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Motors

By VIKAS MITTAL

1

MOTOR

Definition of Motor

Machine that converts other forms of energy into mechanical energy and so imparts motion is called a motor.

2

MOTOR

Different types of Motors

Following are some types of motor: Pneumatic motor : It converts pneumatic energy into mechanical energy. Hydraulic motor : It converts kinetic energy of fluid into mechanical energy.

3

MOTOR

Different types of Motors

Engine: It converts thermal energy into mechanical energy. Electric motor: It converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Turbine: It converts kinetic energy of water / Gas / Steam into mechanical energy.

4

ELECTRIC MOTOR

Machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy is called an electric motor.

5

ELECTRIC MOTOR

**TYPES OF ELECTRIC MOTORS
**

Depending upon the source of electrical energy, there are two types of electric motors: A.C. Motors : Motor that converts alternating current energy into mechanical energy is called A.C. motor. D.C. Motors : Motor that converts direct current energy into mechanical energy is called D.C. motor.

6

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

CONSTRUCTION OF A DC MOTOR

DC Motor Consists of Four Main Parts

1. 2. 3. 4. Field Magnets Armature Commutator Brush and Brush Gears

7

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEW OF A DC MOTOR

8

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

1. Field system The function of the field system is to create a uniform magnetic field within which the armature rotates. Electro-magnets are preferred in comparison with permanent magnets on accounts of its greater magnetic effect and its field strength regulation, which can be achieved by controlling the magnetising current.

9

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

Field magnet consists of four parts given below :

1. Yoke or Frame 2. Pole cores 3. Pole shoes 4. Magnetising coils. 5. Interpoles

PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEW OF 10 STATOR OF A DC MOTOR

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEW OF A FIELD COIL OF DC MOTOR

11

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

2. ARMATURE It is a rotating part of a dc machine and is built up in a cylindrical or drum shape. The purpose of armature is to rotate the conductors in the uniform magnetic field. It consists of coils of insulated wires wound around an iron core. In addition , the most important function of the armature is to provide a path of very low reluctance to the magnetic flux. The armature core is made up of high permeability silicon steel stampings, each stamping, being separated from its neighbouring one by thin coating of varnish as insulation.

Armature continues…….

12

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Armature continues…….

The use of high grade steel is made (a) to keep hysteresis loss low, which is due to cyclic change of magnetisation caused by the rotation of core in the magnetic field and (b) to reduce eddy current in the core which are induced by the rotation of the core in the magnetic field. By using stampings or laminations, the path of the eddy current is cut into several units. Each lamination is about 0.3 to 0.6 mm thick.

13

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEW OF AN ARMATURE OF DC MOTOR

14

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

3. COMMUTATOR The commutator is a form of rotating switch placed between the armature and the external supply source and so arranged that it will reverse the direction of the current flowing through the armature conductors during each rotation of the armature in case of motor.

commutator continues……

PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEW OF COMMUTATOR 15

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR commutator continues……

It is a very important part of a dc machine and serves the following purpose: 1. It provides the electrical connections between the rotating armature coils and the stationary external circuit. 2. As the armature rotates, it performs a switching action to change the direction of flow of current in armature conductors so that the armature may be able to run in the same direction 3. It also keeps the rotor or armature mmf stationary in space.

commutator continues…… 16

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR commutator continues……

The commutator is essentially of cylindrical structure and is built up of wedge shaped segments of high conductivity hard drawn copper or drop forged copper .These segments are insulated from each other by thin layers of mica ( usually of 0.5 to 1.0mm thickness) or micanite. The segments are held together by means of two V-shaped rings that fit into the Vgrooves cut into the segments.

commutator continues……

17

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR commutator continues……

The winding ends are soldered with copper lugs or risers. The risers have air space between them so that air is drawn across the the commutator thereby keeping the commutator cool.

commutator continues……

18

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR commutator continues……

The commutator is pressed on to the armature shaft, and the outer periphery is then machined to provide smooth surface with which a stationary carbon (or graphite or copper) brush can maintain continuous contact at the armature and commutator rotate. Great care is taken in building the commutator because even slight eccentricity will cause the brushes to bounce, causing undue sparking.

19

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**4. BRUSHES AND BRUSH GEARS
**

The function of brushes is send current from external supply source to armature conductor i.e. armature winding. Brushes are rectangular in shape and rest on the commutator. Brushes are manufactured in variety of compositions and degrees of hardness to suit the commutation requirement. They may be classified roughly as carbon, carbon graphite, graphite, metal graphite.

20

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEW OF BRUSH AND BRUSH GEARS SYSTEM OF DC MOTOR

21

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

WORKING PRINCIPLE:

The principle upon which a dc motor works is If a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, mechanical force is experienced on the conductor, the direction of which is given by Fleming’s left hand rule (also called motor rule) and hence the the conductor moves in the direction of force.

