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# CHAPTER 2 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 1. (a) 12 μs (d) 3.5 Gbits (g) 39 pA

(b) 750 mJ (e) 6.5 nm (h) 49 kΩ
(c) 1.13 kΩ (f) 13.56 MHz (i) 11.73 pA
3. 300 kW; 3.7 m; 25 mm; 71 kJ; 290 fs
5. 131 kW; 1.4 GJ; 1 battery
7. 13 GW; 100 mW
9. 290 kJ; 1.5 kJ
11. 6.2 A; 3.5 A; The current is never negative; 34 C
13. 12 MV; 0; -18.7 MV; -6.2 MV
15. -6.4 mW; -120 W; 60 W; 12 W
17. 73 W; -36 W; 28 W
19. 5 mW, 0, -2 mW; 36 J; 22 J
21. 64 W, 256 W, -640 W, 800 W, -480 W
23. -1 mV
25. 58 W; 4.8 A
27. 5.6 mA, 4.5 mA; 23 mW, 28 mW
29. 43.5 mW; 231 mW; 253 mW
31. Since we know that the total power supplied is equal to the total power absorbed,
we may write: Vs I = I2R1 + I2R2. Now invoke Ohm’s law.
33. 500 μA, 2.5 mW; -500 μA, 2.5 mW; -500 μA, 2.5 mW; 500 μA, 2.5 mW
35. -2 V (at t = 0.324 s)
37. 2 km. Hmmmm….
39. 1.7 μΩ.cm
41. 560 mΩ, 1.3 W
43. 266 mΩ; 514 mA
45. Design. Many possible solutions. Hint: Start with finding resistivity, then choose
geometry.

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CHAPTER 3 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 7. (a) 3 A; (b) -3 A; (c) 0

9. ix = 1 A; iy = 5 A.

11. If the DMM appears as a short, then all 5 A flows through the DMM, and none
through the resistors, resulting in a (false) reading of 0 V for the circuit
undergoing testing.

## 13. (a) 12 V; (b) -2.2 V

15. R = 34 Ω; G = 90 mS

19. -23.5 V

## 21. (a) (b) = -1.62 kW

v1 = 60 V i1 = 27 A
v2 = 60 V i2 = 3 A = 180 W
v3 = 15 V i3 = 24 A = 360 W
v4 = 45 V i4 = 15 A = 675 W
v5 = 45 V i5 = 9 A = 405 W

## 25. (a) 25 W; (b) 24 W; (c) 16 W; (d) 18.4 W; (e) -600 W

27. None of the conditions specified in (a) to (d) can be met by this circuit.

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CHAPTER 3 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

35. (a)
P5A = –5 vx = –1.389 kW
2
P100Ω = (vx) / 100 = 771.7 W
2
P25Ω = (vx) / 25 = 3.087 kW
Pdep = –vx(0.8 ix) = –0.8 (vx)2 / 25 = –2.470 kW

(b)
P5A = –5 vx = –776.0 W
2
P100Ω = (vx) / 100 = 240.9 W
2
P25Ω = (vx) / 25 = 963.5 W
Pdep = –vx(0.8 iy) = –428.1 W

37.
P8A = –8 vx = –240 W
P6Ω = (vx)2 / 6 = 150 W
P8A = –7 vx = –210 W
2
P12Ω = (vx) / 12 = 75 W
2
P4Ω = (vx) / 4 = 225 W

41. 638 mW

51. -515 V

53. Req = 1 kΩ

## 55. (a) 10 kΩ || 10 kΩ; (b) 47 kΩ + 10 kΩ + 1 kΩ || 1kΩ || 1kΩ;

(c) 47 kΩ || 47 kΩ + 10 kΩ || 10 kΩ + 1 kΩ

57. 5.5 kΩ

59. 60 Ω; 213 Ω; 52 Ω

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CHAPTER 3 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

65. Proof

67. 607 mV

69. 22 A

## 73. 139 μA; 868 μW

75. 18 μW

R 2 (R 3 + R 4 )
77. (a) VS ;
R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 ) + R 2 (R 3 + R 4 )
R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 )
(b) VS ;
R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 ) + R 2 (R 3 + R 4 )
R2
(c) VS .
R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 ) + R 2 (R 3 + R 4 )

## 79. (a) 42 A; (b) 11.9 V; (c) 0.238

⎛ R3 R5 ⎞
81. VS ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ 2 3
R (R + R 4 + R 5 ) + R 3 (R 4 + R 5 ⎠
)

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CHAPTER 4 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 3. (a) v1 = 264 V, v2 = 184 V and v3 = 397 V;

(b) >> e1 = '4 = v1/100 + (v1 - v2)/20 + (v1 - vx)/50';
>> e2 = '10 - 4 - (-2) = (vx - v1)/50 + (vx - v2)/40';
>> e3 = '-2 = v2/25 + (v2 - vx)/40 + (v2 - v1)/20';
>> a = solve(e1,e2,e3,'v1','v2','vx');
>> a.v1

5. -1.74 V

7. 172 V

## 9. (a) 58.5 V, 64.4 V; (b) 543 W

11. -28 V

13. -8.1 V

15.
v1 = 3.4 V v5 = 1.7 V
v2 = 7.1 V v6 = 3.8 V
v3 = 7.5 V v7 = 3.5 V
v4 = 4.9 V v8 = 2.4 V

19. -3.25

21. -91 V

23. 45 W

31. 2.79 A

33. -380 W

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CHAPTER 4 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 37. (a) -5700 Ω; (b) this value is unique.

39. (a) 330 μA; (b) 330 μA; (c) units of resistance.

