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co Politécnico Grancolombiano Bogotá, Colombia Joseph Tham Fulbright Economics Teaching Program Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam ThamJx@yahoo.com jtham@fetp.vnn.vn

Ignacio Vélez-Pareja is the Director of the Department of International Relations and Finance professor at Politecnico GranColombiano, Bogota, Colombia. Joseph Tham is a Project Associate at the Center for Business and Government, J.F.K School of Government. Currently, he is teaching at the Fulbright Economics Teaching Program (FETP) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Constructive feedback and critical comments are welcome. The authors may be contacted at: ivelez@poligran.edu.co, ThamJx@yahoo.com. Ignacio Vélez-Pareja will be the presenter at the conference of the European Financial Management Association, June 27-30, 2001 in Lugano, Switzerland. Contact Information Politécnico Grancolombiano Calle 57 N 3-00 E Bogota, Colombia Phone #: (571) 3468800 Fax #: (571) 3469258

**Firm Valuation: Free Cash Flow or Cash Flow to Equity?
**

Ignacio Vélez-Pareja ivelez@poligran.edu.co Joseph Tham ThamJx@yahoo.com jtham@fetp.vnn.vn

Abstract In a M & M world, the equity value is the present value of the Free Cash Flow FCF at the Weighted Average Cost of Capital WACC minus debt and it should be identical to the present value of the CFE (cash flow to equity) discounted at the cost of equity capital, e. In this paper the relationship between firm value calculated through the FCF and the CFE is examined. Several approaches to the firm value calculations are presented. We present a complex model where we compare the results obtained with the traditional M&M WACC found in the literature with the WACC approach presented by Harris and Pringle 1985. They make two assumpt ions that differ from the traditional M & M WACC. First, they assume that the discount rate for the tax shield is ρ, the return to unlevered equity. Second, based on the first assumption, the expression for e, the return to levered equity does not include the factor (1-T). Unlike the traditional WACC, the new WACC gives consistent results. However, the new WACC does not work if there are losses carried forward and/or the taxes are paid the following year. To solve these two practical issues, we present a ne w adjusted WACC. We call this adjusted WACC, TV WACC. In addition to the above-mentioned assumptions, this WACC is defined as a function of the real tax savings TS, earned. When this new approach is used, total consistency is found. In particular, with thi s new approach losses carried forward LCF and taxes paid at a different date as accrued, are taken into account and we obtain consistent values. Keywords Firm valuation, NPV, Free Cash Flow, FCF, Cash Flow to Equity, CFE, Cash Flow to Debt, CFD, Discounted Cash Flow, DFC. JEL Classification: D92, E22, G12, G31, M40, M41, M46

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In this paper the relationship between firm value calculated through the FCF and the CFE is examined. However. the new WACC gives consistent results. However. We call this adjusted WACC. this WACC is defined as a function of the real tax savings TS. are taken into account and we obtain consistent values. They make two assumptions that differ from the traditional M & M WACC. the new WACC does not work if there are losses carried forward and/or the taxes are paid the following year. we present a new adjusted WACC. the return to unlevered equity. Second. Value arises from expectations. Where value lies? Some people think that the value of a firm is found in the financial statements. To solve these two practical issues. When valuing a firm the idea is to measure that value. Anyone could buy it. the equity value is the present value of the Free Cash Flow FCF at the Weighted Average Cost of Capital WACC minus debt and it should be identical to the present value of the CFE (cash flow to equity) discounted at the cost of equity capital. First. In fact. Not even a dollar was earned and they sold the stocks for skyrocketed prices. Just remember the boom of the dot com firms. a plan and a team led by an outstanding manager. In particular. We present a complex model where we compare the results obtained with the traditional M&M WACC found in the literature with the WACC approach presented by Harris and Pringle 1985. To understand these ideas assume that there is a box with a machine inside. they assume that the discount rate for the tax shield is ρ. e. the return to levered equity does not include the factor (1-T). it has the capacity to create wealth and value. if that machine is accompanied by a strategy. if she pays the price listed on the price tag. Value will never be found in accounting statements. And where are these expectations? They are in the future cash flows. TV W ACC. total consistency is found. she will ask for a premium in order not to start the project. In addition to the above -mentioned assumptions.Introduction In a M & M world. if somebody asks the owner of that project not to develop it. earned. What were they buying? Just value expectations. 2 . Unlike the traditional WACC. the expression for e. When this new approach is used. Several approaches to the firm value calculations are presented. The problems arise because what is sold is the value that can be created in the future. with this new approach losses carried forward LCF and taxes paid at a different date as accrued. based on the first assumption. greater that its price. And this value is based on expectations of what the machine and the team could do in terms of wealth creation.

This WACC assumes that there are no losses and there are no losses carried forward (LCF) and taxes are paid the same year as accrued. We will examine the WACC proposed by Harris and Pringle (1985) and we call it the HP WACC. current practice find that this does not happens. e is calculated as e = ρ + (1-T) (ρ – d)D%/E% (2) And the discount rate for the tax shield is d. We will show how using different approaches we arrive at different figures and we will show approaches that produce consistent results and those that do not. We will call this the MM WACC. In the traditional presentation. based on the first assumption. We assume that there are no losses and there are no losses carried forward (LCF) and taxes are paid the same year as accr ued. Second. measures this future value. for the firm at the Weighted Average Cost of Capital and subtracting the debt or discounting the cash flow to equity holders CFE. these two values must be equal. Some background on WACC In the literature we find the traditional presentation for WACC for discounting the FCF excluding tax savings from interest payments. this traditional formulation does not work in the finite period cash flows. However. D% is the proportion of debt in total value and T is tax rate. The problem lies in what is the correct discount rate to be used to discount the cash flows.Discounting the free cash flow FCF. If there are LCF neither of the two expressions for WACC works. at the cost of equity. e = ρ + (ρ – d)D%/E% (3) In practice we encounter losses carried forward (LCF). the discount rate for the tax shield is ρ. d is the cost of debt before taxes. This HP WACC differs from the MM WACC in two significant ways. First. This is. Then the correct WACC proposed by Tham & Velez (TV) is TV WACC = ρ – TS/(Total levered value) (4) 3 . Unfortunately. This paper studies this problem. E% is the proportion of equity in the total value. It is expresse d as WACC = eE% + d(1-T)D% (1) Where e is the cost of equity. These two values are not equal. In a M & M world. the expression for e does not include (1T).

