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2011-03-28-Knowledge-networks-nations

2011-03-28-Knowledge-networks-nations

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Scientific activities are not only unevenly distributed

between nations, but also within them (see Figure

1.4). In the USA in 2004, more than three-fifths of

R&D spending was concentrated in ten states—with

California alone accounting for more than one-fifth.125

In most countries there is a degree of concentration

of research activity in particular places. Moscow

accounts for 50% of Russian research articles;

Tehran, Prague, Budapest and Buenos Aires each

top 40% of their national outputs, and London,

Beijing, Paris and Sao Paolo are each responsible for

over 20%.

Among the most prolific publishing cities, Nanjing

has leapt 66 places into the top 20 since 1996 to

2000. One of the Four Great Capitals of China,

Nanjing has long been a centre for education. Today,

the city is home to seven national universities, the

People’s Liberation Army University of Science and

Technology, several other national colleges and

provincial universities, and numerous industrial parks.

115 Royal Society (2010). The scientifc
century: securing our future
prosperity.
Royal Society: London,
UK.

116 Lipsey R, Carlaw K & Bekar C
(2005). Economic transformations:
general purpose technologies
and long-term economic growth.

Oxford University Press: Oxford,
UK.

117 Royal Society (2009). Hidden
wealth: the contribution of science
to service sector innovation.
Royal
Society: London, UK.

118 STEPS Centre (2010) Innovation,
sustainability, development: a

new manifesto. STEPS Centre:
Brighton, UK; Conway G & Waage
J (2010). Science and innovation for
development.
UK Collaborative on
Development Sciences: London,
UK.

119 Data from the UNESCO Institute
for Statistics Data Centre,
Montréal, Canada; 2006 figures
used (last available year).

120 Data from the UNESCO Institute
for Statistics Data Centre,
Montréal, Canada; 2007 figures
used (last available year).

121 Federal Ministry of Education
and Research, Germany (2008).

German research institutions at a
glance.
Bundesministerium für
Bildung und Forschung (BMBF):
Bonn, Germany.

122 USDA (2010). 2010 performance
and accountability report
(p 186).
US Department of Agriculture:
Washington, DC, USA. See also
http://www.ars.usda.gov/AboutUs/
AboutUs.htm, accessed 14
January 2011.

123 Science and Technology Policy
Council of Finland (2003).

Knowledge, innovation and
internationalisation.
Science and

Technology Policy Council of
Finland: Helsinki, Finland.

124 See http://www.most.gov.vn/
Desktop.aspx/Details-Article/
News/The_Conference_on_
implementing_Vietnam_ST_
Development_Strategy_for_
the_2001-2010_period_reviewing_
ST_results_for_the_2006-
2010_period_task_directions_/,
accessed 10 January 2011.

125 Source: US National Science
Foundation (2007). Science and
engineering indicators 2008
(ch 4,
p 5). National Science Foundation:
Arlington, VA, USA.

Red chalk drawing of sand, Antoni
Van Leeuwenhoek, 1704. From the
Royal Society library and archive.

38 Knowledge, networks and nations: Global scientific collaboration in the 21st century

PART 1

Scientific landscape

in 2011

Figure 1.4. Top 20 publishing cities 2004–2008, and their growth since 1996–2000.126

Decreased or stayed constant

Key City with highest publication output in the period 2004-2008;
growth is since period 1996-2000.

Increased 5-10 places

Increased 10-20 places

Increased 20+ places

London

Berlin

Moscow

Tokyo

Beijing

Seoul

Rome

Paris

Madrid

Taipei

Boston

Sao Paulo

Toronto

New York

Philadelphia

Washington DC

Hong Kong

Los Angeles

Shanghai

Nanjing

Knowledge, networks and nations: Global scientific collaboration in the 21st century 39

São Paulo’s rise of 21 places in the list of top

publishing cities in the last decade reflects the rapid

growth of Brazilian scientific activity, and the city’s

role as the capital of the state with the strongest

scientific tradition. The State of São Paolo’s 1947

constitution includes an article which ensures that

1% of all state revenue goes towards research.

According to Carlos Henrique de Brito Cruz, the

scientific director of FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo

à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo—the Research

Council for the State of São Paulo), ‘no other science

funding agency in possibly the whole world has

that kind of security and autonomy [from the federal

government].’127

In today’s competitive quest for corporate R&D

investment, scientific facilities or global talent, it is

increasingly regions and cities rather than countries

that are the relevant units and sites.128

Leading

scientific cities and their regions are successful

because they facilitate knowledge exchange between

clustered institutions and organisations. They usually

offer a higher concentration of diverse talent, capable

of fostering a more knowledge-intensive economy.

And the region or city itself provides an attractive

location in which to work, invest and research.129

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