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IPM IDPT

Well Engineering Module


Basic Well Control

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Basic Well Control


• Module Contents
• Objectives and Introduction

• Well Control Fundamentals CD (Self Study)

• WC Incident root causes and IPM Standards

• Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Well Control

• Well Control Mathematics and the “U” Tube

• Kick Causes and Prevention

• Well Control Equipment (HP, LP, BOP, Accumulator, MGS)

• Shut In and Well Kill procedures

• Well Control reporting (Kick reporting, Kill Sheets, etc..)


IDPT Basic WC
IPM

1
Basic Well Control
• Module Objectives

• At the end of this lecture and completion of the WCF CD YOU


will be able to:

• Define the terms “kick” and “Blowout”

• Perform basic Well Control calculations

• Understand the causes of Well Control incidents

• State primary, secondary and tertiary Well Control procedures

• Understand Well Control Equipment

• Describe the Shut In and Kill methods

• Explain the reporting procedures for Well Control incidents

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

“A catastrophic well control incident could


put IPM out of business”

- Antonio J. Campo
IPM President

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

2
Basic Well Control
• Introduction

• In simple terms, a kick can only occur when the formation


pressure exceeds the mud hydrostatic pressure

• The resultant positive differential pressure is transferred into


the wellbore and there is an influx of formation fluids

• If the well is shut in after determining that a kick has occurred


then the well can be killed under controlled conditions

• Blow-outs occur when the kick (influx) can not be controlled


and there is an emission of wellbore and/or formation fluids at
surface

• The rig crew must be fully trained and alert at all times in order
to take immediate action to bring the well under control.
IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Basic Well Control

• An uncontrolled Kick !

Workover Rig
Land Well
Russia

Cause: >Proper equipment


not deployed
>Poor practices
>Lack of training

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

3
Basic Well Control
Can turn into this:

Or this:

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Well Control Incidents - Root Causes


• Lack of knowledge and skills of rig personnel
• Improper work practices
• Lack of understanding of Well Control from certification
training
• Lack of application of policies and standards
• Poor contractor & supplier management
• Inadequate Risk Management & Management of
Change

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

4
IPM Standards
Standards

3 HSE
4 Quality
28 Engineering

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Reference
IPM Standards
Title InTouch #
IPM-PO-QAS-001 Corporate QHSE Policy 3286066
IPM-PO-QAS-002 Engineering Policy 3286067
IPM-ST-QAS-001 Document Formatting Standard 3274817
IPM-ST-QAS-002 Project Bridging Document 3286070
IPM-ST-QAS-003 Glossary of QHSE Definitions 3286072
IPM-ST-QAS-004 Management of Change 3286073
IPM-PR-QAS-001 Document Numbering and Control Procedure 3274819
IPM-FO-QAS-001 Management of Change Form 3286075
IPM-CORP-S004 Indemnity and Risk 3286076
IPM-ST-HSE-001 Gas Detection Service and Equipment 3286077
IPM-ST-HSE-002 Life Saving and Evacuation Equipment 3286078
IPM-ST-HSE-003 Simultaneous Operations 3286079
IPM-PR-HSE-004 Hygiene in Camps and Accommodations 3286082
IPM-PR-HSE-005 Preparation of a Simultaneous Operations Manual 3286083
IPM-ST-WCI-001 Well Engineering Management System (WEMS) 3286084
IPM-ST-WCI-002 Information to be Kept on Location 3286085
IPM-ST-WCI-003 Kick Detection Equipment 3286086
IPM-ST-WCI-004 Well Control Equipment Testing Requirements 3286087
IPM-ST-WCI-005 BOP Stack and Diverter Minimum Requirements 3286088
IPM-ST-WCI-006 Well Control Certification 3286089
IPM-ST-WCI-007 Consensus of Well Control Procedures 3286090
IPM-ST-WCI-008 Well Control Drills 3286091
IPM-ST-WCI-009 Casing Liner and Tubing Pressure Testing 3286092
IPM-ST-WCI-010 Minimum Chemical Stocks 3286093

