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Info abt AI

Info abt AI

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Published by: Sravan Kumar on Feb 20, 2011
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01/15/2012

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Introduction: Artificial Intelligence is, in our opinion, the most exciting area of computer s cience.

Artificial Intelligence (or AI, for short) is the name given to any atte mpt to have computers gain attributes of the human mind. Of course, this is a very vague statement, and much argument has happened over w hat exactly constitutes AI (mathematicians and scientists hate vague statements) . There are essentially two schools of thought: Strong AI and Weak AI. Weak AI philosophers believe that computers, as advanced as they may get, will o nly be able to seem intelligent. The responses of the computer may seem like int elligent actions, but the Weak AI theory insists that the computers are just min dlessly manipulating data to produce "intelligent" actions. Strong AI philosophe rs believe that computers someday can be as intelligent as humans. Of course, the heart of the discussion is this: What is intelligence? Normally, we declare that humans are the standard for intelligence, but then, isn't human intelligence, at the very basic level, just a bunch of mindless chemical reactio ns? Both the Weak AI and the Strong AI have strong supporters, many of them quit e fanatic. Aside from the philosophy of the Strong AI and the Weak AI debate, there is also another, related, division in AI: Connectionism and Classicalism. Classicalism is the AI that is found in Chess programs, weather diagnostics, and language processors. Classicalism, also known as the top-down approach, approac hes AI from the standpoint that human minds are computational by nature, that is , we manipulate data one piece at a time (serially) through a built in circuitry in our brains. So, much of the classical approach to AI consists of things like minimax trees, preprogrammed databases, and prewritten code. Expert systems are another name for Classical AI. Connectionism is the newer form of AI. The problem with classicalism, connection ists say, is that it is too unlike the human mind. The human mind can learn, exp and, and change, but many of the Expert systems are too rigid and don't learn. C onnectionism is the AI that the media really likes, which is why it contains man y famous names like Neural Networks and Parallel Processing. Connectionism seems a step closer to the human mind, since it uses networks of nodes that seem like the human brain's network of neurons. Connectionism, however, also has its flaws. Connectionism is many times inaccura te and slow, and currently connectionism has failed to reach higher level AI, su ch as language and some advanced logic, which humans seem to pick up easily in l ittle time. Human intelligence isn't built from scratch, like the Connectionist systems often are. So, for those higher-level AI, Classicalism is by far the bet ter suited. Connectionism, however, is quite successful at modeling lower level thinking like motor skills, face-recognition, and some vision. In the end, both viewpoints are valid in both debates. Regardless of the viewpoi nt, however, the most important goal for AI is that it helps us understand the m echanisms of the human mind. -------------------------------------------------What is Artificial Intelligence? Intelligence is the ability to think, to imagine, to create, memorize, understan d, recognize patterns, make choices, adapt to change and learn from experience. Artificial intelligence is a human endeavor to create a non-organic machine-base d entity, that has all the above abilities of natural organic intelligence. Henc e it is called as 'Artificial Intelligence' (AI).

through simulation techniques. decision-ma king happen in the human mind. no t only inherits the impressions of his thoughts. possible. Similarly. as the neurons number in billions! Currently. based on Boolean logic. the combined network of all these neurons creates intelligent b ehavior that is unrivaled and unsurpassed. Let us introduce ourselves to some of the mai n approaches to artificial intelligence. Initial hopes of computer scientists of creating an artificial intelligence. where the artist's creation. Instead of starting at the base l evel of neurons. to create intelligent behavior . This approach has not been able to achieve the ultimate goal but there is a ver y positive progress in the field. Researchers are attempting to build a silicon-based electronic network that is modeled on the working and form of the human brain! Our brain is a network of b illions of neurons. the human mind. people create virtual neural networks. It basically aims at mimicking the structure and functioning of the human brain. Thus. but they had the same goal of creating intelligent machines. They are divided into two main lines of thought. followers of the expert systems approach are designing intel ligent machines that solve problems by deductive logic. comprehension. They had to understand what understanding really means! Some went into the study of the brain and tried to understand how the net work of neurons creates the mind. by taking advantage of the phenomenal computational power of th e modern computers. So these researchers created network of electronic analogues of a neuron. each connected with the other.It is the ultimate challenge for an intelligence. the bottom up and the top down approach: Neural Networks: This is the bottom up approach. a neuron has very little intelligence. it learns to realize patterns and remembers them. they realized that this approach was too shallow. spacial sense. How the human brain works is. Only then could they g et any near to their goal. but also his ability to think! How will one recognize artificial intelligence? According to Alan Turing. researchers branched into different approaches. they must delve deeper into natural intell igence first. However. It is the ultimate form of art. you can't recognize which is the artificial one. Memory was recogniz ed to be an electronic signal pattern in a closed neural network. ---------------------------------------------------Approaches to AI Initially. Even simple function s like face recognition. The progress in the development of parallel co mputing will aid it in the future. They tried to understand how cognition. in the sense that it operates by a simple set of rules. to create an equal. the neural networks developed have the ability to learn patterns and remember. another in telligent being. conducting electric signals through its n etwork. pattern recognition and language compreh ension were beyond their programming skills! They understood that to create an AI. This approach has its limitations due to the scale and complexity of d eveloping an exact replica of a human brain. Expert Systems: This is the top down approach. researchers thought that creating an AI would be simply writing progr ams for each and every function an intelligence performs! As they went on with t his task. At an individual level. were dashed hopelessly as they realized how much the y had underrated the human mind's capabilities! How do you teach a machine to imagine? They realized that they must understand w hat makes natural intelligence. if you question a human and an artificially intelligent being and if by their answers. then you have succeeded in cre ating artificial intelligence. It is like the dialectic .

