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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

INTRODUCTION

Rationale

The Philippines is known as one of the agricultural

countries in the world where varieties of food sources were

grown. Bohol, as one of its provinces has an abundant

supply of raw materials such as crops, vegetables and

fruits. But despite this scenario, millions of Filipinos

still live along the poverty line. Due to this situation,

people were prevented from buying nutritious food which is

required for the body’s vital functions.

Furthermore, hunger is the most crucial manifestation

of poverty. In many parts of the country, the soaring

prices of food, fuel and other basic goods have triggered

social Unrest and a growing sense of urgency.

Hence, to solve this situation, one should find ways

to utilize every possible source of food like the different

parts of a plant. Along this contest, the researchers

wanted to introduce a menu that is not so popular in the

place. This menu is made up from the banana plant which was

the banana pith and banana blossom.


Banana plant is distinguished to be the most locally

grown plant in Bohol. It is abundant in many houses

especially in rural areas which are used as the substitute

or an alternative for rice because of its high content of

carbohydrates. It is a popular fruit bearing herb for

Boholano’s. In connection to this, it has been observed

that people just disregard the banana stem after harvesting

the fruit specially the banana pith which is the innermost

part of the banana stem and the banana blossom which is the

flowering part of the banana plant.

With regards to this situation, the researchers

conducted an experimental study to assess the acceptability

of the edible parts of the banana plant. This was on the

acceptability of banana pith salad and banana blossom salad

in terms of taste, texture, appearance and aroma. The

researchers were looking forward to change the consumer’s

perception towards the banana pith and banana blossom to be

used in preparing a menu that can be taped as an

entrepreneurial product.

Literature Background

Nouvelle Cuisine is a culinary philosophy. First, a

dinner was an opportunity to satisfy all man’s senses,


beginning with sight. Food had to be presented in an

artistic manner playing with colors and forms, and the

plate had to be arranged as a work of art similar to a

sculpture or a painting. New instruments were available

such as food processors and state-of-the-art ovens and

there was no reason not to use them for elaborate new

preparations. But mostly, these stress the quality of the

products and their freshness and proclaimed that it was not

necessary to overload foods with heavy sauces or to

overcook then. This simplification would reveal the true

taste of the food (Gayot, 2009).

Likewise, New American cuisine is decidedly upscale

and contemporary. For the most part, the dishes sing with

balanced flavors. The service, while not top notch, is

friendly and relaxed. The menu is centered on fresh,

seasonal ingredients combined in an approachable yet

innovative manner (Walters, 2008).

Food replenishes the element that make up human

bodies. Eating delicious food is one of life’s greatest

pleasures. Food pleases man’s appetite not only with there

taste but also with the food texture, color and aroma.

Every person has individual habits and food preferences

(Miler, 2004).
One’s food choices are affected by food availability

and familiarity. Availability of food is very much

influenced by how food is produced and distributed

(Drumond, 2004). Moreover, man’s food choices must be

influenced by ethnic identity, religious beliefs and social

status (Miller, 2004).

In many families, meals and food poses social value.

Creativity is one value in effective food management in

which the colors, shapes, textures, flavors and aromas are

to be considered (McWilliams, 2005).

Plants play an essential role in man’s diet. Plants

also provide all living things oxygen and food. Actually,

food sources on earth still depend on plants. One of the

food sources is the banana plant (Miller, 2004). The banana

family is musacea, and is related to the heliconias and

travelers palm. Banana is really not a “tree” but an

Herbaceous perennial (Graf, 2009). It is not a real tree

because there is no wood in the stem that rises above the

ground. The stem is made up of leaves growing very close

together, one inside the other (Thornton, 2006).


The domestication of bananas took place in

Southeastern Asia. Many species of wild bananas still exist

Culinary Philosophy 1987 Philippine


• Nouvelle Cuisine Constitution
- The quality of the • Article XII Section I
products and their - Sustainable good
freshness. and services.
• New American Cuisine • Article XII Section 11
- Centered on fresh, - Available services
seasonal ingredients at affordable cost.
combined in an • Article IV
approachable yet - Promotion of
innovative manner. innovation.

Banana Pith Salad Banana Blossom


Salad

Acceptability
in Sensory
Levels of:
 Taste
 Texture
 Aroma
 Appearance

Questionnaire
Interview
Analysis and Interpretation of
Data

Proposed entrepreneurial Activity


in the Production of Banana Pith
Salad and Banana Blossom Salad
Figure 1 THEORITICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

in New Guinea, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

Areas of secondary diversity are found in Africa,

indicating a long history of banana cultivation in the

region. Bananas were introduced to the Americans by

Portuguese sailors who brought the fruits from West Africa

in the 1500’s. The word banana is of West Africa origin,

and passed into English via Spanish or Portuguese

(http://hubpages.com/hub/Eat_Banana_An_amazing_fruit).