## 41. P2mA = 5000(i1 – i2)(i1) = 5 mW

P4V = 4 (-i2) = -6 mW
P6V = 6 (-i3) = 9 mW
PdepV = 1000 i3 (i3 – i2) = 4.5 mW
PdepI = 10,000(i3 – i4)(0.5 i2) = -5.6 mW

43. -3.65 W

45. -1.03 V

47. 5Ω

57. 350 mA

61. -4 mA

63. -16 V

## where R = 5/3 Ω = 1 Ω + 2/3 Ω = 1 Ω + 1 Ω || 1Ω || 1Ω + 1Ω || 1Ω || 1Ω.

69. One possible solution: 9 V in series with 5 1-Ω resistors (R1) and 5 1-Ω resistors
(R2 – R5). Take V1 across R2-R5, V2 across R3-R5, and V3 across R4-R5.

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CHAPTER 5 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

1. Define percent error as 100 [ex – (1 + x)]/ ex. If we choose x < 0.1, we ensure that
the error is less than 1%.

3. 4.7 V, 2.0 A

5. 4 V → 40 V and 10 V → 100 V.

7. 10.8 V

## 11. (a) 200 V; (b) -143 V

13. 957 μW

15. Impossible; 76 mW

17. (a) 18 V

## 19. 2.46 V; 0.546 V, 1.91 V.

21. (a) 42 V voltage source in series with 6 Ω and in series with 10 Ω; (b) 26 V; (c)
Cannot remove the resistor across which v appears or v may become lost.

23. 10 mW

25. 33 μW

29. 764 nA

## 35. The final circuit is an 8.5 V voltage source

in series with a 2.0 MΩ resistor.

37. (a) An 8/5 A current source in parallel with 5 Ω, in parallel with RL.

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CHAPTER 5 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

39. -2 V

41. (a) The Thévenin equivalent is a 9.3 V source in series with a 17 Ω resistor,
which is in series with the 5 Ω resistor of interest; (b) 928 mW.

43. (a) 25 Ω; (b) 303 Ω; (c) Increased current leads to increased filament
temperature, which results in a higher resistance (as measured). This means the
Thévenin equivalent must apply to the specific current of a particular circuit – one
model is not suitable for all operating conditions.

45. (a) 6.7 Ω, -300 mA, arrow upwards; (b) 6.7 Ω, -150 mA, arrow upwards.

51. 15 Ω, 15 Ω

## 55. VTH (and hence IN) = 0; RTH = RN = 198 mΩ.

57. 2 MΩ

vin Ri ( Ro − AR f )
59. VTH = ; RTH =
R1 Ro + Ri Ro + R1 R f + Ri R f + R1 Ri + AR1 Ri

Ro (Ri Rf + R1 Rf + R1 Ri)
--------------------------------------------------------------
Ri Ro + R1 Ro + Ri Rf + R1 Rf + R1 Ri + A R1 Ri.

61. 16 Ω, 6.3 W

63. 65 V, 15 Ω, 70 W

## 65. (a) 200 V; (b) 125 W; (c) 80 Ω

67. There is no conflict with our derivation concerning maximum power. While a
dead short across the battery terminals will indeed result in maximum current
draw from the battery, and power is indeed proportional to i2, the power delivered
to the load is i2RLOAD = i2(0) = 0 watts. This is the minimum, not the maximum,
power that the battery can deliver to a load.

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CHAPTER 5 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

73. 9.9 Ω

## 75. 5.5 V, 1.0 Ω

77. -13 V, 27 Ω

79. Although the network may be simplified, it is not possible to replace it with a
three-resistor equivalent.

83. 1.4 Ω

## 85. One possible solution of many:

87. One possible current-limiting scheme is to connect a 9-V battery in series with a
resistor Rlimiting and in series with the LED; Rlimiting = 220 Ω.

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CHAPTER 6 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 1. (a) -30 V; (b) -2.5 V; (c) 1.4 V

3. (a) vout = −10vin = −20 sin 5t ; (b) vout = −10vin = −10 − 5 sin 5t

## 5. One possible design is to use a simple inverting op amp circuit with

Rf = 9.1 kΩ and Rin = 5.1 kΩ.

7. To get a positive output that is smaller than the input, the easiest way is to use
inverting amplifier with an inverted voltage supply to give a negative voltage,
where Rf = 1.5 kΩ and Rin = 5.1 kΩ

## 9. (a) 1.7 V; (b) 3 V; (c) -2.4 V

11. (a) vout = 2vin = 8 sin 10t ; (b) vout = 2vin = 2 + 0.5 sin 10t

13. -2.2 V

15. One possible solution of many: a non-inverting op amp circuit with the
microphone connected to the non-inverting input terminal, the switch connected
between the op amp output pin and ground, a feedback resistor Rf = 133 Ω, and a
resistor R1 = 1 Ω.

17. V1 = 21 V

## 21. Rf = 236 kΩ and R1 = 1 kΩ.

23. (a) B must be the non-inverting input; (b) Choose R2 = RB = 1 Ω; (c) A is the
inverting input.

27. 4.2 V

N
vi
29. - Rf ∑R
i =1 i

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CHAPTER 6 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

37. 1 kV

39. -179 kV

41. 1.7 V

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CHAPTER 6 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 45. Rf = 120 kΩ and Rin = 200 kΩ, R = 560 Ω.

