P. 1
Management of Technology

Management of Technology

|Views: 100|Likes:
Publicado portarangchhabra

More info:

Published by: tarangchhabra on Mar 25, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/25/2011

pdf

text

original

Management of Technology

Report on AIRCRAFT
3/19/2011

SUBMITTED BY: Ankita Makraria 318 Nitesh Khemchandani 315 Udit Khanijow 314 Angad Singh 325

...................... ............. ............................. ........ .. ...... ..... ..................................... ...................... ................................................. . .......... ... .................................................... 3 The 19th Century ................ ........ 6 Heavier than air aerodynes ................................... 14 ....................................... ............................................. ......................... 10 Cabin ............................ .. ....... ..... 12 Aircraft flight dynamics . 12 Areas of use ............................................................................................................................................ ... .... 9 Empennage.......... ................Table of Contents Introduction....... ............................................................................................................... 6 Lighter than air aerostats . .............. ................. ................................... ........................... ...... 8 Wing configuration .................................................................. ............................... 13 Military ................................................................................................................................ ................................................ ......................................... ............................................... ................................... ......................................... .............. 11 Aircraft range................ .................. ......... ....... ........................... ......................... 9 Aircraft engine ............................................................................................ ....................................... ................................................... ...................... .................................... ........ ................................. .................... .............. ................................................................... ............................. ... ......................................................................................................... ............................ . ......................................... 13 Experimental................ ....... ............. ..................... ............ ......................... ........................................................................ ........................................................................... 8 Airframe .................... 4 BEFORE WORLD WAR II................................ ...... ..... ................... 3 KITTYHAWK AND AFTER .................................... ................. ................................................ .. 13 General aviation............................ ....................................................................................................................... ..................................................................... 7 General construction ...... .................. ........... ........ ....................................... ................................................. .. 11 Flight envelope ....................... ................. .................. ....................................... .................................... 5 Method of lift .............. ..................................... ........ 7 Other methods to lift ............ 8 Fuselage.................. 11 Performance of aircraft.... . 13 Commercial. ....................................... ..................................................... ............................ 13 Civil .................................... ................................................................... ............................................................... 9 Flight control surface ................ ...... ........... 3 Early aviation ......... ................ .............................. 9 Flight deck .................................

in which the term aircraft refers to any vehicle capable of flight. Famous inventors such as Leonardo da Vinci. which he called it. Lawrence Hargrave first created the box kite in 1893. an English monk. glider. Some of the most important full-scale model flight attempts were made by Samuel Langley. The 'aerodrome'. Leonardo da Vinci studied birds' flight. autogiros. or operation of aircraft . John Stringfellow. and Lawrence Hargrave have conjured up ideas of how to get some of the strangest machines to fly long before the Wright brothers' famous first flight at Kitty Hawk. manufacture. gliders. This model demonstrated lift but failed to actually climb. and the parachute were tremendously important contributions to aviation. designed in the 5th century BC. Early aviation The first form of an aircraft was the kite. Later on in the 13th century. leading to the propeller later on. British Sir George Cayley designed a combined helicopter and horizontally propelled aircraft. and British Francis Herbert Wenham used wind tunnels in his studies and predicted the application of multiple wings placed above each other. he was vital to aviation because he was the first to make scientific suggestions. The airscrew. who designed a steam-engine powered aircraft which was launched from a wire. created a rigid-wing aircraft with flapping blades operated by a compressed-air motor. who created the first heavier-than-air. and heavier-than-air craft including airplanes. Lawrence Hargrave. Aircraft can either be heavier-than-air or lighter-than-air: lighter-than-air craft including balloons and airships.Introduction Aviation is defined as the design. Another famous inventor was John Stringfellow. A famous glider developer in the 19th century was Jean Marie Le Bris. and Alexander Graham Bell developed a gigantic passenger-carrying tetrahedral-celled kite from 1895 to 1910. The 19th Century Some of the more credible developments in actual flight and stability occurred in the 19th century. was powered by a 53 horsepower 5- . Roger Bacon. and ornithopter (a machine with mechanical wings which flap to mimic a bird). He envisioned three different types of heavier-than-air craft: the helicopter. For centuries man has dreamed to soar with the birds. a British-born Australian inventor. and later produced the airscrew and the parachute. use. Although Leonardo's designs were impractical. helicopters. seeing they required human muscular power which was insufficient to generate flight with the aircraft he envisioned. a Frenchman who tested a glider with movable wings. In the 16th century. gasoline-powered engine which actually flew. Kites also played an important role in the development of aviation: they could be used to test aerodynamics and flight stability. and ornithopters. performed studies which later gave him the idea that air could support a craft just like water supports boats. it flew 312 ft (95m) in 1891.

