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Pushing to the Front

Pushing to the Front, by Orison Swett Marden

The Project Gutenberg EBook of Pushing to the Front, by s eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and ions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use he Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or .org Title: Pushing to the Front Author: Orison Swett Marden Release Date: May 4, 2007 [EBook #21291] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1

Orison Swett Marden Thi with almost no restrict it under the terms of t online at www.gutenberg


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[Frontispiece: Orison Swett Marden]

Pushing to the Front BY ORISON SWETT MARDEN

"The world makes way for the determined man."

PUBLISHED BY The Success Company's Branch Offices PETERSBURG, N.Y. ---- TOLEDO ---- DANVILLE



FOREWORD This revised and greatly enlarged edition of "Pushing to the Front" is the outg rowth of an almost world-wide demand for an extension of the idea which made the original small volume such an ambition-arousing, energizing, inspiring force. It is doubtful whether any other book, outside of the Bible, has been the turni ng-point in more lives. It has sent thousands of youths, with renewed determination, back to school or college, back to all sorts of vocations which they had abandoned in moments of d iscouragement. It has kept scores of business men from failure after they had gi ven up all hope. It has helped multitudes of poor boys and girls to pay their way through colleg e who had never thought a liberal education possible. The author has received thousands of letters from people in nearly all parts of the world telling how the book has aroused their ambition, changed their ideals and aims, and has spurred them to the successful undertaking of what they befor e had thought impossible. The book has been translated into many foreign languages. In Japan and several other countries it is used extensively in the public schools. Distinguished educ ators in many parts of the world have recommended its use in schools as a civili zation-builder. Crowned heads, presidents of republics, distinguished members of the British an d other parliaments, members of the United States Supreme Court, noted authors, scholars, and eminent people in many parts of the world, have eulogized this boo k and have thanked the author for giving it to the world. This volume is full of the most fascinating romances of achievement under diffi culties, of obscure beginnings and triumphant endings, of stirring stories of st ruggles and triumphs. It gives inspiring stories of men and women who have broug ht great things to pass. It gives numerous examples of the triumph of mediocrity , showing how those of ordinary ability have succeeded by the use of ordinary me ans. It shows how invalids and cripples even have triumphed by perseverance and will over seemingly insuperable difficulties. The book tells how men and women have seized common occasions and made them gre at; it tells of those of average ability who have succeeded by the use of ordina ry means, by dint of indomitable will and inflexible purpose. It tells how pover ty and hardship have rocked the cradle of the giants of the race. The book point s out that most people do not utilize a large part of their effort because their mental attitude does not correspond with their endeavor, so that although worki ng for one thing, they are really expecting something else; and it is what we ex pect that we tend to get. No man can become prosperous while he really expects or half expects to remain

poor, for holding the poverty thought, keeping in touch with poverty-producing c onditions, discourages prosperity. Before a man can lift himself he must lift his thoughts. When we shall have lea rned to master our thought habits, to keep our minds open to the great divine in flow of life force, we shall have learned the truths of human endowment, human p ossibility. The book points out the fact that what is called success may be failure; that w hen men love money so much that they sacrifice their friendships, their families , their home life, sacrifice position, honor, health, everything for the dollar, their life is a failure, although they may have accumulated money. It shows how men have become rich at the price of their ideals, their character, at the cost of everything noblest, best, and truest in life. It preaches the larger doctrin e of equality; the equality of will and purpose which paves a clear path even to the Presidential chair for a Lincoln or a Garfield, for any one who will pay th e price of study and struggle. Men who feel themselves badly handicapped, crippl ed by their lack of early education, will find in these pages great encouragemen t to broaden their horizon, and will get a practical, helpful, sensible educatio n in their odd moments and half-holidays. Dr. Marden, in "Pushing to the Front," shows that the average of the leaders ar e not above the average of ability. They are ordinary people, but of extraordina ry persistence and perseverance. It is a storehouse of noble incentive, a treasu ry of precious sayings. There is inspiration and encouragement and helpfulness o n every page. It teaches the doctrine that no limits can be placed on one's care er if he has once learned the alphabet and has push; that there are no barriers that can say to aspiring talent, "Thus far, and no farther." Encouragement is it s keynote; it aims to arouse to honorable exertion those who are drifting withou t aim, to awaken dormant ambitions in those who have grown discouraged in the st ruggle for success. THE PUBLISHERS.



ILLUSTRATIONS Orison Swett Marden . . . . . . . . . . Frontispiece House in which Abraham Lincoln was born Ulysses S. Grant William Ewart Gladstone John Wanamaker Jane Addams Thomas Alva Edison Henry Ward Beecher Lincoln studying by the firelight Marshall Field Joseph Jefferson [Transcriber's note: Jefferson was a prominent actor during th e latter half of the 1800's.] Theodore Roosevelt Helen Keller William McKinley Julia Ward Howe Mark Twain

PUSHING TO THE FRONT CHAPTER I THE MAN AND THE OPPORTUNITY No man is born into this world whose work is not born with him.--LOWELL. Things don't turn up in this world until somebody turns them up.--GARFIELD. Vigilance in watching opportunity; tact and daring in seizing upon opportunity; force and persistence in crowding opportunity to its utmost of possible achieve ment--these are the martial virtues which must command success.--AUSTIN PHELPS.

"I will find a way or make one." There never was a day that did not bring its own opportunity for doing good tha t never could have been done before, and never can be again.--W. H. BURLEIGH. "Are you in earnest? Seize this very minute; What you can do, or dream you can, begin it." "If we succeed, what will the world say?" asked Captain Berry in delight, when Nelson had explained his carefully formed plan before the battle of the Nile. "There is no if in the case," replied Nelson. "That we shall succeed is certain . Who may live to tell the tale is a very different question." Then, as his capt ains rose from the council to go to their respective ships, he added: "Before th is time to-morrow I shall have gained a peerage or Westminster Abbey." His quick eye and daring spirit saw an opportunity of glorious victory where others saw o nly probable defeat. "Is it POSSIBLE to cross the path?" asked Napoleon of the engineers who had bee n sent to explore the dreaded pass of St. Bernard. "Perhaps," was the hesitating reply, "it is within the limits of possibility." "FORWARD THEN," said the Little Corporal, without heeding their account of appa rently insurmountable difficulties. England and Austria laughed in scorn at the idea of transporting across the Alps, where "no wheel had ever rolled, or by any possibility could roll," an army of sixty thousand men, with ponderous artiller y, tons of cannon balls and baggage, and all the bulky munitions of war. But the besieged Massena was starving in Genoa, and the victorious Austrians thundered at the gates of Nice, and Napoleon was not the man to fail his former comrades i n their hour of peril. When this "impossible" deed was accomplished, some saw that it might have been done long before. Others excused themselves from encountering such gigantic obst acles by calling them insuperable. Many a commander had possessed the necessary supplies, tools, and rugged soldiers, but lacked the grit and resolution of Bona parte, who did not shrink from mere difficulties, however great, but out of his very need made and mastered his opportunity. Grant at New Orleans had just been seriously injured by a fall from his horse, when he received orders to take command at Chattanooga, so sorely beset by the C onfederates that its surrender seemed only a question of a few days; for the hil ls around were all aglow by night with the camp-fires of the enemy, and supplies had been cut off. Though in great pain, he immediately gave directions for his removal to the new scene of action. On transports up the Mississippi, the Ohio, and one of its tributaries; on a li tter borne by horses for many miles through the wilderness; and into the city at last on the shoulders of four men, he was taken to Chattanooga. Things assumed a different aspect immediately. A master had arrived who was equal to the situat ion. The army felt the grip of his power. Before he could mount his horse he ord ered an advance, and although the enemy contested the ground inch by inch, the s urrounding hills were soon held by Union soldiers. Were these things the result of chance, or were they compelled by the indominab le determination of the injured General? Did things adjust themselves when Horatius with two companions held ninety thou sand Tuscans at bay until the bridge across the Tiber had been destroyed?--when Leonidas at Thermopylae checked the mighty march of Xerxes?--when Themistocles,

off the coast of Greece, shattered the Persian's Armada?--when Caesar, finding h is army hard pressed, seized spear and buckler, fought while he reorganized his men, and snatched victory from defeat?--when Winkelried gathered to his heart a sheaf of Austrian spears, thus opening a path through which his comrades pressed to freedom?--when for years Napoleon did not lose a single battle in which he w as personally engaged?--when Wellington fought in many climes without ever being conquered?--when Ney, on a hundred fields, changed apparent disaster into brill iant triumph?--when Perry left the disabled Lawrence, rowed to the Niagara, and silenced the British guns?--when Sheridan arrived from Winchester just as the Un ion retreat was becoming a rout, and turned the tide by riding along the line?-when Sherman, though sorely pressed, signaled his men to hold the fort, and they , knowing that their leader was coming, held it? History furnishes thousands of examples of men who have seized occasions to acc omplish results deemed impossible by those less resolute. Prompt decision and wh ole-souled action sweep the world before them. True, there has been but one Napoleon; but, on the other hand, the Alps that op pose the progress of the average American youth are not as high or dangerous as the summits crossed by the great Corsican. Don't wait for extraordinary opportunities. Seize common occasions and make the m great. On the morning of September 6, 1838, a young woman in the Longstone Lighthouse, between England and Scotland, was awakened by shrieks of agony rising above the roar of wind and wave. A storm of unwonted fury was raging, and her parents cou ld not hear the cries; but a telescope showed nine human beings clinging to the windlass of a wrecked vessel whose bow was hanging on the rocks half a mile away . "We can do nothing," said William Darling, the light-keeper. "Ah, yes, we must go to the rescue," exclaimed his daughter, pleading tearfully with both father and mother, until the former replied: "Very well, Grace, I will let you persuade me, though it is against my better judgment." Like a feather in a whirlwind the little boat was tossed on the tumultuous sea, but, borne on the blast that swep t the cruel surge, the shrieks of those shipwrecked sailors seemed to change her weak sinews into cords of steel. Strength hitherto unsuspected came from somewh ere, and the heroic girl pulled one oar in even time with her father. At length the nine were safely on board. "God bless you; but ye're a bonny English lass," said one poor fellow, as he looked wonderingly upon this marvelous girl, who tha t day had done a deed which added more to England's glory than the exploits of m any of her monarchs. "If you will let me try, I think I can make something that will do," said a boy who had been employed as a scullion at the mansion of Signer Faliero, as the st ory is told by George Cary Eggleston. A large company had been invited to a banq uet, and just before the hour the confectioner, who had been making a large orna ment for the table, sent word that he had spoiled the piece. "You!" exclaimed th e head servant, in astonishment; "and who are you?" "I am Antonio Canova, the gr andson of Pisano, the stone-cutter," replied the pale-faced little fellow. "And pray, what can you do?" asked the major-domo. "I can make you something th at will do for the middle of the table, if you'll let me try." The servant was a t his wits' end, so he told Antonio to go ahead and see what he could do. Callin g for some butter, the scullion quickly molded a large crouching lion, which the admiring major-domo placed upon the table. Dinner was announced, and many of the most noted merchants, princes, and noblem en of Venice were ushered into the dining-room. Among them were skilled critics of art work. When their eyes fell upon the butter lion, they forgot the purpose for which they had come in their wonder at such a work of genius. They looked at

the lion long and carefully, and asked Signer Faliero what great sculptor had b een persuaded to waste his skill upon such a temporary material. Faliero could n ot tell; so he asked the head servant, who brought Antonio before the company. When the distinguished guests learned that the lion had been made in a short ti me by a scullion, the dinner was turned into a feast in his honor. The rich host declared that he would pay the boy's expenses under the best masters, and he ke pt his word. Antonio was not spoiled by his good fortune, but remained at heart the same simple, earnest, faithful boy who had tried so hard to become a good st one-cutter in the shop of Pisano. Some may not have heard how the boy Antonio to ok advantage of this first great opportunity; but all know of Canova, one of the greatest sculptors of all time. Weak men wait for opportunities, strong men make them. "The best men," says E. H. Chapin, "are not those who have waited for chances b ut who have taken them; besieged the chance; conquered the chance; and made chan ce the servitor." There may not be one chance in a million that you will ever receive unusual aid ; but opportunities are often presented which you can improve to good advantage, if you will only act. The lack of opportunity is ever the excuse of a weak, vacillating mind. Opportu nities! Every life is full of them. Every lesson in school or college is an oppo rtunity. Every examination is a chance in life. Every patient is an opportunity. Every newspaper article is an opportunity. Every client is an opportunity. Ever y sermon is an opportunity. Every business transaction is an opportunity,--an op portunity to be polite,--an opportunity to be manly,--an opportunity to be hones t,--an opportunity to make friends. Every proof of confidence in you is a great opportunity. Every responsibility thrust upon your strength and your honor is pr iceless. Existence is the privilege of effort, and when that privilege is met li ke a man, opportunities to succeed along the line of your aptitude will come fas ter than you can use them. If a slave like Fred Douglass, who did not even own h is body, can elevate himself into an orator, editor, statesman, what ought the p oorest white boy to do, who is rich in opportunities compared with Douglass? It is the idle man, not the great worker, who is always complaining that he has no time or opportunity. Some young men will make more out of the odds and ends of opportunities which many carelessly throw away than other will get out of a w hole life-time. Like bees, they extract honey from every flower. Every person th ey meet, every circumstance of the day, adds something to their store of useful knowledge or personal power. "There is nobody whom Fortune does not visit once in his life," says a cardinal ; "but when she finds he is not ready to receive her, she goes in at the door an d out at the window." Cornelius Vanderbilt saw his opportunity in the steamboat, and determined to id entify himself with steam navigation. To the surprise of all his friends, he aba ndoned his prosperous business and took command of one of the first steamboats l aunched, at a salary of one thousand dollars a year. Livingston and Fulton had a cquired the sole right to navigate New York waters by steam, but Vanderbilt thou ght the law unconstitutional, and defied it until it was repealed. He soon becam e a steamboat owner. When the government was paying a large subsidy for carrying the European mails, he offered to carry them free and give better service. His offer was accepted, and in this way he soon built up an enormous freight and pas senger traffic. Foreseeing the great future of railroads in a country like ours, he plunged int

o railroad enterprises with all his might, laying the foundation for the vast Va nderbilt system of to-day. Young Philip Armour joined the long caravan of Forty-Niners, and crossed the "G reat American Desert" with all his possessions in a prairie schooner drawn by mu les. Hard work and steady gains carefully saved in the mines enabled him to star t, six years later, in the grain and warehouse business in Milwaukee. In nine ye ars he made five hundred thousand dollars. But he saw his great opportunity in G rant's order, "On to Richmond." One morning in 1864 he knocked at the door of Pl ankinton, partner in his venture as a pork packer. "I am going to take the next train to New York," said he, "to sell pork 'short.' Grant and Sherman have the r ebellion by the throat, and pork will go down to twelve dollars a barrel." This was his opportunity. He went to New York and offered pork in large quantities at forty dollars per barrel. It was eagerly taken. The shrewd Wall Street speculat ors laughed at the young Westerner, and told him pork would go to sixty dollars, for the war was not nearly over. Mr. Armour, however, kept on selling, Grant co ntinued to advance. Richmond fell, pork fell with it to twelve dollars a barrel, and Mr. Armour cleared two millions of dollars. John D. Rockefeller saw his opportunity in petroleum. He could see a large popu lation in this country with very poor lights. Petroleum was plentiful, but the r efining process was so crude that the product was inferior, and not wholly safe. Here was Rockefeller's chance. Taking into partnership Samuel Andrews, the port er in a machine shop where both men had worked, he started a single barrel "stil l" in 1870, using an improved process discovered by his partner. They made a sup erior grade of oil and prospered rapidly. They admitted a third partner, Mr. Fla gler, but Andrews soon became dissatisfied. "What will you take for your interes t?" asked Rockefeller. Andrews wrote carelessly on a piece of paper, "One millio n dollars." Within twenty-four hours Mr. Rockefeller handed him the amount, sayi ng, "Cheaper at one million than ten." In twenty years the business of the littl e refinery, scarcely worth one thousand dollars for building and apparatus, had grown into the Standard Oil Trust, capitalized at ninety millions of dollars, wi th stock quoted at 170, giving a market value of one hundred and fifty millions. These are illustrations of seizing opportunity for the purpose of making money. But fortunately there is a new generation of electricians, of engineers, of sch olars, of artists, of authors, and of poets, who find opportunities, thick as th istles, for doing something nobler than merely amassing riches. Wealth is not an end to strive for, but an opportunity; not the climax of a man's career, but an incident. Mrs. Elizabeth Fry, a Quaker lady, saw her opportunity in the prisons of Englan d. From three hundred to four hundred half-naked women, as late as 1813, would o ften be huddled in a single ward of Newgate, London, awaiting trial. They had ne ither beds nor bedding, but women, old and young, and little girls, slept in fil th and rags on the floor. No one seemed to care for them, and the Government mer ely furnished food to keep them alive. Mrs. Fry visited Newgate, calmed the howl ing mob, and told them she wished to establish a school for the young women and the girls, and asked them to select a schoolmistress from their own number. They were amazed, but chose a young woman who had been committed for stealing a watc h. In three months these "wild beasts," as they were sometimes called, became ha rmless and kind. The reform spread until the Government legalized the system, an d good women throughout Great Britain became interested in the work of educating and clothing these outcasts. Fourscore years have passed, and her plan has been adopted throughout the civilized world. A boy in England had been run over by a car, and the bright blood spurted from a severed artery. No one seemed to know what to do until another boy, Astley Coo per, took his handkerchief and stopped the bleeding by pressure above the wound. The praise which he received for thus saving the boy's life encouraging him to

become a surgeon. He experimented with the straw of his cell. E ven the iron doors of a prison were not enough to shut him out from research. Shall he confess his igno rance and inability. will you let me have it for a poem?' To this Hawthorne consented. after long waiting. For ages astronomers had been familiar with the rings of Saturn. and do his work? If he can. and promised. a nd only found him dying in a hospital when both were old. with him from Salem." Are you prepared for a great opportunity? "Hawthorne dined one day with Longfellow. moreover. Everybody had noticed the overflow when a solid is immersed in a vessel filled with water. and passed her life in waiting and seeking for him. the foremost of his day. but it remained for Columbus to steer boldly out into an unknown sea and discover a new world. when moved. "and brought a friend. or the E xile of the Acadians. or step into fame and fortune? It is for him to say. and still current there. Longfellow seized his opportunity and gave to the world 'Evangeline. "when. After dinner the friend said. sways back and fort h until friction and the resistance of the air bring it to rest. but Laplace saw that. however irreg ular in shape. often hitting heedless men on the hea d as if to set them thinking. he is the one of all others who is wanted. Everybody knew how steadily a suspended weight. open hearts will nev er want for worthy objects upon which to bestow their gifts. not to trea t the subject in prose till Longfellow had seen what he could do with it in vers e. but the boy Galil eo. a nd from their mute testimony he added a valuable chapter to the scientific histo ry of Creation. open hands will nev er lack for noble work to do. and learned valuable lessons about the relative strength of tubes and rods of equal diameters. Innumerable apples had fallen from trees. Fields. yet no one cons idered this information of the slightest practical importance. they are the sole remaining visi ble evidences of certain stages in the invariable process of star manufacture. He and it are face to face." says Arnold. There was not a sailor in Europe who had not wondered what might lie beyond the Western Ocean. he perceived therein an easy method of finding the cubical contents of objects. although no one had made use of his knowledge that the body displace s its exact bulk of liquid. in the dispersion of the Acadians. saw in the regularity of those oscillations the useful principle of the pendulum. was separated from her lover. His opportunity confronts him. Time is pressing. and regarded t hem merely as curious exceptions to the supposed law of planetary formation. and he said to him. The great surgeon is away. Life and death hang in the balance. as he watched a lamp left swinging by accident in the cathedral at Pisa. open ears will never fail to detect the cries of those who are perishing for assistance. 'If yo u have really made up your mind not to use it for a story. 'I have been trying to persuade Hawthorne to write a story based upon a legend of Acadia. but when Archimedes observed the fact. instead of being exceptions.--the legend of a girl who.' Longfellow wondered t hat the legend did not strike the fancy of Hawthorne. Is he equal to the emergency? Can he fill the great surgeon's pl ace.'" Open eyes will discover opportunities everywhere. he is suddenly confronted with his first criti cal operation." said James T. and patient study and experiment. but Newton was the first to realize that they fall to the earth by the same law which holds the planets in their courses and preve nts the momentum of all the atoms in the universe from hurling them wildly back . "The time comes to the young surgeon.

'I wi ll try.' I answered 'but had you not better send your passengers on board now?' 'Lay by me till morning. and once gone. and the purpos eless too often see no meaning in the happiest occasions. there are a hundre d now. Read the story of any successful m an and mark its moral. in the vain attempt to call their attention to the all-pervading and tremendous energy of electricity. Avenues greater in number. when shown. and thunder had jarred the ears of men since th e days of Adam." said a shipmaster. these men are considered great. where there was one. "Opportuni ty. but the discharges of Heaven's artillery were seen and heard only by the eye and ear of terror until Franklin. stand open to the sober. Lightning had dazzled the eyes.' cri ed Captain Herndon. o ne whose face was concealed by hair. 'I am in a sinking condition." Captain Herndon appreciated the value of the opportunity he had neglected when it was beyond his reach. but I hailed the cr ippled steamer and asked if they needed help." But what is the best opportunity to him who cannot or will not use it? "It was my lot. cannot be overtaken. I cou ld not keep my position. to the edu cated youth. The night was closing in. by a simpl e experiment. And of trades.' again shouted Captain Herndon. but at night.to chaos. He who improves an opportunity sows a seed which will yield fruit in opportunit y for himself and others." says a Latin author. energetic and able mechanic. you may hold her." "Opportunity has hair in front. for he stood before five ki ngs and dined with two. to the office boy and to the clerk--avenues through which they can reap greater successes than ever before within the reach of these classes in the history of the world. proved that lightning is but one manifestation of a resistless yet controllable force. "behind she is bald." This proverb is well il lustrated by the career of the industrious Franklin. The captain and crew and most of the passengers found a grave in the deep. "Why is its face hidden?" "Because men seldom know hi m when he comes to them. easier of access than ever before e xisted. and which had wings on its feet. 'Will you not lay by me until morning?' replied Captain Herndon. frugal. In an hour and a hal f after he said. until too late they le . such was the heavy roll of the sea. not Jupiter himself can catch her again. with its living freight. and I never saw the steamer again." replied the sculptor. but. "What is its name?" asked a visitor in a studio." "Why has he wings on his feet?" "Because he is soon go ne. the sluggish. among many gods. but of what avail was the bitterness of his self-reproa ch when his last moments came? How many lives were sacrificed to his unintellige nt hopefulness and indecision! Like him the feeble. went down. "to fall in with the ill-fated steamer Cent ral America. 'Had you not better send your passengers on board directly?' I asked. A little while ago there were only three or four professi ons--now there are fifty. simply because they improved opportunities common to the whole human race. wider in extent. Every one who has labored honestly in the past has aid ed to place knowledge and comfort within the reach of a constantly increasing nu mber. if y ou seize her by the forelock. "I tried to lay by him. 'Lay by me till morning. abundant as air and water. the sea rolling high. told thousands of years ago by Solomon: "Seest thou a man diligent in his business? he shall stand before kings.' his vessel. Like many others. if suffered to escape.

accommodation train. They cannot seize their opportunity ." said Joe. that I had!" He was taken home. swinging an empty lantern in front of an imaginary t rain. "Oh. The passengers liked him. but it was too late. Then he r an for the curve. Joe Stoker. Then he took another sip from the flat bottle to keep the cold out. "Don't stop a minute. they see how to improve themselves or help others in the future. They remember plenty of chances to make money. or they can probably get one to-morrow. he would give one of his brightest smiles. Joe. but the conductor and engineer of the train were both vigilant and anxious." The conductor answered gravely. whistling. The conductor then hurried forward to the eng ine. when they asked for Joe. and if any one remonstrated. I'm all right. that I had not!" is the silent cry of many a man who would give life itself for the opportunity to go back and retrieve some long-pas t error. Wait till I get my overcoat. and afterwards to an asylum. Between two stations the train came to a quick halt." and occasionally tipple d. and the shrieks of the mangled passenge rs mingled with the hissing escape of steam. smilingly. . delirious. But the brakeman did not go at once. The express is due. and ordered Joe back with a red light. for he was eager t o please and always ready to answer questions. Later on. Soon he became quite jolly. moved leisurely down the track. they think that if they had only gone yesterday they would have obtained the situation. and slyly sipped occasional draughts f rom a flat bottle. He had not gone ten paces before he heard the puffing of the express. that I had! Oh. but perceive no opportunity in the present. he had disappeared. He stopped to put on his overcoat." One evening there was a heavy snowstorm. "Oh. Such people are always a little too late or a little too early in everything th ey attempt. Then he slowly gras ped the lantern and. and now. too. "a right hand. Gough. whose criminal indulgence brought disaster to many lives . was exceedingly popu lar with all the railroad men. but the next day he was found in a barn." said John B. that I had!" or "Oh.arn the old lesson that the mill can never grind with the water which has passed . T he conductor hurried to the rear car. and there is no sadder sound in that sad place than the unceasing moan. "They have three hands apiece. Joe complai ned of extra duties because of the storm." As boys. and un punctual in their home duties. they were late for school. He "took the world easy. w hen responsibility claims them. or know how to make it some other time than now. But he did not realize the full r esponsibility of his position. The brakeman laughed and said: "There's no hurry. a left hand. rear brakeman on the ---. and a little behindhand. That is the way the habit is acquired. In a horrible minute the engine of the ex press had telescoped the standing train. and crying." "All right. and r eply. The engine had blown out i ts cylinder head. "Oh. Don't you worry. in such a good-natured way that the friend would think he had over-estimat ed the danger: "Thank you. and his train was delayed. that I had!" of th e unfortunate brakeman. and an express was due in a few minutes upon the same track.

persistent endeavor we find our highest go od. And t his all-important moment--who can tell when it will be upon us?" "What we call a turning-point. or worth. why stand ye here all the day idle? Was the land all occup ied before you were born? Has the earth ceased to yield its increase? Are the se ats all taken? the positions all filled? the chances all gone? Are the resources of your country fully developed? Are the secrets of nature all mastered? Is the re no way in which you can utilize these passing moments to improve yourself or benefit others? Is the competition of modern existence so fierce that you must b e content simply to gain an honest living? Have you received the gift of life in this progressive age. Or lose our ventures. Omitted. leads on to fortune. A stray. "Wherefore criest thou unto me? Speak unto the c hildren of Israel. And we must take the current when it serves. There is no proportion between spaces of time in importance nor in value. Nor shrink aside to 'scape the specter fear. wherein all the experience of the past is garnered for yo ur inspiration. as Napoleon made his in a hundred "impossible" situations. earnest. knowl edge without study." "'Tis never offered twice. in war and in peace. the hour When fortune smiles. and their leader paused for Divine help. Nor pause." says Arnold. Young men and women. "which are worth more than years. the Lord said. We are expecting mastery without apprenticeship. though p leasure beckon from her bower. and duty points the way. then. Make it. with our own faculties so arranged that in honest. and with countless noble examples to encourage us to dare and to do. as all leaders of men. Make it as George Stephenson made his when he mastered the ru les of mathematics with a bit of chalk on the grimy sides of the coal wagons in the mines. merely that you may increase by one the sum total of purely anim al existence? Born in an age and country in which knowledge and opportunity abound as never b efore. or fame. but industry makes the com monest chances golden."There are moments. Make it. or clear his path to success. with human nature so constit uted that often a pleasant word or a trifling assistance may stem the tide of di saster for some fellow man. Don't wait for your opportunity. seize. "is simply an occasion which sums up and brings to a result previous training. unthought-of five minutes may contain the event of a life. have made their chances of s uccess. Golden opportunities are nothing to laziness. and riches by credit. But bravely bear thee onward to the goal." says Dean Alford. asking God's aid in work for which He has already given you the necessary faculties and strength? Even when the Chosen People supposed their progress checked by the Red Sea. "There is a tide in the affairs of men. We are dazzled by what Emerson calls the "shallow Americanism" of the day." The trouble with us is that we are ever looking for a princely chance of acquir ing riches. M ake it. taken at the flood.--make it as the shepherd-boy Ferguson made his when he calculated the distances of the stars with a handful of glass beads on a string. Which. all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miser ies. Accidental circumstances are nothin g except to men who have been trained to take advantage of them. that they go forward. how can you sit with folded hands. We can not help it. each mo ment brings us to the threshold of some new opportunity." CHAPTER II WANTED--A MAN ." With the world full of work that needs to be done.

a thousand preach ers standing idle in the market place. sensitive. who does not let a college education spoil him for practical. it is each one of us! . whose ha nds are deft. discipline and drill. a man of courage who is not a coward in any part of his nature. if one knows not how to will it. while a thousand church committees scour the land for men to fill those same vacant pulpits. and not one-sided in his development. You have him at hand. incisive. every occupation. a man who prefers substance to show. and scour in vain.--it is you. microscopic. a man who has the courage of his convictions. true." Over the door of every profession. charac ter and manhood. a man who mixes common sense with his th eories. who considers it a low estimate o f his occupation to value it merely as a means of getting a living. and to respect others as himself. in one direction at least. How to constitute one's self a man? Nothing harder. who does not take half views of things. whose heart is tende r. a man who is broad. a man who. Wanted. and one who regards his good name as a priceless treasure. Wanted. in his occupation. to hate all vilene ss. when a crowd collected around him. magnanimous. Not even the potent pen. but whose pas sions are trained to heed a strong will. O men". and sought in vain. and. Wanted. Not power with gracious smiles. men: Not systems fit and wise. a man who is well balanced. Wanted. . Not faiths with rigid eyes." The world wants a man who is educated all over." though all the world say "Yes. Want ed. broad." Wanted. of the largeness of the opportunit ies of the age. or mutilate his manhood. Where is the man who will save us? We want a man! Don't lo ok so far for this man. whether of nature or of art. the servant of a tender conscience. who is not afraid to say "No. Diogenes sought with a lantern at noontide in ancient Athens for a perfectly ho nest man. men. every calling. whose brain is cultured. a man who is larger than his calling. will not permit one great faculty to dwarf."Wanted. This man. no stunted ascetic. the world h as a standing advertisement: "Wanted--A Man. who will not allow the over-development of one faculty to stunt or paralyze his other facult ies. Wanted. . a ma n who sees self-development. nothing easier. In the market place he once cried aloud. a man who will not lose his individuality in a crowd. warp. a man who is symmetrical. and also of the crying need of good men. a man "who. cripple. who is not cursed with some little defect o f weakness which cripples his usefulness and neutralizes his powers. who has not sent all the energies of his being into one narrow specialty and allowed al l the other branches of his life to wither and die. is full of life and fire. not pygmies. he said scornfully: "I called f or men. is a suff icient indication. who has learned to love all beauty. Wanted.--ALEXANDRE DUMAS. "Hear me. whose eyes are alert. if one wills it." All the world cries. . whose nerves are brought to the ir acutest sensibility." Wanted. Not wealth in mountain piles. Wanted. every-day life. though he is dominated by a mighty purpose. it is I. education and culture. A thousand pulpits vacant in a single religious denomination. keen.

nor a body by i tself alone. and yet everywhere we see the advertisement: "Wanted--A Man. I can succeed in nothin g. To live is the profession I would teach him. The audience could not hear and call ed "Louder. Talleyrand's question is ever the main one. but after a while the whole sea is there and . not. "I can't. "According to the order o f nature. too." some one said. the pulpit. sickly instead of robust. turned out into the world saplings instead of stalwart oaks. "memory-glands " instead of brainy men. Natur e has destined us to the offices of human life antecedent to our destination con cerning society." he replied. is he rich? i s he committed? is he well-meaning? has he this or that faculty? is he of the mo vement? is he of the establishment? but is he anybody? does he stand for somethi ng? He must be good of his kind. a lawyer. animated with the bounding spiri ts of overflowing health? It is a sad sight to see thousands of students graduated every year from our gr and institutions whose object is to make stalwart. helpless instead of self-supporting. it is true he will be neither a soldier. short doctor of divinity in a large Baptist convention stood on a ste p and said he thanked God he was a Baptist. One great need for the world to-day is for men and women who are good animals. ailing man can not develop the vigor and strength of cha racter which is possible to a healthy. To endure the strain of our concentrated civilization. their common vocation is the profession of humanity. Nature. if I do not succeed in that. As we stand upon the seashore while the tide is coming in. yet it is almost impossible to find just the right man in almost any department of life. There is an inheren t love in the human mind for wholeness. A peevish. or the bar. snarling. and whoever is well educated to discharge the duty of a man can not be badly pre pared to fill any of those offices that have a relation to him. It matters littl e to me whether my pupil be designed for the army. self-supporting men. "So many promising you ths. and that is being a man. men being equal. a demand that man shall come up to the h ighest standard. and never a finished man!" The character sympathizes with and unconsciously takes on the nature of the bod y. Fortune may remove him from one rank to another as she pleases . one wave reaches up the beach far higher than any previous one. Although there are millions out of e mployment. but to train a man." But there is something higher than being a Bapt ist. As Emerson says. he will be always found in his place. What more glorious than a magnificent manhood.The whole world is looking for such a man. cheerful man. and there is an inherent protest or contempt for preventable de ficiency. leaning instead of erect. robust. the coming man and woman must have good bodies and an excess of animal spirits. I must make myself a man. then recedes. When I have done w ith him. independent. all that the commo n sense of mankind asks. nor a divine." "Get up higher. Let hi m first be a man." A little. " Rousseau. says. That is all that Talleyrand. and for some time none that follows comes up to its mark. in his celebrated essay on education. "To be a Bap tist is as high as one can get. weak instead of strong. demands that man be ever at the top of his condition." Montaigne says our work is not to train a soul by itself alone. When Garfield as a boy was asked what he meant to be he answered: "First of all .

but the strength and the v irtues of other types of men. So now and then there comes a man head and shoulders above his fello w men. Time and patience develop the sapling into the tree. A time like this demands Strong minds. unseduced. getting here an eye. sturdy trees. . His whole charact er will be impressionable. Not cities proud with spires and turrets crowned. Men who possess opinions and a will. experience. the sapling child is developed into hardy menta l.beyond it. Where. And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain. He will a bsorb into himself not the weakness. compared with conscious rectitud e. No: men. education. come to have almost unl imited credit and the confidence of everybody who knows him. if he should take su ch a stand at the outset. studying the fairest points of beaut iful women. and will respond to the most delicate touches of Natu re. with a heart that might be turned inside out and disclose no stain of dishonor? To have done no man a wrong. Men whom the spoil s of office cannot buy.-. within arm's length of what is not your own. Thick wa ll or moated gate. He w ill be a self-centered. Men who can stand before a demagogue And scorn his treach erous flatteries without winking. with a bosom that n ever throbs with fear of exposure. like George Peabody. He will be a man raised to the highest power. he would. But know their rights. or den. Man is the only great thing in the universe. with nothing between your desire and its gratification but the in visible law of rectitude. So the coming man will be a composite. and after a while even the av erage man will overtop the highest wave of manhood yet given to the world. Not starred and spangled courts. God give us men. But it must become timber first. and ever master of himself. moral. dare maintain. high-minded men. Men who have honor-men who will not lie. and in private thinking. The first requisite of all education and discipline should be man-timber. feel that the eyes of the world are upon him that he must not deviate a hair's breadth from the truth and right. to have put your signature to no paper to which the purest angel in heaven might not have been a n attesting witness. Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride. All the ages have been trying to p roduce a perfect model. here a grace and there a turn of beauty. Tall men sun-crowned. As beasts excel cold rocks and brambles rude. many in one. ANON. equipoised. physical man-timber. to walk and live. laughing at the storm. Apelles hunted over Greece for many years. The best of us ar e but prophesies of what is to come. if he should hold his reputatio n as a priceless treasure. rich navies ride. great hearts. who live above the fog I n public duty.--this is to be a man. what though a man could cover a continent with his title-deeds. that every appointment shall be kept with the strictest faithfu lness and with full regard for other men's time. What are palaces and equipages. brake. not the follies. What constitutes a state? Not high-raised battlement or labored mound. there a forehead and there a nose. If the youth should start out with the fixed determination that every statement he makes shall be the exact truth. Prevent the long-aimed blo w. Only one complete man has yet evolved. WILLIAM JONES. So through di scipline. and knowing. for his famous portrait of a perfect woman which en chanted the world. can be fashioned into a piano or an exquisite carving. Tough timber must come from well grown. Not bays an d broad-armed ports.Men who their duties kno w. His sensibility will not be deadened or blunted by violation of Nature's laws. showing that Nature has not lost her ideal. true fait h and ready hands: Men whom the lust of office does not kill. With powers as far above dull brutes endued In forest. that every promise he makes shall be redeeme d to the letter. Such wood can be turned into a mast. with a face that never turns pale at the accuser's voice. or an ocean with his commerce.

for he can do as he likes with the paper. All sorts of people are afraid of him. And those whose names end with 'sen. begging to be taken from the poorhouse and allowed to struggle for an education. There can be no doubt that the captains of industry to-day. but it i s the north wind that lashes men into Vikings. Kitto. and I know how to prevent hunger." Years afterwards when the children of the party had become men and women. which is a very high office. filled with all kinds of beautiful and val uable objects. but hearten us in our future struggl es. Poverty is the sixth sense. turnips." "But my papa can buy a hundred dollars' worth of bonbons.--Hans Christian Andersen. a hayrick will make an excellent bed. . it is the soft. "I am a child of the court. using that term in its broadest sense. father.--J. another who se name did not keep him from becoming famous. 'Tis a common proof. his parents had not even a penny to spare. and sometimes kills the very soul within us. It is not every calamity that is a curse. HOLLAND. That lowliness is young ambition's ladder! SHAKESPEARE. Cannot I do so. We must put our arms akimbo. they also. by permission of the cook for whom he had been turning the spit. This sketch is adapted from a story by a poor Danish cobbler's son. once the very boy who thought it so gre at a privilege to peep at them through a crack in the door as they played.CHAPTER III BOYS WITH NO CHANCE In the blackest soils grow the fairest flowers." angrily exclaimed the daughter of the rich merchant Petersen." said a pretty little girl at a children's party in Denmark. too? The hedges furnish blackberries and nu ts. and his name ended in "sen. are men who began life as poor boys. The Hottentots subsist a long time on nothing but a little gum.--SETH LOW. "can never be anything at all." said the deaf boy. and early adversity is often a blessi ng. so as to keep these 'sen' people at a great distance. His first book was written in the workhouse. "my papa can put your papa and ever ybody's papa into the newspaper. tie a ligature around their bodies. and the loftiest and strongest trees spring heavenward among the rocks. Poverty is very terrible." The poor deaf boy with a drunken father. and make the elbows quite pointed. "we are i n the midst of plenty. "There is no fear of my starving. luscious south wi nd which lulls them to lotus dreams. He ha d become the great sculptor Thorwaldsen. G. "Can y our papa do that?" "Yes." "Oh. when hungry. if I could be one of them!" thought a little boy peeping through the crack of the door. There they met the owner. Surmounted difficulties not only teach. my papa says. "my father is Groom of the Chambers. and give them away to children.--SHARPE. B ut no." chimed in the daughter of an editor. who was thought capable of nothing bet ter than making shoes as a pauper. some of them went to see a splendid house. became one of the greatest Biblical scholars in the world. and the fields.--GERMAN PROVERB.--OUIDA.'" she added.

to be now my friend. far more beautiful th an the rest. "To the dungeon. the gods will be friend us. It is dark. the hands of a slave. as a writer tells the story in Kate Field's "Washingto n. felt the blow as deeply as her brother. but to my side bring the youth. a determined expression in her eyes. my goddess. day and night . all the gods seemed to have d eserted him. and even the praise of Pericles. It was after the repulse of the great Persian inv ader. exciting at the same time no little envy among rival artists. rising. Beauty was his god. he had prayed for f resh inspiration. Phidias. On his knees. "Who is the sculptor of this group?" None could tell. the friend of my brother!" Then to her brother she said: "O Creon. and a law was in force that under penalty of death no one should espouse a rt except freemen. If Athens lives in the memory and affections of men.--now. but she will not tell his name. rushed forward. his life. from day to day. "A mystery. The display took place in the Agora." "As I live. but I will furnish light and food. had directed his hand and had breathed into the figures th e life that seemed to animate them. disheveled hair . go to the cellar beneath our house. a nswering his prayers. "the law is imperat ive. and he wor shiped it with rapt adoration. At his side was Aspasia. "immortal Aphrodite." To the cellar Creon went. She was informed of the penalty of her c onduct. gratefully and proudly. Pericles presided. we ar e sure of it. and flinging himself befor e him exclaimed: "O Pericles. and I am the minister of the law. his soul. "this woman knows the sculptor. new skill. Aspasia placed the crown . was dragged into th e Agora. Heralds repeated the ques tion. forgive and save the maid! She is my sister. that Apollo. no!" said Pericles. I am the culprit. he proceeded with his glorious but dangerous task. The works of the great masters were there. Socrates. h is heart. What was to be done? Into the marble block before him Creon had put his head. T he highest purpose of law should be the development of the beautiful. When the law was enacted he was engaged upon a group for whic h he hoped some day to receive the commendation of Phidias. About this time all Greece was invited to Athens to behold an exhibit of works of art." said Pericles." As he spoke a youth with flowing hair. Cleone." Cleone was questioned. but was silent. my queen. at whose shrine I have daily laid my offerings. But one group. "Behold that group! Apo llo decides by it that there is something higher in Greece than an unjust law.--challenged univer sal attention." The indignant crowd interrupted him and cried. Take the maid to the dungeon.--a group that Apollo himself must have chiseled. Continue your work." cried the officers. to the dungeon with the slave. in the presence of the assembled multitude." but he was also a slave of the Genius of Art. his devoted sister. "Then. the greatest sculpto r living. and guarded and attended by his sister. but now. He believed. but with black eyes that beam ed with the flashing light of genius. but there was no answer. my patron. Sophocles. then! Can it be the work of a slave?" Amid great commotion a beautiful maiden with disarranged dress. and other renowned men stood near him. "O Aphrodit e!" she prayed." And there. Not to the dungeon.Creon was a Greek slave. but her lips remained closed. it is her devotion to art that will i mmortalize her. high enthroned child of Zeus. "This woman. emaciated. The group is the work of my hands. and with closed lips.

. He managed to read a thousand good books before he was twenty-one--w hat a lesson for boys on a farm! When he left the farm he started on foot for Na tick. and received the magnificent sum of six dollars for the month's work! Each of t hese dollars looked as large to me as the moon looks to-night. a yoke of oxen and six sheep. rec eiving a month's schooling each year. just as the sun was rising. Let me give you an order on the store. He ground every circumstance of his life into material for success. and. He we nt through Boston that he might see Bunker Hill monument and other historical la ndmarks. "Want sat by my crad le. He was nea rly twenty-one. "Don't go about the town any longer in that outlandish rig. He retained but fifteen dollars and gave the rest to his father. descended the Hudson in a barge. and replied: "Y ou see Mr. and was to receive one hundred and thirty-five from Judge J. The whole trip cost him but one dollar and six cents. Sterrett. In Greece. every occasion was a great occasion. Sterret of the Erie "Ga zette" for substitute work. and served an apprenticeship of eleven years. The Athenians erected a statue to Aesop. rode on a canal boat to Albany. . He seized them as tho ugh they were gold and would not let one pass until he had wrung from it every p ossibility. Mass. M. drove a team. but "no" was the invariable reply. who was born a slave. With hi m. and at the same t ime. August 18." Mr. which brought me eighty-four dollars." He had spent but six dollars for personal expenses in seven months. going into scores of buildings and asking if they wanted "a ha nd"." Horace Greeley looked down on hi s clothes as if he had never before noticed how seedy they were. with tow-colored hair. he walked sixty miles through the woods to Buffalo." said Vice-President Henry Wilson. which she held in her hands. Before eight years had passed. Twelve years l ater he stood shoulder to shoulder with the polished Sumner in Congress. he resolved to seek his fortune in New York City. and. In a year he was the head of a debating club at Natick. I rose in the morning before daylight and worked hard till after dark. Few men knew so well the value of spare moments. and I want to help him all I c an. I know what it is to ask a mother for bread when she has none to give. in the Massachusetts Legislature. at the end of eleven years of hard wo rk. He found board over a saloon at two dollars and a half a week. with whom he had moved from Vermont to Western Pennsylvania. over one hundred miles distant. His quaint appearance led many to think he was an escaped apprentice. or war. Horace. No other country ever did so much to encourage and inspire struggling meri t. and cut m ill-logs. . that men might k now that the way to honor is open to all. The latter had no id ea that a country greenhorn could set type for the Polyglot Testament on which h . In the first month aft er I was twenty-one years of age. literature. One Sunday at his boarding-place he heard that pri nters were wanted at "West's Printing-office.. counting every penny from the time I w as born till I was twenty-one years of age. he made hi s great speech against slavery. and fo r whom he had camped out many a night to guard the sheep from wolves. she tenderly kissed Creon's affectionate and devot ed sister. a pale face and whining voice. I never spent the sum of one dollar for pleasure. I lef t my home at ten years of age. I went into the woods. although tall and gawky. "I was born in poverty. Wilson determined never to lose an opportunity for self-culture or self-adv ancement. I know what it is to travel weary mi les and ask my fellow men to give me leave to toil. and asked the foreman for a job at seven. His journey of s ix hundred miles had cost him but five dollars. wealth and immortality were the sure reward of the man who could distinguish himself in art. amid universal plaudits. my father is on a new place. on the brow of Creon. 1831." He was at the door at five o'cloc k Monday morning. and reached New York. For days Horace wandered up and down the streets. Dress up a little. Slinging h is bundle of clothes on a stick over his shoulder.of olives. to learn the cobbler's trade.

He founded the "New Y orker." which reached the then fabulous circulation of ninety thousand. It was an up-hill job. and was only know n as a clever writer for the press. furnished it with a chair a nd a desk composed of a plank supported by two barrels. and in 1864 the dreams of his boyhood fou nd fulfilment. and the paper entered upon a career of remark able prosperity. a lways tried to be right. giving the news. he had great determination and indomitable energy. lowered the advertising rates. but said: "Fix up a case for him and we'll see if he can do anyt hing." When the proprietor came in. began the work of making a really great daily newspap er. but its completion was finally marked by the opening at the corner of Broadway and Ann Street of the most complete newspaper establishment t hen known. Steadily the young man struggled towards his ideal. who formed partnership with Bennett. fresh and c risp. In ten years he was a partner in a small printing-office." the best weekly paper in the United States. and often much more thoroughly and far more promptly. He made "great hits" in some of the works he pub lished. In 1835 he asked Horace Greeley to join him in starting a new daily paper. nearly a century and a half ago. his friends could not dissuade him from buying it. 1835. But on this p aper at a penny per copy he made no money. and of the "Pennsylvanian" a little later. It was difficult to give them all away. He always refused to lower the wages of his employees even when e very other establishment in Philadelphia was doing so. and th e "Herald" was started on May 6." price one cent." Greeley declined. He doubled the subscription price. who had saved a few hundred dollars by hard labor and strict economy for fourteen years. James Gordon Bennett had made a failure of his "New York Courier" in 1825. but it was not profitable. At a banquet in Lyons. which was the key-note of the suc cess of a boy who started with "no chance": "Nihil sine labore. and there. W hen Harrison was nominated for President in 1840." He had a keen sense of what would pl ease the public. To start it he borrowed a thousand dollars and printed f ive thousand copies of the first number. he objected to the new-comer and told the fo reman to let him go when his first day's work was done. but recommended two young printers. as all its predecessors were party organs. a thing then unknown in America.elp was needed. the profits sometimes amounting to over four hundred thousand d ollars a year." It was his earl y ambition to own the "Philadelphia Ledger" and the great building in which it w as published. but how could a poor boy working for $2. Seeing that the discussion was growing warm. Greatly to the surpri . In spite of the fact that the "Ledger" was losing money every day. and as soon as he had saved a few hundred dollars as a clerk in a bookstore. doing all the work except the printing. from an ever-widening area. Neither labor nor expense was spared in o btaining prompt and reliable information on every topic of general interest. a discussion arose in r egard to the meaning of a painting representing some scene in the mythology or h istory of Greece. That night Horace showed a proof of the largest and most correct day's work that had then been done. One of the first things to attract the attention on entering George W. such as "Kane's Arctic Expedition. of t he "Globe" in 1832. and increased the list to eleven thousan d in six weeks. whatever his mistakes. until his paper was famous for giving the curr ent history of the world as fully and quickly as any competitor. Bennet hired a small cellar in Wall Street. He began with six hundred subscribers. he began business as a publisher. Greeley started "The Log-Cabin . the host turned t o one of the waiters and asked him to explain the picture. His next venture was "The New York Tr ibune. The demand for the "Tribune" grew faster than new machinery coul d be obtained to print it. the "New York Herald. It was a paper whose editor. with a cash capital to pay expenses for t en days. to the astonishment of everybody. Childs' private office in Philadelphia was this motto.00 a week ever hope to own such a great paper? However. and there seemed no end to his industry.

laughing. although then but a poor waiter." replied the young servant: "but the school in which I studied longest and learne d most is the school of adversity. my knaps ack was my bookcase. in winter it was rarely that I could get any evening light but that of the fire. of that. ink. after all absolutely necessary expenses. I had no money to purchas e candles or oil. I was as tall as I am now. so plain and convincing that it at once settled the dispute. is there." But Cobbett made even his poverty and hard circumstances serve his all-absorbin g passion for knowledge and success. Spencer. when I pulled off my clothes at night. T he edge of my berth. all Europe soon rang with the fame of the w ritings of the greatest genius of his age and country. now and then. I had no moment of time that I could call my own. for want of other material. For eight on. The w hole of the money not expended for us at market was twopence a week for each man . singing. "If I. "Many a farmer's son. and cri ed like a child. and that. and well I may! that upon one occasion I had. or paper. whistling. kettles. the sap having been gathered and the wood cut before dark. At night you had only to feed the kettles an d keep up the fires. P. and bawling of at least half a score of the most thoughtless of men. read every book in it. for pen. or that of the guard-bed. was my seat to study in. was my own experience. the most beautiful e xposition of graphic art. Think not lightly of the farthing I had to giv e. "I learned grammar when I was a private soldier on the pay of sixpence a day. I remember in this way to have a history of the French Revolution. library at years William Cobbett had followed the plow.' by the light o f which. but so hungry as to be ha rdly able to endure life. and began to study. addressin g the waiter with great respect. even. too. as he experimented and studied in the attic of the apot hecary-store where he worked. at any rate. the servant gave a clear concise account of the whole subject . and then enlisted in an infantry During his first year of soldier life he subscribed to a circulating Chatham. and bottles co ntribute to his success. and he made even old pans. I passed many a delightful night in reading. a barefoot boy with no chance. a bit of board lying on my lap was my writing-table. To buy a pen or a sheet of p aper I was compelled to forego some portion of my food. though in a state of hal f starvation. Monsieur?" asked one of the guests. "under such circumstances could encounter and overcome this task. perfected the e ssential principles of the Spencerian system of penmanship. alas! a great sum to me. copied regiment. and th e task did not demand anything like a year of my life. a youth to find any excuse for its non-performance?" Humphrey Davy had but a slender chance to acquire great scientific knowledge." said he. "In what school have you studied. and I had to rea d and write amidst the talking. I remember. I found that I had lost my half-penny. f or. and only my turn." says Thurlow Weed. I buried my head in the miserable sheet and rug. and I had great health and great exercise. which I had des tined for the purpose of a red herring in the morning. The smooth sand beach of Lake Erie constituted the foolscap on which. in the hours o f their freedom from all control. when he ran away to Lond law papers for eight or nine months. y et he had true mettle in him. That farthing was.' Such." Well had he profited by poverty's lessons. blazing bright before the sugar-house. Jean Jacques Rousseau. During the day we would always lay in a good stock of 'fat-pine. and to have obtained a better and more enduring knowledge of its events and horr ors and of the actors in that great national tragedy than I have received from a . made shift to have a half-penny in reserve.se of the company. Monseigneur. "I have studied in many schools. can there be in the whole worl d. R. "has found the best opportunities for mental improvement in his intervals of leisure while tending 'sap-bush.

I shal l study at home. Horace Mann." said Elihu Burritt.--"M onday. 11 hours' forging. too. Garrison. are such entries as these. but while blowing the bellows. who are the poets of the country." He mastered 18 languages and 32 dialects. Tuesday. "Let me say in regard to your adverse worldly circumstances. "I am not going to stay there. 11 hours' forging. 40 pages Cuvier's 'Theory of the Earth. "Well done.--mightiest in the church an d state. and read of what wonderful mechanism God gave you in your hand. at odd times.--are now on a level with you. go down to the library and get some books. headache." says Dr. June 18. Talmage to young men. Edward Everett said of the manner in which th is boy with no chance acquired great learning: "It is enough to make one who has good opportunities for education hang his head in shame. "but. my boy!" said the millwright. 25 lines Hebrew. and think of it thirty years from now. which will give me a diploma. got money to study for two years at Harvard." said Theodore. June 20 . Years after. after a two-mile tramp through the snow. but he felt that he must have it. it was a pleasure for him to recall his e arly struggles and triumphs among the rocks and bushes of Lexington. and had reviewed his lessons again and again as he followed the plow or worked at other tasks. Sum ner. and in straightene d circumstances. He had been unable to attend school regularly since he was eight years old. Theodore. his influence for good was fel t in the hearts of all his countrymen. but he saw from the boy's earnest face that he had no ordin ary object in view. He had to work at the forge for ten or twelve hours a day. 60 lines Hebrew. for reading useful b ooks. Theodore rose very early the next m orning." "May I have a holiday to-morrow. how happy I was in being able to borrow the books of a Mr. who are the great philanthropists of the country. I remember. June 19. but he had managed to go three months each winter . Keyes." and for his nobl e work in the service of humanity. Wednesday. The poor Lexington millwright looked in surprise at his youngest son. He became eminent as the "Learned Blacksmith. where he was graduated with h onor. and. but she won the admiration of the world for her wondrous power of song. no capital to start with? Young man. father. which he sent to Boston. and thus prepare myself for a final examination. "No outfit. he would solve mentally diff icult problems in arithmetic. "The proudest moment of my life.ll subsequent reading. for it was a busy time. and presented hims elf for a candidate for admission. who are the strong merchants of the countr y." He did this. 8 lines Syriac. 30 Danish. when. I cannot afford to keep you there!" "True. In a diary kept at Worcester. walked through the dust ten miles to Harvard College. which he borrowed." The barefoot Christine Nilsson in remote Sweden had little chance. who are the orators of the count ry. by teaching school as he grew o lder. 9 lines Polish. and Wendell Phillips. shoeless." Elihu Burritt 's father died when he was sixteen. when his son came home late at night and told of his successful examination. Conn. and granted the request. combined with rare w omanly grace. All his odd moments had been hoarded. Chase. 10 lines Bo hemian. not an inch above you. father?" asked Theodore Parker one August afte rnoon. and Elihu was apprenticed to a blacksmith in his native village of New Britain. "was when I had first gai ned the full meaning of the first fifteen lines of Homer's Iliad. whither he went some ten years later to enjoy its library privileges. so on summer mornings he rose long before the sun and picked bushel aft er bushel of berries. and so got the money to buy that coveted Latin dictionary. also. 15 names of stars. One book he could not borrow. 10 hours' forging. You will find that those who are then the millionaires of this country. "that you are on a level now with those who are finally to succeed .' 64 pages Fren ch. my feet swaddled in remnants of rag carpet. in . Mark my words. as the trusted friend and adviser of Seward.

was so touched at the news that. a noble friend in the North." and had carried the entire edition home on hi s back from the printing-office. He had already begun to dabble in chemistry. in your eye. and the bottle of sulphuric acid broke. Hill. Garrison urged an immediate emancipation. and had fitted up a small itine rant laboratory. and they were thoroughly in e arnest. He was arrested and sent to jail. Wendell Phillips said of him. Whittier. "He was imprisoned for his opinion when he was twenty-four. resolved to devote his life to secure the freedom of these poor wretches. begging him to release Garrison by paying the fine. Thomas Alva Edison was then about fifteen years of a ge. being too poor to furnish the money himself. New York seems to have been prolific in enterprising newsboys. He had confronted a nation in the bloom of his youth. and called down upon his head the wrath of the entire community. John G." ask some doctor to take you into t you have read about. The sight of the slave-pens along the principal streets. in a little upstairs room. When rec ently asked the secret of his success. the poorest young man is equipped as only d afford to equip him. friends. as he was performing some occult experiment. and which was upheld by scholars.your foot. without distinction of creed or p olitics! What chance had they against the prejudices and sentiment of a nation? But these young men were fired by a lofty purpose. and the young man whose mother was too poor to send him to schoo l." Read the declaration of this poor young man with "no chance. churches. Equipped? W the God of the whole universe coul A newsboy is not a very promising candidate for success or honors in any line o f life. A young man can't set out in life with much less chance than when he sta rts his "daily" for a living. so did David B. he wrote to Henry Cl ay. started out as a newsboy with apparently the worl d against him. with no money. although she early taught him to hate oppression. and never aga capital to start with. he started to prosecute his work more earnestly in Baltimore. There followed a serie s of unearthly odors and unnatural complications. wealth. In the first issue of his paper. the h eartrending scenes at the auction blocks. Yet the man who more than any other is responsible for the industrial regeneration of this continent started in life as a newsboy on the Grand Trunk Railway. Benjamin Lundy. twenty miles. as uncomprom . the train rounded a curve." in the very first issue: "I will be as harsh as truth. statesmen. With William Lloyd Garrison. made an impression on Garrison never t o be forgotten. One day. He had walked four h undred miles on his way to Tennessee to increase his subscription list. Gar rison started the "Liberator. The conductor." In Boston. every month. One of them. Daniel Manning who was President Cleveland's first campaign manager and afterwa rds Secretary of the Treasury. Edison passed through one dramatic situation after another--always mastering it --until he attained at an early age the scientific throne of the world. he said he had always been a total abstai ner and singularly moderate in everything but work. What nonsense for two uneducated and unknown youths who met in a cheap boarding -house in Boston to array themselves against an institution whose roots were emb edded in the very constitution of our country. and aristocracy. who had suffere d long and patiently. He was n o ordinary young man. and then he dissecting-room and illustrate to you what in commit the blasphemy of saying you have no hy. or influence. promptly ejected the youthful devotee. After forty-nine days of imprisonment he was set free. had already started in Ohio a paper called "The Genius of Universal Liberty. and in the process of the scientist's expulsion added a resounding box upon the ear. of vessel-l oads of unfortunates torn from home and family and sent to Southern ports. So did Thurlow Weed. in your ear.

died in London. Garrison was invited as the nation's guest. He called upon John Bright to enlist his aid in fighting the terrible "Corn-Law s" which were taking bread from the poor and giving it to the rich. a young lawyer of great promise. his supporters a few persons of all colors and little influence. He found Mr. He was sent to a boarding-school. with the world against him! Hon. For the sentiments that he has uttered. no longer chattels in appre ciation presented Garrison with a beautiful wreath of flowers. His father had died leaving nine children almost penniless. an d culture of Massachusetts arrayed itself against the "Abolitionists" so outrage ously. hal f starved. heroic conflict . another powerful friend of the oppressed. W hen the war was ended. his only auxiliary a negro boy. Now. mayor of Boston.ising as justice. "where wives. "When I heard the gentleman lay down the principles which plac e the murderers of Lovejoy at Alton side by side with Otis and Hancock. About this time Richard Cobden. an emancipated slave deli vered the address of welcome." The Governors of one or two States set a price on the editor's head." Cobden could no longer see the poor man' ." The whole nation was wrought to fever heat. while defending his p rinting-press. I would advise you to come with me." said Richard Cobden. "I thought those pictured lips would have broken into voice to rebuke the recre ant American. where he was abused." What audacity for a young m an. Bright in great grief. and children are dying of hunger. He was soon sent out in a gig as a comm ercial traveler. to see the s tars and stripes unfurled once more above Fort Sumter. by President Lincoln. power. the slanderer of the dead. Hayne. At fifteen he en tered his uncle's store in London as a clerk. The drama culminated in the shock of civil war. mothers. and allowed to write home only once in three months. The legislature of Georgia offered a reward of five thousand dollars for his arrest and conviction. Robert Y. for his wife was lying dead in the house. The boy earned his living by watching a neighbor's sheep. Garrison and his coadjutors were denounced everywhere. and his two daughters. and must be suppressed. The Vigilance Associatio n of South Carolina offered a reward of fifteen hundred dollars for the arrest a nd prosecution of any one detected circulating the "Liberator." had set the world to thinking." and asked him to ascertain the n ame of the publisher. and replied in such a speech as was never before heard in Faneuil Hall. wrote to Otis. and printing in this "obscure hole." said Wendell Phillips. A clergyman named Lovejo y was killed by a mob in Illinois for espousing the cause." But this poor young man. I am in earnest. even in far California. pointing to their portraits on the walls. that a mere spectator. t he earth should have yawned and swallowed him up. I w ill not retreat a single inch. Otis replied that he had found a poor young man printing " this insignificant sheet in an obscure hole. after thirty-five years of untiring. and we will never rest until the Corn-Laws are repealed. of South Carolina. eating. "There are thousands of homes in England at this moment. and in the old "Cradle of American Liberty" the wealth. when the first par oxysm of grief is passed. Between the Northern pioneers and Southern chivalry the struggle was long and f ierce. asked to be lifte d upon the high platform. I will not equivocate. on soil consecrated by the prayers of the Puritans and the blood of patriots. He learned French by rising early and studying while his companions slept. sleeping. and I will be heard. but had no chance to attend school until he was ten years old. with Qui ncy and Adams. and. that s ome one had sent him a copy of the "Liberator. I will not excuse.

Disraeli. who carried new spapers about the streets to loan to customers for a penny apiece. Bright said: "There is not in Great Britain a poor man's home that has not a bigger. He summoned courage to w rite the great scientist and sent the notes he had taken of his lecture. and began to experiment. Over a stable in London lived a poor boy named Michael Faraday.s bread stopped at the Custom-House and taxed for the benefit of the landlord an d farmer. but the great Quaker heart of this resolute youth was touched with pity for the millions of England's and I reland's poor. up through the middle classes. and a servant handed him a written invitatio n to call upon the great lecturer the next morning. an added shilling. Mr." was one of seven children of a widow too poor to send him to any but a common country school. The whole aristocracy trembled before hi s invincible logic. A customer became interested in the boy. too. During the frightful famine. Michael could scarcely trust his eyes as he read the note. who became Prime Minister of Egypt four thousand years before . and he could not re st until he had read it. he develop ed his safety-lamp and experimented with dangerous explosives. He was appointed professor at the Royal Academy of Woolwich." which. the "mill-boy of the slashes. He watche d eagerly every movement of Davy. and in those days the do ors of the higher schools were closed to such as he. and took him to hear Sir Humphry Davy lecture on chemistry. Michael studied a nd experimented. "for men of all parties are united upon it." said the boy with no chance. Tyndall said of him. Rebuffed. Except p ossibly Cobden. but he remembered the example of Joseph. where he was drilled o nly in the "three R's. who become Lord Beaconsfield. I am not a captive. and became the won der of the age in science. self-poised upon the topmost round of political and social pow er. not long after. scorned. just as Michael was about to retire. It is a pantr y question. Sir Humphry Davy's carr iage stopped at his humble lodging. a ch eaper loaf. hissed down in the House of Commons. "He is the greatest experimental philosopher the world has ever seen. and was en gaged to clean instruments and take them to and from the lecture-room. an old pan." When Sir Humphry Davy was asked what was his greatest discovery." They formed the "Anti-Corn-Law League.--a question between the working millions and the aristocracy. who was Prime Minister to the greatest despot of the world five centuries before the birth of Christ. which cut off two millions of Ireland's population in a year. no other man did so much to give the laborer a shorter day. better. he simply said. starving under the Corn-Laws. and by energy I can overcome greater obstacles. his eyes caught the article on electricity." "What has been done can be done again. he replied "Michael Faraday. aided by the Irish famine. and that of Daniel. ridiculed. and it was not long before this poor boy with no chance wa s invited to lecture before the great philosophical society. Henry Clay." said he." John Bright himself was the son of a poor working man. In the morning he called as requested.--secured the r epeal of the law in 1846." Jewish blo od flowed in his veins and everything seemed against him. He was appren ticed for seven years to a bookbinder and bookseller." The time did come. He pushed his way up through the low er classes. "I am not a slave. and the bo y with no chance but a determined will swayed the scepter of England for a quart er of a century. his mighty eloquence. and his commanding character. When binding the Encyclopa edia Britannica. and a few simple articles. until h e stood a master. England's great Prime Minister. John Bright was more pow erful than all the nobility of England. "This is not a par ty question. and he threw his whole soul into this great reform.--for it was hunger that at last ate through those stone walls of protection. One nig ht. as with a glass mask over his face. up through the upper classes. "The time will come when you will hear me. He procured a glass vial." But he used every spare moment to study without a teache . and cheaper loaf through Richard Cobd en's labors.

but the engine was his teacher. He would ask fo r the heaviest work in the blacksmith shop. The boy who had learned to speak in a barn. While the other hands were playing games or loafing in liquor shops during the holidays. George had to watch cows for a neighbor. those who had loafed and played called him lucky. and himself exiled by public clamor. he kept constantly at w ork. had with his own hands made the tel escope through which he discovered facts unknown to the best-equipped astronomer s of his day. He was a great miser of spare mom ents and used every one as though he might never see another. with the sun at one focus. "The Forge. At seventee n he had charge of an engine. He would walk eighteen miles to Manchester and back after a hard day's work to buy a shilling's worth of artist's materials. her understu . He had ground two hundred specula before he could get one perfect. When compelled on bended knee to publicly renounce his heretical doctrine that the earth moves ar ound the sun. with his father for fireman. He devoted his lei sure hours for five years to that wonderful production. and in after years he was a king among self-made men. studying it. and of the rings and satellites of Saturn." When thrown into prison. which he propped up against the chimney. What chance had Galileo to win renown in physics or astronomy. Without a charm of face or figure." How slender seemed the chance of James Sharples. so great was his eagerness for scientific research that he p roved by a straws in his cell that a hollow tube is relatively much stronger tha n a solid rod of the same size. and he could thus have many spare minutes to study the precious book. who had played the oboe for his meals. he stood in th e tower of St. and he a faithful student. George Stephenson was one of eight children whose parents were so poor that all lived in a single room. because it took a longer time to hea t at the forge. but he managed to get time to make engines of clay. This boy with no chance became one of the world's greatest as tronomers. Imagine the surprise of the Royal Society of England when the poor unknown Hers chel sent in the report of his discovery of the star Georgium Sidus. Mark's Cathedral and discovered the satellites of Jupiter and the phases of Venus. even in such characters as Rosalind and Queen K atherine. became one of the greatest of American orators and statesmen. George was taking his machine to pieces. "I resolved to live as i f I were white. and Miss Cushman. "When I found that I was black. but he often rose at three o'clock to copy book s he could not buy. See Kepler struggling with poverty and hardship." said Alexandre Dumas. and that the squares of the times of revolutio n of the planets above the sun are proportioned to the cubes by their mean dista nces from the sun. his books burned in public by order of the state." copies of w hich are to be seen in many a home. "Yet it does move. through a telescope made with his own hands.r. When he had become famous as a great inventor of improveme nts in engines. his library locked up by the Jesuits. all the terrors of the Inquisition could not keep this feeble man of threescore years and ten from muttering to himself. and making ex periments in engines. t hat a line connecting the center of the earth with the center of the sun passes over equal spaces in equal times. with hemlock sticks for pipes. Even when totally blind. The boy with no ch ance. Charlotte Cushman resolved to place herself in the front rank as an actress. the celebrated blacksmith arti st of England! He was very poor. He could neither read nor write. For seventeen years he works calmly upon the demonstration of the great principles that planets revolve in ellipses. cleaning it. with only a cow and a horse for an audience. when his parents compelled him to go to a medical school? Yet while Venice slept. and so force men to look below my skin. its orbit a nd rate of motion. The star actress was unable to perform.

" The boy with "no chanc e" became Lord Chancellor of England. who wished to increase their facilities for carryin g foreign mails. wrought many odd inventions wi th brain and jack-knife. yet he was bound not to give up. and unknown before. but he learned to read. her reputation was made. Lord Eldon might well have pleaded "no chance" when a boy. What a lesson for boys who plead "no chance" as an excuse for wasted liv es! Sam Cunard. he had grit and determination. On his seventeenth birthday he bought the boat. and so on had far the largest patronage of any boatman in the harbor. He often worked all night. In after years. was worth thirty thousand dollars at thirty-five. During the War of 1812 he was awarded the Government contract to carry provisions to the military stations near the metropolis. for he was too poor to go to school or even to buy books." He left his home in France when ten years old. and came to America as a cabin boy. incurable disease. But Cornelius Vanderbilt was not the boy to give up. He at once began again. he left to his thirteen children one of the largest fortunes in America. an d in three years saved three thousand dollars. "Young man. the whittling Scotch lad of Glasgow. When Eldon was leaving the chamber the Solicitor tapped him on the shoulder and said. and well done." A poor colored woman in a log-cabin in the South had three boys. "I have learned to live with my trouble. she would lend him the amount he wished. That night she held her audience with such grasp of intellec t and iron will that it forgot the absence of mere dimpled feminine grace. and the third a cle rgyman. The teacher. The boy who gave his parents all his day earnings and had half of what he got a t night. stony land. before the twenty-seventh day o f the month. but had no money. she flinched not a pa rticle. His first year's practice brought him but nine sh illings. when physicians told her she had a terrible. but quietly said. took her place. and became the sta ndard type for all the magnificent ships since constructed by the firm. his mother told hi m if he would plow. when he would tie a wet towel about his head to enable h im to keep awake and to study. He wished to buy a boat . hard. Before the appointed time the work w as done. She was so anxious to give them an e ducation that she sent them to school by turns. and when he died. He was so eager to study that sometimes he would keep it up until his brain refused to work. The new Testament and the speller were Cornelius Vanderbilt's only books at sch ool. but on h is way home it struck a sunken wreck and sank just as he reached shallow water. another a physician. and plant with corn. and was bound to make his way in the world. and that all wore the same pantaloons. at an advanced age. the worst on his father's far m. He fulfilled his contract by night so that he mig ht run his ferry-boat between New York and Brooklyn by day.dy. The poor mother educated her boys as best she could. a Northern girl. Stephen Girard had "no chance. Altho ugh poor. and one of the greatest lawyers of his age . but could affo rd only one pair of trousers for the three. To discourage him from following the sea. but they brought neither honor nor profit until he was consulted by Burns & McIvor. write. when the curtain fell upon her first p erformance at the London theater. no ticed that each boy came to school only one day out of three. The model of a steamship which Sam whittled out for them was ca refully copied for the first vessel of the great Cunard Line. friendless. and cipher a little. harrow. ten acres of rough. One be came a professor in a Southern college. your bread and butter's cut for life. But no. the voluminous "Coke upon Littleton" amo ng others. His great ambition was to get on and succeed . He rose at four o'clock in the morning and copied law books which he borrowed.

At sixteen he gladl . His good fortune consisted simply of untiring perseverance and a right heart. In his eagerness to kn ow the contents of Blackstone's Commentaries.. and wondering if she will be able to keep the wolf from her little ones. however hard and disagreeable. he managed to learn the alphabet from scraps of paper and paten t medicine almanacs. He fled from slavery at twenty-one. and made so favorable an im pression that he was made agent of the Anti-Slavery Society of Massachusetts. from struggling upward to honor and fame as a sculptor. a poor widow is holding a boy e ighteen months old. he turned to gold everything he touched. for he did not own his ow n body. He saw his mother but two or three times. unnotice d by his master. and worked as a stevedore in New York and New Bedford. to help his mother. Dixey. felling trees on the little claim. he had to climb as far as the dista nce which the latter must ascend if he would become President of the United Stat es. for he had no teacher. lank. It was a boy born in a log-cabin. and worked in a boo kstore for one dollar and twenty-five cents a week. Barnum rode a horse for ten cents a day. with which he purchased his freedom. His abnormal love of money cannot be commended. and then no limits could be placed to his career. and in a few years we find him chopping wood and til ling the little clearing in the forest. that he would no t undertake. but cannot buy. Henry E. and acquired nothing by luck. and the rules of the plantation forbade slaves to learn to read and write. without schooling.at any cost. and willingness to risk his life to save strangers sick with the deadly yellow fever. Edmonia Lewi s. his public spirit at times of national need. Fred Douglass started in life with less than nothing. in the backwoods of Ohio. Midas like. or books. but his thoroughness in all he did. without floor or windows. went North. John Wanamaker walked four miles to Philadelphia every day. T. or teacher. N. To reach the starting-point of the poorest white boy. and who emancipated four million s laves. From this he went up and up un til he became one of the greatest living merchants. and afterwards conducted the "New Era" in Washington. Abraham Li ncoln inherited no opportunities. and then in the night. and became one of the wealthiest merchants of Philadelphia. He next worked in a clothing store at an advance of twenty-five cents a week. For severa l years he was Marshal of the District of Columbia. and he was pledged before his birth to pay his master's debts. P. or o rdinary opportunities. the well-known actor. He had no chance to study. returning in time to go into the f ield at dawn. who gave him $750. Every spare hour is spent in studying the books he has borrowed. began his career upon the stage in the hu mble part of the hind legs of a cow. There was no work. and read one hundred pages while returning. when she wo uld walk twelve miles to be with him an hour. he walked forty-four miles to proc ure the precious volumes. Wh ile traveling from place to place to lecture. Y. he would study with all his might. who won the admiration of mankind by his homely practical wisdom while President during our Civil War. The boy grows. build ing his homely log-cabin. At Nantucket he was given an opportunity to speak at an anti-slavery meeting. He edited a paper in Ro chester. Prejudice against her race and sex did not deter the colored girl. awkward youth. But somehow. He put to shame thousands of white boys. and in that capacity showed great executi ve ability. are traits of character well worthy of imitation. He was sent to Europe to lecture. and won the friendship of several Englishmen. teaching himself arithmetic and grammar in the evening by the light of the fireplace. He was appointed PostmasterGeneral by President Harrison in 1889. Behold this long. In another log-cabin.

Garfield became President of the United States. T wenty-seven years from the time he applied for a chance to ring the bell at Hira m College. With five chances on each hand and one unwavering aim. fuel. He engaged board. become emasc ulated and effeminate were it not for the pure. he had paid all expenses and had three doll ars over. The inspirat ion of such an example is worth more to the young men of America than all the we alth of the Astors. One of our great men says that one of the most unfortunate phases of modern civ ilization is the drift away from the farm. until the superior virility. crystal stream of country youth flowing steadily into and purifying the muddy. James A. washing. It matters not whether the b oy is born in a log-cabin or in a mansion. the drift of country youth to the cit y which has an indescribable fascination for him. His first term at Geauga Seminary cost him but seventeen dollars. with the privilege of wor king at night and on Saturdays all the time he could spare. The following winter he taught school at twelve dollars a month and "b oard around. if he is dominated by a resolute purp ose and upholds himself. and li ght of a carpenter at one dollar and six cents a week. and this he put into the contribution box at church the next day. stamina and sturdy qualities e ntirely disappear in two or three generations of city life. and the Goulds. its best brain. save upon the mercy of God and their own energies. This great stream of superb country manhood. devitalized stream of city life. and who buffeted the billows of fate wit hout dependence. When he retur ned the next term he had but a sixpence in his pocket. He had arrived on a Saturday and planed fifty-one boards that day. and would. the Vanderbilts. There is bread and success for every youth under the American flag w ho has energy and ability to seize his opportunity." In the spring he had forty-eight dollars. The country in America to-day is constantly paying a similar tribute to the cit y in the sacrifice of its best blood. in a few generations. When the term closed. however poor. His vivid imagination clothes it with Arabian Nights possibilities and joys." sai d an English author who had been looking over a book of biographies of eminent A mericans. Soon we find him in Williams College. no boy. "The little gray cabin appears to be the birthplace of all your great men. emasculating inf luences of the city. neither men nor demons can keep him down. to pay his way while studyin g there. Among the world's greatest heroes and benefactors are many others whose cradles were rocked by want in lowly cottages. The country seems tame and common . Our city civilizatio n is always in a process of decay. He reaches the State Senate at twenty-six and Congress at thirty-three. It would soon become so foul and degenerate as to threaten the physical and mora l health of city dwellers. for which he received one dollar and two cents. Soon he applies for a chan ce to sweep floors and ring the bell of an academy. which is e ver flowing cityward. ne ed despair.y accepts a chance to drive mules on a canal towpath. and when he returned to school he boarded himself at an expense of thirty-one cents a week. CHAPTER IV THE COUNTRY BOY The Napoleonic wars so drained the flower of French manhood that even to-day th e physical stature of the average Frenchman is nearly half an inch below what it was at the beginning of Napoleon's reign. where in two years he is graduated with h onors. is rapidly deteriorated by the softening. the finest physical and me ntal fiber in the world.

The muscles may be a little more delicate but they are softer. to so ften. the h ills. the solidity and t he reliability of country-bred men and that of those in the city. and his brain-fiber partakes of the same superior qua lity. enduring. robustness and vigor. Nearly everything that confronts him from morning till night is a rtificial. putting iron into his blood and stamina into his character. stamina. The very granite hills. T here seems to be a close connection between robust character and the soil. th e skin may be a little fairer. strength and power. it certainly comes from very near it. And there is a reason for all this. the stamina. so the timber in country boys and girls. He develops be tter all-round judgment and a more level head than the city boy. with power. He sees hardly anything that God made. ha s greater courage. forced to think for himself. We are under the perpetual influence of the suggestion of our surroundings. What comes from the artificial conditions of the city is weakening. The moment a man becomes artificia l in his living. In other words. The average country-bred youth has a better foundation for success-building. The city-bred youth sees and hears almost nothing that is natural. he begins to deteriorate. re liable. as a rule. when brought to the city. It is Mother Earth and country life t hat give vitality. He can not rid himself of its fascination until he tastes its emptiness. decorative influences of city life. that imparts solidit y. the thought a little mo re supple. country bred. hardy qualities. physical and mental stamina reach their maximum in those who live close to the soil. but less vigorous. ener . The sturdy. aside from the faces and forms of human beings. forcefulness. the valleys. the miracle of the growing crops are every moment registering their mighty potencies in his con stitution. The country boy is constantly thrown upon his own resources. the mountains. courage and all the qualities which make for manhood and womanhood. He has not become weakened and softened b y the superficial ornamental. He can not know the worth of the country and how to appre ciate the glory of its disadvantages and opportunities until he has seen the sha m and shallowness of the city. substantial character when his eyes and ears bring him only sig hts and sounds of artificial things? A vast sea of business blocks. Much of what we call the best society in our cities is often in an advanced pro cess of decay. more moral stamina. are. mountains and valleys. If power is not absorbed from the soil. substantial. with pleasure. the pure air and sunshine. His muscles are harder. One of the greatest boons that can ever come to a human being is to be born on a farm and reared in the country. man-made. the brain vigor. virility. the brawn. as do the natural objects in the country. Just as sculpture was once carried to such an extreme that pillars and beams we re often so weakened by the extravagant carvings as to threaten the safety of th e structure.place after his first dream of the city. takes on artificial conditions. What we get from the country is solid. is often overcarved and adorned at the cost of strength. sky-scrapers and asphalt pavements does not generate character-building material. but it is not so healthy. The whole tendency of life in big cities is toward deterioration. all of wh ich will help to make him a giant when he comes to compete with the city-bred yo uth. To him it is synonymous with opportunit y. and this calls out his ingenuity and inventiveness. How can a man b uild up a solid. There is a very apprecia ble difference between the physical stamina. the brooks. his flesh firmer. We are largely copies of our environment. Self-reliance and grit are oftenest country-br ed. City people rarely live really normal lives. It is not natural f or human beings to live far from the soil. the grit which c haracterize men who do great things in this world. vigorous.

The country boy does not read as many books as the city boy. Hi s health is better. tempting conditions of city life are not conducive t o generating the great master purpose. his min d is perpetually drawn away from his subject. mixing and flinging out to the world the gorgeous colorings and marvelous perfumes of the r ose and wild flower! No city youth was ever in such a marvelous kindergarten. He must make the implements and toys which he can not afford to buy or procure. the one unwavering life aim. diverting. the stamina. the country boy is constantly developing his muscular system. adjust and repair all sorts of machin ery and farm utensils. often reading them over and o ver again. The dearth of great libraries. The country youth. which developed our power and made us practical. and he lacks continuity of thought and application. The drudgery of the farm. of temptation and amusement in the city. These exciting. he nce. it is true. He has been forced to do a great variety of work and this has developed corresponding m ental qualities. which we oft en see so marked in the young man from the country. the rocks which we despised. This training develops instinctive courage. as a r ule. His reading is comparatively superficial. a superb manual training school. he reads them with much better results. his thought action is slower and he does n ot have as much polish. There is a miracle going on in every growing blade of grass and flower. can read continuously for an entire evening on one s ubject. but. and will oft en read the best literature without absorbing any of it. in the midst of newspapers and libraries. he is not so superficial as the city boy. His ingenuity and inventiveness are constantly exercised. books and periodicals is one reason why the coun try boy makes the most of good books and articles. He must run. is in the midst of a perpetual miracle. but he is better balanced generally. The city youth has too many things to divert his attention. the cumulative force. softening. And this magnificent pan orama is changing every instant. He glances through m any papers. He gets more exercise. Is it n ot wonderful to watch the chemical processes in nature's laboratory. to deny himself and turn a deaf ear to the appeals of his associates and tie himself down to self-improvement w hile those around him are having a good time. The fact is that there is such a diversity of attractions and distractions. It is hard for the city-bred youth to resist the multiplicity of allur ements and pleasures that bid for his attention. strong success qu . the chores which we hated as boys. he lacks depth. which a re developed in the simple life of the soil. Nor do city-bred youths stor e up anything like the reserve power. more time to think and to reflect. sees so many books that in most instances he cares very little for them. while the city youth. nature's kindergarten. he is not so rapid in his movements. Such a multiplicity of objects appeals to him that he is often superficial. who. His even ings are much more broken up than those of the country boy. constantly calling upon the youth's sel f-reliance and inventiveness. wh ere perpetual creation is going on in such a vast multitude of forms. having very lit tle diversion after supper. If the wagon or plow breaks down it must be repaired on the spot. that unless a youth is made of unusual stu ff he will yield to the persuasion of the moment and follow the line of least re sistance. often without the proper tools. we have found were the very things which educated us. H e can not open his eyes without seeing a more magnificent painting than a Raphae l or a Michael Angelo could have created in a lifetime. His perceptions are not so quick. on the other hand. magazines and periodicals and gives no real thought to any. The farm is a great gymnasium. For one thing.vating.

make things. Is it any wonder that the boy so trained in self-reliance. hoeing. when they have really never seen the marvelous pict ures painted by the Divine Artist and spread in the landscape. It has been found tha t the use of tools in our manual training schools develops the brain. no hammering of tins! The miracles are wrought in a silent laboratory. The farm-reared boy is i n the best manual training school in the world and is constantly forced to plan things. an d his outdoor work tends to build up a robust constitution. It is human nature to exaggerate the value of things beyond our reach. leakage or evapora tion. and what is seen by the ordinary mind. not a sound is heard. There is a peculiar quality of superiority which comes from dealing with realit ies that we do not find in the superficial city conditions. statesman. Self-reliance and grit are oftenest country-bred. in the sunset. this superior stamina and mental caliber. indescribable something . with no noise of factories. The country boy is constantly thrown upon his own resources. People s ave money for years in order to go to Europe to visit the great art centers and see the famous masterpieces. that makes the stuff that rises to t he top in all vocations. and yet what marvels of skill. what marvels of beauty. mow ing. the great mercantile houses? It is this peculiar. his flesh firmer. the ordinary person who has little or no imagination and whose esthetic faculties h ave scarcely been developed! We are immersed in a wilderness of mysteries and marvelous beauties. storing up energy in his brain and m uscles which later may be powerful factors in shaping the nation's destiny or wh ich may furnish backbone to keep the ship of state from floundering on the rocks . and makes him a resourceful man. right at their very doors. or business man. in the glory of flowers and plant life. strengthen s the deficient faculties and brings out latent powers. self-reliant country boy beside a pale. This is one of the reasons why he usually develops better all-round judgment and a more level head than the city boy. and this call s out his ingenuity and makes him self-reliant and strong. without a particle of waste. what wonderful mysteries. what miracles of coloring are spread everywhere in nature. de liciousness and beauty? What interrogation points. stamina-less. Plowing. what wit-sharpeners are ev er before the farmer boy. that he heads the banks. should be in s uch demand when he comes to the city? Is it any wonder that he is always in evid ence in great emergencies and crises? Just stand a stamina-filled. breathed in great inspirations through constant muscular effort. The life-giving oxyg en. he is always using tools. Think of the difference between what a Ruskin sees in a landscape and the impression conveyed to his brain. for example! How she packs the concent rated sunshine and delicious juices into the cans that she makes as she goes alo ng. Miracles i nnumerable in grass and flower and fruit are performed right before our eyes. whichever way he turns! Where does all this tremendous . lawyer. confronting us on every hand! We see them almo st every day of our lives and they become so common that they make no impression upon us. Ho w marvelous is Nature's growing of fruit. cans exactly the right size.alities. Is it any wonder that the country-bred boy is nearly always the leader. This marvelous reserve power which he stores up in the country will come out i n the successful banker. should take such pre-eminence. so superbly equipped with physical and mental stamina. and his brain-fiber partakes of the same superior qu ality. merchant. His muscles ar e harder. soft. What a perpetual inspiration. everything he does on the farm gives him vigor and strength. He is constantly bottling up forces. develops in the country boy much greater lung power than is developed in the city youth. washed-out city youth. he is forced to think for himself.

changing colors. wheat. Farming was considered by many people as a sort of degrading occupa tion desirable only for those who lacked the brains and education to go into a p rofession or some of the more refined callings. Then again. refreshing sleep. The country youth does not learn to judge people by the false standards of wealth a nd social standing. He is not inculcated with snobbish ideas. and al most any flavor in any fruit. The time was when the boy who gave no signs of genius or unusual ability was co nsigned to the farm. plea sure seeking. Everything in the great farm kindergarten teaches him sincerity. to be able to co-operate with that divine creative force. as a means provided by nature for living-getting for those who were not good fo r much else. who is tempted to turn night into day. The science of agriculture is fast becoming appreciated and is more and more re garded as a high and noble calling. like L uther Burbank. wisely and sympa thetically. to call out his dormant powers and develop his latent forces. and yet. the valleys. to live an artificial. species! Almost anything is p ossible when one knows enough and has heart and sympathy enough to enter into pa rtnership with the great creative force in nature. away from the distracting influence and enervating excitement of city life. ar tificial life in the city! Everything in the country tends to set the boy thinki ng. and that i gnorant men have been getting an indifferent living from their farms simply beca use they did not know how to mix brains with the soil. flavors. We are now finding that agriculture is as great a science as astronomy. the delicious freedom of it all. the growing animals on th e farm. will be able to produce at will any shade or color he wishes. the perfume of flowers. and the brilliant boy was sent to college or to the city to make a career for himself. But we are now beginning to see that man has made a botch of farming only because he looked upon it as a sort of humdrum occupation. what a marvelous growth in everything! Life. as contrasted with the cramped. the mountains. simplicity and honesty. and often dissipation. Think of what it mea ns to go into partnership with the Creator in bringing out larger. that it requires fine-grained sympathetic talent. stamina-dissipating and character-weakening. life. grander produ cts from the soil. modify a nd change the flavor of fruits and vegetables to our liking! Think what it must mean to be a magician in the whole vegetable kingdom. We are commencing to real ize that it takes a high order of ability and education to bring out the fullest possibilities of the soil. But the searchlight of science h as revealed in it possibilities hitherto undreamed of. Mr. to enlarge. And what healt h there is in it all! How hearty and natural he is in comparison with the city b oy. The history of most great men shows that there is a disadvantage in having too . are all mysteries that set him thinking and to wondering at the creative processes which are working on every hand. While the city youth is wasting his precious energy capital in late hours. purposeless li fe. the beauty. perfumes. the country youth is storing up power and v itality. mor e life on every hand! Wherever he goes he treads on chemical forces which produc e greater marvels than are described in the Arabian Nights. The very temptation in the city to turn night into day is of itself health-unde rmining. the hills. the sunsets. the brook s.increase of corn. and that Nature will give us almost anything when we know enough to treat her intelligently. a dignified profession. that the size of all fruits and vegetables and flo wers is just a matter of sufficient understanding. he is being recharged with physical force by natural. The trees. Burbank says that the tim e will come when man will be able to do almost anything he wishes in the vegetab le kingdom. and even to vary the size. fruit and vegetables come from? There seems to be no l oss to the soil.

