This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

### Publishers

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

Edition II

© Copyright MMVII T&D PowerSkills, LLC 5501-A John Eskew Blvd. Alexandria, LA 71303 866-880-1380 All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of T&D PowerSkills, LLC. Printed in the United States of America

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 1

T&D PowerSkills

General Guidelines for Students

This training unit is composed of a DVD and associated Student Manual. The DVD contains one Course. The course is divided into Lessons, where each Lesson consists of a number of Topics. The number of Lessons and Topics will vary with each course.

**Recommended Sequence of Instruction
**

1. After the instructor’s introductory remarks, read the segment objectives found in the block at the beginning of the first segment. 2. Briefly discuss the segment objectives with the instructor and other class members. 3. View the first segment of the DVD. 4. Read the text segment that corresponds to the first segment of the DVD. 5. Answer the questions at the end of the text segment. Check your answers with the correct answers provided by the instructor. 6. Participate in a class discussion of the material just covered. Ask any questions you might have concerning the material in the DVD and the text, and note any additional information given by the instructor. 7. Before proceeding, be sure you understand the concepts presented in this segment. 8. Work through all segments in this manner. 9. A Course Test covering all the material will be administered by the instructor upon completion of the unit. 10. Additional instruction and testing may be provided, at the instructor’s discretion.

This T&D PowerSkills workbook is designed to be used in conjunction with the associated training DVD/video. OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot

OSHA Regulations, primarily in 1926.955, 1910.269 and 1910.268 will be used in conjunction with this training unit. Where applicable, regulations will be highlighted and placed in a box like this. Instructors and students are expected to review the current OSHA Regulations to familiarize the student with the safety requirements expected by USDOL OSHA, specifically as they relate to the topic being discussed. This information is an important part of this training unit.

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 2

**Field Performance Requirements (FPR)
**

NAME: _____________________________ #___________ Complete Incomplete SECTION: Maintenance Basics UNIT(S):

VG ACC NI NA = = = = Very Good Acceptable Needs Improvement Not Able to Complete on this Crew

Alternating Current Fundamentals

REQUIREMENTS

**SUPERVISOR SIGN-OFF
**

VG ACC NI NA

SEGMENT 1 – ALTERNATING CURRENT 1.1 Can explain the differences between direct current and alternating current ……………………………………………………………………..

SEGMENT 2 – INDUCTANCE 2.1 2.2 Can define inductance and inductive reactance ……………………… Can differentiate between in-phase and out-of-phase current flow …

SEGMENT 3 – CAPACITANCE 3.1 Can describe the effects of capacitance on current and voltage .….

SEGMENT 4 – AC POWER 4.1 Can differentiate among true power, reactive power and apparent power ……………………………………………………………………..

SEGMENT 5 – SINGLE –PHASE AND THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 5.1 Can describe the difference between single-phase and three-phase AC systems ……………………………………….………………………. 5.2 Can differentiate between delta-connected and wye-connected three-phase AC systems ………………………………………………..

______________________________ ______________________________ _______________ Employee’s Signature Supervisor’s Signature Date

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 3

Performance Notes:

_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

1910.269(a)(2)(vii) as of July, 2006: The employer shall certify that each employee has received the training required by paragraph (a)(2) of this section. This certification shall be made when the employee demonstrates proficiency in the work practices involved and shall be maintained for the duration of the employee’s employment. Note: Employment records that indicate that an employee has received the required training are an acceptable means of meeting this requirement.

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 1.3 4.2 2. 5.1 4. 2. and Effective Values Inductance Inductance and Inductive Reactance Factors That Affect Inductive Reactance Effects of Inductance on Current and Voltage Capacitance Capacitors Effects of Capacitance on Current and Voltage AC Power True Power Reactive Power Apparent Power Power Factor Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems Single-Phase Systems Three-Phase Systems Delta Connections Wye Connections Title 7 7 11 14 16 16 18 20 24 25 27 31 31 32 35 36 38 39 40 41 42 Page T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 5 .2.3 2.1 5.1 1.2 4. 3.1 3.1 2.2 5. 4.2.3 3.2 1.4 5. 1. Peak-to-Peak Values.2 4.2 Alternating Current Current Flow and Polarity Sine Waves Peak Values.1 5.

and reactive Power in a Purely Inductive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage. and True Power in a Purely Resistive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 3-1 3-2 3-3 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 Title Simple DC Current Simplified AC Generator Rotation of a Conductor Induced Voltage Graph Voltage and Current Sine Waves Magnetic Field Around a Conductor Magnetic Fields Around a Coiled Conductor Metal Core Placed Inside Coil Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Resistive Circuit Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Inductive Circuit Simplified Capacitor Charging a Capacitor Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Capacitive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage. Current. and Reactive Power in a Purely Capacitive Circuit Circuit for Apparent Power Simplified Single-Phase System Simplified Three-Phase System Simplified Three-Wire System Delta-Connected Three-Phase System Wye-Connected Three-Phase System T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 6 Page 8 9 10 & 11 12 13 17 19 20 21 22 25 26 29 32 33 34 36 38 39 40 41 42 . Current. Current.

