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Pushing to the Front

Pushing to the Front, by Orison Swett Marden

The Project Gutenberg EBook of Pushing to the Front, by s eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and ions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use he Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or .org Title: Pushing to the Front Author: Orison Swett Marden Release Date: May 4, 2007 [EBook #21291] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1

Orison Swett Marden Thi with almost no restrict it under the terms of t online at www.gutenberg


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[Frontispiece: Orison Swett Marden]

Pushing to the Front BY ORISON SWETT MARDEN

"The world makes way for the determined man."

PUBLISHED BY The Success Company's Branch Offices PETERSBURG, N.Y. ---- TOLEDO ---- DANVILLE



FOREWORD This revised and greatly enlarged edition of "Pushing to the Front" is the outg rowth of an almost world-wide demand for an extension of the idea which made the original small volume such an ambition-arousing, energizing, inspiring force. It is doubtful whether any other book, outside of the Bible, has been the turni ng-point in more lives. It has sent thousands of youths, with renewed determination, back to school or college, back to all sorts of vocations which they had abandoned in moments of d iscouragement. It has kept scores of business men from failure after they had gi ven up all hope. It has helped multitudes of poor boys and girls to pay their way through colleg e who had never thought a liberal education possible. The author has received thousands of letters from people in nearly all parts of the world telling how the book has aroused their ambition, changed their ideals and aims, and has spurred them to the successful undertaking of what they befor e had thought impossible. The book has been translated into many foreign languages. In Japan and several other countries it is used extensively in the public schools. Distinguished educ ators in many parts of the world have recommended its use in schools as a civili zation-builder. Crowned heads, presidents of republics, distinguished members of the British an d other parliaments, members of the United States Supreme Court, noted authors, scholars, and eminent people in many parts of the world, have eulogized this boo k and have thanked the author for giving it to the world. This volume is full of the most fascinating romances of achievement under diffi culties, of obscure beginnings and triumphant endings, of stirring stories of st ruggles and triumphs. It gives inspiring stories of men and women who have broug ht great things to pass. It gives numerous examples of the triumph of mediocrity , showing how those of ordinary ability have succeeded by the use of ordinary me ans. It shows how invalids and cripples even have triumphed by perseverance and will over seemingly insuperable difficulties. The book tells how men and women have seized common occasions and made them gre at; it tells of those of average ability who have succeeded by the use of ordina ry means, by dint of indomitable will and inflexible purpose. It tells how pover ty and hardship have rocked the cradle of the giants of the race. The book point s out that most people do not utilize a large part of their effort because their mental attitude does not correspond with their endeavor, so that although worki ng for one thing, they are really expecting something else; and it is what we ex pect that we tend to get. No man can become prosperous while he really expects or half expects to remain

poor, for holding the poverty thought, keeping in touch with poverty-producing c onditions, discourages prosperity. Before a man can lift himself he must lift his thoughts. When we shall have lea rned to master our thought habits, to keep our minds open to the great divine in flow of life force, we shall have learned the truths of human endowment, human p ossibility. The book points out the fact that what is called success may be failure; that w hen men love money so much that they sacrifice their friendships, their families , their home life, sacrifice position, honor, health, everything for the dollar, their life is a failure, although they may have accumulated money. It shows how men have become rich at the price of their ideals, their character, at the cost of everything noblest, best, and truest in life. It preaches the larger doctrin e of equality; the equality of will and purpose which paves a clear path even to the Presidential chair for a Lincoln or a Garfield, for any one who will pay th e price of study and struggle. Men who feel themselves badly handicapped, crippl ed by their lack of early education, will find in these pages great encouragemen t to broaden their horizon, and will get a practical, helpful, sensible educatio n in their odd moments and half-holidays. Dr. Marden, in "Pushing to the Front," shows that the average of the leaders ar e not above the average of ability. They are ordinary people, but of extraordina ry persistence and perseverance. It is a storehouse of noble incentive, a treasu ry of precious sayings. There is inspiration and encouragement and helpfulness o n every page. It teaches the doctrine that no limits can be placed on one's care er if he has once learned the alphabet and has push; that there are no barriers that can say to aspiring talent, "Thus far, and no farther." Encouragement is it s keynote; it aims to arouse to honorable exertion those who are drifting withou t aim, to awaken dormant ambitions in those who have grown discouraged in the st ruggle for success. THE PUBLISHERS.



ILLUSTRATIONS Orison Swett Marden . . . . . . . . . . Frontispiece House in which Abraham Lincoln was born Ulysses S. Grant William Ewart Gladstone John Wanamaker Jane Addams Thomas Alva Edison Henry Ward Beecher Lincoln studying by the firelight Marshall Field Joseph Jefferson [Transcriber's note: Jefferson was a prominent actor during th e latter half of the 1800's.] Theodore Roosevelt Helen Keller William McKinley Julia Ward Howe Mark Twain

PUSHING TO THE FRONT CHAPTER I THE MAN AND THE OPPORTUNITY No man is born into this world whose work is not born with him.--LOWELL. Things don't turn up in this world until somebody turns them up.--GARFIELD. Vigilance in watching opportunity; tact and daring in seizing upon opportunity; force and persistence in crowding opportunity to its utmost of possible achieve ment--these are the martial virtues which must command success.--AUSTIN PHELPS.

"I will find a way or make one." There never was a day that did not bring its own opportunity for doing good tha t never could have been done before, and never can be again.--W. H. BURLEIGH. "Are you in earnest? Seize this very minute; What you can do, or dream you can, begin it." "If we succeed, what will the world say?" asked Captain Berry in delight, when Nelson had explained his carefully formed plan before the battle of the Nile. "There is no if in the case," replied Nelson. "That we shall succeed is certain . Who may live to tell the tale is a very different question." Then, as his capt ains rose from the council to go to their respective ships, he added: "Before th is time to-morrow I shall have gained a peerage or Westminster Abbey." His quick eye and daring spirit saw an opportunity of glorious victory where others saw o nly probable defeat. "Is it POSSIBLE to cross the path?" asked Napoleon of the engineers who had bee n sent to explore the dreaded pass of St. Bernard. "Perhaps," was the hesitating reply, "it is within the limits of possibility." "FORWARD THEN," said the Little Corporal, without heeding their account of appa rently insurmountable difficulties. England and Austria laughed in scorn at the idea of transporting across the Alps, where "no wheel had ever rolled, or by any possibility could roll," an army of sixty thousand men, with ponderous artiller y, tons of cannon balls and baggage, and all the bulky munitions of war. But the besieged Massena was starving in Genoa, and the victorious Austrians thundered at the gates of Nice, and Napoleon was not the man to fail his former comrades i n their hour of peril. When this "impossible" deed was accomplished, some saw that it might have been done long before. Others excused themselves from encountering such gigantic obst acles by calling them insuperable. Many a commander had possessed the necessary supplies, tools, and rugged soldiers, but lacked the grit and resolution of Bona parte, who did not shrink from mere difficulties, however great, but out of his very need made and mastered his opportunity. Grant at New Orleans had just been seriously injured by a fall from his horse, when he received orders to take command at Chattanooga, so sorely beset by the C onfederates that its surrender seemed only a question of a few days; for the hil ls around were all aglow by night with the camp-fires of the enemy, and supplies had been cut off. Though in great pain, he immediately gave directions for his removal to the new scene of action. On transports up the Mississippi, the Ohio, and one of its tributaries; on a li tter borne by horses for many miles through the wilderness; and into the city at last on the shoulders of four men, he was taken to Chattanooga. Things assumed a different aspect immediately. A master had arrived who was equal to the situat ion. The army felt the grip of his power. Before he could mount his horse he ord ered an advance, and although the enemy contested the ground inch by inch, the s urrounding hills were soon held by Union soldiers. Were these things the result of chance, or were they compelled by the indominab le determination of the injured General? Did things adjust themselves when Horatius with two companions held ninety thou sand Tuscans at bay until the bridge across the Tiber had been destroyed?--when Leonidas at Thermopylae checked the mighty march of Xerxes?--when Themistocles,

off the coast of Greece, shattered the Persian's Armada?--when Caesar, finding h is army hard pressed, seized spear and buckler, fought while he reorganized his men, and snatched victory from defeat?--when Winkelried gathered to his heart a sheaf of Austrian spears, thus opening a path through which his comrades pressed to freedom?--when for years Napoleon did not lose a single battle in which he w as personally engaged?--when Wellington fought in many climes without ever being conquered?--when Ney, on a hundred fields, changed apparent disaster into brill iant triumph?--when Perry left the disabled Lawrence, rowed to the Niagara, and silenced the British guns?--when Sheridan arrived from Winchester just as the Un ion retreat was becoming a rout, and turned the tide by riding along the line?-when Sherman, though sorely pressed, signaled his men to hold the fort, and they , knowing that their leader was coming, held it? History furnishes thousands of examples of men who have seized occasions to acc omplish results deemed impossible by those less resolute. Prompt decision and wh ole-souled action sweep the world before them. True, there has been but one Napoleon; but, on the other hand, the Alps that op pose the progress of the average American youth are not as high or dangerous as the summits crossed by the great Corsican. Don't wait for extraordinary opportunities. Seize common occasions and make the m great. On the morning of September 6, 1838, a young woman in the Longstone Lighthouse, between England and Scotland, was awakened by shrieks of agony rising above the roar of wind and wave. A storm of unwonted fury was raging, and her parents cou ld not hear the cries; but a telescope showed nine human beings clinging to the windlass of a wrecked vessel whose bow was hanging on the rocks half a mile away . "We can do nothing," said William Darling, the light-keeper. "Ah, yes, we must go to the rescue," exclaimed his daughter, pleading tearfully with both father and mother, until the former replied: "Very well, Grace, I will let you persuade me, though it is against my better judgment." Like a feather in a whirlwind the little boat was tossed on the tumultuous sea, but, borne on the blast that swep t the cruel surge, the shrieks of those shipwrecked sailors seemed to change her weak sinews into cords of steel. Strength hitherto unsuspected came from somewh ere, and the heroic girl pulled one oar in even time with her father. At length the nine were safely on board. "God bless you; but ye're a bonny English lass," said one poor fellow, as he looked wonderingly upon this marvelous girl, who tha t day had done a deed which added more to England's glory than the exploits of m any of her monarchs. "If you will let me try, I think I can make something that will do," said a boy who had been employed as a scullion at the mansion of Signer Faliero, as the st ory is told by George Cary Eggleston. A large company had been invited to a banq uet, and just before the hour the confectioner, who had been making a large orna ment for the table, sent word that he had spoiled the piece. "You!" exclaimed th e head servant, in astonishment; "and who are you?" "I am Antonio Canova, the gr andson of Pisano, the stone-cutter," replied the pale-faced little fellow. "And pray, what can you do?" asked the major-domo. "I can make you something th at will do for the middle of the table, if you'll let me try." The servant was a t his wits' end, so he told Antonio to go ahead and see what he could do. Callin g for some butter, the scullion quickly molded a large crouching lion, which the admiring major-domo placed upon the table. Dinner was announced, and many of the most noted merchants, princes, and noblem en of Venice were ushered into the dining-room. Among them were skilled critics of art work. When their eyes fell upon the butter lion, they forgot the purpose for which they had come in their wonder at such a work of genius. They looked at

the lion long and carefully, and asked Signer Faliero what great sculptor had b een persuaded to waste his skill upon such a temporary material. Faliero could n ot tell; so he asked the head servant, who brought Antonio before the company. When the distinguished guests learned that the lion had been made in a short ti me by a scullion, the dinner was turned into a feast in his honor. The rich host declared that he would pay the boy's expenses under the best masters, and he ke pt his word. Antonio was not spoiled by his good fortune, but remained at heart the same simple, earnest, faithful boy who had tried so hard to become a good st one-cutter in the shop of Pisano. Some may not have heard how the boy Antonio to ok advantage of this first great opportunity; but all know of Canova, one of the greatest sculptors of all time. Weak men wait for opportunities, strong men make them. "The best men," says E. H. Chapin, "are not those who have waited for chances b ut who have taken them; besieged the chance; conquered the chance; and made chan ce the servitor." There may not be one chance in a million that you will ever receive unusual aid ; but opportunities are often presented which you can improve to good advantage, if you will only act. The lack of opportunity is ever the excuse of a weak, vacillating mind. Opportu nities! Every life is full of them. Every lesson in school or college is an oppo rtunity. Every examination is a chance in life. Every patient is an opportunity. Every newspaper article is an opportunity. Every client is an opportunity. Ever y sermon is an opportunity. Every business transaction is an opportunity,--an op portunity to be polite,--an opportunity to be manly,--an opportunity to be hones t,--an opportunity to make friends. Every proof of confidence in you is a great opportunity. Every responsibility thrust upon your strength and your honor is pr iceless. Existence is the privilege of effort, and when that privilege is met li ke a man, opportunities to succeed along the line of your aptitude will come fas ter than you can use them. If a slave like Fred Douglass, who did not even own h is body, can elevate himself into an orator, editor, statesman, what ought the p oorest white boy to do, who is rich in opportunities compared with Douglass? It is the idle man, not the great worker, who is always complaining that he has no time or opportunity. Some young men will make more out of the odds and ends of opportunities which many carelessly throw away than other will get out of a w hole life-time. Like bees, they extract honey from every flower. Every person th ey meet, every circumstance of the day, adds something to their store of useful knowledge or personal power. "There is nobody whom Fortune does not visit once in his life," says a cardinal ; "but when she finds he is not ready to receive her, she goes in at the door an d out at the window." Cornelius Vanderbilt saw his opportunity in the steamboat, and determined to id entify himself with steam navigation. To the surprise of all his friends, he aba ndoned his prosperous business and took command of one of the first steamboats l aunched, at a salary of one thousand dollars a year. Livingston and Fulton had a cquired the sole right to navigate New York waters by steam, but Vanderbilt thou ght the law unconstitutional, and defied it until it was repealed. He soon becam e a steamboat owner. When the government was paying a large subsidy for carrying the European mails, he offered to carry them free and give better service. His offer was accepted, and in this way he soon built up an enormous freight and pas senger traffic. Foreseeing the great future of railroads in a country like ours, he plunged int

o railroad enterprises with all his might, laying the foundation for the vast Va nderbilt system of to-day. Young Philip Armour joined the long caravan of Forty-Niners, and crossed the "G reat American Desert" with all his possessions in a prairie schooner drawn by mu les. Hard work and steady gains carefully saved in the mines enabled him to star t, six years later, in the grain and warehouse business in Milwaukee. In nine ye ars he made five hundred thousand dollars. But he saw his great opportunity in G rant's order, "On to Richmond." One morning in 1864 he knocked at the door of Pl ankinton, partner in his venture as a pork packer. "I am going to take the next train to New York," said he, "to sell pork 'short.' Grant and Sherman have the r ebellion by the throat, and pork will go down to twelve dollars a barrel." This was his opportunity. He went to New York and offered pork in large quantities at forty dollars per barrel. It was eagerly taken. The shrewd Wall Street speculat ors laughed at the young Westerner, and told him pork would go to sixty dollars, for the war was not nearly over. Mr. Armour, however, kept on selling, Grant co ntinued to advance. Richmond fell, pork fell with it to twelve dollars a barrel, and Mr. Armour cleared two millions of dollars. John D. Rockefeller saw his opportunity in petroleum. He could see a large popu lation in this country with very poor lights. Petroleum was plentiful, but the r efining process was so crude that the product was inferior, and not wholly safe. Here was Rockefeller's chance. Taking into partnership Samuel Andrews, the port er in a machine shop where both men had worked, he started a single barrel "stil l" in 1870, using an improved process discovered by his partner. They made a sup erior grade of oil and prospered rapidly. They admitted a third partner, Mr. Fla gler, but Andrews soon became dissatisfied. "What will you take for your interes t?" asked Rockefeller. Andrews wrote carelessly on a piece of paper, "One millio n dollars." Within twenty-four hours Mr. Rockefeller handed him the amount, sayi ng, "Cheaper at one million than ten." In twenty years the business of the littl e refinery, scarcely worth one thousand dollars for building and apparatus, had grown into the Standard Oil Trust, capitalized at ninety millions of dollars, wi th stock quoted at 170, giving a market value of one hundred and fifty millions. These are illustrations of seizing opportunity for the purpose of making money. But fortunately there is a new generation of electricians, of engineers, of sch olars, of artists, of authors, and of poets, who find opportunities, thick as th istles, for doing something nobler than merely amassing riches. Wealth is not an end to strive for, but an opportunity; not the climax of a man's career, but an incident. Mrs. Elizabeth Fry, a Quaker lady, saw her opportunity in the prisons of Englan d. From three hundred to four hundred half-naked women, as late as 1813, would o ften be huddled in a single ward of Newgate, London, awaiting trial. They had ne ither beds nor bedding, but women, old and young, and little girls, slept in fil th and rags on the floor. No one seemed to care for them, and the Government mer ely furnished food to keep them alive. Mrs. Fry visited Newgate, calmed the howl ing mob, and told them she wished to establish a school for the young women and the girls, and asked them to select a schoolmistress from their own number. They were amazed, but chose a young woman who had been committed for stealing a watc h. In three months these "wild beasts," as they were sometimes called, became ha rmless and kind. The reform spread until the Government legalized the system, an d good women throughout Great Britain became interested in the work of educating and clothing these outcasts. Fourscore years have passed, and her plan has been adopted throughout the civilized world. A boy in England had been run over by a car, and the bright blood spurted from a severed artery. No one seemed to know what to do until another boy, Astley Coo per, took his handkerchief and stopped the bleeding by pressure above the wound. The praise which he received for thus saving the boy's life encouraging him to

he is suddenly confronted with his first criti cal operation. a nd from their mute testimony he added a valuable chapter to the scientific histo ry of Creation. but Laplace saw that. but the boy Galil eo. a nd only found him dying in a hospital when both were old. After dinner the friend said. Shall he confess his igno rance and inability. and do his work? If he can. they are the sole remaining visi ble evidences of certain stages in the invariable process of star manufacture. moreover. "when. Everybody knew how steadily a suspended weight." said James T. or step into fame and fortune? It is for him to say. and patient study and experiment. open hands will nev er lack for noble work to do. His opportunity confronts him. For ages astronomers had been familiar with the rings of Saturn. not to trea t the subject in prose till Longfellow had seen what he could do with it in vers e.become a surgeon. Innumerable apples had fallen from trees. was separated from her lover. open ears will never fail to detect the cries of those who are perishing for assistance. Longfellow seized his opportunity and gave to the world 'Evangeline. the foremost of his day." says Arnold. but Newton was the first to realize that they fall to the earth by the same law which holds the planets in their courses and preve nts the momentum of all the atoms in the universe from hurling them wildly back .--the legend of a girl who. with him from Salem. yet no one cons idered this information of the slightest practical importance. or the E xile of the Acadians.'" Open eyes will discover opportunities everywhere. He and it are face to face. Life and death hang in the balance. and passed her life in waiting and seeking for him. 'I have been trying to persuade Hawthorne to write a story based upon a legend of Acadia. often hitting heedless men on the hea d as if to set them thinking. saw in the regularity of those oscillations the useful principle of the pendulum. and still current there. There was not a sailor in Europe who had not wondered what might lie beyond the Western Ocean. and regarded t hem merely as curious exceptions to the supposed law of planetary formation. Fields. but it remained for Columbus to steer boldly out into an unknown sea and discover a new world." Are you prepared for a great opportunity? "Hawthorne dined one day with Longfellow. "and brought a friend. open hearts will nev er want for worthy objects upon which to bestow their gifts. sways back and fort h until friction and the resistance of the air bring it to rest. 'If yo u have really made up your mind not to use it for a story. instead of being exceptions. and he said to him. when moved. as he watched a lamp left swinging by accident in the cathedral at Pisa. although no one had made use of his knowledge that the body displace s its exact bulk of liquid. Time is pressing. but when Archimedes observed the fact. "The time comes to the young surgeon. in the dispersion of the Acadians. and learned valuable lessons about the relative strength of tubes and rods of equal diameters. E ven the iron doors of a prison were not enough to shut him out from research. and promised. after long waiting. Is he equal to the emergency? Can he fill the great surgeon's pl ace.' Longfellow wondered t hat the legend did not strike the fancy of Hawthorne. Everybody had noticed the overflow when a solid is immersed in a vessel filled with water. will you let me have it for a poem?' To this Hawthorne consented. he perceived therein an easy method of finding the cubical contents of objects. The great surgeon is away. he is the one of all others who is wanted. however irreg ular in shape. He experimented with the straw of his cell.

' I answered 'but had you not better send your passengers on board now?' 'Lay by me till morning. among many gods. 'I wi ll try. and thunder had jarred the ears of men since th e days of Adam. The captain and crew and most of the passengers found a grave in the deep. for he stood before five ki ngs and dined with two. there are a hundre d now.' again shouted Captain Herndon. "Why is its face hidden?" "Because men seldom know hi m when he comes to them. such was the heavy roll of the sea. and the purpos eless too often see no meaning in the happiest occasions. by a simpl e experiment. "behind she is bald." said a shipmaster. and once gone. proved that lightning is but one manifestation of a resistless yet controllable force.' his vessel. told thousands of years ago by Solomon: "Seest thou a man diligent in his business? he shall stand before kings. but. if y ou seize her by the forelock.' cri ed Captain Herndon. stand open to the sober. and I never saw the steamer again. "I tried to lay by him. but at night. until too late they le . the sluggish. 'Lay by me till morning. with its living freight. "Opportuni ty. wider in extent. "What is its name?" asked a visitor in a studio. o ne whose face was concealed by hair." Captain Herndon appreciated the value of the opportunity he had neglected when it was beyond his reach." replied the sculptor." This proverb is well il lustrated by the career of the industrious Franklin. you may hold her. cannot be overtaken. The night was closing in. in the vain attempt to call their attention to the all-pervading and tremendous energy of electricity. went down. 'I am in a sinking condition. In an hour and a hal f after he said. Read the story of any successful m an and mark its moral. 'Will you not lay by me until morning?' replied Captain Herndon. 'Had you not better send your passengers on board directly?' I asked. energetic and able mechanic. but I hailed the cr ippled steamer and asked if they needed help.to chaos. these men are considered great. where there was one. and which had wings on its feet. Avenues greater in number. Like many others. if suffered to escape. the sea rolling high. but of what avail was the bitterness of his self-reproa ch when his last moments came? How many lives were sacrificed to his unintellige nt hopefulness and indecision! Like him the feeble. frugal. when shown. He who improves an opportunity sows a seed which will yield fruit in opportunit y for himself and others. Every one who has labored honestly in the past has aid ed to place knowledge and comfort within the reach of a constantly increasing nu mber. abundant as air and water. And of trades." "Why has he wings on his feet?" "Because he is soon go ne." "Opportunity has hair in front. Lightning had dazzled the eyes. to the edu cated youth." says a Latin author. not Jupiter himself can catch her again. I cou ld not keep my position. A little while ago there were only three or four professi ons--now there are fifty. easier of access than ever before e xisted. but the discharges of Heaven's artillery were seen and heard only by the eye and ear of terror until Franklin. simply because they improved opportunities common to the whole human race." But what is the best opportunity to him who cannot or will not use it? "It was my lot. "to fall in with the ill-fated steamer Cent ral America. to the office boy and to the clerk--avenues through which they can reap greater successes than ever before within the reach of these classes in the history of the world.

That is the way the habit is acquired." said Joe." As boys. but the conductor and engineer of the train were both vigilant and anxious. "They have three hands apiece." and occasionally tipple d. and slyly sipped occasional draughts f rom a flat bottle. moved leisurely down the track." "All right. Such people are always a little too late or a little too early in everything th ey attempt." One evening there was a heavy snowstorm. In a horrible minute the engine of the ex press had telescoped the standing train. or they can probably get one to-morrow. that I had! Oh. delirious. and un punctual in their home duties. and a little behindhand. rear brakeman on the ---. he had disappeared. He had not gone ten paces before he heard the puffing of the express." said John B. and afterwards to an asylum. The brakeman laughed and said: "There's no hurry. "Oh. that I had!" or "Oh. for he was eager t o please and always ready to answer questions. . or know how to make it some other time than now. was exceedingly popu lar with all the railroad men. Then he slowly gras ped the lantern and. He "took the world easy. but the next day he was found in a barn. Then he r an for the curve. "a right hand. and an express was due in a few minutes upon the same track. smilingly. Between two stations the train came to a quick halt. whose criminal indulgence brought disaster to many lives . and the shrieks of the mangled passenge rs mingled with the hissing escape of steam. Then he took another sip from the flat bottle to keep the cold out. they were late for school. But the brakeman did not go at once. He stopped to put on his overcoat. Soon he became quite jolly." The conductor answered gravely. and crying. Wait till I get my overcoat. They remember plenty of chances to make money. they think that if they had only gone yesterday they would have obtained the situation. too. Later on. Don't you worry. that I had!" of th e unfortunate brakeman. but it was too late.arn the old lesson that the mill can never grind with the water which has passed . a left hand. Joe. But he did not realize the full r esponsibility of his position. they see how to improve themselves or help others in the future. when they asked for Joe. The express is due.accommodation train. T he conductor hurried to the rear car. he would give one of his brightest smiles. and there is no sadder sound in that sad place than the unceasing moan. I'm all right. Joe Stoker. and his train was delayed. "Oh. whistling. "Don't stop a minute. The engine had blown out i ts cylinder head. in such a good-natured way that the friend would think he had over-estimat ed the danger: "Thank you. Gough. and r eply. swinging an empty lantern in front of an imaginary t rain. The passengers liked him. w hen responsibility claims them. They cannot seize their opportunity . that I had!" He was taken home. but perceive no opportunity in the present. and if any one remonstrated. Joe complai ned of extra duties because of the storm. "Oh. The conductor then hurried forward to the eng ine. and ordered Joe back with a red light. that I had not!" is the silent cry of many a man who would give life itself for the opportunity to go back and retrieve some long-pas t error. and now.

all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miser ies. We are dazzled by what Emerson calls the "shallow Americanism" of the day. We can not help it. the hour When fortune smiles. then. the Lord said." With the world full of work that needs to be done. or worth. earnest. unthought-of five minutes may contain the event of a life. that they go forward. how can you sit with folded hands. "Wherefore criest thou unto me? Speak unto the c hildren of Israel. Omitted. There is no proportion between spaces of time in importance nor in value. with our own faculties so arranged that in honest. Or lose our ventures." The trouble with us is that we are ever looking for a princely chance of acquir ing riches. and duty points the way."There are moments. Make it. and their leader paused for Divine help. with human nature so constit uted that often a pleasant word or a trifling assistance may stem the tide of di saster for some fellow man. But bravely bear thee onward to the goal. Accidental circumstances are nothin g except to men who have been trained to take advantage of them. "is simply an occasion which sums up and brings to a result previous training. knowl edge without study. Nor pause. And we must take the current when it serves. Don't wait for your opportunity." CHAPTER II WANTED--A MAN . why stand ye here all the day idle? Was the land all occup ied before you were born? Has the earth ceased to yield its increase? Are the se ats all taken? the positions all filled? the chances all gone? Are the resources of your country fully developed? Are the secrets of nature all mastered? Is the re no way in which you can utilize these passing moments to improve yourself or benefit others? Is the competition of modern existence so fierce that you must b e content simply to gain an honest living? Have you received the gift of life in this progressive age. And t his all-important moment--who can tell when it will be upon us?" "What we call a turning-point. have made their chances of s uccess. persistent endeavor we find our highest go od. Young men and women. seize." "'Tis never offered twice." says Dean Alford. Make it as George Stephenson made his when he mastered the ru les of mathematics with a bit of chalk on the grimy sides of the coal wagons in the mines. or clear his path to success. Make it. as Napoleon made his in a hundred "impossible" situations. Which. "There is a tide in the affairs of men. but industry makes the com monest chances golden. though p leasure beckon from her bower. merely that you may increase by one the sum total of purely anim al existence? Born in an age and country in which knowledge and opportunity abound as never b efore. M ake it. or fame. We are expecting mastery without apprenticeship." says Arnold. "which are worth more than years. A stray. and riches by credit.--make it as the shepherd-boy Ferguson made his when he calculated the distances of the stars with a handful of glass beads on a string. Golden opportunities are nothing to laziness. and with countless noble examples to encourage us to dare and to do. leads on to fortune. as all leaders of men. wherein all the experience of the past is garnered for yo ur inspiration. Nor shrink aside to 'scape the specter fear. taken at the flood. in war and in peace. each mo ment brings us to the threshold of some new opportunity. asking God's aid in work for which He has already given you the necessary faculties and strength? Even when the Chosen People supposed their progress checked by the Red Sea.

who will not allow the over-development of one faculty to stunt or paralyze his other facult ies. Wanted. magnanimous. whose ha nds are deft. Wanted." Wanted. Not wealth in mountain piles. Not faiths with rigid eyes. whose nerves are brought to the ir acutest sensibility. when a crowd collected around him. a man who prefers substance to show. but whose pas sions are trained to heed a strong will. discipline and drill. every-day life. who does not let a college education spoil him for practical. Wanted. a thousand preach ers standing idle in the market place. incisive. . nothing easier. every occupation." Over the door of every profession." Wanted. a man who will not lose his individuality in a crowd. and scour in vain. Wanted. a man who is symmetrical. and also of the crying need of good men. Not power with gracious smiles. a man who is well balanced." though all the world say "Yes. a man of courage who is not a coward in any part of his nature. the world h as a standing advertisement: "Wanted--A Man. Wanted. a man who has the courage of his convictions. Wanted. Wanted." The world wants a man who is educated all over. is a suff icient indication. education and culture. . it is each one of us! . . keen. who is not afraid to say "No. while a thousand church committees scour the land for men to fill those same vacant pulpits. Want ed. and to respect others as himself. the servant of a tender conscience. whose heart is tende r. whose eyes are alert. O men". not pygmies. or mutilate his manhood. Diogenes sought with a lantern at noontide in ancient Athens for a perfectly ho nest man. is full of life and fire." All the world cries. he said scornfully: "I called f or men. who considers it a low estimate o f his occupation to value it merely as a means of getting a living. a man who. every calling. You have him at hand. whether of nature or of art. it is I. and. if one wills it. a ma n who sees self-development. men: Not systems fit and wise. sensitive. in one direction at least. "Hear me. broad. who has not sent all the energies of his being into one narrow specialty and allowed al l the other branches of his life to wither and die. who does not take half views of things. to hate all vilene ss. warp. and sought in vain. Where is the man who will save us? We want a man! Don't lo ok so far for this man. whose brain is cultured. though he is dominated by a mighty purpose. of the largeness of the opportunit ies of the age. Not even the potent pen. This man. In the market place he once cried aloud. microscopic. true. if one knows not how to will it. a man who is broad. a man who is larger than his calling. How to constitute one's self a man? Nothing harder.--ALEXANDRE DUMAS. in his occupation. who is not cursed with some little defect o f weakness which cripples his usefulness and neutralizes his powers. charac ter and manhood. and not one-sided in his development. and one who regards his good name as a priceless treasure. a man "who. will not permit one great faculty to dwarf.--it is you."Wanted. a man who mixes common sense with his th eories. men. no stunted ascetic. A thousand pulpits vacant in a single religious denomination. who has learned to love all beauty. cripple.

Let hi m first be a man. and that is being a man." he replied. then recedes.The whole world is looking for such a man." "Get up higher. "So many promising you ths. That is all that Talleyrand. demands that man be ever at the top of his condition. To live is the profession I would teach him." some one said. When Garfield as a boy was asked what he meant to be he answered: "First of all . As Emerson says. animated with the bounding spiri ts of overflowing health? It is a sad sight to see thousands of students graduated every year from our gr and institutions whose object is to make stalwart. cheerful man. The audience could not hear and call ed "Louder. Although there are millions out of e mployment. " Rousseau. weak instead of strong. is he rich? i s he committed? is he well-meaning? has he this or that faculty? is he of the mo vement? is he of the establishment? but is he anybody? does he stand for somethi ng? He must be good of his kind. helpless instead of self-supporting. short doctor of divinity in a large Baptist convention stood on a ste p and said he thanked God he was a Baptist. When I have done w ith him. it is true he will be neither a soldier. As we stand upon the seashore while the tide is coming in. sickly instead of robust. a lawyer. and never a finished man!" The character sympathizes with and unconsciously takes on the nature of the bod y. all that the commo n sense of mankind asks. Talleyrand's question is ever the main one. turned out into the world saplings instead of stalwart oaks. yet it is almost impossible to find just the right man in almost any department of life. and for some time none that follows comes up to its mark. their common vocation is the profession of humanity. What more glorious than a magnificent manhood. I must make myself a man. Natur e has destined us to the offices of human life antecedent to our destination con cerning society. self-supporting men. says. but after a while the whole sea is there and . robust. in his celebrated essay on education. One great need for the world to-day is for men and women who are good animals. "I can't. snarling. There is an inheren t love in the human mind for wholeness. and yet everywhere we see the advertisement: "Wanted--A Man. a demand that man shall come up to the h ighest standard. but to train a man. he will be always found in his place. one wave reaches up the beach far higher than any previous one. and there is an inherent protest or contempt for preventable de ficiency. if I do not succeed in that. or the bar. I can succeed in nothin g. the pulpit. nor a divine. too. It matters littl e to me whether my pupil be designed for the army. men being equal." Montaigne says our work is not to train a soul by itself alone." A little." But there is something higher than being a Bapt ist. "According to the order o f nature. "memory-glands " instead of brainy men. "To be a Bap tist is as high as one can get. A peevish. and whoever is well educated to discharge the duty of a man can not be badly pre pared to fill any of those offices that have a relation to him. the coming man and woman must have good bodies and an excess of animal spirits. nor a body by i tself alone. Nature. To endure the strain of our concentrated civilization. Fortune may remove him from one rank to another as she pleases . independent. leaning instead of erect. not. ailing man can not develop the vigor and strength of cha racter which is possible to a healthy.

Men who can stand before a demagogue And scorn his treach erous flatteries without winking. he would. for his famous portrait of a perfect woman which en chanted the world. So through di scipline. Not bays an d broad-armed ports. Where. if he should hold his reputatio n as a priceless treasure. He w ill be a self-centered. What constitutes a state? Not high-raised battlement or labored mound. true fait h and ready hands: Men whom the lust of office does not kill. ANON. The first requisite of all education and discipline should be man-timber.-. and knowing. But it must become timber first. showing that Nature has not lost her ideal. . that every appointment shall be kept with the strictest faithfu lness and with full regard for other men's time. rich navies ride. If the youth should start out with the fixed determination that every statement he makes shall be the exact truth. come to have almost unl imited credit and the confidence of everybody who knows him. Tall men sun-crowned. and ever master of himself. or an ocean with his commerce. sturdy trees. what though a man could cover a continent with his title-deeds. not the follies. Such wood can be turned into a mast. Man is the only great thing in the universe. within arm's length of what is not your own. the sapling child is developed into hardy menta l. WILLIAM JONES. moral. dare maintain.Men who their duties kno w. Tough timber must come from well grown. experience. So now and then there comes a man head and shoulders above his fello w men. With powers as far above dull brutes endued In forest. Not cities proud with spires and turrets crowned. God give us men. here a grace and there a turn of beauty. physical man-timber. that every promise he makes shall be redeeme d to the letter. Men who have honor-men who will not lie. getting here an eye. And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain. if he should take su ch a stand at the outset. A time like this demands Strong minds. Not starred and spangled courts. No: men. The best of us ar e but prophesies of what is to come. His whole charact er will be impressionable. who live above the fog I n public duty. So the coming man will be a composite. with a face that never turns pale at the accuser's voice. Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride. can be fashioned into a piano or an exquisite carving. compared with conscious rectitud e. with a heart that might be turned inside out and disclose no stain of dishonor? To have done no man a wrong. As beasts excel cold rocks and brambles rude. with nothing between your desire and its gratification but the in visible law of rectitude. Prevent the long-aimed blo w. Only one complete man has yet evolved. Thick wa ll or moated gate. or den. and will respond to the most delicate touches of Natu re. education.beyond it. and in private thinking. and after a while even the av erage man will overtop the highest wave of manhood yet given to the world. to have put your signature to no paper to which the purest angel in heaven might not have been a n attesting witness. He will be a man raised to the highest power. Time and patience develop the sapling into the tree. Men who possess opinions and a will.--this is to be a man. unseduced. there a forehead and there a nose. brake. but the strength and the v irtues of other types of men. But know their rights. many in one. laughing at the storm. Apelles hunted over Greece for many years. with a bosom that n ever throbs with fear of exposure. like George Peabody. What are palaces and equipages. equipoised. studying the fairest points of beaut iful women. Men whom the spoil s of office cannot buy. great hearts. All the ages have been trying to p roduce a perfect model. to walk and live. high-minded men. His sensibility will not be deadened or blunted by violation of Nature's laws. feel that the eyes of the world are upon him that he must not deviate a hair's breadth from the truth and right. He will a bsorb into himself not the weakness.

father. Poverty is very terrible.--J. We must put our arms akimbo. his parents had not even a penny to spare.--SHARPE. it is the soft. There they met the owner. "we are i n the midst of plenty.--Hans Christian Andersen. became one of the greatest Biblical scholars in the world." said a pretty little girl at a children's party in Denmark. and the fields. by permission of the cook for whom he had been turning the spit. "There is no fear of my starving. "my father is Groom of the Chambers.CHAPTER III BOYS WITH NO CHANCE In the blackest soils grow the fairest flowers.--SETH LOW. and his name ended in "sen. That lowliness is young ambition's ladder! SHAKESPEARE." The poor deaf boy with a drunken father. It is not every calamity that is a curse. and give them away to children.'" she added. when hungry. which is a very high office. "my papa can put your papa and ever ybody's papa into the newspaper. filled with all kinds of beautiful and val uable objects. but it i s the north wind that lashes men into Vikings. who was thought capable of nothing bet ter than making shoes as a pauper. This sketch is adapted from a story by a poor Danish cobbler's son. Surmounted difficulties not only teach. but hearten us in our future struggl es." angrily exclaimed the daughter of the rich merchant Petersen. His first book was written in the workhouse. tie a ligature around their bodies. . B ut no. begging to be taken from the poorhouse and allowed to struggle for an education. luscious south wi nd which lulls them to lotus dreams. and sometimes kills the very soul within us. my papa says. G. once the very boy who thought it so gre at a privilege to peep at them through a crack in the door as they played. Poverty is the sixth sense." "Oh." chimed in the daughter of an editor." Years afterwards when the children of the party had become men and women.--OUIDA. 'Tis a common proof. The Hottentots subsist a long time on nothing but a little gum. are men who began life as poor boys. and I know how to prevent hunger. if I could be one of them!" thought a little boy peeping through the crack of the door. HOLLAND. And those whose names end with 'sen. "I am a child of the court. so as to keep these 'sen' people at a great distance." "But my papa can buy a hundred dollars' worth of bonbons. "can never be anything at all. and early adversity is often a blessi ng. There can be no doubt that the captains of industry to-day. turnips. He ha d become the great sculptor Thorwaldsen. using that term in its broadest sense. a hayrick will make an excellent bed. Kitto. they also. All sorts of people are afraid of him. and make the elbows quite pointed. another who se name did not keep him from becoming famous.--GERMAN PROVERB. "Can y our papa do that?" "Yes. for he can do as he likes with the paper. and the loftiest and strongest trees spring heavenward among the rocks." said the deaf boy. Cannot I do so. some of them went to see a splendid house. too? The hedges furnish blackberries and nu ts.

"this woman knows the sculptor. disheveled hair . Pericles presided. to be now my friend. but she will not tell his name. "O Aphrodit e!" she prayed. but her lips remained closed. Not to the dungeon. and a law was in force that under penalty of death no one should espouse a rt except freemen. but now." To the cellar Creon went. Take the maid to the dungeon. "Behold that group! Apo llo decides by it that there is something higher in Greece than an unjust law. and he wor shiped it with rapt adoration. in the presence of the assembled multitude. new skill. but I will furnish light and food." said Pericles. Aspasia placed the crown .--now. rushed forward. no!" said Pericles. Beauty was his god. he proceeded with his glorious but dangerous task. "the law is imperat ive. his soul. that Apollo. the friend of my brother!" Then to her brother she said: "O Creon. The works of the great masters were there." The indignant crowd interrupted him and cried. go to the cellar beneath our house. but was silent. It was after the repulse of the great Persian inv ader. a determined expression in her eyes. then! Can it be the work of a slave?" Amid great commotion a beautiful maiden with disarranged dress. my queen. I am the culprit. and flinging himself befor e him exclaimed: "O Pericles. the hands of a slave. felt the blow as deeply as her brother. "To the dungeon. "immortal Aphrodite. "This woman. About this time all Greece was invited to Athens to behold an exhibit of works of art." Cleone was questioned. If Athens lives in the memory and affections of men. high enthroned child of Zeus.Creon was a Greek slave. far more beautiful th an the rest. but with black eyes that beam ed with the flashing light of genius. the gods will be friend us. was dragged into th e Agora. it is her devotion to art that will i mmortalize her. On his knees. Phidias. Socrates. The display took place in the Agora." "As I live. It is dark. emaciated.--challenged univer sal attention. When the law was enacted he was engaged upon a group for whic h he hoped some day to receive the commendation of Phidias." but he was also a slave of the Genius of Art. at whose shrine I have daily laid my offerings.--a group that Apollo himself must have chiseled. forgive and save the maid! She is my sister. had directed his hand and had breathed into the figures th e life that seemed to animate them. "Who is the sculptor of this group?" None could tell. What was to be done? Into the marble block before him Creon had put his head. and other renowned men stood near him. his devoted sister. "Then." cried the officers. He believed. we ar e sure of it. my goddess. but there was no answer. my patron. and I am the minister of the law. T he highest purpose of law should be the development of the beautiful." As he spoke a youth with flowing hair. his life. day and night . Cleone. the greatest sculpto r living. but to my side bring the youth. all the gods seemed to have d eserted him. and even the praise of Pericles. Heralds repeated the ques tion. and guarded and attended by his sister. he had prayed for f resh inspiration. exciting at the same time no little envy among rival artists. The group is the work of my hands. gratefully and proudly. Sophocles. But one group. a nswering his prayers. rising. "A mystery." And there. to the dungeon with the slave. h is heart. and with closed lips. from day to day. Continue your work. She was informed of the penalty of her c onduct. as a writer tells the story in Kate Field's "Washingto n. At his side was Aspasia.

I know what it is to ask a mother for bread when she has none to give. to learn the cobbler's trade. going into scores of buildings and asking if they wanted "a ha nd"." He had spent but six dollars for personal expenses in seven months. and reached New York. a yoke of oxen and six sheep. Sterret of the Erie "Ga zette" for substitute work. he resolved to seek his fortune in New York City. wealth and immortality were the sure reward of the man who could distinguish himself in art. Sterrett. that men might k now that the way to honor is open to all. although tall and gawky. Slinging h is bundle of clothes on a stick over his shoulder. and served an apprenticeship of eleven years. Before eight years had passed. and. August 18. who was born a slave." Mr. In the first month aft er I was twenty-one years of age.. Mass. and I want to help him all I c an. in the Massachusetts Legislature. rec eiving a month's schooling each year. with tow-colored hair. In a year he was the head of a debating club at Natick. and cut m ill-logs. but "no" was the invariable reply. . and fo r whom he had camped out many a night to guard the sheep from wolves. every occasion was a great occasion. or war. M. He managed to read a thousand good books before he was twenty-one--w hat a lesson for boys on a farm! When he left the farm he started on foot for Na tick. He we nt through Boston that he might see Bunker Hill monument and other historical la ndmarks. His quaint appearance led many to think he was an escaped apprentice. I never spent the sum of one dollar for pleasure. which she held in her hands. Dress up a little. rode on a canal boat to Albany. He ground every circumstance of his life into material for success. I know what it is to travel weary mi les and ask my fellow men to give me leave to toil. drove a team.of olives. "Don't go about the town any longer in that outlandish rig." Horace Greeley looked down on hi s clothes as if he had never before noticed how seedy they were. and asked the foreman for a job at seven. I rose in the morning before daylight and worked hard till after dark. He found board over a saloon at two dollars and a half a week. He seized them as tho ugh they were gold and would not let one pass until he had wrung from it every p ossibility. In Greece. amid universal plaudits. at the end of eleven years of hard wo rk. descended the Hudson in a barge. With hi m. he walked sixty miles through the woods to Buffalo. my father is on a new place. just as the sun was rising. she tenderly kissed Creon's affectionate and devot ed sister. One Sunday at his boarding-place he heard that pri nters were wanted at "West's Printing-office. I lef t my home at ten years of age. over one hundred miles distant. Wilson determined never to lose an opportunity for self-culture or self-adv ancement. literature. and received the magnificent sum of six dollars for the month's work! Each of t hese dollars looked as large to me as the moon looks to-night. he made hi s great speech against slavery. I went into the woods. which brought me eighty-four dollars. The whole trip cost him but one dollar and six cents. a pale face and whining voice. He was nea rly twenty-one. and was to receive one hundred and thirty-five from Judge J. His journey of s ix hundred miles had cost him but five dollars. and at the same t ime." said Vice-President Henry Wilson. He retained but fifteen dollars and gave the rest to his father. Twelve years l ater he stood shoulder to shoulder with the polished Sumner in Congress. Horace. "I was born in poverty. . and. and replied: "Y ou see Mr. The latter had no id ea that a country greenhorn could set type for the Polyglot Testament on which h . "Want sat by my crad le. counting every penny from the time I w as born till I was twenty-one years of age. The Athenians erected a statue to Aesop. on the brow of Creon. with whom he had moved from Vermont to Western Pennsylvania. Few men knew so well the value of spare moments. For days Horace wandered up and down the streets. . Let me give you an order on the store." He was at the door at five o'cloc k Monday morning. 1831. No other country ever did so much to encourage and inspire struggling meri t.

a discussion arose in r egard to the meaning of a painting representing some scene in the mythology or h istory of Greece. and was only know n as a clever writer for the press. and in 1864 the dreams of his boyhood fou nd fulfilment. he had great determination and indomitable energy. One of the first things to attract the attention on entering George W. 1835. to the astonishment of everybody. the "New York Herald. as all its predecessors were party organs. who had saved a few hundred dollars by hard labor and strict economy for fourteen years. and there seemed no end to his industry." the best weekly paper in the United States. who formed partnership with Bennett. giving the news. doing all the work except the printing. and increased the list to eleven thousan d in six weeks. the host turned t o one of the waiters and asked him to explain the picture. He doubled the subscription price. and of the "Pennsylvanian" a little later. and there. a lways tried to be right. but recommended two young printers. and as soon as he had saved a few hundred dollars as a clerk in a bookstore. but it was not profitable. furnished it with a chair a nd a desk composed of a plank supported by two barrels. He began with six hundred subscribers." which reached the then fabulous circulation of ninety thousand. the profits sometimes amounting to over four hundred thousand d ollars a year. But on this p aper at a penny per copy he made no money. The demand for the "Tribune" grew faster than new machinery coul d be obtained to print it. lowered the advertising rates. It was a paper whose editor. To start it he borrowed a thousand dollars and printed f ive thousand copies of the first number.elp was needed." Greeley declined. began the work of making a really great daily newspap er. a thing then unknown in America. In ten years he was a partner in a small printing-office. Greatly to the surpri . Seeing that the discussion was growing warm. He made "great hits" in some of the works he pub lished. He always refused to lower the wages of his employees even when e very other establishment in Philadelphia was doing so. he began business as a publisher. His next venture was "The New York Tr ibune. but its completion was finally marked by the opening at the corner of Broadway and Ann Street of the most complete newspaper establishment t hen known. nearly a century and a half ago." It was his earl y ambition to own the "Philadelphia Ledger" and the great building in which it w as published. James Gordon Bennett had made a failure of his "New York Courier" in 1825. fresh and c risp. he objected to the new-comer and told the fo reman to let him go when his first day's work was done. In 1835 he asked Horace Greeley to join him in starting a new daily paper. but how could a poor boy working for $2. which was the key-note of the suc cess of a boy who started with "no chance": "Nihil sine labore. Greeley started "The Log-Cabin . W hen Harrison was nominated for President in 1840. It was an up-hill job. Bennet hired a small cellar in Wall Street. his friends could not dissuade him from buying it. Neither labor nor expense was spared in o btaining prompt and reliable information on every topic of general interest. and the paper entered upon a career of remark able prosperity. and th e "Herald" was started on May 6. whatever his mistakes. of t he "Globe" in 1832. In spite of the fact that the "Ledger" was losing money every day. such as "Kane's Arctic Expedition." He had a keen sense of what would pl ease the public. At a banquet in Lyons." price one cent. from an ever-widening area. That night Horace showed a proof of the largest and most correct day's work that had then been done. and often much more thoroughly and far more promptly. but said: "Fix up a case for him and we'll see if he can do anyt hing. with a cash capital to pay expenses for t en days." When the proprietor came in. It was difficult to give them all away. Steadily the young man struggled towards his ideal. He founded the "New Y orker.00 a week ever hope to own such a great paper? However. Childs' private office in Philadelphia was this motto. until his paper was famous for giving the curr ent history of the world as fully and quickly as any competitor.

P. I passed many a delightful night in reading. blazing bright before the sugar-house." Well had he profited by poverty's lessons. During the day we would always lay in a good stock of 'fat-pine. addressin g the waiter with great respect. and I had great health and great exercise. I remember in this way to have a history of the French Revolution. Monseigneur. made shift to have a half-penny in reserve. f or. in winter it was rarely that I could get any evening light but that of the fire. Think not lightly of the farthing I had to giv e. copied regiment. of that. was my seat to study in. y et he had true mettle in him. read every book in it.se of the company. Jean Jacques Rousseau. too." says Thurlow Weed. laughing. That farthing was. and only my turn. I had no money to purchas e candles or oil. the servant gave a clear concise account of the whole subject . and I had to rea d and write amidst the talking. the sap having been gathered and the wood cut before dark. for want of other material. The w hole of the money not expended for us at market was twopence a week for each man . R. was my own experience. which I had des tined for the purpose of a red herring in the morning. my knaps ack was my bookcase. although then but a poor waiter. The smooth sand beach of Lake Erie constituted the foolscap on which. and to have obtained a better and more enduring knowledge of its events and horr ors and of the actors in that great national tragedy than I have received from a . a bit of board lying on my lap was my writing-table.' by the light o f which. and began to study. perfected the e ssential principles of the Spencerian system of penmanship. kettles. Spencer. or that of the guard-bed. the most beautiful e xposition of graphic art. as he experimented and studied in the attic of the apot hecary-store where he worked. can there be in the whole worl d. "I have studied in many schools. Monsieur?" asked one of the guests. ink. "In what school have you studied. alas! a great sum to me. is there. now and then. though in a state of hal f starvation. "has found the best opportunities for mental improvement in his intervals of leisure while tending 'sap-bush. for pen. and that. I found that I had lost my half-penny. after all absolutely necessary expenses. a youth to find any excuse for its non-performance?" Humphrey Davy had but a slender chance to acquire great scientific knowledge. and bottles co ntribute to his success. I had no moment of time that I could call my own. "Many a farmer's son." said he.' Such. and th e task did not demand anything like a year of my life. and then enlisted in an infantry During his first year of soldier life he subscribed to a circulating Chatham. To buy a pen or a sheet of p aper I was compelled to forego some portion of my food. T he edge of my berth. when I pulled off my clothes at night. whistling. at any rate." But Cobbett made even his poverty and hard circumstances serve his all-absorbin g passion for knowledge and success. even. all Europe soon rang with the fame of the w ritings of the greatest genius of his age and country. in the hours o f their freedom from all control. and he made even old pans. a barefoot boy with no chance. At night you had only to feed the kettles an d keep up the fires. and bawling of at least half a score of the most thoughtless of men. and cri ed like a child. I buried my head in the miserable sheet and rug." replied the young servant: "but the school in which I studied longest and learne d most is the school of adversity. "I learned grammar when I was a private soldier on the pay of sixpence a day. but so hungry as to be ha rdly able to endure life. For eight on. and well I may! that upon one occasion I had. singing. library at years William Cobbett had followed the plow. "under such circumstances could encounter and overcome this task. I remember. I was as tall as I am now. so plain and convincing that it at once settled the dispute. or paper. "If I. when he ran away to Lond law papers for eight or nine months.

Mark my words. but he saw from the boy's earnest face that he had no ordin ary object in view. June 19." said Theodore. and. and thus prepare myself for a final examination. Conn." "May I have a holiday to-morrow. which he sent to Boston.--are now on a level with you." Elihu Burritt 's father died when he was sixteen. my feet swaddled in remnants of rag carpet. Years after. my boy!" said the millwright. 30 Danish. You will find that those who are then the millionaires of this country. Garrison." The barefoot Christine Nilsson in remote Sweden had little chance.--"M onday. which will give me a diploma. at odd times. All his odd moments had been hoarded. who are the strong merchants of the countr y." He did this. 10 lines Bo hemian. are such entries as these. Talmage to young men. shoeless. He had been unable to attend school regularly since he was eight years old. after a two-mile tramp through the snow. and had reviewed his lessons again and again as he followed the plow or worked at other tasks." and for his nobl e work in the service of humanity. June 20 . Theodore rose very early the next m orning. and in straightene d circumstances. 60 lines Hebrew. "The proudest moment of my life. I remember. but he felt that he must have it. 40 pages Cuvier's 'Theory of the Earth. and presented hims elf for a candidate for admission. Horace Mann. as the trusted friend and adviser of Seward. his influence for good was fel t in the hearts of all his countrymen. it was a pleasure for him to recall his e arly struggles and triumphs among the rocks and bushes of Lexington.' 64 pages Fren ch. I cannot afford to keep you there!" "True. Chase. "Let me say in regard to your adverse worldly circumstances. by teaching school as he grew o lder. June 18. whither he went some ten years later to enjoy its library privileges. he would solve mentally diff icult problems in arithmetic." He mastered 18 languages and 32 dialects. Wednesday. "I am not going to stay there. when. father. Sum ner. "Well done. too. for reading useful b ooks.--mightiest in the church an d state. who are the orators of the count ry. but while blowing the bellows. Edward Everett said of the manner in which th is boy with no chance acquired great learning: "It is enough to make one who has good opportunities for education hang his head in shame. The poor Lexington millwright looked in surprise at his youngest son. He became eminent as the "Learned Blacksmith. In a diary kept at Worcester. go down to the library and get some books. for it was a busy time. no capital to start with? Young man. "No outfit. but she won the admiration of the world for her wondrous power of song. 9 lines Polish. when his son came home late at night and told of his successful examination. but he had managed to go three months each winter . and read of what wonderful mechanism God gave you in your hand. Keyes. got money to study for two years at Harvard. where he was graduated with h onor. who are the poets of the country. 25 lines Hebrew." said Elihu Burritt. also. walked through the dust ten miles to Harvard College. Tuesday. 8 lines Syriac. Theodore. how happy I was in being able to borrow the books of a Mr." says Dr. and so got the money to buy that coveted Latin dictionary. 11 hours' forging. in .ll subsequent reading. headache. combined with rare w omanly grace. who are the great philanthropists of the country. I shal l study at home. and granted the request. "that you are on a level now with those who are finally to succeed . 15 names of stars. "but. 11 hours' forging. He had to work at the forge for ten or twelve hours a day. "was when I had first gai ned the full meaning of the first fifteen lines of Homer's Iliad. and Wendell Phillips. father?" asked Theodore Parker one August afte rnoon. which he borrowed. so on summer mornings he rose long before the sun and picked bushel aft er bushel of berries. and Elihu was apprenticed to a blacksmith in his native village of New Britain. and think of it thirty years from now. 10 hours' forging. not an inch above you. One book he could not borrow.

He had already begun to dabble in chemistry. and the young man whose mother was too poor to send him to schoo l. in a little upstairs room. and never aga capital to start with. begging him to release Garrison by paying the fine. Garrison urged an immediate emancipation. Daniel Manning who was President Cleveland's first campaign manager and afterwa rds Secretary of the Treasury. promptly ejected the youthful devotee. He was arrested and sent to jail. A young man can't set out in life with much less chance than when he sta rts his "daily" for a living. With William Lloyd Garrison. resolved to devote his life to secure the freedom of these poor wretches. Whittier. New York seems to have been prolific in enterprising newsboys. every month. or influence. John G. In the first issue of his paper. a noble friend in the North. had already started in Ohio a paper called "The Genius of Universal Liberty." Read the declaration of this poor young man with "no chance. who had suffere d long and patiently. in your ear. Benjamin Lundy. churches. and called down upon his head the wrath of the entire community. as he was performing some occult experiment. The conductor. and they were thoroughly in e arnest. the h eartrending scenes at the auction blocks. he wrote to Henry Cl ay. and then he dissecting-room and illustrate to you what in commit the blasphemy of saying you have no hy. being too poor to furnish the money himself. Equipped? W the God of the whole universe coul A newsboy is not a very promising candidate for success or honors in any line o f life. "He was imprisoned for his opinion when he was twenty-four. was so touched at the news that. started out as a newsboy with apparently the worl d against him. friends. without distinction of creed or p olitics! What chance had they against the prejudices and sentiment of a nation? But these young men were fired by a lofty purpose. the train rounded a curve. twenty miles. Wendell Phillips said of him. and which was upheld by scholars. the poorest young man is equipped as only d afford to equip him. He had confronted a nation in the bloom of his youth. One day. Thomas Alva Edison was then about fifteen years of a ge. wealth. What nonsense for two uneducated and unknown youths who met in a cheap boarding -house in Boston to array themselves against an institution whose roots were emb edded in the very constitution of our country. and in the process of the scientist's expulsion added a resounding box upon the ear. So did Thurlow Weed. so did David B. One of them. Edison passed through one dramatic situation after another--always mastering it --until he attained at an early age the scientific throne of the world." and had carried the entire edition home on hi s back from the printing-office. statesmen." ask some doctor to take you into t you have read about. and the bottle of sulphuric acid broke. After forty-nine days of imprisonment he was set free. When rec ently asked the secret of his success. The sight of the slave-pens along the principal streets. of vessel-l oads of unfortunates torn from home and family and sent to Southern ports. he started to prosecute his work more earnestly in Baltimore." in the very first issue: "I will be as harsh as truth. He was n o ordinary young man. with no money. There followed a serie s of unearthly odors and unnatural complications. as uncomprom . in your eye." In Boston.your foot. Gar rison started the "Liberator. and had fitted up a small itine rant laboratory. Yet the man who more than any other is responsible for the industrial regeneration of this continent started in life as a newsboy on the Grand Trunk Railway. and aristocracy. made an impression on Garrison never t o be forgotten. Hill. He had walked four h undred miles on his way to Tennessee to increase his subscription list. although she early taught him to hate oppression. he said he had always been a total abstai ner and singularly moderate in everything but work.

mothers. his only auxiliary a negro boy. and replied in such a speech as was never before heard in Faneuil Hall. He learned French by rising early and studying while his companions slept.ising as justice." had set the world to thinking." The whole nation was wrought to fever heat. mayor of Boston. Garrison and his coadjutors were denounced everywhere. and we will never rest until the Corn-Laws are repealed. power. About this time Richard Cobden." Cobden could no longer see the poor man' . heroic conflict ." The Governors of one or two States set a price on the editor's head. Bright in great grief. while defending his p rinting-press. wrote to Otis. and. "When I heard the gentleman lay down the principles which plac e the murderers of Lovejoy at Alton side by side with Otis and Hancock. and I will be heard. and children are dying of hunger. He called upon John Bright to enlist his aid in fighting the terrible "Corn-Law s" which were taking bread from the poor and giving it to the rich. I would advise you to come with me. I am in earnest. "where wives. asked to be lifte d upon the high platform. died in London. He was soon sent out in a gig as a comm ercial traveler. The legislature of Georgia offered a reward of five thousand dollars for his arrest and conviction. after thirty-five years of untiring. and in the old "Cradle of American Liberty" the wealth. and must be suppressed. I will not excuse. the slanderer of the dead. The boy earned his living by watching a neighbor's sheep. Between the Northern pioneers and Southern chivalry the struggle was long and f ierce. W hen the war was ended. on soil consecrated by the prayers of the Puritans and the blood of patriots. eating. He was sent to a boarding-school. with the world against him! Hon. by President Lincoln. with Qui ncy and Adams. even in far California. no longer chattels in appre ciation presented Garrison with a beautiful wreath of flowers. of South Carolina." said Wendell Phillips. A clergyman named Lovejo y was killed by a mob in Illinois for espousing the cause. hal f starved. Otis replied that he had found a poor young man printing " this insignificant sheet in an obscure hole. "There are thousands of homes in England at this moment. another powerful friend of the oppressed. but had no chance to attend school until he was ten years old." and asked him to ascertain the n ame of the publisher. Garrison was invited as the nation's guest. I w ill not retreat a single inch. t he earth should have yawned and swallowed him up. His father had died leaving nine children almost penniless." But this poor young man. and allowed to write home only once in three months. that s ome one had sent him a copy of the "Liberator. For the sentiments that he has uttered. Hayne. to see the s tars and stripes unfurled once more above Fort Sumter. At fifteen he en tered his uncle's store in London as a clerk. where he was abused. Robert Y. sleeping. pointing to their portraits on the walls." said Richard Cobden. "I thought those pictured lips would have broken into voice to rebuke the recre ant American. and his two daughters. I will not equivocate. Now. his supporters a few persons of all colors and little influence. a young lawyer of great promise. an emancipated slave deli vered the address of welcome." What audacity for a young m an. an d culture of Massachusetts arrayed itself against the "Abolitionists" so outrage ously. and printing in this "obscure hole. He found Mr. The Vigilance Associatio n of South Carolina offered a reward of fifteen hundred dollars for the arrest a nd prosecution of any one detected circulating the "Liberator. for his wife was lying dead in the house. The drama culminated in the shock of civil war. that a mere spectator. when the first par oxysm of grief is passed.

One nig ht. which cut off two millions of Ireland's population in a year. and cheaper loaf through Richard Cobd en's labors. Rebuffed." When Sir Humphry Davy was asked what was his greatest discovery. The whole aristocracy trembled before hi s invincible logic.--secured the r epeal of the law in 1846. who was Prime Minister to the greatest despot of the world five centuries before the birth of Christ." was one of seven children of a widow too poor to send him to any but a common country school. and it was not long before this poor boy with no chance wa s invited to lecture before the great philosophical society. and was en gaged to clean instruments and take them to and from the lecture-room. Except p ossibly Cobden. "He is the greatest experimental philosopher the world has ever seen. hissed down in the House of Commons. a ch eaper loaf. his mighty eloquence. and became the won der of the age in science.--for it was hunger that at last ate through those stone walls of protection. who carried new spapers about the streets to loan to customers for a penny apiece. "The time will come when you will hear me. He summoned courage to w rite the great scientist and sent the notes he had taken of his lecture. aided by the Irish famine. no other man did so much to give the laborer a shorter day. just as Michael was about to retire. as with a glass mask over his face.s bread stopped at the Custom-House and taxed for the benefit of the landlord an d farmer. starving under the Corn-Laws.--a question between the working millions and the aristocracy." which. but the great Quaker heart of this resolute youth was touched with pity for the millions of England's and I reland's poor. "for men of all parties are united upon it. and that of Daniel. up through the upper classes. an old pan." said the boy with no chance." But he used every spare moment to study without a teache . Bright said: "There is not in Great Britain a poor man's home that has not a bigger." John Bright himself was the son of a poor working man. Tyndall said of him. scorned. England's great Prime Minister. During the frightful famine. He was appren ticed for seven years to a bookbinder and bookseller. Michael studied a nd experimented. the "mill-boy of the slashes. Henry Clay. Mr. an added shilling. and by energy I can overcome greater obstacles. In the morning he called as requested. where he was drilled o nly in the "three R's. A customer became interested in the boy. not long after." Jewish blo od flowed in his veins and everything seemed against him." They formed the "Anti-Corn-Law League. but he remembered the example of Joseph. too. I am not a captive. he develop ed his safety-lamp and experimented with dangerous explosives. It is a pantr y question. up through the middle classes. He pushed his way up through the low er classes. better." "What has been done can be done again. who became Prime Minister of Egypt four thousand years before . who become Lord Beaconsfield. he simply said. He was appointed professor at the Royal Academy of Woolwich. Michael could scarcely trust his eyes as he read the note. and a servant handed him a written invitatio n to call upon the great lecturer the next morning. and the bo y with no chance but a determined will swayed the scepter of England for a quart er of a century. "This is not a par ty question. When binding the Encyclopa edia Britannica." The time did come. self-poised upon the topmost round of political and social pow er. he replied "Michael Faraday. and took him to hear Sir Humphry Davy lecture on chemistry. John Bright was more pow erful than all the nobility of England. and his commanding character. He watche d eagerly every movement of Davy. and a few simple articles. and in those days the do ors of the higher schools were closed to such as he." said he. He procured a glass vial. Sir Humphry Davy's carr iage stopped at his humble lodging. until h e stood a master. and he threw his whole soul into this great reform. his eyes caught the article on electricity. ridiculed. Over a stable in London lived a poor boy named Michael Faraday. and began to experiment. Disraeli. "I am not a slave. and he could not re st until he had read it.

See Kepler struggling with poverty and hardship. He had ground two hundred specula before he could get one perfect. with only a cow and a horse for an audience. George had to watch cows for a neighbor. He devoted his lei sure hours for five years to that wonderful production. George was taking his machine to pieces. even in such characters as Rosalind and Queen K atherine. The boy with no ch ance. his books burned in public by order of the state. cleaning it." said Alexandre Dumas. Without a charm of face or figure. George Stephenson was one of eight children whose parents were so poor that all lived in a single room. because it took a longer time to hea t at the forge. its orbit a nd rate of motion. While the other hands were playing games or loafing in liquor shops during the holidays. and in after years he was a king among self-made men. and making ex periments in engines. "When I found that I was black. and that the squares of the times of revolutio n of the planets above the sun are proportioned to the cubes by their mean dista nces from the sun. At seventee n he had charge of an engine. The star actress was unable to perform. became one of the greatest of American orators and statesmen. When he had become famous as a great inventor of improveme nts in engines. those who had loafed and played called him lucky. and he could thus have many spare minutes to study the precious book. her understu ." When thrown into prison. had with his own hands made the tel escope through which he discovered facts unknown to the best-equipped astronomer s of his day. and so force men to look below my skin. all the terrors of the Inquisition could not keep this feeble man of threescore years and ten from muttering to himself. studying it. "I resolved to live as i f I were white. He would walk eighteen miles to Manchester and back after a hard day's work to buy a shilling's worth of artist's materials. "Yet it does move. the celebrated blacksmith arti st of England! He was very poor. with the sun at one focus." copies of w hich are to be seen in many a home. but he often rose at three o'clock to copy book s he could not buy. but the engine was his teacher. when his parents compelled him to go to a medical school? Yet while Venice slept. and himself exiled by public clamor. his library locked up by the Jesuits. and Miss Cushman. and he a faithful student. and of the rings and satellites of Saturn. Charlotte Cushman resolved to place herself in the front rank as an actress. which he propped up against the chimney. "The Forge." How slender seemed the chance of James Sharples. with his father for fireman. He could neither read nor write. Imagine the surprise of the Royal Society of England when the poor unknown Hers chel sent in the report of his discovery of the star Georgium Sidus. he stood in th e tower of St. through a telescope made with his own hands. but he managed to get time to make engines of clay. This boy with no chance became one of the world's greatest as tronomers. When compelled on bended knee to publicly renounce his heretical doctrine that the earth moves ar ound the sun. Mark's Cathedral and discovered the satellites of Jupiter and the phases of Venus. t hat a line connecting the center of the earth with the center of the sun passes over equal spaces in equal times. with hemlock sticks for pipes. Even when totally blind. who had played the oboe for his meals.r. He was a great miser of spare mom ents and used every one as though he might never see another. He would ask fo r the heaviest work in the blacksmith shop. so great was his eagerness for scientific research that he p roved by a straws in his cell that a hollow tube is relatively much stronger tha n a solid rod of the same size. For seventeen years he works calmly upon the demonstration of the great principles that planets revolve in ellipses. The boy who had learned to speak in a barn. he kept constantly at w ork. What chance had Galileo to win renown in physics or astronomy.

and unknown before. but they brought neither honor nor profit until he was consulted by Burns & McIvor. He wished to buy a boat . he left to his thirteen children one of the largest fortunes in America. but he learned to read. During the War of 1812 he was awarded the Government contract to carry provisions to the military stations near the metropolis. took her place. When Eldon was leaving the chamber the Solicitor tapped him on the shoulder and said. when he would tie a wet towel about his head to enable h im to keep awake and to study. before the twenty-seventh day o f the month. and cipher a little. yet he was bound not to give up. But no. The model of a steamship which Sam whittled out for them was ca refully copied for the first vessel of the great Cunard Line. and well done. To discourage him from following the sea. incurable disease. but quietly said. ten acres of rough. "Young man. she would lend him the amount he wished. friendless. write. The new Testament and the speller were Cornelius Vanderbilt's only books at sch ool. her reputation was made. Stephen Girard had "no chance. and was bound to make his way in the world. On his seventeenth birthday he bought the boat. His great ambition was to get on and succeed . and one of the greatest lawyers of his age . and so on had far the largest patronage of any boatman in the harbor. when physicians told her she had a terrible. hard." A poor colored woman in a log-cabin in the South had three boys. stony land. She was so anxious to give them an e ducation that she sent them to school by turns. the whittling Scotch lad of Glasgow. and plant with corn. Altho ugh poor. another a physician. harrow. but could affo rd only one pair of trousers for the three. Before the appointed time the work w as done. a Northern girl. and the third a cle rgyman. who wished to increase their facilities for carryin g foreign mails. That night she held her audience with such grasp of intellec t and iron will that it forgot the absence of mere dimpled feminine grace. and came to America as a cabin boy. but had no money. and became the sta ndard type for all the magnificent ships since constructed by the firm. Lord Eldon might well have pleaded "no chance" when a boy. but on h is way home it struck a sunken wreck and sank just as he reached shallow water. your bread and butter's cut for life.dy. and that all wore the same pantaloons. His first year's practice brought him but nine sh illings." He left his home in France when ten years old. What a lesson for boys who plead "no chance" as an excuse for wasted liv es! Sam Cunard. "I have learned to live with my trouble. He at once began again. and when he died. he had grit and determination. In after years. his mother told hi m if he would plow. The poor mother educated her boys as best she could. was worth thirty thousand dollars at thirty-five. for he was too poor to go to school or even to buy books. an d in three years saved three thousand dollars. the voluminous "Coke upon Littleton" amo ng others. One be came a professor in a Southern college. He often worked all night." The boy with "no chanc e" became Lord Chancellor of England. He fulfilled his contract by night so that he mig ht run his ferry-boat between New York and Brooklyn by day. He was so eager to study that sometimes he would keep it up until his brain refused to work. no ticed that each boy came to school only one day out of three. wrought many odd inventions wi th brain and jack-knife. He rose at four o'clock in the morning and copied law books which he borrowed. she flinched not a pa rticle. But Cornelius Vanderbilt was not the boy to give up. at an advanced age. the worst on his father's far m. The teacher. The boy who gave his parents all his day earnings and had half of what he got a t night. when the curtain fell upon her first p erformance at the London theater.

He had no chance to study. Wh ile traveling from place to place to lecture. and worked as a stevedore in New York and New Bedford. felling trees on the little claim. For severa l years he was Marshal of the District of Columbia. He put to shame thousands of white boys. are traits of character well worthy of imitation. the well-known actor. and then no limits could be placed to his career. with which he purchased his freedom. Prejudice against her race and sex did not deter the colored girl. John Wanamaker walked four miles to Philadelphia every day. began his career upon the stage in the hu mble part of the hind legs of a cow. and made so favorable an im pression that he was made agent of the Anti-Slavery Society of Massachusetts. and worked in a boo kstore for one dollar and twenty-five cents a week. unnotice d by his master. and wondering if she will be able to keep the wolf from her little ones. and the rules of the plantation forbade slaves to learn to read and write. Edmonia Lewi s. to help his mother. There was no work. he would study with all his might. The boy grows. lank. P. from struggling upward to honor and fame as a sculptor. or o rdinary opportunities. he had to climb as far as the dista nce which the latter must ascend if he would become President of the United Stat es. Y. Henry E. In another log-cabin. and who emancipated four million s laves. he walked forty-four miles to proc ure the precious volumes. went North. He was appointed PostmasterGeneral by President Harrison in 1889. At Nantucket he was given an opportunity to speak at an anti-slavery meeting. Midas like. but his thoroughness in all he did. Abraham Li ncoln inherited no opportunities. and in that capacity showed great executi ve ability. when she wo uld walk twelve miles to be with him an hour. but cannot buy. Barnum rode a horse for ten cents a day. who won the admiration of mankind by his homely practical wisdom while President during our Civil War. and he was pledged before his birth to pay his master's debts.. and afterwards conducted the "New Era" in Washington. a poor widow is holding a boy e ighteen months old. and then in the night. To reach the starting-point of the poorest white boy. or books. T. and in a few years we find him chopping wood and til ling the little clearing in the forest. teaching himself arithmetic and grammar in the evening by the light of the fireplace. His abnormal love of money cannot be commended. without floor or windows. and became one of the wealthiest merchants of Philadelphia. for he had no teacher. that he would no t undertake. and read one hundred pages while returning. for he did not own his ow n body. and willingness to risk his life to save strangers sick with the deadly yellow fever. or teacher. without schooling. returning in time to go into the f ield at dawn. build ing his homely log-cabin. At sixteen he gladl . In his eagerness to kn ow the contents of Blackstone's Commentaries. he turned to gold everything he touched. Every spare hour is spent in studying the books he has borrowed. He was sent to Europe to lecture. N.at any cost. and won the friendship of several Englishmen. however hard and disagreeable. Dixey. Fred Douglass started in life with less than nothing. his public spirit at times of national need. It was a boy born in a log-cabin. He next worked in a clothing store at an advance of twenty-five cents a week. and acquired nothing by luck. he managed to learn the alphabet from scraps of paper and paten t medicine almanacs. He fled from slavery at twenty-one. who gave him $750. awkward youth. But somehow. He edited a paper in Ro chester. From this he went up and up un til he became one of the greatest living merchants. He saw his mother but two or three times. Behold this long. in the backwoods of Ohio. His good fortune consisted simply of untiring perseverance and a right heart.

its best brain. Soon we find him in Williams College. and when he returned to school he boarded himself at an expense of thirty-one cents a week. He engaged board. is rapidly deteriorated by the softening. Garfield became President of the United States. fuel. and the Goulds. He had arrived on a Saturday and planed fifty-one boards that day. Our city civilizatio n is always in a process of decay. however poor. With five chances on each hand and one unwavering aim. and this he put into the contribution box at church the next day. the Vanderbilts. The following winter he taught school at twelve dollars a month and "b oard around. The country seems tame and common .y accepts a chance to drive mules on a canal towpath." sai d an English author who had been looking over a book of biographies of eminent A mericans. Among the world's greatest heroes and benefactors are many others whose cradles were rocked by want in lowly cottages. washing. and li ght of a carpenter at one dollar and six cents a week. When the term closed. become emasc ulated and effeminate were it not for the pure. to pay his way while studyin g there. the finest physical and me ntal fiber in the world. he had paid all expenses and had three doll ars over. no boy. There is bread and success for every youth under the American flag w ho has energy and ability to seize his opportunity. When he retur ned the next term he had but a sixpence in his pocket. Soon he applies for a chan ce to sweep floors and ring the bell of an academy. ne ed despair. save upon the mercy of God and their own energies. CHAPTER IV THE COUNTRY BOY The Napoleonic wars so drained the flower of French manhood that even to-day th e physical stature of the average Frenchman is nearly half an inch below what it was at the beginning of Napoleon's reign. crystal stream of country youth flowing steadily into and purifying the muddy." In the spring he had forty-eight dollars. neither men nor demons can keep him down. James A. if he is dominated by a resolute purp ose and upholds himself. One of our great men says that one of the most unfortunate phases of modern civ ilization is the drift away from the farm. the drift of country youth to the cit y which has an indescribable fascination for him. This great stream of superb country manhood. T wenty-seven years from the time he applied for a chance to ring the bell at Hira m College. stamina and sturdy qualities e ntirely disappear in two or three generations of city life. emasculating inf luences of the city. "The little gray cabin appears to be the birthplace of all your great men. It matters not whether the b oy is born in a log-cabin or in a mansion. The country in America to-day is constantly paying a similar tribute to the cit y in the sacrifice of its best blood. where in two years he is graduated with h onors. The inspirat ion of such an example is worth more to the young men of America than all the we alth of the Astors. for which he received one dollar and two cents. He reaches the State Senate at twenty-six and Congress at thirty-three. and would. It would soon become so foul and degenerate as to threaten the physical and mora l health of city dwellers. with the privilege of wor king at night and on Saturdays all the time he could spare. until the superior virility. and who buffeted the billows of fate wit hout dependence. His first term at Geauga Seminary cost him but seventeen dollars. in a few generations. His vivid imagination clothes it with Arabian Nights possibilities and joys. which is e ver flowing cityward. devitalized stream of city life.

To him it is synonymous with opportunit y. his flesh firmer. And there is a reason for all this. the valleys. Nearly everything that confronts him from morning till night is a rtificial. but it is not so healthy. What comes from the artificial conditions of the city is weakening. is often overcarved and adorned at the cost of strength. the miracle of the growing crops are every moment registering their mighty potencies in his con stitution. If power is not absorbed from the soil. putting iron into his blood and stamina into his character. One of the greatest boons that can ever come to a human being is to be born on a farm and reared in the country. country bred. the grit which c haracterize men who do great things in this world. ener . mountains and valleys. the brawn. The average country-bred youth has a better foundation for success-building. Self-reliance and grit are oftenest country-br ed. as do the natural objects in the country. It is not natural f or human beings to live far from the soil. There is a very apprecia ble difference between the physical stamina. sky-scrapers and asphalt pavements does not generate character-building material. the brooks. to so ften. are. the brain vigor. with power.place after his first dream of the city. The whole tendency of life in big cities is toward deterioration. so the timber in country boys and girls. What we get from the country is solid. substantial. man-made. the mountains. the solidity and t he reliability of country-bred men and that of those in the city. substantial character when his eyes and ears bring him only sig hts and sounds of artificial things? A vast sea of business blocks. with pleasure. forcefulness. and his brain-fiber partakes of the same superior qua lity. T here seems to be a close connection between robust character and the soil. but less vigorous. The country boy is constantly thrown upon his own resources. The very granite hills. the h ills. He develops be tter all-round judgment and a more level head than the city boy. In other words. and this calls out his ingenuity and inventiveness. His muscles are harder. Much of what we call the best society in our cities is often in an advanced pro cess of decay. more moral stamina. virility. It is Mother Earth and country life t hat give vitality. physical and mental stamina reach their maximum in those who live close to the soil. He has not become weakened and softened b y the superficial ornamental. the stamina. stamina. ha s greater courage. How can a man b uild up a solid. enduring. takes on artificial conditions. all of wh ich will help to make him a giant when he comes to compete with the city-bred yo uth. vigorous. th e skin may be a little fairer. courage and all the qualities which make for manhood and womanhood. Just as sculpture was once carried to such an extreme that pillars and beams we re often so weakened by the extravagant carvings as to threaten the safety of th e structure. that imparts solidit y. hardy qualities. the pure air and sunshine. aside from the faces and forms of human beings. re liable. he begins to deteriorate. The sturdy. The moment a man becomes artificia l in his living. the thought a little mo re supple. He can not know the worth of the country and how to appre ciate the glory of its disadvantages and opportunities until he has seen the sha m and shallowness of the city. strength and power. The city-bred youth sees and hears almost nothing that is natural. robustness and vigor. forced to think for himself. He sees hardly anything that God made. The muscles may be a little more delicate but they are softer. when brought to the city. as a rule. it certainly comes from very near it. We are largely copies of our environment. City people rarely live really normal lives. He can not rid himself of its fascination until he tastes its emptiness. decorative influences of city life. We are under the perpetual influence of the suggestion of our surroundings.

diverting. the country boy is constantly developing his muscular system. The fact is that there is such a diversity of attractions and distractions. that unless a youth is made of unusual stu ff he will yield to the persuasion of the moment and follow the line of least re sistance. strong success qu . The city youth has too many things to divert his attention. is in the midst of a perpetual miracle. the chores which we hated as boys. having very lit tle diversion after supper. Nor do city-bred youths stor e up anything like the reserve power. If the wagon or plow breaks down it must be repaired on the spot. often without the proper tools. He has been forced to do a great variety of work and this has developed corresponding m ental qualities. The country boy does not read as many books as the city boy. but he is better balanced generally. which we oft en see so marked in the young man from the country. and will oft en read the best literature without absorbing any of it. There is a miracle going on in every growing blade of grass and flower. Such a multiplicity of objects appeals to him that he is often superficial. nature's kindergarten. a superb manual training school. The drudgery of the farm. he nce. the one unwavering life aim. He glances through m any papers. adjust and repair all sorts of machin ery and farm utensils. the cumulative force. but. as a r ule. can read continuously for an entire evening on one s ubject.vating. constantly calling upon the youth's sel f-reliance and inventiveness. softening. Hi s health is better. magazines and periodicals and gives no real thought to any. his min d is perpetually drawn away from his subject. The dearth of great libraries. And this magnificent pan orama is changing every instant. the stamina. we have found were the very things which educated us. which developed our power and made us practical. while the city youth. H e can not open his eyes without seeing a more magnificent painting than a Raphae l or a Michael Angelo could have created in a lifetime. the rocks which we despised. These exciting. He must run. and he lacks continuity of thought and application. It is hard for the city-bred youth to resist the multiplicity of allur ements and pleasures that bid for his attention. The country youth. His perceptions are not so quick. who. His reading is comparatively superficial. His ingenuity and inventiveness are constantly exercised. he lacks depth. Is it n ot wonderful to watch the chemical processes in nature's laboratory. This training develops instinctive courage. to deny himself and turn a deaf ear to the appeals of his associates and tie himself down to self-improvement w hile those around him are having a good time. on the other hand. of temptation and amusement in the city. it is true. The farm is a great gymnasium. his thought action is slower and he does n ot have as much polish. in the midst of newspapers and libraries. he is not so rapid in his movements. sees so many books that in most instances he cares very little for them. books and periodicals is one reason why the coun try boy makes the most of good books and articles. often reading them over and o ver again. His even ings are much more broken up than those of the country boy. For one thing. He gets more exercise. which a re developed in the simple life of the soil. He must make the implements and toys which he can not afford to buy or procure. tempting conditions of city life are not conducive t o generating the great master purpose. mixing and flinging out to the world the gorgeous colorings and marvelous perfumes of the r ose and wild flower! No city youth was ever in such a marvelous kindergarten. he is not so superficial as the city boy. he reads them with much better results. wh ere perpetual creation is going on in such a vast multitude of forms. more time to think and to reflect.

in the sunset. should be in s uch demand when he comes to the city? Is it any wonder that he is always in evid ence in great emergencies and crises? Just stand a stamina-filled. and what is seen by the ordinary mind. that makes the stuff that rises to t he top in all vocations. mow ing. What a perpetual inspiration. self-reliant country boy beside a pale. People s ave money for years in order to go to Europe to visit the great art centers and see the famous masterpieces. soft. in the glory of flowers and plant life. when they have really never seen the marvelous pict ures painted by the Divine Artist and spread in the landscape. Ho w marvelous is Nature's growing of fruit. an d his outdoor work tends to build up a robust constitution. not a sound is heard. make things. with no noise of factories. This is one of the reasons why he usually develops better all-round judgment and a more level head than the city boy. lawyer. confronting us on every hand! We see them almo st every day of our lives and they become so common that they make no impression upon us. The life-giving oxyg en. everything he does on the farm gives him vigor and strength. his flesh firmer. right at their very doors. he is always using tools. strengthen s the deficient faculties and brings out latent powers. de liciousness and beauty? What interrogation points. what miracles of coloring are spread everywhere in nature. for example! How she packs the concent rated sunshine and delicious juices into the cans that she makes as she goes alo ng. what wit-sharpeners are ev er before the farmer boy. this superior stamina and mental caliber. and yet what marvels of skill. what wonderful mysteries. so superbly equipped with physical and mental stamina. that he heads the banks. Self-reliance and grit are oftenest country-bred. The farm-reared boy is i n the best manual training school in the world and is constantly forced to plan things. and makes him a resourceful man. He is constantly bottling up forces. no hammering of tins! The miracles are wrought in a silent laboratory. whichever way he turns! Where does all this tremendous . The country boy is constantly thrown upon his own resources. Is it any wonder that the boy so trained in self-reliance. It is human nature to exaggerate the value of things beyond our reach.alities. Miracles i nnumerable in grass and flower and fruit are performed right before our eyes. merchant. or business man. hoeing. breathed in great inspirations through constant muscular effort. It has been found tha t the use of tools in our manual training schools develops the brain. indescribable something . leakage or evapora tion. Think of the difference between what a Ruskin sees in a landscape and the impression conveyed to his brain. statesman. storing up energy in his brain and m uscles which later may be powerful factors in shaping the nation's destiny or wh ich may furnish backbone to keep the ship of state from floundering on the rocks . stamina-less. washed-out city youth. His muscles ar e harder. develops in the country boy much greater lung power than is developed in the city youth. This marvelous reserve power which he stores up in the country will come out i n the successful banker. There is a peculiar quality of superiority which comes from dealing with realit ies that we do not find in the superficial city conditions. without a particle of waste. the ordinary person who has little or no imagination and whose esthetic faculties h ave scarcely been developed! We are immersed in a wilderness of mysteries and marvelous beauties. what marvels of beauty. Plowing. Is it any wonder that the country-bred boy is nearly always the leader. should take such pre-eminence. and this call s out his ingenuity and makes him self-reliant and strong. and his brain-fiber partakes of the same superior qu ality. the great mercantile houses? It is this peculiar. he is forced to think for himself. cans exactly the right size.

simplicity and honesty. He is not inculcated with snobbish ideas. and even to vary the size. that it requires fine-grained sympathetic talent. And what healt h there is in it all! How hearty and natural he is in comparison with the city b oy. will be able to produce at will any shade or color he wishes. While the city youth is wasting his precious energy capital in late hours. are all mysteries that set him thinking and to wondering at the creative processes which are working on every hand. that the size of all fruits and vegetables and flo wers is just a matter of sufficient understanding. to enlarge. who is tempted to turn night into day. The time was when the boy who gave no signs of genius or unusual ability was co nsigned to the farm. as contrasted with the cramped. Farming was considered by many people as a sort of degrading occupa tion desirable only for those who lacked the brains and education to go into a p rofession or some of the more refined callings. he is being recharged with physical force by natural. wheat. We are now finding that agriculture is as great a science as astronomy. life. Burbank says that the tim e will come when man will be able to do almost anything he wishes in the vegetab le kingdom. Think of what it mea ns to go into partnership with the Creator in bringing out larger. and often dissipation. ar tificial life in the city! Everything in the country tends to set the boy thinki ng. Mr. and yet. and that Nature will give us almost anything when we know enough to treat her intelligently. and that i gnorant men have been getting an indifferent living from their farms simply beca use they did not know how to mix brains with the soil. The science of agriculture is fast becoming appreciated and is more and more re garded as a high and noble calling. The trees. wisely and sympa thetically. away from the distracting influence and enervating excitement of city life. The country youth does not learn to judge people by the false standards of wealth a nd social standing. to be able to co-operate with that divine creative force. the perfume of flowers. modify a nd change the flavor of fruits and vegetables to our liking! Think what it must mean to be a magician in the whole vegetable kingdom. a dignified profession. flavors. The very temptation in the city to turn night into day is of itself health-unde rmining. the valleys. plea sure seeking. But the searchlight of science h as revealed in it possibilities hitherto undreamed of. But we are now beginning to see that man has made a botch of farming only because he looked upon it as a sort of humdrum occupation. species! Almost anything is p ossible when one knows enough and has heart and sympathy enough to enter into pa rtnership with the great creative force in nature. The history of most great men shows that there is a disadvantage in having too . fruit and vegetables come from? There seems to be no l oss to the soil. what a marvelous growth in everything! Life. changing colors. the hills. Everything in the great farm kindergarten teaches him sincerity. the country youth is storing up power and v itality. the mountains. the sunsets. mor e life on every hand! Wherever he goes he treads on chemical forces which produc e greater marvels than are described in the Arabian Nights. to live an artificial. the delicious freedom of it all. and al most any flavor in any fruit.increase of corn. grander produ cts from the soil. and the brilliant boy was sent to college or to the city to make a career for himself. the brook s. We are commencing to real ize that it takes a high order of ability and education to bring out the fullest possibilities of the soil. Then again. like L uther Burbank. the beauty. perfumes. to call out his dormant powers and develop his latent forces. stamina-dissipating and character-weakening. refreshing sleep. purposeless li fe. the growing animals on th e farm. as a means provided by nature for living-getting for those who were not good fo r much else.

to know the history of his country? Whence came that passion to devour the dry statutes of Indiana. so hungry for an education that he would walk nine miles a day to attend a rude frontier school in a log cabin! What would th e city boys of to-day. where newsboys go to Congress. one moment opportune. in balance 'twixt Too Late. Ah. of only a small fraction of which he could get even a superficial knowledge. one night. "There are no longer any good chances for young men. happy he who. Knows also how to watch and work and stand On Life's broad deck alert. no opportunities. self-unfoldment? If he had been born and educated in luxury. One day. who do not want to walk even a few blocks to school. to rouse his ambition and to stimulate h im to self-education? Whence came that yearning to know the history of men and w omen who had made a nation. From Opportunity's extended h and. the prod of necessity spurri ng him on. there is no likelihood that Lincol n would ever have become the powerful man he was. Who can tell what the consequences would have been had Lincoln been born in New York and educated at Harvard? If he had been reared in the midst of great libra ries. would he have had that insatiable hunge r which prompted him to walk twenty miles in order to borrow Blackstone's "Comme ntaries" and to read one hundred pages on the way home? [Illustration: House in which Abraham Lincoln was born] What was there in that rude frontier forest. to serve his country with no selfish ambition? Had his father been rich and well -educated instead of a poor man who could neither read nor write and who was gen erally of a shiftless and roving disposition. whence would have come the motive which led him to struggle for selfdevelopment. One space when fate goes tiding with the stream. which the w aves of time wash away into non-entity. When the great clock of destiny strikes Now! MARY A. all opportunities to him . and at th e prow To seize the passing moment. What is opportunity to a man who can't use it? An unfecundated egg. Had he not felt that imperious "must" calling him. where this poor boy scarcely ever saw any one who knew anything of books. and where those born in the lowest stations attain the highest positions? The world is all gates. thin k of a youth who would do what Lincoln did to overcome his handicap? CHAPTER V OPPORTUNITIES WHERE YOU ARE To each man's life there comes a time supreme. The secret of success in life is for a man to be ready for his opportunity when it comes. TOWNSEND. No chance.--GEORGE ELIOT. as a young girl would devour a l ove story? Whence came that all-absorbing ambition to be somebody in the world. brought up in an atmosphere of books." complained a youthful law student to Daniel Webster. knowing how to wait." replied the great statesman and jurist. or one noon. Too Soon. "There is always room at the top.many advantages. One Once. one morning.--DISRAELI. One rift through which s ublime fulfillments gleam. his ch aracter would probably have been soft and flabby in comparison with what it was. who ever rose to such eminence? Imagine a boy of to-day. big with fate. in a land where thousands of poor boys become rich men. And ready for the passing instant's boon To tip in favor the uncertain beam. Where in all the annals of history is there another record of one born of such poor parentage and reared in such a wretched environment. One freighted hour.

the man who bought his farm discovered upon it a great flood of coal-oil. that steps up an cloak $3500 Many of us who think we are poor are rich in opportunities. gardens of flowers. It is a sorry day for a young man who can not see any opportunities where he is. south. Aft er arriving in San Francisco. and in m eeting common every-day wants. like Bunyan's Pilgrim in the dungeon of Giant Despair's castle. He decided to go into the coal-oil busines s. or near at hand. and after they had thrown most of the pebbles away . "But where shall I go?" asked the poor farmer. Hundreds of years ago there lived near the shore of the river Indus a Persian b y the name of Ali Hafed. and experimented for a long t ime. in possibilities all about us. "We look too high For things close by. and how the first beams of sunlight condensed on the earth's surface into di amonds. and. that with a handful he could buy a province. The old priest told that a drop of sunlight the size of his thumb was worth mor e than large mines of copper. We depend too much u pon outside assistance. and concluded to sell out and get into a more profitable business. He lived in a cottage on the river bank. when lo! in the lining of the she discovered the diamond bracelet. Ali Hafed listened." "All you have to do is to go and search until you find them. pondering how to get money to buy food. and miles of forest. During all her poverty she was worth . Only a short time after. He sold his farm for $200. an extensive farm. Early the next morning he woke the priest who had been the cause of his u nhappiness. ragged cloak to make a hood. In our large Eastern cities it has been found that at least ninety-four o ut of every hundred found their first fortune at home. The richest gold and silver mine in Nevada was sold by the owner for $42." A Baltimore lady lost a valuable diamond bracelet at a ball. He h ad a wife and children." said the priest.who will use them. and with that all wealth van ishes. which the farmer had previously ignorantly tried to d rain off. silver. to ge t money to pay his passage to other mines. in faculties worth more than diamond brac elets. But. or west. They hastened back to Brazil. where he thought he could get rich. he studied coal measures and coal-oil deposits. One evening a priest of Buddha visited him. we fail to rely wholly upon the ability to advance all that is good for us wh ich has been given to the weakest as well as the strongest. sitting before the fire. "Wha t do you want of diamonds?" asked the astonished priest. "I want to be rich and place my children on thrones. He was contented and happy. fields of grain. that with one of them he could bu y many farms like his. north. they discovered that they were diamonds. Years afterward she washed the of the Peabody Institute. who had the key of deliverance all the time with him but had forgotten i t. and engaged in his new business two hundred mile s away. P rofessor Agassiz once told the Harvard students of a farmer who owned a farm of hundreds of acres of unprofitable woods and rocks. worn-out. explained to him how the world was ma de. only to find that the mines from which the pebbles had been gathered had been taken up by other prospectors and sold to the government. east. Some Brazilian shepherds organized a party to go to California to dig gold. She cut old. but thinks he can do better somewhere else. but did not know it." "How shall I know when I have found the . and was no long er a rich man. and took along a handful of translucent pebbles to play checkers with on the voyage. or gold. and anxiously asked him where he could find a mine of diamonds. if we could only se e them. and with a m ine of diamonds he could purchase a kingdom. orchards of fruit. from which he could get a grand view of the beautiful country stretching away to the sea. He had been touched with discontent. and supposed it was stolen from the pocket of her cloak. He had plenty of money and everything th at heart could wish. "Go anywhere.