22

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

The magnitude of the mechanical force experienced on the conductor is given by

F = B.I.L

newtons

Where, B is the flux density in teslas ( Wb/m2 ) I is the current flowing through conductor in amperes L is the is length of conductor in meters. In general if the conductor lies at an angle θ with a magnetic field of flux density B webers/meter2 , the mechanical force experienced on a conductor is given by

F = B.I.L. sin θ newtons

23

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**FLEMING’S LEFT HAND RULE:
**

This rule states that if the thumb, forefinger and middle finger of the left hand are stretched in such a way that they are at right angle to each other mutually and forefinger points towards the direction of magnetic field, the middle finger towards the direction of flow of current then the thumb will point the direction of force acting on the conductor.

24

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

MOTION

MAGNETIC FIELD

DIRECTION OF CURRENT

25

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

FORCE ON A CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR LYING IN THE MAGNETIC FIELD: To understand the force on a current carrying conductor lying in the magnetic field, let us see the following three figures: Figure (a) shows the uniform magnetic field between the two opposite poles

N

Fig.(a) Main magnetic field

S

26

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

In figure (b) the cross section of a conductor carrying current in inward direction placed between two magnets, the field being temporarily removed, is shown. By applying the right hand thumb rule, the direction of the field around the conductor is found to be clockwise

Fig (b)

N

S

**Field due to the current in the conductor
**

27

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

If the current carrying conductor shown in figure (b) is placed in the magnetic field shown in figure (a), the resultant magnetic field would be similar to that shown in figure (c)

N

FIG. (c)

FORCE

S

28

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

The lines of force above the conductor are strengthened, since they are in the same direction, but the lines of force below the conductor are weakened because the two fields below the conductor are opposite in directions and hence tends to destroy each other.

N

FIG. (c)

FORCE

S

29

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

Magnetic lines like rubber bands have a tendency to strengthen out and, therefore, a force is experienced on the conductor in the downward direction, as shown in the fig.( C ).

N

FIG. (c)

FORCE

S

30

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

If the direction of current is reversed in the conductor , as shown in the Fig. (d), the direction of force experienced is reversed. In this case the lines of force above the conductor are weakened while those below the conductor are strengthened.

FORCE

N

Fig. (d)

S

31

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

Hence it is observed that when a current carrying conductor is placed at right angle to the direction of magnetic field, a mechanical force is Experienced on the conductor in a direction perpendicular to both the direction of magnetic field and flow of current.

FORCE

N

Fig. (d)

S

32

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

Magnetic Field in DC Motor

33

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

Current in DC Motor

34

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

Force in DC Motor

35

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

Torque in DC Motor

36

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

DC Motor Operation

37

**COMMUTATOR ACTION IN A DC MOTOR
**

In the case of dc motor, it is necessary that the current through the coils of armature winding be reversed as a particular coil leaves one pole (say, north pole), crosses the neutral line and comes under the influence next pole which is of opposite polarity (i. e. the south pole) The operation of commutator, that serves the above purpose, is given below: Consider a single turn coil, whose leads are soldered to cummutator segment (a) and (b), each carrying a brush as illustrated in fig shown in next slide

Commutator action continues….

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

38

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

COMMUTATOR ACTION IN A DC MOTOR

2 a + 1 I

.. .

. .

. .

a _

a b _ 1+ 2 _ b II b +

1

. .

. .

2 III

. .

39

Commutator action continues….

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR Commutator action continues….

The positive side of the supply line is connected to left hand brush and negative side to the right side brush. In position I, the line current arrives at the commutator segment (a), flows through the bottom side 1 of the coil away from the reader and the upper side 2 of the coil towards the reader, reaches the commutator segment (b) and flows again into the line through the brush. The coil will tend to rotate in clock-wise direction, as determined by Fleming’s left hand rule.

Commutator action continues….

40

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR Commutator action continues….

In position II, the coil is on the magnetic neutral line; there is no contact between the commutator segments and the brushes, there is no flow of current through the coil. The coil crosses the neutral line by inertia. In case of multi-turn coil, the remaining turns of the coil will supply the necessary torque. In position III, the two sides of the coil, 1 and 2, have changed poles, and the current flowing them has reversed. The commutator segments, however, have also changed contact with the brushes. Thus the coil will continue to rotate in the same direction as before, i.e. clock-wise.

41

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**BACK EMF IN A DC MOTOR AND ITS IMPORTANCE
**

When the armature of motor continues to rotate due to motoring action, the armature conductors cut the magnetic flux and therefore emfs are induced in them. The direction of this induced emf, known as back emf, is such that it opposes the applied voltage.