47. R = 400 Ω, R1 = 82 Ω.

I Is

## 51. (a) –3.7 mV; (b) 28 mV; (c) –3.7 V.

vout - 100A
53. = ; A = 9999.
vin 101 + A

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CHAPTER 6 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

57. (a)

(b)
vout = 105(-0.00004v2 - 9.99980×10-6v1)+5v2 = 1.00008v2 - 0.99998v1 = 0.0005 –
1.99996 sin t

## (c) vout = 105 vd = 105 × (v2 / 2 − va ) =0.99998v2-0.99998v1 = 1.99996 sin t

59. (a) V3 = 27 V;

61. Positive voltage supply, negative voltage supply, inverting input, ground, output
pin.

## 63. This is a non-inverting op amp circuit, so we expect a gain of 214.

65. For vx = -10 mV, PSpice predicts vd = 6 μV, where the hand calculations based on
the detailed model predict 50 μV, which is about one order of magnitude larger.
For the same input voltage, PSpice predicts an input current of -1 μA, whereas the
hand calculations predict 99.5vx mA = -995 nA (which is reasonably close).

67. (a) Negative saturation begins at Vin = –4.72 V, and positive saturation begins at
Vin = +4.67 V. (b) 40.6 mA.

69.

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CHAPTER 6 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

71. (a)

15
12 V
10

5
V out (V)

0
-2 -1 0 1 2
-5

-10
-12 V
-15
V active (V)

73.

⎛ R2 R3 ⎞
75. (a) Vout = V1 − V2 = Vref ⎜ − ⎟ ; (b) Vout = 0; (c) R = 4.3 kΩ and R
⎜R +R R +R ⎟
⎝ 1 2 3 Gauge ⎠
= 4.7 kΩ, gain of 5.39 for R = 4.7 kΩ, so R = 11.5 kΩ.

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CHAPTER 7 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 9. (a) 33.4 mV; (b) 33.4 mV; (c) 50.1 mV

11. (a) −120 sin 400t μ A ; (b) 6.4 μJ; (c) 400(1 − e100t )V ; (d) vc = 500 − 400e −100t V

19. (a)

## 25. (a) 2.33 V; (b) 480 mA: (c) 1.1 A

27. (a) 6.4 J; (b) 100 mJ; (c) Left to right (magnitudes): 100, 0, 100, 116, 16, 16, 0
(V); (d) Left to right (magnitudes): 0, 0, 2, 2, 0.4, 1.6, 0 (A)

31. 4.3 μF

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CHAPTER 7 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 33. (a) (b) 3.6 V

35. Cequiv = 85 nF

37. 140 nF

41. 292 pH

## 43. (a) 11.4 Ω; (b) 11.4 H; (c) 8.8 F

45. (a)

(b)

(c)

47. (a) -6.4e-80t mA; (b) 80e −80t − 60V ; (c) 20e −80 t + 60V

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CHAPTER 7 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

1 1+ A
51. (a) vs =
c ∫ idt + vi ; (b) vo′ +
RC
vo + Avs′ = 0

## 53. (a) vs = 10.0sin10t + 0.0005 − 0.0005cos10t ; (b) 10sin10t V

−Rf t

L ∫0
55. (a) Vout = vs dt ' ; (b) Capacitor values are more readily available than
inductor values.
57. One possible solution of many (with C = 1 mF, R = 600 kΩ):

## 59. One possible solution of many (with C = 1 μF, R = 1 MΩ):

61. (a)

(b)
1 t
20v20 +
5 × 10−6 ∫ (v
o 20 − vc )dt + 12 = is

1 t

## 5 × 10−6 ∫ (vo c − v20 )dt − 12 + 10vc + 8 × 10−3 vc′ = 0

(c)
iL − is i −i
+ 5 × 10−6 iL′ + L c = 0
20 10
ic − iL 1 t
−3 ∫o c
+ i dt + 2 = 0
10 8 ×10

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CHAPTER 7 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

63.

iout G in (V2 - V1 ) + G f V2
65. =
iS 1 t
L1 ∫0
V1dt ′ + G in (V1 - V2 )

67. 32 J

69. 2.6 mJ

71. 221 μJ

73. R = 1 Ω and L = 1 H

75. 558 pJ

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CHAPTER 8 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

3. 50 mH

5. 3.5 Ω

13.

## 33. 5 A; 2.3 A; 1.9 A

35. (a) 30 A; (b) 1.7 ms; (c) i (t ) = 30e −600t A ; (d) −1440e −600t V ; (e) 6e −600 t + 14A

37. (a) 290 mA; (b) 200 mA; (c) 50 mA; (d) 277 mA; (e) 34 mA

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CHAPTER 8 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 43. (a) 99.8 V; (b) 88e-2539t V

45. (a) 100 V, 0; (b) 100 V, 100 V; (c) 80 ms; (d) 100e-12.5t V; (e) 5e-12.5t mA;
(f) −20e −12.5t + 80V , −80e −12.5t + 80V ; (g) 16 mJ, 100 mJ, 20 mJ

## 47. (a) 20 mA; (b) 20e −10000t − 2e −5000t mA, t < 0

49. v (t ) = 6u (t ) − 6u (t − 2) + 3u (t − 4) V

## 61. (a) iL (t ) = (2 − 2e −200000t ) u (t )m

mA; (b) 6e −200000t u (t )V

## 63. (a) iL (t ) = 4(1 − e −1000t )u (t )A ; (b) v1 (t ) = (100 − 80e −1000t )u (t )V

6
10
9 − t
65. (a) i (t ) = − 0.9e 9 A; (b) 1.04 A
5

67. 2.5 V

## 69. (a) 2 A; (b) iL (t ) = 5 − 3e −40t A, t > 0

71. (a) 80 mA; (b) 0.08(1 − e −25t )A, t > 0 ; (c) 0.16 − 0.08e −25t A, t > 0 ;
(d) 0.016 cos 50t + 0.032sin 50t − 0.016e −25t A, t > 0

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CHAPTER 8 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

0.94
79. v(t ) = ⎡⎣ −10e −0.1t + 10 cos 4t + 400sin 4t ⎤⎦
1601

81. (
4.5 1 − e −10t )
iA = 10 + 7.5e −10 t /10 = 10 + 7.5e −10 t mA, t > 0, iA = 2.5mA t < 0
8 3 5
83.