The patent office at Washington is full of wonde . who made the most of his surroundings. Remember that four things come not back: the spo ken word. Frances Willard. Harriet Beecher Stowe. and forgot all about it. The old priest of Buddha who had filled Ali Hafed with the fatal discontent cal led one day upon the new owner of the farm. in those white sands you will find diamonds. Opportunities? They are all around us. and dug in his own garden. While his camel was drinking in t he garden one day. scarcely an article of household furniture." answered the priest. but it would be of no use to humanity. There is scarcely a thing which contributes to the welfare and comfort o f humanity. New openings are as easy to find as ever to those who do their best. An invention to m ake smoke go the wrong way in a chimney might be a very ingenious thing. so some men will get a fortune out of the commonest and meanest things. and competition has so greatly increased. Franklin. he wander ed for years. and the neglected opportunity. He picked up a pebble. So the famous diamond beds of Golconda were discovered. for the entire farm abounded in the ri chest of gems. iron filings. When his money was all gone and starvation stared him in the face." said Emerson. He had no sooner entered the room th an his eye caught that flash of light from the stone. as lightning for ages tried to attract his attention to the gre at force of electricity. "Here's a diamond! here's a diamond!" he shouted in great excitement. which would do his drudgery and leave him to develop th e God-given powers within him. The discontented man sold the farm for what he could get. As the bee gets honey from the same flower from which the spider gets poison. "The world is no longer clay. Find it. fill it. Forces of nature plead to be used in the service of man. Lincoln. poor Ali Hafed thr ew himself into the tide and was drowned. That is but a stone. he would have been one of the richest men in the world. There is power lying latent everywhere waiting fo r the observant eye to discover it. as scraps of lea ther. You have your own special place and work. and t housands of others had. although it is not so easy as formerly to obta in great distinction in the old lines. Wilson. the past life. took the money he had at interest. "but rather iron in the hands of its workers. But to succeed you must be prepared to seize and improve the opportunity when it comes. and behold. and men have got to hamme r out a place for themselves by steady and rugged blows. The man who bought his farm was a cont ented man. Over the mountains of Arabia. other diamond s more beautiful than the first gleamed out of it. from which others get only poverty and f ailure. It is one of the paradoxes of civilization that the more opportunities are util ized.place?" "When you find a river running over white sands between high mountain r anges. the sped arrow. cotton waste." said the farmer. he noticed a flash of light from the white sands of the brook . instead of going abroad in search for wealth. Had Ali Hafed been content to remain at home. that is not capable of an improvement in which the re may be a fortune. a kitchen utensil. and did not believe in going a way from home to hunt for diamonds or success. First find out what the world needs and then supply the want. "Has Ali Hafed returned?" "No. and went to search for the covete d treasure. because the standard has advanced so much . the more new ones are thereby created. ashamed of his folly and of his rags. slag. through Palestine and Egypt. and pleased with its brilliant hues took it into the ho use. an ar ticle of clothing or of food. Scarcely a boy or g irl will read these lines but has much better opportunity to win success than Ga rfield." Thousands of men have made fortunes out of trifles which others pass by. "nor is that a diamond. left his family with a neighbor. put it on the shelf near the fireplace. but found no diamonds." They went into the ga rden and stirred up the white sand with their fingers.

and with his chisel and mallet he called out from it one of the finest pieces of statuary in Italy. who was the son of a blacksmith. in buying buttons and thread which shoppers did not call for. said to himself. and wants me to give him employm ent at the Royal Institution--what can I do?" "Do? put him to washing bottles. and George the Third--may profit by their exampl e. hacked. the young David. Ericsso n began the construction of the screw propellers in a bathroom. J. Charles the First his Cromwell. The cotton-gin w as first manufactured in a log cabin. After that he made it a rule never to buy anything which the publ ic did not want. he invent ed the washing machine.. Patrick Henry was called a lazy boy. when he put out his shingle. McCormick began to make his famous reaper in a grist-mill. Edison began his experiments in a baggage car o n the Grand Trunk Railroad when a newsboy. If this be treason. and made a fortune." The great natural philosopher. and so prospered. "Here is a letter from a young man na med Faraday. invented clippers. which were prophetic of his power and courage: "Caesar had his Brutus. the great inventor of the m arine chronometer. and regretted that it should have been spoiled. Davy consulted a friend on the matter. He s tudied law for six weeks. he rose steadily until he became one of the brilliant orato rs of America. and never though t he could be a hero among the corn and tobacco and saddlebags of Virginia. But Michael Angelo still sa w an angel in the ruin.rful devices of ingenious mechanism. A man who was suffering terribly wit h toothache felt sure there must be some way of filling teeth which would preven t their aching and he invented the method of gold filling for teeth. while the father has been working on u seless inventions. I t then first dawned upon him that he could be a hero in Virginia. An observing barber in Newark. began his career in the loft of an old barn. if he refuses he is good for n . and became rich. Parts of the fir st steamboat ever run in America were set up in the vestry of a church in Philad elphia by Fitch. An observing man. and he had introduced his famous resolution against the unjust taxation of th e American colonies. The first model dry-dock was made in an attic. The great things of the world have not been done by men of large means. the eyelets of whose shoes pulled out. Faraday. Stewart. and he failed a s a merchant. And yet how many families have been impoverished. when a young man. with his daughter's help. He had never reali zed what it was to wash before. No doubt many artists had noticed the fine quality of the mar ble. Michael Angelo found a piece of discarded Carrara marble among waste rubbish be side a street in Florence. but in his first case he showed that he had a wonderful power of oratory. Finding the method slow and laborious. "I will make a metallic lacing hook. which some unskilful workman had cut. i f he is good for anything he will do it directly. lost eighty-seven cents. wrote. N. but not one in hundreds is of use to the in ventor or to the world. Farquhar made umbrellas in his sitting-room. but who could not affo rd to get another pair. the founder of Clark Universit y of Worcester. unti l he sold enough to hire a loft." He was then so poor that he had to borrow a sickle to cut grass in front of his hired tenement. a good-for-nothing farmer. He became a very rich man. make the most of it. In one of his first speeches upon this resolution he uttered thes e words. began his great fortune by making toy wagons in a horse s hed. and thrown away. He was always dreaming of some far-off greatness. to Humphry Davy. Mass.. A Maine man was call ed in from the hayfield to wash clothes for his invalid wife. People thought he would f ail. John Harrison. as a boy. wh ich can be riveted into the leather. and ha ve struggled for years amid want and woe. A. when his ca pital was one dollar and a half. Clark. he has been attending my lectures. From the time the Stamp Act was passed and Henry was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesse s. T. thought he could make an improvement on s hears for cutting hair. asking for employment at the Royal Instituti on. spoiled .

they came to the lighthouse to see her. and culture." But the boy who could experiment in the attic of an apothecary shop wit h an old pan and glass vials during every moment he could snatch from his work s aw an opportunity in washing bottles. to distinguish herself. who moved to the cities to win wealth and fame. This poor girl did not need to go to London to see the nobility. facilities of all kinds for pleasure. Eternity itself cannot restore the loss struck from the minute.--FRANKLIN. Grace Darling. are now inviting them to enter. What chance had the young girl. such opportunities. he must eat. and produced a masterpiece from a log of common firewood. She did not wander away into dreamy di stance for fame and fortune. study yourself and your own wants. such chances. Especially is this true for girls and young women. One man goes through life without seeing c hances for doing anything great. He wants co mforts. "He is the greates t experimental philosopher the world has ever seen. which led to a professorship at the Royal Academy at Woolwich. . can make a fortune. when they really lie hi dden in the common logs that we burn. she became more famous than a princess. Opportunities? They are everywhere. Ediso n. Hundreds of occupations and professions. He obeyed. improve any methods which men use. Any man wh o can supply a great want of humanity. Faraday. unattained and dim. living on those barren lighthouse rocks alone with her aged parents? But while h er brothers and sisters. supply any demand of comfort. Many of us lose great opportunities in life by waiting to find sandalwood for our carvings." Never before were there such grand openings. There is a legend of an artist who long sought for a piece of sandalwood. Our whole history appears like a last effort of divine Providence in behalf of the human race. A new era is dawning for them. out o f which to carve a Madonna. "America is another name for opportunities. CHAPTER VI POSSIBILITIES IN SPARE MOMENTS Dost thou love life? Then do not squander time. "The golden opportunity Is never offered twice. for that is the stuff life is m ade of. He was about to give up in despair. seize then the hour When Fortun e smiles and Duty points the way. perpetual hymn? HARR IET WINSLOW. Tyndall said of this boy with no chance. If you want to get rich. leaving the visi on of his life unrealized. education. or paint immortal pictures like an Angelo or a Raphael. which were closed to them only a few years ago. all around thee lying Offers up its low. Right at home she had won fame which the regal heirs might envy. Wh ile the beautiful. He must have clothing and dwelling.--ANCIENT POET. while another close beside him snatches from th e same circumstances and privileges opportunities for achieving grand results." Why thus longing. are not known to the world. The safest business is always connected with man's prime necessities.othing. You will find that millions have the same wants. by seizing common occasions and making the m great. when in a dream he was bidden to carve his Madonna fr om a block of oak wood which was destined for the fire. But we can all of us make our lives sublime. thus forever sighing. but did her best where duty had placed her. We can not all of us perhaps make great discoveries like Newton. and a nam e which will never perish from the earth. For the far-off." He became the wonder of his age in science. or contribute in any way to their well-being. and Thompson.

"O ne dollar. fa ct by fact. The would-be purchaser looked over the books on sale a while longer. "can't you take less than that?" "One dollar is the price. there is a wooden lattice-work which is taken up when the floor is swept. "and I could better have taken that price then than a dollar and a half now." "I have been wondering how Ned contrived to monopolize all the talents of the f amily. he was alwa .--GLADSTONE. he d emanded: "Well. patient. So every successful man has a kind of network to catch "the raspings and parings of existence. or hope to accomplish. having received a salutary lesson from a master in the art of transmuting ti me. half hours. "One doll ar and a quarter! Why. Believe me when I tell you that thrift of time will repay you in after life wit h a usury of profit beyond your most sanguine dreams. I wasted time. two golden hours. and now doth time waste me. Mr. into either wealth or wisdom. gaps "between times. and the fine particles of gold-dust. On the floor of the gold-working room." "One dollar and a half." said the clerk. "One dollar. those leavings of days and wee bits of hours" which most people s weep into the waste of life. thousands of dollars' yearly. "All that I have accomplished. are thus saved.--INSCRIPTI ON ON A DIAL AT OXFORD. "What is the price of that book?" at length asked a man who had been dawdling f or an hour in the front store of Benjamin Franklin's newspaper establishment. Franklin. come now. its highest and warmest aspi ration reached no further than the hope to set before the young men of my countr y an example in employing those invaluable fragments of time called moments." The man seemed surprised. tell me your lowest price for this book." "True. persevering process of a ccretion which builds the ant-heap--particle by particle." The man silently laid the money on the counter. Lost! Somewhere between sunrise and sunset." echoed the lounger. "has been and will be by that plodding." was the answer. achieves results which astonish those who have not mastere d this most valuable secret. wishing to end a parley of his own seeking." and chasms of waiting fo r unpunctual persons." was the prompt rejoinder. Franklin in?" "Yes. each set with six ty diamond minutes. when we were at play. and then i nquired: "Is Mr. and left the sto re. No reward is offered.--SHAKESPEARE. Time-wasters are everywhere." "Yes." replied Franklin. "and I could have better afforded to take a dollar than to leave my w ork.--the hours perish and are laid to our charge. found in a brown study after listening to one of Burke's speeches in Parliament. you offered it yoursel f for a dollar and a quarter. unexpected holidays. "A dollar and a half! Why." said Franklin coolly.--HORACE MAN N." said Elihu Bu rritt. He who hoards and turns to account all odd minutes. "but then I remember." "Well. took his book. at will." said Franklin. that you can take for that book?" "One dollar and a quarter." said a brother. thought by thought." replied the clerk. your clerk asked me only a dollar just now.Periunt et imputantur. and that waste of it will make you dwindle alike in intellectual and moral stature beyond your darkest rec koning. "he is very busy in the pr ess-room." persisted the man. in the United States Mint at Philadelphi a. and the stranger asked: "What is the lowest. And if ever I was actuated by ambition. but. expect to. for they are gone forever. I want to see him. The proprietor was call ed.

that I could purchase at a cheap rate some of our modern gentlemen's spare hours--na y. At one time he wrote to a friend. lost health by temperance and medicine. found time to read scientific books. John Stuart Mill did much of his be st work as a writer while a clerk in the East India House. while waiting for his coffee to boil." in the midst of p ressing household cares. while working hard as a stone-mason. but. "Time is all I require. when her child ren were in bed and whenever she could get a spare minute. but l ost time is gone forever. Galileo was a surgeon . "Uncle Tom's Cabin. "Oh. the power of ceaseless industry to perform miracles! Alexander von Humboldt's days were so occupied with his business that he had to . But wha t monuments have been built up by poor boys with no chance. out of broken fragme nts of time which many of us throw away! The very hours you have wasted. never to return. when companion of the future Queen of France. we become less and less able to turn them to account. Wisely was it said that lost wealth may be regained by industry and economy. Though she has done s o much. days. he devoted all his leisure to experiments. throw away. it's only five minutes or ten minutes till mealtime. but if we failed to accep t those that were brought yesterday and the day before. yet to the improvement of his spare moments the world owes some of its greates t discoveries. Oh. Marion Harland has accomplished wonders. In Dante's time nearly every literary man in Italy was a hard-working merchant." Oh. who wonder at their failure to get on. they are borne silently away. Hugh Miller. Secretary of the Commonwealth. wrote her great masterpiece. Longfellow translated the "Inferno" by snatches of t en minutes a day. persisting for years unt il the work was done. Burns wrote many of his most beautiful poems while working on a far m. composed severa l of her charming volumes while waiting for the princess to whom she gave her da ily lessons. Beecher read Froude's "England" a little each day while he had to wait for dinner. While Michael Faraday was employed binding books." is one of the commonest expressions heard in the family. and she has been able to do this by ec onomizing the minutes to shape her novels and newspaper articles. Harriet Beecher Stowe. Each successive morning new gifts are brought. If a genius like Gladstone carried through life a little book in his pocket les t an unexpected spare moment slip from his grasp. might have insured your success. what should we of common abili ties not resort to. bringing priceless gifts from an unseen hand. Madame de Genlis. and write the lessons learned from the blocks of stone he handled. lost knowledge by study.ys at work. and had to write his sublime poetry whenever he could snatch a few minutes from a busy life. The author of "Paradise Lost" was a teacher. if impr oved. judge. S ecretary of the Lord Protector. stat esman. or soldier. to save the precious moments from oblivion? What a rebuke is such a life to the thousands of young men and women who throw away whole months and even years of that which the "Grand Old Man" hoarded up even to the smalles t fragments! Many a great man has snatched his reputation from odd bits of time which others. yet all her life has been subject to interruptions which would have disc ouraged most women from attempting anything outside their regular family duties. if we do not use them. there's no time to do anything now. too. physician. She has glorified the commonplace as few other women have done. until the ability to appreciate and utilize them i s exhausted." The days come to us like friends in disguise.

Franklin was a tireless worker." says Burke.pursue his scientific labors in the night or early morning. Haw thorne's notebook shows that he never let a chance thought or circumstance escap e him. It took Professor Owen ten years to arrange and classify the specimens in Comparative Anatomy. He became one of the most noted mathematician s in the United States. Browning. He crowded his meals and sleep into as sm all compass as possible so that he might gain time for study. as one man saves a fortune by small economies which ot hers disdain to practise. which Hunter's indust ry had collected. An Italian scholar put over his door the inscription: "Whoever tarri es here must join in my labors. than any sort of employment whatsoever. the mighty possibilities of two--four--yes. thrown away by youn g men and women in the restless desire for fun and diversion! Every young man should have a hobby to occupy his leisure hours. the celebrated shoemaker of Vermont. research. something usef ul to which he can turn with delight. six hours a day that are. One hour a day would in ten years make an ignorant man a well-informed man. When a child. John Hunter. Spenser made his rep utation in his spare time while Secretary to the Lord Deputy of Ireland. the study. or eighteen large volumes in a year. two leading magazines. It might be in line with his work or other wise. One hour a day withdrawn from frivolous pursuits and profitably employed would enable any man of ordinary capacity to master a complete science. An hour a day might make--nay. and save time. he b ecame impatient of his father's long grace at table. over twenty-four thousand in number. If one chooses wisely. Frost. and asked him if he could n ot say grace over a whole cask once for all. a useless man a benefactor to his race. What a record for a boy who began his studies while working as a carpenter! John Q. seldom idle for a minute. while others were a sleep." Carlyle." Some boys will pick up a good education in the odds and ends of time which othe rs carelessly throw away. Sir Joh n Lubbock's fame rests on his prehistoric studies. such as his "Improvement of Navigation" and "Smo ky Chimneys. An h our a day might make all the difference between bare existence and useful. It would earn enou gh to pay for two daily and two weekly papers. wrote a hundred volumes. prosecuted outside of his bus y banking-hours. "He has nothing to prevent him but too much idleness. In an hour a day a boy or girl could read twenty pages th oughtfully--over seven thousand pages. and occupation that a hobby confers will broaden character and transform the home. Many of the greatest men of history earned their fame outside of their regular occupations in odd bits of time which most people squander. then. Cicero said: "What others give to p . happy living. Adams complained bitterly when robbed of his time by those who had no r ight to it. and also gained an enviable reputation in other departme nts of knowledge." What a lesson there is in Raphael's brief thirty-seven years to those who plead "no time" as an excuse for wasted lives! Great men have ever been misers of moments. and Dickens signed a remonstrance against organ-grinders who disturbed their work. resolved to devote one hour a day to study. What young man is too busy to get an hour a day for se lf-improvement? Charles C. only his heart must be in it. He wrote some of his best productions on shipboard. on the average. Tennyson. Southey. allowed himself but four hours of sleep. Consider. and at lea st a dozen good books. which. has made--an unknown man a famous one. "fills up a man's time much more completely and leaves him less his own master. I have observed. like Napoleon.

even to mental and bodily rest. At eighty she published "Molecular and Microscopical Science. but he carried with him the manuscript of his "Commentaries. He learned arithmeti c during the night shifts when he was an engineer. Work has system. Caesar said: "Under my tent in the fiercest struggle of war I have always found time to think of many other things. Dr. He wrote h is famous "Requiem" on his death-bed. George Stephenson seized the moments as though they were gold. in order to meet the expenses of his mother's funeral. Somerville learned botany and ast ronomy and wrote books while her neighbors were gossiping and idling. God never gives but one moment at a time.ublic shows and entertainments. Dalton's industry was the passion of his life. but seize the instant and get y our lesson from the hour. Henry Kirke White learne d Greek while walking to and from the lawyer's office where he was studying. Pope would often rise in the night to write out thoughts that would not come during the busy day." Lord Bacon's fame springs from the work of his leisure hours while Chancellor of England. Idleness rusts the nerves and makes the muscles creak. yet he was so systematic that he always seemed to have more leisure than many who did not accomplish a tithe of what he did." The worst of a lost hour is not so much in the wasted time as in the wasted pow er. I give to t he study of philosophy. nay. Grot e wrote his matchless "History of Greece" during the hours of leisure snatched f rom his duties as a banker. law. Dr. Darwin composed most of his works by writing his thoughts on scraps of paper wherever he happened to be." lest it should be forgotten. He made and recorded over two hu ndred thousand meteorological observations. Goe the suddenly excused himself. it is t raced back to the girl who made the blunder and the loss is deducted from her wa . Johnson wrote "Rasselas" in the evenings of a single week. and learned the com mon branches unaided while tending store. Lincoln studied law during his spare hours while surveying. Sir Humphry Davy achieved emine nce in spare moments in an attic of an apothecary's shop. The present time is the raw material out of which we make whatever we will. or dream of the future. He would not stop his work long enough to sleep. He educated hims elf and did much of his best work during his spare moments. Lord Brougham could not bear to lose a moment. Dr. In factories for making cloth a single broken thread ruins a whole web. lazi ness has none. and does not give a second until he withdraws the first. Watt learned chemistry and mathematics while w orking at his trade of a mathematical instrument-maker. went into an adjoining room and wrote down a thoug ht for his "Faust. Matthew Hale wrote his "Contemp lations" while traveling on his circuit as judge. As Fenelon says. The man is yet unborn who rightly measures and fully r ealizes the value of an hour. During an interview with a great monarch. He achieved distinction in politics. Mozart would not allow a mome nt to slip by unimproved. science. and literature. and had to swim a shore. Do not brood over the past." upon which he was at work when the ship went down. and w ould sometimes write two whole nights and a day without intermission. Burney learned Italian and French on horseback. Mason Good translated "Lucretius" while riding to visit his patients in Lon don." He was once shipwrecked. Mrs. Dr. President Quincy never went to bed until he had laid his plans for the next day .

by redeem ing time. honored. for all your future lives in it. but we should not throw away an hour any more than we would throw away a dollar-bill. and never be fore was there so many avenues of resource open to the strong will. for a young man with an ambition to do somet hing in the world to be compelled to pay his own way through school and college by hard work. as a rule. Each evening is a crisis in the career o f a young man. to make himself use ful. We should not be stingy or mean with it. as elsewhere. howev er. It may be a shoddy thread of wasted hours or los t opportunities that will mar the fabric and mortify the workman forever.000 are by no means exceptional yearly earnings of a student who is capable of doing newspaper work or tutoring. by watching with an eagle's eye for every chance of improvement. defying temptation. They are not a poverty-stricken lot. We cannot stop t he shuttle or pull out the unfortunate thread which stretches across the fabric. Most of those who climb upward to honor and fame devote their evenings to study or work or the society of those who can help and improve them. "five hundred are students entirely or almost entirel y dependent upon their own resources. "There are some men that make much more. the will can usually make the way." says Edward Everett. But who shall pay for the broken threads in life's great web? We cannot thr ow back and forth an empty shuttle. The average boy of to-day who wishes to obtain a liberal education has a better chance by a hundredfold than had Daniel Webster or James A. the inflexib le purpose. No one is anxious about a young man while he is busy in useful work. our web of Fate we spin. and scorning sensual pleasure. Here. and happy. threads of some kind follow every movement a s we weave the web of our fate. But history shows us that the men who have led in the van of human progress have been. as there are to-day--at this hour and this moment. The great major ity of youths who go to the bad are ruined after supper. It seems a great hardship. for half of them make an income above the average allowance of boys in small er colleges. Waste of time mea ns waste of energy. "Of the five thousand persons--students. indeed." CHAPTER VII HOW POOR BOYS AND GIRLS GO TO COLLEGE "Can I afford to go to college?" asks many an American youth who has hardly a d ollar to his name and who knows that a college course means years of sacrifice a nd struggle. or it may be a golden thread which will add to its beauty and luster. a perpetual witness of our folly. Time is money. There is a deep significance in the lines of Whittier:-This day we fashion Destiny. This day for all hereafte r choose we holiness or sin. It mea ns the waste of opportunities which will never come back.ges. Beware how you kill ti me. But where does he eat his lunch at noon? Where does he go when he leaves his boarding-hous e at night? What does he do after supper? Where does he spend his Sundays and ho lidays? The way he uses his spare moments reveals his character. There is scarcely one in good health who reads these lines but can be assured that if he will he may." writes a graduate. A classmate of the writer entered coll . waste of vitality.--directly connected with Harvard Unive rsity.--branches of emplo yment that pay well at Harvard. self-made. "And it is left for each. waste of character in dissipation. From $700 to $1. Garfield. self-educated. "by the cultivation of every ta lent.

worked his way through an academy." A son of poor parents. It gives a reality and vi gor to one's work which is less likely to be obtained by those who are carried t hrough college. later. by the savings of two years' work as a farm laborer. depending upon the opportunities for work . as this does not pay expenses. and do their university work in the afternoons and evenings. noon and night. they add other employments. He had shaped his course and worked to it. One student is a member of a city orchestra. He carried his books with him morning. earning twelve dollars a week. Some a ttend to lawns in summer and furnaces in winter. He rented a small room. To be a correspondent of city dail y papers is the most coveted occupation. He procured many valuable patents. and receive twenty cents an hour.000. New York. When summer came. Several teach in the public schools in the daytime. but only a few can obtain such position s. A few find evening work in the city library. and arranged with a professor of Union College to pay for his tuition b y working. I do not regard it. Albert J. The divinity students. not only paid his way through coll ege. A few serve in the university postoff ice. and amassed a fortune. Beveridge. writing. Two young men made twelve hun dred dollars apiece. and he determined to a dvance. however. which served for study and home. upward of $ 3. living in Springfield. by having several of each to ca re for. entered col lege with no other capital than fifty dollars loaned to him by a friend. the foundation being self-reliance and integ rity. but helped to support his aged parents. as the tax upon strength and time is likely to be s uch as to interfere with scholarship and to undermine health. and money earned by tutoring. Several are tutors. The president of his class at Columbia University recently earned the money to pay for his course by selling agricultural implements. preach in small towns. Some solicit advertisements. He believed that he could afford a college training and he got it. In his junior year. to the construction o f iron bridges of his own design. he proceeded to Sche nectady. however.ege with about twenty-five dollars. A few months after graduation he married. The ways of earning money are various. As a freshman he had a hard struggle. After graduation. relying wholly on himself for success. in this way. but. He serv ed as steward of a college club. A representative American college president recently said: "I regard it as. they earn from five to ten dollars a week. the expense of his bread-and-milk diet never exceeding fifty cents a week. Some dozen or more teach night school. the junior United States Senator from Indiana. "He made his money by advertising schemes and other publishing ventures. This only whetted his appetite for knowledge. he returned to work in the harvest fields and broke the wheat-cutting records of t he county. on the whole. after the firs t year. so as to take their degrees. Scores carry daily papers. and added to his original fund of fifty dollars by taking the freshman essay prize of twenty-five dollars. Accordingly. One of his classmates. in one year. and copying done after study hours. He is now living comfortably in Cambridge. When he returned to college he began to be recognized as an exceptio nal man. His life was a success. Many are waiters at clubs and restaurants. and studied pe rsistently. he turned his attention to civil engineering. and the student's ability and adaptability. by which they earn two and on e-half to three and one-half dollars a week. he prospered and in his last ten months of undergraduate work he cleared above his college expenses. as desirable that one should have t o work his own way entirely." . a distinct advantage that a student should have to pay his own way in part as a condition of obtaining a college education. which were none too low. At Chicago University many hundreds of plucky young men are working their way. and.

There are many who get along o n an expenditure of from one hundred and fifty dollars to two hundred dollars pe r year. A lowly beginning is no bar to a g reat career. he ranked well in his classes. doing many kinds of work.. He served summers as waiter in a White Mountain hotel. and the opportunities for self-help. Encourag ement and useful hints are offered by the experience of many bright young people who have worked their way to diplomas worthily bestowed. taught distr ict schools six terms. and is a young man of s olid character and distinguished attainments. Isaac J. Gaius B. having a student populat ion of somewhat over forty thousand. the mechanic and the operative. that the republic will depend on most for good citizenship and brains in the future. High School. it was found that. the average maximum expense. N ." He would do any honest work that would bring cash. In an investigation conducted to ascertain exact figures and facts which a poor boy must meet in working his way through college. There was no hone st work within the limits of his ability that he would not undertake to pay his way.. Vt. Meriden. and canvassed for a publishin g house one summer in Maine. th e great average class of our country. He worked in gardens and as a janitor for some time. In some of the smaller colleges the minimum expense per year is from sev enty-five dollars to one hundred and ten dollars. H. and in after life. Frost. For example. Frost was graduated at the Brattleboro. The problem of securing a good education. It is the son and daughter of the farmer. and o ne year as assistant superintendent in the Essex County Truant School.. In Western and Southern colleges the averages are lower. while fourteen as well-known Eastern institutions give an average expense of four hundred and forty-four dollars. Chicago.Circumstances have rarely favored great men. five hundred and twenty-nine d ollars. and entered Dartmouth College with just money enough to p ay the first necessary expenses. but he will learn how to work his way in life. Like Mr. H. finally becoming hea d-waiter. at Lawren ce. Littleton. the average expense per year is three hundr ed and four dollars. is of great importance both to the individual and the nation. The question of whether or not they could afford i t does not appear to have occasioned much hesitancy on their part. where means are limited and ti me short. None of his fellow-students did more to secure an e ducation. pushed a rolling chair at the Columbian Exposition. attention and energy to any work that would bri ng remuneration. than his classmate who is the son of a millionai re. eighteen well-known Western colleges and universities have a general average expense of t wo hundred and forty-two dollars per year. at some of the best . and for "turning his time. N.--and every cent of this money as well as every hour not spent in sleep throughout the four years of his college course was devoted to getting his education. All these and many more from the ranks of the bright and well-trained young men who have been graduated from the colleges and universities of the country in re cent years believed--sincerely. It is evident that they did not for one instant think that they could not afford to go to col lege. whose funds are small and opportunities fe w. The boy who works his way through college may have a hard time of i t. For four years Richard Weil was noted as the great prize winner of Columbia Col lege. and will often take higher ran k in school. while the maximum expense rises in but few instances above one thousand dollars. Statistics of expense. in a list of forty-five representative colleges and universities. Mass. and through Dartmouth College.. was port er one season at Oak Hill House. doggedly believed--that a college training was s omething that they must have. During his course he taught six terms as principal of a high school. Cox of Philadelphia worked his way through Kimball Academy.

canvassers. No money loaned. fifty dollars to seventy-five dollar s a year: "no limits placed on habits or social privileges of recipients. often remits room rent in return for services about the college buildings. three hundred and fifty-eight dollars to one thousand and thirty-five dollars. clerks. for the college year. no free rooms. requires s tudiousness and economy in the case of assisted students. The ave rage expenditure per year. some students earning money as stenographers. A great many students w ho know how to get on in a great city work their way through Columbia. Dartmouth has some three hundred scholarships. exclusive of clothes. railway fares. shorthand. and stationery. for freshmen. s ubscriptions and service). Many students support themselves in part. has some free rooms. distributed or loa ned in sums of forty dollars to two hundred and fifty dollars to needy and promi sing under-graduates. washing. the lowest being three hundred and eighty-seven dollars. care of buildings. It has also five hundred and twelve state tuition scholarships. and stand ing. has one hund red tuition scholarships for other students of good character. thirty-five per cent of the whole undergraduate body earning money. sixty dollars to f our hundred dollars apiece. Wesleyan University remits tuition wholly or in part to two-thirds of its under -graduates. those above fifty dollars condit ioned on class rank. Harvard has about two hundred and seventy-five scholarships." Many students are self -supporting. makes loans at low rates. large beneficiary and loan funds. work of one sort or another to be had by needy students. It has thirty-six two-year sc holarships (two hundred dollars). etc. some rooms at nominal rent. agencies for laundries. table-waiting. no requirements except good standing. Brown University has over a hundred tuition scholarships and a loan fund. Bowdoin has nearly a hundred scholarships. The average yearly expenditure per student is five hundred dollars. freshmen (usually) barred.. Many students support themselves in part by waiting on table. sale of books. Five hundred dollars a y ear will defray all necessary expenses. The yearly expenditure is three hundred and twenty-five dollars. newspaper corr espondence. typewriters. and singers. Loan funds are available. the average expenditu re is about four hundred dollars. a few get through on less than two hundred and fifty dollars a year. students have chances to ear n money at tutoring. economy and total abstinence. habits. The cost at Columbia University averages five hundred and forty-seven dollars. reporters. is four hu ndred and fifty dollars. membership in societies. requirements. and maintain good standing and conduct. newspaper work. laboratory charges. a faculty employment committee. by shorthand. "Beneficiaries must be frugal in habits." stude nts getting employment in the library or laboratories can earn about one-fourth of their expenses. The University of Pennsylvania in a recent year gave three hundred and fifteen students forty-three thousand. books. and a few wholly.known Eastern institutions are full of interest: Amherst makes a free gift of the tuition to prospective ministers. Many students earn mon ey in various ways. Cornell University gives free tuition and free rooms to seniors and juniors of good standing in their studies and of good habits. etc. private t utors. yearly expenditure (exclusive of clothes . t otal abstainers. two hundred and forty-two dollars in free scholar ships and fellowships. The average yearly expenditure is five hundred dollars. three hundred dollars to four hundred dollars. these will be. won by success in competitive ex amination. etc. .

A number of girls in Barnard are. and in various little ways such as putting up lunches. Barnard and Radcliffe. a Russian Jewess. Woolley. Typewriting is one of the favorite re sources. who is especially brave and in good earnest. average yearly expenditure . typewriting or stenography. paying for their clothes. It is not unusual for students to come here for two years and go away for a time." "It is my opinion. in order to earn money to complete the co urse. As far as I know. two or three hours a day. Others get room and board in the homes of professors by giving. daily. Some of our most worthy graduates have done this. have accomplished it by tutoring. and newspaper work.--was formerly in use at Wellesley. thus paying for their board.Yale is pretty well off now for fellowships and prizes. or a t the affiliated colleges. There is a splendid chance for girls at some of the soundest and best known gir ls' colleges in the United States. etc. At city colleges. it is confined there to a few cottages. however. about six hundred dollars. "Do any of your students work their way through?" was asked of a Bryn Mawr auth ority. because the lists are always full of experienced teachers. taking care of rooms. It is her aim to earn one hundred dollars. With thi s sum. One young woman. at least in part. in case of worthy students. and a chance to pay for room and board by giving service. summer work in libraries and offices.. executing commiss ions. Mosher. runs a little "sweat shop. Some lighten their expen ses by waiting on tables in boarding-houses. worked as a chambermaid on a lake steamer last year and hurried aw ay this year to do the same. who can be engaged by the hour. "Most of them. car fares. She has paid all the expenses of h er education in this way. in the families of the faculty. New York. board and lodging cost more than in the country." says Dr. president of Mount Holyoke Colle ge. or at the most. regular in attendance and studi ous. One student has done particularly well as agent for a firm that makes c ollege caps and gowns. and in general it is more difficult for a girl to pay any large part of her expenses through her own efforts and carry on her college work at t he same time. A few take care of children. Eliza M. It has no foothold at Bryn Mawr. like the last two mentioned. sewing. by doing what work they can find. fifty minutes a day of light household labor." said Miss Mary E. "have earned the money by teaching. remits all but forty do llars of term bills. Some of them earn pin-money while in college by tut oring. in return for thirty. typewriting. however. "that. if a girl with average intelligence and energy wishes a college educa tion. many such students earning money for themselves. every student reduces her college expenses by a hundred dollars or a hun dred and fifty. There are not many opportunities at Mount Holyoke to e arn large amounts of money. Smith and Vassar. books. Tutoring in Barnard is seldom av ailable for the undergraduates." where she keeps a number of women busy ma king women's wrappers and children's dresses. three hours of service about the house. she can obtain it. The number of girls in the University of Michigan who are paying their own way is large. . Another girl." The system of compulsory domestic service obtaining now at Mount Holyoke--where by. now. from the lower East Side. there are a few people who are glad to give the colleg e girls such employment. woman's dean of the college. the girls who have earned money to pa y their way through college. Because it is especially difficult to obtain good serv ants in this inland town. she will pay th e coming year's expenses. but pin-money may be acquired in many little ways by a girl of ingenuity.

or send to the stores in New York. Beside these standard employments. there are many wealth always having something like that done. Yes. Partly by reason of the cheapness of a college education in Ohio. and who are willing And so this girl makes a large sum of money. "The girl that plays the piano for the exercises in the gymnasium is paid for t hat. a lesson.--'Dresses pres a good deal of money. No boy or girl in America to-day who has good health. repairer." was the reply. yes. girl who has a sign on the door of her room. in Poughke epsie. Those who 'tutor' receive a dollar . and others by 'tutoring'. to be sold. while the average expenditure of the students does not exceed two hundre d dollars per annum. assistance rendered in library or laboratory or office. and by a judicious display of attr active samples she is easily tempted to enlarge her supply. and at the same time to keep up in all the studies. are between four hundred and five hundred and fifty dollars. In Ohio.'--and she earns y girls here who are to pay well for it. West of the Alleghanies a college education is accessible to all classes. the college fees are five dollars a year. etc. In mo st of the state universities tuition is free. too. and some of the girls paint and make fancy articles. Then. any girl who is at all deft in the art of sewing can make a shirt-waist without a profess ional knowledge of cutting and fitting. aturdays.--to a certain extent. teaching in evening schools occasionally off ers a good opportunity for steady eking out of means. too. too. by dis tributing the mail. another. I know a sed. Some of them write for the newspa pers and magazines. Of course. furnish help to many a girl who wishes to help herself. there are a great many girls who manage to pay most of their expense s. In many colleges there is opportunity for a girl with taste and cunning fingers to act as a dressmaker. for the well-dressed gir l was never known to have enough pretty ones. Every youn g man or woman should weigh the matter well before concluding that a college edu cation is out of the question. in nearly every college. Former President Tucker of Dartmouth says: "The student who works his way may d . and is not often done. The reign of the shirt-waist has been a boon to many. Two girls may pay part of their expe nses by taking charge of the library. good morals and good grit need despair of getting a college education unless there are extremely unusual reasons against the undertaking. on the other hand. and by selling stationery. Yet if the total cost is less in the West. that state now sends more students to college than al l of New England. board and a room can be had for twelve dollars a month. and still others have pupils in music. In Kansas."Some. for example.. Orders for gymnasium suits and swimming suits mean good profits ." Typewriting. But to earn all of one's way in a college year. a dollar and a half. is almost impossible. and sometimes a very good one receives two dollars and a half. "but not many. Yet several are able to pay half their way. the state university has abolished all tuition fee s. and general refurnisher to students with gene rous allowances. This amount includes positively everything. which they sell here. The lowest entire e xpenses of a year. the opportunities for self-help are correspondingly more in the East." A similar question put to a Vassar student brought the following response: "Why. and most of the denominational colleges demand fees even lower than were cust omary in New England half a century ago. tutoring. evenings and S "There are other girls who are agents for two of the great manufacturers of cho colate creams.

Remember what one hundred and twenty dollars meant on Prince Edward Isl and. at Charlottetown. I hadn't definite plans as to my future. "From the time I began working in the store until to-day. against the wishes of my employer. that a larger percentage of Dartmouth men have risen to distinction than those of almost any other American college.--Summerside. and the prospect of promotion as fast as I dese rved it." The opportunities of to-day are tenfold what they were half a century ago. Dartmouth College . and then I gave it up. my preparation had been so hasty and incomplete. and for the next forty weeks I studied harder than I ever had before or have since. I have always support ed myself. and the little village was like a city to my country eyes. young men of to-day! Thirty dollars a year for working from seven in the morning until ten at night! But I was glad to get the place. He pointe d out the difficulties in the way of my going to college. and to me.--a village of about one thousand inhabitants. and that was all the money I had in the world. I had only one year to do it in. a poor boy who had never possessed such a sum in his life. The greater part of its patronage is from p oor men. and the sons of poor men. "When I told my employer of my plan. furnishes a good example. and offered to double my pay if I would stay in the store. I began to attend the village high school. and algebra. I would not turn back. "I kept this place for two years. I determined to go to college. all on the same day.o it with ease and profit. and during all the years of my boyhood I never received a penny that I did not earn myself. Form er President Schurman of Cornell says of his early life: "At the age of thirteen I left home. My money wou ld not last longer than that. It seems litt . but stood first of all the competitors on the Island. where I was to receive sixty dollars a year and my board. I went to a larger store in the same town. to get my preparation for college. although I think that I should have made a successful store keeper. I think. "I did not know how I was going to do this. Think of that. I found that I had not only won the scholarship f rom my county. from facts that have fa llen under my observation. and to earn some money. I have seen the s ons of rich men lead in scholarship. I knew that it involved hard work and self-denial. "The scholarship I had won amounted to only sixty dollars a year. I should say. on the Island. In one side was the certainty of one hu ndred and twenty dollars a year. and there was the possibility of failure in the end. Without examining the statistics. "My father got me a place in the nearest town. But my mind was made up. Greek. "With my capital of eighty dollars. But when the result was announced. because I had made up my mind that I wanted to get a better educati on. At the end of my first year. he tried to dissuade me from it. Poverty under mos t of the conditions in which we find it in colleges is a spur. I need not say that I do not regret that early decision. except that it must be by my own ef forts. I had small hope of winning it. I merely wanted to get in to a village. I was getting on swimmingly. At the end of the year I entered the competitive examination for a scholarship in Prince of Wales College. For my first year's work I was to receive thirty doll ars and my board. "That was the turning-point in my life. or he may be seriously handicapped both by his necess ities and the time he is obliged to bestow on outside matters. On th e other side was my hope of obtaining an education. My sala ry was doubled. It was a start in the world. I had saved about eighty dollars from my store-keeping. I recited in Latin.

in London. and gifts amounting t o $12. called him to that position. which I agr eed to pay for by work about the house.50. In his senior year. Schurma n became dean of the Sage School of Philosophy at Cornell. without it I could not have gone on. when th e president's chair became vacant. he was placed at the head of the great univer sity. Soon afterward. The scholarship paid five hundred dollars a year for three years. through the offer of the Hibbard Soci ety. retaining my old room at $1 pe r week. who had once met the bri lliant young Canadian. which. that the winning of it was the greatest success I ever have had..20. Dr. in competition with the brightest students in the larger Cana dian colleges. and then went to Acadia College i n Nova Scotia to complete his course. of a traveling fellowship with two thousand dollars a year. A well-known graduate of Amherst college gives the following figures. The expenses for the year. Mr. During the three years in the University of London. $55 fro m gifts. including.50 per week. Nova Scotia. He tried the examination and won the prize. he lea rned of a scholarship in the University of London offered for competition by the students of Canadian colleges. Mr. Beside s this I spent $10. but with this difference: that firs t success was essential.57 for voluntary subsc riptions. spending less than one hundred dollars during the entire college year. borrow ed $190. and tuition.le enough. when a chair of philosophy was established at Cornell. and saw in this offer his opportunity. greatly to the surprise of the others. In 1886. A way was opened for him. and borrowed $150. and an additional gift of $20. but the poor country boy from Prince Edward Island was again s uccessful. I earned during the yea r. I earned $37. At the end of his course in Germany. after nearly thirty years. returned to Acadia College to become a teacher there. "In my junior year I engaged a nice furnished room at $60 per year. The others I could have done without. room. received $70 for a scholarship. and decided that he had found in it his l ife-work. During the year I earned $60. $8. with all of which I just covered expenses. "During the next summer I earned $100. if it had been necessary. recei ved from the college a scholarship of $60. and earned half board. at Halifax. including board.45 for clothing. were $478. The expenses of the sophomore year were $394.50. $10. the full value of board. to mo st persons. but I can say now. which to the boy who earnestly wants to go to college are of the most pertinent interest: "I entered college with $8. excepting $40 due on tuition. My current expenses during my freshman year were $4. etc. Schurman. he was ca lled to Dalhousie University.55 for books. borrowed $70.24 for sundries. then a Doctor of Philosophy. One of Mr. The young student in Acadia was ambitious to continue his stud ies in England. al so earned full board waiting upon table. The honor men of the great English Universities like Oxford and Cambridge were among the competitors. Schurman's fellow-students in Acadia says that he was remarkable chi efly for taking every prize to which he was eligible. and. received a scholarship of $70. $15 for railroad fares. in 1892. President White. Two years later. which squared my accounts for the year." For two years young Schurman attended Prince of Wales College. of course.76. would seem immeasurably greater. he taught a country school for a year. $23. I have had other rewards. I waited on table at a $4 boarding-house all of my sophomore year. Aft erward. By clerical work. Schurman became deeply interested in the study of philosophy.42 in my pocket. He was eager to go to Germany to study under the great leaders of phil osophic thought. At that time he was only thirty-eight years of age. He lived on his scholarship and what he could earn by keeping books for one of the town storekee pers. $87. .

machinists.157. An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest. enhanced one hund redfold by superior training. and mail carriers were numbered among the twenty-five. that is wanted." No m atter how many millions are out of employment. could become the greatest Bi blical scholar of his age. but who are well educated. the whole world is hunting for a man who can do things.64 were necessarily heavi er than these of previous years. if the slave Frederick Douglass. could manage from scraps of paper. "Wanted--a man. where is the boy or girl to-day. bound out until he was twenty-one for only a yoke of oxen an d six sheep. under the American f lag. etc . The expenses of the senior year. and painters. I was permitted to give my note for the amount I could not r aise.708. On all sides we see men with small minds. earned by clerical work. I waited on tab le all the year. and positions as clerks were we ll-occupied fields.. of which (counting scholars hips as earnings) I earned $1." CHAPTER VIII YOUR OPPORTUNITY CONFRONTS YOU--WHAT WILL YOU DO WITH IT? Never before was the opportunity of the educated man so great as to-day." says Franklin. receive d a gift of $35. but who are only half educated. But having secured a good position as teacher f or the coming year. superbly trained. under the same conditions as the previous year. newspaper work. borrowed $40. tutoring. Tutoring. who made shoes in an alms-house. on a plantation where it was almost a crim e to teach a slave to read. If Henry Wilson. "no man can take it away from him. and old almanacs. the man whose natural ability has been enlarged. Never before was there such a demand for the trained man. copying. In a certain district in Boston there are ten thousand students. Never was ignorance placed at such a disad . often gets the place when a man with many untrai ned or half-trained talents loses it. who cannot get a fair education and escape the many disadvantages of ignora nce? "If a man empties his purse into his head. A on e-talent man. It seemed as if they left untried no avenue for e arning money. The money that a student earns for his own education does enrich his life. pushing ah ead of those who have greater capabilities. and received full board. Many of these students are paying for their education by money earn ed by their own hands. It is said that unearned money does not enrich. Everywhere it is the educated. if the po or deaf boy Kitto. A large number come from the farms of the West. secured a scholarship of $70. It is true gol d. At the door of every vocation is a sign out. Throughout the senior year I retaine d the same room. posters on barns. founders. working early and late on a farm with scarcely any opportuniti es to go to school. the man who can do a thing s uperbly well. a trained thinker who can do whatever he undertakes a lit tle better than it has ever before been done. "The total expense for the course was about $1. drummers." Twenty-five of the young men graduated at Yale not long ago paid their way enti rely throughout their courses. $496. and so was enabled to graduate without financial embarrassment. $40. bicycle agents . the trained man. Every young man or woman should weigh the matter well before concluding that a college education is out of the question."During the following summer I earned $40. Many of them c ome from the country and from factory towns. took a prize of $25. could manage to read a thousand good books before his time had expi red. to learn the alphabet and lift himself to eminence.

All education which does not elevate. full of expectancy. selfish ideals. "How much can I get for my picture?" "How much ro yalty for my book?" "How much can I get out of my specialty. the trained young man or w oman answer it? The dollar stands out so strongly in all the undertakings of life that the idea l is often lowered or lost. finer instincts and nobler desires. my b usiness?" "How can I make the most money?" or "How can I get rich?" is the great interrogation of the century. A liberal education only renders a rascal more dishon est. vigorous character to resist their temptation. the college graduate. Whichever way you turn. sordid level. refine. perhaps. my profession. more dangerous. is measured largely by h ow many dollars it will bring. A man's genius. which nearly everybody worships in some form or other. and. It is the subtle menace which threatens to poison the graduate's ambition. that it takes a strong. art. even when the cal l in one to do something which bears little relation to money-making speaks very loudly. There is nothing else. to prostitute his education. While the opportunities awaiting the educated man. their yearnings for something higher will gradually die and be r eplaced by material. Never before was such pressure brought to bear on the trained youth to sell his brains. to face for the first time the practical world. as to-da y. what he stands for. The commercial spirit tends to drag everything down to its dead. with high ideals and glorious visions. so insidious. full of h ope and big with promise. Educated rascality is infinitely more of a menace to societ y than ignorant rascality. on his entrance into practical life were never before so great and so numerous as to-d ay. go out from the schools. so also the dangers and temptations which beset him were never before so gre at. . but many of them will very quickly catch the money con tagion. Tens of thousands of young people just out of school and college stand tiptoe o n the threshold of active life. that day on which is born in him the selfish.vantage as to-day. which so often warps and wrenches the who le nature out of its legitimate orbit. money-making germ. sordid. T he money-god. The commercial prizes held up to him are so dazzling. with their diplomas. Wealth with us multiplies a man's power so tremendously that everything gravita tes toward it. so astounding. which the graduate needs to be cautioned agains t more than the money madness which has seized the American people. Every year. thousands of young men and young women graduate full of ambition an d hope. and the unive rsities. the soul's wings are weighted down with gold. inoculating thei r ambition with its vicious virus. The most unfortunate day in a youth's career is that one on which his ideals be gin to grow dim and his high standards begin to drop. so numerous. to coin his ability into dollars. so overwhel ming that it often drowns the still small voice which bids one follow the call t hat runs in his blood. and ennoble its recipient is a cu rse instead of a blessing. How will the graduate. the artistic suffers. their fair college vi sion will fade. so entrancing. will tempt you on every hand. The song of the money-siren to-day is so persistent. that is indicated in the very structure in his brain. the dollar-mark will swing info your vision. the fatal germ will spread through their whole natures. for nothing else is more fatal to the development of the higher. the colleges. after a few years.

They become Indian s again. and encoarsen you generally. cold. who are actuated only by sordid. your educa tion--in your hands. their impro ved language. After you graduate and go out into the world. Whatever degrees you carry from school or college. There is coupled with it a responsibility which you can not shirk without paying the penalty in a shriveled . you will be constantly thrown into con tact with those of lower ideals." The graduate who has not acquired thi s keen and sure sense of honor. tending to deteriorate your standards. uplifting i nfluences of the schools and colleges which are educating them that they are sca rcely recognizable by their own tribes when they return home. When you plunge into the swim of things. your manhood. But the graduate whose training. American-Indian graduates. Money-making can not compare with man-making. of Harvard Universit y. The shock you will receive in dropping from the at mosphere of high ideals and beautiful promise in which you have lived for four y ears to that of a very practical. They soon begin to shed their polish. this thing that stamps the gentleman. and tha t is to be a millionaire of brains. no title will ever mean quite so much. unless you are made of superior stuff. A libe ral education greatly increases a man's obligations. the Indian blanket replaces their modern dres s. who are so transformed by the inspiring. powerful influences will be opera tive in your life. and it lives in yo ur ideal. fortunate graduate. whatever distinction you may acquire in your career." says Ex-President Eliot. of culture. and general culture. and they gradually drift back into their former barbarism. something higher than merely to put money in his purse. sordid materiality will be a severe test to your character. as that of gentleman. There is something in the block for you. Shall it be angel or devil? What are your ideals. The influences that will surround you when you leave college or your special tr aining school will be as potent to drag you down as those that cause the young I ndian to revert to barbarism. lower your ideals. You hold the chisel and mallet--your ability. The educated man ought to be able to do something better. of gra ce and beauty. stand s untouched before you. "is the finest result of college life. "A keen and sure sense of honor. You can not divorce them. whose education counts for anything ought to b e able to resist the shock. Your future. the woman in you.You will need to be constantly on your guard to resist the attack of this germ. a statue which will tell the unborn generations the story of a no ble life? Great advantages bring great responsibilities. like a great block of pure white marble. of helpfulness to one's fellows. very quickly begin to change under the deteriorating influences operating upon them when they leav e college. There is something infinitely better than to be a millionaire of money. as you stand tiptoe on the threshold of active life? Will you smite the block and shatter it into an unshapely or hideous piece. misses the best thing that a college education can impart. will ever be qui te so noble. selfish aims. their fine manners. or will you call out a statue of usefulness. What a contrast that high and noble thing which the college diploma stands for presents to that which many owners of the diploma stand for a quarter of a centu ry later! It is often difficult to recognize any relationship between the two. a millionaire of character--a gentleman. Then dies the man. to withstand all temptations.

Your superior training has given you a glimpse of the higher life. his finer culture. The educated man has gotten a glimpse of power. The world has a right to expect that wherever there is an e ducated. and force you possess. to debauch. grasping career: t hat he will be free from the sordidness which often characterizes the rich ignor amus. and he is expected to look up. a warped conscience. a stunted mentality. its significance is that yo u should light up the way for the less fortunate. whatever it may be." The world has a right to expect that the graduate. th at he will not stop growing. "There goes a man. it simply m eans that you have a great commission to do something out of the ordinary for yo ur fellows. to de moralize. and a narrow field of usefulnes s. so divinely endowed. a special message for humanity. to help to emancipate them from ignorance and drudgery.soul. because where much is give n. that he will illustrate in his perso nality. your superior opportunity. Society has a right to look to the collegian to be a refining. that he will not disgrace his alma mater which has given him his superior chance in life and opened wide for h im the door of opportunity. uplifting force in his community. If you have the ability and have been given superior opportunities. in his business. to aspire. to drag them down. because the other half. th at he will not be a slave of the dollar or stoop to a greedy. who. what shall we think of this man. trained man people should be able to say of him as Lincoln said of Walt Whitman. not down. If the torch of learning has been put in your hand. in the picture he paints. than it is for one who has not had glimpses of higher things. an inspiration to those who have n ot had his priceless chance. than for a man who has not had a liberal education. who has h ad the inestimable advantage of a liberal education. It has a right to expect that he will not be a victim of the narrowing. of grander things. will be an artist and not an artisan. vigor. it is justified in expecting that he will raise the standard of intelligence in his community. Your education means an in creased obligation to live your life up to the level of your gift. It is more of a disgrace for a college graduate to grovel. will not turn his back on it. but what sha ll we do with the educated rascal who uses his trained mind and all his gifts to ruin the very people who look up to him as a guide? "The greatest thing you can do is to be what you ought to be. much is expected. We cannot help feeling that it is worse for a man to go wrong who has had all t he benefits of a liberal education. the possible glory of life. . to stoop to mean. Your duty is to deliver your message to the world with all the man liness. low practises. the higher half." A great man has said that no man will be content to live a half life when he ha s once discovered it is a half life. What shall we think of a man who has been endowed with godlike gifts. instead of as a beacon to guide them into port? We imprison the burglar for breaking into our houses and stealing. so superbly equipped. uses it t o demoralize. who has not had similar advantages. instead of using his education to lift his fellow men. not to grovel. having once faced the light and felt its power. It has a right to expect that a man who has learned how to use skilfully the tools of life. If you have received a message which carries freedom for people enslaved by ign orance and bigotry. who uses his light as a decoy to lure his fellows on the r ocks and reefs. who has ability to ameliora te the hard conditions of his fellows. cramping influence of avarice. you have no right to suppress it. wi ll haunt him. to mislead. who employs his talents in the book he writes.

The world has a right to expect better results from the work of the educated ma n. who are loaded down with knowle dge that they have never been able to utilize. There ar e thousands of college-bred men in this country. The great question which confronts you in the practical world is "What can you do with what you know?" Can you transmute your knowledge into power? Your abilit y to read your Latin diploma is not a test of true education." is the injunction of a gr eat master as he walks up and down among his pupils. we lose o ur earlier vision. less culti vated minds. uninfluenced by the thousand and one petty annoyances. which will be dinned into your ears w herever you go. something finer. "Keep your eye on the model. You should be able to demonstrate that the man with a diploma has learned to use the tools of life skilfully. The trouble with most of us is that we do not keep our eyes on the model. that you lower your standards." The mission of the trained man is to show the world a higher. a stuffed memory d oes not make an educated man. we often read this comment. slipshod work. half-hearted endeavors . criticizing their work. that can be tr anslated into power. aimless. Do not permit yourself to be influence d by the maxims of a low." "Fairly good. and not a part of himself. finer type of man hood. Low ideals. as an insult. cannot. After the withdrawal of a play that has been only a short time on the stage. should have no place in your program. surely the lowest. systemless. Be sure that you possess yo ur knowledge. than from the man who lacks early training. constitutes the only education worthy of the name. bickerings. practical. if you cannot bring your education to a f ocus and utilize it in a practical way. the worst. of a higher grade. dishonor the institution which has given him his chance to be a superior man. The mere possession of a diploma will only hold you up to ridicule. the perfect ideal of his work. misunderstan dings.Never lose sight of your college vision. will only m ake you more conspicuous as a failure. it should als o make him a practical man. y our high ideals into dollars. Say to yourself. not a financial failure. discredit his teachers. Regard the very suggestion that you shall coin your education. The graduate ought to be able to rise above these things so that he can use all his brain power and energy and fling the weight of his entire being into work t hat is worth while. sordid prudence. but a financial failure. The knowledge that can be utilized. the man who has discovered only a small part of himself. Knowledge is power only when it can be made available. sordid methods. Only what you can use of your education will benefit you or the world. demorali ze his ideals. "If the highest thing in me will not bring success. A liberal education ought to broaden a man's mind so that he will be able to keep his eye always on the model. has learned how to focus his faculties so that he can bring the whole man to his task. and better quality." applied either to character or to work are bad mot toes for an educated man. "An artistic success. and discords which destroy much of the efficiency of narrower. "Pretty good. that your knowledge does not possess you." While an education should develop all that is highest and best in a man. It is a disgrace for a man with a liberal education to botch his work. don't watch your hands. prostitute your edu cation by the practise of low-down. to make available for working pur .

which you have absorbed from your teachers. however. from your associations. not alone for his advancement. m eanly. it is that which should make you reach up as wel l as on. does it at his peril. This will mean infinitely m ore to you than all you have learned from books or lectures. in himself. The knowledge that one's mentality has been broadened out by college training. because he has disc in the knowledge that one has n mind. to play a manly part in life. The graduate should regard his education as a sacred trust. by the poverty of their l anguage. or for his own selfish ends. but also increase s one's self-confidence immeasurably. To try to keep it would be as foolish as for the farme r to hoard his seed corn in a bin instead of giving it to the earth. their sordid ideals. a liberal education makes a man feel a little surer of himself. to our fellows. that one has discovered hi s possibilities. into working capital. the spirit of your alma mater. This assurance of knowledge multiplies self-confidence and giv es infinite satisfaction. your discovery of yourself. by having to confess. of your possibilit ies. languages. so you should transmut e your knowledge into practical wisdom. things are so arranged in this world that no one can use his divine gift for himself alone an d get the best out of it. have more faith overed himself. As a matter of fact. There is also great satisfaction ot neglected the unfoldment and expansion of his mpressionable years of youth go by unimproved. is the uplift. that they are not ed ucated. encouragement. not only adds wonderfully to one's happiness. On every hand we see men of good ability who feel crippled all thei r lives and are often mortified. of greater value than all these. to do the greatest. this is the embodiment of the college spirit. grandest thing possible to you. think a little more of himself. is not to try to sell ourselves for the highest possible price but to give ourselves. The college man ought to be a superb figure anywhere. and transmuting every bit of knowledge into power. and self-confidence is the lever that move s the world.poses. at the cost of mental and moral penury. The consciousness of bein g well educated should put one at ease in any society. The man who withholds the giving of himself to the world. There is no situation in life in which the beneficent influence of a well-assim ilated education will not make itself felt. literature. or be mortified or pained by ignorance of matters which every well-informed person is supposed to know. art. There is a great difference between absorbing knowledge. but royally. The way to get the most out of ourselves. or out of life. making a sponge of one's brain. He should look upon it as a power to be used. if you have made the most of your chan ce. The most precious thing of all. but for the betterment of all mankind. inspiration. The superbly trained man can go through the world with his head up and f eel conscious that he is not likely to play the ignoramus in any company. As the silkworm transmutes the mulberry leaf into satin. it is some thing infinitely more sacred. of your powers. their narrow outlook on life. not your knowledge of the sciences. your resolution to be a little more of a man. If the rosebud should try to retain all of its sweetness and beauty locked within its petals and refuse to gi . that he has not let the i But the best thing you carry from your alma mater is not what you there prized most. In other words. instead of dow n. and that is your aroused ambition. which should make you aspire instead of grovel--look up. magnanimously. for fear he would never get it back. not stingily.

in London. In these cases Nature seems to have triumphed by direct interp osition. Let it be its world the story of a noble career. "That is my speech. Whether you make money or lose it.ve it out.--EMERSON. something marked "not for sale. It is only by flinging them out to the world that t heir fullest development is possible. WHAT WILL YOU DO WITH IT? CHAPTER IX ROUND BOYS IN SQUARE HOLES The high prize of life. There is hardly a poet. never let it be said of you that you succeeded in your vocation. that influence cannot buy. only shrivels. need no eulogy in words. When William Story. be atrophied in your efforts to make a living. guardi ans. The man who tries to keep his education. your friendships. to have insisted on her darlings having their rights. the sculptor. falsehood. he simply pointed to the statue and said. Do not. never sell your divine heritage. an unsullied reputation. for power or positio n. or teachers. secrecy. and strangles the very faculties he would develop. your aspiring instincts. You should so conduct yourself that e very one will see that there is something in you that would repel as an insult t he very suggestion that you could be bought or bribed. in the everlasting scramble for the dollar. You have not learned the best lesson from your school or college if you have no t discovered the secret of making life a glory instead of a sordid grind. do not let your esthetic faculties. whatever your vocation. who gropes along in mediocrity. my young friend. do not allow all that is finest within you. whose genius was not opposed by parents. stifle our better natures. who lives a shiftless. is to be born with a bia s to some pursuit. How your greatest wealth with you. who is always looking out for the main chanc e. for a mess of pottage. in a cl you will not need houses or lands or s Never before did an opportunity to render such great service to mankind confron t the educated youth as confronts you to-day. but failed as a man." So conduct yourself that your life shall own eulogy. or man of science mentioned in the history of the human intellect. your high ideals and noble purposes to be suffoca ted. strangled. be larger than your vocation. The college man who is cursed with commonness. When y ou leave your alma mater. even flight from home and occasional vagabondism . which finds him in employment and happiness. Whatever you do. was asked to make a speech at the unveiling o f his great statue of George Peabody. The trouble with most of us is that. selfish life. and does not lift up his head and show that he has made the most of his great privileges disgraces the institution that gav e him his chance. carry ean record. it would be lost. philosopher. we impoverish our own lives. Put beauty into your life. h is superior advantages for himself. as thousands of graduates do. The graduate should show the world that he has something in him too sacred to b e tampered with. let your success tell to the ever much money you may accumulate." a sacred something that briber y cannot touch. the crowning fortune of a man. your good n ame. your good name. or influenced to stoop to anything low or questionable. and encouraged di sobedience. artist. Then tocks or bonds to testify to a rich life. in our efforts to sell ourselves for selfi sh ends or for the most dollars. sacrifi ce your social instincts.

but an eminent accountant. TICKELL. art." said the youth." says Emerson. he is strong on the track. no matter how unpromising the prospect. first a saucer and then a spoon. repent it as he often does." "Nor do I. On that side all obstruction is taken away.-E. WHIPPLE. No matter by what difficulties surrounded." Civilization will mark its highest tide when every man has chosen his proper wo rk." "But I can make myself usefu l somehow. often look back with a sigh and think how much better off he would be had he pursued some other occupation. stupid. sir. any more than you can see the North Star in the magnetic needle." said the merchant. laughing at the ear nestness of his clerk. "Like a boat on a river . "every boy runs against obstructions on every side but one. this occupation is the only one which he will pursue with interest an d pleasure. rather than the world should lose what it cost her so much pains to produce. you have taken off and replaced. and though you may pull it around by artif icial advice and unnatural education. I don't know. medicine." said the principal. Try me a t something besides selling. yet. are you not ashamed to waste your time in this disgraceful manner?" The world has certainly gained much through the old lady's failure to tell Jame s how he could employ his time to better advantage! "But I'm good for something. I must not stay.. Like a locomo tive." pleaded a young man whom a merchant was about to discharge for his bluntness. "How? Tell me how. but weak anywhere else. and taken off again. of s quare boys forced into round holes." says Robert Waters. of boys persecute d as lazy. Which says. I know I cannot sell. I see a hand you c annot see. the teapot lid. of boys tortured be . "Only don't put me away. don't put me away." "Art. P. You cannot look into a cradle and read the secret message traced by a divine ha nd and wrapped up in that bit of clay." "Science. "James Watt. an d you have held alternately in the steam. or whatever your own pet calling is unt il you have wasted years of a precious life. collecting together the little drops f ormed by the condensation of the steam on the surface of the china and the silve r." "Medicine. simply because they were out of their places. I cannot sell. the needle fli es back to its own star. where his aptitude for figures soon showed itself." He was placed in the counti ng-house. For the last half-hour you have not spoken a single word." or "Business". "I know I can. "You are good for nothing as a salesman. too." persisted the young man. When his efforts fail to procure means of subsistence. God has loaded the needle of that young life so it will point to the star of its own destiny. of b oys compelled to pore over dry theological books when the voice within continual ly cried "Law. No man can be ideally successful until he has found his place." said his grandm other. "that is what is wrong." of boys whose aspiration s and longings have been silenced forever by ignorant parents. "I am sure I can be useful. "do take a book and employ yourself usefully." said his employer. and compel it to point to the star which p resides over poetry. but he will stick to his favorite pursuit nevertheless." "I do n't know. Do you know what you have been doing all this tim e? Why. and he sweeps serenely over a deepening channel into an infinite sea. Now. and he finds himself poor and neglected. like Burns. or fickle. I never saw such an idle young fellow as you are. and oppressed because they did not fit. and in a few years he became not only chief cashier in the large store. when once free. law. Which beckons me away." Only a Dickens can write the history of "Boy Slavery. "Rue it as he may. and y ou have busied yourself in examining and. he may." "I know that. "the man of genius is drawn by an irresistible impulse to the occupation for which he was c reated. I hear a voice you cannot hear. sir.

when turning his powerful wing against the clear blue sky! Ignorant parents compelled the boy Arkwright to become a barber's apprentice. and Guido. It is often a narrow selfishness in a father which leads reproduction of himself. but th e voice of mathematics drowned every other call. haunting the boy until he laid aside his grammar for Euclid. and soon he . but the instinct of commercial enterprise future merchant. Peter's. "You are trying to make that boy ough. "The Robbers. pennil ess. but in secret he produced his first play. The magic c ombination is never used but once. but when compelled to study anatomy physiology." said Emerson. The father of Joshua Reynolds rebuked his son for drawing pictures. and would not let him rest until he had immortali zed himself in the architecture of St. and his longing for authorship so allured him. His f ather hated the fine arts and imprisoned him. He even contemplated killing his s on. how steady and true his curves. that he ventured. he would hide his Euclid and Archimedes and stealthily work out abstruse problems. in the marble of his Moses. and wrote o n one: "Done by Joshua out of pure idleness. This boy.cause they were not enthusiastic in employments which they loathed. Claude Lorraine. A kind lady aided him. Pascal's father determined that his son should teach the dead languages. b ut Nature had locked up in his brain a cunning device destined to bless humanity and to do the drudgery of millions of England's poor. John Jacob Astor's father wished his r as a butcher. and against which every fiber of their being was uttering perpetual protest. the painter. Turner was intended for a barber in Maiden Lane. because he loved art and music. ma de Prussia one of the greatest nations of Europe. She breaks the pattern at every birth. but became the greatest landsc ape-painter of modern times. enlarging knowledge of the vast and minute alike. and the the the The parents of Michael Angelo had declared that no son of theirs should ever fo llow the discreditable profession of an artist. was sent to a mu sic school. He was only eighteen when he discovered the principle of pendulum in a lamp left swinging in the cathedral at Pisa. Frederick the Great was terribly abused becau se he had a passion for art and music and did not care for military drill. him to wish his son a another you. the famous painter of Aurora. into the inhospitable world of letters. but the fire burning in his breast was kindled by the Divine Artist. to an upholsterer. so he must needs say "han ds off" even to his parents. "Wist ye not that I m ust be about my Father's business?" Galileo was set apart for a physician. but his own death placed Frederick on the throne at the age of twenty-eight. Molière. the auth or. who. and even punished him for coveri ng the walls and furniture with sketches. One is en son to be his successo was too strong in the Nature never duplicates men." Yet this "idle boy" became one of the founders of the Royal Academy. The irksomeness of his prison-like school so gal led him. but how keen his glance." the first performance of which he had to witness in disguise. was thought good for nothing. and on the walls of the Sistine Chapel. He invented both microscope and telescope. was apprenticed to a pastry-cook. Schiller was sent to study surgery in the military school at Stuttgart. How stupid and clumsy is the blinking eagle at perch. as Christ said to his mother.

out of courage. After serving more than two years. and an author of several indiffer ent books. with failure imminent. but makes himself after he is graduated. and soon had a private concert under full blast. and persuaded Dr. What a ridiculous exhibition a great truck-horse would make on the race-track. A parent might just as well decide that the magnetic needle will point to Venus or Jupiter without trying it. and the other to rule an empire. and then. The boy wandered unobserved to the o rgan in a chapel. and said that the pleaders at the bar were among the most eminent lawyers of Great Britain. instead of blaming him for disturbing the organ. a factory m anager. a commissioner's accountant. But the boy got an old spinet and practiced on it se cretly in a hayloft. an acquaintance. he took his son with him. out of cre dit. The duke happ ened to hear the performance. prai sed his performance. out of money. and believed he could excel them. and the duke. "thou shalt go down to the machine-shop on Monday morning. in the town where his regiment was quartered. When the doctor visited a brother in the service of the Duk e of Weisenfelds. before he drifted into his proper calling as a merchant. insisted that his creditor sho uld take the shop as the only means of securing the money. attended a court. Erskine spent four years in the navy. and th eology are the only desirable professions. a soldier. invited Erskine to sit near him. failed in five different professions before he found his place. It has been well said that if God should commission two angels. Happy the youth who finds the place which his dreams have pictured! If he do es not fill that place. a secretary. he one day. prepares himself in school. for fifty-two pe r cent. and so tried to discour age his fondness for music. Stewart studied for the ministry. a merchant. out in the cold. of our American college graduates to study law! How many young men becom e poor clergymen by trying to imitate their fathers who were good ones. of poor doctors and lawyers for the same reason! The country is full of men who are out of place. "disappointed. Erski ne took their measure as they spoke." said Mr. medicine. T. as to decide what profession his so n shall adopt. The best thing his teachers ha . one to sweep a street crossing.produced the two splendid dramas which made him immortal. Handel to let his son follow his bent. out of cur iosity. too. The boy was brought before him. nearly every college graduate who succeeds in the true sense of the word. The pres iding judge. and became a teacher. when his son told of having nearly fitted himself f or college. to work his way up to the posit ion of a man of great influence as a United States Senator from Rhode Island. How ridiculous. the ornithologist. an envoy. He at onc e began the study of law. he will not fill any to the satisfaction of himself or o thers." Wilson." The fact is. Nature never lets a man rest until he has found his place. Not less true is it that he who feels that God has given him a particular work to do can be happy only when earnestly engaged in its performan ce. out of office. soured. "Jonathan. The physician Handel wished his son to become a lawyer. The latter. Daniel Defoe had been a trader. She haunts him and drives him until all his faculties give their consent and he falls into his proper niche. joined the army. Chase. A. before he wrote his masterpiece. in which he eventually soon stood alone as the greates t forensic orator of his country. "Robinson Crusoe." It was m any years before Jonathan escaped from the shop. through the accident of having lent mone y to a friend. in the hope of more rapid promo tion. they could not be induced to e xchange callings. and wondered who could possibly combine so much me lody with so much evident unfamiliarity with the instrument. ruined. out at elbows. yet this is no more incongruous than the popular idea that law.

But if there be no instinct. Fidelity to the work or everyday duties at hand. Very few of us. The world has been very kind to many who were once known as dunces or blockhead s. Lo ok at a fish floundering on the sand as though he would tear himself to pieces. after they have become very successful. and a genuine feeling of respo nsibility to our parents or employers. Grant] We must not jump to the conclusion that because a man has not succeeded in what he has really tried to do with all his might. for which he was well fitted. the latter. Garfield would not have become President if he had not previously been a zealou s teacher. be a carpenter. That is no reas on why the duty at hand should be put off. True success lies in acting well y our part. he cannot succeed at anything. Neither Lincoln nor Grant started as a baby with a precocity for the White House. to the full measure of one's ability and industry. a young man or woman cannot help but succeed. a conscientious statesman. and success will surely be the crown. and do not condemn them be . find it very dif ficult before their fifteenth or even before their twentieth year to decide what to do for a living. show great genius or even remarkable talent for any line of work or study. but he wrote some of our finest poems. a hindrance instead of a help.ve taught him is how to study. Molière found that he was not adapted to the work of a lawyer. the former choosing philosophy. Give every boy and girl a fair chance and reasonable encouragement. eve n when given all the latitude and longitude heart could desire. The great majority of boys and girls. The moment he is beyond the college walls he ceas es to use books and helps which do not feed him. b ut he left a great name in literature. The moment his fins feel the water. No o ne need doubt that the world has use for him. or an irresistibl e genius for ruling men. But look again: a huge wave breaks higher up the beach and covers the unfortunat e creature. Samuel Smiles was trained to a profession which was not to his taste. So no one should be disappointed because he was not end owed with tremendous gifts in the cradle. a responsible soldier. will eventually b ring most of us into the right niches at the proper time. or why the labor that naturally falls to one's lot should not be done well. yet he practiced it so faithfully that it helped hi m to authorship. What career? What shall my life's work be? If instinct and heart ask for carpentry. and darts l ike a flash through the waves. and our God. be a physician. Voltaire and Petrarch abandoned the law. before we reach our teens. If you fail after doing your level best. demanding a wonderf ul aptitude for some definite line of work. if for medicine. Better be a first-rate hod-carrier than a s econd-rate anything. He was so timid that he could not plead a case. With a firm choice and earnest work. and advance at every honorable opportunity in the direction towards which the inward monitor points. one should choose cautiously along the line of his best adaptability and opportunity. and this every one can do. Each knocks at the portals of the mind. or if it be weak or faint. and seizes upon those that do. he is himself again. while before they be at the air and earth in vain. and see if it really be in the line of your bent or power of achievement. but it is not there. Cromwell was a farmer until forty years old. Let duty be the guiding-star. ourselves. His fins mean something now. His business is to do the best he can wherever his lot may be cast. poetry. but it was very cross to them while t hey were struggling through discouragement and misinterpretation. Cowper failed as a lawyer. [Illustration: Ulysses S. examine the work attempted.

cause of even a large degree of downright stupidity; for many so-called good-for -nothing boys, blockheads, numskulls, dullards, or dunces, were only boys out of their places, round boys forced into square holes. Wellington was considered a dunce by his mother. At Eton he was called dull, id le, slow, and was about the last boy in school of whom anything was expected. He showed no talent, and had no desire to enter the army. His industry and perseve rance were his only redeeming characteristics in the eyes of his parents and tea chers. But at forty-six he had defeated the greatest general living, except hims elf. Goldsmith was the laughing-stock of his schoolmasters. He was graduated "Wooden Spoon," a college name for a dunce. He tried to enter a class in surgery, but w as rejected. He was driven to literature. Goldsmith found himself totally unfit for the duties of a physician; but who else could have written the "Vicar of Wak efield" or the "Deserted Village"? Dr. Johnson found him very poor and about to be arrested for debt. He made Goldsmith give him the manuscript of the "Vicar of Wakefield," sold it to the publishers, and paid the debt. This manuscript made its author famous. Robert Clive bore the name of "dunce" and "reprobate" at school, but at thirtytwo, with three thousand men, he defeated fifty thousand at Plassey and laid the foundation of the British Empire in India. Sir Walter Scott was called a blockh ead by his teacher. When Byron happened to get ahead of his class, the master wo uld say: "Now, Jordie, let me see how soon you will be at the foot again." Young Linnaeus was called by his teachers almost a blockhead. Not finding him f it for the church, his parents sent him to college to study medicine. But the si lent teacher within, greater and wiser than all others, led him to the fields; a nd neither sickness, misfortune, nor poverty could drive him from the study of b otany, the choice of his heart, and he became the greatest botanist of his age. Richard B. Sheridan's mother tried in vain to teach him the most elementary stu dies. The mother's death aroused slumbering talents, as has happened in hundreds of cases, and he became one of the most brilliant men of his age. Samuel Drew was one of the dullest and most listless boys in his neighborhood, yet after an accident by which he nearly lost his life, and after the death of h is brother, he became so studious and industrious that he could not bear to lose a moment. He read at every meal, using all the time he could get for self-impro vement. He said that Paine's "Age of Reason" made him an author, for it was by h is attempt to refute its arguments that he was first known as a strong, vigorous writer. It has been well said that no man ever made an ill figure who understood his ow n talents, nor a good one who mistook them. CHAPTER X WHAT CAREER? Brutes find out where their talents lie; A bear will not attempt to fly, A foun dered horse will oft debate Before he tries a five-barred gate. A dog by instinc t turns aside Who sees the ditch too deep and wide. But man we find the only cre ature Who, led by folly, combats nature; Who, when she loudly cries--Forbear! Wi th obstinacy fixes there; And where his genius least inclines, Absurdly bends hi s whole designs. SWIFT. The crowning fortune of a man is to be born to some pursuit which finds him in employment and happiness, whether it be to make baskets, or broadswords, or cana

ls, or statues, or songs.--EMERSON. Whatever you are by nature, keep to it; never desert your line of talent. Be wh at nature intended you for, and you will succeed; be anything else, and you will be ten thousand times worse than nothing.--SYDNEY SMITH. "Every man has got a Fort," said Artemus Ward. "It's some men's fort to do one thing, and some other men's fort to do another, while there is numeris shiftless critters goin' round loose whose fort is not to do nothin'. "Twice I've endevered to do things which they wasn't my Fort. The first time wa s when I undertook to lick a owdashus cuss who cut a hole in my tent and krawld threw. Sez I, 'My jentle sir, go out, or I shall fall onto you putty hevy.' Sez he, 'Wade in, Old Wax Figgers,' whereupon I went for him, but he cawt me powerfu l on the hed and knockt me threw the tent into a cow pastur. He pursood the atta ck and flung me into a mud puddle. As I aroze and rung out my drencht garmints, I concluded fitin was n't my fort. "I'le now rize the curtain upon seen 2nd. It is rarely seldum that I seek conso lation in the Flowin Bole. But in a certain town in Injianny in the Faul of 18-, my orgin grinder got sick with the fever and died. I never felt so ashamed in my life, and I thought I'd hist in a few swallers of suthin strengthnin. Konsequ ents was, I histed so much I didn't zackly know whereabouts I was. I turned my l ivin' wild beasts of Pray loose into the streets, and split all my wax-works. "I then Bet I cood play hoss. So I hitched myself to a kanawl bote, there bein' two other hosses behind and anuther ahead of me. But the hosses bein' onused to such a arrangemunt, begun to kick and squeal and rair up. Konsequents was, I wa s kicked vilently in the stummuck and back, and presently, I found myself in the kanawl with the other hosses, kikin and yellin like a tribe of Cusscaroorus sav ajis. I was rescood, and as I was bein carried to the tavern on a hemlock bored I sed in a feeble voice, 'Boys, playin' hoss isn't my Fort.' "Moral: Never don't do nothin' which isn't your Fort, for ef you do you'll find yourself splashin' round in the kanawl, figuratively speakin." The following advertisement, which appeared day after day in a Western paper, d id not bring a single reply:-"Wanted.--Situation by a Practical Printer, who is competent to take charge of any department in a printing and publishing house. Would accept a professorship in any of the academies. Has no objection to teach ornamental painting and penma nship, geometry, trigonometry, and many other sciences. Has had some experience as a lay preacher. Would have no objection to form a small class of young ladies and gentlemen to instruct them in the higher branches. To a dentist or chiropod ist he would be invaluable; or he would cheerfully accept a position as bass or tenor singer in a choir." At length there appeared this addition to the notice:-"P. S. Will accept an offer to saw and split wood at less than the usual rates. " This secured a situation at once, and the advertisement was seen no more. Your talent is your call. Your legitimate destiny speaks in your character. If you have found your place, your occupation has the consent of every faculty of y our being. If possible, choose that occupation which focuses the largest amount of your ex perience and tastes. You will then not only have a congenial vocation, but also will utilize largely your skill and business knowledge, which is your true capit

al. Follow your bent. You cannot long fight successfully against your aspirations. Parents, friends, or misfortune may stifle and suppress the longings of the hear t, by compelling you to perform unwelcome tasks; but, like a volcano, the inner fire will burst the crusts which confine it and will pour forth its pent-up geni us in eloquence, in song, in art, or in some favorite industry. Beware of "a tal ent which you cannot hope to practice in perfection." Nature hates all botched a nd half-finished work, and will pronounce her curse upon it. Better be the Napoleon of bootblacks, or the Alexander of chimney-sweeps, let u s say with Matthew Arnold, than a shallow-brained attorney who, like necessity, knows no law. Half the world seems to have found uncongenial occupation, as though the human race had been shaken up together and exchanged places in the operation. A servan t girl is trying to teach, and a natural teacher is tending store. Good farmers are murdering the law, while Choates and Websters are running down farms, each t ortured by the consciousness of unfulfilled destiny. Boys are pining in factorie s who should be wrestling with Greek and Latin, and hundreds are chafing beneath unnatural loads in college who should be on the farm or before the mast. Artist s are spreading "daubs" on canvas who should be whitewashing board fences. Behin d counters stand clerks who hate the yard-stick and neglect their work to dream of other occupations. A good shoemaker writes a few verses for the village paper , his friends call him a poet, and the last, with which he is familiar, is aband oned for the pen, which he uses awkwardly. Other shoemakers are cobbling in Cong ress, while statesmen are pounding shoe-lasts. Laymen are murdering sermons whil e Beechers and Whitefields are failing as merchants, and people are wondering wh at can be the cause of empty pews. A boy who is always making something with too ls is railroaded through the university and started on the road to inferiority i n one of the "three honorable professions." Real surgeons are handling the meatsaw and cleaver, while butchers are amputating human limbs. How fortunate that-"There's a divinity that shapes our ends, Rough-hew them how we will." "He that hath a trade," says Franklin, "hath an estate; and he that hath a call ing hath a place of profit and honor. A plowman on his legs is higher than a gen tleman on his knees." A man's business does more to make him than anything else. It hardens his muscl es, strengthens his body, quickens his blood, sharpens his mind, corrects his ju dgment, wakes up his inventive genius, puts his wits to work, starts him on the race of life, arouses his ambition, makes him feel that he is a man and must fil l a man's shoes, do a man's work, bear a man's part in life, and show himself a man in that part. No man feels himself a man who is not doing a man's business. A man without employment is not a man. He does not prove by his works that he is a man. A hundred and fifty pounds of bone and muscle do not make a man. A good cranium full of brains is not a man. The bone and muscle and brain must know how to do a man's work, think a man's thoughts, mark out a man's path, and bear a m an's weight of character and duty before they constitute a man. Go-at-it-iveness is the first requisite for success. Stick-to-it-iveness is the second. Under ordinary circumstances, and with practical common sense to guide him, one who has these requisites will not fail. Don't wait for a higher position or a larger salary. Enlarge the position you a lready occupy; put originality of method into it. Fill it as it never was filled before. Be more prompt, more energetic, more thorough, more polite than your pr edecessor or fellow workmen. Study your business, devise new modes of operation, be able to give your employer points. The art lies not in giving satisfaction m

erely, not in simply filling your place, but in doing better than was expected, in surprising your employer; and the reward will be a better place and a larger salary. When out of work, take the first respectable job that offers, heeding not the d isproportion between your faculties and your task. If you put your manhood into your labor, you will soon be given something better to do. This question of a right aim in life has become exceedingly perplexing in our c omplicated age. It is not a difficult problem to solve when one is the son of a Zulu or the daughter of a Bedouin. The condition of the savage hardly admits of but one choice; but as one rises higher in the scale of civilization and creeps nearer to the great centers of activity, the difficulty of a correct decision in creases with its importance. In proportion as one is hard pressed in competition is it of the sternest necessity for him to choose the right aim, so as to be ab le to throw the whole of his energy and enthusiasm into the struggle for success . The dissipation of strength or hope is fatal to prosperity even in the most at tractive field. Gladstone says there is a limit to the work that can be got out of a human body , or a human brain, and he is a wise man who wastes no energy on pursuits for wh ich he is not fitted. "Blessed is he who has found his work," says Carlyle. "Let him ask no other ble ssedness. He has a work--a life purpose; he has found it, and will follow it." In choosing an occupation, do not ask yourself how you can make the most money or gain the most notoriety, but choose that work which will call out all your po wers and develop your manhood into the greatest strength and symmetry. Not money , not notoriety, not fame even, but power is what you want. Manhood is greater t han wealth, grander than fame. Character is greater than any career. Each facult y must be educated, and any deficiency in its training will appear in whatever y ou do. The hand must be educated to be graceful, steady, and strong. The eye mus t be educated to be alert, discriminating, and microscopic. The heart must be ed ucated to be tender, sympathetic, and true. The memory must be drilled for years in accuracy, retention, and comprehensiveness. The world does not demand that y ou be a lawyer, minister, doctor, farmer, scientist, or merchant; it does not di ctate what you shall do, but it does require that you be a master in whatever yo u undertake. If you are a master in your line, the world will applaud you and al l doors will fly open to you. But it condemns all botches, abortions, and failur es. "Whoever is well educated to discharge the duty of a man," says Rousseau, "cann ot be badly prepared to fill any of those offices that have relation to him. It matters little to me whether my pupils be designed for the army, the pulpit, or the bar. Nature has destined us to the offices of human life antecedent to our d estination concerning society. To live is the profession I would teach him. When I have done with him, it is true he will be neither a soldier, a lawyer, nor a divine. Let him first be a man. Fortune may remove him from one rank to another as she pleases; he will be always found in his place." In the great race of life common sense has the right of way. Wealth, a diploma, a pedigree, talent, genius, without tact and common sense, cut but a small figu re. The incapables and the impracticables, though loaded with diplomas and degre es, are left behind. Not what do you know, or who are you, but what are you, wha t can you do, is the interrogation of the century. George Herbert has well said: "What we are is much more to us than what we do." An aim that carries in it the least element of doubt as to its justice or honor or right should be abandoned at once. The art of dishing up the wrong so as to

make it look and taste like the right has never been more extensively cultivated than in our day. It is a curious fact that reason will, on pressure, overcome a man's instinct of right. An eminent scientist has said that a man could soon re ason himself out of the instinct of decency if he would only take pains and work hard enough. So when a doubtful but attractive future is placed before one, the re is a great temptation to juggle with the wrong until it seems the right. Yet any aim that is immoral carries in itself the germ of certain failure, in the re al sense of the word--failure that is physical and spiritual. There is no doubt that every person has a special adaptation for his own peculi ar part in life. A very few--geniuses, we call them--have this marked in an unus ual degree, and very early in life. Madame de Staël was engrossed in political philosophy at an age when other girls are dressing dolls. Mozart, when but four years old, played the clavichord and c omposed minuets and other pieces still extant. The little Chalmers, with solemn air and earnest gestures, would preach often from a stool in the nursery. Goethe wrote tragedies at twelve, and Grotius published an able philosophical work bef ore he was fifteen. Pope "lisped in numbers." Chatterton wrote good poems at ele ven, and Cowley published a volume of poetry in his sixteenth year. Thomas Lawre nce and Benjamin West drew likenesses almost as soon as they could walk. Liszt p layed in public at twelve. Canova made models in clay while a mere child. Bacon exposed the defects of Aristotle's philosophy when but sixteen. Napoleon was at the head of armies when throwing snowballs at Brienne. All these showed their bent while young, and followed it in active life. But pr ecocity is not common, and, except in rare cases, we must discover the bias in o ur natures, and not wait for the proclivity to make itself manifest. When found, it is worth more to us than a vein of gold. "I do not forbid you to preach," said a Bishop to a young clergyman, "but natur e does." Lowell said: "It is the vain endeavor to make ourselves what we are not that ha s strewn history with so many broken purposes, and lives left in the rough." You have not found your place until all your faculties are roused, and your who le nature consents and approves of the work you are doing; not until you are so enthusiastic in it that you take it to bed with you. You may be forced to drudge at uncongenial toil for a time, but emancipate yourself as soon as possible. Ca rey, the "Consecrated Cobbler," before he went as a missionary said: "My busines s is to preach the gospel. I cobble shoes to pay expenses." If your vocation be only a humble one, elevate it with more manhood than others put into it. Put into it brains and heart and energy and economy. Broaden it by originality of methods. Extend it by enterprise and industry. Study it as you w ould a profession. Learn everything that is to be known about it. Concentrate yo ur faculties upon it, for the greatest achievements are reserved for the man of single aim, in whom no rival powers divide the empire of the soul. Better adorn your own than seek another's place. Go to the bottom of your business if you would climb to the top. Nothing is sma ll which concerns your business. Master every detail. This was the secret of A. T. Stewart's and of John Jacob Astor's great success. They knew everything about their business. As love is the only excuse for marriage, and the only thing which will carry on e safely through the troubles and vexations of married life, so love for an occu pation is the only thing which will carry one safely and surely through the trou bles which overwhelm ninety-five out of every one hundred who choose the life of

a merchant, and very many in every other career. A famous Englishman said to his nephew, "Don't choose medicine, for we have nev er had a murderer in our family, and the chances are that in your ignorance you may kill a patient; as to the law, no prudent man is willing to risk his life or his fortune to a young lawyer, who has not only no experience, but is generally too conceited to know the risks he incurs for his client, who alone is the lose r; therefore, as the mistakes of a clergyman in doctrine or advice to his parish ioners cannot be clearly determined in this world, I advise you by all means to enter the church." "I felt that I was in the world to do something, and thought I must," said Whit tier, thus giving the secret of his great power. It is the man who must enter la w, literature, medicine, the ministry, or any other of the overstocked professio ns, who will succeed. His certain call, that is his love for it, and his fidelit y to it, are the imperious factors of his career. If a man enters a profession s imply because his grandfather made a great name in it, or his mother wants him t o, with no love or adaptability for it, it were far better for him to be a motor -man on an electric car at a dollar and seventy-five cents a day. In the humbler work his intelligence may make him a leader; in the other career he might do as much harm as a bowlder rolled from its place upon a railroad track, a menace to the next express. Only a few years ago marriage was the only "sphere" open to girls, and the sing le woman had to face the disapproval of her friends. Lessing said: "The woman wh o thinks is like a man who puts on rouge, ridiculous." Not many years have elaps ed since the ambitious woman who ventured to study or write would keep a bit of embroidery at hand to throw over her book or manuscript when callers entered. Dr . Gregory said to his daughters: "If you happen to have any learning, keep it a profound secret from the men, who generally look with a jealous and malignant ey e on a woman of great parts and a cultivated understanding." Women who wrote boo ks in those days would deny the charge as though a public disgrace. All this has changed, and what a change it is! As Frances Willard said, the gre atest discovery of the century is the discovery of woman. We have emancipated he r, and are opening countless opportunities for our girls outside of marriage. Fo rmerly only a boy could choose a career; now his sister can do the same. This fr eedom is one of the greatest glories of the twentieth century. But with freedom comes responsibility, and under these changed conditions every girl should have a definite aim. Dr. Hall says that the world has urgent need of "girls who are mother's right h and; girls who can cuddle the little ones next best to mamma, and smooth out the tangles in the domestic skein when thing's get twisted; girls whom father takes comfort in for something better than beauty, and the big brothers are proud of for something that outranks the ability to dance or shine in society. Next, we w ant girls of sense,--girls who have a standard of their own, regardless of conve ntionalities, and are independent enough to live up to it; girls who simply won' t wear a trailing dress on the street to gather up microbes and all sorts of def ilement; girls who don't wear a high hat to the theater, or lacerate their feet and endanger their health with high heels and corsets; girls who will wear what is pretty and becoming and snap their fingers at the dictates of fashion when fa shion is horrid and silly. And we want good girls,--girls who are sweet, right s traight out from the heart to the lips; innocent and pure and simple girls, with less knowledge of sin and duplicity and evil-doing at twenty than the pert litt le schoolgirl of ten has all too often. And we want careful girls and prudent gi rls, who think enough of the generous father who toils to maintain them in comfo rt, and of the gentle mother who denies herself much that they may have so many pretty things, to count the cost and draw the line between the essentials and no n-essentials; girls who strive to save and not to spend; girls who are unselfish

and eager to be a joy and a comfort in the home rather than an expense and a us eless burden. We want girls with hearts,--girls who are full of tenderness and s ympathy, with tears that flow for other people's ills, and smiles that light out ward their own beautiful thoughts. We have lots of clever girls, and brilliant g irls, and witty girls. Give us a consignment of jolly girls, warm-hearted and im pulsive girls; kind and entertaining to their own folks, and with little desire to shine in the garish world. With a few such girls scattered around, life would freshen up for all of us, as the weather does under the spell of summer showers ." "They talk about a woman's sphere, As though it had a limit; There's not a plac e in earth or heaven, There's not a task to mankind given, There's not a blessin g or a woe, There's not a whisper, Yes or No, There's not a life, or death, or b irth, That has a feather's weight of worth, Without a woman in it." "Do that which is assigned you," says Emerson, "and you cannot hope too much or dare too much. There is at this moment for you an utterance brave and grand as that of the colossal chisel of Phidias, or trowel of the Egyptians, or the pen o f Moses or Dante, but different from all these." "The best way for a young man to begin, who is without friends or influence," s aid Russell Sage, "is, first, by getting a position; second, keeping his mouth s hut; third, observing; fourth, being faithful; fifth, making his employer think he would be lost in a fog without him; and sixth, being polite." "Close application, integrity, attention to details, discreet advertising," are given as the four steps to success by John Wanamaker, whose motto is, "Do the n ext thing." Whatever you do in life, be greater than your calling. Most people look upon an occupation or calling as a mere expedient for earning a living. What a mean, na rrow view to take of what was intended for the great school of life, the great m an developer, the character-builder; that which should broaden, deepen, heighten , and round out into symmetry, harmony, and beauty all the God-given faculties w ithin us! How we shrink from the task and evade the lessons which were intended for the unfolding of life's great possibilities into usefulness and power, as th e sun unfolds into beauty and fragrance the petals of the flower! I am glad to think I am not bound to make the world go round; But only to disco ver and to do, With cheerful heart, the work that God appoints. JEAN INGELOW. "'What shall I do to be forever known?' Thy duty ever! 'This did full many who yet sleep all unknown,'-- Oh, never, never! Think'st thou, perchance, that they remain unknown Whom thou know'st not? By angel trumps in heaven their praise is blown, Divine their lot." CHAPTER XI CHOOSING A VOCATION Be what nature intended you for, and you will succeed; be anything else, and yo u will be ten thousand times worse than nothing.--SYDNEY SMITH. "Many a man pays for his success with a slice of his constitution." No man struggles perpetually and victoriously against his own character; and on e of the first principles of success in life is so to regulate our career as rat her to turn our physical constitution and natural inclinations to good account t han to endeavor to counteract the one or oppose the other.--BULWER.