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

5
IPM Standards (2)
Reference Title InTouch #
IPM-ST-WCI-011 Kick Tolerance 3286095
IPM-ST-WCI-012 Barriers 3286096
IPM-ST-WCI-013 Authority during Well Operations 3286098
IPM-ST-WCI-014 Agreement on Specific Well Control Procedures 3286099
IPM-ST-WCI-015 Well Shut-in Method 3286101
IPM-ST-WCI-016 Well Control Method 3286103
IPM-ST-WCI-017 Kick Detection 3286104
IPM-ST-WCI-018 Kick Prevention 3286106
IPM-ST-WCI-019 Constant Bottomhole Pressure 3286107
IPM-ST-WCI-020 Reporting of Kicks 3286108
IPM-ST-WCI-021 Shallow Gas Risk Assessment and Contingencies 3286109
IPM-ST-WCI-022 Well Control while Running Casing 3286110
IPM-ST-WCI-023 Leak Off Test or Shoe Test 3286111
IPM-ST-WCI-024 Procedures for Radioactive Sources 3286112
IPM-ST-WCI-025 Casing and Tubing Design 3286113
IPM-ST-WCI-026 Temporary and Permanent Abandonment 3286114
IPM-ST-WCI-027 Wellbore Surveying and Collision Avoidance 3286115
IPM-ST-WCI-028 Well Control Briefing Standard 3286116
IPM-PR-WCI-002 Contingency Stripping Procedure 3286117
IPM-PR-WCI-003 Testing of Cement Mixing and Pumping Equipment 3286118
IPM-PR-WCI-004 Operational Requirements for Cement Slurries 3286119
IPM-PR-WCI-005 Cement Placement 3286120
IPM-PR-WCI-006 Setting and Verification of Cement Plugs 3286122
IPM-PR-WCI-007 Survey Program Preparation
IPM-PR-WCI-008 Technical and Operational Integrity 3303422
IPM-REF-WCI-001 Derivation of Kick Tolerance Calculation 3286124

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Basic Well Control

• The primary formula for Well Control

• U-Tube principles

• The calculation of pressures in the Static and


Dynamic U-Tube conditions

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

6
Well Control

• Primary Well Control :


• The use of the Mud Weight to provide sufficient pressure to
prevent an influx of formation fluid into the wellbore

• Secondary Well Control:


• Control Kick with Mud Weight and BOP Equipment

• Tertiary Well Control:


• An Underground Blowout – to avoid a surface blowout

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Well Control Math


If MW = 1 ppg
P = 1 lb. = 0.052 psi
19.23 in2
Gradient = Change = 0.052 psi/ft
Volume:
Ht: 1 ft.

If MW = 10 ppg
1 gallon =
P = 10 lb. = 0.52 psi
230.75 in3 19.23 in2
Gradient = Change = 0.52 psi/ft
G = 0.052 x MW
Area: 19.23 in2 (psi/ft) (ppg)

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

7
Well Control Math

0 0
G = 0.052 x MW

Pressure -psi
1 0.52 (psi/ft) (ppg)
Depth - ft

MW: 10 ppg HP = G x D
2 1.04 (psi) (psi/ft) (ft)

3 1.56
Only TVD is Considered
Not MD

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

How vs Why
SIDPP =
Given: 600 psi

• Gas Kick taken while


drilling at 6000 ft SICPP =
900 psi
• Well Shut-In
• MW = 10 ppg
• Kill MW = ???

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

8
How vs Why

How to calculate KMW: Why KMW is 12 ppg:


KMW = (0.052 x MW x D) + SIDPP G10 = 0.052 x 10 = 0.52 psi/ft
D x 0.052
HP10 = G x D = 0.52 psi/ft x 6000ft
KMW = (0.052 x 10 x 6000) + 600 HP10 = 3120 psi
6000 x 0.052
Pzone = HP10 + SIDPP = 3120 + 600
KMW = 11.923 = 12 ppg
Pzone = 3720 psi
Gkill = Pzone = 3720 = 0.62 psi/ft
6000
D
KMW = Gkill = 0.62 =11.923 ppg=12 ppg
0.052 0.052
IDPT Basic WC
IPM

How vs Why
SIDPP =
600 psi

What is the significance of the 600 psi


SIDPP? SICPP =
900 psi
Why was the Drill Pipe gauge pressure used
in the calculation rather than the SICP gauge
pressure?
Why do we round up to 12 ppg for the KMW?

