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Section 3

Short Profiles of 107 Drugs

Abbreviations Used in this Section

Alcohol

Breast feeding

Driving

Infants and Children

Over 60
Over 60

Pregnancy

Tobacco

Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 505

List of 107 Drugs with Short Profiles
Activated Charcoal Levothyraxine
Albendazole Lindane (Gamma Benzene Hexachloride)
Allopurinol Lithius Carbonate
Alluminium Hydroxide & Magnesium Trisicate Mannitol
Aminophylline Mefloquine
Amitriptyline Methylene Blue
Amphotericin Metoclopramide
Atenolol Morphine
Beclomethasone Neomycin
Benzanthine Benzyle Penicillin Niclosamide
Benzophenones Nifedipine
Benzyl Penicillin Nitrofurantoin (NFT)
Calcius Lactate Nitrous Oxide
Carbamazepine Norethisterone
Cephalexin Nystatin
Chloramphenicol Pethidine
Chlorpramazine Phenobarbitone
Cimetidine Phenoxymethyl Penicillin
Clofazimine Phenytoin
Clonidine Pilocarpine
Clotrimazole Piperazine Citrate
Cloxacillin Podophyllin
Coaltar Potassium Chloride
Cyclosporin Praziquantel
Dexamethasone Prednisolone
Diclofenac Sodium Primaquine
Diethyl Carbamazine Procain Benzyl Penicillin
Diloxanide Furoate Procainamide
Domperidone Pyrantel Pamoate
Doxycycline Pyrazinamide
Epinephrine Pyridoxine (Vit. B6)
Ergocalciferol (Vit. D2) Quinidine
Ergometrine Riboflavin (Vit. B2)
Ethinamide/Propionamide Rifampicin + INH + Pyrazinamide
Ethosuximide Silver Sulfadiazine
Flucytosine Silvernitrate
Furazolidone Sodium Bicarbonate
Gentamicin Sodium Chloride
Glucose Sodium Thiosulphate
Griseofulvin Sodium Chloride + Dextrose (Glucose)
Haloperidol Streptokinase (Enzyme)
Hydralazine Sulface
Hydrochlorthiazide Sulfadimidine
Hydrocortisone Tamoxifen
Imipramine Tetracaine
Indomethacin Thiamine
Iodine Trihexyl Phenidyl
Ipecacuanha Valproicacid
Iron Dextran Verapamil Hydrochloride
Isoniazid+Thiacetazone (INH) Vinblast
isosorbide Dinitrate Vincristine
Ketoconazole Warfarin (Mainly as Warfarin Sodium)
Levamisole Zinc Oxide
Levodopa + Carbidopa

506 A Lay Person's Guide

Activated Charcoal Albendazole
Use Brand Name
Antidote to treat overdose or poisoning by most ABZ , Albezole
drugs or chemicals
Use
Dosage
Antihelminthic
Adults and Children above 6 years:
20 gm in 100 ml of water. Repeat every 20 min. till Dosage
dose of 100 gm.
Adults: For hydatid cysts : 800 mg daily in divided
Children below 6 years: 10 gm in 50-100 ml of water. doses for 28 days followed by 14 tablet-free days (3
cycles). Along with surgery: 2 cycles before and 2
Precaution
Can Can Contra-
cycles after surgery).
continue continue indicated
use of use of For enterobius, tapeworm and trichuris: 400 mg
medicine medicine
daily for 3 days for adults and children above two
Contra-
indicated
Contra-
indicated
years.
Over 60
Precaution
Others
Contra- Contra- Contra-
indicated indicated indicated
* Do not give before induction of vomitting by
ipecacuanha.
* Do not take chocolate. Safety
not
established
* If unconscious do not force fluid intake.
Adverse Effects Adverse Effects
Mild constipation Skin rashes, diarrhoea, disturbed colour vision, slow
heart beat, loss of hair rarely reversible
Additional Information
* Dizziness
Patient Information
* Contraindicated in pregnancy
With dig oxin, poisonous mushrooms,
* Blood disorders
antide pressants (medicines used to treat
depression), additional dose of 10-20 gm in 100 ml Additional Information
water is to be given every 2 hrs.
During high dose therapy, careful monitoring of
liver is advised.
Interferes with oral contraceptives.

Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 507

to get rid of water and salt in kidneys) * It enhances the serum levels of aminophylline. for relief of pain in patients suffering from gastric or duodenal ulcer. USE ANTACID TABLETS Take each dose with full glass of water. Contra. kidney stones. Reduced Over 60 effects not indicated dose to established be given Others Contra.Allopurinol Aluminium Hydroxide & Brand Name Magnesium Trisilicate Zyloric Use Use Antacid. anemia. Drink atleast 10-12 glasses of fluid each day. * Notify physician if skin rash occurs. 508 A Lay Person's Guide .200-300 mg daily. Others Additional Information * Acute attack of gout * Impaired kidney function Drug Interactions * Magnesium trisilicate reduces absorption of Adverse Effects iron/ tetracycline Skin rashes. etc. VERSION. With anti-cancer agent. Antigout Dosage Dosage Adults: 1-6 tablets (4-6 times) daily in accordance Adults: Mild gout . 600-800 mg + Aluminium hydroxide 120 mg) mg daily (doses of more than 300 mg should be divided in 2/3 doses) Tablets to be chewed and not swallowed Children: Not recommended Precaution Safety Avoid Increased Precaution not risk of established adverse Safety Contra. Severe gout: with the patient’s needs (Magnesium trisilicate 250 400-600 mg daily. Reduced * Kidney damage due to aluminium indicated indicated dose to be given Adverse Effects Over 60 Loss of phosphates from body. drowsiness. Patient Information Take with food. kidney inflammation. * Absorption of penicillamine reduced. Drug Interactions Allopurinol should not be given with thiazides (used as diuretics. AND NOT THE LIQUID * Do not take much Vitamin C. fever chills. YOU SAVE ON COST. liver damage. red irritated eyes Continue the drug and inform the doctor.

cocoa. heart injury. peptic ulcer.4 times daily after food Patient Information * If GI upset occurs. Use with caution in cases of severecardiac disease. restlessness. Q. Increased * Do not chew or crush enteric coated/ sustained not established indicated risk of adverse release tablets. Others * Avoid drinking large amounts of caffeine containing beverages such as tea. with bronchopneumonia erythromycin. Precaution Safety Contra. headache. heart failure. Usually no cough syrup should be given to children below the age of one year. nausea. vertigo and palpitations (increased activity of heart). gastrointestinal bleeding. which enhance the severe renal or hepatic (liver related) disease. expectorant or suppressant? Ans. cola drinks and chocolates. acute adverse effects of the drug. Water Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 509 . prescribed to the children below the age of one year. Asthma and severe respiratory problems combined * Effect of drug enhanced by cimetidine. Rational Therapy Tips Continue the drug and inform your doctor. phenobarbitol and charcoal Use boiled foods. By Mouth . use of adverse medicine Over 60 effects * Notify physician if adverse effects occur. take with food. Dosage * Drug enhances effect of ephedrine.(13 to 15 mg/kg/day divided in 3 doses) * It decreases effect of phenytoin. confusion. coffee.Aminophylline Additional Information Drug Interactions Brand Name * Effect of drug is decreased by cigarette and Sedonal marijuana smoking. influenza virus vaccine among others. Which type of cough syrup should be * Overdosage is especially dangerous in children. effects * Take every 6 hrs (round the clock) or as directed Can continue Increased risk of by the physician. Continue the drug and inform your doctor * Stimulation of CNS: anxiety. vomiting. Adverse Effects Gastrointestinal irritation.(100-300 mg) 3 . Adults: By slow injection .

delusions. sunlamps. decrease Precaution in memory. cimetidine. hallucinations. Hypersensitivity to the drug. seizures. 510 A Lay Person's Guide . * Do not discontinue therapy without consent of cramping. * Avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight or Continue the drug and inform your doctor. Use Dosage Antifungal against fungal infections in or around Adults: 25-300 mg daily (1-4 times) mouth.25 mg/kg glaucoma. Precaution Fungal infection of intestine. anxiety. Adverse Effects For intestinal infections: 100-200 mg every 6 hrs. chills. upto 1 mg/kg by IV infusion. Continue the drug and inform your doctor. tremors. Fast heart beat. not indicated indicated established Dosage Contra. epilepsy. kidney). muscle and joint pain. urinary retention. etc. Others flushing. nervousness. headache. anorexia (reduced appetite with * Phenothiazines. heart block. established skin rashes. guanethidine. and renal tubular acidosis (inability to Patient Information pass high acid content urine. To treat fungal infection affecting blood (systemic fungal Safety Contra. physician. Safety not dizziness. liver and kidney problems Systemic infections: Daily dosage ranges 0. procainamide. Should not be given with terfenadine. GI tract problems like nausea. trouble of prostate. aversion to food). Reduced Fo r i n f e c t i o n s i n / a r o u n d m o u t h : 1 0 m g a s indicated indicated dose to be given lozenge/suspension 4 times daily for 10-15 days. Contra. headache. malaise. increased perspiration. drug. quinidine may increase the toxic effects of the Continue the drug and inform your doctor. Abnormal kidney function like nephrocalci-nosis * Amitriptyline reverses the antihypertensive (difused collection of calcium and related salts in effect of clonidine.Amitriptyline Amphotericin B Use Brand Name Antidepressant with sedative property (promotes Fungizone Intravenous sleep and avoids day-time drowsiness). fatigue. diarrhoea. Additional Information Adverse Effects Drug Interactions Fever. Over 60 Increase dose in severe infections Others Heart problems. diarrhoea. vomiting. Contra.). infections). bone marrow depression.

Can we use oral drugs a few months Others after the expiry date? * Long term kidney problems Ans. cold hands and feet and disturbances of CNS (depression hallucination. There might be slight reduction in the potency of the drug. Legally no. It endows more power to digitalis. rashes. * to treat angina * to prevent complication after myocardial infarction. Decreased rate of heart beat. Altol Additional Information Use Drug Interactions * Antihypertensive to treat variation in rhythm of Corticosteroids and antineoplastics (medicines heart beat used to treat cancer) should not be given with the * to treat obstructive cardiomyopathy drug. hearing loss. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 511 . decreased blood pressure. sleep disturbances and visual disturbances). blurred vision. irregular heart beat. diarrhoea.Anemia and weight loss. vomiting. increased risk of congestive heart failure/heart block. acute liver Brand Name failure. * Poor circulation * Lung disorders Adverse Effects Nausea. convulsions and other neurologic symptoms. fatigue and dizziness. Dosage Adults: By mouth For hypertension: 50-100 mg daily For angina: 100 mg daily For arrhythmia: 50-100 mg daily Precaution Avoid Contraindicated Contraindicated Contraindicated Rational Therapy Tips Over 60 Q. swelling over feet. blood Atenolol clot defects.

* Any nasal ulcers or surgery. Beclomethasone Additional information Brand Name Drug Interactions Aerocort inhaler. swelling of extremities. light. tolerated. bronchodilators alone. Cloben. hydralazine. Given to asthmatic patients who do not respond to * Nifedipine used together is usually well. 512 A Lay Person's Guide . * Effect of drug decreased by antacids and thyroid Precaution hormones. * Some drugs like reserpine may have an additive NC-Derm. oral c o n t r a c e p t ive s.Never stop the drug therapy. * Allow at least one minute between inhalations. blurred vision. Can Can Contra- continue continue indicated use of use of * Effect reversed by norepinephrine or dopamine. Irritation of nasal passages and fungal infection of headedness. * Rinse mouth with water or mouth wash after each use to help reduce dry mouth and hoarseness. medicine medicine Over 60 medicine Patient Information Others * Do not discontinue medication abruptly. Discontinue and call the doctor immediately.may mask signs of low blood sugar or Additional Information other blood glucose levels. Hence caution while mouth and throat. 1 spray in administration of chlorpromazine. Use * Use caution in case combination is used. Beclate nasal. * If TB or other respiratory infection has * Notify physician if you experience difficulty in occurred. Stecort-NM effect when taken with this drug. driving or similar job requiring alertness. Children : reduce dose according to age and weight . Can Can Can continue continue continue use of use of use of * Prolongs insulin action. f u r o s e m i d e a n d each nostril (2-4 times). cimetidine. breathing especially on exertion/lying down. * Diabetics . or any of the other adverse effects. night cough. medicine medicine * Antagonises action of theophyllines. Dosage * Increased effect of drug seen on simul-taneous Adults: 2 puffs (3-4 times daily) for asthma. dizziness. Patient Information * May be taken without regard to meals. Adverse Effects * May produce drowsiness. Ecodax-G.

44 gm as single dose.03 gm/kg (1 dose).2% to 7% in oils. allergic reactions like skin rashes. later 4. Rational Therapy Tips Precaution Q. syphilis (a sexually transmitted disease) and Dosage pharyngitis (inflammation of the joint opening of wind pipe and gullet). Children: Syphilis: upto 2 yrs: 0. P h a r y n g i t i s : u p t o 2 7 . aerosol sprays Dosage Additional Information Adults: Rheumatic fever: 0.72 gm every 4 weeks or Hypersensitivity reactions to benzyl salicylate has 12-24 lakh units every 3 weeks IM. What is the role of antibiotic skin Contraindicated Contraindicated ointment? Ans.0. sudden severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis).72 gm as single dose. * Allergy to penicillin and cephalosporins * Kidney and heart problems * It should be administered by IM route only and no other route. Very little.54 gm (1 dose).3 kg: 0.44 gm daily.18 gm . Most skin infections in childen would need oral antibiotics. Discontinue and call the doctor immediately. confusion. Skin reactions seen for sensitive skins. Syphilis: initial stage 1. fever. 2-12 yrs: Adult dose. convulsions.36 gm Body weight more than 27. creams. 1. 0. been reported.lethargy. Pharyngitis: 0. * Administer slowly after sensitivity testing. liver problems. Further there is a risk of sensitisation Others with ointments. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 513 . Adverse Effects On high doses .Benzanthine Benzyl Penicillin Benzophenones Use Use Antibiotic to treat infections like rheumatic Sunscreen agents. 3 k g b o d y we i g h t : 0.2 gm twice at 7 day intervals.