The edible bananas are restricted to tropical or near

tropical regions. The banana plant will grow and fruit

under very poor conditions but it will not flourish and be

economically productive without deep, well-drained soil-

loam, rocky sand, marl, red laterite, volcanic ash, sandy

clay, even heavy clay but not fine which holds water

(Morton, 2009). It produces banana flower, a deep purplish-

crimsom-colored which was used as vegetable. The flower is

born at the end of the stem. Long, slender, sterile male

flowers with a faint sweet fragrance are lined up in tidy

rows and protected by large reddish bracts. Higher up the

stem are groups of female flowers which develop into fruit

without fertilization.
In the Philippines, banana blossom is added to the

famous kari-kari, a rich beef stew. Banana blossom or

banana heart is the favored names in the Philippines

(Solomon, 2009).

The banana flower, while striking, is one blossom more

at home in woks and pans than in vases and centerpieces.

With most buds weighing in at a pound or more, the petals,

actually called “bracts,” are too densely wrapped to really

blossom. But however brawny they may be for bouquets and

the like, banana flowers have abundant uses in the kitchen,

including soup, stir fries, meat and vegetable stews and

salads. The inner petals, or bracts, are the edible parts

(Hailstone, 2009).

Another part of the banana plant is the pith. It is

the centermost layer and whitest part of the banana trunk

(Pearson, 2008). Pith is known for its best tasting

vegetable dishes in the province of Aklan and considered as

the most delicious specialty dish (Eligio, 2008). One of

its special dishes is the banana pith salad.

Vegetables salads are made from cooked or raw

vegetables or a combination of both. They can be served on

buffets as appetizer or as a salad course. As with other


salads, vegetable must successfully combine color, texture

and flavor. It is a dish that consists of a variety of

ingredients which generally has some type of dressing mixed

with greens (Hause and Lavensky, 2007).

Flavorings are items that add a new taste to a food

and other its natural flavors, flavorings include herb,

spices, vinegar and condiments. Most herbs are available

fresh or dried. Because drying alters its flavor and aroma,

herbs are generally preferred and should be used if

possible. One of the most common herbs is the spearmint. It

has soft, bright, green leaves and tart aroma and flavor

(Hause and Labensky, 2007).

Spices are generally more strongly flavored than

herbs. They are also considered as aromatic ingredients

such as onions, ginger and tomato (Armentrout, 2000).

Onions are vegetables which are prized for their strong

flavor and are used to enliven many food dishes (Simon,

2006). Ginger is used in fresh and powdered foods. In

cooking, ginger is used for flavored meats, chickens,

fruits and desserts (Dourkin and McNeil, 2006). While

tomatoes are vegetables which can be served raw, stewed,

baked, fired, or in meat dishes. It is an excellent source

of vitamins A, C and antioxidant lycopene (Webb, 2006).


Vinegar is a versatile liquid that results from the

fermentation of ethanol. The key ingredient of vinegar is

acetic acid, which gives it an acidic taste (Chen, 2009).

The word vinegar derived from old French”vinaigre”, meaning

sour wine (Deloria, 2006).

Condiments are any item added to a dish for flavor

such as prepared mustards, relishes, bottled sauces and

pickles. Ingredient substitutes an alternative such as

salt, coconut milk and lemon juice.

Salt is a mineral that is vital to life. It is made up

of sodium and chlorine, both of which play very important

roles in good health. It is necessary to the functioning of

animal and human bodies that life cannot go on without it.

(Perkins, 2006).

Coconut milk is derived from the flesh of the coconut.

To make coconut milk, the coconut flesh must be finely

grated and steeped in hot water. Next, the soaked pieces

are squeezed through cheesecloth, and the liquid collected

is coconut milk. This process may be repeated once or twice

to produce lighter coconut milk, as different consistencies

are required for different recipes. When the first pressing

is allowed to sit for a while, coconut cream rises to the


top. This ingredient is commonly used in desserts or rich

sauces (Foster, 2009).

Lemon juice is used in salad dressings and in tea.

(Ford, 2005). Lemons are rich in many food ingredients,

particularly citric acid. It is widely used in medicine due

to their citric acid and vitamin c content. They are highly

valued for their juice, which is often used as an accessory

food. Lemon juice increases the flavor and improves the

taste of various dishes. Additionally, lemon juice poured

over other fruits prevents discoloration of the flesh when

exposed to air. There are many benefits to drinking lemon

juice, including the prevention and curing of various

disorders, digestive problems, cold, circulatory disorders,

beauty aid and etc. (Kitchens Best Manufacturing Group

Ltd., 2009)

According to a culinary educator and Asian specialist

that Asian flavor profile is a culmination of all the

senses, taste, smell, sight, touch interplay to create one

of the most exciting cuisines (Danhi, 2007).