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

9
The ‘U’-Tube

An arrangement of pipes in which the two legs are attached


at the bottom

A B

The Pressure at Point A = Pressure at Point B

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

The Well as a ‘U’-Tube


The ‘U’-Tube
Can
Be Either:
• Static
• Dynamic Pressure Contributors:
• Pump Pressure
• DP Friction Loss
What are the • Bit Pressure Loss
Pressure • Annular Pressure Loss (ECD)
Contributors? • Back Pressure from Choke

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

10
Static ‘U’-Tube
Given: SIDPP =
500 psi
• Shut-In after Gas Kick
• Depth: 10,000 ft
SICP = 700
• MW: 10 ppg psi

• BHP: ??
• Avg Grad Ann: ??
• EMW: ??
• How Big was the Kick??
– 8-1/2” Vertical Well
– 5 Stands 6-3/4”DC
P1 = P2
IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Static ‘U’-Tube
SIDPP =
BHP = SIDPP + HPDS 500 psi
BHP = 500 + (0.052 x 10 x 10,000)
BHP = 5700 psi
SICP = 700
BHP = SICP + HPA psi
HPA = BHP – SICP
HPA = 5700 – 700 = 5000 psi
GA = HPA = 5000 psi = 0.5 psi/ft
D 10,000 ft
EMWA = GA = 0.5 = 9.6 ppg
0.052 0.052

Note that BHP: P1 = P2


P1 = P2
IDPT Basic WC
IPM

11
Static ‘U’-Tube
Height of Influx = SICP - SIDPP
GMud - GInflux
= 700 psi - 500 psi
(10 ppg x 0.052) - GInflux
Gas Influx: < 0.2 psi/ft Water Influx: > 0.4 psi/ft
Worst Case: Assume Gas Influx = 0.1 psi/ft
= 700 - 500 = 200 psi
0.52 psi/ft – 0.1 psi/ft 0.42 psi/ft
Height of Influx = 476.2 ft (TVD)

Kick Size = Height of Influx (MD) x Annular Volume (5 Stands of 6-3/4” DC in 8-1/2” Hole)
= 476.2 ft x 0.0259 bbl/ft
Kick Size = 12.4 bbls

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Dynamic ‘U’-Tube
CDPP psi
Given:
• What does the CDPP
measure? CCP psi

• How are DP losses


calculated?
• How are Annular pressure
losses calculated?

P1 ≥ P2
IDPT Basic WC
IPM

12
DS Pressure Loss

• Step 1: Obtain the following dimensional parameters


• Drill pipe ID ddp – inches
• Drill pipe Length Ldp – feet
• Drill collar ID ddc – inches
• Drill collar Length Ldc – feet
• Plastic Viscosity PV – centipoise
• Yield Point YP - lb/100ft2

• Step 2: Calculate the average fluid velocity (ft/sec):


• Drill collars: Vdc = GPM/(2.448 x ddc2)
• Drill pipe: Vdp = GPM/(2.448 x ddp2)

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

DS Pressure Loss
• Step 3: Calculate the frictional pressure loss:
• Drill collars:
PLdc = [(PV x Vdc x Ldc)/(1500 xddc2)] + [(YP x Ldc)/(225 x ddc)]
• Drill pipe:
PLdp = [(PV x Vdp x Ldp)/(1500 xddp2)] + [(YP x Ldp)/(225 x ddp)]
• DSPL = PLdc + PLdp

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

13
Dynamic ‘U’-Tube
CDPP =
Given: 2000 psi
• Depth: 10,000 ft
• MW: 10 ppg CCP = 500
• Circ DPP (CDPP): 2000 psi psi

• Circ CP (CCP): 500 psi


• (backpressure)
• DS Pres Loss (dPDS): 1300 psi
• Anl Pres Loss (dPA): 200 psi
• BHP: ???

