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cPa ge

  

        c      .

 The investigation of key features of Spartan society to the Battle of Leuctra 371 BC. c      . through a range of archaeological and written sources and relevant historiographical issues.

milk. The mountain ranges situated around Sparta provided excellent hunting grounds and valuable timber. Bees were also colonised to provide wax and honey. Sparta had to import copper and tin to make bronze they were able to mine iron and lead and the coastline produced the molluscs from which purple/red dye was made. Messenia is a land of fine fruits and innumerable streams. sheep and pigs which produced . wool and hides. this plain provided fertile soil for agricultural and pastoral activities. Animals were grazed on the lands such as cattle. olives. grapes and figs. natural features and resources of ancient Sparta\ Setting and natural features ʹ Sparta was situated around 200 meters above sea level at the northern end of the alluvial plain of Lakonia.eat.͟ INCLUDE PICTURE ʹ significant sites: Sparta    .   ʹ Strabo reveals that Laconia has much arable land and easy to cultivate and it forms a natural barrier from enemies. The Spartan climate was cold in winters and hot in summers.   ʹ the geographical setting. however a geological fault line ran through the valley causing earthquakes in the area. abounding in pasturage for cattle and sheep. the Parnon mountain range was situated on the eastern side and the Arcadian mountains on the northern side. These mountain ranges provided Sparta with a natural barrier around the valley. cheese. Laconia owns quarries of very costly marble. To the west of Sparta lay the Taygetus mountain range. ͞Whose fertile is greater than words can express. To the right of Sparta was the Eurotas valley. horses. Resources ʹ The rich agricultural lands produced barley. goats. wheat.

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and they dedicated a temple to Lycurgus when he died and revere him greatly ͟. Plutarch examined over 50 sources about Lycurgus that were all contradicting each other and he could not determine who he was. It appears to lim it the powers of the Kings and it was the particularly concerned with the establishment of the Gerousia. Herodotus also states that ͞By these changes they became a well - ordered state. However the great rhetra is missing information about the ephors which remains as an unknown question. The changes or reforms supposedly introduced by Lycurgus were in the form of the great Rhetra (any kind of saying or pronouncement from a bargain or a contract. The most important change noted by Plutarch was the establishment of the Council of Elders.  ʹ the issue of Lycurgus (the Great Rhetra) Lycurgus was a historical figure who handed down the laws of Sparta after consulting the will of the gods. through an oracle to a law) and probably date from the 7th century BC. The great rhetra was later amended and this was this amendment was called the Rider. The great Rhetra is significant because it was the foundation document of the Spartan constitution. What was the amendment 1 .

could dismiss the king and imprison him if he was doing a bad job. each m onth they offered sacrifices to Apollo for the city. responsible for foreign affairs and could expel a foreigner from Sparta and they accepted foreign ambassadors. controlled the Spartan magistrate. Therefore the king was a hereditary position. u‘ (privileges and honours) Received part of booty from war. u‘ (judicial) They had the right to fi ne anybody on the spot for almost no reason and could collect payment on the spot. u‘ (judicial) They decided on the marriages of orphaned or heiresses. Pa ge ʹ roles and privileges of the two kings The two kings were from the two leading families (Euryponyids and Agiads) amoung original Dorian tribesmen. they had to approve of going into conflict/battle and they were in charge of the agoge education system. it was the king͛s responsibility for the safekeeping of all oracles. The rol es and privileges of the two kings were u‘ (political) Sat as members on the gerousia (council of elders) and could take part in debates. A strong king however could persuade the gerousia to vote with them. u‘ (religious) They were chief priests. controlled all matters con cerning public roads. intermediaries between gods and men. The role of the Ephors was u‘ (political) could arrest anybody without going through protests.. They were responsible for criminal cases and had the right to implement capital change. each known to be made from the 5 original villages that made up Sparta. they had no more power than the other 28. Plutarch says .everyone stands except the Ephors and they were given double portions of everything ʹ government: h  ʹ There were five Ephors. unable to finalise a peace treaty but could establish arrangements and conditions for ratification by the assembly. Each member had to be 30 years or older and they could only be elected for this position once in their lifetime. on their death special ceremonies were held. given skins of sacrificed animals. They had a large role in war matters. put the king on trial. They also advised the kings. controlled the adoption of children. u‘ (privileges and honours) They ate together and the rules were more relaxed for them w hen they were in power. given seats of hon our at religious festivals. Aristotle said that the ephors were open to bribery which made the system corrupt and noted that the way they voted (shouting) was childish. ?  -   . The Kings appointed two pythioi to consult the Delphic oracle and report on the oracles directions.