The taste might be acidic, salty, and sweet or better,

there are various compounds in foods and the taste buds on

our tongues respond to these tastes. The sense of taste can


be challenged by factors both within and beyond ones

control like age, health, smoking and etc. (Delwiche, 2007)

Texture also refers to the way a food might feel

between our fingers, or in our mouths. You might sometimes

read the term “mouth feel” this literally means how the

food feels in the mouth. Foods can be rough on smooth, soft

or hard, soft or crunchy. Sometimes there can be a

difference between the texture of the food on the outside

(shell or skin) compared to the inside of a food (Major &

Maes, 2007).

Food Presentation is an important part of good

cooking, and imaginative use of garnishes can make an

ordinary dish into something really special. The perfect

garnish should make a dish look both decorative and

appetizing. But not only that, a garnish is an affectionate

gesture, a compliment to your guests as well as a

compliment to the food (Saigal, 2009).

Smell also affects the properties of foods. It is

called aroma if pleasant and odor if unpleasant. Our

ability to enjoy food is linked to our ability to smell it.

Some foods have very distinctive smells, while others have

scarcely any smell at all (Major & Maes, 2007).


As cited in the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines,

Article XII, Section I states that:

The goals of the national economy are a more equitable


distribution of opportunities, income and wealth. A
sustained increase in the amount of goods and services
produced by the nation for the key to raising the quality
of life for all, specially the under privileged.

Every citizen is given a chance to contribute


knowledge, expertise and to expand the productivity of
things for the benefit of the community.

Article XII, Section 11 of the Republic of the Philippines

discusses that:

The state shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive


approach to health development which shall endeavor to
make essential goods, health and other services available
to all the people at affordable costs.

Therefore, the government shall support and give

enough attention to different ways that aim for the

improvement of human life, especially in the filed of human

health. Food is important to sustain our daily activities.

In article XIV, Section 10 of the Philippine

Constitution states that:

Science and Technology are essential for national


development and progress. The state shall give priority
to research and development, invention, innovation and
other utilization.
The state shall provide sufficient support and

foundation on various aspects of improvement for the

benefit of the citizen in the country.

Furthermore, this study was undertaken to promote the

awareness in utilizing banana pith and banana blossom as

another food sources. The researchers will be able to

contribute to the development of other common sources for

the food supply.

Statement of the Problem

The main purpose of this research is to determine the

acceptability of banana pith salad and banana blossom

salad. This study was conducted in CVSCAFT-TCC during first

semester of academic year 2009-2010.

Specifically, this research aimed to answer the

following questions:

1. What is the acceptability of the banana pith

salad and banana blossom salad in terms of taste,

texture, appearance and aroma?

2. Is there a difference in the acceptability of

the banana pith salad and banana blossom salad in

terms of taste, texture, appearance and aroma?


3. What entrepreneurial activity may be proposed

in the utilization of banana pith and banana blossom

salads?

Statement of Hypothesis

There was no difference in the acceptability of the

different flavors of banana blossom and banana pith salad

in terms of taste, texture, appearance and aroma.

Significance of the Study

This research will benefit the following:

Students. This study will help the students become

more aware on the utility of banana pith and blossom as

main ingredients for salads.

Parents. This study will expand the food preferences

in the family. Through this research, parents will be able

to cook a new dish from the banana pith.

Entrepreneurs. The fulfillment of this research will

serve as a new source for the improvement of food menu.

Food Teachers and Cook. This research will guide them

in preparing new menus out of banana pith.


Researchers. This research will contribute knowledge

and information for the development of various fields of

researches, inventions and new discoveries.

Environment. This study will utilize the banana pith

after harvesting. It also helps in promoting the clean and

green environment.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design

The researchers used experimental design in conducting

the study, specifically the two group design in which

treatment was present in every recipe. The design aided the

determination of the difference between the different aided

flavors of banana pith salad and banana blossom salad in

terms of taste, texture, appearance and aroma. There were

variables which were manipulated or controlled in the set

up. Where sizes and shapes of the two variables were the

same. Therefore, biased could not be possible.

The two recipes were as follows:

Recipe 1 – Banana Pith Salad with coconut milk, lemon

juice, and mint.

Recipe 2 – Banana Blossom Salad with coconut milk, lemon

juice and mint.