In this paper we will show a comparison between the results obtained with the thre e versions for WACC1. These financial statements are all linked. accounts receivable and payable policies. risk premium and debt ratio (accounting debt ratio)) for each year. In the Cash Budget you will find that when the balance is in red. Tables A8 to A11 present the forecasts of every variable including units sold. It has the feature that considers tax savings when they are in fact earned. 2000 2 It is assumed that this amount of cash is deposited in a check account that is a nonbearing interest account. WACC = eE% + dD% . With these inputs we calculate interest rates (from real rates. dividend and inventory “policies”. We recognize that many other WACC are found in the literature. From tables A12 to A16. 1 4 . the financial statements: Balance Sheet. See Taggart 1991 and Fernandez.TdD/(Total levered value) WACC = eE% + dD% .TdD% WACC = eE% + dD% . a cash cushion 2. the “plug” is a decision: either to borrow money or to invest it (or leave it in the bank). In tables A1 to A7 are the inputs. automatically it determines how much to borrow We are restricting our comparison to the traditional MM WACC. prices increases and an elasticity function among others.TS/(Total levered value) WACC = ρ . P&L statements and Cash Budget or Working Cash Statement. equity investments. It can be seen as a different presentation of the typical WACC formula. prices. The complex model has several modules (See Annex). volume increases. In line 4. There is not what some authors call “plugs” (an account where any difference between total assets and liabilities plus equity are included in order the Balance Sheet checks). The inputs include initial costs. prices and the rest.TS/(Total levered value) (5) (6) (7) (8) This presentation is the most general way to express WACC. As it is invested in the firm. the TS refers to the difference in the tax shield between the levered cash flows and the unlevered cash flows. it is expected to earn at least the WACC. In reality.This last version of WACC assumes ρ as the discount rate for the Tax savings. A Complex Model All these approaches work with a complex model. And this means that losses carried forward are included in the analysis. This information is used to calculate firm value and NPV in order to compare with market values. inflation.

With this information. A very important feature is the losses carried forward LCF. It is calculated just as it is expected it will be in the Cash Budget. cash cushion. interest paid. To reinvest cash surpluses. the WACC and firm value. we calculate in the last part. In the complex model. the FCF is constructed from the Cash Budget balance and deduct all the items related with the financing: loans received and paid. the analysis with WACC is inconsistent. Tables A18 and A19 present the cash flow construction. etc. 3. Not all the options are used in the example presented in the Annex. dividends and tax savings. The FCF. In all cases it is assumed that taxes are paid at the same year as accrued. This is quite important because this means that tax savings are earned when taxes are paid. PV(FCF) = PV(CFE) + PV(CFD) does not hold. To make inflation adjustments 2. These inconsistencies are solved using the Adjusted WACC or TV WACC = ρ – TSt /(Total value at t-1). unless you use d(1-T) as the cost of debt after taxes. payout ratios. 5 . All this means that it is not necessary to consider changes in working capital as with other methods. The possibility to consider inventory. Another features of the model are the presence of an elasticity factor that relates price increase and demand. consistency is obtained. the calculations of firm value and the different WACC’s are done when there are losses and LCF and when there are no losses. We present the value calculations for the three WACC approaches presented above. When Adjusted WACC is used. Table 17 shows the expected WACC and growth beyond year 4. The cost of debt after taxes is calculated as the IRR for the CFD. When tax savings are not earned (for instance. In the cash budget the dividends paid are included. equity from stockholders. CFD and the CFE. These options are handled with a dummy variable.taking into account the cash cushion. These calculations are done fixing ρ for year 0. It doesn't matches if the cost of debt after taxes is calculated from CFD after taxes or if taxes are paid next year. As can be observed. is included. Tables A20 to A33. when there are losses) and losses carried forward. In this model there exists some options: 1. To pay taxes the same year as accrued or not. accounts receivable and payable policies.

