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Introduction

1. What is the "big" question the book will attempt to answer?

The question that the book addresses is "why would evolution, which is supposed to
filter out adverse traits and pass down helpful genes, lead potentially harmful genes
to recur among descendants."

Chapter I

2. The author points out many ways in which iron impacts life.
Identify/Describe at least five.

a. Iron almost counters the effect of antibiotic in a petridish where bacteria grow,
leading the massive bacteria growth as iron is an essential nutrient for them.

b. Infectious materials need iron to enter a human body. Without iron, it is hard for
them to infect us.

c. The lack of iron in body causes anemia, which frequently occurs among women
who go through a period every month.

d. The body that always feels that it requires more iron suffers from
Hemochromatosis, an inheritable disease that probably has persisted due to the
Black Plaque--since it was an infectious disease that needed iron to prevail, the
hemochromatosis patients were able to survive and pass down the gene.

e. Dumping billions of tons of iron into the ocean will counter the effects of the green
house effect as iron will stiumulate the massive plant growth.

3. In the context of this chapter, explain the author's reference to Bruce
Lee and to the barber pole.

Bruce Lee has the immune system that carries iron-deficient macrophages.
Since iron takes a role in nourishing bacteria, normal macrophages that contain iron
in them are often targeted and taken over by infectious materials; however, those
devoid of iron such as Bruce Lee's are better at killing infectious ones.

Barber poles are a symbol for bloodletting. The brass bowl at the top
represented the bowl where leeches were kept. The one at the bottom represented
the bowl for collecting blood. And the red and white spirals have their origins in the
medieval practice of hanging bandages.

Chapter II

4. Distinguish between each of the three types of diabetes.

There are three types--Type 1, Type 2, and gestational diabetes

Type1 usually occurs among young people. Among these people, the body's defense
system incorrectly marks 'invaders' and destroy them--those invaders are cells in the
pancrease responsible for insulin production.

meaning ice age to no ice age. cancer Evoluionary advantage: it allows people who suffer from this disease to survive the Black Plaque. When a scientist dissected its frozen body. Finally. people urinate more in cold days. gestational diabetes occurs among pregnant women. Describe the connection between Rana Sylvatica and diabetes The wood frog called Rana Sylvatica is an interesting species. blood vessel constriction directs blood to major organs that are vitial for survival. More interestingly. which explains why blood did not freeze. and vascular disease. In addition." 8. Diabetes symptoms: rapid dehydration. Moreover. thereby producing more heat. This is how this species sustains its life--by suffering from "diabetes. What did the ice cores of 1989 reveal about the Younger Days? The ice cores revealed that the Younger Dryas ended in three years.In Type 2 diabetes. Shivering is one. It has a special ability. Hemochromatosis symptoms: liver failure. leading to the failure of absorption of blood sugar and resulting in high level of sugar in blood. coma. heart failure. heart disease. Evolutionary advantage: it enables people to survive the Ice Age as the high level sugar in blood prevented the blood clotting due to extreme coldness. infertility. instead of hibernating during winters. Create and complete a chart with the following information: Disease/Disorder. stroke. Just like the sea water would not freeze easily. Describe the body's "arsenal of natural defenses" against cold. it allows the body to produce heat. 7. Symptoms. 6. which often leads to a condition in the new born called macrosomia--really chubby baby. Lastly. There are several ways to defend against cold. blindness. Evolutionary Advantage. it lets its body completely forzen and revives in springs. In Chapters I and II several inherited disorders were discussed. the level of insulin production is too low or other tissues in the body are resistant to it. diabetes. the body reacts to cold by burning what's called brown fats that burn 70% more than normal fats. Chapter III 9. leading the body to become hypertonic. the ice cores revealed that the onset of the Younger Dryas took just a decade. 5. Why do we need Vitamin D? Cholesterol? Folic acid? . the sugar concentration of its body was abnormally high.