Research Environment

The researchers conducted the study at the Central

Visayas state College of Agriculture, Forestry and

Technology - Tagbilaran City Campus which was located along

C.P.G Avenue, Tagbilaran City, Bohol. This school was the

only State College in Bohol which offers a variety of

technology courses, particularly Food Technology courses.

The study was conducted in Food Technology shop

Building.

Research Participants

Purposive sampling was used in this study because the

participants were chosen since they can provide more

accurate information needed in the study. These

participants were exposed in theory, as well as in the

actual field of cooking. Likewise, students were given

opportunities to explore, experience and enhance their

skills in food preparations and tasting.

The participants of this study where composed of (17)

first year and (13) second year Food technology students in

Bachelor of Technology Education (BTE) and (26) first year

and (9) second year students of Bachelor of Secondary


Education Major in Technology and Livelihood Education

(BSEd – T.L.E). The researchers get 15 students for the

pilot testing and were already excluded from the list of

respondents. There were 50 participants in all. They were

taking Food Technology as one of their shop exploratory

subjects.

Research Instrument

The researchers used the questionnaire in determining

the acceptability of the different flavors of Banana Pith

Salad and Banana Blossom Salad in terms of taste, texture,

appearance and aroma (Hause and Labensky, 2007).

The researchers used the 9-point Hedonic Scale for the

participants to identify and rate their sensory preferences

as a way of evaluating the product as cited by Lawless,

Harry.

The questionnaire was made in a form of a rating

scale. The researchers personally provide the

questionnaires and facilitated in product sampling. There

were four categories in rating the Banana Pith Salad and

Banana Blossom Salad in terms of taste, texture, appearance

and aroma. The questionnaires were immediately retrieved


after the filling out of the rating scale. Analysis and

interpretation of the gathered data were done.

Research Procedure

Phase I. Permission to Conduct the Study. The

researchers asked permission from the Dean of the college

of Teacher Education and the College Director through a

formal letter stating the purpose of the study.

To get the number of respondents, a letter of request

to the registrar was passed for the list of BTE I and II

and BSEd T.L.E I and II students. After determining the

exact number of respondents, the researchers provided the

questionnaires that would determine the respondent’s

comments about the product.

Phase II. Search for Related Information. The

researcher visited different government agencies such as

the Department of Agriculture, Department of Science and

Technology, Tagbilaran City Health and APC that were linked

to the study. In visiting the different agencies, the

researchers interviewed personnel who specialize in the

banana plant. The information, opinions, ideas from the

personnel were consolidated and applied to the research

study.
Phase III. Preparation of the needed materials,

apparatus and equipment for the study.

The Materials

In conducting this study, the researchers used the

following materials:

Recipe 1 Banana Pith Salad

Banana Pith 1 kl.


-
Water 5 cups
-
Salt 1 tablespoon
-
Ginger 1 medium size
-
Tomato 2 pcs.
-
Coconut Milk - 1 ½ cup
Sugar - 1 teaspoon
Lemon Juice - 2 pcs.
Bell pepper - 2 pcs.
Mint - 10pcs
Vinegar - 1 pouch

Recipe 2 Banana Blossom Salad

Banana
- 1 kl.
Blossom
Water 5 cups
-
Salt 1 tablespoon
-
Ginger 1 medium size
-

Tomato - 2 pcs.
Coconut Milk - 1 ½ cup

Sugar - 1 teaspoon

Lemon juice - 2 pcs.

Bell pepper - 2 pcs.


Mint - 10pcs
Vinegar - 1 pouch

Apparatus and Equipment

The apparatus and equipment used in this study are the

following:

Basin Ladle
Chopping board Wok
Measuring Cups Knives
Measuring Spoons Bowl
Plates Strainer

Phase IV. Procedure in Preparing Banana Pith Salad and

Banana Blossom Salad:

a. Banana Pith Salad

Steps

1. Cut the Banana Pith into circular forms.

2. Remove the intervening fibers.

3. Slice the Banana Pith into thin pieces about

1 ½” long, together with the spices.


4. After slicing, soak in water with salt to

avoid browning.

5. Place the Banana Pith in the wok and boil for

about 10 minutes or until firm.

6. Prepare all the ingredients

7. After boiling, remove the Banana Pith and

drain. Set aside

8. Heat the coconut milk and put all the spices

and the Banana Pith mix well.

9. Add the lemon juice and garnish with mint.

10. Serve

b. Banana Blossom Salad

Steps

1. Cut the Banana Blossom into circular forms.

2. Remove the intervening fibers.

3. Slice the Banana blossom into thin pieces

about 1 ½” long, together with the spices.