--GEORGE ELIOT. What is opportunity to a man who can't use it? An unfecundated egg. who ever rose to such eminence? Imagine a boy of to-day. there is no likelihood that Lincol n would ever have become the powerful man he was. and at th e prow To seize the passing moment. to rouse his ambition and to stimulate h im to self-education? Whence came that yearning to know the history of men and w omen who had made a nation. to know the history of his country? Whence came that passion to devour the dry statutes of Indiana. Knows also how to watch and work and stand On Life's broad deck alert. "There is always room at the top. his ch aracter would probably have been soft and flabby in comparison with what it was. self-unfoldment? If he had been born and educated in luxury. One Once. so hungry for an education that he would walk nine miles a day to attend a rude frontier school in a log cabin! What would th e city boys of to-day. From Opportunity's extended h and. one morning. The secret of success in life is for a man to be ready for his opportunity when it comes. where newsboys go to Congress. as a young girl would devour a l ove story? Whence came that all-absorbing ambition to be somebody in the world. "There are no longer any good chances for young men. One space when fate goes tiding with the stream. Where in all the annals of history is there another record of one born of such poor parentage and reared in such a wretched environment. whence would have come the motive which led him to struggle for selfdevelopment.--DISRAELI. happy he who. thin k of a youth who would do what Lincoln did to overcome his handicap? CHAPTER V OPPORTUNITIES WHERE YOU ARE To each man's life there comes a time supreme. Too Soon. which the w aves of time wash away into non-entity. or one noon. in a land where thousands of poor boys become rich men." replied the great statesman and jurist. Who can tell what the consequences would have been had Lincoln been born in New York and educated at Harvard? If he had been reared in the midst of great libra ries. big with fate. one night. and where those born in the lowest stations attain the highest positions? The world is all gates.many advantages. all opportunities to him . And ready for the passing instant's boon To tip in favor the uncertain beam. Had he not felt that imperious "must" calling him. where this poor boy scarcely ever saw any one who knew anything of books. knowing how to wait. Ah. brought up in an atmosphere of books. One freighted hour. who do not want to walk even a few blocks to school. no opportunities. of only a small fraction of which he could get even a superficial knowledge. One day. to serve his country with no selfish ambition? Had his father been rich and well -educated instead of a poor man who could neither read nor write and who was gen erally of a shiftless and roving disposition. one moment opportune. When the great clock of destiny strikes Now! MARY A." complained a youthful law student to Daniel Webster. TOWNSEND. would he have had that insatiable hunge r which prompted him to walk twenty miles in order to borrow Blackstone's "Comme ntaries" and to read one hundred pages on the way home? [Illustration: House in which Abraham Lincoln was born] What was there in that rude frontier forest. the prod of necessity spurri ng him on. One rift through which s ublime fulfillments gleam. No chance. in balance 'twixt Too Late.

who will use them. in possibilities all about us. and was no long er a rich man. pondering how to get money to buy food. fields of grain. "Go anywhere. He was contented and happy. and with that all wealth van ishes. and. and miles of forest. but did not know it. orchards of fruit. north. During all her poverty she was worth . He had been touched with discontent. and in m eeting common every-day wants." A Baltimore lady lost a valuable diamond bracelet at a ball. or gold. She cut old. Hundreds of years ago there lived near the shore of the river Indus a Persian b y the name of Ali Hafed. an extensive farm. but thinks he can do better somewhere else. He decided to go into the coal-oil busines s. and supposed it was stolen from the pocket of her cloak. they discovered that they were diamonds. "We look too high For things close by. One evening a priest of Buddha visited him. east. we fail to rely wholly upon the ability to advance all that is good for us wh ich has been given to the weakest as well as the strongest. the man who bought his farm discovered upon it a great flood of coal-oil. "I want to be rich and place my children on thrones. he studied coal measures and coal-oil deposits. Years afterward she washed the of the Peabody Institute. and concluded to sell out and get into a more profitable business." "All you have to do is to go and search until you find them. and anxiously asked him where he could find a mine of diamonds. and engaged in his new business two hundred mile s away. which the farmer had previously ignorantly tried to d rain off. ragged cloak to make a hood. He had plenty of money and everything th at heart could wish. But. or west." said the priest. Some Brazilian shepherds organized a party to go to California to dig gold. and after they had thrown most of the pebbles away . sitting before the fire. P rofessor Agassiz once told the Harvard students of a farmer who owned a farm of hundreds of acres of unprofitable woods and rocks. They hastened back to Brazil. and experimented for a long t ime. that with one of them he could bu y many farms like his. that with a handful he could buy a province. where he thought he could get rich. when lo! in the lining of the she discovered the diamond bracelet. from which he could get a grand view of the beautiful country stretching away to the sea. explained to him how the world was ma de. The richest gold and silver mine in Nevada was sold by the owner for $42. It is a sorry day for a young man who can not see any opportunities where he is. gardens of flowers. "Wha t do you want of diamonds?" asked the astonished priest. and with a m ine of diamonds he could purchase a kingdom. or near at hand. He sold his farm for $200. "But where shall I go?" asked the poor farmer. worn-out. like Bunyan's Pilgrim in the dungeon of Giant Despair's castle." "How shall I know when I have found the . if we could only se e them. Only a short time after. south. He h ad a wife and children. in faculties worth more than diamond brac elets. We depend too much u pon outside assistance. that steps up an cloak $3500 Many of us who think we are poor are rich in opportunities. He lived in a cottage on the river bank. Early the next morning he woke the priest who had been the cause of his u nhappiness. The old priest told that a drop of sunlight the size of his thumb was worth mor e than large mines of copper. and took along a handful of translucent pebbles to play checkers with on the voyage. to ge t money to pay his passage to other mines. Ali Hafed listened. In our large Eastern cities it has been found that at least ninety-four o ut of every hundred found their first fortune at home. who had the key of deliverance all the time with him but had forgotten i t. silver. only to find that the mines from which the pebbles had been gathered had been taken up by other prospectors and sold to the government. Aft er arriving in San Francisco. and how the first beams of sunlight condensed on the earth's surface into di amonds.

which would do his drudgery and leave him to develop th e God-given powers within him." answered the priest. scarcely an article of household furniture. he wander ed for years. "The world is no longer clay. and pleased with its brilliant hues took it into the ho use. who made the most of his surroundings. that is not capable of an improvement in which the re may be a fortune. First find out what the world needs and then supply the want. an ar ticle of clothing or of food. Remember that four things come not back: the spo ken word.place?" "When you find a river running over white sands between high mountain r anges. "Here's a diamond! here's a diamond!" he shouted in great excitement. as scraps of lea ther. Opportunities? They are all around us. the past life. but found no diamonds. and behold. The man who bought his farm was a cont ented man. There is scarcely a thing which contributes to the welfare and comfort o f humanity. and forgot all about it. and competition has so greatly increased. and dug in his own garden. An invention to m ake smoke go the wrong way in a chimney might be a very ingenious thing. he noticed a flash of light from the white sands of the brook . and t housands of others had. because the standard has advanced so much . The patent office at Washington is full of wonde . other diamond s more beautiful than the first gleamed out of it. It is one of the paradoxes of civilization that the more opportunities are util ized. cotton waste. Had Ali Hafed been content to remain at home. the sped arrow. for the entire farm abounded in the ri chest of gems. fill it. Find it. from which others get only poverty and f ailure. the more new ones are thereby created. but it would be of no use to humanity. left his family with a neighbor. through Palestine and Egypt. Harriet Beecher Stowe. That is but a stone." They went into the ga rden and stirred up the white sand with their fingers. He picked up a pebble. So the famous diamond beds of Golconda were discovered. he would have been one of the richest men in the world. poor Ali Hafed thr ew himself into the tide and was drowned. a kitchen utensil. "Has Ali Hafed returned?" "No. You have your own special place and work. in those white sands you will find diamonds. But to succeed you must be prepared to seize and improve the opportunity when it comes. As the bee gets honey from the same flower from which the spider gets poison. as lightning for ages tried to attract his attention to the gre at force of electricity. iron filings. and did not believe in going a way from home to hunt for diamonds or success. took the money he had at interest. Forces of nature plead to be used in the service of man. Franklin. While his camel was drinking in t he garden one day. Frances Willard. Scarcely a boy or g irl will read these lines but has much better opportunity to win success than Ga rfield. He had no sooner entered the room th an his eye caught that flash of light from the stone. put it on the shelf near the fireplace. so some men will get a fortune out of the commonest and meanest things. ashamed of his folly and of his rags. Lincoln. and went to search for the covete d treasure. There is power lying latent everywhere waiting fo r the observant eye to discover it. and men have got to hamme r out a place for themselves by steady and rugged blows. "but rather iron in the hands of its workers. and the neglected opportunity. although it is not so easy as formerly to obta in great distinction in the old lines. The old priest of Buddha who had filled Ali Hafed with the fatal discontent cal led one day upon the new owner of the farm." said Emerson. Wilson. instead of going abroad in search for wealth. New openings are as easy to find as ever to those who do their best. slag. Over the mountains of Arabia." Thousands of men have made fortunes out of trifles which others pass by. When his money was all gone and starvation stared him in the face." said the farmer. "nor is that a diamond. The discontented man sold the farm for what he could get.

and he had introduced his famous resolution against the unjust taxation of th e American colonies. Farquhar made umbrellas in his sitting-room. spoiled . and became rich.. but who could not affo rd to get another pair. From the time the Stamp Act was passed and Henry was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesse s. but in his first case he showed that he had a wonderful power of oratory. A Maine man was call ed in from the hayfield to wash clothes for his invalid wife. said to himself. hacked. and thrown away. The first model dry-dock was made in an attic. but not one in hundreds is of use to the in ventor or to the world. The cotton-gin w as first manufactured in a log cabin. Davy consulted a friend on the matter. Patrick Henry was called a lazy boy. the founder of Clark Universit y of Worcester. N. Mass. and regretted that it should have been spoiled. People thought he would f ail. a good-for-nothing farmer. An observing barber in Newark. An observing man. Ericsso n began the construction of the screw propellers in a bathroom. and wants me to give him employm ent at the Royal Institution--what can I do?" "Do? put him to washing bottles. Faraday. and made a fortune. asking for employment at the Royal Instituti on. the great inventor of the m arine chronometer. with his daughter's help. and George the Third--may profit by their exampl e. i f he is good for anything he will do it directly. he rose steadily until he became one of the brilliant orato rs of America. wh ich can be riveted into the leather. After that he made it a rule never to buy anything which the publ ic did not want. which some unskilful workman had cut. Parts of the fir st steamboat ever run in America were set up in the vestry of a church in Philad elphia by Fitch. the eyelets of whose shoes pulled out. began his great fortune by making toy wagons in a horse s hed. began his career in the loft of an old barn. and so prospered. No doubt many artists had noticed the fine quality of the mar ble. unti l he sold enough to hire a loft.. and he failed a s a merchant. he invent ed the washing machine." The great natural philosopher. "Here is a letter from a young man na med Faraday. he has been attending my lectures. Stewart. and with his chisel and mallet he called out from it one of the finest pieces of statuary in Italy. T. "I will make a metallic lacing hook. I t then first dawned upon him that he could be a hero in Virginia. The great things of the world have not been done by men of large means. invented clippers. McCormick began to make his famous reaper in a grist-mill. when a young man." He was then so poor that he had to borrow a sickle to cut grass in front of his hired tenement. and never though t he could be a hero among the corn and tobacco and saddlebags of Virginia. lost eighty-seven cents. which were prophetic of his power and courage: "Caesar had his Brutus. as a boy. thought he could make an improvement on s hears for cutting hair. John Harrison. He had never reali zed what it was to wash before. to Humphry Davy. when his ca pital was one dollar and a half. in buying buttons and thread which shoppers did not call for. He became a very rich man. J. A. while the father has been working on u seless inventions. In one of his first speeches upon this resolution he uttered thes e words. Finding the method slow and laborious. He was always dreaming of some far-off greatness. A man who was suffering terribly wit h toothache felt sure there must be some way of filling teeth which would preven t their aching and he invented the method of gold filling for teeth. who was the son of a blacksmith. the young David. and ha ve struggled for years amid want and woe. If this be treason. And yet how many families have been impoverished. Michael Angelo found a piece of discarded Carrara marble among waste rubbish be side a street in Florence. when he put out his shingle. Clark.rful devices of ingenious mechanism. wrote. He s tudied law for six weeks. Edison began his experiments in a baggage car o n the Grand Trunk Railroad when a newsboy. if he refuses he is good for n . Charles the First his Cromwell. make the most of it. But Michael Angelo still sa w an angel in the ruin.

leaving the visi on of his life unrealized. study yourself and your own wants. This poor girl did not need to go to London to see the nobility. "He is the greates t experimental philosopher the world has ever seen. supply any demand of comfort. to distinguish herself. seize then the hour When Fortun e smiles and Duty points the way. Our whole history appears like a last effort of divine Providence in behalf of the human race. Wh ile the beautiful. are not known to the world. for that is the stuff life is m ade of." But the boy who could experiment in the attic of an apothecary shop wit h an old pan and glass vials during every moment he could snatch from his work s aw an opportunity in washing bottles. all around thee lying Offers up its low. improve any methods which men use. when in a dream he was bidden to carve his Madonna fr om a block of oak wood which was destined for the fire. facilities of all kinds for pleasure. "America is another name for opportunities. Grace Darling. Especially is this true for girls and young women. For the far-off. while another close beside him snatches from th e same circumstances and privileges opportunities for achieving grand results. But we can all of us make our lives sublime. If you want to get rich." Never before were there such grand openings. or contribute in any way to their well-being. and produced a masterpiece from a log of common firewood. He wants co mforts. Opportunities? They are everywhere. perpetual hymn? HARR IET WINSLOW. He obeyed. We can not all of us perhaps make great discoveries like Newton. by seizing common occasions and making the m great. such opportunities. The safest business is always connected with man's prime necessities." He became the wonder of his age in science. living on those barren lighthouse rocks alone with her aged parents? But while h er brothers and sisters. What chance had the young girl. One man goes through life without seeing c hances for doing anything great. She did not wander away into dreamy di stance for fame and fortune. He was about to give up in despair. Many of us lose great opportunities in life by waiting to find sandalwood for our carvings. "The golden opportunity Is never offered twice. and culture. such chances. A new era is dawning for them. Eternity itself cannot restore the loss struck from the minute.--FRANKLIN.--ANCIENT POET. He must have clothing and dwelling. or paint immortal pictures like an Angelo or a Raphael. Tyndall said of this boy with no chance. thus forever sighing. unattained and dim.othing. when they really lie hi dden in the common logs that we burn. and a nam e which will never perish from the earth. Any man wh o can supply a great want of humanity. can make a fortune. . which were closed to them only a few years ago. There is a legend of an artist who long sought for a piece of sandalwood. Hundreds of occupations and professions. which led to a professorship at the Royal Academy at Woolwich. Faraday. they came to the lighthouse to see her. and Thompson. are now inviting them to enter. education. but did her best where duty had placed her. she became more famous than a princess. Right at home she had won fame which the regal heirs might envy." Why thus longing. You will find that millions have the same wants. he must eat. CHAPTER VI POSSIBILITIES IN SPARE MOMENTS Dost thou love life? Then do not squander time. who moved to the cities to win wealth and fame. Ediso n. out o f which to carve a Madonna.

The proprietor was call ed.Periunt et imputantur." echoed the lounger." said the clerk. gaps "between times. tell me your lowest price for this book. having received a salutary lesson from a master in the art of transmuting ti me." "Yes. found in a brown study after listening to one of Burke's speeches in Parliament. and the stranger asked: "What is the lowest." "I have been wondering how Ned contrived to monopolize all the talents of the f amily. come now." said Franklin coolly. took his book. Time-wasters are everywhere. "One doll ar and a quarter! Why. half hours. Mr. "A dollar and a half! Why. in the United States Mint at Philadelphi a." persisted the man. are thus saved. and left the sto re. its highest and warmest aspi ration reached no further than the hope to set before the young men of my countr y an example in employing those invaluable fragments of time called moments. "O ne dollar.--GLADSTONE. Franklin in?" "Yes. at will.--SHAKESPEARE." said Elihu Bu rritt.--INSCRIPTI ON ON A DIAL AT OXFORD. Franklin. and that waste of it will make you dwindle alike in intellectual and moral stature beyond your darkest rec koning. and then i nquired: "Is Mr. "and I could better have taken that price then than a dollar and a half now." "True. The would-be purchaser looked over the books on sale a while longer. patient." said Franklin." "Well. there is a wooden lattice-work which is taken up when the floor is swept. Lost! Somewhere between sunrise and sunset. "One dollar. No reward is offered. thought by thought. he was alwa ." replied the clerk. He who hoards and turns to account all odd minutes. thousands of dollars' yearly. fa ct by fact. "but then I remember." The man silently laid the money on the counter. or hope to accomplish." The man seemed surprised." was the prompt rejoinder. for they are gone forever. and now doth time waste me." was the answer. Believe me when I tell you that thrift of time will repay you in after life wit h a usury of profit beyond your most sanguine dreams. your clerk asked me only a dollar just now. expect to. I want to see him. when we were at play. "All that I have accomplished. but." "One dollar and a half. On the floor of the gold-working room. each set with six ty diamond minutes. those leavings of days and wee bits of hours" which most people s weep into the waste of life. into either wealth or wisdom. I wasted time. So every successful man has a kind of network to catch "the raspings and parings of existence." and chasms of waiting fo r unpunctual persons. "can't you take less than that?" "One dollar is the price. you offered it yoursel f for a dollar and a quarter.--the hours perish and are laid to our charge.--HORACE MAN N. he d emanded: "Well. "has been and will be by that plodding." said a brother. "What is the price of that book?" at length asked a man who had been dawdling f or an hour in the front store of Benjamin Franklin's newspaper establishment. unexpected holidays." replied Franklin. and the fine particles of gold-dust. two golden hours. that you can take for that book?" "One dollar and a quarter. And if ever I was actuated by ambition. "and I could have better afforded to take a dollar than to leave my w ork. wishing to end a parley of his own seeking. achieves results which astonish those who have not mastere d this most valuable secret. "he is very busy in the pr ess-room. persevering process of a ccretion which builds the ant-heap--particle by particle.

John Stuart Mill did much of his be st work as a writer while a clerk in the East India House. Wisely was it said that lost wealth may be regained by industry and economy. and she has been able to do this by ec onomizing the minutes to shape her novels and newspaper articles. But wha t monuments have been built up by poor boys with no chance. days. Longfellow translated the "Inferno" by snatches of t en minutes a day. out of broken fragme nts of time which many of us throw away! The very hours you have wasted. physician. Each successive morning new gifts are brought. the power of ceaseless industry to perform miracles! Alexander von Humboldt's days were so occupied with his business that he had to . S ecretary of the Lord Protector. throw away. while waiting for his coffee to boil. lost health by temperance and medicine. Galileo was a surgeon . they are borne silently away. if impr oved." Oh. but if we failed to accep t those that were brought yesterday and the day before. when companion of the future Queen of France. persisting for years unt il the work was done. judge. who wonder at their failure to get on." The days come to us like friends in disguise. to save the precious moments from oblivion? What a rebuke is such a life to the thousands of young men and women who throw away whole months and even years of that which the "Grand Old Man" hoarded up even to the smalles t fragments! Many a great man has snatched his reputation from odd bits of time which others. found time to read scientific books. but. composed severa l of her charming volumes while waiting for the princess to whom she gave her da ily lessons." in the midst of p ressing household cares. While Michael Faraday was employed binding books.ys at work. while working hard as a stone-mason. we become less and less able to turn them to account. lost knowledge by study. Harriet Beecher Stowe. that I could purchase at a cheap rate some of our modern gentlemen's spare hours--na y. At one time he wrote to a friend. there's no time to do anything now. and write the lessons learned from the blocks of stone he handled. Oh. Madame de Genlis. Beecher read Froude's "England" a little each day while he had to wait for dinner. too. "Uncle Tom's Cabin. Marion Harland has accomplished wonders. She has glorified the commonplace as few other women have done. until the ability to appreciate and utilize them i s exhausted. stat esman. never to return. might have insured your success." is one of the commonest expressions heard in the family. "Oh. when her child ren were in bed and whenever she could get a spare minute. wrote her great masterpiece. Though she has done s o much. The author of "Paradise Lost" was a teacher. but l ost time is gone forever. what should we of common abili ties not resort to. Secretary of the Commonwealth. yet to the improvement of his spare moments the world owes some of its greates t discoveries. yet all her life has been subject to interruptions which would have disc ouraged most women from attempting anything outside their regular family duties. if we do not use them. he devoted all his leisure to experiments. or soldier. Burns wrote many of his most beautiful poems while working on a far m. "Time is all I require. In Dante's time nearly every literary man in Italy was a hard-working merchant. bringing priceless gifts from an unseen hand. Hugh Miller. If a genius like Gladstone carried through life a little book in his pocket les t an unexpected spare moment slip from his grasp. and had to write his sublime poetry whenever he could snatch a few minutes from a busy life. it's only five minutes or ten minutes till mealtime.

pursue his scientific labors in the night or early morning. Spenser made his rep utation in his spare time while Secretary to the Lord Deputy of Ireland. resolved to devote one hour a day to study. on the average. I have observed. An Italian scholar put over his door the inscription: "Whoever tarri es here must join in my labors. "He has nothing to prevent him but too much idleness. or eighteen large volumes in a year. then. he b ecame impatient of his father's long grace at table. while others were a sleep. What young man is too busy to get an hour a day for se lf-improvement? Charles C. a useless man a benefactor to his race." What a lesson there is in Raphael's brief thirty-seven years to those who plead "no time" as an excuse for wasted lives! Great men have ever been misers of moments. seldom idle for a minute. An hour a day might make--nay. Haw thorne's notebook shows that he never let a chance thought or circumstance escap e him. What a record for a boy who began his studies while working as a carpenter! John Q. only his heart must be in it. He crowded his meals and sleep into as sm all compass as possible so that he might gain time for study. If one chooses wisely. It would earn enou gh to pay for two daily and two weekly papers. which. the study. In an hour a day a boy or girl could read twenty pages th oughtfully--over seven thousand pages. Browning. and asked him if he could n ot say grace over a whole cask once for all. such as his "Improvement of Navigation" and "Smo ky Chimneys. John Hunter. happy living." says Burke. Sir Joh n Lubbock's fame rests on his prehistoric studies. Franklin was a tireless worker. prosecuted outside of his bus y banking-hours. over twenty-four thousand in number. Southey. has made--an unknown man a famous one. six hours a day that are. and at lea st a dozen good books. than any sort of employment whatsoever. It took Professor Owen ten years to arrange and classify the specimens in Comparative Anatomy. thrown away by youn g men and women in the restless desire for fun and diversion! Every young man should have a hobby to occupy his leisure hours. One hour a day would in ten years make an ignorant man a well-informed man. Cicero said: "What others give to p . the mighty possibilities of two--four--yes. One hour a day withdrawn from frivolous pursuits and profitably employed would enable any man of ordinary capacity to master a complete science. research. and save time. It might be in line with his work or other wise. Tennyson." Some boys will pick up a good education in the odds and ends of time which othe rs carelessly throw away. something usef ul to which he can turn with delight. Adams complained bitterly when robbed of his time by those who had no r ight to it. and Dickens signed a remonstrance against organ-grinders who disturbed their work. and also gained an enviable reputation in other departme nts of knowledge. Frost. An h our a day might make all the difference between bare existence and useful. two leading magazines. which Hunter's indust ry had collected. and occupation that a hobby confers will broaden character and transform the home. "fills up a man's time much more completely and leaves him less his own master. the celebrated shoemaker of Vermont. like Napoleon. wrote a hundred volumes. as one man saves a fortune by small economies which ot hers disdain to practise. Many of the greatest men of history earned their fame outside of their regular occupations in odd bits of time which most people squander. He wrote some of his best productions on shipboard. allowed himself but four hours of sleep. When a child." Carlyle. He became one of the most noted mathematician s in the United States. Consider.

Mason Good translated "Lucretius" while riding to visit his patients in Lon don. Sir Humphry Davy achieved emine nce in spare moments in an attic of an apothecary's shop. law. Mozart would not allow a mome nt to slip by unimproved. Dr. in order to meet the expenses of his mother's funeral. Watt learned chemistry and mathematics while w orking at his trade of a mathematical instrument-maker. science. Dalton's industry was the passion of his life." upon which he was at work when the ship went down. Burney learned Italian and French on horseback. Dr. Dr. Darwin composed most of his works by writing his thoughts on scraps of paper wherever he happened to be. but he carried with him the manuscript of his "Commentaries. and learned the com mon branches unaided while tending store. Work has system. Goe the suddenly excused himself. Pope would often rise in the night to write out thoughts that would not come during the busy day. Mrs." The worst of a lost hour is not so much in the wasted time as in the wasted pow er. He wrote h is famous "Requiem" on his death-bed. and does not give a second until he withdraws the first. At eighty she published "Molecular and Microscopical Science. Lincoln studied law during his spare hours while surveying. Lord Brougham could not bear to lose a moment. During an interview with a great monarch. In factories for making cloth a single broken thread ruins a whole web. Grot e wrote his matchless "History of Greece" during the hours of leisure snatched f rom his duties as a banker. He educated hims elf and did much of his best work during his spare moments. and literature." Lord Bacon's fame springs from the work of his leisure hours while Chancellor of England. even to mental and bodily rest. went into an adjoining room and wrote down a thoug ht for his "Faust. yet he was so systematic that he always seemed to have more leisure than many who did not accomplish a tithe of what he did. lazi ness has none. Henry Kirke White learne d Greek while walking to and from the lawyer's office where he was studying. but seize the instant and get y our lesson from the hour. As Fenelon says. The man is yet unborn who rightly measures and fully r ealizes the value of an hour. Dr. Matthew Hale wrote his "Contemp lations" while traveling on his circuit as judge. He learned arithmeti c during the night shifts when he was an engineer. George Stephenson seized the moments as though they were gold." lest it should be forgotten. Somerville learned botany and ast ronomy and wrote books while her neighbors were gossiping and idling. God never gives but one moment at a time. and w ould sometimes write two whole nights and a day without intermission. I give to t he study of philosophy. President Quincy never went to bed until he had laid his plans for the next day . and had to swim a shore." He was once shipwrecked. or dream of the future. Caesar said: "Under my tent in the fiercest struggle of war I have always found time to think of many other things. nay. He would not stop his work long enough to sleep.ublic shows and entertainments. He achieved distinction in politics. Johnson wrote "Rasselas" in the evenings of a single week. The present time is the raw material out of which we make whatever we will. Idleness rusts the nerves and makes the muscles creak. Do not brood over the past. He made and recorded over two hu ndred thousand meteorological observations. it is t raced back to the girl who made the blunder and the loss is deducted from her wa .

"Of the five thousand persons--students. Garfield. They are not a poverty-stricken lot. for half of them make an income above the average allowance of boys in small er colleges. self-made." says Edward Everett. for a young man with an ambition to do somet hing in the world to be compelled to pay his own way through school and college by hard work. We should not be stingy or mean with it. waste of vitality. There is scarcely one in good health who reads these lines but can be assured that if he will he may. It may be a shoddy thread of wasted hours or los t opportunities that will mar the fabric and mortify the workman forever. self-educated. threads of some kind follow every movement a s we weave the web of our fate.000 are by no means exceptional yearly earnings of a student who is capable of doing newspaper work or tutoring. But where does he eat his lunch at noon? Where does he go when he leaves his boarding-hous e at night? What does he do after supper? Where does he spend his Sundays and ho lidays? The way he uses his spare moments reveals his character. "There are some men that make much more. to make himself use ful. Here. howev er. waste of character in dissipation. honored.ges. "And it is left for each. But history shows us that the men who have led in the van of human progress have been. Beware how you kill ti me. It seems a great hardship. as there are to-day--at this hour and this moment. The average boy of to-day who wishes to obtain a liberal education has a better chance by a hundredfold than had Daniel Webster or James A. It mea ns the waste of opportunities which will never come back. Time is money. No one is anxious about a young man while he is busy in useful work. Each evening is a crisis in the career o f a young man. This day for all hereafte r choose we holiness or sin. Most of those who climb upward to honor and fame devote their evenings to study or work or the society of those who can help and improve them. We cannot stop t he shuttle or pull out the unfortunate thread which stretches across the fabric. "by the cultivation of every ta lent. as a rule." writes a graduate. A classmate of the writer entered coll .--directly connected with Harvard Unive rsity. the will can usually make the way.--branches of emplo yment that pay well at Harvard. and scorning sensual pleasure. "five hundred are students entirely or almost entirel y dependent upon their own resources. But who shall pay for the broken threads in life's great web? We cannot thr ow back and forth an empty shuttle. by watching with an eagle's eye for every chance of improvement. the inflexib le purpose. a perpetual witness of our folly. by redeem ing time. indeed. and happy. There is a deep significance in the lines of Whittier:-This day we fashion Destiny. The great major ity of youths who go to the bad are ruined after supper. and never be fore was there so many avenues of resource open to the strong will." CHAPTER VII HOW POOR BOYS AND GIRLS GO TO COLLEGE "Can I afford to go to college?" asks many an American youth who has hardly a d ollar to his name and who knows that a college course means years of sacrifice a nd struggle. From $700 to $1. Waste of time mea ns waste of energy. for all your future lives in it. but we should not throw away an hour any more than we would throw away a dollar-bill. as elsewhere. our web of Fate we spin. defying temptation. or it may be a golden thread which will add to its beauty and luster.

Accordingly. noon and night. New York. It gives a reality and vi gor to one's work which is less likely to be obtained by those who are carried t hrough college. the expense of his bread-and-milk diet never exceeding fifty cents a week. and receive twenty cents an hour. At Chicago University many hundreds of plucky young men are working their way. He believed that he could afford a college training and he got it. the foundation being self-reliance and integ rity. the junior United States Senator from Indiana. and arranged with a professor of Union College to pay for his tuition b y working. a distinct advantage that a student should have to pay his own way in part as a condition of obtaining a college education. he proceeded to Sche nectady. Several teach in the public schools in the daytime. however. as the tax upon strength and time is likely to be s uch as to interfere with scholarship and to undermine health. A few serve in the university postoff ice. they add other employments. A representative American college president recently said: "I regard it as. One of his classmates. they earn from five to ten dollars a week. by which they earn two and on e-half to three and one-half dollars a week. living in Springfield. Several are tutors. Scores carry daily papers. upward of $ 3. but. Many are waiters at clubs and restaurants. and. He serv ed as steward of a college club. he prospered and in his last ten months of undergraduate work he cleared above his college expenses.000. depending upon the opportunities for work . as this does not pay expenses. earning twelve dollars a week. I do not regard it. which were none too low. relying wholly on himself for success.ege with about twenty-five dollars. Beveridge. Some a ttend to lawns in summer and furnaces in winter. and money earned by tutoring. in one year. The president of his class at Columbia University recently earned the money to pay for his course by selling agricultural implements. He had shaped his course and worked to it. and copying done after study hours. he returned to work in the harvest fields and broke the wheat-cutting records of t he county. The divinity students. The ways of earning money are various. entered col lege with no other capital than fifty dollars loaned to him by a friend. Albert J. to the construction o f iron bridges of his own design. Two young men made twelve hun dred dollars apiece. A few months after graduation he married. worked his way through an academy. however. He rented a small room. and do their university work in the afternoons and evenings. after the firs t year. Some solicit advertisements. Some dozen or more teach night school. and amassed a fortune. In his junior year. by having several of each to ca re for. He procured many valuable patents. When summer came. and added to his original fund of fifty dollars by taking the freshman essay prize of twenty-five dollars. One student is a member of a city orchestra." . A few find evening work in the city library. preach in small towns. by the savings of two years' work as a farm laborer. not only paid his way through coll ege. To be a correspondent of city dail y papers is the most coveted occupation. writing. When he returned to college he began to be recognized as an exceptio nal man. he turned his attention to civil engineering. "He made his money by advertising schemes and other publishing ventures. He carried his books with him morning. and studied pe rsistently. He is now living comfortably in Cambridge. but only a few can obtain such position s. which served for study and home. in this way. but helped to support his aged parents. This only whetted his appetite for knowledge. and he determined to a dvance. His life was a success." A son of poor parents. and the student's ability and adaptability. later. so as to take their degrees. As a freshman he had a hard struggle. After graduation. on the whole. as desirable that one should have t o work his own way entirely.

it was found that. at Lawren ce. A lowly beginning is no bar to a g reat career.. while the maximum expense rises in but few instances above one thousand dollars. and o ne year as assistant superintendent in the Essex County Truant School. is of great importance both to the individual and the nation. For four years Richard Weil was noted as the great prize winner of Columbia Col lege. It is evident that they did not for one instant think that they could not afford to go to col lege. at some of the best . Gaius B. th e great average class of our country. and entered Dartmouth College with just money enough to p ay the first necessary expenses. taught distr ict schools six terms. N. the average maximum expense. attention and energy to any work that would bri ng remuneration. than his classmate who is the son of a millionai re. finally becoming hea d-waiter.. having a student populat ion of somewhat over forty thousand. the average expense per year is three hundr ed and four dollars. was port er one season at Oak Hill House.Circumstances have rarely favored great men. doggedly believed--that a college training was s omething that they must have. he ranked well in his classes. Statistics of expense. Chicago. Cox of Philadelphia worked his way through Kimball Academy. N . and for "turning his time. Isaac J. and the opportunities for self-help." He would do any honest work that would bring cash.--and every cent of this money as well as every hour not spent in sleep throughout the four years of his college course was devoted to getting his education. All these and many more from the ranks of the bright and well-trained young men who have been graduated from the colleges and universities of the country in re cent years believed--sincerely. H. in a list of forty-five representative colleges and universities. doing many kinds of work. He served summers as waiter in a White Mountain hotel. and is a young man of s olid character and distinguished attainments. In Western and Southern colleges the averages are lower. None of his fellow-students did more to secure an e ducation. while fourteen as well-known Eastern institutions give an average expense of four hundred and forty-four dollars. The question of whether or not they could afford i t does not appear to have occasioned much hesitancy on their part. whose funds are small and opportunities fe w. and through Dartmouth College. Frost was graduated at the Brattleboro. He worked in gardens and as a janitor for some time. where means are limited and ti me short. Littleton. There are many who get along o n an expenditure of from one hundred and fifty dollars to two hundred dollars pe r year. Mass. and will often take higher ran k in school. and in after life. but he will learn how to work his way in life. During his course he taught six terms as principal of a high school. For example. Meriden.. It is the son and daughter of the farmer. Frost. Like Mr. In some of the smaller colleges the minimum expense per year is from sev enty-five dollars to one hundred and ten dollars. eighteen well-known Western colleges and universities have a general average expense of t wo hundred and forty-two dollars per year. pushed a rolling chair at the Columbian Exposition. and canvassed for a publishin g house one summer in Maine.. High School. H. the mechanic and the operative. The boy who works his way through college may have a hard time of i t. In an investigation conducted to ascertain exact figures and facts which a poor boy must meet in working his way through college. The problem of securing a good education. There was no hone st work within the limits of his ability that he would not undertake to pay his way. that the republic will depend on most for good citizenship and brains in the future. five hundred and twenty-nine d ollars. Vt. Encourag ement and useful hints are offered by the experience of many bright young people who have worked their way to diplomas worthily bestowed.

those above fifty dollars condit ioned on class rank. Cornell University gives free tuition and free rooms to seniors and juniors of good standing in their studies and of good habits. Many students earn mon ey in various ways. The yearly expenditure is three hundred and twenty-five dollars. The average yearly expenditure per student is five hundred dollars. large beneficiary and loan funds. for the college year. care of buildings. requirements. The ave rage expenditure per year. etc." Many students are self -supporting. It has also five hundred and twelve state tuition scholarships. canvassers. and singers. freshmen (usually) barred. The average yearly expenditure is five hundred dollars. work of one sort or another to be had by needy students. "Beneficiaries must be frugal in habits.known Eastern institutions are full of interest: Amherst makes a free gift of the tuition to prospective ministers. is four hu ndred and fifty dollars. etc. a faculty employment committee. typewriters." stude nts getting employment in the library or laboratories can earn about one-fourth of their expenses. sale of books. Harvard has about two hundred and seventy-five scholarships. Dartmouth has some three hundred scholarships. some rooms at nominal rent. makes loans at low rates. The cost at Columbia University averages five hundred and forty-seven dollars. washing. habits. table-waiting. Five hundred dollars a y ear will defray all necessary expenses. students have chances to ear n money at tutoring. some students earning money as stenographers. private t utors. Bowdoin has nearly a hundred scholarships. fifty dollars to seventy-five dollar s a year: "no limits placed on habits or social privileges of recipients. often remits room rent in return for services about the college buildings. three hundred and fifty-eight dollars to one thousand and thirty-five dollars.. economy and total abstinence. membership in societies. the average expenditu re is about four hundred dollars. the lowest being three hundred and eighty-seven dollars. by shorthand. etc. s ubscriptions and service). thirty-five per cent of the whole undergraduate body earning money. and maintain good standing and conduct. It has thirty-six two-year sc holarships (two hundred dollars). these will be. and a few wholly. Loan funds are available. newspaper work. and stationery. requires s tudiousness and economy in the case of assisted students. exclusive of clothes. No money loaned. Many students support themselves in part. reporters. three hundred dollars to four hundred dollars. yearly expenditure (exclusive of clothes . A great many students w ho know how to get on in a great city work their way through Columbia. won by success in competitive ex amination. newspaper corr espondence. Brown University has over a hundred tuition scholarships and a loan fund. for freshmen. has some free rooms. books. has one hund red tuition scholarships for other students of good character. . Wesleyan University remits tuition wholly or in part to two-thirds of its under -graduates. shorthand. The University of Pennsylvania in a recent year gave three hundred and fifteen students forty-three thousand. two hundred and forty-two dollars in free scholar ships and fellowships. distributed or loa ned in sums of forty dollars to two hundred and fifty dollars to needy and promi sing under-graduates. laboratory charges. sixty dollars to f our hundred dollars apiece. and stand ing. railway fares. no requirements except good standing. t otal abstainers. agencies for laundries. a few get through on less than two hundred and fifty dollars a year. clerks. Many students support themselves in part by waiting on table. no free rooms.

It is her aim to earn one hundred dollars. thus paying for their board. Tutoring in Barnard is seldom av ailable for the undergraduates. remits all but forty do llars of term bills. regular in attendance and studi ous. The number of girls in the University of Michigan who are paying their own way is large. average yearly expenditure . paying for their clothes. board and lodging cost more than in the country. many such students earning money for themselves. Some lighten their expen ses by waiting on tables in boarding-houses. Smith and Vassar. executing commiss ions. Eliza M. three hours of service about the house.--was formerly in use at Wellesley. sewing. worked as a chambermaid on a lake steamer last year and hurried aw ay this year to do the same. it is confined there to a few cottages. "Most of them.Yale is pretty well off now for fellowships and prizes. by doing what work they can find. president of Mount Holyoke Colle ge. every student reduces her college expenses by a hundred dollars or a hun dred and fifty. and in general it is more difficult for a girl to pay any large part of her expenses through her own efforts and carry on her college work at t he same time. daily. car fares. Barnard and Radcliffe. about six hundred dollars. but pin-money may be acquired in many little ways by a girl of ingenuity. It has no foothold at Bryn Mawr. As far as I know. books. a Russian Jewess. fifty minutes a day of light household labor. she can obtain it. Typewriting is one of the favorite re sources. Because it is especially difficult to obtain good serv ants in this inland town. . One student has done particularly well as agent for a firm that makes c ollege caps and gowns. however. "Do any of your students work their way through?" was asked of a Bryn Mawr auth ority. It is not unusual for students to come here for two years and go away for a time. With thi s sum." The system of compulsory domestic service obtaining now at Mount Holyoke--where by. etc. New York. like the last two mentioned. taking care of rooms." said Miss Mary E. typewriting or stenography. at least in part. because the lists are always full of experienced teachers. Some of our most worthy graduates have done this. summer work in libraries and offices. Some of them earn pin-money while in college by tut oring. the girls who have earned money to pa y their way through college. if a girl with average intelligence and energy wishes a college educa tion. who can be engaged by the hour. Another girl. Woolley. A number of girls in Barnard are. Mosher.. from the lower East Side. in the families of the faculty. however. A few take care of children. there are a few people who are glad to give the colleg e girls such employment." "It is my opinion. At city colleges. or at the most. Others get room and board in the homes of professors by giving. in return for thirty. She has paid all the expenses of h er education in this way. she will pay th e coming year's expenses. There are not many opportunities at Mount Holyoke to e arn large amounts of money. and a chance to pay for room and board by giving service. two or three hours a day. in case of worthy students. and newspaper work. now. One young woman. or a t the affiliated colleges. There is a splendid chance for girls at some of the soundest and best known gir ls' colleges in the United States. woman's dean of the college. runs a little "sweat shop. "have earned the money by teaching." where she keeps a number of women busy ma king women's wrappers and children's dresses. and in various little ways such as putting up lunches. have accomplished it by tutoring." says Dr. "that. in order to earn money to complete the co urse. typewriting. who is especially brave and in good earnest.

--to a certain extent. another. while the average expenditure of the students does not exceed two hundre d dollars per annum. and general refurnisher to students with gene rous allowances. too. assistance rendered in library or laboratory or office. aturdays." was the reply. Orders for gymnasium suits and swimming suits mean good profits . furnish help to many a girl who wishes to help herself.'--and she earns y girls here who are to pay well for it.--'Dresses pres a good deal of money. In Ohio. Former President Tucker of Dartmouth says: "The student who works his way may d . and by a judicious display of attr active samples she is easily tempted to enlarge her supply. on the other hand. Of course. the opportunities for self-help are correspondingly more in the East. and sometimes a very good one receives two dollars and a half." Typewriting. for the well-dressed gir l was never known to have enough pretty ones. a dollar and a half. tutoring. teaching in evening schools occasionally off ers a good opportunity for steady eking out of means. Yes. But to earn all of one's way in a college year. Beside these standard employments. Yet several are able to pay half their way. and is not often done. Then. I know a sed."Some. which they sell here. or send to the stores in New York. in nearly every college. good morals and good grit need despair of getting a college education unless there are extremely unusual reasons against the undertaking. repairer. and still others have pupils in music. by dis tributing the mail. West of the Alleghanies a college education is accessible to all classes. Every youn g man or woman should weigh the matter well before concluding that a college edu cation is out of the question. This amount includes positively everything. Yet if the total cost is less in the West. Partly by reason of the cheapness of a college education in Ohio. the college fees are five dollars a year. there are a great many girls who manage to pay most of their expense s. In Kansas. is almost impossible. No boy or girl in America to-day who has good health. to be sold. board and a room can be had for twelve dollars a month. and others by 'tutoring'. yes. Some of them write for the newspa pers and magazines." A similar question put to a Vassar student brought the following response: "Why. too. Two girls may pay part of their expe nses by taking charge of the library. Those who 'tutor' receive a dollar . that state now sends more students to college than al l of New England. are between four hundred and five hundred and fifty dollars. The lowest entire e xpenses of a year. there are many wealth always having something like that done. girl who has a sign on the door of her room. and who are willing And so this girl makes a large sum of money. and most of the denominational colleges demand fees even lower than were cust omary in New England half a century ago.. evenings and S "There are other girls who are agents for two of the great manufacturers of cho colate creams. in Poughke epsie. In many colleges there is opportunity for a girl with taste and cunning fingers to act as a dressmaker. etc. and by selling stationery. any girl who is at all deft in the art of sewing can make a shirt-waist without a profess ional knowledge of cutting and fitting. for example. In mo st of the state universities tuition is free. "but not many. and at the same time to keep up in all the studies. "The girl that plays the piano for the exercises in the gymnasium is paid for t hat. The reign of the shirt-waist has been a boon to many. the state university has abolished all tuition fee s. too. a lesson. and some of the girls paint and make fancy articles.

my preparation had been so hasty and incomplete. It seems litt . My sala ry was doubled. Think of that.--Summerside. and to earn some money. The greater part of its patronage is from p oor men. he tried to dissuade me from it. at Charlottetown. In one side was the certainty of one hu ndred and twenty dollars a year. against the wishes of my employer. "I kept this place for two years. But my mind was made up. I had saved about eighty dollars from my store-keeping. I hadn't definite plans as to my future. I have seen the s ons of rich men lead in scholarship. or he may be seriously handicapped both by his necess ities and the time he is obliged to bestow on outside matters. and algebra. "I did not know how I was going to do this. "When I told my employer of my plan." The opportunities of to-day are tenfold what they were half a century ago. but stood first of all the competitors on the Island. I had only one year to do it in. Form er President Schurman of Cornell says of his early life: "At the age of thirteen I left home. I went to a larger store in the same town. I need not say that I do not regret that early decision. I would not turn back. I should say. "With my capital of eighty dollars. Poverty under mos t of the conditions in which we find it in colleges is a spur. "The scholarship I had won amounted to only sixty dollars a year. and for the next forty weeks I studied harder than I ever had before or have since. and to me. from facts that have fa llen under my observation. and there was the possibility of failure in the end. "That was the turning-point in my life. and the sons of poor men. My money wou ld not last longer than that. I merely wanted to get in to a village. furnishes a good example. At the end of the year I entered the competitive examination for a scholarship in Prince of Wales College. I knew that it involved hard work and self-denial. and then I gave it up. Greek. that a larger percentage of Dartmouth men have risen to distinction than those of almost any other American college. I recited in Latin. It was a start in the world.--a village of about one thousand inhabitants. On th e other side was my hope of obtaining an education. I began to attend the village high school. and during all the years of my boyhood I never received a penny that I did not earn myself. "My father got me a place in the nearest town. I had small hope of winning it. For my first year's work I was to receive thirty doll ars and my board. Remember what one hundred and twenty dollars meant on Prince Edward Isl and. a poor boy who had never possessed such a sum in his life. to get my preparation for college. I was getting on swimmingly. all on the same day. But when the result was announced.o it with ease and profit. young men of to-day! Thirty dollars a year for working from seven in the morning until ten at night! But I was glad to get the place. on the Island. I found that I had not only won the scholarship f rom my county. Dartmouth College . He pointe d out the difficulties in the way of my going to college. Without examining the statistics. "From the time I began working in the store until to-day. At the end of my first year. although I think that I should have made a successful store keeper. and the prospect of promotion as fast as I dese rved it. and that was all the money I had in the world. and the little village was like a city to my country eyes. and offered to double my pay if I would stay in the store. I have always support ed myself. because I had made up my mind that I wanted to get a better educati on. I determined to go to college. where I was to receive sixty dollars a year and my board. I think. except that it must be by my own ef forts.

Mr. which. $15 for railroad fares.50 per week. The others I could have done without. in competition with the brightest students in the larger Cana dian colleges. room. He tried the examination and won the prize. spending less than one hundred dollars during the entire college year. he was placed at the head of the great univer sity. Schurman. and. I have had other rewards. at Halifax. The scholarship paid five hundred dollars a year for three years. I earned $37. President White. . and earned half board. By clerical work.57 for voluntary subsc riptions. in 1892.55 for books. During the three years in the University of London. Schurma n became dean of the Sage School of Philosophy at Cornell. but I can say now. of a traveling fellowship with two thousand dollars a year. "In my junior year I engaged a nice furnished room at $60 per year. borrow ed $190. $10. The expenses for the year.42 in my pocket. who had once met the bri lliant young Canadian. of course. called him to that position. in London. if it had been necessary. including board. which I agr eed to pay for by work about the house. Schurman's fellow-students in Acadia says that he was remarkable chi efly for taking every prize to which he was eligible. During the year I earned $60. In his senior year. and gifts amounting t o $12.76. and tuition. and decided that he had found in it his l ife-work. $55 fro m gifts. he was ca lled to Dalhousie University. and an additional gift of $20. but with this difference: that firs t success was essential.45 for clothing. One of Mr. The young student in Acadia was ambitious to continue his stud ies in England. At that time he was only thirty-eight years of age. Schurman became deeply interested in the study of philosophy. and borrowed $150. received $70 for a scholarship.50.20. Two years later. without it I could not have gone on. which squared my accounts for the year. would seem immeasurably greater. and then went to Acadia College i n Nova Scotia to complete his course. through the offer of the Hibbard Soci ety. greatly to the surprise of the others. Dr. including. He was eager to go to Germany to study under the great leaders of phil osophic thought. He lived on his scholarship and what he could earn by keeping books for one of the town storekee pers. $8. but the poor country boy from Prince Edward Island was again s uccessful.le enough. when a chair of philosophy was established at Cornell. In 1886. received a scholarship of $70. $23. Aft erward. "During the next summer I earned $100. $87. when th e president's chair became vacant. At the end of his course in Germany. The expenses of the sophomore year were $394. al so earned full board waiting upon table.. he lea rned of a scholarship in the University of London offered for competition by the students of Canadian colleges.24 for sundries. I waited on table at a $4 boarding-house all of my sophomore year. The honor men of the great English Universities like Oxford and Cambridge were among the competitors. then a Doctor of Philosophy. etc. Beside s this I spent $10. My current expenses during my freshman year were $4. with all of which I just covered expenses. recei ved from the college a scholarship of $60. A way was opened for him. retaining my old room at $1 pe r week. Mr. A well-known graduate of Amherst college gives the following figures. that the winning of it was the greatest success I ever have had. after nearly thirty years. returned to Acadia College to become a teacher there. were $478. and saw in this offer his opportunity. excepting $40 due on tuition. I earned during the yea r.50. the full value of board. borrowed $70. he taught a country school for a year." For two years young Schurman attended Prince of Wales College. to mo st persons. Soon afterward. Nova Scotia. which to the boy who earnestly wants to go to college are of the most pertinent interest: "I entered college with $8.

If Henry Wilson.708. An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest. could manage to read a thousand good books before his time had expi red. Never was ignorance placed at such a disad . where is the boy or girl to-day." No m atter how many millions are out of employment. and mail carriers were numbered among the twenty-five. $40. bound out until he was twenty-one for only a yoke of oxen an d six sheep. founders. working early and late on a farm with scarcely any opportuniti es to go to school. "The total expense for the course was about $1. took a prize of $25. but who are only half educated. could manage from scraps of paper. if the slave Frederick Douglass. "Wanted--a man. superbly trained. The expenses of the senior year. under the same conditions as the previous year. Many of them c ome from the country and from factory towns. but who are well educated. The money that a student earns for his own education does enrich his life. the man whose natural ability has been enlarged. On all sides we see men with small minds. $496. Every young man or woman should weigh the matter well before concluding that a college education is out of the question. Tutoring. that is wanted. could become the greatest Bi blical scholar of his age. A large number come from the farms of the West. "no man can take it away from him. if the po or deaf boy Kitto. to learn the alphabet and lift himself to eminence. etc . machinists.. I waited on tab le all the year. Never before was there such a demand for the trained man. the man who can do a thing s uperbly well. It is true gol d. who cannot get a fair education and escape the many disadvantages of ignora nce? "If a man empties his purse into his head. under the American f lag. pushing ah ead of those who have greater capabilities." says Franklin. It seemed as if they left untried no avenue for e arning money. and positions as clerks were we ll-occupied fields. posters on barns. and so was enabled to graduate without financial embarrassment. bicycle agents . borrowed $40.64 were necessarily heavi er than these of previous years. Throughout the senior year I retaine d the same room. and painters. newspaper work. copying. I was permitted to give my note for the amount I could not r aise." Twenty-five of the young men graduated at Yale not long ago paid their way enti rely throughout their courses. But having secured a good position as teacher f or the coming year. of which (counting scholars hips as earnings) I earned $1. the whole world is hunting for a man who can do things. tutoring."During the following summer I earned $40. drummers. earned by clerical work. At the door of every vocation is a sign out." CHAPTER VIII YOUR OPPORTUNITY CONFRONTS YOU--WHAT WILL YOU DO WITH IT? Never before was the opportunity of the educated man so great as to-day. A on e-talent man. on a plantation where it was almost a crim e to teach a slave to read. Many of these students are paying for their education by money earn ed by their own hands. often gets the place when a man with many untrai ned or half-trained talents loses it. Everywhere it is the educated. enhanced one hund redfold by superior training.157. In a certain district in Boston there are ten thousand students. receive d a gift of $35. It is said that unearned money does not enrich. a trained thinker who can do whatever he undertakes a lit tle better than it has ever before been done. and received full board. and old almanacs. the trained man. secured a scholarship of $70. who made shoes in an alms-house.

their fair college vi sion will fade. which nearly everybody worships in some form or other. A liberal education only renders a rascal more dishon est. the colleges. It is the subtle menace which threatens to poison the graduate's ambition. Never before was such pressure brought to bear on the trained youth to sell his brains. after a few years. which the graduate needs to be cautioned agains t more than the money madness which has seized the American people. The commercial prizes held up to him are so dazzling.vantage as to-day. for nothing else is more fatal to the development of the higher. How will the graduate. full of h ope and big with promise. with high ideals and glorious visions. their yearnings for something higher will gradually die and be r eplaced by material. selfish ideals. to coin his ability into dollars. as to-da y. sordid level. finer instincts and nobler desires. art. and ennoble its recipient is a cu rse instead of a blessing. the dollar-mark will swing info your vision. the college graduate. which so often warps and wrenches the who le nature out of its legitimate orbit. full of expectancy. inoculating thei r ambition with its vicious virus. that is indicated in the very structure in his brain. Tens of thousands of young people just out of school and college stand tiptoe o n the threshold of active life. . T he money-god. The song of the money-siren to-day is so persistent. even when the cal l in one to do something which bears little relation to money-making speaks very loudly. refine. so numerous. and. with their diplomas. Educated rascality is infinitely more of a menace to societ y than ignorant rascality. money-making germ. the fatal germ will spread through their whole natures. but many of them will very quickly catch the money con tagion. perhaps. Every year. so insidious. so also the dangers and temptations which beset him were never before so gre at. The commercial spirit tends to drag everything down to its dead. so astounding. While the opportunities awaiting the educated man. vigorous character to resist their temptation. more dangerous. will tempt you on every hand. and the unive rsities. that day on which is born in him the selfish. so entrancing. on his entrance into practical life were never before so great and so numerous as to-d ay. is measured largely by h ow many dollars it will bring. to prostitute his education. the soul's wings are weighted down with gold. so overwhel ming that it often drowns the still small voice which bids one follow the call t hat runs in his blood. that it takes a strong. The most unfortunate day in a youth's career is that one on which his ideals be gin to grow dim and his high standards begin to drop. All education which does not elevate. Wealth with us multiplies a man's power so tremendously that everything gravita tes toward it. what he stands for. thousands of young men and young women graduate full of ambition an d hope. Whichever way you turn. the artistic suffers. the trained young man or w oman answer it? The dollar stands out so strongly in all the undertakings of life that the idea l is often lowered or lost. There is nothing else. sordid. to face for the first time the practical world. A man's genius. "How much can I get for my picture?" "How much ro yalty for my book?" "How much can I get out of my specialty. go out from the schools. my profession. my b usiness?" "How can I make the most money?" or "How can I get rich?" is the great interrogation of the century.

unless you are made of superior stuff. Then dies the man. Shall it be angel or devil? What are your ideals. will ever be qui te so noble. and encoarsen you generally. like a great block of pure white marble. The influences that will surround you when you leave college or your special tr aining school will be as potent to drag you down as those that cause the young I ndian to revert to barbarism. The educated man ought to be able to do something better. you will be constantly thrown into con tact with those of lower ideals. and tha t is to be a millionaire of brains. something higher than merely to put money in his purse. who are so transformed by the inspiring. selfish aims. their fine manners. lower your ideals. of culture. of gra ce and beauty. fortunate graduate." says Ex-President Eliot. whose education counts for anything ought to b e able to resist the shock. this thing that stamps the gentleman. They soon begin to shed their polish. of Harvard Universit y. You can not divorce them. American-Indian graduates. "A keen and sure sense of honor. Whatever degrees you carry from school or college. cold. There is something infinitely better than to be a millionaire of money. whatever distinction you may acquire in your career. They become Indian s again. very quickly begin to change under the deteriorating influences operating upon them when they leav e college. and it lives in yo ur ideal. stand s untouched before you. as that of gentleman. After you graduate and go out into the world. and general culture. as you stand tiptoe on the threshold of active life? Will you smite the block and shatter it into an unshapely or hideous piece. When you plunge into the swim of things. But the graduate whose training. a statue which will tell the unborn generations the story of a no ble life? Great advantages bring great responsibilities. You hold the chisel and mallet--your ability. What a contrast that high and noble thing which the college diploma stands for presents to that which many owners of the diploma stand for a quarter of a centu ry later! It is often difficult to recognize any relationship between the two.You will need to be constantly on your guard to resist the attack of this germ. A libe ral education greatly increases a man's obligations. There is coupled with it a responsibility which you can not shirk without paying the penalty in a shriveled . the Indian blanket replaces their modern dres s. your educa tion--in your hands. your manhood. Your future. tending to deteriorate your standards." The graduate who has not acquired thi s keen and sure sense of honor. sordid materiality will be a severe test to your character. and they gradually drift back into their former barbarism. who are actuated only by sordid. their impro ved language. no title will ever mean quite so much. misses the best thing that a college education can impart. or will you call out a statue of usefulness. There is something in the block for you. uplifting i nfluences of the schools and colleges which are educating them that they are sca rcely recognizable by their own tribes when they return home. Money-making can not compare with man-making. The shock you will receive in dropping from the at mosphere of high ideals and beautiful promise in which you have lived for four y ears to that of a very practical. "is the finest result of college life. the woman in you. to withstand all temptations. of helpfulness to one's fellows. a millionaire of character--a gentleman. powerful influences will be opera tive in your life.

whatever it may be. instead of using his education to lift his fellow men. so divinely endowed. a special message for humanity. because where much is give n. who has not had similar advantages." A great man has said that no man will be content to live a half life when he ha s once discovered it is a half life. th at he will not be a slave of the dollar or stoop to a greedy. in the picture he paints. so superbly equipped." The world has a right to expect that the graduate. but what sha ll we do with the educated rascal who uses his trained mind and all his gifts to ruin the very people who look up to him as a guide? "The greatest thing you can do is to be what you ought to be. will not turn his back on it. much is expected. an inspiration to those who have n ot had his priceless chance. th at he will not stop growing. it is justified in expecting that he will raise the standard of intelligence in his community. who employs his talents in the book he writes. wi ll haunt him. It is more of a disgrace for a college graduate to grovel. a stunted mentality. to aspire.soul. Society has a right to look to the collegian to be a refining. Your superior training has given you a glimpse of the higher life. Your duty is to deliver your message to the world with all the man liness. If the torch of learning has been put in your hand. Your education means an in creased obligation to live your life up to the level of your gift. and force you possess. grasping career: t hat he will be free from the sordidness which often characterizes the rich ignor amus. If you have received a message which carries freedom for people enslaved by ign orance and bigotry. than it is for one who has not had glimpses of higher things. the possible glory of life. what shall we think of this man. his finer culture. uses it t o demoralize. because the other half. not down. who. . instead of as a beacon to guide them into port? We imprison the burglar for breaking into our houses and stealing. its significance is that yo u should light up the way for the less fortunate. The world has a right to expect that wherever there is an e ducated. to mislead. We cannot help feeling that it is worse for a man to go wrong who has had all t he benefits of a liberal education. who uses his light as a decoy to lure his fellows on the r ocks and reefs. It has a right to expect that he will not be a victim of the narrowing. a warped conscience. that he will not disgrace his alma mater which has given him his superior chance in life and opened wide for h im the door of opportunity. and he is expected to look up. to help to emancipate them from ignorance and drudgery. who has ability to ameliora te the hard conditions of his fellows. and a narrow field of usefulnes s. vigor. "There goes a man. of grander things. it simply m eans that you have a great commission to do something out of the ordinary for yo ur fellows. to drag them down. uplifting force in his community. to debauch. will be an artist and not an artisan. having once faced the light and felt its power. the higher half. What shall we think of a man who has been endowed with godlike gifts. that he will illustrate in his perso nality. your superior opportunity. to stoop to mean. cramping influence of avarice. you have no right to suppress it. low practises. If you have the ability and have been given superior opportunities. who has h ad the inestimable advantage of a liberal education. not to grovel. It has a right to expect that a man who has learned how to use skilfully the tools of life. to de moralize. trained man people should be able to say of him as Lincoln said of Walt Whitman. in his business. The educated man has gotten a glimpse of power. than for a man who has not had a liberal education.

constitutes the only education worthy of the name. misunderstan dings. You should be able to demonstrate that the man with a diploma has learned to use the tools of life skilfully. which will be dinned into your ears w herever you go. aimless. don't watch your hands. surely the lowest. that you lower your standards. and better quality. sordid prudence." While an education should develop all that is highest and best in a man." applied either to character or to work are bad mot toes for an educated man." "Fairly good. The graduate ought to be able to rise above these things so that he can use all his brain power and energy and fling the weight of his entire being into work t hat is worth while. who are loaded down with knowle dge that they have never been able to utilize. There ar e thousands of college-bred men in this country. than from the man who lacks early training. "Keep your eye on the model. that can be tr anslated into power. something finer. Knowledge is power only when it can be made available. but a financial failure. After the withdrawal of a play that has been only a short time on the stage. "An artistic success. and discords which destroy much of the efficiency of narrower. y our high ideals into dollars.Never lose sight of your college vision. "If the highest thing in me will not bring success. discredit his teachers. demorali ze his ideals. slipshod work. has learned how to focus his faculties so that he can bring the whole man to his task. The trouble with most of us is that we do not keep our eyes on the model. a stuffed memory d oes not make an educated man. A liberal education ought to broaden a man's mind so that he will be able to keep his eye always on the model. the worst. cannot. sordid methods. "Pretty good. Be sure that you possess yo ur knowledge. The great question which confronts you in the practical world is "What can you do with what you know?" Can you transmute your knowledge into power? Your abilit y to read your Latin diploma is not a test of true education. we often read this comment. uninfluenced by the thousand and one petty annoyances. finer type of man hood." is the injunction of a gr eat master as he walks up and down among his pupils. of a higher grade. dishonor the institution which has given him his chance to be a superior man. Low ideals. The world has a right to expect better results from the work of the educated ma n. to make available for working pur . if you cannot bring your education to a f ocus and utilize it in a practical way. half-hearted endeavors . criticizing their work. bickerings. the perfect ideal of his work. it should als o make him a practical man. Say to yourself. the man who has discovered only a small part of himself. less culti vated minds. Regard the very suggestion that you shall coin your education. Do not permit yourself to be influence d by the maxims of a low. not a financial failure. should have no place in your program. It is a disgrace for a man with a liberal education to botch his work. will only m ake you more conspicuous as a failure. as an insult. Only what you can use of your education will benefit you or the world. practical. we lose o ur earlier vision. The mere possession of a diploma will only hold you up to ridicule. and not a part of himself. prostitute your edu cation by the practise of low-down. systemless. The knowledge that can be utilized." The mission of the trained man is to show the world a higher. that your knowledge does not possess you.

which should make you aspire instead of grovel--look up. or be mortified or pained by ignorance of matters which every well-informed person is supposed to know. that he has not let the i But the best thing you carry from your alma mater is not what you there prized most. This assurance of knowledge multiplies self-confidence and giv es infinite satisfaction. The superbly trained man can go through the world with his head up and f eel conscious that he is not likely to play the ignoramus in any company. As a matter of fact. instead of dow n. encouragement. inspiration. This will mean infinitely m ore to you than all you have learned from books or lectures. not only adds wonderfully to one's happiness. does it at his peril. so you should transmut e your knowledge into practical wisdom. into working capital. for fear he would never get it back. making a sponge of one's brain. The knowledge that one's mentality has been broadened out by college training. literature. not your knowledge of the sciences. if you have made the most of your chan ce. your discovery of yourself. by having to confess. to our fellows. The most precious thing of all. the spirit of your alma mater. things are so arranged in this world that no one can use his divine gift for himself alone an d get the best out of it. their narrow outlook on life. To try to keep it would be as foolish as for the farme r to hoard his seed corn in a bin instead of giving it to the earth. of your possibilit ies. m eanly. this is the embodiment of the college spirit. that one has discovered hi s possibilities. your resolution to be a little more of a man. because he has disc in the knowledge that one has n mind. There is also great satisfaction ot neglected the unfoldment and expansion of his mpressionable years of youth go by unimproved. is not to try to sell ourselves for the highest possible price but to give ourselves. On every hand we see men of good ability who feel crippled all thei r lives and are often mortified. to play a manly part in life. but royally. however. in himself. If the rosebud should try to retain all of its sweetness and beauty locked within its petals and refuse to gi . to do the greatest. or out of life. think a little more of himself. that they are not ed ucated.poses. The way to get the most out of ourselves. and that is your aroused ambition. art. The man who withholds the giving of himself to the world. but for the betterment of all mankind. not stingily. magnanimously. which you have absorbed from your teachers. In other words. languages. of greater value than all these. by the poverty of their l anguage. The graduate should regard his education as a sacred trust. There is no situation in life in which the beneficent influence of a well-assim ilated education will not make itself felt. grandest thing possible to you. not alone for his advancement. As the silkworm transmutes the mulberry leaf into satin. He should look upon it as a power to be used. The college man ought to be a superb figure anywhere. or for his own selfish ends. from your associations. and transmuting every bit of knowledge into power. The consciousness of bein g well educated should put one at ease in any society. There is a great difference between absorbing knowledge. have more faith overed himself. at the cost of mental and moral penury. it is some thing infinitely more sacred. it is that which should make you reach up as wel l as on. a liberal education makes a man feel a little surer of himself. and self-confidence is the lever that move s the world. but also increase s one's self-confidence immeasurably. is the uplift. of your powers. their sordid ideals.

or teachers. never sell your divine heritage. and strangles the very faculties he would develop. but failed as a man. the crowning fortune of a man. Put beauty into your life. or influenced to stoop to anything low or questionable. in the everlasting scramble for the dollar. do not allow all that is finest within you. in London. in our efforts to sell ourselves for selfi sh ends or for the most dollars. stifle our better natures. whose genius was not opposed by parents. The man who tries to keep his education. is to be born with a bia s to some pursuit. sacrifi ce your social instincts. which finds him in employment and happiness. it would be lost. When y ou leave your alma mater. never let it be said of you that you succeeded in your vocation. Then tocks or bonds to testify to a rich life. How your greatest wealth with you. as thousands of graduates do. When William Story. and does not lift up his head and show that he has made the most of his great privileges disgraces the institution that gav e him his chance. who lives a shiftless. be larger than your vocation. was asked to make a speech at the unveiling o f his great statue of George Peabody. strangled. we impoverish our own lives. he simply pointed to the statue and said. You should so conduct yourself that e very one will see that there is something in you that would repel as an insult t he very suggestion that you could be bought or bribed. the sculptor." a sacred something that briber y cannot touch. The graduate should show the world that he has something in him too sacred to b e tampered with. selfish life. It is only by flinging them out to the world that t heir fullest development is possible. your good name. In these cases Nature seems to have triumphed by direct interp osition. philosopher. in a cl you will not need houses or lands or s Never before did an opportunity to render such great service to mankind confron t the educated youth as confronts you to-day. my young friend." So conduct yourself that your life shall own eulogy. your good n ame. an unsullied reputation. Whatever you do. Let it be its world the story of a noble career. h is superior advantages for himself. WHAT WILL YOU DO WITH IT? CHAPTER IX ROUND BOYS IN SQUARE HOLES The high prize of life. and encouraged di sobedience. guardi ans. to have insisted on her darlings having their rights. The trouble with most of us is that. "That is my speech. There is hardly a poet. carry ean record. whatever your vocation.--EMERSON. need no eulogy in words. secrecy. falsehood. your friendships. who gropes along in mediocrity. only shrivels. let your success tell to the ever much money you may accumulate. or man of science mentioned in the history of the human intellect.ve it out. Whether you make money or lose it. do not let your esthetic faculties. that influence cannot buy. The college man who is cursed with commonness. You have not learned the best lesson from your school or college if you have no t discovered the secret of making life a glory instead of a sordid grind. even flight from home and occasional vagabondism . be atrophied in your efforts to make a living. something marked "not for sale. for a mess of pottage. Do not. your high ideals and noble purposes to be suffoca ted. for power or positio n. artist. who is always looking out for the main chanc e. your aspiring instincts.

rather than the world should lose what it cost her so much pains to produce. and oppressed because they did not fit. and taken off again. and he finds himself poor and neglected. sir." Civilization will mark its highest tide when every man has chosen his proper wo rk." "Art. but he will stick to his favorite pursuit nevertheless. the needle fli es back to its own star. I must not stay. "I am sure I can be useful. an d you have held alternately in the steam. first a saucer and then a spoon. "every boy runs against obstructions on every side but one. the teapot lid. of boys persecute d as lazy." says Robert Waters." says Emerson. medicine. I never saw such an idle young fellow as you are. I cannot sell. Like a locomo tive. or whatever your own pet calling is unt il you have wasted years of a precious life. "You are good for nothing as a salesman. or fickle. stupid. Which beckons me away.-E. no matter how unpromising the prospect. Now. I hear a voice you cannot hear. law." "Medicine." "Science. No matter by what difficulties surrounded. I see a hand you c annot see. and though you may pull it around by artif icial advice and unnatural education." said his employer. For the last half-hour you have not spoken a single word. No man can be ideally successful until he has found his place. I know I cannot sell. On that side all obstruction is taken away." "I do n't know. P. TICKELL. like Burns. and he sweeps serenely over a deepening channel into an infinite sea. God has loaded the needle of that young life so it will point to the star of its own destiny." said his grandm other." of boys whose aspiration s and longings have been silenced forever by ignorant parents. repent it as he often does." persisted the young man. he is strong on the track. "I know I can. art. "Rue it as he may. "How? Tell me how. "Only don't put me away. when once free. simply because they were out of their places. often look back with a sigh and think how much better off he would be had he pursued some other occupation. any more than you can see the North Star in the magnetic needle." Only a Dickens can write the history of "Boy Slavery. Which says. "the man of genius is drawn by an irresistible impulse to the occupation for which he was c reated. yet. he may. and compel it to point to the star which p resides over poetry. laughing at the ear nestness of his clerk." pleaded a young man whom a merchant was about to discharge for his bluntness. where his aptitude for figures soon showed itself. WHIPPLE. "that is what is wrong. of s quare boys forced into round holes. I don't know. collecting together the little drops f ormed by the condensation of the steam on the surface of the china and the silve r. When his efforts fail to procure means of subsistence. but weak anywhere else. "Like a boat on a river . this occupation is the only one which he will pursue with interest an d pleasure. are you not ashamed to waste your time in this disgraceful manner?" The world has certainly gained much through the old lady's failure to tell Jame s how he could employ his time to better advantage! "But I'm good for something. of boys tortured be ." said the principal. and y ou have busied yourself in examining and. "James Watt." He was placed in the counti ng-house. of b oys compelled to pore over dry theological books when the voice within continual ly cried "Law." "Nor do I.. "do take a book and employ yourself usefully. but an eminent accountant. you have taken off and replaced. Do you know what you have been doing all this tim e? Why. too. You cannot look into a cradle and read the secret message traced by a divine ha nd and wrapped up in that bit of clay. sir." "But I can make myself usefu l somehow. don't put me away." said the youth." or "Business"." said the merchant." "I know that. Try me a t something besides selling. and in a few years he became not only chief cashier in the large store.

the auth or. into the inhospitable world of letters." said Emerson. The father of Joshua Reynolds rebuked his son for drawing pictures. that he ventured. in the marble of his Moses. enlarging knowledge of the vast and minute alike. and Guido. Pascal's father determined that his son should teach the dead languages. and wrote o n one: "Done by Joshua out of pure idleness. Turner was intended for a barber in Maiden Lane. He was only eighteen when he discovered the principle of pendulum in a lamp left swinging in the cathedral at Pisa. "The Robbers. he would hide his Euclid and Archimedes and stealthily work out abstruse problems. and his longing for authorship so allured him. and soon he . but the instinct of commercial enterprise future merchant. Claude Lorraine. was apprenticed to a pastry-cook. Peter's. but became the greatest landsc ape-painter of modern times. "You are trying to make that boy ough. him to wish his son a another you. when turning his powerful wing against the clear blue sky! Ignorant parents compelled the boy Arkwright to become a barber's apprentice. and would not let him rest until he had immortali zed himself in the architecture of St. but when compelled to study anatomy physiology. but the fire burning in his breast was kindled by the Divine Artist. was thought good for nothing. ma de Prussia one of the greatest nations of Europe. how steady and true his curves. but th e voice of mathematics drowned every other call. the painter. It is often a narrow selfishness in a father which leads reproduction of himself. because he loved art and music.cause they were not enthusiastic in employments which they loathed." Yet this "idle boy" became one of the founders of the Royal Academy. Frederick the Great was terribly abused becau se he had a passion for art and music and did not care for military drill. This boy. but his own death placed Frederick on the throne at the age of twenty-eight. and on the walls of the Sistine Chapel. "Wist ye not that I m ust be about my Father's business?" Galileo was set apart for a physician. so he must needs say "han ds off" even to his parents. A kind lady aided him. Schiller was sent to study surgery in the military school at Stuttgart. b ut Nature had locked up in his brain a cunning device destined to bless humanity and to do the drudgery of millions of England's poor. was sent to a mu sic school. as Christ said to his mother. but how keen his glance. She breaks the pattern at every birth. John Jacob Astor's father wished his r as a butcher. He invented both microscope and telescope. How stupid and clumsy is the blinking eagle at perch. and the the the The parents of Michael Angelo had declared that no son of theirs should ever fo llow the discreditable profession of an artist. the famous painter of Aurora. Molière. but in secret he produced his first play. and against which every fiber of their being was uttering perpetual protest. The magic c ombination is never used but once. haunting the boy until he laid aside his grammar for Euclid. and even punished him for coveri ng the walls and furniture with sketches. One is en son to be his successo was too strong in the Nature never duplicates men. pennil ess." the first performance of which he had to witness in disguise. His f ather hated the fine arts and imprisoned him. who. The irksomeness of his prison-like school so gal led him. He even contemplated killing his s on. to an upholsterer.

soured. a commissioner's accountant. A. out at elbows. with failure imminent. and became a teacher. and an author of several indiffer ent books. a secretary. the ornithologist. "thou shalt go down to the machine-shop on Monday morning. out of office. A parent might just as well decide that the magnetic needle will point to Venus or Jupiter without trying it. an acquaintance. attended a court. What a ridiculous exhibition a great truck-horse would make on the race-track. The boy wandered unobserved to the o rgan in a chapel. he will not fill any to the satisfaction of himself or o thers. a soldier. The duke happ ened to hear the performance. Erskine spent four years in the navy. After serving more than two years. "disappointed. he took his son with him. and the duke. in which he eventually soon stood alone as the greates t forensic orator of his country. and persuaded Dr. "Jonathan. When the doctor visited a brother in the service of the Duk e of Weisenfelds. a factory m anager. out of money. Handel to let his son follow his bent. invited Erskine to sit near him. to work his way up to the posit ion of a man of great influence as a United States Senator from Rhode Island. as to decide what profession his so n shall adopt. he one day. Nature never lets a man rest until he has found his place. and the other to rule an empire. Erski ne took their measure as they spoke. But the boy got an old spinet and practiced on it se cretly in a hayloft. nearly every college graduate who succeeds in the true sense of the word. Daniel Defoe had been a trader. Stewart studied for the ministry. The boy was brought before him. and said that the pleaders at the bar were among the most eminent lawyers of Great Britain. and so tried to discour age his fondness for music. The pres iding judge. failed in five different professions before he found his place. they could not be induced to e xchange callings. but makes himself after he is graduated. The best thing his teachers ha . an envoy." said Mr. prai sed his performance. medicine. through the accident of having lent mone y to a friend. too. Not less true is it that he who feels that God has given him a particular work to do can be happy only when earnestly engaged in its performan ce.produced the two splendid dramas which made him immortal. in the hope of more rapid promo tion. before he wrote his masterpiece. Happy the youth who finds the place which his dreams have pictured! If he do es not fill that place. and soon had a private concert under full blast. Chase. and then. and believed he could excel them. ruined. of poor doctors and lawyers for the same reason! The country is full of men who are out of place. T." Wilson. joined the army. He at onc e began the study of law. out in the cold. She haunts him and drives him until all his faculties give their consent and he falls into his proper niche. prepares himself in school. It has been well said that if God should commission two angels." It was m any years before Jonathan escaped from the shop. out of cur iosity. insisted that his creditor sho uld take the shop as the only means of securing the money. out of cre dit. and wondered who could possibly combine so much me lody with so much evident unfamiliarity with the instrument. and th eology are the only desirable professions. in the town where his regiment was quartered. How ridiculous. before he drifted into his proper calling as a merchant. one to sweep a street crossing. The latter. instead of blaming him for disturbing the organ. yet this is no more incongruous than the popular idea that law. when his son told of having nearly fitted himself f or college. "Robinson Crusoe. out of courage. a merchant. of our American college graduates to study law! How many young men becom e poor clergymen by trying to imitate their fathers who were good ones. The physician Handel wished his son to become a lawyer." The fact is. for fifty-two pe r cent.

and darts l ike a flash through the waves. Grant] We must not jump to the conclusion that because a man has not succeeded in what he has really tried to do with all his might. Cromwell was a farmer until forty years old. or an irresistibl e genius for ruling men. and do not condemn them be . If you fail after doing your level best. will eventually b ring most of us into the right niches at the proper time. and this every one can do. But if there be no instinct. The world has been very kind to many who were once known as dunces or blockhead s. a conscientious statesman. but it was very cross to them while t hey were struggling through discouragement and misinterpretation. before we reach our teens. if for medicine. He was so timid that he could not plead a case. while before they be at the air and earth in vain. and seizes upon those that do. Let duty be the guiding-star. So no one should be disappointed because he was not end owed with tremendous gifts in the cradle. be a carpenter. and our God. Each knocks at the portals of the mind. No o ne need doubt that the world has use for him. he cannot succeed at anything. yet he practiced it so faithfully that it helped hi m to authorship. the latter. With a firm choice and earnest work. and advance at every honorable opportunity in the direction towards which the inward monitor points. Cowper failed as a lawyer. a responsible soldier. and see if it really be in the line of your bent or power of achievement. His business is to do the best he can wherever his lot may be cast. or why the labor that naturally falls to one's lot should not be done well. after they have become very successful. the former choosing philosophy. The moment his fins feel the water. Better be a first-rate hod-carrier than a s econd-rate anything. eve n when given all the latitude and longitude heart could desire. Samuel Smiles was trained to a profession which was not to his taste. for which he was well fitted. to the full measure of one's ability and industry. ourselves.ve taught him is how to study. and success will surely be the crown. Neither Lincoln nor Grant started as a baby with a precocity for the White House. or if it be weak or faint. find it very dif ficult before their fifteenth or even before their twentieth year to decide what to do for a living. a hindrance instead of a help. Voltaire and Petrarch abandoned the law. What career? What shall my life's work be? If instinct and heart ask for carpentry. he is himself again. But look again: a huge wave breaks higher up the beach and covers the unfortunat e creature. examine the work attempted. Very few of us. [Illustration: Ulysses S. The great majority of boys and girls. True success lies in acting well y our part. a young man or woman cannot help but succeed. That is no reas on why the duty at hand should be put off. His fins mean something now. one should choose cautiously along the line of his best adaptability and opportunity. but it is not there. but he wrote some of our finest poems. Give every boy and girl a fair chance and reasonable encouragement. Lo ok at a fish floundering on the sand as though he would tear himself to pieces. poetry. show great genius or even remarkable talent for any line of work or study. The moment he is beyond the college walls he ceas es to use books and helps which do not feed him. and a genuine feeling of respo nsibility to our parents or employers. Fidelity to the work or everyday duties at hand. Molière found that he was not adapted to the work of a lawyer. demanding a wonderf ul aptitude for some definite line of work. b ut he left a great name in literature. be a physician. Garfield would not have become President if he had not previously been a zealou s teacher.

cause of even a large degree of downright stupidity; for many so-called good-for -nothing boys, blockheads, numskulls, dullards, or dunces, were only boys out of their places, round boys forced into square holes. Wellington was considered a dunce by his mother. At Eton he was called dull, id le, slow, and was about the last boy in school of whom anything was expected. He showed no talent, and had no desire to enter the army. His industry and perseve rance were his only redeeming characteristics in the eyes of his parents and tea chers. But at forty-six he had defeated the greatest general living, except hims elf. Goldsmith was the laughing-stock of his schoolmasters. He was graduated "Wooden Spoon," a college name for a dunce. He tried to enter a class in surgery, but w as rejected. He was driven to literature. Goldsmith found himself totally unfit for the duties of a physician; but who else could have written the "Vicar of Wak efield" or the "Deserted Village"? Dr. Johnson found him very poor and about to be arrested for debt. He made Goldsmith give him the manuscript of the "Vicar of Wakefield," sold it to the publishers, and paid the debt. This manuscript made its author famous. Robert Clive bore the name of "dunce" and "reprobate" at school, but at thirtytwo, with three thousand men, he defeated fifty thousand at Plassey and laid the foundation of the British Empire in India. Sir Walter Scott was called a blockh ead by his teacher. When Byron happened to get ahead of his class, the master wo uld say: "Now, Jordie, let me see how soon you will be at the foot again." Young Linnaeus was called by his teachers almost a blockhead. Not finding him f it for the church, his parents sent him to college to study medicine. But the si lent teacher within, greater and wiser than all others, led him to the fields; a nd neither sickness, misfortune, nor poverty could drive him from the study of b otany, the choice of his heart, and he became the greatest botanist of his age. Richard B. Sheridan's mother tried in vain to teach him the most elementary stu dies. The mother's death aroused slumbering talents, as has happened in hundreds of cases, and he became one of the most brilliant men of his age. Samuel Drew was one of the dullest and most listless boys in his neighborhood, yet after an accident by which he nearly lost his life, and after the death of h is brother, he became so studious and industrious that he could not bear to lose a moment. He read at every meal, using all the time he could get for self-impro vement. He said that Paine's "Age of Reason" made him an author, for it was by h is attempt to refute its arguments that he was first known as a strong, vigorous writer. It has been well said that no man ever made an ill figure who understood his ow n talents, nor a good one who mistook them. CHAPTER X WHAT CAREER? Brutes find out where their talents lie; A bear will not attempt to fly, A foun dered horse will oft debate Before he tries a five-barred gate. A dog by instinc t turns aside Who sees the ditch too deep and wide. But man we find the only cre ature Who, led by folly, combats nature; Who, when she loudly cries--Forbear! Wi th obstinacy fixes there; And where his genius least inclines, Absurdly bends hi s whole designs. SWIFT. The crowning fortune of a man is to be born to some pursuit which finds him in employment and happiness, whether it be to make baskets, or broadswords, or cana

ls, or statues, or songs.--EMERSON. Whatever you are by nature, keep to it; never desert your line of talent. Be wh at nature intended you for, and you will succeed; be anything else, and you will be ten thousand times worse than nothing.--SYDNEY SMITH. "Every man has got a Fort," said Artemus Ward. "It's some men's fort to do one thing, and some other men's fort to do another, while there is numeris shiftless critters goin' round loose whose fort is not to do nothin'. "Twice I've endevered to do things which they wasn't my Fort. The first time wa s when I undertook to lick a owdashus cuss who cut a hole in my tent and krawld threw. Sez I, 'My jentle sir, go out, or I shall fall onto you putty hevy.' Sez he, 'Wade in, Old Wax Figgers,' whereupon I went for him, but he cawt me powerfu l on the hed and knockt me threw the tent into a cow pastur. He pursood the atta ck and flung me into a mud puddle. As I aroze and rung out my drencht garmints, I concluded fitin was n't my fort. "I'le now rize the curtain upon seen 2nd. It is rarely seldum that I seek conso lation in the Flowin Bole. But in a certain town in Injianny in the Faul of 18-, my orgin grinder got sick with the fever and died. I never felt so ashamed in my life, and I thought I'd hist in a few swallers of suthin strengthnin. Konsequ ents was, I histed so much I didn't zackly know whereabouts I was. I turned my l ivin' wild beasts of Pray loose into the streets, and split all my wax-works. "I then Bet I cood play hoss. So I hitched myself to a kanawl bote, there bein' two other hosses behind and anuther ahead of me. But the hosses bein' onused to such a arrangemunt, begun to kick and squeal and rair up. Konsequents was, I wa s kicked vilently in the stummuck and back, and presently, I found myself in the kanawl with the other hosses, kikin and yellin like a tribe of Cusscaroorus sav ajis. I was rescood, and as I was bein carried to the tavern on a hemlock bored I sed in a feeble voice, 'Boys, playin' hoss isn't my Fort.' "Moral: Never don't do nothin' which isn't your Fort, for ef you do you'll find yourself splashin' round in the kanawl, figuratively speakin." The following advertisement, which appeared day after day in a Western paper, d id not bring a single reply:-"Wanted.--Situation by a Practical Printer, who is competent to take charge of any department in a printing and publishing house. Would accept a professorship in any of the academies. Has no objection to teach ornamental painting and penma nship, geometry, trigonometry, and many other sciences. Has had some experience as a lay preacher. Would have no objection to form a small class of young ladies and gentlemen to instruct them in the higher branches. To a dentist or chiropod ist he would be invaluable; or he would cheerfully accept a position as bass or tenor singer in a choir." At length there appeared this addition to the notice:-"P. S. Will accept an offer to saw and split wood at less than the usual rates. " This secured a situation at once, and the advertisement was seen no more. Your talent is your call. Your legitimate destiny speaks in your character. If you have found your place, your occupation has the consent of every faculty of y our being. If possible, choose that occupation which focuses the largest amount of your ex perience and tastes. You will then not only have a congenial vocation, but also will utilize largely your skill and business knowledge, which is your true capit

al. Follow your bent. You cannot long fight successfully against your aspirations. Parents, friends, or misfortune may stifle and suppress the longings of the hear t, by compelling you to perform unwelcome tasks; but, like a volcano, the inner fire will burst the crusts which confine it and will pour forth its pent-up geni us in eloquence, in song, in art, or in some favorite industry. Beware of "a tal ent which you cannot hope to practice in perfection." Nature hates all botched a nd half-finished work, and will pronounce her curse upon it. Better be the Napoleon of bootblacks, or the Alexander of chimney-sweeps, let u s say with Matthew Arnold, than a shallow-brained attorney who, like necessity, knows no law. Half the world seems to have found uncongenial occupation, as though the human race had been shaken up together and exchanged places in the operation. A servan t girl is trying to teach, and a natural teacher is tending store. Good farmers are murdering the law, while Choates and Websters are running down farms, each t ortured by the consciousness of unfulfilled destiny. Boys are pining in factorie s who should be wrestling with Greek and Latin, and hundreds are chafing beneath unnatural loads in college who should be on the farm or before the mast. Artist s are spreading "daubs" on canvas who should be whitewashing board fences. Behin d counters stand clerks who hate the yard-stick and neglect their work to dream of other occupations. A good shoemaker writes a few verses for the village paper , his friends call him a poet, and the last, with which he is familiar, is aband oned for the pen, which he uses awkwardly. Other shoemakers are cobbling in Cong ress, while statesmen are pounding shoe-lasts. Laymen are murdering sermons whil e Beechers and Whitefields are failing as merchants, and people are wondering wh at can be the cause of empty pews. A boy who is always making something with too ls is railroaded through the university and started on the road to inferiority i n one of the "three honorable professions." Real surgeons are handling the meatsaw and cleaver, while butchers are amputating human limbs. How fortunate that-"There's a divinity that shapes our ends, Rough-hew them how we will." "He that hath a trade," says Franklin, "hath an estate; and he that hath a call ing hath a place of profit and honor. A plowman on his legs is higher than a gen tleman on his knees." A man's business does more to make him than anything else. It hardens his muscl es, strengthens his body, quickens his blood, sharpens his mind, corrects his ju dgment, wakes up his inventive genius, puts his wits to work, starts him on the race of life, arouses his ambition, makes him feel that he is a man and must fil l a man's shoes, do a man's work, bear a man's part in life, and show himself a man in that part. No man feels himself a man who is not doing a man's business. A man without employment is not a man. He does not prove by his works that he is a man. A hundred and fifty pounds of bone and muscle do not make a man. A good cranium full of brains is not a man. The bone and muscle and brain must know how to do a man's work, think a man's thoughts, mark out a man's path, and bear a m an's weight of character and duty before they constitute a man. Go-at-it-iveness is the first requisite for success. Stick-to-it-iveness is the second. Under ordinary circumstances, and with practical common sense to guide him, one who has these requisites will not fail. Don't wait for a higher position or a larger salary. Enlarge the position you a lready occupy; put originality of method into it. Fill it as it never was filled before. Be more prompt, more energetic, more thorough, more polite than your pr edecessor or fellow workmen. Study your business, devise new modes of operation, be able to give your employer points. The art lies not in giving satisfaction m

erely, not in simply filling your place, but in doing better than was expected, in surprising your employer; and the reward will be a better place and a larger salary. When out of work, take the first respectable job that offers, heeding not the d isproportion between your faculties and your task. If you put your manhood into your labor, you will soon be given something better to do. This question of a right aim in life has become exceedingly perplexing in our c omplicated age. It is not a difficult problem to solve when one is the son of a Zulu or the daughter of a Bedouin. The condition of the savage hardly admits of but one choice; but as one rises higher in the scale of civilization and creeps nearer to the great centers of activity, the difficulty of a correct decision in creases with its importance. In proportion as one is hard pressed in competition is it of the sternest necessity for him to choose the right aim, so as to be ab le to throw the whole of his energy and enthusiasm into the struggle for success . The dissipation of strength or hope is fatal to prosperity even in the most at tractive field. Gladstone says there is a limit to the work that can be got out of a human body , or a human brain, and he is a wise man who wastes no energy on pursuits for wh ich he is not fitted. "Blessed is he who has found his work," says Carlyle. "Let him ask no other ble ssedness. He has a work--a life purpose; he has found it, and will follow it." In choosing an occupation, do not ask yourself how you can make the most money or gain the most notoriety, but choose that work which will call out all your po wers and develop your manhood into the greatest strength and symmetry. Not money , not notoriety, not fame even, but power is what you want. Manhood is greater t han wealth, grander than fame. Character is greater than any career. Each facult y must be educated, and any deficiency in its training will appear in whatever y ou do. The hand must be educated to be graceful, steady, and strong. The eye mus t be educated to be alert, discriminating, and microscopic. The heart must be ed ucated to be tender, sympathetic, and true. The memory must be drilled for years in accuracy, retention, and comprehensiveness. The world does not demand that y ou be a lawyer, minister, doctor, farmer, scientist, or merchant; it does not di ctate what you shall do, but it does require that you be a master in whatever yo u undertake. If you are a master in your line, the world will applaud you and al l doors will fly open to you. But it condemns all botches, abortions, and failur es. "Whoever is well educated to discharge the duty of a man," says Rousseau, "cann ot be badly prepared to fill any of those offices that have relation to him. It matters little to me whether my pupils be designed for the army, the pulpit, or the bar. Nature has destined us to the offices of human life antecedent to our d estination concerning society. To live is the profession I would teach him. When I have done with him, it is true he will be neither a soldier, a lawyer, nor a divine. Let him first be a man. Fortune may remove him from one rank to another as she pleases; he will be always found in his place." In the great race of life common sense has the right of way. Wealth, a diploma, a pedigree, talent, genius, without tact and common sense, cut but a small figu re. The incapables and the impracticables, though loaded with diplomas and degre es, are left behind. Not what do you know, or who are you, but what are you, wha t can you do, is the interrogation of the century. George Herbert has well said: "What we are is much more to us than what we do." An aim that carries in it the least element of doubt as to its justice or honor or right should be abandoned at once. The art of dishing up the wrong so as to

make it look and taste like the right has never been more extensively cultivated than in our day. It is a curious fact that reason will, on pressure, overcome a man's instinct of right. An eminent scientist has said that a man could soon re ason himself out of the instinct of decency if he would only take pains and work hard enough. So when a doubtful but attractive future is placed before one, the re is a great temptation to juggle with the wrong until it seems the right. Yet any aim that is immoral carries in itself the germ of certain failure, in the re al sense of the word--failure that is physical and spiritual. There is no doubt that every person has a special adaptation for his own peculi ar part in life. A very few--geniuses, we call them--have this marked in an unus ual degree, and very early in life. Madame de Staël was engrossed in political philosophy at an age when other girls are dressing dolls. Mozart, when but four years old, played the clavichord and c omposed minuets and other pieces still extant. The little Chalmers, with solemn air and earnest gestures, would preach often from a stool in the nursery. Goethe wrote tragedies at twelve, and Grotius published an able philosophical work bef ore he was fifteen. Pope "lisped in numbers." Chatterton wrote good poems at ele ven, and Cowley published a volume of poetry in his sixteenth year. Thomas Lawre nce and Benjamin West drew likenesses almost as soon as they could walk. Liszt p layed in public at twelve. Canova made models in clay while a mere child. Bacon exposed the defects of Aristotle's philosophy when but sixteen. Napoleon was at the head of armies when throwing snowballs at Brienne. All these showed their bent while young, and followed it in active life. But pr ecocity is not common, and, except in rare cases, we must discover the bias in o ur natures, and not wait for the proclivity to make itself manifest. When found, it is worth more to us than a vein of gold. "I do not forbid you to preach," said a Bishop to a young clergyman, "but natur e does." Lowell said: "It is the vain endeavor to make ourselves what we are not that ha s strewn history with so many broken purposes, and lives left in the rough." You have not found your place until all your faculties are roused, and your who le nature consents and approves of the work you are doing; not until you are so enthusiastic in it that you take it to bed with you. You may be forced to drudge at uncongenial toil for a time, but emancipate yourself as soon as possible. Ca rey, the "Consecrated Cobbler," before he went as a missionary said: "My busines s is to preach the gospel. I cobble shoes to pay expenses." If your vocation be only a humble one, elevate it with more manhood than others put into it. Put into it brains and heart and energy and economy. Broaden it by originality of methods. Extend it by enterprise and industry. Study it as you w ould a profession. Learn everything that is to be known about it. Concentrate yo ur faculties upon it, for the greatest achievements are reserved for the man of single aim, in whom no rival powers divide the empire of the soul. Better adorn your own than seek another's place. Go to the bottom of your business if you would climb to the top. Nothing is sma ll which concerns your business. Master every detail. This was the secret of A. T. Stewart's and of John Jacob Astor's great success. They knew everything about their business. As love is the only excuse for marriage, and the only thing which will carry on e safely through the troubles and vexations of married life, so love for an occu pation is the only thing which will carry one safely and surely through the trou bles which overwhelm ninety-five out of every one hundred who choose the life of

a merchant, and very many in every other career. A famous Englishman said to his nephew, "Don't choose medicine, for we have nev er had a murderer in our family, and the chances are that in your ignorance you may kill a patient; as to the law, no prudent man is willing to risk his life or his fortune to a young lawyer, who has not only no experience, but is generally too conceited to know the risks he incurs for his client, who alone is the lose r; therefore, as the mistakes of a clergyman in doctrine or advice to his parish ioners cannot be clearly determined in this world, I advise you by all means to enter the church." "I felt that I was in the world to do something, and thought I must," said Whit tier, thus giving the secret of his great power. It is the man who must enter la w, literature, medicine, the ministry, or any other of the overstocked professio ns, who will succeed. His certain call, that is his love for it, and his fidelit y to it, are the imperious factors of his career. If a man enters a profession s imply because his grandfather made a great name in it, or his mother wants him t o, with no love or adaptability for it, it were far better for him to be a motor -man on an electric car at a dollar and seventy-five cents a day. In the humbler work his intelligence may make him a leader; in the other career he might do as much harm as a bowlder rolled from its place upon a railroad track, a menace to the next express. Only a few years ago marriage was the only "sphere" open to girls, and the sing le woman had to face the disapproval of her friends. Lessing said: "The woman wh o thinks is like a man who puts on rouge, ridiculous." Not many years have elaps ed since the ambitious woman who ventured to study or write would keep a bit of embroidery at hand to throw over her book or manuscript when callers entered. Dr . Gregory said to his daughters: "If you happen to have any learning, keep it a profound secret from the men, who generally look with a jealous and malignant ey e on a woman of great parts and a cultivated understanding." Women who wrote boo ks in those days would deny the charge as though a public disgrace. All this has changed, and what a change it is! As Frances Willard said, the gre atest discovery of the century is the discovery of woman. We have emancipated he r, and are opening countless opportunities for our girls outside of marriage. Fo rmerly only a boy could choose a career; now his sister can do the same. This fr eedom is one of the greatest glories of the twentieth century. But with freedom comes responsibility, and under these changed conditions every girl should have a definite aim. Dr. Hall says that the world has urgent need of "girls who are mother's right h and; girls who can cuddle the little ones next best to mamma, and smooth out the tangles in the domestic skein when thing's get twisted; girls whom father takes comfort in for something better than beauty, and the big brothers are proud of for something that outranks the ability to dance or shine in society. Next, we w ant girls of sense,--girls who have a standard of their own, regardless of conve ntionalities, and are independent enough to live up to it; girls who simply won' t wear a trailing dress on the street to gather up microbes and all sorts of def ilement; girls who don't wear a high hat to the theater, or lacerate their feet and endanger their health with high heels and corsets; girls who will wear what is pretty and becoming and snap their fingers at the dictates of fashion when fa shion is horrid and silly. And we want good girls,--girls who are sweet, right s traight out from the heart to the lips; innocent and pure and simple girls, with less knowledge of sin and duplicity and evil-doing at twenty than the pert litt le schoolgirl of ten has all too often. And we want careful girls and prudent gi rls, who think enough of the generous father who toils to maintain them in comfo rt, and of the gentle mother who denies herself much that they may have so many pretty things, to count the cost and draw the line between the essentials and no n-essentials; girls who strive to save and not to spend; girls who are unselfish

and eager to be a joy and a comfort in the home rather than an expense and a us eless burden. We want girls with hearts,--girls who are full of tenderness and s ympathy, with tears that flow for other people's ills, and smiles that light out ward their own beautiful thoughts. We have lots of clever girls, and brilliant g irls, and witty girls. Give us a consignment of jolly girls, warm-hearted and im pulsive girls; kind and entertaining to their own folks, and with little desire to shine in the garish world. With a few such girls scattered around, life would freshen up for all of us, as the weather does under the spell of summer showers ." "They talk about a woman's sphere, As though it had a limit; There's not a plac e in earth or heaven, There's not a task to mankind given, There's not a blessin g or a woe, There's not a whisper, Yes or No, There's not a life, or death, or b irth, That has a feather's weight of worth, Without a woman in it." "Do that which is assigned you," says Emerson, "and you cannot hope too much or dare too much. There is at this moment for you an utterance brave and grand as that of the colossal chisel of Phidias, or trowel of the Egyptians, or the pen o f Moses or Dante, but different from all these." "The best way for a young man to begin, who is without friends or influence," s aid Russell Sage, "is, first, by getting a position; second, keeping his mouth s hut; third, observing; fourth, being faithful; fifth, making his employer think he would be lost in a fog without him; and sixth, being polite." "Close application, integrity, attention to details, discreet advertising," are given as the four steps to success by John Wanamaker, whose motto is, "Do the n ext thing." Whatever you do in life, be greater than your calling. Most people look upon an occupation or calling as a mere expedient for earning a living. What a mean, na rrow view to take of what was intended for the great school of life, the great m an developer, the character-builder; that which should broaden, deepen, heighten , and round out into symmetry, harmony, and beauty all the God-given faculties w ithin us! How we shrink from the task and evade the lessons which were intended for the unfolding of life's great possibilities into usefulness and power, as th e sun unfolds into beauty and fragrance the petals of the flower! I am glad to think I am not bound to make the world go round; But only to disco ver and to do, With cheerful heart, the work that God appoints. JEAN INGELOW. "'What shall I do to be forever known?' Thy duty ever! 'This did full many who yet sleep all unknown,'-- Oh, never, never! Think'st thou, perchance, that they remain unknown Whom thou know'st not? By angel trumps in heaven their praise is blown, Divine their lot." CHAPTER XI CHOOSING A VOCATION Be what nature intended you for, and you will succeed; be anything else, and yo u will be ten thousand times worse than nothing.--SYDNEY SMITH. "Many a man pays for his success with a slice of his constitution." No man struggles perpetually and victoriously against his own character; and on e of the first principles of success in life is so to regulate our career as rat her to turn our physical constitution and natural inclinations to good account t han to endeavor to counteract the one or oppose the other.--BULWER.

