodwill. Security/Stability 3. Speed less important than on transmission systems 5. Protection may be the minimum consistent with . Cost of protection should be balanced against the cost of potential hazards there is an economic limit on what can be spent. Emphasis is on technical considerations rather than economics 2. Acceptable cost is based on a balance of economics and technical factors. 6. Higher protection costs justifiable by high capital cost of power system elements protected. 2. Duplicate protections used to improve reliability 7. Speed 2. Back-up protection can be simple and is often inherent in the main protection. schemes and associated panels and panel wiring 2. Transmission systems 1. Economics often overrides technical issues 3. Commissioning 4. Sensitivity: Degree of risk in allowing a low level fault to develop into a more severe fault 4. Relays. Maintenance and repairs to relays 6. 4. Reliability Total cost should take account of: 1. Single phase tripping and auto-reclose may be required to maintain system stability . Lost revenue if protection operates unnecessarily Distribution systems 1. Large number of switching and distribution points. Setting studies 3.COST The cost of protection is equivalent to insurance policy against damage to plant. Minimum cost: Must ensure that all faulty equipment is isolated by protection Other factors: 1. fully discriminative high speed protection 3.

its cost and value to the consumer. Figure 1 Relationship between reliability of supply. and mechanical damage throughout the system. Basic of protection system Introduction The purpose of an electrical power generation system is to distribute energy to a multiplicity of points for diverse applications. Rapid isolation of the fault by the nearest switch-gear will minimize the damage and disruption caused to the system. it is instructive to look at the relationship between the reliability of a system and its cost and value to the consumer. increasing the spare capacity margin and arranging alternative circuits to supply loads. can cause fire at the fault location. To maximize the return on this outlay. As these two requirements are largely opposed. and the necessity of achieving sufficient reliability. On the other hand. It is important to realize that the system is viable only between the cross-over points A and B. but should rather be balanced against economy. provides flexibility during normal operation and ensures a minimum of dislocation following a breakdown. Security of supply can be bettered by improving plant design. regardless of cost. which is shown in Figure 1. which imposes a sudden and sometimes violent change on system operation. The large current which then flows. particularly to machine and transformer windings. The system should be designed and managed to deliver this energy to the utilization points with both reliability and economy. Sub-division of the system into zones. For this reason it is necessary not only . The diagram illustrates the significance of reliability in system design. A power system represents a very large capital investment. the system must be loaded as much as possible. each controlled by switchgear in association with protective gear. accompanied by the localized release of a considerable quantity of energy. high reliability should not be pursued as an end in itself. The greatest threat to a secure supply is the shunt fault or short circuit. taking all factors into account.

it has been necessary to develop many types of relay which respond to various functions of the power system quantities. discriminative protective gear. locating and initiating the removal of a fault from the power system. The risk of a fault occurring. Relays are extensively used for major protective functions. so that it may give the best service to the consumer. the main switchgear. although fundamentally protective in its function. shunts. In order to fulfil the requirements of discriminative protection with the optimum speed for the many different configurations. such as the station battery and any other equipment required to secure operation of the circuit breaker. must be provided to control the switchgear. as are also common services. as any fault produces repercussions throughout the net-work. is multiplied by the number of such items which are closely associated in an extensive system. trips and fuses. designed according to the characteristics and requirements of the power system. In many cases it is not feasible to protect against all hazards with any one relay.1). Absolute freedom from failure of the plant and system network cannot be guaranteed. D.C. to provide a supply of energy which is attractive to prospective users by operating the system within the range AB (Figure 1. operating conditions and construction features of power systems. The object of the system will be defeated if adequate provision for fault clearance is not made. In addition to relays the term includes all accessories such as current and voltage transformers. in practical terms. inoperable. and earn the most. Fundamentals of protection practice This is a collective term which covers all the equipment used for detecting. which are only readily expressible by mathematical or graphical means. When the system is large. Relays frequently measure complex functions of the system quantities. In general. observation simply of the magnitude of the fault current suffices in some cases but measurement of power or impedance may be necessary in others.C. Use . the chance of a fault occurring and the disturbance that a fault would bring are both so great that without equipment to remove faults the system will become. A system is not properly designed and managed if it is not adequately protected. But the term also covers direct-acting A. Nor is the installation of switchgear alone sufficient. but also to keep the system in full operation as far as possible continuously. For example. and A. wiring and any other devices relating to the protective relays. however slight for each item. Revenue for the supply authority.C. This is the measure of the importance of protective systems in modern practice and of the responsibility vested in the protection engineer. is excluded from the term 'protective gear'.

The nature of the power system condition which is being guarded against must be thoroughly understood in order to make an adequate design. which should be limited to such simple and direct tests as will prove the correctness of the connections and freedom from damage of the then made of a combination of different types of relay which individually protect against different risks. 3. Difficult the checking of such correctness. deterioration may take place which. Deterioration in service. coils and other circuits may be open-circuited. For many protective systems. these tests must be directed to proving the installation. contacts may become rough or burnt owing to frequent operation. but the complexity of the interconnections of many systems and their relation-ship to the remainder of the station may make. and mechanical parts may become clogged with dirt or corroded to an extent that may interfere with movement. Installation. Design This is of the highest importance. b. This is the function of site testing. Each individual protective arrangement is known as a 'protection system'. d. Incorrect operation can be attributed to one of the following classifications: a. For example. or tarnished owing to atmospheric contamination. auxiliary components may fail. could interfere with correct functioning. Testing is therefore necessary. as well as reproducing operational and environmental conditions as closely as possible. No attempt should be made to 'type test' the equipment or to establish complex aspects of its technical performance. during which period defects may have developed . After a piece of equipment has been installed in perfect condition. Protection performance 1. and the tests must simulate fault conditions realistically. Reliability The need for a high degree of reliability is discussed in Section 1. Incorrect installation. Incorrect design. since it will be difficult to reproduce all fault conditions correctly. c. in time. it is necessary to test the complete assembly of relays. and this testing should cover all aspects of the protection. Deterioration. The need for correct installation of protective equipment is obvious. Comprehensive testing is just as important. current transformers and other ancillary items. One of the particular difficulties of protective relays is that the time between operations may be measured in years. while the whole coordinated combination of relays is called a 'protection scheme'. 2.

When temporary disconnection of panel wiring is necessary. as well as self-disciplined to proceed in a deliberate manner. clip-on leads for injection supplies. either being able to trip independently. This principle of assessment gives an accurate evaluation of the protection of the system as a whole. For this purpose each system fault is classed as an incident and those which are cleared by the tripping of the correct circuit breakers and only those are classed as 'correct'. mistakes in correct restoration of connections can be avoided by using identity tags on leads and terminals. and arranged so that either by itself can carry out the required function. Draw-out relays inherently provide this facility. such arrangements are commonly applied to circuit breaker trip circuits and to pilot circuits. allowing for redundancy. This can be achieved by the provision of test blocks or switches. a test plug can be inserted between the relay and case contacts giving access to all relay input circuits for injection. For this reason. On this basis. a performance of 94 % is obtainable by standard techniques. is x2. The quality of testing personnel is an essential feature when assessing reliability and considering means for improvement. It has long been the practice to apply duplicate protective systems to bus-bars. that is. but it is severe in its judgment of relay performance. and all must behave correctly for a correct clearance to be recorded. These two features can be obtained together by adopting a 'two-out-of-three' . In other cases. Testing should be carried out without disturbing permanent connections. Where x is small the resultant risk (x2) may be negligible. that is.unnoticed until revealed by the failure of the protection to respond to a power system fault. a 'two-out-of-two' arrangement. 4. Important circuits which are especially vulnerable can be provided with continuous electrical super-vision. however. in that many relays are called into operation for each system fault. Complete reliability is unlikely ever to be achieved by further improvements in construction. If the risk of an equipment failing is x/unit. in which each step taken and quantity measured is checked before final acceptance. The percentage of correct clearances can then be determined. can be taken by providing duplication of equipment or 'redundancy'. The former arrangement guards against unwanted operation. a 'one-out-of-two' arrangement. Two complete sets of equipment are provided. important circuits have been provided with duplicate main protection schemes. the latter against failure to operate. Staff must be technically competent and adequately trained. Protection performance The performance of the protection applied to large power systems is frequently assessed numerically. and easily visible double-ended clip-on leads where 'jumper connections' are required. relays should be given simple basic tests at suitable intervals in order to check that their ability to operate has not deteriorated. A very big step. both being required to operate to complete a tripping operation. the resultant risk.

Zones of protection Ideally. Time graded systems. Unit systems. the zones of protection should overlap across the circuit breaker as shown in Figure 2. although a number of protective equipments respond. the circuit breaker being included in both zones. . Certain protective systems derive their 'restricted' property from the configuration of the power system and may also be classed as unit protection. This 'unit protection' or 'restricted Protection' can be applied throughout a power system and. maximum load current. Protective systems in successive zones are arranged to operate in times which are graded through the sequence of equipments so that upon the occurrence of a fault. system impedances and so on. Whichever method is used. taking into account the possible range of such variables as fault currents.arrangement in which three basic systems are used and are interconnected so that the operation of any two will complete the tripping function. which should cover the power system completely. Selectivity. where appropriate. since it does not involve time grading. only those relevant to the faulty zone complete the tripping function. 2. it must be kept in mind that selectivity is not merely a matter of relay design. Probability theory suggests that if a power network were protected throughout on this basis. This property of selective tripping is also called 'discrimination' and is achieved by two general methods: 1. such as. leaving no part unprotected. It is possible to design protective systems which respond only to fault conditions lying within a clearly defined zone. Protection is arranged in zones. a protection performance of 99. common current transformers or tripping batteries. for instance. When a fault occurs the protection is required to select and trip only the nearest circuit breakers. Unit protection is usually achieved by means of a comparison of quantities at the boundaries of the zone. This performance figure requires that the separate protection systems be completely independent. Such schemes have already been used to a limited extent and application of the principle will undoubtedly increase. will reduce the overall performance to a certain extent.98 % should be attainable. can be relatively fast in operation. any common factors. The others make incomplete operations and then reset. It is a function of the correct co-ordination of current transformers and relays with a suitable choice of relay settings.

This leaves a section between the current transformers and the circuit breaker A within which a fault is not cleared by the operation of the protection that responds. as in Figure 3. this ideal is not always achieved. For practical physical reasons. . In Figure 3 a fault at F would cause the bus-bar protection to operate and open the circuit breaker but the fault would continue to be fed through the feeder. accommodation for current trans-formers being in some cases available only on one side of the circuit breakers. Figure 2. Location of current transformers on both sides of the circuit breaker.

This term. The protection may be of the unit type. if of the unit type. even with a great deal of personal supervision. With by some form of zone extension. Figure 4 illustrates a typical arrangement of overlapping zones. Figure 4 Overlapping zones of protection systems. Speed. The feeder protection. A time delay is incurred in fault clearance. since the fault is outside its zone. the term 'discrimination' is the equivalent expression applicable to non-unit systems. The object is to safeguard continuity of supply by removing each disturbance before it leads to widespread loss of synchronism. Alternatively. the zone may be unrestricted. The point of connection of the protection with the power system usually defines the zone and corresponds to the location of the current transformers. to operate when opening the circuit breaker does not fully interrupt the flow of fault current. refers to the ability of the system to remain inert to all load conditions and faults external to the relevant zone. the start will be defined but the extent will depend on measurement of the system quantities and will therefore be subject to variation. applied to protection as distinct from power networks.Figure 3 Location of current transformers on circuit side of the circuit breaker. which would necessitate the shutting down of plant. although by restricting this operation to occasions when the bus-bar protection is operated the time delay can be reduced. It is essentially a term which is applicable to unit systems. . This problem is dealt. would not operate. owing to changes in system conditions and measurement errors. The function of automatic protection is to isolate faults from the power system in a very much shorter time than could be achieved manually. in which case the boundary will be a clearly defined and closed loop. Stability.

heavy fault currents can cause damage to plant if they continue for more than a few seconds Figure 5 Typical values of power that can be transmitted as a function of fault clearance time. A given type of relay element can usually be wound for a wide range of setting currents. For this reason. the only limiting factor will be the necessity for correct operation. When the term is applied to an individual relay. The shorter the time a fault is allowed to remain in the system. however. Loading the system produces phase displacements between the voltages at different points and therefore increases the probability that synchronism will be lost when the system is disturbed by a fault. Figure 1. distribution circuits for which the requirements for fast operation are not very severe are usually protected by time-graded systems. speed.5 shows typical relations between system loading and fault clearance times for various types of fault. It will be noted that phase faults have a more marked effect on the stability of the system than does a simple earth fault and therefore require faster clearance. the greater can be the loading of the system. It is not enough to maintain stability. A protective system is said to be sensitive if the primary operating current is low. Even away from the fault arc itself. must be weighed against economy. It will be seen that protective gear must operate as quickly as possible. it does not refer to a current or voltage setting but to the volt-ampere consumption at the minimum operating current. the coil will have an impedance which is inversely proportional to the square of . but generating plant and EHV systems require protective gear of the highest attainable speed. Sensitivity Sensitivity is a term frequently used when referring to the minimum operating current of a complete protective system. it can burn through copper conductors or weld together core laminations in a transformer or machine in a very short time. The destructive power of a fault arc carrying a high current is very great. unnecessary consequential damage must also be avoided.

or separately by means of additional equipment. but if the appropriate relay fails or the circuit breaker fails to trip. but either no remote back-up protection against circuit breaker failure or. Such back-up protection is inherently slower than the main protection and. and so also of the sensitivity. at best. the faulty section is normally isolated discriminatively by the time grading.the setting current value. depending on the power system configuration. relays the VA input also represents power consumption. one more section is isolated than is desirable but this is inevitable in the event of the failure of a circuit breaker. In this way complete back-up cover is obtained. Where the system interconnection is more complex. which will provide local back-up cover if the main protective relays have failed. Back-up protection may be obtained automatically as an inherent feature of the main protection scheme. thereby interrupting the fault circuit one section further back. may be less discriminative. This is the true measure of the input requirements of the relay.C. For the most important circuits the performance may not be good enough. and will trip further back in the event of circuit breaker failure. Relay power factor has some significance in the matter of transient performance. not even possible. Primary and back-up protection The reliability of a power system has been discussed in earlier sections. If the power system is protected mainly by unit schemes. For this reason. in some cases. the above operation will be repeated so that all parallel infeeds are tripped. the next relay in the grading sequence will complete its operation and trip the associated circuit breaker. Time graded schemes such as over current or distance protection schemes are examples of those providing inherent back-up protection. even as a back-up protection. and the burden is therefore frequently quoted in watts. Breaker fail protection can be obtained by checking that fault current ceases within . or. it is usual to supplement primary protection with other systems to 'back- up' the operation of the main system and ensure that nothing can prevent the clearance of a fault from the system. so that the volt-ampere product at any setting is constant. automatic back-up protection is not obtained. Many factors may cause protection failure and there is always some possibility of a circuit breaker failure. owing to the effect of multiple infeeds. These provide excellent mutual back-up cover against failure of the protective equipment. In these cases duplicate high speed protective systems may be installed. time delayed cover. and it is then normal to supplement the main protection with time graded over current protection. For D.

For distribution systems where fault clearance Times are not critical. This ideal is rarely attained in practice. where appropriate. If this does not occur. The extent and type of back-up protection which is applied will naturally be related to the failure risks and relative economic importance of the system. prevent an unwanted operation of the protection. Current trans-formers. should be chosen. it is desirable that the supply to each protection should be separately fused and also continuously supervised by a relay which will give an alarm on failure of the supply and. where system stability is at risk unless a fault is cleared quickly. b. Duplication of tripping batteries and of tripping coils on circuit breakers is sometimes provided. as described above. Definitions and Terminology 1. as this involves little extra cost or accommodation compared with the use of common current transformers which would have to be larger because of the combined burden. Auxiliaryrelay.a brief time interval from the operation of the main protection. An all-or-nothing relay used to supplement the performance of another relay. auxiliary tripping relays. and also because of the increased accommodation which would have to be provided. Common voltage transformers are used because duplication would involve a considerable increase in cost. Trip supplies to the two protections should be separately fused. voltage transformers. c. d. Since security of the VT output is vital. as compared with the alternative of tripping the remote ends of all the relevant circuits. 2.C. supplies would be duplicated. local back- up. It is desirable that the main and back-up protections (or duplicate main protections) should operate on different principles. the condition being necessarily treated as a bus bar fault. The following compromises are typical: a. trip coils and D. and confines the tripping operation to the one station. because of the voltage transformers them-selves. all other connections to the bus bar section are interrupted. Separate current transformers (cores and secondary windings only) are used for each protective system. time delayed remote back-up protection is adequate but for EHV systems.All-or-nothingrelay A relay which is not designed to have any specified accuracy as to its operating value. by modifying . Trip circuits should be continuously supervised. Ideal back-up protection would be completely independent of the main protection. so that unusual events that may cause failure of the one will be less likely to affect the other. This provides the required back-up protection with the minimum of time delay.

voltage for a voltage relay. Characteristic curve. to ensure that the value of burden at rated current is used. current for an over current relay. expressed as the product of voltage and current (volt-amperes. The phase angle at which the performance of the relay is declared.Biasedrelay. Characteristic angle.C) for a given condition. 6. Characteristic quantity. A relay in which the characteristics are modified by the introduction of some quantity other than the actuating quantity. 5.Back-upprotection. A test on a protective system including all relevant components and ancillary equipment appropriately interconnected. The loading imposed by the circuits of the relay on the energizing power source or sources. or by introducing time delays. Check protective system. impedance for an impedance relay. The curve showing the operating value of the characteristic quantity corresponding to various values or combinations of the energizing quantities. The rated output of measuring transformers.g.I. . 4.Burden. or to deal with faults in those parts of the power system that are not readily included in the operating zones of the main protection. An auxiliary protective system intended to prevent tripping due to inadvertent operation of the main protective system. 8.) The maximum value of the System Impedance Ratio up to which the relay performance remains within the prescribed limits of accuracy. expressed in VA. is always at rated current or voltage and it is important. A protective system intended to supplement the main protection in case the latter should be in-effective. 7. phase angle for a directional relay. 11. the value of which characterizes the operation of the relay. A quantity. Characteristic impedance ratio (C. and which is usually in opposition to the actuating quantity. 9. The test may be parametric or specific. which may be either at 'setting' or at rated current or voltage. R. 3. It is usually the angle at which maximum sensitivity occurs. time for an independent time delay relay. in assessing the burden imposed by a relay. Conjunctive test. e. or watts if D. performance for example.

13. A relay drops out when it moves from the energized position to the un-energized position. 18. Drop-out. Effective setting The 'setting' of a protective system including the effects of current transformers. 19. A time delay relay in which the time delay varies with the value of the energizing quantity. Specific conjunctive test. Parametric conjunctive test. 14. b. a. 20. 12. while still complying with the relevant performance requirements. Discrimination. for which definite values are assigned to each of the parameters. A test to ascertain the range of values that may be assigned to each parameter when considered in combination with other parameters. in particular those concerning precision. Drop-out / pick ratio. or of the energizing quantities to which the relay will respond and satisfy the requirements concerning it. Electrical relay A device designed to produce sudden predetermined changes in one or more electrical circuits after the appearance of certain conditions in the electrical circuit or circuits controlling it. 17. A protective system which is designed to respond only to faults to earth. Earthing transformer. The ratio of the limiting values of the characteristic quantity at which the relay resets and operates. 15. Dependent time delay relay. This value is sometimes called the differential of the relay. . The quality whereby a protective system distinguishes between those conditions for which it is intended to operate and those for which it shall not operate. The effective setting can be expressed in terms of primary current or secondary current from the current transformers and is so designated as appropriate. Effective range The range of values of the characteristic quantity or quantities. Earth fault protective system. 16. A three-phase transformer intended essentially to provide a neutral point to a power system for the purpose of Earthing. A test to prove the performance for a particular application.

25. within the above definition. That sinusoidal e. 23. 30. With a relay de-energized and in its initial condition.NOTE: The term 'relay' includes all the ancillary equipment calibrated with the device. either current or voltage.D. The protective system which is normally expected to operate in response to a fault in the protected zone. after which the time delay becomes substantially independent. Operating value. The electrical quantity. the time which elapses between the application of a characteristic quantity and the instant when the relay operates. T. which. The curve depicting the relationship between different values of the characteristic quantity applied to a relay and the corresponding values of operating time. A dependent time delay relay having an operating time which is an inverse function of the electrical characteristic quantity. NOTE: All relays require some time to operate.f. 21. 24. M . Operating time characteristic. 22. Main protection. 29. A relay which operates and resets with no intentional time delay. A relay which switches in response to a specific number of applied impulses. 28. 27. Operating time. . which alone or in combination with other energizing quantities. must be applied to the relay to cause it to function. applied to the secondary terminals of a current transformer.f. A relay intended to operate with a specified accuracy at one or more values of its characteristic quantity. Inverse time delay relay. Independent time delay relay.m. 26. to discuss the operating time characteristics of an instantaneous relay. causes the exciting current to increase by 50%. Instantaneous relay.) A relay in which the time delay varies inversely with the characteristic quantity up to a certain value.m. 22. when increased by 10 %. Measuring relay. Knee-point e. A time delay relay in which the time delay is independent of the energizing quantity. 21. Inverse time delay relay with definite minimum (I. Notching relay. Energizing quantity. it is possible.