85. (a) vc (t ) = −8u (−t ) + (16 − 24e −500 t ) u (t ) ; (b) −0.4u (t ) + (0.8 + 2.4e −500t ) u (t )mA

## 87. 6.32 V; 15.7 V

89. (a) 80 V; (b) 80 + 160e −100000t V, t> 0 ; (c) 80 V; (d) 80 − 32e −20000t V, t > 0

91. 693 ns
93. (a) 242 mV: (b) 3.11 mW; (c) 15 μJ
95. 1.0e-t/10 u(t) V
3
97. vo(t) = -0.2[1 + e-20×10 t]u(t) V
99. 2.5 μF
101. (a)

103.

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CHAPTER 9 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 1. (a) 175 × 103 s −1 ; (b) 22.4 krad/s; (c) overdamped.

3. (a) 5×108 s-1; (b) 32 Trad/s; (c) −0.5 ± j 32 Grad/s ; (d) underdamped

## 5. 1.44 H; 14 mF; 4.9 Ω

7. (a) 100 aF; (b) 1 MΩ; (c) 5 Gs-1; (d) −5 ×109 + j 70.71× 1012 s −1 ,
−5 × 109 − j 70.71×1012 s -1 ; (e) 7.1× 10 −5

## (a) 158 mΩ; (b) i (t ) = 4.169e −158.5t − 0.169e−6.31×10

4
t
11. A

13. (a) −20e −10t + 60e −40t V, t > 0 ; (b) 160 e −10 t − 120 e −40 t A

## 19. v(t ) = 170e −8t − 42e−2t , t > 0

21. (a) 50 V; (b) –2 A; (c) vc (t ) = −25e −2000t + 75e −6000t , t > 0 ; (e) 270 μs; (f) 2 ms

## 23. R < 160 ohms

(
(a) 1.6 mΩ; (b) iL ( t ) = e −3.2×10 t 3.2 ×106 t + 10 )
5
25.

## 35. (a) e −5000t (200 cos104 t + 100sin104 t ) V, t > 0 ;

(b) 10 − e −5000t (10 cos104 t − 7.5sin104 t ) mA, t > 0

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CHAPTER 9 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

49. 4.7 kV

## 51. 1.5 ohms; 23 J

53. ( ) ( )
vC (t ) = e −2500t ⎡⎣100 cos 1.6 × 105 t + 1.6sin 1.6 × 105 t ⎤⎦ V

## 59. e −4000t (2 cos 2000t − 4sin 2000t ) A, t > 0

61. 12 − e − t (t + 2) V, t > 0

63. (a) 2.5e −500t − 22.5e −1500t mA, t > 0 ; (b) 25e −500t + 22.5e −1500t mA, t > 0

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CHAPTER 9 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

dv 1
73. (a) = - v
dt 3.3
(b) one possible solution:

diL
75. (a) = - 4iL ;
dt

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CHAPTER 10 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 1. (a) f (t ) = 8.5sin (290.9t + 325.0°) ; (b) 8.5 cos (290.9t − 125°) ;

(c) −4.875+ cos 290.9t + 6.963sin 290.9t

## 3. (a) 58, 57; (b) 134o

5. 85 Mrad/s, 39 V, pi

7. (a) -6 cos (2π60t + 9o) lags 6 cos (2π60t – 9o) by 360 – 9 – 189 = 162o;
(b) -cos (t - 100o) lags cos (t - 100o) by 180o;
(c) -sin t lags sin t by 180o;
(d) 7000 cos (t – π) lags 9 cos (t – 3.14o) by 180 – 3.14 = 176.9o.

9. (a) 800 mV; (b) 771 mV; (c) 814 mV; (d) 805 mV

## 19. 1.4 cos (400t − 45°) + 1.3cos (200t − 27°) A

1 ω CVm ⎛ 1 ⎞
21. (a) −ω Vm sin ω t = Ri′ + i ; (b) cos ⎜ ωt + tan −1 ⎟
C 1 + ω 2 C2 R 2 ⎝ ω CR ⎠

## 25. (a) 18.7 ∠ -16o; (b) 3.2 ∠ 46o

27. (a) 39∠ − 76° ; (b) 4∠ − 70° ; (c) 2.4 + j8.9 ; (d) 0.67 + j 0.21

## 29. 65e j (10t +126° ) A

31. (a) 12∠20°A ; (b) 7.6∠113° A ; (c) 3.9∠ − 108° A ; (d) -65 V; (d) 54 V

33. 35 mV

35. (a) 18.3 cos (5000t – 41o) V; (b) 76 cos (5000t + 79°) V ;
(c) 58 cos (5000t + 118°) V

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CHAPTER 10 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