He that hath a trade hath an estate.--FRANKLIN. Nature fits all her children with something to do.--LOWELL. As occupations and professions have a powerful influence upon the length of hum an life, the youth should first ascertain whether the vocation he thinks of choo sing is a healthy one. Statesmen, judges, and clergymen are noted for their long evity. They are not swept into the great business vortex, where the friction and raspings of sharp competition whittle life away at a fearful rate. Astronomers, who contemplate vast systems, moving through enormous distances, are exceptiona lly long lived,--as Herschel and Humboldt. Philosophers, scientists, and mathema ticians, as Galileo, Bacon, Newton, Euler, Dalton, in fact, those who have dwelt upon the exact sciences, seem to have escaped many of the ills from which human ity suffers. Great students of natural history have also, as a rule, lived long and happy lives. Of fourteen members of a noted historical society in England, w ho died in 1870, two were over ninety, five over eighty, and two over seventy. The occupation of the mind has a great influence upon the health of the body. There is no employment so dangerous and destructive to life but plenty of human beings can be found to engage in it. Of all the instances that can be given of recklessness of life, there is none which exceeds that of the workmen employed i n what is called dry-pointing--the grinding of needles and of table forks. The f ine steel dust which they breathe brings on a painful disease, of which they are almost sure to die before they are forty. Yet not only are men tempted by high wages to engage in this employment, but they resist to the utmost all contrivanc es devised for diminishing the danger, through fear that such things would cause more workmen to offer themselves and thus lower wages. Many physicians have inv estigated the effects of work in the numerous match factories in France upon the health of the employees, and all agree that rapid destruction of the teeth, dec ay or necrosis of the jawbone, bronchitis, and other diseases result. We will probably find more old men on farms than elsewhere. There are many reas ons why farmers should live longer than persons residing in cities or than those engaged in other occupations. Aside from the purer air, the outdoor exercise, b oth conducive to a good appetite and sound sleep, which comparatively few in cit ies enjoy, they are free from the friction, harassing cares, anxieties, and the keen competition incident to city life. On the other hand, there are some great drawbacks and some enemies to longevity, even on the farm. Man does not live by bread alone. The mind is by far the greatest factor in maintaining the body in a healthy condition. The social life of the city, the great opportunities afforde d the mind for feeding upon libraries and lectures, great sermons, and constant association with other minds, the great variety of amusements compensate largely for the loss of many of the advantages of farm life. In spite of the great temp erance and immunity from things which corrode, whittle, and rasp away life in th e cities, farmers in many places do not live so long as scientists and some othe r professional men. There is no doubt that aspiration and success tend to prolong life. Prosperity tends to longevity, if we do not wear life away or burn it out in the feverish p ursuit of wealth. Thomas W. Higginson made a list of thirty of the most noted pr eachers of the last century, and found that their average length of life was six ty-nine years. Among miners in some sections over six hundred out of a thousand die from consu mption. In the prisons of Europe, where the fatal effects of bad air and filth a re shown, over sixty-one per cent. of the deaths are from tuberculosis. In Bavar ian monasteries, fifty per cent. of those who enter in good health die of consum ption, and in the Prussian prisons it is almost the same. The effect of bad air, filth, and bad food is shown by the fact that the death-rate among these classe

Brain-workers cannot do good." said a physician. effective work in one line many hours a day. Vigorous thought must come from a fresh brain. and are seemingly perfectly indifferent to our fate. and moral well-being. unfortunately--learn to give rest to one set of faculties and use another. Cessation of brain activity does not necessarily constitute brain rest. thir ty. We cannot expect nerve. from an exhausted. The brain is one of the last orga ns of the body to reach maturity (at about the age of twenty-eight). and four hundred and sixty-one composit ors. are suffering from heart disease in one form or another. two hundred and nine tailors. and three have catarrh and partial dea fness. or systematically employed inc urs perpetual risk. and should never be overworked. cleanliness. sooner or late r--usually later. one hundred and twenty-two fa rm laborers. A man who would sell a year of his life for any amount of money would be considered insane. forcing or straining it. Some men of ten do a vast amount of literary work in entirely different lines during their s pare hours. is five times that of the general popul ation of the same age. as most great thinkers know. but also to cause injurious reactions on every other faculty and func tion. snap. and freedom from co rroding dust and poisonous gases are of the greatest importance. tends not only t o ruin it.--nearly one-half." Man's faculties and functions are so interrelated that whatever affects one aff ects all. o ne hundred and three farmers die of pulmonary tuberculosis. Athletes who over-develop the muscular system do so at the expense of the physical. jaded brain. especially in youth. The men who accomplish the most brain-work. one hundred and twenty-one gardeners. due to the forced physical exertions of the campaigns. It is a law of nature that the overd evelopment of any function or faculty. w hich is very largely a matter of skill in exercising alternate sets of faculties . "three are dead of consumption. Of one thousand deaths from all causes. Patten. or in the essay. chief surgeon at the National Soldiers' Home at Dayton. and vegetable d ust third. In this way they have been enabled to astonish the world by their mental achievements.s. According to a long series of investigations by Drs. The whole future of a man is often rui ned by over-straining the brain in school. In choosing an occupation. sprightliness and elasticity. Benoysten and Lombard into occupations or trades where workers must inhale dust. five have to wear trusses. There is danger in a calling which requires great expenditure of vitality at lo ng. and yet we deliberately choose occupations and vocations which statistics and physi cians tell us will be practically sure to cut off from five to twenty-five. on the average. mental." Dr. Ohio . three hundred and one dry-goods dealers. In large cities in Europe the percentage i s often still greater. it appears that mineral d ust is the most detrimental to health. one hundred and eigh t fishermen. In New York City. He who is not regularly. in the speech. "Of the thirty-two all-round athletes in a New York club not long ago. When the brain is weary. irregular intervals. says that "of the five thousand soldiers in that institution fully eighty per cent. as interest begins to flag and a sense of weariness comes. in the book. when it begins to lose its elasticity and freshness. over one-fifth of all the deaths of per sons over twenty are from this cause. animal dust ranking next. pure air. there will be the same lack of tonicity and strength in the brain product. four or five are lop-shouldered. ro bustness and vigor. The continual u . between the ages of twenty and forty. sunlight. allowing rest to some while giving healthy exercise to others. or even forty years of our lives. one hundred and sixty-seven grocers.

or architects with rotten stone. nor cheat yourself into thinking that all the finery you can wear is so much put into the hungry mouths of those beneath you. Our manufacturing interests too often give little thought to the employed. or talks fluent French in Paris. overtops all titles." [Illustration: William Ewart Gladstone] All occupations that enervate. honorable occupation. we are forcing them into service worse than use less. or piles up argu ment on argument in English for hours in Parliament. narrow occupation just becaus e there was money in it. which will give you a chance for self-impr ovement and promotion. They do not care if a man spends the whole of his life upon the head of a pin. useful. we are f orcing our Michael Angelos to carve in snow. the arsenic that destroys the health. and character is greater than any career. know it to be. The tired brain must have rest. Aside from the right and w rong of the thing. L et "somebody. flounc es which will only clothe yourself. paralyze. and which you will wear at only one ball. The moment we compel those we employ to do work that demoralizes them or does n ot tend to elevate or lift them. Select a clean. If possible avoid occupations which compel you to wo rk in a cramped position. or where you must work at night and on Sundays. . abandon it at once. yo u are employing your money selfishly. blunted his finer sensibilities. It is what those who stand shi vering on the street. or nervous exhaustion. crushed his aspirati on." not yourself. or contractors to construct buildings with imperfect materials. the dust. cramped his intellect. Is the work you compel others to do useful to yourself and to society? If you employ a seams tress to make four or five or six beautiful flounces for your ball dress. take the responsibility. that shortens the l ives of many workers. physical vigor is the condition of a great career. or to sleep in the daytime when she intended you to work.se of one set of faculties by an ambitious worker will soon bring him to grief. What would Gladst one have accomplished with a weak. of the cramped condition of the body which creates deformi ty. Pierpont Morgan could make respectable. it is injurious to the health to work seven days in the week. for familiarity with a bad business will make it seem go od. Choose a business that has expansiveness in it. Many a man has dwarfed his manhood. Don't try to justify yourself on the ground that somebody must do this kind of work. "If we induce painters to work in fading colors. which will elevate you. A little later he converses at ease with Bismarck in German. Do not confuse covetousness with benevolen ce. or in making a sc rew in a watch factory. Choose an occupation which will develop you. to work at night when Nature intended you to sleep. but you will be mor e of a man. brain fever. No set of brain cells can possibly set free more brain force in the combustion o f thought than is stored up in them. If there is any doubt on this poi nt. in some mean." Ruskin says that the tendency of the age is to expend its genius in perishable art. You may not make quite so much money. but that so much has been taken out of their mouths. There are families that hav e "clutched success and kept it through generations from the simple fact of a sp lendid physical organization handed down from one generation to another. or the phosphorus. or destroy body or soul should be avoi ded. and manhood is above all riches. As a rule. and another at Florence in Italian. as if it were a triumph to burn its thoughts away in bonfires. or even softening of the brain is liable to follow. forming a line to see you step out of your carriage. These fine dresses do not mean that so much has been put into their mo uths. Some kinds of business not e ven a J. puny physique? He addresses an audience at Co rfu in Greek. the article to be made is generally the only object considered. They take no notice of the occupations that ruin.

deceit. those who are out of their places. the qualities which overreach and grasp. and enthusiasm is vigorous. simply because they are "honorable professions"! These men might have been respectable farmers or merchants. and one which can be learned with very little effort. Unsuccessful students with a smatteri ng of everything are raised as much above their original condition as if they we re successful. while his higher self atrophies ? . perhaps. He is working against his nature. rowing against the current. A large portion of Paris cabmen are unsuccessful students in theo logy and other professions and also unfrocked priests. we do half work. or uncle. to be started on the road of a proper career while young. the whole tone of life is demoralized and lowered because we are out of place." We can often find out by hard knoc ks and repeated failures what we can not do before what we can do. How many men have been made ridiculous for life by choosing law or medicine or theology. to feel that every step we take. Don't choose it because others have made fortu nes in it. botched work. note well wherein kind nat ure meant you to excel. but his trade Remains the same. they must be in harmony with his purpose. and that unfits them for the c onditions of life to which they were born. Thousands of youths receive an education that fits them for a profession which they have not the means or inclination to follow. full of hope. or because parents or friends want you to follow it. Styles himself poet . as a rule. deepen. and con clude that we are dunces because we cannot accomplish what others do. Don't choose it because it is considered the "proper thing" and a "ge nteel" business. or broth er is in it. our will power and enthusiasm become d emoralized. and all disagreeable things. hardships. lose confidence in ourselves. The very glory of the profession which they thought would make them shining lights simply renders more conspicuous their incapacity. that every day's work we do. ruins many a youth. To succeed. that every blow we strike helps to br oaden. A man out of his place is but half a man. his very nature is perverted. the qualities which get and never give." says Longfellow. When his strength is exhausted he will float down the stream. The mania for a "genteel" occupation. but of our weakness. wh ile the animal spirits are high. letting all his nobler qua lities shrivel and die? Has he a right to select a vocation that will develop on ly the beast within him instead of the man? which will call out the bulldog qual ities only. but are "nobodies" in such vocations. Don't choose a business because you inherit it." Dr."Study yourself. his vocation must have the consent of all his faculties. is failure in life so frequ ently to be traced as to a mistaken calling. They are very bad cabmen. as cunning. Has a young man a right to choose an occupation which will only call into play his lower and inferior qualities." Don't choose a profession or occupation because your father. for a "soft job" which el iminates drudgery. which develop long-headedness only. "Tompkins forsakes his last and awl For literary squabbles. and enrich life! Those who fail are. How it shortens the road to success to make a wise choice of one's occupation e arly. When we try to do that for which we are unfitted we are not working along the l ine of our strength. Matthews says that "to no other cause. This negative process of eliminating the doubtful chances is often the only way of attaining to the positive conclusion. "and most of all. A man can not succeed when his whole nature is entering i ts perpetual protest against his occupation.--he cobbles. thorns.

i f you are constantly haunted with the idea that you could succeed better in some thing else. and an early choice shortens the way. the great man-developer. help him to find where his greate st strength lies and how to use it to the best advantage. The time will come when there will be institutions for determining the natural bent of the boy and girl. for it leads others to feel confidence in us. They carry in the ir very pluck. that which should broaden." Choose an occupati on that is refining and elevating. People always believe in a man with a fixed purpose. the discovery is often made so late in life that great success is practically impossible. It gives credit a nd moral support in a thousand ways. however. and liable at any time to make a change. Power and constant growth toward a higher life are the great end of human exist ence. not position. never look backward. . and c haracter is greater than any occupation or profession. and round out into symmetr y. and place me to the best possible advantage for all the peo ple?" The Norwegian precept is a good one: "Give thyself wholly to thy fellow-me n. where men of large experience and close observation wi ll study the natural inclination of the youth. determined that not a faculty or pow er shall run to waste. Your calling should be the great school of life. but it does demand that you do so mething. and will help him twice as quickly as one who is loosely or indifferen tly attached to his vocation. You will never succeed while smarting under the drudgery of your occupation. After once choosing your occupation. harmony. grit. Great tenacity of purpose is the only thing that will carry you over the hard places which appear in every career to ultimate triumph. and this is everything. Such institutions would help boys and girls to start in their proper careers early in life. "Do not. has a great moral bearing upon our success. they will give thee back soon enough. and you will win." We can do the most possible for oursel ves when we are in a position where we can do the most possible for others. character-builder. that every youth will sooner or later discover the line of his greatest strength so that he may get his living by his strong points rath er than by his weak ones. deepen. unhappy. we are succeeding best for ourselves when we are succeedin g best for others. Everybody knows that determined men are not likely to fail. and beauty. We a re doing the most for ourselves and for others when we are in a position which c alls into play in the highest possible way the greatest number of our best facul ties. I beseech you. all the God-given faculties within you." said Garfield. stick to it with all the tenacity you can muster. an occupa tion that will enlarge and expand your manhood and make you a better citizen. an occupation that you will be proud of. where even small effort will count for more in the race than t he greatest effort--and a life of drudgery--in the wrong direction? A man is sel dom unsuccessful. or to fai l. Let nothing tempt you or swerve you a hair 's breadth from your aim. a better man. or vicious when he is in his place. Not money. "What wou ld my government do with me if it were to consider scientifically my qualificati ons and adaptations. There is no grander sight th an that of a young man or woman in the right place struggling with might and mai n to make the most of the stuff at command. Can anything be more important to human beings than a start in life in the right direction. and that you shall be a king in your line. or fixity of purpose. or temporary despondency or disappointment. and determination the conviction and assurance of success. but power is what we want. "be content to enter on any business th at does not require and compel constant intellectual growth. shake your purpose . This determin ation. Do not let the thorns which appear i n every vocation.The best way to choose an occupation is to ask yourself the question. in other words. Even if we take for gr anted what is not true. The world does not dictate what you shall do. an o ccupation that will give you time for self-culture and self-elevation.

a science or two whose elements they have not qu ite acquired. will seize you as in a vise. "The jack-of-all-trades. more than balances any li ttle skill gained in one vocation which might possibly be of use later. shape you. . enter a doubtful vocation. living in a rut with no standing in the community. How many of us h ave acquisitions which remain permanently unavailable because not carried quite to the point of skill? How many people "almost know a language or two. "Constant engagement in traffic and barter has no elevating influence. the higgling and scheming. Beware of that frequently fatal gift. Universality is the ignis fatuus which has deluded to ruin many a promising mind. your wealth. will mol d you." s ays one of the foremost manufacturers of this country. noble features have become contracted and narrowed. hardening tendency of his occupation. In this he has none. but does not quite accomplish it. A man must work hard and st udy hard to counteract the narrowing. your occupation. which in these days of stern competition are unscrupulously resorted to. which has been acquired by allowing yourself to abandon a half-finished work. In attempting to gain a knowle dge of half a hundred subjects it has mastered none. generous young men come out of college with high hopes and lofty aims. if their efforts had all been expended in one direction. Their courage oozes out just before they become expert. Thousands of men who have been failures in life have done drudgery enough in ha lf a dozen different occupations to have enabled them to reach great success." "The measure of a man's learning will be the amount of his voluntary ignorance. "had a chance in my gener ation. Does it ele vate those who follow it? Are they broad. That mechanic is a failur e who starts out to build an engine." Choose upward.But whatever you do be greater than your calling. and stamp its inevitable impress upon you. and in a few years re turn to college commencement so changed that they are scarcely recognized. intelligent men? Or have they become mere appendages of their profession.-Burke. that a few y ears could so change a magnanimous and generous youth? Go to the bottom if you would get to the top. the delicacy of the moral sense. let your manhood overtop your position. to make good bargains. versatility. but which they can not practice with satisfaction or profit! The habit of desultoriness. narrowed his mind. If we go into a factory where the mariner's compass is made we c an see the needles before they are magnetized. Is it possible. and of no use to it? Don't think you will be the great exception ." says Ly ndall. avaricious. and can enter a questionable vocation without becoming a creature of it. Many a person misses being a great man by splitting into two middling ones. fashion you. mean. And to party gave up what was meant for mankind. Be master of your calling in all its details. hard. In sp ite of all your determination and will power to the contrary. "The endeavor to obtain the upper hand of those with whom we have to deal . stingy. and the thousand petty artif ices. " said Thoreau. at th e same time. The w orld is full of people who are "almost a success." They stop just this side of s uccess. study the men in the vocation you think of adopting. and shift s into some other occupation where perhaps he will almost succeed. but stops jus t short of the point of proficiency in his acquisition and so fails again. Said Goldsmith. we ask. your title. your occupation. The man has becom e grasping. an art or two partially mastered. born for the universe. they will point in any direction." which th ey can neither write nor speak. f rom the very law of association and habit. The o nce broad. liberal. and. open-hearted. t end to narrow the sphere and to lessen the strength of the intellect. How fr equently do we see bright. Nothing is small which concerns your business.

The longer I live. "There was not enough room for us all in Frankfort. and did us a favor if he sold us goods. OWEN MEREDITH. and are true to the pole ever after. and he refu sed to show me his patterns. As soon as I got to Manchester. S o man never points steadily in any direction until he has been polarized by a gr eat master purpose. the great an d insignificant. is energy--invincible determination--a purpose once formed." "'What must I do to be forever known?' Thy duty ever. Does well.' On Thursday I started. two blades of grass to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before. Canon Farrar said. all to the highest work of which you are capable. is the demand of the ho ." said a listener. your enthusiasm. Only reaps from th e hopes which around him he sows. that is the way to be hap py.--ST. "that your children are not too fond of money and bu siness to the exclusion of more important things. . and body. One great trader came there. and soul. But he who seeks all things. I am sure you would not wish t hat. the cheaper goods were. "Whoever can make two ears of corn. and I made a good profit. and it makes no difference whether our dissipations are coarse or fine. I said to my father. I laid out all my money. . Give your life. in speaking of himself and his four brothers." said Nathan Mayer Rothschi ld. "I dealt in English goods. not to be true to the best one knows." Who does the best his circumstance allows. and you will soon be in the Gazette.--EMERSON. But be a brewer . but one thing supremely." says Swift. "would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together. angels could do no more. and everything to business." said Rothschild. who had the market to himself: he was quite the great man. "I wish them to give mind. YOUNG. addressing a young brewer. and you may be the great brewer of London. from that moment they point to the north. the one evil is dissipation. young man." he added. and but one. This was on a Tuesday. The one prudence in life is concentration." "I am sure I would wish that. wherever he goes. "There is only one real failure in life poss ible." Not many things indifferently. and then death or victory." "Stick to one business. Somehow I offended him. Everythin g is good which takes away one plaything and delusion more. and a merchant. your energy. . The nearer I got to England. and a banker. A harvest of barren regrets. 'I will go to England. and heart. the more deeply am I convinced that that which makes the dif ference between one man and another--between the weak and powerful.--FOWELL BUXTON." "I hope. things wer e so cheap. "s tick to your brewery. and that is.But when they have been applied to the magnet and received its peculiar power. May hope to achieve it before life be done. and a manufacturer. acts nobly. and sends us home to add one stroke of faithful work. PAUL. The man who seeks one thing in life." CHAPTER XII CONCENTRATED ENERGY This one thing I do.

We find what we seek with all our heart. we find just that and no more. nor a bonnet of silk enhance. blessed women who supp ort themselves. Such is the progress of him who divides his purpose." was the sign of a man in London who was not very successful at any of thes e lines of work. and lighten more. Success is jealous . They carry themselves with an air of conscious self-respect and self-content. whereas the strongest. concentrated age. "The weakest living creature. "but as I grew older." says Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward. explains the language of flowers.--the warp and woof of success. messages taken." "When I was young I used to think it was thunder that killed men.ur. but they labor at haphazard. and I am determined to dig early and late all my life. and the real web of life is never woven. there is no happy conjunction of circumstances that will arrange th em into an imposing structure. n or even sickness nor exhaustion quite drag out. or at least iron." I say most emphatically. and reminds one of Monsieur Kenard. I fancy that I can select." It is said that the wind never blows fair for that sailor who knows not to what port he is bound. building up with one hand only to tear down with the o ther. may fail to accomplish anything. even if it only be the art of raising turnips. bores its passage through the hardest rock. by continually falling. if we go out into life with no well-defined idea of our future work. "is th e power of possessing distinct aims. and give it magnificent proportions. the look. So I resolved to thu nder less. If he raises the best turnips by reason of concentrating all his energy to that end." The great difference between those who succeed and those who fail does not cons ist in the amount of work done by each. but it is the only one that carries honey awa y. the front part will run forward and the other ba ckward. He who scatters his efforts in this intense. "a public scribe. the very mo tions of a person. I found it was lightning. If you ask one of them to state his aim and purpose in life. "What a immense power over the life. no. "by concentrating his powers on a single object." The man who knows one thing. The bee is not the o nly insect that visits the flower. by dispersing hi s over many. can accomplish something. and poetry composed on any subj ect. Would an intelligent man dig up a whole continent to find its veins of silver and gold? The man who is forever looking about to see what he c an find never finds anything. define and alter when he or she begins to live for a reason. and can do it better than anybody else. in a crowded street. and time in abundance." said a shrew d preacher. The voice. silver. It matters not how rich the materials we have gleaned from the years of our s tudy and toil in youth. cannot hope t o succeed. which a shabby alpaca cannot hide. but in the amount of intelligent work. "Goods removed. the busy." says Carlyle. The drop. They do not grasp circumstances and change them into opportunities. he will say: "I ha rdly know yet for what I am best adapted. If we look for nothing in particular.--they are forever th rowing back and forth an empty shuttle. of Paris. If a salamander be cut in two. receives the crown he merits. and is recognized as such. M any of those who fail most ignominiously do enough to achieve grand success. he is a benefactor to the race. the dress. They h ave no faculty of turning honest defeats into telling victories. and I know I shall come across something--either gold. who digests accounts. but I am a thorough believer in genuin e hard work. and sells fried potatoe s. carpets beaten. With ability en ough. The hasty torrent rushes over it wit h hideous uproar and leaves no trace behind.

But then." When asked on another occasion the secre t of his success. "The only valuable kind of study. when Parliament is sitting. certain. Melt a cha rge of shot into a bullet. I have traveled m uch and I have seen much. which was not till I had left college and was actually in the world. patien t. and you can kindle a fire with ease. and. "as if there was nothing else in the world for the time being. and in addition to all this. to reading and writing? N ot more than three hours a day. that when anybody knocks at the do or it will take you two or three seconds to determine whether you are in your ow n study or on the plains of Lombardy. I have mixed much in politics. but most of them can't carry it into their amusements. and in the various busi ness of life.of scattered energies. men of s ingle and intense purpose. and in play." said Sydney Smith. "and as much about the world as if I had never been a student. and yet make his life a failure. F ocus the rays of the sun in winter. remunerative. "Scatteration" is the curse of American business life . have said to me. ch oosing to be a tolerable Jack-of-all-trades rather than to be an unrivaled speci alist. looking at Hannibal's weather-beaten face and admiring the splendor of his single eye." wrote Joseph Gurney to his s on. the re action of fatigue will come. safe. one unwavering aim. and he will be obliged to do too little to-morrow. and it can be fired through the bodies of four men. "is to read so heartily t hat dinner-time comes two hours before you expected it." "Be a whole man at everything. and to be so intimate ly present at the actions you are reading of. You can't throw a tallow candle t hrough the side of a tent. That's the secret of all hard-working men. who have struck sledgeha mmer blows in one place until they have accomplished their purpose. 'When do you get time to write all your books? How on earth do you contrive to do so much work?' I shall surprise you by the answer I made. and to see with you r own eyes the Carthaginian sutlers gathering up the rings of the Roman knights after the battle of Cannae. "a whole man at study. drudging attention." said Charles Dickens. "Many persons seeing me so much engaged in active life. I may perhaps say that I have gone throug h as large a course of general reading as most men of my time. to sit with your Livy be fore you and hear the geese cackling that saved the Capitol. "I go at what I am about. as a general rule." Many a man fails to become a great man by splitting into several small ones. not always that . Too many are like Douglas Jerrold's friend. but you can shoot it through an oak board." said Edward Bulwer Lyt ton. humble. during these three hours. A man to get t hrough work well must not overwork himself. since I began really and earnestly to study. toiling. attainable quality in every study and pursuit is the quality of attention. daily. would never have served me as it has. who could converse in twenty-four languages. but had no ideas to express in any one of them. and heaping them into bushels. if he do too much to-day. or imagination. I have given my whole attention to what I . And what time do you think. "My own in vention. I have devoted to study. The answer is t his--'I contrive to do so much by never doing too much at a time." said Charles Kingsley. but for the habit of commonplace. Now. in work. or. No one can pursue a worthy object steadily and persistently with all the powers of his mind." "The one serviceable. such as it is. The giants of the race have been men of concentration. he said: "I never put one hand to anything on which I could th row my whole self. some upon subjects requiring much special research. The successf ul men of to-day are men of one overmastering idea." Don't dally with your purpose. I have published somewhere about sixt y volumes. I can most truthfully assure you.

but he had no definite purp ose. like Canning. and abruptly turned to walk out of th e room. what do you want?" said the editor quickly. and free your mind. T he irate visitor then began using his tongue. Miss Martineau says. Besides. Then. without once looking up from his paper. The angry man began by asking if this was Mr. "Coleridge is dead. " wrote Charles Lamb to a friend. except in hi s power of observation. Mr. With an immense procession passing up Broadway. with his head close down to his paper. "and is said to have left behind him above for ty thousand treatises on metaphysics and divinity--not one of them complete!" Every great man has become great. it wil l do you good. and actually outlived his own fame. exhausted his stamina. Don't go.was about. Lord Brougham. with no change of featur es and without his paying the slightest attention to the visitor. use the top of his hat for a desk. He was continually forming plans and resol utions. Meantime Mr. sit down." With all his magnificent abilities he left no perm anent mark on history or literature. every successful man has succeeded. asked to keep . Horace Greeley would sit upon the steps of the Astor House." As Adams suggests. with no regard for the rules of pr opriety. "struck me much like a steam-engine in tro users. Coleridge possessed marvelous powers of mind. He was shown into a little seven-by-nine sanctum.'" S. and merited the applause of scientific men for his inves tigations in science. friend. where Greeley. The very modes of thought of the time in which he lived were reflec ted from his works. but never did it. yet his life on the whole was a failure. it helps me to think what I am to write about.--you will feel better for it. after about twenty minutes of the most impassioned abuse ever poured out in an editor 's office. and." One unwavering aim has ever characterized successful men. had too many talents. Greeley quickly looked up. and slapping the gentleman familiarly on his shoulder. sir. a gentleman called at the "Tribune" office and i nquired for the editor. He was "everythin g by turns and nothing long. when he could reproduce it at will. sat scribbling away at a two-for ty rate. Greeley. "Lord Brougham was at his chateau at Cannes when the dague rreotype process first came into vogue. He was always just going to do something. He was not a man of great education or culture. the angry man became disgusted. "Yes. Greeley continued to write. in a pleasant tone of voice said: "Don't go. Page after page was dashed off in the most impetuous style. and write an editorial for the "New Yo rk Tribune" which would be quoted far and wide. or reason. An artist undertook to take a view of th e chateau with a group of guests on the balcony. and his life was in many respects a miserable failure. sit down. T. he lived in an atmosphere of mental dissipation which consumed his energy. rose from his c hair. Hogarth would rivet his attention upon a face and study it until it was photogr aphed upon his memory. thou gh as a lawyer he gained the most splendid prize of his profession. for the first time. Offended by a pungent article. the streets lined with people. in propor tion as he has confined his powers to one particular channel. His Lordship was. and bands playing lustily. He studied and examin ed each object as eagerly as though he would never have a chance to see it again . the Lord Cha ncellorship of England. and this habit of close observation enabled him to develop his work with marve lous detail. Finally. good breeding." said Sydney Smith. He lived in dreams and died in reverie. but to the day of his death they remained simply resolutions and plans. "Daniel Webster.

it is comparatively valueless. "Non multa. It is the almost invisible point of a needle. was Coke's motto. Most of the men at the head of great firms and great enterprises have been promoted step by step from the bottom. M. Chemists tell us that there is power enough in a single acre of grass to drive all the mills and steam-cars in the world. learn all you can about it. and courage which enables one to bear up under all trials. "very typical in this. While we sh ould shun that narrow devotion to one idea which prevents the harmonious develop ment of our powers. which is like the conduct of the woman who bought at auction a brass door-plate with the name of Thompson on it. It slips from politics to puns. and so. then work for it." says Waters. "I know that he can toil terribly. How many lives are blur s for want of concentration and steadfastness of purpose!" Fowell Buxton attributed his success to ordinary means and extraordinary applic ation. but much. of success. of wealth. and you will be sure to succeed. but a las. he will generally navigate to that point without capsizing. sed multum"--not many things. In all great successes we can trace the power of concentration. "Never study on speculation. Praed says:-His talk is like a stream which runs With rapid change from rocks to roses. It is the man of one line of work. The consequence was that there was a blur where Lord Brougham sh ould have been. As a rule. that opens the way for the bulk that follows. The curr ents of knowledge. who cuts his way through obstacles and achieves brilliant success. and being a whole man to one thing at a time. have an object. Form a plan . owing to his want of steadfastness. The young man seeking a position to-day is not asked what college he came from or who his ancestors were. are as certain and fixed as the tides of the sea. disappointments. what the heart longs for the head and the hands may attain. "There is something. could we but concentrate it upon the piston-rod of a steam-engine. "all such study is vain. Mathews says that the man who scatters himself upon many objects soon loses his energy.--he moved. but distract his attention a nd down he goes. In the p icture of our century. the keen. in the light of science ." continued Miss Martineau. It is ever the unwavering p ursuit of a single aim that wins. and he promised that he would not stir. But it is at rest. we should avoid on the other hand the extreme versatility of one of whom W. And ending with some prece pt deep For skinning eels or shoeing horses." said Cecil of Walter Raleigh. in explanatio n of the latter's success. and with his energy his enthusiasm. It glides from Mahomet to Moses: Beginning with the laws that keep The planets in their radiant courses. this very man should h ave been the central figure. rive ting every faculty upon one unwavering aim.perfectly still for five seconds. But. and temptations. What I mean by studying on speculation is that aimless learning of things because they may be useful some day. slender edge of a razor or an ax. as taken from the life by history. perseverance in the pursuit of an un dertaking in spite of every difficulty. It is speci al training that is wanted. . there will be forever a blur where Lord Brougham should have been. the sharp-edged man . Without point or edge t he bulk would be useless. "What can you do?" is the great question. If you can get a child learning to walk to fix his eyes on any object. Dr.

A g eneral purpose is not enough. but his idea was saved. The arrow shot from the bow does not wander around to see what it can hit on its way. In the morning he was found dead. who develops the leading idea in the central f igure. and shades point to that c enter and find expression there. a heavy frost fell upon the city. no meteors which dazzle. points steadily to the No rth Star. every fl ower. The sun dazzles. every crystal. true to its instinct. and try to win its affections. "but on such occasions I seem to be unconscious of the external world. Every leaf. but fo r a century. The only conclusive evidence of a man's sincerity is that he gives himself for a principle. giving all the figures equal prominence. So in every well-balanced life. but let no moons w hich shine with borrowed light. and with a finger that never errs in sunshine or in storm. of time. has taken possession of him.--PHILLIPS BROOKS. there is one grand central purpo se. the meteor beckons. the North Star. it is plain that the truth. In nature we see no waste of energy. Wholly engrossed by the subject before me. nothin g left to chance. for. all things else are comparatively easy to give away. the beautiful lines would be dist orted. The magnetic needle does not point to all the lights in the heavens to see which it likes be st. Let us ever glory in something.--LOWELL. in which all the subordinate powers of the soul are brought to a focus. The labor we delight in physics pain. He is the genuine artist who makes the greatest va riety express the greatest unity. and makes all the subordinate figures. Young men are often told to aim high. but we must aim at what we would hit. for all practical purposes of man stationary.thinking it might be useful some day!" Definiteness of aim is characteristic of all true art. but the needle. money. Since the shuttle of creation shot for the first time through chaos. but never guide. and str ive to retain our admiration for all that would ennoble. So all along the path of life other luminaries will beckon to lead us from our cherished aim--from the course of truth and duty. In the Galérie des Beaux Arts in Paris is a beautiful statue conceived by a sculp tor who was so poor that he lived and worked in a small garret. the stars twinkle to it. no matter how v ersatile in endowments or how broad in culture. but flies straight to the mark." s aid Henry Clay. He is not the greatest p ainter who crowds the greatest number of ideas upon a single canvas. Let us beware of losing our enthusiasm. When his clay mo del was nearly done. lights. has a purpose stamped upon it which unmist akably points to the crowning summit of all creation--man. distant beyond human comprehension. moves with stately sweep on its circuit of more than 25. They all attract it. So he wrapped his bedclothes around the clay image. and our interest in all that would enrich and beautify our life.--SHAKESPEARE.000 years. He knew that if the water in the interstices of the clay should freeze. "I do not know how it is with others when speaking on an important question. turn t he needle of our purpose from the North Star of its hope. I lose all sense of personal i dentity. but when a man makes a gift of his daily life and practise. design has marked the course of every golden thread. or of surrounding objects." . not only for a day. and where they will find fit expression. Words. every atom even. CHAPTER XIII THE TRIUMPHS OF ENTHUSIASM. whatever it may be. alone. while all the other stars must course with untiring tread around their great centers through all the ages. and other hands gave it enduring form in ma rble.

" said the Austrians in consternation. not only in those who are quick. but in those who are s tolid. Her enthusiasm almost hypnotized her auditors. " I've been chasing it for a month. established a larger empire t han that of Rome. but they were temperance troops. and at last I found it on the toe of a shoe that I wa s putting on. "Well. when I was doing my hair. reached by running up three octaves from low D. They conquered Asia and Africa and Spain on barley. "Yes. in every boy. how shall I begin?" as ked a youth of twelve who had played with great skill on the piano." "But you began when you were younger than I a m. "until it gets a president who takes it to bed with him. As the young lover has finer sense and more acute vision and sees in the object of his affections a hundred virtues and charms invisible to all other eyes. and all the powers of heart and mind she possessed were enthusiasti cally devoted to self-improvement. miserably fed."A bank never becomes very successful. taken twenty-one standards. so a man permeated with enthusiasm has his power of perception heightened and his v ision magnified until he sees beauty and charms others cannot discern which comp ensate for drudgery. I should like to compose something. he writes because he ca n't help it.--when I was dressing. pooh. I've worked hard enough for it. When one has the spirit of a composer. in some effectual degree. had gained six victories. h orsed on an idea. "you must wait." Gladstone said that what is really desired is to light up the spirit that is wi thin a boy. made fame and fortune sure the first night she a ppeared in opera. "Pooh. In less than a week she had become popular and independent. they fly. and when he came out he looked as h aggard as a murderer. "Herr Capellmeister. In fifteen days Napoleon. spirit-driven by the plots and characters in his stori es which would not let him sleep or rest until he had committed them to paper. O n one sketch he shut himself up for a month. and even in those who are dull. In some sense and in some degree." It was enthusiasm that enabled Napoleon to make a campaign in two weeks that wo uld have taken another a year to accomplish. " replied Mozart. "These Frenchmen are not men. the dulness will day by day clear away and vanish completely und er the influence of the good will. All great works of art have been produced when the artist was intoxicated with the passion for beauty and form which would not let him rest until his thought w as expressed in marble or on canvas. The Caliph Oma r's walking-stick struck more terror into those who saw it than another man's sw ord. The victories of the Arabs after Mahomet. There was neither brandy nor flesh needed to feed them. who . I pursued it everywhere." said Malibran when a critic expressed h is admiration of her D in alt." "Every great and commanding moment in the annals of the world. "but I never asked a nything about it." said the boy. was found an overmatch for a troop of cavalry. hardships. " is the triumph of some enthusiasm. Gerster. in a few years. They were miserably equipped. is an example. The naked Derar." says Emerson. If they have only the good will. not only in those who are brilliant. The women fough t like men and conquered the Roman men. possessed. from a small and mean beginning. so I did." says a noted financier. an unknown Hungarian. privations." said the great composer. fifty- ." Enthusiasm gives the otherwise dry an d uninteresting subject or occupation a new meaning. there is in every boy the material of good work in the world. or who seem to be dull. His characters haunted him day and night. Dickens says h e was haunted. in his firs t Italian campaign. Her soul was smitten with a passion for growth. and even persecution. They did they knew not what.

man does not realiz e his strength until he has once run away with himself. Enthusiasm. His rare ski ll is shown in the palaces of Hampton Court and Kensington. and was exceedingly healthy in later life. study. her consecrated ban ner. sent a thrill of enthusiasm through th e whole French army such as neither king nor statesmen could produce. He is a perfect ignora mus. After this astonishing avalanche a discomfited Austrian general said: "This you ng commander knows nothing whatever about the art of war. "If you can impress people with the conviction that you feel what you say. Boyd. K. until world after world swept before his vision. He changed Greenwich palace into a sailor's retreat. His great enthusiasm alone seemed to give strength to his body. never models statues that live. And above all. Paul's Cathedral in London. "want of frigat es would be found written on my heart. when in Paris to get ideas for the restoration of St. Horace Greeley said that the best product of labor is the high-minded workman w ith an enthusiasm for his work. Christopher Wren. and built churches and colleges at Oxford. Reader. "in which the difference betwe en half a heart and a whole heart makes just the difference between signal defea t and a splendid victory. unless you become a hard student. look around!" Turn where you will in London. "There are important cases. nor moves the soul with poetry." But his soldiers followed their "Litt le Corporal" with an enthusiasm which knew no defeat or disaster." "Should I die this minute. Indifference never leads armies that conquer. It fixed the mariner's trembling nee dle upon its axis. There is no doing anything with him." says A." said Salvini. and the great Monument. "Underneath is laid the builder of this church and city. like a bitted horse. He worked thirty-five years upon his mas ter-piece. It has held the sword with which freedom has fought her battles . and first heaved the tremendous bar of the printing-press. if you seek his monument. as Charles Bell says of the hand. in Temple Bar. but those in autho rity would not adopt his splendid idea. nor harnesses the forces of nature. but for the public good. n or breathes sublime music. innocent Maid of Orleans with her sacred sword. It has taken me years to master a single part. you find noble monuments of the genius of a man who never received instruction from an ar chitect. nor rears impress ive architecture." The simple. Her zeal c arried everything before it. and her belief in her great mission. the Royal Exchange." . had captured fifteen thousand prisoners. "The best method is obtained by earnestness. not for himself. He built fifty-five churches in the city and thirty-six halls. they will pardon many sh ortcomings.five pieces of cannon. He al so planned for the rebuilding of London after the great fire. he was so delicate as a child that he was a constant sour ce of anxiety to his parents." said Nelson at an important crisis. who lived more than ninety years. nor the world with heroic phil anthropies. study. Paul's Cathedral. St. It opened the tubes for Galileo. Although he lived so long. "I would give my skin for the architect's design of the Louvre. Drury Lane Theater. and it reefed the high topsail that rustled over Columbus in the morning breezes of the Bahamas. Oh! what a great work each one could perform in thi s world if he only knew his power! But. and turned the mystic leaves upon which Milton and Shakespeare inscribed t heir burning thoughts." said he. study! All the genius in the world will not help you along with any art. and poised the axe of the dauntless woodman as he opened the paths of civiliza tion. H. and had conquere d Piedmont. wrought the statue of Memnon and hung the brazen gates of Thebes.

' replied my companion in an excited tone. "He makes the best of everything.--genius. But it is of no use. "One moonlight evening in winter. whereas I utter what I know to be unreal and untrue as if I did be lieve it in my very soul. full of joy. after he. and a sobbing voice cried: 'I ca nnot play any more." "He throws himself into the occasion. "I would not open my window to see the Bay of Naples for the first time. it is the tingling of every fiber of one's being to do the work that one's heart desires. It could not be found then even on the London Exchange. Hark! how well it is played!' "In the midst of the finale there was a break. The three were traveling correspondents of great English journals. " said the second. almost a fanaticism for one's ideals or call ing. Oh." said a man when asked the reason for his selection. "we were walking through a narrow street of Bonn. what would I not give to go to the concert at Cologne!' 'Ah! my sist er.There is a "go. vivid fellow. or the spectator of a statue.' said Beethoven. Enthusiasm is the being awake. Mole.' he continued." said Madame de Staël to M. The great actor Garrick well illustrated it when asked by an unsuc cessful preacher the secret of his power over audiences: "You speak of eternal v erities and what you know to be true as if you hardly believed what you were say ing yourself. every man feels as if he had taken a tonic and had a new lease of life. with two companions. had written upon a slip of paper the name of the most a greeable companion he had ever met. where. it is utterly beyond my power to do it j ustice. mean dwelling. Enthusiasm made Victor Hugo lock up hi s clothes while writing "Notre Dame.' said a second voice.--understanding! I will play to her. Australia. bubbling over with spirits. while I would go five hundred leagues to talk with a man of genius whom I had not seen . 'here is f eeling. as he opened the door and saw a young man sitting by a table. The papers were examined and all were found to contain the name of a prominent lawyer in Melbou rne. speaking of his own most che rished acquaintance. 'Hush!' exclaimed the great composer." Enthusiasm is that secret and harmonious spirit which hovers over the productio n of genius. You do not find this in tropical countries. mending shoes.' 'You are right. His sympathies are quick as an electric flash. "If it were not for respect for human opinions. in praise of the man of his choice." that he might not leave the work until it was finished. if a person is to succeed. whatever it may be. "He is an eager. who had visi ted every quarter of the world and talked with all kinds of men. and a young girl leaning sorrowfully upon an old-fashion . 'Go in!' I remonstrated. 'why create regrets when there is no remedy? We can sc arcely pay our rent." a zeal. he must be on the jump with all the ardor of his being. 'what sound is that? It is from my Sonata in F." "When he comes into a room. that is peculiar to our American temperament and life. with his whole heart. throwing the reader of a book. 'what should we go in for?' 'I will play to her. Pardon me. 'and yet I wish f or once in my life to hear some really good music." said the third. suddenly pausing before a little. has finally extended until what used to be the peculiar str ength of a few great minds has now become characteristic of the leading nations. But the influence of the United States and of Australia. and she will understand it. a furore.' said the first speaker. It did not exist fifty years ago. into t he very ideal presence whence these works have originated.' "'Let us go in. It is so beautiful." writes the biographer of Beethoven.

as if lost in thought. Raphael's enthusiasm inspired every artist in Italy. He drew his figures in skeleton.' they added. stammering as he saw that the girl was blind. 'Yes. gazing thoughtfully upo n the liquid stars shining so softly out of the depths of a cloudless winter sky . 'how. Then he played a sad and infinitely lovely movement. but not the separation from his poor blind daughter M ary. which crept gently over t he instrument. during all the years I knew him. sank.' We did return in haste. 'Farewell to you. like the calm flow of moonlight over the earth. and then draped them. and give the young lady som e lessons. Then you play by ear? But where do you hear the music. elfin passage in triple time--a sort of grotesque interlude. as he rose and turned towar d the door. his practice. 'I had not perceived before. then. play to us once more. 'Then you are Beethoven!' burst from the young people in delighted recognitio n. and I walked to and fro outside to listen to her. Never. and would not let servants or students e ven mix them. In p ainting he prepared all his own colors. sweet sounds that flowed out upon the air in rhythmical swell and cade nce. suddenly.' "Beethoven seated himself at the piano.' said Beethoven hurriedly. but the player paused. as he rose to go. and. that I may w rite out that sonata while I can yet remember it. added muscles. descriptive of flight. the flame of the single candle wavered. while there.' said the shoemaker." Michael Angelo studied anatomy twelve years.ed piano. but thi s course determined his style. Even the ol d instrument seemed inspired. 'Oh. a nd went out. 'You will come again?' asked the host and hostess in a breath. nearly ruining his health. The young man and woman sat as if entranced by the magical. which he said was like pulling the flesh from his bones. and vag ue impulsive terror. si nce you frequent no concerts?' "'We lived at Bruhl for two years. He had so forg . "'Wonderful man!' said the shoemaker in a low tone.' said he. This was followed by a wild. hurrying. until.' "'No music!' exclaimed the composer.' he added. and he played the opening bars of the Sonata in F. 'who and what are you?' "'Listen!' replied the master. Then came a swift agitated ending--a breathles s. and pincers. not the love of liberty nor the spur of ambition could induce him to forego his plain preaching in public places. trembling movement. flickered. He has been called the only distinguished man who lived and died without an enemy or detractor. not the need of a poor family dependent upon him. I--I also ov erheard something of what you said. you would like--t hat is--shall I play for you?' "'Thank you. and his modest. like th e dance of fairies upon the lawn. yes. and uncertainty. 'I will come again. I used to hear a lady prac ticing near us. which carried us away on its rustling wings. and skin successively. fat. You wish to hear--that is. charming m anners disarmed envy and jealousy. such as files. During the summer evenings her windows were generally open. and n ot until long past the dawn of day did he rise from his table with the full scor e of the Moonlight Sonata in his hand. did I hear him play better than to that blind girl and her brother. The shutters were thrown open. chisels. 'but our piano is so wretched. admitting a flood of brilliant moonl ight. and left us al l in emotion and wonder. 'I heard music and was tempted to enter. Again and again poor Bunyan m ight have had his liberty.--'only once more!' "'I will improvise a sonata to the moonlight. does the young lady--I--I entr eat your pardon. He made every tool he used in sculpture. and his glory. I am a musician.' he said. Farewell!' Then to me he added: 'Let us make haste back. and we have no music.

but also the love of his master's fair daughter. It was the youth Hercules that performed the Twelve Labors. despise d Bedford tinker to write his immortal allegory with such fascination that a who le world has read it.--it forgets that there is such a thing as failure in the world. After Lincoln had walked six miles to borrow a grammar. and then she went f rom street to street pronouncing the other--"Gilbert. It is the enthusiasm of youth which cuts the Gordian knot age cannot untie. The painter West began in a garret. he returned home and bu rned one shaving after another while he studied the precious prize. and at nineteen gained a medal at Cambridge. Although he had. "The world's i nterests are. The most irresistible charm of youth is its bubbling enthusiasm. Of what use was it to forbid the boy Handel to touch a musical instrument. an d plundered the family cat for bristles to make his brushes. The boy Bach copied whole books of stu dies by moonlight. Gilbert Becket. The unusual crowd drew the family to the window. and took to his arms a nd home his far-come princess with her solitary fond word. With a steadiness and devotion seldom equal ed he gave his life. in the hands of the young. "The most beautiful works of all art were done in youth. under God.otten his early education that his wife had to teach him again to read and write .--no defile that has no outlet. It was the enthusiasm of conviction which enabled this poor. his fortune. but the devoted girl determined to follow him." wrote Disraeli. or t o forbid him going to school. was taken prisoner and became a slave in t he palace of a Saracen prince. while among the Dakota Indians." says Ruskin. perhaps unconscious tha t it is partly their own fault that they ever lost it. "that enthusiasm which they themselves secretly look back to with a sigh." says Dr. "Almost everything that is great has been done by youth." At last she came to the s treet on which Gilbert lived in prosperity. Rare consecration to a great enterprise is found in the work of the late Franci s Parkman. ruined his health and could not use his eyes more than five minutes at a time for fift y years. and believes that mankind has been waiting all th ese centuries for him to come and be the liberator of truth and energy and beaut y. While a student at Harvard he determined to write the history of the French and English in North America. Only thoughts that breathe in words that burn can kindle the spark slumbering i n the heart of another. lest he learn the gamut? He stole midnight intervi ews with a dumb spinet in a secret attic. Enthusiastic youth ." How much the world owes to the enthusiasm of Dante! Tennyson wrote his first volume at eighteen. where he not only gained the confidence of his ma ster. Nor was he dishearten ed when these copies were taken from him. "Pe ople smile at the enthusiasm of youth." says Charles Kingsley. Youth sees no darkness ahead. ignorant. an English Crusader. collecting material for his history. She knew but two words of the English language--London and Gilbert. when Gilbert himself saw and recognized her. he did not swerve a hair's breadth from the high purpose formed in his youth. Trumbull. By and by he escaped and returned to England. until he gave to the world the best history upon this subject ever writte n. for want of a candle churlishly denied. but by repeating the fir st she obtained passage in a vessel to the great metropolis. his all to this one great object.

Noah Webste r studied seventeen languages after he was fifty. The "Odysse y" was the creation of a blind old man. won battles at ninety-four. Unknown at forty. how much more so is it when carried into old age! Gladstone at eighty had ten times the weight and power that any m an of twenty-five would have with the same ideals. Burke wa s thirty-five before he obtained a seat in Parliament. was working every day." Robert Hall learne d Italian when past sixty. Keats died at twenty-five. Pitt and Bolingbroke were ministers almost before they we re men. Wise old Montaigne w as shrewd in his gray-beard wisdom and loving life. Plato died writing. Eli Whitney was twenty-three when he decided to prepare fo r college. Gladstone was in Parliament in early manhood. manhoo d. Never before has t he young man. Some of Longfellow's. in spite of the torpid influence of an enfeebled body. before which the languid and the passive bow. and died Prime Minister at eighty-one. adapting the p rinciple of the pendulum to clocks. The heart rules youth. It is the age of young men and young women. a month before his death. Shelley at twenty-nine. Alexander was a mere youth when he rolled back the Asiatic hordes that threat ened to overwhelm European civilization almost at its birth. Romulus f ounded Rome at twenty. Mrs. rolled the chivalry of Eur ope upon the ranks of Islam. George Stephenson did not learn to read and write until he had reached manhood. Johnson's best work. the head. He became Prime Minister of E ngland the second time at seventy-five. and the respect paid to white hairs is reverence to a h eart fervent. Cicero said well that men are like wine: age sours the bad and improves the good. yet his cotton-gin opened a g reat industrial future for the Southern States. Wellington planned and superintended fortifications at eighty. Dr. Whittier's. and the former had made his infl uence felt throughout England before he was twenty-four. Peter the Hermit." Newton wro te new briefs to his "Principia" at eighty-three. At sixty-three Dryden began the translation of the "Aeneid. Napoleon had conque red Italy at twenty-five. the Doge of Venice. Grant was one of the most famous generals in history at forty-two. G alileo at seventy-seven. What a power was Bismarck at eig hty! Lord Palmerston was an "Old Boy" to the last." was written when he was seve nty-eight. Galileo was nearly seven ty when he wrote on the laws of motion. and refused a crown at ninety-six. Luther was a triumphant reformer at twenty-five. Dandolo. Humboldt completed his "Cosmos" at ninety. The contagious zeal of an old man.faces the sun. and Poe lived but a few months longer. Victor Hugo wrote a tra gedy at fifteen. Whitefield and Wesley b egan their great revival as students at Oxford. even in the midst of his fit s of gout and colic. It is said tha t no English poet ever equaled Chatterton at twenty-one. Many of the world's greatest geniuses never saw forty years. that he might read Dante in the original. who is driven by his enthusiasm. and Tennys on's best work was done after they were seventy. Baco n and Humboldt were enthusiastic students to the last gasp. The glory of age is only the glory of its enthusiasm. But if enthusiasm is irresistible in youth. Somerville finished her "Molecular and Microscopic Science" at eighty-nin e. it shadows all behind it. and had taken three prizes at the Academy and gained the title of Master before he was twenty. had such an opportunity as he has to-day. "The Lives of the Poets. Defoe was fifty-eight when he published "Robinson Crusoe. Tom Scott began the study of Hebrew at eighty-six. at eightyone. Byron and Raphael died at thirty-seven. but that old man was Homer. blind and feeble. yet he made the world fee l his character. . Newton made some of his gr eatest discoveries before he was twenty-five. James Watt learned German at eighty-five . Their ardor is their crown. an age which h as been fatal to many a genius. and thirty when he graduated from Yale.

--CERVANTES. with a picture of a courier swinging from a gibbet. life! Success is the child of two very plain parents--punctuality and accuracy. not the millionth part of a second." wrote Governor Andrew of Massachu setts to President Lincoln on May 3.--towards youth? If not. was playing cards when a messenger brought a letter stating that Washington was crossing the Delaware. "Who cannot but see oftentimes how strange the threads of our destiny run? Oft it is only for a moment the favorable instant is presented. We miss it." By the street of by and by one arrives at the house of never. even as the Gulf Stream softens the rigors of northern Europe. Colonel Rahl.--SHAKESPEARE. We can do as much in an hour to-day as they could in twe nty hours a hundred years ago. He put the letter in his pocket without reading it un til the game was finished. "How ages thine heart. Post-offices were unknown. the Hessian commander at Trent on. and letters were carried by government mess engers subject to hanging if they delayed upon the road. and the next m ore dilatory." Caesar's delay to read a message cost him his lif e when he reached the senate house." CHAPTER XIV. post.With enthusiasm we may retain the youth of the spirit until the hair is silvere d." He had received a telegram for troops from Washington on Monday. as if there were not an inch of red tape in the world. slow days of stage-coaches." . and mont hs and years are lost. Even in the old. haste! Haste for thy life!" was frequently written upon messages in the days of Henry VIII of England. "we took up the war. doubt thy fitness for thy work." Note the sublime precision that leads the earth over a circuit of five hundred millions of miles back to the solstice at the appointed moment without the loss of one second. in the spirit in which we believe the Administration and the American people intend to act. namely.--no. but he lost honor. One of the greatest gains civilization has made is in measur ing and utilizing time.--for ages and ages of wh ich it traveled that imperiled road. when he rallied his men only to die just before his t roops were taken prisoners. "Lose this day by loitering--'t will be the same story tomorrow. at nine o'clock the next Sunday he said: "All the regiments demanded from Massachusetts are already either in Washington. There are critical moments in every successful life when if the mind hesitate or a ne rve flinch all will be lost. Only a few minutes' delay. 1861. "Immediately on receiving your proclamation.--EDWARD EVERETT. and have carried on our part of it. or in Fortress Monroe." Let's take the instant by the forward top. April 15. "ON TIME. or o n their way to the defence of the Capitol. "Haste. libert y. when it took a month of dangerous traveling to accomplish the distance we can now span in a few hours. "Delays have dangerous ends. unnecessary delay was a crime." OR THE TRIUMPH OF PROMPTNESS "On the great clock of time there is but one word--NOW.

instruction. the loss of a few moments by himself and Grouchy on the fatal morning was the most significant. but in the present. to take advantage of which means victory." Cobbett said he owed his success to being "always ready" more than to all his n atural abilities combined. and in so short a time?" "When I have anything to do. and to chan ge the destiny of millions. will succee d when a procrastinator. "I do it simply by never po . to Afri ca. I was ready at nine. the other is."The only question which I can entertain." The energy wasted in postponing until to-morrow a duty of to-day would often do the work. "do you accomplish so much. "There is no moment like the present. replied without hesitation. The African Association of London wanted to send Ledyard. it might throw the wh ole universe out of harmony." Napoleon laid great stress upon that "supreme moment. and going to do becomes going undone. Letters can never be answered so easily as when first received. and asked when he could set out. It is a well-known truism that has almost been elevated to the dignity of a max im. and when th at question is answered. lost in the hurry and scurry o f the world." he said. Putting off usually means l eaving off. after it has been delayed for days and weeks. even if he have the better judgment. too. afterwards Earl St. Doing a deed is like sowing a seed: if not done at just the right time it will be forever out of season. no instant force and energy. Blucher was on time. There is not an hour of it but is trembling with destinie s--not a moment of which. edi fication. was asked when he could join his ship. will fail. When asked how he managed to accomplish so much work. the appointed work can ever be done again . becomes drudgery." "How. or the neglected blow struck on the cold iron. the traveler." was the reply." that "nick of time" whic h occurs in every battle." said Ruskin." said Maria Edgeworth. He said that he beat the Austrians because they di d not know the value of five minutes. never did any man or anything w ait one minute for me. "Directly. "To-morrow. what next to do." "The whole period of youth. How much harder and more disagreeable." said he. it is to do work which ha s been put off! What would have been done at the time with pleasure or even enth usiasm. John Jervis. and it has been said that among the trifle s that conspired to defeat him at Waterloo. The s ummer of eternity will not be long enough to bring to maturity the fruit of a de layed action." asked a man of Sir Walter Raleigh. "is what to do. and Grouchy was late. or sunk in the slough of indolence. I go and do it. once passed. "is one essentially of formation. and to lose in hesitation means disaster. a French statesman replied. They will be dissipated. "If I had to mount guard at ten. that what may be done at any time will be done at no time. The man who always acts promptly. "not only so. appointed commander of the army in Ind ia. ther e is no moment at all. and replied. and asked when he would be ready to go. Helena. Vincent." was the reply. It was enough to send Napoleon to St. The man who will not execute his resolutions when they are fresh upon him can have no ho pes from them afterward. Many large firms make it a rule never to allow a letter to lie unanswered overnight. "To this quality I owed my extraordinary promotion in the army. Promptness takes the drudgery out of an occupation. "To-morrow morning. If a star or planet were delayed one second." Colin Campbell. even if he makes occasional mistakes. and at the same time atte nd to his social duties.

hopes. and folly is its fathe r. There is only one known remedy for the victims of indecision." How many men have daw dled away their success and allowed companions and relatives to steal it away fi ve minutes at a time! "To-morrow. how many a wreck on the road to success could say: "I have s pent all my life in pursuit of to-morrow. his favorite maxim being "n ever to do to-day what might be postponed till to-morrow. a last look at the receipts. It is the favorite refuge of sloth and incompetency. dead." Alfred the Great rose befo re daylight. yet we quit it with regret. the wrecks of half-finished plans and unexecuted resolutions. There is in every person's life a crucial hour in the day. being assured that to-morrow has some vast benefit or other in store for me. waking up from a sort of heavy d oze. Wisdom disclaims the word. A noted writer says that a bed is a bundle of paradoxes. and Napoleon his greatest campaigns. and that is prompt decision. He who hesitates is lost. "by and by." Charles Reade continues in his story o f Noah Skinner.stponing till to-morrow what should be done to-day. We make up our minds every night to leave it early. brokenly. "for making my life as long as possible." Oh. and murmured again. but I have always five h ours' start of him. A person was once extolling the skill and courage of Mayenne in Henry's presenc e. Washi ngton. full of his penitent resolu tions. "You are right. "Go to--I will not hear of it. and baseless as the fantastic visions o f the evening. some after lunch." "But his resolutions remained unshaken. wrought of such stuffs as dreams are. . "Strike while the iron is hot. he took. Yet most of those who have become eminent have been early risers. and nearly all our leading authors in the early morning. which must be employed instead of wasted if the day is to be saved." said he. Very few people recognize the hour when laziness begins to set in. didst thou say?" asked Cotton. as it were. This made all the difference between them. In the hours of early morning Columbus planned his voyage to Americ a. All history is strewn with its brilliant victims." It was said of an unsuccess ful public man that he used to reverse this process. We go to it with reluc tance. Jefferson. and Mayenne at about ten . 'My head. "I am. but we make up our bodies every morning to keep it late. Copernicus was an early riser. To-morrow! it is a period nowhere to be found in all the hoary registers o f time." Henry rose at four in the morning. h ow heavy it feels!' But presently he roused himself. and Calhoun were all early risers. unless perchance in the fool's calendar. who had been overcome by a sleepy languor after deciding to make restitution. and murmured. Bryant rose at five." are golden maxims." "To-morrow. the defaulting clerk. Bancroft at dawn. 'Tis fancy's child. and therefore sleep as little as possible.' The morrow found him. and some after seven o'clock in the e vening." said Henry. To-mo rrow! 'tis a sharper who stakes his penury against thy plenty--who takes thy rea dy cash and pays thee naught but wishes. With most people the earl y morning hour becomes the test of the day's success. Otherwise the disease is fatal to al l success or achievement. "he is a great captain." It is the devil's motto. as were m ost of the famous astronomers of ancient and modern times. Peter the Gre at always rose before daylight. nor holds society with those that own it." and "Make hay while the sun shines. Webster. to--morrow. and so did the detectives. and promises. Clay. Indecision becomes a disease and pr ocrastination is its forerunner. Some people it attacks after dinner. the currency of id iots. 'I'll take it to--Pembroke--Street to--morr ow. Daniel Webster used often to answer twenty to thirty letters before breakfast.

" said Horace Greeley. for just like two measuring-lines laid a longside. "never asks if the visitors ha ve arrived. never before it. They arrive at the wharf just in time to see the steamb oat off. it is one of the practical virtues of civiliz ation. it is his business to get up. "A singular mischance has happened to some of our friends. or I anoth er secretary. After th e eighth hour in bed.--that is. Eight ho urs is enough sleep for any man." said he. "Then you must get a new watch. They are never too soon." Franklin said to a servant who was always late." Napoleon once invited his marshals to dine with him. "why s hould he have for their money? What is the difference between taking a man's hou r and taking his five dollars? There are many men to whom each hour of the busin ess day is worth more than five dollars." Whether it be an inspiration." Some one has said that "promptness is a contagious inspiration. or an acquirement. so much that if they began at the right moment. "My cook. They are no t irregular." When his secretary excused the lateness of his attendance by saying that his wa tch was too slow. "Gentlemen. an appointment. the one an inch shorter than the other. but the work is always ten minutes in advance of the time. Writing to a youth who had obtained a situation and as ked him for advice. their work and their time run parallel. Do instantly whatever is to be done. as they did not arriv e at the moment appointed. Washington replied. it has dropped out of existence. "it is now past dinner." said Hamilton. God gave them a work to do. and the world treats him as such. Very frequently seven hours is plenty. By breakfast-time he had." When President Washington dined at four. dress quic kly. but. They came in just as he was rising from the table. They cannot tell what became of it. is practically a liar. and usually too late by about the same fatal interva l. and go to work. their time and their work would end together. broken th e neck of the day's work. They do not break any engagement or neglect any duty. A man who fails to meet his appointment." Not too much can be said about the value of the habit of rising early. new members of Congress invited to din e at the White House would sometimes arrive late. "At the instant when He ushered them into existence. they come in sight of the terminus precisely as the station gates are c losing. he gave this counsel: "Beware of stumbling over a propensity which easily besets you from not having your time fully employed--I mean what t he women call dawdling. "If a man has no regard for the time of other men. he began to eat without them. and we will immediately proceed to business." . A fragment of their allotted time was lost. and take the hours of recreation after business. if a man is able. but if the hour has arrived. unless he has a good r eason. but sure e nough. Their letters are posted the very minute a fter the mail is closed. but they systemati cally go about it too late. and be mortified to find the P resident eating." Washington would say. This was the secret of his enormous achie vements.Walter Scott was a very punctual man. "I have generally found that the man who is good at an excuse is good for noth ing else. and He also gave them a competence of time. but always ready with an excuse . He rose at five. and wrought with sufficient vigor. But a good many years ago a strange misfortune befell them. There is one thing that is almost as sacred as the marriage relation. as he used to say.

Brown. C. Some men are always running to catch up with their business: t hey are always in a hurry. he promptly replied: "No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted. Punctuality is the soul of business. "Oh. If you arrive a few mom ents late at the bank. They lack method. The Speaker of the House o f Representatives knew when to call the House to order by seeing Mr. The man who is punctual." Promptness is the mother of confidence and gives credit. and gives othe rs confidence in our ability. One of the best things about school and college life is that the bell which str ikes the hour for rising. In court. and prompt to the minute. Every business man knows th at there are moments on which hang the destiny of years. and seldom accomplish much. teaches habits of pr omptness. Amid the cares and distractions of a s ingularly busy life. A leading firm with enormous assets becomes bankrupt. he was equally punctual. one th at is nearly right encourages bad habits. Adams comin g to his seat. Once a member said that it was time to begin. Amos Lawrence did not pe rmit a bill to remain unsettled over Sunday. is sure to win. and give you the impression that they are late for a train. A man is stopped five minutes to hear a trivial story and misses a train or steam er by one minute. It is the best possibl e proof that our own affairs are well ordered and well conducted. like Napoleon. in congr ess. as ordered. "How q uickly you learn to depend on him. your paper may be protested and your credit ruined. When Buckner sent him a flag of truce at Fort Donelson. can on the instant seize the most important thing a nd sacrifice the others. will keep his word. for recitations. Grant decided to enlist the moment that he learned of the fall of Sumter. "No." John Quincy Adams was never known to be behind time. and may be depended upon. and how soon you find yourself intrusting him with weightier matters! The boy who has acquired a reputation for punctuality h as made the first contribution to the capital that in after years makes his succ ess a certainty. "Mr.Blücher was one of the promptest men that ever lived. Horace Greeley managed to be on time for every appointment." said another. A conductor's watch is behind time. Mr. . and a terrible railway collision occurs. in society. Every young man should have a watch which is a good timekeeper." Buckner replied that circumstances compelled h im "to accept the ungenerous and unchivalrous terms which you propose. and is an expensive investment at any price. Adams is not in his seat. simply because an agent is t ardy in transmitting available funds. as brevity is of wit. how I do appreciate a boy who is always on time!" says H. Webster was never late at a recitation in school or college. Adams arrived. During the first seven years of his mercantile career. I propose to m ove immediately upon your works. or for lectures. asking for the appointment of commissioners to consider terms of capitulation." The man who. An innocent man is hanged beca use the messenger bearing a reprieve should have arrived five minutes earlier. Many a trenchant paragraph for the "Tribune" was written while the editor was w aiting for men of leisure. tardy at some meeting. Punctuality is said to be the polit eness of princes. He was called "Marshal Forw ard." It was found that the clock was three minutes f ast. as a rule.

She will fall little by little until she deg enerates into an ambitionless slattern. But not expressed in fancy. For the apparel oft proclaims the man. . Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy. As a rule.Many a wasted life dates its ruin from a lost five minutes. But self-interest clamors as loudly as esthetic or moral considerations for the fulfilment of the laws of cleanliness. A daily bath insures a clean.--we ll. clean character. The first point to be emphasized in the making of a good appearance is the nece ssity of frequent bathing. for I believe that absolute cleanliness is go dliness. strong. strong. and then. he will quickly deterior ate in every way. A young woman who ceases to care for her appearance in minutes t detail will soon cease to please. As a general thing an individual who is neat in his person is neat in his moral s. We express ourselves first of all in our bodies. neatness of attire ry care of the person. fall away in the other. High ideals and strong. wholesome condition of the skin. A man who allows himself to become careless in reg ard to the one will. Usually these go together. the conclusion is a just one.--H. W. intelligent man whom I know lost his place in a large publishi ng firm because he was careless about shaving and brushing his teeth." she said. "Dainty ribbons. It is not to be wondered at that the Talmud places cleanliness next to godlines s. SHAW. throu gh sheer neglect or indifference. while outward slovenliness suggests a pearance that probably goes deeper than the clothes covering of body and comelin indicating a sanita carelessness for ap the body. I should place it nearer still." Of course. wholeso me lives and work are incompatible with low standards of personal cleanliness.--LIVY. success and failur e. SHAKESPEARE. without which health is impossible. "could not be handled by such soiled fingers withou t losing some of their freshness. There are two chief factors in good appearance. The outer condition of the bod y is accepted as the symbol of the inner. cleanliness ess of attire. Without this he is nothing but a brute. the law will work inexorably. The other day a lady remarked that she went into a store to buy some ribbons. or repulsive.--ANTH ONY TROLLOPE. I hold that gentleman to be the best dressed whose dress no one observes. it will not be long until that gir l's employer will discover that she is not advancing his business. A few minut es often makes all the difference between victory and defeat. but when she saw the salesgirl's hands she changed her mind and made her purchase elsewhere. rich not gau dy. clean. Every day we see people receiving "demer its" for failure to live up to them. we conclude that the mind corresponds with it. There is a very close connection between a fine. "Too late" can be r ead between the lines on the tombstone of many a man who has failed. in spite of himself. Cleanliness or purity of soul and body raises man to the highest estate . CHAPTER XV WHAT A GOOD APPEARANCE WILL DO Let thy attire be comely but not costly. A young man who neglects his bath will neglect his mind. An honest. clean physique and a f ine. I can recall instances of capable stenograp hers who forfeited their positions because they did not keep their finger nails clean. If it is unlovely.

but not costly. four dollars for shoes. but the slovenliness that is avoidable. Vreeland. of always being scrupulously neat and cl ean. of course. Keeping the teeth in good condition is a very simple matter . and no one can have negle cted teeth without reaping this consequence. if he is at all particular. yet neglect their teeth. and in these days . it is better to spend twenty dol lars for a suit of clothes. and young women. or stenographer. that the world frowns upon . want one whose appearance is marred by a lack of one or two front teeth. it should be washed thoroughly every two weeks with a good reli able scalp soap and warm water. The man who hires all the salespeople for one of the largest retail stores in Chicago says: . and give you a dignity. This requires little more than a small amount of time and the use of s oap and water. no matter how poor he may be. a crumpled collar. the majority can afford to be well dressed. Many an applicant has been denied the position he sought because of bad teeth. or muddy shoes. strength. You will be more respected by yourself and every one else with an old coat on your back that has been paid for than a new one that has not. The hair. or the absence of one or two in front. you can buy a file (you can get one as low as ten cents). will susta in you under the most adverse circumstances. no matter how poorly. a nd magnetic forcefulness that will command the respect and admiration of others. For those who have to make their way in the world. if circumstances prevent his having a better one. s hould be a practical authority on this subject. It is not the shabbiness that is unavoidable. But no one need blush f or a shabby suit. and keep your nai ls smooth and clean. If you are dressed according to your means. too. and want a job. Herbert H. should be combed and brushed regularly every day. a hair-cut. it should not be washed oftener than once a month and the ammonia may be omitted." Simplicity in dress is its greatest charm. the best counsel on the subj ect of clothes may be summed up in this short sentence. No one. "Let thy attire be comel y. you are appropriately dressed. If the hair is dry or lacking in oily matter. Nor does he. and t he teeth. Manicure sets are so cheap that the y are within the reach of almost everyone. yet perhaps more people sin in this particular point of cleanliness than in an y other. N o employer wants a clerk. than go with the money in t he pockets of a dingy suit. It is positively disgusting. I know young men. will be excused for wearing a dirty coat . who rose in a short time from a section hand on the Long I sland Railroad to the presidency of all the surface railways in New York City. and a clean collar. who dress very well and seem to take considerable pride in their personal appearance. I f you have twenty-five dollars. The consciousness of makin g the best appearance you possibly can. If you can not afford to buy a whole set. and the rest for a shave. or other employee about him who conta minates the atmosphere. Nothing can be more offensive in man or woman than a foul breath.Next in importance to the bath is the proper care of the hair. or slovenly. We all know how disagreeable it is to be anywhere near a person whose breath is bad. and of maintaining your self-respect and integrity at all costs. They do not realize that there could hardly be a worse blot on one's appearance than dirty or decaying teeth. or who does not make a good appearance when he applies for a posit ion. he said:-"Clothes don't make the man. In the course of an address on h ow to attain success. and walk to the place. when there is such an infinite variety of tasteful but inexpensive fabrics to choose from. the hands." [Illustration: John Wanamaker] Most large business houses make it a rule not to employ anyone who looks seedy. to which a very little ammonia may be added. but good clothes have got many a man a good job. If it is naturally oily.

occasionally. A well-ironed collar or a fresh glove has car ried many a man through an emergency in which a wrinkle or a rip would have defe ated him. those who are careful of their own appearance are equa lly careful of the looks of the work they turn out. Applicants whose good appearanc e helped them to secure a place may often be very superficial in comparison with some who were rejected in their favor and may not have half their merit. she replied: "It was a trifle. which shows itself an tagonistic to slovenliness of all kinds. Long afterward. knowledge. and faded ties? The truth of the matt er seems to be that extra care as regards personal habits and general appearance is. Mrs . and self respect. lay a volume of meaning. though not possessing half the ability of the boy or girl who was turned away. and yet. but ha ving secured it. A slovenly woman is not a fit guide for any . is evide nced by the "London Draper's Record. had established an industrial school for girls in which they received a good English education and were train ed to be self-supporting. the fac t remains that the most important element in an applicant's chance for a trial i s his personality. perfect manners." It says:-"Wherever a marked personal care is exhibited for the cleanliness of the person and for neatness in dress. he can not afford to be careless of his personal appearance. indicative of a certain alertness of mind. and half of the buttons off her shoes. and general fi tness for the position they extolled in the highest terms. can afford to be negligent in the matter of dress. frayed cuffs." It does not matter how much merit or ability an applicant for a position may po ssess. V. "is in and of itself a source of moral strength. Diamonds in the rough of infinitely greater value than the polished glass of some of those w ho get positions may." As the consciousness of be ing well dressed tends to grace and ease of manner. self-respect. as anyon e knows who has experienced the sensation--and who has not?--that comes from bei ng attired in new and becoming raiment. ill-fitting. and considered herself fortunate when the trustees of the institution recomme nded to her a young woman whose tact. but with torn and soiled gloves. absolutely refused to give her a trial. The young woman was i nvited by the founder of the school to call on her at once. lacking in dignity and impo rtance. when questioned by a friend as to the cause of her seemingly inexplicable conduct in refusing to en gage so competent a teacher. is aver se to wearing dingy collars. for "the character is subdued to what it is clothed in. "The consciousness of clean linen. Apparently she posse ssed all the required qualifications." No young man or woman who wishes to retain that most potent factor of the succe ssful life." The importance of attending to little details--the perfection of which really c onstitutes the well-dressed man or woman--is well illustrated by this story of a young woman's failure to secure a desirable position. Poor. ill-fitting. Work people whose personal habits are sloven ly produce slovenly work."While the routine of application is in every case strictly adhered to. as in an Egyptian hieroglyphic. She needed the services of a superintendent and teache r. or s oiled attire makes one feel awkward and constrained." says El izabeth Stuart Phelps. One of those large-souled women of wealth. in which our generation is rich. second o nly to that of a clean conscience. but a trifle in whic h. without assigning any reason. Is it not a fact that the smart saleswoman is usually rather particular about her dress. so shabby. And probably what is true of the workroom is equally true of the region behind the counter. they may keep it. there is also almost always found extra carefulness as regards the finish of work done. as a rule. The young woman came to me fashionably and expensively dressed. That the same rule that governs employers in America holds in England. be rejected. Our clothes unmistakably affect our feelings. or soiled garments ar e detrimental to morals and manners.

you take a good bath . untidily dressed person. and broad checks. which they see exhibited in so me fashionable store. with this erroneous idea in mind." is offset by this wise saying of some philosopher of the c ommonplace: "Show me all the dresses a woman has worn in the course of her life. and they love dress too much who "go in d ebt" for it.--put on your best clothes. to dress as well and becomingly as our position requires and our means will allow.--a Turkish bath. instead of l ying around the house in your old wrapper or dressing gown. to the neglect of their mos t sacred duty to themselves and others. An undue love of dress is worse than a total disregard of it. slipshod. t hey fall into as great a pitfall as those who think clothes are of no importance . If they can not by any possibility afford the coveted arti cle. if. it will become as slovenly . before you have finished dressing your "blues" and your half-sick feeling will have vanished like a bad dream. you will fi nd yourself very quickly taking on the mood of your attire and environment. whom Carlyle describes as "a clothes-wearing man. too. From every point of view it pays well to dress well. and with your room all in disord er. Young men of this stamp wear cheap rings. office and existence consists in the wearing of clothes. and aspirants to success should be as careful in choosing their dr ess as their companions. vermilion-tinted ties. without making your toilet. and have no time to devote to self-culture or to fitting th emselves for higher positions. and who used to take hours to tie his cravat. it may seem hasty or superficial to judge men or women by their clothes. you will feel like a new person. or tie or coat. they buy some cheap. The knowledge that we are becomingly clothed acts like a mental tonic. and almost invariably they occupy cheap positions. and the man and the woman. who spent four thousand dollars a year at his tailo r's alone. for the old adage: "Tell me thy company and I will tell thee what thou art. as a rule. Nine times out of ten. it will refuse to exert itself. and inactive as your body. that they do. If you lie a round half-dressed. again and again. and. Very few men or women are so strong and so perfectly poised as to be unaffected by their surroundings. vulgar. person and purse is heroically consecrated to this one object. and planning how they can buy. Many young men and women make the mistake of thinking that "well dressed" neces sarily means being expensively dressed. Their style of dress bespeaks a type of character even more objectionable than that of the slovenly. By emphasizing the importance of dress I do not mean that you should be like Be au Brummel. On the other hand. when you have an a ttack of the "blues. if you can afford it. spirit. this or that expensive hat.young girl. but experience has proved . The manners of both seem to have a subtle connection with their clothes. for she was undoubtedly well qualified to fill it in every respect. as well as t he truest economy. flashy." when you feel half sick and not able to work. out of their limited sala ries. taking it easy because you do not expect or wish to see anybody. They devote the time that should be given to the culture of head and heart to studying their toilets. The worl d accepts the truth announced by Shakespeare that "the apparel oft proclaims the man". measure the sense and self-respect o f the wearer. except i n this seemingly unimportant matter of attention to the little details of dress. in view of its effect on ours elves and on those with whom we come in contact.--a man whose trade ." they live to dress. like Beau Brummel. At first sight. that it is a duty. devote most o f their waking hours to its study. Like the dandy. are frequently condemned by the very garb which they think makes them so irresistible. or who. The overdressed young woman is merely the feminine of the overdressed young man . and make you r toilet as carefully as if you were going to a fashionable reception. .--every faculty of who se soul. the English fop. tawdry imitation. the effect of which is only to make them look ridiculous." Probably the applicant never knew why she did not obtain the positi on. who make it their chief object in life. Your mind will slip down. But I do claim. an d your whole outlook on life will have changed. They are loud.

It is this indescribable quality. when we remember what an effect clothes have in in citing to personal cleanliness. . Her face and hands and finger nails must be spotless as the muslin which surrounds them. Calhoun was a greater man. Let a woman. how different her looks and acts! Her hair must be becomingly arranged. Good clothes give e ase of manner. the general trend of her feelings. Her whole prospect and hap piness in life may often depend upon a new gown or a becoming bonnet.--puts on a dainty muslin garment instead. but they have a much larger influe nce on man's life than we are wont to attribute to them. or shabby apparel which not o nly robs one of self-respect. omething which every one feels." she argues. Every flower is dressed in richness. or what sort of slipshod shoes she wears. which which the sculptor can not chisel. It was this pec uliar atmosphere which made Clay the idol of his constituents. he never aroused any such enthusiasm as "the mill-b oy of the slashes. and it will have the effect of making her indifferent as to whethe r her hair is frowsy or in curl papers. clean wrapper than for the wearer of the old. which no biograph a great deal to do with one's success in life. "Would you change the current of your thoughts? Change your raiment. Beauty is of value. The down-at-heel old shoes are exchanged fo r suitable slippers. the natu ralist and philosopher. This is not an extravagant statement. while inferi ority of garb often induces restraint. The consciousness of being well dressed g ives a grace and ease of manner that even religion will not bestow. perhaps . He decla red himself utterly incapable of thinking to good purpose except in full court d ress. "to teach a girl that beauty is of no value. but they did not arouse a tithe of the spontaneous enthusiasm evoked by men like Blaine and Clay. And sure ly He is pleased when we provide a beautiful setting for the greatest of His han diworks. so as not to be at odds with her dress. she will find this out. It does not matter whether her face or h ands are clean or not. for "anything. every star is veiled in brightness .and I will write you her biography. every bird is clothed in the habiliments of the most exquisite taste. soiled one. unbecoming. The great thing is to teac h her their proper value. for instance. This subtle s but which no one can describe. This he always put on before entering his study. Although." Even so great an authority as Buffon. her manner." Webster and Sumner were great men. If she has five grains of common sense. One can not but feel that God is a lover of appropriate dress. There is something about ill-fitting. Prentice Mulford declar es dress to be one of the avenues for the spiritualization of the race. and y ou will at once feel the effect. "is good enough to go with this old wrapper. which sets an audience wild at the mention of the name of a Blaine or a Linco ln." Her walk. testifies to the influence of dress on thought. He has put robes of beauty and glory upon all His works." It is true that clothes do not make the man. and make one talk well. Her mind runs along new channels.--which makes people applaud beyond the bounds of enthusiasm. She has much more respect for the wearer of the new. CHAPTER XVI PERSONALITY AS A SUCCESS ASSET There is something about one's the painter can not reproduce. er ever put down in a book. Suppose she changes. will in some subtle way be dominated by the old wrapper. which some persons have in a remarkable degre e." "How exquisitely absurd it is. has personality which eludes the photographer. dress of no use. don an old soiled or worn wrapper. but also of comfort and power. ev ery field blushes beneath a mantle of beauty." says Sydney Smith. not even omitting his swo rd.

although meeting them. and we are loath to leave the magical presence lest we lose our new-born power. We are unconsciously influenced by people who possess this magnetic power.--the atmosphere that eman ates from them. as two great dynamos double the current which passes over th e wire. We are often misled as to the position they are going to occupy from the fact that we are apt to take account merely of their ability . have b een transformed. as if a bl ast of winter had struck us in midsummer. whic . and then carry the measuring li ne above his atmosphere." If we had discernment fine enough and tests delicate e nough. The influence of su ch speakers depends almost wholly upon their presence. as if a great weight which long had pressed upon us had been removed . On the other hand. when. as it were. superb manner. and sometimes even controls the destinies of nations. Even a momentary contact with a character of this kind seems to double our ment al and soul powers. has dropped out of sight. perhaps. at least. Yet this individual atmosphere has quite as much to do with o ne's advancement as brain-power or education. they introd uce us. Certain personalities are greater than mere physical beauty and more powerful t han learning. we constantly see men of m ediocre ability but with fine personal presence. "we mu st first reckon with the orator's physical bulk. Charm of personality is a divine gift that sways the strongest cha racters. All at o nce life takes on a higher and nobler meaning. and we are fired with a desire to do more than we have ever before done. to struggle to make permanently ours the forces and potentialities that have be en revealed to us. The old commonplace life. being rapidly advanced over the heads of those who are infinitely their superiors in mental endowments. We have been touched to finer issues. They draw out the best that is in us. and we resolve. and disheartenment to encouragement. Indeed. we could not only measure the personal atmosphere of individuals. A few minutes before. better selves. impulses and longings come thronging to our minds which never stirred us before. We can converse with such people in a way that astonishes us. we have caught a glimpse of higher ideals. despair to h ope. we frequently meet people who make us shrivel and shrink int o ourselves. A blighting. with better heart and newer hope. and do not reckon this personal atmosphere or magnetic power as a part of thei r success-capital. perhaps. the flashlight of a potent personality of this kind has opened a rift in our lives and revealed to us hidden capabilities. for the moment. and magnetic qua lities. They are much larger than anything they say or do. The moment they come near us we experience a cold chill. but cou ld also make more accurate estimates concerning the future possibilities of scho olmates and young friends. They unlock w ithin us possibilities of which we previously had no conception. Our horizon bro adens. A good illustration of the influence of personal atmosphere is found in the ora tor who carries his audience with him like a whirlwind. in measuring Kossuth's influence over the masses. with its absence of purpose and endea vor. The moment we come into their presence we have a sense of enlargement. we were sad and discouraged. With their presence. suddenly. We express ourselves more clearly and eloquen tly than we believed we could. and yet so little of this personal element adheres to his cold words in print that those who read them are scarcely moved at all. for the first time. and. we experience a sense of relief. to our larger. while he is delivering h is speech. Sadness gives place to joy. we feel a new power stirring through all our being. narrowing sensation.A historian says that. and to be more than we have been in the past.

This type of personalit y we may all cultivate if we will. They are more than welcome. but everybody is attracted. music. born in one. they are sought for everyw here. The effect of their presence is paralyzing. At a social gathering. Good judgment and common sense are indispensable to those who are trying to acquire this magic power. which we sometim es call individuality. that rare charm of manner which captivates all those who come within the sphere of its influence. Many women are endowed with this magnetic quality. One must know exactly what to do. which is entirely independen t of personal beauty. We could no more smile in their presence than we could lau gh while at a funeral. passes over us. Much of the charm of a magnetic personality comes from a fine. He will bring encouragement to and uplift every life that touches his. it is a privilege to speak to her. She may not be handsome. In their presence there is no possibility of expansion for us. and we haste n from it as soon as possible. pleasing personalities. This was notably the case with some of the women who ruled in the French salon s more absolutely than the king on his throne. undefinable uneasiness. generosity of feeling. cordiality of bearing. or the qualities that can be rated. a gift of nature.--the delightful art of pleas ing. are largely natural gifts. It is often possessed in a high degree by very plain women . also. their shadows are cast upon us and fill us with vague. One of the greatest investments one can make is that of attaining a gracious ma nner. for all doors fly open to sunny . They simply know they have it. As a da rk cloud suddenly obscures the brightness of a smiling summer sky. We instinctively feel that such people have no sympathy with our aspirations. and be able to do just the rig ht thing at the proper time.h seems to make us suddenly smaller. This mysterious something. People who possess this rare quality are frequently ignorant of the source of t heir power. Wh ile it is. of possibility. the charm of sentiment vanishes and life seems to lose color and zest. . like poetry. We feel a decided loss of p ower. is often more powerful than the ability which can be meas ured. but can not locate or describe it. Their gloomy miasmatic atmosphere chills all our natural impulses. Magnetic personality is intangible. we shall find that the chief differ ence between them is that the first loves his kind. is a very important element. who is genuinely interested in the welfare of others. You can not offend the tastes of others without hur ting their sensibilities. But we shall f ind that the man who practises unselfishness. when conversation drags. and the latter does not. it can be cultivated to a certain extent. It is infinitely better than money capital. a nd our natural prompting is to guard closely any expression of our hopes and amb itions. When they are near us our laudable purposes and desires shrink into insi gnificance and mere foolishness.--will be an elevating influence wherever he goes. and that strong personal magnetism which inclines all hearts toward its fortunate possessor. Good taste is also one of the elements of personal charm.--next to a fine manner. He will b e trusted and loved by all who come in contact with him. If we study these two types of personality. cultivated manne r. Tact. perhaps the most important. or art.--even though polished manners and a gracious presence may be conspicuous by their absence. Of course. t he entrance of some bright woman with a magnetic personality instantly changes t he whole situation. and interest is at a low ebb. who feels it a privilege to have the power to do a fellow-cr eature a kindness.

never repels? It is not only valuable in busines s. or influence. or customers. he is on the road to success and happi ness as well. he would often give up his b ed. It makes statesmen and politicians. just becaus e they had cultivated popular qualities. those personal qualities. for customers. and patients to the physician. or patients will flock to him. but also in every field of life. which a ttract people to you. he w ill always be placed at a disadvantage. customers. and business training would not. It is worth everything t o the clergyman. for. his law partner. Somehow everybody in trouble turned to him for help. It is capital which will stand by one when panics come. patients. one must strangle selfishness.--because they are attra cted. we find that they have attractive qualities. where Lincoln boarded. if his personality repels." This generous desire to as sist others and to return kindnesses especially endeared Lincoln to the people. Such men are business magnets. for the same reason that the steel particles point toward the magnet. agreeable. Their fr iends call them "lucky dogs. and sleep on the counter in his store with a roll of calico for his pillow. an d companionable. They will take the place of capital. develops man hood. to help along wherever he could. and yet it is comparatively easy to cultivate . No matter what career you enter. Business moves toward them. by their likes and dislikes. How many men have been able to start again after ha ving everything swept away by fire or flood. as naturally as magnet s attract particles of steel. he must be polite. says: "When the R utledge Tavern. To be popular. I never knew a thoroughly unselfish person who was not an attractive person. all of which are cultivatabl e. There is usually some charm of personality about them that wins all hearts. Cultivate the art of being agreeable. it will call out your success qualities. he had a passion for helping people. No person who is always thinking of himself and trying to figure out how he can ge . patients. What can be more valuable than a per sonality which always attracts. when busin ess concerns go to the wall. Some men attract business. and builds up character.Many a youth owes his promotion or his first start in life to the disposition t o be accommodating. if they shoul d analyze their success. no matter how able a man may be. or some other disaster. because it is made up of so many other qualities. because they had learned the art of bei ng agreeable. The ability to cultivate friends is a powerful aid to success. have amounte d to half so much. Everything seems to point their way. Many successful business and professional men would be surprised. It will help you to self-expression as no thing else will. clients. This was one of Lincoln's c hief characteristics. Had it not been for these. It doubles success possibilities. Mr. long-headedness. it bring s clients to the lawyer. In trying to be popular. clients. he must keep back his bad tendencies. It pays to cultivate popularity. was crowded. They ar e often a substitute for a large amount of hard work. to find what a large percentage of it is due to their h abitual courtesy and other popular qualities. indifferent man. perhaps. The power to please is a tremendous asset. when banks fail. Herndon. of making friends and holding them with hooks of steel! People are influenced powerfully by their friendships. it will broaden your s ympathies. for making himself ag reeable under all circumstances. and a popular business or professional man has every advantage in the world over a col d. you can not overestimate the i mportance of cultivating that charm of manner. gentlemanly. rude man ners drive away clients." But if we analyze these men closely. even when they do no t apparently make half so much effort to get it as the less successful. if his coarse. It is difficult to conceive of any more delightful birthright than to be born with this personal charm. their s agacity.

they would acc omplish wonders.t some advantage from everybody else will ever be attractive. but getting his sympathy and good will. Many of us are n o better than uneducated heathens. The secret of pleasing is in being pleasant yourself. he first draws from his audience. so that he could say things and do things impossible to him when alone? The power of the orator. and no matter how busy or how worried you may b e. If you radiate sweetness and light. new forces. It is difficult to snub the man who possesses it. when coming into contact with a stron g personality which has called forth hidden powers which he never before dreamed he possessed. take infinite pains to cultiva te all the little graces and qualities which go to make up popularity.--who gives us his sympathy. are developed. to approach a prospective customer as though you had known him for years without offending his taste. in the smile. those with great personal charm. a coarse. stingy soul is not lovable. somehow you haven't the heart to turn away the man with a pleasing personality. we are repelled by people who are always trying to get som ething out of us. who elbow their way in front of us. trying to get away from the sh adows. for we are all looking for the sunlight. and a keener edge put on all of his faculties. The narrow. On the other hand. brutal manner repels. in the hand-shake. We are naturally d isgusted with people who are trying to get everything for themselves and never t hink of anybody else. and magnanimous. People shrink from such a character. regardless of others. to their sharpening our faculties. encouragement. who are always looking for the easiest chair. There is something about h im which arrests your prejudice. in being interesting. his intellect sharpened. for our success and happiness depend largely upon them. Popular people. which is unmistaka ble. There must be heartiness in the ex pression. who are always wanting to be waited on first at the restaura nt or hotel. or how much you may dislike to be interrupted. you must be magnanimous. We may know enough. The ability to bring the best that is in you to the man you are trying to reach . or for the choicest bits at the table. wit hout raising the least prejudice. If you would be agreeable. people will love to get n ear you. If people who are naturally unsocial would only spend as much time and take as much pains as people who are social favorites in making themselves popular. and this is what commands a great salary. radiating hope. It is in contact and combination only that ne w creations. a . It is unfortunate that these things are not taught more in the home and in the school. sympathetic. Everybody is attracted by lovable qualities and is repelled by the unlovely whe rever found. to get the best seat in a car or a hall. The hardest natures can not resist these qualities any more than the eyes c an resist the sun. The whole principle of an attractive personality lives in this sent ence. but we give ourselves out stingily and we live narrow and reserved lives. when we should be broad. We little realize what a large part of our achievement is due to others working through us. A fine manner pleases. in the cordiality. Who has not felt his power multiplied many times. We cannot help bein g attracted to one who is always trying to help us. genero us. There is a charm in a gracious personality from which it is very hard to get aw ay. which he flings back to his listeners. but he could never get it from the separate individuals any more than the chemist could get the full power from chemicals standing in s eparate bottles in his laboratory. is a g reat accomplishment. to make a good impression at the very first meeting. who is always trying to make us comfortable and to give us every advantage he ca n.

A man who might have been symmetrical. for calling out your best social qualities. that we become polished and attractive. A large part of the value of a college education comes from the social intercourse of th e students. remains a pygmy in everythin g except his own little specialty. which stimulate ambition. the more you fling yourself out to them without reserve. Many an author owes his great est book. . well-rounded. If you go into social life with a determination to give it something. which have remained dormant for the lack of exercise. meanly.--the power to do an immortal thin g. It is astonishing how much you can learn from people in social intercourse when you know how to look at them rightly. an d make you more of a man. Two people with a strong affinity often call into activity in each other a power which neither dreamed he possessed before. The more generously you give. something which will help h im on his way. Everybody he meets has some secret for him. something which will enrich his life. finding ne w islands of power in himself which would have remained forever hidden but for a ssociation with others. or even both of those which unite. because we can always carry away somethin g of value. which will enlarge and broaden your experience. to make i t a school for self-improvement. the buttressing of character by association. but the k nowledge which comes from mind intercourse is invaluable. But you must give it something. When you learn to look upon every one you meet as holding a treasure. Two substances totally unlike. something which will enrich your life. narrowly. Book knowledge is valuable. something which he never knew before. or you will receive only stingy rivule ts. No man finds himself alone. and sustaining and inspiring us mentally. but having a chemical affinity for each other. the more magnanimous you are. You will not receive if you give out stingily. had he availed himself of every opportunity of touching life along all sides. and t he pitting of brain against brain. and open up new hopes and possibilities. Others are his discoverers. for developing the latent brain cells. or you will not get anything. generous way. when you might have had great rivers and torrents of blessings. and esp ecially of mixing with those above us. because he did not cultivate his social side. You must give of y ourself in a whole-hearted. The more you rad iate yourself. We are apt to overestimate the value of an education from books alone. or by some one they happened to meet w ho saw in them what no one else had ever seen. You must give much in order to get much. About all you get from others is a reflex of the curre nts from yourself. The current will not set toward you un til it goes out from you. m ay produce a third infinitely stronger than either. It is through social intercourse that our rough corners are rubbed o ff. his cleverest saying to a friend who has aroused in him latent powers which otherwise might have remained dormant. you will not think the time in the drawing-room wasted .nd helpfulness into our lives. if he can on ly extract it. the reenforcement. Artists have been touched by the po wer of inspiration through a masterpiece. the more you get in return. the more you will get back. The man who mixes with his fellows is ever on a voyage of discovery. you will not find society either a bore or unprofitable. But it is a fact that you can only get a great deal out of them by giving them a great deal of yourself. brighten the ideals . It is always a mistake to miss an opportunity of meeting with our kind. Thei r faculties are sharpened and polished by the attrition of mind with mind. the more generous of yourself.

and to make amends for them. strong men drawn there from different parts of the country by the gold fever. had the slightest chance of bein g elected to any office of prominence while "Ike" was around. How different the man who comes out in the open. and we are ready to mak e allowances for them. and when asked why the miners and the people in the town couldn't help liking him. Frankness of manner is one of the most delightful of traits in young or old. His heart is sound and true. he was a man. but there is a lurking fea r of some pitfall or unknown danger ahead of us. He always 'elps the boys when in trouble. He was elected mayor of his town. and that he has an ulterior purpose in view. however educated or cultured. It he has bad qualities. We may come out all right. They are. He endeavors to hide every trait that is not favorable to himself. They inspire love and confidence. Secretiveness repels as much as frankness attracts. who reveal s his heart to us." . The very qualities he possesses--frankness and simplicity. and knew nothing of the usages of polite society. and. graduates of Eastern colleges. if he ca n help it. namely. who wo n the love and good will of everyone. because he is always ready to confess his faults. We cannot have the same confidence in people who possess this trait. They may be all right. He could scarcely write his name. There is always a feeling of uncertainty. the people who have nothing to conceal. and wh o do not try to cover up their faults and weaknesses. "You can't 'elp likin' 'im. He is a lways more or less of an enigma. "I recognize but one m ental acquisition as an essential part of the education of a lady or gentleman. his sympathies are broad and active. were there seeking t heir fortune. by their very f rankness and simplicity. and may deal squarely with us. CHAPTER XVII IF YOU CAN TALK WELL When Charles W. handsome young men. Never. as a culture chisel. yet he so intrenched himself in the hearts in his community t hat no other man. You never go to 'im for nothin'. we can never rid ourselves of the feeling that there is a moti ve behind his graciousness. large -hearted and magnanimous. broad and liberal! How quickly he wins our confidence! How we all like and trust him! We forgive him for many a slip or wea kness." Bright. no matter h ow good they may seem to be. sunny natures.The man who is determined to get on will look upon every experience as an educa tor. as a rule. ignorant miner. although he coul d not speak a grammatical sentence. Ev erybody admires the open-hearted. invite the same qualities in others. he answered. There is something about th e very inclination to conceal or cover up which arouses suspicion and distrust. No matter how polite or gracious a secreti ve person may be. he said. but we are not sure and can not trust them. "Because he has a 'eart in 'im. and who is frank. as in frank. It was all because he had a heart in him. they are always in sight. who has no secrets." said an Engli sh miner. and sent to the legislature. In the Black Hills of South Dakota there lived a humble. do we get a glimpse of the real man. which will make his life a little more shapely and att ractive. but none of them held the public confidence like this poor man.--are conduci ve to the growth of the highest manhood and womanhood. an accurate and refined use of the mother-tongue. he's a man. because he goes through life wearing a mask. a great many able. Eliot was president of Harvard. Dealing with these secr etive people is like traveling on a stage coach on a dark night. We are uncomfortable because of the uncertainties.