A protective relay may include more than one unit electrical relay and accessories. trans-formers and ancillary equipment. Overshoot time. the disconnection of an element of a power system. Protective system. Protected zone. The algebraic sum. in a multi-phase system. . of all the line currents. A means of interconnection between relaying points for the purpose of protection. A combination of protective gear designed to secure. Pick-up. Pilot channel. A relay designed to initiate disconnection of a part of an electrical installation or to operate a warning signal. expressed as time at the rate of progress of the said condition appropriate to the value of the energizing quantity that was initially applied. 37. or both. 33. 32. Resetting value. 35. including protective relays. Protective scheme. in the case of a fault or other abnormal condition in the installation. under predetermined conditions. 38. The limiting value of the characteristic quantity at which the relay returns to its initial position. The coordinated arrangements for the protection of one or more elements of a power system. 41. The extent to which the condition that leads to final operation is advanced after the removal of the energizing quantity. 39. 34. 40. or to give an alarm signal.The limiting value of the characteristic quantity at which the relay actually operates. The apparatus. The portion of a power system protected by a given protective system or a part of that protective system. for use in a protective system. Protective relay. The nominal value of an energizing quantity which appears in the designation of a relay. 36. Residua/ current. The nominal value usually corresponds to the CT and VT secondary ratings. usually abnormal. A protective scheme may comprise several protective systems. A relay is said to 'pick-up' when it changes from the un-energized position to the energized position. Rating. Protective gear. 31.

44. Unit protection. Time delay relay. The algebraic sum. The current flowing through a protected zone to a fault beyond that zone. Through fault current. 45. The R.M. The ratio of the power system source impedance to the impedance of the protected zone. A relay having an intentional delaying device. or multiples. Stability. of all the line-to-earth voltages. Unrestricted protection. 50. Residua/ voltage. The limiting value of a 'characteristic' or 'energizing' quantity at which the relay is designed to operate under specified conditions.42. 48. A single relay which can be used alone or in combinations with others. percentages of rated values.). Such values are usually marked on the relay and may be expressed as direct values. value of the symmetrical component of the through fault current up to which the protective system remains stable. A protection system which is designed to operate only for abnormal conditions within a clearly defined zone of the power system. 43. A unit relay which responds to abnormal conditions and initiates the operation of other elements of the protective system. Unit electrical relay. A protection system which has no clearly defined zone of operation and which achieves selective operation only by time grading. A delay intentionally introduced into the operation of a relay system. 53. 52. System impedance ratio (S. 51. Stability limits. Setting. 46./. . Starting relay. The quality whereby a protective system remains inoperative under all conditions other than those for which it is specifically designed to operate.S. 49.R. in a multi-phase system. 47. Time delay.

failure will result from a damage fault or incident necessitating outage. a fault may or may not result in damage to the insulation and failure of the equipment. 6.Fault An unplanned occurrence or defect in an item which may result in one or more failures of the item itself or of other associated equipment [IEC 604-02-011 NOTE .Incident An event related to an internal fault which temporarily or permanently disturbs the normal operation of an equipment [IEV 604-02-03. equipment tripping or equipment leakage.Damage fault A fault which involves repair or replacement action at the point of the fault [IEC 604-02-08.Fault Definitions and: For the purpose of this International Standard. 7. IEC 60050(212) and IEC 60050(604) apply: 1. modified] 4. [IEC 604-02-091 3.Non-damage fault A fault which does not involve repair or replacement action at the point of the fault NOTE .Electrical fault a partial or disruptive discharge through the insulation.Partial discharge A discharge which only partially bridges the insulation between conductors. 2. the following definitions. modified] NOTE .In the electrical equipment. such as internal breakdown. repair or replacement of the equipment.In electrical equipment. It may occur inside the insulation or adjacent to a conductor [IEC 212-01-34. 5.Typical examples are self-extinguishing arcs in switching equipment or general overheating without paper carbonization. fire or explosion.Failure The termination of the ability of an item to perform a required function [IEC 191-04-01] NOTE . modified] NOTE 1 . This term is not to be used as a general term for all forms of partial discharges. some of them based on IEC 60050(191). . rupture of tank.Typical examples are gas alarms.Corona is a form of partial discharge that occurs in gaseous media around conductors which are remote from solid or liquid insulation.

puncture (discharge through the solid insulation).X-wax is a solid material which is formed from mineral insulating oil as a result of electrical discharges and which consists of polymerized fragments of the molecules of the original liquid [IEV 212-07-24.sparking discharges which. . and which are over passed by only an arbitrary percentage of higher gas contents. The passage of an arc following the breakdown of the insulation [IEC 604-03-38. modified].Thermal fault Excessive temperature rise in the insulation NOTE .NOTE 2 .Typical values of gas concentrations. are local Dielectric breakdowns of high ionization density or small arcs. for example because of metals or floating potentials. 9. leading to a thermal runaway. . .Discharges are often described as arcing.Depending on the amount of energy contained in the discharge. 10. NOTE 2 . Comparable products may be formed from other liquids under similar conditions.Sparking of low energy. . 8.spark over (discharge through the oil). . . The more specific following terms are also used: . based on the extent of damage observed on the equipment . it will be described as a discharge of low or high energy. is sometimes described as Partial discharge but should rather be considered as a discharge of low energy.Excessive currents circulating through the insulation (as a result of high Dielectric losses). eddy currents. .Insufficient cooling. stray losses or leakage flux). NOTE 3 . .Discharge (disruptive) .Excessive currents circulating in adjacent metal parts (as a result of bad Contacts.overheating of internal winding or bushing connection lead. modified] NOTE 1 .tracking (the progressive degradation of the surface of solid insulation by local Discharges to form conducting or partially conducting paths).Flashover (discharge at the surface of the solid insulation). in the conventions of physics. breakdown or short circuits. gas concentrations normally found in the equipment in service which have no symptoms of failure.Typical causes are . for example 10 % .

in many countries and by many users.Typical values. over current relay 78 Phase angle measuring or out-of-step protective relay 79 A.c.Typical values will differ in different types of equipment and in different networks. circuit breaker 52a Circuit breaker auxiliary switch—normally open 52b Circuit breaker auxiliary switch—normally closed 55 Power factor relay 56 Field_application relay 59 Over voltage relay 60 Voltage or current balance relay 64 Earth fault protective relay 67 A. time over current relay 52 A. LIST OF DEVICE NUMBERS 2 Time delay starting or closing relay. are quoted as "normal values".c. reclosing relay . climate.NOTE 1 . directional over current relay 68 Blocking relay 74 Alarm relay 76 D. etc.c. 3 Checking or interlocking relay 21 Distance relay 25 Synchronizing or synchronism check relay 27 Under voltage relay 30 Annunciator relay 32 Directional power relay 37 Undercurrent or under power relay 40 Field failure relay 46 Reverse phase or phase balance current relay 49 Machine or transformer thermal relay 50 Instantaneous over current or rate-of-rise relay 51 A. NOTE 2 . but this term has not been used here to avoid possible misinterpretations.). depending on operating practices (load levels.c.c.

These numbers are based on a system adopted as standard for automatic switchgear by IEEE.3 Checking or interlocking relay is a device that operates in response to the position of a number of other devices. with appropriate suffix letters when necessary. that serve to make and break the necessary control circuits to place an equipment into operation under the desired conditions and to take it out of . float switch etc. 4. (or to a number of predetermined conditions). and the required permissive and protective devices. except as specifically provided by device functions 48. voltage relay. and in specifications. according to the functions they perform. in instruction books. 81 Frequency relay 83 Automatic selective control or transfer relay 85 Carrier or pilot wire receive relay 86 Locking-out relay 87 Differential protective relay 94 auxiliary tripping relay IEEE device numbers and functions for switchgear apparatus The devices in switching equipments are referred to by numbers. or through such permissive devices as protective and time-delay relays.2-1979.. 2. such as a control switch. 1 or equivalent. 62 and 79 described later. generally controlled by device No. to stop. Device Number Definition and function 1. and incorporated in American Standard C37. or to provide a check of the position of these devices or of these conditions for any purpose. 3. to place an equipment in or out of operation.2 Time-delay starting or closing relay is a device that functions to give a desired amount of time delay before or after any point of operation in a switching sequence or protective relay system. in an equipment to allow an operating sequence to proceed. This system is used in connection diagrams. that serves either irectly.1 Master element is the initiating device.4 Master contactor is a device.

used for the purpose of respectively connecting and disconnecting the source of control power to and from the control bus or equipment.operation under other or abnormal conditions. 7.13 Synchronous-speed device such as a centrifugal speed switch. but excludes the function of electrical lockout (see device function 86) on abnormal conditions. circuit breaker. 10.9 Reversing device is used for the purpose of reversing a machine field or for performing any other reversing functions. or any other type of device that operates at approximately the synchronous speed of a machine.8 Control power disconnecting device is a disconnecting device. 11.12 Over speed device is usually a direct connected speed switch that functions on machine over speed. All of the functions performed by device 11 shall be defined in the drawing legend or device function list.5 Stopping device is a control device used primarily to shut down an equipment and hold it out of operation.14 Under speed device . 9. a slip frequency relay. [This device may be manually or electrically actuated. an undercurrent relay. 12. such as a knife switch. 5. or pull-out fuse block. 8. 14.11 Multifunction device is a device that performs three or more comparatively important functions that could only be designated by combining several of these device function numbers.10 Unit sequence switch is used to change the sequence in which units may be placed in and out of service in multiple-unit equipment. 13.7 Rate-of-rise relay is a relay that functions on an excessive rate of rise of current.6 Starting circuit breaker is a device whose principal function is to connect a machine to its source of starting voltage. a voltage relay.] 6.

18 Accelerating or decelerating device is used to close or to cause the closing of circuits that are used to increase or decrease the speed of a machine. or their equivalent.23 Temperature control device Functions to raise or to lower the temperature of a machine or other apparatus.20 Electrically operated valve is an electrically operated.15 Speed or frequency matching device functions to match and hold the speed or the frequency of a machine or of a system equal to. or reactance increases or decreases beyond a predetermined value. or of any medium. Note: The function of the valve may be indicated by the use of the suffixes. air. or approximately equal to.19 Starting-to-running transition contactor is a device that operates to initiate or cause the automatic transfer of a machine from the starting to the running power connection. and also excludes device 73 function that serves for the switching of resistors. gas.21 Distance relay is a relay that functions when the circuit admittance. impedance. Note: An example is a thermostat that switches on a space heater in a switchgear assembly when the temperature falls to a desired value as distinguished from a device . a capacitor. when its temperature falls below or rises above a predetermined value. a machine armature. or system.functions when the speed of a machine falls below a pre-determined value. controlled. or a reactor. 18. 15. 16. or for regulating equipment. 19. see page 11.16 Reserved for future application 17. such as a machine field. 21.17 Shunting or discharge switch serves to open or to close a shunting circuit around any piece of apparatus (except a resistor). source. or monitored valve used in a fluid. Note: This excludes devices that perform such shunting operations as may be necessary in the process of starting a machine by devices 6 or 42. 23. or vacuum line. 20. in a multiple unit installation. 22.22 Equalizer circuit breaker is a breaker that serves to control or to make and break the equalizer or the current balancing connections for a machine field. that of another machine.

to a source of separate excitation during the starting sequence.25 Synchronizing or synchronism check device operates when two ac circuits are within the desired limits of frequency. 28. 27. 24. 31. or test. The relay may have an instantaneous or a time characteristic.that is used to provide automatic temperature regulation between close limits and would be designated as 90T. or when the temperature of the protected apparatus or of any medium decreases below a predetermined value. 29. . 25.32 Directional power relay is a relay that operates on a predetermined value of power flow in a given direction or upon reverse power flow such as that resulting from the motoring of a generator upon loss of its prime mover.27 Under voltage relay is a relay that operates when its input voltage is less than a predetermined value.28 Flame detector is a device that monitors the presence of the pilot or main flame in such apparatus as a gas turbine or a steam boiler.29 Isolating contactor is used expressly for disconnecting one circuit from another for the purposes of emergency operation.31 Separate excitation device connects a circuit. phase angle. maintenance. 26. such as the shunt field of a synchronous converter.26 Apparatus thermal device Functions when the temperature of the protected apparatus (other than the loadcarrying windings of machines and transformers as covered by device function number 49) or of a liquid or other medium exceeds a predetermined value. 30 Annunciator relay is a nonautomatically reset device that gives a number of separate visual indications upon the functioning of protective devices and that may also be arranged to perform a lock-out function.24 Volts per hertz relay is a relay that functions when the ratio of voltage to frequency exceeds a preset value. 32. or one which energizes the excitation and ignition circuits of a power rectifier. or voltage to permit or to cause the paralleling of these two circuits.

33- 33 Position switch
makes or breaks contact when the main device or piece of apparatus that has no device
function number reaches a given position.

34- 34 Master sequence device
is a device such as a motor operated multi contact switch, or the equivalent, or a
programming device, such as a computer, that establishes or determines the
operating sequence of the major devices in an equipment during starting
and stopping or during other sequential switching operations.

35- 35 Brush-operating or slip-ring short circuiting
device is used for raising, lowering or shifting the brushes of a machine; short-circuiting
its slip rings; or engaging or disengaging the contacts of a mechanical rectifier.

36- 36 Polarity or polarizing voltage device
operates, or permits the operation of, another device on a predetermined polarity only or
verifies the presence of a polarizing voltage in an equipment.

37- 37 Undercurrent or under power relay
functions when the current or power flow decreases below a predetermined value.

38- 38 Bearing protective device
Functions on excessive bearing temperature or on other abnormal mechanical conditions
associated with the bearing, such as undue wear, which may eventually result in excessive
bearing temperature or failure.
39- 39 Mechanical condition monitor
is a device that functions upon the occurrence of an abnormal mechanical condition
(except that associated with bearings as covered under device function 38), such as
excessive vibration, eccentricity, expansion, shock, tilting, or seal failure.

40- 40 Field relay
functions on a given or abnormally low value or failure of machine field current, or on
an excessive value of the reactive component of armature current in an ac machine
indicating abnormally low field excitation.

41- 41 Field circuit breaker
is a device that functions to apply or remove the field excitation of a machine.

42- 42 Running circuit breaker
is a device whose principal function is to connect a machine to its source of running or
operating voltage. This function may also be used for a device, such as a contactor, that is
used in series with a circuit breaker or other fault protecting means, primarily for
frequent opening and closing of the circuit.

43- 43 Manual transfer or selector device

is a manually operated device that transfers the control circuits in order to modify the
plan of operation of the switching equipment or of some of the devices.

44- 44 Unit sequence starting relay
is a relay that functions to start the next available unit in multiple unit equipment upon
the failure or nonavailability of the normally preceding unit.

45- 45 Atmospheric condition monitor
is a device that functions upon the occurrence of an abnormal atmospheric condition,
such as damaging fumes, explosive mixtures, smoke, or fire.

46- 46 Reverse-phase or phase-balance
current relay is a relay that functions when the polyphase currents are of reverse phase
sequence or when the polyphase currents are unbalanced or contain negative phase-
components above a given amount.

47- 47 Phase-sequence or phase-balance
voltage relay functions upon a predetermined value of polyphase voltage in the desired
phase sequence, or when the polyphase voltages are unbalanced, or when the negative
phase-sequence voltage exceeds a given amount.

48- 48 Incomplete sequence relay
is a relay that generally returns the equipment to the normal, or off, position and locks it
out if the normal starting, operating, or stopping sequence is not properly completed
within a predetermined time. If the device is used for alarm purposes only, it should
be designated as 48A (alarm).

49- 49 Machine or transformer thermal
relay is a relay that functions when the temperature of a machine armature winding or
other load-carrying winding or element of a machine or power transformer exceeds a

50- 50 Instantaneous over current relay
is a relay that functions instantaneously on an excessive value of current.

51- 51 Ac time over current relay
is a relay with either a definite or inverse time characteristic that functions when the ac
input current exceeds a predetermined value, and in which the input current and
operating time are independently related or inversely related through a substantial
portion of the performance range.

52- 52 Ac circuit breaker
is a device that is used to close and interrupt an ac power circuit under normal

or to interrupt this circuit under fault or emergency conditions.

53- 53 Exciter or dc generator relay
is a relay that forces the dc machine field excitation to build up during starting or that
functions when the machine voltage has built up to a given value.

54- 54 Turning gear engaging device
is an electrically operated, controlled, or monitored device that functions to cause the
turning gear to engage (or disengage) the machine shaft.

55- 55 Power factor relay
is a relay that operates when the power factor in an ac circuit rises above or falls below a
predetermined value.

56- 56 Field application relay
is a relay that automatically controls the application of the field excitation to an ac motor
some predetermined point in the slip cycle.

57- 57 Short-circuiting or grounding device
is a primary circuit switching device that functions to short circuit or ground a circuit in
response to automatic or manual means.

58- 58 Rectification failure relay
is a device that functions if a power recitifier fails to conduct or block properly.

59- 59 Over voltage relay
is a relay that operates when its input voltage is higher than a predetermined value.

60- 60 Voltage or current balance relay
is a relay that operates on a given difference in voltage, or current input or output,
of two circuits.

61- 61 Density switch or sensor
is a device that operates on a given value, or a given rate of change, of gas density.

62- 62 Time-delay stopping or opening relay
is a time-delay relay that serves in conjunction with the device that initiates the
shutdown, stopping, or opening operation in an automatic sequence or protective relay

63- 63 Pressure switch
is a switch that operates on given values, or on a given rate of change, of pressure.

position. or in the secondary neutral of current transformers. or other media to the prime mover for such purposes as starting. or a specified number of successive operations within a given time of each other.64 Ground detector relay is a relay that operates upon failure of machine or other apparatus insulation to ground. or detects a ground on a normally ungrounded winding or circuit. holding speed or load. or on a given rate of change. connected in the power circuit of a normally grounded system.70 Rheostat is a variable resistance device used in an electric circuit which is electrically operated or has other electrical accessories. Note: This function is assigned only to a relay which detects the flow of current from the frame of a machine or enclosing case or structure of a piece of apparatus to ground. or limit switches. It is also a device that functions to energize a circuit periodically or for fractions of specified time intervals. . and in the other position prevents the circuit breaker or the equipment from being operated.66 Notching or jogging device Functions to allow only a specified number of operations of a given device or equipment. electrical. 70. 67.64. It is not applied to a device connected in the secondary neutral of a current transformer. or that cooperates with other devices to block tripping or to block reclosing on an out-of-step condition or on power swings. a two-position device that in one position permits the closing of a circuit breaker.68 Blocking relay is a relay that initiates a pilot signal for blocking of tripping on external faults in a transmission line or in other apparatus under predetermined conditions.71 Level switch is a switch that operates on given values. 65.67 Ac directional over current relay is a relay that functions on a desired value of ac over current flowing in a predetermined direction. or the placing of an equipment into operation. 69.69 Permissive control device is generally.65 Governor is the assembly of fluid. steam. or stopping. or mechanical control equipment used for regulating the flow of water. 68. 71. 66. or that is used to permit intermittent acceleration or jogging of a machine at low speeds for mechanical positioning. of level. such as auxiliary. or on flashover of a dc machine to ground.