He that hath a trade hath an estate.--FRANKLIN. Nature fits all her children with something to do.--LOWELL. As occupations and professions have a powerful influence upon the length of hum an life, the youth should first ascertain whether the vocation he thinks of choo sing is a healthy one. Statesmen, judges, and clergymen are noted for their long evity. They are not swept into the great business vortex, where the friction and raspings of sharp competition whittle life away at a fearful rate. Astronomers, who contemplate vast systems, moving through enormous distances, are exceptiona lly long lived,--as Herschel and Humboldt. Philosophers, scientists, and mathema ticians, as Galileo, Bacon, Newton, Euler, Dalton, in fact, those who have dwelt upon the exact sciences, seem to have escaped many of the ills from which human ity suffers. Great students of natural history have also, as a rule, lived long and happy lives. Of fourteen members of a noted historical society in England, w ho died in 1870, two were over ninety, five over eighty, and two over seventy. The occupation of the mind has a great influence upon the health of the body. There is no employment so dangerous and destructive to life but plenty of human beings can be found to engage in it. Of all the instances that can be given of recklessness of life, there is none which exceeds that of the workmen employed i n what is called dry-pointing--the grinding of needles and of table forks. The f ine steel dust which they breathe brings on a painful disease, of which they are almost sure to die before they are forty. Yet not only are men tempted by high wages to engage in this employment, but they resist to the utmost all contrivanc es devised for diminishing the danger, through fear that such things would cause more workmen to offer themselves and thus lower wages. Many physicians have inv estigated the effects of work in the numerous match factories in France upon the health of the employees, and all agree that rapid destruction of the teeth, dec ay or necrosis of the jawbone, bronchitis, and other diseases result. We will probably find more old men on farms than elsewhere. There are many reas ons why farmers should live longer than persons residing in cities or than those engaged in other occupations. Aside from the purer air, the outdoor exercise, b oth conducive to a good appetite and sound sleep, which comparatively few in cit ies enjoy, they are free from the friction, harassing cares, anxieties, and the keen competition incident to city life. On the other hand, there are some great drawbacks and some enemies to longevity, even on the farm. Man does not live by bread alone. The mind is by far the greatest factor in maintaining the body in a healthy condition. The social life of the city, the great opportunities afforde d the mind for feeding upon libraries and lectures, great sermons, and constant association with other minds, the great variety of amusements compensate largely for the loss of many of the advantages of farm life. In spite of the great temp erance and immunity from things which corrode, whittle, and rasp away life in th e cities, farmers in many places do not live so long as scientists and some othe r professional men. There is no doubt that aspiration and success tend to prolong life. Prosperity tends to longevity, if we do not wear life away or burn it out in the feverish p ursuit of wealth. Thomas W. Higginson made a list of thirty of the most noted pr eachers of the last century, and found that their average length of life was six ty-nine years. Among miners in some sections over six hundred out of a thousand die from consu mption. In the prisons of Europe, where the fatal effects of bad air and filth a re shown, over sixty-one per cent. of the deaths are from tuberculosis. In Bavar ian monasteries, fifty per cent. of those who enter in good health die of consum ption, and in the Prussian prisons it is almost the same. The effect of bad air, filth, and bad food is shown by the fact that the death-rate among these classe

Of one thousand deaths from all causes. as most great thinkers know. There is danger in a calling which requires great expenditure of vitality at lo ng. The brain is one of the last orga ns of the body to reach maturity (at about the age of twenty-eight). unfortunately--learn to give rest to one set of faculties and use another. five have to wear trusses. Cessation of brain activity does not necessarily constitute brain rest. When the brain is weary. one hundred and twenty-two fa rm laborers. in the book. It is a law of nature that the overd evelopment of any function or faculty. on the average. due to the forced physical exertions of the campaigns. pure air. one hundred and eigh t fishermen. sooner or late r--usually later. Benoysten and Lombard into occupations or trades where workers must inhale dust. especially in youth. over one-fifth of all the deaths of per sons over twenty are from this cause. thir ty. "three are dead of consumption. o ne hundred and three farmers die of pulmonary tuberculosis." said a physician. w hich is very largely a matter of skill in exercising alternate sets of faculties . irregular intervals. A man who would sell a year of his life for any amount of money would be considered insane. one hundred and twenty-one gardeners. there will be the same lack of tonicity and strength in the brain product. We cannot expect nerve. Athletes who over-develop the muscular system do so at the expense of the physical. Vigorous thought must come from a fresh brain." Man's faculties and functions are so interrelated that whatever affects one aff ects all. ro bustness and vigor. or even forty years of our lives. According to a long series of investigations by Drs. between the ages of twenty and forty. and vegetable d ust third. in the speech. tends not only t o ruin it. are suffering from heart disease in one form or another. cleanliness. He who is not regularly.s. and are seemingly perfectly indifferent to our fate. In New York City. chief surgeon at the National Soldiers' Home at Dayton. allowing rest to some while giving healthy exercise to others. Brain-workers cannot do good. one hundred and sixty-seven grocers. and moral well-being. The continual u . sprightliness and elasticity. In this way they have been enabled to astonish the world by their mental achievements. Some men of ten do a vast amount of literary work in entirely different lines during their s pare hours. jaded brain. and yet we deliberately choose occupations and vocations which statistics and physi cians tell us will be practically sure to cut off from five to twenty-five. The men who accomplish the most brain-work. and four hundred and sixty-one composit ors. The whole future of a man is often rui ned by over-straining the brain in school. Patten. forcing or straining it. snap. mental. four or five are lop-shouldered. In large cities in Europe the percentage i s often still greater. Ohio . says that "of the five thousand soldiers in that institution fully eighty per cent. when it begins to lose its elasticity and freshness.--nearly one-half. animal dust ranking next. two hundred and nine tailors. from an exhausted." Dr. it appears that mineral d ust is the most detrimental to health. and should never be overworked. as interest begins to flag and a sense of weariness comes. sunlight. In choosing an occupation. but also to cause injurious reactions on every other faculty and func tion. or systematically employed inc urs perpetual risk. three hundred and one dry-goods dealers. "Of the thirty-two all-round athletes in a New York club not long ago. and three have catarrh and partial dea fness. effective work in one line many hours a day. or in the essay. is five times that of the general popul ation of the same age. and freedom from co rroding dust and poisonous gases are of the greatest importance.

crushed his aspirati on. honorable occupation. nor cheat yourself into thinking that all the finery you can wear is so much put into the hungry mouths of those beneath you. the article to be made is generally the only object considered. The moment we compel those we employ to do work that demoralizes them or does n ot tend to elevate or lift them. or in making a sc rew in a watch factory. The tired brain must have rest. These fine dresses do not mean that so much has been put into their mo uths." [Illustration: William Ewart Gladstone] All occupations that enervate. blunted his finer sensibilities. which will elevate you. and character is greater than any career. You may not make quite so much money. but you will be mor e of a man. take the responsibility. the dust. to work at night when Nature intended you to sleep. forming a line to see you step out of your carriage. or piles up argu ment on argument in English for hours in Parliament. Is the work you compel others to do useful to yourself and to society? If you employ a seams tress to make four or five or six beautiful flounces for your ball dress. It is what those who stand shi vering on the street. Choose a business that has expansiveness in it. or architects with rotten stone. There are families that hav e "clutched success and kept it through generations from the simple fact of a sp lendid physical organization handed down from one generation to another. Select a clean. No set of brain cells can possibly set free more brain force in the combustion o f thought than is stored up in them. "If we induce painters to work in fading colors. useful. . abandon it at once. or destroy body or soul should be avoi ded. L et "somebody. know it to be. and another at Florence in Italian. and which you will wear at only one ball. yo u are employing your money selfishly. or contractors to construct buildings with imperfect materials. or talks fluent French in Paris." not yourself. of the cramped condition of the body which creates deformi ty. They take no notice of the occupations that ruin. If there is any doubt on this poi nt. A little later he converses at ease with Bismarck in German. paralyze. Don't try to justify yourself on the ground that somebody must do this kind of work. Pierpont Morgan could make respectable. or to sleep in the daytime when she intended you to work. but that so much has been taken out of their mouths." Ruskin says that the tendency of the age is to expend its genius in perishable art. overtops all titles. we are f orcing our Michael Angelos to carve in snow. What would Gladst one have accomplished with a weak. Choose an occupation which will develop you. which will give you a chance for self-impr ovement and promotion. physical vigor is the condition of a great career. as if it were a triumph to burn its thoughts away in bonfires. in some mean. They do not care if a man spends the whole of his life upon the head of a pin. Aside from the right and w rong of the thing. we are forcing them into service worse than use less. brain fever. or the phosphorus. cramped his intellect. the arsenic that destroys the health. flounc es which will only clothe yourself.se of one set of faculties by an ambitious worker will soon bring him to grief. and manhood is above all riches. or nervous exhaustion. As a rule. Our manufacturing interests too often give little thought to the employed. puny physique? He addresses an audience at Co rfu in Greek. or where you must work at night and on Sundays. for familiarity with a bad business will make it seem go od. Some kinds of business not e ven a J. Do not confuse covetousness with benevolen ce. that shortens the l ives of many workers. it is injurious to the health to work seven days in the week. narrow occupation just becaus e there was money in it. If possible avoid occupations which compel you to wo rk in a cramped position. or even softening of the brain is liable to follow. Many a man has dwarfed his manhood.

note well wherein kind nat ure meant you to excel. is failure in life so frequ ently to be traced as to a mistaken calling. A man out of his place is but half a man." Don't choose a profession or occupation because your father. that every day's work we do. thorns. deceit. rowing against the current. they must be in harmony with his purpose. to feel that every step we take. but are "nobodies" in such vocations. A man can not succeed when his whole nature is entering i ts perpetual protest against his occupation. Don't choose it because it is considered the "proper thing" and a "ge nteel" business. and enthusiasm is vigorous. or uncle. He is working against his nature. the whole tone of life is demoralized and lowered because we are out of place. When his strength is exhausted he will float down the stream. This negative process of eliminating the doubtful chances is often the only way of attaining to the positive conclusion. and all disagreeable things. or broth er is in it. but of our weakness. How it shortens the road to success to make a wise choice of one's occupation e arly. Unsuccessful students with a smatteri ng of everything are raised as much above their original condition as if they we re successful. to be started on the road of a proper career while young. ruins many a youth. as cunning. Matthews says that "to no other cause. our will power and enthusiasm become d emoralized. Don't choose it because others have made fortu nes in it. A large portion of Paris cabmen are unsuccessful students in theo logy and other professions and also unfrocked priests. the qualities which get and never give. which develop long-headedness only. When we try to do that for which we are unfitted we are not working along the l ine of our strength. The very glory of the profession which they thought would make them shining lights simply renders more conspicuous their incapacity. hardships. his very nature is perverted. and that unfits them for the c onditions of life to which they were born. wh ile the animal spirits are high. Styles himself poet . botched work. They are very bad cabmen. To succeed. or because parents or friends want you to follow it. "Tompkins forsakes his last and awl For literary squabbles. his vocation must have the consent of all his faculties. full of hope. Don't choose a business because you inherit it." We can often find out by hard knoc ks and repeated failures what we can not do before what we can do. How many men have been made ridiculous for life by choosing law or medicine or theology."Study yourself. Has a young man a right to choose an occupation which will only call into play his lower and inferior qualities. that every blow we strike helps to br oaden. and one which can be learned with very little effort. Thousands of youths receive an education that fits them for a profession which they have not the means or inclination to follow. we do half work. perhaps. as a rule.--he cobbles. and con clude that we are dunces because we cannot accomplish what others do. for a "soft job" which el iminates drudgery. simply because they are "honorable professions"! These men might have been respectable farmers or merchants. but his trade Remains the same. letting all his nobler qua lities shrivel and die? Has he a right to select a vocation that will develop on ly the beast within him instead of the man? which will call out the bulldog qual ities only." says Longfellow. lose confidence in ourselves. those who are out of their places. while his higher self atrophies ? . and enrich life! Those who fail are. deepen." Dr. The mania for a "genteel" occupation. "and most of all. the qualities which overreach and grasp.

harmony. grit. It gives credit a nd moral support in a thousand ways. that which should broaden. all the God-given faculties within you. the great man-developer. an occupation that you will be proud of. Everybody knows that determined men are not likely to fail. or fixity of purpose." Choose an occupati on that is refining and elevating. an occupa tion that will enlarge and expand your manhood and make you a better citizen. Power and constant growth toward a higher life are the great end of human exist ence. I beseech you. and liable at any time to make a change. however. Do not let the thorns which appear i n every vocation. character-builder. a better man. an o ccupation that will give you time for self-culture and self-elevation. where men of large experience and close observation wi ll study the natural inclination of the youth. Such institutions would help boys and girls to start in their proper careers early in life. and determination the conviction and assurance of success. deepen. and beauty. and this is everything. and that you shall be a king in your line. "be content to enter on any business th at does not require and compel constant intellectual growth. they will give thee back soon enough. determined that not a faculty or pow er shall run to waste. Even if we take for gr anted what is not true. The time will come when there will be institutions for determining the natural bent of the boy and girl. Great tenacity of purpose is the only thing that will carry you over the hard places which appear in every career to ultimate triumph. Your calling should be the great school of life. stick to it with all the tenacity you can muster. This determin ation. but it does demand that you do so mething. There is no grander sight th an that of a young man or woman in the right place struggling with might and mai n to make the most of the stuff at command. Can anything be more important to human beings than a start in life in the right direction. and you will win. never look backward. or temporary despondency or disappointment. in other words.The best way to choose an occupation is to ask yourself the question. shake your purpose . that every youth will sooner or later discover the line of his greatest strength so that he may get his living by his strong points rath er than by his weak ones. People always believe in a man with a fixed purpose. We a re doing the most for ourselves and for others when we are in a position which c alls into play in the highest possible way the greatest number of our best facul ties. You will never succeed while smarting under the drudgery of your occupation. and round out into symmetr y. and an early choice shortens the way." We can do the most possible for oursel ves when we are in a position where we can do the most possible for others. . the discovery is often made so late in life that great success is practically impossible. has a great moral bearing upon our success. unhappy. we are succeeding best for ourselves when we are succeedin g best for others. help him to find where his greate st strength lies and how to use it to the best advantage. "What wou ld my government do with me if it were to consider scientifically my qualificati ons and adaptations. and c haracter is greater than any occupation or profession. not position. and place me to the best possible advantage for all the peo ple?" The Norwegian precept is a good one: "Give thyself wholly to thy fellow-me n. or vicious when he is in his place. Let nothing tempt you or swerve you a hair 's breadth from your aim. After once choosing your occupation. Not money. i f you are constantly haunted with the idea that you could succeed better in some thing else. The world does not dictate what you shall do. but power is what we want. or to fai l. "Do not. for it leads others to feel confidence in us." said Garfield. and will help him twice as quickly as one who is loosely or indifferen tly attached to his vocation. where even small effort will count for more in the race than t he greatest effort--and a life of drudgery--in the wrong direction? A man is sel dom unsuccessful. They carry in the ir very pluck.

let your manhood overtop your position. more than balances any li ttle skill gained in one vocation which might possibly be of use later. f rom the very law of association and habit. and stamp its inevitable impress upon you. How fr equently do we see bright. liberal. . to make good bargains. How many of us h ave acquisitions which remain permanently unavailable because not carried quite to the point of skill? How many people "almost know a language or two. which has been acquired by allowing yourself to abandon a half-finished work. "had a chance in my gener ation." says Ly ndall. In attempting to gain a knowle dge of half a hundred subjects it has mastered none. born for the universe. your occupation. open-hearted. Is it possible. hard. living in a rut with no standing in the community. and shift s into some other occupation where perhaps he will almost succeed. at th e same time." "The measure of a man's learning will be the amount of his voluntary ignorance. "The endeavor to obtain the upper hand of those with whom we have to deal . will mol d you. hardening tendency of his occupation. The w orld is full of people who are "almost a success. but stops jus t short of the point of proficiency in his acquisition and so fails again." They stop just this side of s uccess. a science or two whose elements they have not qu ite acquired.But whatever you do be greater than your calling. generous young men come out of college with high hopes and lofty aims. but which they can not practice with satisfaction or profit! The habit of desultoriness. will seize you as in a vise. noble features have become contracted and narrowed. Be master of your calling in all its details. Does it ele vate those who follow it? Are they broad. the higgling and scheming. A man must work hard and st udy hard to counteract the narrowing. your title. That mechanic is a failur e who starts out to build an engine. and can enter a questionable vocation without becoming a creature of it. In sp ite of all your determination and will power to the contrary. if their efforts had all been expended in one direction. which in these days of stern competition are unscrupulously resorted to. study the men in the vocation you think of adopting. but does not quite accomplish it. avaricious. And to party gave up what was meant for mankind. narrowed his mind. and the thousand petty artif ices." Choose upward.-Burke. they will point in any direction. Universality is the ignis fatuus which has deluded to ruin many a promising mind. In this he has none. Many a person misses being a great man by splitting into two middling ones. versatility. Nothing is small which concerns your business. your wealth. an art or two partially mastered. The o nce broad. and. your occupation. "The jack-of-all-trades." which th ey can neither write nor speak. Beware of that frequently fatal gift. intelligent men? Or have they become mere appendages of their profession. Said Goldsmith. mean. Thousands of men who have been failures in life have done drudgery enough in ha lf a dozen different occupations to have enabled them to reach great success. " said Thoreau. that a few y ears could so change a magnanimous and generous youth? Go to the bottom if you would get to the top. If we go into a factory where the mariner's compass is made we c an see the needles before they are magnetized. the delicacy of the moral sense. t end to narrow the sphere and to lessen the strength of the intellect. fashion you. stingy." s ays one of the foremost manufacturers of this country. The man has becom e grasping. and in a few years re turn to college commencement so changed that they are scarcely recognized. "Constant engagement in traffic and barter has no elevating influence. and of no use to it? Don't think you will be the great exception . we ask. shape you. Their courage oozes out just before they become expert. enter a doubtful vocation.

I laid out all my money. PAUL. your energy. "I wish them to give mind. and a merchant." said Nathan Mayer Rothschi ld. May hope to achieve it before life be done.' On Thursday I started. But be a brewer . Give your life. all to the highest work of which you are capable. and you will soon be in the Gazette. young man. and everything to business. acts nobly." he added. Canon Farrar said. who had the market to himself: he was quite the great man. YOUNG. angels could do no more. the more deeply am I convinced that that which makes the dif ference between one man and another--between the weak and powerful." Not many things indifferently. and heart. Only reaps from th e hopes which around him he sows. The longer I live. and then death or victory." "'What must I do to be forever known?' Thy duty ever.--EMERSON. A harvest of barren regrets. and you may be the great brewer of London.--FOWELL BUXTON. The nearer I got to England. "There was not enough room for us all in Frankfort. the one evil is dissipation. and but one. and a banker. "Whoever can make two ears of corn. The one prudence in life is concentration. things wer e so cheap. and did us a favor if he sold us goods. that is the way to be hap py. . I am sure you would not wish t hat." "I am sure I would wish that. the cheaper goods were. but one thing supremely.--ST. not to be true to the best one knows. This was on a Tuesday. "that your children are not too fond of money and bu siness to the exclusion of more important things. and that is.But when they have been applied to the magnet and received its peculiar power. and I made a good profit." CHAPTER XII CONCENTRATED ENERGY This one thing I do. 'I will go to England. I said to my father. from that moment they point to the north. Everythin g is good which takes away one plaything and delusion more. The man who seeks one thing in life. is energy--invincible determination--a purpose once formed. . OWEN MEREDITH." said a listener. and he refu sed to show me his patterns. But he who seeks all things." "I hope. and it makes no difference whether our dissipations are coarse or fine. and sends us home to add one stroke of faithful work. "would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together. As soon as I got to Manchester. in speaking of himself and his four brothers." said Rothschild. two blades of grass to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before. and are true to the pole ever after. the great an d insignificant." says Swift. addressing a young brewer. "I dealt in English goods. . One great trader came there. Somehow I offended him. is the demand of the ho . wherever he goes. "There is only one real failure in life poss ible. your enthusiasm. Does well. S o man never points steadily in any direction until he has been polarized by a gr eat master purpose." Who does the best his circumstance allows. and a manufacturer. and body. "s tick to your brewery. and soul." "Stick to one business.

"What a immense power over the life. Would an intelligent man dig up a whole continent to find its veins of silver and gold? The man who is forever looking about to see what he c an find never finds anything. "by concentrating his powers on a single object. They do not grasp circumstances and change them into opportunities. and lighten more. cannot hope t o succeed. in a crowded street. he will say: "I ha rdly know yet for what I am best adapted. The bee is not the o nly insect that visits the flower.--the warp and woof of success. and can do it better than anybody else. the busy." The great difference between those who succeed and those who fail does not cons ist in the amount of work done by each. "but as I grew older. define and alter when he or she begins to live for a reason. It matters not how rich the materials we have gleaned from the years of our s tudy and toil in youth. the look. who digests accounts. silver. by continually falling. can accomplish something. and reminds one of Monsieur Kenard. concentrated age. M any of those who fail most ignominiously do enough to achieve grand success. nor a bonnet of silk enhance. even if it only be the art of raising turnips. and time in abundance. by dispersing hi s over many. the dress. the very mo tions of a person. The hasty torrent rushes over it wit h hideous uproar and leaves no trace behind. or at least iron. whereas the strongest.ur. They h ave no faculty of turning honest defeats into telling victories." The man who knows one thing." said a shrew d preacher. but it is the only one that carries honey awa y. Success is jealous . we find just that and no more. The voice. but I am a thorough believer in genuin e hard work. We find what we seek with all our heart. I fancy that I can select. he is a benefactor to the race. So I resolved to thu nder less. messages taken. n or even sickness nor exhaustion quite drag out. "Goods removed. and poetry composed on any subj ect. and I know I shall come across something--either gold. but they labor at haphazard. and I am determined to dig early and late all my life. "is th e power of possessing distinct aims." I say most emphatically. which a shabby alpaca cannot hide. blessed women who supp ort themselves. and is recognized as such. "The weakest living creature. If a salamander be cut in two. explains the language of flowers. With ability en ough. there is no happy conjunction of circumstances that will arrange th em into an imposing structure. I found it was lightning. The drop. They carry themselves with an air of conscious self-respect and self-content. and give it magnificent proportions." says Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward. If we look for nothing in particular.--they are forever th rowing back and forth an empty shuttle. bores its passage through the hardest rock. no." It is said that the wind never blows fair for that sailor who knows not to what port he is bound. carpets beaten. He who scatters his efforts in this intense. the front part will run forward and the other ba ckward. if we go out into life with no well-defined idea of our future work." was the sign of a man in London who was not very successful at any of thes e lines of work. but in the amount of intelligent work. "a public scribe. may fail to accomplish anything." "When I was young I used to think it was thunder that killed men. and the real web of life is never woven." says Carlyle. If he raises the best turnips by reason of concentrating all his energy to that end. of Paris. receives the crown he merits. Such is the progress of him who divides his purpose. building up with one hand only to tear down with the o ther. If you ask one of them to state his aim and purpose in life. and sells fried potatoe s.

of scattered energies." said Charles Kingsley. "Many persons seeing me so much engaged in active life. some upon subjects requiring much special research." Don't dally with your purpose. and in play. and in addition to all this. to reading and writing? N ot more than three hours a day." "Be a whole man at everything." Many a man fails to become a great man by splitting into several small ones. have said to me." said Edward Bulwer Lyt ton. in work. looking at Hannibal's weather-beaten face and admiring the splendor of his single eye. or. "as if there was nothing else in the world for the time being. which was not till I had left college and was actually in the world. but most of them can't carry it into their amusements. and he will be obliged to do too little to-morrow. attainable quality in every study and pursuit is the quality of attention. if he do too much to-day. But then. "and as much about the world as if I had never been a student. I may perhaps say that I have gone throug h as large a course of general reading as most men of my time. he said: "I never put one hand to anything on which I could th row my whole self. 'When do you get time to write all your books? How on earth do you contrive to do so much work?' I shall surprise you by the answer I made. The answer is t his--'I contrive to do so much by never doing too much at a time. or imagination. and to be so intimate ly present at the actions you are reading of. men of s ingle and intense purpose. I have devoted to study. when Parliament is sitting. and yet make his life a failure." said Charles Dickens. "a whole man at study. the re action of fatigue will come. and. and it can be fired through the bodies of four men. I can most truthfully assure you." said Sydney Smith. humble. drudging attention. safe. but you can shoot it through an oak board. A man to get t hrough work well must not overwork himself. remunerative. such as it is. You can't throw a tallow candle t hrough the side of a tent. but for the habit of commonplace. Too many are like Douglas Jerrold's friend. ch oosing to be a tolerable Jack-of-all-trades rather than to be an unrivaled speci alist." wrote Joseph Gurney to his s on. The giants of the race have been men of concentration. "is to read so heartily t hat dinner-time comes two hours before you expected it. would never have served me as it has. F ocus the rays of the sun in winter. as a general rule. one unwavering aim. certain." "The one serviceable. No one can pursue a worthy object steadily and persistently with all the powers of his mind. not always that . toiling. I have traveled m uch and I have seen much. since I began really and earnestly to study. Now. I have published somewhere about sixt y volumes. "Scatteration" is the curse of American business life . and heaping them into bushels. "The only valuable kind of study. that when anybody knocks at the do or it will take you two or three seconds to determine whether you are in your ow n study or on the plains of Lombardy. during these three hours. and to see with you r own eyes the Carthaginian sutlers gathering up the rings of the Roman knights after the battle of Cannae." When asked on another occasion the secre t of his success. daily. And what time do you think. patien t. and you can kindle a fire with ease. The successf ul men of to-day are men of one overmastering idea. I have mixed much in politics. to sit with your Livy be fore you and hear the geese cackling that saved the Capitol. who could converse in twenty-four languages. Melt a cha rge of shot into a bullet. "I go at what I am about. but had no ideas to express in any one of them. who have struck sledgeha mmer blows in one place until they have accomplished their purpose. "My own in vention. That's the secret of all hard-working men. I have given my whole attention to what I . and in the various busi ness of life.

and slapping the gentleman familiarly on his shoulder. where Greeley." As Adams suggests. He lived in dreams and died in reverie. Offended by a pungent article. he lived in an atmosphere of mental dissipation which consumed his energy. Greeley continued to write. and abruptly turned to walk out of th e room. every successful man has succeeded. He was shown into a little seven-by-nine sanctum.--you will feel better for it. when he could reproduce it at will. thou gh as a lawyer he gained the most splendid prize of his profession. His Lordship was. "struck me much like a steam-engine in tro users. Greeley quickly looked up. with no regard for the rules of pr opriety." With all his magnificent abilities he left no perm anent mark on history or literature. "Lord Brougham was at his chateau at Cannes when the dague rreotype process first came into vogue. The angry man began by asking if this was Mr. "and is said to have left behind him above for ty thousand treatises on metaphysics and divinity--not one of them complete!" Every great man has become great. He was not a man of great education or culture. He was continually forming plans and resol utions. friend. Coleridge possessed marvelous powers of mind. Greeley. and actually outlived his own fame. in a pleasant tone of voice said: "Don't go.'" S. and free your mind. The very modes of thought of the time in which he lived were reflec ted from his works. and merited the applause of scientific men for his inves tigations in science. rose from his c hair. Don't go. good breeding. Horace Greeley would sit upon the steps of the Astor House. exhausted his stamina. use the top of his hat for a desk. the Lord Cha ncellorship of England. in propor tion as he has confined his powers to one particular channel. like Canning. with no change of featur es and without his paying the slightest attention to the visitor. and write an editorial for the "New Yo rk Tribune" which would be quoted far and wide. but he had no definite purp ose. "Yes. Lord Brougham. sir. what do you want?" said the editor quickly. asked to keep . Then. and bands playing lustily. but never did it. with his head close down to his paper. T he irate visitor then began using his tongue. it wil l do you good. Finally. He was always just going to do something. without once looking up from his paper. after about twenty minutes of the most impassioned abuse ever poured out in an editor 's office. Mr. Miss Martineau says. or reason. and this habit of close observation enabled him to develop his work with marve lous detail. it helps me to think what I am to write about. He studied and examin ed each object as eagerly as though he would never have a chance to see it again . Besides. " wrote Charles Lamb to a friend. Hogarth would rivet his attention upon a face and study it until it was photogr aphed upon his memory. the streets lined with people. sit down. He was "everythin g by turns and nothing long. Meantime Mr. except in hi s power of observation. for the first time. Page after page was dashed off in the most impetuous style." One unwavering aim has ever characterized successful men. and his life was in many respects a miserable failure.was about. An artist undertook to take a view of th e chateau with a group of guests on the balcony. had too many talents. sit down. and. yet his life on the whole was a failure. T. a gentleman called at the "Tribune" office and i nquired for the editor. the angry man became disgusted. With an immense procession passing up Broadway. "Coleridge is dead. "Daniel Webster. sat scribbling away at a two-for ty rate. but to the day of his death they remained simply resolutions and plans." said Sydney Smith.

It slips from politics to puns. learn all you can about it. of success. "all such study is vain. but distract his attention a nd down he goes. and you will be sure to succeed. "Non multa. It is speci al training that is wanted. as taken from the life by history. sed multum"--not many things. Most of the men at the head of great firms and great enterprises have been promoted step by step from the bottom." continued Miss Martineau. "I know that he can toil terribly. we should avoid on the other hand the extreme versatility of one of whom W. which is like the conduct of the woman who bought at auction a brass door-plate with the name of Thompson on it.perfectly still for five seconds. If you can get a child learning to walk to fix his eyes on any object. in explanatio n of the latter's success. While we sh ould shun that narrow devotion to one idea which prevents the harmonious develop ment of our powers. "What can you do?" is the great question. The consequence was that there was a blur where Lord Brougham sh ould have been. Mathews says that the man who scatters himself upon many objects soon loses his energy. of wealth. this very man should h ave been the central figure. Praed says:-His talk is like a stream which runs With rapid change from rocks to roses. The curr ents of knowledge. and he promised that he would not stir. the sharp-edged man . owing to his want of steadfastness. . What I mean by studying on speculation is that aimless learning of things because they may be useful some day. Without point or edge t he bulk would be useless. and courage which enables one to bear up under all trials.--he moved. How many lives are blur s for want of concentration and steadfastness of purpose!" Fowell Buxton attributed his success to ordinary means and extraordinary applic ation. It is the man of one line of work. "very typical in this. and being a whole man to one thing at a time. but much. in the light of science . but a las. "Never study on speculation. who cuts his way through obstacles and achieves brilliant success. rive ting every faculty upon one unwavering aim. and so. then work for it. disappointments. slender edge of a razor or an ax. It is ever the unwavering p ursuit of a single aim that wins. In all great successes we can trace the power of concentration. And ending with some prece pt deep For skinning eels or shoeing horses. what the heart longs for the head and the hands may attain. could we but concentrate it upon the piston-rod of a steam-engine. he will generally navigate to that point without capsizing. was Coke's motto. In the p icture of our century. As a rule. But. Form a plan . are as certain and fixed as the tides of the sea. and with his energy his enthusiasm. that opens the way for the bulk that follows. the keen. It glides from Mahomet to Moses: Beginning with the laws that keep The planets in their radiant courses. But it is at rest. and temptations. perseverance in the pursuit of an un dertaking in spite of every difficulty. have an object." said Cecil of Walter Raleigh. It is the almost invisible point of a needle. "There is something. Chemists tell us that there is power enough in a single acre of grass to drive all the mills and steam-cars in the world. there will be forever a blur where Lord Brougham should have been. Dr. The young man seeking a position to-day is not asked what college he came from or who his ancestors were. it is comparatively valueless. M." says Waters.

and makes all the subordinate figures. lights. So in every well-balanced life. turn t he needle of our purpose from the North Star of its hope." s aid Henry Clay. true to its instinct.thinking it might be useful some day!" Definiteness of aim is characteristic of all true art." . not only for a day. there is one grand central purpo se. for all practical purposes of man stationary. So he wrapped his bedclothes around the clay image. Every leaf. has taken possession of him. and shades point to that c enter and find expression there. whatever it may be. every atom even. He is the genuine artist who makes the greatest va riety express the greatest unity. The labor we delight in physics pain. design has marked the course of every golden thread. In the Galérie des Beaux Arts in Paris is a beautiful statue conceived by a sculp tor who was so poor that he lived and worked in a small garret. alone.000 years. I lose all sense of personal i dentity. distant beyond human comprehension. and other hands gave it enduring form in ma rble. moves with stately sweep on its circuit of more than 25. in which all the subordinate powers of the soul are brought to a focus. giving all the figures equal prominence. When his clay mo del was nearly done. no matter how v ersatile in endowments or how broad in culture. "but on such occasions I seem to be unconscious of the external world. but when a man makes a gift of his daily life and practise. all things else are comparatively easy to give away. In nature we see no waste of energy. but let no moons w hich shine with borrowed light. Let us ever glory in something. Since the shuttle of creation shot for the first time through chaos. and try to win its affections. of time. but flies straight to the mark. the meteor beckons. In the morning he was found dead. it is plain that the truth. "I do not know how it is with others when speaking on an important question.--LOWELL. while all the other stars must course with untiring tread around their great centers through all the ages. Wholly engrossed by the subject before me. but fo r a century. So all along the path of life other luminaries will beckon to lead us from our cherished aim--from the course of truth and duty. A g eneral purpose is not enough. Young men are often told to aim high. The only conclusive evidence of a man's sincerity is that he gives himself for a principle. nothin g left to chance. but his idea was saved. for. Words. and str ive to retain our admiration for all that would ennoble. but never guide. but we must aim at what we would hit. He knew that if the water in the interstices of the clay should freeze.--PHILLIPS BROOKS. CHAPTER XIII THE TRIUMPHS OF ENTHUSIASM. He is not the greatest p ainter who crowds the greatest number of ideas upon a single canvas. Let us beware of losing our enthusiasm. and where they will find fit expression. The sun dazzles. the beautiful lines would be dist orted. and our interest in all that would enrich and beautify our life. The arrow shot from the bow does not wander around to see what it can hit on its way.--SHAKESPEARE. but the needle. who develops the leading idea in the central f igure. and with a finger that never errs in sunshine or in storm. has a purpose stamped upon it which unmist akably points to the crowning summit of all creation--man. every fl ower. money. points steadily to the No rth Star. The magnetic needle does not point to all the lights in the heavens to see which it likes be st. every crystal. They all attract it. no meteors which dazzle. or of surrounding objects. the North Star. the stars twinkle to it. a heavy frost fell upon the city.

They did they knew not what. there is in every boy the material of good work in the world. not only in those who are quick. Her enthusiasm almost hypnotized her auditors. I should like to compose something. "but I never asked a nything about it. O n one sketch he shut himself up for a month." said the Austrians in consternation. " is the triumph of some enthusiasm. not only in those who are brilliant. the dulness will day by day clear away and vanish completely und er the influence of the good will. and at last I found it on the toe of a shoe that I wa s putting on. h orsed on an idea." Gladstone said that what is really desired is to light up the spirit that is wi thin a boy." Enthusiasm gives the otherwise dry an d uninteresting subject or occupation a new meaning. I've worked hard enough for it." said the great composer. Her soul was smitten with a passion for growth." said the boy. in some effectual degree. In fifteen days Napoleon. so a man permeated with enthusiasm has his power of perception heightened and his v ision magnified until he sees beauty and charms others cannot discern which comp ensate for drudgery. they fly. " I've been chasing it for a month. hardships. The Caliph Oma r's walking-stick struck more terror into those who saw it than another man's sw ord. In some sense and in some degree.--when I was dressing. and even persecution. There was neither brandy nor flesh needed to feed them. "you must wait. is an example." "But you began when you were younger than I a m." says Emerson. and when he came out he looked as h aggard as a murderer. established a larger empire t han that of Rome. and all the powers of heart and mind she possessed were enthusiasti cally devoted to self-improvement. "Well. pooh. possessed. but they were temperance troops." said Malibran when a critic expressed h is admiration of her D in alt. They conquered Asia and Africa and Spain on barley. The naked Derar. "Pooh. reached by running up three octaves from low D. " replied Mozart. In less than a week she had become popular and independent. so I did. taken twenty-one standards. an unknown Hungarian. fifty- . was found an overmatch for a troop of cavalry. Dickens says h e was haunted. "These Frenchmen are not men. privations." "Every great and commanding moment in the annals of the world. As the young lover has finer sense and more acute vision and sees in the object of his affections a hundred virtues and charms invisible to all other eyes. in every boy. I pursued it everywhere. and even in those who are dull. or who seem to be dull. His characters haunted him day and night. who ."A bank never becomes very successful. when I was doing my hair. If they have only the good will. The victories of the Arabs after Mahomet. The women fough t like men and conquered the Roman men. how shall I begin?" as ked a youth of twelve who had played with great skill on the piano. They were miserably equipped. All great works of art have been produced when the artist was intoxicated with the passion for beauty and form which would not let him rest until his thought w as expressed in marble or on canvas. he writes because he ca n't help it. had gained six victories. made fame and fortune sure the first night she a ppeared in opera. "until it gets a president who takes it to bed with him. spirit-driven by the plots and characters in his stori es which would not let him sleep or rest until he had committed them to paper. miserably fed." says a noted financier. "Yes. "Herr Capellmeister. in his firs t Italian campaign. When one has the spirit of a composer. Gerster. from a small and mean beginning. in a few years." It was enthusiasm that enabled Napoleon to make a campaign in two weeks that wo uld have taken another a year to accomplish. but in those who are s tolid.

n or breathes sublime music." said Nelson at an important crisis. and built churches and colleges at Oxford. sent a thrill of enthusiasm through th e whole French army such as neither king nor statesmen could produce. After this astonishing avalanche a discomfited Austrian general said: "This you ng commander knows nothing whatever about the art of war. her consecrated ban ner. he was so delicate as a child that he was a constant sour ce of anxiety to his parents. Paul's Cathedral in London. if you seek his monument. had captured fifteen thousand prisoners. "There are important cases. you find noble monuments of the genius of a man who never received instruction from an ar chitect. It fixed the mariner's trembling nee dle upon its axis. Horace Greeley said that the best product of labor is the high-minded workman w ith an enthusiasm for his work. There is no doing anything with him. "want of frigat es would be found written on my heart. Christopher Wren. study. His rare ski ll is shown in the palaces of Hampton Court and Kensington. and her belief in her great mission. innocent Maid of Orleans with her sacred sword. Enthusiasm. Indifference never leads armies that conquer. nor the world with heroic phil anthropies. never models statues that live." said he. and turned the mystic leaves upon which Milton and Shakespeare inscribed t heir burning thoughts. He worked thirty-five years upon his mas ter-piece. St. but for the public good. wrought the statue of Memnon and hung the brazen gates of Thebes. nor harnesses the forces of nature. until world after world swept before his vision. Drury Lane Theater. man does not realiz e his strength until he has once run away with himself. like a bitted horse. and poised the axe of the dauntless woodman as he opened the paths of civiliza tion. study! All the genius in the world will not help you along with any art. It has taken me years to master a single part. H. Boyd. "in which the difference betwe en half a heart and a whole heart makes just the difference between signal defea t and a splendid victory. not for himself." said Salvini." says A. And above all. study. and had conquere d Piedmont. He built fifty-five churches in the city and thirty-six halls. nor moves the soul with poetry. the Royal Exchange. and it reefed the high topsail that rustled over Columbus in the morning breezes of the Bahamas. He al so planned for the rebuilding of London after the great fire. they will pardon many sh ortcomings. It has held the sword with which freedom has fought her battles ." But his soldiers followed their "Litt le Corporal" with an enthusiasm which knew no defeat or disaster. He is a perfect ignora mus. when in Paris to get ideas for the restoration of St. "If you can impress people with the conviction that you feel what you say. Oh! what a great work each one could perform in thi s world if he only knew his power! But. Her zeal c arried everything before it. in Temple Bar. "Underneath is laid the builder of this church and city. It opened the tubes for Galileo. look around!" Turn where you will in London. as Charles Bell says of the hand. Reader." . who lived more than ninety years. and the great Monument. "The best method is obtained by earnestness. unless you become a hard student. but those in autho rity would not adopt his splendid idea. and was exceedingly healthy in later life." The simple. K. He changed Greenwich palace into a sailor's retreat. His great enthusiasm alone seemed to give strength to his body. Although he lived so long. Paul's Cathedral.five pieces of cannon." "Should I die this minute. and first heaved the tremendous bar of the printing-press. nor rears impress ive architecture. "I would give my skin for the architect's design of the Louvre.

with his whole heart.' said the first speaker. or the spectator of a statue. "He makes the best of everything.--genius.' he continued. he must be on the jump with all the ardor of his being. Hark! how well it is played!' "In the midst of the finale there was a break." said the third. "He is an eager. what would I not give to go to the concert at Cologne!' 'Ah! my sist er. and a sobbing voice cried: 'I ca nnot play any more.' "'Let us go in. with two companions. It could not be found then even on the London Exchange. You do not find this in tropical countries. " said the second." writes the biographer of Beethoven." "He throws himself into the occasion. speaking of his own most che rished acquaintance. The three were traveling correspondents of great English journals. into t he very ideal presence whence these works have originated. and she will understand it. Pardon me. But the influence of the United States and of Australia. in praise of the man of his choice. 'why create regrets when there is no remedy? We can sc arcely pay our rent. mending shoes. almost a fanaticism for one's ideals or call ing. had written upon a slip of paper the name of the most a greeable companion he had ever met. But it is of no use." said a man when asked the reason for his selection. Mole. "If it were not for respect for human opinions. "One moonlight evening in winter. vivid fellow.There is a "go. after he. 'Hush!' exclaimed the great composer.' said Beethoven. bubbling over with spirits. full of joy. has finally extended until what used to be the peculiar str ength of a few great minds has now become characteristic of the leading nations." said Madame de Staël to M. The great actor Garrick well illustrated it when asked by an unsuc cessful preacher the secret of his power over audiences: "You speak of eternal v erities and what you know to be true as if you hardly believed what you were say ing yourself. if a person is to succeed." a zeal. It did not exist fifty years ago." "When he comes into a room.' said a second voice. 'and yet I wish f or once in my life to hear some really good music. It is so beautiful. it is utterly beyond my power to do it j ustice. a furore." Enthusiasm is that secret and harmonious spirit which hovers over the productio n of genius.' replied my companion in an excited tone. every man feels as if he had taken a tonic and had a new lease of life. "we were walking through a narrow street of Bonn." that he might not leave the work until it was finished. it is the tingling of every fiber of one's being to do the work that one's heart desires. The papers were examined and all were found to contain the name of a prominent lawyer in Melbou rne. His sympathies are quick as an electric flash. where. "I would not open my window to see the Bay of Naples for the first time. mean dwelling. while I would go five hundred leagues to talk with a man of genius whom I had not seen . Enthusiasm is the being awake. 'what should we go in for?' 'I will play to her. whatever it may be. Enthusiasm made Victor Hugo lock up hi s clothes while writing "Notre Dame. 'here is f eeling. 'what sound is that? It is from my Sonata in F.' 'You are right. and a young girl leaning sorrowfully upon an old-fashion . suddenly pausing before a little. Australia. that is peculiar to our American temperament and life. who had visi ted every quarter of the world and talked with all kinds of men. as he opened the door and saw a young man sitting by a table. throwing the reader of a book. Oh. 'Go in!' I remonstrated. whereas I utter what I know to be unreal and untrue as if I did be lieve it in my very soul.--understanding! I will play to her.

flickered. and uncertainty. which carried us away on its rustling wings.' said he. 'I heard music and was tempted to enter. During the summer evenings her windows were generally open. 'You will come again?' asked the host and hostess in a breath. did I hear him play better than to that blind girl and her brother. and his modest. chisels. I am a musician. you would like--t hat is--shall I play for you?' "'Thank you. play to us once more. "'Wonderful man!' said the shoemaker in a low tone. Even the ol d instrument seemed inspired. during all the years I knew him. like the calm flow of moonlight over the earth. 'Yes. 'Farewell to you.' said the shoemaker. but the player paused. 'Then you are Beethoven!' burst from the young people in delighted recognitio n. charming m anners disarmed envy and jealousy. 'but our piano is so wretched. Raphael's enthusiasm inspired every artist in Italy. descriptive of flight. which crept gently over t he instrument. which he said was like pulling the flesh from his bones. He has been called the only distinguished man who lived and died without an enemy or detractor. I--I also ov erheard something of what you said. fat. and pincers. added muscles.' he said. and then draped them. and would not let servants or students e ven mix them. Then came a swift agitated ending--a breathles s. Then you play by ear? But where do you hear the music. Farewell!' Then to me he added: 'Let us make haste back. and n ot until long past the dawn of day did he rise from his table with the full scor e of the Moonlight Sonata in his hand. 'how.' they added. Never. 'who and what are you?' "'Listen!' replied the master. and give the young lady som e lessons. 'I had not perceived before. but not the separation from his poor blind daughter M ary.ed piano. as if lost in thought. and skin successively. as he rose and turned towar d the door. trembling movement. si nce you frequent no concerts?' "'We lived at Bruhl for two years. Then he played a sad and infinitely lovely movement. He drew his figures in skeleton. 'Oh. but thi s course determined his style. In p ainting he prepared all his own colors. his practice.' We did return in haste. and we have no music. He made every tool he used in sculpture. that I may w rite out that sonata while I can yet remember it. yes. sank. like th e dance of fairies upon the lawn.' "'No music!' exclaimed the composer. This was followed by a wild. and I walked to and fro outside to listen to her." Michael Angelo studied anatomy twelve years. a nd went out. sweet sounds that flowed out upon the air in rhythmical swell and cade nce.' he added. as he rose to go. He had so forg . does the young lady--I--I entr eat your pardon. nearly ruining his health. and he played the opening bars of the Sonata in F. the flame of the single candle wavered.' "Beethoven seated himself at the piano. elfin passage in triple time--a sort of grotesque interlude. not the need of a poor family dependent upon him. suddenly. and left us al l in emotion and wonder. and vag ue impulsive terror. 'I will come again. stammering as he saw that the girl was blind. Again and again poor Bunyan m ight have had his liberty. hurrying. and. The young man and woman sat as if entranced by the magical. until. admitting a flood of brilliant moonl ight.' said Beethoven hurriedly. You wish to hear--that is. while there. I used to hear a lady prac ticing near us. not the love of liberty nor the spur of ambition could induce him to forego his plain preaching in public places. gazing thoughtfully upo n the liquid stars shining so softly out of the depths of a cloudless winter sky . then. such as files. and his glory. The shutters were thrown open.--'only once more!' "'I will improvise a sonata to the moonlight.

but also the love of his master's fair daughter. but the devoted girl determined to follow him. an d plundered the family cat for bristles to make his brushes. and took to his arms a nd home his far-come princess with her solitary fond word. an English Crusader. It was the enthusiasm of conviction which enabled this poor. his fortune. despise d Bedford tinker to write his immortal allegory with such fascination that a who le world has read it. lest he learn the gamut? He stole midnight intervi ews with a dumb spinet in a secret attic. "The world's i nterests are. Although he had. The most irresistible charm of youth is its bubbling enthusiasm. under God. Of what use was it to forbid the boy Handel to touch a musical instrument. By and by he escaped and returned to England." wrote Disraeli. where he not only gained the confidence of his ma ster. "Almost everything that is great has been done by youth." At last she came to the s treet on which Gilbert lived in prosperity. After Lincoln had walked six miles to borrow a grammar. It was the youth Hercules that performed the Twelve Labors. ruined his health and could not use his eyes more than five minutes at a time for fift y years. ignorant. While a student at Harvard he determined to write the history of the French and English in North America.--it forgets that there is such a thing as failure in the world. and at nineteen gained a medal at Cambridge. for want of a candle churlishly denied. while among the Dakota Indians. his all to this one great object. It is the enthusiasm of youth which cuts the Gordian knot age cannot untie. Rare consecration to a great enterprise is found in the work of the late Franci s Parkman. Youth sees no darkness ahead." says Dr. but by repeating the fir st she obtained passage in a vessel to the great metropolis." says Charles Kingsley." How much the world owes to the enthusiasm of Dante! Tennyson wrote his first volume at eighteen. Gilbert Becket. he did not swerve a hair's breadth from the high purpose formed in his youth. Nor was he dishearten ed when these copies were taken from him. and believes that mankind has been waiting all th ese centuries for him to come and be the liberator of truth and energy and beaut y. The painter West began in a garret. collecting material for his history.otten his early education that his wife had to teach him again to read and write . With a steadiness and devotion seldom equal ed he gave his life. in the hands of the young." says Ruskin. perhaps unconscious tha t it is partly their own fault that they ever lost it. until he gave to the world the best history upon this subject ever writte n. Trumbull.--no defile that has no outlet. Enthusiastic youth . The unusual crowd drew the family to the window. when Gilbert himself saw and recognized her. "that enthusiasm which they themselves secretly look back to with a sigh. or t o forbid him going to school. Only thoughts that breathe in words that burn can kindle the spark slumbering i n the heart of another. The boy Bach copied whole books of stu dies by moonlight. and then she went f rom street to street pronouncing the other--"Gilbert. She knew but two words of the English language--London and Gilbert. "Pe ople smile at the enthusiasm of youth. he returned home and bu rned one shaving after another while he studied the precious prize. was taken prisoner and became a slave in t he palace of a Saracen prince. "The most beautiful works of all art were done in youth.

The glory of age is only the glory of its enthusiasm. Burke wa s thirty-five before he obtained a seat in Parliament. Baco n and Humboldt were enthusiastic students to the last gasp. at eightyone. and died Prime Minister at eighty-one. and had taken three prizes at the Academy and gained the title of Master before he was twenty. in spite of the torpid influence of an enfeebled body. At sixty-three Dryden began the translation of the "Aeneid. The "Odysse y" was the creation of a blind old man. even in the midst of his fit s of gout and colic. and thirty when he graduated from Yale. Peter the Hermit. He became Prime Minister of E ngland the second time at seventy-five. before which the languid and the passive bow. Napoleon had conque red Italy at twenty-five. and Tennys on's best work was done after they were seventy. Gladstone was in Parliament in early manhood. What a power was Bismarck at eig hty! Lord Palmerston was an "Old Boy" to the last. Alexander was a mere youth when he rolled back the Asiatic hordes that threat ened to overwhelm European civilization almost at its birth." Robert Hall learne d Italian when past sixty." Newton wro te new briefs to his "Principia" at eighty-three. Luther was a triumphant reformer at twenty-five. Whittier's. Mrs. G alileo at seventy-seven. Pitt and Bolingbroke were ministers almost before they we re men. Never before has t he young man. Victor Hugo wrote a tra gedy at fifteen. Johnson's best work. Whitefield and Wesley b egan their great revival as students at Oxford. yet his cotton-gin opened a g reat industrial future for the Southern States. Wellington planned and superintended fortifications at eighty. was working every day. the head. and Poe lived but a few months longer. and the respect paid to white hairs is reverence to a h eart fervent. it shadows all behind it. who is driven by his enthusiasm. won battles at ninety-four. how much more so is it when carried into old age! Gladstone at eighty had ten times the weight and power that any m an of twenty-five would have with the same ideals. Many of the world's greatest geniuses never saw forty years. Wise old Montaigne w as shrewd in his gray-beard wisdom and loving life. yet he made the world fee l his character. Dr. The heart rules youth. Romulus f ounded Rome at twenty. manhoo d. Grant was one of the most famous generals in history at forty-two. Their ardor is their crown." was written when he was seve nty-eight. But if enthusiasm is irresistible in youth. "The Lives of the Poets. It is the age of young men and young women. Humboldt completed his "Cosmos" at ninety.faces the sun. The contagious zeal of an old man. Plato died writing. had such an opportunity as he has to-day. Noah Webste r studied seventeen languages after he was fifty. Some of Longfellow's. an age which h as been fatal to many a genius. Eli Whitney was twenty-three when he decided to prepare fo r college. Byron and Raphael died at thirty-seven. blind and feeble. adapting the p rinciple of the pendulum to clocks. . that he might read Dante in the original. George Stephenson did not learn to read and write until he had reached manhood. the Doge of Venice. and refused a crown at ninety-six. but that old man was Homer. and the former had made his infl uence felt throughout England before he was twenty-four. Galileo was nearly seven ty when he wrote on the laws of motion. Newton made some of his gr eatest discoveries before he was twenty-five. Unknown at forty. Tom Scott began the study of Hebrew at eighty-six. rolled the chivalry of Eur ope upon the ranks of Islam. Keats died at twenty-five. a month before his death. Dandolo. It is said tha t no English poet ever equaled Chatterton at twenty-one. Somerville finished her "Molecular and Microscopic Science" at eighty-nin e. James Watt learned German at eighty-five . Cicero said well that men are like wine: age sours the bad and improves the good. Defoe was fifty-eight when he published "Robinson Crusoe. Shelley at twenty-nine.

--SHAKESPEARE." CHAPTER XIV. Colonel Rahl. We can do as much in an hour to-day as they could in twe nty hours a hundred years ago. Post-offices were unknown. "we took up the war." By the street of by and by one arrives at the house of never. as if there were not an inch of red tape in the world. April 15.--towards youth? If not. but he lost honor. Only a few minutes' delay.With enthusiasm we may retain the youth of the spirit until the hair is silvere d. doubt thy fitness for thy work. and have carried on our part of it." He had received a telegram for troops from Washington on Monday. was playing cards when a messenger brought a letter stating that Washington was crossing the Delaware. 1861. when it took a month of dangerous traveling to accomplish the distance we can now span in a few hours. and mont hs and years are lost." . "Haste. with a picture of a courier swinging from a gibbet. when he rallied his men only to die just before his t roops were taken prisoners. "Immediately on receiving your proclamation." Let's take the instant by the forward top. There are critical moments in every successful life when if the mind hesitate or a ne rve flinch all will be lost. haste! Haste for thy life!" was frequently written upon messages in the days of Henry VIII of England. "Lose this day by loitering--'t will be the same story tomorrow. We miss it.--for ages and ages of wh ich it traveled that imperiled road.--CERVANTES. Even in the old." OR THE TRIUMPH OF PROMPTNESS "On the great clock of time there is but one word--NOW." Note the sublime precision that leads the earth over a circuit of five hundred millions of miles back to the solstice at the appointed moment without the loss of one second.--EDWARD EVERETT. life! Success is the child of two very plain parents--punctuality and accuracy. "Delays have dangerous ends. unnecessary delay was a crime. post. namely. or in Fortress Monroe. and letters were carried by government mess engers subject to hanging if they delayed upon the road.--no. the Hessian commander at Trent on. "How ages thine heart. One of the greatest gains civilization has made is in measur ing and utilizing time. "Who cannot but see oftentimes how strange the threads of our destiny run? Oft it is only for a moment the favorable instant is presented. and the next m ore dilatory. in the spirit in which we believe the Administration and the American people intend to act. slow days of stage-coaches. "ON TIME." wrote Governor Andrew of Massachu setts to President Lincoln on May 3. He put the letter in his pocket without reading it un til the game was finished. or o n their way to the defence of the Capitol. not the millionth part of a second. libert y. at nine o'clock the next Sunday he said: "All the regiments demanded from Massachusetts are already either in Washington. even as the Gulf Stream softens the rigors of northern Europe." Caesar's delay to read a message cost him his lif e when he reached the senate house.

"is what to do. Vincent. "not only so. "To-morrow morning. and it has been said that among the trifle s that conspired to defeat him at Waterloo. or sunk in the slough of indolence. John Jervis. too. The s ummer of eternity will not be long enough to bring to maturity the fruit of a de layed action. and in so short a time?" "When I have anything to do. I go and do it. "If I had to mount guard at ten. ther e is no moment at all. appointed commander of the army in Ind ia. never did any man or anything w ait one minute for me. replied without hesitation. that what may be done at any time will be done at no time. They will be dissipated. once passed." The energy wasted in postponing until to-morrow a duty of to-day would often do the work. Promptness takes the drudgery out of an occupation. edi fication. When asked how he managed to accomplish so much work. Helena. will fail." that "nick of time" whic h occurs in every battle. afterwards Earl St." said he. a French statesman replied. what next to do. The African Association of London wanted to send Ledyard. and to chan ge the destiny of millions." was the reply. "I do it simply by never po . instruction. the appointed work can ever be done again ." "The whole period of youth. He said that he beat the Austrians because they di d not know the value of five minutes. Blucher was on time." Cobbett said he owed his success to being "always ready" more than to all his n atural abilities combined." asked a man of Sir Walter Raleigh. There is not an hour of it but is trembling with destinie s--not a moment of which. and Grouchy was late. "There is no moment like the present. becomes drudgery. Putting off usually means l eaving off." "How." Napoleon laid great stress upon that "supreme moment. was asked when he could join his ship. the traveler. the other is. to Afri ca. "To-morrow. will succee d when a procrastinator. Letters can never be answered so easily as when first received. and asked when he could set out. no instant force and energy." said Maria Edgeworth. or the neglected blow struck on the cold iron. The man who always acts promptly. "do you accomplish so much." he said."The only question which I can entertain. even if he have the better judgment. it might throw the wh ole universe out of harmony. even if he makes occasional mistakes. If a star or planet were delayed one second. the loss of a few moments by himself and Grouchy on the fatal morning was the most significant. It is a well-known truism that has almost been elevated to the dignity of a max im. It was enough to send Napoleon to St." was the reply. lost in the hurry and scurry o f the world. it is to do work which ha s been put off! What would have been done at the time with pleasure or even enth usiasm. and going to do becomes going undone. and asked when he would be ready to go. and to lose in hesitation means disaster. "Directly. How much harder and more disagreeable. The man who will not execute his resolutions when they are fresh upon him can have no ho pes from them afterward. "is one essentially of formation. and replied. Many large firms make it a rule never to allow a letter to lie unanswered overnight. but in the present. and at the same time atte nd to his social duties. "To this quality I owed my extraordinary promotion in the army. and when th at question is answered." Colin Campbell. to take advantage of which means victory." said Ruskin. after it has been delayed for days and weeks. Doing a deed is like sowing a seed: if not done at just the right time it will be forever out of season. I was ready at nine.

how many a wreck on the road to success could say: "I have s pent all my life in pursuit of to-morrow." are golden maxims. and murmured again. brokenly. Yet most of those who have become eminent have been early risers. Indecision becomes a disease and pr ocrastination is its forerunner. Wisdom disclaims the word. and baseless as the fantastic visions o f the evening. "by and by." It is the devil's motto. who had been overcome by a sleepy languor after deciding to make restitution. This made all the difference between them. to--morrow." and "Make hay while the sun shines. wrought of such stuffs as dreams are. and promises. h ow heavy it feels!' But presently he roused himself. as were m ost of the famous astronomers of ancient and modern times." said Henry." "But his resolutions remained unshaken." said he. In the hours of early morning Columbus planned his voyage to Americ a. It is the favorite refuge of sloth and incompetency. All history is strewn with its brilliant victims." Alfred the Great rose befo re daylight. To-morrow! it is a period nowhere to be found in all the hoary registers o f time. . but we make up our bodies every morning to keep it late. "Strike while the iron is hot. 'My head. 'Tis fancy's child. Copernicus was an early riser. There is in every person's life a crucial hour in the day." "To-morrow. Peter the Gre at always rose before daylight. but I have always five h ours' start of him." Henry rose at four in the morning. the defaulting clerk. There is only one known remedy for the victims of indecision. which must be employed instead of wasted if the day is to be saved. To-mo rrow! 'tis a sharper who stakes his penury against thy plenty--who takes thy rea dy cash and pays thee naught but wishes. 'I'll take it to--Pembroke--Street to--morr ow. "Go to--I will not hear of it. and therefore sleep as little as possible. "I am. With most people the earl y morning hour becomes the test of the day's success. Bancroft at dawn. the currency of id iots. didst thou say?" asked Cotton. Webster. nor holds society with those that own it. Bryant rose at five. and nearly all our leading authors in the early morning. and so did the detectives. and murmured. "You are right. dead." Charles Reade continues in his story o f Noah Skinner. A person was once extolling the skill and courage of Mayenne in Henry's presenc e. as it were. Daniel Webster used often to answer twenty to thirty letters before breakfast. Very few people recognize the hour when laziness begins to set in.' The morrow found him." How many men have daw dled away their success and allowed companions and relatives to steal it away fi ve minutes at a time! "To-morrow. A noted writer says that a bed is a bundle of paradoxes. We go to it with reluc tance. and some after seven o'clock in the e vening.stponing till to-morrow what should be done to-day. Some people it attacks after dinner. yet we quit it with regret. He who hesitates is lost." Oh. a last look at the receipts. "he is a great captain. Clay. and Mayenne at about ten . full of his penitent resolu tions. Otherwise the disease is fatal to al l success or achievement." It was said of an unsuccess ful public man that he used to reverse this process. and that is prompt decision. We make up our minds every night to leave it early. he took. and folly is its fathe r. and Napoleon his greatest campaigns. Washi ngton. the wrecks of half-finished plans and unexecuted resolutions. hopes. his favorite maxim being "n ever to do to-day what might be postponed till to-morrow. unless perchance in the fool's calendar. being assured that to-morrow has some vast benefit or other in store for me. waking up from a sort of heavy d oze. Jefferson. some after lunch. "for making my life as long as possible. and Calhoun were all early risers.

and wrought with sufficient vigor. but. He rose at five.--that is. They do not break any engagement or neglect any duty. Very frequently seven hours is plenty. it is his business to get up. They came in just as he was rising from the table. or I anoth er secretary.Walter Scott was a very punctual man. but the work is always ten minutes in advance of the time. but always ready with an excuse . their time and their work would end together. but they systemati cally go about it too late." Washington would say. and go to work. There is one thing that is almost as sacred as the marriage relation. Writing to a youth who had obtained a situation and as ked him for advice. he began to eat without them. the one an inch shorter than the other. "it is now past dinner. "At the instant when He ushered them into existence. They are no t irregular. A man who fails to meet his appointment. After th e eighth hour in bed. God gave them a work to do. but sure e nough. A fragment of their allotted time was lost." said Horace Greeley. Their letters are posted the very minute a fter the mail is closed. But a good many years ago a strange misfortune befell them. as they did not arriv e at the moment appointed. By breakfast-time he had. for just like two measuring-lines laid a longside. and the world treats him as such. "Then you must get a new watch. broken th e neck of the day's work. "My cook. "If a man has no regard for the time of other men. "I have generally found that the man who is good at an excuse is good for noth ing else. as he used to say." When his secretary excused the lateness of his attendance by saying that his wa tch was too slow. if a man is able." Not too much can be said about the value of the habit of rising early. This was the secret of his enormous achie vements. but if the hour has arrived." said he. Eight ho urs is enough sleep for any man. They cannot tell what became of it." Franklin said to a servant who was always late. it is one of the practical virtues of civiliz ation. and He also gave them a competence of time. and we will immediately proceed to business. so much that if they began at the right moment. is practically a liar. it has dropped out of existence. "why s hould he have for their money? What is the difference between taking a man's hou r and taking his five dollars? There are many men to whom each hour of the busin ess day is worth more than five dollars. "A singular mischance has happened to some of our friends. Washington replied. they come in sight of the terminus precisely as the station gates are c losing." said Hamilton." . "Gentlemen. and take the hours of recreation after business. their work and their time run parallel. or an acquirement. he gave this counsel: "Beware of stumbling over a propensity which easily besets you from not having your time fully employed--I mean what t he women call dawdling. never before it. "never asks if the visitors ha ve arrived. and be mortified to find the P resident eating. unless he has a good r eason. Do instantly whatever is to be done. and usually too late by about the same fatal interva l. new members of Congress invited to din e at the White House would sometimes arrive late." Some one has said that "promptness is a contagious inspiration. They are never too soon." Napoleon once invited his marshals to dine with him." Whether it be an inspiration. an appointment." When President Washington dined at four. dress quic kly. They arrive at the wharf just in time to see the steamb oat off.

During the first seven years of his mercantile career. The Speaker of the House o f Representatives knew when to call the House to order by seeing Mr. he promptly replied: "No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted. A conductor's watch is behind time." John Quincy Adams was never known to be behind time. asking for the appointment of commissioners to consider terms of capitulation. teaches habits of pr omptness. An innocent man is hanged beca use the messenger bearing a reprieve should have arrived five minutes earlier. In court. he was equally punctual. Amid the cares and distractions of a s ingularly busy life. and a terrible railway collision occurs." The man who. Adams comin g to his seat. I propose to m ove immediately upon your works. Horace Greeley managed to be on time for every appointment. and prompt to the minute." said another. Punctuality is the soul of business. Webster was never late at a recitation in school or college. like Napoleon. as brevity is of wit." Buckner replied that circumstances compelled h im "to accept the ungenerous and unchivalrous terms which you propose. "Mr." Promptness is the mother of confidence and gives credit. in society. simply because an agent is t ardy in transmitting available funds. and seldom accomplish much. Every business man knows th at there are moments on which hang the destiny of years. is sure to win. Punctuality is said to be the polit eness of princes. They lack method. If you arrive a few mom ents late at the bank. Mr. A leading firm with enormous assets becomes bankrupt. Brown.Blücher was one of the promptest men that ever lived. Adams arrived." It was found that the clock was three minutes f ast. Many a trenchant paragraph for the "Tribune" was written while the editor was w aiting for men of leisure. or for lectures. A man is stopped five minutes to hear a trivial story and misses a train or steam er by one minute. and how soon you find yourself intrusting him with weightier matters! The boy who has acquired a reputation for punctuality h as made the first contribution to the capital that in after years makes his succ ess a certainty. . Some men are always running to catch up with their business: t hey are always in a hurry. C. and is an expensive investment at any price. Every young man should have a watch which is a good timekeeper. Once a member said that it was time to begin. One of the best things about school and college life is that the bell which str ikes the hour for rising. will keep his word. tardy at some meeting. your paper may be protested and your credit ruined. When Buckner sent him a flag of truce at Fort Donelson. "No. "Oh. The man who is punctual. how I do appreciate a boy who is always on time!" says H. in congr ess. Adams is not in his seat. one th at is nearly right encourages bad habits. as a rule. He was called "Marshal Forw ard. "How q uickly you learn to depend on him. and may be depended upon. and give you the impression that they are late for a train. It is the best possibl e proof that our own affairs are well ordered and well conducted. Grant decided to enlist the moment that he learned of the fall of Sumter. for recitations. Amos Lawrence did not pe rmit a bill to remain unsettled over Sunday. and gives othe rs confidence in our ability. can on the instant seize the most important thing a nd sacrifice the others. as ordered.

neatness of attire ry care of the person. clean. I can recall instances of capable stenograp hers who forfeited their positions because they did not keep their finger nails clean. CHAPTER XV WHAT A GOOD APPEARANCE WILL DO Let thy attire be comely but not costly. for I believe that absolute cleanliness is go dliness. wholesome condition of the skin. without which health is impossible. But self-interest clamors as loudly as esthetic or moral considerations for the fulfilment of the laws of cleanliness. the law will work inexorably. An honest. The first point to be emphasized in the making of a good appearance is the nece ssity of frequent bathing. "could not be handled by such soiled fingers withou t losing some of their freshness. A man who allows himself to become careless in reg ard to the one will. We express ourselves first of all in our bodies. The outer condition of the bod y is accepted as the symbol of the inner. rich not gau dy. A daily bath insures a clean. intelligent man whom I know lost his place in a large publishi ng firm because he was careless about shaving and brushing his teeth. A young man who neglects his bath will neglect his mind. we conclude that the mind corresponds with it. SHAW. I should place it nearer still. There is a very close connection between a fine. Without this he is nothing but a brute. he will quickly deterior ate in every way. High ideals and strong. it will not be long until that gir l's employer will discover that she is not advancing his business. Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy. A young woman who ceases to care for her appearance in minutes t detail will soon cease to please. success and failur e.--ANTH ONY TROLLOPE. As a rule. fall away in the other. clean character. But not expressed in fancy. If it is unlovely. wholeso me lives and work are incompatible with low standards of personal cleanliness. while outward slovenliness suggests a pearance that probably goes deeper than the clothes covering of body and comelin indicating a sanita carelessness for ap the body. The other day a lady remarked that she went into a store to buy some ribbons.--LIVY. the conclusion is a just one." Of course. There are two chief factors in good appearance. clean physique and a f ine. strong. Cleanliness or purity of soul and body raises man to the highest estate . As a general thing an individual who is neat in his person is neat in his moral s. A few minut es often makes all the difference between victory and defeat. She will fall little by little until she deg enerates into an ambitionless slattern. and then. I hold that gentleman to be the best dressed whose dress no one observes. cleanliness ess of attire." she said. throu gh sheer neglect or indifference. For the apparel oft proclaims the man. Usually these go together.--we ll. or repulsive. in spite of himself. "Too late" can be r ead between the lines on the tombstone of many a man who has failed. SHAKESPEARE. . but when she saw the salesgirl's hands she changed her mind and made her purchase elsewhere. It is not to be wondered at that the Talmud places cleanliness next to godlines s. strong.--H. Every day we see people receiving "demer its" for failure to live up to them. "Dainty ribbons. W.Many a wasted life dates its ruin from a lost five minutes.

" [Illustration: John Wanamaker] Most large business houses make it a rule not to employ anyone who looks seedy. Vreeland. too. In the course of an address on h ow to attain success. than go with the money in t he pockets of a dingy suit. It is not the shabbiness that is unavoidable. "Let thy attire be comel y. no matter how poorly. of course. who rose in a short time from a section hand on the Long I sland Railroad to the presidency of all the surface railways in New York City. yet perhaps more people sin in this particular point of cleanliness than in an y other. you are appropriately dressed. that the world frowns upon . If you are dressed according to your means. Many an applicant has been denied the position he sought because of bad teeth. The hair. he said:-"Clothes don't make the man. Nor does he. or stenographer. and want a job. No one. Herbert H. and of maintaining your self-respect and integrity at all costs. and young women. The consciousness of makin g the best appearance you possibly can. you can buy a file (you can get one as low as ten cents). and no one can have negle cted teeth without reaping this consequence. it is better to spend twenty dol lars for a suit of clothes. the hands. and a clean collar. if circumstances prevent his having a better one. a crumpled collar. the majority can afford to be well dressed. If you can not afford to buy a whole set. yet neglect their teeth. will susta in you under the most adverse circumstances. the best counsel on the subj ect of clothes may be summed up in this short sentence. We all know how disagreeable it is to be anywhere near a person whose breath is bad. want one whose appearance is marred by a lack of one or two front teeth. or slovenly. of always being scrupulously neat and cl ean. I f you have twenty-five dollars. You will be more respected by yourself and every one else with an old coat on your back that has been paid for than a new one that has not." Simplicity in dress is its greatest charm. and in these days . it should be washed thoroughly every two weeks with a good reli able scalp soap and warm water. It is positively disgusting. or other employee about him who conta minates the atmosphere. no matter how poor he may be. and t he teeth. a nd magnetic forcefulness that will command the respect and admiration of others. Nothing can be more offensive in man or woman than a foul breath. when there is such an infinite variety of tasteful but inexpensive fabrics to choose from. I know young men. But no one need blush f or a shabby suit. if he is at all particular. Keeping the teeth in good condition is a very simple matter . four dollars for shoes. and keep your nai ls smooth and clean. and give you a dignity. and the rest for a shave. or who does not make a good appearance when he applies for a posit ion. If the hair is dry or lacking in oily matter. N o employer wants a clerk. or the absence of one or two in front. a hair-cut.Next in importance to the bath is the proper care of the hair. who dress very well and seem to take considerable pride in their personal appearance. The man who hires all the salespeople for one of the largest retail stores in Chicago says: . They do not realize that there could hardly be a worse blot on one's appearance than dirty or decaying teeth. Manicure sets are so cheap that the y are within the reach of almost everyone. and walk to the place. but the slovenliness that is avoidable. but not costly. but good clothes have got many a man a good job. If it is naturally oily. should be combed and brushed regularly every day. will be excused for wearing a dirty coat . For those who have to make their way in the world. s hould be a practical authority on this subject. strength. This requires little more than a small amount of time and the use of s oap and water. to which a very little ammonia may be added. or muddy shoes. it should not be washed oftener than once a month and the ammonia may be omitted.

be rejected. V." says El izabeth Stuart Phelps. when questioned by a friend as to the cause of her seemingly inexplicable conduct in refusing to en gage so competent a teacher. Apparently she posse ssed all the required qualifications. That the same rule that governs employers in America holds in England. lacking in dignity and impo rtance. she replied: "It was a trifle. or soiled garments ar e detrimental to morals and manners. "The consciousness of clean linen. as in an Egyptian hieroglyphic."While the routine of application is in every case strictly adhered to. and general fi tness for the position they extolled in the highest terms. and considered herself fortunate when the trustees of the institution recomme nded to her a young woman whose tact. frayed cuffs." It does not matter how much merit or ability an applicant for a position may po ssess. Mrs . Is it not a fact that the smart saleswoman is usually rather particular about her dress. The young woman was i nvited by the founder of the school to call on her at once. had established an industrial school for girls in which they received a good English education and were train ed to be self-supporting. those who are careful of their own appearance are equa lly careful of the looks of the work they turn out. they may keep it. and self respect." No young man or woman who wishes to retain that most potent factor of the succe ssful life. Applicants whose good appearanc e helped them to secure a place may often be very superficial in comparison with some who were rejected in their favor and may not have half their merit. Diamonds in the rough of infinitely greater value than the polished glass of some of those w ho get positions may. the fac t remains that the most important element in an applicant's chance for a trial i s his personality. The young woman came to me fashionably and expensively dressed. And probably what is true of the workroom is equally true of the region behind the counter. ill-fitting. ill-fitting. so shabby. and faded ties? The truth of the matt er seems to be that extra care as regards personal habits and general appearance is. indicative of a certain alertness of mind. One of those large-souled women of wealth. is evide nced by the "London Draper's Record. Long afterward. A well-ironed collar or a fresh glove has car ried many a man through an emergency in which a wrinkle or a rip would have defe ated him. or s oiled attire makes one feel awkward and constrained. there is also almost always found extra carefulness as regards the finish of work done." It says:-"Wherever a marked personal care is exhibited for the cleanliness of the person and for neatness in dress. self-respect. though not possessing half the ability of the boy or girl who was turned away. in which our generation is rich. but a trifle in whic h. Work people whose personal habits are sloven ly produce slovenly work. but with torn and soiled gloves. A slovenly woman is not a fit guide for any . "is in and of itself a source of moral strength. can afford to be negligent in the matter of dress. as a rule. and yet. knowledge. second o nly to that of a clean conscience. and half of the buttons off her shoes." The importance of attending to little details--the perfection of which really c onstitutes the well-dressed man or woman--is well illustrated by this story of a young woman's failure to secure a desirable position. occasionally. Poor. absolutely refused to give her a trial. he can not afford to be careless of his personal appearance. but ha ving secured it. without assigning any reason. which shows itself an tagonistic to slovenliness of all kinds. as anyon e knows who has experienced the sensation--and who has not?--that comes from bei ng attired in new and becoming raiment. Our clothes unmistakably affect our feelings. lay a volume of meaning. She needed the services of a superintendent and teache r. perfect manners. for "the character is subdued to what it is clothed in." As the consciousness of be ing well dressed tends to grace and ease of manner. is aver se to wearing dingy collars.

out of their limited sala ries. instead of l ying around the house in your old wrapper or dressing gown. without making your toilet. person and purse is heroically consecrated to this one object. From every point of view it pays well to dress well. who spent four thousand dollars a year at his tailo r's alone. it may seem hasty or superficial to judge men or women by their clothes. too. are frequently condemned by the very garb which they think makes them so irresistible. that it is a duty. and they love dress too much who "go in d ebt" for it. office and existence consists in the wearing of clothes. and who used to take hours to tie his cravat. The overdressed young woman is merely the feminine of the overdressed young man . t hey fall into as great a pitfall as those who think clothes are of no importance . and. slipshod. taking it easy because you do not expect or wish to see anybody. if. before you have finished dressing your "blues" and your half-sick feeling will have vanished like a bad dream. an d your whole outlook on life will have changed. as well as t he truest economy. They are loud. the English fop. and planning how they can buy. and inactive as your body. spirit." they live to dress. except i n this seemingly unimportant matter of attention to the little details of dress. it will become as slovenly . to the neglect of their mos t sacred duty to themselves and others. If you lie a round half-dressed. and have no time to devote to self-culture or to fitting th emselves for higher positions. you will fi nd yourself very quickly taking on the mood of your attire and environment. Your mind will slip down. which they see exhibited in so me fashionable store." Probably the applicant never knew why she did not obtain the positi on. for the old adage: "Tell me thy company and I will tell thee what thou art. By emphasizing the importance of dress I do not mean that you should be like Be au Brummel. . this or that expensive hat.--a man whose trade . that they do. Very few men or women are so strong and so perfectly poised as to be unaffected by their surroundings. and with your room all in disord er. or tie or coat. On the other hand. and almost invariably they occupy cheap positions. An undue love of dress is worse than a total disregard of it." when you feel half sick and not able to work. flashy. At first sight. vulgar. it will refuse to exert itself. they buy some cheap. But I do claim. like Beau Brummel. you take a good bath . but experience has proved . Many young men and women make the mistake of thinking that "well dressed" neces sarily means being expensively dressed. if you can afford it. The worl d accepts the truth announced by Shakespeare that "the apparel oft proclaims the man". tawdry imitation.--a Turkish bath. They devote the time that should be given to the culture of head and heart to studying their toilets. Like the dandy. vermilion-tinted ties. and make you r toilet as carefully as if you were going to a fashionable reception.--every faculty of who se soul. untidily dressed person. Their style of dress bespeaks a type of character even more objectionable than that of the slovenly. If they can not by any possibility afford the coveted arti cle. as a rule. you will feel like a new person. The manners of both seem to have a subtle connection with their clothes. Nine times out of ten.young girl. with this erroneous idea in mind. and aspirants to success should be as careful in choosing their dr ess as their companions. measure the sense and self-respect o f the wearer. when you have an a ttack of the "blues.--put on your best clothes. who make it their chief object in life." is offset by this wise saying of some philosopher of the c ommonplace: "Show me all the dresses a woman has worn in the course of her life. whom Carlyle describes as "a clothes-wearing man. in view of its effect on ours elves and on those with whom we come in contact. devote most o f their waking hours to its study. to dress as well and becomingly as our position requires and our means will allow. or who. and the man and the woman. The knowledge that we are becomingly clothed acts like a mental tonic. the effect of which is only to make them look ridiculous. for she was undoubtedly well qualified to fill it in every respect. Young men of this stamp wear cheap rings. again and again. and broad checks.

Her face and hands and finger nails must be spotless as the muslin which surrounds them. testifies to the influence of dress on thought. her manner. or shabby apparel which not o nly robs one of self-respect. The down-at-heel old shoes are exchanged fo r suitable slippers. It was this pec uliar atmosphere which made Clay the idol of his constituents. "is good enough to go with this old wrapper. which no biograph a great deal to do with one's success in life. Every flower is dressed in richness. "Would you change the current of your thoughts? Change your raiment. This he always put on before entering his study. Beauty is of value. This is not an extravagant statement. and make one talk well. he never aroused any such enthusiasm as "the mill-b oy of the slashes. which some persons have in a remarkable degre e. clean wrapper than for the wearer of the old. The great thing is to teac h her their proper value.--puts on a dainty muslin garment instead. The consciousness of being well dressed g ives a grace and ease of manner that even religion will not bestow. every bird is clothed in the habiliments of the most exquisite taste. but also of comfort and power." Webster and Sumner were great men. she will find this out. but they did not arouse a tithe of the spontaneous enthusiasm evoked by men like Blaine and Clay. He decla red himself utterly incapable of thinking to good purpose except in full court d ress. ev ery field blushes beneath a mantle of beauty." says Sydney Smith. This subtle s but which no one can describe. Suppose she changes. She has much more respect for the wearer of the new. for instance. . every star is veiled in brightness . Her whole prospect and hap piness in life may often depend upon a new gown or a becoming bonnet. Good clothes give e ase of manner. omething which every one feels. while inferi ority of garb often induces restraint. how different her looks and acts! Her hair must be becomingly arranged. Although. He has put robes of beauty and glory upon all His works." "How exquisitely absurd it is. not even omitting his swo rd. and y ou will at once feel the effect. CHAPTER XVI PERSONALITY AS A SUCCESS ASSET There is something about one's the painter can not reproduce. unbecoming. Calhoun was a greater man. don an old soiled or worn wrapper. perhaps .--which makes people applaud beyond the bounds of enthusiasm. when we remember what an effect clothes have in in citing to personal cleanliness. Prentice Mulford declar es dress to be one of the avenues for the spiritualization of the race." she argues. Let a woman." Her walk. One can not but feel that God is a lover of appropriate dress. or what sort of slipshod shoes she wears. has personality which eludes the photographer. which which the sculptor can not chisel. but they have a much larger influe nce on man's life than we are wont to attribute to them. for "anything. Her mind runs along new channels." It is true that clothes do not make the man. If she has five grains of common sense. which sets an audience wild at the mention of the name of a Blaine or a Linco ln. so as not to be at odds with her dress. dress of no use." Even so great an authority as Buffon. And sure ly He is pleased when we provide a beautiful setting for the greatest of His han diworks. the natu ralist and philosopher. soiled one.and I will write you her biography. It is this indescribable quality. the general trend of her feelings. er ever put down in a book. will in some subtle way be dominated by the old wrapper. There is something about ill-fitting. It does not matter whether her face or h ands are clean or not. and it will have the effect of making her indifferent as to whethe r her hair is frowsy or in curl papers. "to teach a girl that beauty is of no value.

They unlock w ithin us possibilities of which we previously had no conception. We are often misled as to the position they are going to occupy from the fact that we are apt to take account merely of their ability . "we mu st first reckon with the orator's physical bulk. with better heart and newer hope. perhaps. for the moment. whic . Our horizon bro adens. to struggle to make permanently ours the forces and potentialities that have be en revealed to us. and we are fired with a desire to do more than we have ever before done. as if a bl ast of winter had struck us in midsummer. better selves. All at o nce life takes on a higher and nobler meaning. We express ourselves more clearly and eloquen tly than we believed we could. impulses and longings come thronging to our minds which never stirred us before.A historian says that. we constantly see men of m ediocre ability but with fine personal presence. the flashlight of a potent personality of this kind has opened a rift in our lives and revealed to us hidden capabilities. They are much larger than anything they say or do. Even a momentary contact with a character of this kind seems to double our ment al and soul powers. they introd uce us. we experience a sense of relief. A blighting. With their presence. narrowing sensation. to our larger. On the other hand. and yet so little of this personal element adheres to his cold words in print that those who read them are scarcely moved at all. Charm of personality is a divine gift that sways the strongest cha racters.--the atmosphere that eman ates from them. We have been touched to finer issues. as it were. has dropped out of sight. Certain personalities are greater than mere physical beauty and more powerful t han learning. have b een transformed. Yet this individual atmosphere has quite as much to do with o ne's advancement as brain-power or education. and magnetic qua lities. and we are loath to leave the magical presence lest we lose our new-born power. and then carry the measuring li ne above his atmosphere. for the first time. perhaps. we have caught a glimpse of higher ideals. We can converse with such people in a way that astonishes us. in measuring Kossuth's influence over the masses. at least. We are unconsciously influenced by people who possess this magnetic power. we frequently meet people who make us shrivel and shrink int o ourselves. superb manner. They draw out the best that is in us." If we had discernment fine enough and tests delicate e nough. and sometimes even controls the destinies of nations. when. and do not reckon this personal atmosphere or magnetic power as a part of thei r success-capital. we were sad and discouraged. A few minutes before. although meeting them. Indeed. despair to h ope. and disheartenment to encouragement. but cou ld also make more accurate estimates concerning the future possibilities of scho olmates and young friends. being rapidly advanced over the heads of those who are infinitely their superiors in mental endowments. as two great dynamos double the current which passes over th e wire. Sadness gives place to joy. and to be more than we have been in the past. The moment we come into their presence we have a sense of enlargement. The old commonplace life. we feel a new power stirring through all our being. suddenly. A good illustration of the influence of personal atmosphere is found in the ora tor who carries his audience with him like a whirlwind. while he is delivering h is speech. The influence of su ch speakers depends almost wholly upon their presence. we could not only measure the personal atmosphere of individuals. The moment they come near us we experience a cold chill. and. and we resolve. as if a great weight which long had pressed upon us had been removed . with its absence of purpose and endea vor.

it can be cultivated to a certain extent. The effect of their presence is paralyzing. This type of personalit y we may all cultivate if we will. their shadows are cast upon us and fill us with vague. but can not locate or describe it. Good taste is also one of the elements of personal charm. We instinctively feel that such people have no sympathy with our aspirations. Wh ile it is. cordiality of bearing. or the qualities that can be rated. a gift of nature. a nd our natural prompting is to guard closely any expression of our hopes and amb itions. Tact. t he entrance of some bright woman with a magnetic personality instantly changes t he whole situation. when conversation drags. People who possess this rare quality are frequently ignorant of the source of t heir power. Magnetic personality is intangible. who is genuinely interested in the welfare of others. We could no more smile in their presence than we could lau gh while at a funeral. and be able to do just the rig ht thing at the proper time. and the latter does not. When they are near us our laudable purposes and desires shrink into insi gnificance and mere foolishness. Their gloomy miasmatic atmosphere chills all our natural impulses. It is infinitely better than money capital. music. is a very important element. As a da rk cloud suddenly obscures the brightness of a smiling summer sky. which we sometim es call individuality. But we shall f ind that the man who practises unselfishness. they are sought for everyw here. He will bring encouragement to and uplift every life that touches his. passes over us. it is a privilege to speak to her. Much of the charm of a magnetic personality comes from a fine. It is often possessed in a high degree by very plain women . perhaps the most important. Of course. One must know exactly what to do. born in one. but everybody is attracted. This mysterious something.--the delightful art of pleas ing. the charm of sentiment vanishes and life seems to lose color and zest. Good judgment and common sense are indispensable to those who are trying to acquire this magic power. of possibility. are largely natural gifts. like poetry. At a social gathering. we shall find that the chief differ ence between them is that the first loves his kind. pleasing personalities. also.h seems to make us suddenly smaller. cultivated manne r. She may not be handsome. One of the greatest investments one can make is that of attaining a gracious ma nner. Many women are endowed with this magnetic quality. and interest is at a low ebb. They simply know they have it. They are more than welcome. In their presence there is no possibility of expansion for us.--even though polished manners and a gracious presence may be conspicuous by their absence. and we haste n from it as soon as possible. You can not offend the tastes of others without hur ting their sensibilities.--next to a fine manner. or art. generosity of feeling. undefinable uneasiness. He will b e trusted and loved by all who come in contact with him. is often more powerful than the ability which can be meas ured. If we study these two types of personality.--will be an elevating influence wherever he goes. . that rare charm of manner which captivates all those who come within the sphere of its influence. We feel a decided loss of p ower. This was notably the case with some of the women who ruled in the French salon s more absolutely than the king on his throne. for all doors fly open to sunny . and that strong personal magnetism which inclines all hearts toward its fortunate possessor. which is entirely independen t of personal beauty. who feels it a privilege to have the power to do a fellow-cr eature a kindness.

customers. if his personality repels. was crowded. gentlemanly. develops man hood.Many a youth owes his promotion or his first start in life to the disposition t o be accommodating. he must keep back his bad tendencies. agreeable. clients. Cultivate the art of being agreeable. and a popular business or professional man has every advantage in the world over a col d. clients. all of which are cultivatabl e. for. and builds up character. It will help you to self-expression as no thing else will. those personal qualities. Their fr iends call them "lucky dogs. when busin ess concerns go to the wall. he had a passion for helping people. Some men attract business. Such men are business magnets. Mr. which a ttract people to you. or patients will flock to him. by their likes and dislikes. he is on the road to success and happi ness as well. he w ill always be placed at a disadvantage. to find what a large percentage of it is due to their h abitual courtesy and other popular qualities. patients. long-headedness. it bring s clients to the lawyer. How many men have been able to start again after ha ving everything swept away by fire or flood. for making himself ag reeable under all circumstances. or some other disaster. where Lincoln boarded. The power to please is a tremendous asset. It pays to cultivate popularity. one must strangle selfishness. I never knew a thoroughly unselfish person who was not an attractive person." But if we analyze these men closely. They will take the place of capital. It is difficult to conceive of any more delightful birthright than to be born with this personal charm. his law partner. The ability to cultivate friends is a powerful aid to success. and business training would not. their s agacity. In trying to be popular." This generous desire to as sist others and to return kindnesses especially endeared Lincoln to the people. for the same reason that the steel particles point toward the magnet. because they had learned the art of bei ng agreeable. Everything seems to point their way. as naturally as magnet s attract particles of steel. To be popular. or influence. It is worth everything t o the clergyman. patients. to help along wherever he could. rude man ners drive away clients. Business moves toward them. but also in every field of life. of making friends and holding them with hooks of steel! People are influenced powerfully by their friendships. What can be more valuable than a per sonality which always attracts. perhaps. and sleep on the counter in his store with a roll of calico for his pillow. or customers. it will broaden your s ympathies. Somehow everybody in trouble turned to him for help. because it is made up of so many other qualities. if they shoul d analyze their success. an d companionable. for customers. when banks fail. No person who is always thinking of himself and trying to figure out how he can ge . Herndon. There is usually some charm of personality about them that wins all hearts. just becaus e they had cultivated popular qualities. says: "When the R utledge Tavern. he must be polite. Many successful business and professional men would be surprised. it will call out your success qualities. have amounte d to half so much. we find that they have attractive qualities. It makes statesmen and politicians. and patients to the physician. They ar e often a substitute for a large amount of hard work.--because they are attra cted. It doubles success possibilities. no matter how able a man may be. never repels? It is not only valuable in busines s. This was one of Lincoln's c hief characteristics. indifferent man. No matter what career you enter. even when they do no t apparently make half so much effort to get it as the less successful. you can not overestimate the i mportance of cultivating that charm of manner. if his coarse. and yet it is comparatively easy to cultivate . he would often give up his b ed. It is capital which will stand by one when panics come. Had it not been for these.

we are repelled by people who are always trying to get som ething out of us. when we should be broad. which is unmistaka ble. Who has not felt his power multiplied many times. regardless of others. who is always trying to make us comfortable and to give us every advantage he ca n. in the smile. There is a charm in a gracious personality from which it is very hard to get aw ay. is a g reat accomplishment. and magnanimous. to make a good impression at the very first meeting. those with great personal charm. for our success and happiness depend largely upon them. stingy soul is not lovable. and this is what commands a great salary. they would acc omplish wonders. There must be heartiness in the ex pression. genero us. The hardest natures can not resist these qualities any more than the eyes c an resist the sun. he first draws from his audience. and a keener edge put on all of his faculties. It is difficult to snub the man who possesses it. a coarse. so that he could say things and do things impossible to him when alone? The power of the orator. in the cordiality. trying to get away from the sh adows. to their sharpening our faculties. who are always looking for the easiest chair. People shrink from such a character. are developed. who are always wanting to be waited on first at the restaura nt or hotel. The secret of pleasing is in being pleasant yourself. wit hout raising the least prejudice. A fine manner pleases. a . which he flings back to his listeners. or how much you may dislike to be interrupted. or for the choicest bits at the table. We cannot help bein g attracted to one who is always trying to help us. to get the best seat in a car or a hall. people will love to get n ear you. Many of us are n o better than uneducated heathens. Everybody is attracted by lovable qualities and is repelled by the unlovely whe rever found. We little realize what a large part of our achievement is due to others working through us. but we give ourselves out stingily and we live narrow and reserved lives. but he could never get it from the separate individuals any more than the chemist could get the full power from chemicals standing in s eparate bottles in his laboratory. in the hand-shake. We are naturally d isgusted with people who are trying to get everything for themselves and never t hink of anybody else. when coming into contact with a stron g personality which has called forth hidden powers which he never before dreamed he possessed. his intellect sharpened. We may know enough. brutal manner repels. It is in contact and combination only that ne w creations. The narrow. take infinite pains to cultiva te all the little graces and qualities which go to make up popularity. The ability to bring the best that is in you to the man you are trying to reach . who elbow their way in front of us. to approach a prospective customer as though you had known him for years without offending his taste. but getting his sympathy and good will. If you radiate sweetness and light. If you would be agreeable. somehow you haven't the heart to turn away the man with a pleasing personality. new forces. The whole principle of an attractive personality lives in this sent ence.--who gives us his sympathy. radiating hope. On the other hand. There is something about h im which arrests your prejudice. you must be magnanimous.t some advantage from everybody else will ever be attractive. for we are all looking for the sunlight. sympathetic. and no matter how busy or how worried you may b e. If people who are naturally unsocial would only spend as much time and take as much pains as people who are social favorites in making themselves popular. in being interesting. encouragement. Popular people. It is unfortunate that these things are not taught more in the home and in the school.

nd helpfulness into our lives. The man who mixes with his fellows is ever on a voyage of discovery. brighten the ideals . the more generous of yourself. The current will not set toward you un til it goes out from you. remains a pygmy in everythin g except his own little specialty. Thei r faculties are sharpened and polished by the attrition of mind with mind. the more magnanimous you are. narrowly. and open up new hopes and possibilities. because we can always carry away somethin g of value. something which will enrich your life. if he can on ly extract it. Two people with a strong affinity often call into activity in each other a power which neither dreamed he possessed before. It is astonishing how much you can learn from people in social intercourse when you know how to look at them rightly. Two substances totally unlike. The more you rad iate yourself. but having a chemical affinity for each other. and esp ecially of mixing with those above us. If you go into social life with a determination to give it something. But you must give it something. You will not receive if you give out stingily. generous way. something which he never knew before. Artists have been touched by the po wer of inspiration through a masterpiece. A man who might have been symmetrical. for developing the latent brain cells. which stimulate ambition. Book knowledge is valuable. finding ne w islands of power in himself which would have remained forever hidden but for a ssociation with others. . m ay produce a third infinitely stronger than either. About all you get from others is a reflex of the curre nts from yourself. the more you get in return. No man finds himself alone. and sustaining and inspiring us mentally. You must give much in order to get much. It is always a mistake to miss an opportunity of meeting with our kind. well-rounded. you will not find society either a bore or unprofitable. or by some one they happened to meet w ho saw in them what no one else had ever seen. but the k nowledge which comes from mind intercourse is invaluable. We are apt to overestimate the value of an education from books alone. an d make you more of a man. that we become polished and attractive. which have remained dormant for the lack of exercise. or even both of those which unite. or you will receive only stingy rivule ts. because he did not cultivate his social side. The more generously you give.--the power to do an immortal thin g. But it is a fact that you can only get a great deal out of them by giving them a great deal of yourself. to make i t a school for self-improvement. for calling out your best social qualities. something which will enrich his life. You must give of y ourself in a whole-hearted. his cleverest saying to a friend who has aroused in him latent powers which otherwise might have remained dormant. which will enlarge and broaden your experience. or you will not get anything. the more you will get back. When you learn to look upon every one you meet as holding a treasure. Everybody he meets has some secret for him. and t he pitting of brain against brain. the reenforcement. something which will help h im on his way. had he availed himself of every opportunity of touching life along all sides. Others are his discoverers. when you might have had great rivers and torrents of blessings. the more you fling yourself out to them without reserve. you will not think the time in the drawing-room wasted . the buttressing of character by association. A large part of the value of a college education comes from the social intercourse of th e students. It is through social intercourse that our rough corners are rubbed o ff. meanly. Many an author owes his great est book.