In a DC circuit. • Define peak value. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 7 .1 Current Flow and Polarity There are two types of current: direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). and what factors affect the operation and maintenance of AC equipment such as motors. • Explain what frequency is and how it is measured. current flows first in one direction. and principles associated with alternating current. current flow is always in one direction. and communications equipment. peak-to-peak value. Emphasis is placed on what alternating current is. stops. 1. In an AC circuit. Alternating Current Most of the electrical equipment used today operates on alternating current (AC). then flows in the opposite direction. concepts. • Explain how current flow and polarity change in AC circuits. how it works. The purpose of this training unit is to review significant terms. and effective value with respect to AC voltage and current.ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS 1. Alternating Current OBJECTIVES: • Explain the differences between direct current and alternating current. 1. lights.

Their positions do not change. on the other hand. Their polarity changes periodically. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 8 . one negative and one positive. One way of referring to this is to say that a DC power source has fixed polarity. do not have fixed polarity. The negative terminal in this.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. As the polarity of the power source changes. The power source is a battery and the load is a resistor. The battery has two terminals. Figure 1-1. It has two important parts – a power source and a load. the direction of the current it produces also changes. to the positive terminal. and all other DC power sources. through the circuit. When a power source has fixed polarity. is always the same terminal and the positive terminal is always the opposite terminal. Simple DC Circuit Simple DC Circuit AC power sources. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 1-1 shows a simple DC circuit. the current it produces always flows in the same direction. The current flow is always in this direction. Current flows from the negative terminal.

Because the conductor moves in a circular pattern. without the slip rings or brushes. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 2-1 shows a simplified AC generator. they slide against the brushes as the conductor rotates. its rotation can be demonstrated by using the 360 degrees that make up a circle. Current produced by the generated voltage could flow through the brushes and through a circuit connected to the generator. each half of the loop cuts through the magnetic lines of flux.) The relative motion occurs when the conductor is rotated through the magnetic field. a loop of wire is the conductor. the lines are shown as straight lines. Figure 1-2. which shows an end view of the conductor. the slip rings are attached to the ends of the conductor. and relative motion. The three requirements for inducing voltage are: a conductor.) When the conductor turns. This generator produces voltage by means of induction. they are curved. a magnetic field. (For simplicity. (The north and south poles of the magnet are visible in the figure.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. Simplified AC Generator The magnetic field. first in one direction and then in the opposite direction. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 9 . is made up of a number of lines of flux. In this generator. indicated by the blue lines in Figure 1-2. This simplified generator has two more components: slip rings and brushes. For ease of explanation. the two ends of the conductor have been labeled X and Y. This movement is illustrated in Figure 1-3. and the magnetic field is provided by a permanent magnet. Actually.

the conductor is cutting through no lines of flux. so the induced voltage increases. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 10 . Maximum voltage is induced at the instant that the conductor reaches the 90-degree point. the ends of the conductor are not cutting across any of the lines of flux. voltage is being induced. no voltage is induced. so the induced voltage decreases. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 1-3 Rotation of Conductor At zero degrees. the conductor cuts fewer and fewer flux lines. Since there is no relative motion between the conductor and the magnetic field. while the Y end of the conductor cuts the magnetic field in an upward direction. When the conductor reaches 180 degrees. As the conductor moves toward 90 degrees. As rotation continues towards 180 degrees. As the conductor starts to rotate. Now. more and more flux lines are cut. the X end of the conductor begins to cut the magnetic field in a downward direction. so no voltage is induced.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1.

voltage begins decreasing. it is again cutting the maximum number of flux lines. Alternating Current (continued) At 180 degrees. or the direction in which a magnetic field cuts a conductor. determines the polarity of the voltage that is induced. The X end of the conductor starts cutting the magnetic field in an upward direction. no voltage is induced. because no flux lines are being cut.2 Sine Waves The direction in which a conductor cuts a magnetic field. When the conductor completes its rotation. so maximum voltage is induced. At the instant that the conductor reaches 270 degrees. at 360 degrees. the polarity changes. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 11 . From 180 to 270 degrees. the conductor once again cuts through more and more lines of flux. while the Y end cuts the field in a downward direction.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. as easy method of showing how the polarity changes is to use a graph. As rotation continues from 270 degrees to 360 degrees. because the conductor is cutting through few and fewer lines of flux. 1.

the induced voltage reaches its maximum positive value. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 12 . the horizontal line also represents the time that elapses as the voltage changes. As the conductor rotates toward 90 degrees. and voltage that is below the horizontal line is negative. voltage decreases. no flux lines are being cut. so no voltage is induced. voltage increases in the negative direction. voltage is again zero. the conductor starts to cut across the flux lines in the opposite direction. From 90 degrees to 180 degrees. At this point. Voltage that is on the horizontal line is neither positive nor negative – it is zero. Induced Voltage Graph At zero degrees. At 90 degrees. voltage decreases again. because the conductor cuts across fewer and fewer lines of flux. At 180 degrees. it reaches its maximum negative value. so voltage increases. Voltage that is above the horizontal line is positive. At 270 degrees. From 180 degrees to 270 degrees. it reaches its maximum negative direction. From 270 degrees to 360 degrees. the conductor is not cutting through the magnetic fields. At 360 degrees.) Figure 1-4. (On this graph. the vertical line of the graph represents the magnitude of the induced voltage.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. more and more lines of flux are cut. because the conductor is not cutting across any flux lines. so no voltage is induced. At 270 degrees. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 1-4 is a graph that represents the voltage induced as the conductor in Figure 1-3 makes a complete rotation through the magnetic field.

