Está en la página 1de 376

)(0$36WUXFWXUDO

Verification Guide

Version 8.2
Proprietary and Restricted Rights Notice
This information product is licensed to the user for the period set forth in the applicable
license agreement, subject to termination of the license by Unigraphics Solutions Inc. at any
time and at all times remains the property of Unigraphics Solutions Inc. or third parties from
whom Unigraphics Solutions Inc. has obtained a licensing right. The information contained
within including, but not limited to, the ideas, concepts and know-how, is proprietary, confi-
dential and trade secret to Unigraphics Solutions Inc. or such third parties and the informa-
tion contained therein shall be maintained as proprietary, confidential and trade secret to
Unigraphics Solutions Inc. or to such third parties. The information contained within shall
not be copied or reproduced in any form whatsoever, nor is any information to be disclosed
to anyone other than an authorized representative of the user’s employer who is contractually
obligated not to disclose same, without express prior written consent of Unigraphics Solu-
tions Inc. The user of this information and the computer program(s) referred to herein retains
full control over and is solely responsible for the mechanical design of the user’s equipment,
machinery, systems, and products. Unigraphics Solutions Inc. makes no warranties of any
kind, including the warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose in respect
to the equipment, machinery, systems, and products derived or resulting hereunder, and the
user assumes all risks and liability for results obtained by the manufacturing, use or imple-
mentation of the computer program(s) described herein, whether used singly or in combina-
tion with other designs or products. Unigraphics Solutions Inc. shall not be liable for any
special or consequential damages. Unigraphics Solutions Inc. makes no warranty that the
equipment, machinery, systems, and products derived or resulting hereunder will not
infringe the claims of domestic or foreign patents and further does not warrant against
infringement by reason of the user thereof in combination with other designs, products, or
materials or in the operation of any process. User shall protect, indemnify and hold harmless
Unigraphics Solutions Inc. of and from any loss, cost, damage or expense arising from any
claim that is in any way associated with the computer program(s) described within. Data pre-
sented in examples do not necessarily reflect actual test results and should not be used as
design criteria.

By acceptance of this product, the user agrees to the above conditions and further agrees that
the product will not be exported (or re-exported from a country of installation), directly or
indirectly, separately or as part of a system, without user or user’s employer, at its own cost,
first obtaining all licenses from the United States Department of Commerce and any other
appropriate agency of the United States Government as may be required by law.
Copyright © 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998,
1999, 2000, 2001, 2002
Unigraphics Solutions Inc. All rights reserved.

Restricted Rights Legend: This commercial computer software, documentation, and related
materials are provided with restricted rights. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Gov-
ernment is subject to the protections and restrictions as set forth in the Unigraphics Solutions
Inc. commercial license agreement for the software, documentation, and related material as
prescribed in DOD FAR 227-7202-3(a), or for Civilian agencies, in FAR 27.404(b)(2)(i),
and any successor or similar regulation, as applicable. Unigraphics Solutions Inc., 10824
Hope Street, Cypress, CA 90630.

EDS, SDRC, I-DEAS, FEMAP, Dual Engine Geometry Modeling, FEMAP Professional,
FEMAP Enterprise and FEMAP Structural and the EDS logo are trademarks, registered
trademarks, or service marks of Electronic Data Systems Corporation or its subsidiaries. All
other trademarks, registered trademarks, or service marks belong to their respective holders.
The information contained within is subject to change without notice and should not be con-
strued as a commitment by Unigraphics Solutions Inc. Unigraphics Solutions Inc. assumes
no responsibility for any errors or omissions that may appear within..
EDS PLM Solutions

P.O. Box 1172, Exton, PA 19341


Phone: (610) 458-3660

FAX: (610) 458-3665

Web: http://www.femap.com

Conventions
This manual uses different fonts to highlight command names or input that you must type.

a:setup Shows text that you should type.

OK, Cancel Shows a command name or text that you will see in a
dialog box.

Throughout this manual, you will see references to Windows. Windows refers to Microsoft®
Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me, or Windows XP.
You will need one of these operating environments to run FEMAP for the PC. This manual
assumes that you are familiar with the general use of the operating environment. If you are
not, you can refer to the Windows User’s Guide for additional assistance.
Similarly, throughout the manual all references to FEMAP, refer to the latest version of our
software.
Table of Contents
Proprietary and Restricted Rights Notice

Overview

Linear Statics Verification Using Theoretical Solutions


Nodal Loads on a Cantilever Beam ....................................................................................4
Axial Distributed Load on a Linear Beam ..........................................................................6
Distributed Loads on a Cantilever Beam ............................................................................9
Moment Load on a Cantilever Beam ................................................................................12
Thermal Strain, Displacement, and Stress on Heated Beam ............................................15
Uniformly Distributed Load on Linear Beam ..................................................................18
Membrane Loads on a Plate .............................................................................................21
Thin Wall Cylinder in Pure Tension .................................................................................24
Thin Shell Beam Wall in Pure Bending ...........................................................................27
Strain Energy of a Truss ...................................................................................................30

Linear Statics Verification Using Standard NAFEMS Benchmarks


Elliptic Membrane ............................................................................................................34
Cylindrical Shell Patch Test .............................................................................................39
Laminate Strip ..................................................................................................................42
Hemisphere-Point Loads ..................................................................................................44
Z–Section Cantilever ........................................................................................................47
Skew Plate Normal Pressure .............................................................................................49
Thick Plate Pressure .........................................................................................................53
Solid Cylinder/Taper/Sphere–Temperature ......................................................................58

Normal Modes/Eigenvalue Verification Using Theoretical Solutions


Undamped Free Vibration - Single Degree of Freedom ...................................................65
Two Degrees of Freedom Undamped Free Vibration - Principle Modes .........................68
Three Degrees of Freedom Torsional System ..................................................................71
Two Degrees of Freedom Vehicle Suspension System ....................................................73
Cantilever Beam Undamped Free Vibrations ...................................................................76
Natural Frequency of a Cantilevered Mass ......................................................................78

Normal Modes/Eigenvalue Verification Using Standard NAFEMS Bench-


marks
Bar Element Test Cases ....................................................................................................82
Pin-ended Cross - In-plane Vibration ........................................................................83
Pin-ended Double Cross - In-plane Vibration ...........................................................86
Free Square Frame - In-plane Vibration ....................................................................89
72&

Cantilever with Off-Center Point Masses ................................................................. 92


Deep Simply-Supported Beam .................................................................................. 95
Circular Ring - In-plane and Out-of-plane Vibration ................................................ 98
Cantilevered Beam .................................................................................................. 101
Plate Element Test Cases ................................................................................................ 104
Thin Square Cantilevered Plate -Symmetric Modes ............................................... 105
Thin Square Cantilevered Plate - Anti-symmetric Modes ...................................... 108
Free Thin Square Plate ............................................................................................ 111
Simply-Supported Thin Square Plate ...................................................................... 114
Simply-Supported Thin Annular Plate .................................................................... 117
Clamped Thin Rhombic Plate ................................................................................. 121
Cantilevered Thin Square Plate with Distorted Mesh ............................................. 124
Simply-Supported Thick Square Plate, Test A ....................................................... 129
Simply-Supported Thick Square Plate, Test B ........................................................ 133
Clamped Thick Rhombic Plate ............................................................................... 136
Simply-Supported Thick Annular Plate .................................................................. 140
Cantilevered Square Membrane .............................................................................. 144
Cantilevered Tapered Membrane ............................................................................ 148
Free Annular Membrane ......................................................................................... 152
Cantilevered Thin Square Plate ............................................................................... 156
Cantilevered Thin Square Plate #2 .......................................................................... 161
Axisymmetric Solid and Solid Element Test Cases ....................................................... 164
Free Cylinder - Axisymmetric Vibration ................................................................ 165
Thick Hollow Sphere - Uniform Radial Vibration .................................................. 168
Simply-Supported Annular Plate -Axisymmetric Vibration ................................... 171
Deep Simply-Supported Solid Beam ...................................................................... 174
Simply-Supported Solid Square Plate ..................................................................... 178
Simply-Supported Solid Annular Plate ................................................................... 182
Cantilevered Solid Beam ......................................................................................... 186

Verification Test Cases from the Societe Francaise des Mechaniciens


Mechanical Structures - Linear Statics Analysis with Bar or Rod Elements ................. 191
Short Beam on Two Articulated Supports .............................................................. 192
Clamped Beams Linked by a Rigid Element .......................................................... 194
Transverse Bending of a Curved Pipe ..................................................................... 196
Plane Bending Load on a Thin Arc ......................................................................... 199
Nodal Load on an Articulated Rod Truss ................................................................ 201
Articulated Plane Truss ........................................................................................... 203
Beam on an Elastic Foundation ............................................................................... 206
Mechanical Structures - Linear Statics Analysis with Plate Elements ........................... 209
Plane Shear and Bending Load on a Plate ............................................................... 210
Infinite Plate with a Circular Hole .......................................................................... 212
Uniformly Distributed Load on a Circular Plate ..................................................... 215
Torque Loading on a Square Tube .......................................................................... 218
Cylindrical Shell with Internal Pressure .................................................................. 221
72& 

Uniform Axial Load on a Thin Wall Cylinder ........................................................225


Hydrostatic Pressure on a Thin Wall Cylinder ........................................................229
Gravity Loading on a Thin Wall Cylinder ..............................................................232
Pinched Cylindrical Shell ........................................................................................236
Spherical Shell with a Hole .....................................................................................239
Uniformly Distributed Load on a Simply-Supported Rectangular Plate .................242
Uniformly Distributed Load on a Simply-Supported Rhomboid Plate ...................247
Shear Loading on a Plate .........................................................................................251
Mechanical Structures - Linear Statics Analysis with Solid Elements ...........................254
Solid Cylinder in Pure Tension ...............................................................................255
Internal Pressure on a Thick-Walled Spherical Container ......................................261
Internal Pressure on a Thick-Walled Infinite Cylinder ...........................................268
Prismatic Rod in Pure Bending ...............................................................................274
Thick Plate Clamped at Edges .................................................................................279
Mechanical Structures - Normal Modes/Eigenvalue Analysis .......................................284
Lumped Mass-Spring System ..................................................................................285
Short Beam on Simple Supports ..............................................................................288
Axial Loading on a Rod ..........................................................................................291
Cantilever Beam with a Variable Rectangular Section ...........................................294
Thin Circular Ring ...................................................................................................297
Thin Circular Ring Clamped at Two Points ............................................................300
Vibration Modes of a Thin Pipe Elbow ...................................................................303
Cantilever Beam with Eccentric Lumped Mass ......................................................307
Thin Square Plate (Clamped or Free) ......................................................................311
Simply-Supported Rectangular Plate ......................................................................314
Thin Ring Plate Clamped on a Hub .........................................................................317
Vane of a Compressor - Clamped-free Thin Shell ..................................................320
Bending of a Symmetric Truss ................................................................................323
Hovgaard’s Problem - Pipes with Flexible Elbows .................................................326
Rectangular Plates ...................................................................................................328
Stationary Thermal Tests - Steady State Heat Transfer Analysis ...................................330
Hollow Cylinder - Fixed Temperatures ...................................................................331
Hollow Cylinder - Convection ................................................................................334
Cylindrical Rod - Flux Density ...............................................................................337
Hollow Cylinder with Two Materials - Convection ................................................340
Wall - Convection ....................................................................................................344
Wall - Fixed Temperatures ......................................................................................347
L-Plate .....................................................................................................................350
Hollow Sphere - Fixed Temperatures, Convection .................................................353
Hollow Sphere with Two Materials -Convection ....................................................356
Thermo-mechanical Test - Linear Statics Analysis ........................................................360
Thermal Gradient on a Thin Pipe ............................................................................361
Index ...............................................................................................................................365
Overview
This guide contains verification test cases for the FEMAP Structural solver. These test cases
verify the function of the different FEMAP Structural analysis types using theoretical and
benchmark solutions from well–known engineering test cases. Each test case contains test
case data and information, such as element type and material properties, results, and refer-
ences.
The guide contains test cases for:
• Linear Statics verification using theoretical solutions
• Linear Statics verification using standard NAFEMS benchmarks
• Normal Modes/Eigenvalue verification using theoretical solutions
• Normal Modes/Eigenvalue verification using standard NAFEMS benchmarks
• Verification Test Cases from the Societe Francaise des Mechaniciens
Linear Statics Verification Using
Theoretical Solutions
The purpose of these linear statics test cases is to verify the function of the FEMAP Structural
Statics Analysis software using theoretical solutions. The test cases are relatively simple in
form and most of them have closed–form theoretical solutions.
The theoretical solutions shown in these examples are from well–known engineering texts.
For each test case, a specific reference is cited. All theoretical reference texts are listed at the
end of this topic.
The finite element method is very flexible in the types of physical problems represented. The
verification tests provided are not exhaustive in exploring all possible problems, but represent
common types of applications.
This overview provides information on the following:
• understanding the test case format
• understanding comparisons with theoretical solutions
• references

Understanding the Test Case Format


Each test case is structured with the following information:
• test case data and information
- physical and material properties
- finite element modeling (modeling procedure or hints)
- units
- solution type
- element type
- boundary conditions (loads, constraints)
• results
• references (text from which a closed–form or theoretical solution was taken)

Note: . The node numbers listed in each case refer to the node numbers in the neutral
(.neu) files associated with this guide. If you remesh a model, or rebuild that
model from scratch, your node numbering may differ.


In addition to these example problems, test cases from NAFEMS (National Agency for
Finite Element Methods and Standards, National Engineering Laboratory, Glasgow, U.K.)
have been executed. Results for these test cases can be found in the next section, Linear Stat-
ics Analysis Verification Using NAFEMS Standard Benchmarks.

Understanding Comparisons with Theoretical


Solutions
While differences in finite element and theoretical results are, in most cases, negligible,
some tests would require an infinite number of elements to achieve the exact solution. Ele-
ments are chosen to achieve reasonable engineering accuracy with reasonable computing
times.
Results reported here are results which you can compare to the referenced theoretical solu-
tion. Other results available from the analyses are not reported here. Results for both theoret-
ical and finite element solutions are carried out with the same significant digits of accuracy.
The closed–form theoretical solution may have restrictions, such as rigid connections, that
do not exist in the real world. These limiting restrictions are not necessary for the finite ele-
ment model, but are used for comparison purposes. Verification to real world problems is
more difficult but should be done when possible.
The actual results from the FEMAP Structural software may vary insignificantly from the
results presented in this document. This variation is due to different methods of performing
real numerical arithmetic on different systems. In addition, it is due to changes in element
formulations which SDRC has made to improve results under certain circumstances.
References
The following references have been used in the Linear Statics Analysis verification prob-
lems presented:
1. Beer and Johnston, Mechanics of Materials, (New York: McGraw–Hill, Inc., 1992.)
2. Harris, C. O., Introduction to Stress Analysis, (1959.)
3. Roark, R. and Young, W., Formulas for Stress and Strain, 5th Edition, (New York:
McGraw–Hill Book Company, 1975.)
4. Shigley, J. and Mitchel L., Mechanical Engineering Design, 4th Edition, (New York:
McGraw–Hill Book Company, 1983.)
5. Timoshenko, S., Strength of Materials, Part I, Elementary Theory and Problems, (New
YorK: Van Norstrand Reinhold Company, 1955.)
Nodal Loads on a Cantilever Beam
The complete model and results for this test case are in file mstvl001.neu.
Determine the deflection of a beam at the free end. Determine the stress at the end of the
beam.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Types
bar

Units
Inch

Model Geometry
Length=480 in

Cross Sectional Properties


• Area = 30 x 30 in
• Iy =Iz = 67500 in4

Material Properties
• E = 30 E+06 psi

Finite Element Modeling


• 5 nodes
• 4 successive bar elements along the X axis


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
Constrain the left end (node 1) of the beam in all six degrees.

Loads
Set nodal force to 50,000 lb. in the negative Y direction.

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Beam End A1 Z Shear


Force Stress T2 Translation (Node 5)
(Node 1)

Bench Value 5333.3 0.91022

FEMAP Structural 5333.3 0.913

Difference 0% 0.30%

Reference
• Beer and Johnston, Mechanics of Materials, (New York: McGraw–Hill, Inc., 1992.) p.
716.
Axial Distributed Load on a Linear
Beam
The complete model and results for this test case are in file mstvl002.neu.
Determine the stress, elongation, and constraint force due to an axial loading along a linear
beam.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Type
bar

Units
Inch

Model Geometry
Length = 300 in

Cross Sectional Properties


• Area = 9 in2
• square cross section (3 in x 3 in)
• I = 6.75 in4

Material Properties
E = 30E+6 psi

Finite Element Modeling


• 31 nodes


• 30 bar elements along the X axis, each 10 inches long.

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
Constrain one end of the beam (node 1) in all translations and rotations.

Loads
Set the axial distributed load (force per unit length) to 1000lb/in for the 10–inch long ele-
ment (element 30) furthest from the constrained end.

Solution Type
Statics


Results

Beam End A1 T1 Constraint


T1 Translation
Axial Stress Force
(Node 2)
(Node 1) (Node 1)

Bench value 1111.1 0.0111111 -10,000

FEMAP Structural 1111.1 0.0109258 -10,000

Difference 0 1.6% 0

Reference
• Beer and Johnston, Mechanics of Materials, (New York: McGraw–Hill, Inc., 1992.) p.
76.
Distributed Loads on a Cantilever
Beam
The complete model and results for this test case are in file mstvl003.neu.
Determine the deflection of a beam at the free end. Determine the stress at the midpoint of the
beam and the reaction force at the restrained end.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Type
bar

Units
Inch

Model Geometry
• Length = 480 in

Cross Sectional Properties


• Area = 900 in2
• square cross section (30 in x 30 in)
• Iy = Iz = 67500 in4

Material Properties
E = 30 E+06 psi

Finite Element Modeling


• 9 nodes


• 8 successive bar elements along the X axis

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
Constrain the left end of the beam (node 1) in all translations and rotations.

Loads
Define a distributed load on the elements of 250 lb/in in the negative Y direction.

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Beam End A1Z Bend Total Constraint


Total Translation
Stress Force
(node 5)
(node 1) (lb)
Bench Value 6,400.0 0.8190 120,000
FEMAP Structural 6,400.0 0.8225* 120,000
Difference 0.0% 0.43% 0


* Includes shear deformation which is neglected in theoretical value.


Reference
• Beer and Johnston, Mechanics of Materials, (New York: McGraw–Hill, Inc., 1992.) p.
716.
Moment Load on a Cantilever Beam
The complete model and results for this test case are in file mstvl004.neu.
Determine the deflection of a beam at the free end. Determine the bending stress of the beam
and the reaction force at the restrained end.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Type
bar

Units
Inch

Model Geometry
Length = 480 in

Cross Sectional Properties


• Area = 900 in2
• square cross section (30 in x 30 in)
• Iy = Iz = 67500 in4

Material Properties
E = 30 E+06 psi

Finite Element Modeling


• 9 nodes


• 8 successive bar elements along the X axis.

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
Constrain the left end of the beam (node 1) in all translations and rotations.

Loads
Set the Z–moment of the end node (node 5) to 2.5e+6 in–lb.

Solution Type
Statics


Results

Beam End A1 Z Bend Total Constraint


Total Translation (in)
Stress (psi) Moment (lb.)
(node 5)
(node 1) (node 1)
Bench Value 555.6 0.1422 2.5E+06
FEMAP Structural 555.6 0.1422 2.5E+06
Difference 0 0 0

Reference
• Beer and Johnston, Mechanics of Materials, (New York: McGraw–Hill Inc., 1992.) p.
716.
Thermal Strain, Displacement, and
Stress on Heated Beam
The complete model and results for this test case are in file mstvl007.neu.
A beam originally 1 meter long and at -50° C is heated to 25° C. Determine the displacement
and thermal strain on a cantilever beam. In case 1, fix the beam at the free end. In case 2, fix
the beam at both ends. In both cases, determine the displacement, constraint forces, and
stresses along the beam.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Type
bar

Units
SI - meter

Model Geometry
Length = 1 m

Cross Sectional Properties


Area = 0.01 m2

Material Properties
• E = 2.068E+11 PA
• Coeff. of thermal expansion = 1.2E-05 m/(m-C)
• v = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


• 11 nodes


• 10 bar elements on the X axis.

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Case 1: Constrain the node on one end (node 1) of the beam in all translations and rota-
tions.
• Case 2: Constrain the nodes on both ends (nodes 1 and 11) of the beam in all translations
and rotations.

Loads
Set the temperature on all nodes to 25°C. Set the reference temperature to -50°C.

Solution Type
Statics


Results

Case: One Fixed End

Total Translation (Node 11)


Beam End A1 Axial Strain
(m)
Bench Value 9E-04 9E-04
FEMAP Structural 9E-04 9E-04
Difference 0 0

Case: Both Ends Fixed

Total Constraint Beam End A1 Axial


Total Translation (m) Force(N) Stress
(node 1) (Pa)
Bench Value 0 1.86+06 –1.86E+08
FEMAP Structural 0 1.86+06 –1.86E+08
Difference 0 0 0

Reference
• Beer and Johnston, Mechanics of Materials, (New York: McGraw–Hill, Inc., 1992.) p.
65.
Uniformly Distributed Load on Lin-
ear Beam
The complete model and results for this test case are in file mstvl008.neu.
A beam 40 feet long is restrained and loaded with a distributed load of –833 lb. Determine the
beam end torque stress and the deflection at the middle of the beam.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Type
bar

Units
Inch

Model Geometry
Length = 480 in

Cross Sectional Properties


• Rectangular cross section (1.17 in x 43.24 in)
• Iz = 7892 in4

Material Properties
• E = 30E6 psi

Finite Element Modeling


• 5 nodes


• 4 successive bar elements that are each 10 feet long

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
Constrain nodes 2 and 4 in five degrees of freedom. Do not constrain rotation about Z.

Loads
Define a distributed load (force per unit length) of -833 lb. (global negative Y direction) on
the elements 1 and 4.

Solution Type
Statics


Results

Beam End A1 Z Bend Stress


Total Translation (in)
(psi)
(node 3)
(node 3)
Bench Value 0.182 16,439
FEMAP Structural 0.182 16,439
Difference 0 0

Reference
• Timoshenko, S., Strength of Materials, Part I, Elementary Theory and Problems, (New
York: Van Norstrand Reinhold Company, 1955.) p. 98.
Membrane Loads on a Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in file mstvl009.neu.
A circle is scribed on an unstressed aluminum plate. Forces acting in the plane of the plate
cause normal stresses. Determine the change in the length of diameter AB and of diameter
CD.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Types
plate

Units
Inch

Model Geometry
• Length = 15 in
• Diameter = 9 in
• Thickness = 3/4 in

Material Properties
• E = 10 E+06 psi
• Poisson’s ratio = 1/3
• F(x)/l = 9,000 lb./in
• F(z)/l = 15,000 lb./in


Finite Element Modeling


Create 1/4 of the model and apply symmetry boundary conditions. Then multiply the answer
by 2 for correct results. Remember to account for the ratio of the circle diameter to plate
length.

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
Constrain nodes along adjacent sides of the plate to allow only translation along the corre-
sponding axis.
• Node 1: Fully constrain in all translations and rotation.
• Nodes 2-6: Constrain in the Y and Z translations and the X and Z rotations.
• Nodes 12, 13, 19, 25, 31: Constrain in the X and Y translations and the X and Z rotations.

Loads
Set the elemental edge load to 9,000 lb./in in the X direction and 15,000 lb/in in the Z direc-
tion.


Solution Type
Statics

Results

T1 Translation (in) T3 Translation (in)


Bench Value 4.8E-03 14.4E-03
FEMAP Structural 4.8E-03 14.4E-03
Difference 0 0

Post Processing
• (T1 translation at node 7 - T1 translation at node 10) x2 = (.004-.0016) x2 = .0048
• (T3 translation at node 7 - T3 translation at node 24) x2 = (.012-.0048) x2 = .0144
Reference
• Beer and Johnston, Mechanics of Materials, (New York: McGraw–Hill, Inc., 1992.) p.
85.
Thin Wall Cylinder in Pure Tension
The complete model and results for this test care are in file mstvl014.neu.
Determine the stress and deflection of a thin wall cylinder with a uniform axial load.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Type
linear quadrilateral plate

Units
Inch

Model Geometry
• R = 0.5 in
• Thickness = 0.01 in
• y = 1.0 in

Material Properties
• E = 10000 psi
• v = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


• 25 nodes
• Create 1/4 model of the cylinder with 16 linear quadrilateral plate elements and symmetry
boundary conditions.


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain node 1 in the X and Z translation and the Z rotation.
• Constrain nodes 2-4 in the Z translation.
• Constrain node 5 in the Y and Z translation and Z rotation.
• Constrain nodes 6, 11, 16, and 21 in the X translation and Z rotation.
• Constrain nodes 10, 15, 20, and 25 in the Y translation and Z rotation.

Loads
• Nodal forces of p/(pi)D = 3.1831 where p = 10 psi; Apply the following nodal forces:
• Nodes 21, 25: .9757 pounds
• Nodes 22, 23, 24: 1.9509 pounds

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Top Y Normal Stress


T3 Translation (in) T1 Translation (in)
(psi)
Bench Value 1000.0 0.1 -0.015
FEMAP Structural 1000.0 0.1 -0.015
Difference 0 0 0


Reference
• Roark, R. and Young, W., Formulas for Stress and Strain, 6th Edition, (New York:
McGraw–Hill Book Company, 1989.) p. 518, Case 1a.
Thin Shell Beam Wall in Pure Bend-
ing
The complete model and results for this test case are in file mstvl015.neu.
Determine the maximum stress, maximum deflection, and strain energy of a thin shell beam
wall with a uniform bending load.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Type
linear quadrilateral plate

Units
Inch

Model Geometry
• Length = 30 in
• Width = 5 in
• Thickness = 0.1 in

Material Properties
• E = 30E6 psi
• v = 0.03

Finite Element Modeling


• 14 nodes


• 6 linear quadrilateral plate elements

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
Constrain the nodes at one end (nodes 7 and 14) in all translations and rotations.

