discourse markers 1: linkers

result
1 It was freezing cold, so I wore a thick coat.
2 It snowed hard all night. As a result the airport was closed the following morning.
We regret that you do not have the necessary qualifications, and therefore /
consequently we are unable to offer you the job.
1 So is the most common way of introducing a clause of result.
2 As aresult, therefore, and consequently (more formal than so) are often used at
the beginning of a sentence or clause.
• When the marker is at the .beginning of a clause, it is usually preceded by a
comma, or comma + and.
• Therefore and consequently can also be used before a main verb,
e.g. We have therefore I'consequentlydecided not to offer you thejob.
reason
1 I have stopped writing to her, because / as / since she never answers me.
2 The plane was late because of the fog.
Flight 341 has been delayed due to / owing to adverse weather conditions.
Because, as, and since(more formal) are used tointroduce clauses giving a
reason and are synonyms. As is often used at the beginning ofa sentence,
e.g. As the weather is sO awful, we've decided nottbgoout.
2 Because of,. due to, and owing express the reason for something. They are
usually followed by a noun.
• Due to and owing to are more formal than because of
purpose
1 I did a language course to / in order to / so as to improve my English.
2 She dosed the door quietly so as not to / in order not to wake the baby.
3 They moved to London so (that) they could see their 'grandchildren more often.
4 I'm not going to tell Ann in case she tells everyone else.
To, in order to and so asto introduce Cl. clause of purpose and are .all followed by
an infinitive. So as to and in order to are more formal.
2 For negative purpose use in order not to or so as not to, NOT She dosed the dom
qttietly /lot to the baby.
3 You can. also use so (that) +canl could + verb or will / would+ verb to express
purpose. You can leave out that iIi informal speech and writing.
• You. must use so (that) when there isa change of subject irl the result clause,
e.g. She put a rug over the babyso (that) he wouldn't be cold.
4 Use in case + clause when we do something in order to be ready for future
situations / problems or to avoid them.
contrast
1 We enjoyed the concert, but we didn't have very good seats.
Agnes was attracted to the stranger, yet something in her head was telling
her not to get close to him.
We enjoyed the concert. However, we didn't have very good seats.
Agnes was attracted to the stranger. Nevertheless, something in her head
was telling her not to get close to him.
2 We enjoyed the concert although / even though / though we didn't have
very good seats.
3 In spite of being attracted to the stranger, something in Agnes's head was
telling her not to get close to him.
Despite her attraction to the stranger...
Despite the fact that she was attracted to the stranger. ..
But is the most common and informal way of introducing contrast, and is
normally used to link two contrasting within a sentence.
Yet is used in the· same way, but is· more formal I literary.
However and nevertheless are normally used atthe beginning ofa sentence, to connect
it to the previous one. They are usually followed bra colllma.
• Nevertheless (or nonetheless) is more formal! literary than however.
2 Even though is more emphatic than although. ThoughisIIlorecom.rn0n in.inforrnal speech.
A Though can also be used at the end of a phrase as a comment adverb,
e.g. He's very friendly - a bit mean, though.
a Circle the right connector in each sentence.
r$ven thougii)/ Despite she's working really
hard, I don't think she'll be able to catch up
with the rest of the class.
We can't afford to have a holiday this year
as / so we've got an overdraft at the bank.
2 Could we re-arrange my timetable so that /
in case I don't have so many classes on a
Friday afternoon?
3 At the meeting Carla stuck to her guns due to /
in spite of the fact that everybody was against
her.
4 The restaurant chain has had a very difficult
year. Nevertheless / As a result, they haven't
had to close any of their restaurants.
5 He gets a good salary though / since the job
itself is quite monotonous.
b Circle the correct option according to register.
Sales have decreased over the last three
months. So /(Therefor?Jwe will not be taking
on any new staff.
I've been off work for the last three days
because of / owing to this nasty cough I've got.
2 Jane texted me to say she's going to be a bit
late so / consequently let's start without her.
3 The company has reported declining sales
this year. Nevertheless / But they have so far
managed to avoid any staff cuts.