m.. he completed a 2 hour 20 minute flight which demonstrated full control over his Flyer. and when World War I began. Before World War I. Yet. 1908. machine-powered flight which lasted 12 seconds and spanned 120 feet. yet they did what every man and woman has dreamed for centuries « they flew. powered flight required light gasoline engines instead of the cumbersome steam engines previously used. Selfridge). He also became the first American to develop and fly a seaplane -. On December 17. Most importantly. major developments would give inventors a sound basis in experimental aerodynamics. The Flyer was purchased on August 2 and became the first successful military airplane. their aircraft crashed. it's remarkable how far aviation has come. 1910.5 sec on July 4. It remained in service for around two years and was retired to the Smithsonian Institution where it rests today. 1903. Monoplane designs were rare. the Scientific American Trophy. although stability and control required for sustained flight had not been acquired. for an airplane flight when he flew the 'June Bug' 5090 ft (1552m) in 1 min 42. the Wright brothers (Orville at the controls) made the first heavier-than-air. injuring Orville and his passenger (Lieutenant Thomas E. KITTYHAWK AND AFTER From 1903 to today. 1908.cylinder radial engine and later crashed into the Potomac river on December 1903 -. not all flights were victorious. Throughout this century. The first airmail . Well-known in the aviation field by this time. Yet the show went on and Wilbur went to France in August 1908. although it only lasted a week. 1910. huge biplane bombers with two to four engines were developed. Selfridge later died of a concussion and was the first person to be killed in a powered airplane. Glenn Hammond Curtiss won the first American award. on September 17. Their first flight was 102 feet short of the wingspan of the C-5 Galaxy today.the first successful seaplane flight having been done by Henri Fabre of France on March 28. at 10:35 a. on December 31. on August 28. Curtiss also went on to win the first international speed event. Airmail was also started. airplane design greatly improved.6 km/h). inventors noticed that successful. at about 47mph (75.days before the Wrights' historic flight. Pusher biplanes (two-winged airplanes with the engine and propeller behind the wing) were succeeded by tractor biplanes (two-winged airplanes with the engine and propeller in front of the wing).

and the pilot (Earle Ovington) would carry the mail on his legs and tossed the bag overboard when he reached his destination.S. Mail delivery also took a major turn during these years. Civilian aircraft orders drastically increased from 6. Macready made the first nonstop transcontinental flight from May 2 to May 3. Long Island to Rockwell Field.000. 14 domestic airmail companies were created in 1926. This made it possible to transport U. AFTER WORLD WAR II After World War II and by 1947 all the basic technology needed for aviation had been developed: jet propulsion. With all the new technologies developed by this time.000 passengers were transported by 18 U. and featured pressurized cabins.000 people were employed in the aviation industry. Congress passed the Kelly Air Mail act which authorized the Post Office Department to contract with air-transport operators. The largest operator of all international airlines in operation at this time was Pan American Airways. The first round-the-world flight was made from April 6 to September 28. F. and Lieutenant Oakley Kelly and Lieutenant John A. mail by air. . In 1925. and 14 minutes. faster.S. also. 1911.000. the first transcontinental flight across the U. Captain E. radar. and was by a Wright aircraft. aerodynamics. This flight was made from Roosevelt Field. around 3. Pan American served 46 countries and colonies linking all continents and nearly all oceans. airliners were larger. His flight from New York to California took 3 days. Also in 1911. aircraft became a decisive factor in warfare. jet and rocket propelled aircraft. Before World War II only about 193. Rodgers.1170km) in 1919.844 in 1941 to 40.000 by the end of 1945. 1923. was completed by Calbraith P. 10 hours. Post Office Department began on September 23. metals. and during 1941 the number increased to 450. 1924.375. Airmail and express cargo would also increase by around 30 percent. White made a nonstop flight from Chicago to New York (727 mi . a new frontier of flight would take shape. San Diego. But by the end of World War II. One of the minor military contractors was the Boeing Company who later became the largest aircraft manufacturer in the world.officially approved by the U. etc. Also in 1919. after this. airlines at this time.S. around 1 million more than in 1940. BEFORE WORLD WAR II Between 1919 and 1926. It took a little over 16 hours to complete and they won the "London Daily Mail" prize of $50. New aerodynamic designs. Small aircraft production increased significantly. DURING WORLD WAR II During World War II. These planes would later be able to fly supersonically and make transoceanic flights regularly. some amazing progress in record breaking for aviation took place.S. the first nonstop transatlantic flight was made by John William Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown on June 14 to June 15. and power plants would result in high-speed turbojet airplanes.