39. (a) –j292 Ω; (b) –j2.92 Ω; (c) –j292 mΩ; (d) –j292 nΩ

## 43. 212 cos (800t – 46o) mA

45. (a) 196∠ − 11°Ω ; (b) 72 μF; (c) 11.3 and 444 rad/s

## 51. (a) 1 Ω + 4 H; (b) 5 Ω + 2 H + 500 mF; (c) 1.2 Ω + 69 mH; (d) 5 Ω

53. (a) j88 mS; (b) j8.8 S; (c) j880 S; (d) j8.8 GS

55. 2 Ω, 2 H

57. (a) 105 rad/s; (b) 105 rad/s; (c) 102 krad/s; (d) 52 krad/s, 134 krad/s

63. 34∠23° V

## 67. 1.2 cos (100t − 76°) A

Vo jω C1R f A V − jω C1R f A
69. (a) =− ; (b) o =
Vs 1 + A + jω C1R f Vs (1 + A) (1 + jω C f R f ) + jω C1R f

71. 16 mW

73. 4.9 F

⎛ ⎛ ⎞⎞
⎜ − ω ⎜ g C + C μ + Cπ + C μ ⎟ ⎟
⎜ ⎜ m μ ′ ′ ⎟
−1 ⎛
− jωCμ ⎞ −1 ⎜ ⎝ RL R S ⎟⎠ ⎟
75. (a) ang(Vout) = tan ⎜⎜ ⎟ - tan
2 ⎟
⎜ -1 ⎟
⎝ g m RS ⎠ (
⎜ ′ ′ + ω 2C μ + C μ Cπ ⎟
2 2
)
⎜ RS R L ⎟
⎝ ⎠

## Copyright ©2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 10 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

ω
, 2 Ω, 2 H
ω + j (2ω 2 − 1)
77.

## 83. (a) 88 cos (t – 107o) mV

85.

Vout 0.802
87. (a) (b) =
VS 1 + 6.4 ×10−24 ω 2

89. v1(t) = 3.2×10-3 cos (2×104t – 87o) + 310×10-12 cos (2×105t + 177o) V and
v2(t) = 31×10-9 cos(2×104t – 177o) + 116×10-12 cos(2×105t – 93o) V

91. 57∠ − 77° , 26∠ − 140° , 51∠ − 50° , 143∠13° , 51∠ − 140° , 51∠ − 140°

## Copyright ©2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 11 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 1. 117 W; 137 W; -19.7 W

3. -8 W; -0.554 W; 0.422 W
5. -23.5 W; 4.31 W; 32.1 W; -12.9 W
7. 54 kW; 7.31 kW; 134 W
9. 226 mW; 294 K, representing temp increase of 111 mK
11. 297 W; 0; 186 W; 0
13. 10.9 W; 20.8 W
15. 26 W
17. 8 + j14 Ω; 180 W
19. 96 W
21. 52 W; 15 W, 31 W
23. 289 W, 145 W; 90.3 W, 181 W
25. 54 W, 1.6 W, 0, 0
27. 1.4, 1.4, 1.4, 1.4
29. 4.04 A
31. 12.6 V; 12; 10
33. 8.5;12.4
35. 42.7 W; 25 W; 7.32 W; 55.2 W; 80.2 W
37. 30 V, 30 V; 34.6 V, 34.2 V
39. 9.88
41. 655 W; 320 W; 335 W; 800 VA; 320 VA; 568 VA; 0.6 lagging
43. 1230 VA, 774 VA, 86.5 VA, 865 VA, 3020 VA
45. 4.79 Arms; 0.91 lagging
47. 7.5 μF; 40 μF
49. 211 + j442 VA, 289 + j0 VA, 0 + j192 VA, 562 + j0 VA, 640 – j390 VA, 142∠-90o VA
51. 1600 + j1800 VA; 0.66 lagging; 0.95 lagging
53. 70 kW; 81.4 kVA; 0.86 lagging
P ( tan θ old - tan θ new )
55. C =
ω Vrms
2

## 57.5.1 Arms; 1200 W; -1200 W; 1200 VA; 1200 VA; j1200 VA

59. 520∠3o kVA, 38 kVA, -j49.6 kVA, j77 kVA, 480 + j0 kVA; 520∠3o kVA; NO!; 520
kW; 28 kVAR

## PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

CHAPTER 12 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 3. Van = |Vp| ∠ 0o Vdn = |Vp| ∠ -180o

Vbn = |Vp| ∠ -60o Ven = |Vp| ∠ -240o
Vcn = |Vp| ∠ -120o Vfn = |Vp| ∠ -300o

## Van = |Vp| ∠ 0o Vdn = |Vp| ∠ 180o

Vbn = |Vp| ∠ 60o Ven = |Vp| ∠ 240o
Vcn = |Vp| ∠ 120o Vfn = |Vp| ∠ 300o
o o
5. 56.7 ∠ -11.5 V; 190 ∠ 35.0 V

7.

## The phase sequence is negative, since sequence is acbacb….

A positive sequence would be abcabc…

9. The temptation is to extend the procedure for voltages, but without the specific circuit
topology, we do not have sufficient information to determine I31.
o o o o
11. 22.8 ∠ -18.5 A; 34.4 ∠ -12.1 A, 7.60 ∠ -109 A, 36 ∠ 180 A

## Copyright © 2007. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 12 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 27. 5.48 A rms; 3.16 A rms; 240 V rms

29. 40.2∠45° A rms; 60.5∠ − 170° A rms; 36∠ − 30° A rms; 4320 + j 4320 VA

## 35. 1.54 kW; 2.16 kW; 615 W.

37. 186 W.