with the traditional MM WACC.8.3. with the HP WACC. there is a difference of 376. which is higher than the previous value by 933. which is higher than the previous value by 2. the losses are carried forward and taxes are paid the same year.3. there is a difference of 1. This means a lower WACC. the present value is $47. There are also differences when calculating the market equity value. The present value of the FCF at the TV WACC (total market value) is $47.2. the present value is $48.7. When calc ulating the Adjusted Present Value APV.5. The reason the present value with the HP WACC is higher is because the difference in tax savings due to the LCF.9. When calculating the Adjusted Present Value APV. the present value is $32. which is higher than the previous value by 115. This means a lower WACC.275. where we assume that there are losses.765.250. there is a difference of 253. The differences are the same when calculated as Total value less debt. which is higher than the previous value by 1.The results for the first case are summarized in Table 1 Panels A and B.316. The differences are the same when calculated as Total value less debt. for the same reasons. there differences. The reason the present value with the HP WACC is higher is because the difference in tax savings due to the LCF. the present value is $33.291. The present value of the FCF at the TV WACC (total market value) is $47.9.176. However.4.9. the present value is $48. The results for the second case are summarized in Table 2 Panels A and B. when the market equity value is calculated from the CFE at e.066. with the HP WACC. when the market equity value is calculated from the CFE at e.176. There are also differences when calculating the market equity value.439. 6 . When calculating the Adjusted Present Value APV. which is higher than the previous value by 1. The present value of CFE at e under TV WACC assumptions is 31.3.996. The reasons for this difference are the lower value for e (due to the (1-T) factor) and the difference in tax savings due to the LCF. However. the present value is the same. with the traditional MM WACC. where we assume that there are no losses and taxes are paid the same year.312.9.225. Another reason is the difference in tax savings due to the LCF. with the HP WACC. With the traditional MM WACC. The present value of the FCF at the TV WACC (total market value) is $47.4. The reason the present value with the MM WACC is higher is because the discount rate for the tax shield is d lower than ρ. The present value of the FCF at the TV WACC (total market value) is $47.1. there is no difference. The reason the present value with the MM WACC is higher is because the discount rate for the tax shield is d.4. for the same reason.1. lower than ρ.505.3. for the same reason. When calculating the Adjusted Present Value APV.505.8.

9.9. The present value of CFE at e under TV WACC assumptions is 31.329. the present value is the same. The reasons for this difference are the lower value for e (due to the (1-T) factor) and the difference in tax savings due to the LCF. which is higher than the previous value by 933.8.395.there differences. 7 . With the traditional MM WACC. the present val ue is $32. with the HP WACC.

From columns (4) and (5) it can be seen that in this case TV WACC and HP WACC differ.4 253.7 Column (1) of Table 1 (panels A and B) shows the name of the procedure to calculate Total or Equity value.1 1.379. Column (6) shows the values when calculated with the MM WACC. In table 2 the traditional WACC (MM WACC) also shows inconsistencies among the different values and between those values and the TV WACC. losses carried forward and taxes paid the same year Total market value.319.5 1. Equity market value Value calculation (1) With TV With HP WACC (TV WACC WACC = ρ – e=ρ+(ρ-d)D/E TS/(Total (3) value) e=ρ+(ρ-d)D/E (2) 31.1 0.5 32. Value calculation (1) With TV With HP WACC (TV WACC WACC = e=ρ+(ρ-d)D/E ρ – TS/(Total (3) value) e=ρ+(ρ-d)D/E (2) 47.250. Both of them consider e=ρ+(ρ-d)D/E and assume ρ as the correct discount rate for the tax savings. Losses.5 48.765.225. if precision is desired.3 3.debt Equity value = PV(CFE @ e) 31.3 Difference with TV WACC (4) % over TV With MM WACC WACC e= (5) ρ+(1-T)(ρ-d)D/E (6) Difference with TV WACC (7) % over TV WACC (8) Total value PV(FCF @ WACC) Total value PV(CCF=FCF + TS @ ρ) Total value = PV(FCF at ρ) + PV(TS at d) 47.181.3 31.429. Columns (4) and (5) show the absolute and relative difference with the TV WACC.4 47.5 1.1 1.2 32.275. The very small differences between TV WACC and HP WACC might show that for practical purposes HP WACC is a good approximation.066. However.2% 32.066.316.4% 0. losses carried forward and taxes paid the same year Total market value.2 115.8% 48.176.debt Equity value = Total value (from CCF at ρ) .4 253.312.8% 7.9 1.3 Difference with TV WACC (4) % over TV With MM WACC WACC e= (5) ρ+(1-T)(ρ-d)D/E (6) Difference with TV WACC (7) % over TV WACC (8) Equity value = Total value (from FCF at WACC) . 8 .291. Losses.2% 0.996.In summary Table 1 Panel A. Columns (2) and (3) show the different values when the Adjusted or TV WACC = ρ – TS/(Total value) and HP WACC = eE% + d(1-T)D%. Notice the internal consistency of TV WACC.3 47.2 2.debt Equity value = PV(FCF at ρ) + PV(TS at d) .115. this is WACC = eE% + d(1-T)D% where e=ρ+(1-T)(ρ-d)D/E Columns (7) and (8) show the absolute and relative difference with the TV WACC.3 31. TS.1% 4.2 2.312.4 115.4 31.5% Table 1 Panel B.0% 33. TV WACC should be used.4% 4.176.9 0.2% 2.996.489.066.

8 debt Equity value = Total value (from CCF at ρ) .329.8% Difference with TV WACC (7) 933. Columns (4) and (5) show the absolute and relative difference with the TV WACC.9 31.9 (0.9 (0.505.395.439.0% Column (1) of Table 2.395.0% Value calculation (1) Equity value = PV(FCF at ρ) +PV(TS at d) .8 0. No losses. In Table 1. taxes paid the same year and it is shown that there is no difference.9 47.0) 0.395. TS. taxes paid the same year With TV WACC With HP Difference % over TV With MM WACC (TV WACC = ρ – WACC with TV WACC e= (5) ρ+(1-T)(ρ-d)D/E TS/(Total value) e=ρ+(ρ-d)D/E WACC (4) e=ρ+(ρ-d)D/E (3) (6) (2) Equity value = Total value (from FCF at WACC) 31.debt 31.505. Column (6) shows the values when calculated with the MM WACC.0 0.9 31. Both of them consider e=ρ+(ρ-d)D/E and assume ρ as the correct discount rate for the tax savings.395. taxes paid the same year Value calculation (1) With TV WACC With HP Difference % over TV With MM WACC (TV WACC = ρ – WACC with TV WACC e= TS/(Total value) e=ρ+(ρ-d)D/E WACC (5) ρ+(1-T)(ρ-d)D/E (4) e=ρ+(ρ-d)D/E (3) (6) (2) 47.Table 2 Panel A No losses.505.395.772.9 % over TV WACC (8) 2. In table 2 the traditional WACC (MM WACC) shows inconsistencies among the different values and between those values and the TV WACC.0% 32. Notice the internal consistency of TV WACC and HP WACC.882. this is WACC = eE% + d(1-T)D% where e=ρ+(1-T)(ρ-d)D/E Columns (7) and (8) show the absolute and relative difference with the TV WACC.9 0.9 47.0% 376.0% 48. Columns (2) and (3) show the different values when the Adjusted or TV WACC = = ρ – TS/(Total value) and TV WACC = eE% + d(1-T)D% are used.395. 9 .505.0) 0.7 32.9 (0. shows the name of the procedure to calculate Total or Equity value.0) 0.329.9 (0.debt Equity value = PV(CFE at e) 31.9 1.0% 31.8 Difference with TV WACC (7) 933.84 933.0% Total value = PV(FCF at WACC) Total value = PV(CCF = FCF + TS at ρ) Total value = PV(FCF at ρ) + PV(TS at d) Table 2 Panel B.0% 47.9 % over TV WACC (8) 3.2% 3.8 47.7 376.0) 0. No losses.9 31. Panels A and B.