A powered.858 lb (840kg) upon landing. Huge powered aerostats. and were only the second type of aircraft to fly. led to the demise of these airships. They are characterized by one or more large gasbags or canopies. developed by Burt Rutan.750 lb (4420 kg) at takeoff and only 1. this shape was widely adopted for tethered balloons.012 miles (40254 km) and was completed in December 1986. a balloon was any aerostat. The flight. The advent of powered balloons. the Zeppelins being the largest and most famous.200 gallons (4500 liters) of fuel in its 17 fuel tanks. in windy weather. hydrogen or hot air. called dirigible balloons. Small hot air balloons called sky lanterns date back to the 3rd century BC. began to change the way these words were used. lasted 9 days. 3 minutes. Originally. which is less dense than the surrounding air. this both reduces the strain on the tether and stabilizes the balloon. and later of rigid hulls allowing a great increase in size. filled with a relatively low density gas such as helium.3 km/h). while the term airship was used for large. Nowadays a "balloon" is an unpowered aerostat. In modern times any small dirigible or airship is called a blimp. steerable aerostat is called a dirigible. When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure. so "airship" came to be synonymous with these aircraft. though a blimp may be unpowered as well as powered. 44 seconds and covered 25. and sometimes dirigible balloon is regarded as the definition of an airship (which may then be rigid or non-rigid).8 mph (186. Sometimes this term is applied only to non-rigid balloons. it adds up to the same weight as the air that the craft displaces.One of the more famous record-breaking flights around this time was the Voyager. During the Second World War. powered aircraft designs ± usually fixed-wing± though none had yet been built. were produced. whilst an "airship" is a powered one. characterized by a rigid outer framework and separate aerodynamic skin surrounding the gas bags. There were still no fixed-wing aircraft or non-rigid balloons large enough to be called airships. The nickname blimp was adopted along with the shape. These soon became known as blimps. such as the Hindenburg disaster in 1937. Then several accidents. maintaining an average speed of 115. Non-rigid dirigibles are characterized by a moderately aerodynamic gasbag with stabilizing fins at the back. Method of lift Lighter than air aerostats Aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way that ships float on the water. the first being kites. . The aircraft held 1. It weighed about 9.