4 I stopped at a service station to / in order to
fill up with petrol.
5 I thought it was an amazing film. It was quite
depressing, though / however.
6 We sincerely apologize for the delay, which
was due to / because of the late arrival of the
incoming aircraft.
c Combine the two sentences using the bold
word(s), making any necessary changes.
We always switch off the TV at night. We don't
want to waste electricity. so as
We always switch off the TV at night so as not
to waste electricity.
Our seats were a long way from the stage.
We enjoyed the play. In spite
2 We took ages to get there. The traffic was
heavy. because of
3 I took the price off the bag. I didn't want her
to know how much it had cost. so that
4 Keep the receipt for the sweater. Your dad
might not like it. in case
5 Susanna is an only child. She isn't at all spoilt.
Even though
6 Prices have increased because production
costs have risen. due to
III
3 After in spite ofand despite you must use a gerund, a noun, or thefact that + clause.
CII!mI MultiROM WWW.QUp.comjeIVenglishfilejadvanced
hove GRAMMAR BANK
have
1 They have a large, rather dilapidated country house in Norfolk.
2 He doesn't have lunch at home. Are you having lunch?
3 They've been married for 15 years.
How long has Anna been going out with James?
4 Do we really have to spend Christmas with your parents again?
5 We're going to have the kitchen repainted next week.
I had my eyes tested when I got my new glasses.
Use have as a main verb for possession.
Have with this meaning is, a stative verb and is
not used in continuous tenses. Use auxiliaries do I did to make
questions and negatives.
2 Use have + object asa main verb for actions, e.g. have a bath,
a drink, a chat, etc.
Have with this meaning is a dynamic (action) verb and can be
used in-continuous tenses.
3 Use. have as the auxiliary verb to form the present perfect simple
and continuous. Make questions by inverting have and the subject,
and negatives with haven't I hasn't.
o We also use have for other perfect forms, e.g. the future perfect,
the perfect infinitive, etc.
4 Use have to to express obligation, especially obligation imposed by
others. and rules and regulations. Have to is a main verb.
5 Use have + object + past participle to say that you ask or pay
another person to do something for you.
o Havehere is a main,verb, not an auxiliary verb, e.g. Where do you
have yourhair cut?
have got
1 How many children have you got? I've got three, two boys and
a girl.
2 I've got to go now - I'm meeting my girlfriend for lunch.
1 You Can also use have got for possession. The meaning is exactly
the same as have.
o Have here is an auxiliary verb so make questions by inverting
have and the subject and with haven't I hasn't.
Have got has a present meaning. We use had for the past, NOT
hr:td-gtn.
o Have got is very commonin informal ,spoken and written'English.
2 Use have got to to express obligation, especially in informal spoken
and written English.
o Have got to is normally used for a specific obligation rather than a
general or repeated obligation. Compare:
I've got to make a quick phone call (specific). and I have to' wear a
suit to work (general).
See SA permission, obligation, and necessity on page 148 for more
information on have to and have got to.

a Right (.I) or wrong (X)? Correct the mistakes in the
highlighted phrases.
A You look exhausted.
B Yes, I've been having meetings all day with the
marketing people. .I
1 Are you going to have your nails done when you go to
the hairdresser's?
2 A Why don't you want to come?
B I haven't got any money.
3 Has your husband to work tomorrow or is he taking the
day off too?
4 The staff don't have to dress formally in this company
- they can wear what they like.
5 How long have you been having your flat in London?
6 What time are we having dinner tonight?
7 My parents had got many problems with my sister
when she was a teenager.
8 I don't have a holiday for 18 months. I really need
a break.
9 Have we got to do this exercise now, or can we do it
later for homework?
b Rewrite the sentences using a form of have or have got.
I started working for Microsoft in 2001 and I still work
there.
I've been workingfor Microsoft since 2001.
She's an only child.
She _
2 We used to pay someone to take a family photograph
evewyear.
We used _
3 Wearing a hard hat is obligatory for all visitors to
this site.