Sir Walter Scott defined "a good conversationalist" as "one who has ideas. who can interest others immediately by his power of speech. "Talk. It not only helps you to make a good impression upon stra ngers. everyone who comes in contact with you will see your life-picture. The temptation for people who are unaccustomed to society. talk. always gives this advice to her protégés. who has the art of putting things in an attractive way . no matter how talented you may be. by the very superiority of your conversationa l ability. if used as an educator. listens. is to be the possessor of a very great accomplishment. She enter tains. but chatter away lightly and gayly. To be a good conversationalist. unl ess you have very marked ability so that your pictures are hung in the salons or in the great art galleries. but who cannot express himself with ease or eloquence. It opens doors and softens he arts. No matter how expert you may be in any other art or accomplishment. is a tremendous power developer. She may have many defects. and who feel diff ident. Good talkers are always sought after in society. You may be a painter. but talk . but people enjoy her society because she can t alk well. or without anyone guessing your special ty. and you may have a very beautiful home and a lot of property which c omparatively few people ever know about. But wherever you go and in whatever society you are. A noted society leader. you cannot use your expertness always and everywhere as you can the power to converse well. only comparatively few people can ever hear or appreciate your music . and who has therefore something to say. It helps you into the be st society. Conversation. has a very great a dvantage over one who may know more than he. who has been very successful in the launching of débutant es in society. is to say nothing themselves and listen to what others say. Everyone knows whether you are an artist or a bungler. So-and-So to dinners or receptions because she is such a good talker. or how much it may hav e cost you. and yet. patients. comparatively few people will ever see them. who reads. If you are a musician. as the ability to converse wel l. to rivet their attenti on. but if you are a good converser. and yet travel around the world without having an opp ortunity of showing your accomplishment. Nothing embarrasses and bores the average man so much as a girl who has to be entertained. you may have a great many accomplishments which people occasionally se e or enjoy. It does not ma tter much what you say. you talk. It makes you interesting in all sorts of company. You may be a fine singer. thinks." There is a helpful suggestion in this advice. It helps you to get on i n the world. one which is s uperior to all others. even though you are poor." There is no other one thing which enables us to make so good an impression. to draw them to you naturally. A man who can talk well. The way to learn to talk is to ta lk. In fact. or how many years you may have spent in perfecting yourself in your specialty. esp ecially upon those who do not know us thoroughly. everyo ne with whom you talk will feel the influence of your skill and charm. able to interest people. which you have been painting ever since you began to talk . It sends you clients. no matter what your sta tion in life may be. Everybody wants to invite Mrs. it also helps you to make and keep friends. customers. But if you are an artist in conversation. you may have spent years with great masters.

you may be tortured with an unsatisfied. This is the price of all achievement that is of value. his words are chosen with such exquisite delicacy. What you say. Every book you read. but the foolish. is a great pow er." We might as well say that good lawyers. slipshod speech. without an effort to express oneself with clearness. limpid beauty." and a score of other such vulgarities we often hear. to hold them. silly talk which demoralizes o ne's ambition. your breedin g or lack of it. who knows a thing. It will tell your whole life's story. Thousands of young people who envy such of their mates as are getting on faster than they are keep on wasting their precious evenings and their half-holidays. to mak e an effort to express ourselves with elegance. Poor conversers excuse themselves for not trying to improve by saying that "goo d talkers are born. and accuracy. There is no accomplishment. not made. "Well. will betray all your secrets. There is no doubt that the gift of language was intended to be a much greate r accomplishment than the majority of us have ever made of it. It lies too deep for such superficial effort. or efficiency. Many a man owes his advancement very largely to his ability to converse well. there is such a refinement in his diction that he charms everyone who hears him speak. None of them would ever get very f ar without hard work. and you may not be able to go to school or co llege. The man who has a bungling expression. Few people think very much about how they are going to express themselves. flippant. because it beg ets habits of superficial and senseless thinking. and has cultivated conversation as a fine art. will never get hold of the best thing in a man. You may be situated so t hat others are dependent upon you. good phys icians. His language flows with such liqu id. because we do not make an art of i t. "You're talking through your hat". and how you say it. coarse voices are heard in light. is always placed at a great disadvantage. "Search me". or commanding language. saying nothing but the most frivolous. he gets on my n erves. senseless things--things which do not rise to the level of humor. on the cars. or good merchants are born. an d yet you can become an interesting talker. slipshod English. All his life he has been a reader of the finest prose and poet ry. conci seness. every person with whom you converse. so quickly as your conversation. in coarse slang expressions. or gossiping.ing without thinking. or to study music or art. Most of us express ourselves in sloppy. interesting. Most of us are bunglers in our conversation. You may think you are poor and have no chance in life. disappointed ambition. We do not read eno ugh or think enough. They use the first words that come to them. that's the limit". who uses good English. mere chattering. loud. not made. but never can put it in logical. ease. T he ability to interest people in your conversation. as fine conversati on. will giv e the world your true measure. They do not think of forming a sentence . "You just bet". you may be tied down to an iron environment. and power. can help you. b ecause it is so much easier to do so than it is to think before we speak. taste. I know a business man who has cultivated the art of conversation to such an ext ent that it is a great treat to listen to him. the average society small talk. frothy. lowers one's ideals and all the standards of life. a nd in public places. which will give so much pleasure to your friends. because in every sentence you utter you can practise the best form of expression. "I hate that man. Nothing else will indicate your fineness or coarseness of culture. as you long to. On the streets. we do not take the trouble or pains to learn to talk well. no attainment which you can use so constantly and e ffectively.

so that it will have beauty. brevity. to be somebo dy. Now and then we meet a real artist in conversation. the liquid charm of his words. We know other people who talk very little. . There were no great daily newspapers. and the music of his voice. they do not stimulate us to actio n. The deterioration is due to the complete revolution in the condition s of modern civilization. Printing has become so chea p that even the poorest homes can get more reading for a few dollars than kings and noblemen could afford in the Middle Ages. the profundity of his knowledge. and to develop our powers of conversation. in these strenuous times. the new world op ened up by inventions and discoveries. who impre ss us by the wonderful flow of their conversation. Livermore. after we have heard them talk than we felt before. when ev erybody has the mania to attain wealth and position. and his marvelous art of putting things. that it is in deed a luxury. The great discoveries of vast wealth in the precious minerals. In this lightning-express age. the fascination of his personality. Julia Ward Howe. In olden times the art of conversation reached a much higher standard than that of to-day. Knowledge of all kinds was disseminated almost wholly through the spoken word. the purity. I was once a visitor at Wendell Phillips's home in Boston. eve rybody sits behind the morning sheet or is buried in a book or magazine. Mary A. power. when everybody can get for one or a few cents the news and information which it has cost thousands of dollars to collect. The words flow from t heir lips helter-skelter. and the great impetus to ambition have ch anged all this. There i s no longer the same need of communicating thought by the spoken word. but that is all there is to i t. and delight that we wonder why the most of us should be such ation. and it seemed to me that I had never heard such exquisite and polished English." Mrs. It is a rare thing to find a polished conversationalist to-day. I have met several Englis h people who possessed that marvelous power of "soul in conversation which charm s all who come under its spell. So rare is it t o hear one speaking exquisite English. Ward. as has ex-President Eliot of Harvard. the transparency of his dicti on. and Elizabeth S. with little thought of arrangement or order. had this won derful conversational charm. when it is capable of being made the art of it is such a treat and bunglers in our convers communication between h arts. but whose words are so full of meat and stimulating brain force that we feel ourselves multiplied many times by the power they have injected into us. We do not feel any more determined to do something in the world. and using a superb diction. I shall never forget. P. Oratory is becoming a lost art for the same reason. We all know people who use the c hoicest language and express their thoughts in fluent. that we should make such a botch of the medium of uman beings. liquid diction. transparency. The quality of the conversation is everything. I have met a dozen persons in my lifetime who have given me such a glimpse of i ts superb possibilities that it has made all other arts seem comparatively unimp ortant to me. we no longer have time to r eflect with deliberation. no magazi nes or periodicals of any kind. Formerly people had almost no other way of communicati ng their thoughts than by speech. He sat down on the sofa beside me and talked as he would to an old schoolmate. In these gr eat newspaper and periodical days. They do not impress us with their thoughts.

who know a great deal. Timid young people often suffer keenly in this way in att empting to declaim at school or college. who have that awfu l feeling of repression and stifling of thought. but they cannot express them because o f the poverty of their vocabulary. even if you fail in your attempt. you may be wonderfully well-posted in science. nobody would appreciate it until it was ground and polished and the light let into its depths to reveal its hidden brilliancy. People with a lot of ability. when he first attempted to speak in public and was of ten deeply humiliated by his blunders and failures. Locked-up ability may give the individual some satisfaction. The grinding does not add anything to the diamond. when they want a particular word to convey their exact meaning. you may be sure that every honest effort you make. when they are infinitely bette r informed than those who are making a great deal of display of oratory or smoot h talk. shallow-brained person holds the at tention of those present simply because he can tell what he knows in an interest ing way. if one keeps on trying. and will gain ease of manner and facility of expression. you must be as much as possible in the socie ty of well-bred. they can not find it. but i t will also increase one's vocabulary. Everywhere we see people placed at a tremendous disadvantage because they have never learned the art of putting their ideas into interesting. l iterature. before the world will appreciate it or give credit for it. w ould avail. If you seclude yourself. If you find that your ideas fly from you when you attempt to express them. if your knowledge is locked up within you. unable to tell what they know. but it must be exh ibited. We all sympathize with people. when they make an effort to say something and cannot. telling language. wil l make it all the easier for you to speak well the next time. howev er. no describing its marvels of beauty within. and that is a great aid to conversation. They have not words enough to clothe their id eas and make them attractive. But it is just as important to know how to give out knowledge in a pal atable manner as to acquire it.Good reading. b ecause. and its great value. though you are a coll ege graduate. and art. when momentous questions are being disc ussed. however. sit silent. Conversation is to th e man what the cutting of the diamond is to the stone. often appear like a set of dummies in company. There is no other way. But many a great orator went through th e same sort of experience. and yet. It is remarkable. Many people have good thoughts and ideas. We see brainy men at public gatherings. repeat and repeat. Many people--and this is especially true of scholars--seem to think that the gr eat desideratum in life is to get as much valuable information into the head as possible. because they can not carry on an intelligent c onversation upon any topic. cultured people. that you stammer and flounder about for words which you are unable to find. If you are ambitious to talk well. you will be a poor converser. to become an orator or a good conversationalist than by constantly trying to express oneself efficiently and elegantly. while some superficial. You may be a profound scholar. They are constantly humiliated and embarrassed when away from those who happen to know their real worth. It merely reveals its wealth. It does not matter how valuable the rough diamond may be. will not only broaden the mind and give new ideas. There are hundreds of these silent people at our nat ional capital--many of them wives of husbands who have suddenly and unexpectedly come into political prominence. . you may be well r ead in history and in politics. you will always be placed at a great disadvantage. how quickly he will conquer his awkwardness and self-con sciousness. expressed in some attractive way. They talk around in a circle. n o explaining. especially the timid and shy.

for there was a touch of personality. a great revealer of possibilities a nd resources. and interrupt the speaker before he reaches his conclusion. we are inclined to look upon them as so many rungs in a ladde r. Many get the b est part of their education in this school. Many a college graduate has been silenced and put to shame by peo ple who have never even been to a high school. and to value them in proportion as they furnish readers for our books." Nervous impatience is a conspicuous characteristic of the American people. the faculties are on the alert. if we can interest and hold others. or more money. No man knows what he really possesses until he makes his best effort to express to others what is in him. It was better than most modern lectures. intelligently. a superb personality which fascinated. clients. To converse well one must listen well also--hold oneself in a receptive attitud e. Nothing else will develop the brain and character more than the constant effort to talk well.How little parents realize the harm they are doing their children by allowing t hem to grow up ignorant of or indifferent to the marvelous possibilities in the art of conversation! In the majority of homes. than anyth ing one could find in a book. Before these days of hurry and drive. perhaps snap our watch. or which d oes not help us to attain the position for which we are striving. "We are too intense for epigram or repartee. Instead of enj oying our friends. For the hun . The school and the college employ the student comparatively a few hours a day f or a few years. the contact of mind with mind . We are not only poor conversationalists. a magnetism which held. children are allowed to mangle th e English language in a most painful way. develops new powers. Then the avenues of the mind fly open. interestingly. and which often stimulates and inspires to fre sh endeavor. The power to do so increase s our self-respect. Our life is feverish and unnatural. but who have cultivated the art o f self-expression. but we are poor listeners as well. Instead of being attentive and eager to drink in th e story or the information. We know people who are such superb conver sers that no one would ever dream that they have not had the advantages of the h igher schools. before this age of excitement. There is a splendid discipline in the constant effort to express one's thoughts in clear language and in an interesting manner. hitch about as if we were bored and were anxious t o get away. We have no time to develop charm of manner. Every good converser has felt a power come to him from the lis tener which he never felt before. We look about impatiently. We are too impatient to listen. play a tattoo with our f ingers on a chair or a table. Ever ything bores us which does not bring us more business. conversation is a training in a perpetual school. send u s patients. In fact. it was con sidered one of the greatest luxuries possible to be a listener in a group surrou nding an intelligent talker. as the mixing of two chemicals often produces a new third substance. we have not enough respect for the talker to keep qu iet. or elegance of diction. our self-confidence. we are such an impatient people that we have no time for anything excepting to push ahead. a charm of s tyle. We think more of ourselves if w e can talk well. to elbow our way through the crowd to get the position or the money we desire. upon all sorts of topics. It stimulates thought wonderfully. Conversation is a great ability discoverer. The mingling of thought with thought. We lack time. customers or show their ability to give us a boost for poli tical position.

People thought her an interesting c onversationalist because she had this ability to call out the best in others. yearning for an education." accompanied by a sh arp nod of the head. Spontaneity and humor. It does not do to stab people if you would interest them. Our conversation will never reach a high standard while we l ive in such a feverish. too intent upon our own self-promotion to be interested in others. We pay people for doing that while we sit and laugh. or how they can help you. business and their own little worl d. and unsympathetic state. Everything must give way to the material. and you must touch them along the lines of their interest. too busily engaged in our own welfare. Great conversationalists have always been very tactful--interesting without off ending. We are like some coll ege boys. to live it with the other person. We have no time for the development of a fine manner. sometimes. though she talked very little. or abandon themselves to the occasion enough to make good talkers. It is pitiable. There are only two things that interest them.gry soul. business. business. who depend upon tutors to carry them through their examinations--they expect to buy their education ready-made. selfish. distant. to drink in knowledge from those wise lips was to be fed with a royal feast indeed. and m ade them feel at home. It is: "How do?" or "Morning. almost helpless. and then rush to a theater or other place of amusement in the evening. that our finer life is crushed out. If you would make yourself agreeable you must be able to enter into the life of the people you are conversing with. and wrapped up in our own little wor ld. to be a good listener o r a good talker. They do not enter heartily into the lives of others. No matter how much you may know about a subject. thinking how they can get on a little faster--get more business. You must be able to ente r into another's life. how you get on. No one ca n make a good conversationalist who is not sympathetic. we driv e our human engines at such a fearful speed. thinki ng. because their minds are somewhere else. the charm of the days of chivalry and leisure has almost vanished from our civilization. A new type of in dividual has sprung up. If you talk about these things. or what your ambition is. Walter Besant used to tell of a clever woman who had a great reputation as a co nversationalist. to see men standing around at the average reception or club gathering. they are interested at once. so diverse from naturalness. and powerless to enter heartily into t he conversation because they are in a subjective mood. They are thinking. how they can make more show. and they could say things to her which they could not say to anyone else. more patients. more clients. their affections on themselves and their own affairs. They are cold and reserved. She dissipated their fears. She had such a cordial. nor to drag ou t their family skeletons. so forced. We have no time to make our own amusement or to develop the faculty of humor and fun-making as people used t o do. Some people have the peculiar quality of touching the . and the possibility of a fine culture and a superb charm of personality in us are almost impossible and extremely rare. if it does not happen to interest those to whom you are talking your efforts will be largely lo st. One cause for our conversational decline is a lack of sympathy. but they do not care a snap about your affairs. sympathe tic manner that she helped the timid and the shy to say their best things. Life is becoming so artificial. instead of by a graceful bow." We have no time to stop on the street and give a decent salutation. or more readers for the ir books--or a better house to live in. We work like Trojans during the day. thinking business. We have no time for the grace s and the charms. We are too self ish. dumb. But to-day everything is "touch and go.

You lock tight all the approaches to your inner self. Therefore. to be a good conversationalist you must be spontaneous. and they call out all that is spontaneous and sweet and beauti ful. interesting language. Every time they come into our presen ce they irritate us. of justice. Lincoln was master of the art of making himself interesting to everybody he met . If you are co ld. disgusts. never inter ests you. Vivacity is abs olutely necessary. one gets on in the world. mechanical. tolerant. A narrow stingy soul never talks well. effective. which. and must enter heart and soul into things which interest others. Than hew to it with thy sword. no amount of money. No amount of natural ability or education or good clothes.best that is in us. You must bring your listener close to you. he has not the trouble of earning or owning them . and always gave more than he got. and you ca n only interest them by a warm sympathy--a real friendly sympathy. He put people at ease with his stories and jokes. and of fairness. He should not be obliged to give a stranger an inventory of his possessions in order to show tha t he has achieved something. and exp ress itself in his manner. every avenue is closed to him. You must get the attention of people and hold it by interesting them. He does not deal too muc h with facts. they solicit him to enter and possess. others stir up the bad. and. A man who i s always violating your sense of taste. and without life or feeling. it ought to be in his personality.--EMERSON. buoyant. however. must open your heart wide. of course. CHAPTER XVIII A FORTUNE IN GOOD MANNERS Give a boy address and accomplishments. and made them feel so comple tely at home in his presence that they opened up their mental treasures to him w ithout reserve. if you lack the sense o f humor. Heavy conversation bores. nat ural. They never touch our sensitive spots. in his power to express himself in strong. Strangers were always glad to talk with him because he was so co rdial and quaint. Your magnetism and your helpfulness are thus cut off. Facts. too light. Thou must rather enforce it with thy smile. and an open mind. If a man is a success anywhere. Others allay all that is disagreeable. and must show a spirit of good will. You must be broad. SHAKESPEARE. no matter how important. although there is appare . sympathetic. and the con versation is perfunctory.--GERMAN PROVERB. statistics. so that he wil l throw wide open every avenue of his nature and give you free access to his hea rt of hearts. What thou wilt. distant. But not everyone can be funny. A sense of humor such as Lincoln had is. and you give him the mastery of palaces and fortunes wherever he goes. With hat in hand. a great addition to one's c onversational power. weary. and unsympathetic you can not hold their attention. is not too serious. You must feel a spirit o f helpfulness. Politeness has been compared to an air cushion. A greater wealth should flow from his lips. will make you appear well if you use poor English. You must be responsive. you will make yourself ludicrous by attempting to be funny. A good conversationalist. and exhib it a broad free nature.

saying that no place could . Conduct is three fourths of life. and health and happ iness were everywhere. according to a quaint old legend. let 'im cock 'is chin hup. all the beasts and birds a nd men smiled at its coming. Open to the Queen of England!" haughtily responded her Majesty. the warm th and sparkle and gladness and beauty and life were the only answer Zephyr gave to the insolent question of the proud but pitiless East Wind. all the forests and fields. and all the r ivers and lakes and seas. Mien and manner have much to do with our influence and reputation in any walk of life. There was no reply. whose manly self-respect was smarting at her words. men cut down forests for th eir fires and explore the mines of continents for coal to feed their furnaces. fleecy clouds went sailing in the lofty heaven. and Prince Albert. "Has 'e 's been han hofficer 'e bought to know 'ow to be'ave 'isself better. orchards ripened. hi say. but breedin's better. I can lift and have often lifted the Atlantic. your wife. helse 'e might just has well be a Methodist parson. and was sent in charge of an angel to find his prope r place in the nether world.--MATTHEW ARNOLD. and even the good angels went a long way to see him and live with him. whe n I start they hail me by storm signals all along the coast. and he seemed to change the hell into a heaven. when a worthy fellow soldier wished to be reinstated in a position from which he had been dismissed. "Don't you wish you had my power?" asked the East Wind of the Zephyr. silver wheat-fie lds turned to gold. died while under the ban of e xcommunication by the pope. U nder my breath the nations crouch in sepulchers." The English is somewhat rude. and to keep me from piercing to the very marrow of their bones. I am the terror of all invalids. "It is I. "Why. but with the same result. sought the seclusion of his own apartment. The fallen angels adopted his manner. What use 'ud 'e be has a non-commissioned hoffice r hif 'e didn't dare look 'is men in the face? Hif a man wants to be a soldier. Victoria. "Who is it?" inquired the Prince. an give a crack hover the 'ead to hanybody who comes foolin' round 'im. With one sweep of my wing I st rew the coast from Labrador to Cape Horn with shattered ship timber. After a long interval there came a gentle tapping and the low spo ken words: "It is I. Birth's gude. The foliage and flowers and fruits and harvests. At length the angel returned with the monk. Gardens bloomed. or that the disagreement was at an end? It is said that civility is to a man what beauty is to a woman: it creates an instantaneous impression in hi s behalf. The story goes that Queen Victoria once expressed herself to her husband in rat her a despotic tone. I can twist off a s hip's mast as easily as you can waft thistledown. the pinions of birds and the sails of vessels were gently wafted onward. but it expresses pretty forcibly the fact that a good bearing is indispensable to success as a soldier. "Why the doose de 'e 'old 'is 'ead down like that?" asked a cockney sergeant-ma jor angrily. Don't you wish you had my power ?" Zephyr made no reply. eases our jolts wonderfully." Is it necessary to add that the door was opened. The monk Basle. CAREY. switch 'is stick abart a bit. but floated from out the bowers of the sky. He was remove d to the lowest depths of Hades. closing and locking the d oor. But his genial disposition and great conversational powers won friends wherever he went.ntly nothing in it. In about five minutes some one knocked. His inborn politeness and kindness of heart were irresistible.--GEORGE L.--SCOTCH PROVERB.

His fascinating smile and winning speech disarmed the fiercest hatred and made friends of the bitterest enemies." whispered a servant to Madame de Maintenon at dinner. twenty thousand francs were put into it. "Please. The intoxication of the conversation had made t hem insensible to all notice of weather or rough roads. "I feel the m agic of his wonderful deportment. whom he regarded as an arch-traitor. who was witho ut arms or legs. At the great recep tion to Napoleon on his return from Italy. Beuve. "it seemed like the ceasing of exquisite music." Madame Récamier was so charming that when she passed around the box at the Church St.. P. of thunder-storm. "one an ecdote more." said she fifty years afterwards. A guest for two weeks at the house of Arthur M. and breathed a purer air. they knew nothi ng. Her father took her from the courtroom." as Longfellow wrote of Evangeline. they had forgotten earth. no. The Duke of Marlborough "wrote English badly and spelled it worse. such a conversation between Madame de Staël and Madame Récamier and Benjamin Constant and Schlegel! they were all in a state of delight. But sh e was so fascinated by Burr's charming manner that she sat with his friends. was very desirous of knowing how he fed himself. and dange r and gloom to the whole company. So his sente nce was revoked." said one who knew him well." She was so fascinating in manner and speech that her guests appeared to overlook all the little discomforts of life. "If I were Queen. "it was like the sud den kindling of a big fire. but the conver sation and manner of the host were so charming that the visitor was scarcely con scious of his deformity. the crowd caught sight of this fascin ating woman and almost forgot to look at the great hero.be found in which to punish him. and locked her up. of danger." It is said that when Goethe entered a restaurant people would lay down their kn . Those arriving in the first coach had a rueful experience to relate--a terrific thunder-storm. A gentleman took his daughter of sixteen to Richmond to witness the trial of hi s bitter personal enemy." yet he sway ed the destinies of empires. by which every one was warmed. commonplace and ashamed. "When Dickens entered a room. H er hold upon the minds of men was wonderful. shocking roads. They were the creatures of her will . In the words of Whittier it could be said of her as might be said of any woman: -Our homes are cheerier for her sake. "I should command Madame de Staël to talk to me every day. M." said Madame Tesse. for there is no roast to-day. Cavanaugh." "When sh e had passed. "To this day." Madame de Staël was anything but beautiful. He still remained the same Basle. of steeps. the privileged circle at Coppet after making an excursi on returned from Chambéry in two coaches. and she shaped careers as if she were omnipotent. Our door-yards brighter blooming. And all about the social air Is sweeter for her coming. The party in the second coach heard their stor y with surprise. Even the Emperor Napoleon fe ared her influence over his people so much that he destroyed her writings and ba nished her from France. and he was sent to Heaven and canonized as a saint. of mud. Madame. Aaron Burr. The charm of his manner was irresistible and influe nced all Europe. but she possessed that indefinable so mething before which mere conventional beauty cowers. but she was so overcome by the fine manner of the accused that she believed in his innocence and prayed for his acquittal. According to St. Roche in Paris.

after speaking to her a few minutes. She withd rew in confusion. he said. who was a Scotch peasant. a moment later. after hearing the report of Demosthenes' famous oration." His manner as well as his logic was irresistible. I could have sent my colored boy. but the hints had no effect. although she watched his dumb." whereat the courtiers were ready to faint. when Prince of Wales. invi ted an eminent man to dine with him. Arthur when Mr. when a somewhat stout man sitting just ahead of her lighted a cigar. and do not know that there is a smoking-car attached t o the train. being tired. Philip of Macedon. but threw hi s cigar from the window. "You wouldn't have got in till morning if I had not come. sai d: "Had I been there he would have persuaded me to take up arms against myself. What has her astonishment when the conductor told her. to find all the doors locked. Julian Ralph. but what was his chagrin when the door wa s opened by the President of the United States! "Why. can be better understood from what an acquaintance of Carlyle said of him wh . and what it may have cost h er. She co ughed and moved uneasily. the guest. When Edward Everett took a professor's chair at Harvard after five years of stu dy in Europe. Queen Victoria sent for Carlyle." Henry Clay was so graceful and impressive in his manner that a Pennsylvania tav ern-keeper tried to induce him to get out of the stage-coach in which they were riding. offering him the tit le of nobleman. The Que en's courteous suspension of the rules of etiquette." The late King Edward. Ralph asked his pardon. immovable fig ure with apprehension until she reached the door. that she had entered the private car of General Grant. the other members of the princely household took the r ebuke and did the same. Smoking is not permitted here." The man made no reply. He understood so little of the manners at court that.ives and forks to admire him. for there was not one of those five cases that ca me before us where he wasn't on the right side. Silent and abashed. returned to his hotel at two o'clock in the morning. An open titter of amusement w ent round the table. but no one could d escribe. the first gentleman in Europe. when prese nted to the Queen. "I don't think much of Choate's spread-eagle talk. and make a speech to himself and his wife. to the c onsternation of the others." said a simple-minded member of a jury that had given five successive verdicts to the great advocate. and gave a gesture that seated all her puppets in a moment." said Mr. His great popularity lay in a magical atmosphere which every one felt. "but I call him a very lucky lawyer. which he declined. drank from his saucer. so she said tartly: "You probably are a foreigner. and which never left him. No one is up in the house b ut me. A New York lady had just taken her seat in a car on a train bound for Philadelp hia. but he had fallen asleep and I hated to wake him. he was almost worshiped by the students. he battere d at a side door to wake the servants. gravely emptied his cup into his saucer and drank after the manner of his g uest. His manner seemed touched by that exquisite grace seldom found except in women of rare culture. When coffee was served. still less of a look of amusement. But she was g reat enough. The Prince. but the same fine courtesy which led him to give up his cigar was shown again as he spared her the mortification of even a questioning glance. With two friends who had accompanied him. quickly noting the cause of the untimely amusem ent. "L et us sit down. that's all right. feeling that he had always been a nobleman in his own right. after telegraphing an account of President Arthur's fishing-trip to the Thousand Islands. madam.

" Some persons wield a scepter before which others seem to bow in glad obedience. has no sharp angles. Noblemen are forbidden to strike their wives in company. in some unaccountable manner. But it spread the morning's glory Over the livelong day. there was such pushing and struggling to see the Princess. Beauty of life and character. Our good is less good when it i . These rul es were "the ticket" or the etiquette. I expected to meet a rare being. 'I will!'--namely.en he saw him for the first time. Mirabeau was one of the ugliest men in France." But to-day the nobles of R ussia have no superiors in manners. Etiquette originally meant the ticket or tag tied to a bag to indicate its cont ents. "in which I would voluntarily use the words. Even royal courts furnish many exa mples of bad manners. as it was sometim es expressed. to which only the very cream of the cream of society was a dmitted. benignity. a bust of the Princess Royal was thrown from its pedestal and damaged. or pick their teeth with forks. and the pedestal up set. The Greeks thought beauty was a proof of the peculiar favor of the gods. At an entertainment given years ago by Prince Edward and t he Princess of Wales. to act or talk by the card. Her fascinating manners and her wonderful powers of persuasion were more influential than the loyalty of any dozen men in France in attaching to him the adherents who would promote his interests. or had had an attack of seasickness. The secret of her personality that made her the Empress not only of the hearts of the Frenchmen. 'I will that all around me be happy. and considered that beauty only worth adorning and transmitting whi ch was unmarred by outward manifestations of hard and haughty feeling. became the thing with the better class es. that. "His presence. Ladies of the court must not wash out their mouths in the drinking-glasses. But whence do they obtain such magic power? What is the secret of that almost h ypnotic influence over people which we would give anything to possess? Courtesy is not always found in high places." or. To be "the ticket. From this the word passed to cards upon which were printed certain rules to be observed by guests. as she passed through the reception rooms.' As she passed along the way. she published the follo wing rules of etiquette upon cards: "Gentlemen will not get drunk before the fea st is ended. has been beautifully told by herself. It is sharp angles that keep man y souls from being beautiful that are almost so. charity. When Catherine of Russia gave receptions to her nobles. Its lines seem co ntinuous. so gently does curve melt into curve. Josep hine was to the drawing-room and the salon what Napoleon was to the field--a pre eminent leader. contentment. and love. It was fortunate for Napoleon that he married Josephine before he was made comm ander-in-chief of the armies of Italy. actually stood upon it. r asped the nerves. and the ladies. "There is only one occasion. The most fas cinating person is always the one of most winning manners. as in art." A fine manner more than compensates for all the defects of nature. but also of the nations her husband conquered. or wipe their faces on the damask. If a bag had this ticket it was not examined. According to their ideal." but the charm of his manner was almost irresistible .'" "It was only a glad 'good-morning. in their eagerness to see the Princess. not the one of greate st physical beauty. who was then but lately married." she said to a friend. It was said he had "the face of a tiger pitted by smallpox. beauty must be the expression of attractive qualities within--s uch as cheerfulness. and I left him feeling as if I had drunk sour wine. when I would say.

let him take the bone from your hand. contemptible. and he will run off with it in h is mouth. the lower classes are not polite is because the upper cl asses are not polite. S uddenly the bell rings. ill timed. observe." says Chesterfield. and he will say. and to hear him call men "liars" because they did not a gree with him? He was called the "Ursa Major. He refuses his wife a little money to buy a needed dress. or jealousy. hatred. Call the dog to you. or ill placed. envy. Tradition tells us that before Apelles painted his wonderful Goddess of Beauty which enchanted all Greece. or. Bees will not sting a man smeared with honey. As by magic he becomes talkative. his little girl begs her father to keep on his "co mpany manners" for a little while. and they enter without money and without price. that he might embody in his matchless Venus a combination of the loveliest found in all. polite. "A man's own good breeding. and bowed to the servant girl. They can enjoy nearly everything without the t rouble of buying or owning. What friend of the great Dr. but ask any person a questi on for that purpose in this country (Scotland). the reason why the lower classes the re are so polite is because the upper classes are polite and civil to them. pat him on the head. So the good-mannered study. as we call it. rude. They disarm jealousy and envy. Those w ho throw their good deeds should not expect them to be caught with a thankful sm ile. generous. When we got there. a nd the banker took off his hat. and the reaso n why. "an d he will always give you a civil and polite answer. After the callers have gone. silent. The dog recognizes the good deed and the gracious manner of doing it. I spent the first night with a banker. Many a man and woman might double thei r influence and success by a kindly courtesy and a fine manner. moody. a boarding-house. 'Follow your no se and you will find it. No man ever said a pert thing to the Duke of Marlborough. or a civi l one to Sir Robert Walpole." The true gentleman cannot harbor those qualities which excite the antagonism of others. and called her ma demoiselle. and joy everywhere. sulky. They are as welcome in every household as the sunshi ne." said Dr. crabb ed bear as before the arrival of his guests. Ill breeding invites and authorizes the familiarity of the most timid. and accuses her of extravagance that would ruin a millionaire. It carries along with it a dignity that is respected by the most petulant. sullen. for they have passports everywhere. "is the best security against o ther people's ill manners. a nd mean with his family and servants. Generosity of heart and a genial go od will towards all are absolutely essential to him who would possess fine manne rs. he traveled for years observing fair women. but with no vibration in his tail. Some neighbors call: what a change! The bear of a moment ago is as docile as a lamb. but the sullen mood returns and his courtesy vanishes as quickly as it came. The good-mannered can do without riches . as revenge. and why not? for they carry light.s abrupt. a servant girl came to the door. sunshine. Throw a bone to a dog. for these poison the sou rces of spiritual life and shrivel the soul. and his tail will wag with gratitud e. malice. Now. as though she were a lady." A fine courtesy is a fortune in itself. in this country.' But the blame is with the upper classes. "Ask a person at Rome to show you the road. Here is a man who is cross. said a shrewd observer. Johnson did not feel mortified and pained to see h im eat like an Esquimau. stingy. crabbed. I remember how astonished I was the first time I was in Pa ris. He is the same disagreeable. for they bear good will to everybody. and adopt all that is finest and most wort hy of imitation in every cultured person they meet. who took me to a pension. . Guthrie of Edinburgh. All doors fly open to them." or Great Bear.

exalt or debase. whe n Clement XIV bowed to the ambassadors who had bowed in congratulating him upon his election." A gentleman is just a gentle man: no more." asks Emerson. or mushroom. A gentleman is gentle." "I think. He does not care that he himself should be praised. l ike porcelain-ware." was the felicitous reply of the man who became highly esteemed by the most polite court in Europe. He subjects his appetites. as he never thin ks it. and enables the machinery of society to pe rform its functions without friction. in a late autumn morning. nor that other people should be blamed. to Mr. "Oh. is a true gentleman. nay. He is not given to talk about himself or others. cont rols his speech. refines his tastes." After Stephen A.Benjamin Rush said that when Goldsmith at a banquet in London asked a question about "the American Indians. Manners are what vex or soothe. that seemed nothing . no less. A gentleman." replied Goldsmith. Johnson exclaimed: "There is not an Indian in North America foolish enough to ask such a question. a diamond polished that was first a diamond in the rough. "Hans Andersen's story of the cobweb cloth woven so fi ne that it was invisible--woven for the king's garment--must mean manners. I beg your pardon. who had been sent to Paris to relieve our most popular repr esentative. uniform. He who h as lost all but retains his courage. "there is not a savage in America rude enough to make such a speech to a gentlem an." Aristotle thus described a real gentleman more than two thousand years ago: "Th e magnanimous man will behave with moderation under both good fortune and bad. and are the open sesame to the best of society. slow to take offense. He will neither be delighted with success. "I succeed him. and well-bred man Would not insult me." said the French Minister. They are the ki ndly fruit of a refined nature. of hating people not worth thinking about. and never giving it. nor seek it. virtue. "You replace Dr." No one can fully estimate how great a factor in life is the possession of good manners. "Have you not seen in the woods. "You should not have returned their salute." Dr." said the master of ceremonies. "I have not been pope lo ng enough to forget good manners. invincible operation like that of the air we breathe. "a po or fungus. or timely thoughtfulness with human sympathy behind it. He will nev er choose danger. "because if they are untrue I run the risk of being deceived. subdues his feelings. H e will not allow himself to be exalted. that subtle oil which lubr icates our relations with each other." says Emerson." Cowper says:-A modest. Franklin." replied Clement." "Sir. sensible. modest. barbarize or refine us by a con stant. hope. He is slow to surmise evil. and no other can." said Montesquieu. Douglas had been abused in the Senate he rose and said: "What no gentleman should say no gentleman need answer. must be painted before he is glazed. cheerfulness. and is rich still. which do really clothe a princely nature. Jefferson. nor grieved with failure. I hear. and deems every other person as good as himself. no man can replace him. "I never listen to calumnies. steady. he will not allow himself to be abased. and self-respec t. and if they are true. Ev en power itself has not half the might of gentleness. courteous. Count de Vergenne s. and all that is put on afterwards will wash off.--a plant without any solidity. There can be no change after it is burned in.

yet are they everywhere polite and affable. everything considered. In all ages they ha ve been maltreated and reviled. and." says Richter. it is said. I am very sorry that I ran against you. entirely unused to the customs of courts. it's the first time I ever had any body ask my parding." The astonished bo y looked at her a moment." "There is no policy like politeness. The President returned the salutation by raisi ng his hat.--and welcome. he said to a companion: "I say. "Thomas. and it kind o' took me off my feet. "who in no single instance reminded me of the difference betwe en himself and me. Helena to make way for a laborer bending under a heavy load. "Men. "go farthest when they are smoothest. miss." sa id Fred Douglass. Mass. and despoiled of their civil privileges and thei r social rights. are faithful to old associations. it was one of the aged generals of his army. more considerate of the prejudices of others than others are of theirs." says Magoon. respect the burden. a young lady ran w ith great force against a ragged beggar-boy and almost knocked him down. manage to break its way up through the frosty ground. Calling to a rough-looking farmer near by. and so allowed him to retain his seat." "Respect the burden.but a soft mush or jelly." says Confucius. my little fellow. but the grandson ignored the civility of the negro. ma de a low bow and said. while a broad. "do you permit a slave to be more of a gentleman than yourself?" "Lincoln was the first great man I talked with freely in the United States. and welcome. Stoppin g as soon as she could. "since a good manner often s ucceeds where the best tongue has failed. not more worldly-minded and mon ey-loving than people generally are. total. affability. who took off his hat and bowed. In hastily turning the corner of a crooked street in London. madame. pleasant smile overspread his face: "You h ave my parding. when they met a slave ." said t he grandfather. and actually to lift a hard crust on its head? It is the symbol of the power of kindness. she turned around and said very kindly: "I beg your pard on." If parents were not careless about the manners of their children at home. and was once ob served holding a long conversation in Italian with an organ-grinder whom he was questioning about scenes in Italy with which they were each familiar. instead of its being General Lorges. as he courteou sly stepped aside at St. and inconceivably gentle push ing. and. N apoleon commended her highly for her courtesy. James Russell Lowell was as courteous to a beggar as to a lord." The art of pleasing is the art of ris ing in the world. and forbearance. came to a stream which he could not cross. Josephine explain ed that." After the lady had pa ssed on. to sit beside her on the sofa. are the Jews. President Jefferson was one day riding with his grandson. taking off about three quarters of a cap. of the difference in color. Jim. The politest people in the world. they surpass al l nations in courtesy. in taking a short cut to the house." "Eat at your own table. a young and handsome man. he offered a quarter to be carried to . you can knock me clean down and I won't say a word. like bullets. They indulge in few or no recriminations." said Napoleon. "as you would eat at the table of the king. while his companion seemed inclined to keep the narrow path. She was unwilling to wound the feelings of the honest old soldier. they would seldom be shocked or embarrassed at their behavior abroad.--by its constant.. A Washington politician went to visit Daniel Webster at Marshfield. and the next time you run ag'in ' me." Napoleon was much displeased on hearing that Josephine had permitted General Lo rges. and then.

an d conciliating.. the former will become rich while the boorish one will starve. A poor curate saw a crowd of rough boys and men laughing and making fun of two aged spinsters dressed in antiquated costume. Christ was courteous. had once closed his store and was on his way home when he met a little girl who wanted a spool of thread. Not long ago a lady met the late President Humphrey of Amherst College. "he had sufficient capital. The farmer took the politician on his broad shoulders and lande d him safely. Winans to establish locomotive works in Russia. business which might easily be theirs goes to others who are really less de serving but more companionable. These old ladies although strangers to him. This little incident was talked of all about the city and brought him hundreds of customers. Mr. a thorough knowledge of h is business. gave them choice seats. kind. and in terrible agony on the cross. Webster. and exceptional shrewdness and sagacity.000 a year .the other side. as well as of persuasive eloquence. He did so. and amid the titter of the congregation. for th ey know not what they do. R. Hence. Courtesy pays. Butler. Although his was but a fourth-rate factory. and yet render success imposs ible by their cross-grained ungentlemanliness. and she was so much pleased with his great politeness that she gave a generous donation to the college. and. The ladies were embarrassed and di d not dare enter the church." "He was sour and morose. Good manners often prove a fortune to a young man. The old rustic presented himself a t the house a few minutes later. his g reat politeness in explaining the minutest details to his visitors was in such m arked contrast with the limited attention they had received in large establishme nts that it won their esteem. and the greatest energy. The curate pushed through the crowd." St. I. and to the great surprise and chagrin of the vi sitor was introduced as Mr. forgive them. Garrison was as polite to the furious mob that tore his clothes from his back a nd dragged him through the streets as he could have been to a king." was the reply. The strangers were Russians sent by their Czar. conducted them up the central aisle. opened the store. w hile agreeable manners win in spite of other defects. a merchant in Pr ovidence. no man ever put good will or energy into work done for him. harsh. They repel patronage. "he always suspected his employees of cheating him. obliging." Some men almost work their hands off and deny themselves many of the common com forts of life in their earnest efforts to succeed. at their death left the gent le curate a large fortune. He cried: "Father. He went back. [Illustration: Jane Addams] . He was one o f the serenest souls that ever lived. "Why did our friend never succeed in business?" asked a man returning to New Yo rk after years of absence. and the other disobliging. and insolent. natura lly. even to His persecut ors. Bad manners often neutralize even honesty. but would not take the quarter. Ross Winans of Baltimore owed his great success and fortune largely to his cour tesy to two foreign strangers. a nd soon his profits resulting from his politeness were more than $100. Take two men possessing eq ual advantages in every other respect. and g ot the thread. if one be gentlemanly. Paul's speech before Agrippa is a model of dignif ied courtesy. wh o later invited Mr. industry. rude. and his patrons went to shops where they were sure of civility. largely because of his court esy. He became very wealthy. and was disc ourteous to his customers.

A fine illustration of the business value of good manners is found in the Bon M arché. It is a disease of the finest organizations and the high est types of humanity. but are merely diffident and shy. George Wa shington was awkward and shy and had the air of a countryman. Ex cessive shyness must be overcome as an obstacle to perfect manners. though he had acted for thirty years with marked self-possession. Practice on the stage or lecture platform does not always eradicate shyness. Da vid Garrick. and has frequently been a barrier to the highest culture. They feel conscious of a subtle tyran ny in society's code. There are many worthy people who are brave on the street. Elihu Burritt was so shy that he would hide in the cellar when his parent s had company. my dear." said Sydney Smith. and dare no t express an opinion in the social circle. and did not try to publis h or preserve one of his plays. proud. but who are cowards in the drawing-room. the great actor. first. and would often b e covered with cold perspiration. By this co urse the business has been developed until it is said to be the largest of the k ind in the world. The two distinguishing characteris tics of the house are one low price to all. "I was once very shy. He retired from London at forty. Many persons of real refinement are thought to be stiff. which locks their lips and ties their tongues. and which cause us intense mortification and embarrassment. Addison was one of the purest writers of English and a perfect master of the pen. an enormous establishment in Paris where thousands of clerks are employed. Shak espeare was very shy. that shamming was of no use. so that every visitor will remember the Bon Marché with pleasure. the employees must try in every possible way to please and to m ake customers feel at home. "Thank you. Generally shyness comes from a person thinking too much about himself--which in itself is a breach of good breeding--and wondering what other people think abou t him. for fear it would increase the acquaintances he would have to meet. was once summoned to testify in court. It is peculi ar to the Anglo-Saxon and the Teutonic races. At last he det ermined to give up trying to cure his shyness. Archbishop Whately was so shy that he would escape notice whenever it was possible. that the world was very clea . It never attacks the coarse and vulgar. "for why. Gough said that he could no t rid himself of his early diffidence and shrinking from public notice. to his surprise. it almost entirely disapp eared. and h aughty who are not. Sir Isaac Newton was the shyest man of his age. who would walk up to a cannon's mouth in battle. John B." he asked." spoken to a little beggar-girl who bou ght a pennyworth of snuff proved a profitable advertisement and made Lundy Foote a millionaire. Mere politenes s is not enough. He said that he never went on the platform without fear and trembling. "but it was not long before I made tw o very useful discoveries. and where almost everything is kept for sale. but he co uld scarcely utter a dozen words in conversation without being embarrassed. He did not acknowledge his grea t discovery for years just for fear of attracting attention to himself. He took second or third-rate parts on account of his diffidence. reserved. Something more must be done than is done in other st ores. "should I en dure this torture all my life?" when. please call again. It is a curious fact that diffidence often betrays us into discourtesies which our hearts abhor. and next. he was so confused a nd embarrassed that the judge dismissed him. He would not allow his name to be used in connection with his theory of the moon's motio n. and. and extreme courtesy. that all mankind were not solely employed in o bserving me.

They love dress too much who give it their first thought. The mistake has been mutual. and wear plain. square. and unlock the tongue. and went to a hotel in Boston." "In civilized society. straightforward. He has put robes of b eauty and glory upon all his works. every star is veiled in brightness. and may you grow better and wise r in advancing years. By teaching ch ildren early the arts of social life. When Ezekiel Whitman. con siderate. unornamented houses made from square blocks of stone . rail at it who may. and soon estimated a man at his true value. This cured me. As peculiarities in apparel are sure to attract attention. when he overheard the remark between some ladies and gentlemen: "Ah. Yo u mistook me. rugged characters. Shy people should dress well. It is e ." Besides him stands young Jones. like our characters. yet all t he while full of kindly. horseback riding. "Ladies and gentlem en. here comes a rea l homespun countryman. their best time." says Johnson. St. or all their money. polite. turning to the dumfounded company. industrious. he is more careful. eve ry bird is clothed in the habiliments of the most exquisite taste. "Is this pe rson going up or down? Through how many grades has he passed?" For example. are always under inspection. They claim adm iration for plain. All present weigh him in their judgment and silen tly say. Peter's is none the less strong and solid because of its elegant columns a nd the magnificent sweep of its arches. Each mentally asks. Here's fun. youn g Brown enters a drawing-room. "This young man is gaining." One cannot but feel that God is a lover of the beautiful. Every time we go into society we must step on the scales of each person's opinion." They asked him all sorts of queer questions. who are troubled more by an unfashionable garment than by a neglected duty. who for it ne glect the culture of the mind or heart. said: "I wish you a very good evening. from my dress. elocution. "external advantages make us more respect ed. The consciousness of being well dressed gives a grace and ease of manner that even religion will not bestow. cordial feeling for one's fellow men! Shy people are al ways distrustful of their powers and look upon their lack of confidence as a wea kness or lack of ability. permit me to wish you health and happiness. who care more for dress than for their character." Just then Governor Caleb Strong entered and called to Mr. Some people look upon polished manners as a kind of affectation. Every flower is dressed in richness. Whitman. a prominent lawyer and graduate of Harvard. for which a higher beauty should not be sacrificed. we may do much to overcome the sense of shyness. dancing. bearing in mind that outward appearances are deceitful. But it is a lower beauty." What a misfortune it is to go through life apparently encased in ice. well-fitting garm ents of as good material as the purse will afford. while inferiority of garb often induces res traint. and similar accomplishments. He entered the parlor and sat down. when he arose and said. They might as well say that they prefer square. while I. and the loss or gain from our last weight is carefully noted. for a country booby. tending to throw ridicule upon him. such as boxing. thoughtful. it is well to avoid bright colors and fashionable extremes.r-sighted. solid. every f ield blushes beneath a mantle of beauty. he came to Boston from his farm in countryman's dress. was elected t o the Massachusetts legislature. Beauty in dress is a good thing. its carved and fretted marbles of matchl ess hues. from the same superfi cial cause. when it may indicate quite the reverse. plain. thought you were ladies and gentlemen. Our manners. Good clothes give ease of manner. or the claims of others on their service . A man with a good coat upon his back meets with a better reception than he w ho has a bad one. who.

happiness. snaps at the servants. ease. Self analysis is valuable only to learn our strength. rushes to the eye or into the manner and betrays us. doe s not look you in the eye. for that other self. or I-am-better-than-you-ness. stingy. four ounces. Pattern after Him who gave the Golden Rule. they think too much about lves. three drachms. shy people are morbidly self-conscious. and they are all enemies of peace of mind. and achievement. I sometimes think it would be a great advantage if one could read these ratin gs of his associates. that tell tale in the soul. Of Essence of Heart's-Ease. rough. indifferent. fatal. . And so we go through life. while they are the garb of the gentleman. they are always analyzing. wondering how they appear and what people think of them. three drachms. do not constitute or fin ally determine his character. The Mixture to be taken whenever there is the slightest symptom of selfishness. and no scruples. He is careless. Of the tincture of Good Cheer. We cannot long deceive the world. Mere politeness can never be a substitute for mora l excellence. any more than the bark can take the place of the heart of the oak. they would be sed to see what freedom. We usually find all where we find any one of these qualities. meanness. and grace they would gain. one ounce. Of the Spirit of Love. Etiquette is but a substitute for good manners and is often but the ir mere counterfeit. themse dissec If the surpri life t Timidity. Of the Oil of Charity. what success in hey would achieve.vident that he is losing ground rapidly. CHAPTER XIX SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS AND TIMIDITY FOES TO SUCCESS Timid. We must lose ourselves before we can fin d ourselves. Sincerity is the highest quality of good manners. But manners. tagged with these invisible labels by all who know u s. one ounce. three drachms. Their thoughts are always turned inward. Of the Infusion of Common Sense and Tact. No one has ever done a great thing wh ile his mind was centered upon himself. and who was the first true gentlema n that ever breathed. The following recipe is recommended to those who wish to acquire genuine good m anners:-Of Unselfishness. yet is over-p olite to strangers. two ounces. and self-consciousness belong to the same family. ting themselves. if we dwell upon our weaknesses. se people could only forget themselves and think of others. Of the Extract of the Rose of Sharon. but not always whether it be sound or decayed. shyness. is mean. It may well indicate the kind of wood below. who ever stands in the shadow of ourselves holding the scales of justice. exclusiveness.

He imagines that people are criticizing his movements. or stealing. well educated and able. whatever he does. and seeing that exactly the same treatment is given to those above him as to himself. so he is simp ly forced to drop his foolish sensitiveness. A sufferer who wishes to overco me it must take himself in hand as determinedly as he would if he wished to get control of a quick temper. whether in man or woman. He begins to see that the wor ld is too busy to bother itself especially about him. They shrink from exposing their sore spots and sensitive points. A sensitive person feels that. who is so sensitive that he can not keep a pastorate long. and depreciating and making light of them on ever y possible occasion. or even ruined. even when people look at him. It is far removed from conceit or self-esteem. or get out. takes the nonsense out of him. he is the center of obs ervation. wherever he goes. which smart from the lightest touch. or to rid himself of a habit of lying. Become interested in things outside of yourself. when boys enter college as freshmen. o r drinking. yet it causes one's personality to overshadow everything else. and teased unmercifully. Working in competition with other people. He will be ashamed to play "cry baby" every time he feels h urt. because of this weakness. He does not realize that other people are too busy and too much inter ested in themselves and other things to devote to him any of their time beyond w hat is absolutely necessary. or analyze every simple remark until you magnify it into something of the greatest importance. is really an exaggerated form of s elf-consciousness. and are kept from trying to make real their great life-dreams. Many a good business man has been kept back. or analyzing his character. Do not brood over what is said to you. Oftentimes. they realize that it would be the most foolis h thing in the world to betray resentment. putt ing slights upon him. or throw . they m ay not be even conscious of his presence. and that. and who gi ves his neighbors credit for being at least as good as he is. they are not usually thinking of him. But after they have been in coll ege a term. Over-sensitiveness. or trying to hold him up to the ridicule of others. A college course is of inestimable value to a boy or girl of over-refined sensi bilities. by his quickness to take offense. Do not have suc h a low and unjust estimate of people as to think they are bent on nothing but h urting the feelings of others. Th ere is many a clergyman. Thousands of people are out of positions. cannot be a victim of over-sensitiveness. saying and thinking unkind things. they are so touchy th at their sense of honor is constantly being hurt and their pride stung by the un conscious thrusts of classmates and companions. A man who appreciates himself at his true value. If one shows that he is hurt. From his distorted viewpoint some brother or sister in the church is always hurting him. When he thinks they are aiming remarks at him. making fun at h is expense. Mingle freely with people. or to resent a fancied slight. Their super-sensitiveness makes cowards of them. or whatever he says. and have been knocked about and handled in a rough but good-humored manner by youths of their own age.Thousands of young people are held back from undertaking what they long to do. Morbid sensitiveness requires heroic treatment. and cannot keep places when they get them. but will make up his mind to grin and bear it. or any other defect which prevented his being a whole man. In such a n environment he will soon learn that everyone has all he can do to attend to hi s own business. because they are afraid to jostle with the world. Think less of yourself and m ore of others. One of the best schools for a sensitive boy is a large business house in which he will be thrown among strangers who will not handle him with gloves. he know s that he will be called the class booby. when they are probably not thinking of h im at all. He will realize that he must be a man and give and take with the others. "What shall I do to get rid of it?" asks a victim.

forgets everything but his subject. She takes it for granted that if any criticism is made in the department where she works. who has been kept in a very ordinary situation for years simply because of her morbid sensitiveness. and other people with artistic temperaments. In the busy world of affairs. authors. but they have a ll they can do to attend to their own affairs. metaphorically speaking. He shows what his real style is. Everything must be swallowed up in his zeal. He always carries about an injured air. The result is that she makes it so unpleasant for her employers that they do no t promote her. No singer ever captivated her audience until she forgot herself. of perspective. by losing themselves in their subject. touch an d go. in his mind. I have in mind a very strong. or trying to apply the conventional rules of or atory. It is when a writer is so completely carried away with his subject that he cann ot help writing. and would much rather help than hinder a fellowbeing. unt il they forgot their rules for construction. all the time. it is intended for her. Remarks of par ents. No one ever does a really great thing until he feels that he is a part of something greater than himself. Could anything be more foolish and short-sighted than to allow a morbid sensiti veness to interfere with one's advancement in life? I know a young lady with a superb mind and a fine personality. And she can not understand why she does not get on faster. and then only. they doom themselves to unhappiness and failure. The great majority of people. It is when the orator's soul is on fire with his theme. No painter ever did a great masterpiece when trying to keep all the rules of hi s profession. never touched their power.--then. No orator has ever electrified an audience while he was thinking of his style o r was conscious of his rhetoric. and she "flies off the handle" over every lit tle remark that she can possibly twist into a reflection upon herself. are kin d-hearted. that he writes naturally. or little bits of gossip which are reported to them make them feel as if people were sticking pins in them. Some of our best writers never found themselves. Writers. a feeling that he has been imposed upon. and those who expect to get on must rid themselves of all morbid sensitive ness. it is give and take. or school committees. Many schoolteachers are great sufferers from over-sensitiveness. their rhetorical arr angement. the science of color. which greatly detracts from an otherwise agreeable personality. . that he really does a great thin g. fused in the fire of his geni us. and have no time to spend in minu tely analyzing the nature and feeling of those whom they meet in the course of t heir daily business. the laws of drawing. vigorous editorial write r who is so prone to take offense that he can not hold a position either on a ma gazine or a daily paper. capable of filli ng a superior position. He is cut to the very quick by the slightest criticism. until he surrenders to that greater principle. can he really create. ar e usually very sensitive. no matter how rough in manner or bearing.ing out hints and suggestions calculated to injure him in the eyes of the congre gation. Self-consciousness is a foe to greatness in every line of endeavor. and regards every suggestion for the improvement of his work as a personal affr ont. and he forgets hi s audience. their grammar. Then they found their style. until she was lost in her song. If they do not.

"the r eason is. A man who knows the world will not only make the most of everything he does kno w. It makes an emplo yer very uncomfortable to feel that those about him are carrying around an injur ed air a large part of the time." said a Confederate officer. or teach. Address makes opportunities." said the negro. massa. "Berry sorry. If anything has gone wrong in his business and he fe els vexed.No one wishes to employ anyone who is so sensitive that he is obliged to be on his guard every moment lest he wound him or touch a sore spot. that every quarter of an hour I put a fresh chicken down to roast." . leveling his rifle. if they are wise: they will forget self." says Montesquieu. Lincoln took up a cradle and led the gang arou nd the field. "he did not inte nd to guarantee them. The whole thirty voted for him." said the cook. when a colore d soldier chased and caught him. "must kill you den. not their own. and Force replied "Address. they will not take offense. ELIZA COOK." said Napoleon in surprise to his cook. "Tact clinches the bargain. Laugh.--COLTON.--ROCHEFOUCAULD. he went to secure the votes of t hirty men who were cradling a wheatfield. he knows that he is liable to give offense to these people without ev er intending it. the want of it gives them. He'll suit his bearing to the hour."--VICTOR HUGO. and often acquire s more reputation than actual brilliancy. than the pedant by his awkward attempt to exhibit his erudition. "but at whate ver hour I call for my breakfast my chicken is always ready and always in good c ondition." When Abraham Lincoln was running for the legislature the first time. on the pla tform of the improvement of the Sangamon River. and will gain more credit by his adroit mode of hiding his ignorance. so that he never quite knows whether they are i n sympathy with him or not. and that they take into consideration the thousand and one little vexations and happenings which are ext remely trying. The art of using moderate abilities to advantage wins praise. with consideration and friendliness in his words or commands. "I do not know how it is. so that your Majesty is sure always to have it at perfection." This seemed to him the more strange because sometimes he would breakf ast at eight and at other times as late as eleven.--BOVEE. They will think of his troubles. and that if he does not happen to approach them with a smiling fa ce. but only seemed curious to know whether he had muscle enough to r epresent them in the legislature. Gets the vote in the Senate. hain't time to go back and git a white man. They asked no questions about internal improvements. "When God endowed human beings with brains. CHAPTER XX TACT OR COMMON SENSE "Who is stronger than thou?" asked Braham. and contribute their zeal to the greater good. learn. "Sire." The officer surrendered. Spite of Webster or Clay. but of many things he does not know. listen. Sails out of the bay." "I never will surrender to a nigger. A man wants to feel that his employees understand him.

but could not find any of the bills. but. tired of rising from his chair t o open the door for a cat and her kitten. but the y were all gone. A professor in mathematics in a New England college. my wife did not say. On turning the next leaf he found another. he had two holes cut through the panel s for them to pass at will. but a monstrosity. and yet he was so poor at times that he had only a biscuit and a gla ss of water for dinner. very well. while all their other faculties have atrophied and died. Tact wi ll manipulate one talent so as to get more out of it in a lifetime than ten tale nts will accomplish without it." was asked b y his wife to bring home some coffee." The world is full of theoretical. and the wo rld excuses their impractical and almost idiotic conduct in most matters. it is the interpreter of all riddles. Years afterward. the remover of all obstacles." replied Lessing." Many a great man has been so absent-minded at times as to seem devoid of common -sense. t he surmounter of all difficulties. but sold the whole instrument. I' ll call at another time. to friends who seemed to appreciate their b eauty. not a full-orbed. but he sent three hundred florins to pay f or six shirts and half a dozen handkerchiefs. he would fall upon his feet. though he may be an imbecile in the drawing-room. but on reflection remembered that he had given them away. as he turned the page of a book. the keen smell. "The professor is not at home. The next day he wished to use some of the money. as he read. and lacked the other's skill and tact. he directed his secretary. who have turned a ll the energies of their lives into one faculty until they have developed. a "book-worm. one by one. A day or two after he put his hand in his pocket for one. a fee of one thousand dollars in crisp ne w bills of large denomination was handed to Daniel Webster as he sat reading in his library. It is the open eye. We often call these one-sided men geniuses. the quick ear. tact is skill. symmetrical man. tact knows how to do i t. "Talent is something. He paid his tailor as large a sum in advance. "How much will you have?" asked the mercha nt. like a cat. to obtain several hundred d ollars' worth. and lively touch. "Oh. the judging taste. "Well. Adam Smith could teach the world economy in his "Wealth of Nations . "Talent lies abed till noon. Napole on might fall. he found a bank-bill without a crease in it. Isaac Newton could read the secret of creation. For his argument in the Florida Case. Talent knows what to do. becaus e they can perform one kind of work that no one else can do as well. and so on until he took the whole amount lost from the places where he had deposite d them thoughtlessly. but he did not know men so well. but I guess a bushel will do. Charles Lanman. Webster was at first puzzled. We see its failure everywhere.Talent in this age is no match for tact." but he could not manage the finances of his own household. a large hole for the cat. and a small one for the ki tten. one-sided. Learning of a new issue of gold pieces at the Treasury." . I declare. Dean Swift nearly starved in a country parish where his more practical classmate Stafford became r ich. "No matter. It is not a sixth sense." Talent is power. He did not know enough of business to cut the coupon fro m a bond when he wanted money. but. impractical men." said his servant who looked out of a window in the dark and failed to recognize Lessing when the latter knocked at his own door in a fit of absent-mindedness. A merchant is excused if he is a giant in merchandise. Beethoven was a great musician. but it i s like the life of all the five. tact is up at six. but tact is everything. Many great men are very impractical even in the ordinary affairs of life. One of Napoleon's marshals understood military tactics as well as his chief .

The st amina of the vigorous mind he brought from the farm has evaporated in college. although at first you treated us like friends.--college men tending brutes! Trained to lead men. They readily promised. The world cares little for his theories or his encyclopaedic know ledge. Therea fter the Spaniards had all the provisions they needed. and unfits him for real life. but that there is a practical wisdom without them. and is therefore out-stripped in the race of life by t he boy who has had no chance. The world is full of men and women apparently splendid ly endowed and highly educated." He knew that ther e was to be an eclipse of the sun.Louis Philippe said he was the only sovereign in Europe fit to govern." Th e use of books must be found outside their own lids. and is gained at the cost of vigor and rugged strength. won by observation. he is astonished to find that he has lost the power to gra pple with men and things. To show his anger he will cause the sun to be in darkness. and the Indians shook their heads. too fine for the mechanical drudgery of practical life. His three hired graduates could speak foreign langu ages and discuss theories of political economy and philosophy. Book education alone tends to make a man too critical. and too finely cultured for every day use. The culture of books and colleges refines. The owne r of the farm was an ignorant. On the appointed day the sun rose without a cloud. you are now jealous of us and are trying to drive us away. But at length a dark spot was seen on one margin. It was "culture against ignorance. distrustful of his abili ties. but the Indians did not believe him. for he c ould black his own boots. The bookworm loses his individuality." . and continued to reduce the supply of food. coarse sheep-raiser. while the college men could scarcely get a living. but he could make money. but no w you bring very little and the amount is less with each succeeding day. beginning to show signs of open hostility as the hours passed without a s hadow on the face of the sun. It was said of a great Fren ch scholar: "He was drowned in his talents. but who. too highly polishe d. Bacon said that studies "teach not their own use. You brought us food in plenty every morning. and. He inhabits an ideal realm where common sense rarely dwells. He knew nothing of books or theories. a nd when he graduates. yet it is often but an ethical cultu re. but he had made a fortun e. Not long ago three college graduates were found working on a sheep farm in Aust ralia." said Wendell Phillips. timid." said Columbus to the Indian chiefs. About the time for the eclipse to pass away. and told the day and hour it would occur. Even the University could not supply common sense. The cry of the age is for practical men. "bows to the inevitable and makes use of it. as it became larger. He retired to his tent. one from Oxford. and when the sun had passed out of the shadow they leaped and danced and sang for joy. The college graduate often mi stakes his crutches for strength. "an d. and would soon drive away the monster from th e sun if they would never offend him again. "We have been among you several weeks. his head is filled with theories and saturated with other men's thoughts. and the ranch beat every time. and the other from a German Universi ty. weakens a man." Do not expect too much from books. but he knew sheep. if po ssible. too self-conscious. he came out and said that t he Great Spirit had pardoned them. The Gre at Spirit is angry with you for not doing as you agreed in bringing us provision s. the natives grew frantic and fell prostrate before Col umbus to entreat for help. they drove sheep. He could talk about nothing but sheep and farm. has developed hard common sense and practical wisdom. yet who can scarcely get a living. promising to save them. one from Cambridge. without practical exp erience. the college against the ranch. "Common sense. Book culture alone t ends to paralyze the practical faculties. in the fierce struggle for existence." Over-culture.

and mouth. speaking of some comparisons that had been instituted between himself a nd Shakespeare. Mrs. he took ou t a ball. shut up as tight as you can. But Weed's rare tact modified his views. and left Obed and Joe to watch. he flung it over the vegetable lantern. "They're coming. Moore carried the younger children to the loft of the cabin. but he had tact and intuition. Joe! Light up the other one! Don't you see that's wh at scar't 'em so?" demanded Obed. he instantly grasped a handful of sand and held it aloft as a signal of triumph. and almost stumbled over a very large pumpkin. He had very few chances such as are now open to the humblest boy. but I have to stop and think which is the right nail. An unear thly yell greeted the appearance of the grinning monster. while I get the rifle pointed at this one. Lincoln selected Weed to attempt the reconciliation of the "New York Herald." It has been said that a few pebbles from a brook in the sling of a David who kn ows how to send them to the mark are more effective than a Goliath's spear and a Goliath's strength with a Goliath's clumsiness. he galloped away to warn other settlers. "and give me a fresh horse as soon as you can. Goethe. if I give them time." w hich had a large circulation in Europe. and mold them to his will. Cover up yo ur fire. "Quick. hiding forever from h is followers the ill omen of his threatened fall. pulling the coat away. Obed felt around to see if there were any smaller balls in the cupboard.When Caesar stumbled in landing on the beach of Britain. He was very indignant because Charl eston harbor had been blockaded. Pulling off his coat. thus shutting off French manufacturers from lar ge supplies of cotton. "Stand by that window with the axe. ma de to imitate a gigantic grinning face. before I hit. the ver y next day after their interview the "Herald" became a strong Union paper. reluctantly yielding the post of danger to them at their urge nt request. one of th e two which he and Joe had been using to make Jack-o'-lanterns when the messenge r alarmed them. They killed a family down the river last night. Thurlow Weed earned his first quarter by carrying a trunk on his back from a sl oop in New York harbor to a Broad Street hotel. Weed was then sent to Europe to counteract the pernicious influence of secession agen ts. with open eyes. and don't strike a light to-night. He could read m en as an open book. Mr." Then springing upon the horse the b oys had brought. "My husband went away y esterday to buy our winter supplies. Moore and dayligh t came together. but the Indians did not return. with a pale face. His fat her had taken the wrong pouch. Moore. nose. said: "Shakespeare always hits the right nail on the head at onc e. and induced him . as he raised the covere d lantern to the window. and will not be back until morning. and was creating a dangerous public sent iment abroad and at home by its articles in sympathy with the Confederacy. and at the appearance of the second fiery face the savages gave a final yell and vanished in the forest. and wit h a live coal from the ashes he lighted the candle inside. Joe!" whispered Obed early in the evening." Opening the bullet-pouch. but he invariably declined. "They'll sound the wa r-whoop in a minute." he whispered. Thoug h Weed and Bennett had not spoken to each other before for thirty years. as he sa w several shadows moving across the fields." "Husband away? Whew! that's bad! Well. The emperor of France favored the South. By three presid ents whom his tact and shrewdness had helped to elect he was offered the English mission and scores of other important positions. and the Indians fled w ildly to the woods. "Now for it!" he added. "Get ready for the redskins!" shouted an excited man as he galloped up to the l og-cabin of the Moore family in Ohio many years ago. but nearly fainted as he found it was too large for the rifle. and nobody k nows where they'll turn up next!" "What shall we do?" asked Mrs. He was unselfish.

"I could make as good ones myself. E. His total want of tact had made him ridiculous. "Take them down." Turning. showed his resentment against Providence by abolishing the Christian religion throughou t his dominions for a fortnight. and soon changed largely the current of public sent iment. "Yes." "Very well. "mel t them." "How do you do. The man di d not understand and continued as before." said the mayor of a Western city. be reasonable!"--"Ascerta in at once the width of this river. leaving poor Mr." He did not bring them. and possesse d that practical wisdom and tact which have ever moved the world. Webster."--"Sire. "Tell me the breadth of this stream. I cannot. "Mr." broke in the mayor . Webster. "The tru th is. Walpole was an ignorant man. James to enjoy his bad health in the pitiless solitude of a c rowd.to change to friendliness the tone of a hostile speech prepared for delivery to the National Assembly. on the sudden death of an only child. sir." said Napoleon. sir." said Napoleon to his chief engineer. the witness bowed low in awkward suavity. F. although weary with travel." replied Pr esident Wayland. gentlemen. "Good-morning. "Sire. He paced the distanc e to the point last noted. as he glanced at a thousand people waiting to take his hand. Mr." was the reply. "I am not very well. and said: "This is the approximate width of the strea m. James?" asked Webster mec hanically. as t hey came to a bridgeless river which the army had to cross. and said. then." "I don't think the Proverbs of Solomon show very great wisdom. but these giants knew men and things." "What are these?" asked Napoleon. Smith. over talent and genius. and we are ten miles ahead of it. the men sitti ng behind you on the raised benches. one of our most distinguished citizens. "The twelve Apostles. or common sense." replied Mr. "Will you lecture for us for fame?" was the telegram young Henry Ward Beecher r eceived from a Young Men's Christian Association in the West. holding himself carefully er ect. Mr. I don't know that. would be delayed for an hour by a fa ilure to make close connections." said a judge to a witness who insisted upo n imparting his testimony in a confidential tone to the court direct. "Address yourself to the jury. or you shall be deposed. and Charlemagne could hardly write his name so that it could be deciphered. pointing to twelve silver statues in a cathed ral. The triumphs of tact. in a tone of anxious concern. "Speak to the jury." thundered the godlike Daniel. James." was the answer the shrewd young preacher sent back. I think it's rheumatiz. he turned on his heel and noticed where the edge seemed to touch the bank o n which he stood." He was promoted. Mr." "Measure the width of this stream instantly. . My scientific instruments are with the army. but my wife----" "Mr." "I hope nothing serious is the matter. this is Mr. He was equally successful in business. "bring in two to-morrow morning. Montaigne tells of a monarch who. as their Master did. are seen everywh ere." The engineer drew the cap-piece of his helmet down until the edge seemed just i n line between his eye and the opposite bank. "allow me to introduce you to Mr. coin them into money. when it was learned that the g reat statesman. James in a most lugubrious tone. and let them go about doing good. M. which was on the same level as the other. "Well." said a student at Brown University. A. Webster. Webster. and acqu ired a fortune of a million dollars. Fifty and my expenses. England was working night and day preparing for war when Weed arrived upon the scene. On his return to America the city of New York extended public thanks to h im for his inestimable services.

as you would a picture. fur the purpuss of s howin' fair play all round. How our old schoolmates ha ve changed places in the ranking of actual life! The boy who led his class and w as the envy of all has been distanced by the poor dunce who was called slow and stupid. the fool and the fop. as they sumtimes will. and don't do you no more good than it would to jump into enny other mudpuddle. and I wood here t ake occashun to advise people when they run agin. Others make Don Quixote's mistake of fighting a windmil l by engaging in controversies with public speakers and editors. During a storm at . howeve r unworthy their notice. It only gives him a notorosity. but on reflectin ' that he cood pollish me much wuss in his paper. Place him in a good light.Tact. an d kalled me the urbane and gentlemunly manager. to not pay no attenshun to um." To see a man as he is you must turn him round and round until you get him at th e right angle. which is jist what he wants. The excellence s and defects will appear if you get the right angle. Some people show want of tact in resenting every slight or petty insult. He sed my wax-wurks was a humbug. when the old man asked how one could succeed so well where t he other had failed. A practical man not only sees. yet rather than be deprived of the rays of the life-giving sun in the de nse forests of South America." was his reply. it needs manure. Abuv all. honor and dishonor. even to the making of gunpowder. the simple and the profound." said he. th e black and the white. but seizes the opportunity. and could not cope with the stern realities of the age. Artemus Ward touches this bubble with a pretty sharp-pointed pen. and must be willing to work like a horse. but who had a sort of dull energy in him which enabled him to get on in the world. Even genius. but which is the great winner of the prizes of life. and leads its forces to g lorious victory. went to anuther offiss to get my handbills printed. "this does n ot need a prayer. however rapid its flight. According to an old custom a Cape Cod minister was called upon in April to make a prayer over a piece of land. "You have not ta ct. "No. when shown the land. the pure and the impure. mus t not omit a single essential detail. Edito rs are generally fine men. Paul was all things to all men. and called me a horey-heded itinerent v agabone. A farmer who could not get a living sold one half of his farm to a young man wh o made enough money on the half to pay for it and buy the rest. He ground up the king and his vassal. He set my Show up steep. he worked everything into his plays. that he might save some. like Alexander. I giv it up. One of the greatest elements of strength in the character of Washington was found in his forbearance when unjustly attack ed or ridiculed. and climb the n earest trunk to the light. the prince and the peasant. what duz this pussillanermus editer do but change his toon and abooze me like a injun." John Jacob Astor had practical talent in a remarkable degree. that I was shaimfully aboozed by a editer in human form. the Muther of Presidents and things. but there must be black sheep in every flock. these m iserable papers.--everything within the sweep of his vi sion he ground up into paint and spread it upon his mighty canvas. don't assault a editer of this kind. The class leader had only a theoretical knowledge. pas sions and characters. cuts the knots it cannot untie. but when I. Shakespeare had marvelous tact. "It was in a surtin town in Virginny. Napoleon could do anything in the art of war with his own hands. I thort at fust Ide pollish him orf ar-lar Beneki Boy. Ther e is a certain getting-on quality difficult to describe. it is said to turn into a creeper. who are sure to have the advantage of the final word. The palm is among the hardest and least yielding of all woods.

--EMERSON." "I would not part with my watch . it is a watch which I have made and regulated myself. dat is chenius.--CARLYLE. though he build his house in the woods. dat is dalent. le ave it undone." CHAPTER XXI ENAMORED OF ACCURACY "Antonio Stradivari has an eye That winces at false work and loves the true. expecting every minute to go down. I hate a thing done by halves. OLD SONG. on his voyage to America. "Their trading talent is bringing the Jews to the front in America as well as i n Europe. "I have had it seven years." "And I would not break m y word for any consideration. "but vy d o you shpeak of deir drading dalent all de time?" "But don't you regard it as a talent?" "A dalent? No! It is chenius. it would be my pride The best of all cobblers to be." "Dey are coming to de vront." replied Graham." said George Graham of London to a customer who asked how far he could depend upon its keeping corr ect time. "Let me see the watch. no tinker beside Should mend an old kettle like me." said the man. When a person once asked him to repair a watch upon which his name was . preach a better sermon. most zairtainly. what do you complain of?" "Why." said Graham. "I bring you back your watch. If after seven years you come b ack to see me. If I were a cobbler. Genius is the infinite art of taking pains. Ven one goes into a man's shtore and manaches to see l him vat he vonts. if it be wrong. if not in the world." "Indeed! In that case I return you your money. If I were a tinker. If a man can write a better book. "for ten times the sum I paid for it. which he used as a regulator. the world will make a beaten path to his door. whose name on a timepiece was considered proof positive of its exc ellence. I vill dell you what is de difference. "Sir. do it boldly. in drade. from which nothing will ever d isplace them." replied his companion. at least in certain branches of trade. I wi ll return you your money. "take it with you wherever you please.--GILPIN. saying that if the ship should founder and he shou ld happen to be rescued. and there is a difference of more than five minutes. SIMMONS. If it be right." "I remember our conditions." said the man. "and it has gained for them an a scendency." said he. Well. He learned his trade of Tampion. or make a better mous e-trap than his neighbor. but ven annoder man goes into dat man's shtor e and sells him vot he don't vont. between dalent and chenius. but young Astor went below and coolly put on his best suit of clothes.sea." said a traveler to one of that race. the most exquisite mechanic in London. and dat is de chenius vot my race has got." Seven years later the gentleman returned from India. he would at least save his best suit of clothes. the other passengers ran about the deck in despa ir.--C." Accuracy is the twin brother of honesty. and can tell me there has been a difference of five minutes. so he paid the money and took the watch. "Sir.

" "As good a one as I know how?" asked David Maydole. yet it needs regulating but once in fifteen months. that had ever been made. In that year John Harrison asked for a test of his chronom eter." the "dead escapement. saying. but such a thing has not yet been mad e. a supply unheard of in his previous bus iness career.000 pounds if within thirty miles. and left a standing order for all the blacks mith could make. "I can't make any better ones." none of which have been much improved since.000 pounds was paid to the man who had wor ked and experimented for forty years. When the contractor sa w the tools.000 pounds for correctness within thirty miles." "Yes. it varied less than two minutes. the varia tion was only fifteen seconds.000 pounds for a chronomete r by which a ship six months from home could get her longitude within sixty mile s." The storekeeper soon ordered two dozen. The clock which he m ade for Greenwich Observatory has been running one hundred and fifty years. and bought all the storekeeper had. no matter whom it is for. as Greenwich. probably. a wonderful improvement in the ey es of the carpenter. and I've left mine at home. I do. and whose hand was as exquisitely delicate in its movement as the mechanism of his chronometer. Tampion smashed it with a hammer. "but perhaps you don't want to pay for a s good a one as I know how to make." and the "orrery. "six of us have come to work on the new church. The 20. I make it as well as I can.500 pounds if within forty miles. asking that they be made a little bette r than those of his men. They all came t o the shop next day." Graham invented the "compensating mercury pendulum. and is the best advertisement in the world. Paris. To insure safety. but 1761 came. here is a watch of my ma king. because of the accuracy of their work. Tampion and Graham lie in Westmi nster Abbey. a navigator must know how far he is from the equator. "I want a good hammer. 7. In a round trip of one hundred and fifty-six days to Barbadoes. and how far east or west of some known point." said a carpenter to the blacksmith in a New York village before the first railroad was built." said the carpenter. and they had not been awarded. Character is power. but throughout his long and successful life he never ceas ed to study still further to perfect his hammers in the minutest detail. In a trip of one hundred and forty-seven days from Portsmouth to Jamaica a nd back. "We have no secret. a careless repetition. north o r south. and handed the astonish ed customer one of his own master-pieces. who boasted of his prize to his companions. and in another clause 20. 10. and each ordered just such a hammer. The watchmakers of the world contested for the prizes. "when I m ake a thing. he ordered two for himself. and only four seconds on the outward v oyage. They we re usually sold without any warrant of excellence. the word "Maydole" stamped on the head being universally considered a guaranty of the best article the world could produce. doubtfully." said Maydole." said the manager of an iron works employing thousands of m . "Make me as good a hammer as you know how. By means of a longer hole than usual. "Sir. In the sixteenth century Spain offered a prize of a thousand crowns for the d iscovery of an approximately correct method of determining longitude." It was indeed a good hammer that he received. A New York dealer in tools came to the village to sell his wares. About two hundred years later the English government offered 5. if he cou ld have an absolutely accurate timekeeper. the best. David might have grown very wealthy by making goods of the stan dard already attained. David had wedged the handle in its place so that the head could not fly off. He could be sure of this knowledge when the sun is shining.fraudulently engraved. or W ashington.

" "Madam. "True enough." said Oliver Cromwell to the artist who. expressed great regrets. sir." "But you will all ow me to attend you. I'm quite sure. "I can remember when you blacked my father's shoes. and if it is good." "I don't try to see how cheap a machine I can produce. ther e were one hundred. my bredren. "this boy has something in him. sir. so that people will not withdraw their confidence?" "No. "We always try to beat our last batch of rails. "I saw at least ou r Dash and another one." said Wellington. "for you spoke as confidently of seeing five hundred as of see ing this smaller number. "There." said the late John C. "Just take a lump and put i t into water. "Whi tin make." s aid the Iron Duke. Brown saw the statue at the house of a lady living at New burgh-on-the-Hudson." "Well. but how much more truthful are they who "never saw it rain so before." said the father. had omitted a mole. I am not sure whic h. Brown." said the father. Ward. and the creases in his narrow-brimm ed stove-pipe hat. the rent in his coat. suddenly closed his Bible and said. Six years later he invited her brother." It was the figure of an Irishman who worked for the Ward family in Brooklyn years ago." said the sculptor H. You have contradicted yourself twice already." "Surely not so many. Whitin. it will either sink or swim. K. of Northbridge. Mass. de Gospel will not be dispensed with any more from dis pulpit till de c ollection am sufficient to fricassee dis abscess. last night. causing an inflammation which threatened his lif e. it could not be le ss than ten: this I am quite certain of. "No. warts and all. who p ut strong caustic into his ear. duplicity. you can try it for yourself. "that would be lying. and when there was occasion to advertise any machinery for sale. "Paint me just as I am. Mr. Business men soon learned what th is meant. Gough told of a colored preacher who." John B. exempt from artifice. to a customer who complain ed of the high price of some cotton machinery.. and we don't care who knows it. as he admired a statue in alabaster mad e by a youth in his teens. wishing his congregation to fresc o the recess back of the pulpit. "Well. "but did I not black them well?" "It is easy to tell good indigo. as an all-sufficient guaranty of Northbridge products. The doctor apologized. and design. Wellington consulted a celebrated physician." "I will not believe you saw ten even. but never mind. and said that the blunder wou ld ruin him." said an old lady." said the disconcerted boy." said a boy." was the prompt re ply. That is all the secret we've got." We condemn the boy for exaggerating in order to tell a wonderful story. I am sure --in our street." "Father. thinking to please the great man." said the father. New E ngland cotton manufacturers were accustomed to state the number of years it had been in use and add. "I will never mention it. It exhibits at once a strength of . and gave with minutest fidelity not merely the man's features and expression." "It could not be." When troubled with deafness. and now I cannot believe you. "I saw an immense number of dogs--five hundred." said one member of the Hou se of Commons to another in the heat of debate. A. Q." or who call day after day the hottest of the summer or the coldest of the winter? There is nothing which all mankind venerate and admire so much as simple truth.en." "Well. "I don' t think there are a hundred dogs in our village. but how good a machine. but even the pa tches in his trousers. to b ecome a pupil in his studio. J. To-day the name of Ward is that of the most prosper ous of all Americans sculptors.

to say what is expedient rath er than what is truthful. It is a curious fact that not a si ngle astronomical discovery of importance has been made through a large telescop e. You nev er fail. I can't do it. the men who have advanced our knowledge of that science the most working with ordinary instruments backed by most accurately trained minds and eyes. assumes its shape of ethereal beauty as faithfully as though pr eparing for some grand exhibition. We find no lying. Alva n Clark says. a nod of the head." Truth is necessary to permanency." "But that's the very reason. The crystal found deep in the earth is constructed wit h the same fidelity as that formed above ground. to assum e to know or think or feel what you do not--all these are but various manifestat ions of hollowness and falsehood resulting from want of accuracy. a smile. than that which blooms and blushes unhe eded amid the fern-decked brush by the roadside. but we igno re this fact in our speech. Webster. A double convex lens three feet in diameter is worth $60. to dodge. It seems strange that there should be so strong a temptation to exaggerate in a country where the truth is more wo nderful than fiction. I haven't time to do that in this instance. to exaggerate. and exaggerate. yet return to equinox or solstice at the appointed second.000." "Ah. th eir very movement being "the uniform manifestation of the will of God. to face both ways." said Webster. yet they are fa r superior to us in their accuracy of vision. would impair the correctness of the glass. During the test of the great glass which he made for Russia. to equivocate. "Does the devil lie?" was asked of Sir Thomas Browne. you always speak well upon any subject." said Clark. or in some far-off glen where n o human eye ever sees it. These men have made little advance in civilization. to lack sincerity. Indeed. the workmen turned it a little with their hands. to seem to concur with another's opinions when you do not. In Siberia a traveler found men who could see the satellites of Jupiter with th e naked eye. How many American fortunes are built on misrepresentation th at is needless." said the orator. Mr. Planets rush with dizzy sweep through almost limitless courses. "No. a gesture. Its adjustment is so delicate that the human hand is the only instrument thus far known suitable for giving the final polish. more exquisitely perfect. "because I never allow myself to speak upon any subject without first making that subject thoroughly my own. overdraw. when urged to speak on a q uestion soon to come up. to keep silent rather than s peak the truth. Hence I must refuse. to shirk the truth. let it cool before making another trial. no slipshod business in nature. "Wait. more fragrant. no inaccuracy. boys." .character and integrity of purpose in which all are willing to confide. to deceive by a glanc e of the eye. "No. for nothing else is half so strong as truth. it is impossible." The marvelous resources and growth of America have developed an unfortunate ten dency to overstate. for then even he cou ld not exist. The rose in the queen's garden is not more beautiful. "the p oise is so delicate that the heat from your hands affects it." Mr. "I am so p ressed with other duties that I haven't time to prepare myself to speak upon tha t theme. Even the tiny snowflake whose d estiny is to become an apparently insignificant and a wholly unnoticed part of a n enormous bank. To say nice things merely to avoid giving offense. and one sweep of the hand more than is needed. but. toward the close of a Congressional session. Roses blossom and crystals form with the same precision of tint and angle to-day as in Eden on the morning of creation. it is really difficult to ascertain the exac t truth in America. to evade. Clark's love of accuracy has made his name a synonym of exactness the world over. The positive is stronger than the superlative.

" An accomplished entomologist thought he would perfect his knowledge by a few le ssons under Professor Agassiz.Rufus Choate would plead before a shoemaker justice of the peace in a petty cas e with all the fervor and careful attention to detail with which he addressed th e United States Supreme Court." said Canon Farrar. He did not allow those in his employ to de viate in the slightest degree from his iron-clad orders." He had made it his study by day and his dream by night. "Yo u haven't really looked at the fish yet. "There is only one real failure in life possible. "Whatever is right to do. vague. He was as exact and precise even in the smallest trifles as Napoleon. "to find the length of time during which some of the best known instrumental melodies remained in his thoug hts till they were finally used. That which seems a trifle to us may be the secret spring which shall mo ve the issues of life and death. "Every line was then writte n twice over by Pope. and he became so interested in things he had never noticed before that he did not see Agassiz when he came for the third examination. V . "He who does not write as well as he can on every occasion. yet his brother merchants attributed his s uperior success to good luck. the more fresh and spontaneous they become." the Florentines would say when Dante passed. but was awakened towards morning by a request for another star to steer by. "should be done with our bes t care. Every detail of b usiness was calculated and planned to a nicety. "and that is. the al pha and omega of his aims and objects. "I now see that you can use your eyes." Stephen Girard was precision itself. or the crude. He did not vary from a promise in the slightest degree. He believed that no gre at success is possible without the most rigid accuracy in everything. Gibbon wrote his memoir nine times." said an eminent writer. so realistic seemed to them his description of the nether world." Grove said of Beethoven." After a seco nd examination he shook his head. Of one of his works Montesquieu said to a friend: "You will rea d it in a few hours. commonplace shape in which they were first written down. we have no scales by which we can weigh our faithfulness to duties. He left nothing to chance." said George Ripley." said the great scientist." Leonardo da Vinci would walk across Milan to change a single tint or the slight est detail in his famous picture of the Last Supper. People knew that his word was not "pretty good. "You do not show that you can use your eyes." Reynolds said he could go on retouching a picture forever. The more they are elaborated. In 1805 Napoleon broke up the great camp he had formed on the shores of the Eng lish Channel. The latter handed him a dead fish and told him to use his eyes. You'll have to try again. strength. saying." "There goes a man that has been in hell. and faithfulness of purpose. and gave orders for his mighty host to defile toward the Danube. not to be true to the best one knows. "That will do." but absolutely good. as they had "sailed by the other. of manuscript brought to be c opied." said his publisher Dodsley. and the first chapters of his history eighteen times. Two hours later he examined his new pupil. but I assure you it has cost me so much labor that it has w hitened my hair. The captain of a Nantucket whaler told the man at the wheel to steer by the Nor th Star. "will soon form the habit of not writing well on any occasion. but soon remarked." This roused the pupil to earnest effort." "It is quite astonishing. or determine their relative importance in God 's eyes.

When Sir Walter Scott visited a ruined castle about which he wished to write. there are other women who use the same needle and thread. eloquent." "Carelessness. When a noted French preacher speaks in Notre Dame.." etc. These details ." "State Po litics. or waistcoat. editors." said a successful manufacturer." could t ruthfully be written over the graves of thousands who have failed in life. never allowed a sentence to stand until it was as good as he could make it. Shall I buy." "United States History." said Curran. he might a s well do the work himself as employ another to do it in that way. he did no t content himself with giving the order. and the precise moment when it was to reach its destination. saying that only by such means can a writer be natural. and method m eans character.000 bushels wheat on your account at $1. "Those who employ men do not wish to be on the constant lookout. Accurate people are methodical people. he gave such exhaustive attention th at before the bugle had sounded for the march he had planned the exact route whi ch every regiment was to follow. To details and minutiae which inferior captains would ha ve deemed too microscopic for their notice. the scholars of Paris throng the cathedral to hear his fascinating. and professors in colleges have lost p osition and prestige by carelessness and inaccuracy! "You would be the greatest man of your age. as he delivers but five or six sermons a year. If a carpenter must stand at his journeyman's elbow to be sure his w ork is right. "you will earn more t han if you make a bad steam-engine." "slipshod financiering. h e wrote in a notebook the separate names of grasses and wild flowers growing nea r. and leaving the elaboration of its deta ils to his lieutenants. Grattan. the exact day and hour it was to leave that sta tion." "The Press. Garfield had a large case of some fifty pigeonholes. The omission of a period cost the Sacramento dealer $1. The historian. Macaulay. Price too high. "whose stitches always come out." came back over the wire instead of "No." "Tariff. and the button s they sew on fly off on the mildest provocation. How m any clerks. and you may tug away at their work on your coat. every valuable hi nt he could get being preserved in the cold exactness of black and white. Besides his scrapbooks. This bril liant finish is the result of most patient work." "French Spoliation.ast and various as were the projects fermenting in his brain. and you can't start a button in a generation. How many thou sands have lost their wealth or lives. and it is ver y certain that the employer will get rid of such a blunderer as soon as he can. la beled "Anecdotes." "Parliamentary Decisions. cashiers." "There are women. "Am offered 10." said President Tuttle." "indifference. so thoroughly premeditated." "Geneva Award." "slouchiness." "Public Men. or is i t too high?" telegraphed a San Francisco merchant to one in Sacramento." "Gener al Politics. which sealed the fate of Eur ope for ten years. however." "Electoral Laws and Commissions. were carried out to the letter. or if a cashier must run over his bookkeeper's columns.00. clergymen.000. When h e chose to make careful preparation on a subject. and the result of that memorable march was the victory of Austerlitz." "If you make a good pin. "if you woul . no other speaker could command so great an array of facts. "No pric e too high." as was int ended. as though they were rogue s or fools. polished discourses." said Fields. and how many frightful accidents have occ urred through carelessness in sending messages! "The accurate boy is always the favored one.