76-76 Dc over current relay is a relay that functions when the current in a dc circuit exceeds a given value. 82 82 Dc load-measuring reclosing relay is a relay that controls the automatic closing and reclosing of a dc circuit interrupter.75 Position changing mechanism is a mechanism that is used for moving a main device from one position to another in an equipment. 74.81 Frequency relay is a relay that responds to the frequency of an electrical quantity. of flow.78 Phase-angle measuring or out-of step protective relay is a relay that functions at a predetermined phase angle between two voltages. or between two currents. or regenerative load resistor of a power rectifier or other machine in and out of circuit. . 73. or that operates in connection with. a visual or audible alarm. that is used to operate. for example.77 Telemetering device is a transmitter used to generate and transmit to a remote location an electrical signal representing a measured quantity.72.79 Ac reclosing relay is a relay that controls the automatic reclosing and locking out of an ac circuit interrupter. disconnected.80 Flow switch is a switch that operates on given values. 80. 79. or indicating resistance in a power circuit. as covered under device function 30. or to switch a space heater in circuit. or between voltage and current. 81.72 Dc circuit breaker is used to close and interrupt a dc power circuit under normal conditions or to interrupt this circuit under fault or emergency conditions. operating when the frequency or rate of change of frequency exceeds or is less than a predetermined value.74 Alarm relay is a relay other than an annunciator. shifting a removable circuit breaker unit to and from the connected.73 Load-resistor contactor is used to shunt or insert a step of load limiting. generally in response to load circuit conditions. and test positions. or to switch a light. 75. or a receiver used to receive the electrical signal from a remote transmitter and convert the signal to represent the original measured quantity. shifting. 77. or on a given rate of change. 78.

etc. (Thisdevice function number is normally not necessary unless the switch is electrically operated or has electrical accessories. load interrupter. 91.83. tie lines. etc. or isolating switch in an ac or dc power circuit.90 Regulating device functions to regulate a quantity or quantities. current. etc.86 Lockout relay is an electrically operated hand or electrically reset auxiliary relay that is operated upon the occurrence of abnormal conditions to maintain associated equipment or devices out of service until it is reset. solenoids. frequency.88 Auxiliary motor or motor generator is a device used for operating auxiliary equipment. temperature. or phase angle.) 90. 84. exciters. such as an auxiliary switch. induction regulator.91 Voltage directional relay is a relay that operates when the voltage across an open circuit breaker or contactor exceeds a given value in a given direction. 88.87 Differential protective relay is a protective relay that functions on a percentage. and load. or other quantitative difference between two currents or some other electrical quantities. position switches. rotating magnetic amplifiers. 87. or any similar piece of apparatus that otherwise has no device function number.83 Automatic selective control or transfer relay is a relay that operates to select automatically between certain sources or conditions in an equipment or that performs a transfer operation automatically. blowers.84 Operating mechanism is the complete electrical mechanism or servomechanism. a magnetic lock. 89.. for a tap changer. including the operating motor. at a certain value or between certain (generally close) limits for machines. 86. . speed. such as voltage. or other apparatus. 85 Carrier or pilot-wire receiver relay Is a relay that is operated or restrained by a signal used in connection with carrier- current or dc pilot-wire fault directional relaying. such as pumps. power.89 Line switch is used as a disconnecting.

IEEE device numbers Supervisory control and indication. are used for those device functions that are associated with unit 1. 94. or equipment. a similar series starting with 201 for device functions that are associated with unit 2.94 Tripping or trip-free relay Functions to trip a circuit breaker. the value of field excitation on a machine. in one step. starting with 101 instead of 1. A similar series of numbers. For example. RE5 and RE94. A similar series of numbers. or to prevent immediate reclosing of a circuit interrupter if it should open automatically. even though its closing circuit is maintained closed.92 Voltage and power directional relay is a relay that permits or causes the connection of two circuits when the voltage difference between them exceeds a given value in a predetermined direction and causes these two circuits to be disconnected from each other when the power flowing between them exceeds a given value in the opposite direction.99 Used only for specific applications on individual installations where none of the assigned numbered functions from 1 to 94 is suitable.92.97 98. this may be done by using a double function . Typical examples of such device functions are: RE1.98 99.95 96. prefixed by the letters RE (for “remote”) shall be used for the interposing relays performing functions that are controlled directly from the supervisory system. 95. Devices performing more than one function If one device performs two relatively important functions in an equipment so that it is desirable to identify both of these functions. contactor.96 97. Note: The user of the “RE” prefix for this purpose in place of the former 200 series of numbers now makes it possible to obtain increased flexibility of the device function numbering system. and so on. or to permit immediate tripping by other devices. for each unit in these installations.93 Field-changing contactor Functions to increase or decrease. 93. the numbers 1 through 99 are applied to device functions that are associated with the over-all station operation. in pipeline pump stations.

number and name such as:
50/51 Instantaneous and Time Over current

Suffix numbers
If two or more devices with the same function number and suffix letter (if used) are
in the same equipment, they may be distinguished by numbered suffixes as for
52X-1, 52X-2 and 52X-3, when necessary.

Suffix letters
Suffix letters are used with device function numbers for various purposes. In order to
possible conflict each suffix letter should have only one meaning in an individual
equipment. All other words should use the abbreviations as contained in American
Standard Z32.13-1950, or latest revision thereof, or should use some other distinctive
abbreviation, or be written out in full each time they are used.
The meaning of each single suffix letter, or combination of letters, should be clearly
designated in the legend on the drawings or publications applying to the equipment.
In cases where the same suffix (consisting of one letter or a combination of letters)
has different meanings in the same equipment, depending upon the device function
number with which is used, then the complete device function number with which it
is used, the complete device function number with its suffix letter or letters and its
corresponding function name should be listed in the legend in each case, as follows:
90V, Voltage regulator. Lower case (small) suffix letters are used in practically all
instances on electrical diagrams for the auxiliary, position, and limit switches. Capital
letters are generally used for all other suffix letters.
The letters should generally form part of the device function designation, are usually
directly after the device function number, as for example, 52CS, 71W, or 49D. When
is necessary to use two types of suffix letters in connection with one function number,
it is
often desirable for clarity to separate them by a slanted line or dash, as for example,
20D/CS or 20D-CS. The suffix letters which denote parts of the main device, and
those which cannot or need not form part of the device function designation, are
generally written directly below the device function number on drawings, as for
example, or .
52/CC or 43/A

Auxiliary devices Separate auxiliary devices Actuating quantities
These letters indicate the condition or electrical quantity to which the device
responds, or the medium in which it is located, such as:

Main devices
These letters denote the location of the main device in the circuit, or the type of
circuit in
which the device is used or the type of circuit or apparatus with which it is associated,
this is necessary, such as:
Y – Auxiliary relay 1)
R – Raising relay
L – Lowering relay
O – Opening relay or contactor
C – Closing relay or contactor
CS – Control switch
CL – Auxiliary relay, open (energized when main device is in open position)
OP – Auxiliary relay, open (energized when main device is in open position)
U – “Up” position-switch relay
D – “Down” position-switch relay
PB – Push button
1) In the control of a circuit breaker with so-called
X-Y relay control scheme, the X relay is the device whose main contacts are used to
the closing coil or the device which in some other manner, such as by the release of
stored energy, causes the breaker to close.
The contacts of the Y relay provide the antipump feature for the circuit breaker.
A – Air or Amperes or Alternating
C – Current
D – Direct or Discharge
E – Electrolyte
F – Frequency, or Flow, or Fault
H – Explosive
J – Differential
L – Level, or Liquid
P – Power, or Pressure
PF – Power factor
Q – Oil
S – Speed, or Suction, or Smoke
T – Temperature
V – Voltage, Volts, or Vacuum
VAR – Reactive power
VB – Vibration
W – Water, or Watts
A – Alarm or Auxiliary power
AN – Anode
B – Battery, or Blower, or Bus

BK – Brake
BL – Block (Valve)
BP – Bypass
BT – Bus tie
C – Capacitor, or Condenser, or Compensator, or Carrier current, or Case, or
CA – Cathode
CH – Check (Valve)
D – Discharge (Valve)
E – Exciter
F – Feeder, or Field, or Filament, or Filter, or Fan
G – Generator, or Ground2)
H – Heater, or Housing
L – Line, or Logic
M – Motor, or Metering
N – Network, or Neutral 2)
P – Pump, or Phase comparison
R – Reactor, or Rectifier, or Room
S – Synchronizing, or Secondary, or
Strainer, or Sump, or Suction (Valve)
T – Transformer, or Thyratron
TH – Transformer (high-voltage side)
TL – Transformer (low-voltage side)
TM – Telemeter
U – Unit
2) Suffix “N” is generally used in preference to “G” for devices connected in the
secondary neutral of current transformers, or in the secondary of a current
transformer whose primary winding is located in the neutral of a machine or power
transformer, except in the case of transmission line relaying, where the suffix “G” is
more commonly used for those relays which operate on ground faults.

Main device parts
These letters denote parts of the main device, divided in the two following categories:

1. All parts, except auxiliary contacts, position switches, limit switches, and torque

2. All auxiliary contacts and positioning and limit switches
for such devices and equipment as circuit breakers, contactors, valves and rheostats
and contacts of relays. These are designated as follows:

Standard reference positions of some typical devices are as follows:
BK – Brake
C – Coil, or Condenser, or Capacitor

aa – Contact that is open when the operating mechanism of the main device is in the nonoperated position and that closes when the operating mechanism assumes the opposite position. or Synchronizing motor S – Solenoid SI – Seal-in TC – Trip coil V – Valve a – Contact that is open when the main device is in the standard reference position. commonly referred to as the nonoperated or deenergized position. Device Standard reference position Power circuit breaker Main contacts open Disconnecting switch Main contacts open Load-break switch Main contacts open Valve Closed position Gate Closed position Clutch Disengaged position Turning gear Disengaged position Power electrodes Maximum gap position Rheostat Maximum resistance position Adjusting means 1) Low or Down position Relay 2) Deenergized position Contactor 2) Deenergized position Relay (latched-in type) Non-latched-in position Contactor (latched-in type) Main contacts open Temperature relay 3) Lowest temperature Level detector 3) Lowest level Flow detector 3) Lowest flow . bb – Contact that is closed when the operating mechanism of the main device is in the nonoperated position and that opens when the operating mechanism assumes the opposite position.CC – Closing coil HC – Holding coil M – Operating motor MF – Fly-ball motor ML – Load-limit motor MS – Speed adjusting. b – Contact that is closed when the main device is in the standard reference position. commonly referred to as the nonoperated or reenergized position and that closes when the device assumes the opposite position. and that opens when the device assumes the opposite position.

respectively. springs. or Automatic B – Blocking. or High . rising speed. 2) These electrically operated devices are of the non-latched-in type. i. or Cold D – Decelerating. Hence the “a” and “b” designations usually are sufficient for circuit breaker auxiliary switches. which serve to describe the use of the device or its contacts in the equipment such as: Device Standard reference position 1) These may be speed.. increasing flow.Speed switch 3) Lowest speed Vibration detector 3) Minimum vibration Pressure switch 3) Lowest pressure Vacuum switch 3) Lowest pressure. voltage. or Back-up C – Close. they should be designated numerically 1. whose contact position is dependent only upon the degree of energization of the operating or restraining or holding coil or coils which may or may not be suitable for continuous energization. or Engaged F – Failure. etc. 2. rising level. or Disengaged E – Emergency. 3) The energizing influences for these devices are considered to be.e. increasing vibration. 3. rising temperature. or Detonate. and increasing pressure. when necessary. or Down. A – Accelerating. Other switches These letters cover all other distinguishing features or characteristics or conditions. load. current. or other components for the purpose. The deenergized position of the device is that with all coils deenergized. or similar adjusting devices comprising rheostats. highest vacuum The simple designation “a” or “b” is used in all cases where there is no need to adjust the contacts to change position at any particular point in the travel of the main device or where the part of the travel where the contacts change position is of no significance in the control or operating scheme. or Forward H – Hot. Note: If several similar auxiliary switches are present on the same device. levers.

. or Local. or Trailing TDC – Time-delay closing TDO – Time-delay opening Relay contact systems Relay contact systems a. or Trip. b. The contacts remain operated only while the controlling quantity is applied. or Low. Self-reset. HR – Hand reset HS – High speed L – Left. Examples of these conventions and variations are shown in Figure 6. or Reclosing. These contacts remain in the operated position after the controlling quantity is removed. which. For example. or Reverse S – Sending. They can be reset either by hand or by an auxiliary electromagnetic element. which is continually picked- up. or Raise. Contacts are shown on diagrams in the position corresponding to the un-operated or de-energized condition regardless of the continuous service condition of the equipment. would still be shown in the de-energized condition. whereas a 'break' contact is one that is closed when the relay is un-energized and opens when the relay picks up. or Receiving. can be made to give hand reset output contacts by the use of auxiliary elements. Hand or electrical reset. returning to their original condition when it is removed. Hand or electrically reset relays are used when it is necessary to maintain a signal or a lock-out condition. or Lower. or Remote. or Leading M – Manual OFF – Off ON – On P – Polarizing R – Right. if it is so desired. a voltage supervising relay. or Swing T – Test. The majority of protective relay elements have self-reset contact systems. A 'make' contact is one that closes when the relay picks up.

The basic trip circuit is simple. . Occupy an intermediate position and according to their design and consequent closeness to one or other category. The power required by the trip coil of the circuit breaker may range from up to 50 watts. The relay may energize the tripping coil directly. according to the coil rating. This auxiliary switch is needed to open the trip circuit when the circuit breaker opens. The auxiliary switch will be adjusted to close as early as possible in the closing stroke. the contacts of which should not be expected to perform large making and breaking duties. may have an appreciable contact capacity. by the small amount required to permit closure of the second. but if more than one contact pair is fitted any slight misalignment may result in only one contact being closed at the minimum operating value. there being insufficient force to compress the spring of the first contact to make. an electrically operated valve. or. in the case of air-blast or pneumatically operated breakers. the tripping mechanism of which may be a solenoid with a plunger acting directly on the mechanism latch or. the margin for operating the contacts being negligibly small. which combine many of the characteristics of measuring devices and contactors. to make the protection effective in case the breaker is being closed on to a fault. Most other types of relay develop an effort which is independent of the position of the moving system. Protective relays are precise measuring devices. since the protective relay contacts will usually be quite incapable of performing the interrupting duty. may do so through the agency of another multi- channel auxiliary relay. the electromechanical effort is absorbed by the controlling force. to 3000 watts for a large extra-high-voltage circuit breaker. Figure 6 indications of contacts on diagrams. through a normally open auxiliary switch operated by the circuit breaker. being made up of a hand-trip control switch and the contacts of the protective relays in parallel to energize the trip coil from a battery. At setting. for a small 'distribution' circuit breaker. Not only does this limit the 'making' capacity of the contacts. Attracted armature relays. A protective relay is usually required to trip a circuit breaker. and the number of circuits to be energized.

lines up its magnetic axis with the electromagnet poles. . are bi-stable devices. In British practice these are called 'flags'. on GEC Measurements relays. consists of a red diagonal stripe on a white background. static relays have discrete measuring and tripping circuits. Shunt reinforcing. Auxiliary contactors can be used to supplement protective relays in a number of ways: a. As a guide for power system operation staff. Shunt reinforcement with sealing. These are illustrated in Figure 7. An alternative type consists of a small cylindrical permanent magnet magnetized across a diameter. further. c. For larger switchgear installations the tripping power requirement of each circuit breaker is considerable. A mechanical indicator consists of a small shutter which is Released by the protective relay movement to expose the indicator pattern. and may be either mechanically or electrically operated. Series sealing. interlocking with other functions (for example auto-reclosing arrangements). Indicators. and a small tolerance in the closing value of operating current may have to be allowed between them. which are energized by the protection relays and provide the necessary number of adequately rated output contacts. There may also be remote signaling requirements. These various operations are carried out by multi-contact tripping relays. although some measuring relay elements are capable of tripping the smaller types of circuit breaker directly. The edge of the magnet is colored to give the indication. Not every component relay will have one. The magnet. whereas in America they are known as 'targets'. For this reason. The functioning of the measuring modules will not react on the tripping modules. These may be small attracted armature type elements fitted in the same case as the measuring relay. Although two contacts can be fitted. two or more breakers may have to be tripped by one protective system. which. so that the number or rating of outputs has no more significance than the fact that they have been provided. b. and other control functions to be performed. as indicators are arranged to operate only if a trip operation is initiated. Operation indicators. or modules. which is free to rotate. and lying between the poles of an electromagnet. Electrical indicators may be simple attracted armature elements either with or without contacts. For the above reasons it is often better to use inter-posing contactor type elements which do not have the same limitations. Such a relay is equivalent to a sensitive electromechanical relay with a tripping contactor. care must be taken in their alignment. with very few exceptions. the provision of multiple contacts on such elements is undesirable. In general. Relay tripping circuits. by special shaping of the active parts. Operation of the armature releases a shutter to expose an indicator as above. These effects can be reduced by providing a small amount of 'run-in' to contact make in the relay behavior. protective systems are invariably provided with indicating devices. and. but can be made to reverse its orientation by the application of a field.

avoiding the need for indicators on the measuring elements. care must be taken to line up their operation with the closure of the main contacts. When such auxiliary elements are fitted. This closure relieves the protective relay contact of further duty and keeps the tripping circuit securely closed. which usually interrupt their own . This is to stop indication occurring when the tripping operation has not been completed. When used in association with high speed trip relays. Series sealing. Electrically operated indicators avoid imposing an additional friction load on the measuring element. Ta. Nothing is added to the total tripping time. which would be a serious handicap for certain types. even if chatter occurs at the main contact. The main disadvantage of this method is that such series elements must have their coils matched with the trip circuit with which they are associated. and the contactor closes a contact in parallel with the protective relay contact. they can conveniently carry the operation indicator. The coils of these contactors must be of low impedance. The indicator must have operated by the time the contacts make. with about 5 % of the trip supply voltage being dropped across them. With indicators operated directly by the measuring elements. and the indicator does not operate until current is actually flowing through the trip coil. Figure 7 Typical relay tripping circuits. Another advantage is that the indicator can operate only after the main contacts have closed. but must not have done so more than marginally earlier. The coil of the series contactor carries the trip current initiated by the protective relay.

Shunt reinforcing. and more than one protective relay were connected to trip the same circuit breaker. the auxiliary elements must be fast enough to operate and release the flag before their coil current is cut off. b. since it is not permissible to energize the trip coil and the reinforcing contactor in parallel. This may pose a problem in design if a variable number of auxiliary elements (for different phases and so on) may be required to operate in parallel to energize a common tripping relay. Here the sensitive contacts are arranged to trip the circuit breaker and simultaneously to energize the auxiliary unit. The duplicate main contacts are frequently provided As a three point arrangement to reduce the number of contact fingers. . It should be noted that two contacts are required on the protective relay. If this were done.coil current. all the auxiliary relays would be energized in parallel for each relay operation and the indication would be confused. which then reinforces the contact which is energizing the trip coil.

and the possible burning out of the contacts not only of the sensitive element but also of the auxiliary unit. such as fuses. auxiliary switch contacts and so on. which is applicable wherever a remote signal is required.8(b) shows how. The resistors are mounted separately from the relays and their values are chosen such that if any one component is inadvertently short-circuited. by the addition of a normally closed auxiliary switch and a resistance unit. coupled with the importance of the circuit. Shunt reinforcement with sealing. The resistance in series with the lamp prevents the breaker being tripped by an internal short circuit caused by failure of the lamp. This means that provision must be made for releasing the sealing circuit when tripping is complete. and in some cases through a considerable amount of circuit wiring with intermediate terminal boards. c. Figure 1. Both A and B must reset to allow C to drop-off. With the circuit healthy either or both of relays A and B are operated and energize relay C. have directed attention to its supervision. but when control is exercised from a distance it is necessary to use a relay system. I n either case. the addition of a normally open push-button contact in series with the lamp will make the supervision indication available only when required. supervision can be obtained while the breaker is both open and closed. It will be seen that the effect of bounce is countered by means of a further contact on the auxiliary unit connected as a retaining contact. because it is sometimes in-convenient to find a suitable contact to use for this purpose. as shown in Figure 8(a). . The simplest arrangement contains a healthy trip lamp. The trip circuit extends beyond the relay enclosure and passes through more components. a simple extension gives pre-closing supervision. Supervision of trip circuits. Relays A and C are time-delayed by copper slugs to prevent spurious alarms during tripping or closing operations. These complications. relay contacts. The chattering would only end when the circuit breaker had finally tripped. Schemes using a lamp to indicate continuity are suitable for locally controlled installations. this is a disadvantage. This provides super-vision while the circuit breaker is closed. Using the shunt reinforcing system under these circumstances would result in chattering on the auxiliary unit.Figure 8 Examples of trip circuit supervision. This is a development of the shunt reinforcing circuit to make it applicable to relays with low torque movements or where there is a possibility of contact bounce for any other reason. The alarm supply should be independent of the tripping supply so that indication will be obtained in the event of the failure of the tripping battery. Figure 8(c) illustrates such a scheme. a tripping operation will not take place. links.