All
4 He last saw his father in 2009.
He _
5 He lacks the right qualifications for this job.
He _
6 It's not necessary for us to do it now. We can do It later.
We _
7 The sea water was amazingly clear and warm -
we swam every morning.
The sea water was amazingly clear and warm -
we _
8 When did you start to get on badly?
How long badly?
9 I need someone to fix the central heating. I think the
thermostat is broken.
I need
I think the thermostat is broken.
-
pronouns
generic pronouns
1 You can learn a language faster if you go to live in a country where it is spoken.
2 One should never criticize without being sure of the facts.
3 When we talk about an accent, we must not confuse this with pronunciation.
4 They always say that it's never too late to learn a new language.
They should make it compulsory for people to learn two foreign languages
at school.
5 If someone goes to live in a foreign country, they will have to get used to
a different way of life.
Could the person who left their bag in the library please come and see me?
1 We often use you to mean people in general.
2 We can also use One +3rd person singular of the verb to mean people in general.
One is more formal than you and is rarely used in. spoken English.
3 We can also be used to make a general statement which includes the reader /
listener..
4 In informal English, we also often use they t o t ~ l k about other people in
general, or people in authority, e.g. Theralways say... (they = people in
general), They should make it compulsory... (they = the government).
5 We often use they, them, and theirtorefer to one person who may be male or
female, instead or using he or she, his or her, etc.
reflexive and reciprocal pronouns
1 You need to look after yourself with that cold.
He's very egocentric. He always talks about himself.
2 I managed to complete the crossword! I was really pleased with myself.
3 We decorated the house ourselves.
There's no way I'm going to do it for you. Do it yourself!
4 I don't feel very comfortable going to the cinema by myself.
5 My ex-husband and I don't talk to each other any more.
My mother and sister don't understand one another at all.
1 We often use reflexive pronouns when the subject andobjectofa verb are the same person.
We don't usually use reflexive pronouns with wash, shave,feel, relax, concentrate
NOT lelttxyo/;tlself.
2 We also use reflexive pronouns after Il10st prepositions when the complement is
the same as the subject.
A After prepositions of place, we use object pronouns, not reflexive pronouns,
e.g. She put the bagnext toher on the seat NOT lIext to herself.
3 We can also use reflexive pronouns to emphasize the subject, e.g. We decorated
the house ourselves (= we did it, not professional decorators).
4 By + reflexive pronoun = alone,. on your own,
5 We use each other or one another for reciprocal actions, Le. A does the action to
Band Bdoes the action to A.
• Compare They bought themselves some new shoes (= A bought some for A, and B
bought some for B).
They bought each other some newshoes (= Abought some for Band Bbought some for A).
it and there
1 It's five miles to London. It's 10 o'clock
2 It was great to hear that you and Martina are getting married!
It used to be difficult to buy fresh pasta in the UK, but now you can get it
everywhere.
3 There's a big crowd of people in the town centre
There used to be a cinema in that street, but there isn't one any more.
There are three meetings this week.
1 We use it + be to talk about time, temperature, and distance.
2 We also use it + be as a 'preparatory' subject before adjectives. It was great to
hearfrom you is more natural than To hearfrom you was great.
3 We use there + be + noun to say if people and things are present or exist (or not).
You cannot use It... here. NOT It used to be a cillema ill that stl eel.
a Circle the right pronoun. Tick if you think
both are possible.
They hurt one another /Cthemselve§; quite
badly when they fell off their motorbike.
One / You can often tell where people are
from by the way they dress.
2 Can you put my case on the rack above
yourself / you?
3 Marga and her sister look incredibly like
each other / one another. Are they twins?
4 Anna is very unselfish - she never puts her /
herself first.
5 Either Suzie or Mark has left her / their bag
behind, because there's only one in the back
of the car.
6 When a person goes to live abroad, it may take
them / him a while to pick up the language.
7 They / One say that eating tomatoes can help
protect the body against certain diseases.
b Complete the sentence with a pronoun where
necessary.
In most circumstances )!Q11. should address
people by their title and surname.