Back emf continues…..

42

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Back emf continues…..

Since the back emf is induced due to the generator action, the magnitude of it is, therefore, given by the expression, Back emf, Eb = ØZNP …..(1.1) 60 x A Where, Ø is flux per pole in webers, Z is the total number of armature conductors or coil sides on the armature, P is the number of poles, A is the number of parallel paths in the armature, N is the rotational speed of the armature in rpm

Back emf continues…..

43

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Back emf continues…..

The equivalent circuit of a dc motor is shown in fig below. The armature circuit is equivalent to a source of emf, Eb in series with a resistance, Ra put across a dc supply mains of V volts. It is evident from fig that the applied voltage V must be Ia large enough to balance both + + Eb the voltage drop in armature Ia Ra resistance and the back emf V at all times i.e. Eb V = Eb + Ia Ra _ or Ia = V-Eb …….(1.2) Ia V _ Ra

Back emf continues…..

Equivalent circuit of a motor armature 44

Back emf continues…..

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

or

V = Eb + Ia Ra Ia = V-Eb …….(1.2) Ra

Where, V is the applied voltage across the armature Eb is the induced voltage in the armature Ia is the armature current Ra is the armature resistance

+

Ia Ia Eb Ra Eb

V

+ _

Ia

_

V

It is obvious from the expressions (1.1) and (1.2) that the induced emf in the armature of a motor, Eb

Equivalent circuit of a motor armature

Back emf

45

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Back emf continues…..

Depends among other factors upon the armature speed and the armature current depends upon the back emf Eb for a constant applied voltage and armature resistance. If the armature speed is high, back emf will be large and therefore, armature current small. If the speed of the armature is low, then back emf will be less and armature current Ia will be more resulting in development of large torque.

46

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**POWER RELATIONSHIP IN A DC MOTOR
**

Voltage equation for a motor is: V = Eb + Ia Ra Multiplying each term of the voltage equation by Ia we get VIa = Eb Ia + Ia2 Ra …….(1.3) The equation (1.3) is known as power equation of the dc motor The term VIa represents the power supplied to the 2 motor armature, Ia Ra represents the power lost in the armature, Eb Ia represents developed in the armature causing rotation of the armature.

47 Power relationship continues……

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Power relationship continues……

The power developed ‘Eb Ia’ is not all available at the shaft since some it is used to overcome the mechanical power losses of the motor As mentioned above the mechanical power developed in the motor is given by P m = Eb Ia watt ……(1.4)

Power relationship continues……

48

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

TYPES OF DC MOTORS

Different types of dc motors are:

1. Permanent magnet dc motors 2. Separately excited dc motors 3. Series wound dc motors 4. Shunt wound dc motors 5. Compound wound dc motors

49

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**1. Permanent magnet dc motors:
**

It consists of an armature and one or several permanent magnets encircling the armature. Field coils are not usually required. However, some of these motors do have coils wound on the poles. If they exist, + these coils are Intended only for recharging the N ARMATURE S magnets in the event that they loose their _ strength.

Fig. Permanent Magnet Motor

50

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**2. Separately excited dc motors:
**

These motors have field coils similar to those of a shunt wound dc motor, but the field coils and armature are fed from different supply source. In a separately excited dc motor, Armature current, RHEOSTAT I Ia = Line current, IL If + Back emf developed, + + DC SUPPLY Eb = V – I Ra ARMATURE DC SUPPLY MAINS MAINS Separately Excited dc motors continues…….

Separately excited dc motor

FIELD

51

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Separately Excited dc motors continues…….

Power drawn from the mains, P = VI Mechanical power developed, Pm = Power input to armature - power lost in armature = VI – I2 Ra = I (V – I Ra ) = Eb I watt

52

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**3. Series wound dc motors:
**

As the name implies, the field coils, consisting of a few turns of thick wires, are connected in series with the armature as shown in the fig. The cross-sectional of the wire for the coils has to be fairly to carry the armature current, but owing to large Series field + current, the number of +SUPPLY DC ARMATURE turns of wire in them MAINS _ need not be large.

_

Series wound dc motors

DC Series Motors

53

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

DC Series Motors continues…….

In a dc series motor, Armature current, Ia = series field current, Ise = Line current, IL = I (say) Armature current, Ia = series field current, Ise = Line current, IL = I (say) Back emf developed, Eb = V – I (Ra + Rse ) Power drawn from the mains, P = VI Mechanical power developed, Pm = Power input to armature - power lost in armature = VI – I2 (Ra + Rse) = I [V – I ( Ra + Rse) ] = Eb I watts 54

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**4. Shunt wound dc motors:
**

The word “ shunt ’’ means “ parallel ’’ . In these motors , the field coils are connected in parallel with the armature. The field winding consists of a large number of turns of thin wire so as to provide Ish IL large resistance. Ish Ia + The field current is + much less than the DC SUPPLY ARMATURE MAINS _ armature current, _ sometimes as low as 5%.