because it does not depend on the air for its lift (and can even fly into space). The FanWing is (2010) in development in the United Kingdom. A kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the speed of the wind over its wings. The FanWing is a recent innovation with some similarities to the Flettner rotor design. many aerodynamic lift vehicles have been powered or assisted by rocket motors. which led up to the Space Shuttle were lifting bodies (though the shuttle itself is not). To fly. so that a reaction occurs (by Newton's laws of motion) to push the aircraft upwards. creating lift. A few examples rely entirely on engine thrust to provide lift throughout the whole flight. take off and land vertically using powered lift and transfer to aerodynamic lift in s teady flight. The initialize VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) is applied to aircraft that can take off and land vertically. As the fan spins. fixed or rotary. A pure rocket is not usually regarded as an aerodyne.With powered lift. There are two ways to produce dynamic up thrust: aerodynamic lift. Similarly. A flexible wing is a wing made of fabric or thin sheet material. relying on the Magnus effect to create lift. Aerodynamic lift involving wings is the most common. which may be flexible or rigid. however. . There are few practical applications. In this configuration the aircraft body is shaped to produce lift. Lifting bodies are not efficient: they suffer from high drag. usually shaped in crosssection as an aerofoil. and powered lift in the form of engine thrust. the aircraft directs its engine thrust vertically downwards. Many of the research prototypes.Heavier than air aerodynes Heavier-than-air aircraft must find some way to push air or gas downwards. they are too small to provide significant lift and are used only for stability and control. Rocket-powered missiles which obtain aerodynamic lift at very high speed due to airflow over their bodies are a marginal case. Other methods to lift y y y y A lifting body is the opposite of a flying wing. Powered lift types rely on engine-derived lift for vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL). among others. air must flow over the wing and generate lift. Some VTOL aircraft often operate in a short take off/vertical landing mode known as STOVL. and rotorcraft by spinning wing-shaped rotors sometimes called rotary wings. It uses a fixed wing with a cylindrical fan mounted spanwise just above. STOL stands for short take off and landing. such as the Martin-Marietta X-24. and must also travel at high speed to generate enough lift to fly. Most are rotorcraft. such as the Hawker Siddeley Harrier and F-35B. Classes of powered lift types include VTOL jet aircraft (such as the Harrier jump-jet) and tiltrotors (such as the V-22 Osprey). it creates an airflow backwards over the upper surface of the wing. The Flettner airplane has a spinning cylinder in place of a wing. This dynamic movement through the air is the origin of the term aerodyne. with fixed-wing aircraft being kept in the air by the forward movement of wings. Experimental designs have been built for personal fan-lift hover platforms and jetpacks or for VTOL research (for example the flying bedstead). often stretched over a rigid frame. as in the F-14 Tomcat's "pancake". Most types transition to fixed-wing lift for horizontal flight. and some supersonic missiles obtain lift from the airflow over a tubular body. The flat bodies of recent jet fighters also produce lift. Others. horizontal surface. A wing is a flat. If there are any wings.

Fuselage The fuselage (from the French fuselé "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft's main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. reliability and cost. materials technology and manufacturing methods to achieve balances of performance. The undercarriage or landing gear in aviation. but skids. required for aircraft stability and maneuverability. Airframe design is a field of engineering that combines aerodynamics. The fuselage also serves to position control and stabilization surfaces in specific relationships to lifting surfaces.[5] which is typically considered to exclude the propulsion system. takeoff and land. . In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine.General construction Airframe The airframe of an aircraft is its mechanical structure. depending on the surface. Typically wheels are used. although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage which in turn is used as a floating hull. is the structure that supports an aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi. floats or a combination of these and other elements can be deployed.

The development of effective flight controls is what allowed stable flight. . Flight control surface Aircraft flight control surfaces allow a pilot to adjust and control the aircraft's flight attitude. Most aircraft store the fuel predominantly in the wings. and some lighter than air aircraft also have wings. but may have additional fuel tanks elsewhere.The empennage is also known as the tail or tail assembly. Wings also vary greatly in planform which is their shape viewed from above. all three terms may be used interchangeably.Wing configuration Many different styles and arrangements of wings have and are used on heavier-than-air aircraft. The common wing configuration types have included monoplanes which has one wing each side. Aircraft engine An aircraft engine is a power source for an aircraft. Powered aircraft have one or more engines. often with disastrous results. Development of an effective set of flight controls was a critical advance in the development of aircraft. Aircraft engines are almost always either lightweight piston engines or gas turbines. Wings can be swept backwards or be delta wings and can have many other shapes. biplane which have 4 wings. is usually a fuel and is kept in tanks around the vehicle. Early efforts at fixed-wing aircraft design succeeded in generating sufficient lift to get the aircraft off the ground. Propellant (a chemical carried on board that is used to power the aircraft's flight). Empennage Empennage The empennage of a Boeing 747-200 Empennage. but once aloft. the aircraft proved uncontrollable.