Secretiveness repels as much as frankness attracts. It was all because he had a heart in him. as in frank. who wo n the love and good will of everyone. they are always in sight. His heart is sound and true." . Eliot was president of Harvard. and wh o do not try to cover up their faults and weaknesses. He endeavors to hide every trait that is not favorable to himself. the people who have nothing to conceal. Frankness of manner is one of the most delightful of traits in young or old. It he has bad qualities. There is always a feeling of uncertainty. In the Black Hills of South Dakota there lived a humble. he answered." Bright. because he is always ready to confess his faults. no matter h ow good they may seem to be. and who is frank. He could scarcely write his name. a great many able. and may deal squarely with us. if he ca n help it. handsome young men. but there is a lurking fea r of some pitfall or unknown danger ahead of us.--are conduci ve to the growth of the highest manhood and womanhood. He was elected mayor of his town. The very qualities he possesses--frankness and simplicity. were there seeking t heir fortune. There is something about th e very inclination to conceal or cover up which arouses suspicion and distrust. by their very f rankness and simplicity. We may come out all right. We are uncomfortable because of the uncertainties." said an Engli sh miner. They inspire love and confidence. large -hearted and magnanimous. he said. invite the same qualities in others. ignorant miner. although he coul d not speak a grammatical sentence. broad and liberal! How quickly he wins our confidence! How we all like and trust him! We forgive him for many a slip or wea kness.The man who is determined to get on will look upon every experience as an educa tor. which will make his life a little more shapely and att ractive. and knew nothing of the usages of polite society. sunny natures. yet he so intrenched himself in the hearts in his community t hat no other man. He always 'elps the boys when in trouble. as a culture chisel. but we are not sure and can not trust them. CHAPTER XVII IF YOU CAN TALK WELL When Charles W. we can never rid ourselves of the feeling that there is a moti ve behind his graciousness. He is a lways more or less of an enigma. and to make amends for them. he's a man. They are. They may be all right. who has no secrets. "You can't 'elp likin' 'im. graduates of Eastern colleges. Dealing with these secr etive people is like traveling on a stage coach on a dark night. but none of them held the public confidence like this poor man. however educated or cultured. and that he has an ulterior purpose in view. You never go to 'im for nothin'. his sympathies are broad and active. and we are ready to mak e allowances for them. had the slightest chance of bein g elected to any office of prominence while "Ike" was around. and. an accurate and refined use of the mother-tongue. Ev erybody admires the open-hearted. he was a man. No matter how polite or gracious a secreti ve person may be. and when asked why the miners and the people in the town couldn't help liking him. "I recognize but one m ental acquisition as an essential part of the education of a lady or gentleman. who reveal s his heart to us. do we get a glimpse of the real man. Never. We cannot have the same confidence in people who possess this trait. and sent to the legislature. because he goes through life wearing a mask. "Because he has a 'eart in 'im. How different the man who comes out in the open. as a rule. strong men drawn there from different parts of the country by the gold fever. namely.

who reads. A man who can talk well. is to be the possessor of a very great accomplishment. So-and-So to dinners or receptions because she is such a good talker. no matter what your sta tion in life may be. or how much it may hav e cost you. and yet travel around the world without having an opp ortunity of showing your accomplishment. Everyone knows whether you are an artist or a bungler. you cannot use your expertness always and everywhere as you can the power to converse well. as the ability to converse wel l. A noted society leader. If you are a musician. able to interest people. who has the art of putting things in an attractive way . It sends you clients. you may have a great many accomplishments which people occasionally se e or enjoy. if used as an educator. has a very great a dvantage over one who may know more than he. it also helps you to make and keep friends. Everybody wants to invite Mrs. who can interest others immediately by his power of speech. esp ecially upon those who do not know us thoroughly. patients. Good talkers are always sought after in society. even though you are poor. you may have spent years with great masters. to draw them to you naturally. thinks. To be a good conversationalist. always gives this advice to her protégés. but talk . But wherever you go and in whatever society you are. but chatter away lightly and gayly. but if you are a good converser. everyo ne with whom you talk will feel the influence of your skill and charm. no matter how talented you may be." There is a helpful suggestion in this advice. but people enjoy her society because she can t alk well. to rivet their attenti on. It opens doors and softens he arts. It makes you interesting in all sorts of company. It helps you into the be st society. you talk.Sir Walter Scott defined "a good conversationalist" as "one who has ideas. It helps you to get on i n the world. everyone who comes in contact with you will see your life-picture. Conversation. by the very superiority of your conversationa l ability. "Talk. or how many years you may have spent in perfecting yourself in your specialty. The temptation for people who are unaccustomed to society. No matter how expert you may be in any other art or accomplishment. which you have been painting ever since you began to talk . She enter tains. You may be a fine singer." There is no other one thing which enables us to make so good an impression. talk. but who cannot express himself with ease or eloquence. Nothing embarrasses and bores the average man so much as a girl who has to be entertained. It does not ma tter much what you say. who has been very successful in the launching of débutant es in society. and yet. listens. and who has therefore something to say. one which is s uperior to all others. comparatively few people will ever see them. It not only helps you to make a good impression upon stra ngers. customers. But if you are an artist in conversation. is to say nothing themselves and listen to what others say. and you may have a very beautiful home and a lot of property which c omparatively few people ever know about. is a tremendous power developer. unl ess you have very marked ability so that your pictures are hung in the salons or in the great art galleries. In fact. The way to learn to talk is to ta lk. She may have many defects. only comparatively few people can ever hear or appreciate your music . You may be a painter. or without anyone guessing your special ty. and who feel diff ident.

b ecause it is so much easier to do so than it is to think before we speak. loud. and how you say it. but never can put it in logical. "Search me". without an effort to express oneself with clearness. It lies too deep for such superficial effort. Poor conversers excuse themselves for not trying to improve by saying that "goo d talkers are born. because we do not make an art of i t. disappointed ambition. slipshod speech. and has cultivated conversation as a fine art. in coarse slang expressions. will betray all your secrets. no attainment which you can use so constantly and e ffectively. Many a man owes his advancement very largely to his ability to converse well. "You're talking through your hat". limpid beauty. We do not read eno ugh or think enough." and a score of other such vulgarities we often hear. There is no accomplishment.ing without thinking. is a great pow er. senseless things--things which do not rise to the level of humor." We might as well say that good lawyers. conci seness. They use the first words that come to them. or efficiency. or gossiping. and accuracy. "You just bet". is always placed at a great disadvantage. an d yet you can become an interesting talker. who knows a thing. You may be situated so t hat others are dependent upon you. slipshod English. I know a business man who has cultivated the art of conversation to such an ext ent that it is a great treat to listen to him. Most of us are bunglers in our conversation. because in every sentence you utter you can practise the best form of expression. taste. saying nothing but the most frivolous. not made. Every book you read. or commanding language. and power. his words are chosen with such exquisite delicacy. will giv e the world your true measure. What you say. Most of us express ourselves in sloppy. he gets on my n erves. lowers one's ideals and all the standards of life. that's the limit". interesting. flippant. Few people think very much about how they are going to express themselves. not made. there is such a refinement in his diction that he charms everyone who hears him speak. as you long to. It will tell your whole life's story. every person with whom you converse. The man who has a bungling expression. "Well. to mak e an effort to express ourselves with elegance. who uses good English. we do not take the trouble or pains to learn to talk well. frothy. None of them would ever get very f ar without hard work. "I hate that man. T he ability to interest people in your conversation. Nothing else will indicate your fineness or coarseness of culture. the average society small talk. but the foolish. to hold them. your breedin g or lack of it. mere chattering. you may be tortured with an unsatisfied. Thousands of young people who envy such of their mates as are getting on faster than they are keep on wasting their precious evenings and their half-holidays. you may be tied down to an iron environment. His language flows with such liqu id. coarse voices are heard in light. because it beg ets habits of superficial and senseless thinking. silly talk which demoralizes o ne's ambition. On the streets. This is the price of all achievement that is of value. which will give so much pleasure to your friends. can help you. good phys icians. a nd in public places. You may think you are poor and have no chance in life. They do not think of forming a sentence . and you may not be able to go to school or co llege. All his life he has been a reader of the finest prose and poet ry. will never get hold of the best thing in a man. or to study music or art. There is no doubt that the gift of language was intended to be a much greate r accomplishment than the majority of us have ever made of it. as fine conversati on. or good merchants are born. so quickly as your conversation. on the cars. ease.

the purity. in these strenuous times. liquid diction. Julia Ward Howe. There were no great daily newspapers. P." Mrs. we no longer have time to r eflect with deliberation. that we should make such a botch of the medium of uman beings. power. with little thought of arrangement or order. The deterioration is due to the complete revolution in the condition s of modern civilization. the fascination of his personality. and Elizabeth S. the transparency of his dicti on. brevity. Ward. The great discoveries of vast wealth in the precious minerals. when it is capable of being made the art of it is such a treat and bunglers in our convers communication between h arts. the new world op ened up by inventions and discoveries. Formerly people had almost no other way of communicati ng their thoughts than by speech. I shall never forget. the liquid charm of his words. It is a rare thing to find a polished conversationalist to-day. We all know people who use the c hoicest language and express their thoughts in fluent. after we have heard them talk than we felt before. The words flow from t heir lips helter-skelter. In olden times the art of conversation reached a much higher standard than that of to-day. There i s no longer the same need of communicating thought by the spoken word. Livermore. when ev erybody has the mania to attain wealth and position. I have met several Englis h people who possessed that marvelous power of "soul in conversation which charm s all who come under its spell. had this won derful conversational charm. He sat down on the sofa beside me and talked as he would to an old schoolmate. I have met a dozen persons in my lifetime who have given me such a glimpse of i ts superb possibilities that it has made all other arts seem comparatively unimp ortant to me.so that it will have beauty. that it is in deed a luxury. and using a superb diction. as has ex-President Eliot of Harvard. Now and then we meet a real artist in conversation. the profundity of his knowledge. to be somebo dy. In these gr eat newspaper and periodical days. and his marvelous art of putting things. and the great impetus to ambition have ch anged all this. and delight that we wonder why the most of us should be such ation. In this lightning-express age. and it seemed to me that I had never heard such exquisite and polished English. . We do not feel any more determined to do something in the world. no magazi nes or periodicals of any kind. Printing has become so chea p that even the poorest homes can get more reading for a few dollars than kings and noblemen could afford in the Middle Ages. Knowledge of all kinds was disseminated almost wholly through the spoken word. and the music of his voice. but that is all there is to i t. Oratory is becoming a lost art for the same reason. but whose words are so full of meat and stimulating brain force that we feel ourselves multiplied many times by the power they have injected into us. eve rybody sits behind the morning sheet or is buried in a book or magazine. Mary A. The quality of the conversation is everything. they do not stimulate us to actio n. who impre ss us by the wonderful flow of their conversation. So rare is it t o hear one speaking exquisite English. I was once a visitor at Wendell Phillips's home in Boston. transparency. when everybody can get for one or a few cents the news and information which it has cost thousands of dollars to collect. and to develop our powers of conversation. We know other people who talk very little. They do not impress us with their thoughts.

The grinding does not add anything to the diamond. you must be as much as possible in the socie ty of well-bred. when they are infinitely bette r informed than those who are making a great deal of display of oratory or smoot h talk. sit silent. Timid young people often suffer keenly in this way in att empting to declaim at school or college. you may be sure that every honest effort you make. shallow-brained person holds the at tention of those present simply because he can tell what he knows in an interest ing way. But many a great orator went through th e same sort of experience. They talk around in a circle. They have not words enough to clothe their id eas and make them attractive. unable to tell what they know. but i t will also increase one's vocabulary. but it must be exh ibited. when they want a particular word to convey their exact meaning. If you are ambitious to talk well. they can not find it. when they make an effort to say something and cannot. who know a great deal. Many people--and this is especially true of scholars--seem to think that the gr eat desideratum in life is to get as much valuable information into the head as possible. It does not matter how valuable the rough diamond may be. nobody would appreciate it until it was ground and polished and the light let into its depths to reveal its hidden brilliancy. before the world will appreciate it or give credit for it. will not only broaden the mind and give new ideas. If you find that your ideas fly from you when you attempt to express them. We see brainy men at public gatherings. when he first attempted to speak in public and was of ten deeply humiliated by his blunders and failures. if one keeps on trying. You may be a profound scholar. repeat and repeat. you will be a poor converser. especially the timid and shy. if your knowledge is locked up within you. Everywhere we see people placed at a tremendous disadvantage because they have never learned the art of putting their ideas into interesting. . you may be wonderfully well-posted in science. If you seclude yourself. who have that awfu l feeling of repression and stifling of thought. There is no other way. w ould avail. often appear like a set of dummies in company. wil l make it all the easier for you to speak well the next time. People with a lot of ability. l iterature. It is remarkable.Good reading. and yet. while some superficial. because they can not carry on an intelligent c onversation upon any topic. you will always be placed at a great disadvantage. telling language. no describing its marvels of beauty within. expressed in some attractive way. but they cannot express them because o f the poverty of their vocabulary. and art. cultured people. We all sympathize with people. They are constantly humiliated and embarrassed when away from those who happen to know their real worth. how quickly he will conquer his awkwardness and self-con sciousness. n o explaining. Locked-up ability may give the individual some satisfaction. however. and that is a great aid to conversation. Conversation is to th e man what the cutting of the diamond is to the stone. howev er. to become an orator or a good conversationalist than by constantly trying to express oneself efficiently and elegantly. Many people have good thoughts and ideas. when momentous questions are being disc ussed. It merely reveals its wealth. that you stammer and flounder about for words which you are unable to find. There are hundreds of these silent people at our nat ional capital--many of them wives of husbands who have suddenly and unexpectedly come into political prominence. and its great value. you may be well r ead in history and in politics. b ecause. even if you fail in your attempt. though you are a coll ege graduate. and will gain ease of manner and facility of expression. But it is just as important to know how to give out knowledge in a pal atable manner as to acquire it.

as the mixing of two chemicals often produces a new third substance. we are such an impatient people that we have no time for anything excepting to push ahead. children are allowed to mangle th e English language in a most painful way. but we are poor listeners as well. Every good converser has felt a power come to him from the lis tener which he never felt before. customers or show their ability to give us a boost for poli tical position. but who have cultivated the art o f self-expression. or which d oes not help us to attain the position for which we are striving. To converse well one must listen well also--hold oneself in a receptive attitud e. intelligently. upon all sorts of topics. we are inclined to look upon them as so many rungs in a ladde r. We lack time. We have no time to develop charm of manner. We think more of ourselves if w e can talk well. Conversation is a great ability discoverer. Before these days of hurry and drive. perhaps snap our watch. or more money. a charm of s tyle. For the hun . send u s patients. No man knows what he really possesses until he makes his best effort to express to others what is in him. our self-confidence. and which often stimulates and inspires to fre sh endeavor. "We are too intense for epigram or repartee. to elbow our way through the crowd to get the position or the money we desire." Nervous impatience is a conspicuous characteristic of the American people. We are too impatient to listen. clients. Many a college graduate has been silenced and put to shame by peo ple who have never even been to a high school. the faculties are on the alert. The school and the college employ the student comparatively a few hours a day f or a few years. and to value them in proportion as they furnish readers for our books. the contact of mind with mind . interestingly. We look about impatiently. Many get the b est part of their education in this school. before this age of excitement. for there was a touch of personality. In fact. a magnetism which held. conversation is a training in a perpetual school. develops new powers. we have not enough respect for the talker to keep qu iet. The power to do so increase s our self-respect. It stimulates thought wonderfully. Ever ything bores us which does not bring us more business. Then the avenues of the mind fly open. and interrupt the speaker before he reaches his conclusion. than anyth ing one could find in a book. Our life is feverish and unnatural. or elegance of diction. play a tattoo with our f ingers on a chair or a table. Instead of being attentive and eager to drink in th e story or the information. Nothing else will develop the brain and character more than the constant effort to talk well. a great revealer of possibilities a nd resources. We know people who are such superb conver sers that no one would ever dream that they have not had the advantages of the h igher schools. it was con sidered one of the greatest luxuries possible to be a listener in a group surrou nding an intelligent talker. Instead of enj oying our friends. a superb personality which fascinated. hitch about as if we were bored and were anxious t o get away. The mingling of thought with thought. if we can interest and hold others.How little parents realize the harm they are doing their children by allowing t hem to grow up ignorant of or indifferent to the marvelous possibilities in the art of conversation! In the majority of homes. It was better than most modern lectures. We are not only poor conversationalists. There is a splendid discipline in the constant effort to express one's thoughts in clear language and in an interesting manner.

more patients. how they can make more show." We have no time to stop on the street and give a decent salutation. thinking how they can get on a little faster--get more business. instead of by a graceful bow. If you would make yourself agreeable you must be able to enter into the life of the people you are conversing with. But to-day everything is "touch and go. but they do not care a snap about your affairs. One cause for our conversational decline is a lack of sympathy. sometimes. or what your ambition is. No one ca n make a good conversationalist who is not sympathetic. business." accompanied by a sh arp nod of the head. We have no time for the grace s and the charms. and you must touch them along the lines of their interest. and wrapped up in our own little wor ld. almost helpless. and m ade them feel at home. We are like some coll ege boys. thinki ng. or abandon themselves to the occasion enough to make good talkers. that our finer life is crushed out. or more readers for the ir books--or a better house to live in. We pay people for doing that while we sit and laugh. We have no time to make our own amusement or to develop the faculty of humor and fun-making as people used t o do. because their minds are somewhere else. You must be able to ente r into another's life. and powerless to enter heartily into t he conversation because they are in a subjective mood. Life is becoming so artificial. There are only two things that interest them. A new type of in dividual has sprung up. and the possibility of a fine culture and a superb charm of personality in us are almost impossible and extremely rare. They are thinking. too busily engaged in our own welfare. business.gry soul. or how they can help you. Spontaneity and humor. business and their own little worl d. to live it with the other person. It is pitiable. to see men standing around at the average reception or club gathering. they are interested at once. though she talked very little. She had such a cordial. to drink in knowledge from those wise lips was to be fed with a royal feast indeed. more clients. too intent upon our own self-promotion to be interested in others. so diverse from naturalness. distant. dumb. their affections on themselves and their own affairs. to be a good listener o r a good talker. the charm of the days of chivalry and leisure has almost vanished from our civilization. Everything must give way to the material. selfish. and unsympathetic state. It is: "How do?" or "Morning. Great conversationalists have always been very tactful--interesting without off ending. She dissipated their fears. We are too self ish. They are cold and reserved. Some people have the peculiar quality of touching the . and they could say things to her which they could not say to anyone else. how you get on. sympathe tic manner that she helped the timid and the shy to say their best things. People thought her an interesting c onversationalist because she had this ability to call out the best in others. It does not do to stab people if you would interest them. if it does not happen to interest those to whom you are talking your efforts will be largely lo st. thinking business. We work like Trojans during the day. We have no time for the development of a fine manner. nor to drag ou t their family skeletons. They do not enter heartily into the lives of others. who depend upon tutors to carry them through their examinations--they expect to buy their education ready-made. yearning for an education. we driv e our human engines at such a fearful speed. so forced. Our conversation will never reach a high standard while we l ive in such a feverish. Walter Besant used to tell of a clever woman who had a great reputation as a co nversationalist. No matter how much you may know about a subject. If you talk about these things. and then rush to a theater or other place of amusement in the evening.

disgusts. You must feel a spirit o f helpfulness. buoyant. which. He put people at ease with his stories and jokes. will make you appear well if you use poor English. although there is appare . however. others stir up the bad.best that is in us. With hat in hand. A good conversationalist. CHAPTER XVIII A FORTUNE IN GOOD MANNERS Give a boy address and accomplishments. and of fairness. it ought to be in his personality. If you are co ld. You must be responsive. and exp ress itself in his manner. no amount of money. every avenue is closed to him. Thou must rather enforce it with thy smile. and the con versation is perfunctory. and must show a spirit of good will. nat ural. Your magnetism and your helpfulness are thus cut off. and always gave more than he got. and you give him the mastery of palaces and fortunes wherever he goes. You must bring your listener close to you. SHAKESPEARE. Politeness has been compared to an air cushion. No amount of natural ability or education or good clothes. never inter ests you. Vivacity is abs olutely necessary. you will make yourself ludicrous by attempting to be funny. You lock tight all the approaches to your inner self. and. mechanical. Every time they come into our presen ce they irritate us. of justice. distant. weary. so that he wil l throw wide open every avenue of his nature and give you free access to his hea rt of hearts.--GERMAN PROVERB. one gets on in the world. and made them feel so comple tely at home in his presence that they opened up their mental treasures to him w ithout reserve. Heavy conversation bores. and they call out all that is spontaneous and sweet and beauti ful. But not everyone can be funny. A narrow stingy soul never talks well. A sense of humor such as Lincoln had is. Than hew to it with thy sword. Therefore. They never touch our sensitive spots. sympathetic. if you lack the sense o f humor. You must get the attention of people and hold it by interesting them. If a man is a success anywhere. and an open mind. Lincoln was master of the art of making himself interesting to everybody he met . He does not deal too muc h with facts. Others allay all that is disagreeable. is not too serious. they solicit him to enter and possess. of course. What thou wilt. in his power to express himself in strong. effective. tolerant. You must be broad. he has not the trouble of earning or owning them . interesting language. to be a good conversationalist you must be spontaneous. a great addition to one's c onversational power. A greater wealth should flow from his lips. must open your heart wide. and exhib it a broad free nature. statistics. A man who i s always violating your sense of taste. no matter how important. Strangers were always glad to talk with him because he was so co rdial and quaint. and unsympathetic you can not hold their attention.--EMERSON. He should not be obliged to give a stranger an inventory of his possessions in order to show tha t he has achieved something. and you ca n only interest them by a warm sympathy--a real friendly sympathy. Facts. and must enter heart and soul into things which interest others. too light. and without life or feeling.

but floated from out the bowers of the sky. After a long interval there came a gentle tapping and the low spo ken words: "It is I. sought the seclusion of his own apartment. and he seemed to change the hell into a heaven. The foliage and flowers and fruits and harvests. your wife. all the beasts and birds a nd men smiled at its coming. saying that no place could . "Has 'e 's been han hofficer 'e bought to know 'ow to be'ave 'isself better. and Prince Albert. men cut down forests for th eir fires and explore the mines of continents for coal to feed their furnaces. In about five minutes some one knocked." Is it necessary to add that the door was opened.--GEORGE L. the pinions of birds and the sails of vessels were gently wafted onward. but it expresses pretty forcibly the fact that a good bearing is indispensable to success as a soldier. He was remove d to the lowest depths of Hades. The story goes that Queen Victoria once expressed herself to her husband in rat her a despotic tone. but with the same result. and all the r ivers and lakes and seas. helse 'e might just has well be a Methodist parson. What use 'ud 'e be has a non-commissioned hoffice r hif 'e didn't dare look 'is men in the face? Hif a man wants to be a soldier.--MATTHEW ARNOLD. There was no reply. and even the good angels went a long way to see him and live with him. With one sweep of my wing I st rew the coast from Labrador to Cape Horn with shattered ship timber. At length the angel returned with the monk. died while under the ban of e xcommunication by the pope. "Why. hi say. or that the disagreement was at an end? It is said that civility is to a man what beauty is to a woman: it creates an instantaneous impression in hi s behalf. but breedin's better. I can lift and have often lifted the Atlantic. His inborn politeness and kindness of heart were irresistible.--SCOTCH PROVERB. "Who is it?" inquired the Prince. I am the terror of all invalids. eases our jolts wonderfully. whe n I start they hail me by storm signals all along the coast. "It is I. and to keep me from piercing to the very marrow of their bones. The monk Basle. Gardens bloomed. and was sent in charge of an angel to find his prope r place in the nether world. "Don't you wish you had my power?" asked the East Wind of the Zephyr. I can twist off a s hip's mast as easily as you can waft thistledown. orchards ripened.ntly nothing in it. "Why the doose de 'e 'old 'is 'ead down like that?" asked a cockney sergeant-ma jor angrily. and health and happ iness were everywhere. The fallen angels adopted his manner. fleecy clouds went sailing in the lofty heaven. switch 'is stick abart a bit. Conduct is three fourths of life. whose manly self-respect was smarting at her words. Open to the Queen of England!" haughtily responded her Majesty. U nder my breath the nations crouch in sepulchers. Birth's gude. when a worthy fellow soldier wished to be reinstated in a position from which he had been dismissed. according to a quaint old legend." The English is somewhat rude. Mien and manner have much to do with our influence and reputation in any walk of life. silver wheat-fie lds turned to gold. Victoria. CAREY. closing and locking the d oor. But his genial disposition and great conversational powers won friends wherever he went. all the forests and fields. an give a crack hover the 'ead to hanybody who comes foolin' round 'im. let 'im cock 'is chin hup. the warm th and sparkle and gladness and beauty and life were the only answer Zephyr gave to the insolent question of the proud but pitiless East Wind. Don't you wish you had my power ?" Zephyr made no reply.

The charm of his manner was irresistible and influe nced all Europe. for there is no roast to-day. the privileged circle at Coppet after making an excursi on returned from Chambéry in two coaches. and breathed a purer air. At the great recep tion to Napoleon on his return from Italy." It is said that when Goethe entered a restaurant people would lay down their kn . shocking roads. "When Dickens entered a room. H er hold upon the minds of men was wonderful. "If I were Queen. Madame. The party in the second coach heard their stor y with surprise." "When sh e had passed. but she was so overcome by the fine manner of the accused that she believed in his innocence and prayed for his acquittal. A guest for two weeks at the house of Arthur M. they had forgotten earth. the crowd caught sight of this fascin ating woman and almost forgot to look at the great hero. whom he regarded as an arch-traitor. Our door-yards brighter blooming. and she shaped careers as if she were omnipotent. "one an ecdote more. no. commonplace and ashamed. and dange r and gloom to the whole company. such a conversation between Madame de Staël and Madame Récamier and Benjamin Constant and Schlegel! they were all in a state of delight. The intoxication of the conversation had made t hem insensible to all notice of weather or rough roads. of danger. Roche in Paris. But sh e was so fascinated by Burr's charming manner that she sat with his friends. And all about the social air Is sweeter for her coming. Beuve. A gentleman took his daughter of sixteen to Richmond to witness the trial of hi s bitter personal enemy." as Longfellow wrote of Evangeline.. was very desirous of knowing how he fed himself. So his sente nce was revoked." said Madame Tesse. they knew nothi ng. They were the creatures of her will ." Madame Récamier was so charming that when she passed around the box at the Church St. of mud." said one who knew him well. "I should command Madame de Staël to talk to me every day. He still remained the same Basle. "Please. The Duke of Marlborough "wrote English badly and spelled it worse. Cavanaugh. P." whispered a servant to Madame de Maintenon at dinner. Even the Emperor Napoleon fe ared her influence over his people so much that he destroyed her writings and ba nished her from France. but the conver sation and manner of the host were so charming that the visitor was scarcely con scious of his deformity. of steeps. In the words of Whittier it could be said of her as might be said of any woman: -Our homes are cheerier for her sake. "To this day. "it seemed like the ceasing of exquisite music. and he was sent to Heaven and canonized as a saint. twenty thousand francs were put into it. by which every one was warmed." She was so fascinating in manner and speech that her guests appeared to overlook all the little discomforts of life. According to St." said she fifty years afterwards. Those arriving in the first coach had a rueful experience to relate--a terrific thunder-storm. "it was like the sud den kindling of a big fire. who was witho ut arms or legs." Madame de Staël was anything but beautiful. and locked her up. His fascinating smile and winning speech disarmed the fiercest hatred and made friends of the bitterest enemies. of thunder-storm. but she possessed that indefinable so mething before which mere conventional beauty cowers.be found in which to punish him. Her father took her from the courtroom." yet he sway ed the destinies of empires. "I feel the m agic of his wonderful deportment. Aaron Burr. M.

She withd rew in confusion. Silent and abashed. Arthur when Mr. to the c onsternation of the others. She co ughed and moved uneasily. after telegraphing an account of President Arthur's fishing-trip to the Thousand Islands." whereat the courtiers were ready to faint. Julian Ralph." said Mr. when a somewhat stout man sitting just ahead of her lighted a cigar. but he had fallen asleep and I hated to wake him. returned to his hotel at two o'clock in the morning. He understood so little of the manners at court that. offering him the tit le of nobleman." said a simple-minded member of a jury that had given five successive verdicts to the great advocate. that's all right. quickly noting the cause of the untimely amusem ent. the other members of the princely household took the r ebuke and did the same. but the same fine courtesy which led him to give up his cigar was shown again as he spared her the mortification of even a questioning glance. Ralph asked his pardon. but what was his chagrin when the door wa s opened by the President of the United States! "Why. which he declined." The late King Edward. immovable fig ure with apprehension until she reached the door. His great popularity lay in a magical atmosphere which every one felt. after speaking to her a few minutes. A New York lady had just taken her seat in a car on a train bound for Philadelp hia. to find all the doors locked. drank from his saucer. and what it may have cost h er. but the hints had no effect. after hearing the report of Demosthenes' famous oration. Queen Victoria sent for Carlyle. With two friends who had accompanied him. when Prince of Wales. can be better understood from what an acquaintance of Carlyle said of him wh . still less of a look of amusement. feeling that he had always been a nobleman in his own right. but threw hi s cigar from the window. madam. His manner seemed touched by that exquisite grace seldom found except in women of rare culture." His manner as well as his logic was irresistible. who was a Scotch peasant. An open titter of amusement w ent round the table. being tired. Smoking is not permitted here. a moment later. I could have sent my colored boy. sai d: "Had I been there he would have persuaded me to take up arms against myself. the first gentleman in Europe. What has her astonishment when the conductor told her. Philip of Macedon. When Edward Everett took a professor's chair at Harvard after five years of stu dy in Europe. he said. "I don't think much of Choate's spread-eagle talk. gravely emptied his cup into his saucer and drank after the manner of his g uest. but no one could d escribe. for there was not one of those five cases that ca me before us where he wasn't on the right side. so she said tartly: "You probably are a foreigner. The Que en's courteous suspension of the rules of etiquette. "L et us sit down. the guest. he battere d at a side door to wake the servants. and gave a gesture that seated all her puppets in a moment. and which never left him. and do not know that there is a smoking-car attached t o the train." The man made no reply.ives and forks to admire him. invi ted an eminent man to dine with him. and make a speech to himself and his wife. "but I call him a very lucky lawyer." Henry Clay was so graceful and impressive in his manner that a Pennsylvania tav ern-keeper tried to induce him to get out of the stage-coach in which they were riding. when prese nted to the Queen. "You wouldn't have got in till morning if I had not come. although she watched his dumb. that she had entered the private car of General Grant. But she was g reat enough. When coffee was served. No one is up in the house b ut me. he was almost worshiped by the students. The Prince.

as she passed through the reception rooms. To be "the ticket. a bust of the Princess Royal was thrown from its pedestal and damaged. to act or talk by the card. contentment. Even royal courts furnish many exa mples of bad manners. and love.en he saw him for the first time. 'I will!'--namely. But whence do they obtain such magic power? What is the secret of that almost h ypnotic influence over people which we would give anything to possess? Courtesy is not always found in high places. actually stood upon it. The secret of her personality that made her the Empress not only of the hearts of the Frenchmen. that. It was fortunate for Napoleon that he married Josephine before he was made comm ander-in-chief of the armies of Italy.'" "It was only a glad 'good-morning. 'I will that all around me be happy. Beauty of life and character. At an entertainment given years ago by Prince Edward and t he Princess of Wales. benignity. Her fascinating manners and her wonderful powers of persuasion were more influential than the loyalty of any dozen men in France in attaching to him the adherents who would promote his interests. From this the word passed to cards upon which were printed certain rules to be observed by guests. If a bag had this ticket it was not examined." but the charm of his manner was almost irresistible . I expected to meet a rare being. in their eagerness to see the Princess. became the thing with the better class es. so gently does curve melt into curve. charity. But it spread the morning's glory Over the livelong day. Etiquette originally meant the ticket or tag tied to a bag to indicate its cont ents." Some persons wield a scepter before which others seem to bow in glad obedience." or. Mirabeau was one of the ugliest men in France. The Greeks thought beauty was a proof of the peculiar favor of the gods. when I would say. beauty must be the expression of attractive qualities within--s uch as cheerfulness. Our good is less good when it i . It was said he had "the face of a tiger pitted by smallpox. or wipe their faces on the damask. and the pedestal up set. to which only the very cream of the cream of society was a dmitted. When Catherine of Russia gave receptions to her nobles. has been beautifully told by herself. "His presence. or had had an attack of seasickness." she said to a friend. or pick their teeth with forks. and considered that beauty only worth adorning and transmitting whi ch was unmarred by outward manifestations of hard and haughty feeling. The most fas cinating person is always the one of most winning manners. as it was sometim es expressed. According to their ideal. there was such pushing and struggling to see the Princess. but also of the nations her husband conquered. Josep hine was to the drawing-room and the salon what Napoleon was to the field--a pre eminent leader. Ladies of the court must not wash out their mouths in the drinking-glasses. has no sharp angles. not the one of greate st physical beauty. Noblemen are forbidden to strike their wives in company." A fine manner more than compensates for all the defects of nature. These rul es were "the ticket" or the etiquette." But to-day the nobles of R ussia have no superiors in manners. and I left him feeling as if I had drunk sour wine. who was then but lately married. in some unaccountable manner. and the ladies. as in art. "in which I would voluntarily use the words. "There is only one occasion.' As she passed along the way. Its lines seem co ntinuous. she published the follo wing rules of etiquette upon cards: "Gentlemen will not get drunk before the fea st is ended. r asped the nerves. It is sharp angles that keep man y souls from being beautiful that are almost so.

envy. crabb ed bear as before the arrival of his guests. and joy everywhere. the lower classes are not polite is because the upper cl asses are not polite. After the callers have gone. sulky. "an d he will always give you a civil and polite answer. but with no vibration in his tail. Tradition tells us that before Apelles painted his wonderful Goddess of Beauty which enchanted all Greece. S uddenly the bell rings. hatred. the reason why the lower classes the re are so polite is because the upper classes are polite and civil to them. and the reaso n why. 'Follow your no se and you will find it. said a shrewd observer. No man ever said a pert thing to the Duke of Marlborough.s abrupt. and bowed to the servant girl. and he will say. Ill breeding invites and authorizes the familiarity of the most timid. his little girl begs her father to keep on his "co mpany manners" for a little while. Throw a bone to a dog. and why not? for they carry light. Call the dog to you. and he will run off with it in h is mouth. I spent the first night with a banker. As by magic he becomes talkative. ill timed. generous. I remember how astonished I was the first time I was in Pa ris. and they enter without money and without price. but the sullen mood returns and his courtesy vanishes as quickly as it came. "A man's own good breeding." or Great Bear. Generosity of heart and a genial go od will towards all are absolutely essential to him who would possess fine manne rs. and accuses her of extravagance that would ruin a millionaire. for they have passports everywhere.' But the blame is with the upper classes." said Dr. Many a man and woman might double thei r influence and success by a kindly courtesy and a fine manner. "is the best security against o ther people's ill manners. or jealousy. or ill placed. It carries along with it a dignity that is respected by the most petulant. in this country. and adopt all that is finest and most wort hy of imitation in every cultured person they meet. Those w ho throw their good deeds should not expect them to be caught with a thankful sm ile. let him take the bone from your hand. They can enjoy nearly everything without the t rouble of buying or owning." A fine courtesy is a fortune in itself. stingy. but ask any person a questi on for that purpose in this country (Scotland). and called her ma demoiselle. silent. or. for they bear good will to everybody. as though she were a lady. he traveled for years observing fair women." says Chesterfield. Some neighbors call: what a change! The bear of a moment ago is as docile as a lamb. They are as welcome in every household as the sunshi ne. as revenge. contemptible. moody. The dog recognizes the good deed and the gracious manner of doing it. rude. sunshine. a servant girl came to the door. Guthrie of Edinburgh. who took me to a pension. polite. malice. When we got there. a nd the banker took off his hat. Now. He refuses his wife a little money to buy a needed dress." The true gentleman cannot harbor those qualities which excite the antagonism of others. They disarm jealousy and envy. or a civi l one to Sir Robert Walpole. crabbed. that he might embody in his matchless Venus a combination of the loveliest found in all. observe. Johnson did not feel mortified and pained to see h im eat like an Esquimau. for these poison the sou rces of spiritual life and shrivel the soul. He is the same disagreeable. All doors fly open to them. and to hear him call men "liars" because they did not a gree with him? He was called the "Ursa Major. a boarding-house. a nd mean with his family and servants. sullen. "Ask a person at Rome to show you the road. pat him on the head. . What friend of the great Dr. as we call it. Bees will not sting a man smeared with honey. Here is a man who is cross. So the good-mannered study. and his tail will wag with gratitud e. The good-mannered can do without riches .

" asks Emerson." said Montesquieu. must be painted before he is glazed. modest." says Emerson. and never giving it. and self-respec t. "a po or fungus. in a late autumn morning." "I think. "Oh. which do really clothe a princely nature. is a true gentleman. "You replace Dr. and if they are true. H e will not allow himself to be exalted. sensible. that subtle oil which lubr icates our relations with each other. "because if they are untrue I run the risk of being deceived. He who h as lost all but retains his courage. nay. He subjects his appetites. virtue. whe n Clement XIV bowed to the ambassadors who had bowed in congratulating him upon his election. There can be no change after it is burned in." A gentleman is just a gentle man: no more. I beg your pardon." "Sir. subdues his feelings. a diamond polished that was first a diamond in the rough. cheerfulness. and deems every other person as good as himself. Johnson exclaimed: "There is not an Indian in North America foolish enough to ask such a question. and enables the machinery of society to pe rform its functions without friction. Count de Vergenne s." said the French Minister. A gentleman. nor that other people should be blamed. He is slow to surmise evil. He is not given to talk about himself or others. "I never listen to calumnies. that seemed nothing . Douglas had been abused in the Senate he rose and said: "What no gentleman should say no gentleman need answer.--a plant without any solidity. I hear. They are the ki ndly fruit of a refined nature. Jefferson." Cowper says:-A modest. Ev en power itself has not half the might of gentleness. "Have you not seen in the woods. or mushroom." said the master of ceremonies. steady. or timely thoughtfulness with human sympathy behind it. courteous. "I have not been pope lo ng enough to forget good manners. A gentleman is gentle. nor grieved with failure." Dr. no man can replace him. to Mr. hope." was the felicitous reply of the man who became highly esteemed by the most polite court in Europe. and well-bred man Would not insult me. "Hans Andersen's story of the cobweb cloth woven so fi ne that it was invisible--woven for the king's garment--must mean manners." replied Clement. and no other can. slow to take offense. uniform. l ike porcelain-ware. invincible operation like that of the air we breathe. Manners are what vex or soothe. refines his tastes. of hating people not worth thinking about." No one can fully estimate how great a factor in life is the possession of good manners. "You should not have returned their salute. barbarize or refine us by a con stant. cont rols his speech. and all that is put on afterwards will wash off." replied Goldsmith. and is rich still. nor seek it." Aristotle thus described a real gentleman more than two thousand years ago: "Th e magnanimous man will behave with moderation under both good fortune and bad. he will not allow himself to be abased. He will neither be delighted with success. Franklin. exalt or debase. "there is not a savage in America rude enough to make such a speech to a gentlem an." After Stephen A. He will nev er choose danger. who had been sent to Paris to relieve our most popular repr esentative.Benjamin Rush said that when Goldsmith at a banquet in London asked a question about "the American Indians. no less. "I succeed him. He does not care that he himself should be praised. as he never thin ks it. and are the open sesame to the best of society.

total." said t he grandfather. a young and handsome man. I am very sorry that I ran against you. Jim. "do you permit a slave to be more of a gentleman than yourself?" "Lincoln was the first great man I talked with freely in the United States.. he offered a quarter to be carried to . everything considered. They indulge in few or no recriminations. more considerate of the prejudices of others than others are of theirs. and forbearance. it is said." said Napoleon. while his companion seemed inclined to keep the narrow path. yet are they everywhere polite and affable. manage to break its way up through the frosty ground. Stoppin g as soon as she could." says Confucius. "Men.but a soft mush or jelly. "Thomas. pleasant smile overspread his face: "You h ave my parding. and." If parents were not careless about the manners of their children at home. in taking a short cut to the house. you can knock me clean down and I won't say a word. President Jefferson was one day riding with his grandson. "who in no single instance reminded me of the difference betwe en himself and me. "as you would eat at the table of the king. Mass. are the Jews. as he courteou sly stepped aside at St. and then. it was one of the aged generals of his army. In all ages they ha ve been maltreated and reviled. madame. came to a stream which he could not cross. they would seldom be shocked or embarrassed at their behavior abroad." "Respect the burden. respect the burden." After the lady had pa ssed on. The politest people in the world. She was unwilling to wound the feelings of the honest old soldier. N apoleon commended her highly for her courtesy. not more worldly-minded and mon ey-loving than people generally are. and inconceivably gentle push ing." sa id Fred Douglass." "There is no policy like politeness. The President returned the salutation by raisi ng his hat. affability. they surpass al l nations in courtesy. but the grandson ignored the civility of the negro." The astonished bo y looked at her a moment. it's the first time I ever had any body ask my parding. taking off about three quarters of a cap. who took off his hat and bowed. In hastily turning the corner of a crooked street in London. like bullets. and despoiled of their civil privileges and thei r social rights. when they met a slave . my little fellow." Napoleon was much displeased on hearing that Josephine had permitted General Lo rges. she turned around and said very kindly: "I beg your pard on. entirely unused to the customs of courts. to sit beside her on the sofa. and welcome." "Eat at your own table. he said to a companion: "I say. Josephine explain ed that. "go farthest when they are smoothest. "since a good manner often s ucceeds where the best tongue has failed. and the next time you run ag'in ' me. while a broad. A Washington politician went to visit Daniel Webster at Marshfield. ma de a low bow and said. Helena to make way for a laborer bending under a heavy load. a young lady ran w ith great force against a ragged beggar-boy and almost knocked him down." The art of pleasing is the art of ris ing in the world. and.--by its constant. miss. Calling to a rough-looking farmer near by. and so allowed him to retain his seat. of the difference in color. and was once ob served holding a long conversation in Italian with an organ-grinder whom he was questioning about scenes in Italy with which they were each familiar.--and welcome. and it kind o' took me off my feet. James Russell Lowell was as courteous to a beggar as to a lord." says Richter. are faithful to old associations." says Magoon. instead of its being General Lorges. and actually to lift a hard crust on its head? It is the symbol of the power of kindness.

. These old ladies although strangers to him.the other side. I. a nd soon his profits resulting from his politeness were more than $100. Good manners often prove a fortune to a young man." was the reply. wh o later invited Mr. and to the great surprise and chagrin of the vi sitor was introduced as Mr. even to His persecut ors. kind." "He was sour and morose. opened the store. and the greatest energy. Webster. The strangers were Russians sent by their Czar. and amid the titter of the congregation. A poor curate saw a crowd of rough boys and men laughing and making fun of two aged spinsters dressed in antiquated costume. a merchant in Pr ovidence. Courtesy pays. The curate pushed through the crowd. "he always suspected his employees of cheating him. He became very wealthy. at their death left the gent le curate a large fortune. as well as of persuasive eloquence. and the other disobliging. [Illustration: Jane Addams] . Hence. Bad manners often neutralize even honesty.000 a year . This little incident was talked of all about the city and brought him hundreds of customers. He did so. natura lly. conducted them up the central aisle. and g ot the thread. The ladies were embarrassed and di d not dare enter the church. Mr. industry. and yet render success imposs ible by their cross-grained ungentlemanliness. Although his was but a fourth-rate factory. They repel patronage. for th ey know not what they do. his g reat politeness in explaining the minutest details to his visitors was in such m arked contrast with the limited attention they had received in large establishme nts that it won their esteem. gave them choice seats. rude. He was one o f the serenest souls that ever lived. an d conciliating. business which might easily be theirs goes to others who are really less de serving but more companionable. Not long ago a lady met the late President Humphrey of Amherst College. Take two men possessing eq ual advantages in every other respect. "he had sufficient capital. and exceptional shrewdness and sagacity. Winans to establish locomotive works in Russia. and in terrible agony on the cross. and was disc ourteous to his customers." Some men almost work their hands off and deny themselves many of the common com forts of life in their earnest efforts to succeed. had once closed his store and was on his way home when he met a little girl who wanted a spool of thread. the former will become rich while the boorish one will starve. forgive them. Garrison was as polite to the furious mob that tore his clothes from his back a nd dragged him through the streets as he could have been to a king. He went back. largely because of his court esy. Christ was courteous. Ross Winans of Baltimore owed his great success and fortune largely to his cour tesy to two foreign strangers. harsh. obliging. and his patrons went to shops where they were sure of civility. but would not take the quarter. Paul's speech before Agrippa is a model of dignif ied courtesy." St. Butler. and she was so much pleased with his great politeness that she gave a generous donation to the college. and insolent. a thorough knowledge of h is business. He cried: "Father. The farmer took the politician on his broad shoulders and lande d him safely. "Why did our friend never succeed in business?" asked a man returning to New Yo rk after years of absence. and. no man ever put good will or energy into work done for him. R. The old rustic presented himself a t the house a few minutes later. w hile agreeable manners win in spite of other defects. if one be gentlemanly.

By this co urse the business has been developed until it is said to be the largest of the k ind in the world. Practice on the stage or lecture platform does not always eradicate shyness. it almost entirely disapp eared. He retired from London at forty. and h aughty who are not. but he co uld scarcely utter a dozen words in conversation without being embarrassed. the great actor. "for why. Mere politenes s is not enough. first. "Thank you. and has frequently been a barrier to the highest culture. He did not acknowledge his grea t discovery for years just for fear of attracting attention to himself. though he had acted for thirty years with marked self-possession. Gough said that he could no t rid himself of his early diffidence and shrinking from public notice. There are many worthy people who are brave on the street. Something more must be done than is done in other st ores. but who are cowards in the drawing-room. Da vid Garrick. John B. and would often b e covered with cold perspiration. who would walk up to a cannon's mouth in battle. Archbishop Whately was so shy that he would escape notice whenever it was possible. and. and extreme courtesy. George Wa shington was awkward and shy and had the air of a countryman. Ex cessive shyness must be overcome as an obstacle to perfect manners. "but it was not long before I made tw o very useful discoveries. It is a disease of the finest organizations and the high est types of humanity. and which cause us intense mortification and embarrassment. that shamming was of no use. He took second or third-rate parts on account of his diffidence. please call again.A fine illustration of the business value of good manners is found in the Bon M arché. Many persons of real refinement are thought to be stiff. Shak espeare was very shy." he asked." said Sydney Smith." spoken to a little beggar-girl who bou ght a pennyworth of snuff proved a profitable advertisement and made Lundy Foote a millionaire. He said that he never went on the platform without fear and trembling. the employees must try in every possible way to please and to m ake customers feel at home. Elihu Burritt was so shy that he would hide in the cellar when his parent s had company. The two distinguishing characteris tics of the house are one low price to all. but are merely diffident and shy. Generally shyness comes from a person thinking too much about himself--which in itself is a breach of good breeding--and wondering what other people think abou t him. They feel conscious of a subtle tyran ny in society's code. It is a curious fact that diffidence often betrays us into discourtesies which our hearts abhor. At last he det ermined to give up trying to cure his shyness. was once summoned to testify in court. "should I en dure this torture all my life?" when. that the world was very clea . that all mankind were not solely employed in o bserving me. so that every visitor will remember the Bon Marché with pleasure. an enormous establishment in Paris where thousands of clerks are employed. for fear it would increase the acquaintances he would have to meet. he was so confused a nd embarrassed that the judge dismissed him. and dare no t express an opinion in the social circle. Sir Isaac Newton was the shyest man of his age. and where almost everything is kept for sale. my dear. which locks their lips and ties their tongues. reserved. and next. to his surprise. It never attacks the coarse and vulgar. It is peculi ar to the Anglo-Saxon and the Teutonic races. He would not allow his name to be used in connection with his theory of the moon's motio n. "I was once very shy. Addison was one of the purest writers of English and a perfect master of the pen. and did not try to publis h or preserve one of his plays. proud.

" Besides him stands young Jones. St.r-sighted. rugged characters." What a misfortune it is to go through life apparently encased in ice. or all their money." They asked him all sorts of queer questions. and soon estimated a man at his true value. Every time we go into society we must step on the scales of each person's opinion. Beauty in dress is a good thing. By teaching ch ildren early the arts of social life. dancing." One cannot but feel that God is a lover of the beautiful. thoughtful. when it may indicate quite the reverse. When Ezekiel Whitman. who care more for dress than for their character. Good clothes give ease of manner. It is e . when he overheard the remark between some ladies and gentlemen: "Ah. plain. it is well to avoid bright colors and fashionable extremes. They might as well say that they prefer square. for a country booby. They claim adm iration for plain. horseback riding. while I. Every flower is dressed in richness. "Is this pe rson going up or down? Through how many grades has he passed?" For example. and went to a hotel in Boston. Each mentally asks. eve ry bird is clothed in the habiliments of the most exquisite taste. here comes a rea l homespun countryman. cordial feeling for one's fellow men! Shy people are al ways distrustful of their powers and look upon their lack of confidence as a wea kness or lack of ability. "Ladies and gentlem en. who. from my dress. solid. well-fitting garm ents of as good material as the purse will afford. Whitman. "This young man is gaining. bearing in mind that outward appearances are deceitful. A man with a good coat upon his back meets with a better reception than he w ho has a bad one. for which a higher beauty should not be sacrificed. square. con siderate. their best time. unornamented houses made from square blocks of stone . Shy people should dress well. while inferiority of garb often induces res traint. Some people look upon polished manners as a kind of affectation. he came to Boston from his farm in countryman's dress. industrious. youn g Brown enters a drawing-room. Peter's is none the less strong and solid because of its elegant columns a nd the magnificent sweep of its arches. and the loss or gain from our last weight is carefully noted. rail at it who may. its carved and fretted marbles of matchl ess hues. every star is veiled in brightness. permit me to wish you health and happiness. He has put robes of b eauty and glory upon all his works. This cured me. and similar accomplishments. when he arose and said. from the same superfi cial cause. Here's fun. "external advantages make us more respect ed." says Johnson. said: "I wish you a very good evening. thought you were ladies and gentlemen. are always under inspection. like our characters. The mistake has been mutual. turning to the dumfounded company. All present weigh him in their judgment and silen tly say. They love dress too much who give it their first thought. But it is a lower beauty. we may do much to overcome the sense of shyness. and unlock the tongue. and may you grow better and wise r in advancing years." "In civilized society. and wear plain. or the claims of others on their service . Yo u mistook me." Just then Governor Caleb Strong entered and called to Mr. yet all t he while full of kindly. a prominent lawyer and graduate of Harvard. elocution. was elected t o the Massachusetts legislature. who for it ne glect the culture of the mind or heart. He entered the parlor and sat down. he is more careful. who are troubled more by an unfashionable garment than by a neglected duty. The consciousness of being well dressed gives a grace and ease of manner that even religion will not bestow. polite. every f ield blushes beneath a mantle of beauty. Our manners. such as boxing. straightforward. As peculiarities in apparel are sure to attract attention. tending to throw ridicule upon him.

is mean. and who was the first true gentlema n that ever breathed. Sincerity is the highest quality of good manners. ting themselves. We usually find all where we find any one of these qualities. one ounce. or I-am-better-than-you-ness. yet is over-p olite to strangers. exclusiveness. meanness. they are always analyzing. But manners. .vident that he is losing ground rapidly. He is careless. Of the Oil of Charity. do not constitute or fin ally determine his character. Pattern after Him who gave the Golden Rule. and self-consciousness belong to the same family. they would be sed to see what freedom. rushes to the eye or into the manner and betrays us. Their thoughts are always turned inward. tagged with these invisible labels by all who know u s. I sometimes think it would be a great advantage if one could read these ratin gs of his associates. We cannot long deceive the world. and no scruples. rough. Of the Infusion of Common Sense and Tact. And so we go through life. Etiquette is but a substitute for good manners and is often but the ir mere counterfeit. The following recipe is recommended to those who wish to acquire genuine good m anners:-Of Unselfishness. It may well indicate the kind of wood below. what success in hey would achieve. happiness. shyness. Of the tincture of Good Cheer. if we dwell upon our weaknesses. Of the Spirit of Love. shy people are morbidly self-conscious. stingy. three drachms. The Mixture to be taken whenever there is the slightest symptom of selfishness. four ounces. that tell tale in the soul. and grace they would gain. doe s not look you in the eye. indifferent. one ounce. wondering how they appear and what people think of them. se people could only forget themselves and think of others. snaps at the servants. three drachms. for that other self. two ounces. Mere politeness can never be a substitute for mora l excellence. Of the Extract of the Rose of Sharon. while they are the garb of the gentleman. No one has ever done a great thing wh ile his mind was centered upon himself. who ever stands in the shadow of ourselves holding the scales of justice. ease. they think too much about lves. themse dissec If the surpri life t Timidity. and achievement. CHAPTER XIX SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS AND TIMIDITY FOES TO SUCCESS Timid. three drachms. Of Essence of Heart's-Ease. Self analysis is valuable only to learn our strength. but not always whether it be sound or decayed. We must lose ourselves before we can fin d ourselves. and they are all enemies of peace of mind. fatal. any more than the bark can take the place of the heart of the oak.

wherever he goes. But after they have been in coll ege a term. because of this weakness. A sufferer who wishes to overco me it must take himself in hand as determinedly as he would if he wished to get control of a quick temper. or get out. "What shall I do to get rid of it?" asks a victim. even when people look at him. Become interested in things outside of yourself. Morbid sensitiveness requires heroic treatment. but will make up his mind to grin and bear it. whether in man or woman. From his distorted viewpoint some brother or sister in the church is always hurting him. Think less of yourself and m ore of others. is really an exaggerated form of s elf-consciousness. he is the center of obs ervation. Do not brood over what is said to you. Do not have suc h a low and unjust estimate of people as to think they are bent on nothing but h urting the feelings of others. A college course is of inestimable value to a boy or girl of over-refined sensi bilities. by his quickness to take offense. or stealing. He begins to see that the wor ld is too busy to bother itself especially about him. or even ruined. which smart from the lightest touch. when they are probably not thinking of h im at all. Their super-sensitiveness makes cowards of them. and depreciating and making light of them on ever y possible occasion. When he thinks they are aiming remarks at him. and seeing that exactly the same treatment is given to those above him as to himself. because they are afraid to jostle with the world. yet it causes one's personality to overshadow everything else. cannot be a victim of over-sensitiveness. Many a good business man has been kept back. they are not usually thinking of him. or analyzing his character. whatever he does. He will be ashamed to play "cry baby" every time he feels h urt. He does not realize that other people are too busy and too much inter ested in themselves and other things to devote to him any of their time beyond w hat is absolutely necessary. he know s that he will be called the class booby. Oftentimes. or to rid himself of a habit of lying. they are so touchy th at their sense of honor is constantly being hurt and their pride stung by the un conscious thrusts of classmates and companions. In such a n environment he will soon learn that everyone has all he can do to attend to hi s own business. One of the best schools for a sensitive boy is a large business house in which he will be thrown among strangers who will not handle him with gloves. takes the nonsense out of him. Mingle freely with people. or any other defect which prevented his being a whole man. They shrink from exposing their sore spots and sensitive points. If one shows that he is hurt. and that. or to resent a fancied slight. Over-sensitiveness. or throw . and cannot keep places when they get them. and who gi ves his neighbors credit for being at least as good as he is. Working in competition with other people. A sensitive person feels that. and have been knocked about and handled in a rough but good-humored manner by youths of their own age. Th ere is many a clergyman. or whatever he says. or analyze every simple remark until you magnify it into something of the greatest importance.Thousands of young people are held back from undertaking what they long to do. saying and thinking unkind things. or trying to hold him up to the ridicule of others. Thousands of people are out of positions. who is so sensitive that he can not keep a pastorate long. when boys enter college as freshmen. they m ay not be even conscious of his presence. He imagines that people are criticizing his movements. and are kept from trying to make real their great life-dreams. and teased unmercifully. making fun at h is expense. putt ing slights upon him. o r drinking. It is far removed from conceit or self-esteem. well educated and able. He will realize that he must be a man and give and take with the others. A man who appreciates himself at his true value. they realize that it would be the most foolis h thing in the world to betray resentment. so he is simp ly forced to drop his foolish sensitiveness.

and then only. Everything must be swallowed up in his zeal. and those who expect to get on must rid themselves of all morbid sensitive ness. and have no time to spend in minu tely analyzing the nature and feeling of those whom they meet in the course of t heir daily business. fused in the fire of his geni us. If they do not. by losing themselves in their subject. their grammar. He shows what his real style is. a feeling that he has been imposed upon. No orator has ever electrified an audience while he was thinking of his style o r was conscious of his rhetoric. no matter how rough in manner or bearing. capable of filli ng a superior position. of perspective. that he writes naturally. until she was lost in her song. And she can not understand why she does not get on faster. No painter ever did a great masterpiece when trying to keep all the rules of hi s profession. or school committees. or little bits of gossip which are reported to them make them feel as if people were sticking pins in them. never touched their power. Self-consciousness is a foe to greatness in every line of endeavor.ing out hints and suggestions calculated to injure him in the eyes of the congre gation. It is when a writer is so completely carried away with his subject that he cann ot help writing. Writers. No one ever does a really great thing until he feels that he is a part of something greater than himself. but they have a ll they can do to attend to their own affairs. they doom themselves to unhappiness and failure. it is intended for her. She takes it for granted that if any criticism is made in the department where she works. forgets everything but his subject. . Remarks of par ents. In the busy world of affairs. The result is that she makes it so unpleasant for her employers that they do no t promote her. the science of color. I have in mind a very strong. No singer ever captivated her audience until she forgot herself. Then they found their style. and she "flies off the handle" over every lit tle remark that she can possibly twist into a reflection upon herself. The great majority of people. all the time. in his mind. authors. or trying to apply the conventional rules of or atory. and would much rather help than hinder a fellowbeing. which greatly detracts from an otherwise agreeable personality. He is cut to the very quick by the slightest criticism. metaphorically speaking. their rhetorical arr angement. and other people with artistic temperaments. and he forgets hi s audience. until he surrenders to that greater principle. are kin d-hearted.--then. that he really does a great thin g. It is when the orator's soul is on fire with his theme. unt il they forgot their rules for construction. Could anything be more foolish and short-sighted than to allow a morbid sensiti veness to interfere with one's advancement in life? I know a young lady with a superb mind and a fine personality. who has been kept in a very ordinary situation for years simply because of her morbid sensitiveness. can he really create. touch an d go. He always carries about an injured air. vigorous editorial write r who is so prone to take offense that he can not hold a position either on a ma gazine or a daily paper. the laws of drawing. Some of our best writers never found themselves. ar e usually very sensitive. it is give and take. Many schoolteachers are great sufferers from over-sensitiveness. and regards every suggestion for the improvement of his work as a personal affr ont.

If anything has gone wrong in his business and he fe els vexed. "When God endowed human beings with brains. but only seemed curious to know whether he had muscle enough to r epresent them in the legislature." said a Confederate officer. massa. hain't time to go back and git a white man. "but at whate ver hour I call for my breakfast my chicken is always ready and always in good c ondition."--VICTOR HUGO. listen. "he did not inte nd to guarantee them. leveling his rifle. A man who knows the world will not only make the most of everything he does kno w.--ROCHEFOUCAULD. CHAPTER XX TACT OR COMMON SENSE "Who is stronger than thou?" asked Braham. "Sire. He'll suit his bearing to the hour. on the pla tform of the improvement of the Sangamon River. Address makes opportunities. "the r eason is." This seemed to him the more strange because sometimes he would breakf ast at eight and at other times as late as eleven. that every quarter of an hour I put a fresh chicken down to roast." . than the pedant by his awkward attempt to exhibit his erudition." says Montesquieu. with consideration and friendliness in his words or commands. not their own. he went to secure the votes of t hirty men who were cradling a wheatfield. he knows that he is liable to give offense to these people without ev er intending it. "Tact clinches the bargain. "must kill you den. and will gain more credit by his adroit mode of hiding his ignorance." said the cook." said the negro. It makes an emplo yer very uncomfortable to feel that those about him are carrying around an injur ed air a large part of the time. The art of using moderate abilities to advantage wins praise. so that your Majesty is sure always to have it at perfection.--BOVEE. and that if he does not happen to approach them with a smiling fa ce. and often acquire s more reputation than actual brilliancy. "Berry sorry. if they are wise: they will forget self. Lincoln took up a cradle and led the gang arou nd the field.--COLTON. and Force replied "Address. and that they take into consideration the thousand and one little vexations and happenings which are ext remely trying. learn. A man wants to feel that his employees understand him. They asked no questions about internal improvements." The officer surrendered. or teach. they will not take offense. the want of it gives them. and contribute their zeal to the greater good. so that he never quite knows whether they are i n sympathy with him or not. "I do not know how it is. They will think of his troubles. Gets the vote in the Senate.No one wishes to employ anyone who is so sensitive that he is obliged to be on his guard every moment lest he wound him or touch a sore spot. but of many things he does not know. ELIZA COOK." "I never will surrender to a nigger." said Napoleon in surprise to his cook. The whole thirty voted for him. when a colore d soldier chased and caught him. Laugh." When Abraham Lincoln was running for the legislature the first time. Spite of Webster or Clay. Sails out of the bay.

very well. We see its failure everywhere. Tact wi ll manipulate one talent so as to get more out of it in a lifetime than ten tale nts will accomplish without it. becaus e they can perform one kind of work that no one else can do as well. and lively touch." was asked b y his wife to bring home some coffee. Many great men are very impractical even in the ordinary affairs of life. while all their other faculties have atrophied and died. and so on until he took the whole amount lost from the places where he had deposite d them thoughtlessly. "No matter. and the wo rld excuses their impractical and almost idiotic conduct in most matters." said his servant who looked out of a window in the dark and failed to recognize Lessing when the latter knocked at his own door in a fit of absent-mindedness. I declare. one by one." Many a great man has been so absent-minded at times as to seem devoid of common -sense. tact knows how to do i t. "The professor is not at home. tact is up at six. t he surmounter of all difficulties. and yet he was so poor at times that he had only a biscuit and a gla ss of water for dinner." . one-sided. "Talent lies abed till noon. Isaac Newton could read the secret of creation. and a small one for the ki tten. but he sent three hundred florins to pay f or six shirts and half a dozen handkerchiefs." replied Lessing. to obtain several hundred d ollars' worth. but I guess a bushel will do. he found a bank-bill without a crease in it. though he may be an imbecile in the drawing-room. tact is skill. but a monstrosity. but sold the whole instrument. the remover of all obstacles. the judging taste. but on reflection remembered that he had given them away. but could not find any of the bills. A day or two after he put his hand in his pocket for one. he would fall upon his feet. he directed his secretary. impractical men. symmetrical man. Learning of a new issue of gold pieces at the Treasury. but. A professor in mathematics in a New England college. On turning the next leaf he found another. It is the open eye. Beethoven was a great musician. my wife did not say. as he turned the page of a book.Talent in this age is no match for tact. "Talent is something. Webster was at first puzzled. Talent knows what to do. It is not a sixth sense." The world is full of theoretical. not a full-orbed. A merchant is excused if he is a giant in merchandise. "Well. a large hole for the cat. like a cat. Charles Lanman. it is the interpreter of all riddles. a "book-worm. he had two holes cut through the panel s for them to pass at will. Adam Smith could teach the world economy in his "Wealth of Nations . a fee of one thousand dollars in crisp ne w bills of large denomination was handed to Daniel Webster as he sat reading in his library. He paid his tailor as large a sum in advance. to friends who seemed to appreciate their b eauty. Years afterward. but tact is everything. I' ll call at another time. He did not know enough of business to cut the coupon fro m a bond when he wanted money. Dean Swift nearly starved in a country parish where his more practical classmate Stafford became r ich. but it i s like the life of all the five. "Oh. and lacked the other's skill and tact. the quick ear. The next day he wished to use some of the money. but. Napole on might fall. the keen smell. tired of rising from his chair t o open the door for a cat and her kitten. as he read. but the y were all gone. One of Napoleon's marshals understood military tactics as well as his chief . For his argument in the Florida Case." Talent is power." but he could not manage the finances of his own household. We often call these one-sided men geniuses. who have turned a ll the energies of their lives into one faculty until they have developed. "How much will you have?" asked the mercha nt. but he did not know men so well.

his head is filled with theories and saturated with other men's thoughts. one from Oxford. they drove sheep. but he had made a fortun e. You brought us food in plenty every morning. as it became larger. The world cares little for his theories or his encyclopaedic know ledge. He could talk about nothing but sheep and farm. too self-conscious. Even the University could not supply common sense.--college men tending brutes! Trained to lead men. Not long ago three college graduates were found working on a sheep farm in Aust ralia." He knew that ther e was to be an eclipse of the sun.Louis Philippe said he was the only sovereign in Europe fit to govern. you are now jealous of us and are trying to drive us away. beginning to show signs of open hostility as the hours passed without a s hadow on the face of the sun." said Columbus to the Indian chiefs. But at length a dark spot was seen on one margin. and too finely cultured for every day use. he came out and said that t he Great Spirit had pardoned them. He retired to his tent. and would soon drive away the monster from th e sun if they would never offend him again. he is astonished to find that he has lost the power to gra pple with men and things. and unfits him for real life. has developed hard common sense and practical wisdom. but he knew sheep. They readily promised. too fine for the mechanical drudgery of practical life. yet who can scarcely get a living. and is therefore out-stripped in the race of life by t he boy who has had no chance. and when the sun had passed out of the shadow they leaped and danced and sang for joy." Do not expect too much from books. and is gained at the cost of vigor and rugged strength. The college graduate often mi stakes his crutches for strength. The world is full of men and women apparently splendid ly endowed and highly educated. timid. if po ssible. and continued to reduce the supply of food. distrustful of his abili ties. "bows to the inevitable and makes use of it. The bookworm loses his individuality. The Gre at Spirit is angry with you for not doing as you agreed in bringing us provision s. and told the day and hour it would occur. It was said of a great Fren ch scholar: "He was drowned in his talents. but he could make money. Book culture alone t ends to paralyze the practical faculties. and the other from a German Universi ty. and the ranch beat every time. too highly polishe d." Over-culture. but no w you bring very little and the amount is less with each succeeding day. The owne r of the farm was an ignorant. but who. Book education alone tends to make a man too critical. promising to save them. although at first you treated us like friends. while the college men could scarcely get a living. yet it is often but an ethical cultu re." . in the fierce struggle for existence. coarse sheep-raiser. but the Indians did not believe him." said Wendell Phillips. for he c ould black his own boots. The culture of books and colleges refines. Therea fter the Spaniards had all the provisions they needed. Bacon said that studies "teach not their own use. won by observation. and. without practical exp erience. and the Indians shook their heads. It was "culture against ignorance. "We have been among you several weeks. The cry of the age is for practical men." Th e use of books must be found outside their own lids. a nd when he graduates. On the appointed day the sun rose without a cloud. "Common sense. but that there is a practical wisdom without them. His three hired graduates could speak foreign langu ages and discuss theories of political economy and philosophy. He knew nothing of books or theories. the natives grew frantic and fell prostrate before Col umbus to entreat for help. "an d. He inhabits an ideal realm where common sense rarely dwells. To show his anger he will cause the sun to be in darkness. the college against the ranch. The st amina of the vigorous mind he brought from the farm has evaporated in college. About the time for the eclipse to pass away. one from Cambridge. weakens a man.

Moore. Moore carried the younger children to the loft of the cabin. He was very indignant because Charl eston harbor had been blockaded." he whispered. but he had tact and intuition. Thurlow Weed earned his first quarter by carrying a trunk on his back from a sl oop in New York harbor to a Broad Street hotel. with open eyes. Mrs. But Weed's rare tact modified his views. and the Indians fled w ildly to the woods. and mold them to his will. and left Obed and Joe to watch. and was creating a dangerous public sent iment abroad and at home by its articles in sympathy with the Confederacy. nose. Mr. one of th e two which he and Joe had been using to make Jack-o'-lanterns when the messenge r alarmed them. hiding forever from h is followers the ill omen of his threatened fall. and almost stumbled over a very large pumpkin. The emperor of France favored the South. he took ou t a ball. he galloped away to warn other settlers. "Now for it!" he added. as he raised the covere d lantern to the window. reluctantly yielding the post of danger to them at their urge nt request. Moore and dayligh t came together. and will not be back until morning. He could read m en as an open book. and nobody k nows where they'll turn up next!" "What shall we do?" asked Mrs. but nearly fainted as he found it was too large for the rifle. He was unselfish." It has been said that a few pebbles from a brook in the sling of a David who kn ows how to send them to the mark are more effective than a Goliath's spear and a Goliath's strength with a Goliath's clumsiness. the ver y next day after their interview the "Herald" became a strong Union paper. but the Indians did not return. He had very few chances such as are now open to the humblest boy. pulling the coat away. Joe! Light up the other one! Don't you see that's wh at scar't 'em so?" demanded Obed. Lincoln selected Weed to attempt the reconciliation of the "New York Herald.When Caesar stumbled in landing on the beach of Britain. while I get the rifle pointed at this one. thus shutting off French manufacturers from lar ge supplies of cotton. "Quick. Joe!" whispered Obed early in the evening. before I hit." Opening the bullet-pouch." Then springing upon the horse the b oys had brought. "My husband went away y esterday to buy our winter supplies. but he invariably declined. if I give them time. said: "Shakespeare always hits the right nail on the head at onc e. "Stand by that window with the axe. Cover up yo ur fire. "They'll sound the wa r-whoop in a minute." "Husband away? Whew! that's bad! Well. Thoug h Weed and Bennett had not spoken to each other before for thirty years. shut up as tight as you can. and mouth. he flung it over the vegetable lantern. They killed a family down the river last night. "Get ready for the redskins!" shouted an excited man as he galloped up to the l og-cabin of the Moore family in Ohio many years ago. "and give me a fresh horse as soon as you can. with a pale face. but I have to stop and think which is the right nail." w hich had a large circulation in Europe. he instantly grasped a handful of sand and held it aloft as a signal of triumph. and don't strike a light to-night. and induced him . An unear thly yell greeted the appearance of the grinning monster. and at the appearance of the second fiery face the savages gave a final yell and vanished in the forest. speaking of some comparisons that had been instituted between himself a nd Shakespeare. as he sa w several shadows moving across the fields. His fat her had taken the wrong pouch. Pulling off his coat. By three presid ents whom his tact and shrewdness had helped to elect he was offered the English mission and scores of other important positions. "They're coming. Weed was then sent to Europe to counteract the pernicious influence of secession agen ts. Goethe. Obed felt around to see if there were any smaller balls in the cupboard. ma de to imitate a gigantic grinning face. and wit h a live coal from the ashes he lighted the candle inside.

Mr."--"Sire. he turned on his heel and noticed where the edge seemed to touch the bank o n which he stood. sir. "The twelve Apostles. and acqu ired a fortune of a million dollars. "Good-morning. James?" asked Webster mec hanically. He was equally successful in business. Mr. the men sitti ng behind you on the raised benches. "I could make as good ones myself. would be delayed for an hour by a fa ilure to make close connections. England was working night and day preparing for war when Weed arrived upon the scene. the witness bowed low in awkward suavity. Walpole was an ignorant man. this is Mr. and we are ten miles ahead of it. and let them go about doing good. which was on the same level as the other. On his return to America the city of New York extended public thanks to h im for his inestimable services. "Speak to the jury." was the reply." He did not bring them. "Yes. be reasonable!"--"Ascerta in at once the width of this river. "mel t them." thundered the godlike Daniel." "How do you do. A. one of our most distinguished citizens. . The man di d not understand and continued as before. or you shall be deposed. holding himself carefully er ect. "Tell me the breadth of this stream. leaving poor Mr. He paced the distanc e to the point last noted. are seen everywh ere. "I am not very well. I think it's rheumatiz." said a judge to a witness who insisted upo n imparting his testimony in a confidential tone to the court direct." said a student at Brown University. and said. Webster." "Very well." He was promoted. "bring in two to-morrow morning. showed his resentment against Providence by abolishing the Christian religion throughou t his dominions for a fortnight." said the mayor of a Western city. but these giants knew men and things. gentlemen." replied Pr esident Wayland. as their Master did. My scientific instruments are with the army. "Will you lecture for us for fame?" was the telegram young Henry Ward Beecher r eceived from a Young Men's Christian Association in the West. Webster.to change to friendliness the tone of a hostile speech prepared for delivery to the National Assembly. and possesse d that practical wisdom and tact which have ever moved the world. over talent and genius." broke in the mayor . Webster. as he glanced at a thousand people waiting to take his hand. His total want of tact had made him ridiculous. James to enjoy his bad health in the pitiless solitude of a c rowd. "Sire." replied Mr. and Charlemagne could hardly write his name so that it could be deciphered. and said: "This is the approximate width of the strea m. Smith. Fifty and my expenses. although weary with travel. when it was learned that the g reat statesman." said Napoleon. M. E. Mr. in a tone of anxious concern. on the sudden death of an only child. and soon changed largely the current of public sent iment. "The tru th is. James in a most lugubrious tone." was the answer the shrewd young preacher sent back. then." "What are these?" asked Napoleon." Turning. "Well." "Measure the width of this stream instantly. "Take them down." "I hope nothing serious is the matter. pointing to twelve silver statues in a cathed ral." said Napoleon to his chief engineer. "Mr. Webster. Montaigne tells of a monarch who." The engineer drew the cap-piece of his helmet down until the edge seemed just i n line between his eye and the opposite bank. The triumphs of tact." "I don't think the Proverbs of Solomon show very great wisdom. James. "allow me to introduce you to Mr. sir. "Address yourself to the jury. I don't know that. as t hey came to a bridgeless river which the army had to cross. or common sense. coin them into money. but my wife----" "Mr. I cannot. F.

" was his reply. I thort at fust Ide pollish him orf ar-lar Beneki Boy. The palm is among the hardest and least yielding of all woods. He sed my wax-wurks was a humbug. How our old schoolmates ha ve changed places in the ranking of actual life! The boy who led his class and w as the envy of all has been distanced by the poor dunce who was called slow and stupid. that he might save some. and don't do you no more good than it would to jump into enny other mudpuddle. Paul was all things to all men. the Muther of Presidents and things. and leads its forces to g lorious victory. th e black and the white. The excellence s and defects will appear if you get the right angle. Napoleon could do anything in the art of war with his own hands. and climb the n earest trunk to the light. A practical man not only sees. "You have not ta ct. as you would a picture. it needs manure. "It was in a surtin town in Virginny.--everything within the sweep of his vi sion he ground up into paint and spread it upon his mighty canvas. cuts the knots it cannot untie. the pure and the impure. the prince and the peasant. went to anuther offiss to get my handbills printed. what duz this pussillanermus editer do but change his toon and abooze me like a injun. but when I. that I was shaimfully aboozed by a editer in human form. however rapid its flight. "this does n ot need a prayer. Artemus Ward touches this bubble with a pretty sharp-pointed pen.Tact. He ground up the king and his vassal. pas sions and characters. when shown the land. howeve r unworthy their notice. and called me a horey-heded itinerent v agabone. like Alexander. fur the purpuss of s howin' fair play all round. Ther e is a certain getting-on quality difficult to describe. It only gives him a notorosity. I giv it up. but on reflectin ' that he cood pollish me much wuss in his paper. the simple and the profound. Edito rs are generally fine men. and must be willing to work like a horse. Abuv all. "No. During a storm at . but seizes the opportunity. but which is the great winner of the prizes of life. when the old man asked how one could succeed so well where t he other had failed. and I wood here t ake occashun to advise people when they run agin. even to the making of gunpowder. the fool and the fop. he worked everything into his plays. to not pay no attenshun to um. Place him in a good light. it is said to turn into a creeper. Others make Don Quixote's mistake of fighting a windmil l by engaging in controversies with public speakers and editors. According to an old custom a Cape Cod minister was called upon in April to make a prayer over a piece of land. who are sure to have the advantage of the final word. Some people show want of tact in resenting every slight or petty insult. yet rather than be deprived of the rays of the life-giving sun in the de nse forests of South America. A farmer who could not get a living sold one half of his farm to a young man wh o made enough money on the half to pay for it and buy the rest. and could not cope with the stern realities of the age. Shakespeare had marvelous tact. an d kalled me the urbane and gentlemunly manager. He set my Show up steep. but who had a sort of dull energy in him which enabled him to get on in the world. but there must be black sheep in every flock." To see a man as he is you must turn him round and round until you get him at th e right angle. as they sumtimes will. Even genius. these m iserable papers. One of the greatest elements of strength in the character of Washington was found in his forbearance when unjustly attack ed or ridiculed. honor and dishonor. The class leader had only a theoretical knowledge. mus t not omit a single essential detail. don't assault a editer of this kind. which is jist what he wants." said he." John Jacob Astor had practical talent in a remarkable degree.

what do you complain of?" "Why. between dalent and chenius. and dat is de chenius vot my race has got. most zairtainly. If a man can write a better book." said the man. whose name on a timepiece was considered proof positive of its exc ellence. at least in certain branches of trade. If I were a tinker." "Indeed! In that case I return you your money. If it be right.--GILPIN. expecting every minute to go down." "Dey are coming to de vront. which he used as a regulator.--EMERSON. if not in the world. no tinker beside Should mend an old kettle like me. If I were a cobbler." said he. he would at least save his best suit of clothes. When a person once asked him to repair a watch upon which his name was ." Seven years later the gentleman returned from India. "Their trading talent is bringing the Jews to the front in America as well as i n Europe. "I bring you back your watch." "I remember our conditions." Accuracy is the twin brother of honesty. if it be wrong." said the man. but ven annoder man goes into dat man's shtor e and sells him vot he don't vont." "I would not part with my watch . I hate a thing done by halves. "Sir. and can tell me there has been a difference of five minutes. so he paid the money and took the watch. "Let me see the watch. the most exquisite mechanic in London. or make a better mous e-trap than his neighbor. "for ten times the sum I paid for it." replied his companion. on his voyage to America.--C. saying that if the ship should founder and he shou ld happen to be rescued. I wi ll return you your money. dat is chenius." CHAPTER XXI ENAMORED OF ACCURACY "Antonio Stradivari has an eye That winces at false work and loves the true. the other passengers ran about the deck in despa ir. "I have had it seven years." said Graham. from which nothing will ever d isplace them." said George Graham of London to a customer who asked how far he could depend upon its keeping corr ect time. I vill dell you what is de difference. "but vy d o you shpeak of deir drading dalent all de time?" "But don't you regard it as a talent?" "A dalent? No! It is chenius. He learned his trade of Tampion.--CARLYLE. le ave it undone. OLD SONG. it would be my pride The best of all cobblers to be. "Sir. but young Astor went below and coolly put on his best suit of clothes. it is a watch which I have made and regulated myself." replied Graham. do it boldly.sea. Genius is the infinite art of taking pains. though he build his house in the woods. the world will make a beaten path to his door. Well." said a traveler to one of that race. Ven one goes into a man's shtore and manaches to see l him vat he vonts. If after seven years you come b ack to see me." "And I would not break m y word for any consideration. in drade. "take it with you wherever you please. preach a better sermon. SIMMONS. and there is a difference of more than five minutes. dat is dalent. "and it has gained for them an a scendency.

a wonderful improvement in the ey es of the carpenter. "Sir. and I've left mine at home. but such a thing has not yet been mad e." none of which have been much improved since. Tampion and Graham lie in Westmi nster Abbey. saying. The watchmakers of the world contested for the prizes. the word "Maydole" stamped on the head being universally considered a guaranty of the best article the world could produce. When the contractor sa w the tools. The 20. and left a standing order for all the blacks mith could make. here is a watch of my ma king. asking that they be made a little bette r than those of his men. yet it needs regulating but once in fifteen months. "Make me as good a hammer as you know how." "Yes. A New York dealer in tools came to the village to sell his wares." the "dead escapement. David might have grown very wealthy by making goods of the stan dard already attained." and the "orrery. but throughout his long and successful life he never ceas ed to study still further to perfect his hammers in the minutest detail. "when I m ake a thing. who boasted of his prize to his companions.000 pounds if within thirty miles. They we re usually sold without any warrant of excellence.000 pounds was paid to the man who had wor ked and experimented for forty years." The storekeeper soon ordered two dozen.500 pounds if within forty miles. "but perhaps you don't want to pay for a s good a one as I know how to make. and how far east or west of some known point. and handed the astonish ed customer one of his own master-pieces. it varied less than two minutes. Character is power. Tampion smashed it with a hammer. and bought all the storekeeper had. he ordered two for himself. David had wedged the handle in its place so that the head could not fly off." said the carpenter." said Maydole. In the sixteenth century Spain offered a prize of a thousand crowns for the d iscovery of an approximately correct method of determining longitude. no matter whom it is for." "As good a one as I know how?" asked David Maydole." said a carpenter to the blacksmith in a New York village before the first railroad was built. "I want a good hammer. I make it as well as I can. if he cou ld have an absolutely accurate timekeeper. In a trip of one hundred and forty-seven days from Portsmouth to Jamaica a nd back. To insure safety. and in another clause 20. "We have no secret. and each ordered just such a hammer. probably. doubtfully. or W ashington. and whose hand was as exquisitely delicate in its movement as the mechanism of his chronometer. The clock which he m ade for Greenwich Observatory has been running one hundred and fifty years. a careless repetition. north o r south. 7.fraudulently engraved. He could be sure of this knowledge when the sun is shining." said the manager of an iron works employing thousands of m ." It was indeed a good hammer that he received. Paris. a navigator must know how far he is from the equator. They all came t o the shop next day. because of the accuracy of their work.000 pounds for a chronomete r by which a ship six months from home could get her longitude within sixty mile s. I do. By means of a longer hole than usual. "I can't make any better ones.000 pounds for correctness within thirty miles. In a round trip of one hundred and fifty-six days to Barbadoes. and they had not been awarded. and is the best advertisement in the world. 10. the varia tion was only fifteen seconds. but 1761 came. About two hundred years later the English government offered 5. that had ever been made. the best. a supply unheard of in his previous bus iness career. as Greenwich. In that year John Harrison asked for a test of his chronom eter." Graham invented the "compensating mercury pendulum. "six of us have come to work on the new church. and only four seconds on the outward v oyage.

Ward. "True enough. to a customer who complain ed of the high price of some cotton machinery. and if it is good. Mr. Brown saw the statue at the house of a lady living at New burgh-on-the-Hudson. duplicity. causing an inflammation which threatened his lif e. so that people will not withdraw their confidence?" "No. but never mind." It was the figure of an Irishman who worked for the Ward family in Brooklyn years ago." "Father. Business men soon learned what th is meant. Mass. "Just take a lump and put i t into water. had omitted a mole." "Surely not so many. "I saw an immense number of dogs--five hundred. Six years later he invited her brother. and design. J. I am sure --in our street. "No. "but did I not black them well?" "It is easy to tell good indigo. and gave with minutest fidelity not merely the man's features and expression. "There. and said that the blunder wou ld ruin him. and now I cannot believe you. as he admired a statue in alabaster mad e by a youth in his teens." When troubled with deafness." We condemn the boy for exaggerating in order to tell a wonderful story. as an all-sufficient guaranty of Northbridge products. and we don't care who knows it. expressed great regrets. "this boy has something in him. my bredren. The doctor apologized." said Oliver Cromwell to the artist who. Whitin. last night." said the father. "Paint me just as I am." said Wellington. To-day the name of Ward is that of the most prosper ous of all Americans sculptors." "Madam. and when there was occasion to advertise any machinery for sale. It exhibits at once a strength of . Wellington consulted a celebrated physician. "I don' t think there are a hundred dogs in our village." "Well. "for you spoke as confidently of seeing five hundred as of see ing this smaller number. wishing his congregation to fresc o the recess back of the pulpit." said an old lady." said one member of the Hou se of Commons to another in the heat of debate. the rent in his coat." "Well. but how much more truthful are they who "never saw it rain so before. That is all the secret we've got. sir. thinking to please the great man. sir. you can try it for yourself." s aid the Iron Duke. ther e were one hundred. You have contradicted yourself twice already. to b ecome a pupil in his studio. K. it could not be le ss than ten: this I am quite certain of." or who call day after day the hottest of the summer or the coldest of the winter? There is nothing which all mankind venerate and admire so much as simple truth. de Gospel will not be dispensed with any more from dis pulpit till de c ollection am sufficient to fricassee dis abscess. New E ngland cotton manufacturers were accustomed to state the number of years it had been in use and add. warts and all." "I will not believe you saw ten even. suddenly closed his Bible and said. it will either sink or swim. but how good a machine.." said the sculptor H." "It could not be." said the disconcerted boy. I'm quite sure. and the creases in his narrow-brimm ed stove-pipe hat. exempt from artifice. Q. "Whi tin make. A." said the father." "But you will all ow me to attend you." said the father." John B. "I can remember when you blacked my father's shoes. I am not sure whic h. Brown." said the late John C." said a boy. of Northbridge. but even the pa tches in his trousers." "I don't try to see how cheap a machine I can produce.en. "Well. "We always try to beat our last batch of rails." was the prompt re ply. who p ut strong caustic into his ear. "I will never mention it. Gough told of a colored preacher who. "I saw at least ou r Dash and another one. "that would be lying.

I can't do it. toward the close of a Congressional session. "Wait. but." . boys. How many American fortunes are built on misrepresentation th at is needless. A double convex lens three feet in diameter is worth $60. to say what is expedient rath er than what is truthful. To say nice things merely to avoid giving offense. Even the tiny snowflake whose d estiny is to become an apparently insignificant and a wholly unnoticed part of a n enormous bank. to seem to concur with another's opinions when you do not. to keep silent rather than s peak the truth. let it cool before making another trial.character and integrity of purpose in which all are willing to confide." said Webster." said the orator. Hence I must refuse. overdraw. Roses blossom and crystals form with the same precision of tint and angle to-day as in Eden on the morning of creation. In Siberia a traveler found men who could see the satellites of Jupiter with th e naked eye.000. Mr. and exaggerate. Clark's love of accuracy has made his name a synonym of exactness the world over. These men have made little advance in civilization. to exaggerate. no slipshod business in nature. th eir very movement being "the uniform manifestation of the will of God." Truth is necessary to permanency. no inaccuracy. for then even he cou ld not exist. would impair the correctness of the glass. The positive is stronger than the superlative. but we igno re this fact in our speech. Its adjustment is so delicate that the human hand is the only instrument thus far known suitable for giving the final polish. and one sweep of the hand more than is needed. for nothing else is half so strong as truth." "Ah. more exquisitely perfect. than that which blooms and blushes unhe eded amid the fern-decked brush by the roadside. assumes its shape of ethereal beauty as faithfully as though pr eparing for some grand exhibition. The crystal found deep in the earth is constructed wit h the same fidelity as that formed above ground. when urged to speak on a q uestion soon to come up. to shirk the truth. The rose in the queen's garden is not more beautiful. a gesture." Mr. During the test of the great glass which he made for Russia. "because I never allow myself to speak upon any subject without first making that subject thoroughly my own. "No. the workmen turned it a little with their hands. Webster. Alva n Clark says. yet they are fa r superior to us in their accuracy of vision. It seems strange that there should be so strong a temptation to exaggerate in a country where the truth is more wo nderful than fiction." said Clark. it is really difficult to ascertain the exac t truth in America. Planets rush with dizzy sweep through almost limitless courses. yet return to equinox or solstice at the appointed second. to evade. or in some far-off glen where n o human eye ever sees it. to face both ways. to deceive by a glanc e of the eye. it is impossible. you always speak well upon any subject." "But that's the very reason. "the p oise is so delicate that the heat from your hands affects it. We find no lying. to assum e to know or think or feel what you do not--all these are but various manifestat ions of hollowness and falsehood resulting from want of accuracy. "I am so p ressed with other duties that I haven't time to prepare myself to speak upon tha t theme. the men who have advanced our knowledge of that science the most working with ordinary instruments backed by most accurately trained minds and eyes. It is a curious fact that not a si ngle astronomical discovery of importance has been made through a large telescop e. more fragrant. a nod of the head. "No. a smile. "Does the devil lie?" was asked of Sir Thomas Browne. I haven't time to do that in this instance. You nev er fail. to dodge. Indeed. to lack sincerity. to equivocate." The marvelous resources and growth of America have developed an unfortunate ten dency to overstate.

" This roused the pupil to earnest effort. as they had "sailed by the other. Gibbon wrote his memoir nine times." "There goes a man that has been in hell. of manuscript brought to be c opied. or the crude." "It is quite astonishing. we have no scales by which we can weigh our faithfulness to duties. "There is only one real failure in life possible. Every detail of b usiness was calculated and planned to a nicety. Of one of his works Montesquieu said to a friend: "You will rea d it in a few hours. "You do not show that you can use your eyes." Grove said of Beethoven. He was as exact and precise even in the smallest trifles as Napoleon. "will soon form the habit of not writing well on any occasion. "should be done with our bes t care." said George Ripley. strength. commonplace shape in which they were first written down." An accomplished entomologist thought he would perfect his knowledge by a few le ssons under Professor Agassiz." said his publisher Dodsley. "Whatever is right to do. or determine their relative importance in God 's eyes." said an eminent writer. V . "That will do." After a seco nd examination he shook his head. "Yo u haven't really looked at the fish yet. "to find the length of time during which some of the best known instrumental melodies remained in his thoug hts till they were finally used." Reynolds said he could go on retouching a picture forever. You'll have to try again. so realistic seemed to them his description of the nether world. and gave orders for his mighty host to defile toward the Danube. vague. "I now see that you can use your eyes. saying. He believed that no gre at success is possible without the most rigid accuracy in everything. In 1805 Napoleon broke up the great camp he had formed on the shores of the Eng lish Channel. and faithfulness of purpose. People knew that his word was not "pretty good. "Every line was then writte n twice over by Pope. The latter handed him a dead fish and told him to use his eyes. Two hours later he examined his new pupil. yet his brother merchants attributed his s uperior success to good luck. He did not vary from a promise in the slightest degree. That which seems a trifle to us may be the secret spring which shall mo ve the issues of life and death. He left nothing to chance. but soon remarked. "He who does not write as well as he can on every occasion.Rufus Choate would plead before a shoemaker justice of the peace in a petty cas e with all the fervor and careful attention to detail with which he addressed th e United States Supreme Court. He did not allow those in his employ to de viate in the slightest degree from his iron-clad orders." Leonardo da Vinci would walk across Milan to change a single tint or the slight est detail in his famous picture of the Last Supper. The more they are elaborated." said Canon Farrar." but absolutely good." He had made it his study by day and his dream by night. but I assure you it has cost me so much labor that it has w hitened my hair. but was awakened towards morning by a request for another star to steer by. and the first chapters of his history eighteen times." the Florentines would say when Dante passed. the al pha and omega of his aims and objects. The captain of a Nantucket whaler told the man at the wheel to steer by the Nor th Star. and he became so interested in things he had never noticed before that he did not see Agassiz when he came for the third examination. "and that is." said the great scientist." Stephen Girard was precision itself. the more fresh and spontaneous they become. not to be true to the best one knows.

or is i t too high?" telegraphed a San Francisco merchant to one in Sacramento. which sealed the fate of Eur ope for ten years. Shall I buy. How many thou sands have lost their wealth or lives." said President Tuttle." "Gener al Politics." "Tariff. "No pric e too high. the scholars of Paris throng the cathedral to hear his fascinating. however. or if a cashier must run over his bookkeeper's columns." as was int ended." said a successful manufacturer. Accurate people are methodical people." etc. The omission of a period cost the Sacramento dealer $1.ast and various as were the projects fermenting in his brain. polished discourses. These details ." "slouchiness. Macaulay. Grattan. were carried out to the letter. he might a s well do the work himself as employ another to do it in that way. "Am offered 10. there are other women who use the same needle and thread. as though they were rogue s or fools. la beled "Anecdotes. and you may tug away at their work on your coat. and it is ver y certain that the employer will get rid of such a blunderer as soon as he can." could t ruthfully be written over the graves of thousands who have failed in life." "Electoral Laws and Commissions. the exact day and hour it was to leave that sta tion." came back over the wire instead of "No." "The Press." "State Po litics. and the precise moment when it was to reach its destination. "whose stitches always come out." "United States History. saying that only by such means can a writer be natural. so thoroughly premeditated." "Carelessness. and you can't start a button in a generation. When Sir Walter Scott visited a ruined castle about which he wished to write. and the button s they sew on fly off on the mildest provocation. and leaving the elaboration of its deta ils to his lieutenants. and professors in colleges have lost p osition and prestige by carelessness and inaccuracy! "You would be the greatest man of your age." "If you make a good pin.. Garfield had a large case of some fifty pigeonholes." "There are women. When a noted French preacher speaks in Notre Dame. and how many frightful accidents have occ urred through carelessness in sending messages! "The accurate boy is always the favored one." "Parliamentary Decisions.000 bushels wheat on your account at $1. When h e chose to make careful preparation on a subject. or waistcoat. "you will earn more t han if you make a bad steam-engine.000. The historian. "Those who employ men do not wish to be on the constant lookout. editors." "French Spoliation. clergymen. no other speaker could command so great an array of facts." "indifference. as he delivers but five or six sermons a year. Price too high. every valuable hi nt he could get being preserved in the cold exactness of black and white. and method m eans character." "Geneva Award." "Public Men." said Curran.00. and the result of that memorable march was the victory of Austerlitz. eloquent. he gave such exhaustive attention th at before the bugle had sounded for the march he had planned the exact route whi ch every regiment was to follow. h e wrote in a notebook the separate names of grasses and wild flowers growing nea r. never allowed a sentence to stand until it was as good as he could make it. How m any clerks. This bril liant finish is the result of most patient work. "if you woul . he did no t content himself with giving the order. Besides his scrapbooks." "slipshod financiering. If a carpenter must stand at his journeyman's elbow to be sure his w ork is right. cashiers. To details and minutiae which inferior captains would ha ve deemed too microscopic for their notice." said Fields.

or h . Bergh tells of a man beginning business who opened and shut his shop regularly at the same hour every day for weeks. every phrase must be of du e length and cadence. His eye was upon his business in all its ramifications. He resolved that each pi ano should be an improvement upon the one which preceded it. but the price was increased and work of higher grade given him simply because men seek the services of those who are known to be faithful. The demand for perfection in the nature of Wendell Phillips was wonderful. T. every sentence must be perfectly balanced before it left h is lips. Many able essays have been rejected because of poor penmanship. but he showed such a taste for drawing that a reluctant permission was given for him to follow art as a profession. he mastered every detail and worked hard. compared with accuracy and knowledge. Turner is in his special field. perfection was his aim. and then change the tit le. and straightforw ardness. and for every delinquency a penalty was rigidly enforced. but as he lacked means he took anythin g to do that came in his way. Ever y word must exactly express the shade of his thought. We must strive after accuracy as we would after wisdom. Turner was intended by his father for a barber. He determined to make an instrument yielding the fullest and richest volume of melody with the least exertion to the player. He soon became skilful. Exact precision characterized his style. but Jonas Chickering sent a petition to the legislature. To him there were no trifles in the manufacturing of pianos. an art not fully comprehended even in our day. Character has a commercial as well as an ethical v alue. t he greatest name on record. Chickering's name was such a power that one piano -maker had his name changed to Chickering by the Massachusetts legislature. But although the pay was very small the work was never careless. He was easily the first forens ic orator America has produced. without selling two cents' worth.d buy a few yards of red tape and tie up your bills and papers. his work sure of a ma rket at some price. as a rule. Met hod ruled in every department of his store. and. His labor was w orth several times what he received for it. and left matchless studies of natural scenery in lines never before attempted. and would trust it to no one else. Stewart was extremely systematic and precise in all his transactions. Alexandre Dumas prepared his manuscript with the greatest care. He distanced all competitors. A. He permitted no irregularity in workmansh ip or sales. and preserving its purity and truthfulness of tone. From the time Jonas Chickering began to work for a piano-maker. transparency. When consulted by a friend whose article had been rejected by several publishers. and the article eagerly accepted by one of the very pu blishers who had refused it before. And so he toiled upward until he began to employ himself. The advice was taken. and put it on his pianos. Joseph M." Curran realized that methodical people are accurate. and employ them in as lofty work as they seem able to do. The rhythmical fulness and poise of his periods are remarkable. W. he was noted fo r the pains and care with which he did everything. To the end of his life he gave the finishing touch to each of his instrumen ts. What Shakespeare is in literature. successful. yet whos e application attracted attention and paved the way to fortune. he advised hi m to have it handsomely copied by a professional penman. frequently illustrating guide-books and almanacs. He surpassed the acknowledged masters in various fields of lan dscape work. withstanding atmospheric chang es. Neither time nor labor was of any account to him . a nd the name was changed back. and was characterized by simplicity. and the price increasing as other men began to get glimpses of the transcendent art revealed in his paintings. He soon made pianos in a factory of his own.

slipsh odness. or an arm. Even before they are completed. Nearly every very successful man is acc urate and painstaking. ties. are crimes against self. locomotives. lack of thoroughness. the mangling and maiming of men an d women. Carelessness. buildings often fall and bury the workmen under their ruins. did it to a complete finish. of disasters on land and sea. or switches. crimina l blundering in railroad construction? Think of the tragedies caused by lies pac ked in car-wheels. deceptions. and character is power. The history of the human race is full of the most horrible tragedies caused by carelessness and the inexcusable blunders of those who never formed the habit of accuracy. in a southern prison. or half-done. The steel shaft broke in mid-ocean. blundering work. of doing things to a finish. Woo den legs. . If everybody put his conscience into his work. because of the mistake of a court cl erk who wrote "years" instead of "months" in the record of the prisoner's senten ce. How many have lost their lives because of dishonest work. Careless and indiffere nt habits would soon ruin a millionaire. it was discovered that a girl had served twenty years for a twe nty months' sentence. that of ten do more harm than the crimes that make the perpetrator an outcast from socie ty. covered up defects and weak places with paint and varni sh. botched. numberless graves. are the result of carelessness. which cause so m uch misery and cost so many lives. and the lives of a thousand passengers were jeopardized because of somebody's carelessness. the locomotive or other machinery to break. CHAPTER XXII DO IT TO A FINISH Years ago a relief lifeboat at New London sprung a leak. and engines. Where a tiny flaw or the slightest defect may cost a precious life. lies in defectiv e rails. They are the evil fruit of the low i deals of slovenly. dishonest--either employer or emplo yee--and worked lies. to a fraction of what it is at present. it would not only reduce the loss of human life. Everywhere over this broad earth we see the tragic results of botched work. clear down to the plating. The worst crimes are not punishable by law. because somebody was careless. of thoroughness. or are otherwise maime d. slighted their work.idden treasure or anything we would attain. careless. a leg. careless ness is as much a crime as deliberate criminality. armless sleeves. thoughtlessne ss. Multitudes of people have lost an eye. Accuracy means character. Avoid slipshod financiering as you would the plague. but it would also give us a hig her quality of manhood and womanhood. whic h caused the rail or pillar to snap. steamboat boilers. and while being repair ed a hammer was found in the bottom that had been left there by the builders thi rteen years before. fatherless and motherless homes ev erywhere speak of somebody's carelessness. lies in dishonest labor put into manufactured materi al by workmen who said it was good enough for the meager wages they got! Because people were not conscientious in their work there were flaws in the steel. somebody's habit of inaccuracy. against humanity. Not long since. somebody's blunders. Determine to form exact business hab its. into the building. indifferent workers. carelessness. The majority of railroad wrecks. From the constant motion of the boat the hammer had worn thr ough the planking. because dishonest workmen wrought deception into the articles they manufactur ed.

to demoralize. On the contrary. demoralizes the mental processes. you a re not quite the same man you were before. It is astonishing how completely a slovenly habit will gradually. They require the constant assistance. careless manner det eriorates the whole mentality. The thought of slighting his work was painful to him. from p utting the trade-mark of one's character on it. seemingly without being conscious of it. The mental and moral effect of half doing. doing things in a loose-jointed. They do not realize that the education. He demanded the best of himself--would not accept his second-best in anything. the general improvement. and brac ing up of the whole man that comes from doing one thing absolutely right. and do not do it well. or with careless. and he has become so demoralized by the habit which. . The entire person takes on the characteristics of one's usual way of doing things. can hardly be estimated because the processes are so gradual. or example of othe rs to keep them up to standard. and the tragedy of it all is. who has been well trained in thoroughness. and when confidence an d self-respect have gone. I know a man who was extremely ambitious to do something very distinctive and w ho had the ability to do it. suggestion. and too little of quality in thei r work. Many people are so constituted that their ambition wanes and their ideals drop when they are alone. of accepting his second-best. like leaven. affects the entire system. often deteriorates when he leaves home and goes to work for an employer with inf erior ideals and slipshod methods! The introduction of inferiority into our work is like introducing subtle poison into the system. After slighting your work. the satisfaction. after doing a poor job. How quickly a youth of high ideals. far outweighs the value that att aches to the doing of a thousand botched or slipshod jobs. You are not so likely to try to keep up the standard of your work. but his menta l processes have so deteriorated. Inferiority is an infection which. even when he may think he is doing his best t o carry it out. indifferent people . its powe r to drag down. and pulls down the whole life. that he now s lights his work without a protest. It paralyzes the normal functions. insidiously f asten itself upon the individual and so change his whole mental attitude as to t hwart absolutely his life-purpose. without apparent mortification or sense of humiliation. the comfort. palsies the asp iring faculty. not so likely to regard your word as sacred as bef ore. No one can respect himself who habitually botches his wo rk. and tends to bring our whole conduct to the same l evel. grew upon him. He i s to-day doing quite ordinary things. so subtle. Every half-done or slovenly job that goes out of your hands leaves its trace of demoralization behind.Most young people think too much of quantity. They try to do too much. excellence is impossible. confidence goes with it. We are so constituted that the quality which we put into our life-work affects everything else in our lives. prodding. and causes deterioration all along the li ne. he does not know why he has failed! One's ambition and ideals need constant watching and cultivation in order to ke ep up to the standards. The habit of precision and accuracy strengthens the mentality. slipshod. It dulls ideals. after a while. stupefies the ambition. When he started on his career he was very exact and painstaking. improves the whole character. and when self-respect drops. or carelessly doing things.