1 Classification: Protection relays can be classified in accordance with the function which they carry out. Temperature. Classification and function of relays A protection relay is a device that senses any change in the signal which it is receiving. Computerized. 3. . Directional over current. 3. pressure .1. Microprocessor. Solid state.4 Type of protection Over current. the relay will operate. generally to close or open electrical contacts to initiate some further operation. their construction. usually from a current and/or voltage source.1. Over voltage.1. If the magnitude of the incoming signal is outside a preset range.3 Incoming signal: Current. Others. Reverse power. 3.. Distance. Nonelectric (thermal.. Control. Other.. 3.. for example the tripping of a circuit breaker. Protection.). Voltage.1. 3. Differential. Pressure. the incoming signal and the type of functioning.etc.2 Construction: Electromagnetic. Frequency.1 General function: Auxiliary.. Velocity. Monitoring.

the effective area and the reluctance of the magnetic circuit. Figure 1 Armature-type relay In some cases a letter is added to the number associated with the protection in order to specify its place of location. The attracted armature relay. magnetic and mechanical components. The armature carries the moving part of the contact. Nonelectric relays are outside the scope of this book and therefore are not referred to. It can be shown that the force of attraction is equal to K1I2 . the air gap. In this case. There are two main types of relay in this class. in which α bar or piston is attracted axially within the field of the solenoid. consists of a bar or plate of metal which pivots when it is attracted towards the coil. K2 is the restraining force. the piston also carries the operating contacts. The other type is the piston or solenoid relay. the resultant force is zero and therefore Κ112 = K2. So that I = K 2 / K1 =constant. where Κ1 depends upon the number of turns on the operating solenoid. 3 . for example G for generator. and operate by the movement of a piece of metal when it is attracted by the magnetic field produced by a coil. 2 . usually produced by a spring. as detailed below. 3.K2. have an operating coil and various contacts and are very robust and reliable. Τ for transformer etc. The construction characteristics can be classified in three groups. 1 Attraction relays Attraction relays can be supplied by AC or DC. which is shown in figure 1. illustrated in Figure 2. which is closed or opened according to the design when the armature is attracted to the coil.2 Electromagnetic relays Electromagnetic relays are constructed with electrical. . When the relay is balanced. among other factors.

l.a. 2 Relays with moveable coils This type of relay consists of a rotating movement with a small coil suspended or pivoted with the freedom to rotate between the poles of a permanent magnet.N. Attraction relays effectively have no time delay and. In order to control the value at which the relay starts to operate. The coil is restrained by two springs which also serve as connections to carry the current to the coil. are widely used when instantaneous operations are required.i Where: T= torque B = flux density L =length of the coil a = diameter of the coil N = number of turns on the coil i = current flowing through the coil Figure 2 Solenoid-type relay . 3 . for that reason. The torque produced in the coil is given by: T = B. 2 . the restraining tension of the spring or the resistance of the solenoid circuit can be varied. thus modifying the restricting force.

The speed of movement is controlled by the damping action. 2 .Φ1. It thus follows that the relay has an inverse time characteristic similar to that illustrated in Figure 3.Φ2 .sin θ. which is proportional to the torque. which are mutually displaced both in angle and in position. Figure 3 Inverse time characteristic From the above equation it will be noted that the torque developed is proportional to the current. These two fluxes. It consists of an electromagnetic system which operates on a moving conductor. generally in the form of a disc or cup. where θ is the angle by . produce a torque that can be expressed by T= Κ1. Where Φ1 and Φ2 are the interacting fluxes and θ is the phase angle between Φ1 and Φ2. and Φ2= Φ2 sin (ωt+ θ ) . It should be noted that the torque is a maximum when the fluxes are out of phase by 90º. The relay can be designed so that the coil makes a large angular movement. Figure 4 Electromagnetic forces in induction relays It can be shown that Φ1= Φ1sin ωt. 3 . and zero when they are in phase. 3 Induction relays An induction relay works only with alternating current. and functions through the interaction of electromagnetic fluxes with the parasitic Fault currents which are induced in the rotor by these fluxes. for example 80º.

Then: dΦ1 iΦ1 α α Φ1 cosωt dt And dΦ 1 i Φ1 α α Φ 1 cos ( ωt + θ ) dt Figure 4 shows the interrelationship between the currents and the opposing forces. Thus: F = ( F 1 . Shaded-pole relay In this case a portion of the electromagnetic section is short-circuited by means of a copper ring or coil.F 2 ) α (Φ2 iΦ1+ Φ1 iΦ2 ) ∴ F α Φ2 Φ1 sin θ α T Induction relays can be grouped into three classes as set out below. This creates a flux in the area influenced by the short circuited section (the so- called shaded section) which lags the flux in the nonshaded section. igure 5 Shaded-pole relay Figure 6 Wattmetric-type relay . see Figure 5.which Φ2 leads Φ1.

The torque is a function of the product of the two currents through the coils and the cosine of the angle between them. The operation of this relay is very similar to that Figure 7Cup-type relay Of an induction motor with salient poles for the windings of the stator. The movement of the cylinder is limited to a small amount by the contact and the stops. which induces an out-of-phase flux in the lower coil because of the air gap. with just one supply for the top coil. and has a fixed central core. The time delay can be increased by the addition of a permanent magnet. Figure 6 illust r ates a typical arrangement. the inertia of the disc provides the time-delay characteristic. The cup-type relay has a small inertia and is therefore principally used when high speed operation is required. . The torque equation is T= ( KI1I2 cos (θ12 – Φ) – Ks ). see Figure 7.with the upper and lower coils fed by different values or. Configurations with four or eight poles spaced symmetrically around the circumference of the cup are often used. Ι1 and I2 are the currents through the two coils and θ12 is the angle between I1 and I2. in some cases. Where K. for example in instantaneous units. Α special spring provides the restraining torque. In the first two types of relay mentioned above. which are provided with a disc.Κs and Φ are design constants. . Cup-type relay This type of relay has a cylinder similar to a cu which can rotate in the annular air gap between the poles of the coils.

and therefore it is necessary to use differential equations when calculating these currents. consider an RL circuit as a simplified equivalent of the circuits in electricity-distribution networks. the mathematical expression which defines the behaviour of the current is: e(t) = L di + Ri(t) 2. of which the solution is in two parts: ia (t ) : ih (t ) + ip (t ) . For this reason a review of the concepts and procedures for calculating fault currents will be made in this chapter. For the circuit shown in Figure 1. together with some calculations illustrating the methods used. This simplification is important because all the system equipment must be modeled in some way in order to quantify the transient values which can occur during the fault condition. 1 Mathematical derivation of fault currents The treatment of electrical faults should be carried out as a function of time. the selection of conductor sizes and for the specifications of equipment such as power-circuit breakers. it is important to bear in mind that these calculations are also required for other applications. + from the start of the event at time t = 0 until stable conditions are reached. given the large increase in current flow when a short circuit occurs. Although the use of these short-circuit calculations in relation to protection settings will be- considered in detail.Calculation of short circuit current The current that flows through an element of a power system is a parameter which can be used to detect faults.1 V max Sin (ω t + α ) R Figure 1 RL. for example calculating the substation Earthing grid. circuit for transient analysis study This is a differential equation with constant coefficients. 2. In order to illustrate the transient nature of the current.

e −( R / L) ) 2. while the second term decreases exponentially with a time constant of L/R. owing to a fault. see Figure 2. and zero value when Φ=α. which will not be discussed in detail here. in eqn.2 Z Where: Z = R 2 + ω 2 L2 α = the closing angle which defines the point on the source sinusoidal voltage when the fault occurs and Φ = tan −1 (ωL / R ) It can be seen that. the DC component reaches its theoretical maximum value half a cycle later. takes place when the sinusoidal component is at its negative peak. and has an initial maximum value when α − Φ = ±π / 2 . the first term varies sinusoidally. If the tripping of the circuit. The latter term can be recognised as the DC component of the current. . By the use of differential equation theory. the complete solution can be determined and expressed iii the following form: Vmax i(t ) = (Sin (ω t + α ) − Sin(α − Φ).2.Where: ih(t) Is the solution of the homogeneous equation corresponding to the transient period and ip(t) is the solution to the particular equation corresponding to the steady-state period. 2. It is impossible to predict at what point the fault will be applied on the sinusoidal cycle and therefore what magnitude the DC component will reach.

and which makes the calculations quite difficult. when voltage is.e. owing to the gradual decrease in the magnetic flux caused by the reduction of the e. in the majority of practical applications it is possible to take account of the variation of reactance in only three stages without producing significant errors. This effect is known as armature reaction. The reduction in current from its value at the onset. with acceptable accuracy can be obtained from the following expression: I rms . including the AC and DC components. of the induction current. Notwithstanding this.f. applied to an RL circuit.m. Figure 2 Variation of fault current with time a (α–Φ) =0 b (α–Φ)=π/2 An approximate formula for calculating the effective value of the total asymmetric current. comes close to the three . In Figure 4 it will be noted that the variation of current with time.3 The fault current which results when an alternator is short circuited can easily be analysed since this is similar to the case which has already been analysed. i. asym = 2 I rms + I DC 2 2 . The physical situation that is presented to a generator. can be interpreted as a reactance which varies with time. 1(t). can be seen in Figure 3.

1 ' and I. X d and Xd. Figure 3 Transient short-circuit currents in a synchronous generator Figure 4 Variation of current with time during a fault . " ' respectively. transient and steady-state currents. the subtransient.discrete levels of current. The corresponding values of direct axis reactance are denoted by X d . I".

i.9V / X d" ) 2 I rms = I DC 2 + I AC 2 2. Transient reactance values are generally used in stability studies. when calculating short-circuit currents it is necessary to take into account two factors which could result in the currents varying with time: the presence of the DC component.: = (0. The peak values are obtained by multiplying the R.m.s. Figure 5 Variation of generator reactance with time during a fault And the typical variation with. Asymmetrical or symmetrical r. Of necessity.M. values can be defined depending on whether or not the DC component is included.010 and C37.S. switchgear specifications require reliable calculations of the short- circuit levels which can be present on the electrical network.m. and the fact that extinction of an electrical arc is never achieved instantaneously.9 2V / X d" ) 2 + (0. Time delay units can be set using the same values but. ANSI Standards C37. The asymmetrical values are calculated as the square root of the sum of the squares of the DC component and the r.4 . In studies of electrical protection some adjustment has to be made to the values of instantaneous short circuit current calculated using subtransient reactance's which result in higher values of current. depending on the operating speed of the protection relays.e.s. in some cases.5 recommend using different values of subtransient reactance when calculating the so-called momentary and interrupting duties of switchgear. value of the AC current. values by 2 . the behaviour of the generator under short circuit conditions. short-circuit values based on the transient reactance are used. time for each of these is illustrated in Figure 5. To sum up. Taking into account the rapid drop of the short-circuit current due to the armature reaction of the synchronous machines.

sym .s. asym . in general.rms .9 2V / X d" ) 2 + (0.clo sin g = + I AC . a factor of 1.sym 2.rms .6 When considering the specification for the switchgear-opening cur-rent. int 2 2 I rms I DC I rms . the AC and DC components are taken into account. and therefore: Replacing the DC component by its exponential expression gives: .56 I = ( 2 I rms . the value of the r. the AC component is multiplied by a factor of 2 Thus: I peak = I Dc + I AC = (0. int .55 Irms. The peak value is obtained by arithmetically adding together the AC and DC components. in this case. Typically.sym 2. the so-called e − ( R / L ) ) 2 + I rms 2 . int = + I Ac.5 Usually.6 is used by manufacturers and in international standards so that.9 2V / Xd" ) = 2.9V / X d" ) 2 = 1.sys 2 2 I rms I DC = (0.56V / X d" = 1.m. The momentary current is used when specifying the closing current of switchgear.m. the AC and DC components decay to 90% of their initial values after the first half cycle. sym . value of interrupting current is used in which. It should be noted that. sym . again.9 2V / Xd" ) + (0.asym . From this.s. current would then be: . this value should be used when carrying out similar calculations.

sys . reproduced by permission of the IEEE) NOTE: Fed predominantly through two or more transformations or with external reactance in series equal to or above 1.7 I /I The expression ( rms. int ) has been drawn for different Values of X/R.5 times generator subtransient reactance As an illust r ation of the validity of the curves for any situation. and for different switchgear contact-separation times.= I rms.5-1979. int rms .int 2e −2( r / l )t + 1 2. in ANSI Standard C37. The multiplying factor graphs are reproduced in Figure 6 Figure 6 Multiplying factors for three-p hase and line-to-earth faults (total current rating basis) (from.sym.asym. . IEEE Standard C37.5–1979.

Va Vb and Vc can be represented thus: Va =Vao + Va1 + Va2 Vb =Vbo + Vb1 + Vb2 Vc =Vco + Vc1 + Vc2 It can be demonstrated that: V b= V ao+a 2V a1+aV a2 V c= V ao+aV a1+ a 2V a2 where a is a so called operator which gives a phase shift of 120° clockwise and a multiplication of unit magnitude. i.e.Consider a circuit breaker with a total contact-separation time of two c y c l e s o n e cycle due to the relay and one related to the operation of the breaker mechanism. the following matrix relationship can be established: ⎡Va ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡Va 0 ⎤ ⎢V ⎥ = ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ × ⎢V ⎥ ⎢ b⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ a1 ⎥ ⎢⎣Vc ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1 a a ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣Va 2 ⎥⎦ 2 Inverting the matrix of coefficients: ⎡Va 0 ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡V a ⎤ ⎢V ⎥ = 1 ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ × ⎢V ⎥ ⎢ a1 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ b⎥ ⎢⎣Va 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣1 a a ⎦ ⎢⎣Vc ⎥⎦ 2 From the above matrix it can be deduced that: . voltage values of any three-phase system. If the frequency. i. and a 2 similarly gives a phase shift of 240°. a 2=1 ∠240° Therefore. a=1 ∠120 °. f is 60 Hz and the ratio X/R With this arrangement.e.

l n= 3 I 0 By way of illustration. the neutral current is equal to In = (Ia + Ib + Ic) and. therefore. 1 Va 0 = (Va + Vb + Vc ) 3 1 Va1 = (Va + aVb + a 2Vc ) 3 1 Va 2 = (Va + a 2Vb + aVc ) 3 The foregoing procedure can also be applied directly to currents. and gives: I a = I a 0 + I a1 + I a 2 I b = I a 0 + a 2 I a1 + aI a 2 I b = I a 0 + a I a1 + a 2 I a 2 Therefore: 1 Ia0 = (Ia + Ib + Ic ) 3 1 I a1 = ( I a + aI b + a 2 I c ) 3 1 I a 2 = ( I a + a 2 I b + aI c ) 3 In three-phase systems. a three-phase unbalanced system is shown in Figure 8 together with the associated symmetrical components. .


The zero-sequence impedances of lines different from the positive and negative-sequence impedances since the magnetic field creating the positive and negative-sequence currents is different from that for the zero-sequence currents. Xd' and Xd.2.f source in series with the positive-sequence impedance.25 for single core. . Zo/Z1 = 2 when no earth wire is present and 3. respectively. For underground cables Zo/Z1 can be taken as 1 to 1. Three values of positive reactance are normally quoted-subt r ansient.and negative-sequence impedances of overhead-line circuits are identical. The resistance of the windings is much smaller and can generally be neglected in short-circuit calculations.m. denoted by X". depending on the machine characteristics and fault clearance time. The positive. Since generators are designed to supply balanced voltages. provided that the applied voltages are balanced. The following ratios may be used in the absence of detailed information. These sequence impedances are designated Z1. For a single-circuit line. depending on the transformer connections. for most studies only the reactance's of synchronous machines are used.f but only include impedances to the flow of negative and zero-sequence currents. the generated voltages are of positive sequence only. However. The negative and zero-sequence net-works do not contain e. For a double-circuit line Zo/Z1 = 5. When modelling small generators and motors it may be necessary to take resistance into account. In fault studies the subtransient and transient reactance of generators grid motors must be included as appropriate. the positive and negative-sequence impedances are equal because in static circuits these impedances are independent of the phase order. similarly. transient and synchronous reactance. and 3 to 5 for three-core cables: For transformers. or infinite. being independent of the phase if the applied voltages are balanced.5. and are used in calculations involving symmetrical components. the positive-sequence network is composed of an e. Z2 and Z0. those in which only negative and zero-sequence currents flow are called the negative and zero-sequence impedances.5 with an earth wire. as are those of cables. respectively. Therefore.m.1 Importance and construction of sequence networks The impedance of a circuit in which only positive-sequence currents are circulating is called the positive-sequence impedance and. The zero-sequence impedance is either the same as the other two impedances.

X'd =transient reactance. are obtained from the point an on phase a relative to the reference bus bar. Xd=synchronous reactance X.09 0.28 0.22 1.20 0. and can be deduced from Figure 2. The equations for the components of voltage.30 1. The current which flows in the impedance between the neutral and earth are three times the zero-sequence current. is at earth potential so that only zero-sequence currents flow through the impedances between neutral and earth. Typical per-unit reactance's for three phase synchronous machines are given in Table 1. In connecting sequence networks together.20 0. in these networks. Table 1 Typical per-unit reactance for three -phase synchronous machines Type of machine X d" X d' Xd X2 X0 Turbine 2 pole 0. Within 0.9 as follows: Va1 = E a − I a1 Z 1 Va 2 = − I a 2 Z 2 Va 0 = − I a 0 Z 0 Where Εa = no load voltage to earth of the positive-sequence network Z1 = positive-sequence impedance of the generator .1 sec. corresponding to the phase of the system.35 0.14 0. X0=zero sequence reactance The subtransient reactance is the reactance applicable at the onset of the fault occurrence.30 1.15 1.70 0. The zero sequence networks carries only zero-sequence current in one phase which has an impedance of Zo = 3Ζn + Zeo The voltage and current components for each phase are obtained from the equations given for the sequence networks.14 0.20 0.20 0.09 0.25 0. the fault level falls to a value determined by the transient reactance and then decays exponentially to a steady-state value determined by the synchronous reactance.9 illustrates the sequence networks for a generator.2=negative sequence reactance.and negative-sequence networks is the generator neutral which.12 dampers X"= subtransient reactance.03 generator 4 pole 0.18 pole dampers generator without 0. The reference busbar for zero-sequence networks is the earth point of the generator. the reference busbar for the positive.07 Salient with 0. Figure 2.

Ea then being the voltage behind the reactance before the fault occurs. are connected together in a particular arrangement to represent a given unbalanced fault condition.2. I2 and Io respectively. the appropriate combination of sequence networks is formed in order to obtain the relationships between fault currents and voltages. The same approach can be used with equivalent power systems or applied to loaded generators.type of fault.2 Calculation of asymmetrical faults using symmetrical components The positive. for each . carrying currents I1. 2. in order to calculate fault 1 levels using the method of symmetrical components. it is essential to determine the individual sequence impedances and combine these to make up the correct sequence networks. Consequently. Then. negative and zero-sequence network. Z2 = negative-sequence impedance of the generator Zo= zero-sequence impedance of the generator (Zeo) plus three times the impedance to earth The above equations can be applied to any generator which carries unbalanced currents and are the starting point for calculations for any type of fault. .

Ic =0 and V a =0. it can easily be deduced that I a1 = I a2 = I ao = Ea / (Z1 +Z 2 + Zo ). Phase-to-earth fault The conditions for a solid fault from line a to earth are represented by the equations Ib=0. Single phase fault connected to earth As in the previous equations. Therefore. . the sequence networks will be connected in series.

and thus the treatment and connection of the sequence networks will be similar. Phase-to-Phase fault The conditions for a solid fault between lines h and c are represented by the equations I a = 0.3 Equivalent impedances for a power system. . with no zero-sequence current.and negative-sequence networks in parallel as indicated in Figure 2. From these equations it can be proved that: Ea I a1 = ZoZ2 Z1 + Zo + Z2 The three sequence networks are connected in parallel as shown in Figure 2. Equally.10a. Phase-to-Phase-to-earth fault The conditions for a fault between lines b and c and earth are represented by the equations 1a = 0 and Vb=Vc =0. I b = –I c and Vb = V c . The current and voltage conditions are the same when considering an open-circuit fault in phases b and c. it can be shown that I ao = 0 and I a1 = Ea /(Z 1 +Z 2 ) = I a2 .10b. indicated in Figure 2.10c. For this case. the zero-sequence network is not involved and the overall sequence network is composed of the positive.