P1 ≥ P2
IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Dynamic ‘U’-Tube
CDPP =
2000 psi

BHP = CCP + HPA + dPA


CCP = 500
= 500 + (0.052 x 10 x 10,000) + 200 psi
BHP = 5900 psi
OR

BHP = CDPP + HPDS - dPDS


= 2000 + (0.052 x 10 x 10,000) - 1300
BHP = 5900

P1 ≥ P2
IDPT Basic WC
IPM

14
Problem #1

THE ‘U’ –TUBE


1/2 hour

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Problem #1

156 SICP = 0 psi (overbalanced U-Tube)

BHP = SICP + HPAnn


0 = 0 + (0.052 x 10 ppg x 10,000 ft)
BHP = 5200 psi
10 9.7 SITP = BHP - HPTub
= 5200 – (0.052 x 9.7 ppg x 10,000 ft)
SITP = 156 psi

Zone Overbalance = BHP – Zone Pressure


= 5200 – 4850 psi
+350 Zone Overbalance = 350 psi

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

15
Problem #1

156 CTP = 156 psi (Held Constant)

CCP = dPAnn+ dPTub


370 = 300 + 70
CCP = 370 psi

BHP = CCP + HPAnn - dPAnn


= 370 + 5200 – 70
BHP = 5500 psi

Zone Overbalance = BHP – Zone Pressure


= 5500 – 4850 psi
+650 Zone Overbalance = 650 psi ( 300 psi above Shut-In)

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Problem #1
CTP = 0 psi (U-Tube Balanced)
(Choke Fully Open)
0
CCP = dPAnn + dPTub
= 300 + 70
CCP = 370 psi (Pressure Loss in U-Tube)
370 L
Volume of 9.7 ppgAnn = Volume of 10 ppg Tub
L x CapacityAnn = (10,000 – L) x CapacityTub
L x 0.0986 = (10,000 – L) x 0.02
= 200 – L x 0.02
0.1186L = 200
L = 1686 ft
10,000 – L = 8314 ft

BHP = CTP + HP9.7 + HP10 - dPT


= 0 + (0.052 x 9.7 ppg x 1686 ft) + (0.052 x 10 ppg x 8314 ft) + 300
= 0 + 850 + 4323 + 300
+623 BHP = 5473 psi

Zone Overbalance = BHP – Zone Pressure


= 5473 – 4850 psi
Zone Overbalance = 623 psi

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

16
Problem #1
CTP = 0 psi (HPTub Greater than HPAnn)
(Choke Fully Open)
0
BHP = CTP + HPT + dPT
= 0 + 5200 + 300
BHP = 5500 psi
402 L
Zone Overbalance = BHP – Zone Pressure
= 5500 – 4850 psi
Zone Overbalance = 650 psi

Volume of 9.7 ppgAnn = Volume of 10 ppg Tub


L x CapacityAnn = 10,000 x CapacityTub
L x 0.0986 = 10,000 x 0.02
L = 2028 ft
10,000 – L = 7972 ft

+650 BHP = CCP + HP9.7 + HP10 - dPAnn


CCP = BHP - HP9.7 - HP10 + dPAnn
= 5500 - (0.052 x 9.7 ppg x 2028 ft) + (0.052 x 10 ppg x 7972 ft) + 70
= 5500 - 1023 - 4145 + 70
CCP = 402 psi

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Problem #1

0
CTP = 0 psi (HPTub Greater than HPAnn)
(Choke Fully Open)
526
BHP = 5500 psi (Same as (#4))

Zone Overbalance = 650 psi (Same as (#4))

CCP = BHP – HPAnn + dPAnn


= 5500 - (0.052 x 9.7 ppg x 10,000 ft) + 70
= 5500 - 5044 + 70
CCP = 526 psi
+650