If anyone has not yet paid course fees,
__~ should go to registration immediately.
2 Isabel is very quick-tempered. She finds it
very hard to control .
3 I wouldn't stay in that hotel. say the
rooms are tiny and the service is awful.
4 There is a total lack of communication. They
don't understand at all.
5 Mila gets distracted too easily. She doesn't
concentrate very well.
6 Are you going to have the flat repainted or
will you do it ?
7 There are loads of bookshelves in the flat, which
is great as can never have too many!
c Complete the sentences with it or there.
There was a very interesting article about
modern lifestyle in The Times yesterday.
Nowadays 's illegal to text from your
mobile while you're driving. have
been a lot of accidents caused by this.
2 Look. 's a spelling mistake in this
word. should be j, not g.
3 How many miles is to Manchester
from here?
4 's scorching today. must be at
least 35 degrees.
5 's no need to hurry. The train doesn't
leave for ages.
6 's not worth buying the paper today.
___'s absolutely nothing interesting in it.
CDmII:I MultiROM WWW.oup.comjeltjenglishfilejadvanced
the past: narrative tenses, used to and would GRAMMAR BANK
narrative tenses: describing specific incidents in the past
This happened when I was about five years old. My father
had gone away on business for a few days and my brother and I
were sleeping in my parents' bedroom. Before we went to bed
that night, I had been reading a very scary story about a wicked
witch. In the middle of the night I woke up with a start and saw
that a figure in a dark coat was standing at the end of my bed.
I screamed at the top of my voice.
o When we describe specific incidents in the past, we use narrative
tenses, i.e. the past simple, past continuous, and past perfect simple
or continuous.
o Use the past Simple to talk about the l11ainactions in a story (We
went to bed... I woke up... I screamed).
o Use the past continuous to set the scene (We were sleeping in my
parents' bedroom) and to describe actions in progress in the past
was standing at the end ofm)'. bed).
o Use the past perfect and the past perfectcontinuous to talk about
the earlier past, i.e. things which happened before the main events
(Myfather had gone away... I had been reading astory).
used to and would: describing repeated actions in the past
Every summer my family rented an old house in the South of
France. My sister and I used to walk to the harbour every
morning and watch the fishermen cleaning their nets.
2 Every night before we went to bed my mother would tell us a
story, but she would never read them from a book - she would
always make them up herself.
3 When I was a teenager, my friends were always teasing me
because of my red hair.
1 We often use usedia + infmitiveas an alternative to the past simple
to talk about things that wedidrepeatedly in the past.
o We can also use used to + infinitive to talk about situations or
states which have changed, e.g. I used to have much longer hair
when I was younger.
2 We also use would +infinitive as an alternative to used to to talk
about things that we didrepeatedlyin the. past.
o However, we don't use would with stative verbs, i.e. to talk about
situations or states which have changed NOT J wottld mttch
lcmgel hail whell I Was yomlgel.
3 We canaIso use alwaY$·+pastcontinuou.s for things that happened
repeatedly, especially when they were irritating habits.
A When we describe past habits or repeated past actions we
tend, for stylistic reasons, to use a mixture of used to, would,
or the past Simple (with adverbs offrequency). Used to and
would make it clear that you are talking about something that
happened regularly and often convey a sense of nostalgia.
c:!!mIJmI. MultiROM WWIIIf.Oup.comjelt/englishfilejaclvanced
a Circle the right form. Tick if both are correct.
Corinne and 10sed to be)/ would be very close, but
recently we've grown apart.
When I came into the room, my aunt sat / was sitting with
her back to me. When she turned round, I could see that
her eyes were rather red and I was sure that she had been
crying / had cried.
2 Our grandmother always used to have / would always have
a little surprise waiting for us when we visited.
3 My uncle lived / used to live on his own because his wife
died / had died several years earlier.
4 When my brother was a child, he didn't use to look / he
wouldn't look at all like my father, but the older he gets
the more he looks like him.
S When I was small, I was always getting / I always used to
get into trouble at school and my parents used to punish /
would punish me by not letting me play with my friends at
the weekend.