ʹ social structure: Lycurgus was said to have changed how Spartan society was organised. He also said that if a man had 3 male sons the man could get out of the military and it was encouraged for citizens to have large families. craft work and trade were the duties of other ͚lesser. the spartiates not only got the land but also had Helots working on them to get food and water which provided them with economic freedom. groups. Plutarch says that all Spartans were supposed to own the sae amount of land to portray that they were all equal (homoioi) however Aristotle said that it was not equal and some allotments were smaller than others. He made it so that the Spartan citizens were given economic freedom and therefore agricultural. Spartiates ʹ The main criteria for belonging to the citizen class of Spartiates or exclusive homoioi were u‘ ownership of a plot of public land (kleros) the Kleros refers to a publically allocated piece of land that Spartans were given to sustain them. The property ownership of the land was considered very important. 2 .

If one person said no. if it was a no they would squeeze the bread. At the messes the men not only shared means but also political discussion s and stories of citizens great deeds. In this way the messes became another way of training and developing the young men. u‘ Successful completion of education and military system required (the agoge). ͚inferiors͛. the person would not be admitted because it was their wish that all should be happy in each other͛s company.   . Plutarch said that the eldest member of the mess would indicate the doors to each member entering and said ͞not a word goes out through these͟ indicating a private and secret talk. holding all political power. A Spartan became a member of a mess group by applying to join a particular one. By all accounts anyone desiring to join a mess was voted in the following way.Pa ge u‘ Birth ʹ a full Spartan had to be able to prove that he was descendent from the earliest sons of Herakles or the conquerors. the syssita was instituted because it was realized that by the Spartans being at home it was not easy to watch them and by organising the messes this would reduce disobedience and the drinking of wine was put to a stop. The Syssitia is the name given to the dinning mess to whi ch all Spartan men belonged. helots ʹ role of the Spartan army ʹ control of the helots: the military. some messes were more exclusive than others. (See education system)   . According to Xenophon. Each member would take a piece of bread and throw it in silence into a bowl which a servant carried on his head.   . They were a highly trained warrior class. If the vote was a yes they threw the bread as it was. u‘ Membership in a military mess and the sharing of common meals (syssitia). The Spartans would attribute the common meal to Lycurgus. This group formed elite in Spartan society.

helots ʹ educational system: . ʹ artisans.

education    ! ʹ land ownership: agriculture. ʹ role and status of women: land ownership.  . inheritance.

a rmour. pottery ʹ economic roles of the    .helots ʹ technology: weapons.

Apollo ʹ myths and legends: Lycurgus and the Dioscuri ʹ festivals: :  . ?  . Poseidon.  .dwellers around͛) and helots ʹ economic exchange: use of iron bars. trade  " #    $  ʹ gods and goddesses: Artemis orthia.

painted vases. bone and ivory carving ʹ architecture: Amyklaion. Menelaion. the Sanctuary of Artemis orthia 3 . ʹ religious role of the kings ʹ funerary customs and rituals      ʹ art: sculpture.

Thucydides. Pausanias. Xenophon.Pa ge ʹ writing and literature: Alcman and Tyrtaeus ʹ Greek writers͛ views of Sparta: Herodotus. Plutarch %    ʹ daily life and leisure activities ʹ food and clothing ʹ marriage customs ʹ occupations. 4 . Aristotle.

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