Out–of–plane Loads
Apply nodal forces (nodes 1 and 8) of p/w = 1.2 lbs/in. where p = 6.0 lb

Solution Type
Statics


Results

Plate Bottom Major


T3 Translation (in) Stress Total Strain Energy
Node 1 (psi) (lb in)
Node 7
Bench Value 4.320 21600 12.96
FEMAP Structural 4.242 20983 12.73
Difference 2.17% 1.39% 2.16%

Reference
• Shigley, J. and Mitchel L., Mechanical Engineering Design, 4th Edition, (New York:
McGraw–Hill, Inc., 1983.) pp. 134, 804.
Strain Energy of a Truss
The complete model and results for this test case are in file mstvl016.neu.
Determine the strain energy of a truss. The cross–sectional area of the diagonal members is
twice the cross–sectional area of the horizontal and vertical members.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Type
rod

Units
Inch

Model Geometry
• Length = 10 in

Cross Sectional Properties


Cross sectional area (A) = 0.01 in2

Material Properties
E = 30E6 psi

Finite Element Modeling


• 4 nodes
• 5 rod elements


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain node 1 in the X, Y, and Z translations and the X and Y rotations.
• Constrain node 3 in the Y and Z translations and the X and Y rotations.

Loads
• Apply nodal force in Y direction on node 2; p = 300 lb

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Total Strain Energy


(lb in)
Bench Value 5.846
FEMAP Structural 5.846
Difference 0

Reference
• Beer and Johnston, Mechanics of Materials, (New York: McGraw–Hill, Inc., 1992.) p.
588.
Linear Statics Verification Using
Standard NAFEMS Benchmarks
The purpose of these linear statics test cases is to verify the function of the FEMAP Structural
Statics Analysis software using standard benchmarks published by NAFEMS (National
Agency for Finite Element Methods and Standards, National Engineering Laboratory, Glas-
gow, U.K.).
These standard benchmark tests were created by NAFEMS to stretch the limits of the finite
elements in commercial software. All results obtained using the FEMAP Structural Statics
Analysis software compare favorably with other commercial finite element analysis software.
Results of these test cases using other commercial finite element analysis software programs
are available from NAFEMS.
A detailed discussion of the linear statics NAFEMS benchmarks can be found in the
NAFEMS publication Background to Benchmarks, cited below. The results for all of these
test cases illustrate the need for adequate mesh refinement for obtaining accurate stresses,
especially when using linear elements. The linear triangular and linear tetrahedral elements
are particularly poor performers for stress analysis and are not generally recommended.

Understanding the Test Case Format


Each test case is structured with the following information:
• test case data and information
- physical and material properties
- finite element modeling (modeling procedure or hints)
- units
- finite element modeling information
- boundary conditions (loads and constraints)
- solution type
• results
• reference

Note: The node numbers listed in each case refer to the node numbers in the neutral
(.neu) files associated with this guide. If you remesh a model, or rebuild that
model from scratch, your node numbering may differ.

References
The following references have been used in these test cases:


• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, The Standard NAFEMS Benchmarks,
(Glasgow: NAFEMS, Rev. 3, 1990.)
• Davies, G. A. O., Fenner, R. T., and Lewis, R. W., Background to Benchmarks, (Glas-
gow: NAFEMS, 1993).
Elliptic Membrane
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• le101.neu (quadrilateral plane strain)
• le102.neu (triangular plane strain)
• le103.neu (quadrilateral plate)
This test is a linear elastic analysis of an elliptic membrane (shown below) using coarse and
fine meshes of plane strain elements and plate elements. The plane strain elements use a plane
stress element formulation. It provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Standard
Benchmark Test LE1.

A
Y

X
C D

Ellipses:

x 2 x 2 y 2
Ellipse AC:  --- + y = 1 Ellipse BD:  ---------- +  ---------- = 1
2
2 3.25 2.75

Test Case Data and Information

Physical and Material Properties


• Thickness = 0.1 m
• Isotropic material
• E = 210 x 103 MPa


• v = 0.3

Units
SI

Finite Element Modeling


• plane strain (with plane stress element formulation) - linear and parabolic quadrilaterals -
coarse and fine mesh
• plane strain (with plane stress element formulation) - linear and parabolic triangles -
coarse and fine mesh
• plate - linear and parabolic quadrilaterals - coarse and fine mesh


The fine mesh is created by approximately halving the coarse mesh.

Linear Triangle Parabolic Triangle


B
B

Fine Mesh
A
A
C D
C D

B B

Coarse Mesh
A A

C D C D

Linear Quadrilateral Parabolic Quadrilateral

B B

Fine Mesh
A A

C D C D

B B
Coarse Mesh

A A

C D C D

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain the nodes along edge AB in the X translation.
• Constrain the nodes along edge CD in the Y translation.


Loads
• Uniform outward pressure on the elements on outer edge BD = 10MPa
• Inner curved edge AC is unloaded

Solution Type
Statics

Results
Output - Plate Mid Y Normal Stress at point D

NAFEMS FEMAP
Bench Structural
Node # Element Type & Mesh
Value Result
(MPa) (MPa)
Plane Strain Elements with a Plane
Strain Formulation (le101):
Node 4 linear quad - coarse mesh 92.7 62.8
Node 204 linear quad - fine mesh 92.7 80.3
Node 104 parabolic quad - coarse mesh 92.7 88.3
Node 304 parabolic quad - fine mesh 92.7 90.7
Plane Strain Elements with a Plane Strain
Formulation (le102):
Node 4 linear triangle - coarse mesh 92.7 54.2
Node 204 linear triangle - fine mesh 92.7 72.0
Node 104 parabolic triangle - coarse mesh 92.7 93.0
Node 304 parabolic triangle – fine mesh 92.7 94.0


Plate Elements (le 103):


Node 4 linear quad - coarse mesh 92.7 66.4
Node 204 linear quad - fine mesh 92.7 82.3
Node 104 parabolic quad - coarse mesh 92.7 88.6
Node 304 parabolic quad - fine mesh 92.7 91.7

References
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, The Standard NAFEMS Benchmarks,
(Glasgow: NAFEMS, Rev. 3, 1990.) Test No. LE1.
• Davies, G. A. O., Fenner, R. T., and Lewis, R. W., Background to Benchmarks, (Glas-
gow: NAFEMS, 1993).
Cylindrical Shell Patch Test
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• le201a.neu (linear plate, case 1)
• le201b.neu (parabolic plate, case 1)
• le202a.neu (linear plate, case 2)
• le202b.neu (parabolic plate, case 2)
This test is a linear elastic analysis of a cylindrical shell (shown below) using plate elements
and two different loadings. It provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Standard
Benchmark Test LE2.

Test Case Data and Information

Physical and Material Properties


• Thickness = 0.01 m
• Isotropic material
• E = 210 x 103 MPa
• v = 0.3

Units
SI

Finite Element Modeling


• le201a and le202a: 9 nodes, 4 linear quadrilateral plates
• le201b and le202b: 21 nodes, 4 parabolic quadrilateral plates

Linear Quadrilaterals Parabolic Quadrilaterals

A B A B

E E

D C D C


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
Fully constrain the nodes on edge AB in all translations and rotations.
Constrain the nodes on edge AD and edge BC in the Z translation and X and Y rotations.

Case 1 Loading:
• Nodal moments along DC = 1.0 kNm/m:
Node 3 = -125
Node 4 = -250
Node 9 = -125

Case 2 Loading:
• Nodal forces:
Nodes 3, and 9 = 75,000N
Node 4 = 150,000N


• Apply an elemental pressure on elements 1-4 = 600,000Pa

Solution Type
Statics

Results
Output - Plate Top Major Stress at point E (node 2)

NAFEMS FEMAP
Bench Structural
Plate Element & Loading
Value Result
(MPa) (MPa)
linear plate - case 1 (le201a) 60.0 57.9
linear plate - case 2 (le202a) 60.0 66.0 *
parabolic plate - case 1 (le201b) 60.0 54.8
parabolic plate - case 2 (le202b) 60.0 55.7 *
*Since the shapes of the plates are an approximation to a cylindrical surface, an edge load
will not be in the correct direction. To get this result, the edge load must be input as nodal
loads in the tangential direction.
References
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, The Standard NAFEMS Benchmarks,
(Glasgow: NAFEMS, Rev. 3, 1990.) Test No. LE2.
• Davies, G. A. O., Fenner, R. T., and Lewis, R. W., Background to Benchmarks, (Glas-
gow: NAFEMS, 1993).
Laminate Strip
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following file:
• r0031.neu
This test is a linear statics analysis of plate using plate elements with a laminate material. It
provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Report R0031.

Test Case Data and Information

Geometry

0° fiber direction

Y
X

10 15 15 10

C
0.1 0°
10N/mm 0.1 90°
1 0.1 0°
Z
0.4 90°
X E
A B
0.1 0°
0.1 90° D
0.1 0° F
E

Material Properties
Laminate material:
E = 1.0E5 MPa ν 12 = 0.4 E2 = 5.0E3 MPa ν12 ν 21
-------
- = -------
-
E1 E2

G 12 = 3.0E3 MPa ν 23 = 0.3 G 33 = 2.0E3 MPa




Units
SI

Finite Element Modeling


8 x 40 4-noded shells (quarter model)

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
The one quarter model is:
• simply supported at A (Z=0)
• reflective symmetry about X=25 and Y=5

Loads
Line load of 10N/mm at C (X=25, Z=1).

Solution Type
Statics

Results

NAFEMS FEMAP
Bench Structural
Results
Value Result
(MPa) (MPa)
Z deflection at E -1.06 -1.06
Bending stress at E 683.9 *668
Bending stress at F - 601
Interlaminar shear stress at D -4.1 **-4.1
Shear stress at F - -2.2
*Value extrapolated from FEMAP Structural results at F. (FEMAP Structural calculates
stress at the center of the ply (F)).
**Recovered from post-processing.
Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, The Standard NAFEMS Benchmarks,
(Glasgow: NAFEMS, Rev. 3, 1990.) Test No. R0031.
Hemisphere-Point Loads
The complete model and results for this test care are in the following files:
• le301.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, coarse mesh)
• le302.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, fine mesh)
• le303.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, coarse mesh)
• le304.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, fine mesh)
This test is a linear elastic analysis of hemisphere point loads (shown below) using coarse and
fine meshes of plate elements. It provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Standard
Benchmark Test LE3.

Test Case Data and Information

Physical and Material Properties


• Thickness = 0.04 m
• Isotropic material
• E = 68.25 x 103 MPa
• v = 0.3

Units
SI

Finite Element Modeling


plate - linear & parabolic quadrilaterals - coarse & fine mesh
equally spaced nodes on AC, CE, EA
 
Point G at X = Y = Z =  -----1- Node 7
10
 --- 
 2
3


Coarse Mesh Fine Mesh


E
E

F D
F D
G
G

A
A C C
B
B

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Fully constrain point E in all translations and rotations.
• Constrain the nodes along edge AE (symmetry about X–Z plane) in the Y translation,
and X and Z rotations.
• Constrain the nodes along edge CE (symmetry about Y–Z plane) in the X translation,
and Y and Z rotations.

Loads
• Concentrated radial load outward at A = 2KN


• Concentrated radial load inward at C = 2KN

Solution Type
Statics

Results

FEMAP Structural
NAFEMS Result at node 1
Test Case
Plate Element & Mesh Bench (point A) T1
Number
Value(m) Translation
(m)
le301 linear quadrilateral plate - coarse mesh 0.185 0.113
le302 linear quadrilateral plate - fine mesh 0.185 0.185
le303 parabolic quadrilateral plate - coarse mesh 0.185 0.0861
le304 parabolic quadrilateral plate - fine mesh 0.185 0.171
References
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, The Standard NAFEMS Benchmarks,
(Glasgow: NAFEMS, Rev. 3, 1990.) Test No. LE3.
• Davies, G. A. O., Fenner, R. T., and Lewis, R. W., Background to Benchmarks, (Glas-
gow: NAFEMS, 1993).
Z–Section Cantilever
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• le501.neu (linear quadrilateral plate)
• le502.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate)
This test is a linear elastic analysis of a Z–section cantilever (shown below) using plate ele-
ments. It provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Standard Benchmark Test LE5.

Test Case Data and Information

Physical and Material Properties


• Thickness = 0.1 m
• Isotropic material
• E = 210 x 103 MPa
• v = 0.3

Units
SI

Finite Element Modeling


• Test 1: 36 nodes, 24 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• Test 2: 95 nodes, 24 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Fully constrain the nodes on edges B1, B2, B3 in all translations and rotations.


Loads
• Torque of 1.2MN applied at end C by two nodal forces (at nodes 9 and 27) of 0.6MN

B1

B2

B3
C

Solution Type
Statics

Results
Output - Plate Top Von Mises Stress (σxx), point A, node 30 (compression)

FEMAP
NAFEMS Bench
Plate Element & Loading Structural Result
Value (MPa)
(MPa)
linear quad - point A/node 30 -108 -117.3
parabolic quad - point A/node 30 -108 -109.2
References
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, The Standard NAFEMS Benchmarks,
(Glasgow: NAFEMS, Rev. 3, 1990.) Test No. LE5.
• Davies, G. A. O., Fenner, R. T., and Lewis, R. W., Background to Benchmarks, (Glas-
gow: NAFEMS, 1993).
Skew Plate Normal Pressure
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• le601.neu (linear and parabolic quadrilateral)
• le602.neu (linear and parabolic triangle)
This test is a linear elastic analysis of a plate (shown below) using plate elements. It provides
the input data and results for NAFEMS Standard Benchmark Test LE6.

10m
o
150
D
o C
30
E

A B

Test Case Data and Information

Physical and Material Properties


• Thickness = 0.01m
• Isotropic material
• E = 210 x 103 MPa
• v = 0.3

Units
SI


Finite Element Modeling


• plate - linear and parabolic quadrilaterals - coarse and fine mesh

• plate - linear and parabolic triangles - coarse and fine mesh

Boundary Conditions

Constraints (le601)
• Constrain nodes 1, 10, 35, and 44 in the X, Y, and Z translations.
• Constrain nodes 4, 13, 38, 47 in the X and Z translations.


• Constrain all other nodes in the Z translation.

Constraints (le602)
• Fully constrain nodes 1, 10, 35, 44 in all directions and rotations.
• Constrain all other nodes in the Z translation.

Loads
• Elemental pressure = -0.7KPa in the Z–direction


Solution Type
Statics

Results
Output - Plate Bottom Major Stress on the bottom surface at the plate center.

NAFEMS
FEMAP
Test Case Bench
Node # Plate Element & Mesh Structural
Name Value
Result (MPa)
(MPa)
le601 Node 9 linear quad - coarse mesh 0.802 0.365
le601 Node 18 linear quad - fine mesh 0.802 0.714
le601 Node 43 parabolic quad - coarse mesh 0.802 1.055
le601 Node 52 parabolic quad - fine mesh 0.802 0.791
le602 Node 9 linear triangle - coarse mesh 0.802 0.390
le602 Node 18 linear triangle - fine mesh 0.802 0.709
le602 Node 43 parabolic triangle - coarse mesh 0.802 0.847
le602 Node 52 parabolic triangle - fine mesh 0.802 0.822

References
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, The Standard NAFEMS Benchmarks,
(Glasgow: NAFEMS, Rev. 3, 1990.) Test No. LE6.
• Davies, G. A. O., Fenner, R. T., and Lewis, R. W., Background to Benchmarks, (Glas-
gow: NAFEMS, 1993).
Thick Plate Pressure
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• le1001.neu (linear and parabolic brick)
• le1002.neu (linear and parabolic wedge)
• le1003.neu (linear and parabolic tetrahedron)
This article provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Standard Benchmark Test LE10.
This test is a linear elastic analysis of a thick (shown below) using coarse and fine meshes of
solid elements.

B’

B B

A’

A A
D’
C’
D C
D C

Ellipses:

x 2 x 2 y 2
Ellipse AD:  --- + y = 1 Ellipse BC:  ---------- +  ---------- = 1
2
2 3.25 2.75

Test Case Data and Information

Physical and Material Properties


• Isotropic material
• E=210x103 MPa
• v = 0.3


Units
SI

Finite Element Modeling


• Solid brick
• Solid wedge
• Solid tetrahedron

Solid Brick
Linear and parabolic, coarse and fine mesh.

Solid Wedge
Linear and parabolic, coarse and fine mesh.


Solid Tetrahdron
Linear and parabolic, fine mesh.


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain the nodes on faces DCD’C’ and ABA’B’ in the X and Y translations.
• Constrain the nodes on face BCB’C’ in the X and Y translation.
• Constrain the nodes along the mid–plane in the Z translation.

Loads
• Uniform normal elemental pressure on the elements on the upper surface of the plate =
1MPa
• Inner curved edge AD unloaded

Solution Type
Statics


Results
Output - Solid Y normal stress at point D3σyy

NAFEMS
FEMAP
Test Case Node Bench
Element Type & Mesh Structural Result
Name # Value
(MPa)
(MPa)
le1001 N4 linear brick - coarse mesh -5.38 -6.31
le1001 N204 linear brick - fine mesh -5.38 -6.01
le1001 N104 parabolic brick - coarse mesh -5.38 -5.73
le1001 N304 parabolic brick - fine mesh -5.38 -5.84
le1002 N4 linear wedge - coarse mesh -5.38 -3.52
le1002 N204 linear wedge - fine mesh -5.38 -4.97
le1002 N104 parab wedge - coarse mesh -5.38 -5.53
le1002 N304 parab wedge - fine mesh -5.38 -6.10
le1003 N40 linear tetra - fine mesh -5.38 -2.41
le1003 N171 parabolic tetra - fine mesh -5.38 -5.29

References
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, The Standard NAFEMS Benchmarks,
(Glasgow: NAFEMS, Rev. 3, 1990.) Test No. LE10.
• Davies, G. A. O., Fenner, R. T., and Lewis, R. W., Background to Benchmarks, (Glas-
gow: NAFEMS, 1993)
Solid Cylinder/Taper/Sphere–Tem-
perature
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• le1101a.neu (linear brick, coarse mesh)
• le1101b.neu (linear brick, fine mesh)
• le1102a.neu (parabolic brick, coarse mesh)
• le1102b.neu (parabolic brick, fine mesh)
• le1103a.neu (linear wedge, coarse mesh)
• le1103b.neu (linear wedge, fine mesh)
• le1104a.neu (parabolic wedge, coarse mesh)
• le1104b.neu (parabolic wedge, fine mesh)
• le1105a.neu (linear tetrahedron, coarse mesh)
• le1105b.neu (linear tetrahedron, fine mesh)
• le1106a.neu (parabolic tetrahedron, coarse mesh)
• le1106b.neu (parabolic tetrahedron, fine mesh)
This test is a linear elastic analysis of a solid cylinder with a temperature gradient (shown
below) using coarse and fine meshes of solid elements. It provides the input data and results
for NAFEMS Standard Benchmark Test LE11.

Test Case Data and Information

Physical and Material Properties


• Isotropic material
• E = 210 x 103 MPa
• v = 0.3
• a = 2.3 x 10-4/oC

Units
SI


Finite Element Modeling


• Solid brick - linear (8–noded) and parabolic (20–noded) - coarse and fine mesh
• Solid tetrahedron - linear (4–noded) and parabolic (10–noded) - coarse and fine mesh
• Solid wedge - linear (6–nodes) and parabolic (15–noded) - coarse and fine mesh

Solid Brick
Coarse and fine mesh:

Coarse and fine mesh:

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain the nodes on the XZ plane and on the opposite face in the Y translation.
• Constrain the nodes on the YZ plane in the Z translation.
• Constrain the nodes on the XY plane in the X translation.


Loads
• Nodal temperatures: linear temperature gradient in the radial and axial direction

1
---
2 2 2
T°C = ( X + Y ) + Z


Solution Type
Statics

Results
Output - Solid Y Normal Stress at point A.
Note that the Y direction in the models corresponds to the Z direction in NAFEMS.

NAFEMS
FEMAP
Node # at Bench
Case Element Type & Mesh Structural
Point A Value
Result (MPa)
(MPa)
le1101a 30 linear brick - coarse mesh -105 -95.7
le1101b 71 linear brick - fine mesh -105 -99.5
le1102a 67 parabolic brick - coarse mesh -105 -93.9
le1102b 159 parabolic brick - fine mesh -105 -105.9
le1103a 33 linear wedge - coarse mesh -105 -9.49
le1103b 74 linear wedge - fine mesh -105 -46.9
le1104a 71 parabolic wedge - coarse mesh -105 -88.5
le1104b 187 parabolic wedge - fine mesh -105 -96.8
le1105a 8 linear tetra - coarse mesh -105 -31.4
le1105b 8 linear tetra - fine mesh -105 -65.2
le1106a 8 parabolic tetra - coarse mesh -105 -89.6
le1106b 8 parabolic tetra - fine mesh -105 -97.2

References
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, The Standard NAFEMS Benchmarks,
(Glasgow: NAFEMS, Rev. 3, 1990.) Test No. LE11.
• Davies, G. A. O., Fenner, R. T., and Lewis, R. W., Background to Benchmarks, (Glas-
gow: NAFEMS, 1993).

Normal Modes/Eigenvalue Verifica-
tion Using Theoretical Solutions
The purpose of these normal mode dynamics test cases is to verify the function of the FEMAP
Structural Normal Modes/Eigenvalue Analysis software using theoretical solutions. The test
cases are relatively simple in form and most of them have closed–form theoretical solutions.
The theoretical solutions shown in these examples are from well known engineering texts. For
each test case, a specific reference is cited. All theoretical reference texts are listed at the end
of this topic.
The finite element method is very flexible in the types of physical problems represented. The
verification tests provided are not exhaustive in exploring all possible problems, but represent
common types of applications.
This overview provides information on the following:
• understanding the test case format
• understanding comparisons with theoretical solutions
• references

Understanding the Test Case Format


Each test case is structured with the following information:
• test case data and information
- physical and material properties
- finite element modeling (modeling procedure or hints)
- units
- solution type
- element type
- boundary conditions (loads and constraints)
• results
• references (text from which a closed–form or theoretical solution was taken)

Note: The node numbers listed in each case refer to the node numbers in the neutral
(.neu) files associated with this guide. If you remesh a model, or rebuild that
model from scratch, your node numbering may differ.


Understanding Comparisons with Theoretical


Solutions
While differences in finite element and theoretical results are, in most cases, negligible,
some tests would require an infinite number of elements to achieve the exact solution. Ele-
ments are chosen to achieve reasonable engineering accuracy with reasonable computing
times.
Results reported here are results which you can compare to the referenced theoretical solu-
tion. Other results available from the analyses are not reported here. Results for both theoret-
ical and finite element solutions are carried out with the same significant digits of accuracy.
The closed–form theoretical solution may have restrictions, such as rigid connections, that
do not exist in the real world. These limiting restrictions are not necessary for the finite ele-
ment model, but are used for comparison purposes. Verification to real world problems is
more difficult but should be done when possible.
The actual results from the FEMAP Structural software may vary insignificantly from the
results presented in this document. This variation is due to different methods of performing
real numerical arithmetic on different systems. In addition, it is due to changes in element
formulations which SDRC has made to improve results under certain circumstances.
References
The following references have been used in the Normal Mode Dynamics Analysis verifica-
tion problems presented:
• Blevins, R., Formulas For Natural Frequency and Mode Shape, 1st Edition, (New York:
Van Norstrand Reinhold Company, 1979.)
• Timoshenko and Young, Vibration Problems in Engineering, (New York: Van Norstrand
Reinhold Company, 1955.)
• Tse, F., Morse, I., and Hinkle, R., Mechanical Vibrations, Theory and Applications,
(Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1978.)
• Tse, F., Morse, I., and Hinkle, R., Mechanical Vibrations, 2nd Edition, (Boston: Allyn
and Bacon, Inc., 1978.)
Undamped Free Vibration - Single
Degree of Freedom
The complete model and results for this test case are in file mstvn002.neu.
Determine the natural frequency of the system.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Types
• rigid
• mass
• DOF springs

Units
SI - meter

Model Geometry
• Length = 0.5 m
• a = 0.3 m

Physical Properties
• mass = 20 Kg
• k = 8 KN/m

Finite Element Modeling


• Create 5 rigid elements along the X axis. Each rigid should be 0.1m long.
• Create a mass element on the end node.


• Create 3 DOF spring elements 0.2m from the mass element.

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
Constrain node 6 in all directions except the Z rotation.
Constrain all other nodes in the X and Y translations and in the Z rotation.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – Guyan method

Results

Frequency
(Hz)
Bench Value 1.90985
FEMAP Structural 1.90986
Difference 0.0%


Reference
• Tse, F., Morse, I., and Hinkle, R., Mechanical Vibrations, Theory and Applications,
(Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1978.) p. 75.
Two Degrees of Freedom
Undamped Free Vibration - Princi-
ple Modes
The complete model and results for this test case are in file mstvn003.neu.
Determine the natural frequencies of a dynamic system with two degrees of freedom.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Types
• DOF springs
• mass

Units
SI- meter

Physical Properties
• mass = 1 kg
• k = 1 N/m

Finite Element Modeling


• Create four nodes on the Y axis.
• Create DOF three springs with stiffness of 1 N/m and with a stiffness reference coordinate
system being uniaxial.


• Create mass elements with a mass of 1 kg.