both voltage and current are again zero. Finally. If the simplified generator shown in Figure 1-2 were part of a complete circuit. Voltage and Current Sine Waves When the conductor is at zero degrees. voltage and current increase. a current sine wave has been added to the voltage sine wave shown in Figure 1-4. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 13 . both voltage and current decrease. The current sine wave represents current flow through the complete circuit. sine waves are often used to plot electrical quantities. so no current can flow. voltage and current decrease. From 180 degrees to 270 degrees. As rotation continues. it is just a smooth rise and fall. as the conductor moves from 270 to 360 degrees. Alternating Current (continued) The type of graph shown n Figure 1-4 is called a sinusoidal curve. reaching their maximum negative values at 270 degrees. no voltage is induced. as the conductor begins to rotate. At 180 degrees. Figure 1-5. no voltage is induced. so no current flows. a sine curve. the induced voltage would cause current to flow. Both voltage and current reach their maximum values at 90 degrees. At 360 degrees.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. A sine wave has no sharp bens or straight portions. In Figure 1-5. voltage and current increase in the negative direction. or a sine wave.

it completes a cycle. The reason for using effective values instead of peak values is that alternating current does not maintain a constant value. they discovered that one ampere. peak value. The amount of voltage or current represented by the distance between the positive peak and the negative peak is called the peak-to-peak value. Sixty cycles per second can. which refers to the mathematical formula used to determine effective values. Effective values for AC are often called RMS values. be referred to as 60 hertz.707 amperes of direct current. all AC values are RMS (effective) values. Frequency is measured in units called hertz. and Effective Values The amount of voltage or current at the maximum positive or negative point on a sine wave is called the peak value of the voltage or current. Peak values and peak-to-peak values are not commonly used for AC current or voltage except when designing AC equipment (for example. When scientists conducted tests to find the exact relationship between peak AC values and DC values. of alternating current produces the same heating effect as . The formula itself is not important here. A peak AC value is not equivalent to a DC value with the same numbers: 120 volts peak AC voltage is not the same as 120 volts DC. This relationship. What is important is to understand that RMS values are used to rate operating voltages on almost all AC equipment. Peak-to-Peak Values. effective values are use. Effective AC values are equal to peak AC values multiplied by . Most often. The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage is called frequency.3 Peak Values. the insulating rating on equipment is based on peak voltage). In summary. It does not build up to a peak and then stay there. Alternating Current (continued) In this example. each time the conductor rotates a full 360 degrees.707. Peak AC values and peak-to-peak AC values are related as follows: Peak-to peak = 2 x peak And RMS values are related to peak values like this: RMS = Peak x . Unless the data plate on a meter or piece of equipment indicates otherwise. In a typical AC power system. 60 cycles are completed every second. Most meters read RMS values. RMS stands for root-mean-square. therefore. Peak values occur twice in each cycle: once positive and once negative.707 T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 14 . which applies to both current and voltage (because voltage produces current) is the basis for effective values. too. like direct current does. 1.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. or 60 Hz.

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 15 . Circle the correct answer. a. The conductor stops moving No voltage is induced Maximum voltage is induces None of the above True or False. ___________________________________ b. 1-4. 1-2. When a conductor rotating in a magnetic field is cutting through the maximum number of flux lines. The letters used to express effective AC values are __________________. List the three requirements for inducing a voltage. 1-5. 1-6. c. Alternating Current (continued) Questions 1-1. ___________________________________ c.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. ___________________________________ 1-3. a. voltage below the horizontal line is negative The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage is called (a) _____________ and is measured in (b) ______________. b. When a sine wave is used to represent voltage. d. The ____________ of an AC power source changes periodically.

Inductance is covered i this section. 2. it is measured in ohms. Like DC current. It is measured in units called henrys. The symbol for inductance is a capital L. however. capacitance is covered in Section 3. like resistance. in henrys T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 16 . limits current flow.1 Inductance and Inductive Reactance Inductance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes any change in current flow. but AC current is also affected by inductance and capacitance. AC current is affected by voltage and resistance.14 f is the frequency. is affected by additional factors. Ohm’s Law states that current is equal to voltage divided by resistance. Explain how inductive reactance limits current flow. can be calculated by using the following formula: XL = 2 π f L where: π is the constant 3. Ohm’s Law holds true for all applications. Inductance OBJECTIVES: • • • Define inductance and inductive reactance. Differentiate between in-phase and our-of-phase currents and voltages.AC FUNDAMENTALS 2. AC current. The common symbol for inductive reactance is XL. Since inductive reactance. The value of inductive reactance. in hertz L is the inductance. Inductive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by inductance. which must be taken into account. because the only two factors that affect DC current are resistance and voltage. in ohms. In DC circuits.

Inductance To understand how inductive reactance limits current flow. whenever there is a conductor. Current flow is actually limited by an induced voltage that opposes the applied voltage.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. more commonly. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 17 . This induced voltage is called counter voltage or. the induced voltage. And. as the magnetic field builds up. is counter electromotive force. there is relative motion between it and the conductor. a magnetic field. The magnetic field continues to expand outward from the center of the conductor until the current that is producing it reaches its peak value. Because the CEMF opposes the applied voltage. When voltage is applied to a conductor. In this case. its motion induces a voltage in the conductor. Figure 2-1 Magnetic Field Around a Conductor Conductor While the magnetic field is building up. current starts to flow through the conductor. Since the current-carrying conductor is inducing a voltage in itself. counter electromotive force (CEMF). The current flow causes a magnetic field to build up around the conductor. because the field itself is moving. it limits current. Counter electromotive force is caused by self-induction. as shown in Figure 2-1. it is first necessary t understand a process call self-induction. the process is called self-induction. and relative motion. voltage is induced. which is opposite in polarity to the applied voltage. which is the induction of voltage i a conductor by AC current following through that same conductor.