DC Shunt Motors continues…….

Shunt wound dc motors

55

Shunt field

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

DC Shunt Motors continues…….

The current supplied to the motor is divided into two paths, one from the field winding and second through the armature i.e. Input line current, IL= Ia + Ish Where Ia is the armature current and Ish is the shunt field current and is given by where V is the supply voltage, Rsh is the shunt field resistance Ish = V Rsh

56

DC Shunt Motors continues…….

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

DC Shunt Motors continues…….

Back emf developed, Eb = V – I Ra Power drawn from the mains, P = VIL Mechanical power developed, Pm = Power input to armature - power lost in armature = VIL – V Ish - I2a Ra = V( IL – Ish ) - I2a Ra = V Ia- I2a Ra = Ia( V – Ia Ra ) = Eb Ia watt

57

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

5. Compound wound dc motors: Compound wound motors are of two types namely cumulative compound motor wound and differential compound wound motor.

58

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**Cumulative compound wound motor:
**

in this motor field winding are connected in such a way that the direction of flow of current is same in both the field windings as shown in fig. In the motor of this type the flux due to the series field winding strengthens the SERIES FIELD field due to the Ish IL Ish shunt field Ia + winding. +

DC SUPPLY MAINS

_

ARMATURE

_

Shunt field

59

Cumulative compound wound motor

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**Differential compound wound motor:
**

In this motor field winding are connected in such a way that the direction of flow of current is opposite to each other in both the field windings as shown in SERIES FIELD fig. In the motor of IL this type the flux Ish Ia due to the series + IL Ish + field winding DC SUPPLY MAINS weakens the field ARMATURE _ due to the _ shunt field winding.

Differential compound wound motor

60

Shunt field

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**SPEED EQUATION OF DC MOTOR
**

As already in the expression for back emf developed in the armature of a dc motor is given by the expressions Eb = Ø Z N P volts ……(1) 60xA and Eb = V – Ia Ra volts ……(2) comparing expressions (1) and (2) , we get Ø Z N P = V – Ia Ra 60xA or N = V – Ia Ra ØZ

x

60A P

Speed equation of dc motor continues……

61

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Speed equation of dc motor continues……

or

N

α V – Ia Ra Ø

Since Z, A and P are constant for a particular machine. Now in the above expression for speed, voltage V is constant and the armature drop Ia Ra is negligible compared to supply voltage V . Therefore, the speed of the motor is inversely proportional to the flux per pole i.e. the speed of the motor increases with the fall in flux.

62

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**SPEED REGULATION OF DC MOTOR
**

The speed regulation of a dc motor is defined as the change in speed when the load on the motor is reduced from full load to zero and is expressed in percentage of rated full load speed. Therefore percentage speed regulation = N0 – Nf Nf x 100

Where N0 and Nf are no-load and full load speeds respectively. The motor capable of maintaining a nearly constant speed for varying loads is said to have a good speed regulation. 63

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

TORQUE

The measure of causing rotation of the wheel or the turning or twisting moment of a force about an axis is called the torque. Torque is measured by the product of force and the radius at which this force acts.

ROTATION

r

Torque continues…..

F64

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Torque continues…..

Consider a wheel of radius r meters acted by circumferential force F newtons, as shown in the fig. Below. Let this force cause the wheel to rotate at n rps Torque, T = F x r newton metres Work done per revolution = Force x distance moved = F x 2 Π r joules Work done per second = F x 2Πr x n = F x rx2Πn = T x 2 Π n joules

65

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**ARMATURE TORQUE OF A DC MOTOR
**

Let Ta be the torque developed in newton metres by the motor armature running at n rps Power developed = Work done per second = Ta x 2 Π n watts …..(1) Electrical equivalent of mechanical power developed by the armature also = Power input to armature – armature resistance loss = V Ia- I2a Ra = Ia( V – Ia Ra ) = Eb .Ia watt ….(2)

Armature torque continues…….

66

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Armature torque continues…….

**Comparing expressions (1) and (2), we get Ta
**

x

2 Π n = Eb Ia = Ø Z N P x Ia 60xA =ØZnx P A

x

Ia

( since

ØZN 60

x

P =ØZn x P A A ( as n = N 60

67

Armature torque continues…….

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

x

or

Ta = 1 x Ø Z 2Π

P x Ia A

x

N-m

Ia N-m A since Z, P and A are constant for a particular machine therefore Ta α Ø Ia

= 0.159 Ø Z P

**i.e. torque developed by armature is proportional to the product of flux per pole and armature current.
**

Armature torque continues…….