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constraint Set 1: Constrain nodes 1 and 4 in all DOF. On the other nodes, constrain all
DOF except the Y translation.
• Constraint Set 2: On the inner nodes, constrain the Y translation. Use this set as the Mas-
ter (ASET) DOF set.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – Guyan method


Results

Frequency of Frequency of
Mode 1 Mode 2
(Hz) (Hz)
Bench Value 0.159155 0.2756644
FEMAP Structural 0.159155 0.2756644
Difference 0.00% 0.00%

Reference
• Tse, F., Morse, I., and Hinkle, R., Mechanical Vibrations, 2nd Edition, (Boston: Allyn
and Bacon, Inc., 1978.) pp. 145-149.
Three Degrees of Freedom Tor-
sional System
The complete model and results for this test case are in file mstvn004.neu.
Determine the natural frequencies of a dynamic system with three degrees of freedom.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Types
• DOF springs
• mass

Units
SI - meter

Physical Properties
• J = J1 = J2 = J3 = 0.1 (mass)
• k = k1 = k2 = k3 = 1 N*m (stiffness)

Finite Element Modeling


• Create four nodes on the X axis.
• Create three DOF springs with stiffness of 1 N*m and with a stiffness reference coordinate
system being uniaxial.
• Create three mass elements with a mass coordinate system = 1 and with mass inertia sys-
tem of: 0.1, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0.


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constraint Set 1: On one end node (node 1), constrain all DOF. On the other nodes, con-
strain all DOF except RX.
• Constraint Set 2: On the other nodes (nodes 2-4), constrain the DOF in RX. Use this set
as the Master (ASET) DOF set.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – Guyan method

Results

Frequency of Frequency of Frequency of


Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3
(Hz) (Hz) (Hz)
Bench Value 0.223986 0.627595 0.906901
FEMAP Structural 0.223986 0.627595 0.906901
Difference 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%

Reference
• Tse, F., Morse, I., and Hinkle, R., Mechanical Vibrations, 2nd Edition, (Boston: Allyn
and Bacon, Inc., 1978.) pp. 153–155
Two Degrees of Freedom Vehicle
Suspension System
The complete model and results for this test case are in file mstvn005.neu.
Determine the natural frequencies of dynamic system with two degrees of freedom. Degrees
of freedom are one translational and one rotational.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Types
5 nodes, 4 elements:
• 2 DOF springs
• 1 mass element
• 1 rigid element

Units
SI - meter

Model Geometry
• Length1 = 1.6 m
• Length2 = 2.0 m
• r = 1.4 m (radius of gyration; J=m*r*r)

Physical Properties
• mass = 1800 kg
• K1 = 42000 N/m
• K2 = 48000 N/m

Finite Element Modeling


• Create five nodes in the X–Y plane with coordinates:
N1 = (0, 0)
N2 = (L2, 0)
N3 = (-L1, 0)


N4 = (L2, -1)
N5 = (-L1, -1)
• Create a DOF spring with stiffness of k1 between nodes 3 and 5.
• Create a DOF spring with stiffness of k2 between nodes 2 and 4.
• Create a mass element with a mass coordinate system = 1 and with mass inertia system
of: 0.0, 0.0, 3528, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0.
• Create a three–noded rigid element using node 1 as the master node and nodes 2 and 3 as
the slave nodes.

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constraint Set 1:
Constrain nodes 1-3 in the X and Z translation and X and Y rotations.
Constrain nodes 4-5 in the X, Y, and Z translations.
• Constraint Set 2 (Master (ASET) DOF Set):
Constrain nodes 1-3 in the Y translation and Z rotation.


Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – Guyan method

Results

Frequency of Frequency of
Mode 1 Mode 2
(Hz) (Hz)
Bench Value 1.086347 1.495612
FEMAP Structural 1.086347 1.495612
Difference 0.00% 0.00%

Reference
• Tse, F., Morse, I., and Hinkle, R., Mechanical Vibrations, 2nd Edition, (Boston: Allyn
and Bacon, Inc., 1978.) pp. 150-153.
Cantilever Beam Undamped Free
Vibrations
The complete model and results for this test case are in file mstvn006.neu.
Determine the natural frequencies of a cantilever beam.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Type
bar

Units
Inch

Model Geometry
• Length = 100 in
• Height = 2 in

Physical and Material Properties


• w = 1 lb/in
• J = .10
• Poisson’s ratio = .3

Calculated Data
• A = h2 = 4 in2
• I = h4/12 = 1.33333
• G = E/2 x 1/1+nu = 11538461.54
• m = w/g = 2.59067375E-3
• Ip = Ixx + Iyy = 2.66666

Finite Element Modeling


• Create 11 nodes on X axis.


• Create 10 bars between the nodes.

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Fully constrain one end node (node 1) in all directions and rotations.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – SVI method

Results

FEMAP Structural
Mode Bench Values (Hz) Difference
(Hz)
1&2 6.9533571 6.951037 -0.033%
3&4 43.575945 43.54267 -0.076%
5 64.684410 64.66795 -0.254%
6&7 122.01391 121.8567 -0.128%
8 193.85388 195.6024 0.901%
9 & 10 238.75784 238.6964 -0.026%

Reference
• Blevins, R., Formulas For Natural Frequency and Mode Shape, 1st Edition, (New York:
Van Norstrand Reinhold Company, 1979) pp. 108,193.
Natural Frequency of a Cantilevered
Mass
The complete model and results for this test case are in file mstvn007.neu.
Determine the natural frequencies of a dynamic system consisting of a massless bar element
and a mass element at the end.

Test Case Data and Information

Element Types
• bar
• mass

Units
Inch

Model Geometry
• Length = 30 in

Physical and Material Properties


• Mass = 0.5 lbm
• E = 30E6 psi
• Density = 1.0E-06
• I = 1.5 in 4

Finite Element Modeling


• Create 2 nodes on the X axis with coordinates (0,0,0) and (30,0,0).
• Create a bar between nodes with shear area ratio=0.


• Create a mass on one node with mass of 0.5 lbm.

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• −Constraint Set 1: On the wall end (at node 1), constrain all DOF. On the mass end, con-
strain the DOF in Z, RX, and RY.
• Constraint Set 2: On the mass end node, constrain the DOF in Z, Y, and RZ. Use this set
as the Master (ASET) DOF set.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – Guyan method

Results

Natural Frequency
(Hz)
Bench Value 15.9155
FEMAP Structural 15.9154
Difference 0.00%


Reference
• Tse, F., Morse, I., and Hinkle, R., Mechanical Vibrations, 2nd Edition, (Boston: Allyn
and Bacon, Inc., 1978.) p. 72
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue Verifica-
tion Using Standard NAFEMS
Benchmarks
The purpose of these normal mode dynamics test cases is to verify the function of the FEMAP
Structural Normal Modes/Eigenvalue solver using standard benchmarks published by
NAFEMS (National Agency for Finite Element Methods and Standards, National Engineer-
ing Laboratory, Glasgow, U.K.).
These standard benchmark tests were created by NAFEMS to stretch the limits of the finite
elements in commercial software. All results obtained using the FEMAP Structural software
compare favorably with other commercial finite element analysis software. Results of these
test cases using other commercial finite element analysis software programs are available
from NAFEMS.

Understanding the Test Case Format


Each test case is structured with the following information:
• test case data and information
- units
- material properties
- finite element modeling information
- boundary conditions (loads and constraints)
- solution type
• results
• reference

Note: The node numbers listed in each case refer to the node numbers in the neutral
(.neu) files associated with this guide. If you remesh a model, or rebuild that
model from scratch, your node numbering may differ.

Reference
The following reference has been used in these test cases:
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.)
Bar Element Test Cases
The normal mode dynamics test cases using the standard NAFEMS benchmarks include these
bar element test cases:
• "Pin-ended Cross - In-plane Vibration"
• "Pin-ended Double Cross - In-plane Vibration"
• "Free Square Frame - In-plane Vibration"
• "Cantilever with Off-Center Point Masses"
• "Deep Simply-Supported Beam"
• "Circular Ring - In-plane and Out-of-plane Vibration"
• "Cantilevered Beam"
Pin-ended Cross - In-plane Vibra-
tion
The complete model and results for this test case are in file nf001ac.neu.
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a pin–ended cross (shown below) using bar
elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected Bench-
marks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 1.

A C

.125 m

.125 m
5.0 m

Attributes of this test are:


• coupling between flexural and extensional behavior
• repeated and close eigenvalues

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Cross Sectional Properties


Key–in section:
• Area = .015625 m2
Shear ratio:


• Y=0
• Z=0

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m

kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m

η = 0.29 ( Poissons ratio )

10
G = 8.01x10

Finite Element Modeling


• 17 nodes
• 16 bar elements; four elements per arm

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain points A, B, C, D (nodes 2, 3, 4, 5) in all directions except for the Z rotation.
• Constrain node point Z (node 1) in the Z translation and X rotation.


• Constrain all other nodes (6-17) in the Z translation and X and Y rotations.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – SVI method

Results

NAFEMS
Ref. Value FEMAP Structural
Mode # Mesh Target Value
(Hz) (Hz)
(Hz)
1 11.336 linear 11.336 11.336
2, 3 17.709 linear 17.687 17.687
4 17.709 linear 17.715 17.715
5 45.345 linear 45.477 45.477
6, 7 57.390 linear 57.364 57.364
8 57.390 linear 57.683 57.683

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.
Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 1.
Pin-ended Double Cross - In-plane
Vibration
The complete model and results for this test case are in file nf002ac.neu.
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a pin–ended double cross (shown below)
using bar elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected
Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 2.

.125 m
C

B D

.125 m
A E

5.0m
H F

5.0 m

Attributes of this test are:


• coupling between flexural and extensional behavior
• repeated and close eigenvalues

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Cross Sectional Properties


Key–in section:
• Area = .015625 m2
Shear ratio:


• Y=0
• Z=0

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m

Finite Element Modeling


• 33 nodes
• 32 bar elements; four elements per arm

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain points A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H (nodes 2-9) in all directions except for the Z rota-
tion.
• Constrain all other nodes 1, (10-33) in the Z translation and X and Y rotations.


The following figure shows the boundary conditions.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – SVI method

Results

NAFEMS FEMAP Structural


Ref. Value
Mode # Mesh Target Value Result
(Hz)
(Hz) (Hz)
1 11.336 linear 11.336 11.336
2, 3 17.709 linear 17.687 17.687
4,5, 17.709 linear 17.715 17.715
6,7,8
9 45.345 linear 45.477 45.477
10, 11 57.390 linear 57.364 57.364
12,13, 57.390 linear 57.683 57.683
14,15,
16

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 2.
Free Square Frame - In-plane Vibra-
tion
The complete model and results for this test are in file nf003ac.neu.
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a free square frame (shown below) using
bar elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected
Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 3.

.125 m

.125 m

10.0m

10.0 m

Attributes of this test are:


• coupling between flexural and extensional behavior
• rigid body modes (3 modes)
• repeated and close eigenvalues

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Cross Sectional Properties


Shear ratio:
• Y = 1.0
• Z = 1.0


Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m

Finite Element Modeling


• 16 nodes
• 16 bar elements; four elements per arm

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constraint Set 1: Constrain all nodes in the Z translation and X and Y rotations.


• Constraint Set 2 (Kinematic DOF): Constrain nodes 1 and 3 in the X and Y translation
and the Z rotation.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – SVI method

Results

NAFEMS
Ref. Value FEMAP Structural
Mode # Mesh Target Value
(Hz) (Hz)
(Hz)
4 3.261 linear 3.262 3.259
5 5.668 linear 5.665 5.662
6, 7 11.136 linear 11.145 11.127
8 12.849 linear 12.833 12.793
9 24.570 linear 24.664 24.611
10, 11 28.695 linear 28.813 28.700

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 3.
Cantilever with Off-Center Point
Masses
The complete model and results for this test is in file nf004a.neu.
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a cantilever with off–center point masses
(shown below) using bar elements. This document provides the input data and results for
NAFEMS Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 4.
Attributes of this test are:
• coupling between torsional and flexural behavior
• inertial axis non–coincident with flexibility axis
• discrete mass, rigid links
• close eigenvalues

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Cross Sectional Properties


Shear ratio:
• Y = 1.128
• Z = 1.128

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
g
ρ = 8000k ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


• 8 nodes
• 9 elements


five bar elements along cantilever


two mass elements
two rigid elements

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Fully constrain point A (node 1) in all directions.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – SVI method


Results

FEMAP
NAFEMS Target Structural Result
Mode # Ref. Value (Hz)
Value (Hz) (Hz)

1 1.723 1.723 1.722


2 1.727 1.727 1.726
3 7.413 7.413 7.410
4 9.972 9.972 9.947
5 18.155 18.160 18.051
6 26.957 26.972 26.712

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 4
Deep Simply-Supported Beam
The complete model and results for this test are in file nf005ac.neu.
This test is a normal mode dynamic analysis of a deep simply–supported beam. This docu-
ment provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected Benchmarks for Natural Fre-
quency Analysis, Test 5.
Attributes of this test are:
• shear deformation and rotary inertial (Timoshenko beam)
• possibility of missing extensional modes when using iteration solution methods
• repeated eigenvalues

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Cross Sectional Properties


Shear Ratio
• Y = 1.176923
• Z = 1.176923

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
g
ρ = 8000k ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


• 6 nodes


• 5 bar elements

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain the X, Y, Z translation an X rotation at point A (node 1)
• Constrain the Y and Z translation at point B (node 10)
The boundary conditions are shown in the following diagram.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalues – SVI method

Results

NAFEMS
FEMAP Structural
Mode # Ref. Value (Hz) Target Value
Result (Hz)
(Hz)
1, 2 42.649 42.568 42.710
3 77.542 77.841 77.841
4 125.00 125.51 125.52
5, 6 148.31 145.46 150.76
7 233.10 241.24 241.24
8, 9 284.55 267.01 301.08


Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 5.
Circular Ring - In-plane and Out-of-
plane Vibration
The complete model and results for this test are in file nf006ac.neu.
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a circular ring using bar elements. This
document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected Benchmarks for Natural
Frequency Analysis, Test 6.
Attributes of this test are:
• rigid body modes (six modes)
• repeated eigenvalues

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Cross Sectional Properties


Shear ratio:
• Y = 1.128205
• Z = 1.128205

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
g
ρ = 8000k ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


• 20 nodes


• 20 bar elements

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constraint Set 1 (Kinematic DOF): Constrain nodes 10 and 11 in all directions and rota-
tions.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – SVI method


Results

NAFEMS FEMAP
Mode # Ref. Value (Hz) Target Value Structural Result
(Hz) (Hz)
7, 8 51.849 52.290 52.211
(out of plane)
9, 10 53.382 53.971 53.775
(in plane)
11, 12 148.77 149.70 148.92
(out of plane)
13, 14 150.99 152.44 151.25
(in plane)
15 286.98 288.25 285.33
(out of plane)
16 289.51 288.25 285.33
(in plane)

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 6.
Cantilevered Beam
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf071a.neu (Test 1)
• nf071b.neu (Test 2)
• nf071c.neu (Test 3)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a cantilevered beam. This document pro-
vides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency
Analysis, Test 71.
Attributes of this test are:
• ill–conditioned stiffness matrix

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
g
ρ = 8000k ------3-
m

Finite Element Modeling


Three tests - all use 8 bar elements and 9 nodes
• Test 1: a=b
• Test 2: a = 10b


• Test3: a = 100b

Boundary Conditions
Constraints
• Fully constrain point A (node 1) in all directions and rotations.
• Constrain all other nodes in the Z translation and X and Y rotations.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – SVI method
Bar elements always use a consistent mass formulation.


Results

FEMAP
Structural
Ref. Value
Mode # Mesh Result
(Hz)
(Hz)

1 1.010 a=b 1.0095


a = 10b 1.0095
a = 100b 1.0095
2 6.327 a=b 6.3223
a = 10b 6.3260
a = 100b 6.3289
3 17.716 a=b 17.693
a = 10b 17.791
a = 100b 17.819
4 34.717 a=b 34.675
a = 10b 34.854
a = 100b 35.061
5 57.390 a=b 57.422
a = 10b 60.595
a = 100b 64.751
6 85.730 a=b 86.135
a = 10b 101.673
a = 100b 104.654

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 71.
Plate Element Test Cases
The normal mode dynamics test cases using the standard NAFEMS benchmarks include these
plate element test cases:
• "Thin Square Cantilevered Plate -Symmetric Modes"
• "Thin Square Cantilevered Plate - Anti-symmetric Modes"
• "Free Thin Square Plate"
• "Simply-Supported Thin Square Plate"
• "Simply-Supported Thin Annular Plate"
• "Clamped Thin Rhombic Plate"
• "Cantilevered Thin Square Plate with Distorted Mesh"
• "Simply-Supported Thick Square Plate, Test A"
• "Clamped Thick Rhombic Plate"
• "Simply-Supported Thick Square Plate, Test B"
• "Simply-Supported Thick Annular Plate"
• "Cantilevered Square Membrane"
• "Cantilevered Tapered Membrane"
• "Free Annular Membrane"
• "Cantilevered Thin Square Plate"
• "Cantilevered Thin Square Plate #2"
Thin Square Cantilevered Plate -
Symmetric Modes
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf011alc.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf011all.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf011apc.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf011apl.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a thin, square, cantilevered plate meshed
with plate elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected
Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 11a.
Attributes of this test are:
• symmetric modes, symmetric boundary conditions along the cutting plane

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Test 1 and Test 2 (nf011alc and nf011all)
• 45 nodes
• 32 linear quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.05m
Test 2 and Test 3 (nf011apc and nf011apl)
• 37 nodes


• 8 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.05m


Mesh only half the plate (10m x 5m).
Linear Quadrilateral Plates Parabolic Quadrilateral Plates

Boundary Conditions
• Constraints (all tests)
• Fully constrain nodes 1-5 in all translations and rotations.
• Constrain nodes 6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31, 36, 41 in the X and Y translations and X and Z
rotations.
• Constrain all other nodes in the X and Y translations and Z rotation.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass


Results

FEMAP
FEMAP Structural
Ref. Structural Result
Mode # Mesh Result (consistent
Value (Hz) (lumped mass)
mass) (Hz)
(Hz)
1 0.421 linear 0.415 0.418
parabolic 0.414 0.418
2 2.582 linear 2.507 2.623
parabolic 2.444 2.569
3 3.306 linear 3.117 3.315
parabolic 3.081 3.281
4 6.555 linear 5.984 6.573
parabolic 6.018 6.551
5 7.381 linear 7.241 7.979
parabolic 6.954 7.525
6 11.402 linear 10.387 12.112
parabolic 10.493 11.950

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 11a.
Thin Square Cantilevered Plate -
Anti-symmetric Modes
The complete model and results for this test case are the in following files:
• nf011blc.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf011bll.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf011bpc.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf011bpl.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a thin, square, cantilevered plate meshed
with plate elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected
Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 11b.
Attributes of this test are:
• anti–symmetric modes

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf011blc.neu and nf011bll.neu)
• 45 nodes, 32 linear quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.05m
Tests 3 and 4 (nf011bpc.neu and nf011bpl.neu)
• 37 nodes, 8 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.05m


Mesh only half the plate (10m x 5m).

Boundary Conditions
Constraints (all tests)
• Fully constrain nodes 1-5 in all directions.
• Constrain nodes 6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31, 36, 41 in the X, Y, Z translations and Z rotation.
• Constrain all other nodes in the X and Y translations and Z rotation.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass


Results

FEMAP FEMAP
Ref. NAFEMS
Structural Result Structural Result
Mode # Value Mesh Target Value
(lumped mass) (consistent mass)
(Hz) (Hz)
(Hz) (Hz)
1 1.029 linear 1.019 0.993 1.012
parabolic 1.018 0.999 1.024
2 3.753 linear 3.839 3.553 3.750
parabolic 3.710 3.541 3.728
3 7.730 linear 8.313 7.130 8.162
parabolic 7.768 6.847 7.846
4 8.561 linear 9.424 8.082 9.079
parabolic 8.483 7.894 8.693
5 not linear 11.728 9.805 11.526
available parabolic 11.185 9.954 11.451
6 not linear 17.818 13.087 17.192
available parabolic 15.755 13.724 16.918

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 11b.
Free Thin Square Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf012lc.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf012ll.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf012pc.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf012pl.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a free thin square plate meshed with plate
elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected Bench-
marks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 12.
Attributes of this test are:
• rigid body modes (three modes)
• repeated eigenvalues
• use of kinematic DOF for the rigid body mode calculation with the SVI eigensolver

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf012lc.neu and nf012ll.neu)
• 81 nodes, 64 linear quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.05m
Tests 3 and 4 (nf012pc.neu and nf012pl.neu)
• 65 nodes, 16 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.05m


Boundary Conditions
Constraints
• Constraint Set 1: Constrain all the nodes in the X and Y translations and Z rotation.

• Constraint Set 2 (Kinematic DOF): Constrain nodes 1 and 3 in all directions and rota-
tions.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass


Results

NAFEMS FEMAP Structural FEMAP Structural


Ref. Value
Mode # Mesh Target Result (lumped Result (consistent
(Hz)
Value (Hz) mass) (Hz) mass) (Hz)
4 1.622 linear 1.632 1.570 1.615
parabolic 1.532 1.567 1.619
5 2.360 linear 2.402 2.246 2.394
parabolic 2.356 2.183 2.364
6 2.922 linear 3.006 2.815 2.990
parabolic 2.861 2.750 2.930
7, 8 4.233 linear 4.251 3.912 4.218
parabolic 4.122 3.879 4.186
9 7.416 linear 7.859 6.902 7.751
parabolic 7.363 6.586 7.494
10 not linear 8.027 6.903 7.884
available parabolic 7.392 6.586 7.494

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow: NAFEMS,
Nov., 1987.) Test No. 12.
Simply-Supported Thin Square
Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf013lc.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf013ll.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf013pc.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf013pl.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a simply–supported thin square plate
meshed with plate elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS
Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 13.
Attributes of this test are:
• well established
• repeated eigenvalues

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf013lc.neu and nf013ll.neu)
• 81 nodes, 64 linear quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.05m
Tests 3 and 4 (nf013pc.neu and nf013pl.neu)


• 65 nodes, 16 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.05m

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain all nodes in the X and Y translations and Z rotation.
• Constrain the nodes along edges X = 0 and X = 10m in the Z translation and X rotation.
• Constrain the nodes along edges Y = 0 and Y = 10m in the Z translation and Y rotation.
• Fully constrain the DOF on the four corner nodes (9, 13, 41, 68).

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:


• using lumped mass


• using consistent mass

Results

FEMAP Structural FEMAP Structural


Ref. Value
Mode # Mesh Result (lumped mass) Result (consistent
(Hz)
(Hz) mass) (Hz)
1 2.377 4–noded 2.338 2.399
8–noded 2.375 2.383
2, 3 5.942 4–noded 5.820 6.206
8–noded 5.932 6.034
4 9.507 4–noded 8.909 9.873
8–noded 9.392 9.831
5, 6 11.884 4–noded 11.770 13.375
8–noded 11.879 12.590
7, 8 15.449 4–noded 14.215 16.786
8–noded 15.033 16.734

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 13.
Simply-Supported Thin Annular
Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf014lc.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf014ll.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf014pc.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf014pl.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a simply–supported thin annular plate
meshed with shell elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS
Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 14.
Attributes of this test are:
• curved boundary (skewed coordinate system)
• repeated eigenvalues

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf014lc and nf014ll):
• 192 nodes, 160 linear quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.06m
Tests 3 and 4 (nf014pc and nf014pl)


• 176 nodes, 48 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.06m

Boundary Conditions
• Constraint Set 1 (All Tests):
Constrain all nodes in in the X and Y translation and Z rotation.
Additionally constrain all nodes around the model’s circumference in the Z transla-
tion and X rotation.

• Constraint Set 2 (Kinematic DOF):


Tests 1 and 2: Constrain nodes 258 and 290 in the X and Y translations.


Tests 3 and 4: Constrain nodes 21 and 133 in the X and Y translations.

Solution Type
Normal Mode Dynamics - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass

Results

FEMAP Structural FEMAP Structural


Ref. Value
Mode # Mesh Result (lumped Result (consistent
(Hz)
mass) (Hz) mass) (Hz)
1 1.870 linear 1.859 1.877
parabolic 1.840 1.873
2, 3 5.137 linear 5.175 5.249
parabolic 5.111 5.151
4, 5 9.673 linear 9.686 9.983
parabolic 9.672 9.713
6 14.850 linear 14.188 15.412
parabolic 13.946 14.924
7, 8 15.573 linear 15.326 16.176
parabolic 15.547 15.708
9 18.382 linear 17.594 19.088
parabolic 17.380 18.521

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.


Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 14.
Clamped Thin Rhombic Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf015lc.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf015ll.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf015pl.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf015pc.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a clamped thin rhombic plate meshed with
plate elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected
Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 15.
Attributes of this test are:
• distorted elements

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf015lc.neu and nf015ll.neu):
• 169 nodes, 144 linear quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.05m


Tests 3 and 4 (nf015pc.neu and nf015pl.neu):


• 133 nodes, 36 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.05m

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Completely constrain the nodes along all four edges of the part in all directions and rota-
tions.
• Constrain all other nodes in the X and Y translation and Z rotation.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass


Results

NAFEMS FEMAP Structural FEMAP Structural


Ref. Value
Mode # Mesh Target Value Result (lumped Result (consistent
(Hz)
(Hz) mass) (Hz) mass) (Hz)
1 7.938 linear 8.142 7.818 7.955
parabolic 7.873 7.902 7.929
2 12.835 linear 13.891 12.831 13.388
parabolic 12.480 12.851 13.008
3 17.941 linear 20.036 17.807 19.072
parabolic 17.312 17.952 18.472
4 19.133 linear 20.165 18.554 19.239
parabolic 18.738 18.964 19.168
5 24.009 linear 27.704 23.665 26.185
parabolic 27.950 23.879 25.226
6 27.922 linear 32.046 27.698 29.816
parabolic 25.883 27.910 28.810

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 15.
Cantilevered Thin Square Plate with
Distorted Mesh
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf016a1.neu (16 parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf016a2.neu (16 parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf016b1.neu (16 parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf016b2.neu (16 parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf016c1.neu (4 parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf016c2.neu (4 parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf016d1.neu (4 parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf016d2.neu (4 parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a cantilevered thin square plate meshed
with distorted plate elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS
Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 16.
Attributes of this test are:
• distorted meshes

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


All tests - parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.05m


Four tests:
• Test 1 (nf016a1, nf016a2) - 65 nodes, 16 elements

• Test 2 (nf016b1, nf016b2) - 65 nodes, 16 elements with specified nodes at the following
XY coordinates:

X Coordinate Y Coordinate
4.0 4.0
2.25 2.25
4.75 2.5
7.25 2.75
7.5 4.75
7.75 7.25
5.25 7.25
2.25 7.25
2.5 4.75


• Test 3 (nf016c1, nf016c2) - 21 nodes, 4 elements

• Test 4 (nf016d1, nf016d2) - 21 nodes, 4 elements with a specified node at X=4.0, Y=4.0.