Contraindicated Contraindicated II. I. confusion. Leclyte. Acute hypocalcemia (low calcium levels) Neonates: 30 mg/kg daily Adults: max 2 gm daily by IM or IV injection. * Corticosteroids interfere with calcium absorption. liver problems. in patients with post menopausal osteoporosis. constipation. You need systemic antibiotics. Dosage Children: Upto 12 years 25-30 mg/kg daily. wound Calcinol. convulsions. diphtheria. pneumonia. in patients with vitamin Dosage deficiency.Gastrointestinal disturbances Additional information Increased calcium levels in blood resulting in loss of appetite. None. pain. * Some components of diet. pregnant inflammations. What is the role of antibiotic ear drops * Notify physician if any of the adverse effects in otitis media? persist or become serious. rickets and osteomalcia. Others Adverse Effects Renal calculi (solid collections in kidney) * Allergy to penicillin and cephalosporins Adverse Effects * Kidney and heart problems. * Oral calcium compounds reduce effective levels of oral tetracyclines. To be given after sensitivity testing. oxalic acid (spinach). phytic acid (bran and whole cereals) and phosphorous (milk and other dairy products) interfere with calcium absorption. and in case of other Calcium supplement for growing children.. nausea.g. Children: by slow IV (100-125 mg/kg) body w e i g h t Precaution max 4 times daily.lethargy. * Calcium antagonises the effect of verampil. thirst and increased urination. Additional Information anaphylaxis (sudden severe allergic reactions). Regolyte infections. Ans. e. Rarely . 4-6 times daily.Benzyl Pencillin Calcium Lactate Use Brand Name Antibiotic to treat a variety of infections. Nutritional Supplement: (300 mg-1. inflammation of Use tonsils. dryness of mouth. 514 A Lay Person's Guide . allergic reactions like skin rashes. boils. rheumatoid (resembling rheumatism) fever. Adults: IV injections (600 mg). Rational Therapy Tips Patient Information Q. vomiting. abdominal On high doses . Drug Interactions Discontinue the drug and call the doctor immediately. scarlet fever.5 gm) daily by mouth. women and lactating women.

acuteurinar y retention paralysis. Most Iron syrups in the market. phenytoin decrease levels of the drug. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 515 . What is the best treatment for anemia * Kidney problems in children? Ans. drowsiness. with notable Dizziness. * Take with food. Most of the time it is iron deficiency * Bone marrow depression anemia. confusion. congestive heart failure. exceptions. Use * Phenobarbitone. Adults: 100 mg twice daily. function. abnormal liver elemental iron per 5 ml. Increase to Patient Information 2 gm daily in divided doses slowly and as required. muscle and joint pain. fever Precaution and chills. hypertension. pneumonia rashes. propoxyphene increase Dosage drug toxicity. Tegretol * Erythromycin increases the toxicity of the drug. Anti-epileptic * Isoniazid.Carbamazepine Additional Information Brand Name Drug Interactions Carbatol. * Notify physician if there is bleeding. Contra- indicated indicated indicated Over 60 Others * Liver problems * Blood disorders * Glaucoma Rational Therapy Tips * Heart problems Q. cimetidine. jaundice. Continue the drug and inform doctor. Contra. Elderly: 50 mg twice daily as above. fever and chills. Contra. Contra- indicated indicated indicated Contra. anemia. Contra. ulcers in mouth. headache. Mazetol. Iron syrup or drops should be * Psychotic problems used in the dose given below: Adverse Effects Elemental Iron: 6 mg/kg/day. abdominal pain dryness of mouth. Children: 10-20 mg/kg swelling of hands or feet. blurred vision. contain around 30 mg of fatigue.

take with food/milk. Kidney problems. Cefamax. blood/pus. drug increases the probability of kidney poisoning. Carbicol. Nufex. Allergic reaction to pencillin or cephalosporin. * Bleeding due to hypothrobinemia (a blood disorder leading to bleeding tendency). Exceptions are meningitis. indicated indicated dose to be given * Notify physician if you have experienced allergic reaction to cephalosporin penicillins. bone and joint infections * Probencid prolongs action of the drug. Continue the drug and inform your doctor. septicemia and tuberculosis. Contra. Dosage * Concomitant use of nephrotoxic (toxic to kidneys) agents (like vancomycin. Ans. related group of drugs. Reduced * May cause GI upset . Is it rational to use a combination of * May affect liver and kidneys. Respiratory and urinary tract infections. polymyxin B Adults: 250-500 mg every 6 hrs. Most Common : GI disturbances and allergic reaction to the drug (especially in people with history of allergy to the drug.especially if severe with mucus.Cephalexin Additional Information Brand Name Drug Interactions Alcephin. 516 A Lay Person's Guide . Seldom. * Decrease in number of blood cells (platelets and Rational Therapy Tips leucocytes). antibiotics in the management of an infection? * CNS also may be affected. * Allergic reactions may range from mild to life threatening. asthma and hay fever). Less than 1 year : 125 mg every 12 hours 1-5 years: 125 mg every 8 hours Patient Information Precaution * Complete full course of therapy. Contra. Alexin. Adverse Effects * Drug excreted through breast milk. blood disorders. * Bacteriostatic (those stopping growth or Phexis multiplication of bacteria) agents interfere with the bactericidal (those that kill bacteria) action of Use the drug. or their Others. Q. * Notify physician if diarrhoea . * May give a false positive test for glucose in some tests. and aminoglycoside group of antibiotics) with this Children: 25 mg/kg daily in divided doses.

may decrease the penicillin effect and prolong the effect of chloramphenicol. tongue or intestine. GI Disturbances . Dexosyt C * Prolongs effects of drugs like dicumarrol. Precaution Patient Information Safety Contra.B2 may be mg/kg body weight).g. triggered. with other drugs. Avoid * Preferably taken on an empty stomach one not indicated established hour before or two hours after meals. Should one use preparations which confusion/delirium and damage to optic and other have a combination of antibiotics nerves may occur on long time use. Antibiotic for typhoid ferver. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 517 . sore throat. medicine medicine Over 60 Others * Notify physician if fever. 100 * Response to iron salts and Vit. Q. This can be prevented by examination of blood smear. Dosage * Concurrent penicillin and chloramphenicol Adults: 500 mg by mouth 4 times daily. Never. mild depression. Childrem: more than 2 weeks old : 25 . decreased when given with this drug. tolbutamide.headache. Sometimes inflammation of mouth.Chloramphenicol Additional Information Brand Name Drug Interactions Chlorocort. Adverse Effects Most serious: Bone marrow depression. Can give rise to toxic reactions in premature infants - may prove to be fatal. e. steroids. * Paracetamol prolongs effect of the drug. * Liver or kidney problems. Hence decrease in all populations of blood cells resulting in anemia and compromised immune response. phenytoin.50 mg per kg body weight by mouth in 4 divided doses (max. Rational Therapy Tips CNS Related problems . vitamins? In some cases. Use chlorpropamide.rare. * Blood disorder. Can Can Reduced * Take with food if GI upset occurs continue continue dose to be use of use of given * Take every six hours round the clock.. phenobarbitol. Chloromycetin. tiredness or unusual bleeding or bruising occurs. allergic reaction to the drug may be Ans.

5 mg/kg/day divided into 3 doses by liver damage. * Alteration in blood pressure. * Sudden death. Adverse Effects * Avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight. to and antacids are simultaneously administered. * Absorption is reduced if antidiarrhoeal mixtures It reduces the phase of manic drepression. CNS depression. Over 60 Others Patient Information Contraindications: Kidney or liver problems. Avoid during day tasks epilepsy. schizophrenia. Reduced * It should not be used with metoclopramide and indicated indicated dose to be given domperidone. * Avoid alcohol and other depressants. or alcohol and anticholinergic Tranquilizer and sedative to treat acute psychosis. In general. irregularities in rhythm of * Avoid phenobarbitone. 518 A Lay Person's Guide . hallucinations. * May cause drowsimess. given bacitracin. * Avoid changing posture frequently. Reduced indicated dose to be antibiotics like capreomycin. Trinicalm forte Drug Interactions Use * Caution in patients using barbiturates. anaesthetics. drugs. Contra. * Hormonal disorders. glaucoma. * Epinephrine should not be used. cardiac arrest. Brand Name Additional Information Neoclam forte. lead to phenytoin toxicity character-ised in part Children: 1. increased heart beat. polymixin B. * Liver damage resulting in jaundice. control anxiety and tension and also extreme nausea. Contra. * Blood disorders. narcotics. Overdosage : Fatal or leading to coma. disease. Dosage * Simultaneous administration of phenytoin will Adults: 50-100 mg/day divided into 3 doses.Chlorpromazine Notify doctor immediately if any of above persists or serious. * Caution while climbing stairs. heart problems. Parkinson’s requiring alertness. heart beats * Exposure to sunlight may lead to skin reactions * Allergic reactions as skin rashes. Precaution * May aggravate neuromuscular respiratory depression in conjunction with poly-lypeptide Avoid Contra. * Caution in case of hot weather.

p h e n y t o i n . Contra. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 519 . sometimes secreting milk). p r o p a n o l o l . tonsilitis Continue the drug and inform your doctor. Adverse Effects * Gynaecomastia (excessive development of male mammary glands. Safety Contra. Is there any need for routine use of antiinflammatory drugs while * Liver toxicity. diazepam)..g. Patient Information Precaution * Take with meals. * Antacids if needed should preferably be taken at spaced intervals from time of taking this drug. mazepine increases the toxic effects of Dosage carbamazepine. treating acute infections. To treat gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers or * Concomitant administration with carba- inflammation of oesophagus. * Fever. Headache. No.Cimetidine * Cigarette smoking reverses the inhibition of nocturnal gastric secretion produced by this Use drug. Additional Information Drug Interactions * Prolongs action of warfarin type a n t i c o a g u l a n t s. theophylline and benzodiazepine derivatives (e. * Interferes with action of ketoconazole. Q. * Irregular heart beats. e. Rational Therapy Tips * Decrease in white blood cells. Adults: 400 mg (2-4 times daily) by mouth. * Decreases effective levels of digoxin in blood. and pharyngitis? Ans. Reduced not indicated dose to be established given Contra.g. lidocaine. Children: 20-30 mg/kg daily in divided doses. they are of no added advantage. Reduced indicated indicated dose to be given Over 60 Contraindications Liver or kidney problems.

8 mg daily taken in 2 divided doses not Adults: 0.8-1. burning of eyes and dryness of nasal Adverse Effects mucosa. Contra- For erythemarodosum Leprosy: 200 to 300 mg daily for indicated indicated indicated no longer than 3 months Over 60 Precaution Others Can continue Contra- indicated Increased risk of * Stop drug slowly. Clothalton Use Use Antileprosy (with dapsone and rifampicin). Dry mouth. Bowel obstruction. Clonidine may enhance the CNS depressant effects Additional Information of alcohol. liver problems. tears. Hansepran Arkamin. sweat.Clofazimine Clonidine Brand Name Brand Name Clofazine.ulcerans. rashes. function. Catapres. Also Antihypertensive to treat migraine and menstrual used in healing chronic skin ulcers due to cramps (dysmenorrhoea). stomach upset Should not be withdrawn.6 mg/kg daily usually 100 mg daily + greater than 2. 520 A Lay Person's Guide . headache and fatigue abnormalities in liver Early pregnancy. avoid sudden changes in Not known. Contra.2-0. and pain.4 mg daily. Contra- continue indicated indicated If body weight less than 25 kg: give 2 daily doses use of medicine together on alternate days. weight gain. one should not * Abrupt withdrawal may cause rapid rise in BP. consti-pation. faeces and urine. get frightened. Patient Information * If discoloration of skin occurs. Contra. water retention. 300 mg once a month Precaution Children: 1 mg/kg daily Can Contra. congestive heart failure. posture. yellow eyes and vomiting. drowsiness. Dosage Dosage Adults: 0. bloody black stools. * Avoid cough cold or allergy medications. Additional Information Reversible brown to pink discoloration of skin and Drug Interactions discoloration of hair. Drug Interactions * If dizziness occurs. barbiturates (like phenobarbitone) and * Rush to the doctor in case of loss of vision. sedatives. M. use of adverse medicine effects * Low blood pressure Others Adverse Effects Patients with problems of stomach and intestine. sedation.

the vagina. confusion. etc. convulsions. Dosage Vaginal Pessaries: Once daily at bedtime Adults: By mouth 500 mg 6 hourly.1/2 adult dose. rash.5-1.bronchitis. Contra- Burning and irritation on the skin surface at the site indicated indicated of application of cream. * Take on empty stomach 1 hr before or 2 hrs after meals. Drug Interactions Additional Information Not known Drug Interactions * Aminoglycosides (gentamycin. Patient Information * Kidney and heart problems. Skin Cream: 2-3 times solution spray as directed. Patient Information * Complete full course of therapy. No known problems Precaution Adverse Effects Contra.0gm every 4-6 hours. * To achieve maximum effect of the medication Adverse Effects allow pessary to dissolve slowly in the mouth of On high doses . * Take at even intervals. at least 30 (100-500 mg/dose). skin. Children: 1/4 . liver problems. neomycin. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 521 . Adults: Vaginal Cream: 1-2 times daily.lethargy.0. minutes before food. Others Additional Information * Allergy to penicillin and cephalosporins.) should not be given. Continue the drug and inform your doctor. IM injection . streptomycin. infections of bone. wounds). Klox Use Use Antifungal Antibiotic to treat infections caused by organisms which are resistant to treatment by benzyl pencillin Dosage (eg.500 mg every 4-6 hours. allergic reactions like skin rashes.Clotrimazole Cloxacillin Brand Name Brand Name Calcrem Bioclox. * Take each dose with full glass of water (no carbonated drinks). Precaution IV injection .

muscle cramps. Discontinue and call the doctor immediately. headache. before trans-plantation followed by times a day. fatigue.Coal tar Cyclosporin Brand Name Use Dexobin Skin+ Powerful immunosuppresant in the prevention of Use transplant rejection. weight increase. * Phenobarbitol. antifungal. antiparasitic. 10-15 mg/kg daily for 1-2 weeks and then reduced to 2-6 mg/kg. psoriasis. mild tremor. keratolytic (looseners of dead cells on skin surface). abnormal to sun. Bone Marrow Transplantation: 3-5 mg/kg by IV For bath: Add 100 ml of 20% solution to the bath and soak in it for 5 minutes. For use on scalp: Dilute 20% 10 times with water. burning sensation in hands and feet. infected skin. tars also. Antiseptic. Precaution Precaution Safety Contra. then 12. 522 A Lay Person's Guide . one to three dose 4-12 hrs. Adverse Effects convulsions. phenytoin. rifampicin and trimethoprim sulphamethaxole should not be given. rheumatoid arthritis. gastro-intestinal * Patients intolerant to tars may be intolerant to coal disturbances.5 mg/kg by Children: Dose not established. Dosage Dosage Adults: Use 20% solution (or dilute with three parts of Organ Transplantation: Used alone (10-15 mg/kg) as 1 water) on the affected areas of the skin. rash. Atopic dermatitis (unusual inflammation of skin). Additional Information Drug Interactions * Amphotericin B. growth of gum. inflammation of Induction of acne type skin eruptions and sensitivity pancreas. Contra- not indicated indicated Safety Safety established not not established established Others Adverse Effects * Open wounds. Liver dysfunction. kidney damage. antibacterial. inflammed skin. infusion over 2-hrs from day before transplantation to 2 weeks post operatively. mouth for 3-6 months. erythromycin or ketoconazole should not be coadmin-istered since it increases cyclosporin toxicity. anemia.