68

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Armature torque continues…….

In case of series wound motor Ø is proportional to Ia ( before saturation) because current in field winding and armature winding is same and therefore Ta α Ia2

**In case of shunt wound motor Ø is practically constant and therefore Ta α Ia
**

69

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF DC MOTORS
**

The performance and, therefore, suitability of a dc motor is determined from its characteristics known as performance characteristics. The important characteristics of dc motors are: 1. Torque – Armature Current Characteristic. This characteristic curve gives relation between torque developed in armature, T and armature current, Ia. This is also known as electrical characteristic.

70

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

2. Speed - Armature Current Characteristic. This characteristic curve gives relation between speed, N and armature current, Ia. This is also known as speed characteristic. 3. Speed - Torque Characteristic. This characteristic curve gives relation between speed, N and torque, T. This is also known as mechanical characteristic The important relations to be kept in mind while discussing motor characteristics are: (i) Ia = V – Eb Ra and (iii) T α Ia

71

(ii) N α Eb Ø

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**CHARACTERISTICS OF DC SREIES MOTORS
**

1. Magnetic characteristic.

In case of dc series motors the flux Ø varies with the variation in armature current as the field is in series with armature. The flux first saturation FLUX increases following in linear point law with the increase in load current, becomes maximum at saturation point and finally ARMATURE CURRENT becomes constant. IN AMPS

FLUX IN Wb

72 Magnetic characteristic DC series motor

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**2. Speed – Current Characteristic of DC Series Motor.
**

From the expression for speed, N α V – Ia Ra Ø it is obvious that speed is directly proportional to applied voltage and inversely proportional to flux per pole. If the applied voltage remains constant, speed is inversely proportional to flux. So if a curve is drawn between reciprocal of the flux and current I, the speed – current characteristic is obtained, which is a rectangular hyperbola in shape as shown in fig. in next slide.

Speed – Current characteristic DC series motor continues……

73

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Speed – Current characteristic DC series motor continues……

SPEED IN RPM

Since on no load the speed is dangerously high, As obvious from speed current characteristic curve, which will result in heavy centrifugal Force which in turn will ] damage the motor. That is why, series motors are never started on No-load

ARMATURE CURRENT IN AMPS

Speed – Current characteristic DC series motor

74

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**3. Torque – Current Characteristic of dc series motor:
**

From the expression of mechanical torque T α Ø Ia , it is obvious that torque is directly proportional to the product of flux per pole Ø and armature current Ia. up to saturation point flux is proportional to field current and hence to the armature current, because Ia = If . Therefore on light load mechanical torque T is proportional to the square of the armature current ARMATURE CURRENT IN AMPS i.e. Ta α Ia2 and 75

TORQUE IN N - m

Torque – Current Characteristic of dc series motor continues….

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Torque – Current Characteristic of dc series motor continues….

and hence curve drawn between Torque and armature current is a parabola as shown in the fig. After saturation point flux is almost independent of excitation current and so torque is directly proportional to the armature current i.e. T α Ia . Hence the characteristic becomes a straight line.

76

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**4. Speed – Torque Characteristic of dc series Motor:
**

Fig below shows the speed – torque characteristic of a dc series motor. It is obvious from the fig below that as the torque increases speed decreases. Hence series motors are best suited for the services where the motor is directly coupled to the load such as fans whose speed falls with increase in torque. TORQUE IN N - m

SPEED IN RPM

Fig. Speed - torque Characteristic of dc series motor

77

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**CHARACTERISTICS OF DC SHUNT MOTORS
**

1. Speed – Current characteristic of dc Shunt motor: If the voltage V is kept constant the field current will remain constant hence flux will have maximum value on no-load but will decrease slightly due to armature reaction as the load increases but for most purpose the flux is considered to be constant, neglecting the effect of armature reaction.

SPEED IN RPM

ARMATURE CURRENT IN AMPS

Speed – Current characteristic of dc Shunt motor continues……

78

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Speed – Current characteristic of dc Shunt motor continues……

From the expression of speed for a dc motor, N α V – Ia Ra or Eb Ø Ø speed N is directly proportional to back emf, Eb or ( V – Ia Ra ) and inversely proportional. Since flux is considered to be constant as mentioned above, so with the increase in load current the speed slightly falls due to increase in voltage drop in armature. Since voltage drop in armature at full load is very small as compared to applied voltage so drop in speed from no-load to full load is very small and for all practical purposes the shunt motor is taken as a constant speed motor

79

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

2. Torque – Current Characteristic of a dc Shunt Motor : From the expression for the torque of a dc motor, T α Ø Ia , the torque is directly proportional to the product of flux per pole and the armature current. Since in case of shunt motor the flux is considered to be constant, therefore, torque increases with the increase in load current following linear law i.e. torque -armature ARMATURE CURRENT current characteristic is a IN AMPS straight line passing Speed - Current Characteristic of 80 through origin as shown in fig. dc shunt motor

TORQUE IN N- m

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**3. Speed - Torque Characteristic of a dc Shunt Motor:
**

This characteristic curve can be drawn from the two other curves i.e. speed – current curve and torque – current curve and is shown in the fig.