When it is necessary to study the effect of any change on the power system. Ia1=Ia2=Ia3 = VLN/ (Z1 + Z2 + Z0) Where: VLN = the line-to-neutral voltage. The equivalent positive. it may be assumed that overall Ζ2 = Z1 which simplifies the calculations. the above formula reduces to Ia = 3I0 = 3 VLN / (2Z1 + Zo). . For lines and cables the positive and negative ímpedances are equal. Thus.e. and negative-sequence impedances can be calculated directly from: Z= V2/P Where: Z = Equivalent positive and negative-sequence impedances V =nominal phase-to-phase voltage P = three-phase short circuit power The equivalent zero-sequence of a system can be derived from the expressions of sequence components referred to for a single-phase fault. Where VLN = line-to-neutral voltage and Zo= (3VLN / Ia) . the system must first of all be represented by its corresponding sequence impedances. Thus. on the basis that the generator ímpedances are not significant in most distribution-network fault studies. i.2Z1 3 Supplying the current and voltage signals to protection systems In the presence of a fault the current transformers (CTs) circulate current proportional to the fault current to the protection equipment without distinguishing between the vectorial magnitudes of the Sequence components.

given this. regardless of the values of the sequence components. It is very important to emphasise that. the relays operate on the basis of the corresponding values of fault current and / or voltages. in the majority of cases. . the advantage of using symmetrical components is that they facilitate the calculation of fault levels even though the relays in the majority of cases do not distinguish between the various values of the symmetrical components.Figure 10 Connection of sequence networks for a3ymmetrical faults a Phase-to-earth fault b Phase-to-phase fault c Double phase-to-earth fault Therefore.

Figure 11a Currents and voltages for various types of faults .

relays are available which can operate with specific values of some of the .Figure 11b Currents and voltages for various types of faults a Sequence currents for different types of fault b Sequence voltages for different types of fault In Figure 11a & b the positive and negative sequence values of current and voltage for different faults are shown together with the summated values of current and voltage. Relays usually only operate using the summated values in the right-hand columns. However.

Among the relays which require this type of filter in order to operate are those used ιn negative-sequence and earth- fault protection. However. 1. When only voltage or current magnitudes are required to operate a relay then the relative direction of the current flow in the transformer windings is not important. and for supplying the equipment with the appropriate values of current and voltage .Voltage transformers: With voltage transformers (VTs) it is essential that the voltage from the secondary winding should be as near as possible proportional to the primary voltage. In addition. the polarity must be kept in mind when the relays compare the sum or difference of the currents. depending on whether their connection is line-to-line or line-to-neutral. Although these filters can be constructed for electromagnetic elements. 3. In order to achieve this. The majority of protection relays have nominal voltages of 110 or 63.5 V. the growth of electronics has led to their being used increasingly in logic circuits.sequence components. The behavior of current and voltage transformers during and after the occurrence of a fault is critical in electrical protection since errors in the signal from a transformer can cause maloperation of the relays. In these cases there must be methods for obtaining these components. in this way magnetization impedance is obtained which is practically constant over the required voltage range. . VTs are designed in such a way that the voltage drops in the windings are small and the flux density in the core is well below the saturation value so that the magnetization current is small. factors such as the transient period and saturation must be taken into account when selecting the appropriate transformer.generally these are 1A or 5Α for the current coils. The secondary voltage of a VT is usually 110 or 120 V with corresponding line-to-neutral values. control and measurement equipment from the high voltages of a power system. and 120 V for the voltage coils. and this is achieved by using filters which produce the mathematical operations of the resultant equations to resolve the matrix for voltages and for currents.Current and voltage transformers Current or voltage instrument transformers are necessary for isolating the protection.

VTs have an excellent transient behaviour and accurately reproduce abrupt changes in. The magnetization branch can be ignored and the equivalent circuit then reduces to that shown in Fig 1b. The vector diagram for a VT is given in Figure. the nominal maximum errors are relatively small. . as shown in Figure 1a.1 Equivalent circuits VTs can be considered as small power transformers so that their equivalent circuit is the same as that for power transformers.2. The secondary voltage Vs lags the voltage Vp/n and is smaller in magnitude. the primary voltage.Figure 1 Voltage transformer equivalent circuits Figure 2 Vector diagram for voltage transformer 1. with the length of the voltage drops increased for clarity. In spite of this.

especially for those values close to the nominal system voltage. The nominal secondary voltages are generally standardized at 110 and 120 V. or when it is necessary to measure the voltage and power factor of each phase separately. then the secondary voltage exceeds the nominal value. and the primary voltages V1. and Vs. 1. The nominal primary voltage of a VT is generally chosen with the higher nominal insulation voltage (kV) and the nearest service voltage in mind.1 3. The connection between phase and earth is normally used with groups of three single- phase units connected in star at substations operating with voltages at about 34. and the value of volt- amperes (VΑ). If the error is positive.Vp) / Vp} x 100%. where Vn is the nominal voltage. caused by the drop in voltage from the circulation of the magnetization current through the primary winding. V2. 1. These consist of the errors under open-circuit conditions when the load impedance Ζ B is infinite. The voltage error is the percentage difference between the voltage at the secondary terminals. it is usual to acid together all the nominal VΑ loadings of the apparatus connected to .4 Selection of VTs Voltage transformers are connected between phases.2 Errors When used for measurement instruments. The phase error is considered positive when the secondary voltage leads the primary voltage. or between phase and earth. the accuracy of a VT is important.5 kV or higher. In order to select the nominal power of a VT. Referring to the circuit in Figure 1a. Voltage transformers are specified in IEC publication 1 8 6 Α by the precision class. Errors in magnitude can be calculated from Error V T = {(n Vs . and errors due to voltage drops as a result of the load current IL flowing through both windings. Table 1 gives standard burdens based on ANSI Standard C57.1. This range should be between 5 and 173% of the nominal primary voltage for VTs connected between line and earth. although the precision requirements of a VT for protection applications are not so high at nominal voltages. Notwithstanding this. The allowable error limits corresponding to different class values are shown in Table 2. secondary wiring burdens and the uncertainty of system parameters. errors in a VT are clue to differences in magnitude and phase between Vp/n. multiplied by the nominal transformation ratio.3 Burden The standard burden for voltage transformer is usually expressed in volt-amperes (VΑ) at a specified power factor. errors should he contained within narrow limits over a wide range of possible voltages under fault conditions. owing to the problems of having to cope with a variety of different relays. for example for billing and control purposes.

0 1.2 0.364 192 Υ 75.5 0.10 115.356 137 Table 2 Voltage transformers error limits Class Primary Voltage Phase error voltage error (±min) (±%) 0.0403 36 10.0 0.0 0.040 1152 38.0 0.0 3.2 0. In addition.0 80.0 1.1 1.5 0.2 3.0 0.0 0.0 80.089 64 Ζ 200.2 0.5 0.20 82.0 0.1 0.4 1.Table 1 Standard burdens for voltage Transformer Standard burden Characteristics for 120 V Characteristics for 69.0 0.1 0.0 0.070 411 27.268 192 54.2 1.3 1.0 1.85 61.0 80.0 Vn = nominal voltage The VT secondary winding.85 163.2 2.0 2.0 1.2 1.8 Vn .0 0.4 0.034 24 ΖΖ 400.0 40.090 575 134.0 0.0 120.0 40. 1. it is important to take account of the voltage drops in the secondary wiring.5 Vn 2. .powe resistance( inductanc impedanc resistanc inductanc impedanc n ampere r Ω) e e e e e s facto (H) (Ω) (Ω) (H) (Ω) r W 12.2 0.2 0. especially if the distance between the transformers and the relays is large.4 0.2 Vn 0.0 0.3 V and 60 Hz and 60 Hz desig Volt.0 0.2 10.010 384 Χ 25.4 0.0 40.4 0.101 72 20.5 20.70 403.0 40.1 0.0 Vn and 1.5 Vn 1.2 80.5 0.0168 12 Μ 35.85 31.

in fact the two parts of the divider taken together can be considered as the source impedance which produces a drop in voltage when the load is connected. Α simplified equivalent circuit of a capacitor VT is shown in Figure 4 in which Vi is equal to the nominal primary voltage. and a more economic solution. Ri represents the resistance of the primary winding of transformer Τ plus the losses in C and L. For improved accuracy a high voltage capacitor is used in order to obtain a bigger voltage at the point of connection.fact that this impedance can be compensated for by connecting a reactance in series at the point of connection.5 C a p a c i t o r v o l t a g e t r a n s f o r m e r s In general. some resistance is always present. L is the resonance inductance. This device is effectively a capacitance voltage divider. is to use a capacitor voltage transformer. the cost increases in a similar manner to that of a high voltage transformer. 1. the size of an inductive VT is proportional to its nominal voltage and. Figure 4 Capacitor VT equivalent circuit The capacitor divider differs from the inductive divider in that the equivalent impedance of the source is capacitive and the . and Ze is the magnetization impedance of . and is similar to a resistive divider in that the output voltage at the point of connection is affected by the load .however. which can be reduced to a standard voltage using a relatively inexpensive trans-former as shown in Figure 3. One alternative. With an ideal reactance there are no regulation problems . in an actual situation on a network. The divider can reduce the voltage to a value which enables errors to be kept within normally acceptable limits. C is the numerically equivalent impedance equal to ( C1 + C2 ). for this reason.

and thus. when the primary voltage collapses.5 which is drawn for a power factor close to unity. so that the vector difference between Vi and V's which constitutes the error in the capacitor VT. under stable system conditions the capacitor VT acts like a conventional transformer. C and the transformer T. the values of EL and EC predominate. the resistance of the secondary circuit and the load impedance are represented by Rs' and ZB' respectively. causing serious errors in magnitude and phase. provide better protection. 2 Current transformers Although the performance required from a current transformer (CT) varies with the type of protection. while Vs' and I s' represent the secondary voltage and current. the secondary voltage is maintained for some milliseconds because of the combination of the series and parallel resonant circuits represented by L. high grade CTs must always be used. is very small. at the system frequency when C and L are resonating and canceling out each other. Figure 5 Capacitor VT vector diagram It can be seen that. in addition. with the exception of C. Ri and R's are not large and. The voltage error is the difference in magnitude between Vi and V's. in general. Therefore. Ie is small compared to I' s . This is illustrated in the vector diagram shown in Figure 4. whereas the phase error is indicated by the angle θ.4 is the same as the equivalent circuit of a power transformer. . Good quality CTs are more reliable and result in less application problems and. for frequencies different from the resonant frequency. Capacitor VTs display better transient behaviour than electro-magnetic VTs as the inductive and capacitive reactance in series are large in relation to the load impedance referred to the secondary voltage. From the diagram it can be seen that. the circuit in Figure 4.transformer Τ. Referred to the inter-mediate voltage.

Note that the net effect of Ie is to make I lag and be much smaller than ΙH /n. ZL. ZL. CTs can become saturated at high current values caused by nearby faults. care should be taken to ensure that under the most critical faults the CT operates on the linear portion of the magnetization curve. with the voltage drops exaggerated for clarity. The circuit in Figure 4. Figure 6 Current transformer equivalent circuits The quality of CTs is very important for differential protection schemes where the operation of the relays is directly related to the accuracy of the CTs under fault conditions as well as under normal load conditions. In general. The vector diagram. In all these cases the CT should be a ble to supply sufficient current so that the relay operates satisfactorily. since it does not influence either the current IH/n or the voltage across Xm. The current flowing through Xm is the excitation current Ιe. is resistive and Ιe lags Vs by 90°. Rm and Xm represent the losses and the excitation of the core.7.6a can be reduced to the arrangement shown in figure 4. Where n2ZH represents the primary impedance ZH referred to the secondary side. the primary current referred to the secondary side. . is shown in Figure 4. so that Ie is the principal source of error. and the secondary impedance is. to avoid this. 2.1 Equivalent circuit An approximate equivalent circuit for a CT is given in Figure 4.6b where ZH can be ignored.6a.

Figure 7 Vector diagram for the CT equivalent circuit
2.2 Errors
The causes of errors in a CT are quite different to those associated with VTs. In effect, the
primary impedance of a CT does not have the same influence
On the accuracy of the equipment it only adds an impedance in series with the line, which can
be ignored. The errors are principally due to the current which circulates through the
magnetizing branch.
The magnitude error is the difference in magnitude between ΙH / n and IL and is equal to Ir
the component of Ie in line with k (see Figure 7).
The phase error, represented by θ, is related to Iq the component of Ie which is in quadrature
with IL. The values of the magnitude and phase errors depend on the relative displacement
between Ie and IL, but neither of them can exceed the vectorial error it should be noted that a
moderate inductive load, with Ie and IL approximately in phase, has a small phase error and the
excitation component results almost entirely in an error in the magnitude.

2.3 AC saturation
CΤ errors result from excitation current, so much so that, in order to check if a CT is
functioning correctly, it is essential to measure or calculate the excitation curve. The
magnetization current of a CT depends on the cross section and length of the magnetic circuit,
the number of turns in the windings, and the magnetic characteristics of the material.
Thus, for a given CT, and referring to the equivalent circuit of Figure 4.6b, it can be seen
that the voltage across the magnetization impedance, Es, is directly proportional to the secondary
current. From this it can be concluded that, when the primary current and therefore the secondary
current is increased, these currents reach a point where the core commences to saturate and the
magnetization current becomes sufficiently high to produce an excessive error.

When investigating the behaviour of a CT, the excitation current should he measured at
various values of voltage the so-called secondary injection test. Usually, it is more convenient to
apply a variable voltage to the secondary winding, leaving the primary winding open-circuited.
Figure 4.8a shows the typical relationship between the secondary voltage and the excitation
current determined in this way.
In European standards the point Κp on the curve is called the saturation or knee point and
is defined as the point at which an increase in the excitation voltage of ten per cent produces an
increase of 50 % in the excitation current. This point is referred to in the ANSI / IEEE standards

as the intersection of the excitation curves with a 45° tangent line, as indicated in Figure 4.8b.
The European knee point is at a higher voltage than the ANSI/IEEE Knee point.

2.4 Burden
The burden of a CT is the value in ohms-of the impedance on the secondary side of the CT
due to the relays and the connections between the CT and the relays. By way of example, the
standard burdens for CTs with a nominal secondary current of 5 A are shown in Table 3, based
on ANSI Standard C57.13.
IEC Standard Publication 185(1987) specifies CTs by the class of accuracy followed by the
letter Μ or P, which denotes whether the transformer is suitable for measurement or protection
purposes, respectively. The current and phase-error limits for measurement and protection CTs
are given in Tables 4a and 4.4b. The phase error is considered positive when the secondary
current leads the primary current.
The current error is the percentage deviation of the secondary current, multiplied by the
nominal transformation ratio, from the primary current, i.e. {(CTR x Ι2) – I1} ÷ I1 (%), where I1
= primary current (A), I2 = secondary current (A) and CTR = current transformer transformation
ratio. Those CT classes marked with `ext' denote wide range (extended) current transformers
with a rated continuous current of 1.2 or 2 times the nameplate current rating.
2.5 Selection of CTs
When selecting a CT, it is important to ensure that the fault level and normal load
conditions do not result in saturation of the core and that

CT magnetization curves

Figure 8a CT magnetization curves

Figure 8b CT magnetization curves
a Defining the knee point in a CT excitation curve according to European
b Typical excitation curves for a multi ratio class C CT (From IEEE
Standard C57.13-1978; reproduced by permission of the IEEE).

0 4.0 200 0.0 25 0. Power amps (Ω) (mH) (Ω) factor (at 5 A) 0.s.4 8.0 50 0.3 1. this can be determined by dividing the maximum Fault current on the system by the transformer turns ratio selected ZB = e x t e r n a l impedance connected ZL = impedance of the secondary winding ZC =impedance of the connecting wiring . The secondary voltage Ε in Figure 4. CT magnetization curves. this can be removed from the equivalent circuit with little error' giving Es=Vs and thus: Vs=IL (ZL+ZC+ZB) (1) Where Vs = r.0 9.0 18. These factors can be assessed from: formulae. The first two meth ods provide precise facts for the selection of the CT. The third only provides a qualitative estimation. Xm is high.m.0 100 0.Table 4.2 4.6U has to be determined for all three methods. voltage induced in the secondary winding =maximum secondary current in amperes.3 Standard burdens for protection CTs with 5 Α secondary current Designation Resista nce Inductance Impedance Volt.5 B-2 1.6 2.5 B-4 2.5 B-1 2.5 B-8 4. If the impedance of the magnetic circuit. CT classes of accuracy.5 The errors do not exceed acceptable limits.

1 0 -8 V (2) Where f =frequency in Hz.0*1.50 0.751.751.50 10 10 15 20 0.44. Α. 90 120 - 3. 60 .350.5 2.2 0.2 0. 120 .2 0.0* 1.25 0.05 0.2 0. - - 0. . 120 .00 1. .1 0.2 1.0 0.0 1.0 3.350.10 2.2 0.5 2.0 1.000.0 . .05 0.5 0.2 0. Use of the formula This method utilizes the fundamental transformer equation: Vs = 4.1 0.20 0.5 30 .0 .0 3. - ext *ext = 200 % . . .2 1.5 0.0 . 5 8 10 15 0. Bmax. .2 0.0 1.25 5 5 8 10 0.0 1.5 0.3. N.5 0.4 5 .1 0.0 1.500.2 0. 90 120 - ext 3. 10 15 20 30 ext 0.0 1. Α =cross-sectional area of core (cm2) Ν =number of turns Bmax =flux density (lines/cm2) Table 4α Error limits for measurement current transformers Class % current error at the given % phase error at the given proportion of the proportion of rated current rated current shown below shown below 2. 30 45 60 90 ext 1.1 0.5 0.0 3. _ 120 .00 30 30 45 60 1.2 0.00 60 60 . 120 .00 60 .1 0. .75 10 .1 0.f. .5 0.5 0.1 0.

To use the formula.25 In cm2 and a secondary winding with a resistance of 0.1 and Bmax. can now be calculated: Bmax = 202.35 0. The cross-sectional area of metal and the saturation flux density are sometimes difficult to obtain.25X400=70 030 lines/ cm2 Since the transformer in this example has a steel core of high permeability. IL. Using eqn. this relatively low value of flux density should not result in saturation.5 90 45 30 30 1.75 0. V is determined from eqn. N= 2000/5 = 400 turns And Vs=87. is 2 Ω. The impedance of the relays.5x (0. 4.1 15 8 5 5 0.1X108/4. there could be appreciable errors in the secondary current and the CT selected would not be appropriate.2.5 1. If Bmax.1 0. which is a typical value for modern transformers.1 0. . The latter can be taken as equal to 100 000 lines/Cm2. Exceeds the saturation density.Table 4b Error limits for protection current transformers +/. a cross-sectional area of 3. 4.2 0.5 1.5 0.44X50X3. 2.2 0.31 Ω.0 180 90 60 60 Total error for nominal error limit current and nominal load is five per cent for 5P and 5Ρ ext CTs and ten per cent for 10P and 10P ext CTs. is then calculated using eqn.75 0.0 1. including connections. Assume that a CT with a ratio of 2000/5 is available. having a steel core of high permeability.2 0. Determine whether the CT would be saturated by a fault of 35 000 A at 50 Hz.Phase error Current Class (minutes) ratio error % Current 5 20 100 120 5 20 100 120 0.5 0. Example 1.percentage Accuracy +/. then the secondary current. is 35 000x 5/2000=87.2 30 15 10 10 0.4 0. Solution If the CT is not saturated.5 A. Bmax.0 3 1.31+2) =202.1 V.