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

17
Problem #1

0
CTP = 0 psi (U-Tube Balanced)
(Choke Fully Open)
370
CCP = 370 psi (Pressure Loss in U-Tube)

BHP = CTP + HPTub + dPTub


= 0 + 5044 + 300
BHP = 5344 psi

Zone Overbalance = BHP – Zone Pressure


= 5344 – 4850 psi
+494 Zone Overbalance = 494 psi

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Problem #1
600

526
500

400
402
370
CTP/CCP - psi

370
300

200

156

100

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Tubing Volumes
IDPT Basic WC
IPM

18
Problem #1
1000

900

800

650 650
Overbalance - psi

700

600
623
500
494
400

300

200

100

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Tubing Volumes
IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Kicks – Cause

There is ONE condition that allows a kick to occur:


The pressure in the wellbore becomes less than the pressure
in the formation

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

19
Kicks – Causes and Prevention
Most Cause Best Prevented By:
Common
1. Failure to keep hole full of Measurement of fill-up
volume when tripping -
proper weight fluid
Trip Tank!!
2. Drilling into zones of known Good engineering & well
pressure with mud weight procedures and an alert,
questioning attitude by WSS -
too low
READ THE PROGRAM
3. Drilling into unexpected, Careful engineering, proper
abnormal formation well design -
Least STUDY OFFSET WELLS
pressure
Common

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Kicks – Causes and Prevention


Most Cause Best Prevented By:
Common
4. Lost Circulation (Fluid Level, Careful engineering, proper
not rate of loss is critical in well design -
Case off Loss Circ ASAP!
well control)
5. Unloading mud by pulling Measurement of fill-up volume
when pulling drill string – TRIP
balled assembly
TANK!

6. Mud weight high enough to Measurement of fill-up volume


when pulling drill string – TRIP
drill, but not to trip
Least TANK!
Common

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

20
Uncontrolled Kicks = Blowouts

p e n
H ap
t i t
t L e
n’
Do

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Well Control Equipment

• Trip Tank

• LP and HP Well Control Equipment

• BOP Configuration and testing

• Accumulator, Manifold and Mud Gas Separator

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

21
Well Control Equipment - Overview

LOW Pressure HIGH Pressure

Pump
Mud Mud
Storage Mixing Trip Tank
PVT D
P

Gas BOP
Suction Degasser Choke
Buster Stack
To Pump Well
Accum
Head

CSG
IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Well Control Equipment

What is the most important piece of well control


equipment on the rig?

The Trip Tank

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

22
Surface BOP Stack Configuration

ANNULAR

TOP RAMS

BLIND RAMS

Choke Line
Kill Line HCR
BOTTOM RAMS
Replace with Double Gate BOTTOM RAMS
(Pipe Rams – Blind Rams) in
Selected Cases VR Plug
Installed in
Casing Head
IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Sub-Sea BOP Stack Arrangement

UPPER ANNULAR

LMRP CON

LOWER ANNULAR Inner Outer


BOTTOM RAMS
SHEAR RAMS
Choke Choke
Outer Inner
Choke Choke BLIND RAMS
BOTTOM RAMS

UPPER RAMS
Inner Outer
BOTTOM RAMS
MIDDLE RAMS Choke Choke
Outer Inner
Choke Choke BOTTOM RAMS
LOWER RAMS

Stack Connector
IDPT Basic WC
IPM

23
Pressure Test Frequency
The pressure tests of all blowout preventers, wellhead components and
their connections, BOP operating unit, choke manifold, kill and choke lines,
standpipe manifold, kelly and kelly cocks, safety valves and inside BOPS
shall be made:
ƒ During the first trip after the14-day interval with a maximum interval of 21 days or before
as specified by local regulations
ƒ Prior to installation where possible
ƒ After installation of wellhead and BOP assembly and prior to drilling
ƒ When any component change is made
ƒ Prior to drilling into a suspected high pressure zone
ƒ At any time requested by the Operator’s Drilling Representative
ƒ After Repairs
ƒ Prior to the initial opening of the drill stem test tools
ƒ When bonnets have been opened solely for the purpose of changing rams prior to
running casing, a body test to ensure the integrity of the bonnet seals will suffice