SPEED IN RPM

Speed - Current Characteristic of dc shunt motor

TORQUE IN N - m

81

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**CHARACTERISTICS OF DC COMPOUND WOUND MOTORS
**

Speed Characteristic of a dc Cumulative Compound Wound Motor:

The characteristics of a the cumulative compound wound motor are the combination of shunt and series characteristics. As the load is increased, flux due to series field winding increases, and cause the torque greater than it would have with shunt field winding alone for a given machine and for a given current. The increase in flux due to series field winding on account of increase in load causes the speed to fall more rapidly than it would have done in shunt motor. The 82 characteristics are shown in the fig given below

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**Characteristic of a dc Cumulative Compound Wound Motor:
**

SHUNT CUMULATIVE

TORQUE IN N - m

CUMULATIVE

SPEED IN RPM

SHUNT

ARMATURE CURRENT IN AMPS

ARMATURE CURRENT IN AMPS

Characteristics of Cumulative Compound Wound Motors

83

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**Characteristic of a dc Differential Compound Wound Motor:
**

In differential compound wound motors, the series field winding is connected in such away that the series field opposes the shunt field while in cumulative compound wound motor series field helps the shunt field. Since the flux decreases with the increase in load so the speed remains nearly the constant as the load is increased and in some cases the speed will increase even.

Characteristic of a dc Differential Compound Wound Motor continues……

84

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR Characteristic of a dc Differential Compound Wound Motor continues……..

The decrease in flux with the increase in load causes the torque to be less than that of shunt motor. The characteristics are similar to those of a shunt motor. Since the shunt motor develops a good torque and almost constant speed, therefore, differential motor is seldom used.

85

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**Characteristic of a dc Differential Compound Wound Motor:
**

DIFFERENRIAL SHUNT

TORQUE IN N - m

SPEED IN RPM

SHUNT

DIFFERENRIAL

ARMATURE CURRENT IN AMPS

ARMATURE CURRENT IN AMPS 86

Characteristics of Differential Compound Wound Motors

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOTRS
**

MEANING OF SPEED CONTROL:

Speed control means intentional change of the drive speed to a value required for performing the specific work process. The concept of speed control or adjustment should not be taken to include the natural change in speed which occurs due to change in load on the drive shaft. Speed can be controlled manually by operator or by some automatic control device.

87

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**SPEED CONTROL BY MECHANICALS :
**

Speed can be adjusted mechanically by means of stepped pulleys, sets of change gears, variable speed friction clutch mechanism and other mechanical devices. But the electrical speed control has many economical as well as engineering advantages over mechanical speed control.

88

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**SPEED CONTROL BY ELECTRICAL METHOD:
**

Expression of speed for a dc motor, N = k V – Ia ( R + Ra ) Ø The above expression reveals that the speed can be controlled by adjusting any one of the three factors appearing on the right hand side of the expression: Applied voltage to the armature terminals, V (ii) External resistance in the armature circuit, R (iii) Flux per pole, Ø

89

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTORS
**

1.Field Control Method For DC Shunt Motor: In this method speed variation is accomplished by means of a variable resistance inserted in the series with the shunt field. The power wasted in the controlling resistance FIELD RHEOSTATE is very small as the Ia + IL field current + is very small. V ARMATURE

Ish

SHUNT FIELD

_

Fig. Field Control Method For DC Shunt Motor

_

90

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Field Control Method For DC Shunt Motor continues………

Since in this method of speed control the flux can only be reduced (not increased) so the speed only above the normal one can be obtained. The speed is minimum at the maximum value of flux and the speed is maximum at the minimum value of WEAK FIELD-2 flux. The high speed limit WEAK FIELD-1 is also restricted due to NORMAL FIELD mechanical consideration as the centrifugal forces are set up at high speed

SPEED

TORQUE

Fig. Speed – Torque Characteristics of Shunt Motor With Field Control

91

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOTRS

**2. Armature Control Method For DC Shunt Motors :
**

This method consists of a variable resistance connected in series with the armature as shown in the fig in next slide. The speed at the full load may be reduced any desired value depending on the amount of resistance. With this method the voltage across the armature is lower than the line voltage.