To him there were no trifles in the manufacturing of pianos. Many able essays have been rejected because of poor penmanship. He surpassed the acknowledged masters in various fields of lan dscape work. W. compared with accuracy and knowledge. Turner is in his special field. but Jonas Chickering sent a petition to the legislature. he mastered every detail and worked hard. And so he toiled upward until he began to employ himself. a nd the name was changed back. his work sure of a ma rket at some price. and the article eagerly accepted by one of the very pu blishers who had refused it before. Bergh tells of a man beginning business who opened and shut his shop regularly at the same hour every day for weeks. His eye was upon his business in all its ramifications. Alexandre Dumas prepared his manuscript with the greatest care. Ever y word must exactly express the shade of his thought. t he greatest name on record. withstanding atmospheric chang es. Character has a commercial as well as an ethical v alue. He permitted no irregularity in workmansh ip or sales. an art not fully comprehended even in our day. but he showed such a taste for drawing that a reluctant permission was given for him to follow art as a profession. and left matchless studies of natural scenery in lines never before attempted. and then change the tit le. and employ them in as lofty work as they seem able to do. He was easily the first forens ic orator America has produced. The demand for perfection in the nature of Wendell Phillips was wonderful. We must strive after accuracy as we would after wisdom. frequently illustrating guide-books and almanacs.d buy a few yards of red tape and tie up your bills and papers. transparency. and. He soon became skilful. Stewart was extremely systematic and precise in all his transactions. From the time Jonas Chickering began to work for a piano-maker. He resolved that each pi ano should be an improvement upon the one which preceded it. and put it on his pianos. A. every sentence must be perfectly balanced before it left h is lips. and the price increasing as other men began to get glimpses of the transcendent art revealed in his paintings. perfection was his aim. To the end of his life he gave the finishing touch to each of his instrumen ts. and would trust it to no one else. When consulted by a friend whose article had been rejected by several publishers. successful. Exact precision characterized his style. he advised hi m to have it handsomely copied by a professional penman. and straightforw ardness. He soon made pianos in a factory of his own. yet whos e application attracted attention and paved the way to fortune. but as he lacked means he took anythin g to do that came in his way. The rhythmical fulness and poise of his periods are remarkable. T. Joseph M. Neither time nor labor was of any account to him . he was noted fo r the pains and care with which he did everything. without selling two cents' worth. and was characterized by simplicity. and preserving its purity and truthfulness of tone. What Shakespeare is in literature. but the price was increased and work of higher grade given him simply because men seek the services of those who are known to be faithful. The advice was taken. He determined to make an instrument yielding the fullest and richest volume of melody with the least exertion to the player. and for every delinquency a penalty was rigidly enforced. Chickering's name was such a power that one piano -maker had his name changed to Chickering by the Massachusetts legislature. as a rule. or h . Met hod ruled in every department of his store. Turner was intended by his father for a barber. every phrase must be of du e length and cadence. His labor was w orth several times what he received for it." Curran realized that methodical people are accurate. But although the pay was very small the work was never careless. He distanced all competitors.

or are otherwise maime d. botched. because somebody was careless. Woo den legs. slipsh odness. The majority of railroad wrecks. lack of thoroughness. carelessness. of disasters on land and sea. They are the evil fruit of the low i deals of slovenly. it would not only reduce the loss of human life. dishonest--either employer or emplo yee--and worked lies. and while being repair ed a hammer was found in the bottom that had been left there by the builders thi rteen years before. somebody's habit of inaccuracy. because dishonest workmen wrought deception into the articles they manufactur ed. indifferent workers. somebody's blunders. to a fraction of what it is at present. fatherless and motherless homes ev erywhere speak of somebody's carelessness. armless sleeves. it was discovered that a girl had served twenty years for a twe nty months' sentence. Avoid slipshod financiering as you would the plague. buildings often fall and bury the workmen under their ruins. lies in dishonest labor put into manufactured materi al by workmen who said it was good enough for the meager wages they got! Because people were not conscientious in their work there were flaws in the steel. The worst crimes are not punishable by law. the mangling and maiming of men an d women. in a southern prison. the locomotive or other machinery to break. careless. lies in defectiv e rails. Where a tiny flaw or the slightest defect may cost a precious life. are the result of carelessness. Not long since. and the lives of a thousand passengers were jeopardized because of somebody's carelessness. crimina l blundering in railroad construction? Think of the tragedies caused by lies pac ked in car-wheels. thoughtlessne ss. locomotives. deceptions. clear down to the plating. Careless and indiffere nt habits would soon ruin a millionaire. Everywhere over this broad earth we see the tragic results of botched work. into the building. numberless graves. which cause so m uch misery and cost so many lives. or an arm. The history of the human race is full of the most horrible tragedies caused by carelessness and the inexcusable blunders of those who never formed the habit of accuracy. blundering work. and character is power. The steel shaft broke in mid-ocean. a leg. Nearly every very successful man is acc urate and painstaking. ties. are crimes against self. Determine to form exact business hab its. or half-done. but it would also give us a hig her quality of manhood and womanhood. and engines. of doing things to a finish. From the constant motion of the boat the hammer had worn thr ough the planking. whic h caused the rail or pillar to snap. How many have lost their lives because of dishonest work. covered up defects and weak places with paint and varni sh. against humanity. did it to a complete finish. Multitudes of people have lost an eye. careless ness is as much a crime as deliberate criminality. or switches. Accuracy means character. that of ten do more harm than the crimes that make the perpetrator an outcast from socie ty. of thoroughness. Even before they are completed. because of the mistake of a court cl erk who wrote "years" instead of "months" in the record of the prisoner's senten ce. If everybody put his conscience into his work. slighted their work. . Carelessness.idden treasure or anything we would attain. steamboat boilers. CHAPTER XXII DO IT TO A FINISH Years ago a relief lifeboat at New London sprung a leak.

The thought of slighting his work was painful to him. far outweighs the value that att aches to the doing of a thousand botched or slipshod jobs. not so likely to regard your word as sacred as bef ore. and he has become so demoralized by the habit which. The mental and moral effect of half doing. It dulls ideals.Most young people think too much of quantity. but his menta l processes have so deteriorated. and causes deterioration all along the li ne. prodding. often deteriorates when he leaves home and goes to work for an employer with inf erior ideals and slipshod methods! The introduction of inferiority into our work is like introducing subtle poison into the system. He i s to-day doing quite ordinary things. seemingly without being conscious of it. or example of othe rs to keep them up to standard. Inferiority is an infection which. even when he may think he is doing his best t o carry it out. so subtle. doing things in a loose-jointed. slipshod. How quickly a youth of high ideals. improves the whole character. who has been well trained in thoroughness. after a while. the comfort. can hardly be estimated because the processes are so gradual. After slighting your work. and pulls down the whole life. without apparent mortification or sense of humiliation. and when confidence an d self-respect have gone. I know a man who was extremely ambitious to do something very distinctive and w ho had the ability to do it. he does not know why he has failed! One's ambition and ideals need constant watching and cultivation in order to ke ep up to the standards. that he now s lights his work without a protest. after doing a poor job. It paralyzes the normal functions. you a re not quite the same man you were before. They try to do too much. demoralizes the mental processes. confidence goes with it. like leaven. When he started on his career he was very exact and painstaking. and the tragedy of it all is. stupefies the ambition. of accepting his second-best. No one can respect himself who habitually botches his wo rk. indifferent people . and tends to bring our whole conduct to the same l evel. excellence is impossible. It is astonishing how completely a slovenly habit will gradually. careless manner det eriorates the whole mentality. They require the constant assistance. or carelessly doing things. and brac ing up of the whole man that comes from doing one thing absolutely right. He demanded the best of himself--would not accept his second-best in anything. Every half-done or slovenly job that goes out of your hands leaves its trace of demoralization behind. or with careless. from p utting the trade-mark of one's character on it. insidiously f asten itself upon the individual and so change his whole mental attitude as to t hwart absolutely his life-purpose. Many people are so constituted that their ambition wanes and their ideals drop when they are alone. grew upon him. The entire person takes on the characteristics of one's usual way of doing things. . and when self-respect drops. On the contrary. They do not realize that the education. and do not do it well. the general improvement. The habit of precision and accuracy strengthens the mentality. We are so constituted that the quality which we put into our life-work affects everything else in our lives. the satisfaction. affects the entire system. You are not so likely to try to keep up the standard of your work. its powe r to drag down. to demoralize. palsies the asp iring faculty. suggestion. and too little of quality in thei r work.

completeness. Are the clerks who are respon sible for this carelessness likely to win promotion? Many an employee who would be shocked at the thought of telling his employer a lie with his lips is lying every day in the quality of his work. Honesty is our normal expression. It does not mean that if only you will not lie with your lips you may lie and defraud in the quality of your work. The manager of a large hou se in that city. and any departure from it demoralizes and taints the whole character. "to take so much pains with that job. when you don't get much pay for it. Th at will be worth more to you than any amount of money you can pocket through fra udulent. 'Get the most money for the least work. and that is more important to me than money. to sli p in rotten hours. Of these more than eighty thousand bore no address whateve r. Merely not to steal another's money or goods is not all there is to honesty. clipping their hours. you must not steal his goods or ruin his property by h alf finishing or botching your work." You will like yourself better when you have the approval of your conscience. lack of accuracy. "but I shall like myself better. and blundering of employees cost Chicago one million dollars a day. inaccuracy. in his dishones . Perfe ct work harmonizes with the very principles of our being. and I get twice as much money as you do. or botched work. dishonest work. A great many of them were from business houses. The dead letter depar tment of the Post Office in Washington received in one year seven million pieces of undelivered mail. honesty in your work. acc uracy. Hundreds of clerks and book-keepers are getting sma ll salaries in poor positions today because they have never learned to do things absolutely right. Honesty means wh oleness." "That may be. skimped." Many a young man is being kept down by what probably seems a small thing to him --negligence. "What a fool you are. the electric thrill and uplift which come from a superbly-done job. by blundering through carelessness or indif ference. I shall thin k more of myself. to shirk. rotten service? If you should ask the inmates of our penitentiaries what had caused their ruin. Some one has said: "It is a race between negligence and ignorance as to which c an make the more trouble." replied the other. Did you ever notice the rapid decli ne in a young man's character when he began to slight his work. One of John Wanamaker's partners says that unnecessary blunders and mi stakes cost that firm twenty-five thousand dollars a year. It not only means reliability in your word. his work always needs lo oking over by some one else. A prominent business man says that the carelessness. Nothing else can give you the glow of satisfa ction. deceiving their employers--to indifferent. he can not be depended upon to do anything quite right." said one workman to another. Your contract with your employer means that you will give him your best . many of them could trace the first signs of deterioration to shirking. We were made to be honest.The human mechanism is so constituted that whatever goes wrong in one part affe cts the whole structure.' is my rule. He never quite finishes anything he undertakes. Honesty means integrity in e verything. it means truth in everything--in deed and in word. because we were made f or perfection. and not your second-best. There is a very intimate relation between the quality o f the work and the quality of the character. but also carefulness. You must not steal another's time. says that he has to station pickets here and there throughout t he establishment in order to neutralize the evils of inaccuracy and the blunderi ng habit. It fits our very natures.

many things "go to pieces" altogether. in shirking. You cannot afford to do a poor job. not realizing. chairs and bedsteads break down at the slightest provocation. Your reputation is at stake in everyt hing you do." Accept not hing short of your best. seams give way at the slightes t strain. and under no circumstances would they allow their names to be put on an im perfect article. it is done a s well as I can do it. yet I have known of fice-boys. that lies can be acted as well as to ld and that acting a lie may be even worse than telling one. Tampion and Graham lie in Westminster Abbey because of the accuracy of their wo rk--because they refused to manufacture and sell lies. but which in reality is full of blemishes and weaknesses. is dishonest with himself as well as with his fellow men. This slipshod. who lies or cheats in the goods he sells or manuf actures. to stea l his time when on an errand. When you finish a thing you ought to be able to say to yourself: "There. individuality and thoroughness wrought into it. Some of the world's gre atest manufacturers have regarded their reputation as their most precious posses sion." would be a good label for the great mass of ma nufactured articles in our markets to-day. who could not be induced to tell their employer a direct lie. Yet on every side we see all sorts of things selling for a song because the mak er put no character. in his indif ference to his employer's interests. much-worn garments. Glue starts at joints. very quickly get out of shape. Most things are just throw n together. your trade-mark of superiority upon it.t service. in the rotten hours he is slipping into it. Put such a quality into your work that anyone who comes across anything you have ever done will see character in it. It is not pretty well done. dishonest manufacturing is so general that concerns w hich turn out products based upon honesty and truth often win for themselves a w orld-wide reputation and command the highest prices. and often the entire arti cle goes to pieces before it is worn half a dozen times. Buttons fly off." "good enough. handles pull out. individuality in i t. Articles of clothing that look stylis h and attractive when first worn. and your reputation is your capital. dropped stitches are everywhere in evidence. in shirking. covered up with paint and varnish. Everywhere we see furniture which looks all right. to let botched work or anything that is inferior go out of your hands. to hide away during working hours to smoke a cigar ette or take a nap. Strangers from any part of the world could send their purchase money and order goods from those manufacturers without a doubt that they would be squarely dealt with. and must pay the price in loss of self-respect. and hang and lo ok like old. I am wi lling to be judged by it. as to express it with the lips. castors co me off. "Made to sell. Eve . becaus e of its great reputation for integrity and square dealing. There was a time when the names of Graham and Tampion on timepieces were guaran tees of the most exquisite workmanship and of unquestioned integrity. perhaps. even while prac tically new. Vast sums of money are often paid for the use of a name. The man who botches his work. I am w illing to stand for that piece of work. of standing in his communi ty." "pretty good. There is no other advertisement like a good reputation. I will stand for that. not for service. that has chara cter. It is just as dishonest to express deceptio n in poor work. It is difficult to find anything that is well and honestly made." Never be satisfied with "fairly good. loss of character. done to a complete finish. no thought into them.

by the fa ithful performance of the common. should be ar your trade-mark of excellence. John D. a little more energet ic. who gets on in the world. as Tampion regarded every watch that went out of his shop.. It is doing things a little better than those about you do them. No other characteristic makes such a strong impression upon an employer as the habit of painstaking. Think of the value such a reputation for thoroughness as that of Stradivarius o r Tampion. which he "made for etern ity. would give you! There is nothing like being enamored of accuracy. accuracy. a humble positio n. Regard your work as Stradivarius regarded his violins. who takes pains with his work. every-day duties of the position they are now filling. Jr. It must be the very best you can do." between what ot . but because there is something in him which refuses to acce pt anything from himself but the best. that he is honest and made of good materi al. Every "Stradivarius" now in existence is worth from three to ten thousand dollars. not from the standpoint of salary or wha t he can get for it. who does it to a finish. Many a boy is marked for a higher position by his employer long before he is aw are of it himself. a little more observant. helpful. ordinary things. the best that human skill can produce. little by little. optimistic. The thing which you are now doing will unlock or bar the door t o promotion. a little more obliging. than those about you that attracts the attention of your employer a nd other employers also. carefulness. but when it does come the one who has appreciated the infinite difference bet ween "good" and "better. no matter how unimportant or trivial it may seem." The majority of young people do not see that the steps wh ich lead to the position above them are constructed. being a little neater. who sees a very uncommon chance in a common situation." between "fairly good" and "excellent. It is just the little difference between the good and the best that makes the d ifference between the artist and the artisan. but they d etect very quickly the earmarks of superiority. in doing these common. It may be months. on his doing a little better than was expected of him. or several times its weight in gold. He knows that if a youth puts his c onscience into his work from principle. a little more cheerful. a little quicker. I have known many instances where advancement hinged upon the little overplus o f interest. humble. for no other violin maker would pay s uch a price for excellence as he paid. such a passion to give quality to your work. a little more tactful. They know he has a future. "What can there be. you should regard every task that goes through your hands. it is being a little more polite." and not one of which was ever known to come to pieces or break. of painstaking an employee put into his work.ry bit of your work. "in this dry routine. being grounded in thoroughness as a li fe-principle. says that the "secret of success is to do the common duty uncommonly well. of always striving for excellence. to help me along? " But it is the youth who sees a great opportunity hidden in just these simple s ervices. It is just the little touches afte r the average man would quit that make the master's fame." they say to themselves. or it may be a year before the opening come s. would take such pains to put his stamp of superiority upon his instrument. Rockefeller. it is ingenuity in finding new and more progressive ways of doing old things. Stradivari us did not need any patent on his violins. every piece of work you touch. Employers do not say all they think. They keep their eye on the emplo yee who has the stamp of excellence upon him. Many employees are looking for some great thing to happen that will give them a n opportunity to show their mettle. a little more accurate.

but always a little better. do not try to be first-class. he remains second-class. They have not been content with mediocrity. they cannot remain first-class men and drink. Every fault you allow to become a habit. They have not con fined themselves to the beaten tracks. but more and more i s it becoming one's own fault if. But if you are satisfied with the cheap and shoddy. they have never been satisfied to do thin gs just as others do them. a little farther on. It is this li ttle higher up. It is said that Daniel Webster made the best chowder in his state on the princi ple that he would not be second-class in anything. Boys imi tate older boys and smoke cigarettes in order to be "smart. there are other thin gs that help to make second-class men. but the surest consequence is that of becoming second-class . will be likely to get the place. exhausts his strength and vitality. all through life. People who have accomplished work worth while have had a very high sense of the way to do things. Dissipation in other forms is pursued because of ple asure to be derived. positio n. whose understanding has been dulled. deal with the best. whose growth has been stunted by self-indulgences. through his amusements in his hours of leisure. do not put conscience in to their work. if you insist hieve distinction on to follow your in your nature which demands the best and will take nothing le on keeping up your standards in everything you do. all sorts of people who will never rise above mediocrity. and even a pretty good sort. who will always fill very ordinary positions because they do not take pains. failure to get an education. wealth. he is not third-class. i f you are not particular about quality in your work. is only half a man. wears his nerves till his limbs tremble like leav es in the wind. This is a good resolution wit h which to start out in your career. Do your best in everything. try to do it as well as it can be done. Edu cation of some sort. If there is that ss. that counts in the quality of life's wor k. never to be second-class in anything. bad habits. Have nothing to do wit h the inferior. vitiates his blood. below the standard of the best men for any purpose. It is the constant effort to be first-class in everything one attempts that c onquers the heights of excellence. They always pushed things that came to their hands a little higher up. Everywhere we see mediocre or second-class men--perpetual clerks who will never get away from the yardstick. or in your environment. A ma n who. mechanics who will never be anything but bunglers. A man weakened by dis sipation. No ma tter what you do. choose the best." Then they keep on s moking because they have created an appetite as unnatural as it is harmful. indeed. but. then you must expect to take second place. Sometimes they are sec ond-rate or third-rate people because those who are responsible for their being and their care during their minor years were so before them. all make second-class men. this little farther on.hers call "good" and the best that can be done. Men get drunk for all sorts of reasons. Dissipation. The submerged classes that the economists talk about are those that are bel ow the high-water mark of the best manhood and womanhood. helps to make you second-class. the botched and slovenly. neglect of healt h. whatever the reason. is possible to practically eve . is a second-class man. live up to your best. and puts you at a disadvantage in the race for honor. to fall back to the rear of the procession. or in your personal habits. Everybody knows the things that make for second-class characteristics. Carelessness as to health fills the ranks of the infer ior. and could in no sense be called first-class. if. to get control over you. you will ac in some line provided you have the persistence and determinati ideal. Aside from the lack of desire or effort to be first-class. and happiness.

They are taken and u sed when the better article is scarce or is too high-priced for the occasion. Second-class things are wanted only when first-class can't be had. If we were to examine a list of the men who have left their mark on the world. who had the best brain of his time. Failure to get the best education available. Slipshodness. Balzac. slipshod. One such boy is Elihu Root. we should find that. If you are a king in your calling. or a mer chant. you will do it right. a farmer.ryone in our land. will do it with all your might and with all the ability you possess. and Scotland. I haven't time to do that in this case. The world does not demand that you be a physician. and usually from posts far higher up than those filled by the boys who were too "smart" to be thorough. and honesty. They do not realize that all great achievement has been characte rized by extreme care. infinite painstaking. hence. but rather of the plodding young men who. was asked to make a sp eech on some question at the close of a Congressional session. he made up his mind that anything he had to st udy he would keep at until he mastered it. a lawyer. I reland. If you make yourself first-class in anything. no matter what your race or color. half-done work into their careers and get firstclass products. common sense. he replied: "I ne ver allow myself to speak on any subject until I have made it my own. No you th can ever hope to accomplish much who does not have thoroughness and accuracy indelibly fixed in his life-habit. whether it be in books or in business training. would ruin the career of a youth with a Napoleon's mind. the great French novelist. or. no excuse for b eing second-class when it is possible to be first-class. when playing before scant audiences in country theaters in England. first-class men are wanted. New York. and well done. There is no excuse for incompetence in this age of opportunity. if they have not dazzled by their brilliancy. no matter how humble it may be. you wish you could. but it does demand that whatever you do undertake. inaccuracy. first-class me at. It demands that you be a master in your line. now United States Senator. eat first-class butter. his teacher soon found that when Elihu professed to k . I must refuse to speak on the subject. Thoroughness characterizes all successful men. and when first-class is in demand everywhere. Although not considered one of the "b right" boys of the school. always played as if he were before the most brilliant audi ences in the great metropolises of the world. persistence. You wear fir st-class clothes if you can pay for them. Second-class me n are no more wanted than any other second-class commodity. no matter what your condition or circumstances . you will be in demand. Macready. or who gave great promise at the outset of their careers. When he was a boy in the gra mmar school at Clinton. Fo r work that really amounts to anything. nothing can keep you from success . who have had grit. Genius is the art of taking infi nite pains. The trouble with many Americans is that they seem to think they can put any sort of poor. the habit of half d oing things. who could stay by a task until it was don e. if you don't. even to the minutest detail. and first-class bread. as a rule. have had the power of a day's work in them. When Daniel Webster. is sure to relegate one to the ranks of the seco nd-class." Dickens would never consent to read before an audience until he had thoroughly prepared his selection. sometimes worked a week on a single page. The thorough boys are the boys that are heard from. it is not composed of those who were brilliant i n youth.

esp ecially in banks and large mercantile houses. and is written on everything--on commerce. Perhaps there is no other country in the world where so much poor work is done as in America. A young man. and after graduation serves three years' apprentice ship without pay. As a rule. Root recently said that if his close app lication to problems in his boyhood did nothing else for him. on schools. Sometimes the other boys called him a plodder." The quality which. How seldom you find a young man or woma n who is willing to prepare for his life-work! A little education is all they wa nt. and make their clien ts pay for experience which the law school should have given. armed with letters of introduction from prominent men. one day pre sented himself before Chief Engineer Parsons. and the completene ss of their preparation for business. William Ellery Channing." is characteristic of our country. they do poor. is their thoroughness." he says. Mr. are in great demand to-day in England. Half-trained lawyers stumble through their cases. had a passion for self-improvement. the superiority of their training. To every problem there was only one answer. more than any other. to his chosen business. and then a member of the President' s cabinet. Parsons. of course. while the other boys were out skating. the great New England divine. We can't wait for a high-school. a German who expects to engage in business takes a four years' cours e in some commercial school. "What can you do? Have you any specialt y?" asked Mr. Many an American youth is willing to stumble through life half prepared for his work. or college education." answered the young man. on society. a little smattering of books. "I wa nted to make the most of myself. Elihu frequently remained in his r oom with his arithmetic or algebra." remarked the Chief Engineer. "Well . feveris h work. Young men rush into busine ss with no great reserve of education or drill. I prefer someone who can actually do one th ing thoroughly." "haven't time to be thorough. Half-trained medical students perform bungling operations. has helped to raise the German people t o their present commanding position in the world. and German employees. "I have no use for anyone who can 'almost' do anything. rising to end the interview.now anything he knew it through and through. but tried to get comprehensive views of what I studied. Carrying the principle of "doing every thing to a finish" into the law. of the Rapid Transit Commission of New York as a candidate for a position. Half-trained clerg ymen bungle away in the pulpit. "I can do almost anything. seminary. and then they are ready for business. it made him carefu l about jumping at conclusions. who in his youth was har dly able to buy the clothes he needed. The boy can't w ait to become a youth. He was fond of hard problems requir ing application and patience. because they are not willing to take time for thorough pre paration. are increasing the power of Germany throughout the civilized world. while many die of old age in the forties. "Can't wait. and break down in middle life. and bu tcher their patients. and patience was the price to be paid for it. Thoroughness and reliability. intrusted with vast interests. and then blame society because he is a failure. On winter eve nings. he became one of the most noted members of the New York bar. Eve ry employer is looking for thoroughness. owing to their pr eeminence in this respect. and disgust their intelligent and cultured paris hioners. nor the youth to become a man. for he knew what he was about. Our great lack is want of thoroughness. but Elihu would only smile pleasantly. It is g iving young Germans a great advantage over both English and American youths. "I was not satisfied with knowing thi ngs superficially and by halves. the German's characteristics. on churches." .

or botched. i f there is dishonesty in it. Y our honor. If yo ur work is badly done. Th ey can half do a great many things. greater value. because the m en who started them lacked the staying quality. or make a better mousetrap than his neighbor. manhood and womanhood are at stake. you will earn more mon ey than if you make a bad steam engine. by the conscience or lack of it which you put into your job. defective material an d slipshod service into our work. thousands. it is better capi tal than cash.--failures which require only a little more persistence. This is what every employer is looking for. dishonesty in your character . the education.--yes. but also smirch your character. it is a better promoter than friends. a little finer mechanical training. when we are constantly slipping rotten hours. How many people almost know a language or two. but can't do any one thing well. We are all of a piece. will be affected by the way y ou do your work. after botching your wor k. dealing in cheap. untarni shed career. let it characteriz e everything you touch. A successful manufacturer says: "If you make a good pin. The man who has dealt in shams and inferiority. they stopped just short of efficiency. or bot ching one's work. who has botched his work all hi s life. at stake. an art or two. whose elements they have not fully mastered. St amp it with your manhood. is demoralizing to every element of nobility. a science or two. must be conscious that he has not been a real man. the world will make a path to his door . The world is full of half-finished work. Think what a loss it would be if such men as Edison and Bell had not come to the front and carried to a successful termina tion the half-finished work of others! Make it a life-rule to give your best to whatever passes through your hands. or "pulls" with the influen tial. your future success. which they can neither write nor speak.There is a great crowd of human beings just outside the door of proficiency. You have something of infinitely greater importance." says Emerson. sham. to a finish . a little better education." Never allow yourself to dwell too much upon what you are getting for your work. if it goes to pieces. you not only strike a fat al blow at your efficiency. it is the best substitute for genius. They have acquisitions which remain permanently unavailable because they were not carried quite to the point of skill. bungled. We cannot have an honest character. Ch aracter." "If a man can write a better book. a complete. there is shoddy. your character will suffer. You ar e never again quite the same man after doing a poor job. or the ability ne cessary to carry them to the point of practicability. If any work that goes out of your h ands is skimped. Beecher said he was never again quite the same man after reading Ruskin. which they can not practise with satisfaction or profit! The Patent Office at Washington contains hundreds. It indicates the best kind of brain. to make them useful to civilization. if you slight your work. shoddy shams. If you would be a fu . shirked. To spend a life buying and selling lies. prea ch a better sermon. "though he build his house in the woods. You cannot be just to yourself and unjust to the man you are working for in t he quality of your work. if there is shoddy or sham in it. your whole career. Let superiority be your trade-mark. compared with which salary is nothi ng. Everything you do is a part of your career. he can not help feeli ng that his career has been a botched one. for.--of inventi ons which are useless simply because they are not quite practical.

let quality be your lifeslogan. There is an indescribable superiority added to the character and fiber of the m an who always and everywhere puts quality into his work. to r esolve that. in his life which is never felt by the ma n who does not do his level best every time. of skipping diffi cult problems in school. weave it into the texture of everythi ng you do. lest familiarity wit h it should taint his own ideal and thus be communicated to his brush. There is everything in holding a high ideal of your work. Many excuse poor. is not kept awake by a tr oubled conscience. or half doing it. of skipped problems. Aspiration lifts the life. a neglected or botche d piece of work. I was much impressed by this motto. No one can be really happy who does not believe in his own honesty. Don't think you will never hear from a half-finished job. which I saw recently in a great establishme nt. A famous artist said he would never allow himself to look at an inferior drawin g or painting. When we are trying with all our might to do our level best. and the amount of damage is deducted from her wages. Thousands of people are held back all their lives and obliged to accept inferio r positions because they cannot entirely overcome the handicap of slipshod habit s formed early in life. in your office or place of business. th e amen of the soul. whatever they did only the best they could do would be good enough. and every time we disobey it. a just man. of slovenliness. Everything looks down when we are going down hill. Hang it up in your bedroom. slipshod work on the plea of lack of time. and your life-work will be what every one's should be--A MASTERPIECE. It will never die. to do anything that was low or demoralizing. from principle. CHAPTER XXIII . causes loss of s elf-respect. Like Banquo's ghost. There is a sense of who leness. habits of inaccuracy." What a life-motto this would be! How i t would revolutionize civilization if everyone were to adopt it and use it. you must be honest to the core in the qualit y of your work. of satisfaction.ll man. of slurring their work. in the most embarrassing situations. We are so c onstituted that every departure from the right. would satisfy them! Adopt this motto as yours. A single broken thread in a web of cloth is traced back to the girl who neglected her work in the factory . It will be sure to mortify you when you least expect it. "WHERE ONLY THE BEST IS GOOD ENOUGH. of happiness. that's good enough. Every time we obey the inward law of doing right we hear an inward approval. the life copies. our whole nature im proves. put it into your pocket-book. But in the ordinar y situations of life there is plenty of time to do everything as it ought to be done. what's the use of being so awfully particular?" has been t he beginning of a life-long handicap in many a career. Whatever your vocation. groveling lowers it. It will bob up farther along in your career at the most unexpected moments. a complete man. a protest or condemnation. it will arise at the most unexpected moments to mar your happiness. and makes us unhappy. "Oh . for whatever model th e mind holds. shirking. He is not haunted by the ghosts or tail ends of half-finished tasks.

and losing so much time." The nerve that never relaxes. Tearing off the p alings of his garden fence. "The pit rose at me!" exclaimed Edmund Kean in a wild tumult of emotion.--CARLYLE. "Unstable as water. at the age of eigh teen.--these are the masters of victory." With head on his hand Sheridan mused fo r a time. "It is in me. "You would bet ter have stuck to your former pursuits.--NAPOLEON. His money was all gone. The sight of an elegant Italian cup disturbed his whole existence and from that moment the dete rmination to discover the enamel with which it was glazed possessed him like a p assion. when it did come.--BURKE. and tried to get a better flux." F rom the same man came that harangue against Warren Hastings which the orator Fox called the best speech ever made in the House of Commons. For months and years he tried all kinds of experiments to learn the mate rials of which the enamel was compounded. he attained no result until his fuel was gone. that poverty stared him in the face." wrote a publisher to an ag . By a persistency that nothing seemed able to daunt. and the great burst of heat melted the enamel. the eye that never blanches. one of which came o ut covered with beautiful enamel. you shall ride in your carriage yet. Though only a glass-painter." said Woodfall the reporter. then looked up and said. "If you work hard two weeks without selling a book. He was a little dark man with a voice naturally harsh. burning so much wood. To perfect his invention he next built a glass-furnace. which are open to all. he fed them to the flames. and then a second. and make a seeming impossibility give way. "I had no other books than heaven and earth. he had the soul of an artist. Victory belongs to the most persevering. though he kept the heat up s ix days. Flat failure was the result. At length the time came for a trial. He built a furnace. The grand se cret was learned. but in vain. but. he so t rained himself to play the character that his success.--JEREMY COLLIER. When next he li ghted his fire. and all London was at his feet. which was a failur e.THE REWARD OF PERSISTENCE Every noble work is at first impossible. The shelves of his pantry were then broken up and thro wn into the furnace. who left his home in the south of France in 1828. to try his experiments in a common furnace. but he decided on the spot to beg in all over again. was ove rwhelming. as no other man had ever played it. and bought more pots and wood.--MONTES QUIEU. "I am sorry to say that I don't think this is in your line. but he borrowed some . and soon had three hundred pieces baking. a nd Charles shall go to Eton!" He had been so terribly in earnest with the study of his profession that he had at length made a mark on his generation. to play the character of Sir Giles Overreach. spoiling so many drugs and pots of c ommon earthenware. as he rushed home to his trembling wife. in Massinger's drama. Persistence had triumphed again. carrying the bricks on his back. but he determined. from lack of ability to buy fuel. Perpetual pushing and assurance put a difficulty out of countenance. the thought that nev er wanders. after Sheridan had made his first speech in Parliament. thou shalt not excel." said Berna rd Palissy. Success in most things depends on knowing how long it takes to succeed. and it shall come out of me. his enamel would not melt. and he was forced. His furnitur e followed to no purpose. when young. "Mary.

No. I have never had any time to put on electrical w onders." "Know thy work and do it. and. It has whitened the waters of the world with the sails of a hundred nations. The all-day horse wins the race." said Carlyle.ent. The slow penny is surer than the quick dollar. The afternoon-man wears off the laurels. his early poems were failures. and computed their distances. "you will make a success of it. flutters. opened a highway through the watery wilderness of the Atlantic." [Illustration: Thomas Alva Edison] A man who thus gives himself wholly to his work is certain to accomplish someth ing. harnessed thousan ds of iron steeds to as many freighted cars. How Bulwer wrestled with the fates to change his apparent destiny! His first no vel was a failure. counted her myriad hosts o f worlds. indeed. scaled the stormy. in any other art. The last blow drives home the nail. The slow trotter will out-travel the fleet racer." Perseverance built the pyramids on Egypt's plains. "Do they come to you while you are lying awake nights?" "I never did anything worth doing by accident. Perseverance has wrought from the marble block the exquisite creati ons of genius. valuable simply as novelties to catch the popular fancy. Instead of being progressive in anything. and set them flying from town to to wn and nation to nation. but suffers his resolu tion to be changed by the first counter-suggestion of a friend--who fluctuates f rom opinion to opinion. "will do neither. the painter. Genius darts." "I have no secret but hard work. dimensions. and annihilated space wi th the lightning's speed. "nor did any of my inventions come indirectly through accident. cloud-c apped Alps. and velocities. tunneled mountains of granite. and his youthful speeches prov oked the ridicule of his opponents. and engraved on a metallic surface the viewless substance of the shadow." was the reply. retrograde in all. and I am not easy while away from it until it is finished . "must bring all his mind to bear upon that one object from the moment that he rises till he goes to bed. But he fought his way to eminence through ri . but perseverance wears and wins." said Turner. or. taught her laws. Anything I have begun is always on my mind. Edison. when I have fully decided that a result is worth getting I go ahead on it and make tr ial after trial until it comes. I have always kept strictly within the lines of commercially useful inventions. more probably." s aid William Wirt. and reared in its stead a community of states and nations. "I don't know any other reason. and tires. with every breath of caprice that blows. "Are your discoveries often brilliant intuitions?" asked a reporter of Thomas A . his success will be great. The man who resolves. measured her untrodden spaces." "Whoever is resolved to excel in painting. "The man who is perpetually hesitating which of two things he will do first." said Reynolds. inclosed in adamant the Chinese Empire. navigated every sea and explored every land. It has reduc ed nature in her thousand forms to as many sciences. and if he have ability and common sense." con tinued the great inventor. "and work at it like a Hercules. except the phonograph. from plan to plan. prophesied her future movements. I like it. he wi ll be at best stationary. winged as many flying shuttles. leve led the forests of the new world. and veers like a weather-cock to ever y point of the compass. painted on canvas the gorgeous mimicry of nature.--can never acco mplish anything great or useful. erected the gorgeous temple at Jerusalem. Perseverance has put i n motion millions of spindles.

a poor gray-haired man. like fl . after working on it almost daily for seven y ears. Watt. He had begged bread. King John of Portugal. the great actor. if you have none. The council of wise men called by Ferdinand and Isabella ridiculed his theory of reaching the east by sailing west. found on the shores of Portugal. industry w ill supply the deficiency. He believed that the piece of carved wood picked up four hundred miles at sea and the bodies of two men unlike any other human beings known. Amid abuse and ridicule he waited twenty-five years before his great dis covery was recognized by the profession. Twenty years later he corrected the err or. in the words of Joshua Reyno lds. Blücher may have been routed at Ligny yesterday. and forsaken him. "What holds the sun and moon up?" inquired Columbus. Sothern. So the spirit of our conquests enters us. and their feet up. George Stephenson was fifteen years perfecting his locomotive. while pretending to think of helping him." said Columbus.: "I send your majesty the Last Supper. twenty years on his condensing engine. He was then called a crack-brained impostor by his fellow phys icians." Newton rewrote h is "Chronology of Ancient Nations" fifteen times. From boyhood he had been haunted with the idea that the earth is r ound. Newton discovered the law of gravitation before he was twenty-one. his head bowed with discouragement a lmost to the back of his mule. but one slig ht error in a measurement of the earth's circumference interfered with a demonst ration of the correctness of his theory. Titian wrote to Charles V." Noah Webster spent thirty-six years on his dictionary." said John Ruskin." He worked on his Pietro Martyn eight years. but to-day you hear the thunder of his guns at Waterloo hurling dismay and death among his former conquerors. drawn maps and charts to keep from starving. In February. industry will improve it. Gibbon worked twenty years on his "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. "But the sun and moon are round. his friends had called him crazy. 1492. he had lost h is wife. had sent out secretly an expedition of his own. rode slowly out through the beautiful gateway of the Alhambra. Opposition gives us greater power of re sistance. said that the early part of his theatrical career was spent in getting dismissed for incompetency. "why not the earth?" "If the earth is a ball. Opposing circumstances create strength. and showed that the planets roll in their orbits as a result of the same law which brings an apple to the ground. H arvey labored eight long years before he published his discovery of the circulat ion of the blood. To overcome one barrier gives us greater ability to overcome the next. had drifted from unknown lands in the west. his spirit enters into them. What a sublime patience he sho wed in devoting a life to the collection and definition of words! George Bancrof t spent twenty-six years on his "History of the United States.dicule and defeat. "if you have talent. "But how can men walk with their heads hanging down. But his last hop e of obtaining aid for a voyage of discovery had failed." Savages believe that when they conquer an enemy. "Never depend upon your genius. a nd fights for them ever afterwards. what holds it up?" asked the wise men. an d helps us to win the next victory.

." said another phi losopher. Terror seized the sailors. Twenty-three hundred miles from home. a magnificent new frigate of the United States Navy. "It shall be done. when five miles of c able had been paid out. which says." Cyrus W. Seven hundred miles more of cable were ordere d. "This doctrine is contrary to the Bible. Another stretch of one hundred and forty miles across the island of Cape Breton involved a great deal of labor. but he heard a voice calling his name.ies on a ceiling?" asked a learned doctor. the flag ship of the British fleet at Sebastopol. a bush with berries floats by. On October 12. as did the laying of a cable across the St. Columbus raised the banner of Castile over the western world. "I will only add to what I have already written of my p erseverance at this time of my life. Columbus left the Alhambra in despair. On the second tri al. intending to offer his services to Charl es VII. telegraphic communication could be established between Europe and Ame rica. Two hundred miles west of the Canar ies. and of a patient and continuous energy whic h then began to be matured. The following night. as if in the presence of death. from New York to St." said a priest. Three days out. John's. Field was not the man to give up. Through four hundred miles of almo st unbroken forest they had to build a road as well as a telegraph line across N ewfoundland. in his vessels scarcely larger than fishing-schooners. so the king and queen compelled them. though he tells them it is but seventeen hundred. Newfoundland. Just as Mr. An old friend had told Isabella that it would add great renown to her reign at a trifling expense if what the sa ilor believed should prove true. but. "How hard I worked at that tremendous shorthand. 'The heavens are stretched out like a tent:'--of course it is flat. and they pick up a piece of wood curious ly carved. The cable was loaded upon the A gamemnon. and m en paced the decks nervously and sadly. the brakes were applied too suddenly just as the steamer gave a heavy l urch. The sailors are ready to mut iny. but in Congress he encountered such bitter opposition from a powerful lobby that his m easure only had a majority of one in the Senate." said Isabella. He plunged into the undertaking with all the force of his being. Field was about to give the order to cut the cable. the Pinta floated a signal of distress for a bro ken rudder. and all improvement appertaini ng to it. it caught in the machinery and parted. but Columbus calmed their fears with pict ures of gold and precious stones from India. The preli minary work included the construction of a telegraph line one thousand miles lon g. the compass ceased to point to the North Star. By hard work he secured aid for his company from the British government. Not a sailor would go voluntaril y. breaking the cable. the current returned as quickly and mysteriously as it had disappeared. land birds fly near. and upon the Niagara . Call him back. Lawrence. when the sh ip was moving but four miles an hour and the cable running out at the rate of si x miles. "I will pled ge my jewels to raise the money. but he tells them the North Star is not exactly north. "how can trees grow with their roots in the air?" "The water would run out of the ponds and we should fall off. and a man of great skill was set to work to devise a better machine for payin ." said Dickens. when two hundred miles at sea. Field had retired from business with a large fortune when he became po ssessed with the idea that by means of a cable laid upon the bottom of the Atlan tic Ocean. the electric current was suddenly lost. it is rank heresy to say it is round." Columbus turned and with him turned the world.

the enterprise was abandoned for a year. Talent is desirable. and the vessels returned to the coa st of Ireland. great powers will yield to great industry. capitalists were shy. and one or two fr iends. American and British inventors united in making a machine. the whole project would have been abandoned . with good prospects for usefulness for many years. the one headed for Ireland. my friends see it. the cable parted. or the favorable circumstances around them. which. Thank God! the cable i s laid and is in perfect working order. "CYRUS W. July 27. who worked day and night almost without food or sleep. and if for a week. After sev eral attempts to raise it. with such success that the whole cable was l aid without a break. At length in mid-ocean the two halves of the cable were spliced and the steamers began to separate. Again it was spliced." replied the great violinist. I see the difference in my exec ution. Field. and he became one of the three greatest scholars of China. their friends. and on July 13. Not discouraged by all these difficulties. This example of patience sent him back to his studies with a new determinat ion. the current was lost. Faith now seemed dead except in the breast of Cyrus W. Malibran said: "If I neglect my practice a day. which steamed slowly out to sea. if for two days. A third time the cable was spliced and about two hundred miles paid out. Finally a third attempt was made. All well. when he saw a poor woman rubbing an iron bar on a stone to make a nee dle. Mr. all the world know ." Successful men. FIELD. organized a new company. had thrown away his book i n despair. but perseverance is more so. In Revelation we read: "He that overcometh. and continued to Newfoundland. spliced. "How long did it take you to learn to play?" asked a young man of Geradini. was begun the trial which ended with the following mes sage sent to New York:-"HEART'S CONTENT. "We arrived here at nine o'clock this morning. and several messages were flashed through nearly seven hund red leagues of ocean. the public skeptical. but when the ships were eighty miles apart." A Chinese student. Field went to work with a will. Genius will falter by the side of labor. and the tw o are still working. I will give him to sit down with me on my throne." The old cable was picked up. would bind two continents together. and bu t for the indomitable energy and persuasiveness of Mr. when suddenly the current ceased. "Tw elve hours a day for twenty years. when the cable snapped and sank. each running out the precious thread. Everything worked to a charm until with in six hundred miles of Newfoundland. 1866. it was hoped. "About forty years." replied. discouraged by repeated failures. and made a new cable far superior to anything before us ed. the other for Newfoundland. it is said. paying out as she advanced. when it parted some twenty feet from the Agamemnon. Lyman Beecher w hen asked how long it took him to write his celebrated sermon on the "Government of God. Before the vessels were three miles apart.g out the long line. yet with such persistence did they work that they persuaded men to furnis h capital for yet another trial even against what seemed their better judgment. owe more to their perseverance than to their natura l powers. Field. Directors were disheartened. A new and superior cable was loaded upon the Great Eastern.

it is doubtful whether Demosthenes himself surpassed his great reply to Hayne in the United States Sen ate." Addison amassed three volumes of manuscript before he began the "Spectator. "About five hundred more. would never have served me as it has but for the habit of co mmonplace. "My own invention. Webster's tenacity was illustrated by a circumstance which occurred in the academy." All are familiar with the misfortune of Carlyle while writing his "History of t he French Revolution. He knew the principal was to take a certain tr ain that afternoon. Indeed. and they were even better than the first. he carried his material through the streets on a wheelbarrow. for he was in the habit of reading the same piece every day for six months before reading it in public. Benjamin Franklin had this tenacity of purpose in a wonderful degree. continuing to recite. When he s tarted in the printing business in Philadelphia. so he went to his room and learned seven hundred lines. but when he heard his name called in the academy and all eyes tu rned towards him the room became dark and everything he ever knew fled from his brain. persistent struggle she found to be the price of her ma rvelous power. but Webster kept right on. and sleeping-room. After many months of poring over hundreds of volumes of a uthorities and scores of manuscripts. He w ent to recite them to the principal just before train time. After repeating the hundred lines he continued until he had recited two hundred. When he returned he opened the box only to fin d a nest of Norwegian rats in his beautiful drawings. . making drawings of birds. "such as i t is. When an East India boy is learning archery. He reproduced his drawings. It was a bitter disappointment. At last his opponents voted for him from admirati on of his pluck. he is compelled to practise three m onths drawing the string to his ear before he is allowed to touch an arrow.s my failure. "You can have the rest of the day for pigeon-shooting. but Carlyle was n ot the man to give up. He hired one room for his office." After the first volume was ready for the press. He nailed them all up securely in a box and went off on a vacation. he loaned the manuscript to a neighbor who left it lying on the floor. Pointing to a piece of bread from which he had just eaten his dinner. he sai d: "Unless you can live cheaper than I can you can not starve me out. persistent man." Constant. had spent two years with his gun and note-book in the forests of America. and he was elected by a majority of one! Such persistence alway s triumphs. Marcus Morton ran sixteen times for governor of Massachusetts. He said he committed piece after piece and rehearsed th em in his room. toiling attention. He found a formidable rival in the city and invited him to his ro om. he reproduced that which had burned in a f ew minutes. work-room. The princi pal finally stopped him and asked him how many more he had learned. and the servant gi rl took it to kindle the fire. The principal anxio usly looked at his watch and grew nervous. but Audubon took his gun and note-book and started for the forest. but he became the great orator of America." said the principal. The principal punished him for shooting pigeons by compelling him to co mmit one hundred lines of Vergil. patient. humble." said Webster. I assure you. Every one was ruined. Webster declared that when a pupil at Phillips Exeter Academy he never could de claim before the school." he says. When Dickens was asked to read one of his selections in public he replied that he had not time. the naturalist. It w as a terrible disappointment. Audubon." Everyone admires a determined.

The proof of Burke's "Letters to a Noble Lord" (one of the sublime st things in all literature) went back to the publisher so changed and blotted w ith corrections that the printer absolutely refused to correct it. And of all maxims. Rousseau says he obtained the ease and grace of his style only by ceaseless inquietude." Thoreau 's New England pastoral. Ariosto wrote his "Description of a Tempest" in sixteen different ways. another. Thoreau wrote in his diary: "I have some nine hundred volumes i n my library. the best. until every trace of their efforts has been obliterated. work on in despair. and of the Soul against Matter. it is the virtue par excellence." he replied. when he had written five hundred lines. One of the paintings which made Titian famous was on his easel eig ht years." yet you can read it in sixty minutes. making the millionaire of today a beggar to-morrow. seven. Therefore." was an ent ire failure. w hile my three lines will live forever. Vergil worked eleven years on the Aeneid. by w orking like galley-slaves at literature for half a lifetime with no other compen sation than--fame. for the wisest is boldest. by writing hundreds of pages as mere practise-work. Montesquieu was twenty-five years w riting his "Esprit des Lois. to show that when we have conquered our misfortunes . How came popular writers famous? By writing for years without any pay at all." Yet he took up his pen wit h as much determination as ever." says Burke. "Patience. Adam Smith s pent ten years on his "Wealth of Nations. Seven hundred of the one thousand copies printed were returned from the publishers. He spen t ten years on his "Orlando Furioso. Bishop Butler worked twenty years incessantly on his "Analogy." The head of the god Hercules is represented as covered with a lion's skin with claws joined under the chin." Want of constancy is the cause of many a failure. of the years p ut into a book which may be read in an hour. the glory of an unconquerable will! CHAPTER XXIV NERVE--GRIP. "but if you do. but have been elaborated an d elaborated into grace and beauty. seven hundred of which I wrote myself. "Never despair. Show me a really great triumph that is not the reward of persistence. Adam Tucker spent eighteen years on the "Light of Nature. as the oldest. and it was en tirely reset. they become our helpers." says Bulwer "is th e courage of the conqueror. "But your five hundred lines in three days will be dead and forgotten. The reading and re-reading of a single volume has been the making of many a man. "A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers." A rival playwright once laughed at Eu ripides for spending three days on three lines. Oh. The persistent tortoise outruns the swift bu t fickle hare.Great writers have ever been noted for their tenacity of purpose. and its importance in a social view--its import ance to races and institutions--cannot be too earnestly inculcated." and only sold one hundred copies at fiftee n pence each. Knowing that Providence mingles the cup." and even then w as so dissatisfied that he wanted to burn it. An hour a day for twelve years more than equals the time given to study in a four years' course at a high school. Their works h ave not been flung off from minds aglow with genius. by endless blotches and er asures. th is is the courage of the Gospel. PLUCK "Never give up. of Man against Dest iny--of the One against the World. Is the stern watchword of 'Neve r give up!'" . The note-books of great men li ke Hawthorne and Emerson are tell-tales of the enormous drudgery. The rolling stone gathers no moss.

if he dies. With eight thousand famished . One general described the route by which he would retreat. another thought it better to retire by a different road. until the clock struck one." said old "Rough and Ready" at Buena Vista. speaking only at rare intervals to tell a pithy story. When Lincoln was asked how Grant impr essed him as a general. for what is called luck is generally the prerogative of valiant souls. "Soldiers. St ick to your aim. the mongrel's hold will slip. and with the morning sun the army moved forward to victory. It is the last pul l of the oar. If you do not grant this. w hen Santa Anna with 20. one constant element of luck Is genuine. h e said: "I can't spare this man." "How brave he is!" exclaim ed the ringleader. "The greatest thing about him is cool persis tency of purpose. handed one to each general. and said: "Gentlemen. Massena's army of 18. Friends of the President pleaded with him to gi ve the command to some one else. I will sally forth from Genoa sword in hand. Then. after a long silence." was the only reply. and gave us the greatest hero of the Civil War. He rose.000 men in Genoa had been reduced by fighting and famine t o 8. Grant never looked backward." It was "On to Richmond. when he once gets his teeth in. "you are to o many to assassinate. It is the final effort that brings victory. and arms and baggage. and general after general told how he would withdraw. you are Frenchmen. starvation stared them in the face. "General Taylor never surrenders. and too few to intimidate me. the enemy outnumbered them four to one. but free to fight when and where we please. he replied." It was Lincoln's marvelous insight and sagacity that saved Grant from the storm of popular passion. to die hard. It is said that the snapping-turtle will not release his grip.000. But only crowbars loose the bulld og's grip." Every paper gave definite directions for an advance. He has the grip of a bulldog. old Teutonic pluck. They had killed and captured more than 15. but at length the Mexicans we re glad to avoid further defeat by flight. He fights. then.000 men offered him a chance to save his 4. solid. for his own sake as well as for the good of the country. not as p risoners of war. nearly every newspaper of b oth parties in the North. he called a council of war. but Massena replied: "My soldiers must be allowed to march out with colors flying." and "I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer." said Napoleon. w ho had been a silent listener for hours. G eneral Ott demanded a discretionary surrender." said a Spartan youth to his father. He is resolved. It is this keeping right on that wins in the battle of life. took a bundle of papers from a n inside pocket. Small though he looks. that shows what Oxford boatm en call "the beefiness of the fellow. "Add a step to it. "My sword is too short. At length all eyes were turned upon Grant. and public sentiment everywhere demanded his removal. almost every member of Congress." that settled the fate of the Rebellion . but their prov isions were completely exhausted. coolly walking among his disaffec ted generals when they threatened his life in the Egyptian campaign.000 soldiers b y capitulation. the jaw that never yields Drags down the bello wing monarch of the fields! HOLMES. The battle was long and desperate. with clenched teeth and knit muscles. at dawn you w ill execute those orders. as he withdrew.000 Austrians.Be firm." After Grant's defeat at the first battle of Shiloh. completely cowed. and they seemed at the mercy of their opponents. Lincoln listened for hours one night. nothing can shake him off. after several days of hard fighting without definite result. or seek a m ore favorable position in the rear. even after his h ead is cut off. Once. or fall back. It is just such grit th at enables men to succeed.

slappi ng the young man approvingly on the shoulder. except on the Sabbat h." There is another big word in the English language: the perfection of grit is th e power of saying "No. The nature which is all pine and straw is of no use in times of trial. or I will cut my way through your army. and I will fight till I cut my way through it. Napoleon said of this man." "It is very kind of them to 'sand' our letters for us." said Barnum to a friend in 1841. who was orphaned in infancy and cast upon the world to make his own way in life: "When defeated.men I will attack your camp. The goddess of fame or of fortune has been won by many a poor boy who had n o friends. who knew that the showman had not a dollar. Whoev er attempts to pass through the door to success will find it labeled. and knew the condition of his pocket." Ot t knew the temper of the great soldier." and he kept h is word. "There is room enough up higher. an d offered to cut down the household expenses to a little more than a dollar a da y. Mr. as though he had been the conqueror. The young man who succeeds must hold his ground and push hard. He was right. Olmstead. who would do as he agreed." said Wellington at Waterloo to his officers." said Webster to a young man hesitating to stu dy law because the profession was so crowded. alt hough a few minutes before the French soldiers all along the line were momentari ly expecting an order to retreat. when consul ted by Napoleon at Marengo. we must have some oak and iron in us. ." "Buy it!" exclaimed the astonished friend." said young Junot coolly . and credit Barnum towards the purchase with all above expenses and an allowance of fifty dollars per month to support his wife and three children. or if he would depart by sea so as not to be quickly joine d by reinforcements." said Mr. gentlemen. looking at his watch. This is true in every department o f activity. and more determined pluck. but Francis Olmstead. who owned the Museum building . "what do you intend buying it with?" "Brass. Massena's only reply was: "Take my terms. and agreed to accept the terms if he wou ld surrender himself. and will pay for the Museum before the year is out. Olmstead entered the ticket-office at noon. as an Austrian shell scattered earth over the dispatch he was writing at the d ictation of his commander-in-chief. Learn to meet ha rd times with a harder will. O lmstead was to appoint a money-taker at the door. "I have not eaten a warm dinner since I bought the Museum. when Massena said: "I give you notic e that ere fifteen days are passed I shall be once more in Genoa." Ott at last agreed. no backing. and we shall have time to gain another." "Ah! you are safe . "I am going to buy the American Museum . Barnum assented to the arrangement." was the prompt reply. for in less than a y ear Barnum had paid every cent out of the profits of the establishment. "Well. Massena was always ready to fight a battle over again." with emphasis that can not be mistaken. "f or silver and gold have I none. The remark attracted Napoleon's attention an d led to the promotion of the scrivener. or anything but pure grit and invincible purpose. "Is this the way you eat your dinner?" he asked. Mrs." He then made his famous cavalry charge. and won the field. "Push. "but w e will see who can pound the longest. Six months later Mr." Everyone interested in public entertainments in New York knew Barnum." "The battle is completely lost. "but it is only two o'clock. "Hard pounding." and accepted a proposition to give security for the purchaser. and found Ba rnum eating for dinner a few slices of bread and some corned beef. consulted numerous references all telling of "a good showman." said Desaix. and I intend never to eat another until I get out of debt.

a coward win at Yorktown. worn out by a painful disorder. of a painter who produced an effect long desired by throwing hi s brush at a picture in rage and despair. and raise ignorance to the skies? Does it imprison virtue. Believe you were made for the place yo u fill. weeds and brambles on t hat of the industrious farmer? Does luck make the drunkard sleek and attractive. does not come to much if a feeble frame is unable to respond to the desire. No life is w asted unless it ends in sloth. Bell his telephone. with keen eyes and strong will. effecting a cure. and iron industry are impregnable to the assault s of the ill luck that fools are dreaming of. or cowardice." says Cobden. Franklin his captive lightning. Blanchard his lathe. Morse his telegraph. labor. "labor. perhaps. "Varied experience of men has led me. a lo afer become a Girard or Astor. while the temperate man looks haggard and suffers want a nd misery? Does luck starve honest labor. tried to commit suicide. folly at a premium? Does it cast intelligence into the gutter. and pamper idleness? Does luck put com mon sense at a discount. What are called accidental discoveries are almost invariably made by those who are looking for something. and wishes the postman would bring him the news of a legacy. T wo pearl-divers. Luck lies in bed. Gould.A good character. dishonesty. and laud vice ? Did luck give Watt his engine. go forth to the task. of the Persian co ndemned to lose his tongue. ten. obtained the result desired by angrily running his hands together from the extremities of the keyboard. labor whistles. Goodyear his rubber." Has luck ever made a fool speak words of wisdom. and whose senses are not all eagerly att ent. But let both persevere a nd at the end of five. Vanderbilt. electrify yourself. a Minerva. A man incurs about as much risk of being struck b y lightning as by accidental luck. to attach more and more importance to industry an d physical endurance. Be awake." says Huxley. a Paradise Lost. "Luck is ever waiting for something to turn up. a dolt write an Odyssey.--bear in mind that even this "luck" came to men as the result of action. There is no luck. for industry. an ignoramus utter lectures on science. or Rockefeller. to him who is not striving. but only opened an internal tumor. but even here it wi ll usually be found that the sagacity with which the efforts are directed and th e energy with which they are prosecuted measure pretty accurately the luck conta ined in the results achieved. Luck relies on chance. a Venus de Medici. not inaction. good habits. One b rings up a pearl. equally expert. or a Hamlet. will turn up something. an d with busy pen or ringing hammer lays the foundation of a competence. Field. or Richmond. "to set less value on mere cleverness. or a Greek Slave? Does luck raise rich crops on the land of the sluggard. an element of luck in the amount of success which crowns the efforts of different men. No success is worthy of the name unless it is won by honest industry and brave breasting of the waves o f fortune. after repeated fail ures in trying to imitate a storm at sea. Apparent exceptions will be found to relate almost wholly to single undertakings. Waterloo. Edison his phonograph ? If you are told of the man who. a carel ess stonecutter carve an Apollo. Indeed. as the desire to work hard. of a musician who. on whom a bungling operation merely removed an imped iment of speech. on character. Fulton his steamboat. I am much disposed to think that endurance is the most valuable quality of all. for all practica l purposes. while the other returns empty-handed. Only once learn to carry a . and his home cheerful." Stick to the thing and carry it through. Howe hi s sewing-machine. Luck whin es. There is. while in the long run the rule will hold good. and that no one else can fill it as well. labor turns out at six o'clock. or twenty years it will be found that they succeeded almost in exact proportion to their skill and industry. a Rothschild. Wagram. dive together and work with equal energy. an Aeneid. Put forth your whole energies. Stewart. the longer I live. Whitney his cot ton-gin.

did Pizarro and his few volunteers resolve to stak e their lives upon the success of a desperate crusade against the powerful empir e of the Incas. that somehow. For my part. gives zest To every toiler. DRYDEN. . LONGFELLOW. he alone is great . "neve r give up then. I go to the south. better. Falls f rom his grasp. There's a brave fellow! There's a man of pluck! A man who's not afraid to say h is say. b ackbone.-GOLDSMITH. each man. Who fights the daily battle without fear. B ut with a smile and words of hope. I have a soul that. e ase and pleasure. which the world holds dear. desertion. others will think better of you. the drenching storm." "When you get into a tight place and everything goes against you. after trac ing with his sword upon the sand a line from east to west. Sees his hopes fail. The world in its very heart admires the stern. but. and death. on this side. "Thus far and no farther. Who by a life heroic conquers fate. till it seems as if you could not hold on a minute longer. Panama and its poverty. true and just. envies not. D. and plucks success E'en from the spear-proof crest of rugged danger. backbone. and verge enough for more. which was buried by the dust and ashe s from an eruption of Vesuvius A. as he turned toward the south. Thus. His plans work out f or mortals. Can take in all." said Pizarro. yet keeps unfa ltering trust That God is God. The barriers are not yet erected which shall say to aspiring talent.thing through in all its completeness and proportion. he crossed the line and was followed by thirteen Spaniards i n armor. like an ample shi eld." said Harriet Beecher Stowe. You will think better of yourself. That wins each godlike act. and you will become a hero ." So saying." While digging among the ruins of Pompeii. third. not a tear Is shed when fortune. backbone. N or loses faith in man. Is it necessary to add that all difficulties yie lded at last to such resolute determination? "Perseverance is a Roman virtue. Nor even murmurs at his humbler lot. with love. Though a whole town's against him. He might have found saf ety under sheltering rocks close by. Our greatest glory is not in never falling. on the little island of Gallo in the Pacific. when his men were c lamoring to return to Panama. At the time they had not even a vessel to transport them to the country they wished to conquer. "Friends and comrades. "on that side are toi l. nakedness. hunger. in the face of certain death. "I like the man who faces what he must With step triumphant and a heart of chee r."--BEETHOVEN." Charles Sumner said "three things are necessary to a strong character: First. but does his best. Choose. a mute witness to the thorough discipline. second. the workmen found the skeleton of a Rom an soldier in the sentry-box at one of the city's gates. what best becomes a brave Castilian. determined doer. for that's just the place and time that the tide'll turn. There lies Peru with its riches: here. 79. a crust Than living in dishonor. he had r emained at his post. the ceaseless vi gilance and fidelity which made the Roman legionaries masters of the known world . but in rising every time we fall." CHAPTER XXV CLEAR GRIT Let fortune empty her whole quiver on me.

John Walter. by tying an opinion to a man's tongue. Walter and was s teadily losing money. has the right of way. being asked by an anxious visitor what he would do after three or four years if the rebellion were not subdued. many a sneaking vote withheld. At enormous expense he employed special couriers. there is no alternative but to keep pegging away. He became known as one of the foremost orators of his day. You can not. the fa ther finally consented. In the strife of parties and principles. was the result. and fin ally the Walter Press. wo uld ruin the paper and himself. backbone w ithout brains will carry against brains without backbone. Mean men are uncomfortabl e. Ev ery obstacle put in his way. that a man with brains and push and tenacity of purpo se stood at the helm. hypocrisy is uncertain. 1814. and they appeared in the "Times" several days before their appearance in the government organs. The father was in utter dismay. that the first steam printed paper was given to the world. and independence. When a boy Henry Clay was very bashful and diffident. The audacious y oung editor boldly attacked every wrong. The "London Times" was an insignificant sheet published by Mr." As a rule. The aggressive editor antagonized the government. dishonesty trembles. if need be . and the government adverti sements were withdrawn. In those days only three hundred copies of the paper could be struck off in an hour by the best presses. both sides printed. Lincoln. After many misgivings. and had had no individuality or character of its own." "It is in me and it shall come out. Young Walter was the soul of the paper. character. whi le the ministerial journalists were allowed to proceed.The world admires the man who never flinches from unexpected difficulties. grit were behind the "Times. who dies. charact er. The " leading article" also was introduced to stay. and his foreign dispatches were all stopped at the outposts. that new life and new blood and new ideas had been infused int o the insignificant sheet. pure grit. The public soon saw that a new power stood behind the "Times". who calmly. Enterprise. and all opposition from the government.000 copies per hour. even the government. His son. replied: "Oh. printing. make him the representative of that opinion. Then he set his brain to work. an d his personality pervaded every detail." and nothing could stay its progress. he was sure. In the presence of men permeated with grit and sound i n character. It was the 29th of November. But no remonstrance could swerve the son from hi s purpose to give the world a great journal which should have weight. The paper had not attempted to mold publi c opinion. Jr. It is that quality which achieves. whenever he though t it corrupt. throwing off 17.. individuality. his name will be found neither among the d ead nor among the wounded. only added to his determination to succeed. The young journalist began to remodel the establishment and to introduce new ideas everywhere. at th e close of any battle for principles. and ev erybody admires achievement. through the fear in spired by the rebuking presence of one noble man. "Mean natures always feel a sort of terror before great natures. that its article s meant business. meanness and baseness slink out of sight. begged his father to give him full control of the paper. But nothing could daunt this resolute young spirit. patiently. push. but among the missing. when told that he would nev er make an orator as he had failed in his first speech in Parliament. and scarcely dared recite . and courageously grapples with his fate. Thereupon the public customs. then only twenty-seven years old. and many a bas e thought has been unuttered." said Sheridan. at his post. "Clear grit" always commands respect. and Walter had duplicate and even triplicate types set. Am ong other new features foreign dispatches were introduced.--a man who could make a way when he could not find one.

he placidly returns the pu ff from his regalia. obliging this man by investing in hopeless speculation. and it dies still struggling. and the generals in the war were denouncing his "f oolish" confidence in Grant. through hurricane and tempest. and behind the face discharged of all telltale expression. nuts. he stolidly sm okes. is the best brain to plan and the s trongest heart to dare among the generals of the Republic. . He begged his father to take him ou t of the poorhouse. and. It is unfortunate for a young man to s tart out in business life with a weak. There is a mighty force in sublime conviction and supreme self-confidence behind it. the v ery tissues of the constitution. and if you tell him he should run for the presidency. "If you try to wheedle out of him his plans for a campaign. and the conviction and confidence that it wi Pure grit is that element of character which enables a man to clutch his aim wi th an iron grip. Many of the failures of life are d ue to the want of grit or business nerve. He said he could live upon blackberries. and was reminde d of a story. If impossibilities ever exist. is not clamor. through sleet a nd rain.before his class at school. which enters into the very structure. He is spared the necessity of declaring himself. and field turnips. but Grant had pure "grit" in the most con centrated form. it perseveres. they were "plucky. he blandly lights another cig ar. The man of grit carries in his very presence a power which controls and command s. While you are wondering what k ind of creature this man without a tongue is. Many of our generals in the Civil War exhibited heroism. Through sunshine and storm." an d often displayed great determination. proving that behind the cigar. both had that rare nerve which cares not for ridicule. when his methods were criticized by his own party. if you praise him as the greatest general living. In the presence of his de cision and imperial energy they melted away. yielding disposition. or in the barn with the horse a nd cows for an audience. for his grit speaks in his e very act. they ought to have been foun d somewhere between the birth and death of Kitto. indorsing a questionable note. He could not be moved from his base. But Kitto did not find them there. and delegations were waiting upon him to ask for th at general's removal." When the illustrated papers everywhere were caricaturi ng him. solid quality. immov able. but he determined to become an orator. with no resolution or backbone to mark his own course and stick to it. Here was real grit. nothi ng but death can subdue it. that deaf pauper and master of Oriental learning. popularly speaking. He told him t hat he would sell his books and pawn his handkerchief. with a leaky ship. when no epithet seemed too harsh to heap upon him. with a crew in mutiny." Lincoln had pure "grit. he was self-centered. the great President sat with crossed legs. So he commit ted speeches and recited them in the cornfields. It does not come by fits and starts. It insp ires a sublime audacity and a heroic courage. it do es not disturb the equanimity with which he inhales and exhales the unsubstantia l vapor which typifies the politician's promises. by which he thought he co uld raise about twelve shillings. and in the the knowledge that ll prevail. in truth is mighty. in fact. and keep the needle of his purpose pointing to the star of his hope. and was willing to sleep on a hayrick. r ather than offend a friend. indomitable will? Grit is a permanent. you are suddenly electrified with the news of some splendid victory. it is a part of his life. W hat were impossibilities to such a resolute. even if he had to subsist like the Hottentots. if you call him an imbecile and a blunderer. with no ability to say "No" with an emphasis. can bear abuse and hatred. Lincoln and Grant swerved by public truth.

" said Macaulay of Alexander the Great. lesson after lesson with the scho lar. telling him to keep his posit ion for two hours longer at Aspern. walking from his home in the vill age of Dartmouth. that secu res what all so much desire--SUCCESS. Half dead as he was with fatigue. while working his way through college. the trumpet's blast being g iven. Congressman William W. The messenger found Masséna seated on a heap of rubb ish." It is victory after victory with the soldier. and his whole appearance indicating a physical state better befitting the hospital than the field. Oh. to follow up the French. the triumphs of this indomitable spirit of the conqueror! This it was that enabled Franklin to dine on a small loaf in the printing-office with a book in h is hand. fighting death inch by inch! What a lesson! Before his manuscript was published or the prize awarded. you would shake worse yet if you knew where I am going to take you. The lad determined to continue his college stu dies. The French army was inferior in numbers. to do which he had to learn I talian and German. "After the defeat at Essling." "Often defeated in battle. couched in the form of a request . Napoleon gave the command to charge. The Austrian army extended its wing s on the right and on the left. Then. A promising Harvard student was stricken with paralysis of both legs. The examiners heard him at his bedside. rolled the two wings up on either side. It helped Locke to live on bread and water in a Dutch garret. Think of the para lytic lad. "You may well shake. being too poor to buy a dictionary. He persevered in spite of repeated attacks of illness and par tial loss of sight. his eyes bloodshot. the success of Napoleon's attempt to withdraw his beaten army depended on the character of Masséna. and had given way. picture after picture with the painter. to whom the Emperor dispatched a messenger. required almost an impossibility. and in four years he took his degr ee. helpless in bed.A little boy was asked how he learned to skate. and the battle was won for France . but Napoleon knew the indomitable tenacity o f the man to whom he gave it. Whipple tells a story of Masséna which illustrates the masterful purpose that plu cks victory out of the jaws of defeat. crop after crop with the farmer. Crapo. to New Bedford to replenish his store of words and defi nitions from the town library. he r ose painfully and said courageously. Once when Marshal Ney was going into battle. the Austrians considered the day won. He was competing for the university prize. his frame weakened by his unparalleled exertions during a contest of forty hours. Mass. cut it i n two. but his work was successful. the bra ve student died. . and the Austrians were confident i t was won. and. "Oh. looking down at his knees which we re smiting together. half starved and thinly clad. actually copied one. "he was alway s successful in war." he replied. by getting up every time I fell down." In the battle of Marengo. competing for a prize. This order. It enable d Gideon Lee to go barefoot in the snow. he said. Physician s said there was no hope for him. and mile after mile with the traveler.. It sustai ned Lincoln and Garfield on their hard journeys from the log cabin to the White House. though the French themselves thought that the battle was lost. 'Tell the Emperor that I will hold out for two hours. the Old Guard charged down into the weakened center of the enemy. But that steadfast soul seemed alt ogether unaffected by bodily prostration.' And he kept his word. He resolved to make a critical study of Dante. blow after blow with the laborer.

. studied law. for he knew his day would come. Fox. he left home moneyle ss. The son returned at the end of the fresh man year with extravagant habits and no money. most of the great things of the world have been accomplished by g rit and pluck. and bec ame the greatest historian of America in his line. graduated at the head of his class. when this gay young fop was introduced to him. with the hated Hebrew blood in his veins. But he did not give up speaking till every poor man in England had a larger. and I will back that young man to do better than most of those who have succeeded at the first trial. Seward was given a thousand dollars by his father with which to go t o college. Barnum was a ruined man. "It is all very well. returned to college. He will make stepping-stones out of his stumbling-blocks. and told him he could not stay at home. legs and yet have achieved marvelous su ccess." said Charles J. and whi ch had an utter contempt for self-made men and interlopers. and nevertheless has gone on. You could see that this young man intended to make his way in the w orld. without opportunit y. eyes. pushing his way up through the middle classes. Henry Fawcett put grit in place of eyesight. until he stands self-poised upon the topmost round of political and social power .President Chadbourne put grit in place of his lost lung. asked him what he wish ed to be. Prescott also put grit in place of eyesight. Thousands of men have put gri t in place of health. he was absolute master of himself and hi s situation. and cheaper loaf. and that he must now sink or swim. Indeed. One of the most remarkable examples in history is Disraeli. was el ected Governor of New York. forcing his leaders hip upon that very party whose prejudices were deepest against his race. Scoffed. or he may be sati sfied with his first triumph. Determined audacity was in his very face. hands. ridiculed. "to tell me that a young man has di stinguished himself by a brilliant first speech. he could s ting Gladstone out of his self-control. Francis Parkman put grit in place of health and eyesight. Handsome. He may go on. up through the upper classes. You can not keep a man down who has these qualities. and worked thirty-five years after his funeral had been planned. he could exhaust the resources of the bitterest invective. rebuffed. and became the greatest Postmaster -General England ever had. sprung from a hated and persecuted race. William H." was his audacious reply. and became one of America's greate st historians. His father refused to give him mo re. See young Disraeli. but show me a young man who has not succeeded at f irst. he rose repeatedly from the ashes of his misfortune each time mo re determined than before. Lord Melbourne. he simply says . after three defeats in parliamentary elections he was not th e least daunted. When the youth found the props all t aken out from under him. and the boy wit h no chance swayed the scepter of England for a quarter of a century. ears. and the chairman apologized for him. Again and again he was ruined. hissed from the House of Commons. yet he resolutely resumed business once more. At fifty. bu t phoenix-like. Imagine England's su rprise when she awoke to find this insignificant Hebrew actually Chancellor of t he Exchequer! He was easily master of all the tortures supplied by the armory of rhetoric. better. fairly wringing success from adverse f ortune. the great Prime Minister. and became Lincoln's great Secretary of State during the Civil War. owing thousands more than he possessed." Cobden broke down completely the first time he appeared on a platform in Manche ster. this was all he was to have. "Prime Minister of England. and paying his notes at the same time. "The time will come when you will hear me. and lift himself to success." The time did come.

because nobody encourages them . with the support of invalid parents or brothers and sisters. by impaire d eyesight or hearing? When the prizes of life shall be finally awarded. but have be en accustomed to lean upon a father's wealth or a mother's indulgence? How many are weakened for the journey of life by self-indulgence. by dissipation. to be tossed about hither and thither. "If the power to do hard work is not talent. no grip on life? "The truest wisdom. During a winter in the War of 1812. because they get no sympathy and are forever tortured for not doing that again st which every fiber of their being protests." "I can't." The triumph of industry and grit over low birth and iro n fortune in America. What is a man without a will? He is like an engine without steam.Garfield said. the distance we have run. shiftless. or friends? How many are fettered with ignorance. and every drop of their blood rebe ls? How many men have to feel their way to the goal through the blindness of ign orance and lack of experience? How many go bungling along from the lack of early discipline and drill in the vocation they have chosen? How many have to hobble along on crutches because they were never taught to help themselves." Were I called upon to express in a word the secret of so many failures among th ose who started out in life with high hopes. and then he rode before the rebellious line and threatened with instant death the first mutineer that should try to leave. By daring to attempt them. the disadvantages und er which we have made the race. So in the race of life the distance alone does not determine the prize. hampered by inhospitable surroundings. The poor wretch who has plodded along against unknown temptations. became mutinous and were going home. to Alexander. I should call the stre ngth of will the test of a young man's possibilities." shouted the conquering Macedonian. and this is taken into acco unt in the result. But the general set the example of living on acorns. it is impossible. always at the mercy of those who have wills. the land of opportunity." said a foiled lieutenant. ought to be sufficient to put to shame all grumblers over their hard fortune and those who attempt to excuse aiml ess. Can he will strong enough. General Jackson's troops. The race is not always to the swift. by "lif e-sappers". and who have been unrecognized or despised by their fel low-runners. "there is nothing impossible to him who will try. but the obstacles we have overcome. the weights we have carried. They could not half will. will all be taken into account. "is a resolute deter . the weights we have c arried. of circumstances. self ish. pushing. successless men because they have no chance. of breeding. it is the best poss ible substitute for it. with th e opposition of parents who do not understand them? How many a round boy is hind ered in the race by being forced into a square hole? How many youths are delayed in their course because nobody believes in them. for a young man with no will. how many are crippled by disease. How many young men are weighted down with debt. And make the impossibility t hey fear. sloth and folly Shiver and sink at sight of toil and hazard. and hold whatever he undertakes with an iron grip? It is the iron grip that tak es the strong hold on life. by a weak constitution. they l acked will-power. will decide the prizes. of training. the handicaps. We must take into consideration the hindrances. "The wise and active conquer difficulties. What chance is there in this crowding. the battle is not always to the strong. with povert y. of surrounding s. Not the distance we have run. a mere sport of chance. the disadvantages of education. those who have su ffered abuse in silence. will often receive the greater prize. I should say unhesitatingly." said Napoleon. unprovided for an d starving. where everything is pusher or pushed. greedy world. "Begone. the poor woman who has buried her sor rows in her silent heart and sewed her weary way through life. Ho rses are sometimes weighted or hampered in the race.

" The field was rough and stony. when he asked her to lend him one hundred dollars to buy a boat. "My son. J. The boy had been sent with three wagons . but great minds rise above t hem." said a friend to J. 1810. "on the twenty-seventh of this month you will be sixteen years o ld. "If you will pu t us across. Curran. I will advance you the money. If. He early identified himself with the g rowing railroad interests of the country. "Indee d." Speaking of his first attempt at a debating club. In 1818 Vanderbilt owned two or three of the finest coasting schooners in New Y ork harbor.--WASHINGTON IRVING. he gave up his fine b usiness to become the captain of a steamboat at one thousand dollars a year. for at the age of fifteen he w as obliged to buy on credit the shoes he wore at his father's funeral. and became the richest man of his day in America. Those only are worth having which come as th e result of hard fighting. and well done. Seeing that steam-vessel s would soon win supremacy over those carrying sails only. to carry the cargo across a sand-spit to the lighte rs. Barnum began the race of business life barefoot. and take it to New York in lighters. "I'll d o it. and he prospered so rapidly that he a t length owned over a hundred steamboats. and had a capital of nine thousand dollars." said the innkeeper. having imbibed a strong liki ng for the sea. I'll leave with you one of my horses in pawn. untarnished by ambition or avarice . "it was born some three and twe nty years and some months after me. But the tide turned." The innkeeper asked the reason for this novel proposition. J. in the face of opposition so bitter that he lost his last dollar." CHAPTER XXVI SUCCESS UNDER DIFFICULTIES Victories that are easy are cheap. as he looked into the bright honest eyes of the boy. For twelve years he ran between New York City and New Brunswick. by that time. and learned that the lad's father had contracted to get the cargo of a vessel stranded near Sandy Ho ok. N. N. "I have here three teams that I want to get over to Staten Island. The horse was soon redeemed. it was not. From this small beginning Cornelius Vanderbilt laid the foundation of a colossal fortune." replied the orator. "Eloquence must have been born with you. There was no keeping him down." said this same boy's mother.--BEECHER.mination. no opposition daunted him. my dear sir. he had started with only six dollars to travel a long distance home over the Jersey sands." said a boy of twelve one day in 1806 to the innkeeper at South Amboy. he said: "I stood up. but the work was done in time. and three men. The work accomplished. I took courage and had actually proceeded al . and plant with corn the eight-acre lot. but remembering that in this I was but imitating Tully. harrow. and reached South Amboy penniless." An iron will without principle might produce a Napoleon. In 1829 he b egan business as a steamboat owner. P. you will plow. Little minds are tamed and subdued by misfortunes. on the first of May. trembling through every fiber. but with cha racter it would make a Wellington or a Grant. six horses. He was a remarkable example of success under difficulties. and if I don't send y ou back six dollars within forty-eight hours you may keep the horse. "The undivided will 'T is that compels the elements and wrings A human music fr om the indifferent air.

and then he pawned his letters patent to pay his expenses home. that he would place his book bef ore him on the spinning-jenny. he wou ld be overwhelmed by the sense of their disproportion. by the slender force of human beings. The farmer boy. and read extensively. taught school at ten dollars per month. incessantly continued. and assembled millions were gazing upon me in breathless expectation. he took great pains to become a good speaker. they seize upon whatever is at hand. on small scraps of leather. to my astonishment and terror. but I would recommend him to show it in future by so me more popular method than his silence. and that distant countries are united with canals. If a man was to compare the effect of a single stroke of the pickax." said the annoyed speaker. The boy Arkwright begins barbering in a cellar. Encouraged by this success. until he was called the "Watchdog of t he Treasury. Washburn. and early learned the lesson that it takes one hundred cents to make a dollar. he c an bring electricity from the clouds with a common kite." speaking fluently in his anger. Gifford wrote his first copy o f a mathematical work. the astronomer." and well did he deserve the title until he ventured to stare in astonishment at a speaker who was "culminating chronology by the most preposterous anachronis ms. "are instances of the resistless force of perseverance: it is by th is that the quarry becomes a pyramid." s ays Johnson. He corrected his hab it of stuttering by reading favorite passages aloud every day slowly and distinc tly." He was nicknamed "Orator Mum . they make them. and Rittenhouse. He would sit up and study till midnight unless his mothe r drove him to bed. He mastered Vergil and Horace in this way. and studied in the n ight schools for years. he had frequently to borrow money to live on. to my panic-stricken imag ination. A Franklin does not require elaborate apparatus. first calculated eclipses on his plow handle. and amid the deafening roar of machinery would po re over its pages. when a cobbler's apprentice. A young man determined and willing wi ll find a way or make one. notwithstanding he had to be at the factory at six in the mo rning. but dies worth a million and a . David Livingstone at ten years of age was put into a cotton factory near Glasgo w. and master the situation." "I doubt not. and mounta ins are leveled." When Elias Howe. or of one impression of the spade. at which we look with praise and wonder. It is always the old route . yet those petty operation s. Bunyan wrote his "Pilgrim's Progress" on the untwisted papers which were used t o cork the bottles of milk brought for his meals. Chairman. Nor do they wait for fa cilities or favoring circumstances.' when. There were only six or seven present. So eager for knowledge was he. although it was worth fifty. Out of his first week's wages he bought a Latin grammar. H e sold his first machine for five pounds." Great men never wait for opportunities. Curran rose and ga ve the man a "piece of his mind. My friends cried. besides studying botany. In af ter years he fought "steals" in Congress. 'Hear him!' but there was nothing to hear." Stung by the taunt. He also borrowed money to send his wife back to America. as if I were the central object in nature. I perceived that every eye was turned on me. by way of industry and perseverance. "that 'Orator Mum' possesses wonde rful talents for eloquence. was in London completing his first s ewing-machine. and spoke at every opportunity. and oceans bounded. I became dismayed and dumb. harassed by want and woe. He bought beans and cooked them himself. yet was it.most as far as 'Mr. "All the performances of human art. with the general design and last result. Elihu B. Great men have found no royal road to their triumph. in time surmount the greatest difficulties. and the r oom could not have contained as many more. work ou t their problem.

wh ose life. nor fair surrounding. squalor. a young manhood vex ed by weird dreams and visions. not in ease and comp etence. and lived to become honored and wealthy. singularly awkwar d. and Chase. of what real parentage we know not. raised to supreme comm and at a supreme moment. to be snatched from obscurity. By the aid of others' eyes. not even permitting his own chil dren to pass. He set his heart upon being a historian." and the other eye became almost useless. mustered all the impediments. From the and homes to which luxury is a stranger. "What does he know. in bare and fireless garrets. the guides and teachers of their kind." said Emerson." said a sage. Prescott was a remarkable example of what a boy with "no chance" can do. poring over old archives and manuscripts. ami dst the harassing cares of a straitened household. William H. and t rained themselves. and death might be chanted by a Greek chorus as at once the pr elude and the epilogue of the most imperial theme of modern times? Born as lowly as the Son of God. and given the reins of power. Not in the brilliant salon. career. were sent to the rear. is genius born and nurtured. with no gleam of light. late in life. the unfolding of your p sprang the greatest of crowded ranks of toil. There is no open door to the temple of success. "discovered a more splendid series of celestial phenomena than any one since with the great telescopes. The world treated his novelties just as it treats everybody's novelties--m ade infinite objection. wretched.half. studied. he lost one eye by a hard piece of bread thrown during a "biscuit battle. The great l eaders of his party were made to stand aside. Nearly every great discovery or invention that has blessed mankind has had to f ight its way to recognition. until they have at last emanated from the gloom of that obscu rity the shining lights of their times. before he publi shed his "Ferdinand and Isabella. have often come tors of our race. reared in pe nury. repulsive. While at college. while this strange figure was brought by unseen hands to the front. which closes behind him to all others. Columbus f ound the new world in an undecked boat." What a lesson in his life for young men! What a rebuke to those who have thrown away their opportunities and wasted their liv es! "Galileo with an opera-glass. Amid scenes unpropitious. but he snapped his fingers at their objections. but often in adversity and destitution. the leaders and benefac Where shall we find an illustration more impressive than in Abraham Lincoln. not in the tapestried library. There is scarcely a great truth or doctrine but has had to fight its way to pub lic recognition in the face of detraction. with scarcely a natural grace. and Sumner. Daniel Webster. even against the opposition of the most progressive men. and persecution." Surroundings which men call unfavorable can not prevent owers. But the boy would not lead a useless life. calumny. statesmen famous and trained. have become the companions of kings. and exercised an influence upon the thought of the world amounting to a species of intellectual legislation. Everyone who enters makes his o wn door. From among the rock-ribbed hills of New Hampshire American orators and statesmen. in a hovel. Then he spent ten years more. ungainly even among the uncouth about him: it was reserved for this remarkabl e character. men like Seward. the most experienced and accomplis hed men of the day. "who has not suffered?" Schiller produced his . and intrusted with the destiny of a nation. and turned all hi s energies in that direction. he spent ten years stu dying before he even decided upon a particular theme for his first book. have men labored.

he sat down to compose the great w orks which have made his name immortal in music. he determined to be an orator at any cost. Place stumbling-blocks in his w ay and he takes them for stepping-stones. But he remained fir m. jeers. life itself if need be. Cripple hi m. that he could scarcely get throug h a single sentence without stopping to rest. warned by palsy of the approach of death . and whom he compelled to refund a part of his fortune. He overcame his short breath by practising while running up steep and difficul t places on the shore. He then heard of anothe . and such an impedim ent in his speech. pleasure. and scoffs of his audiences. and the people adopted his opinion. and on them will climb to greatness. and struggling with distress and suffering. Handel was never greater than when. position. He accordingly appeared again in public. One of his audito rs. and last of all his "Requiem. He set out at once. was terrib ly persecuted for his studies in natural philosophy. encouraged him still further to try to overcome his impediment. As he withdrew. and he makes spurs of his poverty to urge him on. and reputation . leaky vessels. All that is great and noble and true in the history of the world is the result of infinite painstaking. Threats. his books were burned in public. and he was kept in prison for ten years. William Phipps. when o ppressed by almost total deafness. T ake away his money.greatest tragedies in the midst of physical suffering almost amounting to tortu re. scorned by quee ns. discovered the lost treasure. storms. and at the same time accustom himself to the hisses and tumults of his audience . he did not swerve a hair's breadth from the overmastering purpose which domi nated his soul. but he pushed his suit against an incredulous and ridiculing world. He had such a weak voice." when oppressed by debt and struggling with a f atal disease. in order to overcome his stammering. Roger Bacon. The words "New World" were graven upon his heart. which was supposed to have money on board. of common every-day industry. He was so discouraged by his defeats that he determined to give up forever all attempts at oratory. and encouraged him to persevere. His awkward gestures were also corrected by long and dete rmined drill before a mirror. Perhaps no one ever battled harder to overcome obstacles which would have dishe artened most men than Demosthenes. and was so short of breath. He stammered so much that he could not pronounce some of the letters at all. Satyrus. talking about a Spanish ship wrecked off the Bahama Islands. The Duke of Wellington was mobbed in the streets of London and his windows were broken while his wife lay dead in the hou se. Even our own revered Washington was mobbed in the streets because he would not pander to the clamor of the people and reje ct the treaty which Mr. however. Beethoven produced his greatest works amidst gloomy sorrow. who had defrauded him. ostracism. could not shake his mighty purpose. All his first attempts were nearly drowned by the hisses. believed the young man had something in him. mutiny of sailors. but was hissed down as befor e. Columbus was dismissed as a fool from court after court. He was accused of dealing in magic. You can not keep a determined man from success. and. Jay had arranged with Great Britain. when a young man. Finally. one of the profoundest thinkers the world has produced. Rebuffed by kings. in Boston. must be sacrificed. perpetual plodding. heard some sailors on the street. Young Phipps determined to find it. Mozart composed his great opera s. ridicule. but the "Iron Duke" never faltered in his course. He went to the seashore and practised amid the roar of th e breakers with small pebbles in his mouth. and his breath woul d give out before he could get through a sentence. and he writes the Waverley Novels. yet he persevered and won s uccess. or swerved a hair's breadt h from his purpose. ease. a noted actor. hanging his head in great confusion. after many hardships. His first effort tha t met with success was against his guardian.

and Phipps had to wait for four years before he could raise mo ney to return. It almost seems as though some great characters had been physically crippled in certain respects so that they would not dissipate their energy. A distinguished investigator in science said that when he encountered an appare ntly insuperable obstacle. The good are better made by ill. of opposition . and independence. we have worked hard and usefully. but for that loss of money. When. by being thrown. "Adversity is the prosperity of the great. Field placed his hand upon the tele graph instrument ticking a message under the sea. have truly lived instead of vegetating.r ship. The man who has not fought his way up to his own loaf.--EMERSON. sewin g and economizing and growing narrower every year. James II was th en on the throne. Many men owe the grandeur of their lives to their tremendous difficulties. blin d. seen the world abundantly. he usually found himself upon the brink of some disco . was in his later years nearly.--SPU RGEON. referring to her father's failure in business. abroad and at home. The money acquired by those who have thus struggled upward to success is not th eir only. As odors crushed are sweeter still." "Kites rise against." "Many and many a time since. He set sa il for England and importuned Charles II for aid. He searched and searched for a long time in va in. ROGERS. of ridicule. Though losses and crosses be lessons right severe. Dante. ye'll find no other where. when she adds difficulties. and at length had to return to England to repair his vessel. do you suppose those bright rays failed to illuminate the inmost recesses of his soul? CHAPTER XXVII USES OF OBSTACLES Nature. in short. They proved to belong to th e wreck. does not know the highest meaning of success. reputation. "have we said that. BURNS. and does not bear the sc ar of desperate conflict. won friends. or indeed their chief reward. which had been wrecked off Port De La Plata many years before. His crew mutinied and threatened to throw him overboard. on our own resources. adds brains. not with. but concentra te it all in one direction. whi le it was yet time. but he returned to Engl and with $1. if not altogether. we might h ave lived on in the ordinary provincial method of ladies with small means. Edison demon strated that the electric light had at last been developed into a commercial suc cess. Cyrus W. A constant struggle. He had nothing but dim traditions to guide him. There's wit there ye'll get there. a ceaseless battle to win success in spite of every barrie r." said Harriet Martineau.--Homer and Milton . whereas. is the price of all great achievements. while the third. after years of toil. of repeated failure.000. One day an Indian diver went down for a curious s ea plant and saw several cannon lying on the bottom.500. think you that the electric th rill passed no further than the tips of his fingers? When Thomas A. To his delight the king fitted up the ship Rose Algier for him." Two of the three greatest epic poets of the world were blind. but he t urned the ship's guns on them. the wind.

If the germ of the seed has to struggle to push its way up through the stones a nd hard sod. commanded their respect. and our griefs develo p us in a similar way. but they often act as a stimulus to the naturally indolent. Men of mettle turn disappointments into helps as the oyster turns into pearl the sand which annoys it. These unkind stings and thrusts are often spurs which urge us on to grander su ccess and nobler endeavor. When Napoleon's school companions made sport of him on account of his humble or igin and poverty he devoted himself entirely to books." Thousands of men of great native ability have been lost to the world because th ey have not had to wrestle with obstacles. and then to wrestle with s torm and tempest. They tell us the truth when friends flatter. T heir biting sarcasm and scathing rebuke are mirrors which reveal us to ourselves . There is good philosophy in the injunction to love our enemies. with snow and frost. but are the better for them. It is just so in lif e. The man who is tied down by half a dozen blooming responsibilities and their mother will make a higher and stronger flight than the bachelor who. is always floundering in the mud. Friends cover our faults and rarely rebuke. Poverty and obscurity of origin may impede our progress. a stronger muscle and stamina of body. An air of triumph is seen in every movement. Without their opposition we could never have braced an d anchored and fortified ourselves. . but it is only like th e obstruction of ice or débris in the river temporarily forcing the water into edd ies. having noth ing to keep him steady. The man who has triumphed over difficulties bears the signs of victory in his f ace. our sorrows. "To make his way at the bar. and. for they are of ten our best friends in disguise. They reac h depths before untouched. to fight its way up to sunlight and air. quickly rising above them in scholarship. There is nothing that does a young lawyer so much good as to be half starved.very. and develop a firmer fiber of mind.--a force against him that lifts him higher. enemies d rag out to the light all our weaknesses without mercy. No effort is too dear which helps us along the line of our proper career. They have developed in us the very power b y which we overcome them." said an eminent jurist. and to struggle under difficulties su fficient to stimulate into activity their dormant powers. We are the victors of our opponents. by firing a dormant purpose. and we are led to resolve to redeem ourselves from sc orn and inferiority. as the oak is braced and anchored for its th ousand battles with the tempests." A kite would not fly unless it had a string tying it down. Poverty and obscurity are not insurmount able obstacles. Failure often leads a man to su ccess by arousing his latent energy. "a young man must live li ke a hermit and work like a horse. by awakening p owers which were sleeping. the fiber of its timber will be all the t ougher and stronger. where it accumulates strength and a mighty reserve which ultimately sweeps the obstruction impetuously to the sea. Our trials. "Returned with thanks" has made many an author. We dread these thrusts an d exposures as we do the surgeon's knife. "Let the adverse breath of criticism be to you only what the blast of the storm wind is to the eagle. Soon he was regarded as the brigh test ornament of the class.

"Will he not make a great painter?" was asked in regard to an artist fresh from his Italian tour. The huge truck wheels were sliding uselessly round on the car tracks that were wet and s lippery from rain. and the greater the friction necessary to bring it out. Yet if the air we re withdrawn. A century of peace would never have prod uced a Bismarck. The great men who have lifted the world to a higher level were not developed in easy circumsta nces. the mor e brilliant the luster. and make greatness possible. Trials unlock their virtues. it is defeat that makes men invincible. Difficulties call out great qualities. and the bird should try to fly in a vacuum. defeated. thwarted. Only its own dust is hard enough to make this most precious stone reveal its ful l beauty." In the sunshine of wealth a man is. crushed. was tortured with disease for many years. ." "Then I must learn to sing better. who made a theology for the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. an electric car came to a standstill j ust in front of a heavy truck that was headed in an opposite direction. The harder the diamond. "No. The spark in the flint would sleep forever but for friction. but were rocked in the cradle of difficulties and pillowed on hardships. Me n who have stood up bravely under great misfortune for years are often unable to bear prosperity. it is defeat that turns gristle to muscl e. the no blest characters are developed in a similar way. their edge from grinding. and that has given the sweet law of l iberty instead of the bitter law of oppression. "Friction is a very good thing. A drenching shower of adversity wo uld straighten his fibers out again. in th e opinion of those around them. might suppose that if only the air we re out of the way it could fly with greater rapidity and ease. Some people neve r come to themselves until baffled. It is defeat that turns bone to flint. The very element that offers the oppositi on to flying is at the same time the condition of any flight whatever. the fire in man wo uld never blaze but for antagonism. unable to fly at all. "Why not?" "Because he has an income of six thousand pounds a year. seem to thrive best when most abused. All the urging of the teamster and the straining of the horse s were in vain. Perhaps Phillips and Garrison would never have been known to hi story had it not been for slavery. with much jarring and jolting.--until the motorman quietly tossed a shovelful of sand on the tr ack under the heavy wheels. and so was Robert Hall. rebuffed. inasmuch as the only obstacle it has to overcome is the resistance of the air. warped too much to become an artist of high merit. How many ce nturies of peace would have developed a Grant? Few knew Lincoln until the great weight of the war showed his character." replied Northcote. Their good fortune takes the spring out of their energy. The best tools receive their temper from fire." remarked a passenger. as th e torrid zone enervates races accustomed to a vigorous climate. Suddenly. never. He should have some gr eat thwarting difficulty to struggle against. it is defeat that has made those hero ic natures that are now in the ascendency. The philosopher Kant observed that a dove." said Anaximander. when told that the very b oys laughed at his singing. like the palm-tree. "The gods look on no grander sight than an honest man struggling with adversity . and then the truck lumbered on its way. defeat is the thres hold of their victory. as a rule.John Calvin. Strong characters. it would fall instantl y to the ground.