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Accumulator Bottle

Bladder Assembly

Shell

Fluid Port Assembly


IDPT Basic WC
IPM

24
Accumulator Sizing
VOLUME AT MIN OPER PRESS 200
PRECHARGE ACCUMULATOR psi ABOVE
OPERATING PRESS PRECHARGE PRESS

1000 psi 3000 psi


Non-Flammable Gas

1200 psi

Accumulator
Fluid
USABLE
VOLUME

- MOST ALL MODERN ACCULULATORS ARE 3000 psi WORKING PRESSURE

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Accumulator Sizing
SLB STANDARD
SPECIFICATION:
The accumulator volume of the BOP systems should be sized to keep
a remaining stored accumulator pressure of 1380 kPa (200 psi) or
more above the minimum recommended precharge pressure after
conducting the following operations (with pumps inoperative):

• Close all (rams and annular) functions and Open all HCRs valves
• Open all (rams and annular) functions and Close all HCRs valves
• Close Annular
• Open choke line remote operated valve

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

25
Accumulator Sizing
SLB STANDARD
EXAMPLE:

BOP Equipment: 1 Annular + 3 Rams + HCR Valve


Closing Volume (CV): 20 + (3 x 10) + 1 = 56 Gal
Opening Volume (OV): 20 + (3 x 10) + 1 = 56 Gal
Closing Volume (CV): 20 = 20 Gal
Open Choke Line Valve (OV): 1 = 1 Gal
Usable Volume (UV): = 133 Gal
Nominal (Bottle) Volume (NV): 2 x UV = 266 Gal

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Accumulator Sizing
1000 psi 3000 psi
Non-Flammable Gas

Accumulator

1200 psi
Fluid

USABLE
VOLUME
1 2 3
Calculation of Usable (Bottle) Volume
Pre-Charge Operating Useable

Pressure 1000 3000 1200

Gas Vol 10 3.33 8.33


UV = 6.67 – 1.67
PxV 10,000 10,000 10,000
UV = 5
Liquid Vol 0 6.67 1.67

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

26
Hydraulic Pumps

SPECIFICATION:
The unit will include one (1) electric pump and two (2) back-up air
pumps for accumulator charging. With the accumulator system
removed from service, the pumps should be capable of:
• Closing annular preventer (excluding diverter) on minimum size drill pipe being
used
• Opening hydraulic operated choke line valve
• Obtain a minimum of 1380 kPa (200 psi) pressure above accumulator precharge
pressure on closing unit within two (2) minutes or less

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Choke and Standpipe Manifold


At least three flow paths must be provided that are capable of
flowing well returns through conduits that are 76.14 mm (3”)
nominal diameter or larger. At least one flow path:

• Shall be equipped with a remotely controlled, pressure operated adjustable


choke. Simplified choke manifolds without remote control choke may be
acceptable on light rigs with 2-3k psi stacks.
• Shall be equipped with a manually operated adjustable choke.
• Must permit returns to flow directly to the pit, discharge manifold or other
downstream piping without passing through a choke. Two gate valves with
full rated working pressure must be provided in this unchoked path.

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

27
Float Valves

SPECIFICATION:
Float valves must be used while drilling and opening hole prior to
setting surface casing or any time the posted well control plan is
to divert and can also be used in deeper sections of the hole.
They:
• Prevent sudden influx entry into the drill string
• Prevent back flow of annular cuttings from plugging bit nozzles

Either plain or ported floats are acceptable

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Mud-Gas Separator
Vent Line
No Valves!!
1. Diameter and length controls the
GAS
Siphon Breaker

amount of pressure in separator

Baffle Plates
Impingement
Plate
No Valves!!