The human mechanism is so constituted that whatever goes wrong in one part affe cts the whole structure." said one workman to another. You must not steal another's time. inaccuracy. acc uracy. I shall thin k more of myself. he can not be depended upon to do anything quite right. says that he has to station pickets here and there throughout t he establishment in order to neutralize the evils of inaccuracy and the blunderi ng habit. He never quite finishes anything he undertakes. Honesty means integrity in e verything. Hundreds of clerks and book-keepers are getting sma ll salaries in poor positions today because they have never learned to do things absolutely right. "What a fool you are. to shirk. because we were made f or perfection. Your contract with your employer means that you will give him your best ." replied the other. it means truth in everything--in deed and in word. 'Get the most money for the least work. and that is more important to me than money. his work always needs lo oking over by some one else. by blundering through carelessness or indif ference. in his dishones . Th at will be worth more to you than any amount of money you can pocket through fra udulent." You will like yourself better when you have the approval of your conscience. Perfe ct work harmonizes with the very principles of our being. and any departure from it demoralizes and taints the whole character. One of John Wanamaker's partners says that unnecessary blunders and mi stakes cost that firm twenty-five thousand dollars a year. Honesty is our normal expression. "but I shall like myself better.' is my rule. and I get twice as much money as you do. deceiving their employers--to indifferent. It fits our very natures. A prominent business man says that the carelessness. completeness." "That may be. Some one has said: "It is a race between negligence and ignorance as to which c an make the more trouble. honesty in your work. Merely not to steal another's money or goods is not all there is to honesty. It not only means reliability in your word. and not your second-best. Did you ever notice the rapid decli ne in a young man's character when he began to slight his work. clipping their hours." Many a young man is being kept down by what probably seems a small thing to him --negligence. Are the clerks who are respon sible for this carelessness likely to win promotion? Many an employee who would be shocked at the thought of telling his employer a lie with his lips is lying every day in the quality of his work. Honesty means wh oleness. you must not steal his goods or ruin his property by h alf finishing or botching your work. when you don't get much pay for it. The manager of a large hou se in that city. rotten service? If you should ask the inmates of our penitentiaries what had caused their ruin. lack of accuracy. Of these more than eighty thousand bore no address whateve r. skimped. A great many of them were from business houses. We were made to be honest. to sli p in rotten hours. The dead letter depar tment of the Post Office in Washington received in one year seven million pieces of undelivered mail. It does not mean that if only you will not lie with your lips you may lie and defraud in the quality of your work. and blundering of employees cost Chicago one million dollars a day. Nothing else can give you the glow of satisfa ction. the electric thrill and uplift which come from a superbly-done job. or botched work. There is a very intimate relation between the quality o f the work and the quality of the character. many of them could trace the first signs of deterioration to shirking. dishonest work. but also carefulness. "to take so much pains with that job.

" would be a good label for the great mass of ma nufactured articles in our markets to-day. It is just as dishonest to express deceptio n in poor work." Never be satisfied with "fairly good. individuality in i t. dishonest manufacturing is so general that concerns w hich turn out products based upon honesty and truth often win for themselves a w orld-wide reputation and command the highest prices. in his indif ference to his employer's interests. to stea l his time when on an errand. but which in reality is full of blemishes and weaknesses. Put such a quality into your work that anyone who comes across anything you have ever done will see character in it.t service. and often the entire arti cle goes to pieces before it is worn half a dozen times. "Made to sell. and hang and lo ok like old. castors co me off. I am w illing to stand for that piece of work. individuality and thoroughness wrought into it. I am wi lling to be judged by it. becaus e of its great reputation for integrity and square dealing. that lies can be acted as well as to ld and that acting a lie may be even worse than telling one. perhaps. dropped stitches are everywhere in evidence. Glue starts at joints. even while prac tically new. Some of the world's gre atest manufacturers have regarded their reputation as their most precious posses sion. as to express it with the lips. not for service. done to a complete finish. not realizing. Buttons fly off. and under no circumstances would they allow their names to be put on an im perfect article." Accept not hing short of your best. chairs and bedsteads break down at the slightest provocation. It is difficult to find anything that is well and honestly made. that has chara cter. Everywhere we see furniture which looks all right. in the rotten hours he is slipping into it. The man who botches his work. It is not pretty well done. Yet on every side we see all sorts of things selling for a song because the mak er put no character. Tampion and Graham lie in Westminster Abbey because of the accuracy of their wo rk--because they refused to manufacture and sell lies. There is no other advertisement like a good reputation. and your reputation is your capital. much-worn garments. You cannot afford to do a poor job. Articles of clothing that look stylis h and attractive when first worn. to let botched work or anything that is inferior go out of your hands. yet I have known of fice-boys." "good enough. Vast sums of money are often paid for the use of a name. covered up with paint and varnish. Strangers from any part of the world could send their purchase money and order goods from those manufacturers without a doubt that they would be squarely dealt with. Eve . Most things are just throw n together. in shirking. to hide away during working hours to smoke a cigar ette or take a nap. no thought into them. Your reputation is at stake in everyt hing you do. who lies or cheats in the goods he sells or manuf actures. This slipshod. When you finish a thing you ought to be able to say to yourself: "There. in shirking. is dishonest with himself as well as with his fellow men. loss of character. and must pay the price in loss of self-respect. handles pull out. it is done a s well as I can do it. of standing in his communi ty. I will stand for that. your trade-mark of superiority upon it." "pretty good. very quickly get out of shape. seams give way at the slightes t strain. who could not be induced to tell their employer a direct lie. many things "go to pieces" altogether. There was a time when the names of Graham and Tampion on timepieces were guaran tees of the most exquisite workmanship and of unquestioned integrity.

" between what ot . humble. would take such pains to put his stamp of superiority upon his instrument. that he is honest and made of good materi al. Every "Stradivarius" now in existence is worth from three to ten thousand dollars. who sees a very uncommon chance in a common situation. or it may be a year before the opening come s. a little more obliging. no matter how unimportant or trivial it may seem. ordinary things. It is just the little touches afte r the average man would quit that make the master's fame. a little more accurate. it is being a little more polite. being grounded in thoroughness as a li fe-principle. Think of the value such a reputation for thoroughness as that of Stradivarius o r Tampion. who takes pains with his work. optimistic. The thing which you are now doing will unlock or bar the door t o promotion. They keep their eye on the emplo yee who has the stamp of excellence upon him. Many employees are looking for some great thing to happen that will give them a n opportunity to show their mettle. Many a boy is marked for a higher position by his employer long before he is aw are of it himself. or several times its weight in gold. by the fa ithful performance of the common." between "fairly good" and "excellent. a little more tactful. of painstaking an employee put into his work. as Tampion regarded every watch that went out of his shop. but they d etect very quickly the earmarks of superiority. a humble positio n. should be ar your trade-mark of excellence..ry bit of your work. a little quicker. a little more energet ic. He knows that if a youth puts his c onscience into his work from principle. would give you! There is nothing like being enamored of accuracy. No other characteristic makes such a strong impression upon an employer as the habit of painstaking. being a little neater." and not one of which was ever known to come to pieces or break. not from the standpoint of salary or wha t he can get for it. says that the "secret of success is to do the common duty uncommonly well. which he "made for etern ity. Regard your work as Stradivarius regarded his violins. every piece of work you touch. but when it does come the one who has appreciated the infinite difference bet ween "good" and "better. It may be months. Rockefeller. such a passion to give quality to your work." The majority of young people do not see that the steps wh ich lead to the position above them are constructed. They know he has a future. it is ingenuity in finding new and more progressive ways of doing old things. you should regard every task that goes through your hands. carefulness. every-day duties of the position they are now filling. than those about you that attracts the attention of your employer a nd other employers also. on his doing a little better than was expected of him. for no other violin maker would pay s uch a price for excellence as he paid. who does it to a finish. Stradivari us did not need any patent on his violins. helpful. little by little. It must be the very best you can do. It is just the little difference between the good and the best that makes the d ifference between the artist and the artisan. of always striving for excellence. accuracy. a little more observant. the best that human skill can produce. a little more cheerful. "in this dry routine. but because there is something in him which refuses to acce pt anything from himself but the best. to help me along? " But it is the youth who sees a great opportunity hidden in just these simple s ervices. who gets on in the world. Jr." they say to themselves. I have known many instances where advancement hinged upon the little overplus o f interest. "What can there be. John D. in doing these common. It is doing things a little better than those about you do them. Employers do not say all they think.

they cannot remain first-class men and drink. They have not con fined themselves to the beaten tracks. bad habits. It is the constant effort to be first-class in everything one attempts that c onquers the heights of excellence. positio n. do not try to be first-class. It is this li ttle higher up. Carelessness as to health fills the ranks of the infer ior. wears his nerves till his limbs tremble like leav es in the wind. is possible to practically eve . i f you are not particular about quality in your work. but always a little better. Do your best in everything." Then they keep on s moking because they have created an appetite as unnatural as it is harmful. helps to make you second-class. but the surest consequence is that of becoming second-class . mechanics who will never be anything but bunglers. indeed. They have not been content with mediocrity. Sometimes they are sec ond-rate or third-rate people because those who are responsible for their being and their care during their minor years were so before them. is only half a man. and even a pretty good sort. People who have accomplished work worth while have had a very high sense of the way to do things. this little farther on. A ma n who. they have never been satisfied to do thin gs just as others do them. If there is that ss. whatever the reason. exhausts his strength and vitality. but more and more i s it becoming one's own fault if. Have nothing to do wit h the inferior. then you must expect to take second place. if you insist hieve distinction on to follow your in your nature which demands the best and will take nothing le on keeping up your standards in everything you do. Everybody knows the things that make for second-class characteristics. failure to get an education. live up to your best. but. whose growth has been stunted by self-indulgences. there are other thin gs that help to make second-class men. will be likely to get the place. you will ac in some line provided you have the persistence and determinati ideal. Dissipation in other forms is pursued because of ple asure to be derived. neglect of healt h. vitiates his blood. he is not third-class. to fall back to the rear of the procession. and could in no sense be called first-class. and puts you at a disadvantage in the race for honor. through his amusements in his hours of leisure. below the standard of the best men for any purpose. do not put conscience in to their work. if. It is said that Daniel Webster made the best chowder in his state on the princi ple that he would not be second-class in anything. Boys imi tate older boys and smoke cigarettes in order to be "smart. Every fault you allow to become a habit. the botched and slovenly. try to do it as well as it can be done. Aside from the lack of desire or effort to be first-class. choose the best. No ma tter what you do. Dissipation. all through life. Men get drunk for all sorts of reasons. This is a good resolution wit h which to start out in your career. Edu cation of some sort. Everywhere we see mediocre or second-class men--perpetual clerks who will never get away from the yardstick. and happiness. that counts in the quality of life's wor k. deal with the best. wealth. But if you are satisfied with the cheap and shoddy.hers call "good" and the best that can be done. A man weakened by dis sipation. is a second-class man. The submerged classes that the economists talk about are those that are bel ow the high-water mark of the best manhood and womanhood. never to be second-class in anything. a little farther on. all sorts of people who will never rise above mediocrity. he remains second-class. who will always fill very ordinary positions because they do not take pains. all make second-class men. or in your environment. or in your personal habits. They always pushed things that came to their hands a little higher up. to get control over you. whose understanding has been dulled.

but it does demand that whatever you do undertake. first-class men are wanted. One such boy is Elihu Root. No you th can ever hope to accomplish much who does not have thoroughness and accuracy indelibly fixed in his life-habit. was asked to make a sp eech on some question at the close of a Congressional session. it is not composed of those who were brilliant i n youth. persistence. no excuse for b eing second-class when it is possible to be first-class. Genius is the art of taking infi nite pains. who could stay by a task until it was don e. first-class me at. if they have not dazzled by their brilliancy. and first-class bread. slipshod. common sense. he replied: "I ne ver allow myself to speak on any subject until I have made it my own. would ruin the career of a youth with a Napoleon's mind. a farmer. eat first-class butter. and honesty. Second-class things are wanted only when first-class can't be had. Macready. When he was a boy in the gra mmar school at Clinton. infinite painstaking. and usually from posts far higher up than those filled by the boys who were too "smart" to be thorough. and when first-class is in demand everywhere. It demands that you be a master in your line. is sure to relegate one to the ranks of the seco nd-class. There is no excuse for incompetence in this age of opportunity. even to the minutest detail. or a mer chant. and well done. nothing can keep you from success . New York. The trouble with many Americans is that they seem to think they can put any sort of poor. hence. inaccuracy. whether it be in books or in business training. If we were to examine a list of the men who have left their mark on the world. You wear fir st-class clothes if you can pay for them. always played as if he were before the most brilliant audi ences in the great metropolises of the world. no matter how humble it may be. The world does not demand that you be a physician. When Daniel Webster. Balzac. have had the power of a day's work in them. or. the habit of half d oing things. Fo r work that really amounts to anything. who have had grit. and Scotland. I reland. but rather of the plodding young men who. no matter what your race or color. or who gave great promise at the outset of their careers." Dickens would never consent to read before an audience until he had thoroughly prepared his selection. a lawyer. you wish you could. I must refuse to speak on the subject. The thorough boys are the boys that are heard from. when playing before scant audiences in country theaters in England. If you make yourself first-class in anything. Although not considered one of the "b right" boys of the school. Failure to get the best education available. you will be in demand. I haven't time to do that in this case. Second-class me n are no more wanted than any other second-class commodity. If you are a king in your calling. if you don't. who had the best brain of his time. you will do it right. They do not realize that all great achievement has been characte rized by extreme care. he made up his mind that anything he had to st udy he would keep at until he mastered it. Thoroughness characterizes all successful men. They are taken and u sed when the better article is scarce or is too high-priced for the occasion. now United States Senator. sometimes worked a week on a single page. the great French novelist. no matter what your condition or circumstances . his teacher soon found that when Elihu professed to k . will do it with all your might and with all the ability you possess. we should find that. Slipshodness. half-done work into their careers and get firstclass products. as a rule.ryone in our land.

He was fond of hard problems requir ing application and patience." . "I have no use for anyone who can 'almost' do anything. the German's characteristics. The boy can't w ait to become a youth.now anything he knew it through and through. and then a member of the President' s cabinet. Half-trained lawyers stumble through their cases. "I can do almost anything. Mr." "haven't time to be thorough. and make their clien ts pay for experience which the law school should have given. Eve ry employer is looking for thoroughness. To every problem there was only one answer. rising to end the interview. or college education." he says. As a rule. on schools. a German who expects to engage in business takes a four years' cours e in some commercial school. while the other boys were out skating. Parsons. Carrying the principle of "doing every thing to a finish" into the law. is their thoroughness. and disgust their intelligent and cultured paris hioners. Thoroughness and reliability. to his chosen business. he became one of the most noted members of the New York bar." The quality which. and is written on everything--on commerce. Root recently said that if his close app lication to problems in his boyhood did nothing else for him. intrusted with vast interests. while many die of old age in the forties. it made him carefu l about jumping at conclusions. but tried to get comprehensive views of what I studied. of the Rapid Transit Commission of New York as a candidate for a position. and bu tcher their patients. seminary. because they are not willing to take time for thorough pre paration. "Can't wait. more than any other. and German employees. Half-trained clerg ymen bungle away in the pulpit. armed with letters of introduction from prominent men. on society. the great New England divine. A young man. and then they are ready for business. the superiority of their training. Half-trained medical students perform bungling operations. I prefer someone who can actually do one th ing thoroughly. for he knew what he was about. Our great lack is want of thoroughness. It is g iving young Germans a great advantage over both English and American youths. How seldom you find a young man or woma n who is willing to prepare for his life-work! A little education is all they wa nt. they do poor. a little smattering of books. We can't wait for a high-school." answered the young man. nor the youth to become a man. are in great demand to-day in England. "I was not satisfied with knowing thi ngs superficially and by halves. and after graduation serves three years' apprentice ship without pay. had a passion for self-improvement. owing to their pr eeminence in this respect. who in his youth was har dly able to buy the clothes he needed. on churches. feveris h work. Perhaps there is no other country in the world where so much poor work is done as in America. On winter eve nings. are increasing the power of Germany throughout the civilized world. has helped to raise the German people t o their present commanding position in the world. "What can you do? Have you any specialt y?" asked Mr. and the completene ss of their preparation for business." remarked the Chief Engineer. William Ellery Channing. but Elihu would only smile pleasantly. "Well . Young men rush into busine ss with no great reserve of education or drill. of course. Many an American youth is willing to stumble through life half prepared for his work. and then blame society because he is a failure." is characteristic of our country. Sometimes the other boys called him a plodder. and break down in middle life. Elihu frequently remained in his r oom with his arithmetic or algebra. and patience was the price to be paid for it. esp ecially in banks and large mercantile houses. one day pre sented himself before Chief Engineer Parsons. "I wa nted to make the most of myself.

--yes. You cannot be just to yourself and unjust to the man you are working for in t he quality of your work. It indicates the best kind of brain. The world is full of half-finished work. a little better education. We are all of a piece. Th ey can half do a great many things. at stake. shoddy shams.--failures which require only a little more persistence. is demoralizing to every element of nobility. or bot ching one's work. will be affected by the way y ou do your work. manhood and womanhood are at stake. We cannot have an honest character." says Emerson. if you slight your work. if it goes to pieces. you not only strike a fat al blow at your efficiency. you will earn more mon ey than if you make a bad steam engine. You have something of infinitely greater importance.There is a great crowd of human beings just outside the door of proficiency. bungled. prea ch a better sermon. defective material an d slipshod service into our work. i f there is dishonesty in it. an art or two. Beecher said he was never again quite the same man after reading Ruskin. whose elements they have not fully mastered. Think what a loss it would be if such men as Edison and Bell had not come to the front and carried to a successful termina tion the half-finished work of others! Make it a life-rule to give your best to whatever passes through your hands. or the ability ne cessary to carry them to the point of practicability. Y our honor. You ar e never again quite the same man after doing a poor job. which they can neither write nor speak." "If a man can write a better book. for. a science or two. let it characteriz e everything you touch. How many people almost know a language or two. They have acquisitions which remain permanently unavailable because they were not carried quite to the point of skill. they stopped just short of efficiency. Everything you do is a part of your career. compared with which salary is nothi ng. untarni shed career. after botching your wor k. The man who has dealt in shams and inferiority. to a finish . who has botched his work all hi s life. it is the best substitute for genius. or "pulls" with the influen tial. dishonesty in your character ." Never allow yourself to dwell too much upon what you are getting for your work. A successful manufacturer says: "If you make a good pin. it is better capi tal than cash. because the m en who started them lacked the staying quality. thousands. must be conscious that he has not been a real man. to make them useful to civilization. if there is shoddy or sham in it. it is a better promoter than friends. the world will make a path to his door . dealing in cheap. or make a better mousetrap than his neighbor. or botched. sham. your future success. Ch aracter. a complete. a little finer mechanical training. If any work that goes out of your h ands is skimped. greater value. the education. which they can not practise with satisfaction or profit! The Patent Office at Washington contains hundreds. but also smirch your character. "though he build his house in the woods. there is shoddy. If you would be a fu . St amp it with your manhood.--of inventi ons which are useless simply because they are not quite practical. but can't do any one thing well. This is what every employer is looking for. Let superiority be your trade-mark. when we are constantly slipping rotten hours. by the conscience or lack of it which you put into your job. your whole career. he can not help feeli ng that his career has been a botched one. shirked. your character will suffer. If yo ur work is badly done. To spend a life buying and selling lies.

causes loss of s elf-respect. a protest or condemnation. whatever they did only the best they could do would be good enough. it will arise at the most unexpected moments to mar your happiness. the life copies. what's the use of being so awfully particular?" has been t he beginning of a life-long handicap in many a career. to r esolve that. CHAPTER XXIII . and your life-work will be what every one's should be--A MASTERPIECE. of slovenliness. It will be sure to mortify you when you least expect it. and every time we disobey it. It will bob up farther along in your career at the most unexpected moments. "Oh . There is a sense of who leness. in your office or place of business. would satisfy them! Adopt this motto as yours." What a life-motto this would be! How i t would revolutionize civilization if everyone were to adopt it and use it. and the amount of damage is deducted from her wages. "WHERE ONLY THE BEST IS GOOD ENOUGH. in the most embarrassing situations. But in the ordinar y situations of life there is plenty of time to do everything as it ought to be done. He is not haunted by the ghosts or tail ends of half-finished tasks. habits of inaccuracy. you must be honest to the core in the qualit y of your work. or half doing it. We are so c onstituted that every departure from the right. Many excuse poor. to do anything that was low or demoralizing. of slurring their work. A famous artist said he would never allow himself to look at an inferior drawin g or painting. Hang it up in your bedroom. of happiness. slipshod work on the plea of lack of time. of skipping diffi cult problems in school.ll man. weave it into the texture of everythi ng you do. th e amen of the soul. is not kept awake by a tr oubled conscience. Everything looks down when we are going down hill. groveling lowers it. Don't think you will never hear from a half-finished job. that's good enough. It will never die. A single broken thread in a web of cloth is traced back to the girl who neglected her work in the factory . and makes us unhappy. a neglected or botche d piece of work. lest familiarity wit h it should taint his own ideal and thus be communicated to his brush. There is an indescribable superiority added to the character and fiber of the m an who always and everywhere puts quality into his work. from principle. of skipped problems. shirking. When we are trying with all our might to do our level best. There is everything in holding a high ideal of your work. which I saw recently in a great establishme nt. Every time we obey the inward law of doing right we hear an inward approval. Aspiration lifts the life. Whatever your vocation. put it into your pocket-book. No one can be really happy who does not believe in his own honesty. for whatever model th e mind holds. Thousands of people are held back all their lives and obliged to accept inferio r positions because they cannot entirely overcome the handicap of slipshod habit s formed early in life. a just man. in his life which is never felt by the ma n who does not do his level best every time. of satisfaction. let quality be your lifeslogan. Like Banquo's ghost. our whole nature im proves. I was much impressed by this motto. a complete man.

but he borrowed some . "If you work hard two weeks without selling a book." With head on his hand Sheridan mused fo r a time. His furnitur e followed to no purpose. he attained no result until his fuel was gone. and all London was at his feet. to try his experiments in a common furnace.--these are the masters of victory. and it shall come out of me.--BURKE.THE REWARD OF PERSISTENCE Every noble work is at first impossible. Tearing off the p alings of his garden fence. He built a furnace. "The pit rose at me!" exclaimed Edmund Kean in a wild tumult of emotion.--MONTES QUIEU. but in vain. who left his home in the south of France in 1828. when young. the thought that nev er wanders. after Sheridan had made his first speech in Parliament. his enamel would not melt. His money was all gone. but he determined. At length the time came for a trial. Victory belongs to the most persevering. To perfect his invention he next built a glass-furnace." said Woodfall the reporter. burning so much wood. When next he li ghted his fire. and make a seeming impossibility give way." wrote a publisher to an ag . thou shalt not excel. and tried to get a better flux. and losing so much time. as no other man had ever played it. "Unstable as water. carrying the bricks on his back. "Mary. and the great burst of heat melted the enamel. as he rushed home to his trembling wife. from lack of ability to buy fuel. was ove rwhelming. "I am sorry to say that I don't think this is in your line. he had the soul of an artist. spoiling so many drugs and pots of c ommon earthenware. The grand se cret was learned. For months and years he tried all kinds of experiments to learn the mate rials of which the enamel was compounded. and he was forced. By a persistency that nothing seemed able to daunt. one of which came o ut covered with beautiful enamel. Flat failure was the result." F rom the same man came that harangue against Warren Hastings which the orator Fox called the best speech ever made in the House of Commons. he so t rained himself to play the character that his success. in Massinger's drama. Perpetual pushing and assurance put a difficulty out of countenance. Persistence had triumphed again. when it did come. Success in most things depends on knowing how long it takes to succeed. and then a second. he fed them to the flames. to play the character of Sir Giles Overreach. "I had no other books than heaven and earth. which was a failur e. that poverty stared him in the face. though he kept the heat up s ix days. "You would bet ter have stuck to your former pursuits. Though only a glass-painter. but he decided on the spot to beg in all over again.--CARLYLE. then looked up and said. you shall ride in your carriage yet. which are open to all. The sight of an elegant Italian cup disturbed his whole existence and from that moment the dete rmination to discover the enamel with which it was glazed possessed him like a p assion. and bought more pots and wood.--NAPOLEON. but. The shelves of his pantry were then broken up and thro wn into the furnace. He was a little dark man with a voice naturally harsh. a nd Charles shall go to Eton!" He had been so terribly in earnest with the study of his profession that he had at length made a mark on his generation.--JEREMY COLLIER. and soon had three hundred pieces baking." said Berna rd Palissy. "It is in me." The nerve that never relaxes. the eye that never blanches. at the age of eigh teen.

when I have fully decided that a result is worth getting I go ahead on it and make tr ial after trial until it comes. winged as many flying shuttles. Edison. "you will make a success of it. "and work at it like a Hercules." Perseverance built the pyramids on Egypt's plains. prophesied her future movements. flutters. with every breath of caprice that blows. his early poems were failures. The slow penny is surer than the quick dollar. Perseverance has put i n motion millions of spindles. dimensions. his success will be great. and computed their distances. The slow trotter will out-travel the fleet racer. The all-day horse wins the race. Genius darts." [Illustration: Thomas Alva Edison] A man who thus gives himself wholly to his work is certain to accomplish someth ing. and engraved on a metallic surface the viewless substance of the shadow. Perseverance has wrought from the marble block the exquisite creati ons of genius. more probably." "Whoever is resolved to excel in painting. "nor did any of my inventions come indirectly through accident. The last blow drives home the nail." "I have no secret but hard work." "Know thy work and do it. valuable simply as novelties to catch the popular fancy. he wi ll be at best stationary. painted on canvas the gorgeous mimicry of nature." con tinued the great inventor. and if he have ability and common sense." said Turner. taught her laws. navigated every sea and explored every land. or. and set them flying from town to to wn and nation to nation." said Reynolds. It has whitened the waters of the world with the sails of a hundred nations. I have never had any time to put on electrical w onders. retrograde in all. and tires. counted her myriad hosts o f worlds. "I don't know any other reason." s aid William Wirt. and his youthful speeches prov oked the ridicule of his opponents. Anything I have begun is always on my mind. from plan to plan. erected the gorgeous temple at Jerusalem. Instead of being progressive in anything. inclosed in adamant the Chinese Empire. But he fought his way to eminence through ri . harnessed thousan ds of iron steeds to as many freighted cars. except the phonograph. and I am not easy while away from it until it is finished .ent. and veers like a weather-cock to ever y point of the compass. leve led the forests of the new world. indeed. It has reduc ed nature in her thousand forms to as many sciences. No. "will do neither." was the reply. "Are your discoveries often brilliant intuitions?" asked a reporter of Thomas A . How Bulwer wrestled with the fates to change his apparent destiny! His first no vel was a failure. and velocities. I have always kept strictly within the lines of commercially useful inventions. opened a highway through the watery wilderness of the Atlantic. but perseverance wears and wins. scaled the stormy. and reared in its stead a community of states and nations. The man who resolves. "The man who is perpetually hesitating which of two things he will do first. the painter. and annihilated space wi th the lightning's speed. in any other art. I like it. cloud-c apped Alps. tunneled mountains of granite. "Do they come to you while you are lying awake nights?" "I never did anything worth doing by accident. but suffers his resolu tion to be changed by the first counter-suggestion of a friend--who fluctuates f rom opinion to opinion." said Carlyle. The afternoon-man wears off the laurels.--can never acco mplish anything great or useful. measured her untrodden spaces. "must bring all his mind to bear upon that one object from the moment that he rises till he goes to bed. and.

said that the early part of his theatrical career was spent in getting dismissed for incompetency. what holds it up?" asked the wise men. drawn maps and charts to keep from starving. Amid abuse and ridicule he waited twenty-five years before his great dis covery was recognized by the profession. rode slowly out through the beautiful gateway of the Alhambra. Twenty years later he corrected the err or. "why not the earth?" "If the earth is a ball. "But the sun and moon are round. To overcome one barrier gives us greater ability to overcome the next. and forsaken him. a poor gray-haired man. twenty years on his condensing engine." said John Ruskin. if you have none. Gibbon worked twenty years on his "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. industry will improve it. What a sublime patience he sho wed in devoting a life to the collection and definition of words! George Bancrof t spent twenty-six years on his "History of the United States. a nd fights for them ever afterwards. "What holds the sun and moon up?" inquired Columbus.: "I send your majesty the Last Supper. "if you have talent. and showed that the planets roll in their orbits as a result of the same law which brings an apple to the ground." Noah Webster spent thirty-six years on his dictionary.dicule and defeat." Newton rewrote h is "Chronology of Ancient Nations" fifteen times. "But how can men walk with their heads hanging down. 1492. He had begged bread. He believed that the piece of carved wood picked up four hundred miles at sea and the bodies of two men unlike any other human beings known. had drifted from unknown lands in the west. the great actor. his spirit enters into them. "Never depend upon your genius. So the spirit of our conquests enters us. while pretending to think of helping him. Newton discovered the law of gravitation before he was twenty-one. an d helps us to win the next victory. in the words of Joshua Reyno lds. and their feet up. Blücher may have been routed at Ligny yesterday. King John of Portugal. H arvey labored eight long years before he published his discovery of the circulat ion of the blood. From boyhood he had been haunted with the idea that the earth is r ound." He worked on his Pietro Martyn eight years. But his last hop e of obtaining aid for a voyage of discovery had failed. after working on it almost daily for seven y ears. Opposition gives us greater power of re sistance." Savages believe that when they conquer an enemy." said Columbus. but one slig ht error in a measurement of the earth's circumference interfered with a demonst ration of the correctness of his theory. industry w ill supply the deficiency. In February. Opposing circumstances create strength. Watt. Sothern. The council of wise men called by Ferdinand and Isabella ridiculed his theory of reaching the east by sailing west. Titian wrote to Charles V. found on the shores of Portugal. his friends had called him crazy. had sent out secretly an expedition of his own. George Stephenson was fifteen years perfecting his locomotive. but to-day you hear the thunder of his guns at Waterloo hurling dismay and death among his former conquerors. he had lost h is wife. like fl . He was then called a crack-brained impostor by his fellow phys icians. his head bowed with discouragement a lmost to the back of his mule.

"How hard I worked at that tremendous shorthand. On the second tri al. Columbus raised the banner of Castile over the western world.. Just as Mr. the Pinta floated a signal of distress for a bro ken rudder. so the king and queen compelled them. Field was not the man to give up. Newfoundland. John's. as if in the presence of death. Two hundred miles west of the Canar ies. Twenty-three hundred miles from home. it is rank heresy to say it is round. He plunged into the undertaking with all the force of his being. Three days out. as did the laying of a cable across the St. a magnificent new frigate of the United States Navy. "This doctrine is contrary to the Bible." said a priest. Field was about to give the order to cut the cable." said another phi losopher. Another stretch of one hundred and forty miles across the island of Cape Breton involved a great deal of labor. breaking the cable. when five miles of c able had been paid out." Cyrus W. but he tells them the North Star is not exactly north. and of a patient and continuous energy whic h then began to be matured. Seven hundred miles more of cable were ordere d. Not a sailor would go voluntaril y. but. but Columbus calmed their fears with pict ures of gold and precious stones from India. The cable was loaded upon the A gamemnon." said Isabella. An old friend had told Isabella that it would add great renown to her reign at a trifling expense if what the sa ilor believed should prove true. "I will only add to what I have already written of my p erseverance at this time of my life. Columbus left the Alhambra in despair. The following night. Field had retired from business with a large fortune when he became po ssessed with the idea that by means of a cable laid upon the bottom of the Atlan tic Ocean." Columbus turned and with him turned the world. and upon the Niagara . "how can trees grow with their roots in the air?" "The water would run out of the ponds and we should fall off. which says. land birds fly near. and a man of great skill was set to work to devise a better machine for payin . and they pick up a piece of wood curious ly carved. intending to offer his services to Charl es VII. "It shall be done. The sailors are ready to mut iny. it caught in the machinery and parted. the electric current was suddenly lost. On October 12. Terror seized the sailors. the flag ship of the British fleet at Sebastopol. a bush with berries floats by. the compass ceased to point to the North Star. the brakes were applied too suddenly just as the steamer gave a heavy l urch. though he tells them it is but seventeen hundred.ies on a ceiling?" asked a learned doctor. from New York to St. telegraphic communication could be established between Europe and Ame rica. but he heard a voice calling his name. The preli minary work included the construction of a telegraph line one thousand miles lon g. "I will pled ge my jewels to raise the money. and all improvement appertaini ng to it. when the sh ip was moving but four miles an hour and the cable running out at the rate of si x miles. but in Congress he encountered such bitter opposition from a powerful lobby that his m easure only had a majority of one in the Senate. in his vessels scarcely larger than fishing-schooners. 'The heavens are stretched out like a tent:'--of course it is flat. By hard work he secured aid for his company from the British government. when two hundred miles at sea. and m en paced the decks nervously and sadly. Call him back. the current returned as quickly and mysteriously as it had disappeared. Lawrence." said Dickens. Through four hundred miles of almo st unbroken forest they had to build a road as well as a telegraph line across N ewfoundland.

but perseverance is more so. All well." Successful men. After sev eral attempts to raise it. July 27. it was hoped. paying out as she advanced. when he saw a poor woman rubbing an iron bar on a stone to make a nee dle. and continued to Newfoundland. the cable parted. or the favorable circumstances around them. who worked day and night almost without food or sleep. spliced." replied the great violinist. "About forty years. FIELD. "Tw elve hours a day for twenty years. and he became one of the three greatest scholars of China. Again it was spliced. A new and superior cable was loaded upon the Great Eastern. Thank God! the cable i s laid and is in perfect working order. the one headed for Ireland. I will give him to sit down with me on my throne. the whole project would have been abandoned . my friends see it. it is said. Mr. with good prospects for usefulness for many years. when suddenly the current ceased. In Revelation we read: "He that overcometh. Malibran said: "If I neglect my practice a day. Genius will falter by the side of labor. 1866. the enterprise was abandoned for a year. capitalists were shy. Lyman Beecher w hen asked how long it took him to write his celebrated sermon on the "Government of God. Before the vessels were three miles apart. and the tw o are still working. "CYRUS W. "We arrived here at nine o'clock this morning. Field went to work with a will. This example of patience sent him back to his studies with a new determinat ion. when the cable snapped and sank. organized a new company.g out the long line. which. Field. I see the difference in my exec ution. was begun the trial which ended with the following mes sage sent to New York:-"HEART'S CONTENT. and one or two fr iends." replied. Directors were disheartened." A Chinese student. Faith now seemed dead except in the breast of Cyrus W. all the world know . the public skeptical. owe more to their perseverance than to their natura l powers. their friends. great powers will yield to great industry. if for two days. each running out the precious thread. discouraged by repeated failures. Finally a third attempt was made. "How long did it take you to learn to play?" asked a young man of Geradini. would bind two continents together. and if for a week. and on July 13. Talent is desirable. the current was lost. when it parted some twenty feet from the Agamemnon. Field. A third time the cable was spliced and about two hundred miles paid out. yet with such persistence did they work that they persuaded men to furnis h capital for yet another trial even against what seemed their better judgment. and made a new cable far superior to anything before us ed. the other for Newfoundland. had thrown away his book i n despair. Not discouraged by all these difficulties. and the vessels returned to the coa st of Ireland. with such success that the whole cable was l aid without a break. Everything worked to a charm until with in six hundred miles of Newfoundland. American and British inventors united in making a machine. which steamed slowly out to sea. but when the ships were eighty miles apart. At length in mid-ocean the two halves of the cable were spliced and the steamers began to separate. and bu t for the indomitable energy and persuasiveness of Mr. and several messages were flashed through nearly seven hund red leagues of ocean." The old cable was picked up.

He w ent to recite them to the principal just before train time." After the first volume was ready for the press. When an East India boy is learning archery. "About five hundred more." said the principal. I assure you. Webster's tenacity was illustrated by a circumstance which occurred in the academy." All are familiar with the misfortune of Carlyle while writing his "History of t he French Revolution. making drawings of birds. for he was in the habit of reading the same piece every day for six months before reading it in public. and the servant gi rl took it to kindle the fire.s my failure. Benjamin Franklin had this tenacity of purpose in a wonderful degree. At last his opponents voted for him from admirati on of his pluck. and he was elected by a majority of one! Such persistence alway s triumphs. humble. and sleeping-room. It w as a terrible disappointment. had spent two years with his gun and note-book in the forests of America." Constant. persistent struggle she found to be the price of her ma rvelous power. When he returned he opened the box only to fin d a nest of Norwegian rats in his beautiful drawings. Marcus Morton ran sixteen times for governor of Massachusetts. After repeating the hundred lines he continued until he had recited two hundred. persistent man. the naturalist. Pointing to a piece of bread from which he had just eaten his dinner." Everyone admires a determined. would never have served me as it has but for the habit of co mmonplace. . it is doubtful whether Demosthenes himself surpassed his great reply to Hayne in the United States Sen ate. but he became the great orator of America. but when he heard his name called in the academy and all eyes tu rned towards him the room became dark and everything he ever knew fled from his brain. "You can have the rest of the day for pigeon-shooting. He found a formidable rival in the city and invited him to his ro om. work-room. Webster declared that when a pupil at Phillips Exeter Academy he never could de claim before the school. He reproduced his drawings. but Carlyle was n ot the man to give up." Addison amassed three volumes of manuscript before he began the "Spectator. When Dickens was asked to read one of his selections in public he replied that he had not time. but Webster kept right on. He knew the principal was to take a certain tr ain that afternoon. "My own invention. so he went to his room and learned seven hundred lines. The principal punished him for shooting pigeons by compelling him to co mmit one hundred lines of Vergil. he reproduced that which had burned in a f ew minutes." said Webster. he carried his material through the streets on a wheelbarrow. Audubon. he is compelled to practise three m onths drawing the string to his ear before he is allowed to touch an arrow." he says. It was a bitter disappointment. He said he committed piece after piece and rehearsed th em in his room. He hired one room for his office. The princi pal finally stopped him and asked him how many more he had learned. toiling attention. continuing to recite. "such as i t is. He nailed them all up securely in a box and went off on a vacation. he loaned the manuscript to a neighbor who left it lying on the floor. Every one was ruined. and they were even better than the first. he sai d: "Unless you can live cheaper than I can you can not starve me out. The principal anxio usly looked at his watch and grew nervous. When he s tarted in the printing business in Philadelphia. patient. but Audubon took his gun and note-book and started for the forest. After many months of poring over hundreds of volumes of a uthorities and scores of manuscripts. Indeed.

An hour a day for twelve years more than equals the time given to study in a four years' course at a high school. Rousseau says he obtained the ease and grace of his style only by ceaseless inquietude. Ariosto wrote his "Description of a Tempest" in sixteen different ways. and its importance in a social view--its import ance to races and institutions--cannot be too earnestly inculcated. And of all maxims. Their works h ave not been flung off from minds aglow with genius. Thoreau wrote in his diary: "I have some nine hundred volumes i n my library. Show me a really great triumph that is not the reward of persistence. the best. Montesquieu was twenty-five years w riting his "Esprit des Lois. the glory of an unconquerable will! CHAPTER XXIV NERVE--GRIP." was an ent ire failure. of Man against Dest iny--of the One against the World. How came popular writers famous? By writing for years without any pay at all. The persistent tortoise outruns the swift bu t fickle hare. seven. to show that when we have conquered our misfortunes . another." Yet he took up his pen wit h as much determination as ever. "A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers. it is the virtue par excellence. Adam Tucker spent eighteen years on the "Light of Nature. making the millionaire of today a beggar to-morrow." and even then w as so dissatisfied that he wanted to burn it. Therefore. and it was en tirely reset." says Bulwer "is th e courage of the conqueror. Oh. "Never despair. for the wisest is boldest. th is is the courage of the Gospel. Vergil worked eleven years on the Aeneid. Is the stern watchword of 'Neve r give up!'" . "But your five hundred lines in three days will be dead and forgotten. Knowing that Providence mingles the cup. "Patience. until every trace of their efforts has been obliterated. by writing hundreds of pages as mere practise-work. PLUCK "Never give up. they become our helpers. The note-books of great men li ke Hawthorne and Emerson are tell-tales of the enormous drudgery. He spen t ten years on his "Orlando Furioso." A rival playwright once laughed at Eu ripides for spending three days on three lines. when he had written five hundred lines. seven hundred of which I wrote myself." and only sold one hundred copies at fiftee n pence each. by w orking like galley-slaves at literature for half a lifetime with no other compen sation than--fame. Seven hundred of the one thousand copies printed were returned from the publishers. and of the Soul against Matter." Want of constancy is the cause of many a failure." The head of the god Hercules is represented as covered with a lion's skin with claws joined under the chin. work on in despair." Thoreau 's New England pastoral. Bishop Butler worked twenty years incessantly on his "Analogy. The proof of Burke's "Letters to a Noble Lord" (one of the sublime st things in all literature) went back to the publisher so changed and blotted w ith corrections that the printer absolutely refused to correct it. Adam Smith s pent ten years on his "Wealth of Nations." he replied." yet you can read it in sixty minutes.Great writers have ever been noted for their tenacity of purpose. "but if you do. w hile my three lines will live forever. as the oldest. but have been elaborated an d elaborated into grace and beauty. One of the paintings which made Titian famous was on his easel eig ht years. The rolling stone gathers no moss. The reading and re-reading of a single volume has been the making of many a man. of the years p ut into a book which may be read in an hour. by endless blotches and er asures." says Burke.

I will sally forth from Genoa sword in hand." was the only reply." said old "Rough and Ready" at Buena Vista. Friends of the President pleaded with him to gi ve the command to some one else. handed one to each general. "General Taylor never surrenders. the jaw that never yields Drags down the bello wing monarch of the fields! HOLMES. with clenched teeth and knit muscles." and "I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer. until the clock struck one. the mongrel's hold will slip. At length all eyes were turned upon Grant. and with the morning sun the army moved forward to victory. "The greatest thing about him is cool persis tency of purpose. St ick to your aim. and arms and baggage. nearly every newspaper of b oth parties in the North. not as p risoners of war. Massena's army of 18. at dawn you w ill execute those orders. starvation stared them in the face. one constant element of luck Is genuine. then. for what is called luck is generally the prerogative of valiant souls. "My sword is too short. It is the final effort that brings victory. Small though he looks. It is this keeping right on that wins in the battle of life." said Napoleon. solid.000 men in Genoa had been reduced by fighting and famine t o 8.Be firm. He has the grip of a bulldog.000 soldiers b y capitulation. and said: "Gentlemen. as he withdrew. he called a council of war.000 men offered him a chance to save his 4. "Soldiers. after a long silence. He fights. even after his h ead is cut off. Lincoln listened for hours one night. But only crowbars loose the bulld og's grip. h e said: "I can't spare this man. He rose. nothing can shake him off. They had killed and captured more than 15. Then. but Massena replied: "My soldiers must be allowed to march out with colors flying. G eneral Ott demanded a discretionary surrender. took a bundle of papers from a n inside pocket. It is said that the snapping-turtle will not release his grip. you are Frenchmen. When Lincoln was asked how Grant impr essed him as a general. if he dies. another thought it better to retire by a different road." After Grant's defeat at the first battle of Shiloh. or fall back. With eight thousand famished . almost every member of Congress. and general after general told how he would withdraw. w hen Santa Anna with 20. the enemy outnumbered them four to one. and public sentiment everywhere demanded his removal. coolly walking among his disaffec ted generals when they threatened his life in the Egyptian campaign.000. to die hard. It is just such grit th at enables men to succeed. w ho had been a silent listener for hours. but free to fight when and where we please. and too few to intimidate me. he replied. It is the last pul l of the oar. after several days of hard fighting without definite result. when he once gets his teeth in.000 Austrians. "Add a step to it. but their prov isions were completely exhausted." It was "On to Richmond. old Teutonic pluck. Once. "you are to o many to assassinate. completely cowed. speaking only at rare intervals to tell a pithy story. The battle was long and desperate. for his own sake as well as for the good of the country. or seek a m ore favorable position in the rear." Every paper gave definite directions for an advance." "How brave he is!" exclaim ed the ringleader. and they seemed at the mercy of their opponents." said a Spartan youth to his father. He is resolved. Grant never looked backward. If you do not grant this. that shows what Oxford boatm en call "the beefiness of the fellow. and gave us the greatest hero of the Civil War." It was Lincoln's marvelous insight and sagacity that saved Grant from the storm of popular passion. but at length the Mexicans we re glad to avoid further defeat by flight. One general described the route by which he would retreat." that settled the fate of the Rebellion .

O lmstead was to appoint a money-taker at the door. "Push. This is true in every department o f activity. and I intend never to eat another until I get out of debt." was the prompt reply. The nature which is all pine and straw is of no use in times of trial." said Wellington at Waterloo to his officers. and we shall have time to gain another. "Well. "but w e will see who can pound the longest. who knew that the showman had not a dollar. Six months later Mr. alt hough a few minutes before the French soldiers all along the line were momentari ly expecting an order to retreat. or I will cut my way through your army. for in less than a y ear Barnum had paid every cent out of the profits of the establishment. Whoev er attempts to pass through the door to success will find it labeled.men I will attack your camp. and won the field. The remark attracted Napoleon's attention an d led to the promotion of the scrivener. Learn to meet ha rd times with a harder will. except on the Sabbat h. as an Austrian shell scattered earth over the dispatch he was writing at the d ictation of his commander-in-chief. "f or silver and gold have I none. no backing. or if he would depart by sea so as not to be quickly joine d by reinforcements. Massena's only reply was: "Take my terms. "Hard pounding." said Barnum to a friend in 1841. Napoleon said of this man. an d offered to cut down the household expenses to a little more than a dollar a da y." said Mr. consulted numerous references all telling of "a good showman. as though he had been the conqueror. who was orphaned in infancy and cast upon the world to make his own way in life: "When defeated. gentlemen. Barnum assented to the arrangement." There is another big word in the English language: the perfection of grit is th e power of saying "No." said young Junot coolly . Olmstead entered the ticket-office at noon." "It is very kind of them to 'sand' our letters for us." Ott at last agreed. The goddess of fame or of fortune has been won by many a poor boy who had n o friends. "what do you intend buying it with?" "Brass. who owned the Museum building . or anything but pure grit and invincible purpose." with emphasis that can not be mistaken." said Webster to a young man hesitating to stu dy law because the profession was so crowded. Mrs. Massena was always ready to fight a battle over again." and accepted a proposition to give security for the purchaser." Everyone interested in public entertainments in New York knew Barnum. slappi ng the young man approvingly on the shoulder. ." and he kept h is word. and found Ba rnum eating for dinner a few slices of bread and some corned beef. He was right. "There is room enough up higher." Ot t knew the temper of the great soldier. Olmstead. when Massena said: "I give you notic e that ere fifteen days are passed I shall be once more in Genoa. The young man who succeeds must hold his ground and push hard. "Is this the way you eat your dinner?" he asked." "The battle is completely lost. and credit Barnum towards the purchase with all above expenses and an allowance of fifty dollars per month to support his wife and three children." "Ah! you are safe . and more determined pluck. looking at his watch." said Desaix. when consul ted by Napoleon at Marengo. who would do as he agreed. and will pay for the Museum before the year is out. Mr. and I will fight till I cut my way through it. "I am going to buy the American Museum . and knew the condition of his pocket. and agreed to accept the terms if he wou ld surrender himself." He then made his famous cavalry charge. "I have not eaten a warm dinner since I bought the Museum. we must have some oak and iron in us. but Francis Olmstead. "but it is only two o'clock." "Buy it!" exclaimed the astonished friend.

a coward win at Yorktown. a carel ess stonecutter carve an Apollo. for all practica l purposes. an ignoramus utter lectures on science. or a Greek Slave? Does luck raise rich crops on the land of the sluggard. But let both persevere a nd at the end of five. after repeated fail ures in trying to imitate a storm at sea. for industry. Luck relies on chance. There is. a Paradise Lost. One b rings up a pearl. Waterloo. and wishes the postman would bring him the news of a legacy. Whitney his cot ton-gin. while the temperate man looks haggard and suffers want a nd misery? Does luck starve honest labor. and laud vice ? Did luck give Watt his engine. folly at a premium? Does it cast intelligence into the gutter. an Aeneid. Indeed. a Venus de Medici. or cowardice. or Rockefeller. while in the long run the rule will hold good." Has luck ever made a fool speak words of wisdom. Wagram. as the desire to work hard. Howe hi s sewing-machine. Franklin his captive lightning." says Cobden. labor. or Richmond. labor turns out at six o'clock. and raise ignorance to the skies? Does it imprison virtue. good habits. or a Hamlet.A good character. and iron industry are impregnable to the assault s of the ill luck that fools are dreaming of.--bear in mind that even this "luck" came to men as the result of action. Field. T wo pearl-divers. Only once learn to carry a . and whose senses are not all eagerly att ent. not inaction. an d with busy pen or ringing hammer lays the foundation of a competence. of the Persian co ndemned to lose his tongue. weeds and brambles on t hat of the industrious farmer? Does luck make the drunkard sleek and attractive. Vanderbilt. but only opened an internal tumor. Fulton his steamboat. Morse his telegraph. Edison his phonograph ? If you are told of the man who. No life is w asted unless it ends in sloth. "labor. with keen eyes and strong will. "Luck is ever waiting for something to turn up. on character. a Minerva. I am much disposed to think that endurance is the most valuable quality of all. Apparent exceptions will be found to relate almost wholly to single undertakings. a lo afer become a Girard or Astor. of a musician who. while the other returns empty-handed. Blanchard his lathe. does not come to much if a feeble frame is unable to respond to the desire. There is no luck. but even here it wi ll usually be found that the sagacity with which the efforts are directed and th e energy with which they are prosecuted measure pretty accurately the luck conta ined in the results achieved. Stewart. A man incurs about as much risk of being struck b y lightning as by accidental luck. effecting a cure. Be awake. and his home cheerful. Put forth your whole energies. worn out by a painful disorder." says Huxley. dishonesty. and that no one else can fill it as well. labor whistles." Stick to the thing and carry it through. No success is worthy of the name unless it is won by honest industry and brave breasting of the waves o f fortune. perhaps. Gould. will turn up something. the longer I live. Believe you were made for the place yo u fill. go forth to the task. "Varied experience of men has led me. a dolt write an Odyssey. of a painter who produced an effect long desired by throwing hi s brush at a picture in rage and despair. an element of luck in the amount of success which crowns the efforts of different men. to him who is not striving. Luck whin es. to attach more and more importance to industry an d physical endurance. dive together and work with equal energy. ten. on whom a bungling operation merely removed an imped iment of speech. and pamper idleness? Does luck put com mon sense at a discount. obtained the result desired by angrily running his hands together from the extremities of the keyboard. tried to commit suicide. Goodyear his rubber. equally expert. "to set less value on mere cleverness. What are called accidental discoveries are almost invariably made by those who are looking for something. a Rothschild. or twenty years it will be found that they succeeded almost in exact proportion to their skill and industry. electrify yourself. Luck lies in bed. Bell his telephone.

" said Pizarro. Who fights the daily battle without fear. The world in its very heart admires the stern. with love. For my part. third. 79. the workmen found the skeleton of a Rom an soldier in the sentry-box at one of the city's gates. "I like the man who faces what he must With step triumphant and a heart of chee r. true and just. There lies Peru with its riches: here. till it seems as if you could not hold on a minute longer. the drenching storm. Can take in all. desertion. yet keeps unfa ltering trust That God is God. Thus. better. others will think better of you. Is it necessary to add that all difficulties yie lded at last to such resolute determination? "Perseverance is a Roman virtue. he crossed the line and was followed by thirteen Spaniards i n armor. but. I go to the south." CHAPTER XXV CLEAR GRIT Let fortune empty her whole quiver on me.thing through in all its completeness and proportion. on the little island of Gallo in the Pacific. "Friends and comrades. the ceaseless vi gilance and fidelity which made the Roman legionaries masters of the known world . Panama and its poverty. he alone is great . DRYDEN. second. what best becomes a brave Castilian. envies not. determined doer. Choose. each man. backbone. a mute witness to the thorough discipline. He might have found saf ety under sheltering rocks close by. hunger. when his men were c lamoring to return to Panama. You will think better of yourself. for that's just the place and time that the tide'll turn. and plucks success E'en from the spear-proof crest of rugged danger. N or loses faith in man. b ackbone. At the time they had not even a vessel to transport them to the country they wished to conquer. The barriers are not yet erected which shall say to aspiring talent. "Thus far and no farther. Sees his hopes fail. That wins each godlike act." said Harriet Beecher Stowe. a crust Than living in dishonor. which was buried by the dust and ashe s from an eruption of Vesuvius A. and verge enough for more. Though a whole town's against him. Falls f rom his grasp. but does his best. like an ample shi eld. on this side. Who by a life heroic conquers fate. that somehow. . His plans work out f or mortals. B ut with a smile and words of hope. did Pizarro and his few volunteers resolve to stak e their lives upon the success of a desperate crusade against the powerful empir e of the Incas." While digging among the ruins of Pompeii. LONGFELLOW. which the world holds dear. D. "neve r give up then. as he turned toward the south. and death." "When you get into a tight place and everything goes against you. nakedness. Nor even murmurs at his humbler lot.-GOLDSMITH. he had r emained at his post. after trac ing with his sword upon the sand a line from east to west. in the face of certain death. gives zest To every toiler. I have a soul that. Our greatest glory is not in never falling." So saying."--BEETHOVEN. but in rising every time we fall. backbone. not a tear Is shed when fortune. and you will become a hero . "on that side are toi l. e ase and pleasure. There's a brave fellow! There's a man of pluck! A man who's not afraid to say h is say." Charles Sumner said "three things are necessary to a strong character: First.

and his foreign dispatches were all stopped at the outposts. push. he was sure. printing. But no remonstrance could swerve the son from hi s purpose to give the world a great journal which should have weight. The father was in utter dismay. and Walter had duplicate and even triplicate types set. "Mean natures always feel a sort of terror before great natures. Enterprise. patiently. At enormous expense he employed special couriers. begged his father to give him full control of the paper. that its article s meant business. The aggressive editor antagonized the government. an d his personality pervaded every detail. hypocrisy is uncertain.000 copies per hour. whenever he though t it corrupt. Am ong other new features foreign dispatches were introduced. Then he set his brain to work. The public soon saw that a new power stood behind the "Times". and courageously grapples with his fate. individuality. even the government. and scarcely dared recite . throwing off 17. who dies. character. then only twenty-seven years old. In the strife of parties and principles. dishonesty trembles. backbone w ithout brains will carry against brains without backbone.. In the presence of men permeated with grit and sound i n character. Thereupon the public customs. when told that he would nev er make an orator as he had failed in his first speech in Parliament. Mean men are uncomfortabl e. John Walter. that the first steam printed paper was given to the world. and they appeared in the "Times" several days before their appearance in the government organs. who calmly." and nothing could stay its progress. only added to his determination to succeed. Jr. He became known as one of the foremost orators of his day. Walter and was s teadily losing money. and ev erybody admires achievement. and many a bas e thought has been unuttered. the fa ther finally consented. The " leading article" also was introduced to stay. But nothing could daunt this resolute young spirit. After many misgivings. that new life and new blood and new ideas had been infused int o the insignificant sheet. grit were behind the "Times. It is that quality which achieves. has the right of way. charact er. The audacious y oung editor boldly attacked every wrong. Young Walter was the soul of the paper. His son. When a boy Henry Clay was very bashful and diffident." said Sheridan. at his post. and fin ally the Walter Press. make him the representative of that opinion. The young journalist began to remodel the establishment and to introduce new ideas everywhere. whi le the ministerial journalists were allowed to proceed. In those days only three hundred copies of the paper could be struck off in an hour by the best presses. and had had no individuality or character of its own. and independence. Lincoln. being asked by an anxious visitor what he would do after three or four years if the rebellion were not subdued. that a man with brains and push and tenacity of purpo se stood at the helm. his name will be found neither among the d ead nor among the wounded. by tying an opinion to a man's tongue. 1814. there is no alternative but to keep pegging away. The "London Times" was an insignificant sheet published by Mr. meanness and baseness slink out of sight. at th e close of any battle for principles. The paper had not attempted to mold publi c opinion. and the government adverti sements were withdrawn. pure grit. replied: "Oh. many a sneaking vote withheld.--a man who could make a way when he could not find one. was the result. through the fear in spired by the rebuking presence of one noble man. You can not." "It is in me and it shall come out. "Clear grit" always commands respect. and all opposition from the government." As a rule. if need be . wo uld ruin the paper and himself. Ev ery obstacle put in his way. both sides printed. but among the missing.The world admires the man who never flinches from unexpected difficulties. It was the 29th of November.

In the presence of his de cision and imperial energy they melted away. he blandly lights another cig ar. He is spared the necessity of declaring himself. and field turnips. But Kitto did not find them there. He could not be moved from his base. if you call him an imbecile and a blunderer. So he commit ted speeches and recited them in the cornfields. and keep the needle of his purpose pointing to the star of his hope. even if he had to subsist like the Hottentots. and in the the knowledge that ll prevail. but he determined to become an orator. they were "plucky. obliging this man by investing in hopeless speculation. popularly speaking. Here was real grit. "If you try to wheedle out of him his plans for a campaign. indomitable will? Grit is a permanent. Through sunshine and storm. but Grant had pure "grit" in the most con centrated form. in truth is mighty. Many of the failures of life are d ue to the want of grit or business nerve. with no resolution or backbone to mark his own course and stick to it. he stolidly sm okes. It does not come by fits and starts." an d often displayed great determination. and if you tell him he should run for the presidency. if you praise him as the greatest general living. and delegations were waiting upon him to ask for th at general's removal. it do es not disturb the equanimity with which he inhales and exhales the unsubstantia l vapor which typifies the politician's promises. or in the barn with the horse a nd cows for an audience. The man of grit carries in his very presence a power which controls and command s. is the best brain to plan and the s trongest heart to dare among the generals of the Republic. and was willing to sleep on a hayrick. it is a part of his life. nothi ng but death can subdue it. with a leaky ship. with a crew in mutiny. While you are wondering what k ind of creature this man without a tongue is. he placidly returns the pu ff from his regalia. indorsing a questionable note. through sleet a nd rain. . with no ability to say "No" with an emphasis." When the illustrated papers everywhere were caricaturi ng him. and. which enters into the very structure. and it dies still struggling. in fact. immov able. both had that rare nerve which cares not for ridicule." Lincoln had pure "grit. W hat were impossibilities to such a resolute. that deaf pauper and master of Oriental learning. It insp ires a sublime audacity and a heroic courage. and the conviction and confidence that it wi Pure grit is that element of character which enables a man to clutch his aim wi th an iron grip. the v ery tissues of the constitution. nuts. Lincoln and Grant swerved by public truth. He said he could live upon blackberries. r ather than offend a friend. he was self-centered. and behind the face discharged of all telltale expression. He told him t hat he would sell his books and pawn his handkerchief. you are suddenly electrified with the news of some splendid victory. when his methods were criticized by his own party. It is unfortunate for a young man to s tart out in business life with a weak. solid quality. and was reminde d of a story. proving that behind the cigar. when no epithet seemed too harsh to heap upon him. through hurricane and tempest. Many of our generals in the Civil War exhibited heroism. it perseveres. If impossibilities ever exist. is not clamor. can bear abuse and hatred. the great President sat with crossed legs. and the generals in the war were denouncing his "f oolish" confidence in Grant. they ought to have been foun d somewhere between the birth and death of Kitto. for his grit speaks in his e very act. by which he thought he co uld raise about twelve shillings. There is a mighty force in sublime conviction and supreme self-confidence behind it.before his class at school. He begged his father to take him ou t of the poorhouse. yielding disposition.

but his work was successful. blow after blow with the laborer. He was competing for the university prize. "After the defeat at Essling. crop after crop with the farmer. Congressman William W. Crapo. The examiners heard him at his bedside. you would shake worse yet if you knew where I am going to take you. the bra ve student died. Oh. and in four years he took his degr ee. the Austrians considered the day won.A little boy was asked how he learned to skate.. and the battle was won for France . Mass. Napoleon gave the command to charge. telling him to keep his posit ion for two hours longer at Aspern. his frame weakened by his unparalleled exertions during a contest of forty hours. the triumphs of this indomitable spirit of the conqueror! This it was that enabled Franklin to dine on a small loaf in the printing-office with a book in h is hand. It enable d Gideon Lee to go barefoot in the snow. and mile after mile with the traveler." he replied. It helped Locke to live on bread and water in a Dutch garret. to whom the Emperor dispatched a messenger. competing for a prize. the Old Guard charged down into the weakened center of the enemy. while working his way through college. It sustai ned Lincoln and Garfield on their hard journeys from the log cabin to the White House. 'Tell the Emperor that I will hold out for two hours. ." In the battle of Marengo." "Often defeated in battle. The French army was inferior in numbers. actually copied one. that secu res what all so much desire--SUCCESS. and. couched in the form of a request . The messenger found Masséna seated on a heap of rubb ish. and his whole appearance indicating a physical state better befitting the hospital than the field. cut it i n two. Think of the para lytic lad. to follow up the French. rolled the two wings up on either side. Then. he said. he r ose painfully and said courageously. Physician s said there was no hope for him. The Austrian army extended its wing s on the right and on the left." It is victory after victory with the soldier. This order. to do which he had to learn I talian and German. helpless in bed. lesson after lesson with the scho lar. fighting death inch by inch! What a lesson! Before his manuscript was published or the prize awarded. But that steadfast soul seemed alt ogether unaffected by bodily prostration. walking from his home in the vill age of Dartmouth. though the French themselves thought that the battle was lost.' And he kept his word. picture after picture with the painter. and the Austrians were confident i t was won. being too poor to buy a dictionary. "You may well shake. Whipple tells a story of Masséna which illustrates the masterful purpose that plu cks victory out of the jaws of defeat. Once when Marshal Ney was going into battle. He persevered in spite of repeated attacks of illness and par tial loss of sight. and had given way. his eyes bloodshot. required almost an impossibility. Half dead as he was with fatigue. but Napoleon knew the indomitable tenacity o f the man to whom he gave it. A promising Harvard student was stricken with paralysis of both legs. the success of Napoleon's attempt to withdraw his beaten army depended on the character of Masséna." said Macaulay of Alexander the Great. "he was alway s successful in war. looking down at his knees which we re smiting together. He resolved to make a critical study of Dante. by getting up every time I fell down. half starved and thinly clad. the trumpet's blast being g iven. The lad determined to continue his college stu dies. "Oh. to New Bedford to replenish his store of words and defi nitions from the town library.

forcing his leaders hip upon that very party whose prejudices were deepest against his race. When the youth found the props all t aken out from under him. ears. and cheaper loaf. returned to college. "Prime Minister of England. and worked thirty-five years after his funeral had been planned. and became one of America's greate st historians. bu t phoenix-like. graduated at the head of his class. most of the great things of the world have been accomplished by g rit and pluck. was el ected Governor of New York. owing thousands more than he possessed. Scoffed. Prescott also put grit in place of eyesight. One of the most remarkable examples in history is Disraeli. studied law. He may go on. and I will back that young man to do better than most of those who have succeeded at the first trial. Imagine England's su rprise when she awoke to find this insignificant Hebrew actually Chancellor of t he Exchequer! He was easily master of all the tortures supplied by the armory of rhetoric. and the chairman apologized for him. Indeed. sprung from a hated and persecuted race.President Chadbourne put grit in place of his lost lung. hissed from the House of Commons. At fifty. Handsome. he could s ting Gladstone out of his self-control. and that he must now sink or swim. and told him he could not stay at home. and nevertheless has gone on. fairly wringing success from adverse f ortune. He will make stepping-stones out of his stumbling-blocks. he left home moneyle ss. and became the greatest Postmaster -General England ever had. rebuffed. Determined audacity was in his very face. Barnum was a ruined man. hands. asked him what he wish ed to be. But he did not give up speaking till every poor man in England had a larger. eyes. and became Lincoln's great Secretary of State during the Civil War. he rose repeatedly from the ashes of his misfortune each time mo re determined than before. with the hated Hebrew blood in his veins. "It is all very well. Henry Fawcett put grit in place of eyesight. and bec ame the greatest historian of America in his line. and lift himself to success. he could exhaust the resources of the bitterest invective. . Seward was given a thousand dollars by his father with which to go t o college. he was absolute master of himself and hi s situation. Again and again he was ruined. "to tell me that a young man has di stinguished himself by a brilliant first speech. legs and yet have achieved marvelous su ccess. Lord Melbourne. until he stands self-poised upon the topmost round of political and social power . See young Disraeli. for he knew his day would come. Francis Parkman put grit in place of health and eyesight. Thousands of men have put gri t in place of health." Cobden broke down completely the first time he appeared on a platform in Manche ster. pushing his way up through the middle classes. "The time will come when you will hear me. or he may be sati sfied with his first triumph. and the boy wit h no chance swayed the scepter of England for a quarter of a century." was his audacious reply. His father refused to give him mo re. ridiculed. but show me a young man who has not succeeded at f irst. the great Prime Minister. and whi ch had an utter contempt for self-made men and interlopers. he simply says . up through the upper classes. without opportunit y. The son returned at the end of the fresh man year with extravagant habits and no money. You could see that this young man intended to make his way in the w orld. Fox. after three defeats in parliamentary elections he was not th e least daunted. yet he resolutely resumed business once more." said Charles J. William H. better. when this gay young fop was introduced to him. this was all he was to have. and paying his notes at the same time. You can not keep a man down who has these qualities." The time did come.

"If the power to do hard work is not talent. it is impossible. During a winter in the War of 1812. "there is nothing impossible to him who will try. I should say unhesitatingly." The triumph of industry and grit over low birth and iro n fortune in America. The race is not always to the swift. pushing. Not the distance we have run." Were I called upon to express in a word the secret of so many failures among th ose who started out in life with high hopes. those who have su ffered abuse in silence. by dissipation. because nobody encourages them . What is a man without a will? He is like an engine without steam. sloth and folly Shiver and sink at sight of toil and hazard. became mutinous and were going home. What chance is there in this crowding. Can he will strong enough. to Alexander. and every drop of their blood rebe ls? How many men have to feel their way to the goal through the blindness of ign orance and lack of experience? How many go bungling along from the lack of early discipline and drill in the vocation they have chosen? How many have to hobble along on crutches because they were never taught to help themselves. for a young man with no will.Garfield said." said a foiled lieutenant. the poor woman who has buried her sor rows in her silent heart and sewed her weary way through life. of breeding. The poor wretch who has plodded along against unknown temptations. and hold whatever he undertakes with an iron grip? It is the iron grip that tak es the strong hold on life. a mere sport of chance. the weights we have carried. of training. with th e opposition of parents who do not understand them? How many a round boy is hind ered in the race by being forced into a square hole? How many youths are delayed in their course because nobody believes in them. "The wise and active conquer difficulties. it is the best poss ible substitute for it. "Begone. will all be taken into account. always at the mercy of those who have wills. ought to be sufficient to put to shame all grumblers over their hard fortune and those who attempt to excuse aiml ess. with the support of invalid parents or brothers and sisters. how many are crippled by disease. And make the impossibility t hey fear. General Jackson's troops. the handicaps. of circumstances. where everything is pusher or pushed. So in the race of life the distance alone does not determine the prize. with povert y. But the general set the example of living on acorns. the disadvantages und er which we have made the race. the disadvantages of education. of surrounding s. the battle is not always to the strong. They could not half will. By daring to attempt them. but have be en accustomed to lean upon a father's wealth or a mother's indulgence? How many are weakened for the journey of life by self-indulgence. to be tossed about hither and thither. but the obstacles we have overcome. Ho rses are sometimes weighted or hampered in the race. will decide the prizes. "is a resolute deter . the land of opportunity. will often receive the greater prize. by impaire d eyesight or hearing? When the prizes of life shall be finally awarded. How many young men are weighted down with debt. shiftless. the weights we have c arried. We must take into consideration the hindrances. self ish. greedy world. no grip on life? "The truest wisdom." shouted the conquering Macedonian." said Napoleon. and this is taken into acco unt in the result. because they get no sympathy and are forever tortured for not doing that again st which every fiber of their being protests. and then he rode before the rebellious line and threatened with instant death the first mutineer that should try to leave. by a weak constitution. or friends? How many are fettered with ignorance. I should call the stre ngth of will the test of a young man's possibilities. and who have been unrecognized or despised by their fel low-runners." "I can't. they l acked will-power. the distance we have run. by "lif e-sappers". successless men because they have no chance. unprovided for an d starving. hampered by inhospitable surroundings.

"My son. "it was born some three and twe nty years and some months after me. The work accomplished. The boy had been sent with three wagons . and reached South Amboy penniless." said this same boy's mother. and take it to New York in lighters. But the tide turned. "If you will pu t us across. trembling through every fiber. but the work was done in time." said the innkeeper. 1810. he had started with only six dollars to travel a long distance home over the Jersey sands. "Eloquence must have been born with you. P." The innkeeper asked the reason for this novel proposition. "on the twenty-seventh of this month you will be sixteen years o ld. but great minds rise above t hem. I will advance you the money. "The undivided will 'T is that compels the elements and wrings A human music fr om the indifferent air. in the face of opposition so bitter that he lost his last dollar. Seeing that steam-vessel s would soon win supremacy over those carrying sails only.--BEECHER. I took courage and had actually proceeded al . He was a remarkable example of success under difficulties. you will plow.mination. N." said a boy of twelve one day in 1806 to the innkeeper at South Amboy. "I have here three teams that I want to get over to Staten Island. having imbibed a strong liki ng for the sea. He early identified himself with the g rowing railroad interests of the country. The horse was soon redeemed. and well done. There was no keeping him down. I'll leave with you one of my horses in pawn. and three men. as he looked into the bright honest eyes of the boy." An iron will without principle might produce a Napoleon. he said: "I stood up. and if I don't send y ou back six dollars within forty-eight hours you may keep the horse. "Indee d." Speaking of his first attempt at a debating club. Little minds are tamed and subdued by misfortunes. J. If. by that time." said a friend to J. Curran. For twelve years he ran between New York City and New Brunswick. and learned that the lad's father had contracted to get the cargo of a vessel stranded near Sandy Ho ok." CHAPTER XXVI SUCCESS UNDER DIFFICULTIES Victories that are easy are cheap.--WASHINGTON IRVING. In 1829 he b egan business as a steamboat owner. my dear sir. when he asked her to lend him one hundred dollars to buy a boat. From this small beginning Cornelius Vanderbilt laid the foundation of a colossal fortune." replied the orator. it was not. but with cha racter it would make a Wellington or a Grant. untarnished by ambition or avarice . Barnum began the race of business life barefoot. no opposition daunted him. for at the age of fifteen he w as obliged to buy on credit the shoes he wore at his father's funeral. "I'll d o it. In 1818 Vanderbilt owned two or three of the finest coasting schooners in New Y ork harbor." The field was rough and stony. harrow. on the first of May. Those only are worth having which come as th e result of hard fighting. to carry the cargo across a sand-spit to the lighte rs. J. but remembering that in this I was but imitating Tully. and he prospered so rapidly that he a t length owned over a hundred steamboats. and became the richest man of his day in America. and plant with corn the eight-acre lot. N. he gave up his fine b usiness to become the captain of a steamboat at one thousand dollars a year. six horses. and had a capital of nine thousand dollars.

in time surmount the greatest difficulties. besides studying botany. He also borrowed money to send his wife back to America. In af ter years he fought "steals" in Congress." Stung by the taunt. and Rittenhouse. and studied in the n ight schools for years. Encouraged by this success." "I doubt not. Chairman. he took great pains to become a good speaker. they seize upon whatever is at hand. or of one impression of the spade. David Livingstone at ten years of age was put into a cotton factory near Glasgo w. with the general design and last result. and that distant countries are united with canals. The boy Arkwright begins barbering in a cellar. My friends cried. but dies worth a million and a . Bunyan wrote his "Pilgrim's Progress" on the untwisted papers which were used t o cork the bottles of milk brought for his meals. I perceived that every eye was turned on me. and read extensively. the astronomer. Curran rose and ga ve the man a "piece of his mind. If a man was to compare the effect of a single stroke of the pickax. yet was it." s ays Johnson. notwithstanding he had to be at the factory at six in the mo rning. and oceans bounded. So eager for knowledge was he. He would sit up and study till midnight unless his mothe r drove him to bed. and assembled millions were gazing upon me in breathless expectation. and amid the deafening roar of machinery would po re over its pages. and early learned the lesson that it takes one hundred cents to make a dollar." and well did he deserve the title until he ventured to stare in astonishment at a speaker who was "culminating chronology by the most preposterous anachronis ms. and then he pawned his letters patent to pay his expenses home. on small scraps of leather. by the slender force of human beings." speaking fluently in his anger. Elihu B. A Franklin does not require elaborate apparatus. 'Hear him!' but there was nothing to hear. There were only six or seven present. Nor do they wait for fa cilities or favoring circumstances. and spoke at every opportunity. He mastered Vergil and Horace in this way. at which we look with praise and wonder. He bought beans and cooked them himself. A young man determined and willing wi ll find a way or make one." Great men never wait for opportunities. that he would place his book bef ore him on the spinning-jenny. Washburn. "that 'Orator Mum' possesses wonde rful talents for eloquence. incessantly continued. when a cobbler's apprentice. taught school at ten dollars per month." He was nicknamed "Orator Mum . until he was called the "Watchdog of t he Treasury. but I would recommend him to show it in future by so me more popular method than his silence. and mounta ins are leveled. by way of industry and perseverance. work ou t their problem." When Elias Howe. "All the performances of human art. Gifford wrote his first copy o f a mathematical work. he c an bring electricity from the clouds with a common kite. H e sold his first machine for five pounds. he wou ld be overwhelmed by the sense of their disproportion. although it was worth fifty. harassed by want and woe. and master the situation." said the annoyed speaker. I became dismayed and dumb. he had frequently to borrow money to live on. Out of his first week's wages he bought a Latin grammar. first calculated eclipses on his plow handle. Great men have found no royal road to their triumph. was in London completing his first s ewing-machine. and the r oom could not have contained as many more. yet those petty operation s.' when. to my astonishment and terror. He corrected his hab it of stuttering by reading favorite passages aloud every day slowly and distinc tly.most as far as 'Mr. "are instances of the resistless force of perseverance: it is by th is that the quarry becomes a pyramid. to my panic-stricken imag ination. as if I were the central object in nature. The farmer boy. It is always the old route . they make them.

to be snatched from obscurity. But the boy would not lead a useless life. mustered all the impediments. The world treated his novelties just as it treats everybody's novelties--m ade infinite objection. the unfolding of your p sprang the greatest of crowded ranks of toil." Surroundings which men call unfavorable can not prevent owers. the most experienced and accomplis hed men of the day. which closes behind him to all others. repulsive. Daniel Webster. he lost one eye by a hard piece of bread thrown during a "biscuit battle. and lived to become honored and wealthy. of what real parentage we know not. and death might be chanted by a Greek chorus as at once the pr elude and the epilogue of the most imperial theme of modern times? Born as lowly as the Son of God. and intrusted with the destiny of a nation. is genius born and nurtured. not even permitting his own chil dren to pass. and exercised an influence upon the thought of the world amounting to a species of intellectual legislation. wretched. and turned all hi s energies in that direction. have become the companions of kings. while this strange figure was brought by unseen hands to the front. ungainly even among the uncouth about him: it was reserved for this remarkabl e character. Nearly every great discovery or invention that has blessed mankind has had to f ight its way to recognition. but he snapped his fingers at their objections. squalor. nor fair surrounding. "discovered a more splendid series of celestial phenomena than any one since with the great telescopes. William H. in a hovel." said a sage. he spent ten years stu dying before he even decided upon a particular theme for his first book. not in the tapestried library. with no gleam of light. singularly awkwar d. have often come tors of our race. There is no open door to the temple of success. a young manhood vex ed by weird dreams and visions. and persecution. He set his heart upon being a historian. in bare and fireless garrets. Prescott was a remarkable example of what a boy with "no chance" can do. but often in adversity and destitution. The great l eaders of his party were made to stand aside. have men labored. poring over old archives and manuscripts." What a lesson in his life for young men! What a rebuke to those who have thrown away their opportunities and wasted their liv es! "Galileo with an opera-glass. From among the rock-ribbed hills of New Hampshire American orators and statesmen. "who has not suffered?" Schiller produced his . Then he spent ten years more. ami dst the harassing cares of a straitened household. reared in pe nury. men like Seward. late in life. Amid scenes unpropitious. with scarcely a natural grace. and t rained themselves. even against the opposition of the most progressive men. before he publi shed his "Ferdinand and Isabella. There is scarcely a great truth or doctrine but has had to fight its way to pub lic recognition in the face of detraction. "What does he know. calumny." and the other eye became almost useless." said Emerson. and given the reins of power. not in ease and comp etence. Columbus f ound the new world in an undecked boat. and Chase. While at college. and Sumner. statesmen famous and trained. studied. By the aid of others' eyes.half. Not in the brilliant salon. wh ose life. Everyone who enters makes his o wn door. were sent to the rear. From the and homes to which luxury is a stranger. raised to supreme comm and at a supreme moment. career. until they have at last emanated from the gloom of that obscu rity the shining lights of their times. the guides and teachers of their kind. the leaders and benefac Where shall we find an illustration more impressive than in Abraham Lincoln.

storms. Perhaps no one ever battled harder to overcome obstacles which would have dishe artened most men than Demosthenes. warned by palsy of the approach of death . Roger Bacon. he sat down to compose the great w orks which have made his name immortal in music. Place stumbling-blocks in his w ay and he takes them for stepping-stones. he did not swerve a hair's breadth from the overmastering purpose which domi nated his soul. perpetual plodding. He was accused of dealing in magic. Young Phipps determined to find it. heard some sailors on the street. and the people adopted his opinion. and struggling with distress and suffering. All that is great and noble and true in the history of the world is the result of infinite painstaking. but was hissed down as befor e. but the "Iron Duke" never faltered in his course. when a young man. But he remained fir m. ostracism. and he was kept in prison for ten years. Even our own revered Washington was mobbed in the streets because he would not pander to the clamor of the people and reje ct the treaty which Mr. a noted actor. and encouraged him to persevere. life itself if need be. Mozart composed his great opera s. Rebuffed by kings. yet he persevered and won s uccess.greatest tragedies in the midst of physical suffering almost amounting to tortu re. could not shake his mighty purpose. but he pushed his suit against an incredulous and ridiculing world. pleasure. and he makes spurs of his poverty to urge him on. Finally. discovered the lost treasure. He set out at once. He then heard of anothe . when o ppressed by almost total deafness. Jay had arranged with Great Britain. after many hardships. which was supposed to have money on board. hanging his head in great confusion. One of his audito rs. ease. one of the profoundest thinkers the world has produced. in Boston. The Duke of Wellington was mobbed in the streets of London and his windows were broken while his wife lay dead in the hou se. Threats. and whom he compelled to refund a part of his fortune. He stammered so much that he could not pronounce some of the letters at all. Satyrus. and scoffs of his audiences. of common every-day industry. scorned by quee ns. He was so discouraged by his defeats that he determined to give up forever all attempts at oratory. mutiny of sailors. His first effort tha t met with success was against his guardian. and such an impedim ent in his speech. and at the same time accustom himself to the hisses and tumults of his audience . who had defrauded him. in order to overcome his stammering. and he writes the Waverley Novels. jeers. and his breath woul d give out before he could get through a sentence. and last of all his "Requiem. He went to the seashore and practised amid the roar of th e breakers with small pebbles in his mouth. His awkward gestures were also corrected by long and dete rmined drill before a mirror. and was so short of breath. leaky vessels. Columbus was dismissed as a fool from court after court. He accordingly appeared again in public. and reputation . talking about a Spanish ship wrecked off the Bahama Islands. position. As he withdrew. ridicule. was terrib ly persecuted for his studies in natural philosophy. You can not keep a determined man from success. must be sacrificed. T ake away his money. All his first attempts were nearly drowned by the hisses. believed the young man had something in him. his books were burned in public. Cripple hi m. Handel was never greater than when. The words "New World" were graven upon his heart. he determined to be an orator at any cost. encouraged him still further to try to overcome his impediment." when oppressed by debt and struggling with a f atal disease. and on them will climb to greatness. Beethoven produced his greatest works amidst gloomy sorrow. He had such a weak voice. and. or swerved a hair's breadt h from his purpose. William Phipps. that he could scarcely get throug h a single sentence without stopping to rest. He overcame his short breath by practising while running up steep and difficul t places on the shore. however.

was in his later years nearly. a ceaseless battle to win success in spite of every barrie r. but he returned to Engl and with $1." "Many and many a time since. do you suppose those bright rays failed to illuminate the inmost recesses of his soul? CHAPTER XXVII USES OF OBSTACLES Nature. while the third. and Phipps had to wait for four years before he could raise mo ney to return. on our own resources. A distinguished investigator in science said that when he encountered an appare ntly insuperable obstacle. Edison demon strated that the electric light had at last been developed into a commercial suc cess. is the price of all great achievements. He searched and searched for a long time in va in. His crew mutinied and threatened to throw him overboard. reputation. One day an Indian diver went down for a curious s ea plant and saw several cannon lying on the bottom. Though losses and crosses be lessons right severe. Cyrus W. of opposition .000.--Homer and Milton . Field placed his hand upon the tele graph instrument ticking a message under the sea." Two of the three greatest epic poets of the world were blind. To his delight the king fitted up the ship Rose Algier for him.500. we have worked hard and usefully. BURNS. As odors crushed are sweeter still. The man who has not fought his way up to his own loaf. When. referring to her father's failure in business. if not altogether." said Harriet Martineau. of ridicule. The good are better made by ill. blin d. He set sa il for England and importuned Charles II for aid. abroad and at home. Dante. and does not bear the sc ar of desperate conflict. when she adds difficulties. whereas. A constant struggle. but he t urned the ship's guns on them. of repeated failure. ye'll find no other where. The money acquired by those who have thus struggled upward to success is not th eir only.--SPU RGEON. Many men owe the grandeur of their lives to their tremendous difficulties. sewin g and economizing and growing narrower every year. adds brains. "have we said that. James II was th en on the throne. by being thrown." "Kites rise against. think you that the electric th rill passed no further than the tips of his fingers? When Thomas A.r ship. after years of toil. seen the world abundantly. They proved to belong to th e wreck. It almost seems as though some great characters had been physically crippled in certain respects so that they would not dissipate their energy. and independence.--EMERSON. He had nothing but dim traditions to guide him. not with. which had been wrecked off Port De La Plata many years before. There's wit there ye'll get there. but for that loss of money. we might h ave lived on in the ordinary provincial method of ladies with small means. whi le it was yet time. the wind. have truly lived instead of vegetating. in short. but concentra te it all in one direction. "Adversity is the prosperity of the great. he usually found himself upon the brink of some disco . does not know the highest meaning of success. won friends. and at length had to return to England to repair his vessel. ROGERS. or indeed their chief reward.

enemies d rag out to the light all our weaknesses without mercy. Failure often leads a man to su ccess by arousing his latent energy. but it is only like th e obstruction of ice or débris in the river temporarily forcing the water into edd ies. It is just so in lif e. and develop a firmer fiber of mind. T heir biting sarcasm and scathing rebuke are mirrors which reveal us to ourselves . and to struggle under difficulties su fficient to stimulate into activity their dormant powers. The man who is tied down by half a dozen blooming responsibilities and their mother will make a higher and stronger flight than the bachelor who. "Returned with thanks" has made many an author. with snow and frost. We are the victors of our opponents.very. and our griefs develo p us in a similar way. but they often act as a stimulus to the naturally indolent. There is nothing that does a young lawyer so much good as to be half starved. for they are of ten our best friends in disguise. is always floundering in the mud." Thousands of men of great native ability have been lost to the world because th ey have not had to wrestle with obstacles. No effort is too dear which helps us along the line of our proper career. Our trials. having noth ing to keep him steady. as the oak is braced and anchored for its th ousand battles with the tempests. our sorrows. . a stronger muscle and stamina of body." said an eminent jurist. where it accumulates strength and a mighty reserve which ultimately sweeps the obstruction impetuously to the sea. and. Soon he was regarded as the brigh test ornament of the class. by awakening p owers which were sleeping. and then to wrestle with s torm and tempest. but are the better for them. An air of triumph is seen in every movement. Poverty and obscurity are not insurmount able obstacles. the fiber of its timber will be all the t ougher and stronger. Without their opposition we could never have braced an d anchored and fortified ourselves. These unkind stings and thrusts are often spurs which urge us on to grander su ccess and nobler endeavor. The man who has triumphed over difficulties bears the signs of victory in his f ace. They tell us the truth when friends flatter.--a force against him that lifts him higher. They reac h depths before untouched. Poverty and obscurity of origin may impede our progress. "Let the adverse breath of criticism be to you only what the blast of the storm wind is to the eagle. to fight its way up to sunlight and air. They have developed in us the very power b y which we overcome them. "To make his way at the bar. by firing a dormant purpose. and we are led to resolve to redeem ourselves from sc orn and inferiority. Friends cover our faults and rarely rebuke. We dread these thrusts an d exposures as we do the surgeon's knife." A kite would not fly unless it had a string tying it down. Men of mettle turn disappointments into helps as the oyster turns into pearl the sand which annoys it. "a young man must live li ke a hermit and work like a horse. When Napoleon's school companions made sport of him on account of his humble or igin and poverty he devoted himself entirely to books. quickly rising above them in scholarship. If the germ of the seed has to struggle to push its way up through the stones a nd hard sod. commanded their respect. There is good philosophy in the injunction to love our enemies.

when told that the very b oys laughed at his singing. Strong characters. The best tools receive their temper from fire. "No. The philosopher Kant observed that a dove. Trials unlock their virtues. A century of peace would never have prod uced a Bismarck. It is defeat that turns bone to flint. The very element that offers the oppositi on to flying is at the same time the condition of any flight whatever. who made a theology for the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. in th e opinion of those around them. The spark in the flint would sleep forever but for friction. and then the truck lumbered on its way. and that has given the sweet law of l iberty instead of the bitter law of oppression. was tortured with disease for many years. it is defeat that turns gristle to muscl e. like the palm-tree. Difficulties call out great qualities. it is defeat that has made those hero ic natures that are now in the ascendency. defeated. but were rocked in the cradle of difficulties and pillowed on hardships. and so was Robert Hall. unable to fly at all. as th e torrid zone enervates races accustomed to a vigorous climate. Perhaps Phillips and Garrison would never have been known to hi story had it not been for slavery. might suppose that if only the air we re out of the way it could fly with greater rapidity and ease. it would fall instantl y to the ground. never. All the urging of the teamster and the straining of the horse s were in vain. an electric car came to a standstill j ust in front of a heavy truck that was headed in an opposite direction." said Anaximander." "Then I must learn to sing better. "Friction is a very good thing. Me n who have stood up bravely under great misfortune for years are often unable to bear prosperity. Some people neve r come to themselves until baffled. Yet if the air we re withdrawn." In the sunshine of wealth a man is. Their good fortune takes the spring out of their energy. rebuffed. the no blest characters are developed in a similar way. crushed.John Calvin. "The gods look on no grander sight than an honest man struggling with adversity . and the greater the friction necessary to bring it out. seem to thrive best when most abused. and the bird should try to fly in a vacuum.--until the motorman quietly tossed a shovelful of sand on the tr ack under the heavy wheels. . with much jarring and jolting. "Will he not make a great painter?" was asked in regard to an artist fresh from his Italian tour. He should have some gr eat thwarting difficulty to struggle against. Suddenly. Only its own dust is hard enough to make this most precious stone reveal its ful l beauty. The huge truck wheels were sliding uselessly round on the car tracks that were wet and s lippery from rain. The great men who have lifted the world to a higher level were not developed in easy circumsta nces. inasmuch as the only obstacle it has to overcome is the resistance of the air. A drenching shower of adversity wo uld straighten his fibers out again. The harder the diamond. "Why not?" "Because he has an income of six thousand pounds a year. the mor e brilliant the luster. and make greatness possible. the fire in man wo uld never blaze but for antagonism. their edge from grinding. defeat is the thres hold of their victory. warped too much to become an artist of high merit. as a rule." replied Northcote. thwarted. How many ce nturies of peace would have developed a Grant? Few knew Lincoln until the great weight of the war showed his character. it is defeat that makes men invincible." remarked a passenger.

prepared to defy the hurricane. the harder the obstacle he meets the higher he rebounds. Every rootlet lends its elf to steady the growing giant. gratify his every wish. and let him travel extensively. Take two acorns from the same tree. and the other in the dense forest. Obstacles and opposition are but apparatus of the gymnas ium in which the fibers of his manhood are developed. Luther translated the Bible while confined in the Castle of Wartbu rg. Place h im under the tutelage of great masters and send him to Harvard. and only serve still further to toughen every minutest fiber from pith to bark. and family influence. tawny face. Take two boys. position. "Robinson Cru soe" was written in prison. or the loss of a fortun e. Like a rubber ball." and envies the city youth. but how changed! It is as easy to distinguished the stu rdy. They meet again as men. For twenty years Dante worked in exile. But for our Civil War the names of its grand heroes would not be written among the greatest of our time. He compels respect and rec ognition from those who have ridiculed his poverty. the Sunday-school. but all the wh ile it has been expending its energy in pushing a root across a large rock to ga in a firmer anchorage. The poor boy bemoans h is hard lot. From an aimless. Its roots reach out in every directio n. if he has the right sort of material in him. The prison has roused the slumbering fire in many a noble mind. and. as it is for the shipbuilder to tell the differe nce between the plank from the rugged mountain oak and one from the sapling of t he forest. shoots up a weak. and even under sentence of death. and a few books. S ir Walter Raleigh wrote "The History of the World" during his imprisonment of th irteen years. and cannot fail to leave us stronger. or secure the prize we seek. he will thrive. slen der sapling. Put the other boy in a Vande rbilt family. and watch them grow. The oak standing alone is exposed to every storm. If he falls.Emergencies make giant men. The plain. even though we may never reach the position we desire. Every obstacle ove rcome lends him strength for the next conflict. Place one in the country away from the hothouse culture and refinements of the city. it feels no need of spreading its roots far and wide for support. The two meet. He thinks that it is a cruel Providence that places such a wide gulf between th em. regrets that he has "no chance in life. as nearly alike as possible. and awkward manner of the country boy make sorry contrast with the genteel appearance of the other. self-made man from the one who has been propped up all his life by wealth. The acorn planted in the deep forest. The effort or struggle to climb to a higher place in life has strength and dign ity in it. Remove wealth and props of every kind. Shielded by its neighbors. Give him thousan ds a year for spending money. as if in anticipation of fierce conflict with t he elements. The city lad is ashamed of his country brother. he rises with more determination than before. plant one on a hill by itself. emergencies often call out powers and virtues before unknown and unsuspected. and useless brain. The gales which sport so rudely with its wide branches find more than their match. hard hands. How often we see a young man develop as tounding ability and energy after the death of a parent. Then it shoots proudly aloft again. Sometimes its upward growth seems checked for years. or after some other calamity has knocked the props and crutches from under hi m. . The "Pilgrim's Progress" appeared in Bedford Jail. Give him French and German nurses. thread bare clothes. on the other hand. as nearly alike as possible. with only the district school. idle. clutching the rocks and piercing deep into the earth.

fierce and expert in pursuing his prey. "gibbets are the making of us." "He has the stuff in him to make a good musician. "Don't tell me what you like. In this necessity for exertio n we find the chief source of human advancement. The rude and rough experience of the eaglet fits him to become the bold king of birds." says Smiles. dying in a negro hut in Central Africa." says Dr." It was in the Madrid jail that Cervantes wrote "Don Quixote. it is his poverty that makes t he world rich. disciplines the faculties. Milton.When God wants to educate a man." "Stick your claws into me. St. "Seldom does one re ach a position with which he has reason to be satisfied without encountering dif ficulties and what might seem discouragements. There is no more helpful and profiting exercise than surmounting obstacles. "If the re were no difficulties there would be no success. the y are not what they seem. you blockhead. or pursuit. . for. Waters says that the struggle to obtain knowledge and to advance one's self in the world strengthens the mind. Tyndale dying in his prison at Amsterdam. It has led to most of the mechanical inventions and improvements of the age. he does not send him to school to the Graces. but he is spoiled by the ease with which he composes. A rich Spaniard was asked to help him. " if he had only been well flogged when a boy. "Young men need to be taught not to expect a perfectly smooth and easy way to t he objects of their endeavor or ambition." re plied the other. matures the judgment. Kossuth called himself "a tempest-tossed soul. and may prove to be helps. not hindrances." As soon as young eagles can fly the old birds tumble them out and tear the down and feathers from their nest. Peabody. amid the incipient earthquake throes of revolution." John Hunter said that the art of surgery would never advance until professional men had the courage to publish their failures as well as their successes." said Beethoven of Rossini. wo rn to a shadow. and gives one independence of thought and force of char acter. whose eyes have been sharpened b y affliction." He was so poor th at he could not even get paper during the last of his writing. But if they are properly met. but what you don't like. or till the rending asunder of our affections forces us to become conscious of a ne ed. we are not aware of the God within us until some chasm yawns which must be filled. David Livingstone. yet what mighty purposes was God wo rking out by their apparent humiliations! Two highwaymen chancing once to pass a gibbet. alone--what failures the y might all have seemed to themselves to be.--the advancement of individuals as of nations. and had to write on scraps of leather. "Success grows out of struggles to overcome difficulties. teaching two little boys in Aldgate Street. We are not conscious of the mighty cravings of our half divine humanity." Just so with every art. but replied: "Heave n forbid that his necessities should be relieved. if there were no gibbets. John Huss led to the stake at Constance. Paul in his Roman cell. one of them exclaimed: "What a f ine profession ours would be if there were no gibbets!" "Tut. e very one would be a highwayman." We do our best while fighting desperately to attain what the heart covets. trade. but to the Necessities. it i s the difficulties that scare and keep out unworthy competitors." said Mendelssohn to his critics when entering the B irmingham orchestra. Through the pit and the dungeon Joseph came to a throne. promotes self-reliance.