6 Suddenly we heard a tremendous crash and we saw that
a car crashed / had crashed into a tree and petrol poured /
was pouring out of the car onto the road.
b Put the verbs in the right form, using a narrative tense or
would / used to.
My earliest memory
When I was about four or five, my grandmother, who was
Polish, was living (live) in London, and we children often
1 (spend) weekends at her flat. My grandfather
2 (die) a couple of years earlier, so I suppose she
was in need of company. We loved going there, as my
grandmother 3 (cook) special meals for us and
4__. (take) us for lovely walks in Regent's Park, which
was quite nearby. One occasion that I remember really well
was when I 5 (invite) to stay with her on my own,
without my brothers and sisters. On the first day, after lunch,
my grandmother 6 (tell) me that she 7 (go)
to have a rest, and that I should have a rest too. I 8 (try)
to sleep but I couldn't, so after a while I 9 (get) up
and 1O__ (decide) to explore the flat. Everything
was very quiet so I was convinced that my grandmother
11 (sleep). The room I most 12 (want) to explore
was my grandfather's study, I imagine, precisely because
11
3
(tell) not to go in there. I opened the door and
went in, and was immediately drawn to his large old desk.
I 14__ (climb) onto the chair, and 15 (see) on
the desk a green pen in a kind of stand, with a bottle of ink.
11
6
(ask) my parents for a real pen for a long time,
but they 17 (refuse), foreseeing the mess that I was
almost bound to make with the ink. I picked up the pen
and then tried to open the bottle of ink. At that moment
11
8
(hear) my grandmother's voice saying 'Christina?
Where are you? What are you dOing?' To my horror I
19 (realize) that my grandmother 20 (get up)
out of bed and 21 (come) towards the study. Two
seconds later she 22 (open) the door. I will never
forget the awful feeling of shame that she 23 (catch)
me doing something that she 24 (forbid) me to do.


distancing
seem I appear
It seems I appears (that) there is a direct relation between your
position in the family and your personality.
The new head of department seems I appears to be quite friendly.
Excuse me. There seems to be a mistake with the bill.
2 It would seem I appear (that) Mr Young had been using the
company's assets to payoff his private debts.
We often use seem and appear to give information without stating
that we definitely know it is true, and in this way distancing
ourselves from the information.
We can use It seems I appears + that + clause, or subject + seem I
appear + infinitive.
2 We use It would seem I appear + that + clause to distance us even
further from the information, and to make it sound less sure. This
is more formal than It seems I appears...
The passive with verbs of saying and reporting
It is said that using a washing machine saves people on average
47 minutes a day.
It has been announced by a White House spokesman that the
President has been taken to hospital.
2 The company director is expected to resign in the next few days.
The missing couple are understood to have been living in Panama
for the last five years.
3 There are thought to be over a thousand species in danger
of extinction.
Another way of distancing ourselves from the facts, especially in formal
written English, is to use the passive form of verbs like say, think, etc.
to introduce them. We can use:
1 It + passive verb + that + clause.
• Verbs commonly used in this pattern are: agree, announce, believe,
expect, hope, report, say, suggest, think, and understand.
2 subject +passive verb + to +infinitive.
• Verbs commonly usedin this pattern are believe, expect, report,
say, think, and understand. .
3 There can also be used + passive verb. + to + infinitive.
Compare:
It is said that there are more than five million people living in poverty
in this country.
There are said to be more than five million people living in poverty
in this country.
other distancing expressions: apparently, according to, may I might
1 Apparently, Maurice and Yvette have separated.
2 According to new research, the idea that we have to drink two
litres of water a day is a myth.
3 Dinosaurs may have died out due to extremely rapid climate change.
There are rumours that the band, who disbanded in the late 80s,
might be planning to re-form and record a new album.
1 We can use apparently (usually either at.the beginning or the end
of a phrase) to mean that we have heard I read something, but that
it may not be true. This is very common in informal conversation.
