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Instructor’s Solutions Manual to accompany Discrete Mathematics, 3e By Edgar G. Goodaire and Michael Parmenter Both of Memorial University of Newfoundland ‘This manual contains complete solutions to all exercises in Discrete Mathematics with Graph Theory, Third Edition, by Edgar G. Goodaire and Michael M. Parmenter. It is intended sclely for the use of instructors whom, we trust, will not make it available to students. ‘The solutions here have been read many times. We think that the num- ber of errors is small, but are always grateful for help in improving accuracy. ‘Our mailing address is below and our email addresses are edgar@math .mun.ca and michael 1¢math mun.ca, Please feel free to contact either of us at any time about any aspect of our book or this solutions manual, both of which have been improved substantially by comments received since the first edi- tion of this book appeared in 1998. Edgar G. Goodaire and Michael M. Parmenter Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John’s, NL Canada AIC 587 August 2005 Solutions to Exercises Exercises 0.1 1, (@) [BB] True (b) [BB] Not valid (c) [BB] False (0? isnot positive.) (4) Not valid (©) True (Not valid (@) False 2. (a) [BB] True, because both 4 = 2+ 2 and 7 < 50 are true statements. (©) False, because one of the two statements is false. (©) (BB) False, because 5 is not even. (@ True, because 16-4 =} (©) [BB] Truc, since 9 = 3? is true (or because 3.14 < x). (D True, because (—4)? = 16 is true. (@) [BB] Truc, because both hypothesis and conclusion are true. (h) False, because the hypothesis is true but the conclusion is false. ( [BB] Nota valid mathematical statement. ( True, because both statements are true (K) True, because this is an implication with false hypothesis. () False, because one of the statements is false while the other is true, (m) False, because the hypothesis is true but the conclusion is false. (a) [BB] False, because the area ofa circle of radius r is not 2rr and its circumference is not mr? (0) False, because the hypothesis ofthis implication is true, but the conclusion is false. (p) (BB] This is true: The hypothesis is true only when a > b and b > a, that is, when a = b, and then the conclusion is also true. (q) This implication is true because the hypothesis is always false. 3. (@) (BB) fx > 0, then 2 > 0. (©) Ifa and b are rational numbers, then abs a rational number. (6) If f isa differentiable function, then f is continuous (@) (BB) 1fG is a graph, then the sum of the degrees of the vertices of G is even. (e) [BB] If A is a matrix and A # 0, then A is invertible. (®) If P is a parallelogram, then the diagonals of P bisect each other. © Hnisaneven integer, then n <0. (h) Iftwo vectors are orthogonal, then their det product is 0. (@ If nis an integer, then <2 is not an integer. () mis a natural number, then n +3 > 2. 4, (a) [BB] True (the hypothesis is false). (b) True (hypothesis and conclusion are both true). Solutions to Exercises (©) [BB] True (the hypothesis is false). (d) False (hypothesis is true, conclusion is false). (©) [BB] False (hypothesis is true, conclusion is false: /Z = 2). (True (g)(BB]True ¢) True) [BB) True (the hypothesis is false: Vz? = |x|) @ True (k) [BB] False (1) True (@) (BB) a? < 0 and ais areal number (more simply, a = 0). (b) zis not real or 2? + 1 4 0 (more simply, «is any number, complex or real). (©) (BB) z 4 1andz # ~1, (d) There exists an integer which is not divisibie by a prime. (©) [BB] There exists areal number 2 such than < z for every integer n. ( (ab)c = a(be) for all a, b,c. (@) [BB] Every planar graph can be colored with at most four colors. (8) Some Canadian is a fan of neither the Toronto Maple Leafs nor the Montreal Canadiens. (@ There exists x > 0 and some y such that x’ + y? < 0, @ 22 202<-2. (&) [BB] There exist integers a and 6 such that for all integers q and r, b # ga +r. (©) (BB) For any infinite set, some proper Subset if not finite. (am) For every real number , there exists an integer n such that 2 ora>yora>z. (p) There exists a vector inthe plane and there exists a normal tothe plane such thatthe vector isnot ‘orthogonal to the normal. 5. (@) [BB] Converse: If 2 is an integer, then $ and $ are also integers. Contrapositive: If # is not an integer, then $ (b) Converse: Asa? =1, Contrapositive: © # Land 2 # —1 +2? 41. (©) Converse: If = 1+ V5 orz=1— VB, then 2? = 241 Contrapositive: If # 1+ V5 and x #1— V5, then 2? 2+. (@) Converse: If n? + n.