Boundary Conditions


Constraints (nf016a1 and nf016a2)


• Constrain the nodes along the model’s Y axis in the X, Y, and Z translations and in the Y
and Z rotations.
• Constrain all other nodes in the Z rotation only.

Constraints (nf016b1 and nf016b2)


• Fully constrain the nodes along the model’s Y axis in all directions.
• Constrain all other nodes in the Z rotation only.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass


Results

FEMAP
NAFEMS FEMAP Structural
Ref. Value Structural
Mode # Test Target Value Result (consistent
(Hz) Result (lumped
(Hz) mass) (Hz)
mass) (Hz)
1 0.421 1 0.4174 0.4139 0.4181
2 0.4174 0.4135 0.4182
3 0.4144 0.4021 0.4189
4 0.4145 0.3999 0.4192
2 1.029 1 1.020 0.9985 1.024
2 1.020 0.9967 1.024
3 0.999 0.9347 1.021
4 1.002 0.9202 1.025
3 2.582 1 2.564 2.444 2.569
2 2.571 2.445 2.566
3 2.554 2.132 2.708
4 2.565 2.112 2.698
4 3.306 1 3.302 3.082 3.281
2 3.317 3.072 3.280
3 3.401 2.707 3.449
4 3.424 2.697 3.430
5 3.753 1 3.769 3.540 3.728
2 3.780 3.535 3.731
3 3.697 3.136 3.913
4 3.714 3.077 3.881
6 6.555 1 6.805 6.018 6.551
2 6.883 5.994 6.552
3 5.455 5.458 7.108
4 5.133 5.459 6.858

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 16.
Simply-Supported Thick Square
Plate, Test A
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf021alc.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf021all.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf021apc.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf021apl.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a simply–supported thick square plate
meshed with shell elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS
Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 21a.
Attributes of this test are:
• well–established
• repeated eigenvalues
• effect of secondary restraints

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf021alc.neu and nf021all.neu)


• 81 nodes, 64 linear quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 1.0m

Tests 3 and 4 (nf021apc.neu and nf021apl.neu)


• 65 nodes, 16 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 1.0m

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Fully constrain the corner nodes in all directions and rotations.
• Constrain the nodes along edges X=0 and X=10m in all directions, except the Y rotation.
• Constrain the nodes along edges Y=0 and Y=10m in all directions, except the X rotation.


• Constrain all other nodes in the X and Y translation and Z rotation.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass

Results

FEMAP FEMAP
NAFEMSTar
Ref. Value Structural Structural Result
Mode # Mesh get Value
(Hz) Result (lumped (consistent mass)
(Hz)
mass) (Hz) (Hz)
1 45.897 linear 46.659 45.50 46.35
parabolic 45.936 46.165 45.830
2, 3 109.44 linear 115.84 108.70 114.12
parabolic 110.41 110.32 109.38
4 167.89 linear 177.53 160.63 174.29
parabolic 170.38 167.30 169.75
5, 6 204.51 linear 233.40 204.75 227.05
parabolic 212.81 204.59 208.20


7, 8 256.50 linear 283.60 240.84 276.88


parabolic 269.96 249.26 268.40
9 336.62 linear 371.11 298.18 364.30
parabolic 344.77 311.32 319.40
10 336.62 linear 371.11 320.41 385.84
parabolic 344.77 347.63 319.40

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 21a.
Simply-Supported Thick Square
Plate, Test B
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf021blc.neu (linear quadrilateral plate elements, consistent mass)
• nf021bll.neu (linear quadrilateral plate elements, lumped mass)
• nf021bpc.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate elements, consistent mass)
• nf021bpl.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate elements, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a simply–supported thick square plate
meshed with plate elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS
Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 21b.
Attributes of this test are:
• well–established
• repeated eigenvalues
• effect of secondary restraints

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200X10 ------2-
m

kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m

ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf021blc.neu and nf021bll.neu)
• 81 nodes, 64 linear quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 1.0m


Tests 3 and 4 (nf021plc.neu and nf021pll.neu)


• 65 nodes, 16 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 1.0m

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain the nodes along all edges in the X,Y, and Z translations and Z rotation.
• Constrain all other nodes in the X and Y translation and Z rotation.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass


• using consistent mass

Results

FEMAP FEMAP
NAFEMS
Ref. Value Structural Result Structural Result
Mode # Mesh Target Value
(Hz) (lumped mass) (consistent mass)
(Hz)
(Hz) (Hz)
1 45.897 linear 44.745 44.14 44.96
parabolic 44.134 44.815 44.493
2, 3 109.44 linear 112.94 106.96 112.25
parabolic 107.85 108.52 107.57
4 167.89 linear 170.28 156.96 170.17
parabolic 164.19 163.57 165.70
5, 6 204.51 linear 230.23 203.40 225.51
parabolic 20.07 203.12 206.46
7, 8 256.50 linear 274.19 237.31 272.47
parabolic 260.32 245.71 263.61
9 336.62 linear 355.98 293.95 358.43
parabolic 342.80 307.16 318.56
10 336.62 linear 355.98 319.64 384.78
parabolic 342.80 346.85 318.58

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 21b.
Clamped Thick Rhombic Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf022lc.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf022ll.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf022pc.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf022pl.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a thick clamped thick rhombic plate
meshed with plate elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS
Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 22.
Attributes of this test are:
• distorted elements

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200X10 ------2-
m

kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m

ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf022lc.neu and nf022ll.neu)


• 121 nodes, 100 linear quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 1.0m

Tests 3 and 4 (nf022pc.neu and nf022pl.neu)


• 133 nodes, 36 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 1.0m

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Fully constrain the nodes along all four edges in all directions and rotations.


• Constrain all other nodes in the X and Y translations and Z rotation.

Solution Type
Normal Mode Dynamics - SVI
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass

Results

FEMAP FEMAP Structural


NAFEMS
Ref. Value Structural Result
Mode # Mesh Target Value
(Hz) Result (lumped (consistent mass)
(Hz)
mass) (Hz) (Hz)
1 133.95 linear 137.80 133.33 135.17
parabolic 133.86 134.51 132.48
2 201.41 linear 218.48 204.42 213.06
parabolic 203.34 204.30 200.28
3 265.81 linear 295.42 269.23 288.08
parabolic 271.38 270.17 266.06
4 282.74 linear 296.83 279.75 289.05
parabolic 283.68 283.95 273.65
5 334.45 linear 383.56 337.92 377.05
parabolic 346.41 338.90 338.88
6 not linear 426.59 381.87 411.28
available parabolic 386.62 381.90 369.79


Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 22
Simply-Supported Thick Annular
Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf023lc.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf023ll.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf023pc.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf023pl.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a simply–supported thick annular plate
meshed with plate elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS
Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 23.
Attributes of this test are:
• curved boundary (skewed coordinate system)
• repeated eigenvalues

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200X10 ------2-
m

kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m

ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf023lc.neu and nf023ll.neu)


• 192 nodes, 160 linear quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.6m

Tests 3 and 4 (nf023pc.neu and nf023pl.neu)


• 176 nodes, 48 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.6m

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain the nodes around the circumference in the X, Y, and Z translations and X and Z
rotations.


• Constrain all other nodes in the X and Y translation and Z rotation.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass

Results

FEMAP
FEMAP
NAFEMS Structural
Ref. Value Structural Result
Mode # Mesh Target Value Result
(Hz) (consistent mass)
(Hz) (lumped mass)
(Hz)
(Hz)
1 18.58 linear 18.82 18.49 18.61
parabolic 18.59 18.32 18.59
2, 3 48.92 linear 49.82 49.89 50.35
parabolic 49.02 48.99 49.13
4, 5 92.59 linear 96.06 93.43 95.44
parabolic 92.90 93.19 92.42


6 140.15 linear 148.34 136.71 145.39


parabolic 140.86 134.27 139.41
7, 8 not linear 153.68 145.21 151.28
available parabolic 146.63 146.87 145.37
9 166.36 linear 174.52 163.74 174.10
parabolic 167.31 160.43 166.11

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 23.
Cantilevered Square Membrane
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf031lc.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf031ll.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf031pc.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf031pl.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a cantilevered square membrane meshed
with plate elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected
Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 31.
Attributes of this test are well established.

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf031lc.neu and nf031ll.neu)


• 81 nodes, 64 linear quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.05m

Tests 3 and 4 (nf031pc.neu and nf031pl.neu)


• 65 nodes, 16 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.05m

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Fully constrain the nodes along the Y axis in all directions and rotations.


• Constrain all other nodes in the Z translation and X, Y, and Z rotations.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass

Results

FEMAP
NAFEMS FEMAP
Structural
Ref. Value Target Structural Result
Mode # Mesh Result
(Hz) Value (consistent mass)
(lumped mass)
(Hz) (Hz)
(Hz)
1 52.404 linear 52.905 52.47 52.77
parabolic 52.635 52.16 52.39
2 125.69 linear 126.11 125.59 126.06
parabolic 125.87 125.18 122.48
3 140.78 linear 143.20 139.54 142.83
parabolic 141.47 138.28 138.02
4 222.54 linear 228.85 214.61 227.04
parabolic 224.59 209.01 214.95
5 241.41 linear 247.90 239.84 247.25
parabolic 243.26 239.16 227.48
6 255.74 linear 260.61 252.06 259.46
parabolic 256.76 251.31 236.73


Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 31.
Cantilevered Tapered Membrane
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf032lc.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf032ll.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf032pc.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf032pl.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a cantilevered tapered membrane meshed
with plate elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected
Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 32.
Attributes of this test are:
• shear behavior
• irregular mesh
• symmetry

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf032lc.neu and nf032ll.neu)


• 153 nodes, 128 linear quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.1m

Tests 3 and 4 (nf032pc.neu and nf032pl.neu)


• 153 nodes, 32 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.1m

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Fully constrain the nodes along the Y axis in all directions and rotations.


• Constrain all other nodes in the Z translation and the X, Y, and Z rotations.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass

Results

FEMAP
FEMAP
NAFEMS Structural
Ref. Value Structural Result
Mode # Mesh Target Value Result
(Hz) (consistent mass)
(Hz) (lumped mass)
(Hz)
(Hz)
1 44.623 linear 44.905 44.73 44.82
parabolic 44.636 44.84 45.14
2 130.03 linear 132.12 129.92 131.28
parabolic 130.14 129.05 130.50
3 162.70 linear 162.83 162.61 162.80
parabolic 162.72 162.37 161.37
4 246.05 linear 252.99 244.62 250.56
parabolic 246.63 241.80 245.00
5 379.90 linear 393.31 375.09 391.79
parabolic 382.02 369.61 374.78
6 391.44 linear 396.26 389.81 393.11
parabolic 391.55 388.11 375.77


Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 32
Free Annular Membrane
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf033lc.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf033ll.neu (linear quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf033pc.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf033pl.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a free annular membrane meshed with
plate elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected
Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 33.
Attributes of this test are:
• repeated eigenvalues
• rigid body modes (three modes)
• kinematically incomplete suppressions

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf033lc.neu and nf033ll.neu)


• 192 nodes, 160 linear quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.06m

Tests 3 and 4 (nf033pc.neu and nf033pl.neu)


• 176 nodes, 48 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.06m

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constraint Set 1 (DOF set):
Tests 1 and 2: Constrain nodes 254 and 286 in the X and Y translations.


Tests 3 and 4: Constrain nodes 7 and 19 in the X and Y translations.

• Constraint Set 2: Constrain all other nodes in the Z translation and X, Y, and Z rotations.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass


Results

FEMAP
FEMAP
NAFEMS Structural
Ref. Value Structural Result
Mode # Mesh Target Value Result
(Hz) (consistent mass)
(Hz) (lumped mass)
(Hz)
(Hz)
4, 5 129.24 linear 129.51 127.71 128.70
parabolic 126.48 126.66 126.15
6 226.17 linear 225.46 224.52 225.22
parabolic 224.27 222.82 218.17
7, 8 234.74 linear 234.92 229.67 234.94
parabolic 232.95 230.12 225.14
9, 10 264.66 linear 272.13 263.86 270.83
parabolic 264.81 262.45 257.67
11, 12 336.61 linear 340.34 328.44 339.93
parabolic 335.70 329.09 311.38
13, 14 376.79 linear 391.98 368.15 389.38
parabolic 378.60 368.48 361.52

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 33.
Cantilevered Thin Square Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf073ac.neu (Test 1 - parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf073al.neu (Test 2 - parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf073bc.neu (Test 3 - parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf073bl.neu (Test 4 - parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf073cc.neu (Test 5 - parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf073cl.neu (Test 6 - parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
• nf073dc.neu (Test 7 - parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf073dl.neu (Test 8 - parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a cantilevered thin square plate. This docu-
ment provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected Benchmarks for Natural Fre-
quency Analysis, Test 73.
Attributes of this test are:
• effect of master DOF selection on frequencies

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI


Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


65 nodes, 16 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.05m

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constraint Set 1: Constrain the nodes along the Y axis in the X, Y, and Z translations and
Y rotation.

• Constraint Set (DOF set) 2: Create a constraint set to define a Master (ASET) DOF set
(in Z direction) - four different placements:


Tests 1 and 2:

Tests 3 and 4:

Tests 5 and 6:


Tests 7 and 8:

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass

Results

FEMAP
FEMAP
NAFEMS Structural
Ref. Value Structural Result
Mode # DOF Set Target Value Result
(Hz) (consistent mass)
(Hz) (lumped mass)
(Hz)
(Hz)
1 0.421 test 1 0.4174 0.4139 0.4182
test 2 0.4174 0.4139 0.4182
test 3 0.4175 0.4140 0.4183
test 4 0.4184 0.4147 0.4191
2 1.029 test 1 1.020 0.999 1.025
test 2 1.020 1.000 1.026
test 3 1.021 1.001 1.027
test 4 1.032 1.009 1.036
3 2.582 test 1 2.564 2.449 2.580
test 2 2.597 2.476 2.610
test 3 2.677 2.524 2.675
test 4 2.850 2.670 2.844


4 3.306 test 1 3.302 3.095 3.314


test 2 3.345 3.126 3.352
test 3 3.365 3.140 3.362
test 4 3.571 3.325 3.555
5 3.753 test 1 3.769 3.563 3.781
test 2 3.888 3.663 3.891
test 3 4.035 3.765 4.023
test 4 5.466 4.816 5.414
6 6.555 test 1 6.805 6.126 6.798
test 2 7.517 6.694 7.498
test 3 7.495 6.675 7.479
test 4 ----- ------ ------

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 73.
Cantilevered Thin Square Plate #2
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf074c.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, consistent mass)
• nf074l.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a cantilevered thin square plate. This docu-
ment provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected Benchmarks for Natural Fre-
quency Analysis, Test 74.

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


65 nodes, 16 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements - thickness = 0.05m


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
Constrain the nodes along the Y axis in the X, Y, and Z translations and the Y rotation.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalues - SVI
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass

Results

FEMAP Structural Result


FEMAP Structural
(consistent
Mode # Ref. Value (Hz) Result
mass)
(lumped mass) (Hz)
(Hz)
1 0.471 0.4139 0.4181
2 1.029 0.999 1.024
3 2.582 2.444 2.569
4 3.306 3.082 3.281
5 3.753 3.540 3.728

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.


Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 74.
Axisymmetric Solid and Solid Ele-
ment Test Cases
The normal mode dynamics test cases using the standard NAFEMS benchmarks include these
axisymmetric solid and solid element test cases:
• "Free Cylinder - Axisymmetric Vibration"
• "Simply-Supported Annular Plate -Axisymmetric Vibration"
• "Thick Hollow Sphere - Uniform Radial Vibration"
• "Simply-Supported Solid Square Plate"
• "Simply-Supported Solid Annular Plate"
• "Deep Simply-Supported Solid Beam"
• "Cantilevered Solid Beam"
Free Cylinder - Axisymmetric Vibra-
tion
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf041lc.neu (linear axisymmetric solid quadrilateral, consistent mass)
• nf041ll.neu (linear axisymmetric solid quadrilateral, lumped mass)
• nf041pc.neu (parabolic axisymmetric solid quadrilateral, consistent mass)
• nf041pl.neu (parabolic axisymmetric solid quadrilateral, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a free cylinder meshed with axisymmetric
elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected Bench-
marks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 41.
Attributes of this test are:
• rigid body modes (one mode)
• coupling between axial, radial, and circumferential behavior
• close eigenvalues

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf041lc.neu and nf041ll.neu):


• 68 nodes, 48 linear axisymmetric quadrilateral solid elements

Tests 3 and 4 (nf041pc.neu and nf041pl.neu):


• 43 nodes, 8 parabolic axisymmetric quadrilateral solid elements

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Tests 1 and 2: Create a constraint set (Kinematic DOF set) to constrain nodes 1 and 68 in
the X and Z translations.
• Tests 3 and 4: Create a constraint set (Kinematic DOF set) to constrain nodes 1 and 51 in
the X and Z translations.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass


Results

FEMAP
FEMAP
NAFEMS Structural
Ref. Value Structural Result
Mode # Mesh Target Value Result
(Hz) (consistent mass)
(Hz) (lumped mass)
(Hz)
(Hz)
2 243.53 linear 244.01 243.18 243.96
parabolic 243.50 243.24 243.50
3 377.41 linear 379.41 370.86 378.15
parabolic 377.46 356.49 377.46
4 394.11 linear 395.41 379.31 394.42
parabolic 394.28 356.88 394.30
5 397.72 linear 401.35 385.92 398.00
parabolic 397.94 375.85 397.97
6 405.28 linear 421.87 389.56 406.85
parabolic 406.41 393.65 406.44

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 41.
Thick Hollow Sphere - Uniform
Radial Vibration
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf042lc.neu (linear axisymmetric solid quadrilateral, consistent mass)
• nf042ll.neu (linear axisymmetric solid quadrilateral, lumped mass)
• nf042pc.neu (parabolic axisymmetric solid quadrilateral, consistent mass)
• nf042pl.neu (parabolic axisymmetric solid quadrilateral, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a thick, hollow sphere using axisymmetric
solid elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected
Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 42.
Attributes of this test are:
• curved boundary (skewed coordinate system)
• constraint equations

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf042lc.neu and nf042ll.neu)
• 22 nodes, 10 linear axisymmetric solid quadrilateral elements - α = 5°
Tests 3 and 4 (nf042pc.neu and nf042pl.neu)


• 53 nodes, 10 parabolic axisymmetric solid quadrilateral elements

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constraint Set 1: Constrain all nodes in the Z translation.
• Constraint Equations: Constrain all nodes at the same R’ are constrained to have same r’
displacement

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass


Results

FEMAP
FEMAP
NAFEMS Structural
Ref. Value Structural Result
Mode # Mesh Target Value Result
(Hz) (consistent mass)
(Hz) (lumped mass)
(Hz)
(Hz)
1 369.91 linear 370.64 369.91 370.08
parabolic 370.01 369.49 369.83
2 838.03 linear 841.20 831.80 839.49
parabolic 838.08 832.72 837.77
3 1451.2 linear 1473.1 1421.3 1470.5
parabolic 1453.0 1433.7 1450.85
4 2117.0 linear 2192.2 2030.5 2188.6
parabolic 2131.7 2072.9 2117.3
5 2795.8 linear 2975.7 2604.2 2970.9
parabolic 2852.8 2706.3 2799.5

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 42.
Simply-Supported Annular Plate -
Axisymmetric Vibration
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf043lc.neu (linear axisymmetric solid quadrilateral, consistent mass)
• nf043ll.neu (linear axisymmetric solid quadrilateral, lumped mass)
• nf043pc.neu (parabolic axisymmetric solid quadrilateral, consistent mass)
• nf043pl.neu (parabolic axisymmetric solid quadrilateral, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a simply–supported annular plate meshed
with axisymmetric elements. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS
Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 43.
Attributes of this test are:
• well established

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf043lc.neu and nf043ll.neu):


• 80 nodes, 60 linear axisymmetric solid quadrilateral elements

Tests 3 and 4 (nf043pc.neu and nf043pl.neu)


• 28 nodes, 5 parabolic axisymmetric solid quadrilateral elements

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
Constrain point A (node 1) in the Z translation

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass


Results

FEMAP
FEMAP
NAFEMS Structural
Ref. Value Structural Result
Mode # Mesh Target Value Result
(Hz) (consistent mass)
(Hz) (lumped mass)
(Hz)
(Hz)
1 18.543 linear 18.711 18.542 18.570
parabolic 18.582 18.429 18.582
2 150.15 linear 145.46 138.66 140.24
parabolic 145.56 135.97 140.56
3 224.16 linear 224.22 224.20 224.20
parabolic 224.18 224.00 224.18
4 358.29 linear 385.59 361.50 371.48
parabolic 374.05 353.62 374.05
5 629.19 linear 689.34 643.34 673.79
parabolic 686.04 633.16 686.05

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow: NAFEMS,
Nov., 1987.) Test No. 43.
Deep Simply-Supported Solid Beam
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf051lc.neu (linear solid brick, consistent mass)
• nf051ll.neu (linear solid brick, lumped mass)
• nf051pc.neu (parabolic solid brick, consistent mass)
• nf051pl.neu (parabolic solid brick, lumped mass)
This test is a normal mode dynamic analysis of a deep, solid beam meshed with bricks. This
document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected Benchmarks for Natural
Frequency Analysis, Test 51.
Attributes of this test are:
• skewed coordinate system
• skewed restraints

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf051lc.neu, nf051ll.neu)


• 88 nodes, 30 linear solid brick elements

Tests 3 and 4 (nf051pc.neu, nf051pl.neu)


• 68 nodes, 5 parabolic solid brick elements

Boundary Conditions

Constraints, Tests 1 and 2:


• Constrain node 7 in the X, Y, and Z translations.
• Constrain node 8 in the X and Z translations.
• Constrain node 87 in the Y and Z translations.
• Constrain node 88 in the Z translation.


• Constrain all other nodes along the plane Y’ in the Y translation.

Constraints, Tests 3 and 4:


• Constrain node 10 in the X, Y, and Z translations
• Constrain nodes 12 and 35 in the X and Z translations.
• Constrain node 30 in the Y and Z translations.
• Constrain node 71 in the Z translation.
• Constrain all other nodes along the plane Y’ in the Y translation.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass


Results

FEMAP
FEMAP
NAFEMS Structural
Structural Result
Ref. Value Target Result
Mode # Mesh (consistent
(Hz) Value (lumped
mass)
(Hz) mass)
(Hz)
(Hz)
1 38.200 linear 42.881 37.964 38.282
parabolic 38.821 37.788 38.269
2 85.210 linear 93.817 83.407 83.977
parabolic 88.451 87.027 87.659
3 152.23 linear 170.67 152.84 157.63
parabolic 159.34 150.53 157.49
4 245.53 linear 286.12 251.76 265.02
parabolic 259.20 243.10 259.00
5 297.05 linear 318.86 288.20 298.43
parabolic 307.92 281.27 306.02

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 51.
Simply-Supported Solid Square
Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf052lc.neu (linear solid brick, consistent mass)
• nf052ll.neu (linear solid brick, lumped mass)
• nf052pc.neu (parabolic solid brick, consistent mass)
• nf052pl.neu (parabolic solid brick, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a simply–supported solid square plate
meshed with bricks. This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected
Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 52.
Attributes of this test are:
• well established
• rigid body modes (three modes)
• kinematically incomplete suppressions

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Tests 1 and 2 (nf052lc.neu, nf052ll.neu)


• 324 nodes, 192 linear solid brick elements

Tests 3 and 4 (nf052pc.neu, nf052pl.neu)


• 155 nodes, 16 parabolic solid brick elements

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constraint Set 1: Constrain all the nodes along the four edges on the plane ZS = -0.5m in
the Z translation.


• Constraint Set 2 (Kinematic DOF):


Tests 1 and 2: Constrain nodes 36 and 264 in the X, Y, and Z translations.
Tests 3 and 4: Constrain nodes 27 and 219 in the X and Y translation.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass

Results

FEMAP
FEMAP
NAFEMS Structural
Ref. Value Structural Result
Mode # Mesh Target Value Result
(Hz) (consistent mass)
(Hz) (lumped mass)
(Hz)
(Hz)
4 45.897 linear 51.654 44.115 45.318
parabolic 44.762 44.502 44.796
5, 6 109.44 linear 132.73 106.73 113.96
parabolic 110.52 107.94 110.54
7 167.89 linear 194.37 156.48 173.30
parabolic 169.08 161.44 169.11
8 193.59 linear 197.18 193.58 196.77
parabolic 193.93 193.16 193.92
9, 10 206.19 linear 210.55 200.14 209.56
parabolic 206.64 185.60 206.65


Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 52.
Simply-Supported Solid Annular
Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf053lc.neu (linear solid brick, consistent mass)
• nf053ll.neu (linear solid brick, lumped mass)
• nf053pc.neu (parabolic solid brick, consistent mass)
• nf053pl.neu (parabolic solid brick, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a solid annular plate using solid elements.
This document provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected Benchmarks for
Natural Frequency Analysis, Test 53.
Attributes of this test are:
• curved boundary (skewed coordinate system)
• constraint equations

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


• 160 nodes, 60 linear solid bricks:
α = 5°


• 68 nodes, 5 solid parabolic bricks


α = 10°

Boundary Conditions

Constraints, Tests 1 and 2:


• Constrain nodes 76-80 and 156-160 in the Y and Z translations.
• Constrain all other nodes in the Y translation.