From Choke

2. Height and diameter and internal


MUD design control separation efficiency
d

Mud
D

3. Height of ‘U’-Tube (D) and distance from


bottom of separator to top of ‘U’-Tube
controls fluid level and stops gas from going
Drain Line out of the bottom
w/Valve
IDPT Basic WC
IPM

28
Exercise - MGS Design

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Exercise - MGS Design


EXAMPLE:
Well Depth: 10, 000’
Hole/CSG Size (12-1/4” x 13-3/8”): 0.125 bbl/ft
Drill Pipe (5”, 19.5#): 0.025 bbl/ft
MW: 12 ppg KMW: 14 ppg
Kick Vol: 50 bbl
Kill Speed: 3 BPM
Well Killed by Driller’s Method
Csg Press when gas reaches surface: 1987 psi
Csg Press when gas out: 1057 psi
Avg Gas Rate during 1st minute of venting: 3,202 MCF/D
Avg Gas Rate during last minute of venting: 1,722 MCF/D
Avg Gas Rate while venting: 2,462 MCF/D

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

29
Exercise - MGS Design
Pressure Loss in 100 ft

30
Gas Temp =
75º F
25
Upstream Pressure – psi

Downstream
Pressure =
20

4” ID 6” ID Atmospheric
15
10

8” ID
10” ID
5

12” ID

0
0
5 5
10 10
15 15
20 20

Gas Flowrate – MMSCF/D


IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Well Control Equipment

DIVERTERS

Are NOT Well Control Equipment

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

30
Diverters

• Diverter Requirements

• Diverter Procedures

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Diverters
Designed to direct UNCONTROLLED flow away from personnel

• Major weaknesses of the Diverter:


1) Plugging: 1/4 -1/2”
A large number particles of this size:
Can bridge off these flow paths:
8” 12”

2) Erosion:
• Gas/Sand mixtures flowing through diverter lines have been measured
to erode though steel at the rate of 8”/hour

• Water mixtures have been measured at 16”/hour

NO RELIABLE MEANS EXIST TO ELIMINATE THESE PROBLEMS


IDPT Basic WC
IPM

31
Diverter Configuration

Flow Line
Diverter

Riser Diverter Line

Surface

Casing Shoe

Entry
IDPT Basic WC
IPM

SLB Diverter Requirements


Land, Swamp Barge & Jack-Up

Relief Lines
• At least two relief lines installed to permit venting at
opposite ends or sides of the rig
• On Land a single line is permissible
• The relief line shall be at least 8” (203 mm)
• No other lines into or out of diverter lines or housing

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

32
SLB Diverter Requirements
Land, Swamp Barge & Jack-Up

Relief System
• The diverter relief system shall be inserted with a minimum number of
bends and all lines well secured. Each diverter relief line will be equipped
with a pressure-operated full opening, unrestricted valve. The operating
sequence of the diverter will be as follows:
• Open selected valve
• Close diverter
These functions shall be interlocked. A means of switching flow
from one vent to the other without closing in the system must be
provided.

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

SLB Diverter Requirements


Land, Swamp Barge & Jack-Up

Relief System
• Special care should be taken to protect pipe bends form erosion. This may
include:
• Use of long radius pipe bends
• Providing extra metal thickness at bends
• Sleeve-type connections shall not be used in the diverter system
• A power-operated valve must be installed to automatically shut off mud returns
to the pits when the diverter is closed, if the mud return line and diverter relief
outlet from the well is a common outlet or the mud return line connects below
the diverter head

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

33
SLB Diverter Requirements
Land, Swamp Barge & Jack-Up

Relief System
• Special care should be taken to protect pipe bends form erosion. This may
include:
• Use of long radius pipe bends
• Providing extra metal thickness at bends
• Sleeve-type connections shall not be used in the diverter system
• A power-operated valve must be installed to automatically shut off mud returns
to the pits when the diverter is closed, if the mud return line and diverter relief
outlet from the well is a common outlet or the mud return line connects below
the diverter head

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Shut-In Procedure while Drilling