—2 is an even integer, then n is an odd integer. ‘Contrapositive: If n? + 2 ~ 2 is an odd integer, then n is an even integer. (©) (BB) Converse: A connected graph is Euletan: CContrapositive: Ifa graph is not connected, then itis not Eulerian, (Converse: a = 0 orb =0— ab =0. Contrapositive: a # 0 and b #0 ab #0. (@) Converse: A four-sided figure is a square. Contrapositive: Ia figure does not have four sides, then it isnot a square (8) [BB] Converse: Ifa? = 6? +c then ABAC is aright triangle, Contrapositive: If a? # 6? + c?, then ABAC is not a right triangle. snot an integer of # isnot an integer. Section 0.1 3a (i) Converse: If p(:z) is a polynomial with at least one real root, then p(:r) has odd degree. Contrapositive: If p(2) is a polynomial with no real roots, then p(zr) has even degree. (@ Converse: A set of at most n vectors is linearly independent. Contrapositive: A set of more than n vectors is not linearly independent. (&) Converse: I fis not one-to-one, then, for all real numbers z and y, x # y and a? + zy + y?-+ arty Contrapositive: I f is one-to-one, then there exist real numbers z and y such that 2 = y or Piaytytety £0. (1) [BB] Converse: If f is not one-to-one, then there exist real numbers x and y with # y and etaytyt+rty=0. ‘Contrapositive: If f is one-to-one, then for all real numbers x and y either x = y or 2? + zy + prot 0. 7. (a) [BB] There exists a continuous function which is not differentiable. (©) % > O forall real numbers 2. (c) [BB] For every real number a. (@ Forevery set of primes p1, Pay... +P there exists a prime not inthis st (© [BB] For every positive integer n, there exist primes p1,p25....Pe Such that (f) For every real number x > 0, there exists areal number a such that a? = z. (g) [BB] For every integer n, there exists an integer m such that m 0, there exists areal number y > 0 such that y < 2. @ (BB) There exists a polynomial p such that for every real number 2, p( 2) # 0. @) For every pair of real numbers x and y with z < y, there exists a rational number a such that e 0. (0) For any integer n,n i not both even and ocd. (©) Forall integers a,b,c, a +88 #0. 8. Ifa given implication “A —+ 3" is false, then Ais true and 3 is false, ‘The converse, “B + Ais then true because its hypothesis, B,is false. It is not possible for both an implication and its converse to be false. 9. First we remember that x and y is te i and y are both true and false otherwise. Now p + q means p—qand q— p. Also = Pipa Pe A. p> gis true if pis false or if pis true and g is true. B. q— pis tue if q is false or if qis true and pis true. Ifp and q are both false, both statements A and B are tue, so p “+ q is true. Similarly if both p and q are true, then statements A and B are again true, so p + q is true. Thus p <> q is true if p and g have the same truth values. Suppose p and q have different truth values. To be specific say p is true and q is false. If pis true and q is false, we see that statement A is false, so A and B is false. Similarly if p is false and q is true, then statement B is false, so A and B is false. This verifies statement (+). 4 Solutions to Exercises Exercises 0.2 1 . (@) [BB] z= -2 (0). (@) (BB] Hypothesis: a and b are postive numbers. Conclusion: a + bis positive. (©) Hypotesis is argh ange angle wi typtmse of enh ad te ter sides of eg and Conclusion: a? + i? = 2, (©) (BB) Hypothesis: pis prime, Conclusion: pis even (@) Hypothesis: n > Lis an integer. Conclusion: n is the product of prime numbers. (©) Hypothesis: A graph is planar. Conclusion: The chromatic number is 3. (@) [BB] a and b are positive is sufficient for a +6 to be postive; a +b is positive is necessary for a and b tobe positive. (©) A right angled triangle has sides of lengths a,5,c,¢ the hypotenuse, is sufficient for a? + 6® = 2 a? +H = cis necessary for a right angled triangle to have sides of lengths a,b,c, ¢ the hypotenuse, (© (BB) pis a prime is sufficient for p to be even; pis even is necessary for p to be prime. (4) n> Lan integer is sufficient forn tobe the product of primes; n a product of primes is necessary for nto be an integer bigger than 1. (©) A graph being planar is sufficient for its shromatic number to be 3. Chromatic number 3 is necessary fora graph tobe planar. ji ©ppple=4 (89,112 @)VZand a=, @ ©vimd 7 Or=sy . A can easly be proven false with the counterexample 0. No single counterexample can disprove a statement claiming “there exits” so we prove B directly. B is false because the square of a real number is nonnegative [BB] This statement is true. Suppose the hypothesis, x is an even integer, is true, Then x = 2k for some other integer k, Then x +2.= 2k +2 = 2(k-+ 1) is also twice an integer. So x + 2 is even, The conclusion is also true. ‘The converse is “x + 2 is an even integer —+ zis an even integer.” This is true for suppose that the hhypothesis, x + 2 isan even integer, is tue. Then 2 +2 = 2k for some integer k, so x = 2k — 2(e~ 1) is also twice an integer. The conclusion is also true. ‘This is tue. Let A be the statement “zc is an even integer” and let B be the statement «+ 2 is an even integer". In Exercise 5, we showed that A —+ Bis true and, in Exercise 6, that the converse B —> Ais also true. Thus A ++ 3 is also true. .. (a) Ais false: n = 0 is a counterexample,