Briefly describe the connection between the two concepts: a. which contains lots of vitamin D. Asians flush because they lack such enzymes. Folic acid helps the body to replicate DNA when cells divide. d. it is extremely important for a fetus growing. e. sunglasses. much less melanocyte- stimulating hormone is released. It helps the brain to send messages and the immune system to protect us from cancer and other harmful diseases. malaria People who have lots of hair in arms and legs are probably descendants of those who lived in areas where malaria was pandemic. much less melanin is produced--and much more surnburn results. What's so fishy about the Inuits' skin color? Why they still retain dark skin color? It is because they eat fish. Thus. meanwhile. It fosters the growth of healthy bones in children and their maintenance in adults. sun burn. Africans in Africa do not have the same rate of hypertension as African Americans. 10. Ultraviolet rays destroy folic acids. b. they are very important for the fetus growth. Extra hair in arms and legs prevented the infection from mosquitoes. Therefore. ancient Europeans did it through fermentation which produced alcohol. But. With sunglasses. much less sunglight reaches the optic nerve. f. c. birth defects might occur. slave trade It has been observed that hypertension occurs twice as frequently in African Americans as in the rest of US population. tanning beds. Asian flush. Slave trade--those Africans in slave ships were under horrible conditions without adequate amount of water. climate Skull shape may have evolved according to the storage and release of heat depending on climates. skull shpae.Vitiamin D is an essential component of our body. body hair. Cholesterol is intergral in making and maintaining our cell membranes. With inadequate amounts of folic acids. their skin color did not have to change to white because they . 11. Therefore. birth defects Tanning means sunlight. drinking water Ancient asian people used to purify water through boiling. It is possible that those with a natural propensity to retain high levels of salt had a better chance to survive because high salt concentration helped retain more water in body. Since folic acids are in chare of helping replicate DNA. hypertension. the latter have been used to alcohol as they had a plenty of enzymes that break down alcohol.

Briefly describe the connection between the two concepts: a. capsaicin evoloved in a way to prevent mammals from eating it. which helps to protect them from infected mosquitoes. birds eat capsaicin but seeds are not digested. Explain the role of G6PD It protects cellular integrity. Australian sheep bredding crisis of the 1940s. air conditioning It has been believed that malaria is caused by warm "bad air. air- conditioning allows people who live in malarial parts of the world to stay inside with their doors closed and windows shut. they break the seeds. When an organic celery farmer does not put synthetic pesticide. d. When animals eat too much of phytoestrogen. Malaria." Therefore. c. a scientist in the 19th century put an air conditioner that cools the hospital. it attaches to the walls of arteries. Chapter IV 13. 15. When mammals such as rodents eat capsaicin. European clover produces phytoestrogen as its defense mechanism. any chemical that produces free radicals can wreak havoc on red blood cells. however. spreading them along the way. with pesticide (poison) .always have enough amounts of vitamin D. mopping up chemical elements that would otherwise destroy the cell. As cholesterol builds up. the overload of this estrogenlike compounds wreak havoc on their reproductive capability b. therefore. Capsaicin. agaisnt its grazing predators. European clover. Fava beans consumption makes the blood cells of non-G6PD deficient people a less hospitable place for malarial parasites. favism. Explain the good and bad of ApoE4 The ApoE4 gene keeps the blood full of cholesterol even though there is not enough sunlihgt in a northern climate to convert it to VD. Anyhow. birds and mammals Capsaicin is poisonous to mammals but not to birds. Without G6PD. Explain the following statement found on pg 87: "Life is such a compromise. However. there will be more amounts of poison stored in celery when we eat it. 14. This shows how smart Mother Nature is. fava beans It has been discovered that people with favism were living in areas where fava beans were largely cultivated. It may result in a blockage that causes a heart attack or a stroke." Celery produces more poisons in its body as a defense mechanism against predators. 12.