Obstacles and opposition are but apparatus of the gymnas ium in which the fibers of his manhood are developed. shoots up a weak. as if in anticipation of fierce conflict with t he elements. regrets that he has "no chance in life. and the other in the dense forest. Remove wealth and props of every kind. the Sunday-school. The prison has roused the slumbering fire in many a noble mind. For twenty years Dante worked in exile. or the loss of a fortun e. Take two acorns from the same tree. with only the district school. . and family influence. S ir Walter Raleigh wrote "The History of the World" during his imprisonment of th irteen years. The gales which sport so rudely with its wide branches find more than their match. or after some other calamity has knocked the props and crutches from under hi m. and even under sentence of death. Luther translated the Bible while confined in the Castle of Wartbu rg. clutching the rocks and piercing deep into the earth. as nearly alike as possible. slen der sapling. Place h im under the tutelage of great masters and send him to Harvard. thread bare clothes. and. The two meet. Shielded by its neighbors. and watch them grow. The effort or struggle to climb to a higher place in life has strength and dign ity in it. Give him French and German nurses. he will thrive. and awkward manner of the country boy make sorry contrast with the genteel appearance of the other. or secure the prize we seek. Then it shoots proudly aloft again. and only serve still further to toughen every minutest fiber from pith to bark. and a few books. Put the other boy in a Vande rbilt family. as nearly alike as possible. even though we may never reach the position we desire. if he has the right sort of material in him. Like a rubber ball. on the other hand. but all the wh ile it has been expending its energy in pushing a root across a large rock to ga in a firmer anchorage. The plain. The acorn planted in the deep forest. and let him travel extensively.Emergencies make giant men. self-made man from the one who has been propped up all his life by wealth. prepared to defy the hurricane. and useless brain. hard hands. idle. Give him thousan ds a year for spending money. and cannot fail to leave us stronger. But for our Civil War the names of its grand heroes would not be written among the greatest of our time. it feels no need of spreading its roots far and wide for support. Its roots reach out in every directio n. They meet again as men. How often we see a young man develop as tounding ability and energy after the death of a parent. but how changed! It is as easy to distinguished the stu rdy. Take two boys. The city lad is ashamed of his country brother. From an aimless. gratify his every wish." and envies the city youth. The poor boy bemoans h is hard lot. tawny face. He thinks that it is a cruel Providence that places such a wide gulf between th em. He compels respect and rec ognition from those who have ridiculed his poverty. The oak standing alone is exposed to every storm. the harder the obstacle he meets the higher he rebounds. The "Pilgrim's Progress" appeared in Bedford Jail. position. plant one on a hill by itself. If he falls. Every rootlet lends its elf to steady the growing giant. emergencies often call out powers and virtues before unknown and unsuspected. Place one in the country away from the hothouse culture and refinements of the city. "Robinson Cru soe" was written in prison. he rises with more determination than before. as it is for the shipbuilder to tell the differe nce between the plank from the rugged mountain oak and one from the sapling of t he forest. Every obstacle ove rcome lends him strength for the next conflict. Sometimes its upward growth seems checked for years.

It has led to most of the mechanical inventions and improvements of the age. but what you don't like." Just so with every art. "Don't tell me what you like. Paul in his Roman cell. not hindrances. David Livingstone. teaching two little boys in Aldgate Street. We are not conscious of the mighty cravings of our half divine humanity. But if they are properly met. There is no more helpful and profiting exercise than surmounting obstacles. the y are not what they seem. if there were no gibbets.--the advancement of individuals as of nations. "Young men need to be taught not to expect a perfectly smooth and easy way to t he objects of their endeavor or ambition. A rich Spaniard was asked to help him." re plied the other. and may prove to be helps. "If the re were no difficulties there would be no success. alone--what failures the y might all have seemed to themselves to be. St. "gibbets are the making of us. trade. but to the Necessities. e very one would be a highwayman. amid the incipient earthquake throes of revolution." It was in the Madrid jail that Cervantes wrote "Don Quixote. and had to write on scraps of leather. The rude and rough experience of the eaglet fits him to become the bold king of birds. it is his poverty that makes t he world rich. Kossuth called himself "a tempest-tossed soul. fierce and expert in pursuing his prey. Peabody.When God wants to educate a man. Milton. for. Through the pit and the dungeon Joseph came to a throne. Tyndale dying in his prison at Amsterdam. . "Success grows out of struggles to overcome difficulties. or pursuit. John Huss led to the stake at Constance." "He has the stuff in him to make a good musician. he does not send him to school to the Graces. dying in a negro hut in Central Africa." said Mendelssohn to his critics when entering the B irmingham orchestra. you blockhead. yet what mighty purposes was God wo rking out by their apparent humiliations! Two highwaymen chancing once to pass a gibbet. disciplines the faculties. "Seldom does one re ach a position with which he has reason to be satisfied without encountering dif ficulties and what might seem discouragements. and gives one independence of thought and force of char acter. but he is spoiled by the ease with which he composes. Waters says that the struggle to obtain knowledge and to advance one's self in the world strengthens the mind. " if he had only been well flogged when a boy." He was so poor th at he could not even get paper during the last of his writing." says Smiles. wo rn to a shadow." As soon as young eagles can fly the old birds tumble them out and tear the down and feathers from their nest. one of them exclaimed: "What a f ine profession ours would be if there were no gibbets!" "Tut. or till the rending asunder of our affections forces us to become conscious of a ne ed. matures the judgment." "Stick your claws into me." John Hunter said that the art of surgery would never advance until professional men had the courage to publish their failures as well as their successes." said Beethoven of Rossini. whose eyes have been sharpened b y affliction." says Dr." We do our best while fighting desperately to attain what the heart covets. promotes self-reliance. we are not aware of the God within us until some chasm yawns which must be filled. but replied: "Heave n forbid that his necessities should be relieved. In this necessity for exertio n we find the chief source of human advancement. it i s the difficulties that scare and keep out unworthy competitors.

It is its half-century 's struggle with the elements for existence. its sweetest music. The most beautiful as well as the strongest woods are found not in tropi cal climates. and deve loped their greatest virtues when reverses of fortune have swept away everything they had in the world. The frost. the lightnings are the rough teachers that bring the tiny acorn to the sturdy oa k. Obstacles. The Creator may see something grand a nd mighty which even He can not bring out as long as your wealth stands in the w ay. oppression has been the lot of the Hebrews.Boys who are bound out. of the blasting which disturbs its peace of centuries: it is not pl easant to be rent with powder. the cold of which will kill the vermin. staminaless. the sweet loveliness chi seled out of some rough life by the reversal of fortune or by some terrible affl iction? How many business men have made their greatest strides toward manhood. the statue of man . and what drill and what discipline are necessary to bring them out. Without this struggle it would have been characterless. ye t they have given the world its noblest songs. telling its grand story of valor in the public square for centuries. With them persecution seems to bring prosperity. and the polishing. the chi seling. the calm endurance. They hold the purse-strings of many nations. the tempests. but will let the plant live. chiseled into grace and beauty. kicked out." In one of the battles of the Crimea a cannon-ball struck inside the fort. usually "turn out. and the sand-papering of a thousand annoya nces. The rough ledge on the hillside complains o f the drill. They thrive where other s would starve. But look again: behold the magnificent statue. and develop the long unused muscles of manhood. God knows where the richest melodies of our lives are. the chiseling of obstacles. You must throw away the crutches of riches and stand upon your own feet." while thos e who do not have these disadvantages frequently fail to "come out. But from the ugly chasm there burst forth a spri ng of water which ever afterward flowed a living fountain. Who has not observed the patience." "It was not the victories but the defeats of my life which have strengthened me . hardships. are the chisel and mallet whic h shape the strong life into beauty. and its grain would have never been susceptible of high polish. the monument. where they have to fight the frosts and th e winter's cold. To them hardship ha s been "like spring mornings. but in severe climates. wrestling with the storm. the snows. fighting for its life from the moment that it leaves the acorn until it goes into the shi p. when disease had robbed them of all they held dear in li fe! Often we can not see the angel in the quarry of our lives. its wisest proverbs. that gives it value. The angel of our higher and nobler selves would remai n forever unknown in the rough quarries of our lives but for the blastings of af fliction. to be hammered and squared by the quarryman. God may see a rough diamond in you which only the hard hits of poverty can polish. Don't lament and grieve over lost wealth. Adversity strippe d him only to discover him." said the aged Sidenham Poyntz. crash ing through a beautiful garden. The statue would have slept in the marble forever but for the blasting. crowded out. Fierce winters are as necessary to it as long summers. Almost from the dawn of history. Many a man has never found himself until he has lost his all. nerveless. perennial fountains of rich ex perience and new joys often spring. From the ugly gashes which misfortunes and sorrows make in our hearts. frosty but kindly.

and co mpels us to consider it in all its relations. wicked London. And learn in suffering what they teach in so ng. He that wrestle s with us strengthens our nerves and sharpens our skill. poor. Many an orator like "stuttering Jack Curran. awes the opulent." In a few years he stood by the sid e of such men as Scott. did she arise. he could even pray for greater trouble. This is the crutch age. It will not suffer us to be superf icial. "Helps" and "aids" are advertised everywhere. and died at thirty-seven. "There is scarce an instance in history of so sudden a ri se to so dizzy an eminence as Byron reached." Byron was stung into a determination to go to the top by a scathing criticism o f his first book. but un covered in his nature possibilities of patience. for the grea ter comfort's sake. ski ll. like those of the ocean. shabby. that ag e so fatal to genius." as he was once called. "Hours of Idleness. and sick. endurance. This conflict with difficulty makes us acquainted with our object. Many a man has been ruined into salvation. The grave buried his dearest hopes. Southey. The storms of adversity. he had never seen. and excite the invention. Men have drawn from adversity the elements of greatness. "Who best can suffer. "set over us by one who knows us better than we do ourselves. has been spurred into eloquence by ridicule and abus e. and gave him glimpses of himself which. The lightning which smote his deares t hopes opened up a new rift in his dark life." says Edmund Burke. until the blasts of misfortune have rent the ledge. from her ashes and ruin. talent. Macaulay said. as he loves us better too." or "Orator M um. and hope which he ne ver before dreamed he possessed. until then." Bunyan sa id that. dejects cowards. a grand and mighty city. if it were lawful. but draws out the faculties of th e wise and industrious." said he. prudence. rouse the faculties. and makes the idle industrious. He was not free from pain for fifteen years. and difficulties and o bstacles have squared and chiseled the granite blocks into grace and beauty. True salamanders live best in the furnace of persecution.hood. and fortitude of the voyager. puts the modest to the necessity of trying their skill. Not until the breath of the plague had blasted a hundred thousand lives. and th e great fire had licked up cheap. phoenixlike." published when he was but nineteen years of age. A man upon whom continuous sunshine falls is l ike the earth in August: he becomes parched and dry and hard and close-grained. Our antagonist is our h elper. Every obstacle seems only to add to their ability to get on. Adversity exasperates fools. "best can do. Beethoven was almost totally deaf and burdened with sorrow when he produced his greatest works. Schiller wrote his best books in great bodily suffering. and virtue shall issue from a farmhouse rather than from a palace. It is said t hat there are ten thousand chances to one that genius. You can not keep them down . The greatest men will ever be those who have risen from the ranks. Many of our best poets "Are cradled into poetry by wrong." Men who have the right kind of material in them will assert their personality a nd rise in spite of a thousand adverse circumstances. Milton wrote his leading productions when blind. We have i . "Adversity is a severe instructor. and Campbell.

--P. A stout "no" means a stout character . where man finds his bread ready made on trees. "Short roads" and "abridged methods" are characteristic of the century. Newspapers give us our politics. "The hero is not fed on sweets. It is no t chance that returns to the Hindoo ryot a penny and to the American laborer a d ollar for his daily toil. He must have the p ower to decide instantly on which side he is going to make his mistakes. labor. has rushed to man's relief with her wondrous forces. She does not bid the world go and play while she does the work. As the sculptor thinks only of the angel imprisoned in the marble block. Chambers of the gr eat are jails.nstitutes. And head-winds right for royal sails." One stands for the surrender of the will. or ingenuity. Intelligent labor found the world a wilderness and has made it a garden. and calls the race out of barbarism. T. or knowledge. and preachers our religion. BROWNING. Nature. and not like children. it is poverty.--T. Nature will chip and pound us remorselessly to bring out our possibil ities. and Ne w England with its granite and ice rich. It is rugged necessity. Everything must give way to that." Our boys are too often tutored through college with very little study. S he emancipates the muscles only to employ the brain and heart. The heaviest charged words in our language are those briefest ones. one stands for gratification. Self-help and self-reliance are getting old-fashioned. and undertakes to do the world's drudgery and emancipate him from Eden's curse. if she can develop a little character. Our problems are all worked out in "explanati ons" and "keys.--MA THEWS. teachers. will discipline us in a thousand ways. D. the priceless spur. and where exertion is a great effort. Each sting. the ready "yes" a weak one. the other for character. CHAPTER XXVIII DECISION Resolve. "yes" and " no. when we hav e purchased one thing. books. humble our pride." Then welcome each rebuff. universities. as if conscious of delayed bles sings. ease. whether riches. we must stand by our decision. MUNGER. humiliate our ambition. The world is a market where everything is marked at a set price. that bids not sit nor stand but go. and thou art free. repine that we do not possess another we did not buy. libraries. le t us down from the ladder of fame. so Nat ure cares only for the man or woman shut up in the human being.--LONGFELLOW. that makes Mexico with its mineral wealth poor. magaz ines. The sculptor will chip off all unnecessary material to set free the angel. that develops the stamina of m anhood. gild it as we may. but rather in a trying climate and on a stubborn soil. She emancipates from the lower only to call to the higher. it is the strug gle to obtain. The most beautiful as well as the strongest characters are not developed in war m climates. fame. Nature has little regard for the mere lump of breathing clay. Daily his own heart he eats. A man must master his undertaking and not let it master him. But do not misinterpret her edict. The sculptor car es nothing for the block as such. Our thinking is done for us. colleges. integrity. Ingenious methods are used everywhere to get the drudgery out of the college cou rse. newspapers. the other for denial. and whatever w e buy with our time. ARMOUR. That turns earth's smoothness rough. . She will strip us of wealth.

and to sacrifice ever y opposing motive. events must submit to him. the arrival of a prompt. bewildered crowd. In fact. changes the face of everything. The man who said. as he das hed into the stream at the head of his legions. he is not a man. proclaims by his indecisi on that he can not control himself. and declared that the Romans should not purchase peace. After a few moments of terrible s uspense he resumes his invincible spirit and expresses that sublime line: "What matter where." he said. I conque red. Such a man co mes upon the scene like a refreshing breeze blown down from the mountain top. When he landed with h is troops in Britain. I saw. The whole history of the world w as changed by that moment's decision. the Romans sent an ambassador who met Antiochus near Alexandria and comman ded him to withdraw. when Camillus appeared on the scen e. He may see the right. but he drifts toward the wrong. positive man. "I came. forever debating which of two courses he will pursue. The decided man. Men who have left their mark upon their century have been men of great and prom pt decision.When Rome was besieged by the Gauls in the time of the Republic. Satan's sublime decision in "Paradise Lost. They were in the act of weighing it. he burned all the ships which had borne them to the sh ores of Britain. or destroy my country. In order to cut off all hope of retreat. "The die is cast. All the great ac hievements in the history of the world are the results of quick and steadfast de cision. only a satellite. like Napoleon. the man who is forever twisting and turning. the inhabitants resolved never to surrender. If he decide s upon a course he only follows it until somebody opposes it. but would win it with the sword. is one of the most potent forces in winning success." after his hopeless banishment from heaven. does not wa it for favorable circumstances. decided. and made them masters of the world. But his alternative was "destroy myself. to silence them forever and not al low them continually to plead their claims and distract us from our single decid ed course. He is a tonic to the hesitating. This act of daring and prompt decision so roused the Romans that they triumphantly swept fro m the sacred soil the enemy of their peace. backi . He. and war was prevented. To hesitate is s ometimes to be lost. The prompt decision of the Rom ans won them many a battle. a man who is ever balancing between two opinions. The brave Roman swept a circle around the king with his sword. who will do so mething. the prompt man. and. although it may be wrong. This acti on was the key to the character and triumphs of this great warrior. There was no hope of return. The vacillating man is ever at the mercy of the opinion of the man who talked w ith him last. he does not submit to events." and his intrepid mind did not waver long."--even his great decision wavered at the thought of i nvading a territory which no general was allowed to enter without the permission of the Senate. Caesar's quic k mind saw that he must commit his soldiers to victory or death. and forbade his crossing the line until h e had given his answer. When Julius Caesar came to the Rubicon. which formed the boundary of Italia. An undecided man. it was victory or death." could not hesitate long. had the power to choose one co urse. if I be still the same?" That power to decide instantly the best course to pursue. The invader gave an evasive reply. the Romans wer e so hard pressed that they consented to purchase immunity with gold. In an emergency. when once sacrificed. which was then under the protection of Rome. and sacrifice every conflicting plan on the instant. threw his sword into the scales in place of the ransom. a legend tells us.--" the sacred and inviolable. that he was meant to be possessed by others. By the prompt decision of the intrepid ambassador the in vader was led to withdraw. When Antiochus Epiphanes invaded Egypt. excites a feeling akin to admiration.

can do twice as much as the undecided and dawdling man who never quite knows what he w ants." When the packet ship Stephen Whitney struck. He seemed to be everywhere at once. He seemed to electrify everybody about him. in whic h the fate of the engagement was decided. He could rouse to imm ediate and enthusiastic action the dullest troops. when asked how it was that he had conquered the world. abo ut as powerful as a spider. and above all it must be done with speed. "A man without decision. the puny force of some cause. he only invites distrust. "changed the destinies of the civilized world." says John Foster." he said. but moves very easily at the slightest volition of another. Prompt decision saved Napoleon and Grant and their armies many a time when delay would have been fatal. Yet there is not a man living who might not be a prompt and decided man if he w ould only learn always to act quickly. The positive step landed them in safety. will never accomplish anything. but also are often quickly gone. "can never be said to belong to him self. details. which subdued nearly the who le of Europe. The negative man creates no confidence. He is in stable equilibrium. gauge hi m. with no preponderi ng motive to enable him to decide. You can measure him. and contemptuously exhibit the futility of the determination by whic h he was to have proved the independence of his understanding and will. What a lesson to dawdling. His will. and engulfed forever. It is related of A lexander the Great that." The decided man not only has the advantage of the time saved from dillydallying and procrastination. Great opportunities not only come seldom into the most fortunate life . There is not positiveness en ough in him. is a power in the world. But the positive man." says Motley.ng and filling." He would sit up all night if necessary. yet it generally turned upon a few critical minutes. and weighs them until the two sides hang in equipoise. but he also saves the energy and vital force which is wast ed by the perplexed man who takes up every argument on one side and then on the other. after riding thirty or forty leagues. weighing and b alancing. at midnight. The "ifs and buts. may make a seizure of the unhappy boaster the very n ext minute. splitting hairs over non-essentials. listening to every new motive whi ch presents itself. the decided man. to attend to correspondence. "are at present out of season. What he could accomplish in a day surprised all who knew him. an d clung for a few moments to the cliff. the decided man. and without promptness no success is possible. he replied. and so does not move at all of his own volition. The punctual man. shuffling and parleying. hesitating and dawdling. He belon gs to whatever can make capture of him. all the passengers who leaped instantly upon the rock were saved. negativeness never accomplishes anything. shiftless." . and inspire with courage the most stupid men. Those who lin gered were swept off by the returning wave. on an Irish cliff. The vacillating man is never a prompt man. dispatches an d. since if he dared to assert that he did. was as prompt and decisive in the minutest detail of command as in the greatest battle. "By not wavering. and one thing after another vindicates i ts right to him by arresting him while he is trying to go on. as twigs and chips floating near the edge of a river are intercepted by every weed and whirled int o every little eddy. His invincible energy thrilled the whole army. Napoleon used to say that although a battle might last an entire day.. Decision of purpose and promptness of action enabled him to astonish the world with his marvelous successes. and stands for something. You can estimate the work that his energy will accomplish. half-hearted men! "The doubt of Charles V.

" replied Amos Lawrence. and. impelled by his hatred to the Romans. Jefferson wrote to Monroe at Paris: "You will see by their proceedings the truth of what I always told you. Alexander." Most of the young men and women who are lost in our cities are ruined because o f their inability to say "No" to the thousand allurements and temptations which appeal to their weak passions. The value of the gift was to be in proportion to the size and perfection of the ear . that when Congress adjourned. They spend their lives at the beginning of occupations . the skilful stage. which are always most agreeable. his enthusiasm evaporates. and preparing expedients. or wandering hither and thither. and the young man who allows himself to waver every time he comes to a hard place in life will not succeed. they are afraid of offending. that one man outweighs them all in influence. Learn. the great soul. "The secret of the whole matter was. If they would only show a little decision at firs t. they never go far enough in anything to get beyond the drudgery stage to the remunerative and agreeable stage. a man must concentrate. they don't like to say "No. even crosses the Alps to compass his d esign. who supports his judgment against thei r own and that of their representatives. like a withered leaf. without pausing. without fuss or noise. not being allowed to go backwa rd. You never know where to find them. throwing away all the skill they had acquired in mastering the drudgery of the last occupation. going b ackward. and contentment. his heart throbbing with a great purpose. There is a legend of a powerful genius who promised a lovely maiden a gift of r are value if she would go through a field of corn. He dissipates his energy. Hannib al. then. conquers the world. Finally they became so small that she was ashamed to select one of them. which is in every body's way but stops no one. one emphatic "No" might silence their solicitors forever. Without decision there c an be no concentration. by every wind that blows. they are here to-day and there to-morrow. she came out on the other side without any. and. One vocation or occupation presents its rosy side to him. He can not hold to one thing long enou gh to bring success out of it." There is no vocation or occupation which does not present many difficulties. She passed by many magnificent ones. These people rarely reach the stage of compet ency. The undecided man can not bring himself to a focus. but governed by his imp ressions and his feelings at the moment. So he vacillates through life. and lo. to succeed. and.--namely. and executes nothing. While other men are bemoaning difficulties and shrinking from dangers and obstacles. In fact. select the largest and ripest ear. he feels sure it is the thing he wants to do. An undecided man is like the turnstile at a fair. Such people are never led by principle. to will strongly and decisively. tak es the step. "we had formed the habit of prompt acting. s catters his forces. thus fix your floating life and leave it no longer to be carried hither and thither. full of enthusiasm. while the habit of som e others was to delay till about half tide. thus getting on the flats. ca ptured by any new occupation which happens to appeal to him as the most desirabl e at the time. adopts it as his life's work. comfort. do ing this thing and that thing. But they are weak. But in a few days the thorns begin to appear. and he wonders why he is so foolish as to think himself f itted for that vocation. but was so eager to get the largest and m ost perfect that she kept on without plucking any until the ears she passed were successively smaller and smaller and more stunted. the mountain has been leveled and the way lies open. at times almost overwhelming." and thus they throw d . Republicanism resigns the vessel to the pilot. The one which his friend adopted is much better suited to him. thus taking the top of the tide. never using his judgment or common sense. and. he drops his own and adopts the other.So powerful were President Washington's views in determining the actions of the people.

turn ing over and dreading to get up! Many a career has been crippled by it. is. and called." "Nervelessness. Burton c ould not overcome this habit. A little resolution ear ly in life will soon conquer the right to mind one's own business.--one broad and beautiful. their success. But at l ast the urgency of the fool prevailed. shiftless. Nothing will give greater confidence. the wrecks strewn along the shores of life "just behind success. A little l ater both they and their captors were arrested by officers of the law and taken before the judge. To indolent. the ot her narrow and rough. or la ck of tone and vigor. as a rule. first felt in the weakened or debilitated pow er of decisions. and. then dashed cold water into the bed between the sheets. and especially is this tru e with the power of decision. which is usually impaired or weakened from physica l suffering or any great physical debility. When one asked a lazy young fellow what made him lie in bed so long. perhaps. they took the more inviting path. and they give me twenty reasons fo r and against. and wer e soon met by robbers. " "Procrastination. On many of the tombstones of those who have failed in life could be read between the lines: "He Dawdled. Men who have been noted for great firmn ess of character have usually been strong and robust. their contagion infects their whole neig hborhood. convinced that it would ruin his success." There is no doubt that. "in hearing counsel every morning. How many hours have been wasted dawdling in bed. the wise man kn ew that the difficult one was the shortest and safest.own the gauntlet and are soon on the broad road to ruin. Indus try advises me to get up. t he servant called." There is no habit that so grows on the soul as irresolution." "Listlessness. Before a man knows what he has done. and bring assistance more quickly from th e bank or from a friend. than the reputation of promptness. An old legend says that a fool and a wise man were journeying together. and by the time the cause is over dinner is ready. Then the wise man pleaded that the fool was to blame because h e desired to take the wrong way. listless people life becomes a mere shuffle of expedien ts. "I am employed." "Always B ehind." "Behind Time. The world knows that . It is my part. he has gambled his life away. "Hoc age. and n o sensible man should have heeded his counsel. "Your mo tto must be. As a rule. to hear all that can be sai d on both sides. and all because he has never ma de up his mind what he would do with it. which creep s in at every crevice of unoccupied time and often ruins a bright life. consent thou not. and cam e to a point where two ways opened before them. The servant. The fool pleaded that he was only a fool." he said. great decision of character is usually accom panied by great constitutional firmness. their capacity. This is the only way to check t he propensity to dawdling. The judge punished them both equa lly. Sloth to lie still. Hi s "days are lost lamenting o'er lost days. as an impartial judge. Scott used to caution youth against the habit of dawdling. and Burto n came out with a bound." said he." "Shiftlessness. who seized their goods and made them captives. Any bodily weakness. This man neither advances nor recedes. They do not realize that the habit of putting everything off puts off their manhood. or lassitude. There is no quality of the mind which does not sympathize with bodily weakness. and so declared."--do instantly. he simply hovers ." Such a man is at the mercy of any chance occurrence that may overtake him. but Burton would beg him to be left a little longer." He has no power to seize the facts w hich confront him and compel them to serve him. and coaxed. mad e his servant promise before he went to bed to get him up at just such a time." above which the words of warning are flying! Webster said of such an undecided man that "he is like the irresolution of the sea at the turn of tide." "j ust this side of happiness. it is the strong physical man who carries weight and conviction. knowing that he would lose his shilling if he did n ot get him up." Oh. The fool desired to take the pleasant way. "If sinners entice thee.

At last Lincoln had a general who had the power of decision." "Let men know that what you say you will do. deliberate. the ni ck of time. It was his decision whic h voiced itself in those memorable words in the Wilderness. and will trust him. fatal to success. and they can not seem to get light enough to decide nor courage enough to attempt to remove the obstacle. They know that h esitation is fatal to enterprise. once made. Grant's decision was like inexorable fate. lest in a moment of discouragement and irresolution he be tempted t o sheathe it. who asked him for conditions of capit ulation. when it was within easy grasp. like Caesar. t hat there is some iron in you. a nd make retreat forever impossible. deter mined to sink with his ship if he can not conquer.'" He was a hard student during four hours every morning. 'Give me uninterrupted time till nine o'clock every morning. those who saw him after that imagined that he picked up the material for his sermons on the street. weigh. you are not to be allured or intimidated. They have just energy enough to weigh motives. were better educated. but nothing left for the moment um of action. The very effort to come to immediate and unflinching decision starts up all sort s of doubts. . and a thorough-going knowledge of the world of books. They analyze and analyze. There was no going behind it. it is true that much that was most vital in his preach ing he did pick up on the street. and I do not care what comes after. which often does not present itself but once! It was said that Napoleon had an officer under him who understood the tactics o f war better than his commander. " Let it be your first study to teach the world that you are not wood and straw. tha t your decision. He must nail his colors to the mast as Nelson did in battle. he must burn his ships behind him. fatal to progress. Yet someh ow they seem fated with a morbid introspection which ever holds them in suspense . that. When he draws his sword he must throw the sc abbard away. consider. once resolved. is final. "Hoc age. How many a man can trace his downfall in life to the failure to seiz e his opportunity at the favorable moment. and fears. ponder." CHAPTER XXIX OBSERVATION AS A SUCCESS FACTOR Henry Ward Beecher was not so foolish as to think that he could get on without systematic study." and which sent back the words "un conditional surrender" to General Buckner." Some minds are so constructed that they are bewildered and dazed whenever a res ponsibility is thrust upon them. and the North b reathed easy for the first time. "men doubted whether I could sustain myself. that gave the first confidence to the North that the rebellion was doom ed. There were several generals under Grant who were as well skilled in war tactics." he said. but never act. difficulties. no opening it up for reconsideration. "I propose to fight it out on these lines if it takes all summer. but they lacked that power of decision which made unconditional surrender absolutely imperative wherever he met the foe. "When I first went to Brooklyn. but he lacked that power of rapid decision and powerful concentration which characterized the greatest military leaders perhaps of the world. Yet having said so much.--no wavering. knew the country as well.the prompt man's bills and notes will be paid on the day. Prompt decision and sublime a udacity have carried many a successful man over perilous crises where deliberati on would have been ruin. I replied. they have a mortal dread of deciding anything. The man who would forge to the front in this competitive age must be a man of p rompt and determined decision.

accidents. the Christ was his great model. and upon one occasion he answered: "I keep my eyes open an d ask questions. or commer ce. but of all nature a s well. Beecher get his sermons?" every ambitious young clergyman in th e country was asking. He saw that the strength of this great Master' s sermons was in their utter simplicity. Although Beecher was an omnivorous reader he did not care much for the writings of the theologians. The clouds. the brooks . gathering grandeur and sublimity from the great White Mountains. birds and trees alte rnated with the direst poverty in the slums. and he knew that H e did not search the writings of the Sanhedrin for His sermons. passed in quick succession and stamped themselves on the brains of his eage r hearers. and where he spent many summers. the record of creation imprinted in the rocks and the mountains were interming led with the ferryboats. but picked them up as He walked along the banks of the Jordan and over the hills and through the meadows and villages of Galilee. he was never again satisfied without illustrations fresh from the lives of the people he met every day."Where does Mr. people on sick beds and death beds. There was something in his sermons that appe aled to the best in everyone who heard him. The great. calamities. to be a little more conscientious. the despondent. to do t heir work a little better. Beecher's sermons were very simple. the day laborer. orphans. [Illustration: Henry Ward Beecher] When he once got a taste of the power and helpfulness which comes from the stud y of real life. the train conduc tor. the blacksmith. or education. a little more determined to do their share in the world. the cheerful. the lawyer. all sor ts of experiences and bits of life. which he loved so well. healthy. Happiness and sunshine. He got them from the brakem an. a little more help ful.--keeping his eyes open and asking q uestions." This is the secret of many a man's success. They pulsated with lif e. in hospitals and in funeral processions. Where the battle of life raged fiercest. Now it was the problem of slavery. He got them everywhere from life and nature. the clerk. He was in the swim of things. and strong. the fields. He went into the thick of the fight himself. the newsboy. busy. seascapes. He kept his hand upon the pulse of events. their naturalness. He was in the smoke and din. of the discouraged. on Wall Street. and great crowds cam e from every direction to hear him. life pictures of successes and failure s. when he saw how much more forceful and interesting actual life s tories were as they were being lived than anything he could get out of any book except the Bible. The flowers. He always preached on Sunday at the hotel where he stayed. because. He picked them u p in the marketplace. the mechanic. They were full of pictures of beauti ful landscapes. completely absorbed in drinking in the beaut ies of the marvelous landscape. in the stores. I watched him. . He did not watch the progress of the great human battle from his study.--whatever touched the lives of men. and entrancing sunsets. the optimist and the pessim ist. and the business man. they had the vigor of bright red blood in them. Beecher believed a sermon a failure when it does not make a great mass of heare rs go away with a new determination to make a little more of themselves. This great observer was not only a student of human nature. many a time. again the problem of government. the steam-cars. the sun shine. the physician. they grew out of doors. like Christ's. ambitious world was everywhere throbbing for him. and the storm were reflected in them. there he was studying its great problem s. as many did. the rain.

he did not stand nearly as high in col lege as some of his classmates whom he far outstripped in life. the philosophy underlying the common. Noth ing else was half so interesting. He saw symptoms which others could not see. the appearance of the eye. Ruskin says: "Hundreds of people can talk for one who can think. the latter could scarcely recall anything of interest. to emphasize the right thing in them. which reveals marve ls of beauty in common things. and the patient recovered. in the lowliest ob ject. Professo r Osler was called a living X-ray machine.--and the other never saw anything. To him man was the greatest study in the world . He was a poor student. th ere was a great interrogation point before him. with additional eyes in finger tips s o familiar with the anatomy that they could detect a growth or displacement so s mall that it would escape ordinary notice. He could feel the Divine presence in all created things. he could see the marvelous philosophy. the wizard horticulturist." I once traveled abroad with two young men. Things so triv ial that his companion did not notice them at all. While visiting Luther Burbank. "is an element of all great success. because he read the hidden meaning in things." says Herbert Spencer. meant a great deal more to him and to the world than his colle ge education. He was not a great scholar. but he brought home rich treasures from over the sea. recently. Everything he saw must give up i ts secret before he would let it go. Like Ru skin. that they were willing to leave the whole decision to him. He has . He watched the patient closely. meant a great deal to him. and brought home almost nothing of value. Lincoln was another remarkable example of the possibilities of an education thr ough reflection upon what he observed. Like Professor Agassiz. but thousands can think for one who can see. Beecher continued his study of life through observation. and extr acted the meaning of everything that came within its range. he yearned to know the meaning of things.--nothing s eemed to escape him. Then the great Johns Hopkins professor examined the pa tient. by keeping his eyes. Wherever he went. the Divine plan." said the physicians at a consultation where a precio us life hung by a thread. to be able to pierce t heir masks and read the real man or woman behind them." There is no position in life where a trained eye can not be made a gre at success asset. He did not ask questions. His experienced eye drew a conclusion from the slightest evidence. a nd his mind open. w hich he read as an open book. one of whom was all eyes. His mind stopped and questioned. "Let's leave it to Osler. To place the right values upon men. which was performed. who could see wonders in the scale of a fish or a grain of sand. but his mind pen etrated to the heart of things. He had a passion for knowledge. The e ducation which Beecher got through observation.--everything was a telltale of the patient's condition. The power which inheres in a trained faculty of observation is priceless. The day after leaving a city.Wherever he went. to b e able to discriminate between the genuine and the false. The o ther young man was comparatively rich. Beecher had an eye like the glass of a microscope. I was much impressed by his marvelous power of seeing things. he regarded as one of a c lergyman's greatest accomplishments. "An exhaustive observation. in his famous garden. his ears. He rec ommended a certain operation. his manner of breathing. Th e majority of those present disagreed with him. He could see beauty and harmony where others saw only ugliness and discord. while the former ha d a genius for absorbing knowledge of every kind through the eye. everyday oc currences. but such was their confidence in his power to diagnose a case through symptoms and indications which escape most physicians.

And he could not understand the lethargy. He was always looking for the next step above him. the telescope. become marvels of beauty. The efficient man is always growing. every triu mph of modern labor-saving machinery. Most people are too lazy. He sees with them. in fact. weighing. But for this power of seeing things quickly. Cortelyou was a stenographer not long ago. Just the effort to try to see how much they can remember and bring back is a splendid drill. who has been in this country only a year. the indifference of our young men to our marvelous possibilities. his ears open. and it becomes of inestim . the miracles o f electricity. forming opinions. He is always accumulating knowledge of eve ry kind. He has studied the map of our country. estimating. He said that when he landed in New York it seemed to him that he saw more o pportunities in walking every block of our streets than he had ever seen in the whole of Turkey. and how closely they can observe them. and is not carried with force and distin ctness enough to the brain to enable it to get at the truth and draw accurate co nclusions. He keeps his mind open to all that is new and fresh and helpful. is due to the trained power of seeing things. yet he speaks ou r language fluently. sharp. He does not merely look with his eyes. apathy. that really sees. a nd thoughtfulness. The telegraph. the telephone. He was a shrewd observer. they just look at them. under the eye of this miracle worker. He must be quick. b alancing. The youth who would get on must keep his eyes open. Chi ldren often become passionately fond of this exercise. to see things carefully. The mind is all the time working over the material which the eye brings it. considering. his mind ope n. of absorbing knowledge. and a great deal of our history. The majority of people do not see things. Careless. the image is not clean-cut.observed the habits of fruits and flowers to such purpose that he has performed miracles in the fields of floriculture and horticulture. calculating. ready. he would never have advanced. Close observation is a powerful mental process. Stunted and ugly flower s and fruits. mentally. just for the purpose of finding out how many things they can see in a certain given time. It does not take long to develop a habit of attention that seizes the salient p oints of things. I know a young Turk. the lack of ambition. and much about our resources and opportunit ies. If the mind is n ot focused. every discovery in science and art. He knows its geograp hy. Indifference. for it is the mind. or out of d oors anywhere. and is capable of becoming a mighty power. Few people realize what a tremendous success and happi ness is possible through the medium of the eye. but he always kept his eyes open. the sewing machine. not the optic nerve. alert. Many people thought he wou ld remain a stenographer. George W. He keeps his ears open. It is a splendid drill for children to send them out on the street. every great invention of the past or present. He was after an oppo rtunity. indifferent observation does not go back of the eye. mental lassitude and laziness are fatal to all effective observation. keen attention. The observing faculty is particularly susceptible to culture. The whole secret of a richly stored mind is alertness. Promotion was always staring him in the face. The power of keen observation is indicative of a superior mentality.

Ask yourself why it i s that the proprietor at fifty or sixty years of age is conducting a business wh ich a boy of eighteen or twenty ought to be able to handle better. "Colonel Crockett makes room for himself!" exclaimed a backwoods congressman in answer to the exclamation of the White House usher to "Make room for Colonel Cr ockett!" This remarkable man was not afraid to oppose the head of a great nation . "but nine times out of ten the best thing that can happen to a young man is to be tossed overboard and compelled to sink or swim for himself. it is the keen observer who gets ahead. Go into a place of business with the eye of an eagle. try to find out why. by gruff. What I am I have made myself.able value in their lives. my son. Though rough. . perhaps. If you keep your eyes o pen. You will find perhaps that he never knew the valu e of good manners in clerks. "Poverty is uncomfortable. Think why the man does not do bett er if he is not doing well. You will see by h is show windows. Garfield. LOWELL. would make a good sale sman. he is driving out of the door cus tomers the proprietor is trying to bring in by advertisements. if honest. no detection of the wants of possible buyers. your ears open. in a little while. multiplied the receipts tenfold in a few years. but. before you go into his store. He does not know them. uncouth manners. In all my acquaintance I ha ve never known a man to be drowned who was worth the saving. know ye not Who would be free themselves must strike the b low? BYRON.--PESTALOZZI. Shall die and leave his errand unfulfill ed. that there is no busines s insight. why he remains in mediocrity all his life. Let nothing escape you. analyze the situation. and remember that the best men always make themselves. Who waits to have his task marked out. No matter where you go. It will be one of the greatest factor s in your own success. He stepped to the front with the confidence of one who b elonged there. you can. CHAPTER XXX SELF-HELP I learned that no man in God's wide earth is either willing or able to help any other man. You will see that this man has not studied men. Hereditary bondsmen. look up e vidences of success or failure everywhere. Make deductions from what you see and hear. uncultured. Trace difficulties. He preferred being right to being president. and because when once in the front he played his part wi th an intrepidity and a commanding ease that were but the outward evidences of t he immense reserves of energy on which it was in his power to draw. find out why this man is not a greater success. Keep your eyes open. perhaps. Crockett was a man of great courage and determination. He succeeded because all the world in concert could not have kept him in the background. He thought a boy.--HUMPHRY DAVY. as I can testify. study the situation." Garfield was the youngest member of the House of Representatives when he entere d. and unc outh. Other things equal. You can see that a little more knowledge of human nature would have revolutioni zed his whole business.--PATRIC K HENRY. but he had not been in his seat sixty days before his ability was recognized and his place conceded. Study his emp loyees. Be sure. If he is making a remarkable success." said James A.

a self-made President of the United States replied." says Emerson. stamina. growth. The world must be just. Louis Philippe said he was the only sovereign in Europe fit to govern. About the time that the ten years were to end the king's sister showed Coll' An tonio a Madonna and Child. and put a scepter in England's right h and such as the queen never wielded. no chan ce. It leaves every man with profound unconcern to set his own rate. to him it may mean inaction. sagacity. foresight. Richard Arkwright. with no education. Solario. You cannot transfer the skill. joy. the character which trained habits of accuracy. prudence. discipline. gave his spinning model to the world. When asked to name his family coat-of-arms. but have you really given him anything ? You can not transfer the discipline. You thought it a kindness to deprive yourself in order that your son might begi n where you left off. weakness." To such men. but rather the men with no "start" who have wo n fortunes. who have risen highest. fell deeply in love with the daughter of the painter Coll' Antonio del Fiore. which lie concealed in your wealth. It was wings to you. and strength which enabled you to maintain your lofty position. indolence. in a hovel. the hardships. Judge of his surprise on learning that Solario was the artist. dispatch. b ut means nothing to your heir. the . lethargy. the power. promptness. "Will you give me ten years to learn to pa int. method. the thirteenth child. ignoranc e. t o keep your millions intact. where "Fame's proud temple shines afar. to you it was education and expansion of your high est powers. the pride of acquisition. You had the power which comes only from experience. the experience. You may leave your millions to your son. In climbing to your fortune. the joy fe lt only in growth. and which alone enables you to stand firm on your dizzy height. and so entitle myself to the hand of your daughter?" Consent was given. honesty of dealing. which has not felt the impress of their feet . you can not transfer the delight of achieving. and have made adverse circumstances a spur to goad them up the steep mount. "and all men a cquiesce. which will probably dwarf him. which the painter extolled in terms of the highest pr aise. Your fortune wa s experience to you. patience. which the acqu isition has given you. you developed the mu scle." says Livy. politen ess of manner have developed." It is not the men who have inherited most. and honest ambition has no heig ht that genius or talent may tread. an anxiety. except it be in nobility of soul and purpose. for he c ould black his own boots. and character. it will be a dead weight to him. to him it will be a temptation. You have taken the priceless spur--necessity--away from him. a wandering gypsy tinker. It meant a great deal for you. Col l' Antonio thinking that he would never be troubled further by the gypsy. every possible goal is accessible. His great d etermination gained him his bride. but was told that no one but a painter as good as the father should wed the maiden. "A pair of shirtsleeves. You thought to spare him the drudgery." "A person under the firm persuasion that he can command resources virtually has them. the spur which h as goaded man to nearly all the great achievements in the history of the world."Take the place and attitude which belong to you.

He was poor and dejected." "And what is that?" asked the other. "my fortune gone. He felt that if there were anything in him work would bring it out." He wrote under it. "I f . If you do everything for your son and fight his battles for him. kindled the fires. the wounds were s harper than those of a serpent's tooth. His enthusiasm will evaporate. Counting out from them as many as we re in the basket. help yourself. During the great financial crisis of 1857 Maria Mitchell. Oh. down they go. H e accepted the first pastorate offered him. "when there is no money left?" "They ear n it. the lack of opportunities. which you had on the old farm." was Miss Mitchell's reply. But grief shook the sands of life as he thought only of the son who had brought disgrace upon a name before unsullied. make it yourself. he found written at the end . Don't wait for somebody to give you a lift. they look around for somebody to lean upon. Don't wait for your place to be made for you . lift yourself. in a little town near Cincinnati. without which no real success. Meanwhile the fish snapped greedily at the hook. who chanced to over hear his words. "If now I had these I would be happy. you will have a weakling on your hands at twenty-one. It the prop is not there. I was so unkind to Edward when I thought I was being kind. who brought hi s wife to America in the steerage. his energy will be dissipated. When the o wner returned he had caught a large number. There is no manhood mill which takes in boys and turns out men." said the dying Cyrus W. If I had only had firmness enough to compel my boys to earn their living. H enry Ward Beecher did not wait for a call to a big church with a large salary. to self-elevation." said the owner. the meager education. "But what becomes of the Ameri can daughters. Once down. will gradually die away. "A man's best friends are his ten fingers. with God's help. The old man was gone so long that the yo ung man began to get impatient. But you have put a crutch into his hand instead of a staff. "if you will do me a trifling favor. approaching a basket filled with fish. Many a frontier boy has succeeded beyond all his expectations simply because all props were early knocked out from under him and he was obliged to stand upon his own feet. of the fame he had wo n and could never lose." was the reply. my home dishonored. swept the rooms." asked the English lady. or unhorsed men in armor. He became literally the light of the church. "Man. When Beethoven was examining the work of Moscheles. who was visiting Engl and. and he lost all his depression in the excitement of pulling them in. they are as helpless as capsized turtles.--but he knew that a fine church and great salary can not make a great man. It was work and opportunity that he wanted. What you call " no chance" may be your only chance. Men who have been bolstered up all their lives are seldom good for anything in a crisis. not being stimulated by the struggle for selfelevation." A young man stood listlessly watching some anglers on a bridge." His table was covered with medals and cer tificates of honor from many nations.deprivations. no real happiness. At length. you ha ve taken away from him the incentive to self-development. Field. for he trimmed the lamps. asked an English lady what became of daughters when no property was left th em. I wish to go on a short err and. he sighed. I could sell them and buy food and lodgings. "My life is a wreck. and rang the bell. in recognition of his great work for civil ization in mooring two continents side by side in thought. his ambition. "Finis. His salary was only about $200 a yea r. "They live on their brothers. to self-discipline and self-help. no great character is ever possible. then they w ould have known the meaning of money." The proposal was gladly accepted. the old fisherman said. and presenting them to the youth. When misfortune comes. "Only to tend this line till I come back." said Robert Collyer." "I w ill give you just as many and just as good.

intellect." The grandest fortunes ever accumulated or possessed on earth were and are the f ruit of endeavor that had no capital to begin with save energy. Labor is the only legal tender in the world to true success. and then he b ought a horse and cart. and wh eeled them to his stand." "Every one is the artificer of his own fortune. and threatened to capsize the boat. and wait and wait for some good luck to give them a lift! But su ccess is the child of drudgery and perseverance.ulfil my promise from the fish you have caught. pay the price and it is yours. the founder of Boston University. but he must lay the bricks him self. nothing without it. left Cape Cod for Boston to make his way with a capital of only four dollars. He borrowed a wheelbarrow. "let the little man pray. They therefo re petitioned the Powers that be to levy a tax upon the property of the entire c ounty for the purpose of laying out a macadamized highway." says a printer's squib. are presidents of our banks. faint. When it seemed that the crisis had really come." "No. in pulpits . From Croesus down to Rockefeller the story is the same. "The male inhabitants in the Township of Loaferdom. bought three bushels of oysters. Every one who enters makes his own door. The gods sell ever ything for that. of our colleges. no. to teach you whenever you see ot hers earning what you need to waste no time in foolish wishing. A lowly beg inning and a humble origin are no bar to a great career. and all the way down hill to the latter place. Nearly all of the great capitalists of the city came from the c ountry. and t he will. not only in the getting of wealth. Ask almost any great man in our larg e cities where he was born. wrote: "I will become the sculptor of my o wn mind's statue. Self-help has accomplished about all the great things of the world." A white squall caught a party of tourists on a lake in Scotland. Circumstances have rarely favored great men. but cast a line for yourself. in a state of intense fear. and he will tell you it was on a farm or in a small country village. Isaac Rich. and went three miles to an oyster smack. Yo u take an oar. of our universities. "found themselves laboring under great inconvenience fo r want of an easily traveled road between Poverty and Independence." His biography shows how often the chisel and hammer were in h is hands to shape himself into his ideal. but also in the acquirement of eminence." shouted the bluff old boatman. at the bar. It cannot be coaxed or bribed. my man. to-day. in Congress. "Let us pray . You will never find success "marked down." The door to the temple of success is never left open. He found a board. those men have won most who relied most upon themselves. They have fought their way to triu mph over the road of difficulty and through all sorts of opposition. Soon his little savings amounted to $130. he could find no opening for a boy. Bayard Taylor. but what of that? He made an opening. How many yo ung men falter. in business. Where is the boy to-day who has less chance to ri . Man is not merely the architect of his own fate. and have filled the highest places as teachers and journalists. at twenty-three. which closes behind him to all others." says Sallust. the larges t and strongest man in the party. Boys of lowly origin have made many of the greatest disco veries. in the County of Hatework. and dally with their purpose because they have no capital to start with. The farmer's boys fill many of the greatest places in legislatures. said. Like Horace Greeley. broad and smooth. Our p oor boys and girls have written many of our greatest books. an d made it into an oyster stand on the street corner.

struggling youth could know of the heartaches. carrying it in his poc ket that he might utilize every spare moment. "at the rate of a line a week. "Hard at it. but th e days and months of weary plodding over details and dreary drudgery often requi red to produce it would stagger belief. apprenticed to a blacksmith. At thirty years of age he was master of every important language in Europe and was studying those of Asia. Speaking of Fox. It is said that Bryant rewrote "Thanatopsis" a hundred times. and put down in his memorandum book ready for any emergency. The greatest works in literature have been elaborated and elaborated. and studying at night and holidays . to pick up an excellent education in the odds and ends of time which most boys throw away. often rewritten a dozen times. till it gained his consent t o exist. While the rich boy and the idler were yawning and stretching and ge tting their eyes open. by studying with a book before him at his meals. o r practise any other severity on whatever he wrote. but it was found that the "brilliants" and "off-hand sayings" with whic h he used to dazzle the House of Commons were elaborated. Matthew Hale for years studied law sixteen hours a day. but when he was a student too poor t o buy books. he managed. th ey would be inspired with new hope. of what is called genius is merely the result of persistent. It completely absorbed his life. which overcame every obstacle in his pathway." Lord Eldon astonish ed the world with his great legal learning. at his death lef t large numbers of manuscripts filled with "sudden thoughts set down for use. wha t an uplift of inspiration and encouragement they would give! How often I have w ished that the discouraged." H ume toiled thirteen hours a day on his "History of England. the fears and despair involved in works which have gained the admiration of the worl d. he had actually borrowed and copied many hundreds of pages of large law books. the nerve-aches. If men who have done great things could only reveal to the struggling youth of to-day h ow much of their reputations was due to downright hard digging and plodding. Chalmers was once asked what Foster was about in London. and scarcely legible. The lazier the man . and often by candle-light? Yet. one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived.se in the world than Elihu Burritt. Yet he had a thirst for knowledge and a desire for self-improveme nt. The drudgery which l iterary men have put into the productions which have stood the test of time is a lmost incredible. and even then was not satisfied with it. the discouraged hours. young Burritt had seized the opportunity and improved it. The greatest geniuses have been the greatest workers. You can read in a fe w minutes or a few hours a poem or a book with only pleasure and delight. pull up by the roots. the h eadaches." Even Lord Bacon. He would hack. that it is the slavery to a single ide a which has given to many a mediocre talent the reputation of being a genius. but which have taxed the utmost powers of their authors. line by l ine. the disheartening trials. It is interesting to note that the men who t alk most about genius are the men who like to work the least. some one declared that he wrote "drop by drop. polished and repolishe d. determined industr y. in whose shop h e had to work at the forge all the daylight." he replied. Lucretius worked nearly a lifetime on one poem. What chance had such a boy for distinction? Probably not a single youth will read this book who has not a better opportunit y for success. paragraph by paragraph. prune." Rousseau says of the labor involved in his smooth and lively style: "My manuscripts. blotted. There is not on . in most cases of down-right hard work. Genius has been well defined as the infinite capacity for taking pains. attest the trouble they cost me. scratched. John Foster would sometimes linger a w eek over a single sentence. in terlined. the more he will have to say about great things being done by genius. split. If the youth of America who are struggling against cruel circumstances to do so mething and be somebody in the world could only understand that ninety per cent. Sheridan was considered a genius.

no matter what it may be. Some of my periods I have turned or returned in my head for five or six nights before they were fit to be put to paper. because he made himself such. and who studied by the light of the shop windows in the streets . with less ch ance than almost any boy in America. no more poverty. who apprenticed him at the age of thirteen to a bookbinder in London. and Butler his famous "Analogy" twent y times. He remained at night. He was so displeased with the latter that he attempted to rise from his deathbed to commit it to the flames. after others had gone. Haydn was very poor. to acquire business power instea d of professional power. "The barriers are not yet erected which can say to aspiring talent and industry 'thus far and no further. If it is your call to acquire money power instead of brain power. at six o'clock.'" Gibbon wrote his autobiography nine times. Here he blacked boots for an infl uential man. His favorite maxim was. who was too poor to afford even a c andle or a fire. He absorbed a great deal of information. without arms or legs. holding his book in one hand. a blind man. some of the shot falling in his garden. and yet youth who waste their ev enings wonder at the genius which can produce "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. his father was a coachman and he. there was no more barbering. friendless and lonely. double your talent just the same." Beethoven probably surpassed all other musicians in his painstaking fidelity an d persistent application. . manages to put himself int o Parliament. one is taken at the worth he has put into himself. Burke wrote the conclusion of his spee ch at the trial of Hastings sixteen times. "The Creation" eclipsed them all.e of them which I have not been obliged to transcribe four or five times before it went to press. wrote the first sentence in his "Republic" nine differ ent ways before he was satisfied with it. and when the shops were closed climbed the lamp-post. Franklin was b ut a poor printer's boy. his reputation w as made. when a man like Francis Joseph Campbell. ." upon which Gibbon worked twenty years. became the most eminent scholar of Scotland . Lord Tenterden was proud to point out to his son the shop where he had shaved for a penny. He died while Napoleon's guns we re bombarding Vienna. whose highest luxury at one time was only a penny roll.--this poor boy. and twelve years to w rite the Aeneid. and clinging to the lamp-post with the other. one of the greatest writers that ever lived. A glover's apprentice of Glasgow. Michael laid the foundations of his future greatness by making himself familiar with the contents of the books he bo und. But of his eight hundred compositions. It took Vergil seven years to write his Georgics. Scotland. A French doctor once taunted Fléchier. . became one of America's greatest historians in spi te of everything. and a great philanthropist. eaten in the streets of Philadelphia. who had been a tallow-chandler in his youth. He was courted by princes and dined with kings and queens. who became a friend to him. becomes a di stinguished mathematician. Francis Parkman. we get a hint as to what it means to make the most possible out of ourselves and our opportun ities. half blind. with the meanness of his origin." came upon the musical world like the rising of a new sun which never set. He was sent away from home to act as errand boy for a mus ic teacher. "The Creation. m arried a servant girl. son of a blacksmith. When a man like Lord Cavanagh. There is scarcely a bar in his music that was not writ ten and rewritten at least a dozen times. but he had a hard life of p ersecution until he became a barber in Vienna. a musician. Even Plato. to read and study the precious volumes. and was in his study ev ery morning. Perhaps ninety-nine of a hundred under such unfortunate circumstances wou ld be content to remain helpless objects of charity for life. Bishop of Nismes. Michael Faraday was a poor boy. summer and winter. to whi . In 1798 this poor boy's oratorio. Personal value is a coin of one' s own minting.

ch he replied, "If you had been born in the same condition that I was, you would still have been but a maker of candles." Edwin Chadwick, in his report to the British Parliament, stated that children, working on half time (that is, studying three hours a day and working the rest o f their time out of doors), really made the greatest intellectual progress durin g the year. Business men have often accomplished wonders during the busiest live s by simply devoting one, two, three, or four hours daily to study or other lite rary work. James Watt received only the rudiments of an education at school, for his atten dance was irregular on account of delicate health. He more than made up for all deficiencies, however, by the diligence with which he pursued his studies at hom e. Alexander V was a beggar; he was "born mud, and died marble." William Hersche l, placed at the age of fourteen as a musician in the band of the Hanoverian Gua rds, devoted all his leisure to philosophical studies. He acquired a large fund of general knowledge, and in astronomy, a science in which he was wholly self-in structed, his discoveries entitle him to rank with the greatest astronomers of a ll time. George Washington was the son of a widow, born under the roof of a Westmoreland farmer; almost from infancy his lot had been that of an orphan. No academy had welcomed him to its shade, no college crowned him with its honors; to read, to w rite, to cipher--these had been his degrees in knowledge. Shakespeare learned li ttle more than reading and writing at school, but by self-culture he made himsel f the great master among literary men. Burns, too, enjoyed few advantages of edu cation, and his youth was passed in almost abject poverty. James Ferguson, the son of a half-starved peasant, learned to read by listening to the recitations of one of his elder brothers. While a mere boy he discovered several mechanical principles, made models of mills and spinning-wheels, and by means of beads on strings worked out an excellent map of the heavens. Ferguson made remarkable things with a common penknife. How many great men have mounted t he hill of knowledge by out-of-the-way paths! Gifford worked his intricate probl ems with a shoemaker's awl on a bit of leather. Rittenhouse first calculated ecl ipses on his plow-handle. Columbus, while leading the life of a sailor, managed to become the most accomp lished geographer and astronomer of his time. When Peter the Great, a boy of seventeen, became the absolute ruler of Russia h is subjects were little better than savages, and in himself even the passions an d propensities of barbarism were so strong that they were frequently exhibited d uring his whole career. But he determined to transform himself and the Russians into civilized people. He instituted reforms with great energy, and at the age o f twenty-six started on a visit to the other countries of Europe for the purpose of learning about their arts and institutions. At Saardam, Holland, he was so i mpressed with the sights of the great East India dockyard that he apprenticed hi mself to a shipbuilder, and helped to build the St. Peter, which he promptly pur chased. Continuing his travels, after he had learned his trade, he worked in Eng land in paper-mills, saw-mills, rope-yards, watchmakers' shops, and other manufa ctories, doing the work and receiving the treatment of a common laborer. While traveling, his constant habit was to obtain as much information as he cou ld beforehand with regard to every place he was to visit, and he would demand, " Let me see all." When setting out on his investigations, on such occasions, he c arried his tablets in his hand and whatever he deemed worthy of remembrance was carefully noted down. He would often leave his carriage if he saw the country pe ople at work by the wayside as he passed along, and not only enter into conversa tion with them on agricultural affairs, but also accompany them to their homes,

examine their furniture, and take drawings of their implements of husbandry. Thu s he obtained much minute and correct knowledge, which he would scarcely have ac quired by other means, and which he afterward turned to admirable account in the improvement of his own country. The ancients said, "Know thyself"; the twentieth century says, "Help thyself." Self-culture gives a second birth to the soul. A liberal education is a true reg eneration. When a man is once liberally educated, he will generally remain a man , not shrink to a manikin, nor dwindle to a brute. But if he is not properly edu cated, if he has merely been crammed and stuffed through college, if he has mere ly a broken-down memory from trying to hold crammed facts enough to pass the exa mination, he will continue to shrink, shrivel, and dwindle, often below his orig inal proportions, for he will lose both his confidence and self-respect, as his crammed facts, which never became a part of himself, evaporate from his distende d memory. Every bit of education or culture is of great advantage in the struggle for exi stence. The microscope does not create anything new, but it reveals marvels. To educate the eye adds to its magnifying power until it sees beauty where before i t saw only ugliness. It reveals a world we never suspected, and finds the greate st beauty even in the commonest things. The eye of an Agassiz could see worlds o f which the uneducated eye never dreamed. The cultured hand can do a thousand th ings the uneducated hand can not do. It becomes graceful, steady of nerve, stron g, skilful, indeed it almost seems to think, so animated is it with intelligence . The cultured will can seize, grasp, and hold the possessor, with irresistible power and nerve, to almost superhuman effort. The educated touch can almost perf orm miracles. The educated taste can achieve wonders almost past belief. What a contrast between the cultured, logical, profound, masterly reason of a Gladstone and that of the hod-carrier who has never developed or educated his reason beyo nd what is necessary to enable him to mix mortar and carry brick! Be careful to avoid that over-intellectual culture which is purchased at the ex pense of moral vigor. An observant professor of one of our colleges has remarked that "the mind may be so rounded and polished by education, and so well balance d, as not to be energetic in any one faculty. In other men not thus trained, the sense of deficiency and of the sharp, jagged corners of their knowledge leads t o efforts to fill up the chasms, rendering them at last far better educated men than the polished, easy-going graduate who has just knowledge enough to prevent consciousness of his ignorance. While all the faculties of the mind should be cu ltivated, it is yet desirable that it should have two or three rough-hewn featur es of massive strength. Young men are too apt to forget the great end of life, w hich is to be and do, not to read and brood over what other men have been and do ne." "I repeat that my object is not to give him knowledge, but to teach him how to acquire it at need," said Rousseau. All learning is self-teaching. It is upon the working of the pupil's own mind t hat his progress in knowledge depends. The great business of the master is to te ach the pupil to teach himself. "Thinking, not growth, makes manhood," says Isaac Taylor. "Accustom yourself, t herefore, to thinking. Set yourself to understand whatever you see or read. To j oin thinking with reading is one of the first maxims, and one of the easiest ope rations." "How few think justly of the thinking few: How many never think who think they do." CHAPTER XXXI

THE SELF-IMPROVEMENT HABIT If you want knowledge you must toil for it.--RUSKIN. We excuse our sloth under the pretext of difficulty.--QUINTILLIAN. What sculpture is to a block of marble, education is to the human soul.--ADDISO N. A boy is better unborn than untaught.--GASCOIGNE. It is ignorance that wastes; it is knowledge that saves, an untaught faculty is at once quiescent and dead.--N. D. HILLIS. The plea that this or that man has no time for culture will vanish as soon as w e desire culture so much that we begin to examine seriously into our present use of time.--MATTHEW ARNOLD. Education, as commonly understood, is the process of developing the mind by mea ns of books and teachers. When education has been neglected, either by reason of lack of opportunity, or because advantage was not taken of the opportunities af forded, the one remaining hope is self-improvement. Opportunities for self-impro vement surround us, the helps to self-improvement are abundant, and in this day of cheap books and free libraries, there can be no good excuse for neglect to us e the faculties for mental growth and development which are so abundantly suppli ed. When we look at the difficulties which hindered the acquisition of knowledge fi fty years to a century ago; the scarcity and the costliness of books, the value of the dimmest candle-light, the unremitting toil which left so little time for study, the physical weariness which had to be overcome to enable mental exertion in study, we may well marvel at the giants of scholarship those days of hardshi p produced. And when we add to educational limitations, physical disabilities, b lindness, deformity, ill-health, hunger and cold, we may feel shame as we contem plate the fulness of modern opportunity and the helps and incentives to study an d self-development which are so lavishly provided for our use and inspiration, a nd of which we make so little use. Self-improvement implies one essential feeling: the desire for improvement. If the desire exists, then improvement is usually accomplished only by the conquest of self--the material self, which seeks pleasure and amusement. The novel, the game of cards, the billiard cue, idle whittling and story-telling will have to b e eschewed, and every available moment of leisure turned to account. For all who seek self-improvement "there is a lion in the way," the lion of self-indulgence , and it is only by the conquest of this enemy that progress is assured. Show me how a youth spends his evenings, his odd bits of time, and I will forec ast his future. Does he look upon this leisure as precious, rich in possibilitie s, as containing golden material for his future life structure? Or does he look upon it as an opportunity for self-indulgence, for a light, flippant good time? The way he spends his leisure will give the keynote of his life, will tell whet her he is dead in earnest, or whether he looks upon it as a huge joke. He may not be conscious of the terrible effects, the gradual deterioration of c haracter which comes from a frivolous wasting of his evenings and half-holidays, but the character is being undermined just the same. Young men are often surprised to find themselves dropping behind their competit

ors, but if they will examine themselves, they will find that they have stopped growing, because they have ceased their effort to keep abreast of the times, to be widely read, to enrich life with self-culture. It is the right use of spare moments in reading and study which qualify men for leadership. And in many historic cases the "spare" moments utilized for study w ere not spare in the sense of being the spare time of leisure. They were rather spared moments, moments spared from sleep, from meal times, from recreation. Where is the boy to-day who has less chance to rise in the world than Elihu Bur ritt, apprenticed at sixteen to a blacksmith, in whose shop he had to work at th e forge all the daylight, and often by candle-light? Yet he managed, by studying with a book before him at his meals, carrying it in his pocket that he might ut ilize every spare moment, and studying nights and holidays, to pick up an excell ent education in the odds and ends of time which most boys throw away. While the rich boy and the idler were yawning and stretching and getting their eyes open, young Burritt had seized the opportunity and improved it. He had a thirst for knowledge and a desire for self-improvement, which overcame every obstacle in his pathway. A wealthy gentleman offered to pay his expenses at Harvard. But no, Elihu said he could get his education himself, even though h e had to work twelve or fourteen hours a day at the forge. Here was a determined boy. He snatched every spare moment at the anvil and forge as if it were gold. He believed, with Gladstone, that thrift of time would repay him in after years with usury, and that waste of it would make him dwindle. Think of a boy working nearly all the daylight in a blacksmith shop, and yet finding time to study seve n languages in a single year. It is not lack of ability that holds men down but lack of industry. In many cas es the employee has a better brain, a better mental capacity than his employer. But he does not improve his faculties. He dulls his mind by cigarette smoking. H e spends his money at the pool table, theater, or dance, and as he grows old, an d the harness of perpetual service galls him, he grumbles at his lack of luck, h is limited opportunity. The number of perpetual clerks is constantly being recruited by those who did n ot think it worth while as boys to learn to write a good hand or to master the f undamental branches of knowledge requisite in a business career. The ignorance c ommon among young men and young women, in factories, stores, and offices, everyw here, in fact, in this land of opportunity, where youth should be well educated, is a pitiable thing in American life. On every hand we see men and women of abi lity occupying inferior positions because they did not think it worth while in y outh to develop their powers and to concentrate their attention on the acquisiti on of sufficient knowledge. Thousands of men and women find themselves held back, handicapped for life beca use of the seeming trifles which they did not think it worth while to pay attent ion to in their early days. Many a girl of good natural ability spends her most productive years as a cheap clerk, or in a mediocre position because she never thought it worth while to de velop her mental faculties or to take advantage of opportunities within reach to fit herself for a superior position. Thousands of girls unexpectedly thrown on their own resources have been held down all their lives because of neglected tas ks in youth, which at the time were dismissed with a careless "I don't think it worth while." They did not think it would pay to go to the bottom of any study a t school, to learn to keep accounts accurately, or fit themselves to do anything in such a way as to be able to make a living by it. They expected to marry, and never prepared for being dependent on themselves,--a contingency against which marriage, in many instances, is no safeguard.

The trouble with most youths is that they are not willing to fling the whole we ight of their being into their location. They want short hours, little work and a lot of play. They think more of leisure and pleasure than of discipline and tr aining in their great life specialty. Many a clerk envies his employer and wishes that he could go into business for himself, be an employer too but it is too much work to make the effort to rise a bove a clerkship. He likes to take life easy; and he wonders idly whether, after all, it is worth while to strain and strive and struggle and study to prepare o neself for the sake of getting up a little higher and making a little more money . The trouble with a great many people is that they are not willing to make prese nt sacrifices for future gain. They prefer to have a good time as they go along, rather than spend time in self-improvement. They have a sort of vague wish to d o something great, but few have that intensity of longing which impels them to m ake the sacrifice of the present for the future. Few are willing to work undergr ound for years laying a foundation for the life monument. They yearn for greatne ss, but their yearning is not the kind which is willing to pay any price in ende avor or make any sacrifice for its object. So the majority slide along in mediocrity all their lives. They have ability fo r something higher up, but they have not the energy and determination to prepare for it. They do not care to make necessary effort. They prefer to take life eas ier and lower down rather than to struggle for something higher. They do not pla y the game for all they are worth. If a man or woman has but the disposition for self-improvement and advancement he will find opportunity to rise or "what he can not find create." Here is an ex ample from the everyday life going on around us and in which we are all taking p art. A young Irishman who had reached the age of nineteen or twenty without learning to read or write, and who left home because of the intemperance that prevailed there, learned to read a little by studying billboards, and eventually got a pos ition as steward aboard a man-of-war. He chose that occupation and got leave to serve at the captain's table because of a great desire to learn. He kept a littl e tablet in his coat-pocket, and whenever he heard a new word wrote it down. One day an officer saw him writing and immediately suspected him of being a spy. Wh en he and the other officers learned what the tablet was used for, the young man was given more opportunities to learn, and these led in time to promotion, unti l, finally, the sometime steward won a prominent position in the navy. Success a s a naval officer prepared the way for success in other fields. Self-help has accomplished about all the great things of the world. How many yo ung men falter, faint, and dally with their purpose, because they have no capita l to start with, and wait and wait for some good luck to give them a lift! But s uccess is the child of drudgery and perseverance. It can not be coaxed or bribed ; pay the price and it is yours. One of the sad things about the neglected opportunities for self-improvement is that it puts people of great natural ability at a disadvantage among those who are their mental inferiors. I know a member of one of our city legislatures, a splendid fellow, immensely p opular, who has a great, generous heart and broad sympathies, but who can not op en his mouth without so murdering the English language that it is really painful to listen to him.

There ted to cters, ack of

are a great many similar examples in Washington of men who have been elec important positions because of their great natural ability and fine chara but who are constantly mortified and embarrassed by their ignorance and l early training.

One of the most humiliating experiences that can ever come to a human being is to be conscious of possessing more than ordinary ability, and yet be tied to an inferior position because of lack of early and intelligent training commensurate with his ability. To be conscious that one has ability to realize eighty or nin ety per cent of his possibilities, if he had only had the proper education and t raining, but because of this lack to be unable to bring out more than twenty-fiv e per cent of it on account of ignorance, is humiliating and embarrassing. In ot her words, to go through life conscious that you are making a botch of your capa bilities just because of lack of training, is a most depressing thing. Nothing else outside of sin causes more sorrow than that which comes from not h aving prepared for the highest career possible to one. There are no bitterer reg rets than those which come from being obliged to let opportunities pass by for w hich one never prepared himself. I know a pitiable case of a born naturalist whose ambition was so suppressed, a nd whose education so neglected in youth, that later when he came to know more a bout natural history than almost any man of his day, he could not write a gramma tical sentence, and could never make his ideas live in words, perpetuate them in books, because of his ignorance of even the rudiments of an education. His earl y vocabulary was so narrow and pinched, and his knowledge of his language so lim ited that he always seemed to be painfully struggling for words to express his t hought. Think of the suffering of this splendid man, who was conscious of possessing co lossal scientific knowledge, and yet was absolutely unable to express himself gr ammatically! How often stenographers are mortified by the use of some unfamiliar word or ter m, or quotation, because of the shallowness of their preparation! It is not enough to be able to take dictation when ordinary letters are given, not enough to do the ordinary routine of office work. The ambitious stenographer must be prepared for the unusual demand, must have good reserves of knowledge t o draw from in case of emergency. But, if she is constantly slipping up upon her grammar, or is all at sea the mo ment she steps out of her ordinary routine, her employer knows that her preparat ion is shallow, that her education is very limited, and her prospects will be li mited also. A young lady writes me that she is so handicapped by the lack of an early educa tion that she fairly dreads to write a letter to anyone of education or culture for fear of making ignorant mistakes in grammar and spelling. Her letter indicat es that she has a great deal of natural ability. Yet she is much limited and alw ays placed at a disadvantage because of this lack of an early education. It is d ifficult to conceive of a greater misfortune than always to be embarrassed and h andicapped just because of the neglect of those early years. I am often pained by letters from people, especially young people, which indica te that the writers have a great deal of natural ability, that they have splendi d minds, but a large part of their ability is covered up, rendered ineffectual b y their ignorance. Many of these letters show that the writers are like diamonds in the rough, wit

h only here and there a little facet ground off, just enough to let in the light and reveal the great hidden wealth within. I always feel sorry for these people who have passed the school age and who wil l probably go through life with splendid minds handicapped by their ignorance wh ich, even late in life, they might largely or entirely overcome. It is such a pity that, a young man, for instance, who has the natural ability which would make him a leader among men, must, for the lack of a little training , a little preparation, work for somebody else, perhaps with but half of his abi lity but with a better preparation, more education. Everywhere we see clerks, mechanics, employees in all walks of life, who cannot rise to anything like positions which correspond with their natural ability, be cause they have not had the education. They are ignorant. They can not write a d ecent letter. They murder the English language, and hence their superb ability c annot be demonstrated, and remains in mediocrity. The parable of the talents illustrates and enforces one of nature's sternest la ws: "To him that hath shall be given; from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath." Scientists call this law the survival of the fittest. The fittest are those who use what they have, who gain strength by struggle, an d who survive by self-development by control of their hostile or helpful environ ment. The soil, the sunshine, the atmosphere are very liberal with the material for t he growth of the plant or the tree, but the plant must use all it gets, it must work it up into flowers, into fruit, into leaf or fiber or something or the supp ly will cease. In other words, the soil will not send any more building material up the sap than is used for growth, and the faster this material is used the mo re rapid the growth, the more abundantly the material will come. t s e d The same law holds good everywhere. Nature is liberal with us if we utilize wha she gives us, but if we stop using it, if we do not transform what she gives u into power, if we do not do some building somewhere, if we do not transform th material which she gives us into force and utilize that force, we not only fin the supply cut off, but we find that we are growing weaker, less efficient.

Everything in nature is on the move, either one way or the other. It is either going up or down. It is either advancing or retrograding; we cannot hold without using. Nature withdraws muscle or brain if we do not use them. She withdraws skill the moment we stop drilling efficiently, the moment we stop using our power. The fo rce is withdrawn when we cease exercising it. A college graduate is often surprised years after he leaves the college to find that about all he has to show for his education is his diploma. The power, the efficiency which he gained there has been lost because he has not been using the m. He thought at the time that everything was still fresh in his mind after his examination that this knowledge would remain with him, but it has been slipping away from him every minute since he stopped using it, and only that has remained and increased which he has used; the rest has evaporated. A great many college graduates ten years afterwards find that they have but very little left to show for their four years' course, because they have not utilized their knowledge. Th ey have become weaklings without knowing it. They constantly say to themselves, "I have a college education, I must have some ability, I must amount to somethin g in the world." But the college diploma has no more power to hold the knowledge you have gained in college than a piece of tissue paper over a gas jet can hold the gas in the pipe.

Everything which you do not use is constantly slipping away from you. Use it or lose it. The secret of power is use. Ability will not remain with us, force wil l evaporate the moment we cease to do something with it. The tools for self-improvement are at your hand, use them. If the ax is dull th e more strength must be put forth. If your opportunities are limited you must us e more energy, put forth more effort. Progress may seem slow at first, but perse verance assures success. "Line upon line, and precept upon precept" is the rule of mental upbuilding and "In due time ye shall reap if ye faint not." CHAPTER XXXII RAISING OF VALUES "Destiny is not about thee, but within,-- Thyself must make thyself." "The world is no longer clay, but rather iron in the hands of its workers," say s Emerson, "and men have got to hammer out a place for themselves by steady and rugged blows." To make the most of your "stuff," be it cloth, iron, or character,--this is suc cess. Raising common "stuff" to priceless value is great success. The man who first takes the rough bar of wrought iron may be a blacksmith, who has only partly learned his trade, and has no ambition to rise above his anvil. He thinks that the best possible thing he can do with his bar is to make it into horseshoes, and congratulates himself upon his success. He reasons that the rou gh lump of iron is worth only two or three cents a pound, and that it is not wor th while to spend much time or labor on it. His enormous muscles and small skill have raised the value of the iron from one dollar, perhaps, to ten dollars. Along comes a cutler, with a little better education, a little more ambition, a little finer perception, and says to the blacksmith: "Is this all you can see i n that iron? Give me a bar, and I will show you what brains and skill and hard w ork can make of it." He sees a little further into the rough bar. He has studied many processes of hardening and tempering; he has tools, grinding and polishing wheels, and annealing furnaces. The iron is fused, carbonized into steel, drawn out, forged, tempered, heated white-hot, plunged into cold water or oil to impr ove its temper, and ground and polished with great care and patience. When this work is done, he shows the astonished blacksmith two thousand dollars' worth of knife-blades where the latter only saw ten dollars' worth of crude horseshoes. T he value has been greatly raised by the refining process. "Knife-blades are all very well, if you can make nothing better," says another artisan, to whom the cutler has shown the triumph of his art, "but you haven't h alf brought out what is in that bar of iron. I see a higher and better use; I ha ve made a study of iron, and know what there is in it and what can be made of it ." This artisan has a more delicate touch, a finer perception, a better training, a higher ideal, and superior determination, which enable him to look still furth er into the molecules of the rough bar,--past the horse-shoes, past the knife-bl ades,--and he turns the crude iron into the finest cambric needles, with eyes cu t with microscopic exactness. The production of the invisible points requires a more delicate process, a finer grade of skill than the cutler possesses. This feat the last workman considers marvelous, and he thinks he has exhausted the possibilities of the iron. He has multiplied many times the value of the cut ler's product.

Where the others saw horseshoes. if a pound could be collected. in triumph. He puts his bar through many processes of refinement and fine tempering. but it will be many a day b efore the best will exhaust the possibilities of a metal that can be subdivided until its particles will float in the air. almost clairvoyant vision. by even the average educated man. and spiritual forces? Whereas. whose processes are so almost infinitely delicate. worth only a few tho usand dollars. that his trade is unmentioned by the makers of dictionaries and encylopedias. acting and c ounteracting. To him. a pound of these slender. this artist-artisan sees how every process of mainspring making can be carried further. the processes of educ . how the texture of the metal can b e so much refined that even a fiber. and . moral. but so full of its new qualities that it almost seems instinct with life. the knife-blades. When his work is don e. that even mainsprings and ha irsprings are looked back upon as coarse. It is the ideal followed and unfolded. who tells us that the rough bar has not even y et found its highest expression. i f care enough be used in tempering the steel. Other experts may still further refine the product. After infinite toil and pain. the human being is a bundle of forces. the hand. who shall set b ounds to the possibilities of the development of a human being. with a more finely organized mind. he has raised th e few dollars' worth of iron to a value of one million dollars. that he possesses the magic that can perform a still greater miracle in iron. and how. It sounds magical. more industry. barbed filaments of steel. With penetrating. a dozen processes are possible. and develops its higher possibilities with such m arvelous accuracy. a slender thread of it. the effort made. A higher artist-artisan appears. the r eal. He knows that. trenchant. turns his product into almost invisible coils of delicate hair-spr ings. is worth about two hundred and fifty dollars. crude. at every stage of manufacture. he has made his dream true.But. a nd merely a passive metal. he shows you a few of the minutely barbed instruments used by dentists to dra w out the finest branches of the dental nerves. by hard work. might be worth hundre ds of times as much. If a metal possessing only a few coarse material qualities is capable of such m arvelous increase in value. the perception. and cheap. such ethereal fineness of touch. by the training of the eye. passes with ease by the horse-shoes. yet all capable of control and direction by the higher self. a thousand influences may be brou ght to bear upon mind and character. Still another workman. by pai nstaking care. can do marvelous wo rk. more perfection can be reached. a more delicate touch. a higher order of skill. dominating personality. his penetrating eye saw a product worth one hundred thousand doll ars. more patience. in the develo pment of iron. The difference in human attainment is due only slightly to the original materia l. While a pound of gold. mental. an d a better training. by mixing brains with its molecules. perhaps forty ti mes the value of the same weight of gold. He knows that the crude iron can be manipulated and coaxed into an elasticity t hat can not even be imagined by one less trained in metallurgy. behold! another very skilful mechanic. and returns the product of his bar in fine mainsprings for watches. that wonderful c ompound of physical. knife-blades. and by determination and grit. takes but a fragmen t of one of the bars of steel. but the magic is only that wrought by the application of the homeliest virtues. roughly s peaking. whose product is so little known. or needles. and the needles. While the iron is an inert mass acted upon by external influences only. it will not be stiff. even main-springs seem coarse and clumsy.

made more elastic or more resistant. The iron. the grinding of constant difficulties. and stru ggle. and will attribute their f ailure to hard luck. While one boy is regretting his want of opportunities. those qualit ies that withstand all. Cervantes. I f we see only horseshoes or knife-blades. a thousandfold. Aesop. or to better it in some way. and remains in ignorance. inherent. toil. yet one with no better means of improvement than the o thers. the poor wheelwright's son. Life. but. five-hundredfold. draw out. refined product. Ben Jonson. From the same rough piece of marble. the struggles amid want and woe. perhaps with infinitely poorer means. and all are s ubject to the dominating will. Homer. Many of us consider our natural gift-bars poor. and adapted to the use each artisan dreams of. Just as a bar of iron." the faulty characters. by becoming mer ely a horseshoe. the c ommon soldier. another a hideous monster which demoralizes every one who sees i . a nd through them it comes to its highest expression. if we would but realize them. the beg gar. will raise his material in value a hundredfold. our trials. is strengthened. to hammer. if we are willing.ation and experience undergone that fuse. It was thus that Columbus . The blows of opposition. by this manipulation. the cutler's son. and our ef forts. the weaver. and inadequate. raise the value of the raw material to almost fabulous heights. one man calls out an angel of beauty which delights every beholder. hammer. are the on es who fail. so must we see in our lives glorious possibilities. another with half his chances pi cks up a good education in the odds and ends of time which other boys throw away . or comparatively so. We must realize our own adaptability to great ends. so wil l character deteriorate if there is no constant effort to improve its form. dreary drudgery in education and discipline. and Haydn. in the main. that draw profit from every test. Franklin. developed their powers. There is very little difference between the material given to a hundred average boys and girls at birth. his lack of means to get a college education. the weariness of ye ars of dry. all our efforts and struggles will nev er produce hairsprings. of what use would it be? It has that virtue.--all these are necessar y to the man who would reach the highest success. to work on and up from clumsy horseshoes to delicate hairsprings. From the same material. to temper it. the fiery trials of disaster and bereavement. and development. everyday life. and the drawing out. if every rolle r should pulverize it. refined. If every blow sho uld fracture it. will oxidize. Those who shrink from the forging. by patience. we can. and refine. and become worthless. the crushings of iron circumstances. if every furnace should burn the life out of it. the raspings of care and anxiety. Demosthenes. the journeyman printer. In the iron the qualities are. by infinite patience and persistence. study. to i ncrease its ductility. confident that the result will pay us for our suffering. one man builds a palace and another a hovel. and mold our life-bar into its ultimate development. the rolling. the slave. the rebuffs that chill enthusiasm. while the ninety-nine will w onder why their material remains so coarse and crude. has counterparts of all the tortures the iron undergoes. culture. It is easy to remain a common bar of iron. compared with those of others. and come out triumphan t in the end. but in ourse lves they are largely matters of growth. but it is hard to raise your life-product to higher values. we m ust resolve to struggle. aye. to pay the necessary price. Just as each artisan sees in the crude iron some finished. if exposed to the elements. mean. the "nobodies. un til they towered head and shoulders above other men. the criminals. the bricklayer. to endure trials and tests.

to be drawn out. use much or lit tle of his brain or energy. as expression before an audience. we do not feel that so much depends upon our words. The occasions for little speaking are increasing enormously. it is hard and painful. and it takes lots of stamina to undergo the processes that produce the finest product. and express his thoughts clearly and distinctly. no matter how large or formidable. merchan t or physician. Then. to be thrust from the fire into cold water or oil in order to get the proper temper. Self-expression in any legitimate form tends to call out what is in a man. and what he writes may never b e seen by anyone. whether vocal or i nstrumental. should train himself to think on his feet. but it must come through self-expression. should be so self-centered and selfposed that he can get up in any audience. what one gives out is only partially one's own. it may be on canvas: it may be through oratory. Whether you go upward to the mainspring or hairspring stage. He do es not have to step upon the scales of every listener's judgment to be weighed. and so quickly unfolds all of his powers. there is always a chance for revision. so that he can at a moment's notice rise and express himself intelligently . Self-expression in some manner is the only means of developing mental power. It may be in music. just as he chooses or feels like doing. your determination to be the higher thing. In all ages oratory has been regarded as the highest expression of human achievement. it may come th rough selling goods or writing a book. A man may write as listlessly as he pleases. whether blacksmith or farmer. everybody sh ould have such complete control of himself. He can write when he feels like it. inventiveness. and perhaps no one will ever think of them again. It is doubtful whether anyone can reach the highest standard of culture without studying the art of expression. His pride and vanity are not touched. but no other form of self-expression develops a man so thoroughly and so effectively. upon your having the grit to be hammered. weighing every thought. Young people. the powe r and the skill of the entire man are put to a severe test. should make it a study. He does not have a great audience criticizing every sentence. A great many ques . his resourcefulness. especially public vocal expression. but would you prefer to remain a roug h bar of iron or a horseshoe all your life? [Illustration: Lincoln studying by the firelight] CHAPTER XXXIII SELF-IMPROVEMENT THROUGH PUBLIC SPEAKING It does not matter whether you want to be a public speaker or not. Of course. no matter what they intend to be. No one is wa tching him. In music. Nothing else will call out what is in a man so quickly and so effectively as th e constant effort to do his best in speaking before an audience.t. In conversation. the rest is the com poser's. There are not a thousand eyes upon him. When one undert akes to think on his feet and speak extemporaneously before the public. as does the orator. The writer has the advantage of being able to wait for his moods. only a few persons hear them . d epends very largely upon your ideal. and he knows that he can burn his manuscript again and ag ain if it does not suit him. The extent to which you can raise the value of your life-bar depends very large ly upon yourself. Yet anyone who lays any claim to culture.

We know men who have. but they always shrank from every opportunity. and improves one 's diction generally. and he felt cheap. because they were timid. but they are nobodies when called upon to speak in public. tells me that he has been surprised on several occasions when he has been called upon to speak at banquets. manner. lifted them selves into positions of prominence. and was placed at a tremendous disadvantage. All sorts of business deals are now carried through at dinners. concise. There are plenty of business men to-day who would give a great deal of money if they could only go back and improve the early opportunities for learning to thi nk and speak on their feet which they threw away. or on other public occasions . and who made such a miserable failure of his attempt to give his opinion upon an important public matter on which he was well posted. He could not even make a decent appearan ce. or felt that somebody else could handle t he debate or questions better. and probably would have given anything if he had early in life trained himself to get himself in hand so that he could think on his feet and say with power and effectiveness that which he knew. in debating clubs to get rid of their self-consciousness and to acquire ease and facility in public speaking. H e had simply cultivated the ability to say his best thing on his feet. A very brilliant young man in New York who has climbed to a responsible positio n in a very short time. says Lord Chesterfield. was called upon to give his opinion upo n the matter under consideration. at school. Your vocal culture. who hadn't a hundr edth part of the other man's practical power in affairs. may choose good words instead of bad ones an d speak properly instead of improperly. at the new discoveries he has made of himself of power which he never before d reamed he possessed. even to make a few remarks. stammer out an apology and sit down. or scarcely to put a motion without trembling like an aspen leaf. The effort to express one's ideas in lucid. They had plenty of opportunities when they were y oung. Now they have money. and he now regrets more than anything else that he has allo wed so many opportunities for calling himself out to go by in the past. and mental furnishing. blush. In this and other ways speech-making develops mental power and character. Every man. in the same city. and may be a very agreeable instead of disagreeable speaker if he will ta ke care and pains. and strangers no doubt thought that he was much the stronger man. telling English tends to make one's everyday language choicer and more direct. He had power and a great deal of experience. as helpless as a child. who is king in his specialty. There is everything in learning what you wish to know. b eing so confused and self-conscious and "stage struck" that he could say scarcel y anything. At the very meeting where this strong man who had the respect and confidence of everybody who knew him. embarrassed. There was never before any such demand for dinner oratory as to-day.tions which used to be settled in the office are now discussed and settled at di nners. All they c an do is to look foolish. mortified. got up and made a brill iant speech. are to . This explains the rapidity with which a young man develops in sc hool or college when he begins to take part in public debates or in debating soc ieties. but there he stood. It is a matter of painstaking and preparation. he may have grace in his motions and ges tures. a shallow-brained business man. by the dint of hard work and persistent grit. and yet they are not able to stand on their feet in public. and he got up and trembled and stammered and c ould scarcely say his soul was his own. they have position. and the o ther man had not. clean-cut. Some time ago I was at a public meeting when a man who stands very high in the community.

This is especially true of a monotonous tone. Do not neutralize all the good impression you have made by talking on and on long after you have made your point. no other men who run such a risk of exposing their weak sp ots. Yo u only weaken your case and prejudice people against you for your lack of tact. character. P ublic speaking--thinking on one's feet--is a powerful educator except to the thi ck-skinned man. One. compact statement must be had. vigorousl y. of experience. too . every power of thought and expression spurred. and pausing now and then as if refreshing himself by slumber. as do orators. or sense of proportion. one must think quickly. In youth the would-be orator must cultivate robust health. the carefulness or carelessness of his observation. the man who has no sensitiveness. the human mind tires very quickly without it. self-reliance. words press for choice. What woul d have been the result of Webster's reply to Hayne. There is no class of people put to such a severe test of showing what is in the m as public speakers. It is a great art to be able to r aise and lower the voice with sweet flowing cadences which please the ear. moving forward with a monotonous dr oning. This requir es practise in early life. everything expressed on the same dead level. Do no t keep stringing out conversation or argument after you have made your point. good judgment. "Ninety-nine men in every hundred never rise above mediocrity b ecause the training of the voice is entirely neglected and considered of no impo rtance. Learn to stop when you get through. assura nce. or who does not care for what others think of him. arouses ambition. The speaker summons all his reserves of education. Nothing else so thoroughly discloses a man's weaknesses or shows up his limitations of thought.be made a matter for thought and careful training. One must know words. must cultivate bodily posture. One's manhood. or making fools of themselves in the estimation of others. In thinking on one's feet before an audience. Close. He was a p erfect genius for dry uninteresting oratory. stirring the emotions or convincing the reason of an audience. his poverty of speech. Gladstone said. will-power are greatly affected by physical condition. since force. of natural or acquired ability. effectively. the greatest oratorical effo rt ever made on this continent. gives self-confidence. The sense of power that comes from holding attention." It was indeed said of a certain Duke of Devonshire that he was the only English statesman who ever took a nap during the progress of his own speech. . his narrow vocabular y. and have good habits at easy command. T houghts rush for utterance. Nothing will tire an audienc e more quickly than monotony. learning. An early training for effective speaking will make one careful to secure a good vocabulary by good reading and a dictionary. and masses all his forces in the endeavor to capture the approval and applause of the audi ence. At the same time he must speak effectively through a properly mo dulated voice. enthusi asm. The attempt to become a good public speaker is a great awakener of all the ment al faculties. if he had sat down in the Senate and put his fee t on his desk? Think of a great singer like Nordica attempting to electrify an a udience while lounging on a sofa or sitting in a slouchy position. Eve ry mental faculty is quickened. Nothing else is such a touchstone of the character and the extent of one's re ading. judgment of his opinions--al l things that go to make him what he is--are being unrolled like a panorama. with proper facial and bodily expression and gesture. conviction. There must be variety. and tends to make one more effective in ev ery particular.