Armature Control Method For DC Shunt Motors continues…… 92

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Armature Control Method For DC Shunt Motors continues……

IL

Ia

CONTROL RESISTANCE

NO RESISTANCE

Ish

SHUNT FIELD

+ _V

SPEED

+

ARMATURE

WITH RESISTANCE

_

TORQUE Fig. Armature Control Method For DC Shunt Motors

93

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**SPEED CONTROL OF DC SERIES MOTORS:
**

Speed of dc series motor may be obtained through either armature or field control.

1. ARMATURE CONTROL METHODS FOR DC SERIES CONTROL SERIES MOTORS: FIELD RESISTANCE (i) Armature resistance control For DC Series Motors:

Fig. Armature Resistance Control For DC Series Motors

+ _V

+

ARMATURE

_

94

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**(ii) Shunted Armature Control For DC Series Motors:
**

SERIES FIELD

I R1

+ _V

Fig. Shunted Armature Control For DC Series Motors

+

R2

ARMATURE

_

95

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**2. FIELD CONTROL METHOD FOR DC SERIES MOTORS:
**

(i) Field diverter method of Speed Control For dc Series Motors: SERIES

I I div

FIELD

Ise

+ V _

DIVERTOR

+

ARMATURE

_

Fig. Field diverter method of Speed Control For dc Series Motors

96

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**(ii) Tapped Field Control Method For Speed Control of DC Series Motors:
**

TAPPED SERIES FIELD

+

V

I

+ _ _

97

ARMATURE

I

Fig. Tapped Field Control Method For Speed Control of DC Series Motors

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**POWER LOSSES IN A DC MOTOR
**

The basic function of dc motor is to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. Whole of the input energy is not converted into useful output energy but a part of the input energy is converted into heat and the same is lost. The basic power equation for a motor is

P input = P output + P losses

**Power losses of dc motor continues……..
**

98

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**POWER LOSSES IN A DC MOTOR
**

Power losses of dc motor continues……..

The power losses in a dc motor consist of input power that is converted into heat. These losses are divided into (i) Copper losses or electrical losses (ii) Iron or magnetic losses (iii) Mechanical losses

Power losses of dc motor continues……..

99

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**POWER LOSSES IN A DC MOTOR
**

Power losses of dc motor continues……..

1. Copper or Electrical Losses: Copper or electrical losses include power wasted in armature winding, series field,shunt field interpole field brush contacts Armature copper losses Shunt Field Copper losses = I2aRa = I2sh Rsh

**Series Field Copper Losses = I2se Rse
**

Power losses of dc motor continues……..

100

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Power losses of dc motor continues……..

**2. Iron or Magnetic Losses:
**

These losses are also called core losses and include the hysterisis and eddy current losses (a) Hysterisis Losses watts P h = ŋ ( B max)

1 .6

.f .V

(b) Eddy Current losses P e = K e . B max. f 2 V t2 watts where ŋ = Steinmetz hysterisis coefficient, V =Volume of core in cubic meters , f = Frequency of the magnetic cycles per second t = Thickness of core steel laminations 101 B max. = Maximum flux density

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Power losses of dc motor continues……..

Value of Steinmetz hysterisis coefficient, ŋ for: Good dynamo sheet steel = 502 J/m3 , Silicon steel = 191 J/m3, 7040 J/m3,

Hard cast steel = Cast steel

= 750 – 3000 J/m3,

102

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**POWER LOSSES IN A DC MOTOR
**

Power losses of dc motor continues……..

**3. Mechanical Losses in a DC Motor:
**

These losses consist of power loss due to friction of bearings, air friction or windage and are caused by the motion of the moving parts.

Power losses of dc motor continues……..

103

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

**SUMMERY OF POWER LOSSES IN A DC MOTOR
**

Armature copper loss Copper losses Useful Output Input Hysterisis loss Total losses Iron losses Eddy current loss Friction loss Mechanical losses Windage loss

104

Field copper losses

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

EFFICIENCY OF A DC MOTOR

The ratio of useful output to the total input is called the efficiency of the machine is expressed as ŋ = Output = Input - total losses Input Input = Output + total losses Output

105

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

ARMATURE REACTION

By armature reaction is meant the effect of magnetic field set up by armature current on the distribution of flux under main poles. The armature magnetic field has two effects: (i) It demagnetises or weakens the main flux and (ii) It cross-magnetises or distorts it.

106

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

ARMATURE REACTION

**Fig. (a) FLUX DISTRIBUTION IN AIR GAP DUE TO FIELD CURRENT ONLY
**

GNA MNA

B

...

N

θ

...

S

θ

107

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

ARMATURE REACTION

Fig. (b) FLUX DISTRIBUTION DUE TO ARMATURE CURRENT ONLY

B

N

θ

.. . . .