• Constraint equations: Constrain nodes at same R and Z are constrained to have same z
displacement.

Constraints, Tests 3 and 4:


• Constrain nodes 11, 22, 33, 44, 66, 77, 88, and 99 in the Y and Z translations and X, Y,
and Z rotations.
• Constrain all other nodes in the Y translation and X, Y, and Z rotations.
• Constraint equations: Constrain nodes at same R and Z are constrained to have same z
displacement

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalues - SVI method
Results were obtained two different ways:
• using lumped mass
• using consistent mass


Results

FEMAP
FEMAP
NAFEMS Structural
Ref. Value Structural Result
Mode # Mesh Target Value Result
(Hz) (consistent mass)
(Hz) (lumped mass)
(Hz)
(Hz)
1 18.583 linear 19.659 18.612 18.641
parabolic 18.582 18.409 18.629
2 140.15 linear 146.42 140.13 141.78
parabolic 140.42 134.21 141.44
3 224.16 linear 224.25 224.34 224.48
parabolic 224.18 223.62 224.33
4 358.29 linear 386.70 369.74 380.74
parabolic 374.04 345.98 380.03
5 629.19 linear 689.47 668.73 690.09
parabolic 686.02 616.01 688.59

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 53.
Cantilevered Solid Beam
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• nf072ac.neu (conventional numbering, consistent mass)
• nf072al.neu (conventional numbering, lumped mass)
• nf072bc.neu (unconventional numbering, consistent mass)
• nf072bl.neu (unconventional numbering, lumped mass)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of a cantilevered solid beam. This document
provides the input data and results for NAFEMS Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency
Analysis, Test 72.
Attributes of this test are:
• highly populated stiffness matrix

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
9 N
E = 200x10 ------2-
m
kg
ρ = 8000 ------3-
m
ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Two tests - both use solid parabolic brick elements


• Test 1: conventional node numbering

• Test 2: unconventional node numbering

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain all nodes on the X=0 plane in the X, Y, and Z translations.


• Constrain all nodes on the Y=1m plane in the Y translation.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – SVI Method

Results

FEMAP FEMAP
NAFEMS
Structural Structural
Mode # Mesh Target Value
(lumped mass) (consistent mass)
(Hz)
(Hz) (Hz)
1 Test 1 16.007 15.800 16.007
Test 2 16.007 15.800 16.007
2 Test 1 87.226 82.235 87.226
Test 2 87.226 82.235 87.226
3 Test 1 125.96 125.03 125.96
Test 2 125.96 125.03 125.96
4 Test 1 209.56 189.33 209.56
Test 2 209.56 189.33 209.56
5 Test 1 351.11 299.30 351.11
Test 2 351.11 299.32 351.11
6 Test 1 375.81 352.39 375.82
Test 2 375.81 352.40 375.81

Note: Reference value (Ref. Value) refers to the accepted solution to the problem.

Reference
• NAFEMS Finite Element Methods & Standards, Abbassian, F., Dawswell, D. J., and
Knowles, N. C., Selected Benchmarks for Natural Frequency Analysis (Glasgow:
NAFEMS, Nov., 1987.) Test No. 72.
Verification Test Cases from the
Societe Francaise des Mech-
aniciens
The purpose of these test cases is to verify the function of the FEMAP Structural software
using standard benchmarks published by SFM (Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Paris,
France) in “Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”
Included here are:
• test cases on mechanical structures using linear statics analysis and normal modes/eigen-
value analysis
• stationary thermal test cases using heat transfer analysis
• a thermo–mechanical test case using linear statics analysis
Results published in “Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures” are compared
with those computed using the FEMAP Structural software.

Understanding the Test Case Format


Each test case is structured with the following information:
• test case data and information
- units
- material properties
- finite element modeling information
- boundary conditions (loads and constraints)
- solution type
• results
• reference

Note: The node numbers listed in each case refer to the node numbers in the neutral
(.neu) files associated with this guide. If you remesh a model, or rebuild that
model from scratch, your node numbering may differ.

Reference
The following reference has been used in these test cases:


• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de


structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.)
Mechanical Structures - Linear Stat-
ics Analysis with Bar or Rod Ele-
ments
The linear statics analysis test cases from the Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens include these
bar and rod element test cases:
• "Short Beam on Two Articulated Supports"
• "Clamped Beams Linked by a Rigid Element"
• "Transverse Bending of a Curved Pipe"
• "Plane Bending Load on a Thin Arc"
• "Nodal Load on an Articulated Rod Truss"
• "Articulated Plane Truss"
• "Beam on an Elastic Foundation"
Short Beam on Two Articulated
Supports
The complete model and results for this test case are in file ssll02.neu.
This test is a linear statics analysis of a short, straight beam with plane bending and shear
loading. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test SSLL02/89 from “Guide de
validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”
• area = 31E-4m2
• inertia = 2810E-8m4
• Shear area ratio = 2.42

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
E = 2E11 Pa

ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


• 10 bar elements
• 11 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain the nodes at both free ends of the beam (nodes 1 and 2) in all directions except
for the Z rotation.

Loads
• On nodes 1-10, apply a load = 1E5 N/m in -Y direction
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Total Translation at point B


(Node 7)
Bench Value -1.25926E-3
FEMAP Structural Value -1.25926E-3
Difference 0.00%
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLL02/89.
Clamped Beams Linked by a Rigid
Element
The complete model and results for this test case are in file ssll05.neu.
This test is a linear statics analysis of a straight, cantilever beam with plane bending and a
rigid element. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test SSLL05/89 from
“Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
• E = 2E11 Pa
• I = (4/3)E-8m4

Finite Element Modeling


• 20 bar elements
• 1 rigid element
• 26 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Nodes 1 and 4: Fully constrained in all directions.


Loads
• Node 3: Set nodal force = 1000 N in -Y direction
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Node Displacement Bench FEMAP


Difference
# Reaction Force Value Structural
Node 6 Displacement Y -0.125 -0.125 0.00%
(T2 Translation)
Node 3 Displacement Y -0.125 -0.125 0.00%
(T2 Translation)
Node 1 Force Y (N) 500 500 0.00%
(T2 Constraint Force)
Node 1 Moment Rz (Nm) 500 500 0.00%
(R3 Constraint Moment)
Node 4 Force Y (N) 500 500 0.00%
(T2 Constraint Force)
Node 4 Rz moment (Nm) (R3 Con- 500 500 0.00%
straint Moment)
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLL05/89.
Transverse Bending of a Curved
Pipe
The complete model and results for this test case are the following files:
• ssll07a.neu (linear beam)
• ssll07b.neu (curved beam)
This test is a linear statics analysis (three–dimensional problem) of a curved pipe with trans-
verse bending and bending–torque loading. It provides the input data and results for bench-
mark test SSLL07/89 from “Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
E = 2E11 Pa

ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Test 1 (ssll07a)
• 90 bar elements
• 91 nodes
Test 2 (ssll07b)
• 90 curved beam elements
• 91 nodes


The mesh for Test 1 is shown in the following figure:

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Fully constrain node 91 in all translations and rotations.

Loads
• Create a nodal force at node 1 = 100 N in Z direction
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:


Solution Type
Statics

Results

Displacement Bench Test FEMAP


Node # Point Difference
Moment Value Number Structural
Node 1 Displacement Z 0.13462 1 0.13465 0.02%
(T3 Translation)
Node 1 Displacement Z 2 0.13464 0.01%
(T3 Translation)
θ=15° Mt (Nm)* 74.1180 1 76.6709 3.44%
Mt (Nm)* 2 75.8109 1.02%
Mf (Nm) -96.5925 1 -96.3680 0.23%
Mf (Nm) 2 -95.2869 1.35%
Mf = bending moment
Mt = torsional moment
*See “Post Processing” below

Post Processing

Bar Element (ssll07a)


List beam forces on element 167, second end
• Mf=Bar End BX2 Moment
• Mt=Bar End BX1 Moment

Curved Beam Element (ssll07b)


List beam forces on element 166, second end
• Mf=Bar End BX2 Moment
• Mt=Bar End BX1 Moment
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLL07/89.
Plane Bending Load on a Thin Arc
The complete model and results for this test case are in file ssll08.neu.
This test is a linear statics analysis (plane problem) of a thin arc with plane bending. It pro-
vides the input data and results for benchmark test SSLL08/89 from “Guide de validation des
progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
E = 2E11 Pa

ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


• 11 nodes
• 10 bar elements
The mesh is shown in the following figure:

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Node 2: Constrain the X, Y, and Z translations.
• Node 1: Constrain the Y and Z translation only.


• Nodes 3-11: Constrain in the Z translation only.

Loads
• Force=100N in -Y direction
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Bench FEMAP
Node # Displacement Difference
Value Structural
Node 2 Rz (rad) -3.0774E-2 -3.1097E-2 1.05%
(R3 Rotation)
Node 1 Rz (rad) 3.0774E-2 3.1097E-2 1.05%
(R3 Rotation)
Node 7 Y (m) -1.9206E-2 -1.9342E-2 0.71%
(T2 Translation)
Node 1 X (m) 5.3913E-2 5.3735E-2 0.33%
(T1 Translation)
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLL08/89.
Nodal Load on an Articulated Rod
Truss
The complete model and results for this test case are in file ssll11.neu.
This test is a linear statics analysis of a plane truss with an articulated rod. It provides the
input data and results for benchmark test SSLL11/89 from “Guide de validation des progiciels
de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
• E = 1.962E11 Pa

Finite Element Modeling


• 4 nodes
• 4 rod elements
The mesh is shown in the following figure:

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Nodes 3 and 17: Constrained in the X, Y, and Z translations only.


• Nodes 2 and 18: Constrained in the Z translation only.

Loads
• Node 2: Set Nodal force = 9.81E3 N in -Y direction
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Bench FEMAP
Node # Displacement Difference
Value Structural
Node 18 X (m) 0.26517E-3 0.26517E-3 0.00%
(T1 Translation)
Node 18 Y (m) 0.08839E-3 0.08839E-3 0.00%
(T2 Translation)
Node 2 X (m) 3.47902E-3 3.47903E-3 ~0.00%
(T1 Translation)
Node 2 Y (m) -5.60084E-3 -5.6004E-3 ~0.00%
(T2 Translation)
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLL11/89.
Articulated Plane Truss
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• ssll14a.neu (4 bar elements)
• ssll14b.neu (10 bar elements)
This test is a linear statics analysis of a straight cantilever beam with plane bending and ten-
sion–compression. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test SSLL14/89 from
“Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
• E = 2.1E11 Pa

Finite Element Modeling


Test 1 (ssll14a)
• 4 bar elements
• 5 nodes
Test 2 (ssll14b)
• 10 linear beam elements
• 11 nodes
The mesh for Test 1 is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions

Test 1 (ssll14a)
• Constraints
Nodes 1 and 4: Constrain in the X, Y, and Z translations.
Nodes 2, 3, 8: Constrain in the Z translation only.
• Loads
Set forces and moments to the following numeric values:
p = -3,000N/m (on element 4); F1 = -20,000N (on node 8); F2 = -10,000N (on node
2); M = -100,000Nm (on node 2)

Test 2 (ssll14b)
• Constraints
Nodes 1 and 4: Constrain in the X, Y, and Z translations.
Nodes 2, 3, 5-13: Constrain in the Z translation only.
• Loads (ssll14b)
Set forces and moments to the following numeric values:
p = -3,000N/m (on elements 5-7); F1 = -20,000N (on node 8); F2 = -10,000N (on
node 2); M = -100,000Nm (on node 2)
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics


Results

Displacement Reaction Bench Test FEMAP


Node # Difference
Force Value Number Structural
1 V vertical (Y) 31500.0 1 33233.1 5.50%
reaction (N) (T2 Constraint 2 33233.1 5.50%
Force)
1 horizontal (x) reaction (N) 20239.4 1 20609.2 1.82%
(T1 Constraint Force) 2 20609.3 1.83%
8 Y (m) (T2 Translation) -0.03072 1 -0.03106 1.10%
2 -0.03161 2.90%

Note: The software takes shear effect into account.

Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLL14/89.
Beam on an Elastic Foundation
The complete model and results for this test case are in file ssll16.neu.
This test is a linear statics analysis (plane problem) of a straight beam with plane bending and
an elastic support. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test SSLL16/89 from
“Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
• E = 2.1E11 Pa
• K = 8.4E5 N/m2
• Each spring stiffness is set to: K*L/ (number of DOF spring elements).

Finite Element Modeling


• 50 bar elements
• 49 DOF spring elements
• 51 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Nodes 1 and 51: Constrain in the X, Y, and Z translations.
• Nodes 2-49: Constrain in the Z translation and X and Y rotations only.

Loads
• Set forces, moments, and distributed loads on element to the following numeric values:
F = -10000 N (node 26) ; p = -5000 N/m (elements 1-50) ; M = 15000 Nm (node
51); M= -15000 Nm (node 1).
The distributed loads are shown below:


The forces and moments are shown below:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Displacement Bench
Node FEMAP Structural Difference
Force, Moment Value
51 rotation(rad) Rz -0.003045 -0.003041 0.36%
(R3 rotation)
reaction force (N) Y 11674 11646 0.78%
(T2 Constraint Force)
26 disp. Y (m) (T2 Translation) -0.423326E-2 -0.42270E-2 0.41%
26 M moment (Nm)* (Bar End 33840 33286 1.63%
BX3 Moment)
*On element 26, second end
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLL16/89.
Mechanical Structures - Linear Stat-
ics Analysis with Plate Elements
The linear statics analysis test cases from the Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens include these
plate element test cases:
• "Plane Shear and Bending Load on a Plate"
• "Infinite Plate with a Circular Hole"
• "Uniformly Distributed Load on a Circular Plate"
• "Torque Loading on a Square Tube"
• "Cylindrical Shell with Internal Pressure"
• "Uniform Axial Load on a Thin Wall Cylinder"
• "Hydrostatic Pressure on a Thin Wall Cylinder"
• "Gravity Loading on a Thin Wall Cylinder"
• "Pinched Cylindrical Shell"
• "Spherical Shell with a Hole"
• "Uniformly Distributed Load on a Simply-Supported Rectangular Plate"
• "Shear Loading on a Plate"
• "Uniformly Distributed Load on a Simply-Supported Rhomboid Plate"
Plane Shear and Bending Load on a
Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in file sslp01.neu.
This test is a linear statics analysis (plane problem) of a plate with plane bending. It provides
the input data and results for benchmark test SSLP01/89 from “Guide de validation des
progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
E = 3E10 Pa

ν = 0.25

Finite Element Modeling


• 100 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 126 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Nodes 121-126: Fully constrain in all translations and rotations.


Loads
• Set a shear force with parabolic distribution on width and constant distribution on thick-
ness
• Resultant force: p = 40 N.
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Point Centerline Bench FEMAP


Node # Difference
Coordinates Displacement Value Structural
3 (L,y) Y (mm) 0.3413 0.3408 0.15%
(T2 Translation)
The displacements are shown in the following figure:

Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLP01/89.
Infinite Plate with a Circular Hole
The complete model and results for this test case are in file sslp02.neu.
This test is a linear statics analysis (plane problem) of a plate with tension–compression and a
membrane effect. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test SSLP02/89 from
“Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
E = 3E10 Pa

ν = 0.25

Finite Element Modeling


Mapped meshing (with biasing)
• 100 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 121 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Nodes 1-11: Constrain in Y translation and X and Z rotations only.
• Nodes 12-110: Constrain in Z translation only.
• Nodes 111-121: Constrain in X translation and Y and Z rotations only.

Loads
• Tension force P = 2.5 N/mm**2 (in plane force of 2500 N/m)
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics


Results

Point Node Bench FEMAP


Stress Difference
Coordinates # Value Structural
(a,0) 1 7.5 7.52 0.26%
σθ

Plate Top Y Normal Stress


56 (N/mm**2) 2.5 2.61 4.40%
 a, π
Plate Top Y Normal Stress
---
 4
111 Plate Top Y Normal Stress -2.5 -2.38 4.80%
 a, π
---
 2

Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLP02/89.
Uniformly Distributed Load on a Cir-
cular Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• ssls03a.neu (linear quadrilateral)
• ssls03b.neu (linear triangle)
This test is a linear statics analysis (three–dimensional problem) of a circular plate fixed at the
edge with transverse bending and a uniform load. It provides the input data and results for
benchmark test SSLS03/89 from “Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2.1 ×10 Pa

ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Test 1 (ssl03a) - Free meshing:
• 38 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 50 nodes


Test 2 (ssl03a) - Free meshing:


• 53 linear triangular plate elements
• 38 nodes

Only 1/4 of the plate is meshed.

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain node 1 in all directions except for the Z translation.
• Fully constrain nodes 2-3 and nodes 15-21 in all directions.
• Constrain nodes 4-8 in the X translation and Y and Z rotations.
• Constrain nodes 9-13 in the Y translation and X and Z rotations.

Note: Symmetric conditions are applied to the sides.

Loads
• Uniform elemental pressure p = -1000 Pa.


Test 1 boundary conditions:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

T3 Translation
Bench Test FEMAP
Node # Point (Displacement Difference
Value Number Structural
Z)
Node 1 Center O w (m) -0.0065 1 -0.0065 0.00%
Node 1 Center O -0.0065 2 -0.0065 0.00%
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLS03/89.
Torque Loading on a Square Tube
The complete model and results for this test case are in file ssls05.neu.
This test is a linear statics analysis (three–dimensional problem) of a thin–walled tube loaded
in torsion by pure shear at the free end. It provides the input data and results for benchmark
test SSLS05/89 from “Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2.1 ×10 Pa

ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


Mapped meshing
• 160 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 176 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Completely constrain nodes 1-5, 57-60, 112-115, and 167-169 in all translations and
rotations.

Loads
• Torque equal to 10 Nm on the free end.

Note: This translates into an equivalent nodal force of ±12.5N.

The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Displacement Bench FEMAP


Node # Difference
and Stress Value Structural
193 T2 Translation (m) -0.617E-7 -0.617E-7 0.00%
193 R1 Rotation (rad) 0.123E-4 0.123E-4 0.00%
193 Plate Bottom Minor Stress -0.11E6 -0.11E6 0.00%
(Pa)
208 T2 Translation (m) -0.987E-7 -0.988E-7 0.10%
208 R1 Rotation (rad) 0.197E-4 0.197E-4 0.00%
208 Plate Bottom Minor Stress -0.11E6 -0.11E6 0.00%
(Pa)


Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLS05/89.
Cylindrical Shell with Internal Pres-
sure
The complete model and results for this test are in the following files:
• ssls06a.neu (linear quadrilateral, test 1)
• ssls06b.neu (linear quadrilateral, test 2)
This test is a linear statics analysis of the thin cylinder loaded by internal pressure. It provides
the input data and results for benchmark test SSLS06/89 from “Guide de validation des
progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2.1 ×10 Pa

ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling

Test 1 (ssls06a) - Mapped meshing


• 100 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 121 nodes


Test 2 (ssls06b) - Mapped meshing


• 400 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 441 nodes

Boundary Conditions

Constraints for Test 1 (ssls06a)


• Constrain node 1 in all directions except for the Y translation.
• Constrain nodes 2-10 in the Z translation and X and Y rotations.
• Constrain node 11 in all directions except for the X translation.
• Constrain nodes 12, 23, 34, 45, 56, 67, 78, 89, 100, and 111 in the X translation and Y
and Z rotations only.
• Constrain nodes 22, 33, 44, 55, 66, 77, 88, 99, 110, 121 in the Y translation and X and Z
rotations.

Constraints for Test 2 (ssls06b)


• Constrain node 1 in all directions except for the Y translation.
• Constrain nodes 2-20 in the Z translation and X and Y rotations.
• Constrain node 21 in all directions except for the X translation.
• Constrain nodes 22, 43, 64, 85, 106, 127, 148, 169, 190, 211, 232, 253, 274, 295, 316,
337, 358, 379, 400, and 421 in the X translation and Y and Z rotations only.
• Constrain nodes 42, 63, 84, 105, 126, 147, 168, 189, 210, 231, 252, 273, 294, 315, 336,
357, 378, 399, 420, 441 in the Y translation and X and Z rotations only.

Loads for Test 1 and Test 2


• Internal pressure on the elements = 10000 Pa.


The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Displacement Bench Test FEMAP


Node # Difference
and Stress Value Number Structural
11 0.0 1 1.32
σ11 ( Pa ) )

Plate Top Y Normal Stress


21 2 -0.139
σ11 ( Pa ) )

Plate Top Y Normal Stress


111 5.00E5 1 4.98E5 0.40%
σ22 ( Pa ) )

Plate Top X Normal Stress


421 σ22(Pa) 2 4.99E5 0.20%
σ22 ( Pa ) )

Plate Top X Normal Stress




121 2.38E-6 1 2.37E-6 0.42%


∆R ( m )

T1 Translation
441 2 2.38E-6 0.00%
∆R ( m )

T1 Translation
121 -1.43E-6 1 -1.42E-6 0.70%
∆L ( m )

T3 Translation
441 2 -1.43E-6 0.00%
∆L ( m )

T3 Translation

All results are averages.


Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLS06/89.
Uniform Axial Load on a Thin Wall
Cylinder
The complete model and results for this test are in the following files:
• ssls07a.neu (parabolic quadrilateral plate, test 1)
• ssls07b.neu (parabolic triangle plate, test 2)
This test is a linear static analysis of a thin cylinder loaded axially. It provides the input data
and results for benchmark test SSLS07/89 from “Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul
de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2.1 ×10 Pa

ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling

Test 1
• Meshed by revolving a meshed beam
• 200 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements

• 661 nodes

Test 2
• Meshed by free meshing on 1/8 of a cylinder
• 400 parabolic triangular plate elements

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain the nodes along one long edge in the Y translation and X and Z rotations.
• Constrain the nodes along the other long edge in the X translation and the Y and Z rota-
tions.
• Constrain the nodes along the top short edge in the Z translation only.
• Constrain node 1 in the Y and Z translations and the X and Z rotations.


• Constrain node 21 in the X and Z translations and Y and Z rotations.

Loads
• Uniform axial elemental pressures, q = 10000 N/m
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Displacement Bench Test FEMAP


Node # Difference
and Stress Value Number Structural
641 5.00E5 1 5.00E5 0.00%
σ11 ( Pa )

Plate Top Y Normal


Stress
641 5.00E5 2 5.00E5 0.00%
σ11 ( Pa )

Plate Top Y Normal


Stress


641 0.0 1 0.0


σ22 ( Pa )

Plate Top X Normal


Stress
641 0.0 2 0.0
σ22 ( Pa )

Plate Top X Normal


Stress
641 -7.14E-7 1 -7.14E-7 0.0%
∆R ( m )

T1 Translation
641 -7.14E-7 2 -7.14E-7 0.0%
∆R ( m )

T1 Translation
641 9.52E-6 1 9.52E-6 0.0%
∆L ( m )

T3 Translation
641 9.52E-6 2 9.52E-6 0.0%
∆L ( m )

T3 Translation

All results are averages.


Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLS07/89.
Hydrostatic Pressure on a Thin Wall
Cylinder
The complete model and results for this test case are in file ssls08.neu.
This test is a linear statics analysis of a thin cylinder loaded by hydrostatic pressure. It pro-
vides the input data and results for benchmark test SSLS08/89 from “Guide de validation des
progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2.1 ×10 Pa

ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


• 200 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements
• 661 nodes
Cylinder is meshed by revolving a meshed beam.
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain the nodes on side A (from node 21 to node 661) in the X translation and Y and
Z rotations.
• Constrain the nodes on side B (from node 1 to node 641) in the Y translation,and X and Z
rotation.

Loads
• Internal elemental pressures, p = p0*Z/L with p0=20000 Pa
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics


Results

Displacement Bench FEMAP


Node Point Difference
and Stress Value Structural
Node 321 Any 0.0 -0.0054E5
σ11 ( Pa )

Plate Top Y Normal


Stress
Node 321 x=L/2 5.0E5 4.98E5 0.40%
σ22 ( Pa )

Plate Top X Normal


Stress
Node 321 x=L/2 2.38E-6 2.38E-6 0.00%
∆R ( m )

T1 Translation
Node 1 x=L -2.86E-6 1.486E-6 0.00%
∆L ( m )

T3 Translation
Node 321 1.19E-6 1.19E-6 0.00%
ψ ( rad )

R2 Rotation
ψ represents the rotation of a generator
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLS08/89.
Gravity Loading on a Thin Wall Cyl-
inder
The complete model and results for this test case are in file ssls09.neu.
This test is a linear statics analysis of a thin cylinder loaded by its own weight. It provides the
input data and results for benchmark test SSLS09/89 from “Guide de validation des progiciels
de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2.1 ×10 Pa

ν = 0.3
11
γ = 7.85 ×10 Pa

kg
mass = 8002 ------3-
m

Finite Element Modeling


• 65 linear quadrilateral plate elements (mapped meshing)
• 84 nodes


The mesh is shown in the following figure:

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Nodes 1, 5-16: Constrain in the Y translation and X and Z rotations.
• Node 2: Constrain in all directions except for the X translation and Y rotation.
• Nodes 3, 21-32: Constrain the X translation and Y and Z rotations.
• Node 4: Constrain in the X and Z translations and the Y and Z rotations.
• Nodes 33-36: Constrain in the Z translation only.