Paths on Choke Manifold Closed (Hard Shut-In),
Float in Drill string

1. Stop rotation
2. Raise string to shut-in position (time permitting)
3. Stop the pumps and flow check; if well flows,
proceed without delay to next step
4. Close annular/ open remote controlled choke line valve (HCR)
5. Notify man in charge
6. Check space out and close pipe rams and locks
7. Bleed off pressure between pipe rams and annular (if possible)
8. Record annulus and drill pipe pressure and pit gain

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

34
Shut-In Procedure while Tripping
Paths on Choke Manifold Closed (Hard Shut-In),
Float in Drill string
1. Set slips below tool joint (No tool next to shear ram)
2. Install full opening safety valve and close same
3. Close annular/open remote controlled choke line valve (HCR)
4. Notify man in charge
5. Make up kelly or top drive (insert a pup joint or single
between safety valve and top drive) and open safety valve
6. Read annulus and drill pipe pressure and pit gain

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Hard Shut-In vs. Soft Shut-In

Hard Shut-In
Advantages:
• Influx stopped in shortest possible time
• Quick and simple procedure
Disadvantages:
• Perceived pressure pulse or ‘Water Hammer’ effect that is
thought to damage formation

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

35
Hard Shut-In vs. Soft Shut-In

Soft Shut-In
Advantages:
• Perceived pressure pulse is reduced
Disadvantages:
• A larger influx is obtained due to the delay in fully shutting
the well in
• More complex due to requirement of ensuring valve
alignment before closing BOP

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Hard Shut-In vs. Soft Shut-In


Conclusions
Soft Shut-In
• Little improvement to pressure pulse
• Significant effect from additional influx
Hard Shut-In
• ‘Water Hammer’ smaller than shut-in pressure rise
• Formation exposed to lower net pressure
• Results favor Hard Shut-In
• Minimum confusion, Less influx volume, Lower annular pressure
• Safety of personnel and equipment without risk to well

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

36
Well Kill Procedures
CONSTANT BHP WELL CONTROL METHOD

Circulate Gas Out


Holding Constant BHP

P1 = P2

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Well Kill Procedures


• 4 Methods
• Drillers Method
• Circulate kick out
• Then pump kill weight mud

• Wait and Weight Method


• Mix KW mud (Well shut in) and pump into wellbore.

• Volumetric, Lubricate and Bleed


• When circulation is a problem

• Bullheading

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

37
Driller’s Method
ADVANTAGES
• Simplicity – Less calculations are required than Wait and Weight
• Can start circulation immediately – Effect of gas migration reduced
• Removes influx and stabilizes wellbore pressure at earliest possible time
• Viable option if limited barite is available

DISADVANTAGES
• Method will require at least two circulations
• Under certain conditions the highest shoe pressure
• Two circulations may cause damage to Well Control Equipment

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Wait and Weight Method


ADVANTAGES
• In some circumstances, it generates the lowest pressure on the formation near casing
seat.
• In a long open hole section, it is the least likely method to induce lost circulation.
• Requires one less circulation, therefore less damage to Well Control Equipment
• Defacto standard for majority of our clients

DISADVANTAGES
• Requires longest waiting period prior to circulation. In a case where a significant
amount of hole is drilled prior to encountering the kick, the cuttings may settle out
and plug annulus

• Gas migration is a problem while the density of the system is increased

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

38
Well Control Incident Reporting

• All WC Incidents will be reported in QUEST


within 24 hours of the incident.

• The QUEST entry shall be accompanied by a


Well Control Incident Report

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Well Control Incident Reporting

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

39
Well Control Incident Reporting

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

Well Control Incident Reporting

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

40
Basic Well Control
• Now you should be able to:

• Define the terms “kick” and “Blowout”

• Understand the causes of kicks and blowouts

• Describe primary, secondary and tertiary WC procedures

• Perform basic WC calculations

• Describe the necessary equipment for Well Control

• Be able to report a WC incident in Quest

• Fill out a killsheet.

IDPT Basic WC
IPM

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