39. 862 W

41. We assume that the wire resistance cannot be separated from the load, so we measure
from the source connection.

## Copyright © 2007. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 13 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

1. M 21 = 663 μ H

## 5. 60.8 sin 800t pV; 36 sin 800t pV

7. −2300e − t + 3400e −3t A/s ; −1700e − t + 4600e −3t A/s ; i2 = 1700e − t + 4600e −3t A

## 9. −10.4 W; 4.8 W; 0 each; 0

11. 106 + j 76 Ω ; 25 W

30t
13. ic (t ) = μA, t >0
(t + 0.01) 2
2

## 15. (6 + j5ω) I – j2ω I – 6 I = 100, -j2ω I + (4 + j5ω) I – j4ω I = 0, -6 I - j4ω I +

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2
o
(11 + j6ω) I = 0 ; I = 4.32 ∠ -54 A
3 3

0.2ω2 ⎡ 0.02ω2 ⎤
17.+ + jω ⎢0.1 − ⎥ ; 2.8 + j1.2 Ω
25 + 0.25ω2 ⎣ 25 + 0.25ω2 ⎦

## 21. 1.3 ∠ − 60° A

2.16K 2
23. W
K 4 − 1.82K 2 + 1.1881

## 27. 1.7 ∠42° ; 0.39 ∠ -80o; 2.2 ∠0.05°

j1.7
29. V2 = −
k L1L 2 + 1

31. 4.56 − j 4 nΩ ; 10 + j 63 Ω

33. M = 5 H, L 1 = 9 H, L 2 = 11 H

## Copyright ©2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 13 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

37. OC SC
Z ocT × A = jω4 M Ω T×A T ×B
T ×B
; Z SS = Z SS = − jω4 M Ω + jω8 jω10 M Ω ;
Z oc = jω4 M Ω
T×A
Z in = − jω4 − jω10 + jω8 M Ω
Z inT × B = jω26 jω12 − jω8 M Ω

j 4.9ω
39. Ω
1 + j 0.5ω

41. 25 + j 0.62 Ω ; j 24 Ω ; − j 25 Ω

43. 20 + j 31 Ω ; 20 + j 28 Ω ; 20 + j 25 Ω ; 21 + j 24 Ω

## 45. 192 W, 73 W, 61 W, 550 W

47. 8 W; 2.1 W; 5 kW

49. 0.89, 5

51. −9.2 V

53. 4.8 A

2
1 ⎛ 120 ⎞
57. IQ = ⎜⎜ ⎟ × 576 × Age ; half a century
1000 ⎝ 28.8 × 10 + 576 × Age ⎟⎠
3

59. You need to purchase (and wire in) a three-phase transformer rated at
( )
3 (208 )(10 ) = 3.6 kVA.

## Copyright ©2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 3. 8e–t; 19; 11∠38o ; 1∠0° ; 1∠0° ; 1∠0° ; 88∠9°

5. 6.6 μC ; 9 μC ; No.

7. 8.1e −3t cos(15t − 60°) ; 8.1e −3t cos(15t − 60°) ; −4.1 ; −4.1

## 11. impedance R; an impedance Z L = sL = (σ + jω ) L , an impedance

1 1
Zc= = ; Z R = 100 Ω. Z L = ( −2 + j10)(0.002) = 20∠101° Ω ; Yes.
(σ + jω )C sC

## 15. 185∠ − 48° V ; 185e −3t cos(4t − 48°) V

K
17.
s

5 3 K
19. ; ;0;
s s+8 s

21.
5
s
(1 − e −2 s ) ;
5
s
(1 − e −2 s )

8 8 8
23. ⎡⎣1 − e −6−3s ⎤⎦ ; ⎡⎣1 − e 6 e −3s ⎤⎦ ; ⎡⎣1 − e −6−3s ⎤⎦
2+s s−2 s+2

## 27. 0.047 + j 0.11 ; −0.18 + j 0.20 ; (0.47 + j 6.5) × 10−3

1 −2 s − 5 s 4 4 −2 s − 6
29. ( e − e ) ; e − 2 s ; F (s ) = e ; 4e −2 s ; 2.9
s s s+3

31.
2 −s
s
( 2
s
)
e − e − 3s ; e − 4 s ;
3 − 4 s −8
s+2
e ; 3e −5 s ; −4e − s

⎡1 1 ⎤
33. 90δ (t ) − 4.5u (t ) ; 11δ (t ) + 2u (t ) ; te − t u (t ) ; ⎢ e − t − e −2t + e −3t ⎥ u (t )
⎣2 2 ⎦

## Copyright ©2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

35. 2.5 mA

37. δ (t ) + u (t ) + 2e − t u (t ) ; δ (t − 2) + 2δ (t − 1) + δ (t ) ; 2e −1δ (t − 1) ; δ (t − 1) + δ (t − 5)

## 39. 5e − t u (t ) ; (5e − t − 2e −4t )u (t ) ; 6(e − t − e −4t )u (t ) ; 6(4e −4t − e − t )u (t ) ;

18δ (t ) + 6(e − t − 16e −4t )u (t )

## 41. 2 u (t ) − 3 e − t u (t ) ; 2δ (t ) + 4e −3t u (t ) ; 3δ (t − 0.8) ; 3(e −2t − e −6t )u (t ) ;

(3te −2t − 0.75e −2t + 0.75e −6t )u (t )

2 2
43. f (t ) = δ (t ) + u (t ) − e −3t u (t ) ; f (t ) = 0.5tu (t ) + 0.25u (t ) + 0.35 cos(2t + 135°)
3 3

[ ]
45. h(t ) = δ (t ) − e −2t u (t ) ; h(t ) = 2e − t − e −2t u (t ) ;
d 1 9 81
h(t ) = 2 δ (t ) + 6δ (t ) − te −t u (t ) + e −t u (t ) − e −3t u (t )
dt 2 4 4

## 47. f (t ) = (1.9 − 5.59e −4t / 3 )u (t )

⎛ 20 130 −3t ⎞
49. 50 V; 0.1v c' + 0.2v c + 0.1(v c − 20) = 0 ; vc (t ) = ⎜ + e ⎟u (t ) V
⎝ 3 3 ⎠