Antibodies The substances from our immune system that mark the infectious particles and ultimately kill them.gondii gets back to cats' bodies. Chapter V 16. thereby having a huge advantage over other hosts. hanging on the blade of grass and waiting for to get eaten by sheep. c. This is how a cold virus is beging transferred from one person to another. it manipulates its host. Life is a compromise. infecting other people. What is our advantage in the survive-and-produce race? The fact that humanity is intelligent enough to manipulate back parasites and microbes as we feel like to do. There are countless types of antibodies produced in our bodies. leading it to be drawn by the scent of cat's urine. Grasshoppers do suicidal behaviors for the benefit of their parasites. Jenner He was a country doctor in England who had the first vaccine. As they sneeze. vacca. Mice are drawn to cats due to the manipulation of parasites.sprayed. 19. This vaccine is the form of cowpox as a future defense against smallpox. and this is how T. Vaccine The word comes from the Latin word for cow. Complete Parasite Chart I could not do it because there was no chart in the back 17+18 Dicrocoelium Dentriticum is a worm that lives in the livers of sheep. b. the virus comes out of its body.gondii is a parasite that can only reproduce in cats' bodies. there will be less poison in celery. Chapter VI 20. and the Latin name for cowpox. Then it is carreid by snails. then eaten by ants. mice might eat them. People sneeze because of a cold virus that manipulates them to so. a cat eats that mouse. It gets released by dungs of sheeps. It usually resembles the structure of a infectious material that it tries to prevent in the future. vaccinia. It then manipulates ant's behaviors by infecting its brain. Humans are constantly developing ways to defend themselves against parasites. Ants do suicidal behaviors. T. After this parasite is released through cats' droppings. Once it gets inside the mouse's body. . Briefly discuss the following terms/scientiests: a. As a result.

Make connections between the following terms a. f. the most famous of which is a theory of inherited acquired traits. Humans have about 25. flu epidemics Sunspots explode. How is this possible? There are more than 100. 22. called junk DNA. h. sunspots. What is the Weissman barrier? It distinguishes between somatic cells and germ cells. 24.000 genes and more than a million different antibodies. This means that genes are able to change themselves to serve their functions. 23. leading to coevolution. She spent her entire life studying and researching on what is known as jumping genes.000 different antibodies present in our bodies.000. "junk DNA" Only 3 percent of DNA is active in coding protiens. releasing the strong radiation every 11 years. g. Larmarck He was a French thinker and student of nature who popularized his own evolutoin theory. The theory says that a mutation that occurs on the somatic side of the barrier cannot move over to the germ side. evolution McClintlock's disvoery. They are responsible for AIDS. They coevolve with virus. McClintlock She is known as the Emily Dickinson of genetics. viruses. What is a persisting virus? Persisting viruses are the viruses that have migrated into our genome over millions of . does not code for cellular production. b. Transposons. the flue epidemics also increased due to the mutations created by the radiation. the number of genes only amounts to 25. As the intensity of radiation increases in a certain year. The rest of 97%. Retroviruses Viruses that enable DNA strands to be copied from RNA strands. jumping genes are called transposons. But. 21. B-cells They are the basic building blkcs of antibodies.d. e.

agouti mice When fat yellow mice normally fed with necessary nutrients mate each other. It means that boys have been preferred in history because of the patriarchal society the humanity lives in. 25. when they are fed with vitamins in addition to necessary nutrients. Sons of fathers who smoke are more likely to get fat because smoking indicates poor nutrition. Explain. they produce thin brown babies. Snakes. There are genes responsbile for repairing the genes that fight cancer. 30. 26.years and may have become our partners in evolution. as well as the Hayflick limit. 27. Tough times mean more girls. Make connections between the following terms a. fetuses that experience poor nutrition develop thrifty metabolisms that are much more efficient at hoarding energy. Apoptosis. If a newly pregnant woman spends the first weeks of her pregnancy eating a typical junk-food diet. that conservation mechanism only adds calories to bodies. Epigenesis may be partially responsible for the childhood epidemic of obesity. or programmed cell death is a check point for cancer growth. There are genes responsible for creating specialized cancer hunters programmed to seek and destroy cancer cells. Identify the 5 lines of cancer defense There are specific genes responsible for tumor suppression. the embryo may receive signals that it is going to be born into a harsh environment and the embryo develops a mechanism that conserves as much calories from food. however. The junk food that fills so many American diets is high in calories but low in nutrition level." Explain. That's why kids born to that mother will likely be obese because with abundant foods. vitamin supplement. . Barker hypothesis. they produce the similar-looking offspring. long-tailed lizards One species of lizard is born with a long tail and large body or a small tail and small body depending on one thing only--whether their mother smelled a lizard-eating snake while pregnant. "Good times mean more boys. b. c. fathers who smoke Barker hypothesis states that for example.