convulsions.Take at Used to treat skin disorders. asthma. mental illness. Dosage blood vomiting. menstrual irregularities. herpes infection. increased sweating.5-20 mg/daily in divided doses orally. Millicortenol. stiffness. glaucoma. Idizoine. vomiting. Precaution Safety Contra. Use Take single daily or alternate day doses. Reduced not indicated dose to be established given Contra. Rational Therapy Tips Not to be stopped suddenly if used for a Q. rashes.5-2 mg daily in divided doses upto maximum of 15 mg/day. Children: 0. Contra- indicated indicated indicated Over 60 Others Peptic ulcer. skin Ans. Additional Information Drug Interactions Phenytoin. Brand Name Patient Information Decdan. rifampcin and ephedrine increase drug clearance. Adults: 0. * Avoid abrupt withdrawal of therapy. joint pain and evenly spaced intervals. fever cold or infection. TB. cardiac arrest. hiccups. puffing of the face. For calculating dose per kg for a prolonged duration. phenobarbitone. Aspirin. isoniazid should not be given as also aminophylline. irregular heart beat. * Notify physician if signs of unusual weight gain. nausea. insomnia. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 523 . menstr ual irregularities. malnourished child should the actual Adverse Effects weight be considered or is the expected weight required? Abdominal stretching. muscle weakness and loss of muscle mass. impaired wound-healing. glaucoma.Dexamethasone Reduces action of antidiabetic and anti-hyptensive drugs. Wymesone * Take with meals or snacks in morning prior to 9 am. weight gain. Contra. cataracts. Actual weight. thin fragile skin. peptic ulcer.

nausea. Banocide. continue continue use of use of medicine medicine Childr en (1-12 yrs): By mouth or rectum: 1-3 mg/kg daily in divided doses. * Typical NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammtory drug) reactions. Drug Interactions * Increase dose slowly. * Reduces excretion of lithium and also that of methotrexate (an anticancer drug). Diclomol. jaundice. blood Additional Information disease). for fever. 524 A Lay Person's Guide . Use Fensaide. Continue to use the drug and inform the doctor. decrease in BP. itching. Fenaplus. Precaution Can Can By rectum: 75-150 mg daily in divided doses. Typical Mazotti reactions: skin rash. * Risks of GI side-effects. Hetrazan Diclonac. Diclofam.Diclofenac Sodium Diethyl Carbamazine Brand Name Brand Name Catagesic. acute gout. fever joint pain. Patient Information Additional Information * Take satisfactory food and fluid. Pain may occur at the injection site. aches. Frenac-MR For prevention and treatment against filarial Use infestation and cough and asthma associated with Pain and inflammation in joints (rheumatoid). Diclomax. Adverse Effects * Impaired kidney functions. redness of skin. Frenacplus. Can continue Contra- indicated use of Precaution medicine Over 60 Avoid Can continue Others use of medicine * Antimalarial therapy. headache. eye and vision problems and Continue the drug and inform your doctor. analgesic. Dolfex. hemoglobin Adverse Effects biosynthesis affected. oedema. * Unsafe in acute porphyria (a rare inherited. Treat for 21 days (total dose of 72-126 mg/kg). Dic-SR. Fenacon. By deep IV injection into gluteal muscle: 75 mg once daily for 2 days. filarial infection. Dosage Dosage 1 mg/kg daily in 3 divided doses on 1st day then Adults: By mouth: 75-150 mg daily in 2-3 divided increase gradually to 6 mg/kg over 2-3 days after doses (preferably after food). vomiting. meals. Dicloran.

Contra. Flagyl-DF Use Use Antiemetic. Dyrade pre ps. Contra. Reduced indicated indicated dose to be given Can Can Can continue continue continue use of use of use of medicine medicine Over 60 medicine Avoid Others Long term kidney problems. * Also used alongwith other drugs to treat By rectum: 30-60 mg daily every 4-8 hrs. Do not discontinue the drug. Children: By mouth: 100-400 ug/kg ever y Dosage 8 hrs. Adults: 500 mg every 8 hours for 10 days. given to get relief from nausea and Treatment of asymptomatic intestinal amoebiasis vomiting when on treatment with anticancer drugs (condition where infection of intestine by amoebias Dosage is indicated by passage of cysts in faeces. but no clinical symptoms are seen). Prolactin effects like enlargement of breasts and Additional Information milk secretion. In most cases well tolerated. amoebic dysentery or amoebic infection of liver. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 525 . Contact your doctor. For Asymptomatic Amoebic Infections: By rectum : Varies with body weight 15 mg-0 mg (1-4 times). vomiting and itching. daily.Diloxanide Furoate Domperidone Brand Name Brand Name Furamide. treatment of extra-intestinal amoebiasis. Rashes and other allergic reactions reported. Precaution Children: 20 mg/kg daily in 3 divided doses. abnormal heart Adverse Effects rhythms. Mild side-effects Adverse Effects include flatulence. Ineffective when administered alone in the Continue the drug and inform your doctor. Ambibactin BD. Additional Information Drug Interactions * Antipsychotic drugs and analgesics (opioids) should not be given. Adults: By mouth: 10-20 mg every 4-8 hrs. Domstal Entamizole. Can Reduced indicated continue dose to be Precaution use of given medicine Contra.

Drug Interactions * Antacids. discoloration of thyroid newborn or viral hepatitis in children. Adults: 50-200 mg daily. iron and alkali should not be given since they impair the absorption of the drug. Antibiotic tetracycline. black tongue. Precaution Contra. * Aminophylline and doxycycline may increase the incidence of gasto-intestinal effects. Rational Therapy Tips Pregnancy: take only in first four months. Contra. gland. * Avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight. Contra- indicated indicated indicated Contra. anemia. pelvic inflam-matory Patient Information disease and acne. vomiting. Brand Name * Barbiturates (class of medicines that slow down the Biodoxi. For acne: 50 mg daily for 6-12 weeks or longer. Capsules should be swallowed during meals with plenty of fluid. have no proven value in case of jaundice in rashes. What is the role of liver tonics in Adverse Effects hepatitis? Ans. Vivocycline. fatty liver. Duracyclin. Most liver tonics available in the market Nausea. 526 A Lay Person's Guide . Lydox nervous system). Q. Reduced indicated dose to be given Over 60 Others * Allergy to tetracycline. Only drug manufacturers tell that they are Continue the drug and inform the doctor. kidney problems. useful but no authentic literature or Additional Information authority agrees with them. Children: Not recommended. * Take with food not milk. * Liver. ulcers. carbamazepine and phenytoin Use decrease the half-life of doxycycline.Doxycycline Food and dairy products also impair the absorption. abnormal pigmentation of conjuctiva of eye. * Surgery under general anaesthesia. Dosage * Take each dose with full glass of water. Treatment of variety of infections including inflammation of prostate. diarrhoea.

. Contra. Two painful urination.1 Do not exceed the dosage. * Notify physician if dizziness or chest pain occurs.2 to 0. prochlorperazine. Contra. Contra- indicated indicated indicated Over 60 Others * Narrow angle glaucoma * High BP * Diabetes * Overactive thyroid Rational Therapy Tips * Heart problems Q.3 mg/spray) . changes in blood pressure. Dosage Patient Information For aerosols (strength 0. impairment of memory. g. Contra- indicated indicated indicated Contra. if needed then wait for 4 hrs. etc. Palpitations. Steroids have very specific hallucination. and high fever. mental and emotional conditions) reverse the Use effect and should not be given. and nervous. c h l o r p r o m a z i n e . inhalation. Eye Drops . indications. vomiting. till the next. decreased urine formation and and are asthma and nephrotic syndrome. Respiratory difficulties. Precaution Contra. Heart burn.Epinephrine treatment of nausea. Antiasthmatic. 1 drop every 12 hrs. Additional Information Drug Interactions * P h e n o t h i a z i n e s ( e. It is not. Ans. repeated in 1-2 min. — a class of drugs used in Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 527 . Is it rational to use steroids as a * Never give intravenously ‘WONDER' drug during any type of Adverse Effects ailment? Cerebral haemor rhag e (serious bleeding). panic. They are dangerous in suicidal tendencies. ordinary fevers or nonspecific ailments. haemorrhage at site common examples of misuse are hepatitis of injection. irregular Two good examples of their rational use heart beat. when this drug is given. antiglaucoma. decongestant * Insulin should be increased for diabetic patients Useful in sudden severe shocks.

Diarrhoea is a nutritional disease Courtesy: Indian Academy of Pediatrics treat with normal food. rice kanjee give water + salt + sugar solution DRUGS ARE RARELY NECESSARY 528 A Lay Person's Guide .

* Notify physician if any of adverse effects persist for long or become serious. inability to face light. and in kidney disorders. Adverse Effects Weakness. use of use of use of medicine medicine medicine Others Monitoring of plasma calcium in high dosages. diet and calcium supplemen-tation. hydrochlothiazide). increased blood pressure. is necessary. Precaution Can Can Can * Avoid use of magnesium containing antacids/ continue continue continue laxatives while taking this drug. loss of Rational Therapy Tips appetite. How safe is aspirin in childhood of pancreas. sleep disturbances. conjunctivitis. vomiting. muscle pain. inflammation Q. containing 25. nausea. and rickets. chickenpox and influenza. constipation. It is best avoided. * Cholestyramine interferes with absorption of Vit D * If patient is treated simultaneously with Vit D and thiazide diuretics (like fr usemide. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 529 . headache. a serious Drug Interactions disease. itching. Later. It has possible etiologic links with Rye's Syndrome Additional Information (coma + liver damage). excessive nasal fevers? discharge. excessive thirst. Its use for treatment of fever in children below 12 years is not * Use of magnesium containing antacid may cause recommended. dry mouth. bone pain and metallic taste. fever. irregular heart beats. weight loss.000 to 50. Dosage Patient Information Adults: 10 micrograms (400 units) is given by * Very important to comply with dosage intramuscular injection or gelatin capules instructions. decreased vigor. Ans.Ergocalciferol (Vit D 2) * Phenytoin and barbiturates may increase degradation of Vit D resulting in decreased Use calcium levels and hence some disorders like Preventing rickets or during rickets necessary for the osteomalacia (softening of bones) absorption of calcium and phosphate. specially in cases of increased magnesium levels in blood.000 units orally. elevated calcium levels in blood may result. excessive urination.

allergic reaction. 530 A Lay Person's Guide . Adverse Effects * Rule out multiple pregnancies before its use. metallic taste. dizziness. convulsions. Use Dosage Antileprosy used only when therapy with primary Adults: 0. headache.5 mg/kg daily. indicated indicated * To be avoided in breech presentation (delivery of child with feet or buttocks first). vision problems. stomach upset. * Difficulty in breathing * Chest pain * Vertigo * Hypertension * Gangrene Continue the drug and inform your doctor. * Sensation of voice in ears acne. hair fall. Contra- stage of labour. Precaution Dosage Contra- indicated Adults: 250 mg twice daily. Liver problems Additional Information Additional Information * Abdominal pain Liver dysfunction.Ergometrine Ethionamide/Propionamide Use Brand Name For the active management of the third stage of Myobid-250 labour and in treatment of bleeding during labour.5 mg IV agents are ineffective. Increase by 125 mg/day every 5 days until a dose of 15-20 mg/kg is reached Children : 5-7. arthritis * Slow heart beat Continue to use the drug and inform the doctor. fall in BP. Adverse Effects Precaution * Contraindicated in pregnancy and before 3rd Contra.

Additional Information urinary frequency. Additional Information * Nausea and vomiting may be reduced or avoided by taking capsules a few at a time over a 15 minute Patient Information period. edema. abdominal pain. Reduced established established indicated not indicated dose to be established given Contra. diarrhoea. Dosage Dosage Adults : 500 mg initially and gradually increase as Adults:100-150 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses by required upto 2 gm daily. anemia.Ethosuximide Flucytosine Use Use Anticonvulsant (to treat convulsions during Antifungal against severe fungal infection of blood epileptic fits). rash. stipation. * If gastro intestinal upset occurs. headache. take with food or milk. and urinary tract. confusion. sedation. diarrhoea. Contra. mouth or as IV infusion. vomiting. swelling of the tongue. muscular weakness. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 531 . Children : 10 mg/kg initially and increase as required Children: 12-16 mg/kg daily by mouth or IV infusion. hallucinations. vertigo. rashes. gum enlargement. * Do not discontinue medicine abruptly. GI symptoms including n a u s e a . weight loss. Others Blood disorders. v o m i t i n g . upto 30 mg/kg Precaution Precaution Safety not Safety not Contra- Safety Contra. * May cause gastro intestinal upset. Liver dysfunction. kidney damage. depression. Reduced Others indicated indicated dose to be given Over 60 Liver and kidney problems. anemia. Liver and kidney problems Adverse Effects Adverse Effects Nausea. agitation. con. vaginal Patient Information bleeding.