733.204.7 42. It can be shown that when taxes are paid the following year after accrual. the HP WACC and the TV WACC.773.534. Bibliographic References FERNÁNDEZ . terminal value accounts for more that 50% of the total value of the firm.3 2.763.050.110. We consider that this is the correct method.149. Market and book values ratios Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Book value for equity Market value for equity Market equity value/equity book val ue Book value for total assets Market total value Market total value/Book value for total assets 24.1 2.395. The last one.8 Tables 3 and 4 show the differences in market values when compared with book values. Working Paper.3 1.0 31.1 37. Losses.2 23. losses carried forward and taxes paid the same year.0 1.110.7 Year 4 30.J.3 1. The equity market values are taken from the calculations made with the TV WACC approach.030. R.1 2.S. The second one is consistent as long as there are no losses and/or losses carried forward.4 26.4 1.022.3 40.961.Table 3 No losses. Equivalence of the Different Cash Flow Valuation Methods.4 26.7 30.693.6 1.220.2 38. The first one produces inconsistent results.4 54.125.654. PABLO.221. taxes paid the same year.7 71. These differences are explained because the financial statements do not consider any terminal value.1 55. Journal of Financial 10 .8 67.953.3 1.1 37.708.6 55.2 63.7 43.8 39. 1985. the TV WACC.2 38.8 Table 4.000.719.3 1.0 47.8 1.5 54.9 1. They are the MM WACC (the traditional WACC). PRINGLE.000. Although not a formal proof.378.104. HARRIS .0 31.651.1 1. Frequently.5 2.0 47.9 1.193.8 67. “Risk-Adjusted Discount Rates – Extensions from the Average-Risk Case ". the only one that gives consistent results is TV WACC.505.8 39.809.2 24. Social Science Research Network.9 71. the tables give an idea on how much difference is present when the book values are used.9 1. 2000.3 40. AND J. Market and book values ratios Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Book value for equity Market value for equity Market equity value/equity book value Book value for total assets Market total value Market total value/Book value for total assets 24. produces consistent results either with no losses or losses and losses carried forward. Conclusions We have shown three approaches to calculate total and equity value with different expressions for WACC.721.066.176.8 62.

Fall. pp8-20 11 . Autumn. ROBERT A.. 1991.Research. JR. Financial Management. Consistent Valuation and Cost of Capital Expressions with Corporate Taxes and Personal Taxes. TAGGART . pp 237-244.

59% 30.00% This information can be obtained from macroeconomic forecasts made by the government or associations or universities.01% 1.62% 6.00% 10.247 0.00% Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 The purchase price is a function of Q.00% 7.0% 9.59% 28.00% 6.00% 11.62% 22. Fisher Theorem is used to compose the three components. Table A3 Risk free discount rate and risk premium estimates Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Real risk free discount rate Rate of interest for debt Risk premium for debt Effective rate before taxes Annual nominal rate compounded twice a year Effective rate after taxes 10.00% 10.00% 30.10% 0.90% 13.ANNEX FINANCIAL ASSESMENT FOR THE CREATION OF A FIRM LOSSES AND LOSSES CARRIED FORWARD (LCF) Table A1 External or macroeconomic variables Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Tax rate Inflation rate 40.00% Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 The quantity and increase in the market might be obtained by a marketing research.55% 28.95 0. Table A2 Market variables Quantity to sell at year t at price given at year 0 Increase in volume 7.59% 30.00% 6.62% 22.55% 22.00% 9.59% 30.62% 22.0% Year 3 40.00% 10.0% 40. 12 .00% 12. Table A4 Price and increase in price Year 0 Year 1 Purchase price Real price increase Annual increase in purchase price $2.55% 28.00% 10.00% 5.82% 1.00% Year 4 6.00% 4.00% This information can be estimated based on the behavior of bonds or simply setting the cost of debt from a contract between the firm and the debt holder.64% 12.00% 11.0% Year 4 40. the estimated quantity the market will buy.55% 28.