The control column has been replaced with an electronic sidestick.The empennage gives stability to the aircraft and controls the flight dynamics of pitch and yaw. Swiss HB-IZX Saab 2000 cockpit Robin DR400/500 . Flight deck Airbus A380 cockpit. Most Airbus cockpits are computerised glass cockpits featuring fly-by-wire technology.

This term derives from its use by the RAF for the separate. the cockpit is usually referred to as the flight deck. and this is official terminology in Formula One. On an airliner. usually near the front of an aircraft. the flight envelope or performance envelope of an aircraft refers to the capabilities of a design in terms of airspeed and load factor or altitude. . often just called the cabin. cabin pressurization adapts the cabin to atmospheric pressures. When a plane is pushed. something considered rather dangerous. After the September 11. At cruising altitudes. From about 1935 cockpit also came to be used informally to refer to the driver's seat of a car. all major airlines fortified the cockpit against access by hijackers. and the controls which enable the pilot to fly the aircraft. Cabin An aircraft cabin is the section of an aircraft in which any passengers travel. and cockpits on large airliners are also physically separated from the cabin. and later the location of the ship's rudder controls. and can also refer to other measurements such as maneuverability.1936 De Havilland Hornet Moth cockpit A cockpit or flight deck is the area. 2001 terrorist attacks. The term is most likely related to the sailing term for the coxswain's station in a Royal Navy ship. Most modern cockpits are enclosed. Performance of aircraft Flight envelope In aerodynamics.[citation needed ] The cockpit of an aircraft contains flight instruments on an instrument panel. Cockpit as a term for the pilot's compartment in an aircraft first appeared in 1914. for instance by diving it at high speeds. In most airliners. it is said to be flown "outside the envelope". especially a high performance one. if the surrounding atmosphere is too thin to breathe without an oxygen mask. The term is somewhat loosely applied. except on some small aircraft. From the cockpit an aircraft is controlled on the ground and in the air. from which a pilot controls the aircraft. a door separates the cockpit from the passenger compartment. upper platform where the pilot and co-pilot sat in large flying boats.

For example. the engines stop and the aircraft will lose its propulsion. The equilibrium pitch angle in submarine and airship parlance is known as "trim". or yaw. It is closely related to more modern terms known as extra power and a doghouse plot which are different ways of describing a flight envelope. and pilot endurance. causing the aircraft to pitch up or down. However. the maximum flight time is variable. The range equation will derived in this article for propeller and jet aircraft. . which exert forces in various directions. a pitching moment is a vertical force applied at a distance forward or aft from the aerodynamic center of the aircraft. positive with the starboard (right) wing down. this usually refers to angle of attack. The yaw is about the vertical body axis. The equilibrium roll angle is known as wings level or zero bank angle. Aircraft range The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing. roll and yaw (quite different from their use as Tait-Bryan angles). The three critical flight dynamics parameters are the angles of rotation in three dimensions about the vehicle's center of mass. rather than orientation. common usage ignores this distinction between equilibrium and dynamic cases. weather conditions. It is perhaps the most common term because it is the oldest. and thus rotate the aircraft in pitch. optionally with extra fuel tanks and minimum equipment. pitch and yaw refer to rotations about the respective axes starting from a defined equilibrium state. and return to its original airfield with minimal reserves. first being used in the early days of test flying. positive nose up. The control systems include actuators. accomplish some objective. The range can be seen as the cross-country ground speed multiplied by the maximum time in the air. as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft. The most common aeronautical convention defines the roll as acting about the longitudinal axis.Flight envelope is one of a number of related terms that are all used in a similar fashion. Pitch is about an axis perpendicular to the longitudinal plane of symmetry. Yaw is known as "heading". and generate rotational forces or moments about the aerodynamic center of the aircraft. Aerospace engineers develop control systems for a vehicle's orientation (attitude) about its center of mass. Roll. When all fuel is consumed. known as pitch. For unpowered aircraft. It refers to transport of aircraft for use on remote location. or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft. Ferry range means the maximum range the aircraft can fly. Combat range is the maximum range the aircraft can fly when carrying ordnance. equivalent to a level heeling angle on a ship. Combat radius is a related measure based on the maximum distance a warplane can travel from its base of operations. The fuel time limit for powered aircraft is fixed by the fuel load and rate of consumption. This usually means maximum fuel load. limited by available daylight hours. but in aircraft. positive with the nose to starboard. Aircraft flight dynamics Flight dynamics is the science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions. roll.