9. voltage to the secondary winding. (c) Locate the value of Vs on the curve for the tap selected.s. The process is summarized in the following steps: (a) Assume a value for IL.9 using the magnetization curve a .m. and the process is then repeated to obtain other values of IL and the resultant values of IH. . The curves give the magnitude of the excitation current required order to obtain a specific secondary voltage. (e) This provides one point on the curve of IL against IH. with the primary winding open- circuited. By joining the points together the curve of IL against IH is obtained. Starting with any value of secondary current. The method consists of producing a curve which shows the relationship between the primary and secondary currents for one tap and specified load conditions. (b) Calculate Vs in accordance with eqn. and find the associated value of the magnetization current.1. current obtained on applying an r. Ie. and with the help of the magnetisation curves. (d) Calculate I H / n (=IL + Ie) and multiply this value by n to refer it to the primary side of the CT.m.s. Figure 4. 4.assume a value for IL. the value of the corresponding primary current can be determined. Using the magnetization curve Typical CT excitation curves which are supplied by manufacturers state the r. such as shown in Figure 4.

where ZB. then it will be necessary to repeat the process. is the fraction of the total number of turns being used and Vc is the ANSI voltage capacity for the complete CT.find I e from the curve d . is the permissible load for a given tap of the CT. changing the tap until the fault current is within the linear part of the characteristic. The permissible load is defined as ZB= (NP Vc) / 100. within defined limits. If not. If the tap is found to be suitable after finishing the calculations. Accuracy classes established by the ANSI standards The ANSI accuracy class of a CT (Standard C57. these define the capability of the CT. high fault currents circulate through the CTs.draw the point on the curve This method incurs an error in calculating I H /n by adding I e and IL together arithmetically and not vectorially. the curve should be checked to confirm that the maximum primary fault current is within the transformer saturation zone. and the error should not exceed ten per cent if the secondary current does not go outside the range of 1 to 20 times the nominal current and if the load does not exceed 1Ω (1Ω x 5 Ax 20=100 V) at a minimum power factor of 0.5.13) is described by two symbols — a letter and a nominal voltage. The classification T includes those CTs with a dispersion flux which considerably affects the transformation ratio. However. In practice it is not necessary to draw the complete curve because it is sufficient to take the known fault current and refer to the secondary winding.IH=n(I1. C indicates that the transformation ratio can be calculated. in the case of external faults. assuming that there is no saturation for the tap selected. with a CT of class C—100 the ratio can be calculated.6 DC saturation Up to now. b . The classification C includes those CTs with uniformly distributed windings and other CTs with a dispersion flux which has a negligible effect on the ratio. then a value of I H can be obtained which is closer to the fault current. and in consequence it can only feed a portion of the load without exceeding the ten per cent error limit.+ I e ) e . the behavior of a CT has been discussed in terms of a steady state. this error is not great and the simplification snakes it easier to carry out the calculations. .Vs = I L ( Z L + Z C + Z B ) c . 2. For example. each tap will have a voltage capacity proportionally smaller. After construction. These accuracy classes are only applicable for complete windings. which implies not taking account of the load angle and the magnetizations branch of the equivalent circuit. without considering the DC transient component of the DC saturation is particularly significant in complex protection schemes since. NP. This converted value can be taken as IL initially for the process described earlier. When considering a winding provided with taps. and T indicates that the transformation ratio can be determined by means of tests.

000 amperes. It is possible. 5. Choice of CT’s Primary rating The c. opening the secondary circuit of a CT could result in dangerous over voltages which might harm operational staff or lead to equipment being damaged. the equivalent primary-circuit impedance is almost unaffected but a high voltage will be developed by the primary current passing through the magnetizing impedance Thus. Rated outputs higher than 15VA and rated accuracy limit factors higher than 10 are not recommended for general purposes. This is due to (I) limitation of size of CT’s and more importantly (II) the fact that the open circuit volts would be dangerously high for large CT’s Primary ratings. A secondary accuracy limit current greatly in excess of the value t o cause relay operation serves no useful purpose and a rated accuracy limit of 5 will usually be adequate. when secondary circuits are left open. and/or of unduly large dimensions.7 Precautions when working with CTs Working with CTs associated with energized network circuits can be extremely hazardous. say from 5 to 15 times the rated current o f the transformer. the accuracy limit factor must be at least as high as the value of the setting current used in order to ensure fast relay operation. To illustrate this. . It is standard practice in such applications to use a cascade arrangement of say 5. If saturation occurs in different CTs associated with a particular relay arrangement. 3938:1973. however. the maximum ratio of CT’s is usually limited to about 3000/1. t. because the current transformers are designed to be used in power circuits which have impedance much greater than their own. But when the product of these two exceeds 150 the resulting current transformer may be uneconomical. 2. Generally speaking. such as those encountered on large turbo alternators. When such relays are set to operate at high values of over current. this could result in the circulation of unbalanced secondary currents which would cause the system to malfunction. secondary circuits associated with CTs must always he kept in a closed condition or short-circuited in order to prevent these adverse situations occurring.g. an example is given next using typical data for a CT and a 13.S. In particular. e. primary rating is usually chosen to be equal to or greater than the normal full load current o f the protected circuit.2 kV feeder.000/20A together with 20/1A interposing auxiliary CT’s Instantaneous over current relays Class P method of specification will a suffice. to combine a higher rated accuracy limit factor with a lower rated output and vice versa. As a consequence. Standard primary ratings are given in B.

or stability during through fault conditions. up to current values of the order of 10 times the earth fault setting provided t h a t the phase burden effectively imposed on each current transformer does not exceed 50% of it s rated burden. and relay RCT . is essentially of a transient nature and thus the extent of the unsaturated (or linear) zone is of paramount importance.g.lead burden (route length) in ohms . from heavy current test results. This balance. Class 5P current transformers in which the product of rated output and accuracy limit factor approaches 150 should be used. a formula stating the lowest permissible value of VK if stable operation is to be guaranteed.secondary winding resistance of the line current transformers RL . Hence a statement of knee point voltage is the parameter of prime importance and it is normal to derive. e. Class “X” Current Transformer Protection current transformers specified in terms of complying with Class ' X I Specification is generally applicable to unit systems where balancing of outputs from each end of the protected plant is vital. The rated accuracy limit factor is not less than 10 the earth fault relay is not set below 30 % The burden of the relay at its setting does not exceed 4VA The use of a higher relay setting the use of an earth fault relay having a burden of less than 4VA at its setting The use of current transformers having a product of rated output and rated accuracy factor in excess of 150. Class 10P current transformers are generally recommended in which the product of rated output and rated accuracy limit fact or approaches 150 provided that the earth fault relay is not set below 20% of the rated current of the associated current transformer and that the burden of the relay at its setting current does not exceed 4VA. Vk = K In (RCT + 2RL + R0) Where K .Over current relays with Inverse and Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) lag characteristic In general. (2) Schemes in which phase fault stability and/or where time grading is critical. They are in general suitable for ensuring phase fault stability up to 10 times the rated primary current and for maintaining time grading of the earth f a u l t relays.rated current of C.T. for both directional and non-directional relays class 10P current transformers should be used Earth fault relays with inverse time characteristic (1) Schemes in which phase fault current stability and accurate time grading are not required.Is a constant found by realistic heavy current tests? In .

Cable • 33 KV U. T Line • 132 KV O. Cable 500. T. Cable • 66 KV U. (PUTT) • Backup Protection: 1. Types and voltage level of Feeders A – O. G. Cable • 132 KV U. Cables • 275 KV U. H. Cable • 11 KV U.Generators Protection Schemes. G.D.T. 2 .any other resistance (or impedance) in circuit 4. G. T Line • 33 KV O. G. H. T Line B – U. 4. 3.Bus Bar Protection Schemes.H. Cable • 220 KV U. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip (For Cable Tail ) Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here . 275 and 220 KV O. H. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. H. T Line • 400 KV O. 4 . G.M. T Line • 275 KV O. H. T Line • 66 KV O. Inter Trip.Protection Scheme 1 . Ro . H. 2. H. I.Transformers Protection Schemes. (POTT) • Main (B) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Under Reach Scheme. H. T Line • 11 KV O. G. Lines • 500 KV O. Lines Protection Schemes • Main (A) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Over Reach Scheme. 400. 3 .Feeders Protection Schemes. H. H. T Line • 22 KV O. G. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe. T Line • 220 KV O.


H. (PUTT) • Back up Protection: 1. 3. 132 and 66 KV O.T.M. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip (For Cable Tail) Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here .T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. 4. Circuit Breaker Fail To Tripe. Inter Trip.D. I. 2. Lines Protection Schemes • Main Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Under Reach Scheme.


H. 3. .T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. and 66 KV U. Line Protection Scheme • Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Back up Protection: • I.H. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip 33.D. Lines Protection Schemes • I.T. Lines Protection Schemes • I.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip 132. I. • Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip.M. 2.D. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe. 22 KV U.M.T.T Non Direction O/C & EF Relay 11 KV O.D. 220 U.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe 3.M. 4.D.D. (POTT) With Carrier Signal through Pilot Cable • Back up Protection: 1.G. Inter Trip (Through Pilot Cable).C.M. I. Line Protection Scheme • Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Back up Protection: 1. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5. 2.C.T Direction O/C & EF Relay 275.T Direction O/C & EF Relay • I.M.M.M.D.G.G.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay.C. Inter Trip. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5. • I. Line Protection Scheme • Main (A) Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Main (B) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Over Reach Scheme. 4.D. 33 and 22 KV O.

(Y. 20 MVA & 15 MVA 2 Winding Power Transformer 33 KV / 11 KV. Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here . Transformers Protection Schemes Some types of power transformers 300 MVA. & 45 MVA. 3 Winding Power Transformer 275 KV / 132 KV / 33 KV.M. 30 MVA 2 Winding Power Transformer 132 KV / 11 KV. 11 KV U. 2 Winding Power Transformer 1 32 KV / 33 KV. Line Protection Scheme • Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Back up Protection: • I.C.G.Y.Δ).T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay.D. 75 MVA.

2. . Differential Protection. (both at 275 kv and 132 kv) side neutral of the star winding. Restricted Earth Fault Protection. 300 MVA 3 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme. • Main (A&B) Protection: 1.

5. Oil Temperature Trip. 6.M. Cable oil pressure Low Trip. Winding. Inter Trip (through pilot cable).33 / 11 KV. 2 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme. 2. Restricted Earth Fault Protection.D.• BackupProtection: 1. Tap Changer Buchhols Trip. Winding Temperature Trip.B Fail to trip. Tap Changer Buchhols Trip. Winding.M.B Fail to trip.2 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme. 75. Buchhols Trip. 7. SF6 pressure Low Trip. 4. Inter Trip (through pilot cable). (For 132 KV.T Direction O/C & E/F relay on 132 KV side 4. 5.D. 45 And 30 MVA. • Main (A) Protection: 1.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 300 KV side 3.D. (For cable tails) 20 & 15 MVA. (At the neutral of the LV. 8. (At the neutral of the LV.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 33 KV side 3. Differential Protection. • Backup Protection: 1. I. Buchhols Trip. I. (for cable tails ) 10. Inter Trip (through pilot cable).D. Cable oil pressure Low Trip. Buchhols Trip. C. • Main (A) Protection: 1. 6. 8. • Backup Protection: 1. 2. 7. I. C. 2. Stand-By Earth Fault relay at the neutral of LV. Winding Temperature Trip. Differential Protection. Winding). 2. Winding).M.M. 9. Stand-By Earth Fault relay at the neutral of LV. .T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 132 KV side 4.B only) 3. Restricted Earth Fault Protection. 2. C. I.

• 66 and 33 KV. Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme for both connected . . . and 220 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme. .I.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay. • 500.M. • I.Differential Protection For each section of bus-bar.Inter Trip (through pilot cable). • 11 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme. . • Buchhols Trip. 275.C.Differential Protection For each section of bus-bar or Arc protection or Micro switch protection. • C. .M. Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme.D.SF6 Pressure Trip. Bus-Bar Protection Scheme.D. . • Winding Temperature Trip. (For cable tails) • SF6 pressure Low Trip.Arc protection or Micro switches protection. . 275. . • 22 and 11 KV BUS-Bar Protection Scheme. • 132 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme. 400. • Inter Trip (through pilot cable – SHR connected through cable C. . Bus-Bar Protection Scheme.B only).I. 275 &132 KV. C. 33 KV.I.B Fail to Trip.B. • 33 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme.D.D.D. 400. “for 132 kV only”).T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. .B Fail to trip. Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme.M. Bus-Bar Protection Schemes Bus-Bar Protection Schemes.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. 220 and 132 KV. . . SF6 Pressure low Trip.I. (For 132 KV. • Oil Temperature Trip.SF6 Pressure low Trip. • Cable oil pressure Low Trip.C.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. • 500.B Fail to Trip.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay.M.M. .

H. 3 . H. • Buchhols Trip. T Line • 33 KV O. H. T Line • 220 KV O. to 33 KV Bus-Bar or to tertiary of 300 MVA Transformer. T Line • 132 KV O. Protection Scheme 1 . G. • Oil Temperature Trip. Cables • 275 KV U. T Line • 11 KV O.Generators Protection Schemes. T Line • 275 KV O. Types and voltage level of Feeders A – O. G. H.Feeders Protection Schemes. T. Lines • 500 KV O. H. Cable • 220 KV U. T Line B – U. H. H. Cable .Transformers Protection Schemes. 2 . H. • I.Bus Bar Protection Schemes. H. H. T Line • 22 KV O. T Line • 400 KV O. 4 . G.D.M. T Line • 66 KV O.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay. • Winding Temperature Trip.

400.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. (POTT) • Main (B) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Under Reach Scheme. 2. Cable • 33 KV U. Cable 500. Inter Trip.• 132 KV U. G. G.D. I. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5. (PUTT) • Backup Protection: 1. 4. Cable • 11 KV U. 3. G.H.T. Lines Protection Schemes • Main (A) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Over Reach Scheme. Cable • 66 KV U. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe. 275 and 220 KV O. G. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip (For Cable Tail ) Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here .M.


Lines Protection Schemes • Main Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Under Reach Scheme.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. 4.M. 3.T. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5.D.H. I. Inter Trip. Circuit Breaker Fail To Tripe.132 and 66 KV O. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip (For Cable Tail) Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here . 2. (PUTT) • Back up Protection: 1.


Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip .T Direction O/C & EF Relay • I.M.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay.M.T Direction O/C & EF Relay 275. 2. I. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip 132.C.D. Inter Trip (Through Pilot Cable).T. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5. 4. 2.G. 220 U. Lines Protection Schemes • I. Inter Trip.D.M. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe. (POTT) With Carrier Signal through Pilot Cable • Back up Protection: 1.T Non Direction O/C & EF Relay 11 KV O. I.D.33 and 22 KV O.D. 3.T.H. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5. Lines Protection Schemes • I. 4.M.D.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay.C.H. and 66 KV U.G. Line Protection Scheme • Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Back up Protection: 1.M. Line Protection Scheme • Main (A) Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Main (B) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Over Reach Scheme. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe 3.

D. • 75 MVA.D. Line Protection Scheme • Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Back up Protection: • I. • 30 MVA 2 Winding Power Transformer 132 KV / 11 KV.M. (Y. . 3 Winding Power Transformer 275 KV / 132 KV / 33 KV.Y. & 45 MVA.C. 22 KV U.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay.C.33. 2 Winding Power Transformer 1 32 KV / 33 KV. • I.D.Δ).T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. • Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip.M.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay.G.G. 11 KV U.M. • 20 MVA & 15 MVA 2 Winding Power Transformer 33 KV / 11 KV. Line Protection Scheme • Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Back up Protection: • I. Transformers Protection Schemes Some types of power transformers • 300 MVA.

Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here 300 MVA 3 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme. • Main (A&B) Protection: .

Inter Trip (through pilot cable).M. I. 8. 2 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme. 4.B only) 3.D. 7. Cable oil pressure Low Trip. I.B Fail to trip.T Direction O/C & E/F relay on 132 KV side 4. SF6 pressure Low Trip.D. Winding Temperature Trip.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 132 KV side 4. Restricted Earth Fault Protection. Buchhols Trip.2 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme. Winding). C. Stand-By Earth Fault relay at the neutral of LV. I. • Main (A) Protection: 1. • BackupProtection: 1. 2. Buchhols Trip. Winding).33 / 11 KV. 45 And 30 MVA. 7.D. Winding.M. Differential Protection. (At the neutral of the LV.M. 2. (both at 275 kv and 132 kv) side neutral of the star winding. 2. Differential Protection. 5. 9. Cable oil pressure Low Trip. Differential Protection. C. Tap Changer Buchhols Trip.B Fail to trip. Tap Changer Buchhols Trip. C. Inter Trip (through pilot cable). Winding Temperature Trip. 75. Inter Trip (through pilot cable). 8. 6. . 2.M. I. Buchhols Trip. (for cable tails ) 10. (At the neutral of the LV.D.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 33 KV side 3. 2. 6. (For 132 KV. Stand-By Earth Fault relay at the neutral of LV. 5.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 300 KV side 3. 2. Restricted Earth Fault Protection. (For cable tails) 20 & 15 MVA. • Main (A) Protection: 1. Oil Temperature Trip. • Backup Protection: 1. Restricted Earth Fault Protection. Winding. • Backup Protection: 1. 1.

T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme. . Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme for both connected . (For 132 KV.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. . (For cable tails) • SF6 pressure Low Trip.B Fail to trip. • Inter Trip (through pilot cable – SHR connected through cable C. • 66 and 33 KV. • 22 and 11 KV BUS-Bar Protection Scheme. .I.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay. . . 275 &132 KV. • 132 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme. • 500. 400.D. .B Fail to Trip. • 11 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme.Arc protection or Micro switches protection. . 275.C. 220 and 132 KV.D. Bus-Bar Protection Scheme.M. and 220 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme.I. C.Differential Protection For each section of bus-bar or Arc protection or Micro switch protection. • Buchhols Trip.I. 33 KV. . .T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. • 33 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme.B Fail to Trip.D. .M. SF6 Pressure low Trip.SF6 Pressure low Trip. 275.Differential Protection For each section of bus-bar. • 500. • Winding Temperature Trip. Bus-Bar Protection Schemes Bus-Bar Protection Schemes.SF6 Pressure Trip. • I. 400.C.D.M.I. Bus-Bar Protection Scheme.M.D. Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme. . • Oil Temperature Trip. • C. • Cable oil pressure Low Trip.Inter Trip (through pilot cable).T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay.M. . .B.B only). “for 132 kV only”).

T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay. The Over-current relays are connected to the system. This is most widely used protection. 3. If a short circuit occurs the circuit impedance is reduced to a low value and therefore a fault is accompanied by large current. • Winding Temperature Trip. Over-current protection is that protection in which the relay picks up when the magnitude of current exceeds the pickup level. Short circuits a be phase faults. 2. Over-current protection includes short-circuit protection. High speed Over-current protection. Hence with overloading. Overloading of a machine or equipment generally) means the machine is taking more current than its rated current. The permissible temperature rise has a limit based on insulation class and material problems.D. The basic element in Over-current protection is an Over-current relay.M. Directional Over-current protection (of above types). to 33 KV Bus-Bar or to tertiary of 300 MVA Transformer. Definite time Over-current protection. . • I. the fault current is more than load current. there is an associated temperature rise. • Oil Temperature Trip. Over-current protection of overloads is generally provided by thermal relays. Short-circuit currents are generally several times (5 to 20) full load current. • Buchhols Trip. Hence fast fault clearance is always desirable on short-circuits. 4. Inverse minimum time Over-current protection. earth faults or winding faults. Over-current protection includes the protection from overloads. Over-current and Earth Fault Protection v Introduction As the fault impedance is less than load impedance. normally by means of CT's. Over-current relaying has following types: 1.

When a machine is protected by differential protection. Circuit-breakers fitted with overloaded coils or tripped by over-current relays. permissible over-current. The primary requirements of over-current protection are: • The protection should not operate for starting currents. v Applications of Over-current Protection Over-current protection has a wide range of applications. the time delay is provided (in case of inverse relays). For small/medium size motors where cost of CT's and protective relays is not economically justified. Several protective devices are used for over-current protection these include: 1. the over-current is provided in addition as a back-up and in some cases to protect the machine from sustained through fault. thermal relays and HRC fuses are employed. If time delay cannot be permitted. . 3. thermal relays used for overload protection and HRC fuses for short-circuit protection. Series connected trip coils operating switching devices. It can be applied where there is an abrupt difference between fault current within the protected section and that outside the protected section and these magnitudes are almost constant. and current surges. The over-current protection is provided for the following: v Motor Protection Over-current protection is the basic type of protection used against overloads and short-circuits in stator windings of motors. • The protection should be coordinated with neighboring over-current protections so as to discriminate. high-set instantaneous relaying is used. To achieve this. 4. Inverse time and instantaneous phase and ground over-current relays can be employed for motors above 1200 H.P. Fuses 2. Over-current relays in conjunction with current transformers.

The lines (feeders) can be protected by (1) Instantaneous over-current relays. when the cost of differential relaying cannot be justified. Directional over-current protection. (2) Inverse time over-current relays. over-current relays are provided in addition to differential relays to take care of through faults. moving iron type. as the cost of relays plus circuit-breakers is not generally justified Line Protection. Double actuating quantity induction relay with directional feature. However. HRC fuses. only. 2. permanent magnet moving coil type and static. Small transformers below 500 kVA installed in distribution system are generally protected by drop-out fuses. generally up to 11 kV. Electromagnetic induction type. Temperature indicators and alarms are always provided for large transformers. For inverse time characteristic. are used in low voltage medium voltage and high voltage distribution systems. 3. . (3) Directional over-current relay. permanent magnet moving coil type and static. For instantaneous over-current protection. etc. Protection of Utility Equipment The furnaces. The following relays are used. v Relays used in Over-current Protection The choice of relay for over-current protection depends upon the Time / current characteristic and other features desired. Lines can be protected by impedance or carrier current protection also. 5.v Transformer Protection Transformers are provided with over-current protection against faults. industrial and domestic equipment are all provided with over-current protection. Attracted armature type. 4. Static over-current relays. drop out fuses. 1. industrial installations commercial.