When the magnetic field has collapsed completely. The motion of the magnetic field collapsing is opposite to the motion of the field building up. So.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. the self-induction is also opposite. there is no motion and therefore. The basis behind both of these factors is that the number of lines of flux that cut a conductor affects the amount of inductive reactance. Then. if current is trying to increase. it decreases until it reaches zero. the induced voltage aid the applied voltage. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 18 . The decreasing current causes the magnetic field to collapse. anything that decreases the number of magnetic lines of flux cutting a conductor decreases the inductive reactance. Likewise. the magnetic field also changes. the magnetic field again builds up. inductive reactance can be increased by coiling a conductor. this time with the opposite polarity. For example. as the current again increases towards its peak value. if current is trying to decrease. It can be increased even more by placing a metal core inside the coil. the induced voltage opposes the applied voltage. Anything that increases the number of magnetic lines of flux cutting a conductor increases the inductive reactance. no self-induction. The voltage that is induced in the conductor by the changing magnetic field is always in such a direction as to oppose the current change. 2. Inductance After the current flowing through the conductor reaches its peak value.2 Factors that affect Inductive Reactance There are several factors that affect the amount of inductive reactance – the amount that current flow is limited by inductance – in a circuit. Since the motion is opposite. The voltage that is induced in the conductor now has the same polarity as the applied voltage. Whenever there is a change in the current.

as shown in Figure 2-2. the higher the inductive reactance will be. Figure 2-2. In a coiled conductor. Inductance A conductor that is wound into a coil provides more inductive reactance than a straight conductor. The more turns there are in the coil. Magnetic Fields Around a Coiled Conductor T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 19 .AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. A straight conductor is cut only once by its magnetic field when the magnetic field changes. the magnetic field from each turn cuts across the other turns.

2. as shown in Figure 2-3. Any inductance in the circuit was considered to be so small that it was insignificant. Inductance The inductive reactance that a coil provides can be further increased by placing a metal core inside the coil. a change in inductive reactance also means a change i current. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 20 . and decreasing the inductive reactance increases the current.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. Figure 2-3.3 Effects of Inductance on Current and Voltage The current and voltage sine waves shown in Section 1 were associated with a circuit that had only resistance as a current-limiting factor. The magnetic field produced by the coil is concentrated and directed by the metal core. Metal Core Placed Inside Coil Since inductive reactance limits current. also more line of flux cut across the conductor as current changes. the term ”purely resistive” means that resistance is the only factor that limits current flow. Increasing the inductive reactance decreases the current. Such a circuit is called a purely resistive circuit.

when voltage increases. they are said to be in phase. Since voltage and current stay together. Figure 2-4. Figure 2-4 shows in-phase voltage and current sine waves for a purely resistive circuit. Inductance In purely resistive circuits. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Resistive Circuit T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 21 . always increasing or decreasing in the same direction at the same time.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. current also increases.

because there is always some resistance in a circuit. inductance causes voltage and current to be out of phase. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Inductive Circuit In a purely inductive circuit. Inductance Figure 2-5 shows sine waves for voltage and current in a purely inductive circuit. current does not change right away. there is no circuit that is purely inductive. the increase in current takes place later than the increase in voltage. it can be said that current lags behind voltage by 90 degrees during the entire cycle. Therefore. the idea of a purely inductive circuit is helpful in understanding the effects of inductance on the relationship between voltage and current. A purely inductive circuit is a circuit that has only inductive reactance as a current-limiting factor. In a purely inductive circuit. when voltage starts to increase. When voltage starts to decrease the induced voltage opposes a decrease in current. Because the changes in current always take place later than the changes in voltage. Actually.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. they are said to be out of phase. Whenever voltage and current increase and decrease at different time. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 22 . the decrease in current takes place later than the decrease in voltage. However. The counter EMF keeps current from increasing immediately. Therefore. Figure 2-5.

Whenever voltage and current increase or decrease at different times. The magnetic field around the conductor is building up b. When current flowing through a conductor is increasing.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. they are said to be _______________. Circle the correct answer. 2-7 T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 23 . a. The magnetic field around the conductor is collapsing c. ______________________ is the only currentlimiting factor. 2-6 ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 2-2. b. Inductance Questions 2-1 The physical property of all AC circuits that opposes any change in ___________ is called inductance. _________________________ is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by inductance. 2-3 2-4 2-5 In a purely inductive circuit. No voltage is induced d. There is no magnetic field around the conductor True or False. a. List two ways to increase inductive reactance in an AC circuit. When CEMF opposes the applied voltage in an AC circuit. it has the effect of increasing current.

in hertz C in the capacitance. additional capacitance can be added to that circuit to bring current flow up to the level that is needed. as will be explained in this section. the effects of capacitance are not the same as the effects of inductance. in farads The effects of capacitance. The device used to do this is called a capacitor. However. when the inductance in a circuit would limit current flow more than a desirable amount. can be calculated by using the following formula: XC = 1 ÷ 2 π f C where: π is the constant 3. Name the basic components of a capacitor.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. For example. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 24 . like the effects of inductance. is measured in ohms. In fact. in ohms. Explain the effects of capacitance o current and voltage. Capacitance and capacitive reactance are related in the same way that inductance and inductive reactance are related. like inductive reactance. capacitance is often added to AC circuits to counter the effects of inductance. The value of capacitive reactance. Capacitive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance. The common symbol for capacitive reactance is XC . Capacitance OBJECTIVES: • • • Define capacitance and capacitive reactance. Capacitive reactance. Capacitance is measured in units called farads. The symbol for capacitance is a capital C. Capacitance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage.14 f is the frequency. cause current and voltage to be out of phase.