Swarm Intelligence: This is an approach to. They have total expertise in a specific domain of human thought. these are machines devoted to solving problems in very specific niche areas. An entire manufacturing process is now totally automated. Chess computers like Fritz and its successors that beat chess grandmaster Kaspar ov are examples of expert systems. Chess is known as the drosophila or experimen tal specimen of artificial intelligence. Aviation: Air lines use expert systems in planes to monitor atmospheric conditio ns and system status. They devel op intelligent systems by creating agent programs that mimic the behavior of the se natural systems! Is artificial Intelligence really possible? Can an intelligence like a human min . The prima ry goal of creating an artificial intelligence still remains a distant dream but people are getting an idea of the ultimate path which could lead to it. Here. Applications of AI Artificial Intelligence in the form of expert systems and neural networks have a pplications in every field of human endeavor. As the name expert systems suggest. Robotic pilots carry out complex maneuvering techniques of unmann ed spacecrafts sent in space. This is an intensive approach as opposed to the extensive approach in neural net works. They combine precision and computa tional power with pure logic. Their tools are like those of a detective or sleuth. programmers study how intellige nce emerges in natural systems like swarms of bees even though on an individual level. robot expert systems are taking over many jobs in industries that are da ngerous for or beyond human ability. controlled and maintained by a computer system in car ma nufacture. The plane can be put on auto pilot once a course is set fo r the destination. Some of the applications divided by domains are as follows: Heavy Industries and Space: Robotics and cybernetics have taken a leap combined with artificially intelligent expert systems.approach in philosophy. They study relationships in nature like the prey-predator relationships that give an insight into how intelligence emerg es in a swarm or collection from simple rules at an individual level. intelligent storage management systems and many more such tools. Pr evious data is fed to a neural network which learns the pattern and uses that kn owledge to predict weather patterns. to solve problems and reduce error in operation. Weather Forecast: Neural networks are used for predicting weather conditions. computer chip production and almost every hi gh-tech process. as well as application of artificial intelligence similar to a neural network. machine tool production. symbolic program ming. object oriented programming. Computer Science: Researchers in quest of artificial intelligence have created s pin offs like dynamic programming. a bee just follows simple rules. A lready. Finance: Banks use intelligent software applications to screen and analyze finan cial data. They arrive at a decision through a logical flow developed by answering yes-no questions. They carry out dangerous tasks like handling hazardous radioact ive materials. Softwares that can predict trends in the stock market have been creat ed which have been known to beat humans in predictive power. Japan is the leading country in the world in terms of robotics research and use. Th ey are programmed to use statistical analysis and data mining to solve problems.