4. After slicing, soak in water with salt to

avoid browning.

5. Place the Banana Blossom in the wok and boil

for about 10 minutes or until firm.

6. Prepare all the ingredients


7. After boiling, remove the Banana Blossom and

drain. Set aside

8. Heat the coconut milk and put all the spices

and the Banana Blossom mix well.

9. Add the lemon juice and garnish with mint.

10. Serve.

Phase V. Tasting of the Product. The Banana pith

salad and the Banana blossom salad of different flavor were

presented to the respondents for tasting at an interval of

15 minutes.

Phase VI. Administration of Questionnaires in

Assessment of Sensory Characteristics of the Product.

Evaluation and comments based on food taste, texture,

appearance and aroma were given thereafter.

Statistical Treatment

To determine the acceptability of the different flavors

of banana pith salad and banana blossom salad in terms of

taste, texture, appearance and aroma. The Weighted mean was

used.

WM = f1 x1 + f2 x2 + ….. + fn xn
f1 + f2 + …..+ fn

Where:

wm = weighted mean

f = frequency of responses

x = weight of each responses

After getting the weighted mean, the results were

integrated using the 9-point hedonic Range. The word

“hedonic” can be defined as “pertaining to or consisting in

pleasure and a hedonic test directly measures the degree of

liking and acceptability of products (according by Colwill

as quoted by Gatchalian(1989).

Average weighted Range and Descriptive Ratings of the

9-point Hedonic Scale.

Numerical Range Descriptive Rating


8.50 – 9.0 Like Extremely
7.50 – 8.49 Like very much
6.50 – 7.49 Like moderately
5.50 – 6.49 Like slightly
4.50 – 5.49 Neither Like nor Dislike
3.50 – 4.49 Dislike Slightly
2.50 – 3.49 Dislike moderately
1.50 – 2.49 Dislike Very much
1.0 – 1.49 Dislike Extremely

To determine the difference of the different flavors

of banana pith salad and banana blossom salad in terms of


taste, texture, aroma and general appearance, the two-way

ANOVA was used.

The name “two-way” analysis of variance in determined

the effect of the two factors A and B on a criterion

measures Y (Padua, 2000).

TWO-WAY ANOVA

SST = ∑(x2) - (∑TR)2


rc
SSTr= 1[∑(TR)2]- (∑TR)2
c rc
SSB = 1 [∑(Tc) ]- (∑TR)2
2

r rc
SSE = SSr -SSr-SSB

dft = rc -1

dftr= C-1

dfb = r-1

dfe = dft - dftr - dfb

Msstr = SSTr
dfTr
MSSB = SSB
dfb
MSSE = SSE
dfe
Ft = MSSTr
MSSE
Fb = MSSB
MSSE

Where:
SSt = Sum of squares total
∑(x2) = Sum of the squares of all scores
∑TR = ∑Tc = Grand Total (of rows & columns)
∑(TR)2 = sum of the squares of the total by rows
∑(Tc)2 = sum of the squares of the total by columns
r = no. of rows
c = no. of columns
dft = degrees of freedom total
dftr = degrees of freedom for treatments
dfb = degrees of freedom for blocks
dfe = degrees of freedom for errors

MSSTr = Mean of Sum of Squares for Treatments


MSSB = Mean of Sum of Squares for Blocks
MSSE = Mean of Sum of Squares for Errors
Ft = F-value for Treatments
Fb = F-value for Blocks

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Acceptability. The degree of acceptance of food taste,

aroma, texture, and appearance of the banana pith salad and

banana blossom salad.

Aroma. The olfactory state of acceptability of the

banana pith salad and banana blossom salad.


Appearance. Refers to the physical presentation of the

banana pith salad and banana blossom salad.

Banana Blossom. The flowering part of a banana plant

that will be used as the main ingredient in preparing

banana blossom salad.

Banana Pith. The whitest and the innermost portion of

the banana stalk which is used in preparing banana pith

salad.

Salad. Refers to the method of mixing the ingredients

in preparing banana pith salad and banana blossom salad.

Taste. The sweetness, bitterness, sourness, and

saltiness of banana pith salad and banana blossom salad.

Texture. Refers to the tenderness, crispness,

crunchiness, chewiness, gumminess and brittleness of the

banana pith and banana blossom.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

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QUESTIONNAIRE

Evaluation Sheet in product sampling of Banana Pith Salad and Banana Blossom Salad

Name: _______________ Date: _______ Yr. & Section: ___________

Direction: Please assess the sensory attributes of the different flavors of Banana Pith

Salad and Banana Blossom Salad in terms of taste, texture, appearance and aroma

using the 9-point Hedonic Scale provided below. Drink or rinse your mouth with

water before and after tasting each sample.