Figure 3-1 Simplified Capacitor Dialectric (insulating material) Conducting Plates OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot 1910. In fact.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. It has three main components: two plates and an insulator. 3. The purpose of the dielectric is to keep electrons from flowing from one plate to the other. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 25 . the two conductors act like capacitor plates.333 (as of January. The specific safety-related work practices shall be consistent with the nature and extent of the associated electrical hazards. The dielectric can be made of any good insulating material. which is called a dielectric. air acts as a dielectric whenever two conductors are side-by-side for any significant distance. A simplified capacitor is shown in Figure 3-1. when work is performed near or on equipment or circuits which are or may be energized. including air. (a) General.1 Capacitance Capacitors Capacitors are devices that store energy. Safety-related work practices shall be employed to prevent electric shock or other injuries resulting from either direct or indirect electrical contacts. 2007) Selection and use of work practices.

Charging a capacitor requires connecting it to a power source.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. the negatively charged electrons on the first plate force electrons away from the second plate. The electrons that are forced away from the positive plate flow back to the power source. Therefore. electrons flow from the power source to one of the capacitor’s plates. it has to have energy supplied to it. as show in Figure 3-2. When the power source is turned on and the switch is closed. because the dielectric keeps them from getting to the other plate. Figure 3-2. This plate thus has an excess of electrons. Charging a Capacitor A/C Power Source Switch T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 26 . Capacitance Before a capacitor can store energy. so it becomes negatively charged. The process of supplying energy to a capacitor is called charging. Since like charges repel each other. The electrons stay on the negative plate. the second plate becomes positively charged.

For any given voltage. the capacitance. Since the source voltage and the voltage across the capacitor are equal. short-circuited. If the cases of capacitors are on ungrounded substation racks.2 Effects of Capacitance on Current and Voltage When a capacitor is being charged. Each electron that is added to the negative plate makes that plate more negative.269 (w) (as of February. each unit in series-parallel capacitor banks shall be short-circuited between all terminals and the capacitor case or its rack. In most cases. a difference in potential develops across it. the voltage across the capacitor increases until it is equal to the source voltage. and the flow of the capacitor. As the capacitor continues to be charged. and the positive plate has lost the same number of electrons. and each electron that leaves the positive plate makes that plate more positive. or simply. it can be said that voltage builds up across a capacitor as it is charged. If the dielectric breaks down. (iii) Any line to which capacitors are connected shall be short-circuited before it is considered deenergized. 3. Capacitance The flow of electrons from the power source to the negatively charged plate of the capacitor. 2007) Special conditions. but opposite in polarity. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 27 .AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. the negative plate has gained a certain number of electrons. OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot 1910. At this point. the dielectric could break down. the capacitor is fully charged. the racks shall be bonded to ground. the capacitors shall be disconnected from energized sources and. they have the effect of canceling each other out. and the current stops flowing. the specific number of electrons that the negative plate can hold is called the capacity of the capacitor. (1) Capacitors. and the flow of electrons from the positively charged plate of the capacitor back to the power source continues until the peak voltage is reached. current can flow through the capacitor from one plate to the other. As a result. (i) Before employees work on capacitors. The polarity of this voltage is such that it opposes the source voltage. two many electrons will be forced onto the negative plate. Since a difference in potential is voltage. The following additional requirements apply to work on capacitors and on lines connected to capacitors. current flowing through a capacitor will destroy the capacitor. (ii) Before the units are handled. If too much voltage is supplied to a capacitor. When the peak voltage is reached. after a wait of at least 5 minutes from the time of disconnection. Knowing the capacity of a capacitor is important.

but with the opposite polarity. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 28 . the capacitor is completely charged in the opposite direction. When the source voltage reaches zero. When the source voltage reaches zero again. the opposing voltage has built up to the same value (but opposite polarity). as the source voltage rises from zero. the opposing voltage is at its peak value. so current is zero. it again begins to increase toward its peak value. After the source voltage reaches zero. current flow is maximum in the opposite direction. current flow is maximum in the opposite direction. Current now flows in the opposite direction. because they do not increase and decrease in the same direction at the same time. Current and voltage are out of phase. the changes in current take place ahead of the changes in voltage. At the beginning of the cycle. The capacitor is again being charged. the source voltage and the opposing voltage have the effect of canceling each other out. By the time the source voltage reaches its peak positive value. During the whole cycle. After the source voltage passes its peak. Capacitance When the source voltage passes its peak. the capacitor again starts to discharge. and current flow is again zero.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. current is at its peak positive value. Discharging is the reverse of charging: electrons flow onto the positively charged plate and electrons leave the negatively charged plate. but in the opposite direction. At this point. The sine waves show in Figure 3-3 indicates the relationship between the source voltage and the current that is produced during a full AC cycle in a purely capacitive circuit. the capacitor starts to discharge. When the source voltage reaches its peak value.