0. Contra. their toxins Treatment of diarrhoea and gastroenteritis of * To treat meningitis and other infections of CNS bacterial origin. Furoxone. Genticyn. Precaution Contra. 532 A Lay Person's Guide . red wine) and alcohol should be avoided during and for short time after treatment. Garamycin.1 2 M o n t h s : 1 2 . Lyramycin Lomofen. 2 indicated indicated weeks -12 yrs: 2 mg/kg every 8 hours. Dosage Infant Children: 2 . Avoid Eye ointment: 0. beer.1 . Dependal-M. Children: 0-2 weeks old: 3 mg/kg every 12 hours. vaginal infections. Biogaracin. Adults: 2-5 mg/kg/day (in divided doses) every 8 hours. * Foods with high tyramine content (cheese. Metrogyl-F Use Use * To treat infections of blood by organisms or Antibacterial and antiprotozoal.Furazolidone Gentamicin Brand Name Brand Name Alfumet+. Kaltin-MF. 1-4 Years: 25 mg. indicated Eye/ear drops: 0. Contra. Adults:100 mg (4 times daily) for 2-5 days. 5 m g .3% every 4-8 hours. Patient Information * Reduce dose if kidney problems.3% every 6-12 hours. By intramuscular-slow injection/IV infusion. * Topical application may be used against eye/ear Dosage infections. nausea) use of medicine use of medicine Over 60 adverse effects * Measle-like rashes Others * Changes in blood * Must be stopped before you have general * When used for vaginal infections may anaesthesia occasionaly cause swelling of vulva or itching. 5 Years & above: 50 mg 4 times daily. Contra. * Should not be given for longer than ten days Additional Information usually. Contra- indicated indicated indicated G6PD Deficiency Adverse Effects Can Can Increased continue continue risk of * Mild toxic symptoms (headache.1 . * Against inflammations of kidney and prostate Used at site of injection (with nifroxime) to treat gland. Precaution Others Contra.0.

headache Beplex. Only if you suspect bacterial * Blood and dextrose should not be admin-istered infection then use an antibiotic. of 20-50 % solution daily by slow IV infusion Adverse Effects * Fever. bacitracin. paralysis. confusion. Brand Name roaring in the ears. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 533 . muscle twitching and weakness. Increased blood sugar levels may result if too rapid administration. Ans. burning at the injection site. Emlytepreps. dizziness. mental confusion or unconsciousness may result if problem with composition of solution/administration technique. Additional Information Dosage Amphotericin B. How do you justify the use of corticotropin. parenteral fluids should be antibiotics? administered with caution. Antibiotics are necessary only in bacterial * Dextrose administration may cause Vit B infections. respiratory distress. weight loss. * Very concentrated solutions may cause irritation. aging. Gesicaine heavy 5% rashes. Infection mostly presents as complex deficiency. infection at site of injection. damage to tissues/blood vessels. Adults:1-3 ltrs. * Increase in serum insulin levels Additional Information Drug Interactions Rational Therapy Tips * If patient receives cor tiosteroids or Q. To replace water deficit which may occur under different conditions like coma. fever though every fever may not be due to infection. anemia. palpitations. vertigo. lethargy. tremor. simlutaneously through the same infusion to prevent clumping. dehyd-ration. joint pain.Adverse Effects Glucose Abnormal liver and kidney functions. Use decreased appetite. cisplastin increase the adverse effects of the drug.

photo allergy.10 mg/kg/day 6-12 hrs. 534 A Lay Person's Guide . inherited blood disease) * Pregnancy * Sensitivity to sunlight Rational Therapy Tips * Pencillin sensitivity Q. what should be done? * Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (a chronic. Antifungal for treatment of variety of fungal infections of skin. Grisofil FP.effects are seen after sometime. diarrhoea. Note: Dose may be doubled if necessary.Griseofulvin Additional Information Brand Name Drug Interactions Grisactin FP. Idifulvin. Children: By mouth . inflammatory disease affecting the skin and Ans. doses for 1-18 months depending on infection. If temperature is high inspite of paracetamol. pheno-barbitone). * It decreases the efficacy of warfarin. for 6- 12 weeks.. fatigue. phenytoin Walavin 250 and barbiturates (e. Contra- indicated indicated Others * Porphyria (rare. edema. Use * Take entire course of therapy . Tepid water sponge. Avoid exposure to sunlight. nails and hair * Sensitivity to sunlight may occur. vomiting. Dosage * Notify physician if fever/sore throat rashes Adults: By mouth 10-15 mg/kg daily in 3 divided occur. mental confusion. nausea. Continue the drug and inform your doctor. headache. Precaution Safety Safety not not established established Contra.g. various internal organs) Adverse Effects Skin rashes. oral thrush.

Children: (not recommended). rashes. Contra. Hexidol.5 mg/kg/daily every 6-8 hrs. rash. nasal stiffness. Serenace. mania. lung Adverse Effects disorder. Adverse Effects numbness and tingling. Halidol. fast heart beat.75-7. Abnormal movements of face and limbs. lethargy. Reduced Over 60 not indicated dose to be established given Others Contra. weight gain.5-20 mg/day initially and 200 mg daily. nausea. Contra- 10 mg not established indicated indicated Adolescents: 30 mg Contra. vomiting. indicated indicated dose to be given Over 60 * Heart problems Others * Old age. * Take with meals * Do not discontinue this medication suddenly. Contra. difficulty in urination. fluid accumulation. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 535 . jaundice. excitation. tremors or muscle twitching occur. For liver and kidney problems. Reduced * Kidney or liver problems. Antihypertensive preferred in pregnancy. dangerously impulsive safety is not established behaviour Dosage Dosage Adults: 40-100 mg daily in 4 divided doses. cough or allergy medication. Additional Information Additional Information Patient Information Patient Information * Notify physician if impaired vision. * If dizziness occurs. * Avoid cold. fever. maximum Adults: Mental illness: 1. Parkinson's disease Headache.Haloperidol Hydralazine Brand Name Brand Name Depidol. to treat schizophrenia. loss of appetite. epilepsy. although agitation. increased gradually if needed upto 200 mg Children: 0. SereBanthine Corbetazine + Use Use Antipsychotic. Continue the drug and inform your doctor. Redness of eyes. avoid sudden changes in posture. Reduced Precaution indicated indicated dose to be given Safety Contra. Precaution 25-50 micrograms/kg daily to maximum Safety Contra. dizziness.

Theophyline preparations in use for class of drugs used as diuretics. Q. frusemide. Most liquid preparations have 50 mg of Barbiturates (like phenobarbitone) and narcotics chloroquine base per 5 ml. Beta Biduret. Adverse Effects Rational Therapy Tips Cramps. Diuretic. like ibuprofen. Additional Information Most chloroquine tablets containing 250 Drug Interactions mg of phosphate salt (150 mg of base). diclofenac. fatigue. gout. diabetes.. Contra. skin the basis of active base and not on the rashes. lethargy. bronchial asthma. jaundice. Chloroquine for treatment of malaria. aspirin. it out from the manufacturer. Dibeta+. pethidine) aggravate adverse effects and decreases the efficacy of thiazides (a 2. in which dose should be calculated on nervousness. Dosage * Eat food rich in potassium. blurred vision. used to reduce fluid retention. treat kidney * Will increase urination early during the day. chills.Hydrochlorthiazide Thiazide drugs decrease response to norepinephrine. Different preparations hydro-chlorthiazide) and so does indomethacin have different strengths of the base. actual strength of the salt? Continue the drug and inform your doctor. may disorders. Betanol D+. Arkamin H. Ans. Esidrex. Esidrex. Precaution Contra. opium. Brand Name Cholestyramine and colestipol decrease the Adelphane. inflammatory drugs. Find and other NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti. heart problems and high BP. Ciplar H+. morphine. agitation. flushing. headache. phenylbutazone). frequent urination. Adults : 25-200 mg daily Children : 2 mg/kg/day every 12 hours. impotence. liver diseases. absorption of drug. anemia. Which are the commonly used drugs weakness. chest pain. eg. Invozide+ Patient Information Use * Take with food or milk. abdominal bloating. 536 A Lay Person's Guide . Increased indicated risk of adverse Over 60 effects Others Kidney diseases. Contra- indicated indicated indicated Contra. (eg. constipation. 1. increase blood sugar levels in diabetes so notify the physician. muscle cramps.

Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 537 . Replacement therapy 20-25 mg/day oral. diarrhoea. Same precautions otherwise as dexamethasone. May retard growth in children. * The drug antagonises the actions of clonidine. methyldopa. herpes infection. jaundice. antihypertensive drugs reduced by drug. Contra. Drug Information Additional Information Barbiturates. prostate trouble Others Adverse Effects Peptic ulcer. weight. Furain-S Depsonil Use Use Corticosteroid . Precaution Safety not Avoid Contra- Precaution established indicated Contra. heart block. nervousness panic. anxiety. glaucoma. Prolonged high dosage may cause diabetics. rifampicin reduce * Phenothiazines. confusion. IM or IV. bone marrow depression. Indigestion. guanethidine. mental Fast heart beat. Antidepressant (for long-term use) Topical application helps treatment of various skin Dosage disorders. TB. disulfuran. Effect of antidiabetic and procainamide increase the toxicity of the drug. Otherwise same adverse effects and actions to be Additional Information taken as dexamethasone. decrease in Adverse Effects memory. skin rashes. illness disturbed concentration. effect of drug. flushing chills. abdominal cramps. Severe reactions possible with vaccines. Contra- indicated indicated Reduced dose to be given Avoid Avoid Increased risk of adverse Contra. glaucoma. Reduced effects Over 60 indicated indicated dose to be given Over 60 Others Contra- indicated Heart problems. glaucoma. metrizamide. Allocort. palpitation. acne are common adverse insomnia. Adults: 75-200 mg daily (increased in exceptional Dosage circumstances) Adults: 100-200 mg varies according to condition. delusions. Children: Reduced dose according to age and Children: 20-40 mg every 4-6 hr.used to make up for deficiencies of the gluco-corticoid group of hormones. fragile bones and thin skin. anticonvulsants. halluci-nation. quinidine. urinary retention. weight gain. epileptic effects. effects. et al.Hydrocortisone Imipramine Brand Name Brand Name Wycort . Continue the drug and inform your doctor. cimetidine.

For gout: 100 mg daily and then 50 mg thrice daily till required. kidney damage. headache. irregular heart Death in the bottle beat. tension. rashes. asthma. anemia. Indicin. blood in stools. What are hazardous drugs? Children : Not recommended. 4 and 8 of Section 1 for more information. Since safer and Contra. Use * Notify physician if dry mouth. they should not be marketed at all. Contra. Contra- indicated indicated indicated effective alternatives are usually available. See Chapters 2. Contra. * If headache persists * Impaired kidney function. indigestion. Hazardous drugs are those with high Precaution unfavourable side-effects. antigout Dosage Adults: For arthritis: 25-50 mg. heart burn. increase by 25-50 mg daily at one week interval. Contra. Adverse Effects Source : VHAI Pain in upper regions of abdomen. congestive heart failure.Patient Information Indomethacin * Avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight or Brand Name sunlamps. fall in blood pressure. * Presence of infection * Eye complaints * Hypertension * Impaired liver function * Low blood counts * Parkinson's. bleeding from peptic ulcers. difficulty in Non steroidal anti-inflammatory. urination or excessive sedation occurs. Indo Cap/SR * Avoid alcohol and other depressant drugs. antiarthritis. blurred vision. * Epileptic fits. Reduced indicated indicated dose to be given Over 60 Others * History of GI lesions. chest pain. nervousness. 2-4 times daily. jaundice. 538 A Lay Person's Guide . 3.

viscous preparation) before inducing vomiting and then give activated charcoal. Urografin and thiazide diuretics. Viscous. into 3 doses) stomach pain. coughing and pain and swelling over the children? angle of the jaw.(Dose 6 mg/kgm/dose every 6 hrs) * Do not use metal bowls. Aspirin should not be given with the drug. weight required. Use a solution containing 2. Contra. Precaution Contra. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 539 .5 gm/100 ml water as * Notify physician if skin rashes edema. Note: Wash skin and all other surfaces before applying iodine solution. sore weeping eyes. burns. Ans. Use With lithium can lead to lithium toxicity. diarrhoea. Increased indicated indicated risk of adverse effects Others * Patients with thyroid gland disorders. For sterilising water : add 4 drops to 1000 ml water. Common ones which can be used are: Additional Information 1. * If irritation occurs in superficial wounds without infection. * To disinfect the skin preoperatively Patient Information Dosage * Take with food/ milk/antacid. 3.(Dose 20 mg/kg/day divided * Accidental ingestion causes vomiting. Give milk/starch mucilage (sticky. fever. Mefenamic acid . at least 15 min before use. Ibuprofen . Rational Therapy Tips Adverse Effects Q. ulcers. Antiseptic for wounds.Additional Information Iodine Drug Interactions Brand Name Indomethacin reduces the effects of furosemide Iodophil. Paracetamol . running nose. antipyretic and analgesic to be used in headache. Which is the safest and most effective Irritation. 2. gain black stools.(Dose 10-15 mg/kg/dose every 4-6 hrs) * Store in glass or earthen ware container with a well waxed stopper.

Ipecauanha Iron Dextran Use Use Antiemetic (Antivomit) Supplementation of iron to correct iron deficiency anemia Dosage Dosage Adults: 30 ml Adults: 30-100 mg deep IM injection Children: 6-18 months: 10 ml Children: Reduced dose 30-60 mg Older Children: 15 ml dose followed by tumblerful of Precaution water and repeated after 20 minutes if necessary Adverse Effects Avoid * Excessive vomiting and mucosal damage. Others Discontinue and call doctor immediately. It is receiving chloramphemiol. Ans. sometimes fatal allergic reactions. They should be in your hospital pharmacy * Vit. itching.C enhances absorption of iron. B 6.inflammation of blood Q.rashes. Haemoglobin tonics and protein Additional Information preparations are very expensive and have minimal utility if any. if too rapid IV protein preparations in anemia or infusion. * IM injections . 540 A Lay Person's Guide . advised not to use these tonics in affluent community also as they are usually * Resistance to treatment may occur in cases of unnecessary and irrational.variable degrees of soreness at or near the site of injection. Don't ever give decreased generation of blood cells. or on your desk. of Vit. Rational Therapy Tips * IV administration . B 12 C or E. Is there any role of haemoglobin or vessel at the site of injection. so how can patients with iron deficiency anemia also he/she afford to buy these tonics. A patient who Drug Interactions cannot afford to have food is likely to * Response to iron dextran injections is delayed in suffer from these problems. * Liver damage * History of allergy or asthma Adverse Effects * Allergic reactions could occur . difficulty with breathing. alcholism. free samples of these drugs to poor patients as they presence of antimetabolic drugs and deficiencies are likely to buy them later from the chemists. * Cardiac effects if absorbed. reddening all over the body may result. malnutrition? Pigmentation of the skin at the site of injection.

take with food after Increased indicated indicated risk of crushing and mixing with water. 1-2 hrs before meals. indicated indicated * Take on empty stomach. Damage to the nervous system. not take double doses. Children under 6 years: 1 tab (100 + 50 mg). high risk of adverse effects on nervous disorders in malnourished.: 2 Antacids if needed should be taken at one hour tablets (100+50 mg). 6-12 yrs. Ethambutol Blurred vision/changes in vision. Do rapid. Precaution * Pyridoxine (B6) supplementation may be Contra. skip if time for the next dose. Avoid Contra. Adults:1 tablet daily (300 + 150 mg) by mouth. discontinue and call the doctor immediately. Allergic reaction to thiacetazone can be fatal.300 mg) can be given because * If a dose is missed. hepatotoxic? INH causes deficiency of Vitamin B 6 leading to Ans. phenytoin) to Dosage reduce activity of latter. Which antitubercular drugs are not consumers. When the combination is given to small children. Take on empty stomach. an extra dose of INH upto Patient Information 10-20 mg/kg (max. anemics and those with seizure disorders Adverse Effects INH allergic reaction can cause serious liver damage Rational Therapy Tips especially in people over 35 years and regular alcohol Q. If there is allergy/itching. 150 mg) daily by mouth. * INH interacts with antacids. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 541 . necessary to decrease adverse effects. adverse Over 60 effects Others Liver damage. take as soon as you INH elimination from their bodies seems more remember. Contra- In case of stomach upset. Streptomycin nerve pain and tenderness in hands. antiepilepics (carbamezipine. feet. Over 12 years: 1 tablet (300 + interval before or after taking INH. Contra.Isoniazid (INH) & Thiacetazone Additional Information Use Drug Interactions Treatment of TB * INH can interact with anti-convulsants.