Legend: 9- Point Hedonic Scale

9 - Like extremely
8 - Like very much
7 - Like moderately
6 - Like slightly
5 - Neither like nor Dislike
4 - Dislike Slightly
3 - Dislike moderately
2 - Dislike very much
1 - Dislike extremely
RATING SCALE RATING SCALE
Sensory Properties of the
For Banana Blossom Salad For Banana Pith Salad
Salad
with coconut milk with coconut milk
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A. Taste 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1. The sweetness of the
Salad.
2. The sourness of the Salad.
3. The spiciness of the
Salad.
4. The saltiness of the
Salad.
5. The overall taste of the
Salad.
B. Texture
1. The firmness of the Salad.
2. The chewiness of the
Salad.
3. The sticky property of the
Salad.
4. The creaminess of the
Salad.
C. Appearance
1. The visual appeal of the
Salad.
2. The Garnish of the Food.
3. The appetizing effect of
the food
4. The overall appearance of
the food.
D. Aroma
1. The Appetizing scent of
the food.
2. The dominant aroma of the
salad.
3. The spicy scent of the
food.

Comments/ Suggestions:

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________.

Thank you very much.


Chapter 2

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

The chapter covers the presentation of the gathered

data for analysis and interpretation.

Taste is usually the most influential factor in the

selection of food. Tasting abilities may also vary within

the individual depending on a number of outside influences

(Brown, 2005). People detect the taste of a substance when

it is absorbed in the taste buds.

Table 1

Acceptability Level of Banana Blossom Salad and Banana

Pith Salad in terms of Taste

N=46

Sensory Banana Blossom Salad Banana Pith Salad

Property

of the

Salad
Taste Weighted Description Weighted Description

1. The Mean Mean


7.26 Like 6.85 Like
sweetness
Moderately Moderately
of the

salad
2. The 7.61 Like 7.24 Like

sourness moderately moderately

of the

salad
3. The 7 Like 6.33 Like

spiciness moderately slightly

of the

salad
4. The 7.39 Like 6.56 Like

saltiness moderately moderately

of the

salad
5. The 7.82 Like 7.33 Like

overall moderately moderately

taste of

the salad
Average 7.42 Like 6.86 Like

Weighted moderately moderately

Mean

Table 1 exhibits the acceptability level of banana

blossom salad and banana pith salad in term of taste. The

overall taste of the salad in banana blossom got the

highest rate of 7.82 “like very much”. The items sweetness,

spiciness and saltiness of the salad in banana blossom

salad were described “like moderately” with the range of 7-


7.39 while its sourness got the rate of 7.61 “like very

much”. Likewise, in banana pith salad, the items sweetness,

sourness, saltiness and the overall taste of the salad were

described “like moderately” with the range of 6.56-7.33.

While the spiciness rated the lowest 6.33 “like slightly”.

As revealed in this table, banana blossom salad had a

greater acceptability than the banana pith salad in term of

taste.

Texture refers to the way a food might feel between

man's fingers or in the mouth. With regards to the study,

the texture was determined by terms of firmness, chewiness,

stickiness and creaminess if the salad.

Table 2

Acceptability of Banana Blossom Salad and Banana Pith

Salad in Term of Texture

N=46

Sensory Banana Blossom Salad Banana Pith Salad

Property

of the

Salad
Texture Weighted Description Weighted Description

1. Mean Mean

Firmness 7.26 Like 7.13 Like

of the moderately moderately


salad
2. The 7.41 Like 7.02 Like

chewiness moderately moderately

of the

salad
3. The 6.93 Like 6.57 Like

sticky moderately moderately

property

of the

salad
4. The 7.28 Like 6.5 Like

creaminess moderately moderately

of the

salad
Average 7.22 Like 6.81 Like

Weighted moderately moderately

Mean

Table 2 presents the acceptability of banana blossom

salad and banana pith salad in term of texture. The

chewiness of the salad for the banana blossom salad got the

highest rate of 7.41 “like moderately”. Whereas, the

creaminess of the salad for banana pith salad got the

lowest rating of 6.5 which was also equivalent to “like

moderately”. The firmness of the salad, sticky property of

the salad and creaminess of the salad has a weighted mean


range from 6.93-7.13 which was also equivalent to “like

moderately” in banana pith salad.

According to Marvin Edward Thorner in his book

“Quality Control in Food service”, the role of touch or

texture in odor and flavor identification is extremely

important, since these senses are modified or intensified

by it so that the final determination can be altered or

misinterpreted and it also embodies such sensations as

firmness, softness, juiciness, chewiness and sandiness.