changes in current always occur ahead of changes in voltage. current leads voltage by 90 degrees. Another way to say this is to say that in a capacitive circuit. capacitance causes current and voltage to be out of phase. Capacitance Figure 3-3. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Capacitive Circuit The sine waves shown in Figure 3-3 represent the behavior of source voltage and current in a purely capacitive circuit – that is a circuit in which resistance and inductance have no significant effects. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 29 .AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. Capacitance is the only factor that affects current and voltage. In a purely capacitive circuit. Because capacitance opposes a change in voltage.

it must first be ______________________. 3-3. 3-7. the source voltage and the voltage across the capacitor are equal in amount but opposite in polarity. Circle the correct answer. c.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. Notes: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 30 . Capacitance Questions 3-1. Capacitive reactance is measured in ___________________. Capacitance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage. 3-6. b. True or False. Capacitance causes (a) ______________ (b) _______________ to be out of phase. What is capacitive reactance? 3-2. Before a capacitor can store energy. A dielectric in a capacitor: a. d. 3-4. When a capacitor is fully charged. True or False. Increases the flow of protons to the positive terminal Keeps electrons from flowing from one plate to the other Aids electrons in their flow from positive to negative Decreases the number of electrons on any plate 3-5.

The power used in a purely resistive circuit is true power.1 True Power True power in an AC circuit is the power actually used to do work. (A “purely resistive” AC circuit is one in which inductance and capacitance are not large enough to be significant. so AC power calculations can be much more complicated than DC calculations. Explain how power factor is used in calculating true power in AC Circuits. so the only factors that affect DC power are current. AC Power OBJECTIVES: • • Differentiate between true power. and resistance. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 31 . voltage. and true power waves for a purely resistive circuit. power is equal to voltage times current (P=EI). reactive power. 4.) Figure 4-1 shows simplified voltage. there are three different kinds of power in AC circuits: true power. Because inductance and capacitance cause AC current and voltage to be out of phase. however. current. In AC circuits. The only factor that limits current in a DC circuit is resistance. inductance and capacitance must also be considered. and apparent power. and apparent power. In DC circuits.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. reactive power.

is power that is returning to a power source from a load.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. their product. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 32 . the. Current. Reactive Power Reactive power is the type of power that is found in a purely inductive circuit or a purely capacitive circuit. they are both positive at the same time and negative at the same time. Since voltage and current are in phase. Negative power. and True Power in a Purely Resistive Circuit Voltage and current sine waves like the ones shown in Figure 4-1 can be used to determine the true power in the circuit at any instant. This is done by multiplying the voltage at any instant by current at that same instant. Therefore. The term “positive power” is used as a convention. Unlike true power. Sine Waves for Voltage. will always be positive. true power. 4-2. reactive power does no useful work. since two positive numbers or two negative numbers multiplied together will always yield a positive result-positive power. Positive power is power that is going to a load from a power source. AC Power Figure 4-1.

the result is positive power. their product is positive power. When voltage and current are both negative. because the product of a positive number and a negative number is always a negative number. During the second quarter of the cycle. The same relationships can be seen in the second half of the cycle. and reactive power in a purely inductive circuit. but current is now also positive. Multiplying the two together will yield a negative value. with current lagging behind voltage. Voltage and current are out of phase. so the product of voltage and current is negative power. and Reactive Power in a Purely Inductive Circuit In the first quarter of the cycle represented in Figure 4-2. Current. Figure 4-2. because two negative numbers multiplied together give a positive result. If voltage and current are multiplied together during this portion of the cycle.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. Thus. in the final quarter of the cycle. AC Power Figure 4-2 shows simplified sine waves for voltage. voltage is positive and current is negative. voltage times current equals negative power. current. at this point. current is still positive. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 33 . When voltage becomes negative. Sine Waves for Voltage. voltage is still positive.

AC Power As defined earlier. and Reactive Power in a Purely Capacitive Circuit T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 34 . In an inductive circuit.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. The inductance absorbs power from the power source as its magnetic field builds up. As was explained earlier. The power in a purely inductive circuit is only reactive power. is power returning to the power source from a load. In a purely inductive circuit. Since no power is used to do work. current leads voltage. as defined earlier. in a purely capacitive circuit. In a purely inductive circuit. the negative power periods are those during which the power absorbed by the inductance returns to the power source as the magnetic field collapses. current. Current. Figure 4-3 shows voltage. and reactive power sine waves for purely capacitive circuit. Sine Waves for Voltage. positive power is power that goes from a power source to a load. the amount of power that is returned from the inductance to the power source is equal to the amount of power that is supplied by the power source to the inductance. Negative power. then. positive power goes from the power source to the inductance. power just goes back and forth between the power source and the inductance. The power in a purely capacitive circuit is also reactive power. there is no power that can be identified as true power. As indicated by the sine waves in Figure 4-2. Figure 4-3.