00 1.30% 12.98% $0. Price increases might be estimated based on historical data of similar firms. Selling price is the result of a market survey and/or the cost structure of the good or service.00 1.00 1.10% 10.00 0.90% 9.60 0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $40.00 1.60% 9. 13 .20% These are stated on a monthly base.76% 12.60% Year 3 Year 4 0.900% 13.00 1.44% $0.00 $0.00 0.67% 10.00% $0.9971 0.00 $0.9974 The elasticity function has to be found for the specific product or service we are dealing with.32% Year 4 $0.22% Year 3 $0.55% 3.20% 13.9996 0.80% 0.9978 0. Effect of price change upon demand.20% 11. (1-.70% 9.00 1.32% 3.10% 12.30% 11.00% $0. or simply a subjective forecast. an elasticity function calculated for the domestic water supply was used.11% 11.00 $145.10% 0.366*((1+increase in selling price)/(1+inflation)-1)) $5.12% $0.00 $0.00% $0.00 1.20% 11.000% 13. In the example.00 $0.00 $0.01% Year 2 $0. It is a function of selling price increase.00 Year 1 $0.43% $0.40% 12. Table A6 Costs Year 0 Monthly auditing fees Real price increase Increase in monthly auditing fees Monthly overhead Real price increase Increase in overhead Monthly payroll Administrative payroll Monthly payroll of selling force Real price increase Increase in payroll Sales commissions Fringe benefits and taxes over payroll 56.00 0.65% 3.00 $37.93% $160.00 $0.00 1.00 1.88% 0.00% $0.Table A5 Internal variables (endogenous) with some degree of negotiability Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Selling price Real price increase Increase in selling price Elasticity factor.34% 3.

00% 3.11 Year 4 8.81 Selling price Buying price 6.000.00% 30.00% 90. the increase in volume and the elasticity factor for the product or service.00% 10.243.127.00% 10.00% 30.000.00% 90.Table A7 Targets and/or operating policies Year 0 Advertising and promotions (% on sales) Equity contribution Fixed assets Depreciation (lineal for 5 years) Final inventory as percent of sales (units) Inventories valued at FIFO Percentage of sales receivedin the same year Percentage of sales receivedin the next year Percentage of payments made the same year as accrued (overhead and suppliers) Percentage of payments made the next year as accrued (overhead and suppliers) Percentage of net profits (dividends) paid to stockholders the year after obtained the net profits Minimum cash balance desired after financing deficits 8.00 This depreciation is based on the lineal method stated above.00 Year 4 8. Table A9 Depreciation Year 1 Year 2 Annual depreciation Cumulative depreciation 8.00 Year 3 8.56 7.50 8. Table A8 Forecasts based on Tables A1 to A7 Year 1 Year 2 Units sold (increase plus elasticity effect) S Final inventory in units FI Initial inventory in units II Purchases in units P = S + FI .000.00% 30.00% 10.000.00 32.00% 30.00% 90.01 3.66 7.00% 5.77 3.847.000.74 644.95 644.II 7.53 4.00 3.00% 90.000.399.36 Units to be sold are based on the initial market survey.00% 95.33% 24.66 0.000.28 3.733.79 Year 3 8.00% 110 120 131 160 160 Many variables are just policies or target the firm will pursue.00 8.93 674.00 40.00% 5.00% 95.00% Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 3.00% 95.13 8.74 8.00 7.00% 5. The nominal selling price increase defines the elasticity factor.000.424.00% 5.774.87 674.50 603.90 603.000.56 7.03 These prices are based on the initial selling and purchasing price and the price increase stated above. Table A10 Selling and purchasing prices Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 7.00 8.33% 8. 14 .00% 8.00% 3.00 16.33% 95.00 24.33% 8.000.096.17 699.00% 10.

76 38.68 40.989.62 3.00 (46.43 37.000.70 0.45 37. For instance.11 2.559.45 2.41 204.000.000.21 41.719.626.15 629.80 26.00 40.000.100.76 3.000.534.00 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 27.00 32.95 241.26 196.00 2.20 40.04 40.000.000. Net income 15 .35 1.38 0.34 1.67 1.70 490.21 3.37 159.055.00 24.00 16.91 24.66 390.20 181.082. Table A12 Balance sheet Year 0 Year 1 Assets Cash Accounts receivable Inventory Fixed assets Cumulative depreciation Net fixed assets Total Liabilities and equity Accounts payable (suppliers) Accounts payable (overhead) Fringe benefits accrued Interest charges accrued Accrued taxes Long term debt Total liabilities Equity Cumulative retained earnings Net income for the year Total net equity Total 24.000.650.000.00 32.16 747.030.719.00 16.814.50 7.456.000.37 2.26 692.985.00 2. In this table they are annualized.364.22 681.25 2.866. cash is the same value found in the Cash Budget as cumulative cash balance.69 40.88 40.34) 2.00 24.000.030.00 1.34) 23.000.30 2.000.000.147.813.149.61 0.00 24.574.64 441.00 4.711.33 All the financial statements are linked.000.541.96 1.312.00 39.166.076.12 24.449.00 40.00 16.574.50 15.61 186.91 249.00 8.00 4.654.00 8.293.25 1.00 5.28 2.02 2.654.00 2.12 612.56 564.04 1.110. 63 340.861.00 11.176.766.66 39.823.706.00 16.97 2.000.00 (46.81 270.00 12.221.00 40.75 2.05 1.953.67% payroll and commissions) Auditing fees Overhead Advertising and promotions These costs are based on the monthly based costs above.94 220.78 24.14 502.278.22 Year 4 2.888.95 Administrative payroll Administrative fringe benefits on payroll Sales force payroll Sales commissions Fringe benefits (annual premium 1/12 of payroll) Other fringe benefits (46.67 30.457.22 214.149.65 1.000.33 3.726.61 Year 3 2.06 2.00 0.48 2.110.178.00 110.534.Annual expenses Table A11 Administrative and selling expenses Year 1 Year 2 2.0 2.433.000.160.966.890.39 0.18 8.35 544.000.16 2.626.393.78 38.43 16.206.00 8.31 24.027.719.110.364.44 1.00 8.110.11 5. 58 2.68 227.583.267.69 41.03 37.398.000.273.888.39 245.