Another aspect that affects food choice is by means of

presentation. Presentation is a process of offering the

selected food to diners in a fashion that is visually

pleasing. When presenting food, always bear in mind that

diners consume first their eyes and then with their mouths.

Food must be appropriately and pleasantly

Colored, cut or molded. Any decorative touches such as the

manipulation of sauces or the addition of garnishes should

be done thoughtfully(Labensky, 2007).

Table 3

Acceptability Level of Banana Blossom Salad and Banana Pith

Salad in Term of Appearance

N=46

Sensory Banana Blossom Salad Banana Pith Salad

Property
of the

Salad
Appearance Weighted Description Weighted Description

1.The Mean Mean

visual 7.19 Like 6.93 Like

appeal of moderately moderately

the salad
2. The 7.23 Like 7.04 Like

garnish of moderately moderately

the salad

3. The 7.5 Like very 6.99 Like

appetizing much moderately

effect of

the salad
4. The 7.54 Like very 7.28 Like

overall much moderately

appearance

of the

food
Average 7.37 Like 7.06 Like

weighted moderately moderately

Mean

Based on the above table, it reveals that most of the

items were rated “like moderately”. The items visual appeal

of the salad and the garnish of the food were rated “like
moderately” as well as with the items appetizing effect of

the food and the overall appearance of the food in banana

pith salad. Furthermore, in banana blossom salad, the items

appetizing effect of the food and overall appearance of the

food were rated “like very much”. With the overall

appearance rated as the highest which were 7.54.

The first impression of the customer or the

respondents is based largely on sight as to how the food

was served. Garnishing is a way to get the attention of the

diners. The garnish are edible items used to decorate and

reflect the flavors of the dish.

According to Barbara Tropp,China Moon Cookbook as

cited in Labensky, 2007, foods presentation needs to make

sense on tongue. A garnish is primarily designed to tickle

the eye and attract the attention of the customers.

Aroma is one of the aspects in determining the food

flavor. Baines(2005) states that smell is 20,000 times more

sensitive than taste. Sense of smell enables the individual

to detect the flavor of food.

Table 4

Acceptability Level of Banana Blossom Salad and Banana Pith

Salad in Term of Aroma

N=46
Sensory Banana Blossom Salad Banana Pith Salad

Property

of the

Salad
Aroma Weighted Description Weighted Description

1. Mean Mean

Appetizing 7.59 Like very 7.15 Like

scent of much moderately

the food
2. The 7.54 Like very 7.30 Like

dominant much moderately

aroma of

the salad
3. The 7.41 Like very 7 Like

spicy much moderately

scent of

the food
Average 7.51 Like very 7.15 Like

Weighted much moderately

Mean

Table 4 shows the acceptability of banana blossom

salad in term of aroma. Most of the rating in banana

blossom salad has “like very much”. The appetizing scent of

the food got the highest rate of 7.59. The banana pith

salad's dominant aroma was rated highest 7.30 while the


spicy scent of the food got the least acceptability level

of 7.

This table shows that the respondents favored the

aroma of the banana blossom salad than the banana pith

salad.

Table 5

Average Weighted Mean of the Acceptability of Banana

Blossom Salad and Banana Pith Salad

N=46

Sensory Banana Blossom Salad Banana Pith Salad

Property

Salad
Weighted Description Weighted Description

Mean Mean
A. TASTE 7.42 Like 6.86 Like

Moderately Moderately
B.TEXTURE 7.22 Like 6.81 Like

Moderately Moderately
C.APPEARNCE 7.33 Like 7.06 Like

Moderately Moderately
D.AROMA 7.51 Like 7.05 Like

Moderately Moderately
AVERAGE

Tables 5 show the overall acceptability of Banana

Blossom Salad and Banana Pith Salad in terms of taste,


texture, appearance and aroma. In which Banana Blossom

Salad and Banana Pith Salad have the same descriptive

rating “Like Moderately ". Above table reflect that the

Banana Blossom Salad got the highest rating likely rate

with aroma 7.51 “Like Moderately".

However, the textures of t5he both salads go the

lowest rate 7.22 and 6.81 “Like Moderately ", respectively.

The above table presented that banana blossom salad is

more acceptable when it comes to rating as well as in

numerical points. Thus, both banana blossom salad and

banana pith salad got the same equivalent qualitative

description of "Like Moderately"

Interpretation:

The T- value obtained was 6.06. This value of

3.707 with df 6 at .o1 level of probability; hence, the t-

value of 6.06 is significant. This means that the weighted

mean of banana blossom salad and banana pith salad realloiy

differs from each other. Therefore, the null hypothesis is

rejected.
CHAPTER 3

Summary, Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

This chapter gives the summary, findings and conclusions of

the study based on the analysis and interpretation of data.