But from the ugly chasm there burst forth a spri ng of water which ever afterward flowed a living fountain. It is its half-century 's struggle with the elements for existence. Almost from the dawn of history. staminaless. Don't lament and grieve over lost wealth. hardships. Who has not observed the patience. and the sand-papering of a thousand annoya nces. With them persecution seems to bring prosperity. They thrive where other s would starve. to be hammered and squared by the quarryman. From the ugly gashes which misfortunes and sorrows make in our hearts. telling its grand story of valor in the public square for centuries. the statue of man . that gives it value. The statue would have slept in the marble forever but for the blasting. perennial fountains of rich ex perience and new joys often spring. The frost. Many a man has never found himself until he has lost his all. oppression has been the lot of the Hebrews. God knows where the richest melodies of our lives are. Obstacles." "It was not the victories but the defeats of my life which have strengthened me . the cold of which will kill the vermin. wrestling with the storm. But look again: behold the magnificent statue. God may see a rough diamond in you which only the hard hits of poverty can polish. but in severe climates. The rough ledge on the hillside complains o f the drill. but will let the plant live. ye t they have given the world its noblest songs. Fierce winters are as necessary to it as long summers. and the polishing." In one of the battles of the Crimea a cannon-ball struck inside the fort. fighting for its life from the moment that it leaves the acorn until it goes into the shi p. and deve loped their greatest virtues when reverses of fortune have swept away everything they had in the world. Adversity strippe d him only to discover him. and what drill and what discipline are necessary to bring them out. and develop the long unused muscles of manhood. nerveless. the sweet loveliness chi seled out of some rough life by the reversal of fortune or by some terrible affl iction? How many business men have made their greatest strides toward manhood. usually "turn out. The most beautiful as well as the strongest woods are found not in tropi cal climates. the snows. its wisest proverbs. the chi seling. of the blasting which disturbs its peace of centuries: it is not pl easant to be rent with powder. The angel of our higher and nobler selves would remai n forever unknown in the rough quarries of our lives but for the blastings of af fliction." while thos e who do not have these disadvantages frequently fail to "come out. Without this struggle it would have been characterless. the tempests. kicked out. frosty but kindly. They hold the purse-strings of many nations.Boys who are bound out. its sweetest music. the monument. the chiseling of obstacles. chiseled into grace and beauty. are the chisel and mallet whic h shape the strong life into beauty. the calm endurance. crash ing through a beautiful garden. where they have to fight the frosts and th e winter's cold. the lightnings are the rough teachers that bring the tiny acorn to the sturdy oa k. crowded out. To them hardship ha s been "like spring mornings." said the aged Sidenham Poyntz. The Creator may see something grand a nd mighty which even He can not bring out as long as your wealth stands in the w ay. and its grain would have never been susceptible of high polish. when disease had robbed them of all they held dear in li fe! Often we can not see the angel in the quarry of our lives. You must throw away the crutches of riches and stand upon your own feet.

You can not keep them down . a grand and mighty city. until the blasts of misfortune have rent the ledge. Southey. "Adversity is a severe instructor. like those of the ocean." as he was once called. "best can do. "Hours of Idleness. Every obstacle seems only to add to their ability to get on. shabby. he had never seen. if it were lawful. wicked London. and co mpels us to consider it in all its relations. Many a man has been ruined into salvation. He that wrestle s with us strengthens our nerves and sharpens our skill. Many an orator like "stuttering Jack Curran. that ag e so fatal to genius. for the grea ter comfort's sake. and gave him glimpses of himself which. poor. It will not suffer us to be superf icial. "Who best can suffer. and hope which he ne ver before dreamed he possessed. This conflict with difficulty makes us acquainted with our object. puts the modest to the necessity of trying their skill. The greatest men will ever be those who have risen from the ranks. rouse the faculties. Not until the breath of the plague had blasted a hundred thousand lives. Many of our best poets "Are cradled into poetry by wrong. Schiller wrote his best books in great bodily suffering. Adversity exasperates fools. dejects cowards. phoenixlike." Bunyan sa id that. Our antagonist is our h elper. The lightning which smote his deares t hopes opened up a new rift in his dark life. and excite the invention. He was not free from pain for fifteen years. Beethoven was almost totally deaf and burdened with sorrow when he produced his greatest works. but un covered in his nature possibilities of patience." published when he was but nineteen years of age." or "Orator M um. This is the crutch age. did she arise.hood. and th e great fire had licked up cheap." Men who have the right kind of material in them will assert their personality a nd rise in spite of a thousand adverse circumstances. ski ll. And learn in suffering what they teach in so ng. "There is scarce an instance in history of so sudden a ri se to so dizzy an eminence as Byron reached. but draws out the faculties of th e wise and industrious. Milton wrote his leading productions when blind. awes the opulent. and makes the idle industrious. from her ashes and ruin. and Campbell. and died at thirty-seven. and fortitude of the voyager. prudence. Macaulay said. and sick. The storms of adversity. endurance. Men have drawn from adversity the elements of greatness. "set over us by one who knows us better than we do ourselves. "Helps" and "aids" are advertised everywhere." Byron was stung into a determination to go to the top by a scathing criticism o f his first book. We have i . A man upon whom continuous sunshine falls is l ike the earth in August: he becomes parched and dry and hard and close-grained. has been spurred into eloquence by ridicule and abus e. as he loves us better too. The grave buried his dearest hopes. True salamanders live best in the furnace of persecution." In a few years he stood by the sid e of such men as Scott." said he. talent. until then. It is said t hat there are ten thousand chances to one that genius. and virtue shall issue from a farmhouse rather than from a palace." says Edmund Burke. he could even pray for greater trouble. and difficulties and o bstacles have squared and chiseled the granite blocks into grace and beauty.

The sculptor will chip off all unnecessary material to set free the angel. "Short roads" and "abridged methods" are characteristic of the century. integrity.--MA THEWS. it is poverty. S he emancipates the muscles only to employ the brain and heart. Ingenious methods are used everywhere to get the drudgery out of the college cou rse. But do not misinterpret her edict. gild it as we may. teachers.--P. And head-winds right for royal sails. if she can develop a little character. Our thinking is done for us. and not like children. That turns earth's smoothness rough." Our boys are too often tutored through college with very little study. Nature will chip and pound us remorselessly to bring out our possibil ities. and thou art free.--LONGFELLOW. BROWNING. and undertakes to do the world's drudgery and emancipate him from Eden's curse. and calls the race out of barbarism. where man finds his bread ready made on trees. The sculptor car es nothing for the block as such. Our problems are all worked out in "explanati ons" and "keys. She does not bid the world go and play while she does the work. ease. Daily his own heart he eats. fame. and preachers our religion. humble our pride. Newspapers give us our politics. Nature. He must have the p ower to decide instantly on which side he is going to make his mistakes. that makes Mexico with its mineral wealth poor. le t us down from the ladder of fame. CHAPTER XXVIII DECISION Resolve. She emancipates from the lower only to call to the higher. She will strip us of wealth. the ready "yes" a weak one. Nature has little regard for the mere lump of breathing clay. and where exertion is a great effort. one stands for gratification. magaz ines. the priceless spur. it is the strug gle to obtain. T. The heaviest charged words in our language are those briefest ones. and Ne w England with its granite and ice rich. A man must master his undertaking and not let it master him." Then welcome each rebuff. "yes" and " no. ARMOUR. libraries. so Nat ure cares only for the man or woman shut up in the human being. Intelligent labor found the world a wilderness and has made it a garden. repine that we do not possess another we did not buy. The most beautiful as well as the strongest characters are not developed in war m climates. humiliate our ambition. "The hero is not fed on sweets. Self-help and self-reliance are getting old-fashioned. whether riches. Each sting. that develops the stamina of m anhood. colleges. Everything must give way to that. or knowledge. It is rugged necessity. and whatever w e buy with our time. ." One stands for the surrender of the will. newspapers. D. As the sculptor thinks only of the angel imprisoned in the marble block. labor. when we hav e purchased one thing. the other for denial. A stout "no" means a stout character . the other for character. The world is a market where everything is marked at a set price. but rather in a trying climate and on a stubborn soil. books. we must stand by our decision. MUNGER. Chambers of the gr eat are jails. or ingenuity.nstitutes. It is no t chance that returns to the Hindoo ryot a penny and to the American laborer a d ollar for his daily toil. will discipline us in a thousand ways. that bids not sit nor stand but go. has rushed to man's relief with her wondrous forces. universities.--T. as if conscious of delayed bles sings.

In an emergency. which formed the boundary of Italia. positive man. "I came. like Napoleon. the Romans wer e so hard pressed that they consented to purchase immunity with gold. In order to cut off all hope of retreat. changes the face of everything. This acti on was the key to the character and triumphs of this great warrior." after his hopeless banishment from heaven. He is a tonic to the hesitating. the Romans sent an ambassador who met Antiochus near Alexandria and comman ded him to withdraw. Caesar's quic k mind saw that he must commit his soldiers to victory or death. he burned all the ships which had borne them to the sh ores of Britain. But his alternative was "destroy myself. and declared that the Romans should not purchase peace. If he decide s upon a course he only follows it until somebody opposes it.--" the sacred and inviolable. forever debating which of two courses he will pursue. The decided man. In fact. I conque red. and sacrifice every conflicting plan on the instant. as he das hed into the stream at the head of his legions. who will do so mething. and war was prevented. The vacillating man is ever at the mercy of the opinion of the man who talked w ith him last. backi . or destroy my country. he does not submit to events. events must submit to him. All the great ac hievements in the history of the world are the results of quick and steadfast de cision. He may see the right. The man who said. Such a man co mes upon the scene like a refreshing breeze blown down from the mountain top." and his intrepid mind did not waver long. The whole history of the world w as changed by that moment's decision. only a satellite. the arrival of a prompt. When Antiochus Epiphanes invaded Egypt."--even his great decision wavered at the thought of i nvading a territory which no general was allowed to enter without the permission of the Senate. and. the man who is forever twisting and turning. excites a feeling akin to admiration. He. and forbade his crossing the line until h e had given his answer. To hesitate is s ometimes to be lost. An undecided man. and made them masters of the world. Men who have left their mark upon their century have been men of great and prom pt decision.When Rome was besieged by the Gauls in the time of the Republic. I saw. he is not a man. which was then under the protection of Rome. had the power to choose one co urse." he said. decided. the prompt man. is one of the most potent forces in winning success. proclaims by his indecisi on that he can not control himself. the inhabitants resolved never to surrender. The brave Roman swept a circle around the king with his sword. it was victory or death. There was no hope of return. After a few moments of terrible s uspense he resumes his invincible spirit and expresses that sublime line: "What matter where. bewildered crowd. "The die is cast. The prompt decision of the Rom ans won them many a battle. Satan's sublime decision in "Paradise Lost. The invader gave an evasive reply. to silence them forever and not al low them continually to plead their claims and distract us from our single decid ed course. although it may be wrong. When Julius Caesar came to the Rubicon. but he drifts toward the wrong. This act of daring and prompt decision so roused the Romans that they triumphantly swept fro m the sacred soil the enemy of their peace. They were in the act of weighing it. threw his sword into the scales in place of the ransom. a man who is ever balancing between two opinions. when Camillus appeared on the scen e." could not hesitate long. By the prompt decision of the intrepid ambassador the in vader was led to withdraw. if I be still the same?" That power to decide instantly the best course to pursue. but would win it with the sword. does not wa it for favorable circumstances. and to sacrifice ever y opposing motive. When he landed with h is troops in Britain. when once sacrificed. a legend tells us. that he was meant to be possessed by others.

The vacillating man is never a prompt man. listening to every new motive whi ch presents itself. will never accomplish anything. weighing and b alancing.. details. was as prompt and decisive in the minutest detail of command as in the greatest battle. negativeness never accomplishes anything. splitting hairs over non-essentials. in whic h the fate of the engagement was decided. He seemed to electrify everybody about him. which subdued nearly the who le of Europe. Yet there is not a man living who might not be a prompt and decided man if he w ould only learn always to act quickly. "A man without decision. all the passengers who leaped instantly upon the rock were saved. and contemptuously exhibit the futility of the determination by whic h he was to have proved the independence of his understanding and will. may make a seizure of the unhappy boaster the very n ext minute. "changed the destinies of the civilized world. You can measure him. the puny force of some cause. and so does not move at all of his own volition. What a lesson to dawdling. but moves very easily at the slightest volition of another. half-hearted men! "The doubt of Charles V. shuffling and parleying. and one thing after another vindicates i ts right to him by arresting him while he is trying to go on." The decided man not only has the advantage of the time saved from dillydallying and procrastination. Those who lin gered were swept off by the returning wave. and engulfed forever. and weighs them until the two sides hang in equipoise. he replied. and above all it must be done with speed." says Motley. at midnight. the decided man. but he also saves the energy and vital force which is wast ed by the perplexed man who takes up every argument on one side and then on the other. an d clung for a few moments to the cliff. but also are often quickly gone. "By not wavering. shiftless." He would sit up all night if necessary. gauge hi m. abo ut as powerful as a spider. as twigs and chips floating near the edge of a river are intercepted by every weed and whirled int o every little eddy. can do twice as much as the undecided and dawdling man who never quite knows what he w ants. But the positive man. Great opportunities not only come seldom into the most fortunate life ." . He is in stable equilibrium. It is related of A lexander the Great that. "are at present out of season. after riding thirty or forty leagues. he only invites distrust." When the packet ship Stephen Whitney struck." says John Foster. since if he dared to assert that he did. His will. The "ifs and buts. "can never be said to belong to him self. hesitating and dawdling. dispatches an d. Napoleon used to say that although a battle might last an entire day. He could rouse to imm ediate and enthusiastic action the dullest troops. He seemed to be everywhere at once. There is not positiveness en ough in him. Decision of purpose and promptness of action enabled him to astonish the world with his marvelous successes. He belon gs to whatever can make capture of him. when asked how it was that he had conquered the world. and stands for something. The negative man creates no confidence. on an Irish cliff. to attend to correspondence." he said. His invincible energy thrilled the whole army. The punctual man.ng and filling. Prompt decision saved Napoleon and Grant and their armies many a time when delay would have been fatal. You can estimate the work that his energy will accomplish. yet it generally turned upon a few critical minutes. is a power in the world. and inspire with courage the most stupid men. with no preponderi ng motive to enable him to decide. The positive step landed them in safety. and without promptness no success is possible. What he could accomplish in a day surprised all who knew him. the decided man.

that one man outweighs them all in influence. at times almost overwhelming. tak es the step. Without decision there c an be no concentration. adopts it as his life's work. without pausing. who supports his judgment against thei r own and that of their representatives. Such people are never led by principle. not being allowed to go backwa rd. But they are weak. full of enthusiasm. thus getting on the flats. never using his judgment or common sense. that when Congress adjourned. Alexander. and lo. his heart throbbing with a great purpose. they are here to-day and there to-morrow. and the young man who allows himself to waver every time he comes to a hard place in life will not succeed. the skilful stage. throwing away all the skill they had acquired in mastering the drudgery of the last occupation. they never go far enough in anything to get beyond the drudgery stage to the remunerative and agreeable stage. thus fix your floating life and leave it no longer to be carried hither and thither. "we had formed the habit of prompt acting. If they would only show a little decision at firs t. and. he drops his own and adopts the other. or wandering hither and thither. the great soul. The undecided man can not bring himself to a focus. Republicanism resigns the vessel to the pilot. In fact. she came out on the other side without any. and contentment. The value of the gift was to be in proportion to the size and perfection of the ear . An undecided man is like the turnstile at a fair. they are afraid of offending. and. but was so eager to get the largest and m ost perfect that she kept on without plucking any until the ears she passed were successively smaller and smaller and more stunted.--namely. The one which his friend adopted is much better suited to him. he feels sure it is the thing he wants to do. then. his enthusiasm evaporates. and preparing expedients. and. but governed by his imp ressions and his feelings at the moment. and he wonders why he is so foolish as to think himself f itted for that vocation. While other men are bemoaning difficulties and shrinking from dangers and obstacles. which is in every body's way but stops no one. "The secret of the whole matter was. s catters his forces. One vocation or occupation presents its rosy side to him. ca ptured by any new occupation which happens to appeal to him as the most desirabl e at the time. Finally they became so small that she was ashamed to select one of them. select the largest and ripest ear. going b ackward. a man must concentrate. Learn. which are always most agreeable. thus taking the top of the tide. He dissipates his energy. comfort." replied Amos Lawrence." There is no vocation or occupation which does not present many difficulties. the mountain has been leveled and the way lies open. to will strongly and decisively. even crosses the Alps to compass his d esign. conquers the world. He can not hold to one thing long enou gh to bring success out of it. These people rarely reach the stage of compet ency. You never know where to find them. while the habit of som e others was to delay till about half tide. without fuss or noise. But in a few days the thorns begin to appear. do ing this thing and that thing. one emphatic "No" might silence their solicitors forever. They spend their lives at the beginning of occupations . So he vacillates through life.So powerful were President Washington's views in determining the actions of the people. and. and executes nothing. Jefferson wrote to Monroe at Paris: "You will see by their proceedings the truth of what I always told you. There is a legend of a powerful genius who promised a lovely maiden a gift of r are value if she would go through a field of corn." and thus they throw d . to succeed. they don't like to say "No. impelled by his hatred to the Romans. She passed by many magnificent ones." Most of the young men and women who are lost in our cities are ruined because o f their inability to say "No" to the thousand allurements and temptations which appeal to their weak passions. like a withered leaf. by every wind that blows. Hannib al.

" There is no habit that so grows on the soul as irresolution. the wrecks strewn along the shores of life "just behind success. to hear all that can be sai d on both sides." above which the words of warning are flying! Webster said of such an undecided man that "he is like the irresolution of the sea at the turn of tide. Any bodily weakness. their success. But at l ast the urgency of the fool prevailed. How many hours have been wasted dawdling in bed. the wise man kn ew that the difficult one was the shortest and safest. As a rule." said he. which is usually impaired or weakened from physica l suffering or any great physical debility. They do not realize that the habit of putting everything off puts off their manhood. as an impartial judge. It is my part." Oh. This man neither advances nor recedes. who seized their goods and made them captives.own the gauntlet and are soon on the broad road to ruin. mad e his servant promise before he went to bed to get him up at just such a time. perhaps. Nothing will give greater confidence. On many of the tombstones of those who have failed in life could be read between the lines: "He Dawdled. but Burton would beg him to be left a little longer. it is the strong physical man who carries weight and conviction. and by the time the cause is over dinner is ready. than the reputation of promptness. Indus try advises me to get up. The fool desired to take the pleasant way. he simply hovers . Scott used to caution youth against the habit of dawdling. When one asked a lazy young fellow what made him lie in bed so long. which creep s in at every crevice of unoccupied time and often ruins a bright life." There is no doubt that. To indolent. and called. The judge punished them both equa lly. Then the wise man pleaded that the fool was to blame because h e desired to take the wrong way. or lassitude. "Hoc age. Burton c ould not overcome this habit." he said. "I am employed. and wer e soon met by robbers. listless people life becomes a mere shuffle of expedien ts. they took the more inviting path. Sloth to lie still. "in hearing counsel every morning." Such a man is at the mercy of any chance occurrence that may overtake him. and especially is this tru e with the power of decision. is. Before a man knows what he has done. An old legend says that a fool and a wise man were journeying together. A little l ater both they and their captors were arrested by officers of the law and taken before the judge. and Burto n came out with a bound. "If sinners entice thee. "Your mo tto must be. knowing that he would lose his shilling if he did n ot get him up." "Shiftlessness. and bring assistance more quickly from th e bank or from a friend. and cam e to a point where two ways opened before them. The servant. and coaxed. shiftless. first felt in the weakened or debilitated pow er of decisions. the ot her narrow and rough." "j ust this side of happiness. There is no quality of the mind which does not sympathize with bodily weakness. turn ing over and dreading to get up! Many a career has been crippled by it. their contagion infects their whole neig hborhood. and they give me twenty reasons fo r and against." "Listlessness. great decision of character is usually accom panied by great constitutional firmness. A little resolution ear ly in life will soon conquer the right to mind one's own business."--do instantly." "Nervelessness. as a rule. and n o sensible man should have heeded his counsel. This is the only way to check t he propensity to dawdling. and so declared." "Always B ehind. their capacity. Hi s "days are lost lamenting o'er lost days. or la ck of tone and vigor. " "Procrastination. consent thou not." "Behind Time. t he servant called. convinced that it would ruin his success. and all because he has never ma de up his mind what he would do with it." He has no power to seize the facts w hich confront him and compel them to serve him. then dashed cold water into the bed between the sheets. he has gambled his life away.--one broad and beautiful. and. The world knows that . Men who have been noted for great firmn ess of character have usually been strong and robust. The fool pleaded that he was only a fool.

consider. but nothing left for the moment um of action. "men doubted whether I could sustain myself." "Let men know that what you say you will do. he must burn his ships behind him. He must nail his colors to the mast as Nelson did in battle. They know that h esitation is fatal to enterprise. but he lacked that power of rapid decision and powerful concentration which characterized the greatest military leaders perhaps of the world. "I propose to fight it out on these lines if it takes all summer. 'Give me uninterrupted time till nine o'clock every morning. Yet someh ow they seem fated with a morbid introspection which ever holds them in suspense . At last Lincoln had a general who had the power of decision. They analyze and analyze. were better educated. ponder. There was no going behind it.--no wavering. fatal to success. once resolved. " Let it be your first study to teach the world that you are not wood and straw. The man who would forge to the front in this competitive age must be a man of p rompt and determined decision. . The very effort to come to immediate and unflinching decision starts up all sort s of doubts." Some minds are so constructed that they are bewildered and dazed whenever a res ponsibility is thrust upon them. and will trust him. and a thorough-going knowledge of the world of books.the prompt man's bills and notes will be paid on the day. knew the country as well. There were several generals under Grant who were as well skilled in war tactics. I replied." CHAPTER XXIX OBSERVATION AS A SUCCESS FACTOR Henry Ward Beecher was not so foolish as to think that he could get on without systematic study. and fears. Yet having said so much. How many a man can trace his downfall in life to the failure to seiz e his opportunity at the favorable moment. and they can not seem to get light enough to decide nor courage enough to attempt to remove the obstacle." he said. "Hoc age. but they lacked that power of decision which made unconditional surrender absolutely imperative wherever he met the foe. that. they have a mortal dread of deciding anything. it is true that much that was most vital in his preach ing he did pick up on the street." and which sent back the words "un conditional surrender" to General Buckner.'" He was a hard student during four hours every morning. like Caesar. which often does not present itself but once! It was said that Napoleon had an officer under him who understood the tactics o f war better than his commander. t hat there is some iron in you. lest in a moment of discouragement and irresolution he be tempted t o sheathe it. weigh. no opening it up for reconsideration. is final. deter mined to sink with his ship if he can not conquer. They have just energy enough to weigh motives. who asked him for conditions of capit ulation. those who saw him after that imagined that he picked up the material for his sermons on the street. a nd make retreat forever impossible. Prompt decision and sublime a udacity have carried many a successful man over perilous crises where deliberati on would have been ruin. deliberate. "When I first went to Brooklyn. When he draws his sword he must throw the sc abbard away. the ni ck of time. that gave the first confidence to the North that the rebellion was doom ed. you are not to be allured or intimidated. difficulties. when it was within easy grasp. and I do not care what comes after. It was his decision whic h voiced itself in those memorable words in the Wilderness. Grant's decision was like inexorable fate. but never act. once made. and the North b reathed easy for the first time. fatal to progress. tha t your decision.

the record of creation imprinted in the rocks and the mountains were interming led with the ferryboats. on Wall Street. the fields. of the discouraged. again the problem of government. Although Beecher was an omnivorous reader he did not care much for the writings of the theologians. passed in quick succession and stamped themselves on the brains of his eage r hearers. a little more help ful. which he loved so well. [Illustration: Henry Ward Beecher] When he once got a taste of the power and helpfulness which comes from the stud y of real life. or commer ce. Now it was the problem of slavery. but of all nature a s well.--keeping his eyes open and asking q uestions. the day laborer. gathering grandeur and sublimity from the great White Mountains. busy. I watched him. like Christ's. There was something in his sermons that appe aled to the best in everyone who heard him. or education. completely absorbed in drinking in the beaut ies of the marvelous landscape. healthy. the sun shine. the physician. as many did. Happiness and sunshine. the steam-cars. when he saw how much more forceful and interesting actual life s tories were as they were being lived than anything he could get out of any book except the Bible. there he was studying its great problem s." This is the secret of many a man's success. ambitious world was everywhere throbbing for him. He was in the smoke and din. . They pulsated with lif e. to do t heir work a little better. He saw that the strength of this great Master' s sermons was in their utter simplicity. but picked them up as He walked along the banks of the Jordan and over the hills and through the meadows and villages of Galilee. He kept his hand upon the pulse of events. they had the vigor of bright red blood in them. Beecher believed a sermon a failure when it does not make a great mass of heare rs go away with a new determination to make a little more of themselves. He was in the swim of things. and great crowds cam e from every direction to hear him."Where does Mr. He got them from the brakem an. people on sick beds and death beds. and the storm were reflected in them. and he knew that H e did not search the writings of the Sanhedrin for His sermons. and entrancing sunsets. calamities. the blacksmith. all sor ts of experiences and bits of life. in hospitals and in funeral processions. and upon one occasion he answered: "I keep my eyes open an d ask questions. life pictures of successes and failure s. The clouds. the newsboy. because. in the stores. the despondent. and the business man. many a time. The flowers. He always preached on Sunday at the hotel where he stayed. the brooks . orphans. the optimist and the pessim ist. birds and trees alte rnated with the direst poverty in the slums. their naturalness. The great. He did not watch the progress of the great human battle from his study. He went into the thick of the fight himself. the mechanic. Beecher get his sermons?" every ambitious young clergyman in th e country was asking. he was never again satisfied without illustrations fresh from the lives of the people he met every day. They were full of pictures of beauti ful landscapes. seascapes. and where he spent many summers. the clerk. accidents. He got them everywhere from life and nature. to be a little more conscientious. the lawyer. the train conduc tor. the rain.--whatever touched the lives of men. This great observer was not only a student of human nature. Where the battle of life raged fiercest. the cheerful. a little more determined to do their share in the world. He picked them u p in the marketplace. the Christ was his great model. and strong. they grew out of doors. Beecher's sermons were very simple.

Noth ing else was half so interesting. He could feel the Divine presence in all created things. "Let's leave it to Osler. and the patient recovered. to be able to pierce t heir masks and read the real man or woman behind them. one of whom was all eyes. meant a great deal more to him and to the world than his colle ge education. Wherever he went." There is no position in life where a trained eye can not be made a gre at success asset. the wizard horticulturist. He rec ommended a certain operation. he regarded as one of a c lergyman's greatest accomplishments. He saw symptoms which others could not see. "is an element of all great success. which was performed. the latter could scarcely recall anything of interest.--nothing s eemed to escape him. who could see wonders in the scale of a fish or a grain of sand. his ears. Th e majority of those present disagreed with him. I was much impressed by his marvelous power of seeing things. Beecher had an eye like the glass of a microscope. Like Ru skin. that they were willing to leave the whole decision to him. but such was their confidence in his power to diagnose a case through symptoms and indications which escape most physicians. but his mind pen etrated to the heart of things.--everything was a telltale of the patient's condition. He has . The power which inheres in a trained faculty of observation is priceless. To him man was the greatest study in the world . and brought home almost nothing of value. He was a poor student. because he read the hidden meaning in things. with additional eyes in finger tips s o familiar with the anatomy that they could detect a growth or displacement so s mall that it would escape ordinary notice. w hich he read as an open book. "An exhaustive observation. the appearance of the eye. th ere was a great interrogation point before him. He had a passion for knowledge. and extr acted the meaning of everything that came within its range. the philosophy underlying the common.Wherever he went. in the lowliest ob ject. which reveals marve ls of beauty in common things. to emphasize the right thing in them. he could see the marvelous philosophy." says Herbert Spencer." I once traveled abroad with two young men. The o ther young man was comparatively rich. he did not stand nearly as high in col lege as some of his classmates whom he far outstripped in life. his manner of breathing. Ruskin says: "Hundreds of people can talk for one who can think. by keeping his eyes. recently. Lincoln was another remarkable example of the possibilities of an education thr ough reflection upon what he observed. to b e able to discriminate between the genuine and the false. Everything he saw must give up i ts secret before he would let it go. in his famous garden. The day after leaving a city. He was not a great scholar. Things so triv ial that his companion did not notice them at all. He did not ask questions. While visiting Luther Burbank.--and the other never saw anything. Beecher continued his study of life through observation. Like Professor Agassiz. He could see beauty and harmony where others saw only ugliness and discord. the Divine plan. His experienced eye drew a conclusion from the slightest evidence. Professo r Osler was called a living X-ray machine. He watched the patient closely. The e ducation which Beecher got through observation. everyday oc currences. but thousands can think for one who can see. but he brought home rich treasures from over the sea. he yearned to know the meaning of things. His mind stopped and questioned." said the physicians at a consultation where a precio us life hung by a thread. meant a great deal to him. To place the right values upon men. a nd his mind open. Then the great Johns Hopkins professor examined the pa tient. while the former ha d a genius for absorbing knowledge of every kind through the eye.

Chi ldren often become passionately fond of this exercise. He sees with them. Promotion was always staring him in the face. and is not carried with force and distin ctness enough to the brain to enable it to get at the truth and draw accurate co nclusions. He must be quick. George W. forming opinions. Indifference. The observing faculty is particularly susceptible to culture. The telegraph. to see things carefully. become marvels of beauty. Close observation is a powerful mental process. He knows its geograp hy. The majority of people do not see things. his mind ope n. Few people realize what a tremendous success and happi ness is possible through the medium of the eye. the telescope. under the eye of this miracle worker. every triu mph of modern labor-saving machinery. And he could not understand the lethargy. every great invention of the past or present. The efficient man is always growing. Just the effort to try to see how much they can remember and bring back is a splendid drill. ready. Stunted and ugly flower s and fruits. If the mind is n ot focused. but he always kept his eyes open. b alancing. that really sees. and how closely they can observe them. He has studied the map of our country. He was after an oppo rtunity. Careless. the sewing machine. estimating. he would never have advanced. is due to the trained power of seeing things. every discovery in science and art. yet he speaks ou r language fluently. the indifference of our young men to our marvelous possibilities. The mind is all the time working over the material which the eye brings it. the lack of ambition. considering. The youth who would get on must keep his eyes open. He is always accumulating knowledge of eve ry kind. indifferent observation does not go back of the eye. The power of keen observation is indicative of a superior mentality. It is a splendid drill for children to send them out on the street. apathy. not the optic nerve. or out of d oors anywhere. the telephone. I know a young Turk. mental lassitude and laziness are fatal to all effective observation. of absorbing knowledge. alert. and much about our resources and opportunit ies. But for this power of seeing things quickly. He keeps his ears open. Many people thought he wou ld remain a stenographer. Most people are too lazy. He was always looking for the next step above him. the image is not clean-cut. just for the purpose of finding out how many things they can see in a certain given time. He keeps his mind open to all that is new and fresh and helpful. The whole secret of a richly stored mind is alertness. It does not take long to develop a habit of attention that seizes the salient p oints of things. calculating. He was a shrewd observer. for it is the mind. sharp. He said that when he landed in New York it seemed to him that he saw more o pportunities in walking every block of our streets than he had ever seen in the whole of Turkey. and it becomes of inestim . He does not merely look with his eyes. they just look at them. keen attention. who has been in this country only a year. his ears open. and a great deal of our history. the miracles o f electricity. a nd thoughtfulness.observed the habits of fruits and flowers to such purpose that he has performed miracles in the fields of floriculture and horticulture. mentally. and is capable of becoming a mighty power. Cortelyou was a stenographer not long ago. in fact. weighing.

Be sure. He preferred being right to being president.able value in their lives. Ask yourself why it i s that the proprietor at fifty or sixty years of age is conducting a business wh ich a boy of eighteen or twenty ought to be able to handle better. and unc outh. but. as I can testify. What I am I have made myself. You will find perhaps that he never knew the valu e of good manners in clerks. "Poverty is uncomfortable. He succeeded because all the world in concert could not have kept him in the background. Keep your eyes open. Other things equal. but he had not been in his seat sixty days before his ability was recognized and his place conceded. before you go into his store. If he is making a remarkable success. know ye not Who would be free themselves must strike the b low? BYRON. You can see that a little more knowledge of human nature would have revolutioni zed his whole business. Let nothing escape you. Shall die and leave his errand unfulfill ed. If you keep your eyes o pen. find out why this man is not a greater success. Who waits to have his task marked out. look up e vidences of success or failure everywhere. you can. Think why the man does not do bett er if he is not doing well. . try to find out why.--PESTALOZZI. Though rough. why he remains in mediocrity all his life. It will be one of the greatest factor s in your own success. he is driving out of the door cus tomers the proprietor is trying to bring in by advertisements. that there is no busines s insight. Go into a place of business with the eye of an eagle. In all my acquaintance I ha ve never known a man to be drowned who was worth the saving. uncultured." said James A. "Colonel Crockett makes room for himself!" exclaimed a backwoods congressman in answer to the exclamation of the White House usher to "Make room for Colonel Cr ockett!" This remarkable man was not afraid to oppose the head of a great nation . Hereditary bondsmen. by gruff. it is the keen observer who gets ahead.--PATRIC K HENRY. Trace difficulties. and because when once in the front he played his part wi th an intrepidity and a commanding ease that were but the outward evidences of t he immense reserves of energy on which it was in his power to draw. analyze the situation. He does not know them. You will see that this man has not studied men." Garfield was the youngest member of the House of Representatives when he entere d. no detection of the wants of possible buyers. perhaps. He thought a boy. LOWELL. in a little while.--HUMPHRY DAVY. uncouth manners. He stepped to the front with the confidence of one who b elonged there. your ears open. Study his emp loyees. study the situation. my son. if honest. multiplied the receipts tenfold in a few years. perhaps. Crockett was a man of great courage and determination. CHAPTER XXX SELF-HELP I learned that no man in God's wide earth is either willing or able to help any other man. You will see by h is show windows. would make a good sale sman. Garfield. Make deductions from what you see and hear. No matter where you go. "but nine times out of ten the best thing that can happen to a young man is to be tossed overboard and compelled to sink or swim for himself. and remember that the best men always make themselves.

which has not felt the impress of their feet . the pride of acquisition." It is not the men who have inherited most. dispatch. which lie concealed in your wealth. Judge of his surprise on learning that Solario was the artist. but was told that no one but a painter as good as the father should wed the maiden. Your fortune wa s experience to you. and so entitle myself to the hand of your daughter?" Consent was given. When asked to name his family coat-of-arms. You had the power which comes only from experience. The world must be just. About the time that the ten years were to end the king's sister showed Coll' An tonio a Madonna and Child. patience. In climbing to your fortune." says Emerson. a self-made President of the United States replied. method. and character. but rather the men with no "start" who have wo n fortunes. who have risen highest. no chan ce. the power. gave his spinning model to the world. "and all men a cquiesce." "A person under the firm persuasion that he can command resources virtually has them. sagacity. discipline. the experience. with no education. You thought to spare him the drudgery. Louis Philippe said he was the only sovereign in Europe fit to govern. lethargy. ignoranc e. but have you really given him anything ? You can not transfer the discipline. a wandering gypsy tinker. to you it was education and expansion of your high est powers. politen ess of manner have developed. You may leave your millions to your son. and have made adverse circumstances a spur to goad them up the steep mount. "Will you give me ten years to learn to pa int. joy. the joy fe lt only in growth. Col l' Antonio thinking that he would never be troubled further by the gypsy. the character which trained habits of accuracy. prudence. every possible goal is accessible. You have taken the priceless spur--necessity--away from him. Richard Arkwright. which the painter extolled in terms of the highest pr aise. It was wings to you. in a hovel. fell deeply in love with the daughter of the painter Coll' Antonio del Fiore. You cannot transfer the skill." says Livy. and put a scepter in England's right h and such as the queen never wielded. His great d etermination gained him his bride. where "Fame's proud temple shines afar. which will probably dwarf him. promptness. and which alone enables you to stand firm on your dizzy height. stamina. It leaves every man with profound unconcern to set his own rate. an anxiety. honesty of dealing. the spur which h as goaded man to nearly all the great achievements in the history of the world. the thirteenth child. except it be in nobility of soul and purpose. foresight. you can not transfer the delight of achieving. You thought it a kindness to deprive yourself in order that your son might begi n where you left off. Solario. and honest ambition has no heig ht that genius or talent may tread. growth. It meant a great deal for you. "A pair of shirtsleeves. indolence. to him it will be a temptation. and strength which enabled you to maintain your lofty position. you developed the mu scle. b ut means nothing to your heir. the hardships. t o keep your millions intact. to him it may mean inaction. the . for he c ould black his own boots." To such men. it will be a dead weight to him. weakness. which the acqu isition has given you."Take the place and attitude which belong to you.

to self-elevation. If I had only had firmness enough to compel my boys to earn their living. Field. my home dishonored. they are as helpless as capsized turtles. But you have put a crutch into his hand instead of a staff. and presenting them to the youth. you will have a weakling on your hands at twenty-one. "when there is no money left?" "They ear n it. It was work and opportunity that he wanted. who was visiting Engl and. help yourself. the wounds were s harper than those of a serpent's tooth. "A man's best friends are his ten fingers. When misfortune comes. Once down. His enthusiasm will evaporate." "I w ill give you just as many and just as good. Many a frontier boy has succeeded beyond all his expectations simply because all props were early knocked out from under him and he was obliged to stand upon his own feet. H enry Ward Beecher did not wait for a call to a big church with a large salary." asked the English lady. asked an English lady what became of daughters when no property was left th em. Don't wait for somebody to give you a lift. of the fame he had wo n and could never lose. he sighed. the meager education. they look around for somebody to lean upon. Don't wait for your place to be made for you . which you had on the old farm." said Robert Collyer. his energy will be dissipated.--but he knew that a fine church and great salary can not make a great man. "my fortune gone." His table was covered with medals and cer tificates of honor from many nations. Counting out from them as many as we re in the basket. his ambition. no real happiness. swept the rooms. lift yourself." A young man stood listlessly watching some anglers on a bridge. He became literally the light of the church. "If now I had these I would be happy. "if you will do me a trifling favor. I wish to go on a short err and. and he lost all his depression in the excitement of pulling them in. When the o wner returned he had caught a large number. I could sell them and buy food and lodgings. There is no manhood mill which takes in boys and turns out men." was Miss Mitchell's reply. But grief shook the sands of life as he thought only of the son who had brought disgrace upon a name before unsullied. make it yourself." He wrote under it. "My life is a wreck. the lack of opportunities." The proposal was gladly accepted.deprivations. he found written at the end . "Finis. no great character is ever possible. H e accepted the first pastorate offered him. will gradually die away. When Beethoven was examining the work of Moscheles. in a little town near Cincinnati. It the prop is not there. without which no real success. The old man was gone so long that the yo ung man began to get impatient. or unhorsed men in armor. "They live on their brothers. you ha ve taken away from him the incentive to self-development. "Only to tend this line till I come back. to self-discipline and self-help. "Man. approaching a basket filled with fish. the old fisherman said. He felt that if there were anything in him work would bring it out. not being stimulated by the struggle for selfelevation." said the dying Cyrus W. who brought hi s wife to America in the steerage." was the reply. with God's help. Oh. for he trimmed the lamps. What you call " no chance" may be your only chance." said the owner. I was so unkind to Edward when I thought I was being kind. "But what becomes of the Ameri can daughters. who chanced to over hear his words. During the great financial crisis of 1857 Maria Mitchell. At length. He was poor and dejected. and rang the bell. kindled the fires. Men who have been bolstered up all their lives are seldom good for anything in a crisis. down they go. Meanwhile the fish snapped greedily at the hook. If you do everything for your son and fight his battles for him. His salary was only about $200 a yea r." "And what is that?" asked the other. then they w ould have known the meaning of money. in recognition of his great work for civil ization in mooring two continents side by side in thought. "I f .

my man. "The male inhabitants in the Township of Loaferdom. said. "found themselves laboring under great inconvenience fo r want of an easily traveled road between Poverty and Independence. pay the price and it is yours. A lowly beg inning and a humble origin are no bar to a great career. to-day. to teach you whenever you see ot hers earning what you need to waste no time in foolish wishing." shouted the bluff old boatman. "Let us pray . and threatened to capsize the boat. It cannot be coaxed or bribed. Bayard Taylor. and dally with their purpose because they have no capital to start with. wrote: "I will become the sculptor of my o wn mind's statue. no.ulfil my promise from the fish you have caught. Yo u take an oar. faint. but cast a line for yourself. of our universities. the founder of Boston University. The farmer's boys fill many of the greatest places in legislatures. Ask almost any great man in our larg e cities where he was born. You will never find success "marked down. he could find no opening for a boy. He found a board. Nearly all of the great capitalists of the city came from the c ountry. Self-help has accomplished about all the great things of the world. but also in the acquirement of eminence. and have filled the highest places as teachers and journalists. broad and smooth. the larges t and strongest man in the party. and he will tell you it was on a farm or in a small country village. Isaac Rich. an d made it into an oyster stand on the street corner. and wait and wait for some good luck to give them a lift! But su ccess is the child of drudgery and perseverance. nothing without it. in business. bought three bushels of oysters. and then he b ought a horse and cart. intellect. Man is not merely the architect of his own fate. Our p oor boys and girls have written many of our greatest books. in a state of intense fear. are presidents of our banks." "Every one is the artificer of his own fortune. Boys of lowly origin have made many of the greatest disco veries. but he must lay the bricks him self. Soon his little savings amounted to $130. The gods sell ever ything for that." "No. They therefo re petitioned the Powers that be to levy a tax upon the property of the entire c ounty for the purpose of laying out a macadamized highway. When it seemed that the crisis had really come. and wh eeled them to his stand. and all the way down hill to the latter place. and t he will. at twenty-three. From Croesus down to Rockefeller the story is the same." The grandest fortunes ever accumulated or possessed on earth were and are the f ruit of endeavor that had no capital to begin with save energy. "let the little man pray." A white squall caught a party of tourists on a lake in Scotland. of our colleges. Where is the boy to-day who has less chance to ri . How many yo ung men falter. He borrowed a wheelbarrow." The door to the temple of success is never left open. Every one who enters makes his own door. Circumstances have rarely favored great men. and went three miles to an oyster smack. but what of that? He made an opening. at the bar. They have fought their way to triu mph over the road of difficulty and through all sorts of opposition. Labor is the only legal tender in the world to true success." says a printer's squib. those men have won most who relied most upon themselves. in pulpits ." says Sallust. in the County of Hatework. which closes behind him to all others. not only in the getting of wealth." His biography shows how often the chisel and hammer were in h is hands to shape himself into his ideal. left Cape Cod for Boston to make his way with a capital of only four dollars. Like Horace Greeley. in Congress.

The greatest geniuses have been the greatest workers. but when he was a student too poor t o buy books. "Hard at it. attest the trouble they cost me. The drudgery which l iterary men have put into the productions which have stood the test of time is a lmost incredible. to pick up an excellent education in the odds and ends of time which most boys throw away. At thirty years of age he was master of every important language in Europe and was studying those of Asia. and often by candle-light? Yet. one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived. The greatest works in literature have been elaborated and elaborated. wha t an uplift of inspiration and encouragement they would give! How often I have w ished that the discouraged.se in the world than Elihu Burritt. that it is the slavery to a single ide a which has given to many a mediocre talent the reputation of being a genius." H ume toiled thirteen hours a day on his "History of England. in whose shop h e had to work at the forge all the daylight. but th e days and months of weary plodding over details and dreary drudgery often requi red to produce it would stagger belief. young Burritt had seized the opportunity and improved it. struggling youth could know of the heartaches. polished and repolishe d. till it gained his consent t o exist. and scarcely legible. The lazier the man . often rewritten a dozen times. the h eadaches. in terlined." Even Lord Bacon. some one declared that he wrote "drop by drop. It completely absorbed his life. o r practise any other severity on whatever he wrote. John Foster would sometimes linger a w eek over a single sentence. and studying at night and holidays . carrying it in his poc ket that he might utilize every spare moment. Sheridan was considered a genius." he replied. "at the rate of a line a week. blotted. While the rich boy and the idler were yawning and stretching and ge tting their eyes open." Rousseau says of the labor involved in his smooth and lively style: "My manuscripts. scratched. You can read in a fe w minutes or a few hours a poem or a book with only pleasure and delight. Yet he had a thirst for knowledge and a desire for self-improveme nt. he had actually borrowed and copied many hundreds of pages of large law books. in most cases of down-right hard work. the fears and despair involved in works which have gained the admiration of the worl d. the nerve-aches. and put down in his memorandum book ready for any emergency. apprenticed to a blacksmith. but which have taxed the utmost powers of their authors. Speaking of Fox. Chalmers was once asked what Foster was about in London. by studying with a book before him at his meals. If the youth of America who are struggling against cruel circumstances to do so mething and be somebody in the world could only understand that ninety per cent. at his death lef t large numbers of manuscripts filled with "sudden thoughts set down for use. What chance had such a boy for distinction? Probably not a single youth will read this book who has not a better opportunit y for success. It is said that Bryant rewrote "Thanatopsis" a hundred times." Lord Eldon astonish ed the world with his great legal learning. He would hack. prune. the more he will have to say about great things being done by genius. Matthew Hale for years studied law sixteen hours a day. Genius has been well defined as the infinite capacity for taking pains. paragraph by paragraph. which overcame every obstacle in his pathway. It is interesting to note that the men who t alk most about genius are the men who like to work the least. determined industr y. the discouraged hours. pull up by the roots. he managed. and even then was not satisfied with it. If men who have done great things could only reveal to the struggling youth of to-day h ow much of their reputations was due to downright hard digging and plodding. Lucretius worked nearly a lifetime on one poem. th ey would be inspired with new hope. of what is called genius is merely the result of persistent. but it was found that the "brilliants" and "off-hand sayings" with whic h he used to dazzle the House of Commons were elaborated. line by l ine. There is not on . split. the disheartening trials.

when a man like Francis Joseph Campbell. and was in his study ev ery morning. and who studied by the light of the shop windows in the streets . "The Creation" eclipsed them all.'" Gibbon wrote his autobiography nine times. one of the greatest writers that ever lived. with less ch ance than almost any boy in America. half blind. eaten in the streets of Philadelphia. and a great philanthropist. holding his book in one hand. who apprenticed him at the age of thirteen to a bookbinder in London. Some of my periods I have turned or returned in my head for five or six nights before they were fit to be put to paper. Burke wrote the conclusion of his spee ch at the trial of Hastings sixteen times. Perhaps ninety-nine of a hundred under such unfortunate circumstances wou ld be content to remain helpless objects of charity for life. no matter what it may be. with the meanness of his origin. . But of his eight hundred compositions. It took Vergil seven years to write his Georgics. who had been a tallow-chandler in his youth. his father was a coachman and he. some of the shot falling in his garden. and clinging to the lamp-post with the other. Here he blacked boots for an infl uential man. When a man like Lord Cavanagh. m arried a servant girl. Francis Parkman. became one of America's greatest historians in spi te of everything.e of them which I have not been obliged to transcribe four or five times before it went to press. one is taken at the worth he has put into himself. Personal value is a coin of one' s own minting. If it is your call to acquire money power instead of brain power. no more poverty. who was too poor to afford even a c andle or a fire. In 1798 this poor boy's oratorio." came upon the musical world like the rising of a new sun which never set. whose highest luxury at one time was only a penny roll." Beethoven probably surpassed all other musicians in his painstaking fidelity an d persistent application." upon which Gibbon worked twenty years. because he made himself such. we get a hint as to what it means to make the most possible out of ourselves and our opportun ities. "The barriers are not yet erected which can say to aspiring talent and industry 'thus far and no further. He absorbed a great deal of information. becomes a di stinguished mathematician. Scotland. Bishop of Nismes. and when the shops were closed climbed the lamp-post. but he had a hard life of p ersecution until he became a barber in Vienna. and Butler his famous "Analogy" twent y times. "The Creation. and yet youth who waste their ev enings wonder at the genius which can produce "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. at six o'clock. manages to put himself int o Parliament.--this poor boy. . to whi . He was courted by princes and dined with kings and queens. wrote the first sentence in his "Republic" nine differ ent ways before he was satisfied with it. summer and winter. There is scarcely a bar in his music that was not writ ten and rewritten at least a dozen times. Even Plato. A French doctor once taunted Fléchier. . after others had gone. and twelve years to w rite the Aeneid. Michael Faraday was a poor boy. there was no more barbering. a blind man. He died while Napoleon's guns we re bombarding Vienna. A glover's apprentice of Glasgow. who became a friend to him. without arms or legs. to acquire business power instea d of professional power. He was so displeased with the latter that he attempted to rise from his deathbed to commit it to the flames. Michael laid the foundations of his future greatness by making himself familiar with the contents of the books he bo und. a musician. His favorite maxim was. He remained at night. to read and study the precious volumes. double your talent just the same. Franklin was b ut a poor printer's boy. He was sent away from home to act as errand boy for a mus ic teacher. Haydn was very poor. became the most eminent scholar of Scotland . his reputation w as made. friendless and lonely. son of a blacksmith. Lord Tenterden was proud to point out to his son the shop where he had shaved for a penny.

ch he replied, "If you had been born in the same condition that I was, you would still have been but a maker of candles." Edwin Chadwick, in his report to the British Parliament, stated that children, working on half time (that is, studying three hours a day and working the rest o f their time out of doors), really made the greatest intellectual progress durin g the year. Business men have often accomplished wonders during the busiest live s by simply devoting one, two, three, or four hours daily to study or other lite rary work. James Watt received only the rudiments of an education at school, for his atten dance was irregular on account of delicate health. He more than made up for all deficiencies, however, by the diligence with which he pursued his studies at hom e. Alexander V was a beggar; he was "born mud, and died marble." William Hersche l, placed at the age of fourteen as a musician in the band of the Hanoverian Gua rds, devoted all his leisure to philosophical studies. He acquired a large fund of general knowledge, and in astronomy, a science in which he was wholly self-in structed, his discoveries entitle him to rank with the greatest astronomers of a ll time. George Washington was the son of a widow, born under the roof of a Westmoreland farmer; almost from infancy his lot had been that of an orphan. No academy had welcomed him to its shade, no college crowned him with its honors; to read, to w rite, to cipher--these had been his degrees in knowledge. Shakespeare learned li ttle more than reading and writing at school, but by self-culture he made himsel f the great master among literary men. Burns, too, enjoyed few advantages of edu cation, and his youth was passed in almost abject poverty. James Ferguson, the son of a half-starved peasant, learned to read by listening to the recitations of one of his elder brothers. While a mere boy he discovered several mechanical principles, made models of mills and spinning-wheels, and by means of beads on strings worked out an excellent map of the heavens. Ferguson made remarkable things with a common penknife. How many great men have mounted t he hill of knowledge by out-of-the-way paths! Gifford worked his intricate probl ems with a shoemaker's awl on a bit of leather. Rittenhouse first calculated ecl ipses on his plow-handle. Columbus, while leading the life of a sailor, managed to become the most accomp lished geographer and astronomer of his time. When Peter the Great, a boy of seventeen, became the absolute ruler of Russia h is subjects were little better than savages, and in himself even the passions an d propensities of barbarism were so strong that they were frequently exhibited d uring his whole career. But he determined to transform himself and the Russians into civilized people. He instituted reforms with great energy, and at the age o f twenty-six started on a visit to the other countries of Europe for the purpose of learning about their arts and institutions. At Saardam, Holland, he was so i mpressed with the sights of the great East India dockyard that he apprenticed hi mself to a shipbuilder, and helped to build the St. Peter, which he promptly pur chased. Continuing his travels, after he had learned his trade, he worked in Eng land in paper-mills, saw-mills, rope-yards, watchmakers' shops, and other manufa ctories, doing the work and receiving the treatment of a common laborer. While traveling, his constant habit was to obtain as much information as he cou ld beforehand with regard to every place he was to visit, and he would demand, " Let me see all." When setting out on his investigations, on such occasions, he c arried his tablets in his hand and whatever he deemed worthy of remembrance was carefully noted down. He would often leave his carriage if he saw the country pe ople at work by the wayside as he passed along, and not only enter into conversa tion with them on agricultural affairs, but also accompany them to their homes,

examine their furniture, and take drawings of their implements of husbandry. Thu s he obtained much minute and correct knowledge, which he would scarcely have ac quired by other means, and which he afterward turned to admirable account in the improvement of his own country. The ancients said, "Know thyself"; the twentieth century says, "Help thyself." Self-culture gives a second birth to the soul. A liberal education is a true reg eneration. When a man is once liberally educated, he will generally remain a man , not shrink to a manikin, nor dwindle to a brute. But if he is not properly edu cated, if he has merely been crammed and stuffed through college, if he has mere ly a broken-down memory from trying to hold crammed facts enough to pass the exa mination, he will continue to shrink, shrivel, and dwindle, often below his orig inal proportions, for he will lose both his confidence and self-respect, as his crammed facts, which never became a part of himself, evaporate from his distende d memory. Every bit of education or culture is of great advantage in the struggle for exi stence. The microscope does not create anything new, but it reveals marvels. To educate the eye adds to its magnifying power until it sees beauty where before i t saw only ugliness. It reveals a world we never suspected, and finds the greate st beauty even in the commonest things. The eye of an Agassiz could see worlds o f which the uneducated eye never dreamed. The cultured hand can do a thousand th ings the uneducated hand can not do. It becomes graceful, steady of nerve, stron g, skilful, indeed it almost seems to think, so animated is it with intelligence . The cultured will can seize, grasp, and hold the possessor, with irresistible power and nerve, to almost superhuman effort. The educated touch can almost perf orm miracles. The educated taste can achieve wonders almost past belief. What a contrast between the cultured, logical, profound, masterly reason of a Gladstone and that of the hod-carrier who has never developed or educated his reason beyo nd what is necessary to enable him to mix mortar and carry brick! Be careful to avoid that over-intellectual culture which is purchased at the ex pense of moral vigor. An observant professor of one of our colleges has remarked that "the mind may be so rounded and polished by education, and so well balance d, as not to be energetic in any one faculty. In other men not thus trained, the sense of deficiency and of the sharp, jagged corners of their knowledge leads t o efforts to fill up the chasms, rendering them at last far better educated men than the polished, easy-going graduate who has just knowledge enough to prevent consciousness of his ignorance. While all the faculties of the mind should be cu ltivated, it is yet desirable that it should have two or three rough-hewn featur es of massive strength. Young men are too apt to forget the great end of life, w hich is to be and do, not to read and brood over what other men have been and do ne." "I repeat that my object is not to give him knowledge, but to teach him how to acquire it at need," said Rousseau. All learning is self-teaching. It is upon the working of the pupil's own mind t hat his progress in knowledge depends. The great business of the master is to te ach the pupil to teach himself. "Thinking, not growth, makes manhood," says Isaac Taylor. "Accustom yourself, t herefore, to thinking. Set yourself to understand whatever you see or read. To j oin thinking with reading is one of the first maxims, and one of the easiest ope rations." "How few think justly of the thinking few: How many never think who think they do." CHAPTER XXXI

THE SELF-IMPROVEMENT HABIT If you want knowledge you must toil for it.--RUSKIN. We excuse our sloth under the pretext of difficulty.--QUINTILLIAN. What sculpture is to a block of marble, education is to the human soul.--ADDISO N. A boy is better unborn than untaught.--GASCOIGNE. It is ignorance that wastes; it is knowledge that saves, an untaught faculty is at once quiescent and dead.--N. D. HILLIS. The plea that this or that man has no time for culture will vanish as soon as w e desire culture so much that we begin to examine seriously into our present use of time.--MATTHEW ARNOLD. Education, as commonly understood, is the process of developing the mind by mea ns of books and teachers. When education has been neglected, either by reason of lack of opportunity, or because advantage was not taken of the opportunities af forded, the one remaining hope is self-improvement. Opportunities for self-impro vement surround us, the helps to self-improvement are abundant, and in this day of cheap books and free libraries, there can be no good excuse for neglect to us e the faculties for mental growth and development which are so abundantly suppli ed. When we look at the difficulties which hindered the acquisition of knowledge fi fty years to a century ago; the scarcity and the costliness of books, the value of the dimmest candle-light, the unremitting toil which left so little time for study, the physical weariness which had to be overcome to enable mental exertion in study, we may well marvel at the giants of scholarship those days of hardshi p produced. And when we add to educational limitations, physical disabilities, b lindness, deformity, ill-health, hunger and cold, we may feel shame as we contem plate the fulness of modern opportunity and the helps and incentives to study an d self-development which are so lavishly provided for our use and inspiration, a nd of which we make so little use. Self-improvement implies one essential feeling: the desire for improvement. If the desire exists, then improvement is usually accomplished only by the conquest of self--the material self, which seeks pleasure and amusement. The novel, the game of cards, the billiard cue, idle whittling and story-telling will have to b e eschewed, and every available moment of leisure turned to account. For all who seek self-improvement "there is a lion in the way," the lion of self-indulgence , and it is only by the conquest of this enemy that progress is assured. Show me how a youth spends his evenings, his odd bits of time, and I will forec ast his future. Does he look upon this leisure as precious, rich in possibilitie s, as containing golden material for his future life structure? Or does he look upon it as an opportunity for self-indulgence, for a light, flippant good time? The way he spends his leisure will give the keynote of his life, will tell whet her he is dead in earnest, or whether he looks upon it as a huge joke. He may not be conscious of the terrible effects, the gradual deterioration of c haracter which comes from a frivolous wasting of his evenings and half-holidays, but the character is being undermined just the same. Young men are often surprised to find themselves dropping behind their competit

ors, but if they will examine themselves, they will find that they have stopped growing, because they have ceased their effort to keep abreast of the times, to be widely read, to enrich life with self-culture. It is the right use of spare moments in reading and study which qualify men for leadership. And in many historic cases the "spare" moments utilized for study w ere not spare in the sense of being the spare time of leisure. They were rather spared moments, moments spared from sleep, from meal times, from recreation. Where is the boy to-day who has less chance to rise in the world than Elihu Bur ritt, apprenticed at sixteen to a blacksmith, in whose shop he had to work at th e forge all the daylight, and often by candle-light? Yet he managed, by studying with a book before him at his meals, carrying it in his pocket that he might ut ilize every spare moment, and studying nights and holidays, to pick up an excell ent education in the odds and ends of time which most boys throw away. While the rich boy and the idler were yawning and stretching and getting their eyes open, young Burritt had seized the opportunity and improved it. He had a thirst for knowledge and a desire for self-improvement, which overcame every obstacle in his pathway. A wealthy gentleman offered to pay his expenses at Harvard. But no, Elihu said he could get his education himself, even though h e had to work twelve or fourteen hours a day at the forge. Here was a determined boy. He snatched every spare moment at the anvil and forge as if it were gold. He believed, with Gladstone, that thrift of time would repay him in after years with usury, and that waste of it would make him dwindle. Think of a boy working nearly all the daylight in a blacksmith shop, and yet finding time to study seve n languages in a single year. It is not lack of ability that holds men down but lack of industry. In many cas es the employee has a better brain, a better mental capacity than his employer. But he does not improve his faculties. He dulls his mind by cigarette smoking. H e spends his money at the pool table, theater, or dance, and as he grows old, an d the harness of perpetual service galls him, he grumbles at his lack of luck, h is limited opportunity. The number of perpetual clerks is constantly being recruited by those who did n ot think it worth while as boys to learn to write a good hand or to master the f undamental branches of knowledge requisite in a business career. The ignorance c ommon among young men and young women, in factories, stores, and offices, everyw here, in fact, in this land of opportunity, where youth should be well educated, is a pitiable thing in American life. On every hand we see men and women of abi lity occupying inferior positions because they did not think it worth while in y outh to develop their powers and to concentrate their attention on the acquisiti on of sufficient knowledge. Thousands of men and women find themselves held back, handicapped for life beca use of the seeming trifles which they did not think it worth while to pay attent ion to in their early days. Many a girl of good natural ability spends her most productive years as a cheap clerk, or in a mediocre position because she never thought it worth while to de velop her mental faculties or to take advantage of opportunities within reach to fit herself for a superior position. Thousands of girls unexpectedly thrown on their own resources have been held down all their lives because of neglected tas ks in youth, which at the time were dismissed with a careless "I don't think it worth while." They did not think it would pay to go to the bottom of any study a t school, to learn to keep accounts accurately, or fit themselves to do anything in such a way as to be able to make a living by it. They expected to marry, and never prepared for being dependent on themselves,--a contingency against which marriage, in many instances, is no safeguard.

The trouble with most youths is that they are not willing to fling the whole we ight of their being into their location. They want short hours, little work and a lot of play. They think more of leisure and pleasure than of discipline and tr aining in their great life specialty. Many a clerk envies his employer and wishes that he could go into business for himself, be an employer too but it is too much work to make the effort to rise a bove a clerkship. He likes to take life easy; and he wonders idly whether, after all, it is worth while to strain and strive and struggle and study to prepare o neself for the sake of getting up a little higher and making a little more money . The trouble with a great many people is that they are not willing to make prese nt sacrifices for future gain. They prefer to have a good time as they go along, rather than spend time in self-improvement. They have a sort of vague wish to d o something great, but few have that intensity of longing which impels them to m ake the sacrifice of the present for the future. Few are willing to work undergr ound for years laying a foundation for the life monument. They yearn for greatne ss, but their yearning is not the kind which is willing to pay any price in ende avor or make any sacrifice for its object. So the majority slide along in mediocrity all their lives. They have ability fo r something higher up, but they have not the energy and determination to prepare for it. They do not care to make necessary effort. They prefer to take life eas ier and lower down rather than to struggle for something higher. They do not pla y the game for all they are worth. If a man or woman has but the disposition for self-improvement and advancement he will find opportunity to rise or "what he can not find create." Here is an ex ample from the everyday life going on around us and in which we are all taking p art. A young Irishman who had reached the age of nineteen or twenty without learning to read or write, and who left home because of the intemperance that prevailed there, learned to read a little by studying billboards, and eventually got a pos ition as steward aboard a man-of-war. He chose that occupation and got leave to serve at the captain's table because of a great desire to learn. He kept a littl e tablet in his coat-pocket, and whenever he heard a new word wrote it down. One day an officer saw him writing and immediately suspected him of being a spy. Wh en he and the other officers learned what the tablet was used for, the young man was given more opportunities to learn, and these led in time to promotion, unti l, finally, the sometime steward won a prominent position in the navy. Success a s a naval officer prepared the way for success in other fields. Self-help has accomplished about all the great things of the world. How many yo ung men falter, faint, and dally with their purpose, because they have no capita l to start with, and wait and wait for some good luck to give them a lift! But s uccess is the child of drudgery and perseverance. It can not be coaxed or bribed ; pay the price and it is yours. One of the sad things about the neglected opportunities for self-improvement is that it puts people of great natural ability at a disadvantage among those who are their mental inferiors. I know a member of one of our city legislatures, a splendid fellow, immensely p opular, who has a great, generous heart and broad sympathies, but who can not op en his mouth without so murdering the English language that it is really painful to listen to him.

There ted to cters, ack of

are a great many similar examples in Washington of men who have been elec important positions because of their great natural ability and fine chara but who are constantly mortified and embarrassed by their ignorance and l early training.

One of the most humiliating experiences that can ever come to a human being is to be conscious of possessing more than ordinary ability, and yet be tied to an inferior position because of lack of early and intelligent training commensurate with his ability. To be conscious that one has ability to realize eighty or nin ety per cent of his possibilities, if he had only had the proper education and t raining, but because of this lack to be unable to bring out more than twenty-fiv e per cent of it on account of ignorance, is humiliating and embarrassing. In ot her words, to go through life conscious that you are making a botch of your capa bilities just because of lack of training, is a most depressing thing. Nothing else outside of sin causes more sorrow than that which comes from not h aving prepared for the highest career possible to one. There are no bitterer reg rets than those which come from being obliged to let opportunities pass by for w hich one never prepared himself. I know a pitiable case of a born naturalist whose ambition was so suppressed, a nd whose education so neglected in youth, that later when he came to know more a bout natural history than almost any man of his day, he could not write a gramma tical sentence, and could never make his ideas live in words, perpetuate them in books, because of his ignorance of even the rudiments of an education. His earl y vocabulary was so narrow and pinched, and his knowledge of his language so lim ited that he always seemed to be painfully struggling for words to express his t hought. Think of the suffering of this splendid man, who was conscious of possessing co lossal scientific knowledge, and yet was absolutely unable to express himself gr ammatically! How often stenographers are mortified by the use of some unfamiliar word or ter m, or quotation, because of the shallowness of their preparation! It is not enough to be able to take dictation when ordinary letters are given, not enough to do the ordinary routine of office work. The ambitious stenographer must be prepared for the unusual demand, must have good reserves of knowledge t o draw from in case of emergency. But, if she is constantly slipping up upon her grammar, or is all at sea the mo ment she steps out of her ordinary routine, her employer knows that her preparat ion is shallow, that her education is very limited, and her prospects will be li mited also. A young lady writes me that she is so handicapped by the lack of an early educa tion that she fairly dreads to write a letter to anyone of education or culture for fear of making ignorant mistakes in grammar and spelling. Her letter indicat es that she has a great deal of natural ability. Yet she is much limited and alw ays placed at a disadvantage because of this lack of an early education. It is d ifficult to conceive of a greater misfortune than always to be embarrassed and h andicapped just because of the neglect of those early years. I am often pained by letters from people, especially young people, which indica te that the writers have a great deal of natural ability, that they have splendi d minds, but a large part of their ability is covered up, rendered ineffectual b y their ignorance. Many of these letters show that the writers are like diamonds in the rough, wit

h only here and there a little facet ground off, just enough to let in the light and reveal the great hidden wealth within. I always feel sorry for these people who have passed the school age and who wil l probably go through life with splendid minds handicapped by their ignorance wh ich, even late in life, they might largely or entirely overcome. It is such a pity that, a young man, for instance, who has the natural ability which would make him a leader among men, must, for the lack of a little training , a little preparation, work for somebody else, perhaps with but half of his abi lity but with a better preparation, more education. Everywhere we see clerks, mechanics, employees in all walks of life, who cannot rise to anything like positions which correspond with their natural ability, be cause they have not had the education. They are ignorant. They can not write a d ecent letter. They murder the English language, and hence their superb ability c annot be demonstrated, and remains in mediocrity. The parable of the talents illustrates and enforces one of nature's sternest la ws: "To him that hath shall be given; from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath." Scientists call this law the survival of the fittest. The fittest are those who use what they have, who gain strength by struggle, an d who survive by self-development by control of their hostile or helpful environ ment. The soil, the sunshine, the atmosphere are very liberal with the material for t he growth of the plant or the tree, but the plant must use all it gets, it must work it up into flowers, into fruit, into leaf or fiber or something or the supp ly will cease. In other words, the soil will not send any more building material up the sap than is used for growth, and the faster this material is used the mo re rapid the growth, the more abundantly the material will come. t s e d The same law holds good everywhere. Nature is liberal with us if we utilize wha she gives us, but if we stop using it, if we do not transform what she gives u into power, if we do not do some building somewhere, if we do not transform th material which she gives us into force and utilize that force, we not only fin the supply cut off, but we find that we are growing weaker, less efficient.

Everything in nature is on the move, either one way or the other. It is either going up or down. It is either advancing or retrograding; we cannot hold without using. Nature withdraws muscle or brain if we do not use them. She withdraws skill the moment we stop drilling efficiently, the moment we stop using our power. The fo rce is withdrawn when we cease exercising it. A college graduate is often surprised years after he leaves the college to find that about all he has to show for his education is his diploma. The power, the efficiency which he gained there has been lost because he has not been using the m. He thought at the time that everything was still fresh in his mind after his examination that this knowledge would remain with him, but it has been slipping away from him every minute since he stopped using it, and only that has remained and increased which he has used; the rest has evaporated. A great many college graduates ten years afterwards find that they have but very little left to show for their four years' course, because they have not utilized their knowledge. Th ey have become weaklings without knowing it. They constantly say to themselves, "I have a college education, I must have some ability, I must amount to somethin g in the world." But the college diploma has no more power to hold the knowledge you have gained in college than a piece of tissue paper over a gas jet can hold the gas in the pipe.

Everything which you do not use is constantly slipping away from you. Use it or lose it. The secret of power is use. Ability will not remain with us, force wil l evaporate the moment we cease to do something with it. The tools for self-improvement are at your hand, use them. If the ax is dull th e more strength must be put forth. If your opportunities are limited you must us e more energy, put forth more effort. Progress may seem slow at first, but perse verance assures success. "Line upon line, and precept upon precept" is the rule of mental upbuilding and "In due time ye shall reap if ye faint not." CHAPTER XXXII RAISING OF VALUES "Destiny is not about thee, but within,-- Thyself must make thyself." "The world is no longer clay, but rather iron in the hands of its workers," say s Emerson, "and men have got to hammer out a place for themselves by steady and rugged blows." To make the most of your "stuff," be it cloth, iron, or character,--this is suc cess. Raising common "stuff" to priceless value is great success. The man who first takes the rough bar of wrought iron may be a blacksmith, who has only partly learned his trade, and has no ambition to rise above his anvil. He thinks that the best possible thing he can do with his bar is to make it into horseshoes, and congratulates himself upon his success. He reasons that the rou gh lump of iron is worth only two or three cents a pound, and that it is not wor th while to spend much time or labor on it. His enormous muscles and small skill have raised the value of the iron from one dollar, perhaps, to ten dollars. Along comes a cutler, with a little better education, a little more ambition, a little finer perception, and says to the blacksmith: "Is this all you can see i n that iron? Give me a bar, and I will show you what brains and skill and hard w ork can make of it." He sees a little further into the rough bar. He has studied many processes of hardening and tempering; he has tools, grinding and polishing wheels, and annealing furnaces. The iron is fused, carbonized into steel, drawn out, forged, tempered, heated white-hot, plunged into cold water or oil to impr ove its temper, and ground and polished with great care and patience. When this work is done, he shows the astonished blacksmith two thousand dollars' worth of knife-blades where the latter only saw ten dollars' worth of crude horseshoes. T he value has been greatly raised by the refining process. "Knife-blades are all very well, if you can make nothing better," says another artisan, to whom the cutler has shown the triumph of his art, "but you haven't h alf brought out what is in that bar of iron. I see a higher and better use; I ha ve made a study of iron, and know what there is in it and what can be made of it ." This artisan has a more delicate touch, a finer perception, a better training, a higher ideal, and superior determination, which enable him to look still furth er into the molecules of the rough bar,--past the horse-shoes, past the knife-bl ades,--and he turns the crude iron into the finest cambric needles, with eyes cu t with microscopic exactness. The production of the invisible points requires a more delicate process, a finer grade of skill than the cutler possesses. This feat the last workman considers marvelous, and he thinks he has exhausted the possibilities of the iron. He has multiplied many times the value of the cut ler's product.

passes with ease by the horse-shoes. a dozen processes are possible. more perfection can be reached. that wonderful c ompound of physical. He puts his bar through many processes of refinement and fine tempering. acting and c ounteracting. by mixing brains with its molecules. and . and cheap. trenchant. perhaps forty ti mes the value of the same weight of gold. a higher order of skill. With penetrating. behold! another very skilful mechanic. He knows that the crude iron can be manipulated and coaxed into an elasticity t hat can not even be imagined by one less trained in metallurgy. the r eal. even main-springs seem coarse and clumsy. To him. moral. he has raised th e few dollars' worth of iron to a value of one million dollars. While the iron is an inert mass acted upon by external influences only. who shall set b ounds to the possibilities of the development of a human being. and the needles. While a pound of gold. by even the average educated man. the processes of educ . It is the ideal followed and unfolded. that he possesses the magic that can perform a still greater miracle in iron. and develops its higher possibilities with such m arvelous accuracy. turns his product into almost invisible coils of delicate hair-spr ings. worth only a few tho usand dollars. more industry. but so full of its new qualities that it almost seems instinct with life. the perception. whose product is so little known. It sounds magical. he shows you a few of the minutely barbed instruments used by dentists to dra w out the finest branches of the dental nerves. roughly s peaking. his penetrating eye saw a product worth one hundred thousand doll ars. He knows that. that even mainsprings and ha irsprings are looked back upon as coarse. the human being is a bundle of forces. that his trade is unmentioned by the makers of dictionaries and encylopedias. mental. or needles. almost clairvoyant vision. whose processes are so almost infinitely delicate. by pai nstaking care. a more delicate touch. and how. but the magic is only that wrought by the application of the homeliest virtues. but it will be many a day b efore the best will exhaust the possibilities of a metal that can be subdivided until its particles will float in the air. a pound of these slender. a nd merely a passive metal. the effort made. Where the others saw horseshoes. by the training of the eye. more patience. crude. an d a better training. in the develo pment of iron. A higher artist-artisan appears. he has made his dream true. After infinite toil and pain. takes but a fragmen t of one of the bars of steel. dominating personality. a slender thread of it. such ethereal fineness of touch. When his work is don e. can do marvelous wo rk. If a metal possessing only a few coarse material qualities is capable of such m arvelous increase in value.But. if a pound could be collected. this artist-artisan sees how every process of mainspring making can be carried further. and spiritual forces? Whereas. Other experts may still further refine the product. yet all capable of control and direction by the higher self. at every stage of manufacture. by hard work. knife-blades. and by determination and grit. the hand. how the texture of the metal can b e so much refined that even a fiber. the knife-blades. might be worth hundre ds of times as much. and returns the product of his bar in fine mainsprings for watches. The difference in human attainment is due only slightly to the original materia l. who tells us that the rough bar has not even y et found its highest expression. it will not be stiff. is worth about two hundred and fifty dollars. i f care enough be used in tempering the steel. in triumph. Still another workman. a thousand influences may be brou ght to bear upon mind and character. barbed filaments of steel. with a more finely organized mind.

our trials. Ben Jonson. the rebuffs that chill enthusiasm. one man calls out an angel of beauty which delights every beholder. the slave. developed their powers. and all are s ubject to the dominating will. are the on es who fail. while the ninety-nine will w onder why their material remains so coarse and crude. refined. by infinite patience and persistence. Franklin. so must we see in our lives glorious possibilities. hammer. to endure trials and tests. the beg gar. is strengthened. draw out. or to better it in some way. and development. so wil l character deteriorate if there is no constant effort to improve its form. study. It is easy to remain a common bar of iron. by patience. Just as each artisan sees in the crude iron some finished. five-hundredfold. the weariness of ye ars of dry. and Haydn. the bricklayer. the rolling. in the main. the "nobodies. inherent. to work on and up from clumsy horseshoes to delicate hairsprings. While one boy is regretting his want of opportunities. Those who shrink from the forging. Just as a bar of iron. toil. to pay the necessary price. all our efforts and struggles will nev er produce hairsprings. refined product. the raspings of care and anxiety. by this manipulation. Homer. I f we see only horseshoes or knife-blades. Aesop. un til they towered head and shoulders above other men. Cervantes. culture. made more elastic or more resistant. the cutler's son. perhaps with infinitely poorer means. aye. of what use would it be? It has that virtue. If every blow sho uld fracture it. Life. but in ourse lves they are largely matters of growth. and come out triumphan t in the end. those qualit ies that withstand all. his lack of means to get a college education. mean. and will attribute their f ailure to hard luck. It was thus that Columbus . to i ncrease its ductility. to hammer. the journeyman printer. that draw profit from every test. and become worthless. if we are willing. we can. by becoming mer ely a horseshoe. one man builds a palace and another a hovel. the criminals. compared with those of others. We must realize our own adaptability to great ends. the crushings of iron circumstances. another with half his chances pi cks up a good education in the odds and ends of time which other boys throw away . From the same material. another a hideous monster which demoralizes every one who sees i . will raise his material in value a hundredfold. In the iron the qualities are. the c ommon soldier. a nd through them it comes to its highest expression. There is very little difference between the material given to a hundred average boys and girls at birth. the grinding of constant difficulties. but. the fiery trials of disaster and bereavement. and the drawing out. The iron. or comparatively so. yet one with no better means of improvement than the o thers. confident that the result will pay us for our suffering. everyday life. has counterparts of all the tortures the iron undergoes. and stru ggle. will oxidize. and our ef forts. we m ust resolve to struggle. dreary drudgery in education and discipline. the poor wheelwright's son. if exposed to the elements. if every furnace should burn the life out of it. and mold our life-bar into its ultimate development. and refine. if every rolle r should pulverize it. and adapted to the use each artisan dreams of. the struggles amid want and woe. and inadequate.ation and experience undergone that fuse. if we would but realize them.--all these are necessar y to the man who would reach the highest success. raise the value of the raw material to almost fabulous heights. the weaver. but it is hard to raise your life-product to higher values. Many of us consider our natural gift-bars poor. a thousandfold. The blows of opposition." the faulty characters. From the same rough piece of marble. Demosthenes. to temper it. and remains in ignorance.

and it takes lots of stamina to undergo the processes that produce the finest product. and so quickly unfolds all of his powers. should be so self-centered and selfposed that he can get up in any audience. as does the orator. the rest is the com poser's. just as he chooses or feels like doing. A man may write as listlessly as he pleases. Of course. upon your having the grit to be hammered. no matter how large or formidable. Nothing else will call out what is in a man so quickly and so effectively as th e constant effort to do his best in speaking before an audience. whether blacksmith or farmer. d epends very largely upon your ideal.t. we do not feel that so much depends upon our words. No one is wa tching him. He do es not have to step upon the scales of every listener's judgment to be weighed. and express his thoughts clearly and distinctly. It is doubtful whether anyone can reach the highest standard of culture without studying the art of expression. but would you prefer to remain a roug h bar of iron or a horseshoe all your life? [Illustration: Lincoln studying by the firelight] CHAPTER XXXIII SELF-IMPROVEMENT THROUGH PUBLIC SPEAKING It does not matter whether you want to be a public speaker or not. In music. to be thrust from the fire into cold water or oil in order to get the proper temper. no matter what they intend to be. The extent to which you can raise the value of your life-bar depends very large ly upon yourself. In all ages oratory has been regarded as the highest expression of human achievement. but it must come through self-expression. He can write when he feels like it. The occasions for little speaking are increasing enormously. inventiveness. should train himself to think on his feet. When one undert akes to think on his feet and speak extemporaneously before the public. it may be on canvas: it may be through oratory. what one gives out is only partially one's own. only a few persons hear them . His pride and vanity are not touched. and perhaps no one will ever think of them again. his resourcefulness. The writer has the advantage of being able to wait for his moods. there is always a chance for revision. It may be in music. He does not have a great audience criticizing every sentence. especially public vocal expression. and what he writes may never b e seen by anyone. and he knows that he can burn his manuscript again and ag ain if it does not suit him. Self-expression in any legitimate form tends to call out what is in a man. Self-expression in some manner is the only means of developing mental power. Young people. everybody sh ould have such complete control of himself. should make it a study. as expression before an audience. Whether you go upward to the mainspring or hairspring stage. so that he can at a moment's notice rise and express himself intelligently . use much or lit tle of his brain or energy. merchan t or physician. the powe r and the skill of the entire man are put to a severe test. In conversation. but no other form of self-expression develops a man so thoroughly and so effectively. it is hard and painful. your determination to be the higher thing. to be drawn out. Then. whether vocal or i nstrumental. A great many ques . it may come th rough selling goods or writing a book. weighing every thought. There are not a thousand eyes upon him. Yet anyone who lays any claim to culture.

There was never before any such demand for dinner oratory as to-day. because they were timid. A very brilliant young man in New York who has climbed to a responsible positio n in a very short time. a shallow-brained business man. At the very meeting where this strong man who had the respect and confidence of everybody who knew him. stammer out an apology and sit down. embarrassed. at school. blush. Some time ago I was at a public meeting when a man who stands very high in the community. All sorts of business deals are now carried through at dinners. b eing so confused and self-conscious and "stage struck" that he could say scarcel y anything. but there he stood. was called upon to give his opinion upo n the matter under consideration. It is a matter of painstaking and preparation. he may have grace in his motions and ges tures. and he felt cheap. who is king in his specialty. All they c an do is to look foolish. and mental furnishing. mortified. Now they have money. or scarcely to put a motion without trembling like an aspen leaf. says Lord Chesterfield. by the dint of hard work and persistent grit.tions which used to be settled in the office are now discussed and settled at di nners. He had power and a great deal of experience. We know men who have. but they are nobodies when called upon to speak in public. manner. and the o ther man had not. in the same city. are to . in debating clubs to get rid of their self-consciousness and to acquire ease and facility in public speaking. they have position. may choose good words instead of bad ones an d speak properly instead of improperly. and may be a very agreeable instead of disagreeable speaker if he will ta ke care and pains. concise. They had plenty of opportunities when they were y oung. and was placed at a tremendous disadvantage. and strangers no doubt thought that he was much the stronger man. or felt that somebody else could handle t he debate or questions better. even to make a few remarks. or on other public occasions . The effort to express one's ideas in lucid. He could not even make a decent appearan ce. who hadn't a hundr edth part of the other man's practical power in affairs. telling English tends to make one's everyday language choicer and more direct. and he now regrets more than anything else that he has allo wed so many opportunities for calling himself out to go by in the past. and who made such a miserable failure of his attempt to give his opinion upon an important public matter on which he was well posted. got up and made a brill iant speech. clean-cut. and improves one 's diction generally. Every man. There is everything in learning what you wish to know. This explains the rapidity with which a young man develops in sc hool or college when he begins to take part in public debates or in debating soc ieties. as helpless as a child. Your vocal culture. and yet they are not able to stand on their feet in public. lifted them selves into positions of prominence. and he got up and trembled and stammered and c ould scarcely say his soul was his own. tells me that he has been surprised on several occasions when he has been called upon to speak at banquets. and probably would have given anything if he had early in life trained himself to get himself in hand so that he could think on his feet and say with power and effectiveness that which he knew. In this and other ways speech-making develops mental power and character. H e had simply cultivated the ability to say his best thing on his feet. at the new discoveries he has made of himself of power which he never before d reamed he possessed. but they always shrank from every opportunity. There are plenty of business men to-day who would give a great deal of money if they could only go back and improve the early opportunities for learning to thi nk and speak on their feet which they threw away.

and masses all his forces in the endeavor to capture the approval and applause of the audi ence. judgment of his opinions--al l things that go to make him what he is--are being unrolled like a panorama. or sense of proportion. In youth the would-be orator must cultivate robust health. every power of thought and expression spurred. the man who has no sensitiveness. "Ninety-nine men in every hundred never rise above mediocrity b ecause the training of the voice is entirely neglected and considered of no impo rtance. The attempt to become a good public speaker is a great awakener of all the ment al faculties. . effectively. Nothing else is such a touchstone of the character and the extent of one's re ading. Do not neutralize all the good impression you have made by talking on and on long after you have made your point. There is no class of people put to such a severe test of showing what is in the m as public speakers. Eve ry mental faculty is quickened. of natural or acquired ability. The speaker summons all his reserves of education.be made a matter for thought and careful training. enthusi asm. Close. good judgment. or making fools of themselves in the estimation of others. arouses ambition. too . his narrow vocabular y. character. if he had sat down in the Senate and put his fee t on his desk? Think of a great singer like Nordica attempting to electrify an a udience while lounging on a sofa or sitting in a slouchy position. In thinking on one's feet before an audience. It is a great art to be able to r aise and lower the voice with sweet flowing cadences which please the ear. since force. Nothing else so thoroughly discloses a man's weaknesses or shows up his limitations of thought. stirring the emotions or convincing the reason of an audience. of experience. no other men who run such a risk of exposing their weak sp ots. everything expressed on the same dead level. T houghts rush for utterance. P ublic speaking--thinking on one's feet--is a powerful educator except to the thi ck-skinned man. What woul d have been the result of Webster's reply to Hayne. moving forward with a monotonous dr oning. An early training for effective speaking will make one careful to secure a good vocabulary by good reading and a dictionary. his poverty of speech. self-reliance. conviction. the human mind tires very quickly without it. Yo u only weaken your case and prejudice people against you for your lack of tact. learning. One's manhood. Gladstone said. words press for choice. with proper facial and bodily expression and gesture. and pausing now and then as if refreshing himself by slumber. gives self-confidence. Learn to stop when you get through. the greatest oratorical effo rt ever made on this continent. as do orators. will-power are greatly affected by physical condition. compact statement must be had. This is especially true of a monotonous tone. Nothing will tire an audienc e more quickly than monotony. One must know words. assura nce. or who does not care for what others think of him. vigorousl y. Do no t keep stringing out conversation or argument after you have made your point. one must think quickly. One. must cultivate bodily posture. At the same time he must speak effectively through a properly mo dulated voice." It was indeed said of a certain Duke of Devonshire that he was the only English statesman who ever took a nap during the progress of his own speech. He was a p erfect genius for dry uninteresting oratory. This requir es practise in early life. and have good habits at easy command. The sense of power that comes from holding attention. and tends to make one more effective in ev ery particular. There must be variety. the carefulness or carelessness of his observation.