2 We can use according to to specify where information has
come from. We use it to attribute opinions to somebody else
(NOT ACCOldillg to me... ),
3 Using may I might also suggests that something is a possibility,
but not necessarily true.
a Complete the sentences with one word to distance the
speaker from the information. Sometimes there is more
than one possibility.
Apparently, Lisa and Dani are going to get married. Have
you heard anything?
It that the less children sleep, the more likely they
are to behave badly.
2 It appear that someone has been stealing personal
items from the changing rooms.
3 Mark to have aged a lot over the last year.
4 He may not look it, but he is to be one of the
wealthiest people in the country.
5 __~ to some sources, the latest research is seriously
flawed.
6 Despite the fact that there will be an autopsy, his death
__~ have been from natural causes.
7 __~ are thought to be several reasons why the species
died out.
8 The missing couple are believed __~ have had
financial difficulties.
9 It is understood the minister will be resigning in
the near future.
b Rewrite the second sentence so that it means the same as
the first.
People say that eating garlic stops you catching colds.
It is said that eating garlic stops you catching colds.
Apparently, people who work night shifts die younger.
It would _
2 It is possible that the prisoners escaped to France.
The prisoners may _
3 We expect that the Prime Minister will make a statement
this afternoon.
The Prime Minister is ~
4 The company has announced that the new drug will go on
sale shortly.
It _
5 People believe that impovements in diet and lifestyle are
responsible for the rise in life expectancy.
Improvements in diet and lifestyle _
6 The manual says you have to charge the phone for at least
12 hours.
According _
7 It appears that the government is intending to lower
interest rates.
The government ~
8 People have suggested that the painting is a fake.
It _
9 It seems that there are more cyclists around than there
used to be.
There _
~ MultiROM WWW.QUp.comjeIVenglishfilejadvanced
I got an email from Marc today.
If you're going to the post office, could you get me some stamps?
When do you think we'll get to Paris?
Let's not bother with a taxi - we can get the bus.
2 We'd better go home. It's getting dark.
I seem to have got very forgetful recently.
The traffic gets worse in the city centre every day.
I don't think my mother will ever get used to living on her own.
3 We need to get someone to fIx the central heating - it's not
working properly.
Could you get Jane to finish the report? I'm too busy to do it
this afternoon.
4 I'm going to get my hair cut next week.
I need to get my passport renewed - it runs out in a couple of
months.
5 Did you know Dan got sacked last week?
My husband got caught driving at 150 km/h. He got three points
on his licence.
Get is one of the most common verbs in English andean be used in
.o:ianydifferent ways.
1 Get + nounI pronoun canmean 'receive, 'bring: 'fetch: 'obtain:
'buy: or 'catch: and with to+ a place itmeans 'arrive at / in.
2 or comparative adjective to mean 'become:
Compare be + adjective and get + adjective.
It's dark. It's getting dark.
I'm used to the climate in England now. I'm getting used to the
climate in England.
3 We can use geHobject + infinitive to mean 'make somebody do
something' or 'persuade somebodyto do sornething:
4 Ininformal spoken English we sometimes use get (+object + past
participle) instead of have (+ object +past participle) to say that
you ask or. pay another person to do something for you.
See IBhave on page 137.
5 We can use get(+ past participle) instead of be to make.a passive
structure. This is more informal than using be.
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a Replace get with another verb so that the sentence means
the same.
I got fined yesterday for breaking the speed limit. was
My father is getting increasingly forgetful in his old age.
2 Do you know anywhere near here where I can get a
newspaper? _
3 Could you try to get your brother to come tonight too?
4 We had to get the roof repaired, as it was damaged in
the storm. _
5 I got an email out of the blue today from an old school
friend. _
6 If I get the 7.30 train, would you be able to pick me up
at the station? _
7 Do you think they'll get here in time for lunch?
8 If you're going upstairs, could you get me my jacket,
which is on my bed? _
9 She's going to get caught if she's not careful. _
10 How can I get you to change your mind? _
b Complete the sentence with the right form ofget and the
word in brackets. You may need to change the form of the
verbs in brackets.
I always get lost (always / lose) when I'm driving. I think
I'm going to get a satnav.