apparent power and true power are the same. both current and voltage are negative.3. In a purely capacitive circuit. is positive. During the third quarter of the cycle. current is positive and voltage is negative. 4. In the second quarter of the cycle. either. so their product. The product cannot be reactive power. both voltage and current are positive. when power is positive. so power is negative. AC Power During the first quarter of the cycle represented in Figure 4-3. The effect is the same for a purely capacitive circuit as for a purely inductive circuit: the amount of power that is supplied by the power source to the capacitor is equal to the amount of power that is returned from the capacitor to the power source. The power in a capacitive circuit does not do any work. the capacitor is charging. the capacitor is discharging. When power is negative. Finally. an inductor. The product of voltage times current in this circuit cannot be the true power of the circuit. Apparent pow3r is voltage times current in any circuit. it is returning power to the power source. (In a purely resistive circuit. a resistor. The product of voltage times current in this circuit is apparent power. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 35 . power. so it is reactive power rather than true power. in the last quarter of the cycle.) Figure 4-4 shows a circuit that includes a power source. which makes power positive again. so it is storing up power. Apparent Power Apparent power is the power used to do work plus the power stored during part of a cycle by inductance and capacitance and then returned to the power source.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. because true power can be calculated this way only for purely resistive circuits. current is negative and voltage is positive. so power is again negative. and a capacitor. because thee is a resistor in the circuit.

In most cases. In mathematical terms. the true power in an AC circuit is the ratio of the true power to the apparent power in that circuit. and capacitance must all be considered in determining true power. the effects of resistance. on power. is called impedance. this is expressed as P = E x I x PF. but this is not done very often by maintenance personnel. therefore. Power factor is usually expressed as a decimal value. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 36 .4 Power Factor In a circuit like the one shown in figure 4-4.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. Circuit for Apparent Power 4. Power factor is used as follows: When the apparent power of a circuit and the power factor for that circuit are known. the true power in an AC circuit is equal to voltage times current times the power factor. Impedance can be calculated. AC Power Figure 4-4. inductance. true power is calculated by multiplying the apparent power times the power factor. Taken together. In other words. the combined effect of these three factors on current flow and.

4-4. what is the true power used by the circuit? Given the following values. The power factor for a certain AC circuit is . If the voltage is 480 volts and the current is 50 amps. (does. The product of a negative current and a positive voltage d. Returning to a power source from a load c. Circle the correct answer. Going to a load from a power source. 4-6. True or False. True power is the amount of power actually used to do work. b. 4-2.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. In most cased. out of) True or False. Apparent power is the result of multiplying voltage times current in any circuit. calculate true power.5 T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 37 AC Power (continued) 4-3. Positive power is power that is a. 4-7. (in. does not) The voltage and current sine waves for reactive power are always __________ phase. E I PF = = = 110 volts 10 amps . Questions: 4-1. true power in AC circuits is calculated with the aid of the ________________ associated with the specific circuit. 4-8. Equal to voltage times resistance Reactive power is power that _____________ do useful work. inductance.8. The combined effect of resistance. and capacitance on current flow in an AC circuit is called _________________. . 4-5. 4-9.

Figure 5-1. Differentiate between delta-connected and wye-connected three-phase AC systems. A simplified single-phase system is illustrated in Figure 5-1. The purpose of this segment is to introduce some terms that are associated with these systems.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. a voltage source. which is represented by a resistor. and a load. It consists of two wires. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems OBJECTIVES: • • • Explain the difference between single-phase and three-phase AC systems Explain how a three-wire single-phase AC system supplies two different voltages. Simplified Single-Phase System T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 38 . There are two common types of AC power systems: single-phase systems and threephase systems.

There are two basic types of single-phase systems: the two-wire system and the three-wire system. a voltage source (indicated by the three coils in the circle). Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) A simplified three-phase system is shown in Figure 5-2. This system consists of three wires. and a load (indicated by the three resistors). T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 39 .AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. Figure 5-2. The three-wire system makes it possible to have two different voltages from one voltage source. the three-wire system was developed. Simplified Three-Phase System 5.1 Single-Phase Systems Single-phase systems are the most commonly used AC power systems for general electrical needs. In the two-wire system. the voltage supplied has only one value. Since it is often desirable to have more than one voltage for home and office use.

The middle line on the secondary side is called the neutral line. a short circuit will occur and the circuit’s fuses or circuit breakers will open the circuit. Voltage between the neutral line and either the top line or the bottom line is 110 volts. in a three-wire system. 5. The two types of connections commonly used for power sources and for loads in three-phase systems are delta connections and wye connections. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) The component that changes a two-wire system into a three-wire system is a transformer. Thus. Voltage between the top and bottom lines is 220 volts.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. it has many applications for general electrical use. As Figure 5-3 illustrates. The. if an un grounded line accidentally becomes grounded. Because the three-wire system provides more than one voltage. Simplified Three-Wire System One of the lines in a two-wire system and the neutral line in a three-wire system are usually grounded as a protective measure. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 40 . it is possible to get either 110 volts or 220 volts from this three-wire system.2 Three-Phase Systems Three-phase systems are most often found in large industrial installations where large amounts of power are used. Figure 5-3. two lines come into the transformer on the primary side. and three lines come off the transformer on the secondary side.