Definite characteristic 2. These are classified according to their type and characteristics. I1*T=K In more inverse characteristic In*T=K . I0*T=K Where: I = Current in relay coil T = Relay lime K = Constant.e. In inverse characteristic. Extremely Inverse 4.e. Not: Now Digital Numerical Relay you can used for all types v Characteristics of relay units for over current protection There is a wide variety of relay-units. the time of operation is almost definite i. Thermal relays are used widely for over-current protection.6. The major characteristic includes: 1. time is inversely proportional to current i. Very Inverse In definite characteristic. Inverse characteristic 3.

The relays which are not instantaneous are called Time Delay Relay'. As suck they are not instantaneous in real sense. back-stop arrangement.1). becomes less as the magnitude of the actuating quantity is increased. However even definite time relay has a characteristic which is slightly inverse The characteristic with definite minimum time and of inverse type is also called Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) characteristics (Fig. However for higher magnitudes of actuating quantity the time is constant. Such relays are provided with delaying means such as drag magnet.1 second.Where n can be between 2 to 8 the choice depends on discrimination desired.08 second. bellows. . etc. The typical characteristics are shown in (Fig. 1) An inverse curve is one in which the operating time. usually less than 0. Definite time curve is one in which operating time is little affected by magnitude of actuating current. Instantaneous relays are those which have no intentional time lag sod which operate in less than 0. escape mechanisms. dash poss. The operating time of a relay for a particular setting and magnitude actuating quantity can be known from the characteristics supplied by the manufacturer.

(Fig. . When short circuit occurs in the protected zone the secondary current of CT's increases. 2) the three current transformers and relay coils connected in star and the star point is earthed.1) Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) characteristics Principle of trip circuit Referring to (Fig. 2) responds to phase faults and earth faults including single-phase to earth fault. Therefore such schemes are used with solidly earthed systems where phase to phase and phase to earth faults are likely to occur. These current flows through relay coils and the relay picks-up. For proper functioning of over-current and earth fault protection. the relay contacts close. the choice of CT's and polarity connections should be correct. thereby the trip circuit is closed and the circuit breaker-operates The over-current protection scheme with three over-current relays (Fig.

2) Over Current protection with three phase OC relays Methods of CT Connections in Over-current Protection of 3-Phase Circuits v Connection Scheme with Three Over-current Relays Over-current protection can be achieved by means of three over-current relays or by two over- current relays (See Table 1). . protection. Fig. Table 1 Fig Description Note 1 One OC with one For balanced CT for over load load only.

earth fault protection is necessary in most cases. 5 Two OC and one EF relays for phase to phase and phase to earth fault protection v Earth-Fault Protection When the fault current flows through earth return path. Residually connected Earth-fault Relay Referring to Fig. the fault is called Earth Fault. Earth fault protection senses earth fault current. 3 In absence of earth-fault the vector sum of three line currents is zero. Hence the vector sum of three secondary currents is also zero. When separate earth fault protection is not economical. However such protection lacks sensitivity. Other faults which do not involve earth are called phase faults. Following are the method of earth fault protection. IR+IY+IB=0 . the phase relays sense the earth fault currents. 2 Two OC relays with two CT's for phase to phase fault protection. 4 Three OC relays EF setting less with three CT's than phase for phase to fault setting phase fault protection and phase to earth fault. 3 Three OC relays EF current > with three CT's two time pick- for phase to up phase phase fault current protection. Since earth faults are relatively frequent. v Connections of CT's for Earth-fault Protection 1. Hence separate earth fault protection is generally provided.

in presence of earth fault the conditions is disturbed and (IR+IY+IB) is no more zero.3) Earth-fault Relay connected in Residual Circuit. the residually connected earth-fault relay does not operate. the earth-fault relay operates. Hence flows through the earth-fault relay. Such protection is called unrestricted earth-fault protection (Fig. 4). In the scheme discussed here the earth-fault at any location near or away from the location of CT's can cause the residual current flow. If the residual current is above the pick-up value. . Therefore.3 and Fig. However.The sum (IR+IY+IB) is called residual current The earth-fault relay is connected such that the residual current flows through it (Figs. in the absence of earth-fault. Hence the protected zone is not definite.

The fault current finds the return path through the earth and then flows through the neutral-to-earth connected. The relay is connected to secondary of a CT whose primary is connected in neutral to earth connection. 5).4) Earth fault protection combined with phase fault protection 2. The magnitude of earth fault current is dependent on type of earthing (resistance. reactance or solid) and location of fault. The relay senses the earth faults beyond the transformer/generator winding hence such protection is called unrestricted earth-fault protection. In this type of protection. In case of large generators. The protected area is not restricted to the transformer/generator winding alone. (Fig. The zone of protection cannot be accurately defined. voltage transformer is connected between neutral and earth . Earth-fault Relay connected in Neutral to Earth Circuit (Fig. Another method of connecting an earth-fault relay is illustrated in Fig 5. Such protection can be provided at various voltage levels by connecting earth-fault relay in the neutral-to-earth connection of that voltage level. The earth-fault protection by relay in neutral to earth circuit depends upon the type of neutral Earthing.

5) Earth-fault protection by earth-fault-relay connected in neutral-to-earth circuit. because in case of phase faults current in any at least two phases must increase. 4) The increase in current of phase causes corresponding increase in respective secondary currents. A secondary coil is connected to a relay unit. Hence two relay-units are enough. The secondary current flows through respective relay-units Very often only two-phase relays are provided instead of three. 6) a single ring shaped core of magnetic material.(Fig. Combined Earth-fault and Phase-fault Protection It is convenient to incorporate phase-fault relays and earth-fault relay in a combined phase- fault and earth-fault protection.6) Principle of core-balance CT for earth fault protection . (Fig. The cross-section of ring-core is (Fig. (Zero Sequence CT) In this type of protection (Fig. encircles the conductors of all the three phases. Earth-fault Protection with Core Balance Current Transformers.

If = 3Iao = In Hence the zero-sequence component of I o produces the resultant flux Φr in the core. Io is zero sequence current and In. Referring to theory of symmetrical components (Ia + Ib + I c )= 3 I c= I n Where. For eliminating the error due to sheath . During normal condition. the components of fluxes due to the fields of three conductors are balanced and the secondary current is negligible. such a balance is disturbed and current is induced in the secondary. 7). Ref. Assuming linearity. The burden of relays and exciting current are deciding factors. (Ia + Ib + Ic) = 0 Hence Φr = 0 and relay does not operate During earth fault the earth fault current flows through return neutral path. be the three line currents and Φa. when earth fault is absent. This form of protection is likely to be more popular with static relays due to the fewer burdens of the latter. Instantaneous relay unit is generally used with core balance schemes. so that saturation is not a problem. Theory of Core Balance CT . Hence core balance current transformer is also called as zero sequence current transformers (ZSCT). The induced current flowing through cable sheath of normal healthy cable needs particular attention with respect to the core balance protection. The sheath currents (Ish) flow through the sheath to the cover of cable-box and then to earth through the earthing connection between cable-box. Very large cross-section of core is necessary for sensitivity less than 10 A. Core-balance protection can be conveniently used for protection of low- voltage and medium voltage systems. the Core Balance Protection is used along with the cable box and should be installed before making the cable joint. Ib and I c . For example for single line ground fault. Let Ia. During no-earth-fault condition. we get resultant flux Φ as. is current in neutral to ground circuit.Ample. Φ=k (Ia + Ib + I c ) where k is a constant Φ = K * Ia. During earth faults. (Fig. Application for Core Balance CT's with Cable Termination Joints The termination of a three core cable into three separate lines or bus-bars is through cable terminal box. Φb and Φc be corresponding components of magnetic flux in the core.

Insulator support for 1 4. Cable terminal box 2. While doing so. the earth-fault current finds the' path through the neutral connection. Sheath of 3 core cable connection to (1) 3. The cable box should be insulated from earth. the resistance to earth being about 12 ohms. Earthing connection passing through 5 5.current (Ish) the earthing lead between the cable-box and the earth should be taken through the core of the core balance protection. Core balance CT Fig (7) Mounting of Core Balance CT with Cable Terminal Box Frame-leakage Protection The metal-clad switchgear can be provided with frame leakage protection. The metal-frame-work or enclosure of the switchgear is earthed with a primary of a CT in between (Fig. The concrete foundation of the switchgear and the cable-boxes and other conduits are slightly insulated from earth. Thereby the error due to sheath currents is eliminated. 1. 8). it is sensed by the earth fault relay. In the event of an earth fault within the switchgear. . The switchgear is lightly y insulated from the earth.

Residually connected relay. 8) Principle of frame-leakage protection of metal-clad-switchgear Circulating current differential protection also responds to earth-faults within its protected zone. It does not act for faults occurring in the other direction. Relay connected in neutral-to-ground circuit. The directional relay recognizes the direction in which fault occurs. Consider a feeder AC (Fig. 6. Earth-fault protection can be achieved by following methods: 1. It is set such that it actuates for faults occurring in one direction only. Distance relays arranged for detecting earth faults on lines. 9) passing through sub-section B. 3. (Fig. Frame leakage method. relative to the location of the relay. Directional over-current protection responds to over- currents for a particular direction flow. If power flow is in the opposite direction. The circuit breaker CB3 is provided with a directional . The power directional relay does not measure the power but is arranged to respond to the direction of power flow. Circulating current differential protection. Core-balance-scheme. 2. Directional Over-current Protection The over-current protection can be given directional feature by adding directional element in the protection system. 4. the directional over-current protection remains un-operative. Directional operation of relay is used where the selectivity can be achieved by directional relaying. Directional over-current protection comprises over-current relay and power directional a single relay casing. 5.

the circuit breaker CB3 does not trip unnecessarily. Reverse power protection operates when the power direction is reversed in relation to the normal working direction. 9) Principle of directional protection Relay `R' which will trip the breaker CB3 if fault power flow in direction C alone. the directional element measures magnitude and direction of power flow. However for faults in feeder BC the circuit-breaker CB3 trips Because it's protective relaying is set with a directional feature to act in direction AC Another interesting example of directional protection is that of reverse power protection of generator (Fig. . (Fig. having phase to phase output (of 110 V). However. It senses only direction of power flow. in Reverse Power Relays. 10) Reverse powers protection against motoring action of a generator Directional power protection operates in accordance with the direction of power flow. There are four common methods of connecting the relay depending upon phase angle between current in the current coil and voltage applied to the voltage coil. Relay connections of Single Phase Directional Over-current Relay : The current coils in the directional over-current relay are normally connected to a secondary of line CT. (Fig. the generator continues to run as a motor and takes power from bus-bars. Reverse power relay is different in construction than directional over-current relay. 10). In directional over-current relay. Therefore for faults in feeder AB. The voltage coil of directional element is connected to a line VT. the directional element does not measure the magnitude of power. If the prime mover fails.

These are basically power measuring devices in which the system voltage is used as a reference for establishing the relative direction or phase of the fault current. A relay V a . is reactive so that the fault power factor is usually low. apart from loads. Although power measuring devices in principle. and Overload Protection Relay 3-Phase Directional over current relays When fault current can flow in both directions through the relay location. it is necessary to make the response of the relay directional by the introduction of directional control elements. they are not arranged to respond to the actual system power for a number of reasons: 1. Fig. The power system. Normal system .11 Numerical Over current. Vb and Vc.

The effect of the large unbalance in currents and voltages is to make the torques developed by the different phase elements vary widely and even differ in sign if the quantities applied to the relay are not chosen carefully. 1. but the fault voltage to earth will be half the initial phase to neutral voltage. At other points in the system the vector displacement will be less. each phase of the relay is polarized with a voltage which will not be reduced excessively except by close three-phase faults. . Relay maximum torque The maximum torque angle (MTA) is defined as the angle by which the current applied to the relay must be displaced from the voltage applied to the relay to produce maximum torque.12) At the point of fault the vectors will coincide. and which will remain in a satisfactory relationship to the current under all conditions.voltages V b 1 and V c 1 Voltages at fault location on faulted phases V b 2 and V c 2 Voltages remote from fault location Fig. So a B—C phase fault will cause the B and C phase voltage vectors to move together. its characteristic can be varied by the addition of phase shifting components to give maximum torque at the required phase angle. by which the current and voltage applied to the relay are displaced. Relay connections This is the arrangement whereby suitable current and voltage quantities are applied to the relay. the locus of their ends being the original line be for a homogeneous system. A number of different connections have been used and these are discussed below. at unity system power factor. leaving zero voltage across the fault. it is the particular voltage across the short-circuited points which are reduced. The system voltage must collapse at the point of short circuit. The various connections are dependent on the phase angle. but relays located at such points will receive voltages which are unbalanced in their value and phase position. as shown in (Fig.12 Phase voltages for a B-C fault Responding purely to the active component would not develop a high torque and might be much slower and less decisive than it could be. To this end. When the fault is single-phase. Although the relay element may be inherently wattmetric.

is 0°. with the B phase element omitted. but in the case of a two phase and one earth fault element relay. 30° relay connection (0° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with current la and voltage V ac.866 of maximum. operation will depend upon the C element. the potential coil voltage lags the current in the current coil by 30° and gives a tripping zone from 60° leading to 120° lagging currents. for all fault conditions. When only two phase elements and an earth fault element are used there is a probability of failure to operate for one condition.Examination of the suitability of each arrangement involves determining the limiting conditions of the voltage and current applied to each phase element of the relay. as shown in (Fig. the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied Vac voltage by 90°. In this case. For unity power factor and 0. 13a). An inter-phase short circuit causes two elements to be energized but for low power factors one will receive inputs which. as shown in (Fig. This connection has been used widely in the past. and it is satisfactory under all conditions for plain feeders provided that three phase elements are employed. that ensures correct operation when used for the protection of plain feeders. however. but the C element will receive Ic and the collapsed Vcb voltage. The most satisfactory maximum torque angle for this connection. when applied to plain feeders If applied to transformer feeders. 13b). This is satisfactory provided that three phase elements are used. In particular a B—C fault will strongly energize the B element with lb current and Vba voltage. for this reason a directional element having this connection should never be used to protect transformer feeders. taking into account the possible range of source and line impedances. which may fail to operate if the fault is close to the relaying point.5 lagging power factor the maximum torque available is 0. . Also. there is a danger that at least one of the three phase relays will operate for faults in the reverse direction. so the maximum torque occurs when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 30°. and it can be shown that a directional element having this connection and 0° MTA will provide correct discrimination for all types of faults. will produce only a poor torque. although correct. which quantities have a large relative phase displacement.

A phase element connected l a Va c B phase element connected l b Vba C phase element connected Ic Vcb (a) Characteristic and inputs for phase A element (b) B-C Fault with voltage distortion (Fig. 13) Vector diagrams for the 30° connection 60° No. 1 connection (0° MTA) .

When used for the protection of plain feeders there is a slight possibility of the element associated with the A phase mal-operating for a reversed B—C fault.14) Vector diagram for the 60° No.The A phase relay is supplied with lab current and Vac voltage. and provides a correct directional tripping zone over a current range of 30° leading to 150° lagging. so maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60°. it is unlikely that the over current element which the directional element controls will receive sufficient current to cause it to operate. which uses Vac voltage with delta current produced by adding phase A and phase B currents at unity power factor. This connection. In this case.14). 1 connection (phase A element) However.5 of maximum torque and at zero power factor lagging 0. the source impedance would . When applied to transformer feeders there is a possibility of one of the directional elements mal-operation for an earth fault on the star side of a delta/star transformer. gives a current leading the voltage Vac by 60°. remote from the relay end. The torque at unity power factor is 0. is 0°. although the directional element may mal-operation. one which ensures correct directional discrimination with the minimum risk of mal-operation when applied to either plain or transformer feeders. It has been proved that the most suitable maximum torque angle for this relay connection. For this reason the connection may be safely recommended for the protection of plain feeders. that is.866. the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied voltage to the relay by 90°. A phase element connected lab Va c B phase element connected I bc V b a C phase element connected Ica Vcb (Fig. see (Fig. For mal-operation to occur.

it is rarely used. The possibility of mal-operation with this connection is very remote. and also because it offers no advantage over the 90° connection. 2 connection (phase A element). 60° No. have to be relatively small and have a very low angle at the same time that the arc resistance of the fault was high. . however. for two reasons: first. 2 connection (0° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with current la and voltage In this case. For this reason. and secondly. This connection gives A phase element connected Ia —Vc B phase element connected Ib — Va C phase element connected Ic —Vb (Fig. in most systems the source impedance may be safely assumed to be largely reactive. The connection. if the arc resistance is high enough to cause mal-operation of the directional element it is unlikely that the over current element associated with the mal-operation directional element will see sufficient current to operate. does suffer from the disadvantage that it is necessary to connect the current transformers in delta. the flux of the voltage coil lags the applied voltage by 90° so the maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60°.15) Vector diagram for the 60° No. which usually precludes their being used for any other protective function.

16).5 of the relay maximum torque and at zero power factor lagging 0. 2 connection is now never recommended. the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied voltage Vbc by 60°. For this reason. even if this maximum torque angle is used.30° connection (Phase A element) 90° relay quadrature connection This is the standard connection for the type CDD relay.30° characteristic (30° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with la current and Vbc voltage displaced by 30° in an anti-clockwise direction. see (Fig. 90°. In this case. A relay designed . The relay torque at unity power factor is 0. depending on the angle by which the applied voltage is shifted to produce the relay maximum torque angle. . The most suitable maximum torque angle for a directional element using this connection is 0°. and the relay maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60°.866.5 of the relay maximum torque and at zero power factor lagging 0. the 60° No. see (Fig. A phase element connected Ia Vbc B phase element connected Ib Vca C phase element connected Ic Vab (Fig.a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 30° leading to 150° lagging. The relay torque at unity power factor is 0.16) Vector diagram for the 90°. two types are available. there is a risk of incorrect operation for all types of faults with the exception of three-phase faults. This connection gives a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 30° leading to 150° lagging.866. However.15).for quadrature connection and having a maximum torque angle of 30° is recommended when the relay is used for the protection of plain feeders with the zero sequence source behind the relaying point.

45° characteristic (45° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with current la and voltage Vbc displaced by 45° in an anti-clockwise direction. the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied voltage Vbc by 45°. The 90°. that the conditions assumed above to establish the maximum angular displacement between the current and voltage quantities at the relay. in order to ensure correct relay operation for faults beyond the star/ delta transformer. however.17).Vbc B phase element connected Ih Vca C phase element connected Ic Vab (Fig. in practice. This connection should also be used whenever single-phase directional relays are applied to a circuit Theoretically. In this case. This connection gives a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 45° leading to 135° lagging. A phase element connected Ia . The relay torque at unity power factor is 0.17) Vector diagram for the 90°- 45° connection (Phase A element) This connection is recommended for the protection of transformer feeders or feeders which have a zero sequence source in front of the relay. are such that.707 of the maximum torque and the same at zero power factor lagging. a phase-ground fault on a transformer feeder with the zero sequence source in front of the relay and a phase- phase fault on a power transformer with the relay looking into the delta winding of the transformer. the magnitude of the current input to the relay would . see (Fig.45° connection is essential in the case of parallel trans-formers or transformer feeders. It should be remembered. three fault conditions can cause mal-operation of the directional element: a phase-phase ground fault on a plain feeder. 90°. and the relay maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 45°.

Ring mains Directional relays are more commonly applied to ring mains. but care must be taken to ensure that their continuous thermal rating of twice rated current is not exceeded. isolate both lines and completely disconnect the power supply. for all practical purposes. It is interesting to note that when the number of feeders round the ring is an even number.1 TMS. the relays at the supply end and at the mid-point substation. one at each end of the feeder.18) with their directional elements looking into the protected line. faults. Parallel feeders If non-directional relays are applied to parallel feeders. This is done by setting the directional relays R'1 and R'2 as shown in (Fig. and giving them lower time and current settings than relays R1 and R2. provided that in the latter case the relays are located on the same feeder. where the setting of both relays are identical. that is. With this type of system configuration it is necessary to apply directional relays at the receiving end and to grade them with the non- directional relays at the sending end. The usual practice is to set relays R'1 and R'2 to 50% of the normal full load of the protected circuit and 0. can be made non-directional. regardless of the relay settings used.45° connection is. to ensure correct discriminative operation of the relays during line. the two relays with the same operating time are at the same substation and will . non-existent. In the case of a ring main fed at one point insufficient to cause the over current element to operate. any faults that might occur on any one line will. It can be shown analytically that the possibility of mal-operation with the 90°.

so the relay with the longer operating time can be non-directional. whereas when the number of feeders is an odd number. the two relays with the same operating time are at different substations and therefore do not need to be directional.19) (Fig. at inter-mediate substations.19) Grading of ring mains The arrows associated with the relaying points indicate the direction of current flow that will cause the relays to operate.have to be directional. as shown in (Fig. the difference between their operating times is never less than the grading margin. It may also be noted that. . that is. the relays looking in a clock-wise direction round the ring are arranged to operate in the sequence 1—2—3—4—5—6 and the relays looking in the anti-clockwise direction are arranged to operate in the sequence 1'—2'—3'—4'—5'—6'. whenever the operating times of the relays at each substation are different. Grading of ring mains The usual procedure for grading relays in an inter-connected system is to open the ring at the supply point and to grade the relays first clockwise and then anti-clockwise.