S

θ

108

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

ARMATURE REACTION

**Fig (C) FLUX DISTRIBUTION DUE TO THE COMBINED EFFECT OF FIELD CURRENT AND ARMATURE CURRENT
**

GNA

...

N

θ

... .. . S . .

α

α

MNA

B

θ

α

109

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

ARMATURE REACTION

Fig. (d) BRUSH AXIS SHIFTED TO NEW MAGNETIC NEUTRAL AXIS CREATED DUE TO ARMATURE REACTION

...

N

MNA

... .. . S ..

α

Fad Fa Fac

...

N

α

NEW MNA

Fm Fa

. . .. .

...

S

Fm

110

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

ARMATURE REACTION

**METHOD OF NEUTRALISING EFFECT OF ARMATURE REACTION FOR BETTER COMMUTATION
**

1. 2. 3. 4. Use of High Brush-Contact Resistance Shifting of Brushes to the New mna Use of Commutating Poles or Interpoles Use of Compensating Winding

111

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

APPLICATION OF DC MOTORS

1. Application of DC Series Motors: As observed from the different characteristics for dc series motor, these motors are suitable where high starting torque is required such as , electric traction, Hoists, trolleys, cranes, gears drives. DC Series motors have dangerously high speed at no-loads. So these motors are not suitable for the services where the load may be entirely removed and also these motors are not suitable for belts drives.

Applications of dc motors continues……..

112

APPLICATION OF DC MOTORS

Applications of dc motors continues……..

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

2. Application of DC Shunt Motors: As observed from the different characteristics for dc shunt motors, these motors have almost constant speed and due to this feature these motors are suitable where constant speed is required in wide range of load such as, lathe machines, milling machines, conveyors line shafts etc. These are also useful where medium starting torque is required such as boring machines, blowers, fans, conveyors centrifugal pumps, shapers, spinning and weaving machines, machine tools, printing presses DC shunt motors are not suitable for use with flywheel or with fluctuating loads services.

Applications of dc motors continues…….. 113

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Applications of dc motors continues……..

3. Application of DC cumulative Compound Motors: As observed from the different characteristics for dc cumulative compound motors, these motors are used in driving machines which are subjected to sudden applications of heavy loads such as occur in rolling mills, punching and shearing machines, lifts, minehoist. These motors are also used where high starting torque is required but series motors cannot be employed conveniently such as cranes and elevators. These motors are not suitable for applications requiring adjustable speed for field control

Applications of dc motors continues…….

114

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

APPLICATION OF DC MOTORS

Applications of dc motors continues……..

4. Application of DC differential Compound

Wound Motors:

In differential compound wound motors, since series field opposes the shunt field, the resultant flux decreases with the increase in load; thus the machine runs at a higher speed than it would do as a shunt motor. The decrease in flux with the increase in load causes the torque to be less than that of a shunt motor. So such motors are rarely used in practice as the differential arrangement causes difficulties during overloads and starting. 115

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

SPECIFICATIONS OF DC MOTORS

Specifications of dc motors are shown on the specification plate of the motors. The meaning of different specifications of Kirloskar make dc motor as:

Specification of DC Motors continues….

116

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Specification of DC Motors continues….

KW / HP - Maximum power output of the motor VOLTS – Rated Armature Voltage AMPS - Rated motor output current DUTY – S1 for continuous operation S4 for intermittent operation RPM - XXX / XXX Maximum Speed Base Speed

Specification of DC Motors continues….

117

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Specification of DC Motors continues….

Frame:

K X B DC XXX - X SX / MX / LX (Core length in mm) 100…250 ( Centre height in mm) DC Motor B for flange mounting None for foot mounting L for IC 01, 06, 17, 37 S for IC 0041 H for IC 0666 W for IC W37, A86 Make - Kirloskar

118

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Specification of DC Motors continues….

WDG – Connections Scheme of Winding of motor EXC. V - Field Excitation Voltage EXC. A – Field Excitation Current INS. CL. – Insulation class used in winding FWR – Field Winding Resistance AMB – Ambient or room temperature GD2 - Moment of inertia

Specification of DC Motors continues…. 119

**DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
**

Specification of DC Motors continues….

IP – Type of Enclosure, IP21, IP22, IP23, IP44 (i) IP21: Screen protected (ii) IP22: Screen protected drip proof (iii) IP23: Screen protected splash proof (iv) IP44: Totally enclosed duct ventilated IC – Type of Cooling , IC06, IC17, IC37 (i) IC06: Motor mounted blower and free outlet (ii) IC17: Cooling air inlet via duct, free outlet (iii) IC37: Cooling air inlet and outlet via ducts

120

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

Specification of DC Motors continues….

BRG:

CE – Bearing at commutator end NCE – Bearing at non commutator end

Air Flow – Amount of Air required for the cooling of Motor

121

THANKS…..

122

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