Loads
• Body load: Translational acceleration in the Z direction


The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Displacement Bench
Node # Point FEMAP Structural Difference
and Stress Value
Node 2 x=0 3.14E5 3.02E5 3.82%
σ11 ( Pa )
Plate Top X Normal
Stress
Node 1 Any 0.0 -1578 to 1578
σ22 ( Pa )

Plate Top Y Normal


Stress


Node 2 x=0 -4.49E-7 -4.39E-7 2.00%


∆R ( m )

T1 Translation
Node 1 x=L 2.99E-6 2.99E-6 0.00%
z∆ ( m )

T3 Translation
Node 10 x-L -1.12E-7 -1.12E-7 0.00
ψ ( rad )

R2 Rotation

Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLS09/89.
Pinched Cylindrical Shell
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• ssls20a.neu (linear triangle plate)
• ssls20b.neu (linear quadrilateral plate)
This test is a linear statics analysis of a cylindrical shell with nodal forces, F, pinching as
shown. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test SSLS20/89 from “Guide de
validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
6
E = 10.5x10 Pa

ν = 0.315

Finite Element Modeling


Test 1 (ssls20a) - Free meshing
• 296 linear triangle plate elements
• 173 nodes


Test 2 (ssls20b) - Mapped meshing


• 140 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 165 nodes

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Free conditions. To set free boundary conditions, use symmetry about XY, XZ and YZ
planes.
• Node 1: Fully constrain except for the X translation.
• Node 2, 5-13: Constrain in the Y translation and the X and Z rotations.
• Node 3: Fully constrain except for the Y translation.
• Node 4, 27-35: Constrain in the X translation and the Y and Z rotations.
• Nodes 14-26: Constrain the Z translation and the X and Y rotations.

Loads
• Nodal forces Fy = -25 N at point D


The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Bench Test FEMAP


Point Displacement Difference
Value Number Structural
D Displacement Y (Node 3) -113.9E-3 1 -114.4E-3 0.44%
(T2 Translation)
D Displacement Y (Node 3) -113.9E-3 2 -113.3E-3 0.53%
(T2 Translation)

Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLS20/89.
Spherical Shell with a Hole
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• ssls21a.neu (Test 1, linear quadrilateral plate)
• ssls21b.neu (Test 2, linear triangular plate)
• ssls21c.neu (Test 3, parabolic quadrilateral plate)
This test is a linear statics analysis of a spherical shell with a hole with nodal forces. It pro-
vides the input data and results for benchmark test SSLS21/89 from “Guide de validation des
progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
7
E = 6.285x10 Pa

ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling

Test 1 (ssls21a)
• 100 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 121 nodes


Test 2 (ssls21b)
• 200 linear triangular plate elements
• 121 nodes

Test 3 (ssls21c)
• 100 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements
• 341 nodes

All tests are executed with mapped meshing.

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain nodes 1-11 in the X translation and Y and Z rotations.
• Constrain nodes 111-121 in the Z translation and X and Y rotations.
• Free condition


Note: To set free boundary conditions, use symmetry about XY and YZ planes.

Loads
• Nodal forces F = 2 Newtons
Due to the symmetric boundary conditions, only half of the load is applied.
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

T1 Translation Bench Test FEMAP


Point Difference
u (m) Value Number Structural
A(R,0,0) node 111 94.0E-3 1 103.3E-3 9.91%
node 111 94.0E-3 2 103.7E-3 10.32%
node 421 94.0E-3 3 98.6E-3 4.89%

Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLS21/89.
Uniformly Distributed Load on a
Simply-Supported Rectangular
Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• ssls24a.neu (Test 1, coarse mesh)
• ssls24b.neu (Test 2, fine mesh)
• ssls24c.neu (Test 3, very fine mesh)
This test is a linear statics analysis of a plate with pressure loading and simple supports. It pro-
vides the input data and results for benchmark test SSLS24/89 from “Guide de validation des
progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
7
E = 1.0x10 Pa

ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling

Test 1 (ssls24a): length/thickness=1


• 100 linear quadrilateral plate elements


• 121 nodes

Test 2 (ssls24b): length/thickness=2


• 200 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 231 nodes

Test 3 (ssls24c): length/thickness=5


• 500 linear quadrilateral plate elements


• 561 nodes

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Fully constrain node 1 in all translations and rotations.
• Constrain the nodes on all edges in the Z translation only.

Loads
• Set pressure = 1 N/m**2 in the -Z direction


The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Length/
Bench FEMAP
Center Node Thickne Parameter Test Difference
Value Structural
ss
61z direction 1.0 0.00444 1 0.00453 2.03%
(T3 Translation) α
116z direction 2.0 0.01110 2 0.01110 0.0%
(T3 Translation) α
281z direction 5.0 0.1417 3 0.01402 1.06%
(T3 Translation) α


61x component 1.0 2874 1 2905 1.00%


top surface (Plate β
Top X Normal
Stress)
116x component 2.0 6102 2 6065 0.61%
top surface (Plate β
Top Y Normal
Stress)
281x component 5.0 7476 3 7332 1.93%
top surface (Plate α
Top Y Normal
Stress)

2
βqb
Max σ = σ b = -----------
2
-
t
4
– αqb
Max y = ---------------
3
-
Et

Where:
q= distributed load
b = dimension
t = thickness
E = elastic modules
β values of reference from the “Guide de Validation” are incorrect. The correct values are
extracted from “Formulas for Stress and Strain (Roark/Young)”.
Note that the plate top surface corresponds to the side of the plate with negative global z
coordinates.
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLS24/89.
Uniformly Distributed Load on a
Simply-Supported Rhomboid Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• ssls25a.neu (Test 1)
• ssls25b.neu (Test 2)
This test is a linear statics analysis (three–dimensional problem) of a plate with pressure and
transverse bending. It provides the input data and results for a test similar to benchmark test
SSLS25/89 from “Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
6
E = 36.0x10 Pa

ν = 0.3

Finite Element Modeling


• Length/thickness=2
• linear quadrilateral plate elements

Test 1 (ssls25a)
θ = 30°


Test 2 (ssls25b)
θ = 45°

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Fully constrain node 231 in all translations and rotations.
• Constrain the nodes along the edges of the mesh in the Z translation.


Loads
• Elemental pressure = 1 N/m**2 in the -Z direction

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Bench Center location


Test Case Parameters FEMAP Structural Difference
Value
Test 1 Z displacement Z displacement (T3 Trans- 4.27%
ssls25a α = 0.118 lation) at node 116
θ = 30° -3.277x10E-3m -3.137x10E-3m
ssls25a Y stress Y stress (Plate Top Y Nor- 1.07%
β = 0.570 mal Stress) at node 116
-5.70x10E3N/m2 -5.761x10E3N/m2
Test 2 Z displacement Z displacement (T3 Trans- 3.53%
ssls25b α = 0.108 lation) at node 116
θ = 45° -3.0x10E-3m -2.894x10E-3m
ssls25b Y stress Y stress (Plate Top Y Nor- 0.76%
β = 0.539 mal Stress) at node 116
-5.39x10E3N/m2 -5.349x10E3N/m2


2
Max σ =βqb

4
αqb -
Max y = ------------
3
Et

Where:
q= distributed load
b = dimension
t = thickness
E = elastic modules
Values of reference from the “Guide de validation” are incorrect. The correct values are
extracted from “Formulas for Stress and Strain (Roark/Young),” table 26, case number 14a.
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLS25/89.
Shear Loading on a Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• ssls27a.neu (Test 1)
• ssls27b.neu (Test 2)
• ssls27c.neu (Test 3)
This test is a linear statics analysis of a thin plate with torque and shear loading. It provides
the input data and results for benchmark test SSLS27/89 from “Guide de validation des
progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
7
E = 1.0x10 Pa

ν = 0.25

Finite Element Modeling

Test 1 (ssls27a) - Mindlin (element formulation)


• 6 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 14 nodes

Test 2 (ssls27b) - Kirchhoff (element formulation)


• 6 linear quadrilateral plate elements


• 14 nodes

Test 3 (ssls27c) - Mindlin (element formulation)


• 48 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 75 nodes
All tests are executed with mapped meshing.

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Fully constrain the nodes on side AD in all translations and rotations.

Loads
• Create a nodal force Fz = -1N at point B.
• Create a nodal force -Fz = 1N at point C.
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:
D

Solution Type
Statics


Results at Location C

Displacement
Bench Test FEMAP
Node Difference
Value Number Structural
(Total T3 Translation)
14 3.537E-2 1 5.335E-2 50.83%
14 3.537E-2 2 3.382E-2 4.38%
75 3.537E-2 3 3.750E-2 6.02%
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLS27/89.
Mechanical Structures - Linear Stat-
ics Analysis with Solid Elements
The linear statics analysis test cases from the Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens include these
solid element test cases:
• "Solid Cylinder in Pure Tension"
• "Internal Pressure on a Thick-Walled Spherical Container"
• "Internal Pressure on a Thick-Walled Infinite Cylinder"
• "Prismatic Rod in Pure Bending"
• "Thick Plate Clamped at Edges"
Solid Cylinder in Pure Tension
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• sslv01a.neu (parabolic tetrahedron, free meshing)
• sslv01b.neu (linar brick, mapped meshing)
• sslv01c.neu (linear quadrilateral axisymmetric solid, mapped meshing)
• sslv01d.neu (linear triangular axisymmetric solid, free meshing)
This test is a linear statics analysis of a solid cylinder with tension–compression. It provides
the input data and results for benchmark test SSLV01/89 from “Guide de validation des
progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2.0x10 Pa

ν = 0.30

Finite Element Modeling

Test 1 (sslv01a) - Free meshing


• 155 parabolic tetrahedron elements
• 342 nodes


Test 2 (sslv01b) - Mapped meshing


• 192 linear brick elements
• 259 nodes

Test 3 (sslv01c) - Mapped meshing


• 48 linear quadrilateral axisymmetric solid elements
• 65 nodes

Test 4 (sslv01d) - Free meshing


• 28 linear triangular axisymmetric solid elements
• 24 nodes


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Uniaxial deformation of the cylinder section

Constraints (sslv01a)
• Nodes 1, 17-19: Constrain in the Y and Z translations.
• Nodes 2, 14-16: Constrain in the X and Z translations.
• Node 3: Constrain in the X, Y, and Z translations.
• Nodes 4, 59-63: Constrain in the X and Y translations.
• Nodes 5, 20-22, 33-45, 200-226: Constrain in the Y translation.
• Nodes 6, 23-25, 46-58, 173-199: Constrain in the X translation.
• Nodes 7-13, 64-72: Constrain in the Z translation.

Constraints (sslv01b)
• Constrain node 1, 10,19, and 28 in the Y and Z translation.
• Constrain nodes 2-8, 11-17, 20-26, and 29-35 in the Z translation.
• Constrain nodes 9, 18, 27, and 36 in the X and Z translation.
• Constrain node 37 in the X, Y, and Z translations.
• Constrain nodes 54, 63, 72, 81, 99, 108, 117, 126, 144, 153, 162, 171, 189, 198, 207,
216, 234, 243, 252, 261, 279, 288, 297, and 306 in the X translation.
• Constrain nodse 82, 127, 172, 217, and 307 in the X and Y translation.


• Constrain nodes 46, 55, 64, 73, 91, 100, 109, 118, 136, 145, 154, 163, 181, 190, 199,
208, 226, 235, 244, 253, 271, 280, 289, and 298 in the Y translation.

Constraints (sslv01c)
• Constrain nodes 13, 26, 39, and 52 in the Z translation.
• Constrain node 65 in the X and Z translations.

Constraints (sslv01d)
• Constrain node 1 in the X and Z translation
• Constrain nodes 2, 5, 6, and 7 in the Z translation.


Loads (all tests)


• Set uniformly distributed force -F/A on the free end in the Z direction
• Elemental pressure, F/A = 100 MPa
Loads, Tests 1 and 2

Loads, Tests 3 and 4:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Bench FEMAP
Node # Displacements Test # Difference
Value Structural
6 T3 Translation 1.5E-3 1 1.5E-3 0.00%
279 T3 Translation 1.5E-3 2 1.5E-3 0.00%
1 T3 Translation 1.5E-3 3 1.5E-3 0.00%
4 T3 Translation 1.5E-3 4 1.5E-3 0.00%
4 T3 Translation 1.5E-3 1 1.5E-3 0.00%
307 T3 Translation 1.5E-3 2 1.5E-3 0.00%
53 T3 Translation 1.5E-3 3 1.5E-3 0.00%


3 T3 Translation 1.5E-3 4 1.5E-3 0.00%


37 T3 Translation 1E-3 1 1E-3 0.00%
189 T3 Translation 1E-3 2 1E-3 0.00%
5 T3 Translation 1E-3 3 1E-3 0.00%
25 T3 Translation 1E-3 4 1E-3 0.00%
41 T3 Translation 0.5E-3 1 0.5E-3 0.00%
99 T3 Translation 0.5E-3 2 0.5E-3 0.00%
9 T3 Translation 0.5E-3 3 0.5E-3 0.00%
29 T3 Translation 0.5E-3 4 0.5E-3 0.00%
6 T2 Translation -0.15E-3 1 -0.15E-3 0.00%
279 T2 Translation -0.15E-3 2 -0.15E-3 0.00%
1 T1 Translation -0.15E-3 3 -0.15E-3 0.00%
4 T1 Translation -0.15E-3 4 -0.15E-3 0.00%
37 T1 Translation -0.15E-3 1 -0.15E-3 0.00%
189 T1 Translation -0.15E-3 2 -0.15E-3 0.00%
5 T2 Translation -0.15E-3 3 -0.15E-3 0.00%
25 T1 Translation -0.15E-3 4 -0.15E-3 0.00%
41 T1 Translation -0.15E-3 1 -0.15E-3 0.00%
99 T2 Translation -0.15E-3 2 -0.15E-3 0.00%
9 T1 Translation -0.15E-3 3 -0.15E-3 0.00%
29 T1 Translation -0.15E-3 4 -0.15E-3 0.00%
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLV01/89/89.
Internal Pressure on a Thick-Walled
Spherical Container
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• sslv03a.neu (Test 1, linear solids)
• sslv03b.neu (Test 2, parabolic solids)
• sslv03c.neu (Test 3, linear axisymmetric solids)
• sslv03d.neu (Test 4, parabolic axisymmetric solids)
This test is a linear statics analysis of a thick sphere with internal pressure. It provides the
input data and results for benchmark test SSLV03/89 from “Guide de validation des progiciels
de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
5
E = 2.0x10 Pa

ν = 0.30

Finite Element Modeling

Test 1 (sslv03a) - Mapped meshing


• 1600 linear brick elements


• 1898 nodes

Test 2 (sslv03b) - Mapped meshing


• 250 parabolic brick elements
• 1256 nodes

Test 3 (sslv03c) - Mapped meshing


• 400 linear quadrilateral axisymmetric solid elements


• 451 nodes

Test 4 (sslv03d) - Mapped meshing


• 400 parabolic quadrilateral axisymmetric solid elements
• 1301 nodes

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• The equivalent of the center of the sphere being fixed is modeled via symmetric bound-
ary conditions.
Constraints - Tests 1 and 2:


Constraints - Tests 3 and 4:

Loads
• Uniform radial elemental pressure = 100 MPa
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:
Pressure -Tests 1 and 2:

Pressure - Tests 3 and 4:




Solution Type
Statics

Results

Results for Point R = 1m

Displacement Bench Test FEMAP


Point Node # Difference
Stress Value Number Structural
r=1 m 1 -100 1 -90.07 9.93%
σ Π ( MPa )

Solid Z Normal
Stress
1 Solid Z Normal -100 2 -104.33 4.33%
41 Axisym C1 Radial -100 3 -95.50 4.50%
Stress
41 Axisym C1 Radial -100 4 -94.81 5.19%
Stress
1 71.43 1 72.04 0.85%
σ θ ( MPa )

Solid Y Normal
Stress
1 71.43 2 73.70 3.18%
σ θ ( MPa )

Solid Y Normal
Stress
41 71.43 3 69.20 3.12%
σ θ ( MPa )

Axisym C1 Azi-
muth Stress
41 71.43 4 69.50 2.70%
σ θ ( MPa )

Axisym C1 Azi-
muth Stress
1 u (m) 0.4E-3 1 0.40E-3 0.00%
T3 Translation


1 u (m) 0.4E-3 2 0.40E-3 0.00%


T3 Translation
41 u (m) 0.4E-3 3 0.41E-3 2.50%
T3 Translation
41 u (m) 0.4E-3 4 0.40E-3 0.00%
T3 Translation

Results for Point R = 2m

Displacement Bench Test FEMAP


Point Node # Difference
Stress Value Number Structural
r=2 m 1826 0 1 -.041 N/A
σ Π ( MPa )

Solid Z Normal
Stress
2221 0 2 -.649 N/A
σ Π ( MPa )

Solid Z Normal
Stress
1 Axisym C1 Radial 0 3 -.233 N/A
Stress
1 Axisym C1 Radial 0 4 -.430 N/A
Stress
1826 21.43 1 21.18 1.16%
σ θ ( MPa )

Solid Y Normal
Stress
2221 21.43 2 21.76 1.53%
σ θ ( MPa )

Solid Y Normal
Stress
1 Axisym C1 Radial 21.43 3 21.39 0.19%
Stress
1 Axisym C1 Radial 21.43 4 21.58 0.70%
Stress


1826 u (m) 1.5E-4 1 1.50E-4 0.00%


T3 Translation
2221 u (m) 1.5E-4 2 1.50E-4 0.00%
T3 Translation
1 u (m) 1.5E-4 3 1.53E-4 2.00%
T3 Translation
1 u (m) 1.5E-4 4 1.50E-4 0.00%
T3 Translation

All results are averaged.


Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLV03/89.
Internal Pressure on a Thick-Walled
Infinite Cylinder
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• sslv04a.neu (solid, linear brick)
• sslv04b.neu (solid, parabolic brick)
• sslv04c.neu (solid, axisymmetric quadrilateral)
• sslv04d.neu (solid, axisymmetric parabolic)
This test is a linear statics analysis of a thick cylinder with internal pressure. It provides the
input data and results for benchmark test SSLV04/89 from “Guide de validation des progiciels
de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
5
E = 2.0x10 Pa

ν = 0.30

Finite Element Modeling


All tests are executed with mapped meshing.

Test 1 (sslv04a) - Mapped meshing


• 400 solid (linear brick) elements
• 902 nodes

Test 2 (sslv04b) - Mapped meshing


• 240 solid (parabolic brick) elements
• 1873 nodes


FE Model - Tests 1 and 2:

Test 3 (sslv04c) - Mapped meshing


• 600 axisymmetric (linear quadrilateral solid) elements
• 656 nodes

Test 4 (sslv04d) - Mapped meshing


• 600 axisymmetric (parabolic quadrilateral solid) elements
• 1911 nodes
FE Model - Tests 3 and 4:

Boundary Conditions

Constraints (sslv04a)
• Nodes 1-41, 452-492: Constrain in the X translation.
• Nodes 411-451, 862-902: Constrain in the Z translation.


Constraints (sslv04b)
• Nodes 1-61, 1038-1098, 2075-2135: Constrain in the X translation.
• Nodes 977-1037, 2014-2074, 3051-3111: Constrain in the Z translation.

Constraints (sslv04c)
• Nodes 1-41: Constrain in the Z translation.

Constraints (sslv04d)
• Nodes 1-81: Constrain in the Z translation.

Loads (all tests)


• Unlimited cylinder
• Internal elemental pressure p = 60 MPa
Boundary Conditions - Tests 1 and 2:

Boundary Conditions - Tests 3 and 4:




Solution Type
Statics

Results
All results are averaged.

Results for R=0.1m

Test Displacement Bench FEMAP


Point Node # Difference
Case Stress Value Structural
sslv04a r=0.1 m -60 411 -57.07 4.88%
σ r ( MPa )

Solid X Normal
Stress
sslv04b Solid X Normal -60 977 -60.97 1.62%
Stress
sslv04c Axisymm C1 -60 616 -58.03 3.28%
Radial Stress
sslv04d Axisymm C1 -60 1831 -59.98 0.03%
Radial Stress
sslv04a 100 411 99.69 0.31%
σ θ ( MPa )

Solid Z Normal
Stress
sslv04b 100 977 100.98 0.98%
σ θ ( MPa )

Solid Z Normal
Stress
sslv04c Axisymm C1 Azi- 100 616 100.77 0.77%
muth Stress
sslv04d Axisymm C1 Azi- 100 1831 99.98 0.02%
muth Stress
sslv04a 80 411 79.35 0.81%
τ max ( MPa )

Solid Max Shear


Stress


sslv04b Solid Max Shear 80 977 80.97 1.21%


Stress
sslv04a u (m) 59E-6 411 59E-6 0.00%
T1 Translation
sslv04b T1 Translation 59E-6 977 59E-6 0.00%
sslv04c T1 Translation 59E-6 616 59E-6 0.00%
sslv04d T1 Translation 59E-6 1831 59E-6 0.00%

Results for R=0.2m

Test Displacement Bench Node FEMAP


Point Difference
Case Stress Value # Structural
sslv04a r=0.2m 0 451 -.006 NA
σ r ( MPa )

Solid X Normal
Stress
sslv04b Solid X Normal 0 1037 -.250 NA
Stress
sslv04c Axisymm C1 0 656 -.253 NA
Radial Stress
sslv04d Axisymm C1 0 1911 .002 NA
Radial Stress
sslv04a 40 451 39.70 0.75%
σ θ ( MPa )

Solid Z Normal
Stress
sslv04b Solid Z Normal 40 1037 40.25 0.62%
Stress
sslv04c Axisymm C1 Axi- 40 656 40.61 1.53%
muth Stress
sslv04d Axisymm C1 Axi- 40 1911 39.90 0.25%
muth Stress
sslv04a 20 451 20.10 0.50%
τ max ( MPa )

Solid Max Shear


Stress


sslv04b Solid Max Shear 20 1037 20.25 1.25%


Stress
sslv04a u (m) 40E-6 451 40E-6 0.00%
T1 Translation
sslv04b T1 Translation 40E-6 1037 40E-6 0.00%
sslv04c T1 Translation 40E-6 656 39.9E-6 0.25%
sslv04d T1 Translation 40E-6 1911 40E-6 0.00%

Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLV04/89.
Prismatic Rod in Pure Bending
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• sslv08a.neu (Test 1, solid elements, linear tetrahedrons)
• sslv08b.neu (Test 2, solid elements, parabolic tetrahedrons)
• sslv08c.neu (Test 3, solid elements, linear bricks)
• sslv08d.neu (Test 4 solid elements, parabolic bricks)
This test is a linear statics analysis of a solid rod with bending. It provides the input data and
results for benchmark test SSLV08/89 from “Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
5
E = 2.0x10 Pa

ν = 0.30

Finite Element Modeling

Test 1 (sslv08a) - Free meshing


• 198 solid (linear tetrahedron) elements
• 76 nodes

Test 2 (sslv08b) - Free meshing


• 198 solid (parabolic tetrahedron) elements
• 409 nodes


FE Model - Tests 1 and 2:

Test 3 (sslv08c) - Mapped meshing


• 48 solid (linear brick) elements
• 117 nodes

Test 4 (sslv08d) - Mapped meshing


• 48 solid (parabolic brick) elements
• 381 nodes
FE Model - Tests 3 and 4:

Boundary Conditions

Constraints (sslv08a)
• Nodes 29, 33: Constrain in the X and Z translations.
• Nodes 30-32, 34, 39, 40: Constrain in the Z translation.
• Node 57: Constrain in the X, Y, and Z translations.


Constraints (sslv08b)
• Nodes 127, 131: Constrain in the X and Z translations.
• Nodes 128-130, 132-146, 188-195: Constrain in the Z translation only.
• Node 187: Constrain in the X, Y, and Z translations.

Constraints (sslv08c)
• Nodes 1-4, 6-9: Constrain in the Z translation.
• Node 5: Constrain in the X, Y, and Z translations.

Constraints (sslv08d)
• Nodes 1-8, 10, 12, 14-21: Constrain in the Z translation.
• Nodes 9, 13: Constrain in the X translation.
• Nodes 11: Constrain in the X, Y, and Z translations.

Loads (all tests)


• Set moment Mx equal to (4/3)E+7 N.m
Boundary Conditions - Tests 1 and 2:


Boundary Conditions - Tests 3 and 4:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Test Node Displacement/ Bench FEMAP


Difference
# # Stress Value Structural
1 5 Solid Z Normal -10E6 -4.268E6 57.00%
Stress (Pa)
2 5 Solid Z Normal -10E6 10.03E6 0.30%
Stress (Pa)
3 75 Solid Z Normal -10E6 10.07E6 0.70%
Stress (Pa)
4 245 Solid Z Normal -10E6 10.01E6 0.10%
Stress (Pa)
1 26 T2 Translation 4E-4 2.964E-4 26.00%
2 90 T2 Translation 4E-4 4E-4 0.00%
3 77 T2 Translation 4E-4 4E-4 0.00%
4 251 T2 Translation 4E-4 4.044E-4 1.10%
1 19 T3 Translation 2E-4 1.460E-4 27.00%
2 40 T3 Translation 2E-4 2E-4 0.00%
3 76 T3 Translation 2E-4 2E-4 0.00%
4 249 T3 Translation 2E-4 2.010E-4 0.50%
1 5 T1 Translation 0.15E-4 7.449E-6 50.34%
2 5 T1 Translation 0.15E-4 0.1514E-4 0.93%
3 75 T1 Translation 0.15E-4 0.1480E-4 1.33%
4 245 T1 Translation 0.15E-4 0.1511E-4 0.73%


1 8 T1 Translation -0.15E-4 -6.2620E-6 58.20%


2 8 T1 Translation -0.15E-4 -0.1509E-4 0.60%
3 73 T1 Translation -0.15E-4 -0.1480E-4 1.33%
4 241 T1 Translation -0.15E-4 -0.1511E-4 0.73%

Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLV08/89.
Thick Plate Clamped at Edges
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• sslv09a10.neu (Test 1, parabolic brick, length/thickness =10)
• sslv09a20.neu (Test 1, parabolic brick, length/thickness =20)
• sslv09a50.neu (Test 1, parabolic brick, length/thickness =50)
• sslv09a75.neu (Test 1, parabolic brick, length/thickness =75)
• sslv09a100.neu (Test 1, parabolic brick, length/thickness =100)
• sslv09b10.neu (Test 2, linear plate, length/thickness =10)
• sslv09b20.neu (Test 2, linear plate, length/thickness =20)
• sslv09b50.neu (Test 2, linear plate, length/thickness =50)
• sslv09b75.neu (Test 2, linear plate, length/thickness =75)
• sslv09b100.neu (Test 2, linear plate, length/thickness =100)
This test is a linear statics analysis of a square thick plate with pressure and transverse bend-
ing. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test SSLV09/89 from “Guide de vali-
dation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2.1x10 Pa

ν = 0.30

Finite Element Modeling

Test 1 - Mapped meshing


• 25 parabolic brick elements
• 228 nodes


• length/thickness =10, 20, 50, 75, 100

Test 2 - Mapped meshing


• 25 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 36 nodes
• length/thickness =10, 20, 50, 75, 100
Test 2 is done using plate elements with the following thickness values:
• length/thickness =10, t=0.1
• length/thickness =20, t=0.05
• length/thickness =50, t=0.02
• length/thickness =75, t=0.01333
• length/thickness =100, t=0.01


Boundary Conditions

Constraints – Test 1
• Fully constrain the nodes on edges AB, A’B’, AD, and A’D’ in all translations and rota-
tions.
• Constrain the nodes on edge BC and B’C’ in the X translation and Y and Z rotations.
• Constrain the corner nodes at C and C’ in all translations and rotations except for the Z
translation.
• Constrain the nodes on edge DC and D’C’ in the Y translation and X and Z rotations.