dose to be given Over 60 Others Allergy to nitrates Adverse Effects Rational Therapy Tips * Most serious could be excessively lowered BP Q. Upto 120 mg daily in divided doses may be * Extended release capsules and tablets are not to necessary. Prevention: 20-40 mg 3-4 times daily or as per patients' need.. finger nails. it does intravascular hemolysis in a known patient not require discontinuation. patient having G-6PD deficiency? unusually seizures. fainting. A number of drugs lead to severe * Headache is a common untoward effect. Which drug should be avoided in a Overdose: Bluish lips. Isomac . Acute attacks: 5-10 mg every 2-3 hours sublingually or as chewable tabs. sulfonamide. and anti-depressants. aspirin. nalidix acid. of G-6PD deficiency. doctor. 542 A Lay Person's Guide . be broken or crushed or chewed before they are swallowed Precaution Inform doctor in case of blood disorders or Safety not Reduced Contra- established dose to be indicated anaemia. especially those against high BP.) Dosage * Store in tightly closed containers. food absorption problem. Brand Name * Do not stop taking the the drug suddenly. glaucoma. Increase in dose should be gradual. * In case chest pain persists after taking nitrofurantoin. quinine chloroquine). blurred vision and skin rash. Sorbitrate. * To treat sudden severe attacks of chest pain * Do not take other drugs without consulting (acute angina). clotting agents. Exposing the drug to air causes it to lose its effectiveness. analgin and naphtalene which is used in moth balls. anti-blood (angina pectoris) or congestive heart failure.Isosorbide Dinitrate 3 tablets call the doctor immediately (1 tab = 5-10 mg of the drug). given hemorrhage of blood vessel supplying to head. The drugs known to cause significant hemolysis in G-6PD Additional Information deficient children include antimalarials Patient information (primaquine. fuzazoladone. recent heart attack. liver Avoid Avoid Reduced problem. Sudden stoppage may Use cause heart attack. dizziness. (e. Ans. Isordil.g.Retard Consult doctor about this. * To prevent frequency of heart stroke or failure irregularity of heart beat. * Take on an empty stomach with full glass of water to allow fast action.

abdominal pain. fatal liver damage Continue the drug and inform your doctor. Never to be taken with terfenadine. liver insufficiency. * Take with food. Can Epigastric discomfort. Children: 2. stomach ulcers. continue use of medicine Continue the drug and inform your doctor. * Notify physician if abdominal pain. Vizole Use Use Antifungal agent Antihelminthic Dosage Dosage Adults: 200 mg once daily with food (14 days) maximum 400 mg daily. * Do not store in damp places. Reduced Safety not Safety not Safety not indicated dose to be established established established given Can Can Can Others continue continue continue use of use of use of medicine medicine Over 60 medicine Nausea. Adverse Effects Nausea. * Do not take with antacids. Additional Information Drug Interactions * Antacids and ulcer healing drugs should not be given.5 mg/kg Precaution Precaution Avoid Contra. diarrhoea. Others Additional Information Liver or kidney problems. vomiting.Ketoconazole Levamisole Brand Name Brand Name Funazole Vermisol. skin rashes. itching. if there Not advisable to take drug in cases of kidney and have been allergic reactions to antifungal drugs. Adults: 2. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 543 . * Take the dose at the same time every day.5 mg/kg Children: 3 mg/kg daily.

it fights disease Courtesy: Indian Academy of Pediatrics when high. paracetamol alone is adequate DRUGS ARE RARELY NECESSARY 544 A Lay Person's Guide . Fever is a friend .

. Levopa.g. used as daily upto 8 gm daily maximum. Avoid taking Vitamin B 6. mental changes. * With heart problems.Levodopa + Carbidopa urinary retention. Levodopa increases heartbeats Precaution with anaesthetics like halothane. phenothiazines ( e . Contra.: Dosage not established. anti-psychotic). Syndopa. g. muscle twitching. (used as anti-psychotics) reduce the efficacy of Upto 12 yrs. then 125 mg 4 times daily for 1 week and finally 375 mg Reserpine. agitation and delusions. butyrophenones. nausea and vomiting. fluid accumulation. Contra- indicated indicated Amphetamines should not be be given as they affect the heart adversely. edema. * May cause GI upset so take with food. psychotic problems like hallucinations. Tidomet vision. thioxanthenes Children: Above 12 yrs: Same as adult dose. * Severe psychosis * If fainting. weight gain. nightmares. loss of hair. Others are irregular heart beat. bitter taste. To treat Parkinson's disease Additional Information Dosage Drug Interactions Adults: 125 mg twice daily after food for 1 week. levodopa and should not be given with it. * Glaucoma Adverse Effects Uncontrolled movements. dark sweat or urine. chlorpromazine). diazepam. Continue the drug and inform your doctor. while iron reduces absorption of levadopa. benzodiazepines (e. dizziness occurs. Others Dietary effects * Hypersensitivity to the drug. blurred Bidopal. . kidney or liver disease * May cause darkening of urine or sweat. burning sensation of tongue. has enhanced low Safety not established Contra- indicated Contra- indicated BP effect with antihypertensives. Use Altered taste. abdominal pain. fatigue. Levadopa levels increased by domperidone and metoclopramide. anxiety. skin rash increased sweating. avoid sudden * Peptic ulcer changes in posture. Patient Information skin cancer or melanoma. * Patients with suspicious history of skin lesions. diarrhoea. headache. lung. Phenytoin reverses the effect. Brand Name constipation. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 545 .

Hence. insomnia. during thyroid therapy reduce dose of anti-coagulants to one third. use of use of use of medicine medicine medicine * Partial hair loss seen in children during first few months of thyroid therapy.Levothyroxime * Cholestyramine interferes with the uptake of thyroid from the intestine. headache.1 mg daily) to be Patient Information increased (0. cardiac arrest. * Tremors. Can continue Can continue Can continue * Notify physician case of adverse effects. * Symptoms of over dosage/too rapid dosage include palpitation. nervousness. About 4-5 hours should Use elapse between intake of both drugs. Usually a transient Others phenomenon. Diabetes Heart Problems Adverse Effects * Rare except in case of over dosages.025mg increased to 0. hence increased Dosage dose of thyroid needed. elevated pulse pressure increased heart beats. Hair is recovered back. Thyroid replacement therapy (for thyroid hormone * If oestrogens are taken. 546 A Lay Person's Guide .05 mg) every 2-3 weeks * Replacement therapy is generally needed for a life Children : Initially 0. Additional Information Drug Interactions Thyroid replacement increases anticoagulant (anti- blood clot) effects with agents such as warfarin or bishydroxycoumarin. maintained * Do not discontinue except on the advice of a Precaution physician. irregular heart beats. Adults : Initially for 2-4 weeks (0.1 mg and time. * Thyroid therapy may require increase in dosage of insulin or oral hypoglycemic (low blood sugar inducing) agents. * GI disorders * Allergic skin reaction (symptoms differ in case of chronic and acute over dosage. levels of hormone deficiency) required in blood are lowered.

myasthema Nervousness. Over 60 * Boil all clothes.0 mmol Li /litre. weight gain. Contra. + kept between 0. Treatment of maniac depression. Precaution Others Avoid Contra- indicated Increased risk of adverse * Do not apply to broken skin. sleeplessness.Lindane (Gamma Benzene Lithium Carbonate Hexachloride) Brand Name Use Licab/XL To treat scabies and infestation (of scalp. gravis. loss of power of * Do not apply to face. Adults: 0. rinse with water immediately.4 to 1. applied to the affected parts Dosage for 12-24 hours. vomiting. diarrhoea. towel of patient.kidney or liver problems. tremor. blurred vision. Never to be taken orally. + plasma concentration of 0.4-1. Reduced * Do not apply to mucous membranes.0 mmol Li /litre 12 Precaution hours after preceding dose on 4th or 7th day of treatment and then every week for 4 weeks and then Contra. effects Contra. lack of * Notify physician if skin rashes occur. indicated indicated dose to be given * If it enters the eye. Continue the drug and inform your doctor. Contra- indicated indicated indicated every 3 months. irrtability. overactive thyroid gland. increased CNS disturbances like drowsiness. Adverse Effects Additional Information Muscular pain. body and Use pubic hair) by lice. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 547 . gastro-intestinal Patient Information disturbances. convulsions. Serum Lithium levels to be monitored regularly and Irregular heart beats. vertigo. aggressive or self- Dosage mutilating behaviour Adults: 1% lotion/oint. coordination. muscular coordination (ataxia). profound unconsciousness. Others Adverse Effects Heart or circulatory problems. * Do not exceed prescribed dosage.25-2 gm daily dose adjusted to achieve a Scabies: Repeat after 4 days. Contra.

haloperidol." 548 A Lay Person's Guide . phenytoin. thirst. Essential Drugs Monitor "Oh but every medicine has these things called side-effects you know. fever. IV injection.. Cerebral oedema : 1 gm/kg as a 20% solution given by IV infusion. Osmotic diuretics increase lithium toxicity and should not be given Dosage together. Adults: By IV infusions : Diuresis 50-200 gm over 24 Patient Information hours. carbamazepine. * Take medication with food/milk.. Others Discontinue therapy if signs of toxicity occur. Heart failure and pulmonary oedema (excessive * Avoid sauna bath (causes dehydration) fluid in lungs) * Contact physician if fever or diarrhoea occur. urinary retention. methyldopa. dehydration. thiazide diuretics and furosemide Stilamin should not be given. Use * Indomethacin. edema.Additional Information Mannitol Drug Interactions Brand Name * Theophylline. dryness of mouth. * Drink 10 to 12 glasses of fluid daily. Adverse Effects Chills.. Discontinue and call the doctor immediately. tetracycline. preceded by a test dose of 200 mg/kg by slow * Maintain adequate fluid and salt intake.

irregularities in heart Confusion. Slow heart beat abnormal spontaneous sensations * Intrathecal injection: Neural damage. vomiting. * May stain skin blue. pricking. itching. 1% solution of methylene blue as injection. Adults: 250 mg per week for 4 weeks Also in treatment of urinary tract infection. headache. beat of foetus. 6-8 years: 1/2 Dosage adult dose. can be removed by a * Epileptic patients taking valproate should not hypochlorite solution. mental Adverse Effects confusion and decreased oxygen carrying capacity of blood. 9-11 years: 3/4 adult dose. Over 60 * Nausea. dizziness. vomiting headache profuse sweating. Children: 2-5 years: 1/4 adult dose. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 549 . * Digoxin should not be taken. Additional Information Additional Information Patient Information Drug Interactions * Take oral form after meals with a glass of water. * Injection in aminiotic sac . injection. diarrhoea. the presence of methemoglobin (a transformation Dosage of haemoglobin) in circulating blood. hallucinations. Nausea. take mefloquine. Others * Large doses-abdominal pain. anemia in newborn. depressive feeling.Mefloquine Methylene Blue Use Use Antimalarial Treatment of drug induced methaemo-globinemia. of burning. Continue the drug and consult your doctor. skin rashes and * Subcutaneous Injection: Inflammation at site of lesions. Avoid Avoid Avoid Adverse Effects * Discolours urine and stool (blue green). using a Precaution dose of 1 mg/kg. blood disorders and blue skin. sleep disturbances. Avoid Avoid * May cause bladder irritation. fever. Digestive problems dizziness.

Cleaning wounds immediately is essential Courtesy: Indian Academy of Pediatrics clean with soap & water only ----.ointments not necessary DRUGS ARE RARELY NECESSARY 550 A Lay Person's Guide .

In normal doses: Nausea. aspirin and diazepam. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 551 . Therefore may bedtime. caused by Dosage injury. circulation and blood pressure. decrease in blood * Take medication 30 mins before meal. before meals and at * Induces sleep and lessens anxiety. Sedatives and tranquilisers should not be taken with Adverse Effects the drug. * Notify physician if involuntary movement of eyes and limbs occur. Others Precaution Kidney and liver problems. Contra- indicated indicated indicated Adverse Effects Muscle dystonias (abnormal muscle contractions).5 mg/kg body weight. Contra. be used as a premedi-cation before surgery. Over 60 Administered as tablets or injections. confusion may cause transient side- effects.0 mg/kg/day every 6-8 hrs. 4 times daily. convulsions. levodopa. Not greater than 0. impaired liver function. consti-pation. Reduced * CNS: drowsiness restlessness. Perinom. loss of sleep. Maxeron.Metoclopramide Morphine Brand Name Brand Name Emenil. surgery or any form of chronic pain. Adults: 10-15 mg.Take 30 mins. indicated indicated dose to be taken depression. Contra- treatment of diarrhoea. rapid heart beat. * Reduces intestinal motility (power of spontaneous Precaution movement) and is used in the symptomatic Safety not Contra. Patient Information In larger doses: Respiratory problems. Over 60 * GI nausea.moderate to severe. Contra. Drug reduces the absorption of digoxin. or decreased blood volume. Children: 0. shock Continue the drug and inform your doctor. patients with epilepsy Contra. Contra- 5-25 mg per dose. cimetidine and accelerates that of tetracycline. asthmatic Others attacks. prostate enlargement. dosage may vary from indicated indicated individual to individual. fatigue. Tomid Morcontin Continus Use Use Anti-vomit agent * To relieve pain . Contra. drowsiness. diarrhoea. However. vomiting.5-2. Should be taken with caution in patients suffering from Drug induced movement disorder. established indicated indicated Dosage Contra. Additional Information * Contraindicated in head injury and in patients with Drug Interactions lung diseases.

4 impairment or dizziness occur. bowel sterilisation. Space the intervals between intake of the two drugs. hearing Source : Medical Ethics Vol. * Colitis (inflammation of colon) * Prolonged use/high dosage therapy . Adverse Effects * Nausea.damage to kidneys and auditory system. Neomycin Additional Information Use Drug Interactions Bacterial infection in ears. Patient Information Oral therapy * Complete full course of therapy. increases the sedative effects. acute eye infection. * Decreases effect of digitalis.1 gm every 4 hours cimetidine should not be given. diazepam.3. bowel Nitrous oxide. * Notify physician if ringing in ears.In long-term use: Habit forming and causes addiction. vomiting and diarrhoea. * Decreased absorption of nutrients. No. October . 552 A Lay Person's Guide . chlorpromazine. * Avoid concurrent use of other nephrotoxic and ototoxic agents (kidney and ear toxic). Precaution Contra- Patient Information indicated Notify physician if shortness of breath occurs. Dosage As eyedrops: 0. * Enhances effects of oral anticoagulants by causing malabsorption of Vitamin K. * Avoid concurrent use of diuretics to reduce risks of adverse effects.5% (3500 units/ml). sterilisation: by mouth . * If taken with other sedatives and alcohol. * Topical preparations may also cause kidney damage (nephrotoxicity) and damage to auditory system (ototoxicity) Additional Information Drug Interactions Oral Neomycin therapy * Should not be administered with penicillin V potassium.December 1995 Topical application * Cleanse affected area prior to application unless otherwise directed. Physical dependence occurs on prolonged use.