Artificial intelligence is used for weather forecasting. ca nnot be predicted at present. such as in nuclear power plants. Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science that mak es the computers capable enough to perform complex tasks. Before disc ussing artificial intelligence's future. Robotics is the greatest success story. and unlike humans. never feel exhausted. only time can tell ! Even if such an intelligence is created. i.all tha nks to the intelligent systems. such as IBM ViaVoice software and Windows Vista. how much time it is going to take.Current Usage There are many applications of artificial intelligence at present. self-aware and intelligent as human beings? The answer to both these question s is inter-related. Stocks and commodities are being traded without any human interference . will it share our sense of morals and justice. Even some manufacturing processes are now being c ompletely undertaken by robots. such machines will be developed having basic common sense. which provi de accurate analysis of the data and helps make predictions based upon that data . Hope I have succeeded in conveying to you the excitemen t and possibilities this subject holds! --------------------------------------------Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science which aims at building m achines that can think. On top of that they are much m ore efficient than humans. Artificial intelligence is a very broad fie ld and includes not just computers but all the intelligent machines.d surpass itself and create its own image? The depth and the powers of the human mind are just being tapped. will it share our idiosyncrasies? This will be the next step in the ev olution of intelligence. tasks that requir e reasoning and intelligence. Some of them have been listed here. just like humans do. it might be possible. Spacecrafts are send by NASA and other space organizations into space. They can perform tasks at the speed of one click which we humans would take hours to do. It is also believed that they will be able to communicate with human beings. in the field of artificial intelligence.e. feel and take decisions just like humans do.is a question that nobody has an answer to. Artificial intelligence in the future will churn out machines and computers. Howe ver. It is also expected that the human mind functions. Also. such as learning by experi . ------------------------------------Artificial Intelligence's Future Usage What is the future of artificial intelligence? Can machines ever be as thoughtfu l. Read more o n pros and cons of artificial intelligence. whi ch are much more sophisticated than the ones that we have today. Artificial Intelligence . using both text and voice. let's understand exactly what artificia l Intelligence is all about. th e speech recognition systems that we see today. especially pertaining to a real world problem. Banks and other financial institutions rely on intelligent software. Who knows. It is used by airlines to keep a check on its system. Robots are being used in industrial processes. will artificial intelligence be able to create machines that are self-aware and even more intelligent than human beings . the y lack the potential to make a complex decision. although pertaining to specific areas onl y. It is expected that in the future. which ar e completely manned by robots. For example. and understand the real life situations based on p ast experience. Computers have made our lives very easy. Usage of artificial intelligence is quite evident in various speech recognition systems. will become more sophisticated a nd it is expected that they will reach the human performance levels in the futur e. even if this is possible. in unstructured English in the coming few years. However. similar to human beings. t hat are dangerous to human beings.

conce rn and empathy the robot nurse will have towards the patient is anybody's guess! Read more on disadvantages of artificial intelligence. they can obt ain a robot nurse who will give periodic medicines to them. John McCarthy identified this problem in 1969[46] as the qualification problem: for any commonsense rule that AI researchers care to represent. Will they be able to solve "the problem of the mind" and incorp orate all the human. CCortex . and Swiss government's IBM sponsored Blue Brain Project. there tend to be a huge number of exceptions. causes and effects. Among the things that AI needs to represent are: objects. California. most of these algorithms can require enormous computati most experience a "combinatorial explosion": the amount of memory onal resources or computer time required becomes astronomical when the problem goes beyond a c ertain size. Read more on artificial intelligence and the future of man. states and time." For examp le. Whether it is office work or the work at home. mental.and many other. employing concepts from probability and economics. sings. categories and relations between objects. properties. AI research had also developed highly successful methods for dealing with uncertain or incomplet e information. Thus.*[37] *Human beings solve most of their problems using fast. research and experiments are being conduct ed to recreate the human brain. It is expected that the robots in future. A complete rep resentation of "what exists" is an ontology of which the most general are called upper ontologies* Among the most difficult problems in knowledge representation are: Default reasoning and the qualification problem Many of the things people know take the form of "working assumptions. Many of the problems machines are expected to solve will require extensive knowl edge about the world. people typically picture an animal that is fist sized. In fact. situations.[47] *The breadth of commonsense knowledge The number of atomic facts that the average person knows is astronomical. robots will accomplish it even more fast er and efficiently than human beings. [edit]*Knowledge representation* Main articles: Knowledge representation and Commonsense knowledge *Knowledge representation and knowledge engineering are central to AI research. a project by Artificial Development In c. are two main ventures.knowledge about knowledge (what we know about what other people know).ence.. How much care. whose goal is to simulate the human brain. intuitive judgments rathe r than the conscious.*[35] By the late 1980s and '90s. will take on everybody's work. Almost nothing is simply true or false in the way that abstract logic requires. neural net research attempts to simulate the stru ctures inside human and animal brains that give rise to this skill. reasoning. less well researched domains. artificial intelligence is still in its infancy.*[38] AI has made some progress at imitating this kind of "sub-symbolic" p roblem solving: embodied agent approaches emphasize the importance of sensorimot or skills to higher reasoning. learning by rehearsal. cognition and perception will also be performed by future intelligent machines. Whether this brain wi ll have human consciousness incorporated in it . emotional qualities in the machines? Let's wait and watch! ---------------------------------------------------------------*Deduction. and artificial intelligen ce's future depends upon the capability of the scientists to crack the puzzle of the human mind. if a bird comes up in conversation. None of these things are true about all birds. The search for more efficient problem solving algorithms is a high priority for AI research. problem solving Early AI researchers developed algorithms that imitated the step-by-step reasoni ng that humans were often assumed to use when they solve puzzles. step-by-step deduction that early AI research was able to model.[36] *For difficult problems.there is still no answer for th at. Resear . play board gam es or make logical deductions. So if somebody's falling ill. AI research has explored a number of solutions to this problem. and flies. events.