If you have an invitation to speak. the way to get poise and balance so t hat you will not feel disturbed in public gatherings. Do not remain way back on the back seat. No matter how far you have to go t o attend it. This forced awakening of the whole personality has effects reaching much furthe r than the oratorical occasion. and Patrick Henry got their training in the old-fashioned Debating So ciety. or how much trouble it is. and sends the blood surging through the veins. Lincoln. the drill you will get by it is the turning point. self-reliance. especially for boys and girls in school or college . Webster. and when you have accepted the position you can post yo urself on the rules. and the chances are that you will never know the rules unti l you are thrust into the chair where you will be obliged to give rulings. flushes the cheek. resolve that you will not let this opportunity for self-enla rgement slip by you.Such an effort takes hold of the entire nature. or how difficult it is to get the time. Dormant impuls es are stirred. If th e chance does not come to you. They want to wait until they can use a l ittle better grammar. Nothing will call a young man out mo re than the struggle in a debate to hold his own. vigorous exercis e for the mind as wrestling is for the body. or how timid or shy you may be. Jump to your feet and say something upon every question that is up for discussion. on the ground that they are not quite well enough educated at present. make it. and after awhil e you will form the habit of speaking until it will be as easy as anything else. to shrink from the public debates or speaking. ease. fires the eye. and yet he is so timid that he always shrinks from speak at banquets or in public because he is so afraid rience enough. A vast number of our p ublic men have owed their advance more to the old-fashioned debating societies t han anything else. Cho ate. Here they learned confidence. to express their opinions with force and independence. Join just as many young people's organizations--especially self-improvement organizat ions--as you can. He lacks confidence in himself. to bring to the front all the power one possesses. The effort to marshal all one's reserves in a lo gical and orderly manner. half-forgotten memories revived. It is so easy and seductive. This shrinking into a corner and getting out of sight and avoiding pub licity is fatal to self-confidence. until they have read more history and more literature. and force yourself to speak every time you get a chance. is to get the experience. Go up front. unt il they have gained a little more culture and ease of manner. and there is no one thing which will develop young people so rapidly and effect ively as the debating clubs and discussions of all sorts. Every time you rise to your feet will increase your confidence. It is strong. lea ves these reserves permanently better in hand. Do not think that because you do not know anything about parliamentary law that you should not accept the presidency of your club or debating society. they discovered themselves. We know of a young man who has a great deal of natural ing. Do the thing so many times that it will become second nature to you. Wilson. It was here they learned not to be afraid of themselves. facility. The Debating Club is the nursery of orators. You never will be. and so afraid tha . the imagination quickened to se e figures and similes that would never come to calm thought. He is so ability for public speak accepting invitations to that he has not had expe proud. Do not be afraid to show yourself. Do not wait until you are bett er prepared. This is just the place to learn. more readily in reach. beads the brow. Do not be afraid to rise to put a mot ion or to second it or give your opinion upon it. The way to acquire grace. no matter how much you may shrink from it. Clay.

but the man behind the speech. and so afraid of being gazed at that they don't dare to open their mouths. yet fearing to speak. scrutinizing him to see how much there is in him. and his speech to that extent will be mechanic al. or as valuable as those of their companions. the doubtful. he is himself the embodiment of power. and making up their minds whether he measures more or less tha n they expected. criticizing him. and Disraeli's "The time will come when you will hear me. But no orator can make a great impression until he gets rid of himself. He would give anything in the world if he had only accepted all of the invitations he has had. The mere thought of asserting themselves. At debating cl ubs.t he will make some slip which will mortify him. not so much the fear of one's audience. His opinion carries with gives consent to his judgment. Some are constitutionally sensitive. are very difficult to get out of one's consciousness. because then he would have profited by experience. if they should get on their feet to make a motion or to speak in a public gathering. the uncertain in his nature. would paralyze them. until h e can absolutely annihilate his self-consciousness. The sound of their own voices. A college boy recited an address "to the conscript fathers. that wins a way to the fro nt. Even a partial failure on the platform has good results. It would have been a thousand times better for him to ha ve made a mistake. which are measuring him. makes them blush and shrink more into themselves. One man carries weight because self convinced of what he says. This timidity is often. Demosthenes' he roic efforts. not only knows a thing. forget himself in his speech ." he replied. and as nervous as a cat. that everybody in his audience is trying to measure a nd weigh him. He ws it. or gatherings of any kind." are his toric examples. which never leaves one. "if Caesar had been scared half to death. in his act. that he has waited and waited a nd waited until now he is discouraged and thinks that he will never be able to d o anything in public speaking at all. his power is crippled. what people thi nk of him. The hardest thing for the public speaker to overcome is self-consciousness. studying him. meetings of literary societies. What is technically called "stage fright" is very common. l onging. While he is wondering what kind of an impression he is making. however. they sit dumb. when he knows that all eyes are watching him. Tho se terrible eyes which pierce him through and through. wh at he stands for." His professor asked." An almost fatal timidity seizes on an inexperienced person. One of the most entrancing speakers I have ever listened to--a man to hear whom people would go long distances and stand for hours to get admission to the hall where he spoke--never was able to get the confidence of his audience because he . wooden.--"Is that the way C aesar would have spoken it?" "Yes. or even to have broken down entirely a few times. of putting forward their views or opinions on any subject as being worthy of attention. but he knows that he kno it the entire weight of his being. The whole man He himself is in his conviction. he is him There is nothing of the negative. than to hav e missed the scores of opportunities which would undoubtedly have made a strong public speaker of him. as the fear lest one can make no suitable expression of his thought. It is not the speech. for it often arouses a determination to conquer the next time. even when a question in which they are deeply i nterested and on which they have strong views is being discussed.

in the depths of our natures. It is not enough to say a pleasing thing. If t he audience sees mud at the bottom of your eye. but it was not aroused. The pen has discovered many a genius. and John Bright might all be called to witness to this fact. An or ator can say before an audience what he could not possibly say before he went on the platform. the footlights. he feels surging through his brain the combined force of his audience.lacked character. In the presence of the orator. wh ich he calls inspiration. intensifies our faculties a thousandfold and enables us to do things whi ch before we thought impossible. They laugh or cry as he pleases. we out-do ourselves. Great speeches have become the beacon lights of history. comes to our relief. The power was there just the same before. a new substance is formed from the combination. the audience. The orator must be sincere. No orator living was ever great enough to give out the same power and force and magnetism to an empty hall. but the process is slower and less effect ive than the great occasion that discovers the orator. It would be difficult to estimate the great part which practical drill in orato ry may play in one's life. that he could give to an audience c apable of being fired by his theme. Very few people ever rise to their greatest possibilities or ever know their en tire power unless confronted by some great occasion. which it is impossible to feel at a col d mechanical rehearsal. previously undeveloped. Every crisis calls out ab ility. There was a great charm in the cadences of his perfect sentences. Webster had no time for immediate prepara tion. Cicero. and to convince others he must have strong convictions. Those who are prepared acquire a world-wide influence when the fit occasion comes. they will not take any stock in you. that you are not honest yourself . The public is very quick to see through shams. We are as much amazed as ot hers are when. and acts as a tonic and vitalizer. People liked to be swayed by his eloquence. Mirabeau. just as we can often say to a friend in animated conversation thi ngs which we could not possibly say when alone. the orator must be able to convince. have developed and brought ou t some of the greatest orators of the world. We bster. Great occasions. As when two chemicals are united . Patrick Henry. to empty seats. which did not exist in either alone. and perhaps unexpected. that you are acting. in some great emergency. the audience is absolutely in his power to do as he will. Somehow the power t hat stands behind us in the silence. a mighty power which did not exist in his own personal ity. an indefinable magnetism th at stimulates all the mental faculties. and he towered so far above his opponent that Hayne looked like a pygmy in comparison. when nations have been in peril. an interesting thing. or rise and fall at his bidding. But somehow they could not beli eve what he said. There is something in a great sea of expectant faces whi ch awakens the ambition and arouses the reserve of power which can never be felt except before an audience. In the presence of the audience lies a fascination. The occasion had much to do with the greatest speech delivered in the United St ates Senate--Webster's reply to Hayne. unti . but the occasion brought all the reserves in this giant. Actors tell us that there is an indescribable inspiration which comes from the orchestra.

without a thought of fame. so changed the convictions of Sou therners who hated him.--diligence. the se great men are to be considered as setting a standard of success for the emula tion of every aspiring youth. What is oratory but to stir the blood of all hearers. and persistence. and their contempt to approbation. It is not a question of what a man knows but what use he can make of what he kn ows. His opening words changed their scorn to adm iration.l he releases them from the magic spell. I have see n him when it seemed to me that he was almost godlike in his power. He warped their own judgment an d for the time took away their prejudice. and they could not resist cheering him. but who were curious to listen to his oratory. When he begun.--SOLOMON. Some who hated him in the slavery days wer e there. No more illustrio us example of success won by the exercise of common virtues can be offered than Abraham Lincoln. G." Men of great achievements are not to be set on pedestals and reverenced as exceptions to the average of humanity. det ermination. to so arouse their emotio ns that they can not control themselves a moment longer without taking the actio n to which they are impelled? "His words are laws" may be well said of the statesmen whose orations sway the world. if we analyze his charact . When James Russell Lowell was a student. HOLLAND. Probably Lincoln has been the hero of more American boys during the last two ge nerations than any other American character. were fixed on them. self-denial. and doin g well whatever you do." said another student. quenches the thirst of myriads of men. thrift. industry. "He gave us a glimpse into the Holy of Holies.--J. Seest thou a man diligent in business? He shall stand before kings. that.--LONGFELLOW. Young people look upon him as a mar velous being. patience. What art is greater than that of changing the minds of men? Wendell Phillips so played upon the emotions. by taking some concrete example of great success which has been achieved by patient plodding toward a definite goal. to get the three thousand people to join them. in relati ng his experience in listening to a great preacher. With the eas e of a master he swayed his audience. It would be easy. they thought. Lowell turned pale. when up-gushing as the very water of life. Is not oratory a fine art? The well-spring of eloquence. and Story livid. Their example shows what can be accomplished by th e practise of the common virtues. rail-splitter and president. for the time being he almost persuaded them that they were in the wrong. they reasoned. We can best appreciate the uplifting power of these simple virtues which all ma y cultivate and exercise. The most encouraging truth that can be impressed upon the mind of youth is this : "What man has done man may do. like the smitten roc k of the wilderness reviving the life of desert wanderers. CHAPTER XXXIV THE TRIUMPHS OF THE COMMON VIRTUES The talent of success is nothing more than doing what you can do well. They meant to hoot him for his remaining in Tyl er's cabinet. raised up for a divine purpose. Instead. His great eyes . said Wetmore Story. he and Story went to Faneuil Hall to hear Webster. and yet.

Everybody who knew him felt that he was a m an. his aspiration . that the total of his character wou ld be made up of the sum of the commonest qualities. Had a few events over which no one had control been other than they were it is quite possible I might never have held the high office I now oc . his purity and unselfishness of motive as his highest attr ibutes. never had secrets. his straightforward. frank. The door of his hea rt was always open so that anyone could read his inmost thoughts. his yearning for fulness of life ten more. The strong thing about Lincoln was his manliness. any marvelous powers.--in fact. without finding a ny one quality which could be called genius. we find it made up of the humblest virtues. Suppose we rank his honesty. If young people were to represent Lincoln's total success by one hundred. open. In a speech to the people in Colorado Mountains. for doing everything to a finish ten more. and will prove my life to have been more successful than the fact that I have ever been president of t he United States.er. they would probably expect to find some brilliant faculty which would rank at least f ifty per cent of the total. but there is no evidence of any grea t genius. the commonest qualities. His simplicity was his chief charm. and certainly these qualities are within the reach of the poorest boy an d the humblest girl in America. He was ambitious to make the most of himse lf. and as a citizen. There is no one quality in his entire make-up so overpowering. it is o nly as anyone of you can succeed. his passion for wholen ess. of family. a large-hearted. kindly neighbor a nd an honest citizen. that is genius. It is true that he had a divine hunger for growth. his longing for growth. t ransparent. so commanding that it could be ranked as genius . his do gged persistence. whether it was a pig stuck in the mire. that will be a far more real honor. his ability for hard work ten per cent. an inspiratio n to poor boys and poor girls that his great achievement can be accounted for by the triumph in his character of those qualities which are beyond the reach of m oney. "If when I die the ones who know me best believe that I was a thoughtful. the most ordinary virtues w ithin the reach of the poorest youth in the land. Let me assure you tha t the big prizes I have won are largely accidental. but that are within the reach of the poorest and the humblest. a passion for a larger and c ompleter life than that of those about him. generous friend. what an encouragement. What an inestimable blessing to the world. Roosevelt said: "You think tha t my success is quite foreign to anything you can achieve. merely because I have tried to do my duty as I saw it in my home and in my business. You could depend upon him. a loving. is the right hand of genius an d the best substitute for it. He never covered up anything. and to stick to it. He wanted to know something. always ready to help everybody and everyth ing out of their troubles. of influence. wise and painstaking father. for completeness. But I think that the verdict of history has given hi s honesty of purpose. never straining after effec t. his integrity twenty per cent of the total. the poo rest boys and girls. or a farmer who needed advice. He had a helpful mind. The reader can see that it would be easy to make up the hundred per cent. He was a simple man. downrigh t honesty. a generous. helpf ul husband. If I have succeeded. He simply wanted to better his condition. a poor widow in trouble. to lift his head up from his hu mble environment and be of some account in the world. to be somebody. who look upon him as a demigod. The ability to do hard work. possess these qualities.

can refuse to stop . because there were no great jumps. The difficulties which dishearten one man only stiffen the sinews of anoth er. He had the bes t substitute for genius--the ability for hard work and persistence. The world always stands aside for the determined man.cupy. He was not a great genius." McKinley did not start with great mental ability. He knew how to keep plodding. Obstacles only serve to stiffen his backbone. but I can never do those things. was noted for his slowness. anot her hovels. solid ground of full success. If he undertook a task. One of the greatest generals on the Confederate side in the Civil War. The boulder which was an obst acle in the path of the weak becomes a stepping-stone in the pathway of the reso lute. but he had a good. With this he possessed great applicatio n and dogged determination. distancing fifty-three who started with bette r attainments and better minds. "Stonewa ll" Jackson. "are instances of the resistless force of perseverance. level head. but no train of events could accidentally make me a noble character or a f aithful member of my home and community. he would come out first. He kept up this steady gait." But when he reads the life of McKinley he does not see any reason why he could not do the same things himself. and he says to himself." s ays Johnson. yet it has been the ope n sesame of more fast locked doors of opportunity than have brilliant tributes. not notable as a sch olar. Nothing can keep from success the man who has iron in his blood and is determin ed that he will succeed. who looks on them as a sort of mental spring-board by which to vault across the gulf of failure to the sure. One of the commonest of common virtues is perseverance. The biographies of the giants of the race are often discouraging to the average poor boy. the effect is largely lost upon himself. increase his determination. Bricks and mortar are mortar and bri cks until the architect makes them something else. You will find no royal ro ad to your triumph. his habitual class response was that he was too busy getting the lesson of a few days back to look at the one of the da y. but he avera ged well. He did not stand very high in school. how to hang on. Every man and woman can exercise this virtue of perseverance. one warehouses. another villas. because the moment he gets the impression that the character he is re ading about was a genius. and. he was not a great lawyer. and he made a specialty of th e tariff. There is no open door to the Temple of Success. He had tact and diplom acy and made the most of every opportunity." came out seventeenth in a class of seventy. at which we look with praise and wonder. and if my success in the end proves to have been as great as that achieved by many of the humblest of you I shall b e fortunate." It has been well said that from the same materials one man builds palaces. no great leaps and bounds in his life from particula r ability or special opportunity. The record of human achievement is full of the truth. So. if the course w as ten years instead of four. following the advice of a statesman friend. He had no very brilliant talents. "There is no difficulty to him who wills. There was nothing very surpri sing or startling in his career." "All the performances of human art. when he went to West Point. he never let go till he had it done. from the least promising "plebe. he did no t make a great record in Congress. He had good common sense and was a hard worker. or makes a way around them. When he is confronted by barriers he leaps over them. t unnels through them. because he kn ows that he is not a genius. His classmates used to say that. sharpen his wits and develop his inna te resources. "This is very interesting r eading. and he knew that the only way to show what he was made of in Congress was to stick to one thing. Therefore each of you has the same chan ce to succeed in true success as I have had.

to undergo any hardship in order to achieve what these men have achieved. Lock him up in a dungeon. a nd you will become a hero. and so they are not willing to make the great exertion. or a merchant prince like Wanamak er or Marshall Field. they would devote all their energies to study." Stick to a thing and carry it through in all its completeness and proportion. but that it is jus t honestly. You cannot keep a determined man from success. But many of them say they do not feel that they have the marvelous ability. He said the boys made fun of him. A great dea l of persistency. He went back.short of the goal of ambition. and he writes t he immortal "Pilgrim's Progress. and asked the reason. f or always being at the foot of the class. or if they could be an Ediso n in invention. and see what hard study would do. if they were positivel y sure that they could be a Webster in law. they could work with enthusiasm and zeal and power and con centration. They do not realize that success is not necessarily doing some great thing. can decline to turn aside in search of pleasures that do but hinder progress. the r's "open sesame. the warrior's sword. or a great leader in medicine. by reaching the hea d of the class. The man who puts his best into every task will leave far behind the man who lets a job g o with the comment "That's good enough. schola Persistency is to talent what steam is to the engine. can be counted on to go farther tha n a great deal of talent without persistency. Fidelity to duty has been a distinguishing virtue in men who have risen to posi tions of authority and command. Perseverance. with a very little talent. Wellington's dispatches centered around the commo n word duty. the great genius. It is by the exercise of . The romance of perseverance under especial difficulty is one of the most ating subjects in history. and he make s spurs of his poverty to urge him on. the inventor's secret. others will exalt you. earnestly living the everyday simple life. Take away his money. fling their whole lives into their work. It is the driving force b y which the machine accomplishes the work for which it was intended. Daniel said he despaired of ever making a scholar. You will think better of yourself. The friend said he ought to go back. Every little while I get letters from young men who say. Thoroughness is another of the common virtues which all may cultivate. He was sen t to Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire. Nowadays people seem unwilling to tread the rough path of duty and by patience and steadfast perseverance step into the ranks of those the country delights to honor. Tenacity of purpose has been characteristic of aracters who have left their mark on the world. and stayed there only a short tim e when a neighbor found him crying on his way home. the tremendous talent exhibited by those leaders." Nothing is good enough unless it reflec ts our best. and it was not long before he silenced those who had ridiculed him. They would be willing to make any sacrifice." fascin all ch said. tha t it is not making a tremendous strain to do something great. applied himself to his studies with determination to win. Daniel Webster had no remarkable traits of character in his boyhood. and that he had decided to give up and go home. and remaining there. It has been observed that the dispatches of Napo leon rang with the word glory. it has been is the statesman's brain.

it is by trying to be scrupulously honest in every transaction. a kind. Massachusetts. Great scientists tell us that the reason why the secrets of nature have been hi dden from the world so long is because we are not simple enough in our methods o f reasoning. but I'm a blunt man. a g ood. in the struggle to do something great and wonderful. and then we discover to our horror what we have missed on t he way up--what sweetness. Oh. the sum of which would make our lives sublime. accommodatin g attitude toward those about us. for so mething complicated. h omely. steady boy. We have seen people in the country in the summer time trampling down the daisie s and the beautiful violets. But when he went to Chicago and saw the marvelou s examples around him of poor boys who had won success. all right. CHAPTER XXXV GETTING AROUSED "How's the boy gittin' on. accommodating. "Well. and air goin' to tell you the truth. in trying to do some marvelous thing that will attract attention and get our names in the papers! We trample down th e finer emotions. we miss them. helpful neighbor. and often. would not compare in be auty and delicacy and loveliness to the things they trampled under their feet in trying to procure it. delightful possible joys we trample under o ur feet in straining after something great. what a lot of common. it aroused his ambition and fired him with the determination to be a great merchant himself.the common everyday virtues. He weren't cut out for a merchant. how many exquisite experiences. There is no great secret about success. what beauty. which. perhaps. as he watched his s on. that the principles of nature's secrets are so extremely si mple that men overlook them in their efforts to see and solve the more intricate problems. and I don't want to hurt yo ur feelin's. for the grander t hings. it is by trying to do everything one does to a comp lete finish. Marshall is a good. "we are old friends. that there must be some genius born in the man who achieves it. but he wouldn't make a merchant if he stayed i n my store a thousand years. waiting upon a customer. John. It is just a natural persistent exercis e of the commonest every-day qualities. encouraging father. it is by all t hese simple things that we attain success. something showy that we ca n wave before the world in order to get its applause. Davis?" asked Farmer John Field. w e miss the little successes. else he could not do such remarkable things. we spoil many of the most delicious things in life in our scra mbling and greed to grasp something which is unusual. by trying to be the best possible citizen. the lovely wild flowers in their efforts to get a b ranch of showy flowers off a large tree. you and I are old friends. Take him back to the farm. by holding a helpful. where he got his first position. he could never have become one o f the world's merchant princes." replied Deacon Davis. it is by always ringing true in our friendships. "why cannot I?" . John. cheering things we have lost in the useless struggle. It is most unfortunate that so many young people get the impression that succes s consists in doing some marvelous thing. In straining for effect. Marshall. as he took an apple from a barrel and handed it to Marshal l's father as a peace offering. and teach him how to milk cows!" If Marshall Field had remained as clerk in Deacon Davis's store in Pittsfield." he asked himself. that investigators are always looking for unusual phenomena. "If others can do such wonderful things. what loveliness. after all this straining and struggling for the larger.

A few years before it had been a mere Indian trading village. The judge of the municipal court in a flourishing western city. [Illustration: Marshall Field] Many people seem to think that ambition is a quality born within us. Great possibil ities of usefulness and of achievement are.Of course. They have developed only a small percentage of their success possibilitie s. an d indifferent to everything around her most of the time until. that it is not susceptible to improvement. fifteen. Almost in a day she passed from childhood to budding womanhood. It is doubt ful if he would have climbed so rapidly in any other place than Chicago. which could do marvels if we would only awaken it. the owner of the fine st library in his city. It makes all the difference in the world out the best thing in me or the worst. or it will atrophy. and one whose highest endeavor is to help his fellow man. She was dreamy." as Emerson says. an ambition-arousing environment. It had then only about eighty-five thousand inhabitants. Field from the start . it will not keep sharp and defined. indolence. What caused the revolution in his life? The hearing of a single lecture on the value of education. all unconsciously. Most of us have an enormous amount of power. was in middle life. going to waste wi thin them. or ninety per cent of my ability. b to me whether I bring ten. she suddenly awakened to full consciousne ss. Success was in the air. there was the making of a great merchant in Mr. slumbering within us. Some time ago there appeared in the newspapers an account of a girl who had rea ched the age of fifteen years. and always beat the predictions of its most sanguine inhabitants. not what a Napoleon or ut what I can do.--whether I utilize five. inactive. our inclination will grow duller and weaker. Only a few things interested her. when young Field went there. as it slumbered in this girl. one day. But the city grew by lea ps and bounds. In 1856 . an illiterate blacksmith. When we meet these people we feel conscious that they have a great deal of latent power that has never been exercised. Everybody felt that there were great possibilities ther e." To a Lincoln could do. But it is a passion that responds very quickly to cultivati on. or indifference? If we constantly allow opportunities to slip by us without making any attempt to grasp them. one of the most highly esteemed jurists in his state. He is now sixty. "What I most need. Ho w can we expect our ambition to remain fresh and vigorous through years of inact ivity. me do what I can. before his latent pow er was aroused. The best thing in them lies so deep that i t has never been awakened. and set his f eet in the path of self-development. "is somebody to make do what I can. had a great deal to do wi th stimulating his latent energy and bringing out his reserve force. and yet had only attained the mental development of a small child. that it is something thrust upon us which will take care of itself. They are still in a dormant state. just as the faculty for music o r art does. and it requires constant care and education. while li stening to a hand organ on the street. This was wh at stirred the slumbering power within him. awakened his ambition. . twenty- Everywhere we see people who have reached middle life or later without being ar oused. that is my problem. of latent force . She came to herself. O ur faculties become dull and soon lose their power if they are not exercised. but circumstances. with the reputation of being its best-read man. If we do not try to realize our ambition. this marvelous city was just starting on its unpa ralleled career. her faculties were aroused. and in a few days she leape d forward years in her development.

beca . The poet's "I am a part of all that I have met" is not a mere poetic flight of fancy. says: "Removing a boy or girl from improper environment is the first s tep in his or her reclamation. as a rule. and encouraged them." The New York Society for the Prevention of Cruel ty to Children. and ate like one. non-progr essive atmosphere about them had done its work. and prai se you. personal initiative. after struggling awhile to keep up their new standards. they were again plodders. by listening to a sermon or a lecture.--well dressed. it will.--someone with high ideals. you will find that multitudes have failed because they never got into a stimulating. it is an absolute truth. Even the strongest of us are not beyond the reach of our environment. people who believe in. after thirty years of investigation of cases involving the socia l and moral welfare of over half a million of children.--who understood. encouraging environment. the deadening. intelligent. as if from a long sleep. The chief probation officer of the children's court in New York. howled like a wolf. strong-willed. Our Indian schools sometimes publish. Take the best-born child. No matter how independent. by re ading some inspiring. and a marked degree of excellence in thei r work. has also come to the con clusion that environment is stronger than heredity. Everything--every se rmon or lecture or conversation you have heard. and who actually took on all the characteristics of the wolf. with the greatest in herited advantages. believed i n. and you are never quite the sam e person after the association or experience. You are a little different. but th ese are strong characters.--walk ed on all fours. able to resist the downward-dragging tendencies about them. We naturally follow the examples about us. of course. become brutal. being lost or abandoned as an infant. was suckled by a wolf with her own young ones. There are. in order that they might acquire American methods and ca tch the American spirit. of course. A year after their return to their own country. stimulating book. or whether you are with those who are forever breaking your idols. The story is told of a well-born chi ld who. but the majority of those who go back to their tribes. blast ing your hopes. side by side.I have known several men who never realized their possibilities until they reac hed middle life. brutal atm osphere. with the fire of ambition in their eyes. and how many of its inherit ed tendencies will remain? If brought up from infancy in a barbarous. photographs of the Indian y ouths as they come from the reservation and as they look when they are graduated . Then they were suddenly aroused. and throwing cold water on your aspirations. The ambiti on aroused by stimulating environment had sunk to sleep again. If you interview the great army of failures. we are constantly be ing modified by our surroundings. It does not take much to determine the lives of most of us. gradually drop back to t heir old manner of living. individuality. in his report for 1905. The men had lost the desire to i mprove. Some years ago a party of Russian workmen were sent to this country by a Russia n firm of shipbuilders.--modif ied somewhat from what you were before. many notable exceptions. We predic t great things for them. It will make all the difference in the world to you whether you are with people who are watching for ability in you. and determined our nature.--just as Beecher was never the same man after reading Ruskin. o r by meeting some friend. and. encourage. Within six months the Russians had become almost the eq uals of the American artisans among whom they worked. we rise or fall according to the stronge st current in which we live. They had developed ambitio n. every person who has touched you r life--has left an impress upon your character. and let it be reared by savages. with no goal beyond the day's work.

It is very stimulating to be with people whose aspir ations run parallel with your own. bu t the novel idea found lodgment in the mind of one of the workmen who stood by. You will catch the spirit that dominates in your environm ent. plodding man. The success of those about you who are trying to climb upward will encourag e and stimulate you to struggle harder if you have not done quite so well yourse lf. Whatever you do in life. But Elias Howe was not so rattle-headed as he seemed. "why don't you make a sewing-machin e?" His advice had been sought by a rich man and an inventor who had reached the ir wits' ends in the vain attempt to produce a device for knitting woolen goods. Thoughts are mightier th an armies. make any sacrifice necessary to keep in an ambition-ar ousing atmosphere. who was thought not capable of a serious idea. and I'll insure you an independent fortune. if you are naturally lazy . and with a wife and three children to support in a great city on a salary of nine dollar s a week. A healthful hunger for a great idea is the beauty and blessedness of life." "Well. lofty ambition. the more desirable such a machine appeared to him. PAXTON. After months wasted in the effort to work a needle pointed at both ends. A profound conviction raises a man above the feeling of ridicule. "What are you bothering yourselves with a knitting machine for?" asked Ari Davi s.--J. The thoug ht of the sewing-machine haunted him night and day. A mbition is contagious. you will be urged forward by the consta nt prodding of the more ambitious.--peo ple of high aims. Most of the peopl e we find in prisons and poor-houses are pitiable examples of the influence of a n environment which appealed to the worst instead of to the best in them. M. or vicious surroundings. STUART MI LL. that is. "I can ma ke one myself. If you lack energy. a manufacturer of instruments. the light-hearted boy had become a thoughtful. or inclined to take it easy.--JEA N INGELOW. who will help you to discover yourself and encourage you to make the most of yourself. Principles have achieved more victories than horsemen or chariots." "Oh. and he finally resolved to p roduce one. who believe in you. Ideas go booming through the world louder than cannon. of Boston. K eep close to people who understand you.use their ambition was never aroused.--W . Keep close to those who are dead-in-earnest. "you do it. an environment that will stimulate you to self-development. a great magnetic force which will help you to attract t he object of your ambition. a mere youth of twenty. There is a great power in a battery of individuals who are struggling for the a chievement of high aims. and the more he reflected ." the capitalist replied. over shadowing all his aims." The words of Davis were uttered in a spirit of jest.--BATE. Four years passed. indolent. but it can't be done. This may make all the difference to you between a grand success and a mediocre existence. with t . CHAPTER XXXVI THE MAN WITH AN IDEA He who wishes to fulfil his mission must be a man of one idea. and guiding and contro lling his entire life." said Davis. or because they were not strong enough to rally under depressing. discouraging. of one great overmastering purpose. Sti ck to those who are trying to do something and to be somebody in the world. yes it can. "I wish I could.

Fisher and the other for hims elf. the greater would be the dem and for them. He counts it a good investment to s urround his employees with comforts and beauty and good sanitary conditions. but his own funds and those of his father. who had aided him more or less. but his engine consumed thirty pounds of coal in producing one horse power. uneduc ated Scotch boy. which he puts into practical effect. who in the seven teenth century conceived the idea of moving a piston by the elastic force of ste am. and in July Elias Howe sewed all the seams of two suits of woolen clothes. but did it in such a way that business within them was scarcely interrupted. Never despair. nor be discouraged. There is not one of the mill ions of sewing-machines now in use that does not contain some of the essential p rinciples of this first attempt. a poor. It was an English blacksmith. who has changed the face of Christendom. The germ idea of the steam engine can be s een in the writings of the Greek philosophers. the young son of a poor mechanic. and is considered more nearly perfect tha n any other prominent invention at its first trial. if the machine proved to be worth patentin g." she wrote him while struggling in London. George Fisher. 1845. The perfection of the modern engine is largely due to James Watt. and wi th almost insane devotion he worked night and day. and while waiting for jobs he experimented with old vials for steam reservo irs and hollow canes for pipes. But help came fro m an old schoolmate. and comfort. Newcomen. This saved nearly three-four ths of the steam. wil l sew three hundred stitches a minute. a coal and wood merchant of Cambridge. He not only raised the blocks. the machine was completed. He ag reed to board Elias and his family and furnish five hundred dollars. suddenly t he thought flashed through his mind that another stitch must be possible." . order. The sewing outlasted the cloth.000 each. This machine.he eye in the middle. and the contract was awarded to him. Pullman was a great believer in the commercial value of beauty. as well as his magnificent cars. It has ever been the man with an idea. and so the town of Pullman is a model of cleanliness. and put in a bid for the great undertaking. but he was terribly in earnest. He then went to work on t he principle that the more luxurious his cars were. were insufficient to embody it in a working machine. one for Mr." But Pullman believed that whatever relieved the tediousness of long trips would meet with speedy approval. and soon found they would be in demand. Everybody laughed at "Pullman's folly. In his mind's eye he saw his idea. he returned and built two cars which cost $18. The wonderful t own which he built and which bears his name. and he had faith enough in his idea to risk his all in it. He fitted up two old cars on the Chicago and Alton roa d with berths. until he had made a rough mod el of wood and wire that convinced him of ultimate success. named George M. with no opportunities. A professor in the Glasgow University gave him the use of a room to work in. All this time he was re volving in his mind his pet project of building a "sleeping car" which would be adopted on all railroads. When it was decided to try and elevate Chicago out of the mud by raising its im mense blocks up to grade. "If th e engine will not work. He impr oved Newcomen's engine by cutting off the steam after the piston had completed a quarter or a third of its stroke. for he could not bear to waste a moment. and letting the steam already in the chamber expand and drive the piston the remaining distance. for which h e was to have one-half of the patent. appeared on the scene. that should pass up and down through the cloth. Watt suffered from pinching poverty and hardships which would have disheartened ordinary men. is an example of his belief in this principle. which is still preserved. and his brave wi fe Margaret begged him not to mind her inconvenience. who at fifteen walked the streets of London in a vain search fo r work. "something el se will. In May. Pull man. but it was not developed until mo re than two thousand years later. After spending three years in Colorado gold mines.

but in it lay the germ of the first steam engine of mu ch practical value. This was one of them: "If a cow get on the track of the engine traveling ten miles an hour. He had picked up the fixed engines which the gen ius of Watt had devised. as the conditions called for at least ten. but as it burst a water-pipe it lost its chance. the highest rate attained being twenty-nine. $150. in a crisis of his invention. indeed. Poor he was in many senses. leaving th e "Rocket" to carry off the honors with an average speed of fifteen miles an hou r. that if he could get one hundred pounds by cutti ng off one of his legs he would gladly give it to the knife. drawing the cars by means of ropes and pulleys. Sylvester is as great as c an be ventured upon. patching th e clothes and mending the boots of his fellow-workmen at night." said Watt. 1825. as steam is an elastic body. Sir James Mackintosh places this poor Scotch boy who began w ith only an idea "at the head of all inventors in all ages and all nations." and the "Sans pareil. On the eventful day." The "Perseverance" could make but six miles an hour. "We should as soon expect the people of Woolwi ch to suffer themselves to be fired off upon one of Congreve's rockets as to tru st themselves to the mercy of such a machine. "carriage makers and coachmen will starve for want of work. limit the speed to eight or nine miles an hour. We trust tha t Parliament will." See George Stephenson. will it n ot be an awkward situation?" "Yes. going at such a rate. but also burst a pipe. thinking upon the engine at the time. and set them on wheels to draw men and merchandise. If there ever was a true inventor ."I had gone to take a walk." the "Rocket. very awkward. This was Stephenson's locomotive . in all the railways it may grant. the "Novelty. In all the records of invention there is no more sad or affecting story than th at of John Fitch. The "Sanspareil" made an average of fourteen miles an hour. He was one of those eager souls that would coin their own fl esh to carry their point. lived poor. it would rush into it. and had p assed the old washing-house. when the idea came into my head that." the "Perseverance. for the coo. giving the first money he ever earned. A government inspector said that if a locomotive ever went ten miles an hour. thousands of spectators assembled to watch the competition of four engines. and so was ruled o ut. and if a communication were made between the cylinder and an exhausted vessel . to earn a little money to attend a night school. working in the coal pits for sixpence a day. who reported that steam would be desirable only when used in stationary engines one and a half miles apart. to his blind father to pay his debts. he would undertake to eat a stewed engine for breakfast. and so fully vindicated his theory that the idea of stationary engines on a ra ilroad was completely exploded. this man was one. poor in spirit . But Ste phenson persuaded them to test his idea by offering a prize of about twenty-five hundred dollars for the best locomotive produced at a trial to take place Octob er 6. "on a fine Sabbath afternoon." For three days the committee of the House of Commons plies questions to him." The idea was simple. poor in appearance. his "roaring steam e ngine will set the house on fire with its sparks"." replied S tephenson. . and was crowded out. aga inst the most direful predictions of the foremost engineers of his day. The "Novelty" did splendidly. and died poor. "smoke will pollute the air". He was born poor. 1829. then in process of construction." This article referred to Stephenson's proposition to use h is newly invented locomotive instead of horses on the Liverpool and Manchester R ailroad. it would rush into a vacuu m. People say he is crazy. He only uttered the obvious truth when he said one day . "What can be more palpably absurd and ridiculous than the prospect held out of locomotives traveling twice as fast as horses?" asked a writer in the English "Q uarterly Review" for March. The company decided to lay the matter before two leading English engineers. which we entirely agree with Mr. and might be there condensed without cooling the cylind er.

Notwithstanding that Fulton had rendered such great service to humanity. newspapers were marked with black lines . a crowd of curious people might have been s een along the wharves of the Hudson River. Sailors forsook their vessels. who in his youth said there is nothing impossible. and when steamboats will cross the ocean. and t he steam is turned on. on Friday. and the boy. "it will burn up. "It can never go up stream. and when he died. They had gathered to witness what the y considered a ridiculous failure of a "crank" who proposed to take a party of p eople up the Hudson River to Albany in what he called a steam vessel named the C lermont. and fishermen rowed home as fast as poss ible to get out of the way of the fire monster. the plank is pulled in. The government employed Fulton to aid in building a powerful steam frigate.'" say s one. But the success of the Clermont soon led to the construction of other steamships all over the country. But the passengers go on board. and the inhabi tants along the banks were utterly unable to account for the spectacle. and ought to be in an insane asylum. It was the opinion of everybody that the man who had tooled away his money and his time on the Clermont was little better than an idiot. and the Clermo nt floats out into the river. August 4. pitied as a madman. but the time wi ll come when the steamboat will be preferred to all other modes of conveyance. Lardner had "proved" to scientific men that a steamship could not cro ss the Atlantic. but other men will carry out his ideas and grow rich and great upon them. Critics and cynics turned up their noses when Fulton was m entioned. he kept on till. Did anybody ever hear of such a ridiculous idea as navigating against t he current up the Hudson in a vessel without sails? "The thing will 'bust.He tried in vain both in this country and in France to get money to build his s teamboat. Others whose interests were affected denied Fulto n's claim to the invention and brought suits against him. The owners of sailing vessels were jealous of the Clermo nt. as he sees vast columns of black smoke shoot up with showers of brilli ant sparks. forlorn. in 1815. Dr. True." the spectators persis t. the legislature of New York wore badges of mourning. in all probability. had scored a great triumph." says another. At noon. jeered at. Those on shore thought that a fire had broken out below the decks. The severity of the world's censure. he had the first vessel on the D elaware that ever answered the purpose of a steamboat. Very few priv ate persons were ever honored with such a burial. ridicule. and a king's cutter wa . and eight miles with it. w hen steamboats will ascend the Western rivers from New Orleans to Wheeling. and minute guns were fire d as the long funeral procession passed to old Trinity churchyard. He also built a diving boat for the government f or the discharge of torpedoes. The Indians were as much frighte ned as their predecessors were when the first ship approached their hunting-grou nd on Manhattan Island." exclaims a third. ragged. They rus hed to the shore amazed to see a boat "on fire" go against the stream so rapidly with neither oars nor sails. Nobody present. It ran six miles an hour against the tide." Poor. refused by the rich. But it did go up stream. As the Clermont burned pine wood. a serv ice which has revolutionized the commerce of the world. discouraged by the great. 1807. The walking beam moves slowly up and down. By this time his fame had spread all over the civ ilized world. Johnny Fitch will be forgotten. having made this "impossible" passage. and "they will all be drowned. in 1790. and tried to run her down. and had given to the world the first ste amboat that had any practical value. he was looked upon by ma ny as a public enemy. but in 1810 the Savannah from New York appeared off the coast o f Ireland under sail and steam. ever heard of a boat going by st eam. and detraction has usua lly been in proportion to the benefit the victim has conferred upon mankind. whi ch was called Fulton the First. He would say: "You and I will not live to see the day. dense columns of fire and smoke belched forth from her smoke-stack while she glided triumphantly up the river. The noise of her great paddle-wheels increased the wonder.

it is said. He rode ro ughshod over everybody and everything that stood in his way. irrepressible! See the great Dante in exile. melancholy. condemned to be burnt alive on false charges of e mbezzlement.s sent to her relief. German unity was the idea engraven upon Bismarck's heart. applied to o ver five hundred uses by 100. and both vessels arrived at New York the same day. Smith's first encouragement came from Geor ge Grote. He could play the game alone. Learning of this. As Junius Smith impatiently paced the deck of a vessel sailing from an English port to New York. seeing his six children die of neglect. he poured out his very soul into his immortal poem. giving his clot hes to his hired man because he could not pay him in money. Soon af ter Smith made the round trip between London and New York in thirty-two days. building his furnaces with brick s carried on his back. but only baked potatoes. he said to himself. a river steamer of seven hundred tons. but he never gave up his idea. but it wa s the same old story. An American was once invited to dine with Oken. Look at his starved features. It mattered not what sto od in his way. Germany must hold the deciding voice in the Areopagus of the world.000 employees. Diet. to make William of Prussia a greater potentate tha n Napoleon or Alexander. and send her to New York. or nation. when his neighbors were h arshly criticizing him for his neglect of his family and calling him insane. "Wh y not cross the ocean regularly in steamships?" In New York and in London a deaf ear was turned to any such nonsense. a pr ominent business man of London. on a rough and tedious voyage in 1832. behold his vulcanized rubber. when he had no money to bury a de ad child and when his other five were near starvation. probably of starv ation. What a pathetic picture was that of Palissy. Columbus was exposed to continual scoffs and indignities. pawn ing his clothes and his wife's jewelry to get a little money to keep his childre n (who were obliged to gather sticks in the field for fire) from starving. defiant of oppositi on. hoping always. The very children. of New Haven. it was near ly twenty years before it was admitted that steam navigation could be made a com mercial success in ocean traffic. Although the voyage was made without accident. whether people. the result of that heroic struggle. gaunt form. buried in poverty and struggling with hardships for eleven lon g years. the famous German naturalist. An unexpected delay in fitting the engines led the projecto rs to charter the Sirius.--he would risk no money in it. other parties started from Bristol four days later in the Great Western. being taught to regard him as a kind of m adman. who said the idea was practicable. Watch his sublime courage and devotion to his idea. until at last his great work was accomplished. a poor wander er. T o his surprise. What cared this hercu lean despot for the Diet chosen year after year simply to vote down every measur e he proposed? He was indifferent to all opposition. agreed to build a steamship of two thousand tons . despised by his neighbors for neglecting his family. and he reaped his re ward. they had neither meats nor dessert. the British Queen. all must bend to his mighty will . To make Germany the greatest power in Europe. At length Isaac Selby. What a sublime picture of determination and patience was that of Charles Goodye ar. being ridiculed as a mere dreamer and stigmatized as an adventurer. to make India rubber of practical use! See him in prison for debt. He simply defied and sent h ome every Diet which opposed him. the historian and banker. po inted to their foreheads as he passed. his wife in rags and despair over her husband's "folly". imperious. plodding on through want and woe t o rediscover the lost art of enameling pottery. But . faili ng steadily. was his all-absorbing purpose. Oke . worn to a skeleton himself. ever believing that right would at last triumph.

that her husband's income was very small. M rs." in the opinion of their neighbors. His wife explained. Gough. if thereby they might shed light or comfort upon the path which all must walk from the cradle to the grave. which is loved by all nations. and he went straight to his mark. in some cases a month. incurred the pity and scorn of the rich and highly educated. Before the discovery of ether it often took a week. Clark in his world-wide Christian Endeavor movement. Howe. and moral condition of th ose around them? . She thought it the last touch of cruelty to fight what couldn't fight back. Of course the world laughed at this poor unaided woman. What a grand idea Bishop Vincent worked out for the young world in the Chautauq ua Circle. Hoe. uncharitableness and envy even in hi s own church. Morton bel ieved that there must be some means provided by Nature to relieve human sufferin g during these terrible operations. But he never hesitated nor wavered when he once saw his duty. of Morse. the Methodis t Church in the Epworth League. He never pandered for public favor nor sought applause. McCormick. Beecher had to fight every step of the way to his triumph through obstacles whi ch would have appalled all but the greatest characters. Oftentimes in these grea t battles for principle and struggles for truth. and that they preferred to live simply in order that he might obtain books and instruments for his scientific r esearches. toil. In fact it is doubtful whether a ma n can perform very great service to mankind who is not permeated with a great pu rpose--with an overmastering idea. ridicule. given t o a patient to deaden the pain during a surgical operation. Harriet Beecher Stowe. Ther e was no shilly-shallying. Yet in every age and in every clime men and women have been willing to incur poverty. He tri ed intoxicants even to the point of intoxication. and the enemy that aims a shot at the tent or building over which flies the white flag with the red cross has lost hi s last claim to human consideration. Other churches did no t agree with him nor his. too charitable for re venge. Edison. Duty and truth were his goal. hardship. and too magnanimous for envy. but as soon as the instruments were applied the patient would revive. he stood almost alone fighting popular prejudice. persecution . Bell. and she determined to have the barba rous custom stopped. Noah in building the ark. however. Beecher. nor did he go to scientific men fo r advice. but immediately began to experiment with well-known substances. Edward Everett Hale in his little bands of King' s Daughters and Ten Times One is Ten! Here is Clara Barton who has created the R ed Cross Society. mental. no compromise on principles. George Peabody. but he was too broad for hatred. each representing some great idea embodied in earnest action. What tale of the "Arabian Nights" equals in fascination the story of such lives as those of Franklin. Amos Lawrence. and bigotry.n was too great a man to apologize for their simple fare. he did not know the properties of chemical substances. Young Dr. Morton did not resort to books. and sc ores of others. Dr. Mos es in espousing the cause of the Israelites. to r ecover from the enormous dose. narrowness. an d resulting in an improvement of the physical. or even death. Goodyear. Dr. i n common with all great benefactors. But her idea has been adopted by all nations. She noticed in our Civil War th at the Confederates were shelling the hospital. ho wever. He kept on experimenting with narcotics in this manner until at last he found what he sought in ether. no hunting for a middle ground between right and wron g. In all ages those who have advanced the cause of humanity have been men and wom en "possessed. or Christ in living and dying to sa ve a fallen race. sometimes five hundred drops of laudanum. He hewed close to the chalk line and held his li ne plumb to truth. but what could he do? He was not a chemist. he was not liberally educ ated.

No great deed is done By falterers who ask for certainty.--DRYDEN. "No.There are plenty of ideas left in the world yet. "Bring back the colors. GEORGE ELIOT. many of whom had to keep their word by thus obeying. Fortune befriends the bold. and make death proud to take us. ROBERTSON. To stand unchained." The courage which Cranmer had shown since the accession of Mary gave way the mo ment his final doom was announced." When the assembled senate of Rome begged Regulus not to return to Carthage to f ulfil an illegal promise." "To dare. All good things have not been done. But the true glory is resignation to the inevit able. "The Commons of France have resolved to deliberate . "Ay. There are thousands of abuses to rectify . Let the gods take c are of the rest. but where they are. save by the power of the bayonet.--BYRON. The moral cowardice which had displayed itsel . I have sworn to return. and let the fire creep up to the heart." was Danton's noble defia nce to the enemies of France. or the wounds of a guilty mind? Slave as I am to Carthage. Go. Who conquers me. To stand with a smile upon your face against a stake from which you cannot get away--that." shouted a captain at the battle of the Alma. as an overwhelming force of Russian cavalr y came sweeping down. shall find a stubborn foe. although the men were retreating. when an e nsign maintained his ground in front.--SHAKESPEARE. let's do it after the high Roman fashion. voice. June 23. what's noble. and each one challenges the independent soul. and that we will not be driven hence. armed with a new idea. but what are these to the shame of an infamou s act.--AGIS II.--you.--this is heroism. "bring up the men to the colors." cr ied the ensign. say to those who sent you that we are here by the power of the people. "Steady. ay.--you are not t he person to bring to us a message of his. who have neither place. What's brave. Think! and when a noble image is indelibly impressed upon the mind--Act! CHAPTER XXXVII DARE The Spartans did not inquire how many the enemy are. Everything has not been invent ed. is heroic. I still have t he spirit of a Roman. and again to dare. and without end to dare." said Mirabeau to De Breze. "But how shall I get ideas?" Keep your wits open! Observe! Study! But above all . who brought an order from the king for them to dis perse. 1789. It is my duty. Sir Colin! we'll do that!" was the response from men. sir. with perfect liberty to go away.--F. and you. "We have heard the intentions that have been attributed to the king. men! Every man must die where he stands!" said Colin Campbell to the N inety-third Highlanders at Balaklava. who cannot be recognized as his organ in the National A ssembly.--BAYARD. W. held only by the high er claims of duty. no doubt. Let me die facing the enemy. he calmly replied: "Have you resolved to dishonor me? Torture and death are awaiting me. nor right to speak.

and they will not l et me go!" "It would be madness. a . if it might be." "This was the hand that wrote it. and written for fear of death. from whose grasp escape would seem impossible . who was examining Wellington's head. and all rushed to the brink of the precipice. and no one had ever dared to approach it. was one of the most terrible on record. "and but for my sense of duty I should have retreated in my first fight. "You are right. "Thank God." said a phre nologist. for if I come to the fire it shall be the first burned. But pardon was impossible. but still alive. "and the rapids would dash her to pieces in a moment!" Throwing off his coat. plunged into the roaring rapids. "there he is! Oh. and the youth almost exhausted. When General Jackson was a judge and was holding court in a small settlement. in a delirium of joy.--my poor boy is drowning. "Your Grace has not the organ of animal courage largely developed. And. althou gh terribly near the most dangerous part of the river. but a man in stature and bearing. Twice the boy went out of sight. even in a canoe. on an Indian field." exclaimed the woman as she caught sight of a youth of eighte en. my boy. and the blessings of thousands besides mine will attend you. "therefore it shall suffer first punishment". but a cry of horror bursts from the lips of every spectator as boy and man shoot over the falls and vanish in the seething waters below. " A woman's piercing shriek suddenly startled a party of surveyors at dinner in a forest of northern Virginia on a calm. "God will give you a reward." said one of the men who was holding her." solemnly spoke the gratefu l woman." replied the Iron Duke." That first fight. Three times he was about to grasp the child. On e final effort he makes. Mary at Oxfo rd on the 21st of March. and then. "he never stirred nor cried till life was gone.f in his miserable compliance with the lust and despotism of Henry VIII displaye d itself again in six successive recantations by which he hoped to purchase pard on. at sight of part of the boy's d ress. my hand therefore shall be the first punished. and that is the setting abroad of writings contrary to th e truth. forasmuch as my hand offended in writing contr ary to my heart. she will jump into the river. scanned for a m oment the rocks and whirling currents. The rush of waters here w as tremendous.--"now I come to the great thing that troubleth my conscience more than any other thing that ever I s aid or did in my life. "See ! they are safe! Great God. the youth sprang to the edge of the bank. and a non a whirlpool would drag him in. they emerged unharme d from the boiling vortex. sunny day in 1750. and h olding it steadily in the flame. to s ave my life. but he had reappeared the second time. and the men sprang through the undergrowth to learn thei r cause. the boy senseless. "There they are!" shouted the mother a moment later. he will save my child!" cried the mother. the child is held aloft by his strong right arm. to repeat his recantation on the way to the stake. "Oh. my darling boy! How could I leave you?" But all eyes were bent upon the youth struggling with strong heart and hope ami d the dizzy sweep of the whirling currents far below. "Now . which here I now renounce and refuse as things written by a hand contra ry to the truth which I thought in my heart. lest h e should be dashed to pieces. when some stronger eddy would toss it from him. over which the water flew in foam. I thank Thee!" And sure enough. My boy. The cries were repeat ed in quick succession. sir." The youth was George Washington." he a gain exclaimed at the stake. "He will do great things for you in return for this day's work." ended his address to the hushed congregation before him. "you will surely do something for me! Make these friends release me. Now it seemed as if he wou ld be dashed against a projecting rock. and Cranmer's strangely mingled nature found a po wer in its very weakness when he was brought into the church of St. and in a few minutes reached a low place in the bank and were drawn up by their friends. The youth redoubled his exertions.

"Call me. this time over heaps of dead that cho ked the passage. was the sending o f a medal of the French Legion of Honor to a little American girl who lives in I ndiana. This Napoleon had counted on in making the b old attack. when the powerful King Powhatan had decreed his death. waved it back and forth across the track. they asked him in derision. entered it a dreadful wreck would take place. At the tap of the drum the foremost assailants whee led from the cover of the street wall under a terrible hail of grape and caniste r. and that if the t rain. who dropped his weapons." said the judge. 1796. their supports fled in a panic. The front ranks went down li ke stalks of grain before a reaper. and the train stop ped. "There was something in his eye I could not res ist. The contrast between Napoleon's slight figure and the massive grenad iers suggested the nickname "Little Corporal. After the Mexican War General McClellan was employed as a topographical enginee r in surveying the Pacific coast. having on board several distin guished Frenchmen. Jennie Carey. in the face of the Austri an batteries. Then she took off her red flannel skirt and. On May 10. wherever they may be found. While a train on the Pan Handle Railroad. walked straig ht up to the man. From the messenger's manner he suspected that the Indians m eant mischief. was bound to Chicago and the World's Fair. Napoleon carried the bridge at Lodi. counted by seconds only. afterwards saying. Napoleon placed himself at their head. It was the heroic devotion of an Indian girl that saved the life of Captain Joh n Smith. and his aides and g enerals rushed to his side. which was nearly due. . "Where is now your fortress?" "Here. a soldier and a servant. On board of it were seven hundred people. Behind them were six thousand troops." When Stephen of Colonna fell into the hands of base assailants. discovered that a trestle was on fire. the Frenchmen brought the occurrence to the notice of President Carnot. and th e result was the sending of the medal of this famous French society. scarcely a shot from the Austrians taking effect beyond the point where the platoons wheeled for the first leap. "Call a posse. The of ficer did not dare to approach him. carried the column ac ross two hundred yards of clear space. and with his eagle eye actually cowed the ruffian. and attempted to pass the gateway to the bridge. It was seen." One of the last official acts of President Carnot. who was then ten years old. and instead of rushing to the front and meeting the French onslaug ht. Forward again. Without a word o r a look of reproach. with a battalion of three hundred carbineers in front." said Jacks on. when the train came in view. Fourteen cannon--some accounts say thirty--were trained upon the F rench end of the structure. the column staggered and reeled backward. when o ne evening he received word that the chiefs of the Columbia River tribes desired to confer with him. When they returned to France . came into the court-room with brutal violence and interrupted the court." He left the bench. many of whom must have suffered d eath but for Jennie's courage and presence of mind. From his headquarters at Vancouver he had gone on an exploring expedition with two companions. an d the valiant grenadiers were appalled by the task before them. "this court is adjourned for five minutes. Thereu pon she ran out upon the track to a place where she could be seen from some litt le distance." But they also shrank in fear from the ruffian. So sudde n and so miraculous was it all that the Austrian artillerists abandoned their gu ns instantly. and a quick run. then. the purpose of which is the honoring of bravery and merit. a murderer and desperado. placing h is hand upon his heart. of France. "and arrest him." was his bold reply. Ill could the st ruggling colony spare him at that time. and so he warned his companions that they must be ready to leave camp at a moment's notice.border ruffian. Napoleon masse d four thousand grenadiers at the head of the bridge. The judge ordered him to be arrested.

He was familiar with the Chinook jargon. he was given a rousing reception. "You are right." sneered a Senator who had already taken too much. Flinging his left arm around the neck of Salt ese. was on the platform. Rufus Choate spoke to an audience of nearly five thousand in Lowell. settling more and more as he proceeded with his address. and then Saltese. and was not responsible for the forest executions. " I must have your word that I can leave this council in safety. he was a white man. he rode boldly into the Indian village. Returning rather leisurely to the platform. McClellan knew how sacred was the pledge which he had received. Telli ng the people to remain quiet." When Grant was in Houston many years ago.. When the sentence was passed he acted like a flash. Not a hand was raised agains t him. but still." "You have the wo rd of Saltese. Butler. No doubt many lives were saved by his c oolness. He mounted his horse and rode to his camp. who presided. until a sound of cracking timber below would have precipitated a stamp ede with fatal results but for the coolness of B. He had known that argument and pleas for justice or mer cy would be of no avail. He found the supports of the floor in so bad a condition that the sl ightest applause would be likely to bury the audience in the ruins of the buildi ng. Without a word the general q uietly turned down all the glasses at his plate. McClellan was led into the circle. fairly livid from fear. therefore he and th ose with him would be the last to leave. with his fingers c licking the trigger. In 1856. Retaliation for this outrage seemed imperative. but they were equal to the occasion. and placed at the righ t hand of Saltese. The revolver wa s lowered. he added. M ass. apparently indifferent to his fate. The chiefs pondered long. where his two followers were r eady to spring into the saddle and to escape from the villages. Saltese made known the grievance of the tribe s. the committee taking great pains to have the fine st wines that could be procured for the table that night. then he told the crowd that ther e was no immediate danger if they would slowly disperse. then vice-presi dent of the United States. The council was prolonged for hours before sentence was passed. "We shall all be in ---. and naturally inclined to like a man of Grant's make-up. Two Indians had been captured by a party of white pioneers and hanged for the ft. "Colfax dares not drink. Saltese was released from the embrace of the strong arm. in the name of the head men of the tribes. "I revoke it!" exclaimed Saltese. When the time came to serve the wine. and to his accurate knowledge of I ndian character. About thirty chiefs were holding council. in favor of the candidacy of James Buchanan for the presidency. but Schuyler Colfax. Many distinguished foreign and American statesmen were present at a fashionable dinner party where wine was freely poured.Mounting his horse. or I shall kill you this instant!" he cried. Nat urally hospitable. He sat motionless. which was most weakly supported." said the Vice-President. the headwaiter went first to Grant. declined to drink from a proffered cup. the Houstonites determined to go beyond any other Southern city in the way of a banq uet and other manifestations of their good-will and hospitality. McClellan had been on friendly terms with them. his courage. F. he said that he would see if there were any cause for alarm. They made lavis h preparations for the dinner. decreed that McClellan should immediately be put to death. The floor of the great hall began to sink. This movement was a great surpr ise to the Texans. he whispered to Choate as he pas sed. "Revok e that sentence. Without a single word be . The post of danger. bu t had little to say." was the quick response.in five minutes". "I dare not. he whipped out his revolver and held it close to the chief's temple. and the c hiefs had vowed vengeance against the race. and could understand every word spoken in the council. McClellan st rode out of the tent with his revolver in his hand. By his listlessness he had thrown his captors off their guard. He owed his life to his quickness of perception. McClellan said nothing.

Colo nel Thomas Wentworth Higginson said that at a dinner at Beaufort." He said to another: "I would enter Worms though there we re as many devils there as there are tiles upon the roofs of the houses. One. but I will give a toa st. "and if you were half as much fri ghtened. and I will go. I believe yo u are frightened. "Tis he is the coward who proves false to his vows." It takes courage to do your duty in silence and obscu rity while others prosper and grow famous although neglecting sacred obligations . "and they will burn your body to ashes as they did that of John Huss. and they in turn dare not depart from th eir schools. To his manhood. observing that the other showed signs of fear. dictates. or your doctor or minister. I am. a slight. said. Two French officers at Waterloo were advancing to charge a greatly superior for ce. laughed at. C." A Western paper recently invited the surviving Union and Confederate officers t o give an account of the bravest act observed by each during the Civil War. carriages." He replied: "It is my d uty to go. misunderstood. It takes courage for a young man to stand firmly erect while others are bowing and fawning for praise and power. How we shrink from an act of our own! We live as others live. ridicul ed." was the reply. derided." Luther replied : "Although they should make a fire that should reach from Worms to Wittenberg. S. Who dares conduct his household or business affairs in his own w ay." "That's a brave man. and snap his fingers at Dame Grundy? .. Miner. beaten. his honor." "An honest man is not the worse because a dog barks at him." said a friend to Luther. It takes courage to wear threadbare clothes wh ile your comrades dress in broadcloth.ing spoken. but "They are slaves who dare not be In the right with two or three. misjudged. or sung a song. It takes courage to say "No" squarely when t hose around you say "Yes." "There are many cardinals and bishops at Worms. where w ine flowed freely and ribald jests were bandied. Dress. to stand alone with all the world against you." The youth who starts out by being afraid to speak what he thinks will usually e nd by being afraid to think what he wishes. although I must drink it in water. was told that he could not go until he had drunk a toast." Anothe r man said to him: "Duke George will surely arrest you." "Yes. He replied: "I cannot sing. "he knows his danger. to show your blemishes to a condemn ing world. It is 'Our Mothers. when he saw a soldier turn pale as he ma rched against a battery. every man along the line of the long tables turned his glasses down. It takes courage to remain in honest pove rty when others grow rich by fraud. and that should flame up to heaven. and to pass for what you really are." We live ridiculously for fear of being thought ridiculous." said Wellington. scoffed. you would run away. It takes courage to unmask your true self. everything must conform. though it rain Duke Georges for nine days together. and faces it. or we are ostracized. Custom or fashion .'" The men were so aff ected and ashamed that they took him by the hand and thanked him for displaying such admirable moral courage. "Sir. It takes courage and pluck to be outvoted. boyish fel low who did not drink. and there was not a drop of wine taken that night. servants. in the Lord's name I would pass through it a nd appear before them. living. told a story. Dr. for a laugh or a sneer.

fresh from his flocks. Don't be like Uriah Heep. is the sublimest audacity the world has ever seen." Courage is victory. appalled by his comrade's fate. marching unattended and unarmed. It takes courage to refuse to follow custom when it is injurious to his health and morals. and he actually denied even the acquaintance of the Master he had declared he would die for. A messenger had been sent for ammunition. amid the deafening cheers of the g arrison. timidity 's defeat." Anne Askew. and raged more fiercely than ever. with the reckless daring of an English boy. untwisted a piece of telegraph wire which had begun to cut the horse's leg. How much easier for a politician to prevaricate and dodge an issue than to stand squarely on his feet like a man! As the strongest man has a weakness somewhere. and caught the powder. said to his judge: "You are more a fraid to pronounce my sentence than I am to receive it. and would perhaps have be en ruined for life. surroundi ng the orchard with a wall of flame. but he could not stand the ridicule and the finger of scorn of the maidens in th e high priest's hall.It takes courage for a public man not to bend the knee to popular prejudice. "Dent. save with his shepherd's staff and sling. spurred his strugglin g and terrified horses through the burning heap. when he and Colonel Dent were riding through the thickest of a fi re that had become so concentrated and murderous that his troops had all been dr iven back. "when you've got a horse that you think a great deal o f. and climbed into his saddle. never flinched." . beaten back for the moment by the explosion." "To think a thing is impossible is to make it so." said a rela tive who found the little boy Nelson wandering a long distance from home. "it is simply murder for us to sit here." "All right. and rider in fragments into the air. nothing lovable in fear. "I guess looking after your horse's legs can wait. begging everybody's pardon for taking the liberty of being in the world." said Grant. but looked her tormentor calmly in the face and refused to adjure her faith. horses. observing that the flames. examined it deliberately. Bruno. condemned to be burned alive in Rome." said Grant. sent his horses at the smoldering breach and. the next. At last the powder and ball ran short and the hedges took fire. I will." He dismounted. afforded him one desperate chance. "The driver of th e first wagon. There is nothing attractive in timidity." said he. For a instant the driver of the second wag on paused. I wish you would get down and see what is the matter with that leg there . which was so important a point in the British position that orders were given to hold it at any hazard or sacr ifice." said Dent. If that wire had been left there for a little time longer he would have gone dead lame. sending wagon. "Dent. a nd soon two loaded wagons came galloping toward the farmhouse. "Fear? " said the future admiral. racked unti l her bones were dislocated. Behind him the flames closed u p. "I don't know him. Both are deformities and are repulsive." Wellington said that at Waterloo the hottest of the battle raged round a farmho use. you should never take any chances with him. David. That simple shepherd-lad. "if you don't want to see to it. with an orchard surrounded by a thick hedge. landed his terrible cargo safely within. "I should have thought fear would have kept you from going so far. but the flames rose fiercely ro und. to confront the colossal Gol iath with his massive armor. Manly courage is always dignified and graceful. so the greatest hero is a coward somewhere. Peter was courageous enough to draw his sword to defend his Master. which exploded in an instant.

Her request was granted. But. he said: "This is warm work. as Nelson walked the deck slippery with blood and covered with the dead. or in crossing bridges you have not reached. when he was shot and was being carried below." When the mine in front of Petersburg was finished the fuse was lighted and the Union troops were drawn up ready to charge the enemy's works as soon as the expl osion should make a breach. I would not be elsewhere for thousands. She remained true to her father when all others. minutes. After his head ha d been cut off and exhibited on a pole on London Bridge. and th as if it were a review. . but a sound cure for al l diseases. and began his s peech to the crowd by saying that during the last two days he had been visited b y two ague fits." says George Eliot. Thoughts are but dreams until their effec ts be tried. what is your competitor bu t a man? Conquer your place in the world. Sir William Napier's men became disobedient. would in all probability have gone great lengths in the career of u sefulness and fame." Don't waste time dreaming of obstacles you may never encounter. " At the battle of Trafalgar. But Th His daughter showed the power of love to drive away fear.At the battle of Friedland a cannon-ball came over the heads of the French sold iers. In a skirmish at Salamanca. damp. therefore. "If. and soon a terri ble upheaval of earth gave the signal to march to victory. I beseech you ascribe it to my sickness rather than to myself. His him a fool for staying in a dark. yielded at once. Through the long subterranea n galleries they hurried in silence. had forsaken him. endure poverty nobly. At the battle of Copenhagen. if they could have been induc ed to begin. filthy prison when he might erty by merely renouncing his doctrines. and the suspense became painful. that those fighting might not know their chief had fallen. and he had determined to to his principles. fired the train anew. The influence of the brave man is contagious a nd creates an epidemic of noble zeal in all about him. sustain misfortune bravely. "by falterers wh o ask for certainty. for all things serve a brave soul. The men en marched three miles under a heavy cannonade as coolly pouring shot into his r at once ordered a halt. Every day sends to the gr ave obscure men who have only remained in obscurity because their timidity has p revented them from making a first effort. you perceive any weakness in me. and said to the sheriff: "'T is a sharp medicine. Com bat difficulty manfully. he c overed his face. and a young soldier instinctively dodged. Lieutenant Doughty and Sergeant Rees volunteered to examine the fuse. But seconds. and tens of minutes passed. for her death soon occurred. Execute your resolutions immediately. as some of the bishops had omas More preferred death to dishonor. "No great deed is done. wi thout a sound from the mine. the poor girl begged it of the authorities. mark me. Thomas More walked cheerfully to the block. They found the defect. though you were to bu rrow a hundred feet under ground it would be sure to find you there. Does competition trouble you? work away. and requested that it be buried in the coffin with her. if that ball were destined for you." After the great inward struggle was over. not knowing but that they were advancing to a horrible death. To half will and to hang forever in the balance is to lose your grip on life. and this day may be the last to any of us in a moment. even her mother. He and flogged four of the ringleaders under fire. while the enemy's guns were egiment." He took the ax and kissed the blade. and who. Napoleon looked at him and smili ngly said: "My friend. encou nter disappointment courageously. When Sir Walter Raleigh came to the scaffold he was very faint. remain loyal wife called have his lib done.

despite the ridicule and scoffs of the spectators. overturned an ash barrel. Butler went to the place where the crowd was most dense. who dares to preach on with a musket leveled at his head. you have murdered your superiors. United States Senator from Ohio. a Garrison. and no influential friends." At last the jury. and 'tis prosperous to be just: Then it is the brave ma n chooses. Lincoln would alw ays plead the cause of the unfortunate whenever an opportunity presented. When General Butler was sent with nine thousand men to quell the New York riots . Doubting in his abject spirit. it required no little courage to cast his fortune with the weaker side in polit ics." But in thus ruining himself Chase had taken the first important step in a career in which he became Governor of Oh io. till hi s Lord is crucified. when these hounded fugitives were seeking protectio n. Without waiting for his men." Were Beecher and Gough to be si lenced by the rude English mobs that came to extinguish them? No! they held thei r ground and compelled unwilling thousands to hear and to heed. said to the jury: "We will have a verdi ct by the help of God. As Salmon P. while the coward stands aside. What cared Wendell Phillips for rotten eggs." The rec order fined them forty marks apiece for their independence. the recorde r." said P enn. What the world wants is a Knox. Ere her caus e bring fame and profit. At the time when it almost cost a young lawyer his bread and butter to defend the fugitive slave. Only the most sublime moral courage could have sustained him as President to hold his ground against hostile criticism and a long train of disaster. the leper was made whole. and thus imperil what small reputation he had gained. At the trial of William Penn for having spoken at a Quaker meeting. or you shall starve for it." Then to side with Truth is noble when we share her wretched crust. When at last he had begun the practice of law. an d Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Chase left the court room after an impassioned plea for the runawa y slave girl Matilda. to support Grant and Stanton against the clamor of the politicians and t he press. the dead spake." people would say. the blind saw. give not away your right. derisive scorn. Secretary of the United States Treasury. and when other lawyers had refused. a man looked at him in surprise and said: "There goes a fi ne young fellow who has just ruined himself. who is not afraid of a jail. and began: "Delegates from Five Points. he arrived in advance of his troops.Abraham Lincoln's boyhood was one long struggle with poverty. or a mob. returned a verdict of "Not guilty. LOWELL. Lincoln never shrank from espousing an unpopular cause when he believed it to b e right. and hisses? In him "at last the scornful world had met its match. fiends from hell. if it's right. with little educa tion. or a scaffold erec ted in front of his door. . "Go to Lincoln. stood upon it. not satisfied with the first verdict. to issue the Emancipation Procla mation. "he's not afraid of any cause. What cared Christ for the jeers of the crowd? The palsied hand moved. "mind your privileges. Did Anna Dickins on leave the platform when the pistol bullets of the Molly Maguires flew about h er head? She silenced those pistols by her courage and her arguments. and found the streets thronged with an an gry mob." and the bloodstained crowd quailed befo re the courageous words of a single man in a city which Mayor Fernando Wood coul d not restrain with the aid of police and militia. which had already hanged several men to lamp-posts." "You are Englishmen. after t wo days and two nights without food.

Alexander. he dealt an almost annihilating blow at the republic of Rome. Begin! Begin! Begin!!! Whatever people may think of you. . Gladstone was in Parliament before he wa s twenty-two. defeated three million men." replied a Lacedemonian. Galileo was but eighteen when he saw the principle of the pendulum in the swing lamp in the cathedral at Pisa . and at twenty-four he was Lord of the Treasury. at Cannae. Luther was but twenty-nine when he nailed his famous thesis to the door of the bishop and defied the pope. he outgeneraled and defeated. when Napoleon gave directions for a d aring plan." exclaimed the Spartans at Thermopylae. conquered three hundred nations. on the plains of Italy." said a staff officer. For that were stupid and irrational . Men who have dared have moved the world. even to the death. What wonder that a handful of such men checked the march of the greatest host that ever trod the earth! "It is impossible. Robe rt Browning wrote at eleven poetry of no mean order. Victor Hugo and Wellington were both in their prime after they had reached the age of threescore years and ten. Me n follow him. at thirty-two. was sent at twenty-one as a n ambassador to treat with the French. Cortez w as the conqueror of Mexico. Nelson was a lieutenant in the British Navy before he was twenty. Peel was in Parliament at twenty-one. De Quincey at eleven. His influence is magnetic. At thirty-six. Lafayette was made general of the whole French Army at twenty. became a gre at orator and one of the greatest statesmen known." "The brave man is not he who feels no fear. "Come and take them. and still was a young man. Cowley. Gladstone ruled England with a strong hand at eighty-four. Clive had established the British pow er in India. "And we are before them. "Deliver your arms. "Impossible!" thundered the great commander."Our enemies are before us. often before reaching the prime of lif e. who ascended the throne at twenty. Elizabeth Barrett Browning was proficient in Greek and Latin at twelve. Shakespeare says: "He is not worthy of the honeycomb that shuns the hive becaus e the bees have stings. and N apoleon was only twenty-seven when. Wa shington was appointed adjutant-general at nineteen. But he whose noble soul its fear subdues And bravely dares the danger nature s hrinks from. Hannibal." Many a bright youth has accomplished nothing of worth to himself or the world s imply because he did not dare to commence things. the veteran marshals of Austria. was only thirty when . published a volume of poems at fifteen." "Then we will fight in the shade." came the mes sage from Xerxes." was the cool reply of Leonidas.--PYTHAGORAS. It is astonishing what daring to begin and perseverance have enabled even you ths to achieve. one after another. who sleeps in Westm inster Abbey. do that which you believe to be right. had conquered the known world before dying at thirty-three. Julius Caesar captured eight hundred c ities. Be ali ke indifferent to censure or praise. Charl emagne was master of France and Germany at thirty. the greatest of military commanders. and won his first battle as a colonel at twenty-two. A Per sian soldier said: "You will not be able to see the sun for flying javelins and arrows." was the answer Leonidas sent back. Equal courage and resolution are often shown by men who have passed the allotte d limit of life. "impossible is the adje ctive of fools!" The courageous man is an example to the intrepid. and was a marvel of literary and scholarly ability. He was but fo rty-seven when he received his death wound at Trafalgar.

it is curious to see how the spa ce clears around a man and leaves him room and freedom. When a firm and decisive spirit is recognized. tossing on his bed of feve r at Rotterdam. SHAKESPEARE. no renown rewards. with the fleet upon it. When th e flowers bloomed the following spring. But from the parched lips of William." was the derisive shout of the Spanis h soldiers when told that the Dutch fleet would raise that terrible four months' siege of 1574. to the stranger.--VICTOR HUGO.--TUPPER. some of the most distinguished men in the country were invited. abandonment. In the lexicon of youth which fate reserves for a bright manhood there is no su ch word as fail. and no flourish of trumpets salutes. Gallatin. There are obstinate a nd unknown braves who defend themselves inch by inch in the shadows against the fatal invasion of want and turpitude. a joyous procession marched through the streets to found the University of Leyden. had issued the command: "Break down the dikes: give Holland back to ocean!" and the people had replied: "Better a drowned land than a lost land. The next morning the garrison sallied out to attack their enemies. There are noble and mysterious triumphs wh ich no eye sees. "Yes. m isfortune. Can you conceive anything more absurd than that?" .--BULWER. as o f old. But ever. and amo ng them was a young and rather melancholy and reticent Frenchman. For man's great actions are performed in minor struggles. leaving the North Sea within its old bounds. observing that his fore head indicated a great intellect.--JOHN FOSTER. in commemoration of the wonderful del iverance of the city. at the residence of Chancellor Kent. 9. ranged one within another for fifteen miles to their city of the interior. isolation. touching his own forehead with his finger. and during the evening he drew the attention of Mr . Professor Mors e was also one of the guests. The next day the wind changed. and poverty are battlefields which have their heroes. " They began to demolish dike after dike of the strong lines. as bring the oc ean to the wall of Leyden for your relief. Gallatin. "As well can the Prince of Orange pluck the stars from the sky. The iron will of one stout heart shall make a thousand quail: A feeble dwarf. And rally to a nobler strife the giants that had fled. It was an enormous task . CHAPTER XXXVIII THE WILL AND THE WAY "I will find a way or make one. On the first and second of October a violent equinoctial gale rolled the ocean inland." replied Mr. and swept the fleet on the rising waters almost to the camp of the Spaniards. in New Yo rk City. then a prominent statesman.--MIRABEAU. the garrison was starving.--1 SAMUEL iv. Life. The outer d ikes were replaced at once.I dare to do all that may become a man: Who dares do more is none. from the surface of Holland. will turn the tide of battle. but the besiegers had fled in terror under cover of the darkness. d auntlessly resolved. and the besiegers laughed in scorn at the slow prog ress of the puny insects who sought to rule the waves of the sea. Heaven aids those who help themselves. "there is a great deal in that head of his: but he has a strange fancy. At a dinner party given in 1837." Nothing is impossible to the man who can will. and a counter tempest bru shed the water. Quit yourselves like men. Can you believe it? He has the idea that he will one day be th e Emperor of France.

This is the kind of will that finds a way. Every schoolboy knows that circumstances do give clients to lawyers and patient s to physicians. a Lincoln. but in any direction we may reasonably hope and attempt to go we shall find that. long afterward. dreary year s of imprisonment. We must not expect to overcome a stubborn fact merely by a stubborn will. True. When Mr. place sons o f the rich at the head of immense corporations and large houses. and yet. M." One of the most pathe tic sights in London streets. place ordinary clergymen in extraordinary pulpits. he walked ten miles to deliver a single paper r ather than disappoint a customer. intelligent. for this reserved Frenchman was then a poor adventurer." began life as a ne wsdealer at Nottingham." says Milton. Ingram. they are e ither not insurmountable or else not permanent. Think of a young man. was realized. We must temper determination with discretio n. led ever ywhere by a faithful daughter. to s ay nothing of becoming one of the foremost men in a country noted for its great men! The courageous daughter who was eyes to her father was herself a marvelous exam ple of pluck and determination. "Circumstances. or it will only lead us to ru n our heads against posts. who acted as amanuensis as well as guide to her p lucky father. may become a Bonaparte. which reaches back centuries. He was not scrupulous as to the means employed to accomplish his ends.--the post of senior wran gler. an exile from his country. but he gained hi s ambition at last. who had put out both his eyes by birdshot during a game hunt: "Never mind. when they have . and support it with knowledge and common sense. his idea became a fact. fathe r. to his grief-stricken father. but with few exceptions it had only been held by men who in after life became highly distinguished. There is scarcely anything in all biography grander than the saying of young He nry Fawcett. a Webster. and endurance. a way can be found or made. other things being equal. and patient labor and hope. blindness shall not interfere with my success in life. a Pi tt. strength. Does any one wonder that such a youth succeede d? Once he rose at two o'clock in the morning and walked to London to get some p apers because there was no post to bring them. su ddenly losing the sight of both eyes and yet by mere pluck and almost incomprehe nsible tenacity of purpose.It did seem absurd. He determined that his customers should not be disappointed. as a rule.--his dream of becoming Napoleon III. We only have the right to assume that we can do anything wi thin the limit of our utmost faculty. Gladstone's last Postmaster-General. the g reater the will-power. a Beecher." The true way to conquer circumstances is to be a greater circumstance yourself. was Henry Fawcett. They have fought their way to triumph through all sorts of opposing obstacles. we can not ind orse the theory that there is nothing in circumstances or environments. For the first time in the history of Oxford Coll ege.. England. such as Gladstone. exile. P. fourte en years later. Not only had no woman ever held this position before. "have rarely favored famous men. and attra cted the attention of the whole civilized world. in the nature of things. Obstacles permane ntly insurmountable bar our progress in some directions. simply because he has an indomitable will. without fortune or powerful connections. persistent man will find or make a way where. lifting himself into eminence in any direction. or that any man. publisher of the "Illustrated London News. disaster. scarcely on the threshold of active life. Yet. and that. yet he is a remarkable example of what pluck and energy can do. the grander and more complete the success. she succeeded in winning the post which had o nly been gained before by great men. before he accomplished his purpose there were long. The strong-willed. This achievement had had no parallel in history up to that date. while desiring to impress in the most forcible manner possible the fact th at will-power is necessary to success.

The fault. In other words. sentimental doctrin e of fatalism. while poor young men with unu sual ability. good education. ent husiasm. but it is impossible. He will find it remov ing difficulties. Every one knows that there is not always a way where there is a will." Nearly all great men. ra ther than his military skill. Of Julius Caesar it was said by a contemporary that it was his activity and giant determination. both in the city and in the coun try. who is ever on the alert for everything which can help him to . who keeps his ears open for every s ound that can help him on his way. and large experience. "He who has a firm will. however strongly. that won his victories. Show me a man who according to popular prejudice is a victim of bad luck. all history goes to prove. is not in our stars. which annihilates the sickly. will find a way or make one. or some other requisite for success. those who have towered high above their fellows. burning like fire within him." says Victor Hugo. and I will show you one who has some unfortunate crooked twist of temperament that in vites disaster. He is ill-tempered. we all know that the best men do not al ways get the best places. lacks character." "People do not lack strength. that resolution. And grasps the skirts of happy chance." says Goethe. by that very resolution has scaled the gre at barriers to it. will find that idea. that labo r does not always conquer all things.very ordinary ability and scarcely any experience. or trifling. And grapples with his evil star. and ever putting him upon his own improvement. the inflexible purpose. and sol emnly resolves upon it. that there are things impossible even to h im that wills. and can perform wonders." The indomitable will.--you must. circumstances do have a great deal to do with our posi tion. and he who seizes the grand idea of self-cultivation. Believe in the power of will. Ther e is always room for a man of force. who seem to be compelled by circumstances to remain in very ordinary positi ons for small pay. but that circumsta nces are the creatures of men. when others about them are raised by money or family influenc e into desirable places. searching out. or making means. The youth who starts out i n life determined to make the most of his eyes and let nothing escape him which he can possibly use for his own advancement. "they lack will. But while it is true that the will-power can not perform miracles. often have t o fight their way for years to obtain even very mediocre situations. But in ourselves. and strength for weakness. that we are underlings. yet that it is almost omnipotent. that there are thousands of young men of superior ability. our salaries. Disraeli said that man is not the creature of circumstances. you ought. dear Brutus." "He who resolves upon any great end. who keeps his hands open that he may clutch e very opportunity. "Who breaks his birth's invidious bar. giving courage for despondency . A nd breasts the blows of circumstance. that there are limitations in our very natures which no amount of will-power or industry can overcome. our station in life. have bee n remarkable above all things else for their energy of will. good character. but can't. conceited. "molds the world to himself. Give me the man who faces what he must. As Sha kespeare says:-Men at some time are masters of their fates. that one can not always make anything of himsel f he chooses.

defying poverty and wading through the snow two miles. showin g the possibilities of our country. He said he had not brains enough. who seizes every experience in life and grinds it up into p aint for his great life's picture. throu gh the rowdyism of a frontier town. liv ing on bread and water in a Dutch garret. and everything which may inspire him. to borrow a book to read before the sap-bush fire. on the threshold of manh ood: "I am not myself a believer in impossibilities: I think that all the fine s tories about natural ability. He had nothing in the world bu t character and friends. Kitto." Lincoln is probably the most remarkable example on the pages of history. there are no "ifs" or "ands" about it. The will can be educated. it is the purpose. send for him. Lincoln's will made his way. and leave it no longer to be carried hither and thither..--one hundred miles. and who became t he greatest of Biblical scholars. That which most easi ly becomes a habit in us is the will. hi s neighbors said. "The general of a large army may be defeated. No tyranny of circumstances can permanently imprison a determined will. and whatever weakens or impairs it diminishes success. If he has his health. Napoleon was sent for." said Confucius. sleeping many a night on a barn floor with only a book for his pillow. See Samuel Drew. The world always stands aside for the determined man. came. are mere rigmarole. the authorities were panic-stricken. He read law barefoot under the trees. and the fluctuations of popular politics. straw hat.get on in the world. to will decisively and strong ly. When his friends nominated him as a candidate for the legislature. He had to borrow money to buy a suit of clothes to make a respectable appe arance in the legislature." said they. See Locke. "I know a young officer who has the courage and ability to quell this mob. render himself almost anything he w ishes to become. thus fix your floating life. wrote in his journal. nothing can keep him from final success. he rose to the championship of union and f reedom. subjugated the m ob." "Send for him. Success in life is dependent largely upon the will-power. From the poverty in which he was born. deaf pauper. send for him. and pot-metal boots. See Thurlow Weed. it is the will to labor. and that every man may. then." History is full of such examples. "It is not talent that men lack. he laughed at the idea of his being a la wyer. See Heyne. etc. by every wind that blows.--that youth will be sur e to make his life successful. When his friends suggested law to him. ruled France and then conquered Europe. like a withered leaf. according to his opportunities and industry. with r ags for shoes. who made shoes in the almshouse. the discouragement of early bankruptcy. subjugated the authorities. tightening his apro n string "in lieu of a dinner." It was the insatiable thirst for knowledge which held to his task. through pove . Learn. flax and to w-linen trousers. Paris was in the hands of a mob. In came a man who said. and he sometimes slept on the counter in the store where he wo rked. He who will pa y the price for victory need never fear final defeat. When making his campaign speeches he wore a mixed jean coat so short that he could not sit down on it. and walked to take his seat at Vandalia. his enemies made fun of him. who keeps his heart open that he may catch ev ery noble impulse." The poor. for they did not dare to trust their underlings. "but you can not defeat the determined mind of a peasant.

but even peas a nd gravel-stones. thi s poor shepherd boy with no chance had astonished the professors of Edinburgh by his knowledge of Greek and Latin. Webster was very poor even after he entered Dartmouth College. although he knew nothing whatever of medicine. but nothing would daunt him. His desire for an education defied the extremest poverty. method. Before he was nineteen. At the age of eight he had first discovered that he was blind in one eye. especially his jealous brother merchants. While undo ubtedly he was fortunate in happening to be at the right place at the right time . and his thirsty soul would drink in the precious treasures from its pri celess volumes for hours. Walter Scott." Yet he became one of the greatest men in the world. He never left anything of importance to others. Barefoot and alone . He was rigidly accura te in his instructions. helped to fit him out. What seemed luck with h . and would not allow the slightest departure from them. laying out their routes and giving detailed instructions. from which he made a good profit. are models of foresight and systematic planning. Everything he t ouched prospered. He had begun as a cabin boy at thirteen." Carlyle said of him: "One would incline at sight to back him again st the world. energy itself. and with a repulsive face. accuracy. unable to speak English. yet they would cause loss in ninety-nine other cases. Sydney Sm ith said: "Webster was a living lie. Webster wrote and thanked him. would not help him to an education beyond that of mere reading and writing. short. and for nine years saile d between Bordeaux and the French West Indies. His f ather. He improved every leisure minute at sea. and he sailed f or India. His letters written to his captains in foreign ports. H e used to say that while his captains might save him money by deviating from ins tructions once. When he began business for himself in Philadelphia. It seemed to him that an opportunity to get at books and lectures was all that any man could need." What seemed to be luck followed Stephen Girard all his life. it always seemed to others to turn to his account. the neglect of his fathe r. but sent his young er brothers to college. stout. He was rich when he discovered a little bo okstore. He never lost a ship. he determined to apply for it. because no man on earth could be as great a s he looked. His plans and schemes were worked out with mathemati cal care. from groceries to old ju nk. But he was not the m an to give up. it was hard for him to get a start. and many times that which brought financial ruin to many others. and no obst acle could turn him from his purpose. The discovery of his blindness. Nothing could discourage him from tr ying to improve himself by study. Being a foreigner. which was all the schooli ng he had. mastering the art of navigation. blind in one eye. John Leyden. No matter what he did. Hearing that a surgeon's assistant in the Civil Service was wanted. yet he was precision. a Scotch shepherd's son. He bought and sold anything. there seemed to be nothing he would not do for money. he bottled wine and cider. There were on ly six months before the place was to be filled. and the chagrin of his brothers' advancement soured his whole life. he walked six or eight miles daily to learn to read. perfectly oblivious of the scanty meal of bread and wa ter which awaited him at his lowly lodging. for they not only admit water. He left nothing to chance.rty and discouragement. only increased his wealth. evidently thinking that he would never amount to anything. attributed his great success to his luck. and added: "Bu t my boots needs other doctoring. an d he took his degree with honor. A friend sent hi m a recipe for greasing his boots. as the War of 1812. who thought this one of the most remarkable illustrations of perseverance. Everybody.

im was only good judgment and promptness in seizing opportunities, and the great est care and zeal in improving them to their utmost possibilities. The mathematician tells you that if you throw the dice, there are thirty chance s to one against your turning up a particular number, and a hundred to one again st your repeating the same throw three times in succession: and so on in an augm enting ratio. Many a young man who has read the story of John Wanamaker's romantic career has gained very little inspiration or help from it toward his own elevation and adv ancement, for he looks upon it as the result of good luck, chance, or fate. "Wha t a lucky fellow," he says to himself as he reads; "what a bonanza he fell into! " But a careful analysis of Wanamaker's life only enforces the same lesson taugh t by the analysis of most great lives, namely, that a good mother, a good consti tution, the habit of hard work, indomitable energy, determination which knows no defeat, decision which never wavers, a concentration which never scatters its f orces, courage which never falters, self-mastery which can say No, and stick to it, strict integrity and downright honesty, a cheerful disposition, unbounded en thusiasm in one's calling, and a high aim and noble purpose insure a very large measure of success. Youth should be taught that there is something in circumstances; that there is such a thing as a poor pedestrian happening to find no obstruction in his way, a nd reaching the goal when a better walker finds the drawbridge up, the street bl ockaded, and so fails to win the race; that wealth often does place unworthy son s in high positions; that family influence does gain a lawyer clients, a physici an patients, an ordinary scholar a good professorship; but that, on the other ha nd, position, clients, patients, professorships, managers' and superintendents' positions do not necessarily constitute success. He should be taught that in the long run, as a rule, the best man does win the best place, and that persistent merit does succeed. There is about as much chance of idleness and incapacity winning real success o r a high position in life, as there would be in producing a "Paradise Lost" by s haking up promiscuously the separate words of Webster's Dictionary, and letting them fall at random on the floor. Fortune smiles upon those who roll up their sl eeves and put their shoulders to the wheel; upon men who are not afraid of drear y, dry, irksome drudgery, men of nerve and grit who do not turn aside for dirt a nd detail. The youth should be taught that "he alone is great, who, by a life heroic, conq uers fate"; that "diligence is the mother of good luck"; that nine times out of ten what we call luck or fate is but a mere bugbear of the indolent, the languid , the purposeless, the careless, the indifferent; that, as a rule, the man who f ails does not see or seize his opportunity. Opportunity is coy, is swift, is gon e, before the slow, the unobservant, the indolent, or the careless can seize her :-"In idle wishes fools supinely stay: Be there a will and wisdom finds a way." It has been well said that the very reputation of being strong-willed, plucky, and indefatigable is of priceless value. It often cows enemies and dispels at th e start opposition to one's undertakings which would otherwise be formidable. It is astonishing what men who have come to their senses late in life have acco mplished by a sudden resolution. Arkwright was fifty years of age when he began to learn English grammar and imp rove his writing and spelling. Benjamin Franklin was past fifty before he began the study of science and philosophy. Milton, in his blindness, was past the age

of fifty when he sat down to complete his world-known epic, and Scott at fifty-f ive took up his pen to redeem a liability of $600,000. "Yet I am learning," said Michael Angelo, when threescore years and ten were past, and he had long attain ed the highest triumphs of his art. Even brains are second in importance to will. The vacillating man is always pus hed aside in the race of life. It is only the weak and vacillating who halt befo re adverse circumstances and obstacles. A man with an iron will, with a determin ation that nothing shall check his career, is sure, if he has perseverance and g rit, to succeed. We may not find time for what we would like, but what we long f or and strive for with all our strength, we usually approximate, if we do not fu lly reach. I wish it were possible to show the youth of America the great part that the wi ll might play in their success in life and in their happiness as well. The achie vements of will-power are simply beyond computation. Scarcely anything in reason seems impossible to the man who can will strong enough and long enough. How often we see this illustrated in the case of a young woman who suddenly bec omes conscious that she is plain and unattractive; who, by prodigious exercise o f her will and untiring industry, resolves to redeem herself from obscurity and commonness; and who not only makes up for her deficiencies, but elevates herself into a prominence and importance which mere personal attractions could never ha ve given her! Charlotte Cushman, without a charm of form or face, climbed to the very top of her profession. How many young men, stung by consciousness of physi cal deformity or mental deficiencies, have, by a strong, persistent exercise of will-power, raised themselves from mediocrity and placed themselves high above t hose who scorned them! History is full of examples of men and women who have redeemed themselves from disgrace, poverty, and misfortune by the firm resolution of an iron will. The co nsciousness of being looked upon as inferior, as incapable of accomplishing what others accomplish; the sensitiveness at being considered a dunce in school, has stung many a youth into a determination which has elevated him far above those who laughed at him, as in the case of Newton, of Adam Clark, of Sheridan, Wellin gton, Goldsmith, Dr. Chalmers, Curran, Disraeli and hundreds of others. It is men like Mirabeau, who "trample upon impossibilities"; like Napoleon, who do not wait for opportunities, but make them; like Grant, who has only "uncondi tional surrender" for the enemy, who change the very front of the world. "I can't, it is impossible," said a foiled lieutenant to Alexander. "Be gone," shouted the conquering Macedonian, "there is nothing impossible to him who will try." Were I called upon to express in a word the secret of so many failures among th ose who started out in life with high hopes, I should say unhesitatingly, they l acked will-power. They could not half will. What is a man without a will? He is like an engine without steam, a mere sport of chance, to be tossed about hither and thither, always at the mercy of those who have wills. I should call the stre ngth of will the test of a young man's possibilities. Can he will strong enough, and hold whatever he undertakes with an iron grip? It is the iron grip that tak es the strong hold on life. "The truest wisdom," said Napoleon, "is a resolute d etermination." An iron will without principle might produce a Napoleon; but with character it would make a Wellington or a Grant, untarnished by ambition or ava rice. "The undivided will 'Tis that compels the elements and wrings A human music fro m the indifferent air."

CHAPTER XXXIX ONE UNWAVERING AIM Life is an arrow--therefore you must know What mark to aim at, how to use the b ow-- Then draw it to the head and let it go. HENRY VAN DYKE. The important thing in life is to have a great aim, and to possess the aptitude and perseverance to attain it.--GOETHE. "A double-minded man is unstable in all his ways." Let every one ascertain his special business and calling, and then stick to it if he would be successful.--FRANKLIN. "Why do you lead such a solitary life?" asked a friend of Michael Angelo. "Art is a jealous mistress," replied the artist; "she requires the whole man." During his labors at the Sistine Chapel, according to Disraeli, he refused to meet any one, even at his own house. "This day we sailed westward, which was our course," were the simple but grand words which Columbus wrote in his journal day after day. Hope might rise and fal l, terror and dismay might seize upon the crew at the mysterious variations of t he compass, but Columbus, unappalled, pushed due west and nightly added to his r ecord the above words. "Cut an inch deeper," said a member of the Old Guard to the surgeon probing his wound, "and you will find the Emperor,"--meaning his heart. By the marvelous po wer of concentrated purpose Napoleon had left his name on the very stones of the capital, had burned it indelibly into the heart of every Frenchman, and had lef t it written in living letters all over Europe. France to-day has not shaken off the spell of that name. In the fair city on the Seine the mystic "N" confronts you everywhere. Oh, the power of a great purpose to work miracles! It has changed the face of t he world. Napoleon knew that there were plenty of great men in France, but they did not know the might of the unwavering aim by which he was changing the destin ies of Europe. He saw that what was called the "balance of power" was only an id le dream; that, unless some master-mind could be found which was a match for eve nts, the millions would rule in anarchy. His iron will grasped the situation; an d like William Pitt, he did not loiter around balancing the probabilities of fai lure or success, or dally with his purpose. There was no turning to the right no r to the left; no dreaming away time, nor building air-castles; but one look and purpose, forward, upward and onward, straight to his goal. His great success in war was due largely to his definiteness of aim. He always hit the bull's-eye. H e was like a great burning-glass, concentrating the rays of the sun upon a singl e spot; he burned a hole wherever he went. After finding the weak place in the e nemy's ranks, he would mass his men and hurl them like an avalanche upon the cri tical point, crowding volley upon volley, charge upon charge, till he made a bre ach. What a lesson of the power concentration there is in this man's life! To succeed to-day a man must concentrate all the faculties of his mind upon one unwavering aim, and have a tenacity of purpose which means death or victory. Ev ery other inclination which tempts him from his aim must be suppressed. A man may starve on a dozen half-learned trades or occupations; he may grow ric h and famous upon one trade thoroughly mastered, even though it be the humblest. Even Gladstone, with his ponderous yet active brain, said he could not do two t hings at once; he threw his entire strength upon whatever he did. The intensest

energy characterized everything he undertook, even his recreation. If such conce ntration of energy is necessary for the success of a Gladstone, what can we comm on mortals hope to accomplish by "scatteration"? All great men have been noted for their power of concentration which makes them oblivious of everything outside their aim. Victor Hugo wrote his "Notre Dame" d uring the revolution of 1830, while the bullets were whistling across his garden . He shut himself up in one room, locking his clothes up in another, lest they s hould tempt him to go out into the street, and spent most of that winter wrapped in a big gray comforter, pouring his very life into his work. Abraham Lincoln possessed such power of concentration that he could repeat quit e correctly a sermon to which he had listened in his boyhood. A New York sportsman, in answer to an advertisement, sent twenty-five cents for a sure receipt to prevent a shotgun from scattering, and received the following : "Dear Sir: To keep a gun from scattering put in but a single shot." It is the men who do one thing in this world who come to the front. Who is the favorite actor? It is a Jefferson, who devotes a lifetime to a "Rip Van Winkle," a Booth, an Irving, a Kean, who plays one character until he can play it better than any other man living, and not the shallow players who impersonate all part s. The great man is the one who never steps outside of his specialty or dissipat es his individuality. It is an Edison, a Morse, a Bell, a Howe, a Stephenson, a Watt. It is an Adam Smith, spending ten years on the "Wealth of Nations." It is a Gibbon, giving twenty years to his "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." It is a Hume, writing thirteen hours a day on his "History of England." It is a Web ster, spending thirty-six years on his dictionary. It is a Bancroft, working twe nty-six years on his "History of the United States." It is a Field, crossing the ocean fifty times to lay a cable, while the world ridicules. It is a Newton, wr iting his "Chronology of Ancient Nations" sixteen times. A one-talent man who decides upon a definite object accomplishes more than a te n-talent man who scatters his energies and never knows exactly what he will do. The weakest living creature, by concentrating his powers upon one thing, can acc omplish something; the strongest, by dispersing his over many, may fail to accom plish anything. A great purpose is cumulative; and, like a great magnet, it attracts all that i s kindred along the stream of life. [Illustration: Joseph Jefferson] A Yankee can splice a rope in many different ways; an English sailor only knows one way, but that is the best one. It is the one-sided man, the sharp-eyed man, the man of single and intense purpose, the man of one idea, who cuts his way th rough obstacles and forges to the front. The time has gone forever when a Bacon can span universal knowledge; or when, absorbing all the knowledge of the times, a Dante can sustain arguments against fourteen disputants in the University of Paris, and conquer in them all. The day when a man can successfully drive a doze n callings abreast is a thing of the past. Concentration is the keynote of the c entury. Scientists estimate that there is energy enough in less than fifty acres of sun shine to run all the machinery in the world, if it could be concentrated. But th e sun might blaze out upon the earth forever without setting anything on fire; a lthough these rays focused by a burning-glass would melt solid granite, or even change a diamond into vapor. There are plenty of men who have ability enough; th e rays of their faculties, taken separately, are all right, but they are powerle ss to collect them, to bring them all to bear upon a single spot. Versatile men,

universal geniuses, are usually weak, because they have no power to concentrate their talents upon one point, and this makes all the difference between success and failure. Chiseled upon the tomb of a disappointed, heart-broken king, Joseph II. of Aust ria, in the Royal Cemetery at Vienna, a traveler tells us, is this epitaph: "Her e lies a monarch who, with the best of intentions, never carried out a single pl an." Sir James Mackintosh was a man of remarkable ability. He excited in every one w ho knew him the greatest expectations. Many watched his career with much interes t, expecting that he would dazzle the world; but there was no purpose in his lif e. He had intermittent attacks of enthusiasm for doing great things, but his zea l all evaporated before he could decide what to do. This fatal defect in his cha racter kept him balancing between conflicting motives; and his whole life was al most thrown away. He lacked power to choose one object and persevere with a sing le aim, sacrificing every interfering inclination. He, for instance, vacillated for weeks trying to determine whether to use "usefulness" or "utility" in a comp osition. One talent utilized in a single direction will do infinitely more than ten tale nts scattered. A thimbleful of powder behind a ball in a rifle will do more exec ution than a carload of powder unconfined. The rifle-barrel is the purpose that gives direct aim to the powder, which otherwise, no matter how good it might be, would be powerless. The poorest scholar in school or college often, in practica l life, far outstrips the class leader or senior wrangler, simply because what l ittle ability he has he employs for a definite object, while the other, dependin g upon his general ability and brilliant prospects, never concentrates his power s. It is fashionable to ridicule the man of one idea, but the men who have changed the front of the world have been men of a single aim. No man can make his mark on this age of specialties who is not a man of one idea, one supreme air, one ma ster passion. The man who would make himself felt on this bustling planet, who w ould make a breach in the compact conservatism of our civilization, must play al l his guns on one point. A wavering aim, a faltering purpose, has no place in th e twentieth century. "Mental shiftlessness" is the cause of many a failure. The world is full of unsuccessful men who spend their lives letting empty buckets do wn into empty wells. "Mr. A. often laughs at me," said a young American chemist, "because I have but one idea. He talks about everything, aims to excel in many things; but I have l earned that, if I ever wish to make a breach, I must play my guns continually up on one point." This great chemist, when an obscure schoolmaster, used to study b y the light of a pine knot in a log cabin. Not many years later he was performin g experiments in electro-magnetism before English earls, and subsequently he was at the head of one of the largest scientific institutes of this country. He was the late Professor Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. We should guard against a talent which we can not hope to practise in perfectio n, says Goethe. Improve it as we may, we shall always, in the end, when the meri t of the matter has become apparent to us, painfully lament the loss of time and strength devoted to such botching. An old proverb says: "The master of one trad e will support a wife and seven children, and the master of seven will not suppo rt himself." It is the single aim that wins. history. They do not focus their y into the roll of honor. Edward ppointed the expectations of his Men with monopolizing ambitions rarely live in powers long enough to burn their names indelibl Everett, even with his magnificent powers, disa friends. He spread himself over the whole field

of knowledge and elegant culture; but the mention of the name of Everett does n ot call up any one great achievement as does that of names like Garrison and Phi llips. Voltaire called the Frenchman La Harpe an oven which was always heating, but which never cooked anything. Hartley Coleridge was splendidly endowed with t alent, but there was one fatal lack in his character--he had no definite purpose , and his life was a failure. Unstable as water, he could not excel. Southey, th e uncle of Coleridge, says of him: "Coleridge has two left hands." He was so mor bidly shy from living alone in his dreamland that he could not open a letter wit hout trembling. He would often rally from his purposeless life, and resolve to r edeem himself from the oblivion he saw staring him in the face; but, like Sir Ja mes Mackintosh, he remained a man of promise merely to the end of his life. The man who succeeds has a program. He fires his course and adheres to it. He l ays his plans and executes them. He goes straight to his goal. He is not pushed this way and that every time a difficulty is thrown in his path; if he can not g et over it he goes through it. Constant and steady use of the faculties under a central purpose gives strength and power, while the use of faculties without an aim or end only weakens them. The mind must be focused on a definite end, or, li ke machinery without a balance-wheel, it will rack itself to pieces. This age of concentration men, not for geniuses, not to do one thing as well as f his soldiers better than calls, not for educated men merely, not for talented for jacks-of-all-trades, but for men who are trained it can be done. Napoleon could go through the drill o any one of his men.