Over 60 adverse effects * Use laxative to relieve constipation if necessary.5 . weakness. drowsiness. Adults: 10 mg thrice daily during meals or after. Decrease if liver headache. or if rash or irritation develops. Others * Low heart rate * Severe low BP * Liver problems * Diabetes * Allergy to nifedipine Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 553 . Additional Information Precaution Patient Information Avoid Contra- indicated Avoid * Chew tablets. Depicor. Contra- indicated * Notify physician if condition worsens. Adverse Effects For mild to moderately high blood pressure: 30 mg Nausea. skin rashes. once daily. medicine medicine For immediate relief Others From heart stroke: Bite into capsule and swallow Chew tablets properly liquid. then swallow with a small amount of water.1 gm as a single dose.5 gm as a single dose. Usual maintenance dose: 5- continue continue indicated use of use of 20 mg.Niclosamide Nifedipine Brand Name Brand Name Niclosan Calcigard. * Used to control high blood pressure Children: (11 . Nicardia. Maxmimum 90 mg/day once. Avoid Avoid Increased risk of * Take with food (after breakfast). Depin. rectal bleeding.1. Increase if necessary. constipation. mouth. Myogard. Nifelat Use Use Antihelminthic * Treatment and prevention of angina and Dosage myocardialinfarction Adults: 2 gm as a single dose for 7-14 days. 3 times daily. Precaution Increase to 20 mg if required. rapid heart beats. elderly: 5 mg thrice daily. Dosage (Above 34 kgs): 1 .34 kgs) 0. Liver problems in Can Can Contra. backache and irritability. fever. bad taste in problems.

554 A Lay Person's Guide . flushing. chest pain. Trifuran fainting. Use Discontinue and call the doctor immediately. * Anemia and other blood disorders. with compromised heart function Dosage * Swelling over feet Daily 5-7 mg/kg Additional Information Adults: 50-100mg 4 times daily. Affects peripheral nervous system (PNS). Consult Infants: 1 month or more: 5-7 mg/kg/day. Prevention and treatment of infections of urinary * Serious adverse effects may result in patients tract. Reduce the doctor before doing so. irregular heart beat. diabetes. lethargy. * Do not stop taking this drug suddenly. Adverse Effects * Dangerous drug especially in the old. * Long-term therapy: Irreversible damage to lungs and liver. Drug Interactions Precaution * Quinidine (antiarrhythmic) Safety not Avoid Avoid established * Rifampicin (antibacterial) * Phenytoin (antiepileptic) Avoid Avoid Avoid * Antihypertensive (against high BP) Over 60 * Muscle relaxants Others * Not to be used in case of kidney damage. rashes/reddening. liver damage. Brand Name Less common: difficulty in breathing. during or Patient Information immediately after meals for about 14 days. time.Adverse Effects Nitrofurantoin (NFT) Transient headache. dosage if it is to be used beyond 10-14 days. Continue the drug and inform your doctor. Furadantin. fever or other allergic reactions. * Rare : skin rashes. Nephrogesic. * More effective when low sodium diet and Preventive dose : 50-100 mg as a single dose at bed exercise are included in the daily regime.

l e g s or feet or unsteadiness. drug induced high fever. vomiting. loss of bladder and bowel control. Dosage * Avoid the drug as far as possible especially if you are over 60 yrs. * Gives a false positive result for urinary glucose (in tests for diabetes). Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 555 . Inhalation 25-50 % with oxygen. blood disorders.Inhalation 30% to 70% with oxygen. Adverse Effects Diffusion. breathing problems. irregular heart beats. General anaesthesia induction: 70 % with 30 % oxygen. nausea. sore throat. inability to walk.Additional Information Nitrous Oxide Patient Information Use * Take medication even after symptoms subside till Inhalation anaesthetic you have completed the entire course. lack of oxygen. delirium. Contra- indicated indicated Others * Intestinal obstruction * Pneumothorax (air in pleural cavity of lungs) * Head injury * High doses in prolonged delivery. Maintenance . mental changes. * Interacts with a wide range of drugs. Inform For obstetrics or procedures not requiring loss of doctor of all drugs being taken before taking consciousness- NFT. Precaution Contra. n u m b n e s s i n h a n d s .

pregnancy Use * Thrombophlebitis (a kind of inflammation of veins) Female sex hormones Adverse Effects * for treatment of menstrual disorders (absence of periods) Heart disorders. then led by 5 pregnancy is ruled out. slurred speech. pain in chest. skin rashes changes in Dosage appetite and weight. Discontinue use Endometriosis (a condition in which fragments of when a dose is missed and use alternative birth uterine lining occur outside the uterus in the pelvic control method until menstrual cycle begins or cavity): Initially 10 mg a day for 2 weeks. numbness or pain in arm or leg. Contra- indicated indicated Others. mental depression. bulging eyes. through day 25 of menstrual cycle.Norethisterone * Depression (Combined oral contraceptive pills) * Epilepsy Brand name * Kidney problems Noristerat * Migraine. pulmonary embolism (a kind of * bleeding of uterus obstruction in the lungs). altered menstrual patterns. * Liver problems * Undiagnosed vaginal bleeding * Missed abortion * Asthma * Heart problems 556 A Lay Person's Guide . Precaution Contra. breathing * as a contraceptive problems. mg at 2 week intervals upto 30 mg/day for 6-9 months. vision problems.1-5 mg/day starting Continue the drug and inform your doctor. on day 5 of the cycle and continuing uninterrupted thereafter. severe * to treat endometriosis (see below) headaches. Adults: To prevent pregnancy . * When used for contraception. Additional Information Female hormonal imbalance: 5-20 mg a day on day 5 * Take at same time each day. * Test for pregnancy * Carcinoma of breast or reproductive organs. groin or leg.

the causative fungus is of Candida albicans. of ointment/cream/gel may be applied.000 units used.000 units inserted daily. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 557 .000 to 100. Brand Name Additional Information Mycostatin Patient Information Use * All the nystatin a doctor prescribes should be taken even if you feel better before the entire Oral form: to treat infection in mouth and intestinal course finishes. In most cases above. (1 mg = 3000 units) Precaution Can Can Reduced continue continue dose to be use of use of taken medicine medicine Contra- indicated Over 60 Others History of sensitivity to nystatin Adverse Effects Occasionally : nausea. Topical: to treat skin infections caused by fungi. Dosage Adults: Oral form : 500.0000 units 3 to 4 times/day. For tropical use: 100. can come back. symptoms infections caused mainly by fungi.Nystatin Continue the drug and inform your doctor. For lesions of mouth : Suspension containing 100. vomiting and diarrhoea may result.000 units per gm. For vaginal infection : 1 or 2 pessaries contanining 100. Vaginal: to fungal infection of vagina/vulva.000 units or more 4 times daily. Infants: 100. If stopped too soon. * Following topical use allergic reaction may be seen.

Others constipation. agitation. Adverse Effects Additional Information Sleep inducing. periods of time. prostate problems. Contra- Others established indicated indicated Kidney. asthma. anemia. nightmares. Children: 1-2 mg/kg per dose IM or IV Increase if required to 6 mg/kg in 2 or more divided Precaution doses. heart problems. epileptic fits. Contra. Contra- indicated indicated indicated Adverse Effects Over 60 D i z z i n ess. sore throat. Safety not Contra. arthritic pain. thrombosis (blood clotting) and gangrene due to intra-arterial injection. blood disorder) Overdose symptoms : * Liver and kidney problems * Muscle twitching. dry * Acute intermittent porphyria (a rare. Additional Information * Valproic acid and chloramphenicol decrease the metabolism of the drug. indicated indicated dose to be taken Over 60 Precaution Safety not Contra. Contra. (a calcium deficiency disease in young children and infants). liver. It produces drug dependence if taken for long confusion. Reduced established indicated dose to be Children: 3-6 mg/kg daily. inherited mouth. d rowsi n ess. circulatory collapse.Pethidine Phenobarbitone Use Use Narcotic analgesic (pain killer) CNS (Central Nervous System) depressant to treat seizure Dosage Dosage Adults: 50-150 mg/dose Adults: 2 mg/kg daily (max 100 mg) at night. shallow * Breathing problems breathing. taken Infants: Upto 8 mg/kg may be required for beneficial Contra. vo m i ti n g . nervousness. n a usea . bronchitis. constipation. 558 A Lay Person's Guide . drowsiness loss of conscious-ness. headache. vomiting. osteomalacia (softening of bones with severe pain). breath shortness. confusion. thinking abnormality. liver damage. rickets. skin rashes. Reduced effect. thyroid disorder. Contra.

Alongwith frusemide it results in Antibiotic to treat inflammation of tonsils. It is better to change in case Patient Information of failure rather than adding one more Have good potassium. Ans. sodium. Use one drug at a time and try to use the second one only if a fair trial of about 4 to Discontinue and call the doctor immediately. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 559 . stomach problems Rational Therapy Tips Adverse Effects Q. calcium intake. 30 min before food. kidney problems. griseofulvin. Children : 25-30 mg/kg per day in 4 divided doses. rifampicin. What is rational about anti-convulsant Blood disorders. quinidine. serum sickness. Contra- established indicated indicated Contra- indicated Over 60 Others Kidney. Precaution Safety not Contra. digitoxin. 8 weeks has been tried with the first drug Additional Information with adequate dosage and g ood compliance. anti-convulsant. Be cautious while driving when on treatment. Adults :250-500 mg every 6 hrs. therapy? stomach upset. skin reactions. ear and skin. heart problems. Patient Information * Rheumatic fever Do not increase the dose without consulting a Dosage physician. middle hypotension (below normal BP).* Phenobarbitone shortens half life of Phenoxymethyl Penicillin doxycycline. corti- costeroids. fever. liver. and Use phenytoin.

diarrhoea / constipation. motor twitchings. Yes. Ans. hirsutism (excessive body hair). antacid. upto max. 10 mg/kg daily. seizures. dizziness. span. hyperactivity and reduces their attention headache. 560 A Lay Person's Guide . anemia. Precaution Contra. barbiturates. prednisolone. Continue to take the drug and inform the doctor. acute inflammation of lungs (pneumonitis). cloxacillin. Children: 5 mg/kg in 2 divided doses increased slowly upto max. Eptoin Patient Information Use * Take medication with food. drowsiness. In quite a few children it causes insomnia. Brand Name digitoxin. furosemide. Additional Information Drug Interactions * Drugs affecting phenytoin. 8 mg/kg daily. vomiting.Phenytoin * Phenytoin reduces the effects of different drugs: dexamethasone. problems with gums. calcium gluconate. ner vousness. folic acid. liver damage. tremors. carbamazepine. Dosage * Diabetic patient should report any Adults: 4-5 mg/kg daily increased by 25 mg daily abnormalities. Q. Anticonvulsant used against some forms of * Maintain good dental hygiene epilepsy (grandmal and temporal lobe epilepsy) * Urine discoloration may occur. skin rashes. nausea. D o e s p h e n o b a r b i t o n e a f f e c t Adverse Effects performance of a child? Slurred speech. mental confusion. dietary calciuam reduce phenytoin availability. Dilantin. Contra- indicated indicated Others * Heart problems * IV administration not greater than 50 mg per Rational Therapy Tips min.

Continue the drug and inform your doctor. drops.5 gm) as a single dose for 2 consecutive days for during eye surgery. Pilocar Helmazan Use Use * First drug of choice to treat glaucoma (condition Anti-helminthic drug.5 mg orally required 1-2 weeks after the first. Patient Information Overdosage or impaired excretion may result in nausea. adults and children. Precautuion Precaution Safety not Can Increased Safety not Reduced Reduced established continue risk of established dose to be dose to be use of adverse taken taken medicine Over 60 effects Over 60 Can Avoid Can Avoid continue continue use of use of medicine medicine Adverse Effects Others Transient: Salivation.5 . To prevent reinfection : a second course may be To treat dryness of mouth: 2.5 gm) given for 7 days. kidney pain.4.e.Pilocarpine Piperazine Citrate Brand Name Brand Name Carpo-Miotic.g. Dosage Thread worm infestation: 65 mg/kg as a single dose As eye drops: 0. 2. inflammed eye. thread worms * To treat dryness of mouth. vomiting. problems and liver problems. sweating.5 . Continue the drug and inform your doctor. in which pressure of fluid inside the eye Treatment of infestation with round worms and increases). blurred vision or eye Not to be taken by patients with epilepsy. diarrhoea or severe damage to * Inform doctor in case of asthma. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 561 . For infestation by round worms: 75 mg/kg (maximum * To counteract dilation of pupils caused by drugs 3. nervous system if contact lens is being used or if other medication is being taken. Adverse Effects Additional Information Serious adverse effects are rare. every 4-8 hours. following Dosage head/neck radiation treatment..0% solution instilled as eye (max.

open flame or smoking Additional Information System toxicity: Death can occur if amount as small as 300 mg is ingested. For Dosage instance. it antagonises the action of pyrantel pamoate.Use 5-10% to minimise toxicity. 562 A Lay Person's Guide . Children: same as above Precaution Contra. unsteadiness. diarrhoea.Additional Information Podophyllin Drug Interactions Use * Interacts with phenothiazine. Kidney and liver failure. vomiting. cerebral toxicity. Can be treated by topical application. sore throat. clumsiness. Avoid application on * Mole or birthmarks * To small areas of intact skin * Avoid contact with mouth or eyes * Do not use near heat. * It also interacts with other antihelminthics. anti-psychotics Used for warts around the anal/genital regions or on (against mental disorders) soles of feet. System toxicity includes stomach pain. Repeat after 1 week for 4 weeks. unusual bleeding. Contra- indicated indicated Adverse Effects * Friable bleeding or recently biopsied warts. Adults: Apply a solution (10-15%) for 1-6 hrs. weakness. confusion. For large lesions .