00 24.150.66 4.340.00 13.723.706.35 8.95 15.97 1.738.598.265.178.293.595.24 6.626. etc.450.61 2.40 340.61 692.75 1.45 2.553.for the year is the same found in the P&L statement.67 The figures for the P&L statements are based on the forecasts above.267.003.149.04 32.206. Items such as taxes will appear in the Balance Sheet in case taxes are paid the following year.456.16 22.00 1.480.11 2.000.138.44 8.631.000.38 5.34) 54.65 8.03 62.69 30.286.890.788.00 1.22 10.988.38 0.926.62 22.682.479.40 19.34 8.149.669.68 31.748.63 5.44 5.796.20 27.00 (46.00 8.05 5.57 1.16 21.823.79 18.600.93 33.97 2.220.95 2.00 1.000.30 1.574.04 33.22 2.32 390.198.988.38 629. There is no plug.00 (46.954.65 490. In this case.20 22. 16 . they appear as a cash outflow at the Cash Budget.393.97 8.705.13 4.000.31 2.982.888.37 27.68 26.11 2.300.293.61 7.00 2.452.626.664. and so on.37 4.364.572.15 2.364.88 37.39 502.00 3.34) 0.76 1.89 2.25 1.77 3.80 Year 3 Year 4 71.38 1.890.52 2.217.940.574. Table A13 Profit and losses statement Year 1 Year 2 Sales Cost of goods sold Initial inventory Purchases Final inventory Gross profit Selling and administrative expenses Payroll expenses Annual premium Auditing fees Selling commissions Overhead Depreciation Advertising Earnings before interest and taxes Other expenses (interest expenses) Earnings before taxes Taxes Net profit 45.931.37 1.755.243.11 3.888. Sales are simply quantity to be sold times the rice.966.50 441.70 564.

421.972.02 59.705. It is a financing decision that will be made with the cash balance below.32 2.35 40.22 2.22 2.72 4.20 2.000.37 1.98 1.60 0. Table A15 Cash budget: Cash outflows Cash outflows Suppliers Payments for purchases year 1 24.50 2.600.34 2.940.793.25 340.44 33.31 62.509.32 502.71 196.00 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Cash collection of sales year 1 Cash collection of sales year 2 Cash collection of sales year 3 Cash collection of sales year 4 Total income accounts receivable Equity in cash Total cash inflows 43.20 53.38 692.273.00 1.75 5.766.79 245.00 0.50 6.706.95 0.100.228.150.30 441.63 17 .61 0.456.364.00 0.149.02 50.67 71.27 1.Cash inflows Table A14 Cash budget: Cash inflows Year 0 Year 1 45.33 22.15 Total payments to suppliers Payroll and fringe benefits Annual premium year Auditing fees Commissions on sales Payment of overhead year 1 Payment of overhead year 2 Payment of overhead year 3 Payment of overhead year 4 Advertising Purchase of fixed assets Interest expenses Dividend payments Taxes Total cash outflows 40.595.300.72 24.64 2.664.16 54.966.95 220.37 62.504.626.147.34 1.081.39 564.504.69 71.00 680.32 27.63 1.452.205.70 629.65 3.702.00 0.00 4.96 51.783.43 43.450.26 24.210.000.11 Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 1.769.479.220.00 43.626.457.00 36.31 62.20 53.40 5.65 2.364.44 2.572.003.97 3.000.89 Payments for purchases year 4 33.00 1.35 2.480.69 43.67 71.72 In this table all the cash inflows are registered.589.00 2. It takes into account the accounts receivables policy stated above. It does not include loans income.66 2.50 3.76 30.39 30.982.783.205.62 56.00 1.888.359.340.903.37 1.689.000.902.93 24.988.985.97 1.228.205.00 3.44 5.115.57 Payments for purchases year 2 27.206.00 22.669.553.598.03 68.94 27.711.436.61 1.149.313.888.45 Payments for purchases year 3 31.670.65 390.115.

783.00 4.027.11% 10.00) (16. how much should beborrowed and how much can be paid with the available cash.06 16.00 4.29 12.813.313.027. These are included below.00 0.55 10.56 20.866.421.00 4.43 43.027.00% This table shows the growth and discount rate for determining the terminal value .71 0.000.000.893.191.10% 0.62 56.677.000.50 0.78 9.00 0.78 12.756.31 62.498. Table A16 Financing decision Year 0 Year 1 Total cash inflows Total cash outflows Net cash gain (loss) Cash balance at end of year Bank loans Repayment of loans (principal) Investment of surplus Net cash gain (loss) after financing Cash balance at end of year after financing and reinvestment 110.1 6.28 2.650.This table shows all the cash outflows.526.50 0.339.21 This table shows the information from the Cash Budget in order to make the financing decisions.00 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 24.205.67 71.00 110. These are. Table 17 Discount and growth rate beyond year 4 Discount rate for cash flows beyond year 4 Growth for year 5 Growth for year 6 and following years 23.72 (16.00 43.59 0.00 4. It does not include loans payment.811.228.00 0.05 14.20 53.312.50 0.00 40.12 31.000.00 2.504.62 27.702.783.79 8.783.972.63 6.02 50.00) 16.00 36.110.027.28 5.841.50 8.163. 18 .