Do not be afraid to show yourself. half-forgotten memories revived. No matter how far you have to go t o attend it. Do not wait until you are bett er prepared. vigorous exercis e for the mind as wrestling is for the body. or how timid or shy you may be. Join just as many young people's organizations--especially self-improvement organizat ions--as you can. It is so easy and seductive. and Patrick Henry got their training in the old-fashioned Debating So ciety. A vast number of our p ublic men have owed their advance more to the old-fashioned debating societies t han anything else. fires the eye. Do not remain way back on the back seat. Nothing will call a young man out mo re than the struggle in a debate to hold his own. and so afraid tha . and yet he is so timid that he always shrinks from speak at banquets or in public because he is so afraid rience enough. no matter how much you may shrink from it. Webster. and after awhil e you will form the habit of speaking until it will be as easy as anything else. Do not think that because you do not know anything about parliamentary law that you should not accept the presidency of your club or debating society. more readily in reach. Cho ate. or how much trouble it is. especially for boys and girls in school or college . If you have an invitation to speak. to shrink from the public debates or speaking. the drill you will get by it is the turning point. to express their opinions with force and independence. Go up front. Do the thing so many times that it will become second nature to you. Jump to your feet and say something upon every question that is up for discussion. the way to get poise and balance so t hat you will not feel disturbed in public gatherings. Do not be afraid to rise to put a mot ion or to second it or give your opinion upon it. The effort to marshal all one's reserves in a lo gical and orderly manner. make it. It was here they learned not to be afraid of themselves.Such an effort takes hold of the entire nature. Lincoln. and the chances are that you will never know the rules unti l you are thrust into the chair where you will be obliged to give rulings. This shrinking into a corner and getting out of sight and avoiding pub licity is fatal to self-confidence. Here they learned confidence. If th e chance does not come to you. lea ves these reserves permanently better in hand. The Debating Club is the nursery of orators. This is just the place to learn. You never will be. flushes the cheek. This forced awakening of the whole personality has effects reaching much furthe r than the oratorical occasion. resolve that you will not let this opportunity for self-enla rgement slip by you. It is strong. unt il they have gained a little more culture and ease of manner. and force yourself to speak every time you get a chance. is to get the experience. They want to wait until they can use a l ittle better grammar. beads the brow. He lacks confidence in himself. and there is no one thing which will develop young people so rapidly and effect ively as the debating clubs and discussions of all sorts. Wilson. and sends the blood surging through the veins. the imagination quickened to se e figures and similes that would never come to calm thought. or how difficult it is to get the time. The way to acquire grace. to bring to the front all the power one possesses. Clay. self-reliance. until they have read more history and more literature. We know of a young man who has a great deal of natural ing. on the ground that they are not quite well enough educated at present. and when you have accepted the position you can post yo urself on the rules. He is so ability for public speak accepting invitations to that he has not had expe proud. Every time you rise to your feet will increase your confidence. Dormant impuls es are stirred. they discovered themselves. facility. ease.

but he knows that he kno it the entire weight of his being. if they should get on their feet to make a motion or to speak in a public gathering. or gatherings of any kind. as the fear lest one can make no suitable expression of his thought.t he will make some slip which will mortify him. or as valuable as those of their companions. A college boy recited an address "to the conscript fathers. The whole man He himself is in his conviction. for it often arouses a determination to conquer the next time. the doubtful. criticizing him. studying him. yet fearing to speak. even when a question in which they are deeply i nterested and on which they have strong views is being discussed. but the man behind the speech. What is technically called "stage fright" is very common. of putting forward their views or opinions on any subject as being worthy of attention. makes them blush and shrink more into themselves. It is not the speech. which never leaves one. in his act. One man carries weight because self convinced of what he says. that wins a way to the fro nt. they sit dumb. At debating cl ubs. meetings of literary societies. forget himself in his speech . He ws it. than to hav e missed the scores of opportunities which would undoubtedly have made a strong public speaker of him. what people thi nk of him. Some are constitutionally sensitive. and as nervous as a cat.--"Is that the way C aesar would have spoken it?" "Yes." His professor asked. l onging. not so much the fear of one's audience. But no orator can make a great impression until he gets rid of himself." An almost fatal timidity seizes on an inexperienced person. Tho se terrible eyes which pierce him through and through. because then he would have profited by experience. wh at he stands for. The hardest thing for the public speaker to overcome is self-consciousness. not only knows a thing. when he knows that all eyes are watching him. that he has waited and waited a nd waited until now he is discouraged and thinks that he will never be able to d o anything in public speaking at all. he is himself the embodiment of power. he is him There is nothing of the negative. scrutinizing him to see how much there is in him. His opinion carries with gives consent to his judgment. and so afraid of being gazed at that they don't dare to open their mouths. that everybody in his audience is trying to measure a nd weigh him. and his speech to that extent will be mechanic al. This timidity is often. would paralyze them. are very difficult to get out of one's consciousness. wooden. The sound of their own voices. "if Caesar had been scared half to death. or even to have broken down entirely a few times. however. Even a partial failure on the platform has good results. the uncertain in his nature. He would give anything in the world if he had only accepted all of the invitations he has had. While he is wondering what kind of an impression he is making. The mere thought of asserting themselves. One of the most entrancing speakers I have ever listened to--a man to hear whom people would go long distances and stand for hours to get admission to the hall where he spoke--never was able to get the confidence of his audience because he ." he replied." are his toric examples. and Disraeli's "The time will come when you will hear me. Demosthenes' he roic efforts. which are measuring him. and making up their minds whether he measures more or less tha n they expected. his power is crippled. It would have been a thousand times better for him to ha ve made a mistake. until h e can absolutely annihilate his self-consciousness.

comes to our relief. The occasion had much to do with the greatest speech delivered in the United St ates Senate--Webster's reply to Hayne. They laugh or cry as he pleases. As when two chemicals are united . The power was there just the same before. the audience is absolutely in his power to do as he will. but the process is slower and less effect ive than the great occasion that discovers the orator. It is not enough to say a pleasing thing. Great speeches have become the beacon lights of history. to empty seats. which did not exist in either alone. Patrick Henry. in some great emergency. The orator must be sincere. Mirabeau. intensifies our faculties a thousandfold and enables us to do things whi ch before we thought impossible. Great occasions. that you are not honest yourself . unti . and John Bright might all be called to witness to this fact. when nations have been in peril. and he towered so far above his opponent that Hayne looked like a pygmy in comparison. in the depths of our natures. We bster. Those who are prepared acquire a world-wide influence when the fit occasion comes. It would be difficult to estimate the great part which practical drill in orato ry may play in one's life. There is something in a great sea of expectant faces whi ch awakens the ambition and arouses the reserve of power which can never be felt except before an audience. the audience. an indefinable magnetism th at stimulates all the mental faculties. a new substance is formed from the combination. the footlights. Actors tell us that there is an indescribable inspiration which comes from the orchestra. Very few people ever rise to their greatest possibilities or ever know their en tire power unless confronted by some great occasion. Cicero. an interesting thing. which it is impossible to feel at a col d mechanical rehearsal. the orator must be able to convince. Every crisis calls out ab ility. previously undeveloped. we out-do ourselves. a mighty power which did not exist in his own personal ity.lacked character. and acts as a tonic and vitalizer. People liked to be swayed by his eloquence. There was a great charm in the cadences of his perfect sentences. But somehow they could not beli eve what he said. but the occasion brought all the reserves in this giant. In the presence of the audience lies a fascination. they will not take any stock in you. In the presence of the orator. An or ator can say before an audience what he could not possibly say before he went on the platform. wh ich he calls inspiration. that you are acting. and to convince others he must have strong convictions. We are as much amazed as ot hers are when. that he could give to an audience c apable of being fired by his theme. or rise and fall at his bidding. Somehow the power t hat stands behind us in the silence. The pen has discovered many a genius. Webster had no time for immediate prepara tion. he feels surging through his brain the combined force of his audience. If t he audience sees mud at the bottom of your eye. and perhaps unexpected. just as we can often say to a friend in animated conversation thi ngs which we could not possibly say when alone. No orator living was ever great enough to give out the same power and force and magnetism to an empty hall. have developed and brought ou t some of the greatest orators of the world. The public is very quick to see through shams. but it was not aroused.

were fixed on them. His opening words changed their scorn to adm iration. without a thought of fame. It would be easy. Young people look upon him as a mar velous being. His great eyes . CHAPTER XXXIV THE TRIUMPHS OF THE COMMON VIRTUES The talent of success is nothing more than doing what you can do well. to so arouse their emotio ns that they can not control themselves a moment longer without taking the actio n to which they are impelled? "His words are laws" may be well said of the statesmen whose orations sway the world. the se great men are to be considered as setting a standard of success for the emula tion of every aspiring youth. that. When he begun.--diligence. Instead. so changed the convictions of Sou therners who hated him. and Story livid. quenches the thirst of myriads of men. When James Russell Lowell was a student. when up-gushing as the very water of life." Men of great achievements are not to be set on pedestals and reverenced as exceptions to the average of humanity. Seest thou a man diligent in business? He shall stand before kings. Is not oratory a fine art? The well-spring of eloquence. Their example shows what can be accomplished by th e practise of the common virtues. but who were curious to listen to his oratory. The most encouraging truth that can be impressed upon the mind of youth is this : "What man has done man may do. and doin g well whatever you do. he and Story went to Faneuil Hall to hear Webster. "He gave us a glimpse into the Holy of Holies. I have see n him when it seemed to me that he was almost godlike in his power. and persistence. G. if we analyze his charact . and yet. rail-splitter and president. industry. Some who hated him in the slavery days wer e there. and they could not resist cheering him. self-denial. What art is greater than that of changing the minds of men? Wendell Phillips so played upon the emotions. With the eas e of a master he swayed his audience. No more illustrio us example of success won by the exercise of common virtues can be offered than Abraham Lincoln.l he releases them from the magic spell. in relati ng his experience in listening to a great preacher. and their contempt to approbation. patience. to get the three thousand people to join them. they thought. We can best appreciate the uplifting power of these simple virtues which all ma y cultivate and exercise. by taking some concrete example of great success which has been achieved by patient plodding toward a definite goal. He warped their own judgment an d for the time took away their prejudice. det ermination. they reasoned. Lowell turned pale. Probably Lincoln has been the hero of more American boys during the last two ge nerations than any other American character. said Wetmore Story." said another student. for the time being he almost persuaded them that they were in the wrong. It is not a question of what a man knows but what use he can make of what he kn ows. raised up for a divine purpose. thrift. They meant to hoot him for his remaining in Tyl er's cabinet.--J. What is oratory but to stir the blood of all hearers. HOLLAND. like the smitten roc k of the wilderness reviving the life of desert wanderers.--LONGFELLOW.--SOLOMON.

He was a simple man. his straightforward.er. Let me assure you tha t the big prizes I have won are largely accidental. it is o nly as anyone of you can succeed. his passion for wholen ess. "If when I die the ones who know me best believe that I was a thoughtful. his ability for hard work ten per cent. is the right hand of genius an d the best substitute for it. generous friend. always ready to help everybody and everyth ing out of their troubles. The reader can see that it would be easy to make up the hundred per cent. his yearning for fulness of life ten more. But I think that the verdict of history has given hi s honesty of purpose. his longing for growth. and as a citizen. Suppose we rank his honesty. a generous. merely because I have tried to do my duty as I saw it in my home and in my business. He never covered up anything. Everybody who knew him felt that he was a m an. downrigh t honesty. a large-hearted. open. There is no one quality in his entire make-up so overpowering. to lift his head up from his hu mble environment and be of some account in the world. The strong thing about Lincoln was his manliness. his aspiration . but that are within the reach of the poorest and the humblest.--in fact. that the total of his character wou ld be made up of the sum of the commonest qualities. any marvelous powers. his do gged persistence. they would probably expect to find some brilliant faculty which would rank at least f ifty per cent of the total. the most ordinary virtues w ithin the reach of the poorest youth in the land. whether it was a pig stuck in the mire. and will prove my life to have been more successful than the fact that I have ever been president of t he United States. It is true that he had a divine hunger for growth. for doing everything to a finish ten more. He simply wanted to better his condition. never straining after effec t. so commanding that it could be ranked as genius . You could depend upon him. He wanted to know something. and certainly these qualities are within the reach of the poorest boy an d the humblest girl in America. wise and painstaking father. the poo rest boys and girls. Roosevelt said: "You think tha t my success is quite foreign to anything you can achieve. a loving. frank. his integrity twenty per cent of the total. but there is no evidence of any grea t genius. If I have succeeded. the commonest qualities. Had a few events over which no one had control been other than they were it is quite possible I might never have held the high office I now oc . who look upon him as a demigod. He had a helpful mind. his purity and unselfishness of motive as his highest attr ibutes. kindly neighbor a nd an honest citizen. of influence. to be somebody. possess these qualities. His simplicity was his chief charm. never had secrets. an inspiratio n to poor boys and poor girls that his great achievement can be accounted for by the triumph in his character of those qualities which are beyond the reach of m oney. In a speech to the people in Colorado Mountains. and to stick to it. that will be a far more real honor. of family. If young people were to represent Lincoln's total success by one hundred. He was ambitious to make the most of himse lf. a passion for a larger and c ompleter life than that of those about him. a poor widow in trouble. for completeness. what an encouragement. What an inestimable blessing to the world. The door of his hea rt was always open so that anyone could read his inmost thoughts. that is genius. without finding a ny one quality which could be called genius. t ransparent. The ability to do hard work. or a farmer who needed advice. helpf ul husband. we find it made up of the humblest virtues.

"There is no difficulty to him who wills." McKinley did not start with great mental ability. yet it has been the ope n sesame of more fast locked doors of opportunity than have brilliant tributes. He kept up this steady gait. who looks on them as a sort of mental spring-board by which to vault across the gulf of failure to the sure. can refuse to stop . The boulder which was an obst acle in the path of the weak becomes a stepping-stone in the pathway of the reso lute. and he says to himself. solid ground of full success. he did no t make a great record in Congress. but I can never do those things. One of the commonest of common virtues is perseverance. The record of human achievement is full of the truth. The world always stands aside for the determined man. Every man and woman can exercise this virtue of perseverance. he would come out first. Nothing can keep from success the man who has iron in his blood and is determin ed that he will succeed. not notable as a sch olar. If he undertook a task. distancing fifty-three who started with bette r attainments and better minds. His classmates used to say that. When he is confronted by barriers he leaps over them. He had no very brilliant talents. but he avera ged well. "Stonewa ll" Jackson. With this he possessed great applicatio n and dogged determination. anot her hovels. Therefore each of you has the same chan ce to succeed in true success as I have had." s ays Johnson." came out seventeenth in a class of seventy. and he made a specialty of th e tariff. but no train of events could accidentally make me a noble character or a f aithful member of my home and community. his habitual class response was that he was too busy getting the lesson of a few days back to look at the one of the da y. because there were no great jumps. The difficulties which dishearten one man only stiffen the sinews of anoth er. from the least promising "plebe." But when he reads the life of McKinley he does not see any reason why he could not do the same things himself. level head. He had tact and diplom acy and made the most of every opportunity. Obstacles only serve to stiffen his backbone. So. or makes a way around them. He had the bes t substitute for genius--the ability for hard work and persistence.cupy." "All the performances of human art. one warehouses. increase his determination." It has been well said that from the same materials one man builds palaces. and he knew that the only way to show what he was made of in Congress was to stick to one thing. he was not a great lawyer. He was not a great genius. sharpen his wits and develop his inna te resources. following the advice of a statesman friend. he never let go till he had it done. There was nothing very surpri sing or startling in his career. when he went to West Point. He knew how to keep plodding. t unnels through them. because the moment he gets the impression that the character he is re ading about was a genius. no great leaps and bounds in his life from particula r ability or special opportunity. He had good common sense and was a hard worker. and. You will find no royal ro ad to your triumph. the effect is largely lost upon himself. One of the greatest generals on the Confederate side in the Civil War. at which we look with praise and wonder. Bricks and mortar are mortar and bri cks until the architect makes them something else. The biographies of the giants of the race are often discouraging to the average poor boy. if the course w as ten years instead of four. "are instances of the resistless force of perseverance. and if my success in the end proves to have been as great as that achieved by many of the humblest of you I shall b e fortunate. He did not stand very high in school. but he had a good. how to hang on. There is no open door to the Temple of Success. was noted for his slowness. because he kn ows that he is not a genius. another villas. "This is very interesting r eading.

Thoroughness is another of the common virtues which all may cultivate. and stayed there only a short tim e when a neighbor found him crying on his way home. They do not realize that success is not necessarily doing some great thing." fascin all ch said. or a merchant prince like Wanamak er or Marshall Field. He said the boys made fun of him. Perseverance. or a great leader in medicine. It is the driving force b y which the machine accomplishes the work for which it was intended. a nd you will become a hero. can be counted on to go farther tha n a great deal of talent without persistency. but that it is jus t honestly. and he writes t he immortal "Pilgrim's Progress. or if they could be an Ediso n in invention. The man who puts his best into every task will leave far behind the man who lets a job g o with the comment "That's good enough. You will think better of yourself. Daniel Webster had no remarkable traits of character in his boyhood. He was sen t to Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire. can decline to turn aside in search of pleasures that do but hinder progress. with a very little talent. Wellington's dispatches centered around the commo n word duty. Nowadays people seem unwilling to tread the rough path of duty and by patience and steadfast perseverance step into the ranks of those the country delights to honor. and remaining there. by reaching the hea d of the class. You cannot keep a determined man from success." Stick to a thing and carry it through in all its completeness and proportion. the r's "open sesame. they would devote all their energies to study. But many of them say they do not feel that they have the marvelous ability. and that he had decided to give up and go home. Fidelity to duty has been a distinguishing virtue in men who have risen to posi tions of authority and command. He went back. the tremendous talent exhibited by those leaders. to undergo any hardship in order to achieve what these men have achieved. earnestly living the everyday simple life. they could work with enthusiasm and zeal and power and con centration. Lock him up in a dungeon. A great dea l of persistency. tha t it is not making a tremendous strain to do something great. applied himself to his studies with determination to win. The friend said he ought to go back. f or always being at the foot of the class. others will exalt you. and so they are not willing to make the great exertion. if they were positivel y sure that they could be a Webster in law. They would be willing to make any sacrifice. it has been is the statesman's brain." Nothing is good enough unless it reflec ts our best. schola Persistency is to talent what steam is to the engine. It has been observed that the dispatches of Napo leon rang with the word glory. and it was not long before he silenced those who had ridiculed him. It is by the exercise of . and asked the reason. and see what hard study would do. and he make s spurs of his poverty to urge him on. the great genius. Daniel said he despaired of ever making a scholar. the inventor's secret. the warrior's sword. The romance of perseverance under especial difficulty is one of the most ating subjects in history. Take away his money. Tenacity of purpose has been characteristic of aracters who have left their mark on the world.short of the goal of ambition. Every little while I get letters from young men who say. fling their whole lives into their work.

it is by always ringing true in our friendships.the common everyday virtues. for the grander t hings." he asked himself. by holding a helpful. we spoil many of the most delicious things in life in our scra mbling and greed to grasp something which is unusual. by trying to be the best possible citizen. it is by trying to be scrupulously honest in every transaction. But when he went to Chicago and saw the marvelou s examples around him of poor boys who had won success." replied Deacon Davis. all right. John. what beauty. and then we discover to our horror what we have missed on t he way up--what sweetness. and teach him how to milk cows!" If Marshall Field had remained as clerk in Deacon Davis's store in Pittsfield. else he could not do such remarkable things. "Well. but he wouldn't make a merchant if he stayed i n my store a thousand years. a g ood. he could never have become one o f the world's merchant princes. for so mething complicated. it aroused his ambition and fired him with the determination to be a great merchant himself. Take him back to the farm. a kind. helpful neighbor. cheering things we have lost in the useless struggle. and air goin' to tell you the truth. Massachusetts. Oh. but I'm a blunt man. how many exquisite experiences. which. He weren't cut out for a merchant. Marshall is a good. "why cannot I?" . CHAPTER XXXV GETTING AROUSED "How's the boy gittin' on. that there must be some genius born in the man who achieves it. that the principles of nature's secrets are so extremely si mple that men overlook them in their efforts to see and solve the more intricate problems. what a lot of common. would not compare in be auty and delicacy and loveliness to the things they trampled under their feet in trying to procure it. it is by trying to do everything one does to a comp lete finish. waiting upon a customer. something showy that we ca n wave before the world in order to get its applause. "we are old friends. It is most unfortunate that so many young people get the impression that succes s consists in doing some marvelous thing. where he got his first position. steady boy. "If others can do such wonderful things. you and I are old friends. we miss them. Marshall. Great scientists tell us that the reason why the secrets of nature have been hi dden from the world so long is because we are not simple enough in our methods o f reasoning. In straining for effect. It is just a natural persistent exercis e of the commonest every-day qualities. the sum of which would make our lives sublime. w e miss the little successes. after all this straining and struggling for the larger. Davis?" asked Farmer John Field. as he watched his s on. as he took an apple from a barrel and handed it to Marshal l's father as a peace offering. what loveliness. h omely. perhaps. John. encouraging father. We have seen people in the country in the summer time trampling down the daisie s and the beautiful violets. that investigators are always looking for unusual phenomena. accommodatin g attitude toward those about us. and I don't want to hurt yo ur feelin's. the lovely wild flowers in their efforts to get a b ranch of showy flowers off a large tree. it is by all t hese simple things that we attain success. accommodating. and often. in trying to do some marvelous thing that will attract attention and get our names in the papers! We trample down th e finer emotions. in the struggle to do something great and wonderful. delightful possible joys we trample under o ur feet in straining after something great. There is no great secret about success.

fifteen. all unconsciously. "is somebody to make do what I can. an ambition-arousing environment. me do what I can. an d indifferent to everything around her most of the time until. Only a few things interested her. that it is something thrust upon us which will take care of itself. that is my problem. her faculties were aroused. In 1856 . of latent force . or ninety per cent of my ability. But the city grew by lea ps and bounds. had a great deal to do wi th stimulating his latent energy and bringing out his reserve force. or it will atrophy. while li stening to a hand organ on the street. Field from the start . the owner of the fine st library in his city. [Illustration: Marshall Field] Many people seem to think that ambition is a quality born within us. twenty- Everywhere we see people who have reached middle life or later without being ar oused. with the reputation of being its best-read man. It had then only about eighty-five thousand inhabitants. our inclination will grow duller and weaker. an illiterate blacksmith. It is doubt ful if he would have climbed so rapidly in any other place than Chicago. . and always beat the predictions of its most sanguine inhabitants. there was the making of a great merchant in Mr. Ho w can we expect our ambition to remain fresh and vigorous through years of inact ivity. and one whose highest endeavor is to help his fellow man. or indifference? If we constantly allow opportunities to slip by us without making any attempt to grasp them. Most of us have an enormous amount of power. Almost in a day she passed from childhood to budding womanhood. when young Field went there.--whether I utilize five. before his latent pow er was aroused. one of the most highly esteemed jurists in his state. He is now sixty. The judge of the municipal court in a flourishing western city. this marvelous city was just starting on its unpa ralleled career. Some time ago there appeared in the newspapers an account of a girl who had rea ched the age of fifteen years. it will not keep sharp and defined. If we do not try to realize our ambition. She came to herself. inactive. which could do marvels if we would only awaken it. was in middle life. she suddenly awakened to full consciousne ss. but circumstances. one day. Great possibil ities of usefulness and of achievement are. and set his f eet in the path of self-development. O ur faculties become dull and soon lose their power if they are not exercised. They have developed only a small percentage of their success possibilitie s. and it requires constant care and education." as Emerson says. What caused the revolution in his life? The hearing of a single lecture on the value of education. as it slumbered in this girl. They are still in a dormant state. A few years before it had been a mere Indian trading village.Of course. It makes all the difference in the world out the best thing in me or the worst. slumbering within us. b to me whether I bring ten. going to waste wi thin them. "What I most need. When we meet these people we feel conscious that they have a great deal of latent power that has never been exercised. The best thing in them lies so deep that i t has never been awakened. indolence. Success was in the air. She was dreamy." To a Lincoln could do. that it is not susceptible to improvement. and in a few days she leape d forward years in her development. Everybody felt that there were great possibilities ther e. This was wh at stirred the slumbering power within him. just as the faculty for music o r art does. and yet had only attained the mental development of a small child. But it is a passion that responds very quickly to cultivati on. not what a Napoleon or ut what I can do. awakened his ambition.

The chief probation officer of the children's court in New York. The story is told of a well-born chi ld who.--modif ied somewhat from what you were before. If you interview the great army of failures.--walk ed on all fours. Even the strongest of us are not beyond the reach of our environment. side by side. encourage. non-progr essive atmosphere about them had done its work. and a marked degree of excellence in thei r work." The New York Society for the Prevention of Cruel ty to Children. The ambiti on aroused by stimulating environment had sunk to sleep again. people who believe in. and you are never quite the sam e person after the association or experience. individuality. encouraging environment. gradually drop back to t heir old manner of living. and determined our nature. It will make all the difference in the world to you whether you are with people who are watching for ability in you. and. and who actually took on all the characteristics of the wolf. blast ing your hopes. as a rule. photographs of the Indian y ouths as they come from the reservation and as they look when they are graduated . Take the best-born child.--well dressed. We predic t great things for them. Then they were suddenly aroused.--just as Beecher was never the same man after reading Ruskin. says: "Removing a boy or girl from improper environment is the first s tep in his or her reclamation. we are constantly be ing modified by our surroundings. No matter how independent. was suckled by a wolf with her own young ones. stimulating book. many notable exceptions. being lost or abandoned as an infant. intelligent. A year after their return to their own country. with no goal beyond the day's work. brutal atm osphere. we rise or fall according to the stronge st current in which we live. after struggling awhile to keep up their new standards.I have known several men who never realized their possibilities until they reac hed middle life. or whether you are with those who are forever breaking your idols. it is an absolute truth. and prai se you. has also come to the con clusion that environment is stronger than heredity. and ate like one. but the majority of those who go back to their tribes. o r by meeting some friend. by listening to a sermon or a lecture. There are. believed i n. you will find that multitudes have failed because they never got into a stimulating. beca . Our Indian schools sometimes publish. in his report for 1905. it will. It does not take much to determine the lives of most of us. of course. The men had lost the desire to i mprove. and how many of its inherit ed tendencies will remain? If brought up from infancy in a barbarous. become brutal. in order that they might acquire American methods and ca tch the American spirit. every person who has touched you r life--has left an impress upon your character. by re ading some inspiring. Some years ago a party of Russian workmen were sent to this country by a Russia n firm of shipbuilders. they were again plodders. as if from a long sleep. with the greatest in herited advantages. strong-willed. after thirty years of investigation of cases involving the socia l and moral welfare of over half a million of children. with the fire of ambition in their eyes. and throwing cold water on your aspirations.--who understood. and encouraged them. We naturally follow the examples about us. personal initiative.--someone with high ideals. howled like a wolf. You are a little different. but th ese are strong characters. able to resist the downward-dragging tendencies about them. Within six months the Russians had become almost the eq uals of the American artisans among whom they worked. Everything--every se rmon or lecture or conversation you have heard. and let it be reared by savages. They had developed ambitio n. of course. the deadening. The poet's "I am a part of all that I have met" is not a mere poetic flight of fancy.

that is. and he finally resolved to p roduce one. but it can't be done. bu t the novel idea found lodgment in the mind of one of the workmen who stood by. "you do it. This may make all the difference to you between a grand success and a mediocre existence.--W . yes it can. or inclined to take it easy. plodding man. A mbition is contagious. and the more he reflected . "What are you bothering yourselves with a knitting machine for?" asked Ari Davi s. indolent. of one great overmastering purpose." the capitalist replied.use their ambition was never aroused. a great magnetic force which will help you to attract t he object of your ambition.--peo ple of high aims." "Oh. A healthful hunger for a great idea is the beauty and blessedness of life. Principles have achieved more victories than horsemen or chariots. with t . of Boston. the more desirable such a machine appeared to him. "I wish I could. Most of the peopl e we find in prisons and poor-houses are pitiable examples of the influence of a n environment which appealed to the worst instead of to the best in them. if you are naturally lazy . You will catch the spirit that dominates in your environm ent. "why don't you make a sewing-machin e?" His advice had been sought by a rich man and an inventor who had reached the ir wits' ends in the vain attempt to produce a device for knitting woolen goods. discouraging. make any sacrifice necessary to keep in an ambition-ar ousing atmosphere. After months wasted in the effort to work a needle pointed at both ends. PAXTON. A profound conviction raises a man above the feeling of ridicule." said Davis. There is a great power in a battery of individuals who are struggling for the a chievement of high aims. CHAPTER XXXVI THE MAN WITH AN IDEA He who wishes to fulfil his mission must be a man of one idea. or vicious surroundings. lofty ambition.--BATE. But Elias Howe was not so rattle-headed as he seemed. and I'll insure you an independent fortune.--JEA N INGELOW. Keep close to those who are dead-in-earnest. an environment that will stimulate you to self-development. Whatever you do in life. you will be urged forward by the consta nt prodding of the more ambitious. and guiding and contro lling his entire life. a mere youth of twenty. The success of those about you who are trying to climb upward will encourag e and stimulate you to struggle harder if you have not done quite so well yourse lf. The thoug ht of the sewing-machine haunted him night and day. K eep close to people who understand you. who was thought not capable of a serious idea. M. It is very stimulating to be with people whose aspir ations run parallel with your own. the light-hearted boy had become a thoughtful. who believe in you. If you lack energy. Thoughts are mightier th an armies. or because they were not strong enough to rally under depressing. Ideas go booming through the world louder than cannon. a manufacturer of instruments. STUART MI LL." The words of Davis were uttered in a spirit of jest." "Well. over shadowing all his aims. Four years passed. and with a wife and three children to support in a great city on a salary of nine dollar s a week.--J. "I can ma ke one myself. who will help you to discover yourself and encourage you to make the most of yourself. Sti ck to those who are trying to do something and to be somebody in the world.

and wi th almost insane devotion he worked night and day. but his engine consumed thirty pounds of coal in producing one horse power. but he was terribly in earnest. There is not one of the mill ions of sewing-machines now in use that does not contain some of the essential p rinciples of this first attempt. is an example of his belief in this principle. uneduc ated Scotch boy. and so the town of Pullman is a model of cleanliness. It has ever been the man with an idea. "something el se will. He not only raised the blocks. But help came fro m an old schoolmate. named George M. and in July Elias Howe sewed all the seams of two suits of woolen clothes. This saved nearly three-four ths of the steam. who had aided him more or less. suddenly t he thought flashed through his mind that another stitch must be possible. nor be discouraged. and is considered more nearly perfect tha n any other prominent invention at its first trial. one for Mr. It was an English blacksmith. and letting the steam already in the chamber expand and drive the piston the remaining distance. for which h e was to have one-half of the patent. and comfort.he eye in the middle. wil l sew three hundred stitches a minute. He fitted up two old cars on the Chicago and Alton roa d with berths. In May. and put in a bid for the great undertaking. and soon found they would be in demand. This machine. When it was decided to try and elevate Chicago out of the mud by raising its im mense blocks up to grade. he returned and built two cars which cost $18. In his mind's eye he saw his idea. He impr oved Newcomen's engine by cutting off the steam after the piston had completed a quarter or a third of its stroke. Pullman was a great believer in the commercial value of beauty." But Pullman believed that whatever relieved the tediousness of long trips would meet with speedy approval. The sewing outlasted the cloth. who has changed the face of Christendom. as well as his magnificent cars. Watt suffered from pinching poverty and hardships which would have disheartened ordinary men. Newcomen. All this time he was re volving in his mind his pet project of building a "sleeping car" which would be adopted on all railroads. but did it in such a way that business within them was scarcely interrupted. The wonderful t own which he built and which bears his name. Everybody laughed at "Pullman's folly. and the contract was awarded to him. He ag reed to board Elias and his family and furnish five hundred dollars. The perfection of the modern engine is largely due to James Watt. but his own funds and those of his father. "If th e engine will not work." . that should pass up and down through the cloth. and while waiting for jobs he experimented with old vials for steam reservo irs and hollow canes for pipes. Pull man. with no opportunities. appeared on the scene. which is still preserved. Fisher and the other for hims elf. if the machine proved to be worth patentin g. After spending three years in Colorado gold mines. the greater would be the dem and for them. 1845. He counts it a good investment to s urround his employees with comforts and beauty and good sanitary conditions. and his brave wi fe Margaret begged him not to mind her inconvenience. until he had made a rough mod el of wood and wire that convinced him of ultimate success. the machine was completed. A professor in the Glasgow University gave him the use of a room to work in. a poor. The germ idea of the steam engine can be s een in the writings of the Greek philosophers. Never despair. who at fifteen walked the streets of London in a vain search fo r work. George Fisher. which he puts into practical effect. but it was not developed until mo re than two thousand years later. He then went to work on t he principle that the more luxurious his cars were. a coal and wood merchant of Cambridge. order. were insufficient to embody it in a working machine. the young son of a poor mechanic. for he could not bear to waste a moment. and he had faith enough in his idea to risk his all in it. who in the seven teenth century conceived the idea of moving a piston by the elastic force of ste am." she wrote him while struggling in London.000 each.

"on a fine Sabbath afternoon." the "Rocket. in a crisis of his invention. leaving th e "Rocket" to carry off the honors with an average speed of fifteen miles an hou r. to his blind father to pay his debts. lived poor. and was crowded out. The "Sanspareil" made an average of fourteen miles an hour. In all the records of invention there is no more sad or affecting story than th at of John Fitch. in all the railways it may grant." replied S tephenson. But Ste phenson persuaded them to test his idea by offering a prize of about twenty-five hundred dollars for the best locomotive produced at a trial to take place Octob er 6. 1829. it would rush into a vacuu m. poor in appearance. indeed." the "Perseverance. . and had p assed the old washing-house. He only uttered the obvious truth when he said one day . which we entirely agree with Mr. when the idea came into my head that. "What can be more palpably absurd and ridiculous than the prospect held out of locomotives traveling twice as fast as horses?" asked a writer in the English "Q uarterly Review" for March. working in the coal pits for sixpence a day. He was one of those eager souls that would coin their own fl esh to carry their point. patching th e clothes and mending the boots of his fellow-workmen at night. as the conditions called for at least ten. and might be there condensed without cooling the cylind er. This was Stephenson's locomotive . this man was one. This was one of them: "If a cow get on the track of the engine traveling ten miles an hour. that if he could get one hundred pounds by cutti ng off one of his legs he would gladly give it to the knife. and so was ruled o ut. but also burst a pipe." and the "Sans pareil." This article referred to Stephenson's proposition to use h is newly invented locomotive instead of horses on the Liverpool and Manchester R ailroad. to earn a little money to attend a night school. very awkward. If there ever was a true inventor . Sir James Mackintosh places this poor Scotch boy who began w ith only an idea "at the head of all inventors in all ages and all nations. thinking upon the engine at the time." said Watt. then in process of construction."I had gone to take a walk. aga inst the most direful predictions of the foremost engineers of his day." The "Perseverance" could make but six miles an hour. and if a communication were made between the cylinder and an exhausted vessel . and so fully vindicated his theory that the idea of stationary engines on a ra ilroad was completely exploded. He was born poor. "carriage makers and coachmen will starve for want of work. and set them on wheels to draw men and merchandise. poor in spirit . his "roaring steam e ngine will set the house on fire with its sparks". the highest rate attained being twenty-nine. going at such a rate. On the eventful day. "We should as soon expect the people of Woolwi ch to suffer themselves to be fired off upon one of Congreve's rockets as to tru st themselves to the mercy of such a machine. but as it burst a water-pipe it lost its chance. He had picked up the fixed engines which the gen ius of Watt had devised. People say he is crazy." The idea was simple. it would rush into it. will it n ot be an awkward situation?" "Yes. limit the speed to eight or nine miles an hour. drawing the cars by means of ropes and pulleys. Poor he was in many senses. the "Novelty. "smoke will pollute the air". as steam is an elastic body. but in it lay the germ of the first steam engine of mu ch practical value. giving the first money he ever earned. The company decided to lay the matter before two leading English engineers. for the coo. and died poor. We trust tha t Parliament will." For three days the committee of the House of Commons plies questions to him. The "Novelty" did splendidly. 1825." See George Stephenson. $150. he would undertake to eat a stewed engine for breakfast. Sylvester is as great as c an be ventured upon. who reported that steam would be desirable only when used in stationary engines one and a half miles apart. A government inspector said that if a locomotive ever went ten miles an hour. thousands of spectators assembled to watch the competition of four engines.

but the time wi ll come when the steamboat will be preferred to all other modes of conveyance. Others whose interests were affected denied Fulto n's claim to the invention and brought suits against him. newspapers were marked with black lines . Sailors forsook their vessels. True. At noon. and the inhabi tants along the banks were utterly unable to account for the spectacle. and detraction has usua lly been in proportion to the benefit the victim has conferred upon mankind. Lardner had "proved" to scientific men that a steamship could not cro ss the Atlantic." exclaims a third. w hen steamboats will ascend the Western rivers from New Orleans to Wheeling. refused by the rich. They rus hed to the shore amazed to see a boat "on fire" go against the stream so rapidly with neither oars nor sails." Poor. a crowd of curious people might have been s een along the wharves of the Hudson River.'" say s one. Those on shore thought that a fire had broken out below the decks. Very few priv ate persons were ever honored with such a burial. and t he steam is turned on. in 1790. But the passengers go on board. who in his youth said there is nothing impossible. He also built a diving boat for the government f or the discharge of torpedoes. and a king's cutter wa . and ought to be in an insane asylum. had scored a great triumph. It ran six miles an hour against the tide. Notwithstanding that Fulton had rendered such great service to humanity. and when he died. and the boy. He would say: "You and I will not live to see the day. discouraged by the great. in all probability. but other men will carry out his ideas and grow rich and great upon them. ridicule. The owners of sailing vessels were jealous of the Clermo nt. the plank is pulled in. "it will burn up. ever heard of a boat going by st eam. and eight miles with it. the legislature of New York wore badges of mourning." says another. in 1815. Critics and cynics turned up their noses when Fulton was m entioned. he had the first vessel on the D elaware that ever answered the purpose of a steamboat. jeered at. But it did go up stream. a serv ice which has revolutionized the commerce of the world. and the Clermo nt floats out into the river. The Indians were as much frighte ned as their predecessors were when the first ship approached their hunting-grou nd on Manhattan Island. The government employed Fulton to aid in building a powerful steam frigate. They had gathered to witness what the y considered a ridiculous failure of a "crank" who proposed to take a party of p eople up the Hudson River to Albany in what he called a steam vessel named the C lermont. he was looked upon by ma ny as a public enemy. 1807. The noise of her great paddle-wheels increased the wonder. and tried to run her down. and "they will all be drowned. As the Clermont burned pine wood. dense columns of fire and smoke belched forth from her smoke-stack while she glided triumphantly up the river. he kept on till. It was the opinion of everybody that the man who had tooled away his money and his time on the Clermont was little better than an idiot. and had given to the world the first ste amboat that had any practical value. forlorn. Nobody present. and when steamboats will cross the ocean. ragged. pitied as a madman. But the success of the Clermont soon led to the construction of other steamships all over the country. on Friday. as he sees vast columns of black smoke shoot up with showers of brilli ant sparks. The severity of the world's censure. and minute guns were fire d as the long funeral procession passed to old Trinity churchyard. August 4. having made this "impossible" passage. whi ch was called Fulton the First. Johnny Fitch will be forgotten. and fishermen rowed home as fast as poss ible to get out of the way of the fire monster. but in 1810 the Savannah from New York appeared off the coast o f Ireland under sail and steam. Did anybody ever hear of such a ridiculous idea as navigating against t he current up the Hudson in a vessel without sails? "The thing will 'bust. The walking beam moves slowly up and down. Dr. "It can never go up stream." the spectators persis t. By this time his fame had spread all over the civ ilized world.He tried in vain both in this country and in France to get money to build his s teamboat.

--he would risk no money in it. but it wa s the same old story. As Junius Smith impatiently paced the deck of a vessel sailing from an English port to New York. An unexpected delay in fitting the engines led the projecto rs to charter the Sirius. he poured out his very soul into his immortal poem.000 employees. faili ng steadily. giving his clot hes to his hired man because he could not pay him in money. He simply defied and sent h ome every Diet which opposed him. a poor wander er. and both vessels arrived at New York the same day. the result of that heroic struggle. despised by his neighbors for neglecting his family. all must bend to his mighty will . Watch his sublime courage and devotion to his idea. What a sublime picture of determination and patience was that of Charles Goodye ar. What a pathetic picture was that of Palissy. to make India rubber of practical use! See him in prison for debt. being taught to regard him as a kind of m adman. He could play the game alone. hoping always. they had neither meats nor dessert. Soon af ter Smith made the round trip between London and New York in thirty-two days. a river steamer of seven hundred tons. applied to o ver five hundred uses by 100. The very children. of New Haven. the British Queen. his wife in rags and despair over her husband's "folly". Smith's first encouragement came from Geor ge Grote. An American was once invited to dine with Oken. plodding on through want and woe t o rediscover the lost art of enameling pottery. agreed to build a steamship of two thousand tons . when his neighbors were h arshly criticizing him for his neglect of his family and calling him insane. It mattered not what sto od in his way. imperious. To make Germany the greatest power in Europe. ever believing that right would at last triumph. seeing his six children die of neglect. melancholy. who said the idea was practicable. was his all-absorbing purpose. worn to a skeleton himself. being ridiculed as a mere dreamer and stigmatized as an adventurer. pawn ing his clothes and his wife's jewelry to get a little money to keep his childre n (who were obliged to gather sticks in the field for fire) from starving. he said to himself. to make William of Prussia a greater potentate tha n Napoleon or Alexander. Learning of this. irrepressible! See the great Dante in exile. but only baked potatoes. or nation. Although the voyage was made without accident. other parties started from Bristol four days later in the Great Western. whether people. defiant of oppositi on. T o his surprise. "Wh y not cross the ocean regularly in steamships?" In New York and in London a deaf ear was turned to any such nonsense. building his furnaces with brick s carried on his back. and he reaped his re ward. on a rough and tedious voyage in 1832. it is said. the historian and banker. He rode ro ughshod over everybody and everything that stood in his way. probably of starv ation. until at last his great work was accomplished. behold his vulcanized rubber.s sent to her relief. a pr ominent business man of London. What cared this hercu lean despot for the Diet chosen year after year simply to vote down every measur e he proposed? He was indifferent to all opposition. At length Isaac Selby. the famous German naturalist. but he never gave up his idea. and send her to New York. But . German unity was the idea engraven upon Bismarck's heart. it was near ly twenty years before it was admitted that steam navigation could be made a com mercial success in ocean traffic. condemned to be burnt alive on false charges of e mbezzlement. when he had no money to bury a de ad child and when his other five were near starvation. Look at his starved features. Diet. po inted to their foreheads as he passed. Germany must hold the deciding voice in the Areopagus of the world. Columbus was exposed to continual scoffs and indignities. Oke . gaunt form. buried in poverty and struggling with hardships for eleven lon g years.

i n common with all great benefactors. and the enemy that aims a shot at the tent or building over which flies the white flag with the red cross has lost hi s last claim to human consideration. Yet in every age and in every clime men and women have been willing to incur poverty. But he never hesitated nor wavered when he once saw his duty. Howe. each representing some great idea embodied in earnest action. In all ages those who have advanced the cause of humanity have been men and wom en "possessed. Ther e was no shilly-shallying. Of course the world laughed at this poor unaided woman. narrowness. George Peabody. He tri ed intoxicants even to the point of intoxication. no compromise on principles. he did not know the properties of chemical substances. he stood almost alone fighting popular prejudice. McCormick. Edward Everett Hale in his little bands of King' s Daughters and Ten Times One is Ten! Here is Clara Barton who has created the R ed Cross Society. hardship. What tale of the "Arabian Nights" equals in fascination the story of such lives as those of Franklin. that her husband's income was very small. but he was too broad for hatred. persecution . or Christ in living and dying to sa ve a fallen race. nor did he go to scientific men fo r advice. sometimes five hundred drops of laudanum. Beecher. in some cases a month. What a grand idea Bishop Vincent worked out for the young world in the Chautauq ua Circle. Clark in his world-wide Christian Endeavor movement. to r ecover from the enormous dose. Gough. and sc ores of others. uncharitableness and envy even in hi s own church. Duty and truth were his goal. She thought it the last touch of cruelty to fight what couldn't fight back. Noah in building the ark. Goodyear. Edison. In fact it is doubtful whether a ma n can perform very great service to mankind who is not permeated with a great pu rpose--with an overmastering idea. He never pandered for public favor nor sought applause. Morton bel ieved that there must be some means provided by Nature to relieve human sufferin g during these terrible operations. he was not liberally educ ated. toil. Beecher had to fight every step of the way to his triumph through obstacles whi ch would have appalled all but the greatest characters. or even death. but as soon as the instruments were applied the patient would revive. Dr. and bigotry. Amos Lawrence. Dr. which is loved by all nations. ridicule. but immediately began to experiment with well-known substances. ho wever. His wife explained. Before the discovery of ether it often took a week. and too magnanimous for envy. He kept on experimenting with narcotics in this manner until at last he found what he sought in ether. But her idea has been adopted by all nations. Young Dr. and moral condition of th ose around them? . mental." in the opinion of their neighbors. the Methodis t Church in the Epworth League. but what could he do? He was not a chemist. an d resulting in an improvement of the physical.n was too great a man to apologize for their simple fare. Bell. however. Other churches did no t agree with him nor his. if thereby they might shed light or comfort upon the path which all must walk from the cradle to the grave. M rs. too charitable for re venge. of Morse. incurred the pity and scorn of the rich and highly educated. given t o a patient to deaden the pain during a surgical operation. and she determined to have the barba rous custom stopped. Hoe. Morton did not resort to books. and he went straight to his mark. He hewed close to the chalk line and held his li ne plumb to truth. Oftentimes in these grea t battles for principle and struggles for truth. Mos es in espousing the cause of the Israelites. She noticed in our Civil War th at the Confederates were shelling the hospital. Harriet Beecher Stowe. and that they preferred to live simply in order that he might obtain books and instruments for his scientific r esearches. no hunting for a middle ground between right and wron g.

who have neither place. armed with a new idea. "Steady. is heroic. and that we will not be driven hence. "Ay." The courage which Cranmer had shown since the accession of Mary gave way the mo ment his final doom was announced. GEORGE ELIOT. "No. I have sworn to return. "bring up the men to the colors." "To dare. men! Every man must die where he stands!" said Colin Campbell to the N inety-third Highlanders at Balaklava. I still have t he spirit of a Roman. Who conquers me. There are thousands of abuses to rectify . although the men were retreating. say to those who sent you that we are here by the power of the people.--DRYDEN. "But how shall I get ideas?" Keep your wits open! Observe! Study! But above all . ROBERTSON. voice. nor right to speak. but where they are. and each one challenges the independent soul." cr ied the ensign. shall find a stubborn foe.--AGIS II. Fortune befriends the bold. The moral cowardice which had displayed itsel . But the true glory is resignation to the inevit able. Let the gods take c are of the rest." said Mirabeau to De Breze." was Danton's noble defia nce to the enemies of France. and let the fire creep up to the heart. W. It is my duty. 1789.--F.There are plenty of ideas left in the world yet. who cannot be recognized as his organ in the National A ssembly.--you are not t he person to bring to us a message of his." When the assembled senate of Rome begged Regulus not to return to Carthage to f ulfil an illegal promise.--BYRON. and without end to dare.--SHAKESPEARE. who brought an order from the king for them to dis perse. June 23. with perfect liberty to go away. No great deed is done By falterers who ask for certainty. or the wounds of a guilty mind? Slave as I am to Carthage. but what are these to the shame of an infamou s act. What's brave.--you. no doubt. as an overwhelming force of Russian cavalr y came sweeping down. sir. save by the power of the bayonet." shouted a captain at the battle of the Alma. let's do it after the high Roman fashion. when an e nsign maintained his ground in front. and make death proud to take us. ay. he calmly replied: "Have you resolved to dishonor me? Torture and death are awaiting me. To stand with a smile upon your face against a stake from which you cannot get away--that. and again to dare. and you. Sir Colin! we'll do that!" was the response from men. "The Commons of France have resolved to deliberate . "We have heard the intentions that have been attributed to the king. many of whom had to keep their word by thus obeying. Everything has not been invent ed. All good things have not been done.--this is heroism. held only by the high er claims of duty.--BAYARD. "Bring back the colors. To stand unchained. Let me die facing the enemy. Think! and when a noble image is indelibly impressed upon the mind--Act! CHAPTER XXXVII DARE The Spartans did not inquire how many the enemy are. Go. what's noble.

althou gh terribly near the most dangerous part of the river. Now it seemed as if he wou ld be dashed against a projecting rock. and the blessings of thousands besides mine will attend you." ended his address to the hushed congregation before him. the youth sprang to the edge of the bank. and a non a whirlpool would drag him in. over which the water flew in foam. " A woman's piercing shriek suddenly startled a party of surveyors at dinner in a forest of northern Virginia on a calm. The cries were repeat ed in quick succession.--my poor boy is drowning." he a gain exclaimed at the stake." replied the Iron Duke. and all rushed to the brink of the precipice. but still alive. "Your Grace has not the organ of animal courage largely developed. to repeat his recantation on the way to the stake. "and but for my sense of duty I should have retreated in my first fight. the child is held aloft by his strong right arm. scanned for a m oment the rocks and whirling currents. "You are right. "Oh. "Now . On e final effort he makes. "Thank God. "He will do great things for you in return for this day's work. in a delirium of joy. when some stronger eddy would toss it from him. even in a canoe. "and the rapids would dash her to pieces in a moment!" Throwing off his coat.--"now I come to the great thing that troubleth my conscience more than any other thing that ever I s aid or did in my life. And. and written for fear of death. "See ! they are safe! Great God." said one of the men who was holding her. he will save my child!" cried the mother. to s ave my life. and Cranmer's strangely mingled nature found a po wer in its very weakness when he was brought into the church of St. my hand therefore shall be the first punished. Twice the boy went out of sight. I thank Thee!" And sure enough. and the youth almost exhausted. "there he is! Oh. they emerged unharme d from the boiling vortex." said a phre nologist. for if I come to the fire it shall be the first burned. But pardon was impossible. my darling boy! How could I leave you?" But all eyes were bent upon the youth struggling with strong heart and hope ami d the dizzy sweep of the whirling currents far below. but a cry of horror bursts from the lips of every spectator as boy and man shoot over the falls and vanish in the seething waters below. which here I now renounce and refuse as things written by a hand contra ry to the truth which I thought in my heart. if it might be. Three times he was about to grasp the child. The rush of waters here w as tremendous. my boy. sir.f in his miserable compliance with the lust and despotism of Henry VIII displaye d itself again in six successive recantations by which he hoped to purchase pard on. Mary at Oxfo rd on the 21st of March. lest h e should be dashed to pieces. the boy senseless. My boy. "therefore it shall suffer first punishment". she will jump into the river. but he had reappeared the second time. and they will not l et me go!" "It would be madness. and in a few minutes reached a low place in the bank and were drawn up by their friends. from whose grasp escape would seem impossible . a . and the men sprang through the undergrowth to learn thei r cause. plunged into the roaring rapids." The youth was George Washington. and h olding it steadily in the flame. "he never stirred nor cried till life was gone. The youth redoubled his exertions." solemnly spoke the gratefu l woman. and that is the setting abroad of writings contrary to th e truth. When General Jackson was a judge and was holding court in a small settlement." That first fight. "you will surely do something for me! Make these friends release me. sunny day in 1750. and no one had ever dared to approach it. "God will give you a reward. but a man in stature and bearing. forasmuch as my hand offended in writing contr ary to my heart." exclaimed the woman as she caught sight of a youth of eighte en. at sight of part of the boy's d ress." "This was the hand that wrote it. and then. was one of the most terrible on record. on an Indian field. who was examining Wellington's head. "There they are!" shouted the mother a moment later.

After the Mexican War General McClellan was employed as a topographical enginee r in surveying the Pacific coast. scarcely a shot from the Austrians taking effect beyond the point where the platoons wheeled for the first leap. and that if the t rain. Without a word o r a look of reproach." said Jacks on. So sudde n and so miraculous was it all that the Austrian artillerists abandoned their gu ns instantly. the purpose of which is the honoring of bravery and merit. It was the heroic devotion of an Indian girl that saved the life of Captain Joh n Smith. "There was something in his eye I could not res ist. afterwards saying. The front ranks went down li ke stalks of grain before a reaper. having on board several distin guished Frenchmen. walked straig ht up to the man. Ill could the st ruggling colony spare him at that time. From the messenger's manner he suspected that the Indians m eant mischief. the column staggered and reeled backward. the Frenchmen brought the occurrence to the notice of President Carnot. Then she took off her red flannel skirt and. "and arrest him. When they returned to France . and the train stop ped. At the tap of the drum the foremost assailants whee led from the cover of the street wall under a terrible hail of grape and caniste r. of France." One of the last official acts of President Carnot." He left the bench. and with his eagle eye actually cowed the ruffian. Forward again. in the face of the Austri an batteries. "this court is adjourned for five minutes. placing h is hand upon his heart. counted by seconds only. an d the valiant grenadiers were appalled by the task before them." was his bold reply. carried the column ac ross two hundred yards of clear space. a murderer and desperado. While a train on the Pan Handle Railroad. and th e result was the sending of the medal of this famous French society. wherever they may be found. The contrast between Napoleon's slight figure and the massive grenad iers suggested the nickname "Little Corporal. who dropped his weapons. Fourteen cannon--some accounts say thirty--were trained upon the F rench end of the structure. From his headquarters at Vancouver he had gone on an exploring expedition with two companions. they asked him in derision. Thereu pon she ran out upon the track to a place where she could be seen from some litt le distance. and so he warned his companions that they must be ready to leave camp at a moment's notice. "Call me." said the judge. came into the court-room with brutal violence and interrupted the court. 1796. was bound to Chicago and the World's Fair. "Call a posse.border ruffian." But they also shrank in fear from the ruffian. The of ficer did not dare to approach him. many of whom must have suffered d eath but for Jennie's courage and presence of mind. when the powerful King Powhatan had decreed his death. Jennie Carey. The judge ordered him to be arrested. their supports fled in a panic. entered it a dreadful wreck would take place. when the train came in view. a soldier and a servant. was the sending o f a medal of the French Legion of Honor to a little American girl who lives in I ndiana. . with a battalion of three hundred carbineers in front. On May 10. and his aides and g enerals rushed to his side. waved it back and forth across the track. who was then ten years old. Napoleon carried the bridge at Lodi. This Napoleon had counted on in making the b old attack. this time over heaps of dead that cho ked the passage. and instead of rushing to the front and meeting the French onslaug ht. and a quick run. which was nearly due. when o ne evening he received word that the chiefs of the Columbia River tribes desired to confer with him. and attempted to pass the gateway to the bridge. Napoleon placed himself at their head. then." When Stephen of Colonna fell into the hands of base assailants. discovered that a trestle was on fire. Napoleon masse d four thousand grenadiers at the head of the bridge. On board of it were seven hundred people. It was seen. "Where is now your fortress?" "Here. Behind them were six thousand troops.

This movement was a great surpr ise to the Texans. was on the platform. No doubt many lives were saved by his c oolness. When the sentence was passed he acted like a flash. Rufus Choate spoke to an audience of nearly five thousand in Lowell. By his listlessness he had thrown his captors off their guard.. he was given a rousing reception. and placed at the righ t hand of Saltese. therefore he and th ose with him would be the last to leave. and the c hiefs had vowed vengeance against the race. fairly livid from fear. McClellan had been on friendly terms with them. he was a white man. his courage. he whispered to Choate as he pas sed. Not a hand was raised agains t him. but they were equal to the occasion. "I revoke it!" exclaimed Saltese. McClellan was led into the circle.in five minutes". He found the supports of the floor in so bad a condition that the sl ightest applause would be likely to bury the audience in the ruins of the buildi ng." When Grant was in Houston many years ago. " I must have your word that I can leave this council in safety. he added. decreed that McClellan should immediately be put to death. M ass. Telli ng the people to remain quiet. He mounted his horse and rode to his camp. or I shall kill you this instant!" he cried. but still. Nat urally hospitable." sneered a Senator who had already taken too much. Many distinguished foreign and American statesmen were present at a fashionable dinner party where wine was freely poured. who presided. Retaliation for this outrage seemed imperative. until a sound of cracking timber below would have precipitated a stamp ede with fatal results but for the coolness of B. then he told the crowd that ther e was no immediate danger if they would slowly disperse. and to his accurate knowledge of I ndian character. then vice-presi dent of the United States. "We shall all be in ---. Butler. declined to drink from a proffered cup. and could understand every word spoken in the council. and then Saltese. The chiefs pondered long. the headwaiter went first to Grant. He owed his life to his quickness of perception. When the time came to serve the wine. Flinging his left arm around the neck of Salt ese. They made lavis h preparations for the dinner. apparently indifferent to his fate." was the quick response. McClellan st rode out of the tent with his revolver in his hand. In 1856. Without a single word be . McClellan said nothing. The post of danger. "Colfax dares not drink. Saltese made known the grievance of the tribe s. Saltese was released from the embrace of the strong arm. in the name of the head men of the tribes. the committee taking great pains to have the fine st wines that could be procured for the table that night. which was most weakly supported. and was not responsible for the forest executions. Returning rather leisurely to the platform. Two Indians had been captured by a party of white pioneers and hanged for the ft. F." said the Vice-President. "I dare not. and naturally inclined to like a man of Grant's make-up. where his two followers were r eady to spring into the saddle and to escape from the villages." "You have the wo rd of Saltese. he rode boldly into the Indian village. The council was prolonged for hours before sentence was passed. he said that he would see if there were any cause for alarm.Mounting his horse. he whipped out his revolver and held it close to the chief's temple. He had known that argument and pleas for justice or mer cy would be of no avail. with his fingers c licking the trigger. "Revok e that sentence. "You are right. About thirty chiefs were holding council. in favor of the candidacy of James Buchanan for the presidency. bu t had little to say. McClellan knew how sacred was the pledge which he had received. He sat motionless. the Houstonites determined to go beyond any other Southern city in the way of a banq uet and other manifestations of their good-will and hospitality. He was familiar with the Chinook jargon. The revolver wa s lowered. Without a word the general q uietly turned down all the glasses at his plate. settling more and more as he proceeded with his address. but Schuyler Colfax. The floor of the great hall began to sink.

" Luther replied : "Although they should make a fire that should reach from Worms to Wittenberg. his honor. though it rain Duke Georges for nine days together. It takes courage to unmask your true self. living. It takes courage and pluck to be outvoted.'" The men were so aff ected and ashamed that they took him by the hand and thanked him for displaying such admirable moral courage. "he knows his danger. misunderstood. Dress." It takes courage to do your duty in silence and obscu rity while others prosper and grow famous although neglecting sacred obligations . everything must conform. every man along the line of the long tables turned his glasses down. It takes courage to remain in honest pove rty when others grow rich by fraud. Miner." was the reply. in the Lord's name I would pass through it a nd appear before them. Custom or fashion . to show your blemishes to a condemn ing world." said Wellington. and there was not a drop of wine taken that night." "There are many cardinals and bishops at Worms. I believe yo u are frightened.ing spoken. I am. observing that the other showed signs of fear. scoffed. said. servants. and they in turn dare not depart from th eir schools. where w ine flowed freely and ribald jests were bandied. "and they will burn your body to ashes as they did that of John Huss. when he saw a soldier turn pale as he ma rched against a battery. It takes courage to say "No" squarely when t hose around you say "Yes. to stand alone with all the world against you." The youth who starts out by being afraid to speak what he thinks will usually e nd by being afraid to think what he wishes." He replied: "It is my d uty to go. It takes courage to wear threadbare clothes wh ile your comrades dress in broadcloth. beaten. and that should flame up to heaven." "That's a brave man. or your doctor or minister. ridicul ed." "An honest man is not the worse because a dog barks at him. misjudged. It takes courage for a young man to stand firmly erect while others are bowing and fawning for praise and power. How we shrink from an act of our own! We live as others live. was told that he could not go until he had drunk a toast. a slight. told a story." "Yes. "and if you were half as much fri ghtened. Who dares conduct his household or business affairs in his own w ay." We live ridiculously for fear of being thought ridiculous. Colo nel Thomas Wentworth Higginson said that at a dinner at Beaufort. It is 'Our Mothers. boyish fel low who did not drink. you would run away.. although I must drink it in water." said a friend to Luther. "Sir. S. C. He replied: "I cannot sing." Anothe r man said to him: "Duke George will surely arrest you. or we are ostracized. and I will go. and to pass for what you really are." He said to another: "I would enter Worms though there we re as many devils there as there are tiles upon the roofs of the houses. and snap his fingers at Dame Grundy? . To his manhood. laughed at." A Western paper recently invited the surviving Union and Confederate officers t o give an account of the bravest act observed by each during the Civil War. "Tis he is the coward who proves false to his vows. derided. Two French officers at Waterloo were advancing to charge a greatly superior for ce. carriages. or sung a song. and faces it. dictates. for a laugh or a sneer. One. but I will give a toa st. Dr. but "They are slaves who dare not be In the right with two or three.

nothing lovable in fear. when he and Colonel Dent were riding through the thickest of a fi re that had become so concentrated and murderous that his troops had all been dr iven back. appalled by his comrade's fate. examined it deliberately. For a instant the driver of the second wag on paused. "Dent. "Fear? " said the future admiral. and would perhaps have be en ruined for life. save with his shepherd's staff and sling. with the reckless daring of an English boy. you should never take any chances with him. but the flames rose fiercely ro und." said Dent." Courage is victory. spurred his strugglin g and terrified horses through the burning heap. If that wire had been left there for a little time longer he would have gone dead lame. "it is simply murder for us to sit here. "when you've got a horse that you think a great deal o f. "I guess looking after your horse's legs can wait. It takes courage to refuse to follow custom when it is injurious to his health and morals. I wish you would get down and see what is the matter with that leg there . and caught the powder. untwisted a piece of telegraph wire which had begun to cut the horse's leg. with an orchard surrounded by a thick hedge. fresh from his flocks. and rider in fragments into the air. a nd soon two loaded wagons came galloping toward the farmhouse. observing that the flames. and he actually denied even the acquaintance of the Master he had declared he would die for. surroundi ng the orchard with a wall of flame. never flinched. so the greatest hero is a coward somewhere. marching unattended and unarmed. "if you don't want to see to it. racked unti l her bones were dislocated. to confront the colossal Gol iath with his massive armor." "All right." said Grant." said he. the next." "To think a thing is impossible is to make it so. sending wagon. A messenger had been sent for ammunition. That simple shepherd-lad. afforded him one desperate chance." said Grant. Behind him the flames closed u p. Both are deformities and are repulsive. "Dent." He dismounted. I will. Bruno. but looked her tormentor calmly in the face and refused to adjure her faith. amid the deafening cheers of the g arrison. "I should have thought fear would have kept you from going so far. Don't be like Uriah Heep. timidity 's defeat. Manly courage is always dignified and graceful. and climbed into his saddle. There is nothing attractive in timidity. sent his horses at the smoldering breach and. condemned to be burned alive in Rome. David. and raged more fiercely than ever. said to his judge: "You are more a fraid to pronounce my sentence than I am to receive it. which was so important a point in the British position that orders were given to hold it at any hazard or sacr ifice." Anne Askew. How much easier for a politician to prevaricate and dodge an issue than to stand squarely on his feet like a man! As the strongest man has a weakness somewhere.It takes courage for a public man not to bend the knee to popular prejudice." Wellington said that at Waterloo the hottest of the battle raged round a farmho use. "I don't know him. At last the powder and ball ran short and the hedges took fire." . but he could not stand the ridicule and the finger of scorn of the maidens in th e high priest's hall. "The driver of th e first wagon. Peter was courageous enough to draw his sword to defend his Master. is the sublimest audacity the world has ever seen." said a rela tive who found the little boy Nelson wandering a long distance from home. horses. landed his terrible cargo safely within. which exploded in an instant. begging everybody's pardon for taking the liberty of being in the world. beaten back for the moment by the explosion.

"If. filthy prison when he might erty by merely renouncing his doctrines." says George Eliot. minutes. The influence of the brave man is contagious a nd creates an epidemic of noble zeal in all about him. They found the defect. while the enemy's guns were egiment. and th as if it were a review. not knowing but that they were advancing to a horrible death. what is your competitor bu t a man? Conquer your place in the world. . mark me. damp. " At the battle of Trafalgar. "No great deed is done. Execute your resolutions immediately. "by falterers wh o ask for certainty. She remained true to her father when all others. and a young soldier instinctively dodged. He and flogged four of the ringleaders under fire. and he had determined to to his principles. as some of the bishops had omas More preferred death to dishonor. Lieutenant Doughty and Sergeant Rees volunteered to examine the fuse. for all things serve a brave soul." After the great inward struggle was over. Com bat difficulty manfully. when he was shot and was being carried below. But Th His daughter showed the power of love to drive away fear. and soon a terri ble upheaval of earth gave the signal to march to victory. the poor girl begged it of the authorities. At the battle of Copenhagen. or in crossing bridges you have not reached. remain loyal wife called have his lib done. His him a fool for staying in a dark. and who. therefore. that those fighting might not know their chief had fallen. In a skirmish at Salamanca. To half will and to hang forever in the balance is to lose your grip on life. Sir William Napier's men became disobedient. if that ball were destined for you." Don't waste time dreaming of obstacles you may never encounter. But. and said to the sheriff: "'T is a sharp medicine. but a sound cure for al l diseases. The men en marched three miles under a heavy cannonade as coolly pouring shot into his r at once ordered a halt. would in all probability have gone great lengths in the career of u sefulness and fame. and this day may be the last to any of us in a moment. Every day sends to the gr ave obscure men who have only remained in obscurity because their timidity has p revented them from making a first effort. Does competition trouble you? work away. and tens of minutes passed. I beseech you ascribe it to my sickness rather than to myself. even her mother. Thoughts are but dreams until their effec ts be tried. Napoleon looked at him and smili ngly said: "My friend. sustain misfortune bravely. had forsaken him. yielded at once. fired the train anew.At the battle of Friedland a cannon-ball came over the heads of the French sold iers. and requested that it be buried in the coffin with her. wi thout a sound from the mine. he c overed his face. But seconds. When Sir Walter Raleigh came to the scaffold he was very faint. he said: "This is warm work." He took the ax and kissed the blade. you perceive any weakness in me. encou nter disappointment courageously. as Nelson walked the deck slippery with blood and covered with the dead. I would not be elsewhere for thousands. and began his s peech to the crowd by saying that during the last two days he had been visited b y two ague fits. Through the long subterranea n galleries they hurried in silence. Her request was granted. if they could have been induc ed to begin. endure poverty nobly." When the mine in front of Petersburg was finished the fuse was lighted and the Union troops were drawn up ready to charge the enemy's works as soon as the expl osion should make a breach. After his head ha d been cut off and exhibited on a pole on London Bridge. Thomas More walked cheerfully to the block. though you were to bu rrow a hundred feet under ground it would be sure to find you there. and the suspense became painful. for her death soon occurred.

despite the ridicule and scoffs of the spectators. and when other lawyers had refused. give not away your right. and began: "Delegates from Five Points. Ere her caus e bring fame and profit." At last the jury. When General Butler was sent with nine thousand men to quell the New York riots . returned a verdict of "Not guilty. Butler went to the place where the crowd was most dense." The rec order fined them forty marks apiece for their independence. derisive scorn. till hi s Lord is crucified." But in thus ruining himself Chase had taken the first important step in a career in which he became Governor of Oh io. and no influential friends.Abraham Lincoln's boyhood was one long struggle with poverty. Only the most sublime moral courage could have sustained him as President to hold his ground against hostile criticism and a long train of disaster. a Garrison. What cared Wendell Phillips for rotten eggs. Did Anna Dickins on leave the platform when the pistol bullets of the Molly Maguires flew about h er head? She silenced those pistols by her courage and her arguments. "he's not afraid of any cause. a man looked at him in surprise and said: "There goes a fi ne young fellow who has just ruined himself. to support Grant and Stanton against the clamor of the politicians and t he press. not satisfied with the first verdict. Secretary of the United States Treasury. an d Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. As Salmon P. "Go to Lincoln. he arrived in advance of his troops." "You are Englishmen. "mind your privileges. who is not afraid of a jail. What cared Christ for the jeers of the crowd? The palsied hand moved. and hisses? In him "at last the scornful world had met its match. Lincoln would alw ays plead the cause of the unfortunate whenever an opportunity presented. who dares to preach on with a musket leveled at his head. with little educa tion." people would say. or a mob. LOWELL. When at last he had begun the practice of law. What the world wants is a Knox. stood upon it." Were Beecher and Gough to be si lenced by the rude English mobs that came to extinguish them? No! they held thei r ground and compelled unwilling thousands to hear and to heed. while the coward stands aside. or a scaffold erec ted in front of his door. the dead spake. when these hounded fugitives were seeking protectio n. the recorde r. and thus imperil what small reputation he had gained. or you shall starve for it. fiends from hell. Doubting in his abject spirit. which had already hanged several men to lamp-posts. to issue the Emancipation Procla mation. United States Senator from Ohio. said to the jury: "We will have a verdi ct by the help of God. after t wo days and two nights without food. the leper was made whole. . At the trial of William Penn for having spoken at a Quaker meeting. and found the streets thronged with an an gry mob. At the time when it almost cost a young lawyer his bread and butter to defend the fugitive slave. you have murdered your superiors. if it's right." said P enn." and the bloodstained crowd quailed befo re the courageous words of a single man in a city which Mayor Fernando Wood coul d not restrain with the aid of police and militia. Lincoln never shrank from espousing an unpopular cause when he believed it to b e right. Without waiting for his men. overturned an ash barrel. the blind saw. Chase left the court room after an impassioned plea for the runawa y slave girl Matilda. it required no little courage to cast his fortune with the weaker side in polit ics." Then to side with Truth is noble when we share her wretched crust. and 'tis prosperous to be just: Then it is the brave ma n chooses.

"Impossible!" thundered the great commander. Nelson was a lieutenant in the British Navy before he was twenty. Equal courage and resolution are often shown by men who have passed the allotte d limit of life. Victor Hugo and Wellington were both in their prime after they had reached the age of threescore years and ten. "impossible is the adje ctive of fools!" The courageous man is an example to the intrepid. do that which you believe to be right. De Quincey at eleven. Lafayette was made general of the whole French Army at twenty." was the answer Leonidas sent back. had conquered the known world before dying at thirty-three. was only thirty when . Shakespeare says: "He is not worthy of the honeycomb that shuns the hive becaus e the bees have stings. Charl emagne was master of France and Germany at thirty." replied a Lacedemonian. at Cannae. Peel was in Parliament at twenty-one."Our enemies are before us. Be ali ke indifferent to censure or praise. Gladstone was in Parliament before he wa s twenty-two. and N apoleon was only twenty-seven when." came the mes sage from Xerxes." "The brave man is not he who feels no fear. and at twenty-four he was Lord of the Treasury. Alexander." was the cool reply of Leonidas. Begin! Begin! Begin!!! Whatever people may think of you. Elizabeth Barrett Browning was proficient in Greek and Latin at twelve. he outgeneraled and defeated. Clive had established the British pow er in India. who ascended the throne at twenty. "And we are before them. A Per sian soldier said: "You will not be able to see the sun for flying javelins and arrows. What wonder that a handful of such men checked the march of the greatest host that ever trod the earth! "It is impossible. often before reaching the prime of lif e. Robe rt Browning wrote at eleven poetry of no mean order. . the veteran marshals of Austria. at thirty-two. Hannibal. Gladstone ruled England with a strong hand at eighty-four. Luther was but twenty-nine when he nailed his famous thesis to the door of the bishop and defied the pope. he dealt an almost annihilating blow at the republic of Rome. became a gre at orator and one of the greatest statesmen known. At thirty-six." Many a bright youth has accomplished nothing of worth to himself or the world s imply because he did not dare to commence things." exclaimed the Spartans at Thermopylae. conquered three hundred nations. Wa shington was appointed adjutant-general at nineteen. Me n follow him. It is astonishing what daring to begin and perseverance have enabled even you ths to achieve. and still was a young man. "Deliver your arms.--PYTHAGORAS. Men who have dared have moved the world. For that were stupid and irrational . and was a marvel of literary and scholarly ability. His influence is magnetic. one after another. He was but fo rty-seven when he received his death wound at Trafalgar. Cowley. defeated three million men. the greatest of military commanders. "Come and take them. and won his first battle as a colonel at twenty-two. even to the death. was sent at twenty-one as a n ambassador to treat with the French." "Then we will fight in the shade. Cortez w as the conqueror of Mexico. But he whose noble soul its fear subdues And bravely dares the danger nature s hrinks from. when Napoleon gave directions for a d aring plan. who sleeps in Westm inster Abbey. published a volume of poems at fifteen. Galileo was but eighteen when he saw the principle of the pendulum in the swing lamp in the cathedral at Pisa . Julius Caesar captured eight hundred c ities." said a staff officer. on the plains of Italy.

m isfortune. the garrison was starving. " They began to demolish dike after dike of the strong lines. at the residence of Chancellor Kent. leaving the North Sea within its old bounds. But ever. tossing on his bed of feve r at Rotterdam. touching his own forehead with his finger. Heaven aids those who help themselves. as o f old. but the besiegers had fled in terror under cover of the darkness. and poverty are battlefields which have their heroes. had issued the command: "Break down the dikes: give Holland back to ocean!" and the people had replied: "Better a drowned land than a lost land.--1 SAMUEL iv. then a prominent statesman.--MIRABEAU. Gallatin. no renown rewards. Professor Mors e was also one of the guests. and amo ng them was a young and rather melancholy and reticent Frenchman. in New Yo rk City. It was an enormous task . Can you conceive anything more absurd than that?" . and swept the fleet on the rising waters almost to the camp of the Spaniards. At a dinner party given in 1837. The outer d ikes were replaced at once. Life." Nothing is impossible to the man who can will. d auntlessly resolved." replied Mr. observing that his fore head indicated a great intellect. The next day the wind changed. will turn the tide of battle. to the stranger. When th e flowers bloomed the following spring. 9. abandonment. SHAKESPEARE. Gallatin. "As well can the Prince of Orange pluck the stars from the sky. The next morning the garrison sallied out to attack their enemies. isolation.--VICTOR HUGO. some of the most distinguished men in the country were invited. and a counter tempest bru shed the water. On the first and second of October a violent equinoctial gale rolled the ocean inland. In the lexicon of youth which fate reserves for a bright manhood there is no su ch word as fail. as bring the oc ean to the wall of Leyden for your relief. in commemoration of the wonderful del iverance of the city. The iron will of one stout heart shall make a thousand quail: A feeble dwarf. But from the parched lips of William. When a firm and decisive spirit is recognized. There are obstinate a nd unknown braves who defend themselves inch by inch in the shadows against the fatal invasion of want and turpitude. "there is a great deal in that head of his: but he has a strange fancy.I dare to do all that may become a man: Who dares do more is none. CHAPTER XXXVIII THE WILL AND THE WAY "I will find a way or make one.--TUPPER. Quit yourselves like men. "Yes. And rally to a nobler strife the giants that had fled.--JOHN FOSTER. from the surface of Holland. ranged one within another for fifteen miles to their city of the interior. and no flourish of trumpets salutes. Can you believe it? He has the idea that he will one day be th e Emperor of France. For man's great actions are performed in minor struggles." was the derisive shout of the Spanis h soldiers when told that the Dutch fleet would raise that terrible four months' siege of 1574. and during the evening he drew the attention of Mr . There are noble and mysterious triumphs wh ich no eye sees. with the fleet upon it.--BULWER. and the besiegers laughed in scorn at the slow prog ress of the puny insects who sought to rule the waves of the sea. a joyous procession marched through the streets to found the University of Leyden. it is curious to see how the spa ce clears around a man and leaves him room and freedom.

and attra cted the attention of the whole civilized world. He determined that his customers should not be disappointed. P. He was not scrupulous as to the means employed to accomplish his ends. his idea became a fact. England. and that. a Lincoln. the grander and more complete the success. su ddenly losing the sight of both eyes and yet by mere pluck and almost incomprehe nsible tenacity of purpose. They have fought their way to triumph through all sorts of opposing obstacles." The true way to conquer circumstances is to be a greater circumstance yourself. This is the kind of will that finds a way. intelligent. we can not ind orse the theory that there is nothing in circumstances or environments. Yet. fathe r. place sons o f the rich at the head of immense corporations and large houses. We must temper determination with discretio n. "have rarely favored famous men. other things being equal. blindness shall not interfere with my success in life. When Mr. when they have . or that any man. exile. disaster. for this reserved Frenchman was then a poor adventurer. to s ay nothing of becoming one of the foremost men in a country noted for its great men! The courageous daughter who was eyes to her father was herself a marvelous exam ple of pluck and determination. strength. such as Gladstone. before he accomplished his purpose there were long. which reaches back centuries. was Henry Fawcett. but in any direction we may reasonably hope and attempt to go we shall find that. and endurance. "Circumstances. was realized. place ordinary clergymen in extraordinary pulpits." began life as a ne wsdealer at Nottingham. We only have the right to assume that we can do anything wi thin the limit of our utmost faculty. Does any one wonder that such a youth succeede d? Once he rose at two o'clock in the morning and walked to London to get some p apers because there was no post to bring them. publisher of the "Illustrated London News. Gladstone's last Postmaster-General. a Webster. but with few exceptions it had only been held by men who in after life became highly distinguished. he walked ten miles to deliver a single paper r ather than disappoint a customer. Obstacles permane ntly insurmountable bar our progress in some directions. There is scarcely anything in all biography grander than the saying of young He nry Fawcett. led ever ywhere by a faithful daughter. a Beecher. dreary year s of imprisonment. or it will only lead us to ru n our heads against posts. in the nature of things. without fortune or powerful connections. long afterward. For the first time in the history of Oxford Coll ege. the g reater the will-power. lifting himself into eminence in any direction. they are e ither not insurmountable or else not permanent. a way can be found or made. scarcely on the threshold of active life. yet he is a remarkable example of what pluck and energy can do. she succeeded in winning the post which had o nly been gained before by great men. Think of a young man." One of the most pathe tic sights in London streets. Every schoolboy knows that circumstances do give clients to lawyers and patient s to physicians. who had put out both his eyes by birdshot during a game hunt: "Never mind. persistent man will find or make a way where. simply because he has an indomitable will.--the post of senior wran gler. Not only had no woman ever held this position before. We must not expect to overcome a stubborn fact merely by a stubborn will.--his dream of becoming Napoleon III." says Milton. while desiring to impress in the most forcible manner possible the fact th at will-power is necessary to success. to his grief-stricken father. and patient labor and hope.. and yet. an exile from his country. This achievement had had no parallel in history up to that date. but he gained hi s ambition at last. fourte en years later.It did seem absurd. who acted as amanuensis as well as guide to her p lucky father. may become a Bonaparte. True. as a rule. The strong-willed. a Pi tt. Ingram. and support it with knowledge and common sense. M.

sentimental doctrin e of fatalism. and large experience. our station in life. good character. both in the city and in the coun try. burning like fire within him. ra ther than his military skill. that resolution. or trifling." "He who resolves upon any great end.--you must. He will find it remov ing difficulties. "He who has a firm will. He is ill-tempered. Believe in the power of will. Every one knows that there is not always a way where there is a will. In other words. will find that idea. we all know that the best men do not al ways get the best places. that we are underlings. and strength for weakness. and can perform wonders. you ought. circumstances do have a great deal to do with our posi tion." Nearly all great men." says Victor Hugo." "People do not lack strength. who keeps his ears open for every s ound that can help him on his way. Ther e is always room for a man of force. A nd breasts the blows of circumstance. Give me the man who faces what he must. searching out. but that circumsta nces are the creatures of men. Disraeli said that man is not the creature of circumstances. And grapples with his evil star. our salaries. Of Julius Caesar it was said by a contemporary that it was his activity and giant determination. however strongly. lacks character. that won his victories. The fault." says Goethe. Show me a man who according to popular prejudice is a victim of bad luck. that labo r does not always conquer all things. all history goes to prove. "they lack will. who keeps his hands open that he may clutch e very opportunity. that there are limitations in our very natures which no amount of will-power or industry can overcome. and he who seizes the grand idea of self-cultivation. And grasps the skirts of happy chance. conceited. often have t o fight their way for years to obtain even very mediocre situations. giving courage for despondency . while poor young men with unu sual ability. and ever putting him upon his own improvement. will find a way or make one. which annihilates the sickly. But while it is true that the will-power can not perform miracles. good education. The youth who starts out i n life determined to make the most of his eyes and let nothing escape him which he can possibly use for his own advancement. those who have towered high above their fellows. "molds the world to himself. who seem to be compelled by circumstances to remain in very ordinary positi ons for small pay. As Sha kespeare says:-Men at some time are masters of their fates. by that very resolution has scaled the gre at barriers to it. yet that it is almost omnipotent. or making means. and sol emnly resolves upon it. But in ourselves. but it is impossible. that there are things impossible even to h im that wills. or some other requisite for success. that there are thousands of young men of superior ability. that one can not always make anything of himsel f he chooses. is not in our stars. dear Brutus. the inflexible purpose. when others about them are raised by money or family influenc e into desirable places.very ordinary ability and scarcely any experience." The indomitable will. but can't. "Who breaks his birth's invidious bar. who is ever on the alert for everything which can help him to . and I will show you one who has some unfortunate crooked twist of temperament that in vites disaster. ent husiasm. have bee n remarkable above all things else for their energy of will.

and who became t he greatest of Biblical scholars. render himself almost anything he w ishes to become. flax and to w-linen trousers. it is the purpose. who keeps his heart open that he may catch ev ery noble impulse. defying poverty and wading through the snow two miles. according to his opportunities and industry. See Thurlow Weed. like a withered leaf. "The general of a large army may be defeated. send for him. When his friends suggested law to him. and that every man may. deaf pauper. by every wind that blows. The world always stands aside for the determined man. sleeping many a night on a barn floor with only a book for his pillow. there are no "ifs" or "ands" about it. came. he laughed at the idea of his being a la wyer. for they did not dare to trust their underlings. He who will pa y the price for victory need never fear final defeat. the authorities were panic-stricken. and everything which may inspire him. to will decisively and strong ly. liv ing on bread and water in a Dutch garret. He had nothing in the world bu t character and friends.--that youth will be sur e to make his life successful. That which most easi ly becomes a habit in us is the will. tightening his apro n string "in lieu of a dinner. on the threshold of manh ood: "I am not myself a believer in impossibilities: I think that all the fine s tories about natural ability. When his friends nominated him as a candidate for the legislature. and he sometimes slept on the counter in the store where he wo rked. Lincoln's will made his way.get on in the world. and walked to take his seat at Vandalia. See Heyne. and the fluctuations of popular politics." said Confucius." "Send for him. nothing can keep him from final success. straw hat." said they. wrote in his journal. No tyranny of circumstances can permanently imprison a determined will. subjugated the authorities. ruled France and then conquered Europe. are mere rigmarole. send for him. the discouragement of early bankruptcy." It was the insatiable thirst for knowledge which held to his task. thus fix your floating life. From the poverty in which he was born. who made shoes in the almshouse. In came a man who said." The poor. When making his campaign speeches he wore a mixed jean coat so short that he could not sit down on it. and leave it no longer to be carried hither and thither." History is full of such examples. "but you can not defeat the determined mind of a peasant. See Samuel Drew. He said he had not brains enough. who seizes every experience in life and grinds it up into p aint for his great life's picture.. showin g the possibilities of our country. etc. it is the will to labor. Paris was in the hands of a mob.--one hundred miles. "I know a young officer who has the courage and ability to quell this mob. Success in life is dependent largely upon the will-power. with r ags for shoes. "It is not talent that men lack. Learn. He read law barefoot under the trees. and pot-metal boots. hi s neighbors said. and whatever weakens or impairs it diminishes success. The will can be educated. to borrow a book to read before the sap-bush fire. he rose to the championship of union and f reedom. his enemies made fun of him. If he has his health. subjugated the m ob. throu gh the rowdyism of a frontier town. through pove . He had to borrow money to buy a suit of clothes to make a respectable appe arance in the legislature. then. See Locke." Lincoln is probably the most remarkable example on the pages of history. Kitto. Napoleon was sent for.

Barefoot and alone . he walked six or eight miles daily to learn to read. He bought and sold anything." What seemed to be luck followed Stephen Girard all his life. stout. His plans and schemes were worked out with mathemati cal care. method." Carlyle said of him: "One would incline at sight to back him again st the world. yet they would cause loss in ninety-nine other cases. attributed his great success to his luck. it was hard for him to get a start. yet he was precision. What seemed luck with h . he determined to apply for it. There were on ly six months before the place was to be filled. and with a repulsive face. It seemed to him that an opportunity to get at books and lectures was all that any man could need. helped to fit him out. Walter Scott. Everybody. although he knew nothing whatever of medicine. he bottled wine and cider. and for nine years saile d between Bordeaux and the French West Indies. But he was not the m an to give up. Webster was very poor even after he entered Dartmouth College. and the chagrin of his brothers' advancement soured his whole life. While undo ubtedly he was fortunate in happening to be at the right place at the right time . only increased his wealth. The discovery of his blindness. and added: "Bu t my boots needs other doctoring. accuracy. He was rigidly accura te in his instructions. His letters written to his captains in foreign ports. from which he made a good profit. Hearing that a surgeon's assistant in the Civil Service was wanted. but sent his young er brothers to college. because no man on earth could be as great a s he looked. it always seemed to others to turn to his account. laying out their routes and giving detailed instructions. would not help him to an education beyond that of mere reading and writing. an d he took his degree with honor.rty and discouragement. He left nothing to chance. He was rich when he discovered a little bo okstore. and his thirsty soul would drink in the precious treasures from its pri celess volumes for hours. but even peas a nd gravel-stones. perfectly oblivious of the scanty meal of bread and wa ter which awaited him at his lowly lodging. energy itself. who thought this one of the most remarkable illustrations of perseverance. No matter what he did. His f ather. Nothing could discourage him from tr ying to improve himself by study. He had begun as a cabin boy at thirteen. Sydney Sm ith said: "Webster was a living lie. His desire for an education defied the extremest poverty. there seemed to be nothing he would not do for money. as the War of 1812. John Leyden. short. and many times that which brought financial ruin to many others. and he sailed f or India. evidently thinking that he would never amount to anything. blind in one eye. He never lost a ship. He improved every leisure minute at sea. especially his jealous brother merchants. H e used to say that while his captains might save him money by deviating from ins tructions once. Everything he t ouched prospered. unable to speak English. At the age of eight he had first discovered that he was blind in one eye. Being a foreigner. are models of foresight and systematic planning. the neglect of his fathe r. but nothing would daunt him." Yet he became one of the greatest men in the world. Webster wrote and thanked him. thi s poor shepherd boy with no chance had astonished the professors of Edinburgh by his knowledge of Greek and Latin. and no obst acle could turn him from his purpose. a Scotch shepherd's son. for they not only admit water. He never left anything of importance to others. which was all the schooli ng he had. from groceries to old ju nk. Before he was nineteen. mastering the art of navigation. When he began business for himself in Philadelphia. and would not allow the slightest departure from them. A friend sent hi m a recipe for greasing his boots.

im was only good judgment and promptness in seizing opportunities, and the great est care and zeal in improving them to their utmost possibilities. The mathematician tells you that if you throw the dice, there are thirty chance s to one against your turning up a particular number, and a hundred to one again st your repeating the same throw three times in succession: and so on in an augm enting ratio. Many a young man who has read the story of John Wanamaker's romantic career has gained very little inspiration or help from it toward his own elevation and adv ancement, for he looks upon it as the result of good luck, chance, or fate. "Wha t a lucky fellow," he says to himself as he reads; "what a bonanza he fell into! " But a careful analysis of Wanamaker's life only enforces the same lesson taugh t by the analysis of most great lives, namely, that a good mother, a good consti tution, the habit of hard work, indomitable energy, determination which knows no defeat, decision which never wavers, a concentration which never scatters its f orces, courage which never falters, self-mastery which can say No, and stick to it, strict integrity and downright honesty, a cheerful disposition, unbounded en thusiasm in one's calling, and a high aim and noble purpose insure a very large measure of success. Youth should be taught that there is something in circumstances; that there is such a thing as a poor pedestrian happening to find no obstruction in his way, a nd reaching the goal when a better walker finds the drawbridge up, the street bl ockaded, and so fails to win the race; that wealth often does place unworthy son s in high positions; that family influence does gain a lawyer clients, a physici an patients, an ordinary scholar a good professorship; but that, on the other ha nd, position, clients, patients, professorships, managers' and superintendents' positions do not necessarily constitute success. He should be taught that in the long run, as a rule, the best man does win the best place, and that persistent merit does succeed. There is about as much chance of idleness and incapacity winning real success o r a high position in life, as there would be in producing a "Paradise Lost" by s haking up promiscuously the separate words of Webster's Dictionary, and letting them fall at random on the floor. Fortune smiles upon those who roll up their sl eeves and put their shoulders to the wheel; upon men who are not afraid of drear y, dry, irksome drudgery, men of nerve and grit who do not turn aside for dirt a nd detail. The youth should be taught that "he alone is great, who, by a life heroic, conq uers fate"; that "diligence is the mother of good luck"; that nine times out of ten what we call luck or fate is but a mere bugbear of the indolent, the languid , the purposeless, the careless, the indifferent; that, as a rule, the man who f ails does not see or seize his opportunity. Opportunity is coy, is swift, is gon e, before the slow, the unobservant, the indolent, or the careless can seize her :-"In idle wishes fools supinely stay: Be there a will and wisdom finds a way." It has been well said that the very reputation of being strong-willed, plucky, and indefatigable is of priceless value. It often cows enemies and dispels at th e start opposition to one's undertakings which would otherwise be formidable. It is astonishing what men who have come to their senses late in life have acco mplished by a sudden resolution. Arkwright was fifty years of age when he began to learn English grammar and imp rove his writing and spelling. Benjamin Franklin was past fifty before he began the study of science and philosophy. Milton, in his blindness, was past the age

of fifty when he sat down to complete his world-known epic, and Scott at fifty-f ive took up his pen to redeem a liability of $600,000. "Yet I am learning," said Michael Angelo, when threescore years and ten were past, and he had long attain ed the highest triumphs of his art. Even brains are second in importance to will. The vacillating man is always pus hed aside in the race of life. It is only the weak and vacillating who halt befo re adverse circumstances and obstacles. A man with an iron will, with a determin ation that nothing shall check his career, is sure, if he has perseverance and g rit, to succeed. We may not find time for what we would like, but what we long f or and strive for with all our strength, we usually approximate, if we do not fu lly reach. I wish it were possible to show the youth of America the great part that the wi ll might play in their success in life and in their happiness as well. The achie vements of will-power are simply beyond computation. Scarcely anything in reason seems impossible to the man who can will strong enough and long enough. How often we see this illustrated in the case of a young woman who suddenly bec omes conscious that she is plain and unattractive; who, by prodigious exercise o f her will and untiring industry, resolves to redeem herself from obscurity and commonness; and who not only makes up for her deficiencies, but elevates herself into a prominence and importance which mere personal attractions could never ha ve given her! Charlotte Cushman, without a charm of form or face, climbed to the very top of her profession. How many young men, stung by consciousness of physi cal deformity or mental deficiencies, have, by a strong, persistent exercise of will-power, raised themselves from mediocrity and placed themselves high above t hose who scorned them! History is full of examples of men and women who have redeemed themselves from disgrace, poverty, and misfortune by the firm resolution of an iron will. The co nsciousness of being looked upon as inferior, as incapable of accomplishing what others accomplish; the sensitiveness at being considered a dunce in school, has stung many a youth into a determination which has elevated him far above those who laughed at him, as in the case of Newton, of Adam Clark, of Sheridan, Wellin gton, Goldsmith, Dr. Chalmers, Curran, Disraeli and hundreds of others. It is men like Mirabeau, who "trample upon impossibilities"; like Napoleon, who do not wait for opportunities, but make them; like Grant, who has only "uncondi tional surrender" for the enemy, who change the very front of the world. "I can't, it is impossible," said a foiled lieutenant to Alexander. "Be gone," shouted the conquering Macedonian, "there is nothing impossible to him who will try." Were I called upon to express in a word the secret of so many failures among th ose who started out in life with high hopes, I should say unhesitatingly, they l acked will-power. They could not half will. What is a man without a will? He is like an engine without steam, a mere sport of chance, to be tossed about hither and thither, always at the mercy of those who have wills. I should call the stre ngth of will the test of a young man's possibilities. Can he will strong enough, and hold whatever he undertakes with an iron grip? It is the iron grip that tak es the strong hold on life. "The truest wisdom," said Napoleon, "is a resolute d etermination." An iron will without principle might produce a Napoleon; but with character it would make a Wellington or a Grant, untarnished by ambition or ava rice. "The undivided will 'Tis that compels the elements and wrings A human music fro m the indifferent air."

CHAPTER XXXIX ONE UNWAVERING AIM Life is an arrow--therefore you must know What mark to aim at, how to use the b ow-- Then draw it to the head and let it go. HENRY VAN DYKE. The important thing in life is to have a great aim, and to possess the aptitude and perseverance to attain it.--GOETHE. "A double-minded man is unstable in all his ways." Let every one ascertain his special business and calling, and then stick to it if he would be successful.--FRANKLIN. "Why do you lead such a solitary life?" asked a friend of Michael Angelo. "Art is a jealous mistress," replied the artist; "she requires the whole man." During his labors at the Sistine Chapel, according to Disraeli, he refused to meet any one, even at his own house. "This day we sailed westward, which was our course," were the simple but grand words which Columbus wrote in his journal day after day. Hope might rise and fal l, terror and dismay might seize upon the crew at the mysterious variations of t he compass, but Columbus, unappalled, pushed due west and nightly added to his r ecord the above words. "Cut an inch deeper," said a member of the Old Guard to the surgeon probing his wound, "and you will find the Emperor,"--meaning his heart. By the marvelous po wer of concentrated purpose Napoleon had left his name on the very stones of the capital, had burned it indelibly into the heart of every Frenchman, and had lef t it written in living letters all over Europe. France to-day has not shaken off the spell of that name. In the fair city on the Seine the mystic "N" confronts you everywhere. Oh, the power of a great purpose to work miracles! It has changed the face of t he world. Napoleon knew that there were plenty of great men in France, but they did not know the might of the unwavering aim by which he was changing the destin ies of Europe. He saw that what was called the "balance of power" was only an id le dream; that, unless some master-mind could be found which was a match for eve nts, the millions would rule in anarchy. His iron will grasped the situation; an d like William Pitt, he did not loiter around balancing the probabilities of fai lure or success, or dally with his purpose. There was no turning to the right no r to the left; no dreaming away time, nor building air-castles; but one look and purpose, forward, upward and onward, straight to his goal. His great success in war was due largely to his definiteness of aim. He always hit the bull's-eye. H e was like a great burning-glass, concentrating the rays of the sun upon a singl e spot; he burned a hole wherever he went. After finding the weak place in the e nemy's ranks, he would mass his men and hurl them like an avalanche upon the cri tical point, crowding volley upon volley, charge upon charge, till he made a bre ach. What a lesson of the power concentration there is in this man's life! To succeed to-day a man must concentrate all the faculties of his mind upon one unwavering aim, and have a tenacity of purpose which means death or victory. Ev ery other inclination which tempts him from his aim must be suppressed. A man may starve on a dozen half-learned trades or occupations; he may grow ric h and famous upon one trade thoroughly mastered, even though it be the humblest. Even Gladstone, with his ponderous yet active brain, said he could not do two t hings at once; he threw his entire strength upon whatever he did. The intensest

energy characterized everything he undertook, even his recreation. If such conce ntration of energy is necessary for the success of a Gladstone, what can we comm on mortals hope to accomplish by "scatteration"? All great men have been noted for their power of concentration which makes them oblivious of everything outside their aim. Victor Hugo wrote his "Notre Dame" d uring the revolution of 1830, while the bullets were whistling across his garden . He shut himself up in one room, locking his clothes up in another, lest they s hould tempt him to go out into the street, and spent most of that winter wrapped in a big gray comforter, pouring his very life into his work. Abraham Lincoln possessed such power of concentration that he could repeat quit e correctly a sermon to which he had listened in his boyhood. A New York sportsman, in answer to an advertisement, sent twenty-five cents for a sure receipt to prevent a shotgun from scattering, and received the following : "Dear Sir: To keep a gun from scattering put in but a single shot." It is the men who do one thing in this world who come to the front. Who is the favorite actor? It is a Jefferson, who devotes a lifetime to a "Rip Van Winkle," a Booth, an Irving, a Kean, who plays one character until he can play it better than any other man living, and not the shallow players who impersonate all part s. The great man is the one who never steps outside of his specialty or dissipat es his individuality. It is an Edison, a Morse, a Bell, a Howe, a Stephenson, a Watt. It is an Adam Smith, spending ten years on the "Wealth of Nations." It is a Gibbon, giving twenty years to his "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." It is a Hume, writing thirteen hours a day on his "History of England." It is a Web ster, spending thirty-six years on his dictionary. It is a Bancroft, working twe nty-six years on his "History of the United States." It is a Field, crossing the ocean fifty times to lay a cable, while the world ridicules. It is a Newton, wr iting his "Chronology of Ancient Nations" sixteen times. A one-talent man who decides upon a definite object accomplishes more than a te n-talent man who scatters his energies and never knows exactly what he will do. The weakest living creature, by concentrating his powers upon one thing, can acc omplish something; the strongest, by dispersing his over many, may fail to accom plish anything. A great purpose is cumulative; and, like a great magnet, it attracts all that i s kindred along the stream of life. [Illustration: Joseph Jefferson] A Yankee can splice a rope in many different ways; an English sailor only knows one way, but that is the best one. It is the one-sided man, the sharp-eyed man, the man of single and intense purpose, the man of one idea, who cuts his way th rough obstacles and forges to the front. The time has gone forever when a Bacon can span universal knowledge; or when, absorbing all the knowledge of the times, a Dante can sustain arguments against fourteen disputants in the University of Paris, and conquer in them all. The day when a man can successfully drive a doze n callings abreast is a thing of the past. Concentration is the keynote of the c entury. Scientists estimate that there is energy enough in less than fifty acres of sun shine to run all the machinery in the world, if it could be concentrated. But th e sun might blaze out upon the earth forever without setting anything on fire; a lthough these rays focused by a burning-glass would melt solid granite, or even change a diamond into vapor. There are plenty of men who have ability enough; th e rays of their faculties, taken separately, are all right, but they are powerle ss to collect them, to bring them all to bear upon a single spot. Versatile men,

universal geniuses, are usually weak, because they have no power to concentrate their talents upon one point, and this makes all the difference between success and failure. Chiseled upon the tomb of a disappointed, heart-broken king, Joseph II. of Aust ria, in the Royal Cemetery at Vienna, a traveler tells us, is this epitaph: "Her e lies a monarch who, with the best of intentions, never carried out a single pl an." Sir James Mackintosh was a man of remarkable ability. He excited in every one w ho knew him the greatest expectations. Many watched his career with much interes t, expecting that he would dazzle the world; but there was no purpose in his lif e. He had intermittent attacks of enthusiasm for doing great things, but his zea l all evaporated before he could decide what to do. This fatal defect in his cha racter kept him balancing between conflicting motives; and his whole life was al most thrown away. He lacked power to choose one object and persevere with a sing le aim, sacrificing every interfering inclination. He, for instance, vacillated for weeks trying to determine whether to use "usefulness" or "utility" in a comp osition. One talent utilized in a single direction will do infinitely more than ten tale nts scattered. A thimbleful of powder behind a ball in a rifle will do more exec ution than a carload of powder unconfined. The rifle-barrel is the purpose that gives direct aim to the powder, which otherwise, no matter how good it might be, would be powerless. The poorest scholar in school or college often, in practica l life, far outstrips the class leader or senior wrangler, simply because what l ittle ability he has he employs for a definite object, while the other, dependin g upon his general ability and brilliant prospects, never concentrates his power s. It is fashionable to ridicule the man of one idea, but the men who have changed the front of the world have been men of a single aim. No man can make his mark on this age of specialties who is not a man of one idea, one supreme air, one ma ster passion. The man who would make himself felt on this bustling planet, who w ould make a breach in the compact conservatism of our civilization, must play al l his guns on one point. A wavering aim, a faltering purpose, has no place in th e twentieth century. "Mental shiftlessness" is the cause of many a failure. The world is full of unsuccessful men who spend their lives letting empty buckets do wn into empty wells. "Mr. A. often laughs at me," said a young American chemist, "because I have but one idea. He talks about everything, aims to excel in many things; but I have l earned that, if I ever wish to make a breach, I must play my guns continually up on one point." This great chemist, when an obscure schoolmaster, used to study b y the light of a pine knot in a log cabin. Not many years later he was performin g experiments in electro-magnetism before English earls, and subsequently he was at the head of one of the largest scientific institutes of this country. He was the late Professor Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. We should guard against a talent which we can not hope to practise in perfectio n, says Goethe. Improve it as we may, we shall always, in the end, when the meri t of the matter has become apparent to us, painfully lament the loss of time and strength devoted to such botching. An old proverb says: "The master of one trad e will support a wife and seven children, and the master of seven will not suppo rt himself." It is the single aim that wins. history. They do not focus their y into the roll of honor. Edward ppointed the expectations of his Men with monopolizing ambitions rarely live in powers long enough to burn their names indelibl Everett, even with his magnificent powers, disa friends. He spread himself over the whole field

of knowledge and elegant culture; but the mention of the name of Everett does n ot call up any one great achievement as does that of names like Garrison and Phi llips. Voltaire called the Frenchman La Harpe an oven which was always heating, but which never cooked anything. Hartley Coleridge was splendidly endowed with t alent, but there was one fatal lack in his character--he had no definite purpose , and his life was a failure. Unstable as water, he could not excel. Southey, th e uncle of Coleridge, says of him: "Coleridge has two left hands." He was so mor bidly shy from living alone in his dreamland that he could not open a letter wit hout trembling. He would often rally from his purposeless life, and resolve to r edeem himself from the oblivion he saw staring him in the face; but, like Sir Ja mes Mackintosh, he remained a man of promise merely to the end of his life. The man who succeeds has a program. He fires his course and adheres to it. He l ays his plans and executes them. He goes straight to his goal. He is not pushed this way and that every time a difficulty is thrown in his path; if he can not g et over it he goes through it. Constant and steady use of the faculties under a central purpose gives strength and power, while the use of faculties without an aim or end only weakens them. The mind must be focused on a definite end, or, li ke machinery without a balance-wheel, it will rack itself to pieces. This age of concentration men, not for geniuses, not to do one thing as well as f his soldiers better than calls, not for educated men merely, not for talented for jacks-of-all-trades, but for men who are trained it can be done. Napoleon could go through the drill o any one of his men.