Electral preps Discontinue the drug. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 563 . impaired brain functions. prolonged * IV injections should be given slowly as high diarrhoea/vomiting.Potassium Chloride * Nausea. diuretics those that (increase urine. coma Brand Name and in severe cases death. diuretics. Potklor. long term treatment with corticosteroids).g. hear t abnormalities. Consult doctor * Digoxin toxicity.= 312 mg of potassium) receiving organ transplants) and ACE inhibitors * Potassium Chloride tabs/powder dissolved in (used to lower high BP). immediately. kidney disease. Precaution Can Can Can continue continue continue use of use of use of medicine medicine medicine Can Avoid Can continue continue use of use of medicine Over 60 medicine Others * High potassium levels especially in case of impaired kidney function. K-Grad. diar rhoea. Use Additional Information To compensate for loss of potassium (e. cylosporins (drugs used to reduce body’s natural immunity in patients (1 Tab. * To be consumed immediately after or with meals to lessen possibility of upset stomach. paralysis. Call the doctor immediately.. reduce salt Dosage and water in kidneys). * Extensive tissue damage (e. * Hypokalemia (abnormally low potassium in * Should not be taken with potassium sparing circulating blood). Keylyte. Kay-Ciel. * Oral consumption should be in form of well diluted solutions to avoid severe nausea.g. water/juice (not tomato juice).burns) Adverse Effects * Decreased excretion. * Black tarry tools or bloody vomit indicate stomach/intestinal bleeding. prolonged treatment with blood concentration can effect heart function.

blood disorders. dizziness. Additional Information Continue the drug and inform your doctor. Adverse Effects Prolonged application around eyes leads to cataract Transient: Abdominal discomfort. itching. * If there is cyst (abnormal sac or closed cavity with liquid or solid matter) formation by the worm in brain.e. gastrointestinal. Do not withdraw suddenly. kidney disorders and of parasites including flukes of the genus disorders of nervous system).. rashes blood changes.(used against inflammation. i. * Given as a single dose of 40 mg/kg after a light Not greater than 250 mg daily. Dosage Dosage Adults: 5-60 mg/day. hypopigmentation (sub-normal colouring of skin). * Notify physician if the condition worsens. allergic disorders of skin. * Should be preferably swallowed without Precaution grinding/breaking because of very bitter taste. the drug can cause irreversible eye damage. * Differs with type of infestation Preparations for topical application: 0.a light film rub. as 3 doses of 20 mg/kg. schistoma). 564 A Lay Person's Guide . nervous system disorders. Patient Information * Avoid getting in eyes. meals.Praziquantel Prednisolone Use Use Antihelminthic. Contra- indicated indicated indicated Precaution Avoid Can Contra- continue indicated use of medicine Adverse Effects Avoid Burning.5% strength. Contra. Contra. Patient Information Additional Information * Apply sparingly. Continue the drug and inform your doctor. Corticosteroid . varies according to condition. headache and glaucoma. * Do not miss any doses. breakfast. Children: 2 mg/kg/day every 6-8 hrs orally after * Alternatively. rub in lightly . some liver Effective against tape worms or schistomes (a group disorders. Occasional: Fever.

headache.Primaquine Procain Benzyl Penicillin Brand Name Use PMQ-INGA Antibiotic against some sexually transmitted Use diseases. Contra- indicated indicated indicated Adverse Effects GI tract problems like nausea. vision problems.05 gm/kg daily for 10 days. rashes. Or 5-10 lakh units. Later 9 gm daily in 9 divided doses for 15 days. Administer by IM route only (to be given only after cyanosis (dark blue or purple coloration of skin and sensitivity testing).25 mg/kg for 14 days. anemia.25 mg/kg or 15 mg daily for 14 days.75 mg/kg weekly for 8 Gonorrhoea: 5 gm at 2 injection sites. methemo-globinemia Adverse Effects (deficency of a hemoglobin. Others Haemolysis (destruction of red blood cells). vomiting. Note: Some children may require upto 0. Acutely ill suffering from systemic infections like rheumatoid arthritis and Lupus erytho-matosis Initial and late syphilis: Over 12 yrs. (SLE). Others Children: Congenital syphilis : upto 32 kg of body weight . As for Cloxacillin Additional Information * Very high doses in veneral diseases may give rise Drug Interactions to anxiety confusion. fear of impending this drug and should not be given. mucous membrane). Contra. weeks. Children: Over 1 year 0. methoglobin. Quinidine hydrochloride increases the toxicity of seizures.: as for adults. Also anaphylaxis (sudden severe allergic shock). Antimalarial used after standard malaria therapy to Dosage destroy certain forms of malaria germs in the liver (radical cure of Plasmodium Vivax). Neuro and Cardiovascular syphilis: 12 gm daily in indicated indicated indicated divided doses for 20 days. hallucinations.0. 12 hourly Adults: 0. distress and cramps. Contra. death. For G-6PD Deficiency: 0. G-6PD deficiency (an inherited deficiency leading Precaution to a glycogen storage disease).1 gm/kg of Pregnancy. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 565 . Patient Information * Complete therapy course * If stomach upsets seen may be taken with food and antacids. Adults: 300-600 mg 1-2 times daily for 2 days after constitutional symptoms have resolved and for Dosage minimum of 7 days. Contra. Precaution Contra. IM. Syphilis: 6 gm daily at 2 sites for 10 days. body weight daily in divided doses. Contra. or depression. agitation. in circulating blood). blood disorders like anemia.

Hypotension (subnormal BP) serious disturbances of cardiac rhythm. These are mild and transient. heart block. Slow IV injection: 25-50 mg/min as required. Adults: 10-15 mg/kg as a single dose. nausea. myasthenia gravis (a type use of medicine of chronic. low BP. heart failure. * Take at evenly spaced intervals. anorexia (low appetite and food Adverse Effects aversion). use adult dose (course may be repeated in 2/3 weeks). sleeplessness. Antihelminthic Dosage Dosage Adults: By mouth: 250 mg every 4-6 hrs. rash. Children: Below 2 years not to be used. dizziness. 20mg/kg/day for continue use continue use of medicine of medicine 3 days. Additional Information Additional Information For pinworm infestation treat all members of the Drug Interactions household simultaneously. Should not be used with Cimetidine and lidocaine should not be given with piperazine. asthma. Use with caution in liver patients. Continue the drug and inform your doctor. Precaution Can Can Hookworms: children and adults. stomach erythematosus (a chronic inflammatory disease (GI) upset. Above 2 yrs (maximum 1 gm). progressive. May be required to take iron tablets every day to clear Patient Information up anemia resulting from hookworm infection. Precaution Others Safety not Can Contra- established continue indicated Kidney problems. * Do not discontinue the therapy unless instructed by physician. muscular weakness). Roundworms: adults and children 10 mg/kg in a single dose. 566 A Lay Person's Guide . Discontinue the drug and inform doctor. rashes. Maintenance IM injection: (100-250 mg) every 4-6 hours. the drug. systemic lupus Headache. affecting the skin and various organs).Procainamide Pyrantel Pamoate Brand Name Brand Name Pronestyl Pymoate Combination Use Use Used to treat irregularities of heart beat. Others Adverse Effects In liver problems: Iron supplementation to patients is advised.

Abnormal liver function. * In use as substitute for balance diet. use of use of use of medicine medicine medicine Others * Parkinson’s disease treated with Levodopa. sensitivity to light and sunlight. loss of appetite.B 6 caused during isoniazid For first 2 months. divided doses. Dependency syndrome: Adverse Effects Infants: 2-10 mg/day. P-Zide. jaundice. anemia and Dietary supplement: 2. vomiting. * Doses greater than 2 . enlargement of liver. Dosage Precaution Adults: Dependency syndrome . Can continue Can continue Can continue darkened urine. nausea.50 mg/day use of established medicine Dr ug induced deficiency: 10-300 mg/day Others depending on the causative drug. PZA-Ciba.30-600 mg/day Can Safety continue not Maintenance . * Liver damage Hereditary anemia: 200-600 mg/day then 30-50 * History of gout or diabetes mellitus. gout. Patient Information Precaution If fever.6 gm cause serious side- effects. mg/day for life. Continus Use Part of several Vitamin B-complex preparations To treat tuberculosis Use Dosage Deficiency of Vit. Children: adult dose. notify physician. Piraldina. * Doses greater than 200 mg/day for 30 days cause dependency. * If skin rashes seen then withdraw. then 2-5 mg/day for several weeks. vomiting. Pyzina Pyricontin. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 567 . * Liver and kidney problems.5-10 mg/day for 3 weeks. 20 to 30 mg/kg/day in 3-4 therapy.Pyrazinamide Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) Brand Name Brand Name Lynamide. rashes. diarrhoea.

K. Slows heart rate and treats irregularities of heart rhythm. unstable gait. Quinidine (B-W) Additional Information Use Dietary Source: Meat. * Anemia and other blood disorders. Contra- established indicated indicated Safety not Avoid Reduced established dose to be taken Over 60 Others * Heart block * Allergy to drug * Patient should be monitored closely R. Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA): Dosage 0-6 months : 0. 6-12 months : 0.Adverse Effects Quinidine High doses cause sensory neuropathy. bananas. Laxman in The Times of India Adverse Effects * Some individuals are very sensitive and can experience blurred vision. 568 A Lay Person's Guide .3 mg (As quinidine sulphate) 200-400 mg 3 times a day. the drug itself can cause irregularities in rhythm of heart beats Is there anybody in the house not affected by malaria ? Continue the drug and inform your doctor.5 mg Safety not Contra. Females : 2. lime. * Diarrhoea is common. severe headache.9 mg Take with food or milk to reduce possibility of 4-6 yrs : 1.3 mg stomach upset.beans and whole grain cereals. weakness. Pregnant women : 2. rashes or other forms of allergic reactions. * In some cases. Brand Name numb feet and hands.0 mg 200 mg test dose can be administered to check for allergic reaction to the drug. dizziness. potatoes. ringing in the ears.2 mg Do not crush or chew before swallowing.6 mg Precaution Lactating women : 2. Adult males : 2.

leafy vegetables.cereals. blood changes and anaemia. Q. inflammation of mouth. Treatment of deficiency: 5-10 mg riboflavin per day. No documented role of these drugs is available in the authentic literature Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 569 . They have utilised by the oral route. drugs against high system disorders). B1 . Adverse Effects * Excess riboflavin is excreted in urine. no role to play in the treatment of polio.Additional Information Riboflavin (Vitamin B2 ) Patient Information Use * Do not stop this drug suddenly. Additional Information Patient Information Rational Therapy Tips * Requirements are increased during pregnancy Q. eggs. red denuded lips.6 mg per 1000 Kcal dietary requirement. meats). B12 combination tonics. (Dietary sources include . B6 . whole grains. anti-coagulants and muscle relaxants. cheese. Recommended daily intake: 0. BP. Which is the most common irrational and lactation. drug used for treatment of victims of polio? * Usually administered by mouth. To prevent/treat deficiency of riboflavin * Do not take double doses. * Phenytoin/phenobarbitone reduce the Dosage efficacy of quinidine. What is the role of neurotonics in mental retardation? Ans. but may be injected if for any reason it cannot be absorbed or Ans. milk. nervous drugs like digoxin digitalis. (deficiency symptoms include sore throat. glossy Drug Interactions tongue. skin changes over face and trunk * Adverse effect may result on interaction with extremities. * Prolonged use of large doses of riboflavin alone may deplete other B vitamins and it is therefore best taken with other B vitamins. Also used as permitted colouring agent for food.

indicated dose to be taken * Foods like cheese should be avoided. Brand Name Additional Information Tricox. Avoid Reduced to pyridoxine (B 6) deficiency. 570 A Lay Person's Guide . alcoholics. * Pyridoxine supplementation should be taken by Precaution patients taking this drug especially those prone Contra. tuberculosis * INH interacts with several drug. Rifater. oral * For initial intensive phase treatment of antidiabetics and oral contraceptives. Given as a single rifampicin. * Photosensitivity Do not stop the drug therapy on your own. Montorip. Reduced Contra- * Food decreases absorption of INH and indicated dose to be taken indicated rifampicin. disturbances of nervous system. Which antitubercular drug should not 6) deficients. Rinzid Drug Interactions Use * Rifampicin especially interacts with anticoagulants (anti blood clotting agents).Rifampicin + INH + Pyrazinamide * Report to your doctor if jaundice appears. Contra. years of age. * May cause liver damage. be used under 3 years of age? Adverse Effects Ans. gout. Upto 5 tabs a day providing Rifampicin 600 mg. Pyrazinamide * Can be used in the continuous phase also interferes with action of probenecid (used in Dosage gout therapy). potential pyridoxine (B Q. * Liver disease * Jaundice * Gout * To be administered with caution in patients with Rational Therapy Tips liver damage. which is difficult to assess under 3 * Generally well tolerated. uric acid accumulation. dose one hour before food in the morning. Ethambutol has ocular (eye related) toxicity. Over 60 Othersiven * Individuals allergic to any of the compo-nents of the combination. INH * Antacids reduce absorption of INH and 400 mg and Pyrazinamide 1250 mg.

and other internal organs). conjunctiva Continue the drug and inform your doctor.0. * Infected leg ulcers.specific infection * For treatment and prevention of infections in * In eyedrops severe burns. Consult doctor. Precaution As eye drops: 0. Patient Information * When feasible bathe the patient daily. gm/ltr solution of sodium chloride. SSZ.6% solution Contra. (permanent discoloration of skin. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 571 . Adverse Effects Adverse Effects Adverse effects due to sulfadiazine (similar to those * Corrosive and can cause damage to various for sulfonamides) may occur. cuts or broken skin.1% 1 % cream applied daily to a thickness of 3-5 mm solution used. Applicaps.5% solution Others Others * Discontinue use if redness or irritation Liver and kidney problems/impairment occurs.2 . * Apply with a sterile gloved hand once or twice Additional Inforamtion daily. Sensitivity to sulfonamide * Do not apply to wounds. Contra. Contra- indicated indicated indicated Burns: 0. wash copiously with water. Rare: Local reactions/fungal infections of the * Chronic application causes silver poisoning wound may occur. * Fatal dose as low as 2 gms. tissues. Or use a sterile applicator. * If splashed in the eyes. * In burns to reduce infection. Additional Information * Blood changes Patient Information Continue the drug and inform the doctor. Dosage Dosage Non specific infections: Anal or vulval itching .Silver Nitrate Silver Sulfadiazine Use Brand Name * To destroy warts and other small skin growths Argenex. * Continue treatment till satisfactory healing has * Oral intake is harmful and can be treated with 10 occured and no more risk of infection. Silvirin * In treatment of anal and vulval itching and other Use non.

* To reduce the risk of kidney stones in gout sufferers * Increased sodium in blood may lead to above and/or fluid accumulation in various organs of * To decrease the acidity of body fluids due to the body diarrhoea or kidney problems Additional Information * Wash solutions and spray solutions for the throat and nose to render mucus less viscous. o r a l i r o n * As an eye lotion preparations. * Rinsing solution for contact lenses. irritability and muscle cramps. * As ear drop to soften and remove wax. Avoid Reduced indicated dose to be taken Over 60 572 A Lay Person's Guide . It can be prepared by As eye solution : 3. * Relief from indigestion * Low sodium diet * Excess acidity in stomach * Not for acidity caused due to respiratory problems * Heartburn Note: Not to be used daily for longer than 2 weeks. Gaviscon * High BP Use * Severe abdominal pain or nausea. diuretics and corticosteroids. Drug Interactions * Taken to relieve cough Interacts with oral blood clotting agents. Precaution Safety not Safety not Avoid established established Contra. Acigone. * Relieves discomforts due to peptic ulcers Adverse Effects * To reduce acidity of urine and to relieve painful urination Prolonged use: Weakness fatigue. t e t r a c y c l i n e s. Boil it and cool it. kidney. What is the best solution for blocked To decrease acidity of body fluids : Intra-venous nose? infusion Ans: Saline nasal drops.5 % solution in warm water adding 1/4 teaspoon of common salt to a glass of water. p h e n a t h i a z i n e s. Dosage Indigestion: 1-16 gms as required orally Rational Therapy Tips Gout: 1-16 gms 4 times daily Q. lithium. Electral forte. heart problems Acidin.Sodium Bicarbonate Others Brand Name * Long-term liver.