Constraints – Test 2
• Fully constrain the nodes on edges AB and AD in all translations and rotations.
• Constrain the nodes on edge BC in the X translation and Y and Z rotations.
• Constrain the corner nodes at C in all translations and rotations except for the Z transla-
tion.
• Constrain the nodes on edge DC in the Y translation and X and Z rotations.

Loads
• Load case 1:
Elemental pressure p = 1E6 Pascals in -Z direction
• Load case 2: Point C
Nodal force F = 2.5E5 N in -Z direction
Boundary conditions for Test 1:


Boundary conditions for Test 2:

Solution Type
Statics

Results

Test Case 1 (T3 Translation at location C)

Length/
Node Reference FEMAP
File Name Thick- Load Case Analytical Difference
# FEM Structural
ness
sslv09a10 10 Pressure 242 -.6552E-4 -.76231E-4 -.735942E-4 12.32%
sslv09a10 10 Force 242 -.29146E-3 -.42995E-3 -.426662E-3 46.38%
sslv09a20 20 Pressure 242 -.52416E-3 -.53833E-3 -.523376E-3 0.15%
sslv09a20 20 Force 242 -.23317E-2 -.25352E-2 -.242500E-2 4.00%
sslv09a50 50 Pressure 242 -.81900E-2 -.80286E-2 -.778247E-2 4.98%
sslv09a50 50 Force 242 -.36433E-1 -.35738E-1 -.346276E-1 4.96%
sslv09a75 75 Pressure 242 -.27641E-1 -.26861E-1 -.259820E-1 6.00%
sslv09a75 75 Force 242 -.12296 -.11837 -.114411 6.95%
sslv09a100 100 Pressure 242 -.65520E-1 -.63389E-1 -.612191E-1 6.56%
sslv09a100 100 Force 242 -.29146 -.27794 -.268120 8.00%


Test Case 2 (T3 Translation at location C)

Length/
Part Node Reference FEMAP
Thick- Load Case Analytical Difference
Name # FEM Structural
ness
sslv09b10 10 Pressure 1 -.6552E-4 -.78661E-4 -.797294E-4 21.69%
sslv09b10 10 Force 1 -.29146E-3 -.41087E-3 -.395973E-3 35.86%
sslv09b20 20 Pressure 36 -.52416E-3 -.55574E-3 -.564973E-3 8.69%
sslv09b20 20 Force 36 -.23317E-2 -.25946E-2 -.260199E-2 11.59%
sslv09b50 50 Pressure 36 -.81900E-2 -.83480E-2 -.849953E-2 3.78%
sslv09b50 50 Force 36 -.36433E-1 -.37454E-1 -.381471E-1 4.70%
sslv09b75 75 Pressure 36 -.27641E-1 -.28053E-1 -.285676E-1 3.35%
sslv09b75 75 Force 36 -.12296 -.12525 -.127845 3.97%
sslv09b10 100 Pressure 1 -.65520E-1 -.66390E-1 -.676175E-1 3.20%
0
sslv09b10 100 Force 1 -.29146 -.29579 -.302292 3.72%
0

Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SSLV09/89.
Mechanical Structures - Normal
Modes/Eigenvalue Analysis
The normal modes/eigevanlues test cases from the Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens
include:
• "Lumped Mass-Spring System"
• "Short Beam on Simple Supports"
• "Axial Loading on a Rod"
• "Thin Circular Ring"
• "Cantilever Beam with a Variable Rectangular Section"
• "Thin Circular Ring Clamped at Two Points"
• "Vibration Modes of a Thin Pipe Elbow"
• "Cantilever Beam with Eccentric Lumped Mass"
• "Thin Square Plate (Clamped or Free)"
• "Simply-Supported Rectangular Plate"
• "Thin Ring Plate Clamped on a Hub"
• "Vane of a Compressor - Clamped-free Thin Shell"
• "Bending of a Symmetric Truss"
• "Hovgaard’s Problem - Pipes with Flexible Elbows"
• "Rectangular Plates"
Lumped Mass-Spring System
The complete model and results for this test case are in file sdld02.neu.
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis of an elastic link with lumped mass. It pro-
vides the input data and results for benchmark test SDLD02/89 from “Guide de validation des
progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
Spring constant

Finite Element Modeling


• 8 mass elements
• 9 DOF springs
• 8 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain all the nodes (1-8) in all translations and rotations except for the X translation.


The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method

Results
The mode shapes results are exact. The multiplication coefficient is 0.4642 for mode 1 and -
0.4642 for mode 8.

Frequency Results:

Bench
Normal FEMAP Structural
Value Difference
Mode (Hz)
(Hz)
1 5.5274 5.5274 0.00%
2 10.8868 10.8868 0.00%
3 15.9155 15.9155 0.00%
4 20.4606 20.4606 0.00%
5 24.3840 24.3840 0.00%
6 27.5664 27.5664 0.00%
7 29.9113 29.9113 0.00%
8 31.3474 31.3474 0.00%


Mode Shapes Results:

Normal Bench
Point FEMAP Structural
Mode Value
1 P1 0.1612 0.3473
1 P2 0.3030 0.6527
1 P3 0.4082 0.8794
1 P4 0.4642 1.0000
1 P5 0.4642 1.0000
1 P6 0.4082 0.8794
1 P7 0.3030 0.6527
1 P8 0.1612 0.3473
8 P1 0.1612 -0.3473
8 P2 -0.3030 0.6527
8 P3 0.4082 -0.8794
8 P4 -0.4642 1.0000
8 P5 0.4642 -1.0000
8 P6 -0.4082 0.8794
8 P7 0.3030 -0.6527
8 P8 -0.1612 0.3473
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SDLD02/89, p. 178.
Short Beam on Simple Supports
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• sdll01a.neu
• sdll01b.neu
This test is a modal analysis of a straight short beam with simple supports both inline and off-
set. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test SDLL01/89 from “Guide de vali-
dation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2x10 Pa

ν = 0.3
kg
ρ = 7800 ------3-
m

Finite Element Modeling

Problem 1 (sdll01a)
• 10 bar elements
• 11 nodes


Problem 2 (sdll01b)
• 10 bar elements
• 2 rigid elements (master node 4 to slave node 2; master node 3 to slave node 1)

Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Node 1: Constrain in all directions and rotations, except the Z rotation.
• Node 2: Constrain in all directions and rotations, except for the X translation and Z rota-
tion.
• Constrain all other nodes in the Z translation and the X and Y rotations.

Loads
• no load case
The boundary conditions for both problems are shown in the following figure:


Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – SVI method

Results

Problem 1: Frequency Results

Bench
Normal FEMAP Structural
Value Difference
Mode (Hz)
(Hz)
Bending 1 431.555 431.555 0.03%
Tension 1 1265.924 1267.226 0.10%
Bending 2 1498.295 1503.171 0.33%
Bending 3 2870.661 2904.096 1.16%
Tension 2 3797.773 3833.003 0.93%
Bending 4 4377.837 4493.912 2.65%

Problem 2: Frequency Results

Bench
Mode FEMAP Structural
Value Difference
number (Hz)
(Hz)
1 392.8 394.3 0.38%
2 902.2 922.4 2.24%
3 1591.9 1641.0 3.08%
4 2629.2 2800.0 6.50%
5 3126.2 3291.2 5.28%
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SDLL01/89.
Axial Loading on a Rod
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following file:
• sdll05a.neu
• sdll05b.neu
This test is a modal analysis of a simply–supported beam with stress stiffening. It provides the
input data and results for benchmark test SDLL05/89 from “Guide de validation des
progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2x10 Pa
kg
ρ = 7800 --------
m3

Finite Element Modeling


• 10 bar elements
• 11 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions

Problem 1 (sdll05a):
• Node 1: Leave the Z rotation free and constrain the node in all other translations and
rotations.
• Node 2 : Leave the X translation and Z rotation free and constrain in all other translations
and rotations.

Problem 2 (sdll05b):
• Node 1: Leave the Z rotation free and constrain the node in all other translations and
rotations.
• Node 2: Leave the X translation and Z rotation free and constrain the node in all other
translations and rotations.
• Load Set 1 (node 2): Define a nodal force = to 1E5N in the -X direction. Ensure that
Stress Stiffening is turned on in the analysis set.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method


Results

Frequency Results:

Bench FEMAP
Normal
Value Structural Difference
Mode
(Hz) (Hz)
sdll05a Mode 1 28.702 28.672 0.10%
sdll05a Mode 3 114.807 114.351 0.40%
sdll05b Mode 1 22.434 22.399 0.16%
sdll05b Mode 3 109.080 108.61 0.43%
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SDLL05/89.
Cantilever Beam with a Variable
Rectangular Section
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following file: sdll09a.neu
This test is a modal analysis of a straight cantilever beam with a variable section. It provides
the input data and results for benchmark test SDLL09/89 from “Guide de validation des
progiciels de calcul de structures.”

b0

b0
β = ------
b1

b1

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2x10 Pa
kg
ρ = 7800 --------
m3

Finite Element Modeling


• 10 beam elements (tapered)
• 11 nodes


The mesh is shown in the following figure:

Boundary Conditions
• Constrain node 1 in all directions.
• Constrain all other nodes in the Z translation and X and Y rotations only.
• no load case
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method


Results

Frequency Results

Bench FEMAP
Normal
Value Structural Difference
β Mode
(Hz) (Hz)
4 1 54.18 54.13 0.09%
2 171.94 171.36 0.34%
3 384.40 381.70 0.70%
4 697.24 688.89 1.20%
5 1112.28 1092.92 1.74%
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SDLL09/89.
Thin Circular Ring
The complete model and results for this test case are in file sdll11.neu.
This test is a modal analysis of a thin curved beam. It provides the input data and results for
benchmark test SDLL11/89 from “Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
10
E = 7.2x10 Pa

ν = 0.3
kg
ρ = 2700 ------3-
m

Finite Element Modeling


• 36 bar elements
• 36 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Unconstrained (free) conditions
• Create 1 constraint set (Kinematic DOF set) to fully constrain the 3 nodes shown below
(nodes 7, 21, 30).

Loads
• no load case
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method

Results

Frequency Results

Bench
Normal FEMAP Structural
Value Difference
Mode (Hz)
(Hz)
Modes 1-6 0 0 0.00%
Modes 7, 8 318.36 318.99 0.20%
Modes 9, 10 511 508 0.59%
Modes 11, 12 900.46 900.19 0.03%
Modes 13, 14 1590 1569 1.32%


Modes 15, 16 1726.55 1721.56 0.29%


Modes 17, 18 2792.21 2774.91 0.62%
Modes 19, 20 3184 3116 2.14%
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SDLL11/89.
Thin Circular Ring Clamped at Two
Points
The complete model and results for this test case are in file sdll12.neu.
This test is a modal analysis of a thin curved beam. It provides the input data and results for
benchmark test SDLL12/89 from “Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
10
E = 7.2x10 Pa

ν = 0.3
kg
ρ = 2700 ------3-
m

Finite Element Modeling


• 29 bar elements
• 29 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions
• Points A and B (nodes 1 and 2): Fully constrained in all directions
• All other nodes: Constrained the Z translation and X and Y rotations only.
• no load case
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method

Results

Frequency Results

Bench
Normal FEMAP Structural
Value Difference
Mode (Hz)
(Hz)
1 235.3 235.9 0.25%
2 575.3 575.1 0.03%
3 1105.7 1102.7 0.27%
4 1405.6 1398.0 0.54%
5 1751.1 1740.8 0.59%
6 2557.0 2536.6 0.80%
7 2801.5 2723.0 2.80%


Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SDLL12/89.
Vibration Modes of a Thin Pipe
Elbow
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• sdll014a.neu
• sdll014b.neu
• sdll014c.neu
This test is a modal analysis of a straight cantilever beam, and a thin curved beam. It provides
the input data and results for benchmark test SDLL14/89 from “Guide de validation des
progiciels de calcul de structures.”

C A

L
B

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI


Material Properties
11
E = 2.1x10 Pa

ν = 0.3
kg
ρ = 7800 ------3-
m

Finite Element Modeling

Problem 1 (sdll14a) where L=0 and Problem 2 (sdll14b) where


L=0.6:
• 18 bar elements
• 19 nodes

Problem 3 (sdll14c) where L=2:


• 28 bar elements
• 29 nodes
The FE model is shown below:


Boundary Conditions

Problem 1 (sdll14a):
• Fully constrain points C and D (nodes 1 and 2) in all translations and rotations.

Problem 2 (sdll14b) and Problem 3 (sdll14c):


• Fully constrain points C and D (nodes 1 and 4) in all translations and rotations.
• Constrain point B (node 2) in the X and Z translations.
• Constrain point C (node 3) in the Y and Z translations.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method


Results

Problem 1 (sdll14a) Frequency Results:

Bench
Normal FEMAP Structural
L Value Difference
Mode (Hz)
(Hz)
0 1 44.23 44.11 0.27%
2 119 119 0.00%
3 125 126 0.80%
4 227 225 0.88%

Problem 2 (sdll14b) Frequency Results:

Bench
Normal FEMAP Structural
L Value Difference
Mode (Hz)
(Hz)
0.6 1 33.4 33.3 0.30%
2 94 94 0.00%
3 100 99 1.00%
4 180 184 2.22%

Problem 3 (sdll14c) Frequency Results:

Bench
Normal FEMAP Structural
L Value Difference
Mode (Hz)
(Hz)
2 1 17.9 17.7 1.12%
2 24.8 24.4 1.61%
3 25.3 24.9 1.58%
4 27 26.67 0.01%

Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SDLL14/89.
Cantilever Beam with Eccentric
Lumped Mass
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• sdll15a.neu
• sdll15b.neu
This test is a modal analysis of a straight cantilever beam and a mass element. It provides the
input data and results for benchmark test SDLL15/89 from “Guide de validation des
progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2.1x10 Pa
kg
ρ = 7800 ------3-
m

Finite Element Modeling

Problem 1 (sdll15a)
• 10 bar elements
• 1 mass element at point B
• 11 nodes

B


Problem 2 (sdll15b)
• 10 bar elements
• 1 rigid element from point B to point C
• 1 mass element at point C
• 12 nodes

Boundary Conditions

Constraints:
• Fully constrain point A (node 1) in all translations and rotations.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI


Results

Frequency Results:

Bench FEMAP
Normal
yc Value Structural Difference
Mode
(Hz) (Hz)
0 1,2 1.65 1.65 0.00%
3,4 16.07 15.91 1.00%
5,6 50.02 48.75 2.54%
7 76.47 76.48 0.01%
8 80.47 80.84 0.46%
9,10 103.20 98.53 4.53%
1 1 1.636 1.635 0.06%
2 1.642 1.640 0.12%
3 13.46 13.37 0.67%
4 13.59 13.52 0.52%
5 28.90 28.68 0.76%
6 31.96 31.54 1.31%
7 61.61 59.97 2.66%
8 63.93 61.82 3.30%

Mode Shapes Results:

Normal Modal Bench FEMAP


yc Difference
Mode Displacement Value Structural
1 1 wc/wb 1.030 1.030 0.00%
2 uc/vb 0.148 0.148 0.00%
3 uc/vb 2.882 2.845 1.28%
4 wc/wb -0.922 -0.956 3.69%
• wc=T3 translation at point C
• wb= T3 translation at point B
• uc=T1 translation at point C
• vb= T2 translation at point B


Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SDLL15/89.
Thin Square Plate (Clamped or
Free)
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• sdls01a.neu
• sdls01b.neu
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis (three–dimensional problem) of a thin plate.
It provides the input data and results for benchmark test SDLS01/89 from “Guide de valida-
tion des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2.1x10 Pa

ν = 0.3
kg
ρ = 7800 ------3-
m

Finite Element Modeling


• 100 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 121 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:
A D

B C


Boundary Conditions
• Problem 1 (sdls01a): Constrain the nodes along side BC in all translations and rotations.

• Problem 2 (sdls01b) : Free plate; Create a constraint set (Kinematic DOF set) to con-
strain the three nodes shown below (nodes 1, 11, and 111) in all translations and rota-
tions.

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method

Results

Problem 1 (sdls01a) Frequency Results:

Bench Value FEMAP Structural


Normal Mode Difference
(Hz) (Hz)
1 8.7266 8.6719 0.63%
2 21.3042 21.1474 0.74%
3 53.5542 53.9586 0.76%


4 68.2984 68.4467 0.21%


5 77.7448 77.7814 0.05%
6 136.0471 135.783 0.19%

Problem 2 (sdls01b) Frequency Results:

Bench Value FEMAP Structural


Normal Mode Difference
(Hz) (Hz)
7 33.7119 32.9104 2.38%
8 49.4558 47.4165 4.12%
9 61.0513 59.1873 3.05%
10,11 87.5160 83.0785 5.07%

Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SDLS01/89.
Simply-Supported Rectangular
Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in file sdls03.neu.
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis (three–dimensional problem) of a thin plate.
It provides the input data and results for benchmark test SDLS03/89 from “Guide de valida-
tion des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2.1x10 Pa

ν = 0.3
kg
ρ = 7800 ------3-
m

Finite Element Modeling


• 150 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 176 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions
• Constrain the Z translation of the nodes on all sides of the plate.
• Create a constraint set to define the Master (ASET) DOFs on nodes 47, 55, 119. Con-
strain these nodes in all directions except for the Z translation.
• no load case
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method

Results

Frequency Results:

Bench
Normal FEMAP Structural
Value Difference
Mode (Hz)
(Hz)
4 35.63 35.21 1.18%
5 68.51 67.21 1.90%
6 109.62 108.96 0.60%
7 123.32 121.13 1.78%
8 142.51 138.30 2.95%
9 197.32 187.94 4.75%


Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SDLS03/89.
Thin Ring Plate Clamped on a Hub
The complete model and results for this test case are in file sdls04.neu.
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis (three–dimensional problem) of an annular
thin plate. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test SDLS04/89 from “Guide
de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2.1x10 Pa

ν = 0.3
kg
ρ = 7800 ------3-
m

Finite Element Modeling


Mapped meshing
• 400 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 440 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Fully constrain all the nodes on the inner ring as shown below.

Loads
• no load case
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – SVI

Results

Frequency Results:

Bench Value FEMAP Structural


Normal Mode Difference
(Hz) (Hz)
1 79.26 79.41 0.19%
2, 3 81.09 81.05 0.05%
4, 5 89.63 89.64 0.01%
6, 7 112.79 113.45 0.58%
8, 9 not available 158.38
10, 11 not available 226.02
12, 13 not available 317.04
14, 15 not available 433.04
16, 17 not available 527.51
18 518.85 532.19 2.57%


19, 20 528.61 561.91 6.30%


21, 22 559.09 576.90 3.18%
23 609.70 612.63 0.48%
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SDLS04/89.
Vane of a Compressor - Clamped-
free Thin Shell
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• sdls05a.neu (linear quadrilateral, coarse mesh)
• slds05b.neu (linear quadrilateral, fine mesh)
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis (three–dimensional problem) of a cylindrical
thin shell. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test SDLS05/89 from “Guide
de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2.0685x10 Pa

ν = 0.3
kg
ρ = 7857.2 ------3-
m

Finite Element Modeling - Coarse Mesh


Mapped meshing
• 100 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 121 nodes


The coarse mesh is shown in the following figure:

Finite Element Modeling - Fine Mesh


Mapped Meshing
• 225 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 256 nodes
The fine mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions
Fully constrain the nodes on one side as shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI method

Results

Frequency Results:

Bench FEMAP Structural FEMAP Structural


Normal Mode Value coarse mesh fine mesh
(Hz) (Hz) (Hz)
1 85.6 85.6 85.7
2 134.5 138.2 138.3
3 259.0 249.8 248.0
4 351.0 345.9 343.7
5 395.0 386.5 386.0
6 531.0 549.8 537.7
Reference
Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de struc-
tures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SDLS05/89.
Bending of a Symmetric Truss
The complete model and results for this test case are in file sdlx01.neu.
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis (plane problem) of a straight cantilever beam
structure. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test SDLX01/89 from “Guide
de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2.1x10 Pa

ν = 0.3
kg
ρ = 7800 ------3-
m

Finite Element Modeling


• 24 bar elements
• 24 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Fully constrain nodes 1 and 4 in all translations and rotations.
• Constrain nodes 2-3 and 5-24 in the Z translation and X and Y rotations.
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue – SVI

Results

Frequency Results:

Bench
Normal FEMAP Structural
Value Difference
Mode (Hz)
(Hz)
1 8.8 8.8 0.00%
2 29.4 29.4 0.00%
3 43.8 43.8 0.00%
4 56.3 56.3 0.00%
5 96.2 96.2 0.00%
6 102.6 102.7 0.10%
7 147.1 147.4 0.20%
8 174.8 175.3 0.29%
9 178.8 179.3 0.28%


10 206.0 206.9 0.44%


11 266.4 268.1 0.64%
12 320.0 322.4 0.75%
13 335.0 338.7 1.10%
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SDLX01/89.
Hovgaard’s Problem - Pipes with
Flexible Elbows
The complete model and results for this test case are in file sdlx02.neu.
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis (three–dimensional problem) of a straight,
thin curved cantilever beam. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test
SDLX02/89 from “Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Material Properties
11
E = 1.658x· 10 Pa

ν = 0.3
kg
ρ = 13404.106 ------3-
m

Units
SI

Finite Element Modeling


• 25 bar elements
• 26 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions
• Fully constrain nodes 1 and 6 in all translations and rotations.
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI

Results

Frequency Results:

Bench
Normal FEMAP Structural
Value Difference
Mode (Hz)
(Hz)
1 10.18 10.40 2.16%
2 19.54 19.87 1.69%
3 25.47 25.36 0.43%
4 48.09 47.71 0.79%
5 52.86 51.80 2.01%
6 75.94 82.84 9.09%
7 80.11 85.20 6.35%
8 122.34 125.53 2.61%
9 123.15 127.64 3.65%
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SDLX02/89.
Rectangular Plates
The complete model and results for this test case are in file sdlx03.neu.
This test is a normal modes/eigenvalue analysis (three–dimensional problem) of a thin plate
with rigid body modes. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test SDLX03/89
from “Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 2.1x· 10 Pa

ν = 0.3
kg
ρ = 7800 ------3-
m

Finite Element Modeling


• 300 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 320 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constraint Set 1 (Kinematic DOF Set): Fully constrain nodes 2, 69, and 84 in all transla-
tions and rotations.
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue - SVI

Results

Frequency Results:

Bench
Normal FEMAP Structural
Value Difference
Mode (Hz)
(Hz)
7 584 586 0.34%
8 826 824 0.24%
9 855 854 0.11%
10 911 904 0.76%
11 1113 1072 3.68%
12 1136 1140 0.35%
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. SDLX03/89.
Stationary Thermal Tests - Steady
State Heat Transfer Analysis
The stationary thermal test cases for steady-state heat transfer analysis from the Societe
Francaise des Mecaniciens include:
• "Hollow Cylinder - Fixed Temperatures"
• "Hollow Cylinder - Convection"
• "Cylindrical Rod - Flux Density"
• "Hollow Cylinder with Two Materials - Convection"
• "Wall - Fixed Temperatures"
• "Wall - Convection"
• "Hollow Sphere - Fixed Temperatures, Convection"
• "L-Plate"
• "Hollow Sphere with Two Materials -Convection"
Hollow Cylinder - Fixed Tempera-
tures
The complete model and results for this test case are in file htpla01.neu.
This test is a steady–state heat transfer analysis of a 2D axisymmetric cylinder with fixed tem-
peratures. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test TPLA01/89 from “Guide
de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
W
λ = 1 ----- °C
m

Finite Element Modeling


Two tests:
• Test 1 - 5 linear quadrilateral axisymmetric solid elements
• Test 2 - 5 parabolic quadrilateral axisymmetric solid elements
The meshes are shown in the following figure:

Boundary Conditions
• One temperature set:


Internal temperature
Ti = 100°C

External temperature
Te = 20°C

Solution Type
Steady–State Heat Transfer


Results

Temperature Results (0 degrees Celsius):


FEMAP
Bench FEMAP Structural
Radius(m) Structural 5
Value 5 parabolic quads.
linear quads.
0.30 100.00 100.00 100.00
0.31 82.98 82.98 82.98
0.32 66.51 66.51 66.51
0.33 50.54 50.54 50.54
0.34 35.04 35.04 35.04
0.35 20.00 20.00 20.00

Total Heat Flux Results (W/m**2):

FEMAP FEMAP
Radius Bench
Structural Structural
(m) Value
5 linear quads. 5 parabolic quads.
0.30 1729.91 1701.69 1701.70
0.31 1674.11 1674.68 1674.69
0.32 1621.79 1622.32 1622.32
0.33 1572.64 1573.13 1573.13
0.34 1526.39 1526.84 1526.83
0.35 1482.78 1504.39 1504.38
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. TPLA01/89.
Hollow Cylinder - Convection
The complete model and results for this test case are in file htpla03.neu.
This test is a steady–state heat transfer analysis of a 2D axisymmetric cylinder with convec-
tion. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test TPLA03/89 from “Guide de val-
idation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
W
λ = 40 ----- °C
m

Finite Element Modeling


Three tests:
• Test 1 - 10 linear axisymmetric quadrilateral solid elements
• Test 2 - 2 linear axisymmetric quadrilateral solid elements
• Test 3 - 2 parabolic axisymmetric quadrilateral solid elements
The meshes are shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions
Elemental Convection
• Convection on internal surface (nodes 3, 14, 16):
W
hi = 150.0 ------2- °C
m

Ti = 500°C

• Convection on external surface (nodes 12, 15, 17):


W
he = 142.0 ------2- °C
m

Ti = 20°C

Solution Type
Steady–State Heat Transfer

Results

Temperature FEMAP
FEMAP FEMAP
and Bench Structural
Structural Structural
Element Total Value 2 parabolic
10 linear quads. 2 linear quads.
Heat Flux quads.
Ti (°C) 272.27 272.35 272.17 272.35


Te (°C) 205.05 204.51 204.66 204.51


34160.00 33637.10 31746.69 31792.7

ϕi  ------2-
W
 
m
26276.90 26508.40 27824.15 27853.8

ϕe  ------2-
W
 
m

ϕ
--- = ϕ2πR
L

So:

ϕ W
--- = 34173.82 ⋅ 2 ⋅ π ⋅ 0.300 = 64416.13 -----
L m

Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. TPLA03/89.
Cylindrical Rod - Flux Density
The complete model and results for this test case are in file htpla05.neu.
This test is a steady–state heat transfer analysis of a 2D axisymmetric rod with fixed tempera-
tures and flux density. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test TPLA05/89
from “Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
W
λ = 33.33 ----- °C
m

Finite Element Modeling


• 20 linear quadrilateral axisymmetric solid elements
• 42 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions

Nodal Temperatures
• z = 0 (nodes 1 and 3):

Set temperature to 0°C

• z = 1 (nodes 2 and 4):

Set temperature to 500°C

Elemental Heat Flux


• Cylindrical surface (elements 1-20):
W
Set flux ϕ to – 200 --------
m2

The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Steady–State Heat Transfer


Results

Temperature Results (degrees C):

Bench FEMAP
Node # z (m) Difference
Value Structural
Node 3 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00%
Node 41 0.1 -4.00 -4.02 0.50%
Node 39 0.2 4.00 3.98 0.50%
Node 37 0.3 24.00 23.97 0.13%
Node 35 0.4 56.00 55.97 0.05%
Node 33 0.5 100.00 99.97 0.03%
Node 31 0.6 156.00 155.97 0.02%
Node 29 0.7 224.00 223.97 ~0.00%
Node 27 0.8 304.00 303.98 ~0.00%
Node 25 0.9 396.00 395.98 0.01%
Node 4 1.0 500.00 500.00 0.00%
Results are post–processed on the internal surface.
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. TPLA05/89.
Hollow Cylinder with Two Materials
- Convection
The complete model and results for this test case are in file htpla08.neu.
This test is a steady–state heat transfer analysis of a 2D axisymmetric cylinder with two mate-
rials and convection. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test TPLA08/89
from “Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
• Material 1:
W
λ 1 = 40.0 ----- °C
m

• Material 2:
W
λ 2 = 20.0 ----- °C
m

Finite Element Modeling


• 7 linear quadrilateral axisymmetric solid elements
• 16 nodes


The mesh is shown in the following figure.