Stick to your aim. The constant changing of one's occupation is fatal to all su ccess. After a young man has spent five or six years in a dry goods store, he co ncludes that he would rather sell groceries, thereby throwing away five years of valuable experience which will be of very little use to him in the grocery busi ness; and so he spends a large part of his life drifting around from one kind of employment to another, learning part of each but all of none, forgetting that e xperience is worth more to him than money and that the years devoted to learning his trade or occupation are the most valuable. Half-learned trades, no matter i f a man has twenty, will never give him a good living, much less a competency, w hile wealth is absolutely out of the question. How many young men fail to reach the point of efficiency in one line of work be fore they get discouraged and venture into something else! How easy to see the t horns in one's own profession or vocation, and only the roses in that of another ! A young man in business, for instance, seeing a physician riding about town in his carriage, visiting his patients, imagines that a doctor must have an easy, ideal life, and wonders that he himself should have embarked in an occupation so full of disagreeable drudgery and hardships. He does not know of the years of d ry, tedious study which the physician has consumed, the months and perhaps years of waiting for patients, the dry detail of anatomy, the endless names of drugs and technical terms. There is a sense of great power in a vocation after a man has reached the point of efficiency in it, the point of productiveness, the point where his skill beg ins to tell and brings in returns. Up to this point of efficiency, while he is l earning his trade, the time seems to have been almost thrown away. But he has be en storing up a vast reserve of knowledge of detail, laying foundations, forming his acquaintances, gaining his reputation for truthfulness, trustworthiness, an d integrity, and in establishing his credit. When he reaches this point of effic iency, all the knowledge and skill, character, influence, and credit thus gained come to his aid, and he soon finds that in what seemed almost thrown away lies the secret of his prosperity. The credit he established as a clerk, the confiden ce, the integrity, the friendships formed, he finds equal to a large capital whe n he starts out for himself and takes the highway to fortune; while the young ma n who half learned several trades, got discouraged and stopped just short of the

point of efficiency, just this side of success, is a failure because he didn't go far enough; he did not press on to the point at which his acquisition would h ave been profitable. In spite of the fact that nearly all very successful men have made a life-work of one thing, we see on every hand hundreds of young men and women flitting abou t from occupation to occupation, trade to trade, in one thing to-day and another to-morrow,--just as though they could go from one thing to another by turning a switch, as though they could run as well on another track as on the one they ha ve left, regardless of the fact that no two careers have the same gage, that eve ry man builds his own road upon which another man's engine can not run either wi th speed or safety. This fickleness, this disposition to shift about from one oc cupation to another, seems to be peculiar to American life, so much so that, whe n a young man meets a friend whom he has not seen for some time, the commonest q uestion to ask is, "What are you doing now?" showing the improbability or uncert ainty that he is doing to-day what he was doing when they last met. Some people think that if they "keep everlastingly at it" they will succeed, bu t this is not always so. Working without a plan is as foolish as going to sea wi thout a compass. A ship which has broken its rudder in mid-ocean may "keep everlastingly at it," may keep on a full head of steam, driving about all the time, but it never arri ves anywhere, it never reaches any port unless by accident; and if it does find a haven, its cargo may not be suited to the people, the climate, or conditions. The ship must be directed to a definite port, for which its cargo is adapted, an d where there is a demand for it, and it must aim steadily for that port through sunshine and storm, through tempest and fog. So a man who would succeed must no t drift about rudderless on the ocean of life. He must not only steer straight t oward his destined port when the ocean is smooth, when the currents and winds se rve, but he must keep his course in the very teeth of the wind and the tempest, and even when enveloped in the fogs of disappointment and mists of opposition. A tlantic liners do not stop for fogs or storms; they plow straight through the ro ugh seas with only one thing in view, their destined port, and no matter what th e weather is, no matter what obstacles they encounter, their arrival in port can be predicted to within a few hours. On the prairies of South America there grows a flower that always inclines in t he same direction. If a traveler loses his way and has neither compass nor chart , by turning to this flower he will find a guide on which he can implicitly rely ; for no matter how the rains descend or the winds blow, its leaves point to the north. So there are many men whose purposes are so well known, whose aims are s o constant, that no matter what difficulties they may encounter, or what opposit ion they may meet, you can tell almost to a certainty where they will come out. They may be delayed by head winds and counter currents, but they will always hea d for the port and will steer straight towards the harbor. You know to a certain ty that whatever else they may lose, they will not lose their compass or rudder. Whatever may happen to a man of this stamp, even though his sails may be swept away and his mast stripped to the deck, though he may be wrecked by the storms o f life, the needle of his compass will still point to the North Star of his hope . Whatever comes, his life will not be purposeless. Even a wreck that makes its port is a greater success than a full-rigged ship with all its sails flying, wit h every mast and every rope intact, which merely drifts along into an accidental harbor. To fix a wandering life and give it direction is not an easy task, but a life w hich has no definite aim is sure to be frittered away in empty and purposeless d reams. "Listless triflers," "busy idlers," "purposeless busy-bodies," are seen e verywhere. A healthy, definite purpose is a remedy for a thousand ills which att

end aimless lives. Discontent and dissatisfaction flee before a definite purpose . What we do begrudgingly without a purpose becomes a delight with one, and no w ork is well done nor healthily done which is not enthusiastically done. Mere energy is not enough; it must be concentrated on some steady, unwavering a im. What is more common than "unsuccessful geniuses," or failures with "commandi ng talents"? Indeed, the term "unrewarded genius" has become a proverb. Every to wn has unsuccessful educated and talented men. But education is of no value, tal ent is worthless, unless it can do something, achieve something. Men who can do something at everything and a very little at anything are not wanted in this age . What this age wants is young men and women who can do one thing without losing their identity or individuality, or becoming narrow, cramped, or dwarfed. Nothin g can take the place of an all-absorbing purpose; education can not, genius can not, talent can not, industry can not, will-power can not. The purposeless life must ever be a failure. What good are powers, faculties, unless we can use them for a purpose? What good would a chest of tools do a carpenter unless he could u se them? A college education, a head full of knowledge, are worth little to the men who cannot use them to some definite end. The man without a purpose never leaves his mark upon the world. He has no indiv iduality; he is absorbed in the mass, lost in the crowd, weak, wavering, and inc ompetent. "Consider, my lord," said Rowland Hill to the Prime Minister of England, "that a letter to Ireland and the answer back would cost thousands upon thousands of m y affectionate countrymen more than a fifth of their week's wages. If you shut t he post-office to them, which you do now, you shut out warm hearts and generous affections from home, kindred, and friends." The lad learned that it cost to car ry a letter from London to Edinburgh, four hundred and four miles, one eighteent h of a cent, while the government charged for a simple folded sheet of paper twe nty-eight cents, and twice as much if there was the smallest inclosure. Against the opposition and contempt of the post-office department he at length carried h is point, and on January 10, 1840, penny postage was established throughout Grea t Britain. Mr. Hill was chosen to introduce the system, at a salary of fifteen h undred pounds a year. His success was most encouraging, but at the end of two ye ars a Tory minister dismissed him without paying for his services, as agreed. Th e public was indignant, and at once contributed sixty-five thousand dollars; and , at the request of Queen Victoria, Parliament voted him one hundred thousand do llars cash, together with ten thousand dollars a year for life. It is a great purpose which gives meaning to life; it unifies all our powers, b inds them together in one cable and makes strong and united what was weak, separ ated, scattered. "Smatterers" are weak and superficial. Of what use is a man who knows a little of everything and not much of anything? It is the momentum of constantly repeate d acts that tells the story. "Let thine eyes look straight before thee. Ponder t he path of thy feet and let all thy ways be established. Turn not to the right h and nor to the left." One great secret of St. Paul's power lay in his strong pur pose. Nothing could daunt, nothing intimidate him. The Roman Emperor could not m uzzle him, the dungeon could not appall him, no prison suppress him, obstacles c ould not discourage him. "This one thing I do" was written all over his work. Th e quenchless zeal of his mighty purpose burned its way down through the centurie s, and its contagion will never cease to fire the hearts of men. "Try and come home somebody," said his mother to Gambetta as she sent him off t o Paris to school. Poverty pinched this lad hard in his little garret study and his clothes were shabby, but what of that? He had made up his mind to get on in

it always makes way for the man with a will in him. and soon all France recogni zed him as the Republican leader. rough and uncouth. and remained a poor man. "Duos qui sequitur lepores. the brave G ambetta went out of the besieged city in a balloon barely grazed by the Prussian guns. living i n a garret.000 men. uncouth Bohemian. is somet imes called out by a great emergency or sudden sorrow. absolutely unknown. which. the world stan ds to one side and lets him pass. he never turn s his eye from his goal. t o take his place. No matter what comes to him." American boys should study this great man. This sudden rise was not due to luck or accide nt. he was suddenly weaned from dissip ation. He does not have one-half the opposition to overcome that the undecided. For years he was chained to his desk and worked like a hero. What a striking example of the great reserve of personal power. and took our Republic as the pattern for France.the world. although but thirty-two years old. like a gymnasium. "The Republic has lost its greatest man. disaster. poor and unknown. There is no grander sight in the world than that of a young man fired with a gr eat purpose. For many years Gambetta had been preparing for such an opportu nity. He made one of the greatest speeches that up to th at time had ever been made in France. dominated by one unwavering aim. and directed their military operatio ns. Jules Favre was to plead a great cause on a certain day. today. That night all the papers in Paris were so unding the praises of this ragged. At last his opportunity came. like driftwood. only gives him new power. though he might easily have made himself a millionaire. I consider a human soul without education like marble in a quarry. he chose this young man. in the city of Marseilles. and ever after leads the life to victory! When Gambetta found that his first speech had electrified all F rance. being ill. He still lived in the upper room in the musty Latin Qua rter. opposition only doubles his exertions.--H. A German officer said: "This colossal energy is the most remarkable event of modern history. poverty. runs against all sorts of snags to which he must yield simply because he has no momentum to force them out of his way. and when the Prussian army was marching on Paris. and will carry down Gambetta's name to remote posterity. Had he not been equal to it. and surmounting obstacles which dishearten others . cutting his way through difficulties. provided for their maintenance. and what we are will be the result of previous years of self-discipline. was now virtually dicta tor of France. and the greatest orator in the Republic. landed in Amiens. his great reserve rushed to the front. W hat a sublime spectacle it is to see a youth going straight to his goal. and he was equal to it. When he died the "Figaro" said." This youth who was poring over his books in an attic while other youths were promenad ing the Champs Elysées. p urposeless man has who. He is bound to win. P . yesterday. without stain of dishonor. LIDDON. neutrum capit." CHAPTER XL WORK AND WAIT What we do upon some great occasion will probably depend on what we already are . which shows none of its inherent beauties until the skill of the polisher sketches out the c . Nor did he lose his head in h is quick leap into fame. deputy-elect. for he lo ved our country. dangers only increase his courage. What a stride. b ut. even in dissolute lives. He had been steadfastly working and fighting his way up against oppositions and poverty for just such an occasion. and resolved to make his mark in the world. as though they were but stepping-stones! Defeat. and the great Republ ican leader! When Louis Napoleon had been defeated at Sedan and had delivered his sword to W illiam of Prussia. sickness. it would onl y have made him ridiculous. and by almost superhuman skill raised three armies of 8 00.

"I understand that. had for a long per iod saved the government the burden of caring for an additional income of 100.--CHARLES KINGSLEY. without compensation. His method was so simple that o ne could learn in ten minutes how to make a die from an embossed stamp for a pen ny. makes the surface shine. the more you can save yourself and that which belongs to you . In explaining his invention. Having ascertained later that in this way the raised stamps on all official papers in England could easily be forged. so as to produce intense combustion. if published in its connection. "I was a mere cipher in that vast sea of human enterprise. fetters and stops itself. which has revolutionized the iron industry through out the world. So Bessemer's financial prospects were not very encouraging. and you shall attain to higher knowledge. by keepin g out of the ponderous minds of the British revenue officers. speaking of his arrival in London in 1831. and then addi ng enough spiegel-eisen (looking-glass iron). to change t he whole mass to steel. The chief also fully appreciated the new danger of easy counterfeiting. that little word. Bessemer chose the office. he set to work and invented a perforat ed stamp which could not be forged nor removed from a document. realizing tha t the best capital a young man can have is a capital wife. was the Bessemer pro cess of making steel cheaply. . after years of thought and experiment. Haste trips up its own heels. He felt proud of the young woman's ingenuity." said Henry Bessemer . So he o ffered Bessemer a definite sum for his process of perforation. The more you know.00 0 pounds a year. he soon made work for himself by inventin g a process of copying bas-reliefs on cardboard. and they shall be enlarged. like the schoolboy's pins which saved the lives of th ousands of people annually by not getting swallowed.olors. he told how it would prevent any one from taking a valuable stamp from a document a hundred years old and using it a second time. At the public st amp office he was told by the chief that the government was losing 100. an d without an acquaintance in the city. or an office for life at eight hundred pounds a year. but. practise what you know. and do more work with less effort.--ADDISON.--ARNOLD.--SENECA. His method consists simply in forcing hot air from below into sev eral tons of melted pig-iron. Although but eighteen years old. and vein that runs throughout the body of it. As a result his system of perforation was abandoned and he was deprived of his promised office." This was a very short speech. spot. if all stamps had a date put upon them they could not at a future time be used without detection. an ore rich in carbon. and promptly suggested the improvement at the stamp office. The result. but.000 pound s a year through the custom of removing stamps from old parchments and using the m again. Use your gifts faithfully. but. and hastened to tell the good news to a young woman with whom he had agreed to share his fortune . surely. of the idea conveyed by that little insignificant word. the government coolly making use from that day to this. And the same little word. "Yes. He discovered this simple process only after trying in vain much more difficult and expensive methods. and discovers every ornamental cloud. would render Bessemer's perforation device of far less value than a last year's bird' s nest. and of no special importance if we omit a single word of four letters. he at once entered in to a partnership which placed at his command the combined ideas of two very leve l heads." said his betrothed.

and break down in middle life. She works ages to bring a flower to perfection. Patience is Nature's motto. and many die of old a ge in the forties. and fai thfulness will shorten the way." The great lack of the age is want of thoroughness. Hard work. "Can't wait" is characteristic of the century. deep foundations. Don't risk a life's superstructure upon a day's foundation. se minary. feverish work. The weary years in preparator y school and college dishearten them. on schools. he replied that he wou ld have spent six weeks. Wha t will she not do for the greatest of her creation? Ages and aeons are nothing t o her. Short cuts and abridged methods a re the demand of the hour. a little smattering of books. How seldom you find a young man or woman who is willing to take time to prepare for his life work! A little education is all they want. on society. At length he managed to get it into "Fraser's Magazine. on commerce.-A little learning is a dangerous thing. and is written on everything. the product of many hours of drudging research in the great libraries. a definite aim. and "the constant trembling lest some blunder should expose one's emptiness. When an aut horess told Wordsworth she had spent six hours on a poem. a perfect man. of course t hey do poor. nor the youth a man. Drink deep." the editor of which conveyed to the author the pleasing information that his work had been received with "unqualifie d disapprobation. The boy can't wait to become a youth. Only one . Think of Bishop Hall spending thirty years on one of hi s works! Owens was working on the "Commentary to the Epistle to the Hebrews" for twenty years. You can get it for a mere trifle at almost any bookseller's. One of the leading magazines ridiculed Tenn yson's first poems. And drinking largely sobers u s again. Carlyle wrote with the utmost difficulty and never executed a page of his great histories till he had consulted every known authority. Johnson said a man must turn over half a library to write one book."All things come round to him who will but wait. "Sartor Resartus" is everywhere. out of them she has been carving her great statue. Our young people of to-d ay are not willing to lay broad. Today. But when Carlyle brought it to London in 1851. and consigned the young poet to temporary oblivion. or college. But the way to shorten the road to success is to take plenty of time to lay in your reserve power. But as Pope says. on churches." Not long ago a professor in one of our universities had a letter from a young w oman in the West. so that every sentence i s the quintessence of many books. The publi shers of the "Atlantic Monthly" returned Miss Alcott's manuscript. but they were respectfully declined. Can't wait for a high school. and hundreds of thousands of copie s are scattered over the world." are pitiable. Y outh rush into business with no great reserve of education or drill. Buildings are rushed up so quickly t hat they will not stand. i t was refused almost contemptuously by three prominent publishers. suggesting th at she had better stick to teaching. and everything is made "to sell. or taste not the Pierian sp ring: There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain." Henry Ward Beecher sent half a dozen articles to the publisher of a religious p aper to pay for his subscription. asking him if he did not think she could teach elocution if sh e could come to the university and take twelve lessons. Everybody is in a hurry. They only want a "smattering" of an educat ion. Moore spent several weeks on one of his musical stanzas which rea ds as if it were a dash of genius. The shifts to cover up ignorance. and then they are read y for business.

To-day very few boys learn any trade. just to "get through. He saw in a moment that it was just like the blacksmith's case. working seven long years decorating the Sistine Chapel with his matchless "Creation" and the "Last Judgment. "But it took you only five minutes. who have the persistence to work and wait for half a century for their first great opportunities. Webster received a fee that paid him liberally for all the time and trouble he had spent for his early client." he replied. and eagerly devouring it before the sap-bush f ire." refusing all remuneration therefo r. a Farragut. When a young lawyer Daniel Webster once looked in vain through all the law libr aries near him. He won his case. to borrow the history of the French Revolution. a Mirabeau. when he had finished." said Burr. on account of the poverty of his client. a n intricate question of title. and then ordered at an expense of fifty dollars the necessary bo oks. a Thacke ray. when denounced by his brother generals and politicians everywhere. fighting on in hero ic silence. on ly charged fifteen dollars. debt. in a quarter of that time. a Grant." What the age wants is men who have the nerve and the grit to work and wait. Washington Irving was n early seventy years old before the income from his books paid the expenses of hi s household. toiling and waiting in a lonely garret." without any effort to see how much he may lear n on any subject. he gazed in wonder upon the en ormous herds of buffaloes which dotted the plains as far as the eye could reach. "proceed". elaborating "Paradise Lost" in a world he could not see.of Ralph Waldo Emerson's books had a remunerative sale. men whom neither pove rty. nor hunger could discourage or intimidate. They pick up what they know. "Most certainly not. he was co nsulted by Aaron Burr on an important but puzzling case then pending before the Supreme Court. destined to shake an empire. as they go along. to obtain authorities and precedents in a case in which his client was a po or blacksmith. to sculpture an Apollo Bel videre. Going back to the time of Charles II he gave the law and precedents involved with such readiness and accuracy of sequence that Burr asked in great surprise if he had been consulted before in th e case. struggling on cheerfully after his "Vanity Fair" was refused by a dozen pub lishers. a Balzac. a Michael Angelo. thus losing heavily on the books bought. making sketches for the paintings of Western scenes for which he had become famous. Burnett complied and charged a thousand francs. a Milton. walking two miles through the snow with rags tied around his feet for shoes. "I never heard of your case till this evening. to say noth ing of his time. "Yes. but it took me thirty years to learn how to do it in five minutes. In some respects it is very unfortunate that the old system of binding boys out to a trade has been abandoned. whe ther the world applaud or hiss. a Thurlow Weed. as he was passing through New York City. and. and thought of the time when they would have disappeared before the march of ci vilization. not daunted by privations. Think of an American youth spending ten years with Da Vinci on the model of an equestrian statue that he might master the anatomy of the horse! Most young Amer ican artists would expect. Albert Bierstadt first crossed the Rocky Mountains with a band of pioneers in 1 859. a Von Moltke. It wants men who can work and wait. just as a student crams for a particular ex amination. A rich man asked Howard Burnett to do a little something for his album. The thought haunted him and found its final embodiment in "The Last . Years after." "Very well. but. not hindered by discouragements. As he followed the trail to Pike's Peak. who can struggle on for forty years before he has a chance to show the world his vast reserve. lest his pencil might catch the taint of avarice. which he had solved so thoroughly that it was to him now as simple as the multiplication table." ob jected the rich man.

" Patience." A young man just graduated told the President of Trinity College that he had co mpleted his education. Fifty feet of Bunker Hill Monument is under ground. so deep must they dig to build on the living rock. he practised constantly before a glass. The pianist Thalberg said he never ventured to perform one of his celebrated pi eces in public until he had played it at least fifteen hundred times. To perfect this great work he had spent twenty years. which enables it to stand upright. would put to shame many a man wh o claims genius. he said it was all a question of hard work. howev er noble. such perseverance." A learned clergyman was thus accosted by an illiterate preacher who despised ed ucation: "Sir. "I am thankful." retorted the clergyman. unseen and unappreciated by those who tread about that historic shaft. The accom plishments of such industry. Da Vinci spent four years on the head of Mona Lisa. solid foundation. Said Captain Bingham: "You can have no idea of the wonderful machine that the G erman army is and how well it is prepared for war. Byron. It is simply asto . true to the plumb-line through all the tempests that lash its granite sides. must have a deep. Everything which endures. "and often I did not leave it for fifteen or eighte en hours." Endurance is a much better test of character than any one act of heroism. I presume?" "Yes." said the President . He laid no claim whatever to genius. and this is so arranged that the commander of the army here could telegraph to any officer to take such a train and go to such a place at a moment's notice. "happened in Balaam's time. Success is the child of drudgery and perseverance and depends upon "knowing how long it takes to suc ceed. and ev ery officer's place in the scheme is laid out beforehand. sir. There is a schedule of trains which will supersede all other schedules the moment war is declared. perhaps the most beautiful ever painted. but he left therein an a rtistic thought for all time. "Indeed. said he never looked upon so fearful and wicked a face. studying expression for a year and a half. Before Edmund Kean would consent to appear in that character which he acted wit h such consummate skill. but it is this foundation. A large part of every successful life must be spent in laying foundation stones underground.of the Buffaloes" in 1890." was the reply. changes the mulberry leaf to satin. it is said." Many an extraordinary man has been made out of a very ordinary boy: but in orde r to accomplish this we must begin with him while he is young. The giant oak on the hillside was detained months or years in its upward growth while its root took a great turn around some rock. "For years I was in my place of business by sunrise. "I have just begun my education." said the former. apparentl y thrown away. "that the Lord opened my mouth without any lea rning." "A similar event. As the great actor went on to delineate the terrible conseque nces of sin. who went with Moore to see him. In Rome the foundation is often the most expensive part of an edifice." said a wealthy banker who had begun without a dollar. A chart is made out which sho ws just what must be done in the case of wars with the different nations. When he appeared upon the sta ge. Byron fainted. you have been to college. The Gentleman Villain. which will stand the test of time. and had come to say good-by. in order to gain a hold by which the tree was anch ored to withstand the storms of centuries.

and comes under the tutelage of a skilled educator before his habits become fixed or confirmed. had he only been fortunate enough early in life to have enjoyed the benefi ts of efficient and systematic training! Laziness begins in cobwebs and ends in iron chains. if he has good material in him. Edison described his repeat ed efforts to make the phonograph reproduce an aspirated sound. or living out a miserable existence in the slums of our cities. pecia. saying he was very busy and had no time to master the subject. B ut I held firm. but after he had gone. He braided straw to earn m oney to buy books for which his soul thirsted. and grinding them all up i nto experience. But he had an unquenchable thirst for knowledge and a determination to get on in the world. an ornament to the human race instead of a foul blot and ugly scar. but refused. my friends can see it. in the poorhouse. or among the tramps." On one occasion Webster made a remarkable speech before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Harvard. and that hi s mind should have broad and liberal culture." Webster was once urged to speak on a subject of great importance. his "impro . and moral! How of ten a man who is in the penitentiary. ha s slumbering within the rags possibilities which would have developed him into a magnificent man. so determine d was he that his life should be rounded out to its fullest measure. and which he had not thought of in the meantime. yet he decided to make him self master of the situation. if I practise two days. and courteous in their bearing." The habit of seizing every bit of knowledge.nishing what training will do for a rough." replied hi s friend. can not be overestimated. His on ly inheritance was poverty and hard work. Even a few weeks' or months' drill of the rawest and roughest recruits in the l ate Civil War so straightened and dignified stooping and uncouth soldiers." Webster replied. every occasion. Horace Mann.' but t he instrument responded 'pecia. specia. every opportunity. when a book was presented to him.' I said into the phonograph 'specia. specia. that their own friends sc arcely knew them. Webst er once repeated with effect an anecdote which he had heard fourteen years befor e. "But. "It is an ill mason that rejects any stone. uncouth. and notwithstanding he had gained the coveted prize of a seat in Parliament.' It was enough to drive one mad. the great author of the common school system of Massachusetts. If this change is so marked in the youth who has grown to matu rity. "If there be so much weight in my words. Although he had spent many years of preparation for his life work. in spite of the consciousness of marvelous natural endowments wh ich would have been deemed sufficient by many young men. he not only spent eleven terms more in the study of the law. was a remarkable example of that pluck and patience which can work and wait. but also studied Greek co nstantly and read every well-written book or paper he could obtain. and I have succeeded. Ole Bull said: "If I practise one day. it is because I do not allow myself to speak on any subject until my mind is imbued with it. and added: "From eighteen to twenty hours a day for the last seven months I have worked on this single word 'specia. rough. mental. You will find use for all of it. slovenly. if I practise three days. and m ade them manly. what a miracle is possible in the lad who is taken early and put under a c ourse of drill and systematic training." The road to distinction must be paved with years of self-denial and hard work. I can see the result. both physical. no matter how insignificant it may seem at the time. "a very few words from you would do much to awaken public attention to it. pecia. erect. the great public can see it. and even dull lad. and amid all his public and private duties. Gladstone was bound to win. It exactly fitted the occasi on.

They who understand and practise Abraham Lincoln's homely maxim of 'pegging away' have achieved the solidest success. Demosthenes was once asked to speak on a great and sudden emergency." We must not only work. The easily discouraged. "Men give me credit for genius. but also wait. Reserves which carry us through great emergencies are the result of long workin g and long waiting. "do not allow their principles to take root. dispensing benefits and acquiring fort une. he would never rise." . ridiculing the faithful young fellow who came to learn the business and make a man of himself because he will not join in wasting his time in dissipation. even to make remarks. when he will be glad to accept a situation from the fellow-clerk whom he now ridicules and affects to despise." The law of labor is equally b inding on genius and mediocrity." said Dr. when the latter shall stand in the firm. Cuyler. to see if they are growing. "and I find that the chie f difference between the successful and the failures lies in the single element of staying power. or some precious thing will be lost. but replie d. supplementin g what was considered a thorough military education by researches and reflection s which in later years enabled him easily to teach the art of war to veterans wh o had never dreamed of his novel combinations. are all the time dropping to the rear--to perish or to be carried along on the stretcher of charity. I explore it in all its bearings." says Longfellow. as children do flowers they have planted. but best in the crisis on which all things turn. and so to never know you are beaten. but was refused. "who thinks chiefly of his mustache and b oots and shiny hat. Napoleon had applied for every vacant position for seven years bef ore he was recognized. "Many men. the opera. Dr. All the genius I have lies just in this: when I have a subject in hand I study it profoundly. the great surgeon. In any meeting or assembly. Day and night it is before me. and s till find you have something left. Then the effort which I make the people are pleased to call the fruit of genius. Alexander Hamilton said.--"the power to do the grandest thing possible to your nature when you fee l you must. carefully written out." "I have been watching the careers of young men by the thousand in this busy cit y of New York for over thirty years. because he never allowed himself to speak on any s ubject without thorough preparation. Collyer declares that reserves mean to a man also achiev ement. and talki ng about the theater. it was said. if his useless li fe is not earlier blasted by vicious indulgences. it was thought by many that Demosthenes did not possess any genius whatever. My mind becomes pervade d with it. will see the day.mptu" speech. or a fast horse. when called upo n. Permanent success is oftener won by holding on than by sudden dash. without previously pr eparing himself." says Sizer. "The spruce young spark. Nelaton." In fact. of getting along nicely and easily during the day. but meanwhile he studied with all his might. "I am not prepared. it is the fruit of labor and thought. said that if he had four minutes in which to perfor m an operation on which a life depended. but p ull them up every now and then. he would take one minute to consider ho w best to do it. because you never are beaten. however brilliant.--to do well always. was found in the book which he had forgotte n to take away. who are pushed back by a straw." The Duke of Wellington became so discouraged because he did not advance in the army that he applied for a much inferior position in the customs department. to stand the strain of a long fight.

A different result at Plataea would have delayed the progress of the human race more than ten cent uries. Among the lofty Alps. then. Meeting a man on the route. but the greatest of these is Perseverance. he asked him if he ha d seen a little. moment s make the year. but for life. Small sands the mountain. with a short gun. and su perficiality--are the things acquired most readily and longest retained. Still achieving. He that despiseth small things shall fall by little and little. The power of observation in the American Indian would put many an educated man to shame. it is said. Harold would not have fal len at Hastings. It is but the littleness of man that sees no greatness in trifles. To vary the language of another. and asked him how he could give suc h a minute description of the man he had never seen. and our habits--o f promptness. The creation of a thousand forests is in one acorn. sti ll pursuing. walked to the river's e dge to find their food. old. And trifles. made her the mother of William the Conqueror." "The bad thing about a little sin is that it won't stay little. and thoroughness. and Perseverance. Returning home. though it small appear.--WENDELL PHI LLIPS. and with a small bobtailed do g. had been stolen. an Indian discovered that his venison. white man. YOUNG. giving instead to Europe and America models of the highest politica l freedom yet attained. The man told him he had met such a man.--NAPOLEON. no British Empire. "A pebble on the streamlet scant Has turned the course of many a river. the three great essentials to success in menta l and physical labor are Practice. glistening in the brook. earnestness. fickleness. "Let us. no Anglo-Norman dynasty could have arisen. and germs of limitless mental growth. we learn". lest the vibration of the voice bring down an avalanche. the guides sometimes demand absolute silence. Men are led by trifles. After careful observation he started to trac k the thief through the woods. but was surprised to find that the In dian had not even seen the one he described. life." CHAPTER XLI THE MIGHT OF LITTLE THINGS Think naught a trifle.--ECCLESIASTICUS ." "Had she not thus fascinated Duke Robert the Liberal. It was little Greece that rolled back the overflowing tide of Asiatic luxury an d despotism. of Normandy. or of tardiness. We tell the ve ry path by which gigantic creatures. whom man never saw. be up and doing. "I knew the thief was a lit ." says Palgrave's "History of Normandy and England. With a heart for any fate.He only is independent in action who has been earnest and thorough in preparati on and self-culture. Learn to labor and to wait. "Not for school." "Arletta's pretty feet.--EMERSON." We may tell which way the wind blew before the Deluge by marking the ripple and cupping of the rain in the petrified sand now preserved forever. which had been hanging up to dry. Patience.

A spark falling upon some combustibles led to the invention of gunpowder. A trigger may be pulled in an instant. Clair. falling side by side. such as n o one had ever seen before. Striking on opposite sides of the roof of a court-house in Wisconsin. Lake Michi gan. "because he rolled up a stone to stand on in order to reach the venison. When the little insect scented the land. and from a single bone. There are moments in history which balance years of ordinary life. By gnawing through a dike.000 pounds produced the American Revolution. A cricket once saved a military expedition from destruction. it broke its long silence by a shrill note. Green Bay. She gave the hint which led to the discovery of galvanic e lectricity. I knew he was an old man by his short steps. Clair River. I knew the dog was small by his tracks and short steps. and thus warned them of their danger. Lawrence. but the soul returns never. A little boy in Holla nd saw water trickling from a small hole near the bottom of a dike. t hrough the carelessness of the watch. Dana could interest a class for hours on a grain of sand. which an Indian never does. the Straits of Mackinaw. Lake Ontario. one rolled southward through the Rock River and the Mississippi to the Gulf of M exico." said the Indian. What was so unlikely as that throwing an empty wine-flask in the fire should fu rnish the first notion of a locomotive. Detro it River. a war that . floating on the waves. The commanding off icer and hundreds of his men were going to South America on a great ship. "The fate of a nation. Who can calculate the future of the smalles t trifle when a mud crack swells to an Amazon and the stealing of a penny may en d on the scaffold? The act of a moment may cause a life's regret. yet such was the formation of the continent that a trifling cause was multiplied almost beyond the power of figures to express its momentous effect upon the des tinies of these companion raindrops. and fi nally reached the Gulf of St. He realized that the leak would rapidly become larger if the water were not checked. and. I knew he had a short gun by the mark it left on the tree where he had stood it u p." Two drops of rain. enabled Columbus to stay a mutiny of his sailors which threatened to prevent the discovery of a new world . I knew he was a white man by his turning out his toes in walking. How slight the influence of the breeze. while the other entered successively the Fox River. Agassiz could deduce the entire structure and habits of an animal which no man had ever seen so accurately that subsequent discoveri es of complete skeletons have not changed one of his conclusions. Madame Galvani noticed the contraction of the muscles of a skinned f rog which was accidentally touched at the moment her husband took a spark from a n electrical machine. and that he had a bob -tail by the mark it left in the dust where he sat. Lawrence River. Lake St. Lake Huron." says Gladstone. St. now so useful in the arts and in transmitting vocal or written langu age. "has often depended upon the good or ba d digestion of a fine dinner. Lake Erie. were separated a few inches by a gentl e breeze. even a rat may drown a nation. His name is still held in grateful remembran ce in Holland. A few bits of seaweed and driftwood. too small to be c learly seen without the aid of a magnifying-glass. Niagara River. the St. so he h eld his hand over the hole for hours on a dark and dismal night until he could a ttract the attention of passers-by. they would have been dashed upon a ledge o f rock had it not been for a cricket which a soldier had brought on board." A stamp act to raise 60. The beetling chalk cliffs of England were built by rhizopods.tle man. or that the sickness of an Italian chemi st's wife and her absurd craving for reptiles for food should begin the electric telegraph.

If he had had that vote America would probably have lost its greatest pre acher. . The cackling of a goose aroused the sentinels and saved Rome from the Gauls. The phonograph is the result of the pricking of a finger. I saw no reason why the thing would not talk. loaded his pistol. finding no opening. an d conceived the idea of thus measuring time. an d the pain from a thistle warned a Scottish army of the approach of the Danes. Henry Ward Beecher came within one vote of being elected superintendent of a ra ilway. It was a little thing for the janitor to leave a lamp swinging in the cathedral at Pisa. and. A famous ruby was offered to the English government.000 pounds. who. costing more than a hundred thousand lives. with but a handful of European soldiers. but in that steady swaying motion the boy Galileo saw the pendulum. but that he "facets" was slightly fractured. If I could record the motions of the point and send it over the same surface afterward. grew out of a quarrel as to which of two vessels should first be served with water. What a little thing fixes destiny! Trifles light as air often suggest to the thinking mind ideas which have revolu tionized the world. to ma ke the most of it. a re little things. you say.cost England 100." What mighty contests rise from trivial thing s! A young man once went to India to seek his fortune." said Edison. want of decision. He went to the window to point it in another di rection and try it again. he went to his room." It was a little thing for a cow to kick over a lantern left in a shanty. The report of the weler was that it was the finest he had ever seen or heard of. and gave m y assistants the necessary instructions. some self-indulgence. resolved that if the weapon went off he would regard i t as a Providence that he was spared. but it laid Chicago in ashes. The Parliament of Great Britain. Trembling with excitement he resolved to hold his life sacred. Bentham says. and rendered homeless a hundred thousand people. put the muzzle to his head. This young man became General Robert Clive. Some little weakness. but they have wre cked many a career. That invisible fracture reduced the the ruby thousands of dollars. the fate of many a kingdom. I determined to make a machine that would work accurately. and made but one stinging remark. telling them what I had discovered. and represe ntative governments all over the world have come from King John signing the Magn a Charta. A war between France and England. "I was singing to the mouthpiece of a telephone." Perhaps you turned a cold shoulder bu t once. Tha t's the whole story. and never again to cheapen it. secured to the East India Company and afterwards to Great Britain a great and rich country with two hundred millions of people. but. when placed beside great abilities. and pulled the trigger. yet it may have cost you a friend fore ver. He pulled the trigger and it went off the first time. "The turn of a sentence has decided many a friendship. That set me to thinking. But it did not go off. and it was rejected from the regalia of crown je one of t value of England. the Congress of the United States. "when the vibrat ions of my voice caused a fine steel point to pierce one of my fingers held just behind it. for a ught we know. The quarrel of two Indian boys over a grassh opper led to the "Grasshopper War. a quick temper.000.

It is said that nothing could be more perfectly planned than his memorable march which led to the victory of Austerlitz. A flight of birds probably prevented Columbus from discovering t his continent. and they were all to reach the point of destinati on at a precise moment. He must know all about the provisions. and our whole life but a day repeated. the exact day he was to arrive at a certain station. I give up every occupation in order to read them in detail." Napoleon left nothing to chance. Those that d are lose a day are dangerously prodigal. But for his change of course Columbus would have reached the coast of Florida. "John. polished that." said the sculptor. and perfection is no trifle. those that dare misspend it. given some expres sion to this lip. little kindne sses. When the bugle sounde d for the march to battle. "had the flight of birds more importa nt consequences. and told their father that distant objects looked large r.The sight of a stranded cuttlefish led Cuvier to an investigation which made hi m one of the greatest natural historians in the world. "It may be so. and gave the Jews a lawgiver. When he was growing anxious. every officer had his orders as to the exact route wh ich he should follow. and good de eds. nothing to contingency. A missing marriage certificate kept the hod-carrier of Hugh Miller from establi shing his claim to the Earldom of Crawford. etc. "But. good wishes. He would often charge his absent officers t o send him perfectly accurate returns. makes all the difference between success and failure. The web of a spider sugge sted to Captain Brown the idea of a suspension bridge. No young girl e njoys her novel as much as I do these returns. pleasant words. and t he exact hour he was to leave. A single misspelled word prevented a deserving young man from obtaining a situation as instructor in a New England college. Napoleon was a master of trifles. One in a million--once in a lifetime--may do a heroic action. and gave a prophet t o many nations. The masons would call out. To details which his inferior officers though t too microscopic for their notice he gave the most exhaustive consideration." The absence of a comma in a bill which passed through Congress years ago cost o ur government a million dollars. Every day is a little life. A bird alighting on the bough of a tree at the mouth o f the cave where Mahomet lay hid turned aside his pursuers. "Never. . "but trifles make per fection. "I have retouched this part." The children of a spectacle-maker placed two or more pairs of the spectacles be fore each other in play. a friendly letter. Martin Alonzo Pinzon persuaded him t o follow a flight of parrots toward the southwest. bring us anither hod o' lime. brought out that muscle." That infinite patience which made Michael Angelo spend a week in bringing out a muscle in a statue. softened that feature. so far as he could possibly avoid it. the biscuits. th e horse fodder. even to the smallest detail. and which seale d the fate of Europe for many years." wrote Humboldt. genial smiles. desperate." said a gent leman to Michael Angelo." replied the great artist. or Gerhard Dow a day in giving the right effect to a dewdrop on a cabbage leaf. "When they a re sent to me. for to the Spanish seamen of that day it was good luck to follow in the wake of a flock of birds when on a vo yage of discovery. From this hint came the telescope. The cry of the infant Moses attracted the attention of Pharoah's daughter. "I cannot see that you have made any progress since my last visit." "But they are trifles!" exclai med the visitor. the camp kettles. What is the happiness of your life made up of? Little courtesies. with more vital fidel ity to truth. and t o observe the difference between one monthly return and another. the shoes. No thing was too small for his attention. Ye arl of Crawford. more energy to that limb. Everything was pl anned to a nicety before he attempted to execute it.

pointing to an old tea tray on the table. having squandered all his property. A pan of w ater and two thermometers were the tools by which Dr. has multiplied into food for millions. shrank from the political influence of one independent woman in private life. But that he could not leave England he reformed his life. carried to England by Sir Walter Raleigh in th e sixteenth century. F or want of a horse the rider was lost." How many a lawyer has failed from the lack of details i n deeds and important papers. test papers." A burnt stick and a barn door served Wilkie in lieu of p encil and paper. and which involved his clients in litigation. a few poems from Lowell an d Whittier. a Darwin extracts h is law of evolution. Napoleon. on which st ood a few watch glasses. each trivial in itself. and often great losses! How m any wills are contested from the carelessness of lawyers in the omission or shad ing of words. and the blemish would have changed the history of the world.Wellington. The history of many a failure could be written in three words. but in the aggregate forming a mass of evidence. and a prism. perhaps millions." A single remark dropped by an unknown person in the street led to the successfu l story of "The Bread-winners. At that when he found een detained. and a Linnaeus constructs the science of botany. who feared n ot to attack the proudest monarchs in their capitols." says Poor Richard. A single potato. "Lack of detail." "Words are things" says Byron. or ambiguous use of language! Not even Helen of Troy. said. and asked to be shown over those laboratories of his in which science had been enriched by so many great discoveries. and the leaven is at work which will not cease its action until the whipping-post and bodily servitude are abolished forever. was "great in little things. Anne Boleyn's fascinating smile split the great Churc h of Rome in twain. but as Pilgrims they bec ame the founders of a mighty people. and gave a nation an altered destiny. and." "I give these books for the founding of a college in this colony". about to sail for America when a law was passed prohibiting emigra time he was a profligate. Cromwell was tion. and the poor people of Austerfield and Scrooby into perpetual exile." He knew no such things as trifle s. and all. a lens. falling like dew upon a thought. "for want of a horseshoe nail. think. and if Cleopatra's had been an inch shorter Mark Antony might never have become infatuated with her wonderful charms. too. It seemed a small thing to drive William Brewster. John Robinson. An eminent foreign savant called on Dr. "and a small drop of ink. For want of a shoe the horse was lost. he gave his personal attention to the minutest detail." A hymn chanted by the barefooted friars in the t emple of Jupiter at Rome led to the famous "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire . it is said. Madame de Staël. produces that which makes thousands. a small balance. when the doctor took him into a little study. While other generals trusted to subordinates. the lack of little words which seemed like surplus age. "For want of a nail the shoe was lost. and a sheet of pasteboard enabled Newton to unfold the composition of light and the origin of colors. was beautiful enough to spare the tip of he r nose. Wollaston. "T here is my laboratory. Black discovered latent he at. Had he not b who can tell what the history of Great Britain would have been? From the careful and persistent accumulation of innumerable facts. and a blow-pipe. such were th e words of ten ministers who in the year 1700 assembled at the village of Branfo . driving famine from Ireland again and again. A few immortal sentences from Garrison and Phillips.

--Laffitte. every plant. taking its bill for a model. Indeed. greatest of all harvests. to a truly great mind there a re no little things. when th e latter died. and shot it. . every syllable we utter. mountain. until it became red hot. These notes may appear a t housand years hence. He did not forget the kindness of Sir Walter. The eye is a perpetual camera imprinting upon the sensitive mental plates and p acking away in the brain for future use every face. however thoughtless and transient. and many a ship has survived the shocks of icebergs and the storms o f ocean only to founder in a smooth sea from holes made by tiny insects. every scene upon the street. called the boy ba ck. flo wer. A Massachusetts soldier in the Civil War observed a bird hulling rice. during an interview. and. who became so enthusiastic in his study of sculpture that he walked fifty miles and back to se e a beautiful statue. Goodyear discovered how to vulcanize rubber by forget ting. and registers foreve r the slightest enunciation. reproduced in our descendants. Yet it is our greatest weaknes s which measures our real strength. Goethe once asked a monarch to excuse him. There is a phonograph in our natures which catches. Bits of glass arranged to amuse children led to the disc overy of the kaleidoscope. Small things become great when a great soul sees them. Trifles light as air suggest to the keen observer the solut ion of mighty problems. and renders it immortal. The strength of a chain lies in its weakest link. and gave him a situation from which he rose until he became the greatest ban ker of Paris. and asked him to ride. A soldier who escapes the bullets of a thousand battles may die from the scratc h of a pin. however large and strong all the others may be. The microscope reveals as great a world below as the telescope above . hill. stream. All life comes from microscopic beginnings." seems to be one of the great la ws of nature. everything wh ich comes within its range. in fact. As he l eft the door. In nature there is not hing small." A poor boy applied for a situation at a bank in Paris. Sir Walter Scott once saw a shepherd boy plodding sturdily along. in all their beautiful or te rrible detail. but was refused. Each of the worthy fathers deposited a few bo oks upon the table around which they were sitting. threw his soul into the design of the magnificent monument erecte d in Edinburgh to the memory of the author of "Waverley. "Least of all seeds. This boy was George Kemp. Many an honorable career has re sulted from a kind word spoken in season or the warm grasp of a friendly hand. while w e are sensitive and neglectful of our weaknesses. A ship-worm boring a piece of wood suggested to Sir Isa mbard Brunel the idea of a tunnel under the Thames at London. Tracks of extinct animals in the old red sandstone led Hugh Miller on and on until he became the g reatest geologist of his time. A single noble or heroic act of one man has sometimes elevated a nation. It is the little rift within the lute That by and by will make the music mute.rd. a few miles east of New Haven. and a single drop of water is a miniature ocean. We are all inclined to be proud of our strong points. All of nature's laws govern the smallest atoms. Hogarth would make sketches of rare faces and characteristi cs upon his finger-nails upon the streets. Great men are noted for their attention to trifles. every tree. a skillet containing a compound which he had befo re considered worthless. The bank president saw this. such was the founding of Yale College. while he went to an adjoining room to jot d own a stray thought. he picked up a pin. he invented a hulling machine which has revolu tionized the rice business.

in expanding your exp erience. where the practical f aculties. If I were allowed but one utterance on this subject. is the opportunity for growth. for in that position he absorbed the secrets of strategy and diplomacy which later were used so effec tively for his country." "Only a thought in passing--a smile. But it spread the morning's glory Over the livelong day. The opportunity for growth in a disciplinary institution." A boy or a man who works simply for his salary. no mat ter how small your remuneration. I would say: "Don't think too much of the amo unt of salary your employer gives you at the start. and strengthening and developing the intellect. who could not see infinitely more in his wor k than what he found in the envelope on Saturday night. of always dema nding of yourself the highest. of the possib le salary you can give yourself. he might have remained a perpetual clerk. not a mere mill for grinding out a salary of dollars and cents. "It was only a glad 'good-morning. will make all the difference to you between fai lure and success. and is actuated by no higher mo tive. slowly silence all. that will help you to make a large man of yourself. Has lifted many a bur den no other gift could have stirred. It is the opport unity. for mental expansion.And. There is no estimating the value of such training. stretching the mind. are brought into systematic. for development. in the quality of his daily work. One part of this outside salary is the opportunity of the employee to absorb th e secrets of his employer's success. but t he larger part of the real pay of a real man's work is outside of the pay envelo pe. "If the laborer gets no more than the wages his employer offers him. is an advantage beyond computation.' As she passed along the way. vigorous exercis e at a definite time and for a definite number of hours. The habit of insisting upon the best of which you are capable. and the best o f all. while he is being paid for learning his trade or profession. He worked so assiduously. can never give him back. and Germany a ta ngle of petty states." A man's or a boy's work is materi al with which to build character and manhood. w . or encouraging word. ever widening. Bismarck was said to have really founded the German Empire when working for a s mall salary as secretary to the German legation in Russia. that Germany p rized his services more than those of the ambassador himself. Think. If Bismarck had ea rned only his salary. so vital to every young ma n starting on the journey of life. broader. He is cheating himself. rather. so efficiently. and the one whom he most defrauds is himself. is dishonest. TENNYSON. whose pay envelope was his goal. in increasing your skill. The other part. I have never known an employee to rise rapidly. It is life's school for practical training of the faculties. That is necessity. and to learn from his mistakes. my employee friend. t ry as he may. never accepting the lowest or second best. of that which all the after years. or even to get beyond mediocrit y." CHAPTER XLII THE SALARY YOU DO NOT FIND IN YOUR PAY ENVELOPE The quality which you put into your work will determine the quality of your lif e. in enlarging and ennobling yourself. he cheats himself. he is chea ted. the executive faculties. the opportunity to become a larger. more efficient man.

in e xpanding his experience. The few dollars he finds in his pay envelope are to this larger salary as the c hips which fly from the sculptor's chisel are to the angel which he is trying to call out of the marble. the machinery. Rober t C.--a chance to show what was in him. president of the Western Union Telegraph Company. Why? Sim ply because. Often we see bright boys who have worked. By doing the thing at hand surpassingly well. that each wanted. Do not fear that your employer will not recognize your merit and advance you as rapidly as you deserve. in increased efficiency. to a bsorb the secrets of the business. level-headed. at the start. better. and high purpose they brought to their tasks. determination. th ey were paying themselves vastly more in the fine quality of their work. on small salaries. sympathy. while they were learning the lessons that m ade them what they are to-day. in splendid discipline. W.--and what emp loyer is not?--it will be to his own interest to do so. John Wanamaker. ignorant boy into a strong. Bourke Cockran. he is pretty sure to secure it. suddenly jumping. they would now pro bably be working on comparatively small salaries for other people. You can draw from the faithfulness of your work. and. while their employers were paying them but a few dollars a week." Do you think that kings of business like Andrew Carnegie. perhaps. He gives them encouragement. in character building. in f ine training. the boys who rise in the world are not those who. They were satisfied with a dollar or two apie ce a week. Ogden. a re compense so munificent that what your employer pays you will seem insignificant beside it. How small and narrow and really blind to his own interests must be the youth wh o can weigh a question of salary against all those privileges he receives in exc hange for the meager services he is able to render his employer. and in increased insight into business methods. you pay yourself in valuable experience. the high purpose which emanates from you in its performance. hardly enough to live on. little realizes how he is cheating himself by n ot looking at the larger salary he can pay himself in increasing his skill. Clowry. says: "Th e man who brings to his occupation a loyal desire to do his best is certain to s ucceed. split hairs about salaries. too. stronger. and other lesser powers in the commercial world would have attained their present commanding success had they hesitated and haggled about a dollar o r two of salary when they began their life-work? If they had. efficient man. he shows that it would be profitable to employ him in some higher form of occupation. the patronage to give you th e disciplining and training you need to bring out your strongest qualities. which he regarded . No. into high and responsible positions. in self-expressio n.hich. in the enthusiasm. Colonel Robert C. He inspir es them with the possibility of doing something higher. when there is p rofit in his promotion. and in making himself a better. Then. And instead of paying for the opportunity of unfolding and developing from a green. the ideal employer gives those who work for him a great deal that is not found in the pay envelope. It he is looking for efficient employees. It was not sa lary. more useful m an. wor ked without pay as a messenger boy for months for experience. you could not possibly do without being employed in some kind of an institution which has the motive. you are paid! The youth who is always haggling over the question of how many dollars and cent s he will sell his services for. himself a remarkable example of success. perhaps for years. but opportunity. He pays you in dollars.--just as soon as it is p rofitable. as if by magic. from the grand spirit which yo u bring to it.

He told me that he and his wi fe lived on eight dollars a week in New York. to make th eir secrets his own. but that. A millionaire merchant of New York told me the story of his rise. At the end of a year. Get as much salary as you can. a little late r. He put himself into training. to do as little as p ossible for the largest amount of salary. and a new contract with h im for a term of years at three thousand dollars a year was proposed. many times: "What a fool you are. When you get a job.000. and he determined that he would be. He told me that he did not go out of N ew York City for twelve years.--this was his salary. and became a millionaire. to see the way in which princely merc hants do business. and to abso rb every bit of knowledge that he could. he felt within him the ability to become a great merchant. always looki ng out for the main chance. George. for he could not tell when fate might be taking his measure fo r a larger place. as really working for yourself. they notified him. The very first time he swept out the store. and all that sort of thing. "I walked fro m my home in New England to New York. and the contract was closed. At the end of his co ntract. he was watching others. I should be glad to talk with him in regard to his proposition. The chance actually to do with his own hands the thing which he wanted to learn." he said. that they were prepared to enter into a ten-year contract with him at ten tho usand dollars a year. They told him they would think the matter over and see what th ey could do for him. He felt that the opportunity was the salary. I had a proposit ion from another large concern in New York to act as its foreign representative at a salary of three thousand dollars a year. throu gh your eyes and your ears. however. an opportunity to absorb knowledge and valuable secrets on every hand. when it is not expected of you?" Would he then have ris en above them. just think of yourself as actually starting out in business for yourself. I accep ted an offer from the firm to remain for five years at a salary of seven dollars and a half a week. when my time should be completed. by saving and investments. so eager was he to learn how everything was done." When his contract was nearly up. they laid up $117. for he was bound some day to be a partn er or to have a store of his own. to absorb their processes. or an inclination to shirk.as worth infinitely more than salary--and scores of our most successful men have cheerfully done the same thing. he was taken into the firm as a partner. during a large part of this time. an opportunity to drink in. It is not difficult to see a proprietor in the boy who sweeps the store or wait s on customers--if the qualities that make a proprietor are in him--by watching him work for a single day. to watch their methods. Suppose that this boy had listened to his associates. but the boy who walked one hundred miles to New York to get a job saw in every opportunity a great occasion. know . You can tell by the spirit which he brings to his tas k whether there is in him the capacity for growth. Long before this time had expired. You have actuall y gotten an opportunity to get right into the very heart of the great activities of a large concern. He never allowed anything of importance to escape hi s attention. leaving them in the ranks of perpetual employees? No. to be somebody. When he was not working. an am bition to rise. "where I secured a place to swee p out a store for three dollars and a half a week. who probably said to him. to work here overtime to do the thing s which others neglect! Why should you stay here nights and help pack goods. but that he did not accept it because he wouldn't br eak his contract. h e was called into the office of the head of the house. studying methods. enlargement. bu t remember that that is a very small part of the consideration. The young man told his employers that the manager of another house had offered him that am ount a year or more before. knowledge wherever you go in the establishment. and that. compared with which the three dollars and fifty cents looked contemptible. I told the manager that I was then under contract. Incredible as it may seem. expansion. to get close to men who do things. and asking questions of everybody he came in contact with in the store. that he preferred to study the store.

This striving for excellence will make you grow. In ot her words. Don't say to yourself. a habit of reading human nature. every bit of knowledge y ou can absorb. The constant stretching of the mind over prob lems which interest you. of capital which is worth vastly more than money cap ital--the chance to make a man of yourself. by carelessness or indifference. that you will b e progressive. Resolve that you will call upon all of your resourcefulness. call out the best thing in you. acumen. your ingenuity. your career is a t an end so far as its upward tendency is concerned. an employee's reputation is his capital. you will form a like habit of accuracy. Nothing will ever compensat e you for the loss of faith in yourself. but he can not close your eyes and ears. of giving the best thing in you to your employer. the skill. that you will enter into your work with a spirit of e nthusiasm and a zest which know no bounds. more effective man. and it is perfectly right for me to shirk when my employer is not in sight or to clip my hours when I can. if you do not believe in yourself. a habit of thoroughness. it is impossible for you to rob your employer by clipping yo ur hours. he can not shut off your perceptive faculties. training. which means the ultimate attainment of your maximum efficiency. your inventiveness . Every hint and every suggestion which you can pick up. the chance to have a clean record be hind you instead of a smirched one. a habit of adjusting means to ends . all of which advantages you wi ll carry with you to your next position. and you will be surprised to see how quickly you will attract the attention of those above you. I do not get e nough salary. larger. without robbing y ourself of infinitely more. the power you have gained. of system. if you give your best to your employer. Your employer may pinch you on salary. In the absence of money ca . the best possible comes back to you in skill. no one can rob you of your greatest reward.ledge that will be invaluable to you in the future. never mind. mean thing." for this means a loss of selfrespect. the consciousness of doing your level best. the eff iciency. It will call out your resource s. shrewdness. you will always be conscious that you have done a little. to devise new and better ways of doing things. Then again. of close observation. but never when you have lost confidence in yourself. Just make up your mind that you are going to be a sponge in that institution an d absorb every particle of information and knowledge possible. he can not keep you from absorbi ng the secrets of his business which may have been purchased by him at an enormo us cost of toil and sacrifice and even of several failures. and power. which are to mean everything to you in the future. If you work with this spirit. a habit of putting your best into everythi ng you do. You will never again have the same confidence in your ability to succee d. you should regard as a part of your future capital which will be worth more than money capital when you start out for yourself. On the other hand. a divine sen se of justice and right that can not be blindfolded. There is something within you that you cannot bribe. if favoritism puts some one into a position above you which you have justly ea rned. if you are working for too small a salary . shirking your work. to alter its verdict in your favor. You may still succeed when others have lost confidence in you. anyway. and no amount of juggling with yourself can induce that inward monitor which says "righ t" to the well-done thing and "wrong" to the botched work. "I am not paid for doing this extra work. If you think you are being kept back. If you do not respect yourself. will help you expand into a broader. up-to-date. whatever it may be.

so much the harder to attain. The salary is of very little importance to you in comparison with the reputatio n for integrity and efficiency you have left behind you and the experience you h ave gained while earning the salary. even a purely commercial success.pital. will make his burden infinitely greater. but here is an instance of a young man who attracted the attent ion of others even outside of the firm he worked for. Young men are sometimes surprised at their rapid advancement. or at the jobber's when w e ask for credit. smarter man he was. There is nothing like a good. He is backed up by the good opinion of everybody that knows him. but he told them that the opportunity was what he was after. that in less than two years from the time he was receiving sixt y dollars a week. It sticks to us through life. and who has gone on the principle that the more he could get out of an employer--the more salary he could get with less effort--the shrewder. and very soon advanced him to seventy-five. substantial reputation. I know a young man who came to New York. but regarding the opportunity as everything. a clean record. His work attracted the attention of a publisher who offered him sixty dollars a week. but it also follows him when he goes into business for hims elf. . solid. Contrast the condition of a young man starting out for himself who has looked u pon his position as a sacred trust. square. his reputation means everything. and success. of a good reputation which is backing them. The very reputation of the first young man is splendid credit. got a position in a publishing house a t fifteen dollars a week. if it does not drag him down to failure. Employees sometimes think that they get no credit for trying to do more than th ey are paid for. We fi nd it waiting at the bank when we try to borrow money. and true to his employer's intere sts--with that of another young man of equal ability starting out for himself. and supported by a splendid past. The other employees and his friends called him a fool for staying at the office after hours and taking work home nights and holidays. and is always helping us. never thinking of the salary. They can not unde rstand it. an untarnished reputation--a reputation for being a dead-in-earnest hard worker. why should not he beat others? Ev erybody knows that he has not been honest at heart with his employer. These are the great things. and worked five years before he received thirty-five d ollars a week. just because he was trying to earn a great deal more than he was paid for doing. He beat his employer. not loyal or true. a smirched record. backed. he is starting out in life with a heavy handicap. a great opportunity. but he carried with him to th e new position the same habits of painstaking. buttressed. In other words. an untarnished past. People are afraid of the other: they can not trust him. according to its nature. which. hard work. and is always either helping or hindering him. for such a small salary. because they do not realize the tremendous power of a clean name. He must work all the harder to overcome the handicap of a bad reputatio n. not the salary. It is always backing us up and helping us in all sorts of ways . w ho has done just as little work for his salary as possible. and also with an interest in the business. The result was. he went to a third large publishing house at ten thousand doll ars a year. loyal. It not only follows him around from one employer to another.

You may not be able to make him do what is right. never accepting the lowest or second best.In olden times boys had to give years of their time in order to learn a trade. these will ta ke the drudgery out of it and make it a delight. Whether it is beautiful or hideous. Those w ho do not care how they do their work. Slighted work. a burning zeal. and if you slip rotten hours. but yo u can do right yourself. whether you will make of it a stepping-st one or a stumbling-block. . You may not be able to make him a gentleman. solid. N ow the boy is paid for learning his trade. de epening. The habit of insisting upon the best of which you are capable. they cut very sorry figures in life. to shirk at every opportunity. If you bring to your work the spirit of an arti st instead of an artisan. Regard the living-getting. There is nothing else so valuable to you as an opportunity to build a name for yourself. botched work into the foundation. of your ideals. will never ma ke a key to unlock the door to anything but failure and disgrace. pay very dearly for their trifling. with a chan ce to work without salary for years in order to learn their business or trade. you will be one. but often when they try to get another place their reputat ion has gone before them. no mat ter how small your remuneration. A youth might just as well exc use himself for his boorish manners and ungentlemanly conduct on the ground that other people were mean and ungentlemanly to him. your superstr ucture will topple. is the key that will unlock the door above you. The fact is that your present position. The foundation must be clean. You c an not afford to strike false blows which may mar the angel that sleeps in the s tone. beauty. Many employees may not think it is so very bad to clip their hours. money-ma king part of your career as a mere incidental as compared with the man-making pa rt of it. No matter how mean and s tingy he may be. the image you evolve from the block must stand as an expression of yourself. and often would pay their employer for the opportunity. Take no chances of marring your reputation by the picayune and unworthy endeavo r "to get square" with a stingy or mean employer. and they are not wanted. a charact er-builder. of always dema nding of yourself the highest. botched work. to sneak away and hide during business hours. and firm. Look upon it as a man-builder. w hich are uncut diamonds sacredly intrusted to you for the polishing and bringing out of their hidden wealth and beauty. will make all the difference to you between med iocrity or failure. but you ca n be one yourself. to loiter when out on business for their employer. if they can only get through with it and get their salary for it. to go to their work in the morning all used up from dissipation. an absorbing enthusiasm. rounding into symmetry. harmony. English boys used to thi nk it was a great opportunity to be able to get into a good concern. and it rests with yo u whether you will use it or abuse it. Your reputation is the foundation for your future success. your opportunity for the time is with him. and you can not afford to ruin yourself and your whole future just because your employer is not what he ought to be. divine or brutal. you have nothing to do with your employer's character or his method of doing things. that whether he is a man of high ideals or not. of your God-given faculties. Remember that you ar e a sculptor and that every act is a chisel blow upon life's marble block. My young friends. The quality which you put into your work will determine the quality of your lif e. and success. and not as a mere living-getter. Others excuse themselves for poor work on the ground that their employer does n ot appreciate their services and is mean to them. and slighted. your way of doing your work. resolve that you will approach your task in the spirit of a master. Regard your work as a great life school for the broadening. Never mind what kind of a man he is.

Many young employees. Start out with a tacit understanding with yourself that you will be a man. but . and had given the largest. str angle their own prospects. It may be necessary to secure your bread and butter. who has not learne d the secret of taking the drudgery out of his work by putting the best of himse lf into it. noble. full. that you will express in your work the highest thing in you. It is a lofty ideal that redeems the life from the curse of commonness and i mparts a touch of nobility to the personality.The smallest people in the world are those who work for salary alone. to trip them up. mean service into his work. You can not afford to debase or demoralize yourself by bringing out your mean si de. While trying to "get square" with their employer. Let ot her people do the poor jobs. the demand in you to do your level best. be all there. nothing broad. No one can respect himself or have that sublime faith in himself which makes fo r high achievement while he puts half-hearted. or thinks more of you for your conscientiousness. The hardest work in the world is th at which is grudgingly done. for the sake of "get ting square" with their employer. with nothing large or magnanimous. trying to keep from working hard in the performance of their duties. grander re muneration possible for them outside of their pay envelope. do-as-litt le-as-possible policy. fling your life into it with all the ene rgy and enthusiasm you can muster. their initiative. the most liberal service possible to their employers. deliberately throw away all of the other. if they will. just because they do not get quite as much salary as they think they should. that is. the botched work. rutty men and women. or how unappreciative your employer. their ingenuity and re sourcefulness. Keep your standard up. to do the square thing. Poor work injures your employer a little. The littl e money you get in your pay envelope is a pretty small. by giving him pinched service. These should speak so loud in you that the mere bread-and-butter quest ion will be insignificant in comparison. t he dishonest work done away back in their youth. complete man. which they can pay themselves. to be a man. and instead of getting this larger. and all the qualities which make the leader. bring the entire man to your task. They deliberately adopt a shirking. weak men. has not learned the first principles of success or happiness. they blight their own growth. progressive in their nature. low motive for which to work. the l arge. the best thing in you. than they would have worked if they had tried to do their best. and will encourage you to push ahead toward larger triumphs. the lowest and most despicable thing in you. narrow. narrow. larger. These covered-up defects are al ways coming back to humiliate them later. the fa ir thing. and become small. complete men they might be. No matter how small your salary. you will certainly think m ore of yourself after getting the approval of that still small voice within you which says "right" to the noble act. Their leader ship faculties. inefficient. grand. The m an who has not learned to fling his whole soul into his task. The effort always to do your best will enla rge your capacity for doing things. remain undeveloped. inventiveness. The great failure army is full of people who have tried to get square with their employers for the small salary and lack of appreciation. their planning ability. instead of the strong. Everywhere we see people who are haunted by the ghosts of half-finished jobs. they prefer the consequent arrested development . Never mind whether your employer appreciates the high quality of your work or n ot. I have known employees actually to work harder in scheming. and go through life half men instead of full men--sma ll. but you have somethin g infinitely higher to satisfy than that. your sense of the right. shirking. and to bar their prog ress. more important salary .

If you ne ver lose that. This is an inexorable. or of your ai ms. as for you to hope to achieve anything significant in life while harboring grav e doubts and fears as to your ability. or a dreamer. firm self-faith first. indisputable law. who had unwavering faith in their power to accomplish the tasks the y undertook. ordered him to mount his own horse and deliver it with all possible speed. sooner or later. There must be a strong. in your ability to do t he thing you have set your heart upon doing. what the world thinks of you. the achievement will never rise hig her than the confidence. A great success must have a great source in expectation. . No matter how great the ability. a crank. Your achievement will never rise higher than your self-faith. "should we call ourselves men. You have to live with yourself day and night through your whole existence. What your employer thinks of you. but keep pushing on. in self-confidence. The race would have been centuries behind what it is to-day had it not been for their grit. Conduct yourself in such a way that you can always look yourself in the face wi thout wincing. The miracles of civilization have been performed by men and women of great self -confidence. handing it to the messenger. You forsake yourself when you lose your confidence. It would be as reasonable for Napoleon to have expected to get his army over th e Alps by sitting down and declaring that the undertaking was too great for him. how larg e the genius. Determine to do your l evel best and never to demoralize yourself by doing your second best. and you can not afford to tie that divine thing in you to a scoundrel . or how splendid the education. go to it in the spirit of a master. Napoleon dictated his answer a nd. then you will have a courage born of conviction. Others are with you comparatively littl e through life. the world will." asked Mirabeau. There is no law by which you can achieve success in anything without expecting it. even.it may ruin you. CHAPTER XLIII EXPECT GREAT THINGS OF YOURSELF "Why. is not half as important as what you think of yourself. or the thing will never come. but a sufficient caus e--a cause as large as the result. unless it be to succeed i n everything everywhere?" Nothing else will so nerve you to accomplish great thi ngs as to believe in your own greatness. your reputation. your health. You may lose your p roperty. There is no room for chance in God's world of system and supreme order. of your plans. their persistence in finding and m aking real the thing they believed in and which the world often denounced as chi merical or impossible. make way fo r you. It does not matter what other people think of you. their determination. for when your confidence is gone. an d in persistent endeavor to attain it. you must beli eve in yourself. Be proud of your work and go to it every morning superbly equi pped. Never allow anybody or any misfortune to shake your belief in yourself. He can who thinks he can. but ther e is always hope for you so long as you keep a firm faith in yourself. of personal nobi lity and integrity which have never been tarnished. other people's confidence. assuming it. A stream can not rise higher than its source. y our power is gone. demanding it. No matter if they call you a visionary. in your own marvelous possibilities. Everything must have not only a cause. A soldier once took a message to Napoleon in such great haste that the horse he rode dropped dead before he delivered the paper. and he can't who thinks he ca n't. Co unt that man an enemy who shakes your faith in yourself. of a conqueror.

do sm all things. and of c ourse they will be inferior until they claim superiority as their birthright. expect enough. They do not claim enough. Most people have been educated to think that it was not intended they should ha ve the best there is in the world. and assume the part it demands. with its superb trappings." The world is full of people like this poor French soldier. General. if you only expect small things of yourself. and undertakes his work with t he assurance of success. and said. live mediocre lives. magnetizes conditions. "For unto every one that hath shall be given. human race as a whole has not measured up to its possibiliti one reason why we see everywhere splendid ability doing the is because people do not think half enough of themselves. A vast number of men and women who are really capable of doing great things. which are always tripping the self-depr . "If we choose to be no more than clods of clay. work of mediocrity. ineffective being. They have grown up under this conviction of their inferiority. "Nay. and playing it royall y. t hat they are not expected to have as good things as those who are "more favored. The model is the inward vision. affirmative man. or de mand enough of or for themselves. that it does not fit their humble condition. make ourselves become whatever we long to be. that the good and the beautiful things of lif e were not designed for them." The persistent thought that you are not as good as others. do not realize our e of the universe. One reason why the es. You will never become a giant if you only make a pygmy's claim for yourself. There is something in the atmosphere of the man who has a large and true estima te of himself." says Marie Corelli. to its promise. and he shall have abundance. They do not know how to call out their best. " They do not realize how they weaken themselves by this mental attitude of self -depreciation or self-effacement. but were reserved for those especially favored by fortune. will lower your whole standard of life and paralyze your abi lity. something in his very a ppearance that wins half the battle before a blow is struck. nor comprehend to what heights of sublimity we were intended and expected to rise. He draws to himself the literal fulfilment of the promise. A man who is self-reliant. optimistic. positive. nor to what extent w e can really be masters of ourselves." Napoleon said. We fail to see that we can control our own destiny: make ourselves do whatever is possible. but this is too gorgeous. If you are ambitious to do big things. "then we s hall be used as clods of clay for braver feet to tread on.The messenger looked at the magnificent animal. Things get out of t he way of the vigorous. that you are a weak. who believes that he is going to win out. that we are a part of the great causation principl We do not think highly enough of our superb birthright. We divinity. who think that what others have is too good for them. because they do not expect or demand enough of themselves. There is no law which can cause a pyg my's thinking to produce a giant. too magnificent for a common sold ier. The statue follows the model." There is everything in assuming the part we wish to play. you must make a large program for your self. "Nothing is too good or too magnificent for a French soldier.

A man who carries in his very presence an air of victory. Here is wher e power originates. in invention. and timidity must be turned out of your mind. vigorous. in science. and make each successive triu mph easier of achievement than its predecessor. and imparts to others confidence that he can do the thing he attempts. you can never win anything very great unti l you change your whole mental attitude and learn to have great faith in yoursel f.eciating. such a man wrings success from the most adverse circumstanc es. parallel with the aim--the great life purpose. Your own mental picture of yourself is a good measure of yourself and your poss ibilities. They do not have that superb confidence in th emselves which never looks back. The whole mental army waits until confidence leads the way. and ability increase in a direct ratio to the number of his achievements. that makes the difference betw een mediocrity and a grand achievement. It doubles and trebles the power of all the other faculties. There is jus t uncertainty enough as to whether they will succeed to take the edge off their effort. The reason why so many men fail is because they do not commit themselves with a determination to win at any cost. so definitely . but also by that of all who know him. A stream can not r ise higher than its fountain-head. . into his career. the assumption of power. all his power. i n commerce. if you lack boldness. Confidence is the Napoleon of the mental army. the mental attitude that claims success as an inalienable b irthright." or "Everyt hing he touches turns to gold. so in reality does every conquest in war. Courage. Set the mind toward the thing you would accomplish so resolutely. If there is no out-reach to your mind. radiates assurance. which burns all bridges behind it. We often hear it said of a man. confi dence. if the neg atives preponderate in your vocabulary. A man's confidence measures the height of his possibilities. that nothing on earth can turn you from your purpose until you attain it. aggressiveness. and it is just this little difference between doing pretty well and flin ging all oneself. and with such vigorous determination. As the savage Indian thought that the power of every enemy he conquered entered into himself. His self-poise. "Everything he undertakes succeeds. doubt. or in art add to the conqueror's power to do the next thing. perpetual thinking along the l ine of the ambition. negative man. if you think that other s are better fitted to do it than you. assurance. you will never accomplish much. initiative. This very assertion of superiority. and a lack of confidence undermine. if you have a timid. As time goes on. Even a race-horse can not win the prize after it has once lost confidence in it self. Fear. if you think that you lack positiveness. shrinking nature. is the prod which brings out the last ou nce of reserve force. if you fear to let yourself out and take chances. the affirmation of belief in yourself. he is reenforced not only by the power o f his own thought. will strengthen the whole man and give power to a combination of facu lties which doubt. born of self-confidence. Power is largely a question of strong. Confidence begets confidence." By the force of his character and the creative p ower of his thought. fear. no firm s elf-faith. ability. no spirit of daring. in peaceful industry. His friends and acquain tances affirm and reaffirm his ability to succeed. and put so much grit into your resolutio n. If you doubt your ability to do what you set out to do.

that resolution which burns all bridges behind it and is willing to risk eve rything upon the effort. and a st rong. vigorous. We must have a positive conviction that we can attain success. got out of their path. because there is no vim. It is th eir mental attitude outpictured and made tangible in their environment. There must be vigor of conception or an indifferent execution. We must not only believe we can succeed. They hav e wrought--created--what they have and what they are out of their constructive t hought and their unquenchable faith in themselves. Their mental attitude was set so stubbornly toward thei r goal that the doubts and fears which dog and hinder and frighten the man who h olds a low estimate of himself." Our faith is a very good measure of w hat we get out of life. and expects but little. Nothing was ever accompli shed by a half-hearted desire. there is no backbone in thei r endeavor--no grit in their ambition. no vigor in their efforts. so it is the concen trated aim. that wins success. as it is the intensity of the electrical fo rce that dissolves the diamond--the hardest known substance. The fact is that their success represents their expectations of themselves--the sum of their creative. vigorous concept of the thing we want to do is a tremendous initial step. When a man ceases to believe in himself--gives up the f ight--you can not do much for him except to try to restore what he has lost--his . "According to your faith be it unto you. who asks. Not only must the desire for the thing we long for be kept uppermost. but there must be strongly concentrated intensity of effort to attain our object. habitual thinking. we should find that when they first started out in active life they held the confid ent. The man of weak faith gets little. If we were to analyze the marvelous successes of many of our self-made men. of or for himself. There mu st be vigor in our expectation. with no light in sight. demands. One must have that determination which never looks back and which knows no defe at. the invincible purpose. in our endea vor. No lukewarm energy or indifferent ambition ever accomplished anything. and the world made way for them. All the greatest achievements in the world began in longing--in dreamings and h opings which for a time were nursed in despair. Their resolutions are spineless. We must resolve with the energy that does things. the man of mighty fai th gets much. We are very apt to think of men who have been unusually successful in any line as greatly favored by fortune. in our determination. in our faith. The very intensity of your confidence in your ability to do the thing you attem pt is definitely related to the degree of your achievement. positive. persistent thought of and belief in their ability to accomplish w hat they had undertaken. This lon ging kept the courage up and made self-sacrifice easier until the thing dreamed of--the mental vision--was realized. but we must believe it with all our he arts. As it is the fierceness of the heat that melts the iron ore and makes it possib le to weld it or mold it into shape. A thought that is timidly born will be timidly executed.The deed must first live in the thought or it will never be a reality. Many people make a very poor showing in life. and we try to account for it in all sorts of ways but the right one.

There is nothing which will multiply one's ability like self-faith. There or who nd" to equal is a great difference between a man who thinks that "perhaps" he can do. Whatever we long for. yearn for. between "I hope and "I will"--this little difference measur power. and a man who "knows" he can do it. We think ourselves into smallness. between vacillation and deci the man who decides things. while a ten-talent man without it would fail. "will try" to do a thing. and it comes from the consciou sness of possessing the ability requisite for what one undertakes. then we would reach the heights where superio rity dwells. struggle for." between "I'll try" es the distance between weakness and etween commonness and superiority. then he is in a positio n to express power. who feels within himself a pulsating power. You can not do much with him until he comprehends that he is bigger than any fate. has no projectile power.self-faith--and to get out of his head the idea that there is a fate which toss es him hither and thither. Faith walks on the mountain tops. between mediocrity and excellence. The fact that a man believes implicitly that he can do what may seem impossible or very difficult to others. hence its superior vision. One reason why the careers of most of us are so pinched and narrow. we tend to become just in exact proportion to the intensity and persistence o f the thought. he moves with uncertainty. that sustained him when his . We are held back by too much caution. and no one can accomplish great things in l ife unless he works in oneness with the Infinite. that he has within himself a power mightier than any force outsi de of him. There is no vigor in his initiative. every issue must be met wholly. and certainty. to any emergency. If he starts at all. unstable mind. to fling the whole weight of his being into his work. doubting. a doubter. We are not bold en ough. Civilization to-day rests upon self-confidence. he is success. ever gathering momentum agai nst the obstacles which confront him. We ought to think upward. shows that there is something within him that make s him equal to the work he has undertaken. Faith unites man with the Infinite. A balancer. The man who does things must be able to project himself with a mighty force. A firm self-faith helps a man to project himself with a force that is almost ir resistible. It can make a one-talent man a success. It sees what is in visible to those who follow in the valleys. between the man who wavers and to" and "I can. no positiveness in his energy. He can not do this with a wavering. and hold persistently in the min d. b This difference between uncertainty sion. unhesitati ngly. who is "bou do it. The man whose mind is set firmly toward achievement does not approp riate success. We are timid about venturing. Self-confidence is not egotism. is because we do not have a large faith in ourselves and in our power to accomplish. into inferiority by thinking d ownward. a mysterious destiny which decides things whether he will or not. It was the sustaining power of a mighty self-faith that enabled Columbus to bea r the jeers and imputations of the Spanish cabinet. When a man lives so near to th e Supreme that the divine Presence is felt all the time. It is knowledge. an irresistible force.

in his own grandeur. it led Nelson and Grant to victory. than by almost anything else. But they are. until he catches a glimpse of his higher. Were we to think upward we should reach the heights where superiority dwells. nobler things have any basis in reality or any real. who had gathered to howl and jeer at his expected failure. to believe that his yearnings and hungerings and aspirations for higher. which was our course. entering in his diary d ay after day--"This day we sailed west. He believed he could do the thing he attempted though the whole world was against him. toward his fellow men. remem ber that he has usually thought himself into his position. the signs of ability to match them. his aspiration. We think ourselves into smallness. torpedoes. because there is something inside you that attracts it. It is one of the most difficult things to a mortal to really believe in his own bigness. What miracles self-confidence has wrought! What impossible deeds it has helped to perform! It took Dewey past cannons. it carried Farragut. toward his vocation. past the defenses of the enem y in Mobile Bay. it has been the great tonic in the world of invention. They are the stirrings of the divinity within us. ult imate end. b y their foolish convictions of inefficiency. for t here is no power in the universe that can help a man do a thing when he thinks h e can not do it. it has won a thousand triumphs i n war and science which were deemed impossible by doubters and the faint-hearted . the call to something better. discovery. until he rea lizes that his ambition. There is where it is created. It has held innumerable heroes to their tas ks until the glorious deeds were accomplished. that enabled him to hold steadily to his purpose. to go higher. The Creator would not have mocked us with the yearning f or infinite achievement without giving us the ability and the opportunity for re alizing it. The cause of whatever comes to you in life is within you. nobler self. Your own comes to you. Self-faith must lead the way. Whenever you see a person who has been unusually successful in any field. before thousands of his fellow c itizens. You can not go beyond the limits you set for yourself. Perhaps there is no other one thing which keeps so many people back as their lo w estimate of themselves. lashed to the rigging. No man gets very far in the world or expresses great power until self-faith is born in him. They are more handicapped by their limiting thought. It has enabled the inventor and the discoverer to go on and on amidst troubles and trials which otherwise w ould have utterly disheartened them. in fact. Self-faith has been the miracle-worker of the ages. his mental attitude a nd energy have created it. It comes because there is an affinity within you for it. any more than he would have mocked the wild birds with an instinct t o fly south in the winter without giving them a sunny South to match the instinc t. and mines to victory at Manil a Bay. If only we better und erstood our divinity we should all have this larger faith which is the distincti on of the brave soul. is always seeking you.sailors were in mutiny and he was at their mercy in a little vessel on an unknow n sea. The only inferiority in us is what we put into ourselves. of power t o make them real. are proofs of his ability to reach the ideal which haunts him. The thing you long for and work for comes to you because your thought h as created it. and art. toward himsel . what he stands for in his community has come from his attitude toward life." It was this self-faith which gave courage and determination to Fulton to attemp t his first trip up the Hudson in the Clermont.

It sees resources. recognizes the power that means accomplishment. believe that your des tiny is inside of you. developed. the result of his estimate of his powers and possibilities. If I could give the young people of America but one word of advice. of his inward vision of himself. If we had faith enough we should travel Godward infinitely faster than we do. All things a re possible to him who has faith. if you were gullible. tran scends all limitations. wasted your time and money. that hold us down and keep us in mediocrity--doing petty things when we are capable of sublime deeds. it is the outcome of his self-faith. potencies which our doubts and fears veil from us. but will also make you successful and happy. Then there will be no poverty in the world. penetrates all obstacles and sees the goal. it is a miracle worker. All through the Bible we find emphasized the miracle-working power of faith. The time will come when every human being will have unbounded faith and will li ve the life triumphant. and the discords of life will all vanish. powers. and gotten a glimpse of the great source of things. that there is a power within you which. arou sed. and our lives would be one triumphal march to the goa l of our ambition. it would be this--"Believe in yourself with all your might. Our faith knows because it sees what we can not see. Faith is that something within us which does not guess. but knows. the divine messenger appointed to accompany man through life to guide and direct and encourage him. that we are not only encouraged to go on. if awakened. if you feel that it was a failure. such unconquerable forces. If we had faith in God and in ourselves we could remove al l mountains of difficulty. timidity and cowardice. Fa ith in himself indicates that a man has a glimpse of forces within him which eit her annihilate the obstacles in the way. but feel a great consciousness of added power because we have touched omnipotence. is never a fraid. because it sees the way out. from quitting his upward life struggle. It looks beyond all boundaries. Faith opens the door that enables us to look into the soul's limitless possibil ities and reveals such powers there. CHAPTER XLIV THE NEXT TIME YOU THINK YOU ARE A FAILURE If you made a botch of last year. and matched with honest effort. will not only make a noble man o r woman of you. m ade imprudent investments. that you f loundered and blundered and did a lot of foolish things." That is. . our animal natures can not see. because faith sees. It gives him a glimpse of his possibiliti es to keep him from losing heart. It knows bec ause it sees what our coarser selves. no failures. Faith never fails. It is the prophet within us. It is doubt and fear. If we had faith enough we could cure all our ills and accomplish the maximum of our possibilities.f. It has dip ped in the realms of our finer life our higher and diviner kingdom. The men who have done the great things in the world have been profound believer s in themselves. or make them seem insignificant in comp arison with his ability to overcome them. don't drag these ghosts a long with you to handicap you and destroy your happiness all through the future. Above all else. Faith is assured. sees the solution of its problem.

We control our own des tiny.Haven't you wasted enough energy worrying over what can not be helped? Don't le t these things sap any more of your vitality. blunders and unfortunate mistakes." He only is beaten who a dmits it. There are no F ates. . waste any more of your time or des troy any more of your happiness. it is that we h ave had courage and pluck enough to push on. Throw away all useless baggage." to drop the yesterdays. Form a habit of expelling from your mind thoughts or suggestions which call up unpleasant subjects or bitter memories. Free yourself from everything which handicaps you. and we have to start all over again. We are all the time "queering" our lif e game by our vicious. our faith in ourselves. indecision or discouragement. and never look back. any way open for retreat to tempt our weakness. Everything d epends upon our courage. we let the tearing-down thought. and yet. Resolve that you will close the door on everything in the past that pains and c an not help you. and often lose all we gain. has made us suffer. to keep going when things looked da rk and when seemingly insurmountable obstacles confronted us. Every one ought to make it a life-rule to wipe out from his memory everything t hat has been unpleasant. but in ourselves. we climb up only to fall back. and never allow the hideou s pictures of distressing conditions to enter our minds again. and which have a bad influence upon you. whenever things go wrong with us. There is no fate or destiny which puts one man down and another up. We work and live like the frog in the well. has been disagreeable. "It is not in our stars. doubt. tearing-down thoughts and unfortunate moods. But there is no victory in retreating. optim istic outlook. a loss or any misfortune. despondency. There is no use in castigating yourself for not having done better. and tha t is to forget them. or with memories that worry us and which kill our efficiency. that we are underlings. who voluntarily ta kes an inferior position because he thinks the best things were intended for som ebody else. fear. There is only one thing to do with a disagreeable. and that is--forget it! There are many times in the life of a person who does things that are worth whi le when he gets terribly discouraged and thinks it easier to go back than to pus h on. The man is inferior who admits that he is inferior. One of the worst things that can ever happen to a person is to get it into his head that he was born unlucky and that the Fates are against him. We ought to forget everything that has kep t us back. unfortunate. perhaps breaking up and destroying the work of years of building up. te ar through our mentalities. We should never leave any bridges u nburned behind us. drop everything that i s a drag. There is only one thing to do with bitter experiences. Most people are their own worst enemies. We are our own Fates. bury them! To-day is a good time to "leave the low-vaulted past. Don't be mortgaged to the past. whenever we have a dis couraging day or an unfortunate experience. in our holding a hopeful. to forget bitter memories. Enter upon to-morrow with a clean slate and a free mind. like a bull in a china shop. that hinders your progress. harmful experience. outside of our own mentality. If there is anything we ever feel grateful for. keeps you ba ck and makes you unhappy.

earnestly--seems to aro use the sleeping forces in the subconscious self more effectually than thinking the same thing. accompanies the spoken word--especially if earnes tly. complete. and that you are goi ng to fill it like a man. this thing is right up to me. as seeing objects o f nature makes a more lasting impression upon the mind than thinking about them. a certain force. They make a more lasting impression upon the mind. makes a much deeper impression upon us . I've got to make good. even by your manner. inefficient. This form of suggestion--talking to oneself vigorously. narrowly. Train yourself to expect great things of yourself. We become so accustomed to our silent thoughts that the voicing of them." You will be surprised to see how quickly this sort of self-suggestion will brac e you up and put new spirit in you. vigorous ly. your ability will increa se. Ne ver even think of the possibility of going through life a failure or a partial f ailure. They are for those who have never disc overed themselves and their God-like qualities. Nev er admit. Never regar d yourself as weak. The audible self-encouragement treatment may be used with marvelous results in correcting our weaknesses. that you think you are destined to do little thin gs all your life. It is marvelous what mental strength can be developed by the perpetual affirmat ion of vigorous fitness. diseased. efficiency. There is a force in words spoken aloud which is not stirred by going over the s ame words mentally. If you repeat a firm resolve to yourself aloud. vehemently uttered--which is not apparent to many in merely thinking about what the words express. to show the man in me or the coward. Never allow yourself to think meanly. overcoming our deficiencies. Failure and misery are not for the man who has seen the God-side of hims elf. No matter what other people may think about your ability. Increase your self-confiden ce in every possible way. strength. the gi ving audible expression to our yearnings. who has been in touch with divinity. When you go into an undertaking just say to yourself. j ust as words which pass through the eye from the printed page make a greater imp ression on the brain than we get by thinking the same words. you are more likely to carry it to reality than if you mere ly resolve in silence. and talk to yourself as you would to a son of yo urs who has great ability but who is not using half of it. They sometimes arouse slumbering energies within us which th inking does not stir up--especially if we have not been trained to think deeply. power. but as perfect. never allow yourself to doubt that you can do or become what you long to. even vehemently.You will find that just in proportion as you increase your confidence in yourse lf by the affirmation of what you wish to be and to do. and you can do this to a remarkable degree by the powe r of self-suggestion. poorly of yourself. to focus the mind closely. There is no backing out. capable. A vividness. Stoutly assert that there is a place for you in the world. The way to get the best out of yourself is to put things right up to yourself. "Now. handle yourself without gloves. these are thoughts and ide als that make a strong man. .

"In short. or are careless about your dress and indifferent in your manner. Yo u are going stale. until you are doing yourself justice. You must sta rt out to-day with a firm resolution to make the returns from your work greater to-night than ever before. that you are attractive and that you know how to act in the presence of others. Nobody ever amo unts to much who lets his energies flag. however great or small. which will not succumb to persistent audible suggestion. in order to force himself up to a higher standard and put himself in tune for the day. you need a good talking-to. When he feels that he is not doing all that he ought to. You are letting a lot of good chances slip by you. Assu re yourself that there is no reason why you should be timid. and you may distrust your own ability. encourage or push him. mainly sin ce he was twenty-one. you ar .I have a friend who has helped himself wonderfully by talking to himself about his conduct. he goes off alone to the country. but you will deriv e so much benefit from it that you will have recourse to it in remedying all you r defects. Think. and has a good hear t-to-heart talk with himself something after this fashion: "Now young man. this indifference will seriously cripple your career if you're not very careful. think. he has given himself a splendid education. your standards are dropping. because you are not as progressive and up-to-date a s you ought to be. this inertia. your ideals are getting dull. don't be a coward. You are only half-alive. For example. self-development. brush off the brain ash. "Now. to the woods if possible. you do not feel as troubled as you used t o. You must make this a red-letter day. Though he had little opportunity for schoolin g when he was a small boy. a conqueror. young man. "If others have done this." as he calls it . At first it may seem silly to you to be talking to yourself. He began as a poor boy living in the slums of New York with no one to take an inter est in him. you can do it. This lethargy. You will have to watch yourself very closely or you will be left behind. his standards droop and his ambition oo ze out." he says to himself. Now. instead of crawling about like a whipped cur. an d the worst of it all is that when you do a poor job. and does not allow h imself to skip hard problems. on the contrary. get the cobwebs out of your head. You like to take things easy. I am going to keep right after you." By years of stern discipline of this kind he has done wonders with himself. a bracing-up all along the line. you will be greatly helped by assuring yourself in your daily self-talks that you are not t imid. There is no fault. "You are capable of something much better than what you are doing. you are becoming lazy. think to some purpose! Do not mull and mope like this. He forces himself to do the most disagreeable tasks first. It is the very first thing he attends to. you are the embodiment of courage and bravery. self-training. that you are going to hold your head up and go about as though yo u were a king. because there is no thing inferior or peculiar about you. g et a move on you!" This young man says that every morning when he finds his standards are down and he feels lazy and indifferent he "hauls himself over the coals. This take-it-easy sort of policy will never land you at the go al you started for. self-culture as this young man has. You are not making good. that. that he ha s made some foolish mistake or has failed to use good sense and good judgment in any transaction. If so. man. Say to yourself that you are never again g oing to allow yourself to harbor any thoughts of self-depreciation or timidity o r inferiority. when he feels that his stamina and ambition are deteriorating. I have never known any one else who carried on such a vigo rous campaign in self-victory. Bestir yourself. you may be naturally timid and shrin k from meeting people.

stoutly affirm your ability to begin things. diviner man in us. all the material results of their lives' endeavor. gloomy people just as we avoid a picture which makes a disagre eable impression upon us. and if you acknowledge in your thought that you are a failure. Resolve th at you will go no further in that direction. We berate ourselves. This is not always easy. I know of nothing so helpful for the timid. Stop and face the other way. You can not get away from your ideals. unconquerable spirits. The best way to keep out darkness is to keep the life filled with light. we keep them closed and try to eject the darkness by main fo rce. that your work does not amount to much--turn about face. and to pus h them to a finish. but it is possible to everybody. There are thousands of people who have lost everything they valued in the world . that you don't have the same oppor tunity that other people have---your convictions will control the result. do not put the right estimate upon our pos sibilities. It requires only skilful t hinking. those who lack faith in themselves. The trouble is that we do not think half enough of ourselves. they are just as far from real failure as before their loss. your confidence . a power among men. upon ha rmony instead of discord. hope. and yet. to kee . the standard which you hold for yourself. And always put your resolve into action at the first opportu nity. their own power. and w ith such wealth they can never be poor. that you can't do an ything worth while. belittle." A man who is at the mercy of a capricious disposition can never be a leader. the ir own divinity. d o not accurately measure our ability.e going to assert your manhood. that luck is against you. happiness. We avoid morose. the forming of the right thought habits. If you lack initiative. simpl y because there are so many days when they do not "feel like it" or when they ar e discouraged or "blue. a determination to push ahead which know s no retreat. for your thought is your life pattern and you can not get away from it. The art of arts is learning how to clear the mind of its enemies--enemies of ou r comfort. Try this experiment the very next time you get discouraged or think that you ar e a failure. It is a great thing to learn to focus the min d upon the beautiful instead of the ugly. if you will be sincere with yourself and strong and persiste nt in your affirmations. which repel people and repel business. It is perfectly possible for a well-trained mind to completely rout the worst c ase of the "blues" in a few minu