In a delta-connected system. but the phase current does not equal the line current. However. Therefore. The current that flows through the wires is called line current. the voltage in each coil or resistor (the phase voltage) is equal to the voltage in the wires (the line voltage). The three wires coming out of the transformer are connected to three resistors.2.1 Delta Connections Figure 5-4 shows the wiring for a delta connection. and the voltage that is applied to the wires is called line voltage.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. which are also delta-connected. Figure 5-4. In this example. The ends of each coil are connected to the ends of the other two coils. the ends of two coils. are connected to one wire. so the phase currents add together to T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 41 . the three coils represent a three-phase transformer. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) 5. The voltage that is applied across the resistors or induced in the coils is called phase voltage. Delta-Connected Three-Phase System The current and voltage in the cols and the resistors of a system like this are not always the same as the current and voltage in the wires. Each coil or resistor shown in Figure 5-4 is connected across two wires. the phase voltage equals the line voltage. or two resistors. The current that flows through the coils or resistors is called phase current.

AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. Figure 5-5. The line current is actually equal to the square root of three (which is 1.) In a wye connected system. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 42 . EP is the phase voltage. Then. The free ends of the coils or resistors are connected to the three phase lines. and IP is the phase current.73) times the phase current. (A wye connection is also known as a star connection. EL is the line voltage. one end of each coil or resistor is connected to one end of both of the other coils or resistors. 5. IL is the line current. The relationships between voltage and current in a delta connected system can be summarized in the following formulas: EL IL = = EP IP √3 In these formulas. multiplying the phase current time 1.2 Wye Connections The wiring for a typical wye-connected three-phase system is shown in Figure 5-5.73 equals the line current. Wye Connected Three-Phase System. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) form the line current.2.

AC FUNDAMENTALS (continuted) 5. and IP is the phase current. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) Wye connections have different effects on voltage and current than delta connections do. However.73 equals the line voltage. Therefore. the phase current is equal to the line current. the current that flows through each line has to flow through the coil or the resistor in the line. but the phase voltage is not equal to the line voltage. As shown in Figure 5-4. EL is the line voltage. the current in a wye-connected system cannot split or add together the way it does in a deltaconnected system. In a wye-connected system. IL is the line current. Notes: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 43 . the voltage in each coil or resistor (the phase voltage) has to be added to the voltage in one of the other coils or resistors to form the voltage across any two wires (the line voltage). EP is the phase voltage. The relationships between voltage and current in a wye-connected system can be summarized in the following formulas: EL IL = = EP √3 IP In these formulas. In wye-connected systems. the phase voltage times 1.

The middle line on the secondary side of a three-wire single-phase system is a. c. phase current and line current are ______________. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) Questions: 5-1. The component that changes a two-wire single-phase system into a three-wire single phase system is a __________________. 5-6. the current that flows through the coils or resistors is called _____________ current. d. 5-4. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 44 . (phase. Called the neutral line Connected in a delta pattern Never used 110 volts. 5-3. phase voltage equals line voltage. In a wye-connected three-phase system. b. 5-2. 5-5. but phase current does not equal line current. To calculate the line voltage of a wye-connected three-phase system. Circle the correct answer.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. In a delta-connected system. In a three-phase system. multiply the phase voltage by __________________. line) True or False.

peak value. and capacitance on current flow. The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage. The measure of the opposition to current that is created by inductance. A connection used in three-phase systems in which three coils (or three resistors) are connected end-to end so that they effectively form a triangle. measured in henrys. The current that flows through the wires in a threephase system. Power used to do work plus power stored during part of a cycle by inductance and capacitance and then returned to power source. measured in farads. measured in ohms. measured in ohms. A physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage. Current that always flows in the same direction. The combined effect of resistance. and then flows in the opposite direction.707 amperes of DC current. of AC current produces the same heating effect as . T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 45 Capacitance Capacitive reactance Delta connection - Direct current (DC) Effective values - Frequency Impedance Inductance Inductive reactance Line current Line voltage - .AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) Glossary Alternating current (AC) Apparent Power Current that flows in one direction. A physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in current. Voltage times current in any circuit. The voltage that is applied to the wires in a three phase system. inductance. stops. AC values for current and voltage based on the relationship that one ampere. The measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance. also called RMS values.

The voltage that is applied across the resistors or induced in the coils of a three-phase system. The current that flows through the coils or resistors in a three-phase system. The amount of voltage of current represented by the distance between the positive peak and the negative peak on a sine wave. The amount of voltage or current at the maximum positive or negative point on a sine wave. Phase current Phase voltage - T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 46 .AC FUNDAMENTALS Glossary (continued) Negative power Peak value Peak-to peak value Power that is returning to a power source from a load.

2-4. 2-5.AC Fundamentals Review Workbook Section Quiz Answers 1-1. Magnetic field c. 1-6. Coil the conductor b.) a. 2-3. 1-2. 2-7. b. Relative motion c True a. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 47 . 1-4. 2-6. 2-1. 1-5. Polarity (These answers may be in any order. 2-2. RMS Current flow Inductive reactance a False (These answers may be in any order. Conductor b. Add a metal core to a coiled conductor Inductive reactance Out of phase Frequency Hertz 1-3.) a.

4-9. 4-4. Voltage b. 3-2. 4-8. 4-2.AC Fundamentals Review Answers (continued) 3-1. True Capacitive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 48 . Ohms b Charged True (These answers may be in either order. Current True a Does not Out of True Impedance Power factor 19. 4-5. 3-5. 3-7. 4-3.200 watts 550 watts 4-1. 3-6. 4-7. 4-6.) a. 3-4. 3-3.

5-5. 5-4.73 Equal T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 49 . Transformer a Phase True 1. 5-6. 5-3. 5-2.AC Fundamentals Review Answers (continued) 5-1.

Download

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

Restart preview

scribd