This applies to both paths to the fault. In directional earth fault relay. and a single-headed arrow a directional relay. Directional Earth-Fault Protection In the directional over-current protection the current coil of relay is actuated from secondary current of line CT. with the exception of the mid-point substation. the second to treat the section of the ring between the two supply points as a continuous bus separate from the ring and to protect it with a unit system of protection. such as those at intermediate substations around the ring where the power can flow in either direction. Disconnection of the faulty line is carried out according to time and fault current direction. the faulty line is the only one to be disconnected from the ring and the power supply is maintained to all the substations. The polarizing quantity is obtained either from residual current . Consequently. the voltage coil is actuated by the residual voltage. the fault current has two parallel paths and divides itself in the inverse ratio of their impedances. and then proceed to grade the ring as in the case of a single infeed. by means of a suitable high set instantaneous over-current relay and then to proceed to grade the ring as in the case of a single infeed. When two or more power sources feed into a ring main. Directional earth fault relays sense the direction in which earth fault occurs with respect to the relay location and it operates for fault in a particular direction. where the operating times of relays 3 and 3' happen to be the same. the voltage coil is actuated by secondary of line VT. two solutions are possible. at each substation in the ring. time graded over current protection is difficult to apply and full discrimination may not be possible. whichever is more convenient. The first is to open the ring at one of the supply points. whereas the current coil of directional earth fault relay is actuated by residual current. The directional relays are set in accordance with the invariable rule. such as those at the supply point where the power can flow only in one direction. It will also be found that the operating times of the relays that are inoperative are faster than those of the operative relays. The directional earth fault relay (single phase unit) has two coils. one set of relays will be made inoperative because of the direction of current flow. and the other set operative. With two sources of supply. In directional over-current relay. such as pilot wire relays. As in any parallel system.A double-headed arrow is used to indicate a non-directional relay. The relays which are operative are graded downwards towards the fault and the last to be affected by the fault operates first. applicable to all forms of directional protection that the current in the system must flow from the substation bus-bars into the protected line in order that the relays may operate. Thus.

I RS = (Ia + Ib + Ic) or residual voltage VRs = V a + V b + V c Where V a . 5). The other coil gets residual voltage. Fig. Earth fault protection responds to single line to ground faults and double line to ground faults. 20). the out of balance current is given to the current coil and the residual voltage VRs is given to the voltage coil of the relay. 11) the directional earth-fault relay has two coils. V b and Vc are phase voltages. definite time characteristic. Summary Over-current protection responds to increase in current above the pick-up value over- currents are caused by overloads and short-circuits. The coil connected in potential-transformer secondary circuit gives a polarizing field. The current coil of earth-fault relay is connected either in neutral to ground circuit . The over-current relays are connected the secondary of current transformer. V b a n d V c are secondary voltages of the potential transformer ('Three phase five limb potential transformer or three separate single phase potential transformers connected as shown in Fig. The residual current I RS i.α) Φ = angle between I RS and VRs α = angle of maximum torque. Referring to (Fig. One to the coils is connected in residual current circuits (Ref. The torque is proportional to T = I RS * V RS * cos (Φ . V RS= V a + V b + V c Where V a . The characteristic of over-current relays include inverse time characteristic. This coil gets current during earth- faults.e.

6. that the primary current required operating the relay in front is always equal to or less than the primary current required operating the relay behind it. Frame leakage protection can be used for metal clad switchgear. A one-line diagram of the power system involved. Directional over-current relay and Directional Earth fault relay responds to fault in which power flow is in the set direction from the CT and PT locations. Since large scale tests are normally impracticable. per cent or per unit. Core balance CTs are used for earth-fault protection. It is usually more convenient to use a scale corresponding to the current expected at the lowest voltage base or to use the predominant voltage base. of all power transformers. 2. The maximum peak load current through protective devices. The relay settings are first determined so as to give the shortest operating times at maximum fault levels and then checked to see if operation will also be satisfactory at the minimum fault current expected. It is always advisable to plot the curves of relays and other protective devices. Decrement curves showing the rate of decay of the fault current supplied by the generators. on a common scale. The starting current requirements of motors and the starting and stalling times of induction motors. system analysis must be used. 9. The data required for a relay setting study are: 1. The basic rules for correct relay co-ordination can generally be stated as follows: 10. Make sure that the relay farthest from the source has current settings equal to or less than the relays behind it. Whenever possible. rotating machines and feeder circuits. Co-ordination Correct current relay application requires knowledge of the fault current that can flow in each part of the network. that are to operate in series. Such directional relays are used when power can flow from both directions to the fault point. . that is. It is generally sufficient to use machine transient reactance X'd and to work on the instantaneous symmetrical currents.or in residually connected secondary CT circuit. 4. 3. 8. such as fuses. showing the type and rating of the protective devices and their associated current transformers. 11. The maximum and minimum values of short circuit currents that are expected to flow through each protective device. PRINCIPLES OF TIME/CURRENT GRADING Among the various possible methods used to achieve correct relay co-ordination are those using either time or over current or a combination of both time and over-current. The alternatives are a common MVA base or a separate current scale for each system voltage. The impedances in ohms. 5. Performance curves of the current transformers. 7. use relays with the same operating characteristic in series with each other.

Typically. C. where the fault level (MVA) is highest. D and E have time to operate. typically.25s. the relay is sometimes described as an 'independent definite time delay relay' since its operating time is for practical purposes independent of the level of over current. Provided the setting of the current element is below the fault current value this element plays no part in the achievement of discrimination. Each protection unit comprises a definite time delay over current relay in which the operation of the current sensitive element simply initiates the time delay element. the relay at B will operate in 0.25s is adequate.The common aim of all three methods is to give correct discrimination. The main disadvantage of this method of discrimination is that the longest fault clearance time occurs for faults in the section closest to the power source. That is to say. each one must select and isolate only the faulty section of the power system network. For this reason. 21) to illustrate the principle. which provides the means of discrimination. 1. The relay at B is set at the shortest time delay permissible to allow a fuse to blow for a fault on the secondary side of trans-former A. 1. Discrimination by current Discrimination by current relies on the fact that the fault current varies with the position of the fault. therefore. a time delay of 0. D and E. at the infeed end of each section of the power system. leaving the rest of the system undisturbed. Discrimination by time In this method an appropriate time interval is given by each of the relays controlling the circuit breakers in a power system to ensure that the breaker nearest to the fault opens first. It is the time delay element. If a fault occurs at F. and the subsequent operation of the circuit breaker at B will clear the fault before the relays at C. because of the difference in impedance values between the source and the fault. A simple radial distribution system is shown in (Fig. Hence. the relays controlling the various circuit breakers are . that is. Circuit breaker protection is provided at B.

24 ohms Hence I=6350/0. there would be variations in the source fault level. 2. since the distance between these points can be only a few meters. the problem changes appreciably when there is significant impedance between the two circuit breakers concerned. This can be seen by considering the grading required between the circuit breakers at B and A in (Fig. (Fig. 22) illustrates the method. 1. 22).set to operate at suitably tapered values such that only the relay nearest to the fault trips its breaker. so a relay set at 8800 A would not protect any of the cable section concerned. For a fault at F1. Discrimination by current is therefore not a practical proposition for correct grading between the circuit breakers at C and B. . typically from 250 MVA to 130 MVA. However.1%. corresponding to a change in fault current of approximately 0. It is not practical to distinguish between a fault at Fl and a fault at F 2. In practice. However.725 = 8800 A So a relay controlling the circuit breaker at C and set to operate at a fault current of 8800 A would in simple theory protect the whole of the cable section between C and B.485 ohms ZL1= cable impedance between C and B = 0. At this lower fault level the fault current would not exceed 6800 A even for a cable fault close to C. there are two important practical points which affect this method of co- ordination. the system short circuit current is given by: I = 6350 /(Zs + ZL1) A Where Zs = source impedance = 112 / 250 = 0.

It is because of the limitations imposed by the independent use of either time or current co-ordination that the inverse time over current relay characteristic has evolved.Assuming a fault at F4. that is. the relay at B would operate correctly for faults anywhere on the 11 kV cable feeding the transformer. assuming a source fault level of 130 MVA: I = 6350 /(0. Assuming a safety margin of 20% to allow for relay errors and a further 10% for variations in the system impedance values.24 + 0.93 + 0.24 ohms ZL2 = cable impedance between B and 4 MVA transformer 0. assuming a fault at F3. the time of operation is inversely proportional to the fault current level and the actual characteristic is a function of both 'time' and 'current' . With this characteristic. the disadvantage is due to the fact that the more severe faults are cleared in the longest operating time.04 ohms ZT = transformer impedance =0.3 x 2200. In other words. it is reasonable to choose a relay setting of 1. Now. Alternatively. a relay controlling the circuit breaker at B and set to operate at a current of 2200 A plus a safety margin would not operate for a fault at F4 and would thus discriminate with the relay at A. for either value of source level. Discrimination by both time and current 3 Discrimination by both time and current Each of the two methods described so far has a fundamental disadvantage.12 ohms Hence I = 6350/ 2. In the case of discrimination by time alone.004)=5250 Amp.04)=8300 Amp. Discrimination by current can only be applied where there is appreciable impedance between the two circuit breakers concerned.485 + 0. 2860 A for the relay at B. at the end of the 11 kV cable feeding the 4 MVA transformers.07(112/4) =2.485 ohms ZL1 = cable impedance between C and B 0. the short-circuit current is given by: I = 6350 /(Zs + ZL1 + ZL2 +ZT) I = 6350 /(0. the short-circuit current is given by: I = 6350 /(Zs + ZL1 + ZL2 +ZT) A Where ZS = source impedance =112 / 250 = 0. that is.24 + 0.885 = 2200 A For this reason.

settings.5 % 132 kV overhead line percentage impedance on10 MVA base = (6.33% 11 kV cable between C and B percentage impedance on 10 MVA base = (0. In order to carry out a system analysis. we have: 4MVA transformer percentage impedance on 10MVA base=7X (10/4) =17.23) which is identical to that shown in (Fig. 23). before a relay co-ordination study of the system shown in (Fig. it is necessary to refer all the system impedances to a common base and thus.36% . The advantage of this method of relay Co-ordination may be best illustrated by the system shown in (Fig.98 % 30 MVA transformer percentage impedance on 10 MVA base =22.04 X 100 X 10) / 112= 0. using 10 MVA as the reference base.24 X 100 X10) /112 =1.5 X 10 / 30 =7.5% 11 kV cable between B and A percentage impedance on10 MVA base = (0.21) except that typical system parameters have been added.2x100x10)/ 1322 =0.

that is.29% The graph in (Fig.33+1. and at a time multiplier setting of 0. 250 A and 4. The operating characteristics of the CDG 14 relay show that at a plug setting of 100%.3kV circuit. This relay must discriminate with the 200A fuse at fault levels up to: (10 x 100) / (17. In this example. Substation C CT ratio 500/5A Relay over current characteristic assumed to be extremely inverse.3kV or 1880 A at 11 kV.2.23) illustrates the use of 'discrimination curves'.5+0.36+0.29) = 35. Once the operating characteristic of the highest rated 3. 132 kV source percentage impedance on 10 MVA base = (100 x 10) /3500 =0.3kV has been chosen and the first curve plotted is that of the 200 A fuse.3kV fuse has been plotted. the grading of the over current relays at the various sub-stations of the radial system is carried out as follows: Substation B CT ratio 250/5A Relay over current characteristic assumed to be extremely inverse. as for the type CDG 14 relay. a voltage base of 3.76 MVA at 11 kV.98+7.7 MVA That is. 6260 A at 3.5+0. which is assumed to protect the largest outgoing 3. suitable discrimination with the 200 A fuse is achieved. This relay must discriminate with the relay in substation . which are an important aid to satisfactory protection co-ordination. as for the type CDG 14 relay.

29) = 98.3kV or 5180 A at 11 kV.36 +0.7.98 +7. B at fault levels up to: (10 X 100) / (1.52 MVA at 11 kV. and at a time multiplier setting of 0. that is. 500 A and 9. suitable discrimination with the relay at substation B is achieved. 17.5 +0. The operating characteristics of the CDG 14 relay show that at a plug setting of 100%.280 A at 3.7MVA That is. .

This relay must discriminate with the relay in substation C . as for the type CDG 14 relay. (Fig.23) Time and current grading Substation D CT ratio 150/1A Relay over current characteristic assumed to be extremely inverse.

65 0. 21. that is.500 A at 3. as for the type CDG 14 relay. suitable discrimination with the relay at sub- station D is achieved.000 A at 3.3kV or 6750 A at 132 kV.3kV or 538 A at 132 kV. This relay must discriminate with the relay in substation D at fault levels up to: (10 x 100) / (0. and at a time multiplier setting of 0. 500 A and 114 MVA at 132 kV.7 0.12 Fig. 270.29) = 1540 MVA That is.07 .05 0.07 C 123 0.9.36 + 0. Substation E CT ratio 500/1 A Relay over current characteristic assumed to be extremely inverse. These differences can be summarized as follows: Relay Fault Time from Time from level Fig. 23) at the maximum fault level reveals significant differences.36+0.2 MVA at 132 kV and at a time multiplier setting of 0. The operating characteristics of the CDG 14 relay show that at a plug setting of 100%. that is. 21) and the times obtained from the discrimination curves of (Fig.29) = 123 MVA That is. The operating characteristics of the CDG 14 relay show that at a plug setting of 100%. suitable discrimination with the relay at substation C is achieved.5 + 0.14 (MVA) (seconds) (seconds) B 98. A comparison between the relay operating times shown in (Fig. 150 A and 34.25 fault levels up to (10 X 100) / (7.33 D 1540 1.

25 These figures show that for faults close to the relaying points the inverse time characteristic can achieve appreciable reductions in fault clearance times. reductions in fault clearance times are still obtained.17 0.7 0.39 0.7 0. Relay Fault level Time from Average (Max.25/0.7/35.07/0.14 (MVA) (seconds) B 35.45 0.86 0.7 0.86 E 1540 0./ Min) B 98.17 C 98.14 time MVA) (seconds) (seconds) (Max. as shown by the following table: Relay Fault level Time from Fig.42 0./Min Fig.7 0. and to compare these with the operating time shown in (Fig. Even for faults at the remote ends of the protected sections.465 E 3500/1540 0.12 C 123/98. E 3500 1.375 D 1540/123 0.21) for the definite time over current relay.39 To finalize the co-ordination study it is instructive to assess the average operating time for each extremely inverse over current relay at its maximum and minimum fault levels.32 This comparison clearly shows that when there is a large variation in fault level all along the system network the overall performance of the inverse time over current relay is far superior to that of the definite over current relay. 4 GRADING MARGIN .33/0.07/0.42 D 123 0.

2. . The overshoot time is not the actual time during which some forward operation takes place. Circuit breaker interrupting time The circuit breaker interrupting the fault must have completely interrupted the current before the discriminating relay ceases to be energized. Relay grading and setting is carried out assuming the accuracy of the calibration curves published by manufacturers. Errors. however. The time interval between the operations of two adjacent relays depends upon a number of factors: 1. operation may continue for a little longer until any stored energy has been dissipated. Overshoot When the relay is de-energized. The fault current interrupting time of the circuit breaker. some tolerance must be allowed. B. but the time which would have been required by the relay if still energized to achieve the same amount of operational advance. The operating time characteristic of either or both relays involved in the grading may have a positive or negative error. but since some error is to be expected. A. an induction disc relay will have stored kinetic energy in the motion of the disc. The overshoot time of the relay. For example. which can have phase and ratio errors due to the exciting current required to magnetize their core. C. apply to independent definite time delay over current relays. This does not. as may the current transformers. 3. 4. Errors All measuring devices such as relays and current transformers are subject to some degree of error. Final margin on completion of operation. Relay design is directed to minimizing and absorbing these energies. but some allowance is usually necessary. static relay circuits may have energy stored in capacitors.

it is first assumed that each inverse time over current relay complies with Error Class E7. A value of 0. Some extra allowance. which shall be considered to be slow.1 s for the safety margin.5 defined as normal British practice in BS 142:1966.05s for the relay over-shoot time and 0. Recommended time The total amount to be allowed to cover the above items depends on the operating speed of the circuit breakers and the relay performance. D. while under the best possible conditions 0.25t + 0. to allow for the operating time of the circuit breaker and relay overshoot. or safety margin. made up of 0.5s was a normal grading margin.5% but allowance should also be made for the effects of temperature. and to add to it a variable time value that takes into account the relay errors. this to apply to the relay nearest to the fault.4s is reasonable. 0. Hence.5 relay are ±7.5. and departure from reference setting. rather than using a fixed grading margin. that is. Final margin After the above allowances have been made.35s may be feasible. E. At one time 0.25s is chosen for the fixed time value. the CT errors and the safety margin. frequency. With faster modern circuit breakers and lower relay overshoot times 0. A practical approximation is to assume a total effective error of 2 x 7.1 s for the fault current interrupting time of the circuit breaker. 15%. To this total effective error for the relay a further 10% should be added for the overall current transformer error. In some instances. Considering next the variable time values required. the discriminating relay must just fail to complete its operation. for the time interval t' required between inverse time over current relays it is proposed to adopt the equation: t' = 0.25 seconds . The normal limits of error for an E7. is required to ensure that a satisfactory contact gap (or equivalent) remains. however. it is better to adopt a fixed time value.

The normal limits of error for an El 0 relay are ± 10%. frequency and departure from reference setting. OVER CURRENT RELAY (TYPE CDG 11) Limits of accuracy have been considered by various national committees and (Fig.25) illustrate the application of such a relay to a sectioned radial feeder. unlike the inverse time over current relay. 20%. that is. it is not necessary to add a further error for the current transformers. A practical approximation is to assume a total effective error of 2 x 10.M.25 seconds Where t = nominal operating time of relay nearest to the fault. However. which shall be considered to be slow.2t + 0. voltage. Where t = nominal operating time of relay nearer to the fault.24) shows a typical example of the limits set by the British Standards Institution specification BS 142:1966 for the standard inverse definite minimum time over current relay. this can only be achieved by improving the limits of accuracy. which are in this situation disproportionately large when compared with the clearance time of modern circuit breakers. nearest to the fault.T. this to apply to the relay.5s. defined as normal British practice in BS 142:1966. it will be seen that with the assumed relay settings and the tolerances allowed in BS 142:1966 the permissible grading margin between the over current relays at each section breaker is approximately 0. it is assumed that these comply with Error Class El 0.D. Hence. for the time interval t' required between independent definite time delay over current relays. As far as the independent definite time delay over-current relays are concerned. v STANDARD I. It is therefore necessary to reduce the time errors. it is proposed to adopt the equation: t' = 0. in order to minimize damage. pick-up and overshoot . With the increase in system fault current it is desirable to shorten the clearance time for faults near the power source. but allowance should also be made for the effects of temperature. The discriminating curves shown in (Fig.

(Fig. in other words. and the construction must remain simple with the minimum number of moving parts. While these requirements present considerable difficulties in manufacture.00E NOTE: The allowance error in operating time should not be less than 100ms All this must be obtained without detriment to the general performance of the relay.5% TIME/CURRENT CHARACTERISTIC ALLOWABLE LIMIT At 2 times setting 222E At 5 times setting 1.13E At 10 times setting 1. the progress made in the GEC Measurements relays has made it possible to discriminate more closely by reducing the margin between both the current and the time setting of the relays on adjacent breakers. 24) Typical limits of accuracy set by BS 142: 1966 for an inverse Definite Minimum Time over current relay NORMAL BRITISH PRACTICE ACCURACY CLASS E7. . owing to variations in materials and practical tolerances.01E At 20 times setting 1. there must be no reduction in the operating torque or weakening of the damper magnets or contact pressures.

Web address: http://www.25) application of an IDMT over current relay to a sectioned Radial feeder These relays will thus enable the time setting of the relay nearest the power source to be reduced. alternatively. make it possible to increase the number of breakers in series without increasing the time setting of the relays at the power source. .(Fig.sayedsaad.