89 Year 4 91.13 (Plus) 79.78 11.5 7.28 0.79 11.5 5.682.55 4.383.00 680.39 16.05 4.00 4.964.78 6.163.964.00 0.00 4.00) (460.251.29 14.Table A18 Construction of Free Cash Flow (FCF) from the Net Cash Gain at the Cash Budget Year 1 Net cash gain (loss) after financing Bank loans Repayment of loans (principal) Interest expenses Tax shield for interest payments Dividends Equity in kind Equity in cash Cash flow without terminal value FCF n+1 = (FCFn (1+Growth rate for n+1) Terminal value Free cash flow after taxes (Plus) (Minus) (Plus) (Plus) (Minus) (Plus) (Minus) (Minus) 2.477.00 4.383. the CFE.78 8.50 96.383.300.00 (1.29 5.627.36 11.407.251.881.00 0.717.00 0.912.756.783.5 17.29 14.097.717.39 5.00) 0.783.553.50 4.50 91.407.50 11.00 0.55 96.881.00 Year 2 5.00 0.69 18.027.251.5 6. starting from EBIT might introduce errors in the tax paid and the tax savings earned.59 0.00 11.783.383.28 Year 2 5.150.756.50 14.843.027.251.682.05 8.28 11.50 4.78 11. In particular.13% 8.00 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 8.682.50 2.627.027.50 8. Table A19 Cash Flow to Equity CFE and Cash Flow to Debt Cash flow for stockholder (dividends plus any cash ) Financing cash flow (after tax) CFD Cost of debt as IRR of after tax CFD Financing cash flow (before tax) Cost of debt as IRR of before tax CFD Free cash flow (FCF) Financing cash flow (CFD) Stockholder's cash flow (CFE) Check: CFD + CFE =FCF Year 1 2.769.600.843.55% 11. We do not use the approach to calculate FCF from EBIT or net profit because this method increases the probability of errors. 19 .34 1.50 2.00 (920.29 6.55 10. the cost before and after taxes calculated as the IRR of the CFD before and after taxes.39 96.498.380.39 This table shows the CFD.327.50 5.05 The FCF is calculated from the Cash Budget.00 1.881.50 3.00 0.627.464. Cost of debt is assumed constant.79 Year 3 8.60 0.450.79 0.177.881.50 28.027.097.00) 0.756.89 14.

05 20 .40% 25.00% 28.85 13.220.00% 28.00 4. We do not calculate the TS straightforward with the formula TdD.300.00% 28.383.682.327.00 4.75% 71.2736 96.39 71.00 4.7135 11.The next tables show the calculation of market values and the three different approaches to calculate WACC.00 40.027. TS are calculated in an explicit way.18% 35.477.027.171.90% 25. First.00 24.00 40.15% 47.29 8.00 40.TS/Total value at t-1 Market Total Value at t @ WACC 40.65% 25.50 Year 4 40.13% 0.027.05 This information is common for the three methods. we present the TV WACC approach. With the TV WACC approach.55% 40. Table A21 TV WACC and market value calculations Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 WACC after taxes = ρ .176.00% 28.39 4.027.50 5.30 15.220.50 0 3.55% 36.00 4. Table A20 Basic information for TV WACC calculations Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Tax rate Cost of debt before taxes Given nominal ρ year 1 and assuming constant risk Real ρ (deflated) Discount factor at ρ FCF Debt (balance) Initial Equity contribution (book value) Initial investment (fixed assets plus cash) Interest payments Debt payment Cash flow to debt before taxes Tax savings (TS = TdD) 16.380.38% 62.733.61 Year 4 97.600.150. we determine how much TS is earned according to the financial situation of the firm.50 6.78 54.176.763.142.50 40.627.50 7.61 In table the resulting WACC and market values are shown.110.50 460.763. except for the tax savings TS.000.34 11.50 8.30 Year 3 Year 4 36.110.13% 0.50 1. This is.29 62.027.78 12.055.55% 37.383.00 4.13% 0.733.881. It has to be remembered that there exists circularity and this is the result of iterations done by the spreadsheet.251.177. Table A22 Capital Cash Flow and market value calculations at ρ Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Capital cash flow (CCF = FCF + TS) Total value 47.55% 38.13% 0.3732 14.261.5137 11.50 920.00 1.15% 25.082.85 36.450.34 54.00 2.

383.11 47.082.998.13% 0. e and market value of equity calculation with CFE at e Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 e=ρ +(ρ -d)D/E CFE=FCF+TS-CFD PV(CFE at e) 46.110.682.73 1.34 45.082. are the same.783.29 8.83% 5.50 460.78 12.30 36. Table A25 Basic information for HP WACC calculations Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Tax rate Cost of debt before taxes Given nominal ρ year 1 and assuming constant risk Real ρ (deflated) Discount factor at ρ FCF Debt (balance) Initial Equity contribution (book value) Initial investment (fixed assets plus cash) Interest payments Debt payment Cash flow to debt before taxes Tax savings (TS = TdD) 16.50 1.50 7.849.00 1.881.00% 28.651.91 913.50 6.50 1.90% 25.00 4.708.13% 0.87% 91. TS are calculated in an explicit 21 .15% 25.00 4.11 53.34 41.39 4.3732 14.7135 11.150.300.843.55% 37.380.2736 96.000.50 5.35 38.027.178.964.883.477.027.251.00% 28.22 1.066.65% 25.00 4.11 In table the resulting e and equity market values are shown.Capital cash flow is defined as CCF = FCF + TS.027.55% 38.25 70.28 31.00 4.79 42.840.89 54.178.36 Capital cash flow and APV with the TS discounted at ρ.176.13% 0.12 61.450.55 67.50 Year 4 40.5137 11.00 40.40% 25.600.00% 28.50 920. In the following tables the HP WACC approach is presented.00 3.055.027.177.13% 0.998.99% 8.110.00 24.50 8. Table 24 CFE.027.756. It has to be remembered that there exists circularity and this is the result of iterations done by the spreadsheet. With the TV WACC approach.327.00 4.16% 2.627. except for the tax savings TS.39 Year 4 337.05 This information is common for the three methods.651.50 40.55% 40.55% 36.193.00 40.22 1.00% 28.00 2.00 40. Table A23 APV and market value calculations Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 PV(FCF at ρ ) PV(TS at ρ ) Total 45. In this table the market value is calculated directly with the CCF and ρ.