51. (4 − 2e −0.15t )u (t )

## 53. y (t ) = (2 + 6e − t )u (t ) ; (6e − t − 1)u (t )

55. -600 mA; 40 = 100ic + 50 ∫
0−
ic dt + 100 ; − 0.6e −0.5t u (t )

1
57. R = 250 mΩ, C = 1 F, L = H ; v(t ) = (75e −3t − 12.5e − t − 62.5e −5t )u (t ) V
3

## 61. STABLE; UNSTABLE.

63. STABLE; STABLE.
65. 7 V ; 7 V
67. 2, 3, 0, 0, ∞
s+b
69. An ; b − a, b − a
s+a

## Copyright ©2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 15 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

1.

= 0.032s Ω
12
0.032s Ω mA
= 384 μV s

20s 2 + 11, 000s + 200, 000 s + 200 s + 500 20s 2 + 11, 000s + 200, 000
3. ; − 11 Ω ; 8.1∠54° Ω ; ; ;
s 2 + 700s + 100, 000 20s 1000 s 2 + 700s + 100, 000

## 16s 2 + 50s + 4000

5. ; 0.16 − j 4.7 Ω ; 6.85∠ − 114° Ω ; 910 mΩ ; 1 Ω
s 2 + 80s

rπ R B (1 + Z L C μ s )
7.
Z L rπ R BCπ C μ s 2 + (g m Z L rπ R BC μ + rπ R BCπ + rπ R BC μ + Z L rπ C μ +Z L R BC μ )s + rπ + R B

## 11. v1(t) = –5.6e–6.67t + 3.6 V, t ≥ 0

v2(t) = –3.73e–6.67t + 4.4 V, t ≥ 0

2 1 −t4 2 1 − t4
13. i1 (t ) = − e A, t ≥ 0 and i2 (t ) = + e A, t ≥ 0
3 6 3 12

35s - 131
15. ;
⎡( s + 2 ) + 100 ⎤ ⎡( s + 6 )2 + 100⎤
2

⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦

e-6t [0.092cos 2t - 1.5 sin 2t] - e-2t [0.092 cos10t - 0.34 sin 10t] A

## 17. [0.63e-0.61t + 0.79 e-0.55t cos(0.34t + 99o)] u(t)

200s(s 2 + 9s + 12)
19. 4 3 2
; [185 e-3t cos (4t - 48o) + 86e-1.25t cos (1.9t + 107o)] u(t)
2s + 17s + 90s + 185s + 250

## Copyright ©2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 15 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

23. 2[1.301 e-142.8t cos (742.3t + 12.54o) + 0.00202 cos (2t – 6.538o) – 6.601×10-5 δ(t)
- 1.564 e-142.8t cos (742.3t – 33.56o) - 2.998 cos (2t + 179.9o)]2 W

25. (a)

(b)
2500s + 0.5 7.5 × 106s + 1500
Ω , V
0.001s 2 + 5s + 500 (
s s 2 + 5000s + 5 ×105 )
-2.5×106t
(c) [-3 e + 3 e-0.2t + 3×10-3 + 21 cos(711t + 89.9o)] u(t)

27.
70 420s 4 + 133s3 + 21s 2 + 60s + 9 70
V ; Ω; A
60s + 19s + 3
2
60s + 19s + 3
2
420s + 133s + 21s 2 + 60s + 9
4 3

29.
30303(0.2239 ×1013 + 0.1613 ×1013s + 98700s 2 )
V1 = ,
s(0.4639 ×1010s3 + 0.7732 ×1015s 2 + 0.5691×1018s + 0.1936 ×1018 )
7609(705000s3 + 0.1175 ×1012s 2 + 0.6359 ×1014s + 0.8897 ×1014 )
V2 = ;
s(0.4639 ×1010s3 + 0.7732 × 1015s 2 + 0.5691×1018s + 0.1936 ×1018 )

## v2(t) = [3.496 – 0.1365×10-2 e-165928t + 0.309 e-739t – 2.647 e-0.3404t] u(t) V

31.
4.639 × 109s3 + 7.732 ×1014s 2 + 5.691×1017s + 1.936 × 1017
Ω,
98700s3 + 1.645 × 1010s 2 + 1.21× 1013s + 2.059 × 1012

## 2.059 ×1012 (5s - 3)

, 201 μA
s(4.639 ×109s3 + 7.732 ×1014s 2 + 5.691×1017s + 1.936 ×1017 )

## Copyright ©2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 15 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

5000s
33. ; [-0.76 e-6385t + 0.77 cos (103t – 8.9o)] u(t) A;
( )
s + 10 ( s + 6385 )
2 6

## 0.77 cos (103t – 8.9o) A.

1 3
35. Poles at ± j 2, 1 ; zeroes at s = 0, ∞ .; Poles at s = ±1, − ± j , double at s = 0 , Zeroes at
4 4
−1 ± j 2, ∞

37. (a.)
zeros at s = -25 and -12.5 s-1, and
poles at s = 0 and s = -1.7 s-1.

(b.)
zeros at s = -9. 1 and -105 s-1, and
poles at s = -1.55×105 and s = -3.2 s-1.

5(s + 1)(s + 4)
39. Z in = ; − 1.5, ∞ ; − 1, − 4 s −1
6(s + 1.5)

10 20
41. 0, (1 − cos πt ) , , (10/ π) (1 + cos πt), 0
π π

43. 8t − 8 V, 16 V, zero

45.