Boundary Conditions

Elemental Convection
• Convection on internal surface:
W
hi = 150.0 ------2- °C
m

Ti = 70°C

• Convection on external surface:


W
hi = 200.0 ------2- °C
m

Ti = ( – 15° )C


Solution Type
Steady–State Heat Transfer

Results

Temperature/
Bench FEMAP
Node # Element X Heat Difference
Value Structural
Flux
Node 9 Ti (°C) 25.42 25.42 0.00%
Node 14 Tm (°C) 17.69 17.69 0.00%
Node 16 Te (°C) 12.11 12.11 0.00%
Node 9 6687.44 6577.88 1.64%

ϕi  ------2-
W
m
Node 14 5732.09 5733.33 0.02%

ϕm  ------2-
W
m
Node 16 5422.25 5496.59 1.37%

ϕe  ------2-
W
m

ϕ
--- = ϕ2πR
L


So:

ϕ W
--- = 5733.33 ⋅ 2 ⋅ π ⋅ 0.35 = 12608.25 -----
L m

Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. TPLA08/89.
Wall - Convection
The complete model and results for this test case are in file htpl03.neu.
This test is a steady–state heat transfer analysis of a 1D wall with fixed convection. It provides
the input data and results for benchmark test TPLL03/89 from “Guide de validation des
progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
W
λ = 1.0 ----- °C
m

Finite Element Modeling


• 1 linear quadrilateral plate element
• 4 nodes
The plate element thickness is set to 1m.
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions

Elemental Convection
• Convection on internal surface:

W
hA = 20.0 ------2- °C
m
TA = – 20.0°C

• Convection on external surface:

W
hB = 10.0 ------2- °C
m
TB = 500°C

• Convection coefficient is defined as


energy / (length*time*temperature) in the current system of units.
The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

B
A

Solution Type
Steady–State Heat Transfer


Results

Temperature Results (Degrees Celsius):

Temperature Bench FEMAP


Node # Difference
Flux Value Structural
Node 1 TA (°C) 21.71 21.71 0.00%
(Temp)
Node 4 TB (°C) 416.58 416.57 ∼0.00%
(Temp)
Node 1 ϕ (W/m**2) 834.2 834.3 0.01%
(Flux)
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. TPLL03/89.
Wall - Fixed Temperatures
The complete model and results for this test case are in file htpl01.neu.
This test is a steady–state heat transfer analysis of a 1D wall with fixed temperatures. It pro-
vides the input data and results for benchmark test TPLL01/89 from “Guide de validation des
progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information


The mesh is shown in the following figure:

Units
SI

Material Properties
W
λ = 0.75 ----- °C
m

Finite Element Modeling


• 5 beam (line 2) elements
• 6 nodes


Boundary Conditions

Nodal Temperatures
• Internal temperature

Ti = 100°C ( node 1 )

• External temperature

Te = 20°C ( node 6 )

The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Steady–State Heat Transfer

Results

Temperature Results (Degrees Celsius):

Length: Bench
Node # FEMAP Structural Difference
x (m) Value
Node 1 0.00 100.0 100.0 0.00%
Node 2 0.01 84.0 84.0 0.00%
Node 3 0.02 68.0 68.0 0.00%
Node 4 0.03 52.0 52.0 0.00%
Node 5 0.04 36.0 36.0 0.00%
Node 6 0.05 20.0 20.0 0.00%


The flux calculated with the software is exact:



ϕ = 1200 -----2-
µ

Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. TPLL01/89.
L-Plate
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• htpp01a.neu (linear quadrilateral)
• htpp01b.neu (parabolic quadrilateral)
This test is a steady–state heat transfer analysis of a 2D L–plate with fixed temperatures. It
provides the input data and results for benchmark test TPLP01/89 from “Guide de validation
des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
W
λ = 1.0 ----- °C
m

Finite Element Modeling


Two tests:
• 21 nodes, 12 linear quadrilateral plate elements
• 53 nodes, 12 parabolic quadrilateral plate elements
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions
Nodal Temperatures
• AF side:

Set temperature to 10°C

• DE side:

Set temperature to 0°C

The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

F E

C D

A B

Solution Type
Steady–State Heat Transfer

Results

Temperature Results (Degrees Celsius):

FEMAP
FEMAP
% Structural %
Node Bench Values Structural
Difference parabolic Difference
linear quads.
quads.
8 7.869 7.861 1.10 7.883 0.18
9 5.495 5.502 0.13 5.519 0.43
10 2.816 2.845 1.03 2.834 0.64


19 8.018 8.026 0.10 8.015 0.04


18 5.680 5.669 0.19 5.666 0.25
20 2.881 2.959 2.71 2.877 0.14
17 8.514 8.505 0.11 8.519 0.06
6 6.667 6.667 0.00 6.667 0.00
16 2.972 2.990 0.61 2.963 0.30
21 9.001 9.015 0.16 9.108 1.20
15 8.640 8.661 0.24 8.669 0.34
14 9.316 9.294 0.24 9.283 0.35
5 9.009 8.996 0.14 8.961 0.53
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. TPLP01/89.
Hollow Sphere - Fixed Tempera-
tures, Convection
The complete model and results for this test case are in file htpv02.neu.
This test is a steady–state heat transfer analysis of a 3D sphere with fixed temperatures and
convection. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test TPLV02/89 from “Guide
de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
W
λ = 1.0 ----- °C
m

Finite Element Modeling


• 500 solid (brick and wedge) elements
• 666 nodes
The test is executed on 1/8 of a mapped meshed sphere.
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions

Elemental Convection
• Convection on internal surface:

W
hi = 30 ------2- °C
m
Ti = 100°C(elements 401-500)

Nodal Temperature
• Set external surface temperature

Te to 20°C(nodes 1-111)

The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Steady–State Heat Transfer


Results

Temperature results (Degrees C):

Radius Bench FEMAP


Node # Difference
r (m) Value Structural
0.3 566 65.00 64.87 0.20%
0.31 455 54.84 54.74 0.18%
0.32 344 45.31 45.24 0.15%
0.33 233 36.36 36.32 0.11%
0.34 122 27.94 27.92 0.07%
0.35 11 20.00 20.00 0.00%

Element X Heat Flux results (W/m**2):

Radius Bench FEMAP


Node # Difference
r (m) Value Structural
0.3 566 1050.00 1019.34 2.92%
0.31 455 983.35 987.57 0.43%
0.32 344 922.85 926.90 0.43%
0.33 233 867.47 871.65 0.48%
0.34 122 817.47 821.21 0.45%
0.35 11 771.43 797.11 3.32%
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. TPLV02/89.
Hollow Sphere with Two Materials -
Convection
The complete model and results for this test case are in the following files:
• htpv04a.neu (linear brick)
• htpv04b.neu (parabolic tetrahedron)
• htpv04c.neu (axisymmetric solid)
This test is a steady–state heat transfer analysis of a 3D sphere with two materials and convec-
tion. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test TPLV04/89 from “Guide de val-
idation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
• Material 1:
W
λ 1 = 40.0 ----- °C
m

• Material 2:
W
λ 2 = 20.0 ----- °C
m

Finite Element Modeling


Three tests:


• Test 1 - 888 nodes, 700 solid (brick and wedge) elements

• Test 2 - 3818 nodes, 2192 solid parabolic tetrahedron elements

• Test 3 - 23 nodes, 4 axisymmetric solid parabolic quadrilateral elements

The test is executed on 1/8 of a mapped meshed sphere.




Boundary Conditions

Elemental Convection
• Convection on internal surface:

W
hi = 150.0 ------2- °C
m
Ti = 70°C

• Convection on external surface:

W
he = 200.0 ------2- °C
m
Te = ( – 9° )C

The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Steady–State Heat Transfer


Results

Temperature Results (Degrees Celsius):

FEMAP FEMAP
FEMAP
Structural Structural
Bench Structural
Temperature parabolic axisymmetric
Value linear brick
tetrahedron solid
(htpv04a)
(htpv04b) (htpv04c)
Ti (C°) 25.06 N1 25.03 N19 25.06 N2 25.01
Tm (C°) 17.84 N556 17.84 N9 17.84 N6 17.75
Te (C°) 13.16 N778 13.18 N5 13.15 N5 13.17
Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. TPLV04/89.
Thermo-mechanical Test - Linear
Statics Analysis
The stationary thermal-mechanical test cases for linear statics analysis from the Societe
Francaise des Mecaniciens include:
• "Thermal Gradient on a Thin Pipe"
Thermal Gradient on a Thin Pipe
The complete model and results for this test case are in file hsla01.neu.
This test is a thermo–mechanical linear statics analysis of a thin pipe with thermal gradient
and plane strain. It provides the input data and results for benchmark test HSLA01/89 from
“Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de structures.”

Test Case Data and Information

Units
SI

Material Properties
11
E = 1x· 10 Pa

ν = 0.3
–5
10
Coefficient of expansion: α = 1x -----------

Finite Element Modeling


• 500 axisymmetric (linear quadrilateral solid) elements
• 561 nodes
The mesh is shown in the following figure:


Boundary Conditions

Constraints
• Constrain nodes 1-11 in the X and Z translations.

Nodal Temperature
• Radial temperature

( 1 – ( r – Ri ) )
T = Ti ⋅ -------------------------------- with Ti=100°C
( Re – Ri )

The boundary conditions are shown in the following figure:

Solution Type
Statics


Results

Bench FEMAP
Point Stress Difference
Value Structural
r = Ri 0 -0.85E6
σ r ( Pa )

-74.07E6 -74.20E6 0.18%


σ θ ( Pa )

r=(Re+Ri)/2 -3.95E6 -3.89E6 1.52%


σ r ( Pa )

1.306E6 1.40E6 1.22%


σ θ ( Pa )

r=Re 0 -0.65E6
σ r ( Pa )

68.78E6 68.53E6 0.36%


σ θ ( Pa )

Post Processing

Value
Definition

= the axisymmetric C1 radial stress at node 265


σr

= the axisymmetric C4 Azimuth stress at node 265


σθ

=the axisymmetric C1 radial stress at node 270


σr

=the axisymmetric C1 Azimuth stress at node 270


σθ

= the axisymmetric C1 radial stress at node 275


σr


Value
Definition

= the axisymmetric C2 Azimuth stress at node 275


σθ

Reference
• Societe Francaise des Mecaniciens, Guide de validation des progiciels de calcul de
structures, (Paris, Afnor Technique,1990.) Test No. HSLA01/89.


Index Clamped thick rhombic plate 136


Clamped thin rhombic plate 121
Clamped-free thin shell 320
A Compressor 320
Annular membrane 152 Convection 334, 340, 344, 353, 356
Annular plate 117, 140, 171, 182 Curved beam elements 196
Anti-symmetric modes 108 Curved pipe 196
Articulated plane truss 203 Cylindrical rod 337
Articulated rod truss 201 Cylindrical shell 39, 42, 221
Articulated supports 192 D
Axial distributed load 6 Deep simply-supported beam 95
Axial loading 291 Deep simply-supported solid beam 174
Axisymmetric solid elements 165, 168, Displacement 15
255, 268, 331, 334, 337, 340 Distorted mesh 124
Axisymmetric vibration 165, 171 Distributed loads 9, 18
B E
Bar elements 76, 78, 83, 92, 95, 98, 101, Elastic foundation 206
192, 194, 196, 199, 203, 206, 288, 291, Elliptic membrane 34
297, 300, 303, 307, 323, 326 F
Beam 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 95, 101, 174, Fixed temperatures 331, 347, 353
186, 192, 194, 206, 288, 294, 307 Flux density 337
Beam elements 294, 347 Free annular membrane 152
Bending 27, 196, 199, 274, 323 Free cylinder 165
Bending load 210 G
C Gravity loading 232
Cantilever 92 H
Cantilever beam 4, 9, 12, 76, 101, 294, Heated beam 15
307 Hemisphere point loads 44
Cantilever mass 78 Hollow cylinder 331, 334, 340
Cantilevered plate 105 Hollow sphere 353, 356
Cantilevered solid beam 186 Hovgaard’s Problem 326
Cantilevered square membrane 144 hsla01.neu 361
Cantilevered tapered membrane 148 htpl01.neu 347
Cantilevered thin square plate 124, 156, htpl03.neu 344
161 htpla01.neu 331
Circular hole 212 htpla03.neu 334
Circular plate 215 htpla05.neu 337
Circular ring 98 htpla08.neu 340
Clamped beams 194 htpp01a.neu 350


htpp01b.neu 350 le501.neu 47


htpv02.neu 353 le502.neu 47
htpv04a.neu 356 le601.neu 49
htpv04b.neu 356 le602.neu 49
htpv04c.neu 356 Linear beam 6, 18
Hydrostatic pressure 229 Linear Statics 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24,
I 27, 30, 34, 39, 42, 44, 49, 53, 58, 192,
Infinite plate 212 194, 196, 199, 201, 203, 210, 212, 215,
In-plane vibrations 83, 98 218, 221, 225, 229, 232, 236, 239, 242,
Internal pressure 221, 261, 268 247, 251, 261, 268, 274, 361
K L-Plate 350
Kirchhoff formulation 251 Lumped mass 285, 307
L M
le1001.neu 53 Mass elements 65, 68, 71, 78, 285, 307
le1002.neu 53 Membrane 21
le1003.neu 53 Membrane loads 21
le101.neu 34 Mindlin formulation 251
le102.neu 34 Moment load 12
le103.neu 34 mstv1001.neu 4
le1101a.neu 58 mstv1002.neu 6
le1101b.neu 58 mstv1003.neu 9
le1102a.neu 58 mstv1004.neu 12
le1102b.neu 58 mstv1007.neu 15
le1103a.neu 58 mstv1008.neu 18
le1103b.neu 58 mstv1009.neu 21
le1104a.neu 58 mstv1014.neu 24
le1104b.neu 58 mstv1015.neu 27
le1105a.neu 58 mstv1016.neu 30
le1105b.neu 58 mstvn002.neu 65
le1106a.neu 58 mstvn003.neu 68
le1106b.neu 58 mstvn004.neu 71
le201a.neu 39, 42 mstvn005.neu 73
le201b.neu 39, 42 mstvn006.neu 76
le202a.neu 39, 42 mstvn007.neu 78
le202b.neu 39, 42 N
le301.neu 44 Natural frequency 78
le302.neu 44 ne014ll.neu 117
le303.neu 44 nf001ac.neu 83
le304.neu 44 nf002ac.neu 86


nf003ac.neu 89 nf023lc.neu 140


nf004a.neu 92 nf023ll.neu 140
nf005ac.neu 95 nf023pc.neu 140
nf006ac.neu 98 nf023pl.neu 140
nf011alc.neu 105 nf031ll.neu 144
nf011all.neu 105 nf031llc.neu 144
nf011apc.neu 105 nf031pc.neu 144
nf011apl.neu 105 nf031pl.neu 144
nf011blc.neu 108 nf032lc.neu 148
nf011bll.neu 108 nf032ll.neu 148
nf011bpc.neu 108 nf032pc.neu 148
nf011bpl.neu 108 nf032pl.neu 148
nf0121c.neu 111 nf033lc.neu 152
nf012ll.neu 111 nf033ll.neu 152
nf012pc.neu 111 nf033pc.neu 152
nf012pl.neu 111 nf033pl.neu 152
nf013lc.neu 114 nf041lc.neu 165
nf013ll.neu 114 nf041ll.neu 165
nf013pc.neu 114 nf041pc.neu 165
nf013pl.neu 114 nf041pl.neu 165
nf014lc.neu 117 nf042lc.neu 168
nf014pc.neu 117 nf042ll.neu 168
nf014pl.neu 117 nf042pc.neu 168
nf015lc.neu 121 nf042pl.neu 168
nf015ll.neu 121 nf043lc.neu 171
nf015pc.neu 121 nf043ll.neu 171
nf015pl.neu 121 nf043pc.neu 171
nf021alc.neu 129 nf043pl.neu 171
nf021all.neu 129 nf051lc.neu 174
nf021apc.neu 129 nf051ll.neu 174
nf021apl.neu 129 nf051pc.neu 174
nf021blc.neu 133 nf051pl.neu 174
nf021bll.neu 133 nf052lc.neu 178
nf021bpc.neu 133 nf052ll.neu 178
nf021bpl.neu 133 nf052pc.neu 178
nf0221c.neu 136 nf052pl.neu 178
nf022ll.neu 136 nf053lc.neu 182
nf022pc.neu 136 nf053ll.neu 182
nf022pl.neu 136 nf053pc.neu 182


nf053pl.neu 182 140, 148, 152, 156, 161, 210, 212, 215,
nf071a.neu 101 218, 221, 225, 229, 232, 236, 239, 242,
nf071b.neu 101 247, 251, 279, 311, 314, 317, 320, 328,
nf071c.neu 101 344, 350
nf072ac.neu 186 plate elements 144
nf072al.neu 186 Pressure 53, 221, 229, 268
nf072bc.neu 186 Prismatic rod 274
nf072bl.neu 186 Pure bending 27, 274
nf073ac.neu 156 Pure tension 24, 255
nf073al.neu 156 R
nf073bc.neu 156 Rectangular plates 328
nf073bl.neu 156 Rhombic plate 121, 136
nf073cc.neu 156 Rhomboid plate 247
nf073cl.neu 156 Rigid elements 65, 194
nf073dc.neu 156 Rod elements 201
nf073dl.neu 156 S
nf074c.neu 161 sdld02.neu 285
nf074l.neu 161 sdll014a.neu 303
Nodal loads 4, 201 sdll014b.neu 303
Normal Modes/Eigenvalue 65, 68, 71, sdll014c.neu 303
76, 78, 83, 92, 95, 98, 101, 105, 108, sdll01a.neu 288
114, 117, 121, 124, 129, 133, 136, 140, sdll01b.neu 288
144, 148, 152, 156, 161, 165, 168, 171, sdll05a.neu 291
174, 178, 182, 186, 285, 291, 294, 297, sdll05b.neu 291
300, 303, 307, 311, 314, 317, 320, 323, sdll09a.neu 294
326, 328 sdll11.neu 297
O sdll12.neu 300
Off-center point masses 92 sdll15a.neu 307
Out-of-plane vibration 98 sdll15b.neu 307
P sdls01a.neu 311
Patch test 39, 42 sdls01b.neu 311
Pinched cylindrical shell 236 sdls03.neu 314
Pin-ended cross 83 sdls04.neu 317
Pipes 326 sdls05a.neu 320
Plane bending 199, 210 sdls05b.neu 320
Plane strain elements 34 sdlx01.neu 323
Plane truss 203 sdlx02.neu 326
Plate elements 34, 39, 42, 44, 49, 105, sdlx03.neu 328
108, 114, 117, 121, 124, 129, 133, 136, Shear loading 251


Short beam 192, 288 ssls07a.neu 225


Simply-supported annular plate 117, 171 ssls07b.neu 225
Simply-supported rectangular plate 242, ssls08.neu 229
314 ssls09.neu 232
Simply-supported rhomboid plate 247 ssls20a.neu 236
Simply-supported solid annular plate ssls20b.neu 236
182 ssls21a.neu 239
Simply-supported solid square plate 178 ssls21b.neu 239
Simply-supported thick annular plate ssls21c.neu 239
140 ssls24a.neu 242
Simply-supported thick square plate 133 ssls24b.neu 242
Simply-supported thin square plate 114 ssls24c.neu 242
Single DOF 65 ssls25a.neu 247
Skew plate normal pressure 49 ssls25b.neu 247
Solid cylinder 58, 255 ssls27a.neu 251
Solid elements 53, 58, 174, 178, 182, ssls27b.neu 251
186, 255, 268, 274, 279, 353, 356, 361 ssls27c.neu 251
Solid sphere 58 sslv01a.neu 255
Solid square plate 178 sslv01b.neu 255
Solid taper 58 sslv01c.neu 255
Spherical shell 239 sslv01d.neu 255
Spring elements 65, 68, 71, 206, 285 sslv03a.neu 261
Square tube 218 sslv03b.neu 261
ssll02.neu 192 sslv03c.neu 261
ssll05.neu 194 sslv03d.neu 261
ssll07a.neu 196 sslv04a.neu 268
ssll07b.neu 196 sslv04b.neu 268
ssll08.neu 199 sslv04c.neu 268
ssll11.neu 201 sslv04d.neu 268
ssll14a.neu 203 sslv08a.neu 274
ssll14b.neu 203 sslv08b.neu 274
ssll16.neu 206 sslv08c.neu 274
sslp01.neu 210 sslv08d.neu 274
sslp02.neu 212 sslv09a10.neu 279
ssls03a.neu 215 sslv09a100.neu 279
ssls03b.neu 215 sslv09a20.neu 279
ssls05.neu 218 sslv09a50.neu 279
ssls06a.neu 221 sslv09a75.neu 279
ssls06b.neu 221 sslv09b10.neu 279


sslv09b100.neu 279 Two DOF 68


sslv09b20.neu 279 U
sslv09b50.neu 279 Undamped free vibration 65, 68
sslv09b75.neu 279 Undamped free vibrations 76
Steady-State Heat Transfer 331, 334, Uniform axial load 225
337, 340, 344, 347, 350, 353, 356 Uniform radial vibration 168
Strain energy 30 Uniformly distributed load 215, 242,
Stress 15 247
Symmetric modes 105 V
Symmetric truss 323 Vibrations 65, 68, 76, 83, 98, 165, 168,
T 171, 303
Tapered beam elements 294 W
Tapered membrane 148 Wall 344, 347
Temperatures 58, 331, 347, 353
Tension 24
Thermal gradient 361
Thermal strain 15
Thick annular plate 140
Thick hollow sphere 168
Thick plate 279
Thick plate pressure 53
Thick square plate 129, 133
Thick-walled infinite cylinder 268
Thick-walled spherical container 261
Thin arc 199
Thin circular ring 297, 300
Thin pipe 361
Thin pipe elbow 303
Thin ring plate 317
Thin shell 320
Thin shell beam wall 27
Thin square cantilevered plate 105, 108
Thin square plate 124, 156, 161, 311
Thin wall cylinder 24, 225, 229, 232
Three DOF 71
Torque loading 218
Torsional system 71
Transverse bending 196
Truss 30