Solutions with high content of sodium chloride are irritant to Q. powder or sodium chloride and dextrose tabs. * Used alongwith other electrolyte solutions and Dosage dextrose as a dialysis solution in treatment of As sodium chloride and dextrose IV infusion. Immunisations. 3. When should one give injection as a gastrointestinal lining and can cause treatment to a child? nausea/diarrhoea.Sodium Chloride Sodium Chloride + Dextrose Use (Glucose) To replace excessive losses of sodium and chloride Use ions. More dilute solutions containing dextrose/ glucose are generally preferred. Dosage Adverse Effects 0. Ans: Additional Information 1 When the child is unable to swallow. kidney problems.9% solution given orally or injected depending on Large excess may lead to diarrhoea. Others Should be used cautiously in patients with heart failure. Is vomiting persistently. cholera. diarrhoea. To replenish water lost in acute diarrhoea and Loss as in case of excessive sweating. during pregnancy. patient requirements. Adverse Effects Rational Therapy Tips No long term adverse effect. renal failure or to assist removal of poisonous compound sodium chloride and glucose oral substances from the body. Addison’s disease (deficiency of cor tical Addition of dextrose facilitates absorption of hormones). kidney problems. Injection by IV should be administered cautiously to young children and elderly. sodium from the intestinal tract. Is hospitalised needing IV medication in severe disease. 4. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 573 . 2.

* Used as a footbathm at swimming pools to prevent ringworm infections. * Coagulation defects * Large doses by mouth have a purgative action.Sodium Thiosulphate Streptokinase (enzyme) Use Brand Name Treatment of cyanide poisoning. it is relatively * Patients with high BP non-toxic. water for injection by IV over 3 minutes followed by 50 ml of sodium thiosulphate injecting 25 % Precaution solution by IV over 10 minutes. Additional Information Drug Interactions * Interacts with antiblood coagulants and antiplatelet drugs to increase the risk of bleeding (platelets are disc-shaped structures in blood that perform several functions related to blood clotting). * Recent peptic ulcers Adverse Effects * Excessive bleeding * Fever * Rashes and allergic reactions to the enzyme may be triggered. Over 60 Others Others * Apart from osmotic disturbances. Contra- indicated Foothbath: 10 % solution used. Contra. Use * In treatment of certain types of skin disorders To dissolve clots formed in the heart and lungs and caused by specific fungi. 574 A Lay Person's Guide . Streptase Given IV along with sodium nitrite. and during kidney dialysis.5 million units over 1 hr by IV. Safety not Reduced indicated established dose to be taken Skin disorders: 20 % solution applied once or twice daily. Dosage Dosage By intravenous infusion: Dosage deter mined individually by the condition and response Usually In cyanide poisoning: 10 ml of 3 % sodium nitrite in 1. clots formed in other parts of the body. Embokinaze.

Precaution Contra. : half tablet 2 times daily. vomiting * Local application to eye may cause stinging but not severe burning and does not necessitate * Blood disorders discontinuance of treatment. Adults: 1-2 tablets four times daily. Albucid Treatment of urinary tract infections. * Rashes/reddening * Allergic reactions may occur in patients sensitive * Kidney problems to sulfonamides.0% are also used. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 575 . of infection. Dosage Children upto 6 yrs. Contra- indicated indicated indicated Precaution Safety not Safety not Safety not established established established Contra- indicated Others Over 60 * Sulfacetamide sodium ointment should not be Others applied to penetrating wounds of the cornea. Additional Information Additional Information Patient Information * Local anaesthetics that are esters of P-Amino Benzoic Acid (PABA) may interfere with * Not to be taken if patient is allergic to antibacterial action of sulfacetamide if used sulphonamides. Use Meningitis As a sodium salt used mainly by local application Dosage infections or injuries of the eye.0 or 10.5.Sulfacetamide Sulfadimidine Brand Name Use Nebasulf preps. 6. simultaneously. * Not to be taken with chemically related drugs like * Sulphacetamide prescribed should be used even acetazolamide. kidneys. * Large intake of water (1-2 litre/day) mandatory * Stop medication if there is skin reaction or to avoid crystallisation of drugs and damage to itching or burning sensation.: 1 tablet 2 times per day. oral antidia-betics or thiazide if symptoms disappear earlier to prevent relapse diuretics. 10% solution applied every 2 hours or 30% solution applied twice daily. Contra. Note: One Tablet = 500 mg Ointment containing 2. * Liver damage * Should not be used in individuals sensitive to * Kidney damage sulfonamides. For acute conjuctivitis / to prevent infections after burns etc: 6-12 yrs. Triple sulfa. Adverse Effects Adverse Effects * Nausea.

Others Precaution * Plasma cholinesterase (an enzyme) deficiency Contra. Adverse Effects Safety not Avoid Safety not established established Burning. vomiting. Over 60 blurred vision. dizziness. Others muscle twitching. Patient Information Adverse Effects Prolonged used may cause delay in corneal * Hot flushes epithelial healing (top surface skin of cornea). tiredness.5% solution to conjuctiva before and after menopause Precaution Also used to treat certain types of infertility. Contra. * Nausea * Vaginal bleeding * Irregular menstruation * Visual disturbances * Weight gain * Increased risk of developing cancer of endo- metrium (inner lining of the wall of uterus). Additional Information Patient Information * Useful for oestrogen hormone dependent tumour of breast. Nolvadex. Local anaesthetic biochem.Tamoxifen Tetracaine Brand Name Use Mamofen. Tamoxifen-lyka Use Dosage Anticancer drug for treatment of breast cancer 1-2 drops of a 0. Tamofen. Safety not Can Can established continue continue Dosage use of use of medicine medicine 10-20 mg twice daily (20-40 mg/day). Do not crush or break tablets before taking. nausea. Tamoxifen . 576 A Lay Person's Guide . irregular heart beat. Continue the drug and inform your doctor. drowsiness. * Antacids could be taken at one to two hour intervals before or after taking the drug to decrease risk of adverse effects. redness or other irritation of eye. * Do not stop drug suddenly without consulting doctor Additional Information * Decreased dose may be needed in liver damage. stinging. Contra- indicated indicated indicated * Protect the eye from irritating chemicals. convulsions.

Thiamine Trihexyl Phenidyl
Brand name (Benzhexol Hydrochloride)
Benalgis, Beneuron Brand Name
Use Hexidal, Hexinal, Neocalm + Forte, Pacitone,
Vitamin B1, mainly associated with metabolism of Trinicalm, Forte Plus
carbohydrates in the body to treat deficiency of B1 Use
(characterised by beriberi, fatigue, loss of appetite,
irregular heart beat and problems with nervous Anti-parkinsonism as well as drug-induced
system) Parkinsonism.
Dosage Dosage
Adults: Beriberi: 5-10mg thrice daily. Alcohol Adults: 1-2 mg on 1st day, increased by 2 mg at 3-4
i n d u c e d d e f i c i e n c y : 4 0 m g / d ay. D i e t a r y day interval till required and upto 6-10 mg per day.
supplement:1-2 mg/day. Genetic enzyme Children: Dose not established.
deficiency: 10-20 mg/day.
Precaution
Dietary supplements
Can Contra- Contra-
continue indicated indicated
Infants: 0.3-0.5 mg/day, use of
medicine
Children: 0.5-1.0 mg/day
Contra- Contra- Avoid
Precaution indicated indicated

Can Can Can Over 60
continue continue continue
use of
medicine
use of
medicine
use of
medicine
Others
Others * Narrow angle glaucoma
If given together always, administer thiamine prior * Peptic ulcer
to glucose * Myasthenia gravis
* Liver problems
* Intestinal problems
* Kidney problems
* Urinary problems
* Do not substitute for balanced diet or exceed
RDA Adverse Effects
Additional Information Skin rashes, psychoses, hallucinations, heavyness of
limbs, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, constipation
Dietary sources : Cereals, meats.
abdominal pain, blurred vision, urinary retention,
Recommended daily allowance (RDA)- muscular weakness, muscular cramping.
4-6 years: 0.9 mg
Continue the drug and inform your doctor.
Adult males: 1.4 mg
Decreased sweating, numbness of fingers.
Adult females: 1 mg
Pregnant women: 1.4 mg
Lactating women: 1.5 mg

Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 577

Additional Information Valproic acid
Phenothiazines (e.g., chlorpromazine), haloperidol, Brand Name
should not be given with the drug. Epilex, Valparin, Alkalets
Patient Information Use
If GI upset occurs may be taken with food. Causes Antiepileptic
drowsiness, dizziness or blurred vision Used for all forms of epilepsy.
Discontinue and call the doctor immediately. Dosage
Use caution in hot weather, may increase Adults: 15-30 mg/kg/day in one or two divided
susceptibility to heat stroke. doses. Increase as required by 200 mg daily at twice
weekly intervals, to a max. of 2-5 gm daily.
Children: 15 mg/kg daily in divided doses and
increase as required.
Daily doses of 730 mg are required.
Infants: may require upto 40 mg/kg
Precaution
Contra- Contra- Contra-
indicated indicated indicated

Others
* Liver and pancreas problems
* Blood disorders
* Severe epilepsy
* Mental retardation
Adverse Effects
Rational Therapy Tips Loss of control, seizure, general uneasiness,
Q. What is the best way to administer oral weakness, lethargy, loss of appetite, vomiting,
jaundice, water retention, liver function, weight
iron? gain, hair loss, tremor, drowsiness, lack of muscular
Ans: Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) increases the coordination.
iron absorption from intestines. Phytates Additional Information
in food (cereals), phosphates in milk and
avidin in raw egg decreases iron Drug Interactions
absorption. Hence oral iron should be * Phenobarbitone and phenytoin should not be
taken between the meals on an empty given with the drug.
stomach - preferably with Vitamin C. Patient Information
* Take with food.
* Do not chew tabs or capsules. Swallow whole to
avoid local irritation of mouth.

578 A Lay Person's Guide

Verapamil Hydrochloride Vinblastine
Brand Name Use
Calaptin, Harteze, Isoptin, Vasoptin, Veramil To treat abnormal cell growth in some kinds of
cancer and some non-cancerous conditions.
Use
Dosage
Anti-anginal (Calcium channel blocker)
Injected intravenously : 0.3 mg/kg per week.
Antihypertensive
Dosage varied depending on type of cancer and
Dosage condition of patient.
Adults: 120-480 mg daily in divided doses orally. IV Precaution
inj - 5-10 mg slow IV Avoid Contra-
indicated

Children: 2-4 mg/kg daily every 8 hrs. oral, 0.5 mg/kg
daily loading dose followed by 5 mcg/kg/min. Others
Precaution * If liver problems reduce dose by about 75%.
Contra- Contra- Reduced
indicated indicated dose to be
taken
Adverse Effects
* Can affect normal cells too.
Contra- Contra- Contra-
indicated indicated indicated * Decrease in WBCs hence decreased resistance to
Over 60 infections.
Others * Damage to nervous systems.
* Heart problems * Inflammation at site of injection.
* Kidney problems * Reversible hair loss.

Adverse Effects Continue the drug and inform your doctor.
Additional Information
Congestive heart failure, hypotension, slow heart
beat, dizziness, weakness, headache, nausea, Patient Information
constipation, sleep disturbances, blurred vision, * In case of redness, pain or swelling at site of
diarrhoea, cramps, rashes, sweating, shortness of injection, inform doctor immediately.
breath, muscle cramps, joint pain, cardiac arrest.
* Even if nausea experienced, dose should be
Additional Information continued (alongwith other drugs to deal with
Propranolol (a beta blocker) and methyldopa nausea).
should not be given. * Inform doctor if suffering from chicken pox,
Dietary Effects gout, kidney stone or liver problems.
* Inform if medication for thyroid problem, gout
Calcium and Vitamin D reduce the absorption of
are being taken.
the drug. Should not be withdrawn abruptly.
* Inform doctor if chloramphenicol, flucytosine,
interferons are being taken.

Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 579

2 mg/m of body surface area weekly. * Doctor should be informed if probencid and * When consumed orally during pregnancy. can sulfinpyrazine are also being taken at the time of cause birth defects in the growing treatment. * In case of redness. Adverse Effects * Doctor should be informed if suffering from chickenpox. blood vessels. pain or swelling at side of Initial dose: 30-50 mg per day Lower for the old/frail. kidney stones. gout. Administered intravenously together with cortico Prevention and treatment of clot formation in steroids or other drugs. Use Dosage Anticoagulant. 2 Effective when given orally. seek immediate medical attention. 580 A Lay Person's Guide . problems. Major risk: Loss of blood from almost any organ of nerve or muscle disease. Precaution Avoid Contra. Reduced Abdominal pain and severe constipation decrease in indicated dose to be taken white blood corpuscles (though less severe than Over 60 vinblastine) Others Continue the drug and inform your doctor. Precaution Adverse Effects Contra- indicated Contra- indicated Reduced dose to be taken Severe damage to nervous system and loss of muscular functions. Neocristin. * Dosage reduced by 75% in case of liver Maintenance dose: 3-12 mg daily. Even minor bumps/bruises may bleed excessively. Contra. Decided on basis of prothrombin (a clotting factor) activity of the Others blood. * Severe to moderate problems of liver or kidney * In case of severe constipation.Vincristine Warfarin Brand Name (Mainly as warfarin sodium) Cytocristin. the body. laxatives may be * Bleeding tendencies used after proper medical advice. Additional Information Contraindicated in : Patient Information * Adequate amount of fluid intake is very * Severe increase in BP essential. liver disease. Biochem Brand Name Use Uniwarfin To treat abnormal cell growth in some kinds of cancer and some non-cancerous conditions. Vincristin. injection. Contra- Dosage indicated indicated Independent of age. IV or IM.

Zinc Oxide Continue the drug and inform your doctor. arrests Continue the drug and inform your doctor. * Zinc oxide and clove oil/eugenol used as a * For immediate effect. Drug Interactions * Aspirin prolongs or intensifies its effects. dusting powders. lotions and dental cements. Rational Therapy Tips Q. secretion and controls bleeding) for the skin Additional Information * As a soothing and protective application in eczema (inflammation of skin) Patient Information * Use along. ointments/creams. heparin may be given as IV temporar y dental filling. agent which causes contraction of tissues. Is it necessary to give Vitamin B- complex with antibiotics? Ans: No.with other compounds to form some * Therapeutic effect begins in 12 hours. Use * In some patients receiving very high dose severe * Applied externally as a mild astringent (as an skin problems may result.foetus or loss of blood from foetus.48 hours. Thus used in injection to cover the initial 36 . * A wide variety of drugs interact. * Consult doctor before consuming any drugs simultaneously. preparations of medicated bandage. Maximum dental cements at 36-48 hrs and persists for 5-6 days. gauzes. * Inform doctor or dentist before any kind of surgery. Short Profiles of 107 Drugs 581 .

Pune. 2000. CEHAT. Source: Abhay Shukla and Anant Phadke. Don’t ask too many questions. Part 1. Sharing knowledge 582 A Lay Person's Guide .this is the way to make ORS. How should be our relationships? Take this medicine. Swathya Sathi. Hoarding knowledge Look here .