observation and trainer aircraft. General aviation General aviation is a catch-all covering other kinds of private and commercial use. Many civil aircraft. the L-4 liaison. and military gliders were used during World War II to land troops. observation. Mainly operating in support roles. Commercial Commercial aircraft include types designed for scheduled and charter airline flights. though there are instances when an aircraft may be deliberately "sideslipped" for example a slip in a fixed wing aircraft. but may carry weapons for self-defense. the largest of which are wide-body aircraft. training and Tanker aircraft among others. with several in-between types such as fighter-bombers and ground-attack aircraft (including attack helicopters). Civil Civil aircraft divide into commercial and general types. reconnaissance. search and rescue. carrying both passengers and cargo. for example. and some of the larger types are used as VIP aircraft. Other supporting roles are carried out by specialist patrol. racers. and involving a wide range of aircraft types such as business jets (bizjets). An aircraft is usually streamlined from nose to tail to reduce drag making it typically advantageous to keep the sideslip angle near zero. such as the civil Douglas DC-3 airliner. gliders. aerobatic types. Military aircraft can be either combat or noncombat: y y Combat aircraft are aircraft designed to destroy enemy equipment using its own armament. Non-Combat aircraft are aircraft not designed for combat as their primary function. military and the "Dakota" in the UK and the Commonwealth.A fixed-wing aircraft increases or decreases the lift generated by the wings when it pitches nose up or down by increasing or decreasing the angle of attack (AOA). trainers. firefighters. which usually "banks" to change the horizontal direction of flight.S. Even the small fabric-covered two-seater Piper J3 Cub had a military version. The vast majority of aircraft today are general aviation types. which became the military C-47/C53/R4D transport in the U. have been produced in separate models for military use. Gliders and balloons have also been used as military aircraft. balloons were used for observation during the American Civil War and World War I. Combat aircraft divide broadly into fighters and bombers. Areas of use Military A military aircraft is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft that is operated by a legal or insurrectionary armed service of any type. The larger passenger-carrying types are often referred to as airliners. . homebuilt. transport. warbirds. both fixed-wing and rotary. however there are some overlaps. Some of the smaller types are also used in general aviation. and cargo transports. The roll angle is also known as bank angle on a fixed wing aircraft. medical transports. to name a few.

policing. .Within general aviation. crop dusting. However the larger. For example. there are fewer private owners than commercial owners.000 airmen and 33. The Allies of World War II lost 160. such as flight training. including one-off modifications of existing aircraft such as the modified Boeing 747 which NASA uses to ferry the space shuttle from landing site to launch site. whereas the new generation of smaller jets are being produced for private pilots.700 planes during the air war over Europe. but for aircraft such as turboprops like the Beechcraft King Air and helicopters like the Bell JetRanger. more complex aircraft are more likely to be found in the commercial sector. The formal designation of "experimental aircraft" also includes other types which are "not certified for commercial applications". and aircraft homebuilt by amateurs for their own personal use. there is a further distinction between private aviation (where the pilot is not paid for time or expenses) and commercial aviation (where the pilot is paid by a client or employer). Experimental Experimental aircraft are one-off specials. The same types may also be used for a wide range of commercial tasks. is a famous example: Boeing B-17E in flight. Conventional business jets are most often flown by paid pilots. passenger and freight transport. pipeline surveying. business. which first broke the sound barrier in level flight. and are usually owned or rented by the pilot. built to explore some aspect of aircraft design and with no other useful purpose. or recreational types. The aircraft used in private aviation are usually light passenger. The Bell X-1 rocket plane. and medical evacuations. piston-powered propeller aircraft (single-engine or twin-engine) are common for both private and commercial general aviation.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Descarga
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->