The recommendations were attached to solve the proposition

for the benefit of the students, researchers, food

technology teachers and school. The last part of this

chapter covers the proposed action plan for the utilization

of banana pith salad and banana blossom salad.

Summary

The main purpose of this research was to determine the

acceptability level of banana pith salad and banana blossom

salad conducted at CVSCAFT- TCC during first semester of

academic year 2009-2010.

This study made use of inferential design through a

questionnaire upon gathering the needed data. The

respondents were given enough time in answering the

questions with a time interval of 15 minutes for each salad.

Specifically, this research aimed to answer the

following questions:
1. what is the acceptability level of the banana pith

salad and banana blossom salad in terms of taste,

texture, appearance and aroma?

2. is there a difference in the acceptability level of

different flavors of the banana pith salad and banana

blossom salad in terms of taste, texture, appearance,

and aroma?

3. what entrepreneurial activity may be proposed in the

utilization of banana pith salad and banana blossom

salad?

The study has an exemplified size of 46 students from the

second year and third year food technology students in

Bachelor of technology Education(BTE) and second year and

third year of Bachelor of secondary Education major in

Technology and Livelihood Education(BSEd-TLE) were the

respondents.

The results acquired from the questionnaire were being

recorded, analyzed and interpreted using the arithmetic

mean and weighted mean.

Findings

The researchers were able to come up with the following

findings based on the statistical data:


1. as shown in table 1, the acceptability level of two

products is being recorded. Banana blossom salad shows

its acceptability level in terms of taste with the

rate of 7.42 as well as in the texture with the rate

of 7.22. in terms of appearance, it also get the rate

of 7.33 so with the aroma which as the rate of 7.51

all belong to the description level of “like

moderately”. however, banana pith salad got also the

level of 6.86 in the item taste and got also the rate

of 6.81 in texture, 7.06 in appearance, so with 7.15

in aroma which still belong to the description level

of “like moderately”. The two products were at the

same description level of acceptability but it differs

with its specific points.

2. as reflected in table – which is the average weighted

mean of banana blossom salad and banana pith salad,

the highest level of acceptability is the banana

blossom salad with the rate of 7.22 to the rate of

7.51 still belongs to the description under “like

moderately”. However banana pith salad has a

description of “like moderately” with the rating of

6.81-7.15.

Conclusions
Based on the data gathered the researchers came up with the

following conclusions:

Banana pith salad and banana blossom salad are acceptable

to the respondents but qualitatively different.

The respondents like the banana blossom salad due to

frequent use as a main ingredient in preparing salad.

The banana blossom salad and banana pith salad should be

consumed for one day.

Recommendation:

Based on the gathered findings, the researchers come up

with the following recommendations for the improvement of

the banana blossom salad and banana pith salad.

1. The spiciness of the salad should be improved by

putting additional spices to it.

2. Banana plantation should be promoted in Bingag, dauis

in order to improve the production of banana blossom

and banana pith and at the same time it utilizes the

land.

3. the products should be advertised in order for the

public to know the usability of banana blossom and

banana pith salad.


4. seminar should be conducted in order for all the

students, teachers, entrepreneurs and parents to know

the value of the banana blossom and banana pith.

ENTREPRENEURIAL PROPOSE PLAN FOR BANANA PITH SALAD AND

BANANA BLOSSOM SALAD

Rationale

Transformation of a raw/processed foods into an acceptable

finished product, is an essential function. Involves

interrelated procedures. It requires the purchase of food

products of good quality, storage and desire temperature

prior to service.

Numerous processing procedures are needed to transform raw

food into an acceptable finish product.

Food production planning and scheduling are vital to the

production of high quality food and are important

management responsibilities. It said that true test of the

planning the production of food that is appealing to the

clientele. And use of its production is the recipe

development in which the recipe are standardized in order

for the customer to ensure.


Objectives:

The main thrust of this proposed entrepreneurial plan was

to:

1. to utilized the banana blossom and banana pith after

harvesting.

2. to sell the two finished products to the people in

the locality.

3. to improved the acceptability level of the two

products in terms of taste, texture appearance and

aroma.

4. to augment the entrepreneurial aspect of the school.

Mechanics of implementation:

The researcher shall send the result and recommendation of

the study to the school in order to enhance the proposal.

And to see the significance and importance of the said

proposal.

As well as ask the permission of the school to serve banana

blossom salad and banana pith salad to hometel and

cafeteria to improve its acceptability.

Thus, researchers shall accept any comments and suggestion

that would realize the aim of the proposal/study.

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