[51] Knowledge like this informs. For example.*[53] In classical planning problems. Cyc) require enormous amounts of laborious ontological engineering t hey must be built. it is hoped that situated AI or computational intelligence will provide ways to represent this kind of knowledge. supports and provides a context for symbo lic.*[62] [edit]Motion and manipulation Main article:* Robotics The field of robotics is closely related to AI. Classification is us ed to determine what category something belongs in.[56] [edit]Learning Main article: *Machine learning Machine learning has been central to AI research from the beginning. Main article: *Natural language processing Natural language processing gives machines the ability to read and understand th e languages that humans speak.[60] [edit]Natural language processing AI uses sensors and intelligent algorithms to avoid obstacles and navigate stair s.ch projects that attempt to build a complete knowledge base of commonsense knowl edge (e.A major goal is to have the computer understand enough concepts to be able to learn by reading fro m sources like the internet. As with the related problem of sub-symbolic reasoning.[54] However.. Some straightforwa rd applications of natural language processing include information retrieval (or text mining) and machine translation. a chess master will avoid a particular che ss position because it "feels too exposed"[49] or an art critic can take one loo k at a statue and instantly realize that it is a fake. Supervised lear ning includes both classification and numerical regression. These can be analyzed in t erms of decision theory.[55] Multi-agent planning uses the cooperation and competition of many agents to achi eve a given goal. They need a way t o visualize the future (they must have a representation of the state of the worl d and be able to make predictions about how their actions will change it) and be able to make choices that maximize the utility (or "value") of the available ch oices. with . it must periodically check if the world matches its predictions and it must change its plan as this becomes necessary. by reading the existing text available over the internet. the agent can assume that it is the only thing a cting on the world and it can be certain what the consequences of its actions ma y be. The mathematical analysis of machine learning algorithms and their performance is a branch of theoretical computer science known as computational learning theory.[50] These are intuitions or tendencies that are represented in the brain non-consciously and sub-symbolic ally. by hand. Intelligence is required for rob ots to be able to handle such tasks as object manipulation and navigation. Emergent behavior such as this is used by evolutionary algorit hms and swarm intelligence. *Regression takes a set of numerical in put/output examples and attempts to discover a continuous function that would ge nerate the outputs from the inputs. one complicated concept at a time. r equiring the agent to reason under uncertainty.g. if this is not true. Unsupervise d learning is the ability to find patterns in a stream of input. conscious knowledge. using concepts like utility. after seeing a number of exa mples of things from several categories. Many researchers hope that a sufficiently powerfu l natural language processing system would be able to acquire knowledge on its o wn. and thus be able to add to its own ontology*[citati on needed] The subsymbolic form of some commonsense knowledge Much of what people know is not represented as "facts" or "statements" that they could express verbally.[51] [edit]Planning Main article: *Automated planning and scheduling Intelligent agents must be able to set goals and achieve them. In reinforcement learning[59] the agent is r ewarded for good responses and punished for bad ones.

* [edit]Perception Main articles: *Machine perception. Machine translation.[73] .*[citation needed] [edit]General intelligence Main articles: Strong AI and AI-complete Most researchers hope that their work will eventually be incorporated into a mac hine with general intelligence (known as strong AI). it should have normal emotions it self.facial recognition and object recognition. For example. is believ ed to be AI-complete: it may require strong AI to be done as well as humans can do it. A related area of computational research is Arti ficial Intuition and Artificial Imagination. specific task like ma chine translation requires that the machine follow the author's argument (reason ). and faithfully reproduce the aut hor's intention (social intelligence). decision theory. or systems that i dentify and assess creativity). mapping (learning what is around you) and motion planning.* [edit]Social intelligence Main article: Affective computing Kismet.[13] A few believe that anthropomorphic features like artificial consciousness or an artificial brain m ay be required for such a project. therefore. sonar and others more exotic) to deduce aspects of the world. for good human-computer interaction. know what is being talked about (knowledge). At best.) Also. combining all the skills ab ove and exceeding human abilities at most or all of them. by understanding their motives and emotional states. you must solve them all. a robot with rudimentary social skills Emotion and social skills[70] play two roles for an intelligent agent. mi crophones. Compute r vision is the ability to analyze visual input. First.[71][72] Many of the problems above are considered AI-complete: to solve one problem. a s well as the ability to model human emotions and the perceptual skills to detec t emotions.* [edit]Creativity Main article: *Computational creativity A sub-field of AI addresses creativity both theoretically (from a philosophical and psychological perspective) and practically (via specific implementations of systems that generate outputs that can be considered creative. even a straightforward. it must be able *to predict the actions of others. A few selected subproblems are speech recognition. (This involves elements of game theory. Computer vision.sub-problems of localization (knowing where you are). and Speech recognition Machine perception is the ability to use input from sensors (such as cameras. At the very least it must appear polite and sensi tive to the humans it interacts with. an intelligent machine a lso needs to display emotions.

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