15 15 15 15 30
- 15e-2s , 15 u(t) – 15 u(t - 2), 2 − e − 2 s , 15 t u(t) – 15 u (t - 2), 2 − e − 2 s + 15e − 4 s , 15 t
s s s s s
15 15s -2s
u(t) – 30 u (t - 2) + 15 u(t), 2 - e , 5 sin 3t u(t) – 15 cos [3(t – 2)] u(t - 2),
s + 9 s2 + 9

(c) 5

## Copyright ©2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 15 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

51.

; 4.7, 10; 15 cm

## 10s3 + 30s 2 − 10s − 30

53. ; -2.3, ∞ ; 2.2 ∠117° , 2.2∠63°, 3.6∠34° , 5 ∠53° , 3∠0°
s 2 + 6s + 13

55.

100( 2 + jω ) ω2 + 4
; ; 100 ; graph; 2 rad/s, 69
(5 − ω 2 ) + j 2ω ω 4 − 6ω 2 + 25

## 59. −1.7 and − 24 s -1 ; iin(t) = [10 – 2.1e-24t – 0.885 e-1.7t] u(t) A

61.
2.5
; [1 + 0.066 e-6.4t – 1.1e-0.39t ] u(t) V
s + 6.75s + 2.5
2

− 5s R + 10 5 10s + 10 5
63. H ( s) = ; ;
s + 10 5 5s s + 10 5

## 65. 0 F, 400 Ω ; 5 nF, R 1 = 200 k Ω ; 50 nF, 200 k Ω ; R fA = 1 k Ω , C fA = 10 nF,

R fB = 100Ω , R 1B = R 1 A = 10k Ω

67. One possible design: If we use a 1-μF capacitor, then R = 159 Ω. To complete the
design, select Rf = 2 kΩ and R1 = 1 kΩ.

69. One possible design: If we use 100-nF capacitors, then R = 3.167 kΩ.

## Copyright ©2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 17 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

⎡ 4 −8 9 ⎤ ⎡ I1 ⎤ ⎡12 ⎤
1. (a) ⎢⎢ 5 0 −7 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢I 2 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 4 ⎥⎥ ; (b) 651; (c) 21; (d) 600 mA; (e) -141 mA
⎢⎣7 3 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ I 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦

## 3. (a) 390 W; (b) 250 W; (c) 180 W

2s 2 + 15s + 20
5.
2s + 5

15s + 25
7.
s(s + 4)

R 1R 3 R 4
9. (a) jω C ; (b) jω 0.8 × 103 Ω (Lin = 0.8 mH)
R2

## 17. 200 mS, -300 mS, -400 mS, 150 mS

19. (a) Input is applied between g-s and output taken from d-s;
(b) jω ( C gs + C gd ) , − jωC gd , g m − jωC gd , + jω ( C gs + C gd ) ;
1
rd
(c) j 4.8ω pS , − j1.4ω pS , 4.7 × 10−3 − jω (1.4) × 10−12 S ,
10−4 + jω (0.4 + 1.4) × 10−12 S

## 21. 784 Ω, 1.72 kΩ, 367 Ω

23. 9.9 Ω

25. (a) 56; (b) -9.6; (c) 530; (d) 3.4 Ω; (e) 35 Ω

## Copyright ©2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 17 ENGINEERING CIRCUIT ANALYSIS SELECTED ANSWERS

## 29. (a) 1.55 V; (b) -17.5 μA

⎡ 7.5 1.1⎤
31. ⎢ −4.5 11 ⎥ (Ω)
⎣ ⎦

## z11 = 133∠ − 48° Ω z21 = 9400∠87°Ω

35.
z12 = 94∠ − 2.6° Ω z22 = 565∠ − 3.6°Ω

## ⎡10Ω −2 ⎤ ⎡ 42Ω −1.7 ⎤

37. (a) ⎢ ⎥ ; (b) ⎢ ⎥
⎣ 20 0.2 S⎦ ⎣ 17 0.17 S⎦

## 39. (a) 1.2; (b) 9.6 Ω; (c) 240 mS

⎡1000Ω 0.01 ⎤
(a) ⎢ ; (b) 8.6 kΩ
2 × 10−4 S⎥⎦
41.
⎣ 10

43. (a)
( jωC ) (1 + jω r C ) + g
μ π π jω rπ Cμ
+
1
; (b)
( g m − jωCμ ) rπ
1 + jω r ( C + C ) 1 + jω rπ ( Cπ + Cμ ) 1 + jω rπ ( Cπ + Cμ )
m
π π μ
rd
rπ jωCμ rπ
(c) rx + ; (d)
1 + jω rπ ( Cπ + Cμ ) 1 + jω rπ ( Cπ + Cμ )

⎡ 0.61 3.3Ω ⎤
45. (a) ⎢ ⎥ ; (b) 11 Ω
⎣ 0.053 S 0.81 ⎦

⎡ 1.5 3Ω ⎤
⎡ 1.4 2Ω ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ , ⎡ 11/ 7 4Ω ⎤ ; (b) ⎡ 4.71 15.9 Ω ⎤
47. (a) ⎢ ⎥ , 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.962 S 3.47 ⎥
⎣ 0.2 S 1 ⎦ ⎢ S 1 ⎥ ⎣1/ 7 S 1 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
⎣6 ⎦

⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 R ⎤ ⎡1/ a 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0.58 14 Ω ⎤
49. (a) ⎢ ⎥ , ⎢ ⎥ , ⎢ ⎥ ; (b) ⎢ ⎥
⎣1/ R 1 ⎦ ⎣0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 0 a ⎦ ⎣ 0.115 S 4.5 ⎦