082.142. Table A26 HP WACC and market value calculation at HP WACC Year 0 ρ known Year 0 Debt Weight for Debt D% After tax cost of debt Contribution of debt to WACC Equity Weight for Equity E% et =ρ t + (ρ t – d)Dt -1/Et -1 Contribution of equity to WACC WACC after taxes Market Value at t @ WACC 47.29 54.490.62% 2.85 15.92% 5.1% 53.220.489.73 1.62% 1. Table A27 Capital Cash Flow and market value calculations at ρ Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Capital Cash Flow (CCF = FCF + TS) Total value 13.12 Year 3 61.78% 36.763.07% 22.94 77.39 62.96% 36.883.67% 22.62% 5. Table A28 APV and market value calculations Year 0 PV(FCF at ρ ) PV(TS at ρ ) Total 45.261. This is.058.42% 38.22 Year 1 45.88% 32.39 Year 4 70.324.05 71.60% 41.171.9% 71.00% 33.291.849.14% 30.62% 7.way.93% 46. are the same.61 Capital cash flow is defined as CCF = FCF + TS.99 Year 2 53.30 97. In this case we calculate the TS straightforward with the formula TdD. In this table the market value is calculated directly with the CCF and ρ.50% 37.33% 36. It has to be remembered that there exists circularity and this is the result of iterations done by the spreadsheet.22 2.99 48.91 913.11 87.22 2.08% 39.6% 62.45 94.28% Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 In table the resulting WACC and market values are shown.223.998.22 13.733.40% 22.47 65.07% 12.25 Capital cash flow and APV with the TS discounted at ρ. 22 .490.998.71% 22. we determine how much TS is earned according to the financial situation of the firm.87% 34. The HP WACC is calculated based on the contribution of each: the debt and the equity.939.78 48.36 337.1% 34.651.489.92% 22.

5137 11.00 40.964.89 54.00 1.13% 0.55 In table the resulting e and equity market values are shown.00% 28.783.316.50 7.78 12. we determine how much TS is earned according to the financial situation of the firm.00 24.00 40.843.055.50 1.00 4.600.55% 36.00% 28.43 Year 1 4.150. the MM WACC approach is presented.00 4.2736 96.50 920.36 Year 3 8.05 This information is common for the three methods. except for the tax savings TS.703.450.380.40% 25.28 32.79 42.110.316.29 8.300.000.Table 29 CFE. It has to be remembered that there exists circularity and this is the result of iterations done by the spreadsheet.192. Table A30 Basic information for MM WACC calculations Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Tax rate Cost of debt before taxes Given nominal ρ year 1 and assuming constant risk Real ρ (deflated) Discount factor at ρ FCF Debt (balance) Initial Equity contribution (book value) Initial investment (fixed assets plus cash) Interest payments Debt payment Cash flow to debt before taxes Tax savings (TS = TdD) 16.00 40.027.00 2. 23 .596. This is.110.00 4.13% 0.55 67.55% 40.50 460.00 4.00 4.00% 28.15% 25.43 Year 2 5.50 Year 4 40.383.327.55% 37.13% 0. In this case we calculate the TS straightforward with the formula TdD.00 3. Now.7135 11. and market value of equity calculation with CFE at e Year 0 CFE=FCF+TS-CFD PV(CFE at e) 32.082.027.50 5.840.251.3732 14.477.50 8.55% 38.00% 28.682.177.50 40. TS are calculated in an explicit way.13% 0.50 6.027.50 1.027.881.63 Year 4 91.65% 25. With the TV WACC approach.90% 25.627.027.631.39 4.

and market value of equity calculation with CFE at e Year 0 CFE=FCF+TS-CFD PV(CFE at e) Year 1 4.17% 22.83% 40.9 715.89 54.6% 54.783.27 87.51% 36.201.998.073.431.56% 22.08 94.04 Year 3 8.40 In table the resulting e and equity market values are shown.64% 29.429.843. Table A32 APV and market value calculations Year 0 PV(FCF at ρ ) PV(TS at d) Total 45.3 Year 2 53.62% 5.41 66.285.Table A31 MM WACC and market value calculations Year 0 ρ known Year 0 WACC calculations Debt Weight for Debt D% After tax cost of debt Contribution of debt to WACC Equity Weight for Equity E% et =ρ t + (1-T)(ρ t – d)Dt -1/Et -1 Contribution of equity to WACC WACC after taxes Market Value at t @ WACC 48.67% 31.2 1.7 1.02% 12.62% 1.62% 2.13% 38.501.66% 22. It has to be remembered that there exists circularity and this is the result of iterations done by the spreadsheet.65% 36.596.60% 35.985.964.998.2 1.06% 36.604.849.28 33.87% 22.082.55 67.4% 71. the CCF does not have any meaning. The FCF is discounted at ρ and the TS is discounted at d.68% 34.275.3 47.45% 33.41% 22.7 Year 4 70. It has to be remembered that there exists circularity and this is the result of iterations done by the spreadsheet.28% Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 In table the resulting WACC and market values are shown. The HP WACC is calculated based on the contribution of each: the debt and the equity.66 Year 4 91.883.5 Year 1 45.59% 43.79 43.62% 7.9% 33. 24 .34% 36.8 In this case.72 Year 2 5.91% 5. Table 33 CFE.5 Year 3 61.151.225.4 357.431.59 77.7% 62.

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