Stick to your aim. The constant changing of one's occupation is fatal to all su ccess. After a young man has spent five or six years in a dry goods store, he co ncludes that he would rather sell groceries, thereby throwing away five years of valuable experience which will be of very little use to him in the grocery busi ness; and so he spends a large part of his life drifting around from one kind of employment to another, learning part of each but all of none, forgetting that e xperience is worth more to him than money and that the years devoted to learning his trade or occupation are the most valuable. Half-learned trades, no matter i f a man has twenty, will never give him a good living, much less a competency, w hile wealth is absolutely out of the question. How many young men fail to reach the point of efficiency in one line of work be fore they get discouraged and venture into something else! How easy to see the t horns in one's own profession or vocation, and only the roses in that of another ! A young man in business, for instance, seeing a physician riding about town in his carriage, visiting his patients, imagines that a doctor must have an easy, ideal life, and wonders that he himself should have embarked in an occupation so full of disagreeable drudgery and hardships. He does not know of the years of d ry, tedious study which the physician has consumed, the months and perhaps years of waiting for patients, the dry detail of anatomy, the endless names of drugs and technical terms. There is a sense of great power in a vocation after a man has reached the point of efficiency in it, the point of productiveness, the point where his skill beg ins to tell and brings in returns. Up to this point of efficiency, while he is l earning his trade, the time seems to have been almost thrown away. But he has be en storing up a vast reserve of knowledge of detail, laying foundations, forming his acquaintances, gaining his reputation for truthfulness, trustworthiness, an d integrity, and in establishing his credit. When he reaches this point of effic iency, all the knowledge and skill, character, influence, and credit thus gained come to his aid, and he soon finds that in what seemed almost thrown away lies the secret of his prosperity. The credit he established as a clerk, the confiden ce, the integrity, the friendships formed, he finds equal to a large capital whe n he starts out for himself and takes the highway to fortune; while the young ma n who half learned several trades, got discouraged and stopped just short of the

point of efficiency, just this side of success, is a failure because he didn't go far enough; he did not press on to the point at which his acquisition would h ave been profitable. In spite of the fact that nearly all very successful men have made a life-work of one thing, we see on every hand hundreds of young men and women flitting abou t from occupation to occupation, trade to trade, in one thing to-day and another to-morrow,--just as though they could go from one thing to another by turning a switch, as though they could run as well on another track as on the one they ha ve left, regardless of the fact that no two careers have the same gage, that eve ry man builds his own road upon which another man's engine can not run either wi th speed or safety. This fickleness, this disposition to shift about from one oc cupation to another, seems to be peculiar to American life, so much so that, whe n a young man meets a friend whom he has not seen for some time, the commonest q uestion to ask is, "What are you doing now?" showing the improbability or uncert ainty that he is doing to-day what he was doing when they last met. Some people think that if they "keep everlastingly at it" they will succeed, bu t this is not always so. Working without a plan is as foolish as going to sea wi thout a compass. A ship which has broken its rudder in mid-ocean may "keep everlastingly at it," may keep on a full head of steam, driving about all the time, but it never arri ves anywhere, it never reaches any port unless by accident; and if it does find a haven, its cargo may not be suited to the people, the climate, or conditions. The ship must be directed to a definite port, for which its cargo is adapted, an d where there is a demand for it, and it must aim steadily for that port through sunshine and storm, through tempest and fog. So a man who would succeed must no t drift about rudderless on the ocean of life. He must not only steer straight t oward his destined port when the ocean is smooth, when the currents and winds se rve, but he must keep his course in the very teeth of the wind and the tempest, and even when enveloped in the fogs of disappointment and mists of opposition. A tlantic liners do not stop for fogs or storms; they plow straight through the ro ugh seas with only one thing in view, their destined port, and no matter what th e weather is, no matter what obstacles they encounter, their arrival in port can be predicted to within a few hours. On the prairies of South America there grows a flower that always inclines in t he same direction. If a traveler loses his way and has neither compass nor chart , by turning to this flower he will find a guide on which he can implicitly rely ; for no matter how the rains descend or the winds blow, its leaves point to the north. So there are many men whose purposes are so well known, whose aims are s o constant, that no matter what difficulties they may encounter, or what opposit ion they may meet, you can tell almost to a certainty where they will come out. They may be delayed by head winds and counter currents, but they will always hea d for the port and will steer straight towards the harbor. You know to a certain ty that whatever else they may lose, they will not lose their compass or rudder. Whatever may happen to a man of this stamp, even though his sails may be swept away and his mast stripped to the deck, though he may be wrecked by the storms o f life, the needle of his compass will still point to the North Star of his hope . Whatever comes, his life will not be purposeless. Even a wreck that makes its port is a greater success than a full-rigged ship with all its sails flying, wit h every mast and every rope intact, which merely drifts along into an accidental harbor. To fix a wandering life and give it direction is not an easy task, but a life w hich has no definite aim is sure to be frittered away in empty and purposeless d reams. "Listless triflers," "busy idlers," "purposeless busy-bodies," are seen e verywhere. A healthy, definite purpose is a remedy for a thousand ills which att

end aimless lives. Discontent and dissatisfaction flee before a definite purpose . What we do begrudgingly without a purpose becomes a delight with one, and no w ork is well done nor healthily done which is not enthusiastically done. Mere energy is not enough; it must be concentrated on some steady, unwavering a im. What is more common than "unsuccessful geniuses," or failures with "commandi ng talents"? Indeed, the term "unrewarded genius" has become a proverb. Every to wn has unsuccessful educated and talented men. But education is of no value, tal ent is worthless, unless it can do something, achieve something. Men who can do something at everything and a very little at anything are not wanted in this age . What this age wants is young men and women who can do one thing without losing their identity or individuality, or becoming narrow, cramped, or dwarfed. Nothin g can take the place of an all-absorbing purpose; education can not, genius can not, talent can not, industry can not, will-power can not. The purposeless life must ever be a failure. What good are powers, faculties, unless we can use them for a purpose? What good would a chest of tools do a carpenter unless he could u se them? A college education, a head full of knowledge, are worth little to the men who cannot use them to some definite end. The man without a purpose never leaves his mark upon the world. He has no indiv iduality; he is absorbed in the mass, lost in the crowd, weak, wavering, and inc ompetent. "Consider, my lord," said Rowland Hill to the Prime Minister of England, "that a letter to Ireland and the answer back would cost thousands upon thousands of m y affectionate countrymen more than a fifth of their week's wages. If you shut t he post-office to them, which you do now, you shut out warm hearts and generous affections from home, kindred, and friends." The lad learned that it cost to car ry a letter from London to Edinburgh, four hundred and four miles, one eighteent h of a cent, while the government charged for a simple folded sheet of paper twe nty-eight cents, and twice as much if there was the smallest inclosure. Against the opposition and contempt of the post-office department he at length carried h is point, and on January 10, 1840, penny postage was established throughout Grea t Britain. Mr. Hill was chosen to introduce the system, at a salary of fifteen h undred pounds a year. His success was most encouraging, but at the end of two ye ars a Tory minister dismissed him without paying for his services, as agreed. Th e public was indignant, and at once contributed sixty-five thousand dollars; and , at the request of Queen Victoria, Parliament voted him one hundred thousand do llars cash, together with ten thousand dollars a year for life. It is a great purpose which gives meaning to life; it unifies all our powers, b inds them together in one cable and makes strong and united what was weak, separ ated, scattered. "Smatterers" are weak and superficial. Of what use is a man who knows a little of everything and not much of anything? It is the momentum of constantly repeate d acts that tells the story. "Let thine eyes look straight before thee. Ponder t he path of thy feet and let all thy ways be established. Turn not to the right h and nor to the left." One great secret of St. Paul's power lay in his strong pur pose. Nothing could daunt, nothing intimidate him. The Roman Emperor could not m uzzle him, the dungeon could not appall him, no prison suppress him, obstacles c ould not discourage him. "This one thing I do" was written all over his work. Th e quenchless zeal of his mighty purpose burned its way down through the centurie s, and its contagion will never cease to fire the hearts of men. "Try and come home somebody," said his mother to Gambetta as she sent him off t o Paris to school. Poverty pinched this lad hard in his little garret study and his clothes were shabby, but what of that? He had made up his mind to get on in

poor and unknown." CHAPTER XL WORK AND WAIT What we do upon some great occasion will probably depend on what we already are . P . though he might easily have made himself a millionaire. No matter what comes to him. A German officer said: "This colossal energy is the most remarkable event of modern history. and surmounting obstacles which dishearten others . deputy-elect. even in dissolute lives. rough and uncouth. For many years Gambetta had been preparing for such an opportu nity. W hat a sublime spectacle it is to see a youth going straight to his goal. disaster. which shows none of its inherent beauties until the skill of the polisher sketches out the c .--H. and took our Republic as the pattern for France. living i n a garret. What a stride. Jules Favre was to plead a great cause on a certain day. sickness. b ut. This sudden rise was not due to luck or accide nt. Nor did he lose his head in h is quick leap into fame. and will carry down Gambetta's name to remote posterity. and directed their military operatio ns. uncouth Bohemian. provided for their maintenance. That night all the papers in Paris were so unding the praises of this ragged. it always makes way for the man with a will in him. p urposeless man has who. only gives him new power. which. was now virtually dicta tor of France. and when the Prussian army was marching on Paris. runs against all sorts of snags to which he must yield simply because he has no momentum to force them out of his way. I consider a human soul without education like marble in a quarry. without stain of dishonor. He made one of the greatest speeches that up to th at time had ever been made in France. landed in Amiens. like driftwood. he never turn s his eye from his goal. He does not have one-half the opposition to overcome that the undecided. the brave G ambetta went out of the besieged city in a balloon barely grazed by the Prussian guns.000 men. and the greatest orator in the Republic. and he was equal to it. in the city of Marseilles. opposition only doubles his exertions. yesterday. "Duos qui sequitur lepores. He had been steadfastly working and fighting his way up against oppositions and poverty for just such an occasion. absolutely unknown. Had he not been equal to it. What a striking example of the great reserve of personal power. and the great Republ ican leader! When Louis Napoleon had been defeated at Sedan and had delivered his sword to W illiam of Prussia. although but thirty-two years old. today. t o take his place. his great reserve rushed to the front.the world. is somet imes called out by a great emergency or sudden sorrow. He is bound to win. At last his opportunity came. the world stan ds to one side and lets him pass. and what we are will be the result of previous years of self-discipline. and by almost superhuman skill raised three armies of 8 00. for he lo ved our country. poverty. he chose this young man. like a gymnasium. "The Republic has lost its greatest man. For years he was chained to his desk and worked like a hero." This youth who was poring over his books in an attic while other youths were promenad ing the Champs Elysées. as though they were but stepping-stones! Defeat." American boys should study this great man. He still lived in the upper room in the musty Latin Qua rter. and ever after leads the life to victory! When Gambetta found that his first speech had electrified all F rance. neutrum capit. and soon all France recogni zed him as the Republican leader. dominated by one unwavering aim. cutting his way through difficulties. and remained a poor man. he was suddenly weaned from dissip ation. it would onl y have made him ridiculous. being ill. LIDDON. When he died the "Figaro" said. dangers only increase his courage. and resolved to make his mark in the world. There is no grander sight in the world than that of a young man fired with a gr eat purpose.

and you shall attain to higher knowledge. but. In explaining his invention. he soon made work for himself by inventin g a process of copying bas-reliefs on cardboard. which has revolutionized the iron industry through out the world. The chief also fully appreciated the new danger of easy counterfeiting. he set to work and invented a perforat ed stamp which could not be forged nor removed from a document. and discovers every ornamental cloud.--ADDISON. The result. fetters and stops itself. His method consists simply in forcing hot air from below into sev eral tons of melted pig-iron. Use your gifts faithfully. "I understand that. His method was so simple that o ne could learn in ten minutes how to make a die from an embossed stamp for a pen ny. He felt proud of the young woman's ingenuity. At the public st amp office he was told by the chief that the government was losing 100. would render Bessemer's perforation device of far less value than a last year's bird' s nest. Having ascertained later that in this way the raised stamps on all official papers in England could easily be forged. spot. by keepin g out of the ponderous minds of the British revenue officers. he told how it would prevent any one from taking a valuable stamp from a document a hundred years old and using it a second time. and then addi ng enough spiegel-eisen (looking-glass iron). the more you can save yourself and that which belongs to you ." This was a very short speech." said Henry Bessemer .--CHARLES KINGSLEY. he at once entered in to a partnership which placed at his command the combined ideas of two very leve l heads. surely. and do more work with less effort. Bessemer chose the office. if all stamps had a date put upon them they could not at a future time be used without detection. practise what you know. Although but eighteen years old. and they shall be enlarged. after years of thought and experiment. had for a long per iod saved the government the burden of caring for an additional income of 100. makes the surface shine.00 0 pounds a year.--SENECA.000 pound s a year through the custom of removing stamps from old parchments and using the m again. or an office for life at eight hundred pounds a year. As a result his system of perforation was abandoned and he was deprived of his promised office.olors. without compensation. and hastened to tell the good news to a young woman with whom he had agreed to share his fortune . "Yes." said his betrothed. the government coolly making use from that day to this. like the schoolboy's pins which saved the lives of th ousands of people annually by not getting swallowed. was the Bessemer pro cess of making steel cheaply. and of no special importance if we omit a single word of four letters.--ARNOLD. And the same little word. that little word. "I was a mere cipher in that vast sea of human enterprise. to change t he whole mass to steel. speaking of his arrival in London in 1831. realizing tha t the best capital a young man can have is a capital wife. if published in its connection. He discovered this simple process only after trying in vain much more difficult and expensive methods. an d without an acquaintance in the city. but. The more you know. but. . an ore rich in carbon. of the idea conveyed by that little insignificant word. So he o ffered Bessemer a definite sum for his process of perforation. so as to produce intense combustion. Haste trips up its own heels. and vein that runs throughout the body of it. and promptly suggested the improvement at the stamp office. So Bessemer's financial prospects were not very encouraging.

Today. and "the constant trembling lest some blunder should expose one's emptiness. But when Carlyle brought it to London in 1851. And drinking largely sobers u s again. he replied that he wou ld have spent six weeks. and everything is made "to sell. Hard work. Buildings are rushed up so quickly t hat they will not stand. The shifts to cover up ignorance."All things come round to him who will but wait. The publi shers of the "Atlantic Monthly" returned Miss Alcott's manuscript. deep foundations. At length he managed to get it into "Fraser's Magazine. of course t hey do poor." are pitiable. She works ages to bring a flower to perfection. a perfect man. on society. One of the leading magazines ridiculed Tenn yson's first poems. i t was refused almost contemptuously by three prominent publishers. or college.-A little learning is a dangerous thing. Short cuts and abridged methods a re the demand of the hour. The weary years in preparator y school and college dishearten them. Drink deep. Everybody is in a hurry. and many die of old a ge in the forties. a definite aim. The boy can't wait to become a youth." the editor of which conveyed to the author the pleasing information that his work had been received with "unqualifie d disapprobation. Moore spent several weeks on one of his musical stanzas which rea ds as if it were a dash of genius. "Can't wait" is characteristic of the century. When an aut horess told Wordsworth she had spent six hours on a poem. on commerce. feverish work. Don't risk a life's superstructure upon a day's foundation. and break down in middle life. and consigned the young poet to temporary oblivion. but they were respectfully declined. Wha t will she not do for the greatest of her creation? Ages and aeons are nothing t o her. Only one . or taste not the Pierian sp ring: There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain. Think of Bishop Hall spending thirty years on one of hi s works! Owens was working on the "Commentary to the Epistle to the Hebrews" for twenty years. out of them she has been carving her great statue. Can't wait for a high school. But the way to shorten the road to success is to take plenty of time to lay in your reserve power. and is written on everything. se minary. and then they are read y for business. nor the youth a man." Not long ago a professor in one of our universities had a letter from a young w oman in the West. and hundreds of thousands of copie s are scattered over the world. suggesting th at she had better stick to teaching." Henry Ward Beecher sent half a dozen articles to the publisher of a religious p aper to pay for his subscription. Our young people of to-d ay are not willing to lay broad. You can get it for a mere trifle at almost any bookseller's. Y outh rush into business with no great reserve of education or drill. Patience is Nature's motto. and fai thfulness will shorten the way. on schools. so that every sentence i s the quintessence of many books. Johnson said a man must turn over half a library to write one book. Carlyle wrote with the utmost difficulty and never executed a page of his great histories till he had consulted every known authority." The great lack of the age is want of thoroughness. on churches. a little smattering of books. the product of many hours of drudging research in the great libraries. But as Pope says. "Sartor Resartus" is everywhere. They only want a "smattering" of an educat ion. asking him if he did not think she could teach elocution if sh e could come to the university and take twelve lessons. How seldom you find a young man or woman who is willing to take time to prepare for his life work! A little education is all they want.

"proceed". "Most certainly not. lest his pencil might catch the taint of avarice. Webster received a fee that paid him liberally for all the time and trouble he had spent for his early client. destined to shake an empire. a Mirabeau. which he had solved so thoroughly that it was to him now as simple as the multiplication table. not daunted by privations. a Farragut. Washington Irving was n early seventy years old before the income from his books paid the expenses of hi s household." ob jected the rich man. struggling on cheerfully after his "Vanity Fair" was refused by a dozen pub lishers. a Grant. to say noth ing of his time. The thought haunted him and found its final embodiment in "The Last . Albert Bierstadt first crossed the Rocky Mountains with a band of pioneers in 1 859." What the age wants is men who have the nerve and the grit to work and wait. Going back to the time of Charles II he gave the law and precedents involved with such readiness and accuracy of sequence that Burr asked in great surprise if he had been consulted before in th e case. toiling and waiting in a lonely garret. He won his case. and eagerly devouring it before the sap-bush f ire. just to "get through. whe ther the world applaud or hiss. To-day very few boys learn any trade. not hindered by discouragements." without any effort to see how much he may lear n on any subject." "Very well. in a quarter of that time. walking two miles through the snow with rags tied around his feet for shoes. nor hunger could discourage or intimidate. Years after. and. a Thurlow Weed. on account of the poverty of his client. a n intricate question of title. on ly charged fifteen dollars. and then ordered at an expense of fifty dollars the necessary bo oks. he was co nsulted by Aaron Burr on an important but puzzling case then pending before the Supreme Court. when denounced by his brother generals and politicians everywhere. They pick up what they know. to sculpture an Apollo Bel videre. when he had finished. In some respects it is very unfortunate that the old system of binding boys out to a trade has been abandoned. "Yes. a Michael Angelo. He saw in a moment that it was just like the blacksmith's case. he gazed in wonder upon the en ormous herds of buffaloes which dotted the plains as far as the eye could reach. a Milton." refusing all remuneration therefo r." he replied. a Von Moltke. but. a Balzac. It wants men who can work and wait. making sketches for the paintings of Western scenes for which he had become famous." said Burr. to obtain authorities and precedents in a case in which his client was a po or blacksmith. elaborating "Paradise Lost" in a world he could not see. "But it took you only five minutes. fighting on in hero ic silence. As he followed the trail to Pike's Peak. debt. Think of an American youth spending ten years with Da Vinci on the model of an equestrian statue that he might master the anatomy of the horse! Most young Amer ican artists would expect. as he was passing through New York City. Burnett complied and charged a thousand francs. who have the persistence to work and wait for half a century for their first great opportunities. When a young lawyer Daniel Webster once looked in vain through all the law libr aries near him. just as a student crams for a particular ex amination. but it took me thirty years to learn how to do it in five minutes. A rich man asked Howard Burnett to do a little something for his album. working seven long years decorating the Sistine Chapel with his matchless "Creation" and the "Last Judgment. "I never heard of your case till this evening. men whom neither pove rty. who can struggle on for forty years before he has a chance to show the world his vast reserve. a Thacke ray. and thought of the time when they would have disappeared before the march of ci vilization. as they go along.of Ralph Waldo Emerson's books had a remunerative sale. thus losing heavily on the books bought. to borrow the history of the French Revolution.

apparentl y thrown away. "Indeed. "that the Lord opened my mouth without any lea rning. true to the plumb-line through all the tempests that lash its granite sides." said the President . he said it was all a question of hard work. unseen and unappreciated by those who tread about that historic shaft. solid foundation. howev er noble." said a wealthy banker who had begun without a dollar. perhaps the most beautiful ever painted. must have a deep." "A similar event. changes the mulberry leaf to satin. studying expression for a year and a half. A large part of every successful life must be spent in laying foundation stones underground. who went with Moore to see him. It is simply asto . Before Edmund Kean would consent to appear in that character which he acted wit h such consummate skill.of the Buffaloes" in 1890." Endurance is a much better test of character than any one act of heroism. and this is so arranged that the commander of the army here could telegraph to any officer to take such a train and go to such a place at a moment's notice. so deep must they dig to build on the living rock. such perseverance. you have been to college. sir. it is said. Byron fainted. but it is this foundation. There is a schedule of trains which will supersede all other schedules the moment war is declared. "I have just begun my education. The accom plishments of such industry. "I am thankful. The pianist Thalberg said he never ventured to perform one of his celebrated pi eces in public until he had played it at least fifteen hundred times." retorted the clergyman. In Rome the foundation is often the most expensive part of an edifice. "For years I was in my place of business by sunrise. which will stand the test of time. A chart is made out which sho ws just what must be done in the case of wars with the different nations. said he never looked upon so fearful and wicked a face. To perfect this great work he had spent twenty years. Byron. Said Captain Bingham: "You can have no idea of the wonderful machine that the G erman army is and how well it is prepared for war." Patience. in order to gain a hold by which the tree was anch ored to withstand the storms of centuries. Da Vinci spent four years on the head of Mona Lisa. "and often I did not leave it for fifteen or eighte en hours. and ev ery officer's place in the scheme is laid out beforehand. The Gentleman Villain. would put to shame many a man wh o claims genius. As the great actor went on to delineate the terrible conseque nces of sin. Fifty feet of Bunker Hill Monument is under ground." said the former." Many an extraordinary man has been made out of a very ordinary boy: but in orde r to accomplish this we must begin with him while he is young. He laid no claim whatever to genius. Success is the child of drudgery and perseverance and depends upon "knowing how long it takes to suc ceed. he practised constantly before a glass. Everything which endures. I presume?" "Yes. but he left therein an a rtistic thought for all time. which enables it to stand upright." A learned clergyman was thus accosted by an illiterate preacher who despised ed ucation: "Sir." A young man just graduated told the President of Trinity College that he had co mpleted his education. and had come to say good-by." was the reply. When he appeared upon the sta ge. "happened in Balaam's time. The giant oak on the hillside was detained months or years in its upward growth while its root took a great turn around some rock.

and that hi s mind should have broad and liberal culture. both physical. or living out a miserable existence in the slums of our cities. rough. but also studied Greek co nstantly and read every well-written book or paper he could obtain. was a remarkable example of that pluck and patience which can work and wait. had he only been fortunate enough early in life to have enjoyed the benefi ts of efficient and systematic training! Laziness begins in cobwebs and ends in iron chains. B ut I held firm. and comes under the tutelage of a skilled educator before his habits become fixed or confirmed. uncouth.' but t he instrument responded 'pecia. ha s slumbering within the rags possibilities which would have developed him into a magnificent man. in spite of the consciousness of marvelous natural endowments wh ich would have been deemed sufficient by many young men. but refused. Even a few weeks' or months' drill of the rawest and roughest recruits in the l ate Civil War so straightened and dignified stooping and uncouth soldiers." The habit of seizing every bit of knowledge. I can see the result. no matter how insignificant it may seem at the time. but after he had gone." The road to distinction must be paved with years of self-denial and hard work. and grinding them all up i nto experience. and courteous in their bearing. can not be overestimated. saying he was very busy and had no time to master the subject." Webster was once urged to speak on a subject of great importance. in the poorhouse. and which he had not thought of in the meantime. and I have succeeded. His on ly inheritance was poverty and hard work. and notwithstanding he had gained the coveted prize of a seat in Parliament. Edison described his repeat ed efforts to make the phonograph reproduce an aspirated sound. Webst er once repeated with effect an anecdote which he had heard fourteen years befor e. that their own friends sc arcely knew them. the great author of the common school system of Massachusetts. But he had an unquenchable thirst for knowledge and a determination to get on in the world. If this change is so marked in the youth who has grown to matu rity. mental.' It was enough to drive one mad. so determine d was he that his life should be rounded out to its fullest measure. specia. "But. if I practise three days. every opportunity. he not only spent eleven terms more in the study of the law. what a miracle is possible in the lad who is taken early and put under a c ourse of drill and systematic training." Webster replied. It exactly fitted the occasi on. it is because I do not allow myself to speak on any subject until my mind is imbued with it. an ornament to the human race instead of a foul blot and ugly scar. "It is an ill mason that rejects any stone. if he has good material in him. my friends can see it. You will find use for all of it. yet he decided to make him self master of the situation. the great public can see it. pecia. and moral! How of ten a man who is in the penitentiary. Gladstone was bound to win. if I practise two days. slovenly. specia. erect. and even dull lad. Horace Mann.nishing what training will do for a rough. He braided straw to earn m oney to buy books for which his soul thirsted." On one occasion Webster made a remarkable speech before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Harvard. his "impro . when a book was presented to him. and added: "From eighteen to twenty hours a day for the last seven months I have worked on this single word 'specia. and amid all his public and private duties. Ole Bull said: "If I practise one day. "If there be so much weight in my words. Although he had spent many years of preparation for his life work. pecia.' I said into the phonograph 'specia. or among the tramps." replied hi s friend. "a very few words from you would do much to awaken public attention to it. every occasion. and m ade them manly.

All the genius I have lies just in this: when I have a subject in hand I study it profoundly. or a fast horse. supplementin g what was considered a thorough military education by researches and reflection s which in later years enabled him easily to teach the art of war to veterans wh o had never dreamed of his novel combinations." . The easily discouraged. it is the fruit of labor and thought. Then the effort which I make the people are pleased to call the fruit of genius. Permanent success is oftener won by holding on than by sudden dash. it was said. to see if they are growing. he would take one minute to consider ho w best to do it. carefully written out. Reserves which carry us through great emergencies are the result of long workin g and long waiting. who are pushed back by a straw. My mind becomes pervade d with it." "I have been watching the careers of young men by the thousand in this busy cit y of New York for over thirty years. however brilliant. was found in the book which he had forgotte n to take away. "Many men. Day and night it is before me. because you never are beaten." The law of labor is equally b inding on genius and mediocrity. Alexander Hamilton said. but meanwhile he studied with all his might." We must not only work. "who thinks chiefly of his mustache and b oots and shiny hat. but replie d. but p ull them up every now and then. "The spruce young spark. but also wait. dispensing benefits and acquiring fort une. Nelaton." says Sizer. the great surgeon. to stand the strain of a long fight. In any meeting or assembly." The Duke of Wellington became so discouraged because he did not advance in the army that he applied for a much inferior position in the customs department. when called upo n. when he will be glad to accept a situation from the fellow-clerk whom he now ridicules and affects to despise. when the latter shall stand in the firm." says Longfellow. They who understand and practise Abraham Lincoln's homely maxim of 'pegging away' have achieved the solidest success.--to do well always. Napoleon had applied for every vacant position for seven years bef ore he was recognized. said that if he had four minutes in which to perfor m an operation on which a life depended. because he never allowed himself to speak on any s ubject without thorough preparation." said Dr. and so to never know you are beaten. "I am not prepared. and talki ng about the theater. or some precious thing will be lost.mptu" speech.--"the power to do the grandest thing possible to your nature when you fee l you must. but best in the crisis on which all things turn. of getting along nicely and easily during the day. if his useless li fe is not earlier blasted by vicious indulgences. ridiculing the faithful young fellow who came to learn the business and make a man of himself because he will not join in wasting his time in dissipation. and s till find you have something left. but was refused. it was thought by many that Demosthenes did not possess any genius whatever. are all the time dropping to the rear--to perish or to be carried along on the stretcher of charity. will see the day." In fact. without previously pr eparing himself. as children do flowers they have planted. the opera. "do not allow their principles to take root. "Men give me credit for genius. Collyer declares that reserves mean to a man also achiev ement. Dr. even to make remarks. I explore it in all its bearings. "and I find that the chie f difference between the successful and the failures lies in the single element of staying power. Cuyler. he would never rise. Demosthenes was once asked to speak on a great and sudden emergency.

" "Arletta's pretty feet. and germs of limitless mental growth. and with a small bobtailed do g. "Not for school.--WENDELL PHI LLIPS. walked to the river's e dge to find their food. Learn to labor and to wait. fickleness. YOUNG. had been stolen. with a short gun. the three great essentials to success in menta l and physical labor are Practice." CHAPTER XLI THE MIGHT OF LITTLE THINGS Think naught a trifle.--ECCLESIASTICUS . sti ll pursuing. white man. he asked him if he ha d seen a little. which had been hanging up to dry. but was surprised to find that the In dian had not even seen the one he described. Still achieving. and su perficiality--are the things acquired most readily and longest retained." We may tell which way the wind blew before the Deluge by marking the ripple and cupping of the rain in the petrified sand now preserved forever. and thoroughness. the guides sometimes demand absolute silence. The power of observation in the American Indian would put many an educated man to shame. The creation of a thousand forests is in one acorn. then. but the greatest of these is Perseverance.--EMERSON. Among the lofty Alps. be up and doing. giving instead to Europe and America models of the highest politica l freedom yet attained. Patience. moment s make the year. Harold would not have fal len at Hastings. It is but the littleness of man that sees no greatness in trifles. life. and our habits--o f promptness. To vary the language of another. no Anglo-Norman dynasty could have arisen. A different result at Plataea would have delayed the progress of the human race more than ten cent uries. The man told him he had met such a man. And trifles. earnestness. or of tardiness. "A pebble on the streamlet scant Has turned the course of many a river. an Indian discovered that his venison. It was little Greece that rolled back the overflowing tide of Asiatic luxury an d despotism. made her the mother of William the Conqueror. no British Empire. "Let us. We tell the ve ry path by which gigantic creatures. of Normandy. Small sands the mountain. and asked him how he could give suc h a minute description of the man he had never seen." says Palgrave's "History of Normandy and England. we learn". whom man never saw. and Perseverance. After careful observation he started to trac k the thief through the woods. but for life. With a heart for any fate. Men are led by trifles. He that despiseth small things shall fall by little and little. "I knew the thief was a lit . Meeting a man on the route. it is said." "Had she not thus fascinated Duke Robert the Liberal. old.He only is independent in action who has been earnest and thorough in preparati on and self-culture.--NAPOLEON. lest the vibration of the voice bring down an avalanche. Returning home. glistening in the brook. though it small appear." "The bad thing about a little sin is that it won't stay little.

Madame Galvani noticed the contraction of the muscles of a skinned f rog which was accidentally touched at the moment her husband took a spark from a n electrical machine. St. the St. How slight the influence of the breeze. enabled Columbus to stay a mutiny of his sailors which threatened to prevent the discovery of a new world . By gnawing through a dike. Lake St. too small to be c learly seen without the aid of a magnifying-glass. "The fate of a nation. and thus warned them of their danger. Clair River. even a rat may drown a nation. Lake Erie. a war that . A little boy in Holla nd saw water trickling from a small hole near the bottom of a dike. and from a single bone. were separated a few inches by a gentl e breeze. and that he had a bob -tail by the mark it left in the dust where he sat." says Gladstone. A few bits of seaweed and driftwood. it broke its long silence by a shrill note. Lawrence." A stamp act to raise 60. He realized that the leak would rapidly become larger if the water were not checked. The beetling chalk cliffs of England were built by rhizopods. Green Bay. "has often depended upon the good or ba d digestion of a fine dinner." Two drops of rain. or that the sickness of an Italian chemi st's wife and her absurd craving for reptiles for food should begin the electric telegraph.000 pounds produced the American Revolution. Lake Michi gan. Lake Huron. Detro it River. yet such was the formation of the continent that a trifling cause was multiplied almost beyond the power of figures to express its momentous effect upon the des tinies of these companion raindrops. Dana could interest a class for hours on a grain of sand. and fi nally reached the Gulf of St. and. I knew the dog was small by his tracks and short steps. I knew he was an old man by his short steps. Who can calculate the future of the smalles t trifle when a mud crack swells to an Amazon and the stealing of a penny may en d on the scaffold? The act of a moment may cause a life's regret. The commanding off icer and hundreds of his men were going to South America on a great ship. Clair. His name is still held in grateful remembran ce in Holland. I knew he had a short gun by the mark it left on the tree where he had stood it u p.tle man. t hrough the carelessness of the watch. one rolled southward through the Rock River and the Mississippi to the Gulf of M exico. Lake Ontario. A cricket once saved a military expedition from destruction. such as n o one had ever seen before. When the little insect scented the land. Lawrence River. Niagara River. but the soul returns never. they would have been dashed upon a ledge o f rock had it not been for a cricket which a soldier had brought on board. so he h eld his hand over the hole for hours on a dark and dismal night until he could a ttract the attention of passers-by. Striking on opposite sides of the roof of a court-house in Wisconsin. A spark falling upon some combustibles led to the invention of gunpowder. I knew he was a white man by his turning out his toes in walking. She gave the hint which led to the discovery of galvanic e lectricity. falling side by side. the Straits of Mackinaw. There are moments in history which balance years of ordinary life. which an Indian never does. floating on the waves." said the Indian. What was so unlikely as that throwing an empty wine-flask in the fire should fu rnish the first notion of a locomotive. while the other entered successively the Fox River. "because he rolled up a stone to stand on in order to reach the venison. A trigger may be pulled in an instant. Agassiz could deduce the entire structure and habits of an animal which no man had ever seen so accurately that subsequent discoveri es of complete skeletons have not changed one of his conclusions. now so useful in the arts and in transmitting vocal or written langu age.

Henry Ward Beecher came within one vote of being elected superintendent of a ra ilway. and it was rejected from the regalia of crown je one of t value of England. It was a little thing for the janitor to leave a lamp swinging in the cathedral at Pisa. That invisible fracture reduced the the ruby thousands of dollars. telling them what I had discovered. some self-indulgence. put the muzzle to his head.cost England 100.000. a re little things. when placed beside great abilities. Tha t's the whole story. you say. and never again to cheapen it. The phonograph is the result of the pricking of a finger. The quarrel of two Indian boys over a grassh opper led to the "Grasshopper War. and pulled the trigger. a quick temper. finding no opening." It was a little thing for a cow to kick over a lantern left in a shanty. and. ." said Edison. "when the vibrat ions of my voice caused a fine steel point to pierce one of my fingers held just behind it. want of decision. with but a handful of European soldiers." Perhaps you turned a cold shoulder bu t once. I determined to make a machine that would work accurately. and made but one stinging remark. but it laid Chicago in ashes. and rendered homeless a hundred thousand people. but in that steady swaying motion the boy Galileo saw the pendulum. Some little weakness. but they have wre cked many a career. The report of the weler was that it was the finest he had ever seen or heard of. an d conceived the idea of thus measuring time. he went to his room. secured to the East India Company and afterwards to Great Britain a great and rich country with two hundred millions of people. This young man became General Robert Clive.000 pounds. costing more than a hundred thousand lives. to ma ke the most of it. But it did not go off. yet it may have cost you a friend fore ver." What mighty contests rise from trivial thing s! A young man once went to India to seek his fortune. but. He went to the window to point it in another di rection and try it again. That set me to thinking. A war between France and England. who. "I was singing to the mouthpiece of a telephone. If I could record the motions of the point and send it over the same surface afterward. for a ught we know. I saw no reason why the thing would not talk. A famous ruby was offered to the English government. an d the pain from a thistle warned a Scottish army of the approach of the Danes. The cackling of a goose aroused the sentinels and saved Rome from the Gauls. The Parliament of Great Britain. and represe ntative governments all over the world have come from King John signing the Magn a Charta. and gave m y assistants the necessary instructions. Bentham says. If he had had that vote America would probably have lost its greatest pre acher. loaded his pistol. the fate of many a kingdom. resolved that if the weapon went off he would regard i t as a Providence that he was spared. the Congress of the United States. but that he "facets" was slightly fractured. What a little thing fixes destiny! Trifles light as air often suggest to the thinking mind ideas which have revolu tionized the world. grew out of a quarrel as to which of two vessels should first be served with water. Trembling with excitement he resolved to hold his life sacred. "The turn of a sentence has decided many a friendship. He pulled the trigger and it went off the first time.

and perfection is no trifle. One in a million--once in a lifetime--may do a heroic action. and gave a prophet t o many nations. A flight of birds probably prevented Columbus from discovering t his continent. . "had the flight of birds more importa nt consequences. the exact day he was to arrive at a certain station. pleasant words. a friendly letter. and t he exact hour he was to leave.The sight of a stranded cuttlefish led Cuvier to an investigation which made hi m one of the greatest natural historians in the world. nothing to contingency." said the sculptor. "I have retouched this part." Napoleon left nothing to chance. even to the smallest detail. the biscuits. th e horse fodder. He must know all about the provisions. and they were all to reach the point of destinati on at a precise moment. genial smiles. But for his change of course Columbus would have reached the coast of Florida. every officer had his orders as to the exact route wh ich he should follow. "When they a re sent to me. The cry of the infant Moses attracted the attention of Pharoah's daughter. and gave the Jews a lawgiver. good wishes. A bird alighting on the bough of a tree at the mouth o f the cave where Mahomet lay hid turned aside his pursuers." wrote Humboldt. with more vital fidel ity to truth. A missing marriage certificate kept the hod-carrier of Hugh Miller from establi shing his claim to the Earldom of Crawford. and our whole life but a day repeated. What is the happiness of your life made up of? Little courtesies. Martin Alonzo Pinzon persuaded him t o follow a flight of parrots toward the southwest. From this hint came the telescope." said a gent leman to Michael Angelo. for to the Spanish seamen of that day it was good luck to follow in the wake of a flock of birds when on a vo yage of discovery. the shoes. the camp kettles. softened that feature. Napoleon was a master of trifles." That infinite patience which made Michael Angelo spend a week in bringing out a muscle in a statue. "But. those that dare misspend it. The web of a spider sugge sted to Captain Brown the idea of a suspension bridge. or Gerhard Dow a day in giving the right effect to a dewdrop on a cabbage leaf. He would often charge his absent officers t o send him perfectly accurate returns. more energy to that limb." replied the great artist. It is said that nothing could be more perfectly planned than his memorable march which led to the victory of Austerlitz. polished that. The masons would call out. No thing was too small for his attention. To details which his inferior officers though t too microscopic for their notice he gave the most exhaustive consideration. Every day is a little life. "It may be so. "John. "I cannot see that you have made any progress since my last visit. brought out that muscle. "Never. Everything was pl anned to a nicety before he attempted to execute it." "But they are trifles!" exclai med the visitor. and which seale d the fate of Europe for many years. given some expres sion to this lip. etc. bring us anither hod o' lime. A single misspelled word prevented a deserving young man from obtaining a situation as instructor in a New England college. and told their father that distant objects looked large r. makes all the difference between success and failure. When he was growing anxious. "but trifles make per fection. desperate. so far as he could possibly avoid it. and t o observe the difference between one monthly return and another. When the bugle sounde d for the march to battle. No young girl e njoys her novel as much as I do these returns. Ye arl of Crawford. and good de eds. little kindne sses. I give up every occupation in order to read them in detail." The children of a spectacle-maker placed two or more pairs of the spectacles be fore each other in play." The absence of a comma in a bill which passed through Congress years ago cost o ur government a million dollars. Those that d are lose a day are dangerously prodigal.

A single potato. An eminent foreign savant called on Dr. Madame de Staël. and a sheet of pasteboard enabled Newton to unfold the composition of light and the origin of colors. Anne Boleyn's fascinating smile split the great Churc h of Rome in twain. falling like dew upon a thought. a few poems from Lowell an d Whittier. each trivial in itself. has multiplied into food for millions. John Robinson. Napoleon. A few immortal sentences from Garrison and Phillips. was "great in little things. who feared n ot to attack the proudest monarchs in their capitols. and the blemish would have changed the history of the world. said. a Darwin extracts h is law of evolution." How many a lawyer has failed from the lack of details i n deeds and important papers. he gave his personal attention to the minutest detail. But that he could not leave England he reformed his life. carried to England by Sir Walter Raleigh in th e sixteenth century. and often great losses! How m any wills are contested from the carelessness of lawyers in the omission or shad ing of words. was beautiful enough to spare the tip of he r nose. it is said. and the leaven is at work which will not cease its action until the whipping-post and bodily servitude are abolished forever. A pan of w ater and two thermometers were the tools by which Dr. and the poor people of Austerfield and Scrooby into perpetual exile. such were th e words of ten ministers who in the year 1700 assembled at the village of Branfo . "for want of a horseshoe nail. but as Pilgrims they bec ame the founders of a mighty people. a small balance." "I give these books for the founding of a college in this colony". and a Linnaeus constructs the science of botany." says Poor Richard. think. Black discovered latent he at. "and a small drop of ink. At that when he found een detained. Wollaston. perhaps millions. and which involved his clients in litigation. or ambiguous use of language! Not even Helen of Troy. Had he not b who can tell what the history of Great Britain would have been? From the careful and persistent accumulation of innumerable facts. "T here is my laboratory. shrank from the political influence of one independent woman in private life. a lens. driving famine from Ireland again and again. and a blow-pipe. when the doctor took him into a little study. For want of a shoe the horse was lost. but in the aggregate forming a mass of evidence. While other generals trusted to subordinates. having squandered all his property. and if Cleopatra's had been an inch shorter Mark Antony might never have become infatuated with her wonderful charms. on which st ood a few watch glasses." A single remark dropped by an unknown person in the street led to the successfu l story of "The Bread-winners. test papers. F or want of a horse the rider was lost." "Words are things" says Byron. "Lack of detail. and. "For want of a nail the shoe was lost. pointing to an old tea tray on the table. the lack of little words which seemed like surplus age. and all." A hymn chanted by the barefooted friars in the t emple of Jupiter at Rome led to the famous "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire . The history of many a failure could be written in three words. produces that which makes thousands." He knew no such things as trifle s. Cromwell was tion. It seemed a small thing to drive William Brewster. and gave a nation an altered destiny." A burnt stick and a barn door served Wilkie in lieu of p encil and paper.Wellington. and a prism. and asked to be shown over those laboratories of his in which science had been enriched by so many great discoveries. too. about to sail for America when a law was passed prohibiting emigra time he was a profligate.

The strength of a chain lies in its weakest link. As he l eft the door. every plant. and a single drop of water is a miniature ocean. while he went to an adjoining room to jot d own a stray thought. everything wh ich comes within its range. and asked him to ride. while w e are sensitive and neglectful of our weaknesses. he invented a hulling machine which has revolu tionized the rice business.rd. Sir Walter Scott once saw a shepherd boy plodding sturdily along. Small things become great when a great soul sees them. and many a ship has survived the shocks of icebergs and the storms o f ocean only to founder in a smooth sea from holes made by tiny insects. There is a phonograph in our natures which catches. reproduced in our descendants. such was the founding of Yale College. The microscope reveals as great a world below as the telescope above . . until it became red hot. he picked up a pin. Great men are noted for their attention to trifles. Tracks of extinct animals in the old red sandstone led Hugh Miller on and on until he became the g reatest geologist of his time. In nature there is not hing small. every syllable we utter. in all their beautiful or te rrible detail. Bits of glass arranged to amuse children led to the disc overy of the kaleidoscope. These notes may appear a t housand years hence. flo wer. "Least of all seeds. during an interview. This boy was George Kemp. stream. Yet it is our greatest weaknes s which measures our real strength. and registers foreve r the slightest enunciation. Indeed. It is the little rift within the lute That by and by will make the music mute. All of nature's laws govern the smallest atoms. however thoughtless and transient." seems to be one of the great la ws of nature. and. Goodyear discovered how to vulcanize rubber by forget ting. Many an honorable career has re sulted from a kind word spoken in season or the warm grasp of a friendly hand. when th e latter died. taking its bill for a model. every tree. and renders it immortal. a few miles east of New Haven. hill. The bank president saw this. called the boy ba ck. and shot it. He did not forget the kindness of Sir Walter. Each of the worthy fathers deposited a few bo oks upon the table around which they were sitting. Goethe once asked a monarch to excuse him. and gave him a situation from which he rose until he became the greatest ban ker of Paris. A single noble or heroic act of one man has sometimes elevated a nation. to a truly great mind there a re no little things. All life comes from microscopic beginnings. but was refused. every scene upon the street. The eye is a perpetual camera imprinting upon the sensitive mental plates and p acking away in the brain for future use every face. A ship-worm boring a piece of wood suggested to Sir Isa mbard Brunel the idea of a tunnel under the Thames at London." A poor boy applied for a situation at a bank in Paris. in fact. who became so enthusiastic in his study of sculpture that he walked fifty miles and back to se e a beautiful statue. Trifles light as air suggest to the keen observer the solut ion of mighty problems. threw his soul into the design of the magnificent monument erecte d in Edinburgh to the memory of the author of "Waverley. greatest of all harvests. A soldier who escapes the bullets of a thousand battles may die from the scratc h of a pin. a skillet containing a compound which he had befo re considered worthless. We are all inclined to be proud of our strong points. A Massachusetts soldier in the Civil War observed a bird hulling rice. mountain.--Laffitte. however large and strong all the others may be. Hogarth would make sketches of rare faces and characteristi cs upon his finger-nails upon the streets.

rather. He is cheating himself. Think. is the opportunity for growth. in expanding your exp erience. not a mere mill for grinding out a salary of dollars and cents. is an advantage beyond computation. while he is being paid for learning his trade or profession. but t he larger part of the real pay of a real man's work is outside of the pay envelo pe. He worked so assiduously. more efficient man. so efficiently. for in that position he absorbed the secrets of strategy and diplomacy which later were used so effec tively for his country. and the one whom he most defrauds is himself. ever widening. The other part. never accepting the lowest or second best. or encouraging word.' As she passed along the way. for development." CHAPTER XLII THE SALARY YOU DO NOT FIND IN YOUR PAY ENVELOPE The quality which you put into your work will determine the quality of your lif e. and strengthening and developing the intellect. That is necessity. It is the opport unity. he cheats himself. and Germany a ta ngle of petty states. stretching the mind. that will help you to make a large man of yourself. There is no estimating the value of such training. my employee friend. TENNYSON. But it spread the morning's glory Over the livelong day. is dishonest. the opportunity to become a larger. I would say: "Don't think too much of the amo unt of salary your employer gives you at the start. that Germany p rized his services more than those of the ambassador himself. for mental expansion. so vital to every young ma n starting on the journey of life. The habit of insisting upon the best of which you are capable. slowly silence all. in increasing your skill. t ry as he may. where the practical f aculties. the executive faculties. broader. of the possib le salary you can give yourself. will make all the difference to you between fai lure and success. of that which all the after years. can never give him back. in the quality of his daily work. Bismarck was said to have really founded the German Empire when working for a s mall salary as secretary to the German legation in Russia. If Bismarck had ea rned only his salary. I have never known an employee to rise rapidly." A man's or a boy's work is materi al with which to build character and manhood. whose pay envelope was his goal. and the best o f all. w . or even to get beyond mediocrit y." A boy or a man who works simply for his salary. and to learn from his mistakes. and is actuated by no higher mo tive.And. If I were allowed but one utterance on this subject. "If the laborer gets no more than the wages his employer offers him. vigorous exercis e at a definite time and for a definite number of hours. "It was only a glad 'good-morning. It is life's school for practical training of the faculties. he might have remained a perpetual clerk. who could not see infinitely more in his wor k than what he found in the envelope on Saturday night. he is chea ted. in enlarging and ennobling yourself. of always dema nding of yourself the highest. Has lifted many a bur den no other gift could have stirred. no mat ter how small your remuneration. The opportunity for growth in a disciplinary institution. are brought into systematic. One part of this outside salary is the opportunity of the employee to absorb th e secrets of his employer's success." "Only a thought in passing--a smile.

too. that each wanted.--and what emp loyer is not?--it will be to his own interest to do so." Do you think that kings of business like Andrew Carnegie. to a bsorb the secrets of the business. in self-expressio n. Then. He gives them encouragement. and in making himself a better.--a chance to show what was in him. He inspir es them with the possibility of doing something higher.hich. while they were learning the lessons that m ade them what they are to-day. suddenly jumping. By doing the thing at hand surpassingly well. little realizes how he is cheating himself by n ot looking at the larger salary he can pay himself in increasing his skill. on small salaries. in splendid discipline. sympathy. Why? Sim ply because. perhaps. He pays you in dollars. says: "Th e man who brings to his occupation a loyal desire to do his best is certain to s ucceed. while their employers were paying them but a few dollars a week. the high purpose which emanates from you in its performance. president of the Western Union Telegraph Company. John Wanamaker. th ey were paying themselves vastly more in the fine quality of their work. as if by magic. in increased efficiency.--just as soon as it is p rofitable. Rober t C. in the enthusiasm. How small and narrow and really blind to his own interests must be the youth wh o can weigh a question of salary against all those privileges he receives in exc hange for the meager services he is able to render his employer. Ogden. Often we see bright boys who have worked. the ideal employer gives those who work for him a great deal that is not found in the pay envelope. stronger. hardly enough to live on. You can draw from the faithfulness of your work. but opportunity. he shows that it would be profitable to employ him in some higher form of occupation. himself a remarkable example of success. the machinery. they would now pro bably be working on comparatively small salaries for other people. They were satisfied with a dollar or two apie ce a week. Do not fear that your employer will not recognize your merit and advance you as rapidly as you deserve. ignorant boy into a strong. he is pretty sure to secure it. the boys who rise in the world are not those who. W. at the start. The few dollars he finds in his pay envelope are to this larger salary as the c hips which fly from the sculptor's chisel are to the angel which he is trying to call out of the marble. determination. Clowry. a re compense so munificent that what your employer pays you will seem insignificant beside it. you could not possibly do without being employed in some kind of an institution which has the motive. Colonel Robert C. perhaps for years. It was not sa lary. efficient man. in character building. It he is looking for efficient employees. the patronage to give you th e disciplining and training you need to bring out your strongest qualities. level-headed. you are paid! The youth who is always haggling over the question of how many dollars and cent s he will sell his services for. and other lesser powers in the commercial world would have attained their present commanding success had they hesitated and haggled about a dollar o r two of salary when they began their life-work? If they had. you pay yourself in valuable experience. in f ine training. and high purpose they brought to their tasks. Bourke Cockran. split hairs about salaries. in e xpanding his experience. which he regarded . No. And instead of paying for the opportunity of unfolding and developing from a green. into high and responsible positions. wor ked without pay as a messenger boy for months for experience. from the grand spirit which yo u bring to it. more useful m an. when there is p rofit in his promotion. better. and in increased insight into business methods. and.

"where I secured a place to swee p out a store for three dollars and a half a week. and asking questions of everybody he came in contact with in the store. The young man told his employers that the manager of another house had offered him that am ount a year or more before. leaving them in the ranks of perpetual employees? No. and to abso rb every bit of knowledge that he could. knowledge wherever you go in the establishment. "I walked fro m my home in New England to New York. but that he did not accept it because he wouldn't br eak his contract. or an inclination to shirk. but that. they notified him. He told me that he did not go out of N ew York City for twelve years." he said.--this was his salary. compared with which the three dollars and fifty cents looked contemptible. The chance actually to do with his own hands the thing which he wanted to learn. They told him they would think the matter over and see what th ey could do for him. The very first time he swept out the store. and he determined that he would be. and that. an opportunity to absorb knowledge and valuable secrets on every hand. to do as little as p ossible for the largest amount of salary. George. that they were prepared to enter into a ten-year contract with him at ten tho usand dollars a year. throu gh your eyes and your ears. he was taken into the firm as a partner. He never allowed anything of importance to escape hi s attention. however.000. when my time should be completed. and all that sort of thing. to watch their methods. A millionaire merchant of New York told me the story of his rise. enlargement. At the end of his co ntract. I told the manager that I was then under contract. I had a proposit ion from another large concern in New York to act as its foreign representative at a salary of three thousand dollars a year. to see the way in which princely merc hants do business. he felt within him the ability to become a great merchant. I accep ted an offer from the firm to remain for five years at a salary of seven dollars and a half a week. He told me that he and his wi fe lived on eight dollars a week in New York. a little late r. When you get a job. by saving and investments. expansion. When he was not working. Get as much salary as you can. for he could not tell when fate might be taking his measure fo r a larger place. You can tell by the spirit which he brings to his tas k whether there is in him the capacity for growth. that he preferred to study the store. to make th eir secrets his own. It is not difficult to see a proprietor in the boy who sweeps the store or wait s on customers--if the qualities that make a proprietor are in him--by watching him work for a single day. know . an opportunity to drink in. when it is not expected of you?" Would he then have ris en above them. to absorb their processes. but the boy who walked one hundred miles to New York to get a job saw in every opportunity a great occasion. who probably said to him. to work here overtime to do the thing s which others neglect! Why should you stay here nights and help pack goods. an am bition to rise. and the contract was closed. studying methods. I should be glad to talk with him in regard to his proposition. You have actuall y gotten an opportunity to get right into the very heart of the great activities of a large concern. Long before this time had expired. many times: "What a fool you are. just think of yourself as actually starting out in business for yourself. for he was bound some day to be a partn er or to have a store of his own. At the end of a year. and became a millionaire. he was watching others. Suppose that this boy had listened to his associates. always looki ng out for the main chance. and a new contract with h im for a term of years at three thousand dollars a year was proposed. they laid up $117. during a large part of this time. He felt that the opportunity was the salary." When his contract was nearly up. to get close to men who do things. Incredible as it may seem. to be somebody.as worth infinitely more than salary--and scores of our most successful men have cheerfully done the same thing. so eager was he to learn how everything was done. as really working for yourself. He put himself into training. h e was called into the office of the head of the house. bu t remember that that is a very small part of the consideration.

mean thing. If you do not respect yourself. the chance to have a clean record be hind you instead of a smirched one. larger. This striving for excellence will make you grow. of close observation. no one can rob you of your greatest reward. by carelessness or indifference. if favoritism puts some one into a position above you which you have justly ea rned. of system. shrewdness. You will never again have the same confidence in your ability to succee d. the skill. but he can not close your eyes and ears. every bit of knowledge y ou can absorb. up-to-date. Don't say to yourself. which means the ultimate attainment of your maximum efficiency. Just make up your mind that you are going to be a sponge in that institution an d absorb every particle of information and knowledge possible. your career is a t an end so far as its upward tendency is concerned. that you will b e progressive. the consciousness of doing your level best. Every hint and every suggestion which you can pick up. Then again. if you do not believe in yourself. acumen. If you think you are being kept back. an employee's reputation is his capital. to alter its verdict in your favor. your ingenuity. a habit of adjusting means to ends . more effective man. training. your inventiveness . without robbing y ourself of infinitely more. it is impossible for you to rob your employer by clipping yo ur hours. a habit of reading human nature. of giving the best thing in you to your employer. and power. call out the best thing in you.ledge that will be invaluable to you in the future. if you give your best to your employer. a divine sen se of justice and right that can not be blindfolded. to devise new and better ways of doing things. You may still succeed when others have lost confidence in you. but never when you have lost confidence in yourself. and no amount of juggling with yourself can induce that inward monitor which says "righ t" to the well-done thing and "wrong" to the botched work. and it is perfectly right for me to shirk when my employer is not in sight or to clip my hours when I can. you will always be conscious that you have done a little. of capital which is worth vastly more than money cap ital--the chance to make a man of yourself. a habit of putting your best into everythi ng you do. In the absence of money ca . The constant stretching of the mind over prob lems which interest you. never mind. the best possible comes back to you in skill. On the other hand." for this means a loss of selfrespect. all of which advantages you wi ll carry with you to your next position. In ot her words. "I am not paid for doing this extra work. a habit of thoroughness. If you work with this spirit. It will call out your resource s. I do not get e nough salary. anyway. you should regard as a part of your future capital which will be worth more than money capital when you start out for yourself. Your employer may pinch you on salary. the power you have gained. that you will enter into your work with a spirit of e nthusiasm and a zest which know no bounds. he can not shut off your perceptive faculties. There is something within you that you cannot bribe. Resolve that you will call upon all of your resourcefulness. and you will be surprised to see how quickly you will attract the attention of those above you. you will form a like habit of accuracy. if you are working for too small a salary . which are to mean everything to you in the future. will help you expand into a broader. shirking your work. Nothing will ever compensat e you for the loss of faith in yourself. the eff iciency. he can not keep you from absorbi ng the secrets of his business which may have been purchased by him at an enormo us cost of toil and sacrifice and even of several failures. whatever it may be.

will make his burden infinitely greater. a clean record. The other employees and his friends called him a fool for staying at the office after hours and taking work home nights and holidays. an untarnished past. hard work. and is always either helping or hindering him. smarter man he was. He must work all the harder to overcome the handicap of a bad reputatio n. not loyal or true. loyal. or at the jobber's when w e ask for credit. We fi nd it waiting at the bank when we try to borrow money. an untarnished reputation--a reputation for being a dead-in-earnest hard worker. if it does not drag him down to failure. that in less than two years from the time he was receiving sixt y dollars a week. The salary is of very little importance to you in comparison with the reputatio n for integrity and efficiency you have left behind you and the experience you h ave gained while earning the salary. square. but here is an instance of a young man who attracted the attent ion of others even outside of the firm he worked for. but he carried with him to th e new position the same habits of painstaking. because they do not realize the tremendous power of a clean name. not the salary. substantial reputation. People are afraid of the other: they can not trust him. w ho has done just as little work for his salary as possible. of a good reputation which is backing them. for such a small salary. just because he was trying to earn a great deal more than he was paid for doing. he is starting out in life with a heavy handicap. which. according to its nature. a smirched record. and worked five years before he received thirty-five d ollars a week. It sticks to us through life. he went to a third large publishing house at ten thousand doll ars a year. It not only follows him around from one employer to another. even a purely commercial success. but regarding the opportunity as everything. and is always helping us. Young men are sometimes surprised at their rapid advancement. These are the great things. His work attracted the attention of a publisher who offered him sixty dollars a week. solid. and also with an interest in the business. so much the harder to attain. Employees sometimes think that they get no credit for trying to do more than th ey are paid for. . and who has gone on the principle that the more he could get out of an employer--the more salary he could get with less effort--the shrewder. buttressed. It is always backing us up and helping us in all sorts of ways . and true to his employer's intere sts--with that of another young man of equal ability starting out for himself. The very reputation of the first young man is splendid credit. backed. but it also follows him when he goes into business for hims elf. why should not he beat others? Ev erybody knows that he has not been honest at heart with his employer. but he told them that the opportunity was what he was after. There is nothing like a good. and very soon advanced him to seventy-five. and supported by a splendid past. Contrast the condition of a young man starting out for himself who has looked u pon his position as a sacred trust. a great opportunity. his reputation means everything. and success.pital. He beat his employer. He is backed up by the good opinion of everybody that knows him. The result was. In other words. I know a young man who came to New York. They can not unde rstand it. never thinking of the salary. got a position in a publishing house a t fifteen dollars a week.

to shirk at every opportunity. will never ma ke a key to unlock the door to anything but failure and disgrace. no mat ter how small your remuneration. of always dema nding of yourself the highest. Never mind what kind of a man he is. You c an not afford to strike false blows which may mar the angel that sleeps in the s tone. English boys used to thi nk it was a great opportunity to be able to get into a good concern. Many employees may not think it is so very bad to clip their hours. money-ma king part of your career as a mere incidental as compared with the man-making pa rt of it. botched work. you will be one. you have nothing to do with your employer's character or his method of doing things. and they are not wanted. Regard the living-getting. and you can not afford to ruin yourself and your whole future just because your employer is not what he ought to be. Slighted work. whether you will make of it a stepping-st one or a stumbling-block. they cut very sorry figures in life. Others excuse themselves for poor work on the ground that their employer does n ot appreciate their services and is mean to them. The habit of insisting upon the best of which you are capable. of your God-given faculties. Regard your work as a great life school for the broadening. If you bring to your work the spirit of an arti st instead of an artisan. Remember that you ar e a sculptor and that every act is a chisel blow upon life's marble block. The foundation must be clean. with a chan ce to work without salary for years in order to learn their business or trade. harmony. There is nothing else so valuable to you as an opportunity to build a name for yourself. and firm.In olden times boys had to give years of their time in order to learn a trade. the image you evolve from the block must stand as an expression of yourself. to sneak away and hide during business hours. de epening. a charact er-builder. Those w ho do not care how they do their work. beauty. but yo u can do right yourself. . A youth might just as well exc use himself for his boorish manners and ungentlemanly conduct on the ground that other people were mean and ungentlemanly to him. w hich are uncut diamonds sacredly intrusted to you for the polishing and bringing out of their hidden wealth and beauty. is the key that will unlock the door above you. never accepting the lowest or second best. but you ca n be one yourself. and not as a mere living-getter. divine or brutal. and success. N ow the boy is paid for learning his trade. Take no chances of marring your reputation by the picayune and unworthy endeavo r "to get square" with a stingy or mean employer. Whether it is beautiful or hideous. rounding into symmetry. and if you slip rotten hours. solid. to loiter when out on business for their employer. The quality which you put into your work will determine the quality of your lif e. pay very dearly for their trifling. these will ta ke the drudgery out of it and make it a delight. No matter how mean and s tingy he may be. Look upon it as a man-builder. to go to their work in the morning all used up from dissipation. your opportunity for the time is with him. your way of doing your work. You may not be able to make him do what is right. You may not be able to make him a gentleman. and it rests with yo u whether you will use it or abuse it. but often when they try to get another place their reputat ion has gone before them. and slighted. botched work into the foundation. your superstr ucture will topple. Your reputation is the foundation for your future success. The fact is that your present position. of your ideals. and often would pay their employer for the opportunity. will make all the difference to you between med iocrity or failure. a burning zeal. resolve that you will approach your task in the spirit of a master. an absorbing enthusiasm. if they can only get through with it and get their salary for it. My young friends. that whether he is a man of high ideals or not.

to be a man. be all there. the fa ir thing. inventiveness. the lowest and most despicable thing in you. The m an who has not learned to fling his whole soul into his task. trying to keep from working hard in the performance of their duties. low motive for which to work. Never mind whether your employer appreciates the high quality of your work or n ot.The smallest people in the world are those who work for salary alone. complete man. Start out with a tacit understanding with yourself that you will be a man. just because they do not get quite as much salary as they think they should. to trip them up. and go through life half men instead of full men--sma ll. you will certainly think m ore of yourself after getting the approval of that still small voice within you which says "right" to the noble act. grand. remain undeveloped. which they can pay themselves. They deliberately adopt a shirking. has not learned the first principles of success or happiness. rutty men and women. Keep your standard up. their ingenuity and re sourcefulness. nothing broad. and become small. inefficient. than they would have worked if they had tried to do their best. It may be necessary to secure your bread and butter. do-as-litt le-as-possible policy. your sense of the right. more important salary . they blight their own growth. The effort always to do your best will enla rge your capacity for doing things. the l arge. fling your life into it with all the ene rgy and enthusiasm you can muster. The hardest work in the world is th at which is grudgingly done. for the sake of "get ting square" with their employer. These should speak so loud in you that the mere bread-and-butter quest ion will be insignificant in comparison. the best thing in you. that is. Their leader ship faculties. by giving him pinched service. narrow. and instead of getting this larger. the botched work. and will encourage you to push ahead toward larger triumphs. or thinks more of you for your conscientiousness. No matter how small your salary. their initiative. but you have somethin g infinitely higher to satisfy than that. complete men they might be. their planning ability. the demand in you to do your level best. progressive in their nature. who has not learne d the secret of taking the drudgery out of his work by putting the best of himse lf into it. instead of the strong. Poor work injures your employer a little. noble. to do the square thing. Many young employees. Everywhere we see people who are haunted by the ghosts of half-finished jobs. t he dishonest work done away back in their youth. I have known employees actually to work harder in scheming. and to bar their prog ress. narrow. and had given the largest. shirking. and all the qualities which make the leader. It is a lofty ideal that redeems the life from the curse of commonness and i mparts a touch of nobility to the personality. mean service into his work. the most liberal service possible to their employers. that you will express in your work the highest thing in you. grander re muneration possible for them outside of their pay envelope. These covered-up defects are al ways coming back to humiliate them later. or how unappreciative your employer. bring the entire man to your task. larger. but . they prefer the consequent arrested development . No one can respect himself or have that sublime faith in himself which makes fo r high achievement while he puts half-hearted. deliberately throw away all of the other. str angle their own prospects. with nothing large or magnanimous. if they will. weak men. You can not afford to debase or demoralize yourself by bringing out your mean si de. full. While trying to "get square" with their employer. The littl e money you get in your pay envelope is a pretty small. Let ot her people do the poor jobs. The great failure army is full of people who have tried to get square with their employers for the small salary and lack of appreciation.

If you ne ver lose that. The miracles of civilization have been performed by men and women of great self -confidence. make way fo r you." asked Mirabeau. Others are with you comparatively littl e through life. This is an inexorable. Everything must have not only a cause. and he can't who thinks he ca n't.it may ruin you. or the thing will never come. your health. and you can not afford to tie that divine thing in you to a scoundrel . You forsake yourself when you lose your confidence. or a dreamer. There is no room for chance in God's world of system and supreme order. of a conqueror. indisputable law. Your achievement will never rise higher than your self-faith. A soldier once took a message to Napoleon in such great haste that the horse he rode dropped dead before he delivered the paper. their persistence in finding and m aking real the thing they believed in and which the world often denounced as chi merical or impossible. There is no law by which you can achieve success in anything without expecting it. your reputation. Conduct yourself in such a way that you can always look yourself in the face wi thout wincing. but a sufficient caus e--a cause as large as the result. an d in persistent endeavor to attain it. then you will have a courage born of conviction. sooner or later. There must be a strong. demanding it. . of your plans. of personal nobi lity and integrity which have never been tarnished. Determine to do your l evel best and never to demoralize yourself by doing your second best. the world will. other people's confidence. Never allow anybody or any misfortune to shake your belief in yourself. He can who thinks he can. what the world thinks of you. in self-confidence. ordered him to mount his own horse and deliver it with all possible speed. It would be as reasonable for Napoleon to have expected to get his army over th e Alps by sitting down and declaring that the undertaking was too great for him. but keep pushing on. their determination. firm self-faith first. in your ability to do t he thing you have set your heart upon doing. is not half as important as what you think of yourself. Co unt that man an enemy who shakes your faith in yourself. y our power is gone. you must beli eve in yourself. even. "should we call ourselves men. No matter how great the ability. Napoleon dictated his answer a nd. in your own marvelous possibilities. Be proud of your work and go to it every morning superbly equi pped. unless it be to succeed i n everything everywhere?" Nothing else will so nerve you to accomplish great thi ngs as to believe in your own greatness. A stream can not rise higher than its source. What your employer thinks of you. how larg e the genius. for when your confidence is gone. as for you to hope to achieve anything significant in life while harboring grav e doubts and fears as to your ability. go to it in the spirit of a master. or how splendid the education. assuming it. CHAPTER XLIII EXPECT GREAT THINGS OF YOURSELF "Why. but ther e is always hope for you so long as you keep a firm faith in yourself. You have to live with yourself day and night through your whole existence. a crank. You may lose your p roperty. the achievement will never rise hig her than the confidence. who had unwavering faith in their power to accomplish the tasks the y undertook. It does not matter what other people think of you. No matter if they call you a visionary. The race would have been centuries behind what it is to-day had it not been for their grit. A great success must have a great source in expectation. handing it to the messenger. or of your ai ms.

nor comprehend to what heights of sublimity we were intended and expected to rise. who think that what others have is too good for them. ineffective being. that you are a weak. but this is too gorgeous. One reason why the es. and undertakes his work with t he assurance of success. They have grown up under this conviction of their inferiority. who believes that he is going to win out. There is something in the atmosphere of the man who has a large and true estima te of himself. There is no law which can cause a pyg my's thinking to produce a giant. you must make a large program for your self. affirmative man. with its superb trappings. do not realize our e of the universe. magnetizes conditions." Napoleon said. If you are ambitious to do big things. that we are a part of the great causation principl We do not think highly enough of our superb birthright. and said. Most people have been educated to think that it was not intended they should ha ve the best there is in the world. "If we choose to be no more than clods of clay. because they do not expect or demand enough of themselves. positive. will lower your whole standard of life and paralyze your abi lity. that it does not fit their humble condition. live mediocre lives. if you only expect small things of yourself." says Marie Corelli. General. which are always tripping the self-depr . They do not know how to call out their best. but were reserved for those especially favored by fortune. We divinity. to its promise. You will never become a giant if you only make a pygmy's claim for yourself." The persistent thought that you are not as good as others. that the good and the beautiful things of lif e were not designed for them. and of c ourse they will be inferior until they claim superiority as their birthright. "then we s hall be used as clods of clay for braver feet to tread on. or de mand enough of or for themselves. and he shall have abundance. The statue follows the model. " They do not realize how they weaken themselves by this mental attitude of self -depreciation or self-effacement. They do not claim enough. do sm all things. "Nothing is too good or too magnificent for a French soldier. and playing it royall y. optimistic. A vast number of men and women who are really capable of doing great things. Things get out of t he way of the vigorous. nor to what extent w e can really be masters of ourselves. and assume the part it demands. too magnificent for a common sold ier. "For unto every one that hath shall be given. human race as a whole has not measured up to its possibiliti one reason why we see everywhere splendid ability doing the is because people do not think half enough of themselves.The messenger looked at the magnificent animal. expect enough. The model is the inward vision." There is everything in assuming the part we wish to play. A man who is self-reliant. He draws to himself the literal fulfilment of the promise." The world is full of people like this poor French soldier. "Nay. work of mediocrity. t hat they are not expected to have as good things as those who are "more favored. something in his very a ppearance that wins half the battle before a blow is struck. make ourselves become whatever we long to be. We fail to see that we can control our own destiny: make ourselves do whatever is possible.

Confidence begets confidence. and it is just this little difference between doing pretty well and flin ging all oneself. Set the mind toward the thing you would accomplish so resolutely. but also by that of all who know him. negative man. fear. They do not have that superb confidence in th emselves which never looks back. or in art add to the conqueror's power to do the next thing. As time goes on. the assumption of power. if you have a timid. that makes the difference betw een mediocrity and a grand achievement. As the savage Indian thought that the power of every enemy he conquered entered into himself. doubt. and timidity must be turned out of your mind." or "Everyt hing he touches turns to gold. The whole mental army waits until confidence leads the way. in science. His self-poise. if you fear to let yourself out and take chances. if the neg atives preponderate in your vocabulary. no firm s elf-faith. There is jus t uncertainty enough as to whether they will succeed to take the edge off their effort.eciating. We often hear it said of a man. that nothing on earth can turn you from your purpose until you attain it. Your own mental picture of yourself is a good measure of yourself and your poss ibilities. if you think that other s are better fitted to do it than you. so definitely . Here is wher e power originates. in peaceful industry. A man's confidence measures the height of his possibilities. Courage. all his power. vigorous. Confidence is the Napoleon of the mental army. perpetual thinking along the l ine of the ambition. If you doubt your ability to do what you set out to do. you can never win anything very great unti l you change your whole mental attitude and learn to have great faith in yoursel f. It doubles and trebles the power of all the other faculties. and a lack of confidence undermine. His friends and acquain tances affirm and reaffirm his ability to succeed." By the force of his character and the creative p ower of his thought. is the prod which brings out the last ou nce of reserve force. which burns all bridges behind it. Even a race-horse can not win the prize after it has once lost confidence in it self. Fear. . parallel with the aim--the great life purpose. i n commerce. in invention. A man who carries in his very presence an air of victory. aggressiveness. into his career. and imparts to others confidence that he can do the thing he attempts. and put so much grit into your resolutio n. the affirmation of belief in yourself. he is reenforced not only by the power o f his own thought. initiative. and make each successive triu mph easier of achievement than its predecessor. This very assertion of superiority. Power is largely a question of strong. such a man wrings success from the most adverse circumstanc es. no spirit of daring. so in reality does every conquest in war. born of self-confidence. assurance. will strengthen the whole man and give power to a combination of facu lties which doubt. and ability increase in a direct ratio to the number of his achievements. if you think that you lack positiveness. The reason why so many men fail is because they do not commit themselves with a determination to win at any cost. the mental attitude that claims success as an inalienable b irthright. if you lack boldness. and with such vigorous determination. ability. "Everything he undertakes succeeds. A stream can not r ise higher than its fountain-head. shrinking nature. confi dence. radiates assurance. If there is no out-reach to your mind. you will never accomplish much.

One must have that determination which never looks back and which knows no defe at. and the world made way for them. persistent thought of and belief in their ability to accomplish w hat they had undertaken. we should find that when they first started out in active life they held the confid ent. in our endea vor. There must be vigor of conception or an indifferent execution. that resolution which burns all bridges behind it and is willing to risk eve rything upon the effort. Their resolutions are spineless. A thought that is timidly born will be timidly executed. "According to your faith be it unto you. Nothing was ever accompli shed by a half-hearted desire. there is no backbone in thei r endeavor--no grit in their ambition. in our faith. because there is no vim. who asks. vigorous. with no light in sight. so it is the concen trated aim. got out of their path. We must resolve with the energy that does things. in our determination. and we try to account for it in all sorts of ways but the right one. All the greatest achievements in the world began in longing--in dreamings and h opings which for a time were nursed in despair. We are very apt to think of men who have been unusually successful in any line as greatly favored by fortune. of or for himself. habitual thinking.The deed must first live in the thought or it will never be a reality." Our faith is a very good measure of w hat we get out of life. The very intensity of your confidence in your ability to do the thing you attem pt is definitely related to the degree of your achievement. vigorous concept of the thing we want to do is a tremendous initial step. Many people make a very poor showing in life. the invincible purpose. and a st rong. but there must be strongly concentrated intensity of effort to attain our object. The fact is that their success represents their expectations of themselves--the sum of their creative. We must have a positive conviction that we can attain success. If we were to analyze the marvelous successes of many of our self-made men. The man of weak faith gets little. no vigor in their efforts. Not only must the desire for the thing we long for be kept uppermost. It is th eir mental attitude outpictured and made tangible in their environment. that wins success. but we must believe it with all our he arts. This lon ging kept the courage up and made self-sacrifice easier until the thing dreamed of--the mental vision--was realized. There mu st be vigor in our expectation. positive. and expects but little. demands. as it is the intensity of the electrical fo rce that dissolves the diamond--the hardest known substance. No lukewarm energy or indifferent ambition ever accomplished anything. As it is the fierceness of the heat that melts the iron ore and makes it possib le to weld it or mold it into shape. We must not only believe we can succeed. Their mental attitude was set so stubbornly toward thei r goal that the doubts and fears which dog and hinder and frighten the man who h olds a low estimate of himself. the man of mighty fai th gets much. They hav e wrought--created--what they have and what they are out of their constructive t hought and their unquenchable faith in themselves. When a man ceases to believe in himself--gives up the f ight--you can not do much for him except to try to restore what he has lost--his .

If he starts at all. he moves with uncertainty. unstable mind. to fling the whole weight of his being into his work. an irresistible force. Faith unites man with the Infinite. You can not do much with him until he comprehends that he is bigger than any fate. is because we do not have a large faith in ourselves and in our power to accomplish. It is knowledge. The man who does things must be able to project himself with a mighty force. Civilization to-day rests upon self-confidence. and no one can accomplish great things in l ife unless he works in oneness with the Infinite. b This difference between uncertainty sion. then he is in a positio n to express power. It sees what is in visible to those who follow in the valleys. between mediocrity and excellence. and it comes from the consciou sness of possessing the ability requisite for what one undertakes. He can not do this with a wavering. and a man who "knows" he can do it. The fact that a man believes implicitly that he can do what may seem impossible or very difficult to others. "will try" to do a thing. no positiveness in his energy.self-faith--and to get out of his head the idea that there is a fate which toss es him hither and thither. yearn for. a doubter. has no projectile power. We are timid about venturing. shows that there is something within him that make s him equal to the work he has undertaken. a mysterious destiny which decides things whether he will or not." between "I'll try" es the distance between weakness and etween commonness and superiority. We ought to think upward. struggle for. We are not bold en ough. There is nothing which will multiply one's ability like self-faith. The man whose mind is set firmly toward achievement does not approp riate success. and certainty. into inferiority by thinking d ownward. doubting. he is success. One reason why the careers of most of us are so pinched and narrow. We think ourselves into smallness. hence its superior vision. A firm self-faith helps a man to project himself with a force that is almost ir resistible. There is no vigor in his initiative. Faith walks on the mountain tops. There or who nd" to equal is a great difference between a man who thinks that "perhaps" he can do. between vacillation and deci the man who decides things. Self-confidence is not egotism. It was the sustaining power of a mighty self-faith that enabled Columbus to bea r the jeers and imputations of the Spanish cabinet. ever gathering momentum agai nst the obstacles which confront him. while a ten-talent man without it would fail. It can make a one-talent man a success. every issue must be met wholly. that sustained him when his . When a man lives so near to th e Supreme that the divine Presence is felt all the time. We are held back by too much caution. between the man who wavers and to" and "I can. unhesitati ngly. who is "bou do it. who feels within himself a pulsating power. then we would reach the heights where superio rity dwells. and hold persistently in the min d. we tend to become just in exact proportion to the intensity and persistence o f the thought. that he has within himself a power mightier than any force outsi de of him. Whatever we long for. A balancer. between "I hope and "I will"--this little difference measur power. to any emergency.

b y their foolish convictions of inefficiency. There is where it is created. it carried Farragut. The cause of whatever comes to you in life is within you. to believe that his yearnings and hungerings and aspirations for higher. The Creator would not have mocked us with the yearning f or infinite achievement without giving us the ability and the opportunity for re alizing it. in his own grandeur. until he rea lizes that his ambition. nobler things have any basis in reality or any real.sailors were in mutiny and he was at their mercy in a little vessel on an unknow n sea. The thing you long for and work for comes to you because your thought h as created it. entering in his diary d ay after day--"This day we sailed west. torpedoes. because there is something inside you that attracts it. and mines to victory at Manil a Bay. the call to something better. But they are. in fact. They are more handicapped by their limiting thought. It has enabled the inventor and the discoverer to go on and on amidst troubles and trials which otherwise w ould have utterly disheartened them. nobler self. He believed he could do the thing he attempted though the whole world was against him. If only we better und erstood our divinity we should all have this larger faith which is the distincti on of the brave soul. are proofs of his ability to reach the ideal which haunts him. before thousands of his fellow c itizens. past the defenses of the enem y in Mobile Bay. Your own comes to you. It comes because there is an affinity within you for it. Self-faith has been the miracle-worker of the ages. of power t o make them real. to go higher. his aspiration. It has held innumerable heroes to their tas ks until the glorious deeds were accomplished. what he stands for in his community has come from his attitude toward life. The only inferiority in us is what we put into ourselves. which was our course." It was this self-faith which gave courage and determination to Fulton to attemp t his first trip up the Hudson in the Clermont. Self-faith must lead the way. lashed to the rigging. Were we to think upward we should reach the heights where superiority dwells. discovery. toward himsel . until he catches a glimpse of his higher. You can not go beyond the limits you set for yourself. It is one of the most difficult things to a mortal to really believe in his own bigness. What miracles self-confidence has wrought! What impossible deeds it has helped to perform! It took Dewey past cannons. Whenever you see a person who has been unusually successful in any field. toward his fellow men. than by almost anything else. it has won a thousand triumphs i n war and science which were deemed impossible by doubters and the faint-hearted . No man gets very far in the world or expresses great power until self-faith is born in him. remem ber that he has usually thought himself into his position. who had gathered to howl and jeer at his expected failure. it has been the great tonic in the world of invention. We think ourselves into smallness. his mental attitude a nd energy have created it. and art. for t here is no power in the universe that can help a man do a thing when he thinks h e can not do it. it led Nelson and Grant to victory. is always seeking you. that enabled him to hold steadily to his purpose. toward his vocation. Perhaps there is no other one thing which keeps so many people back as their lo w estimate of themselves. any more than he would have mocked the wild birds with an instinct t o fly south in the winter without giving them a sunny South to match the instinc t. the signs of ability to match them. ult imate end. They are the stirrings of the divinity within us.

and matched with honest effort. because it sees the way out. but feel a great consciousness of added power because we have touched omnipotence. If we had faith enough we should travel Godward infinitely faster than we do. that there is a power within you which. potencies which our doubts and fears veil from us. developed. It gives him a glimpse of his possibiliti es to keep him from losing heart. the result of his estimate of his powers and possibilities. it is a miracle worker. It is doubt and fear. Our faith knows because it sees what we can not see. that hold us down and keep us in mediocrity--doing petty things when we are capable of sublime deeds." That is. Then there will be no poverty in the world. It has dip ped in the realms of our finer life our higher and diviner kingdom. because faith sees. penetrates all obstacles and sees the goal. that you f loundered and blundered and did a lot of foolish things. If I could give the young people of America but one word of advice. Faith never fails. Fa ith in himself indicates that a man has a glimpse of forces within him which eit her annihilate the obstacles in the way. Faith opens the door that enables us to look into the soul's limitless possibil ities and reveals such powers there.f. All things a re possible to him who has faith. if you feel that it was a failure. from quitting his upward life struggle. Faith is that something within us which does not guess. that we are not only encouraged to go on. Above all else. The men who have done the great things in the world have been profound believer s in themselves. the divine messenger appointed to accompany man through life to guide and direct and encourage him. don't drag these ghosts a long with you to handicap you and destroy your happiness all through the future. and gotten a glimpse of the great source of things. . It knows bec ause it sees what our coarser selves. recognizes the power that means accomplishment. All through the Bible we find emphasized the miracle-working power of faith. it would be this--"Believe in yourself with all your might. if you were gullible. powers. Faith is assured. but knows. It looks beyond all boundaries. If we had faith enough we could cure all our ills and accomplish the maximum of our possibilities. will not only make a noble man o r woman of you. tran scends all limitations. no failures. if awakened. our animal natures can not see. timidity and cowardice. such unconquerable forces. It sees resources. and our lives would be one triumphal march to the goa l of our ambition. m ade imprudent investments. or make them seem insignificant in comp arison with his ability to overcome them. CHAPTER XLIV THE NEXT TIME YOU THINK YOU ARE A FAILURE If you made a botch of last year. It is the prophet within us. If we had faith in God and in ourselves we could remove al l mountains of difficulty. and the discords of life will all vanish. wasted your time and money. The time will come when every human being will have unbounded faith and will li ve the life triumphant. is never a fraid. but will also make you successful and happy. believe that your des tiny is inside of you. of his inward vision of himself. arou sed. it is the outcome of his self-faith. sees the solution of its problem.

has been disagreeable. We work and live like the frog in the well. harmful experience. and often lose all we gain. blunders and unfortunate mistakes. to keep going when things looked da rk and when seemingly insurmountable obstacles confronted us. outside of our own mentality. like a bull in a china shop. despondency. waste any more of your time or des troy any more of your happiness. There is no use in castigating yourself for not having done better. tearing-down thoughts and unfortunate moods. There is only one thing to do with bitter experiences. Don't be mortgaged to the past. Free yourself from everything which handicaps you. . te ar through our mentalities. But there is no victory in retreating. There is no fate or destiny which puts one man down and another up. or with memories that worry us and which kill our efficiency. and yet. who voluntarily ta kes an inferior position because he thinks the best things were intended for som ebody else. fear. to forget bitter memories. we let the tearing-down thought. If there is anything we ever feel grateful for. and never look back. indecision or discouragement. Everything d epends upon our courage. it is that we h ave had courage and pluck enough to push on. We control our own des tiny. bury them! To-day is a good time to "leave the low-vaulted past. we climb up only to fall back. but in ourselves. Every one ought to make it a life-rule to wipe out from his memory everything t hat has been unpleasant. Resolve that you will close the door on everything in the past that pains and c an not help you. whenever things go wrong with us. and that is--forget it! There are many times in the life of a person who does things that are worth whi le when he gets terribly discouraged and thinks it easier to go back than to pus h on. and we have to start all over again. We are all the time "queering" our lif e game by our vicious. We should never leave any bridges u nburned behind us. has made us suffer. perhaps breaking up and destroying the work of years of building up. and tha t is to forget them. Form a habit of expelling from your mind thoughts or suggestions which call up unpleasant subjects or bitter memories. The man is inferior who admits that he is inferior. Enter upon to-morrow with a clean slate and a free mind. a loss or any misfortune. doubt. keeps you ba ck and makes you unhappy. Most people are their own worst enemies. drop everything that i s a drag. There are no F ates." to drop the yesterdays. One of the worst things that can ever happen to a person is to get it into his head that he was born unlucky and that the Fates are against him. our faith in ourselves.Haven't you wasted enough energy worrying over what can not be helped? Don't le t these things sap any more of your vitality. that we are underlings. and which have a bad influence upon you. unfortunate. in our holding a hopeful. any way open for retreat to tempt our weakness. We ought to forget everything that has kep t us back. "It is not in our stars. optim istic outlook. We are our own Fates. that hinders your progress. and never allow the hideou s pictures of distressing conditions to enter our minds again. whenever we have a dis couraging day or an unfortunate experience. There is only one thing to do with a disagreeable." He only is beaten who a dmits it. Throw away all useless baggage.

It is marvelous what mental strength can be developed by the perpetual affirmat ion of vigorous fitness. There is a force in words spoken aloud which is not stirred by going over the s ame words mentally. Failure and misery are not for the man who has seen the God-side of hims elf. j ust as words which pass through the eye from the printed page make a greater imp ression on the brain than we get by thinking the same words. your ability will increa se. I've got to make good. . We become so accustomed to our silent thoughts that the voicing of them. as seeing objects o f nature makes a more lasting impression upon the mind than thinking about them. Never allow yourself to think meanly. narrowly. who has been in touch with divinity. Never regar d yourself as weak. The audible self-encouragement treatment may be used with marvelous results in correcting our weaknesses. strength. and talk to yourself as you would to a son of yo urs who has great ability but who is not using half of it. vigorous ly. earnestly--seems to aro use the sleeping forces in the subconscious self more effectually than thinking the same thing. Ne ver even think of the possibility of going through life a failure or a partial f ailure. to show the man in me or the coward. "Now. diseased. this thing is right up to me. overcoming our deficiencies. these are thoughts and ide als that make a strong man. Increase your self-confiden ce in every possible way. you are more likely to carry it to reality than if you mere ly resolve in silence. poorly of yourself. the gi ving audible expression to our yearnings.You will find that just in proportion as you increase your confidence in yourse lf by the affirmation of what you wish to be and to do. capable. They make a more lasting impression upon the mind. even vehemently. A vividness. They sometimes arouse slumbering energies within us which th inking does not stir up--especially if we have not been trained to think deeply. accompanies the spoken word--especially if earnes tly. to focus the mind closely. handle yourself without gloves. and that you are goi ng to fill it like a man. vehemently uttered--which is not apparent to many in merely thinking about what the words express. No matter what other people may think about your ability. efficiency. a certain force. and you can do this to a remarkable degree by the powe r of self-suggestion. inefficient. This form of suggestion--talking to oneself vigorously. Nev er admit. complete." You will be surprised to see how quickly this sort of self-suggestion will brac e you up and put new spirit in you. never allow yourself to doubt that you can do or become what you long to. power. Train yourself to expect great things of yourself. They are for those who have never disc overed themselves and their God-like qualities. even by your manner. but as perfect. The way to get the best out of yourself is to put things right up to yourself. makes a much deeper impression upon us . Stoutly assert that there is a place for you in the world. There is no backing out. that you think you are destined to do little thin gs all your life. When you go into an undertaking just say to yourself. If you repeat a firm resolve to yourself aloud.

For example. "Now. This take-it-easy sort of policy will never land you at the go al you started for. Think. that he ha s made some foolish mistake or has failed to use good sense and good judgment in any transaction. you need a good talking-to. mainly sin ce he was twenty-one. when he feels that his stamina and ambition are deteriorating. or are careless about your dress and indifferent in your manner." he says to himself. he has given himself a splendid education. Assu re yourself that there is no reason why you should be timid. a bracing-up all along the line. you do not feel as troubled as you used t o. Say to yourself that you are never again g oing to allow yourself to harbor any thoughts of self-depreciation or timidity o r inferiority. man. which will not succumb to persistent audible suggestion. He forces himself to do the most disagreeable tasks first. you may be naturally timid and shrin k from meeting people. encourage or push him. You are not making good. young man. because you are not as progressive and up-to-date a s you ought to be. that you are going to hold your head up and go about as though yo u were a king. This lethargy. You must sta rt out to-day with a firm resolution to make the returns from your work greater to-night than ever before. and does not allow h imself to skip hard problems. self-training. to the woods if possible. Though he had little opportunity for schoolin g when he was a small boy. a conqueror. There is no fault. He began as a poor boy living in the slums of New York with no one to take an inter est in him. your standards are dropping. you are becoming lazy." By years of stern discipline of this kind he has done wonders with himself. until you are doing yourself justice. that you are attractive and that you know how to act in the presence of others.I have a friend who has helped himself wonderfully by talking to himself about his conduct. g et a move on you!" This young man says that every morning when he finds his standards are down and he feels lazy and indifferent he "hauls himself over the coals. You will have to watch yourself very closely or you will be left behind. don't be a coward. on the contrary. and you may distrust your own ability. It is the very first thing he attends to. Yo u are going stale. Nobody ever amo unts to much who lets his energies flag. If so. You must make this a red-letter day. but you will deriv e so much benefit from it that you will have recourse to it in remedying all you r defects. At first it may seem silly to you to be talking to yourself. because there is no thing inferior or peculiar about you. think. that. this indifference will seriously cripple your career if you're not very careful." as he calls it . and has a good hear t-to-heart talk with himself something after this fashion: "Now young man. self-development. an d the worst of it all is that when you do a poor job. "If others have done this. get the cobwebs out of your head. instead of crawling about like a whipped cur. you are the embodiment of courage and bravery. his standards droop and his ambition oo ze out. You are only half-alive. When he feels that he is not doing all that he ought to. You like to take things easy. Bestir yourself. You are letting a lot of good chances slip by you. Now. your ideals are getting dull. think to some purpose! Do not mull and mope like this. I am going to keep right after you. brush off the brain ash. you can do it. "You are capable of something much better than what you are doing. self-culture as this young man has. he goes off alone to the country. you ar . you will be greatly helped by assuring yourself in your daily self-talks that you are not t imid. "In short. I have never known any one else who carried on such a vigo rous campaign in self-victory. this inertia. in order to force himself up to a higher standard and put himself in tune for the day. however great or small.

You can not get away from your ideals. efface ourselves. stoutly affirm your ability to begin things. You will be surprised to see how you can increase your courage. unconquerable spirits. it helps you to become o ne. and w ith such wealth they can never be poor. their own power. This is not always easy. a power among men. If you lack initiative.e going to assert your manhood. We berate ourselves. a determination to push ahead which know s no retreat. the true instead of the false. do not put the right estimate upon our pos sibilities. We avoid morose. and success. simpl y because there are so many days when they do not "feel like it" or when they ar e discouraged or "blue. It requires only skilful t hinking. and yet. but the trouble with most of us is that ins tead of flinging open the mental blinds and letting in the sun of cheerfulness. The best way to keep out darkness is to keep the life filled with light. gloomy people just as we avoid a picture which makes a disagre eable impression upon us. because they posse ss stout hearts. if you will be sincere with yourself and strong and persiste nt in your affirmations. life instead of death. d o not accurately measure our ability. your confidence ." A man who is at the mercy of a capricious disposition can never be a leader. and if you acknowledge in your thought that you are a failure. the ir own divinity. but it is possible to everybody. upon ha rmony instead of discord. It is perfectly possible for a well-trained mind to completely rout the worst c ase of the "blues" in a few minutes. and to pus h them to a finish. There are thousands of people who have lost everything they valued in the world . diviner man in us. all the material results of their lives' endeavor. belittle. Try this experiment the very next time you get discouraged or think that you ar e a failure. health instead of disease. and go the other way. The art of arts is learning how to clear the mind of its enemies--enemies of ou r comfort. that luck is against you. we keep them closed and try to eject the darkness by main fo rce. Every time you think you are a failure. Resolve th at you will go no further in that direction. which repel people and repel business. the forming of the right thought habits. I know of nothing so helpful for the timid. that you don't have the same oppor tunity that other people have---your convictions will control the result. because we do not s ee the larger. for your thought is your life pattern and you can not get away from it. It is a great thing to learn to focus the min d upon the beautiful instead of the ugly. the standard which you hold for yourself. And always put your re