I only just in time. It was about to
run out. (my work permit / renew)
2 My husband has only been in the UK for two months and
he just can't on the left. He gets
very confused at roundabouts. (used / drive)
3 Monica's fiance in a car crash. He
was lucky to survive. (nearly / kill)
4 I can tomorrow night so we can go
out. (my sister / babysit)
5 If you can't find your keys, we'll have to
________. (all the locks / change)
6 We by the police just before we
crossed the bridge. They were looking for a stolen car.
(stop)
7 I went to the optician's yesterday to _
(eyes / test)
8 A What happened to your eye?
B I by a mosquito last night. (bite)
speculation and deduction
modal verbs: must / may / might / must / can't / should
1 Mel and Trudy must be very well off - they've got an enormous house.
You must have seen him - he was standing right in front of you!
2 They can't be playing very well - they're losing 0-3.
You can't / couldn't have spent very long on this essay - you've only
written 100 words.
3 I haven't seen the sales manager today. He may / might / could be off sick.
The keys of the store cupboard have disappeared. Do you think
someone may / might / could have taken them?
He may / might not have heard the message I left on his voicemail.
4 If I post the letter today, it should arrive on Friday.
I posted the letter a week ago. It should have arrived by now.
1 As well as for obligation, we also use must + infinitive to say that we are almost
sure something is true about the present, and must have + past participle to
say that we are almost sure something was true or happened in the past.
2 We use ain't and can't / couldn't + perfect infinitive (NOT mttSt1it / must1l't
hmte) to say that we are sure that something isn't true in the present
or didn't happen / wasn't true in the past.
3 We use may / might / could and may / might / could +perfect infinitive to
say that we think it's possible that something is true in the present or was
true / happened in the past.
• Compare:
He might not have done it. (= Maybe he didn't do it.)
He couldn't have done it. (= It is impossible that he did it.)
4 Use should + infinitive (or should have + participle) to describe a situation
you expect to happen (or would expect to have happened in the past).
A. use of the infinitive and the continuous infinitive after
He must work really hard. He never gets home before 9.00 p.m.
=deduction about a habitual action
There's a light on in his office. He must still be working.
=deduction about an action in progress at the moment of speaking
:
adjectives and adverbs for speculation
1 He's bound / sure to be here in a minute. He left an hour ago.
She's sure to know. She's an expert on the subject.
2 I think she's likely to agree to our proposal - we've given her some
very good reasons.
The doctors say that at his age he's unlikely to recover.
I think it's very likely that the meeting will be over by 6.00.
It's unlikely that the government will raise interest rates this year.
3 She'll definitely pass the exam. She's worked really hard.
She definitely won't pass the exam. She hasn't done any work at all.
He'll probably be here around 8.00. He usually leaves work at 7.30.
He probably won't be here until about 8.15. He's stuck in a traffic jam.
Bound and sure are adjectives. We use be bound or be sure + infmitive to say
that you think something is certain to be true or to happen.
2 Likely / unlikely are also adjectives (not adverbs). We can use subject +
be likely / unlikely + infmitive, or it is likely / unlikely + that + clause.
3 Definitely and probably are adverbs. They go before a main verb and
(if there is one) in [±] sentences and before the auxiliary verb in
• With be they go after the verb in [±] sentences and before it in EJ sentences,
e.g. He's probably British. The painting definitely isn't genuine. ..
A. be likely to and will probably are very similar in meaning, but be likely
to is more formal. Compare: .
The new coach is likely to be appointed today.
The new coach will probably be appointed today.
a Right (./) or wrong ()()? Correct the mistakes in the
highlighted phrases.
A When's Jim arriving?
B I'm not sure, but he won't likely be here before 7.00.
X isn't likely to be here
My glasses aren't in their usual place. Someone must
move them.
2 A Do you know where Ann is?
B She should be in the library. That's where she
said she was going.
3 A What's that noise in the garage?
B I think it can be the neighbour's cat.
4 I'm sure Barcelona will win tonight. They're unlikely
to lose three times running.
5 I don't think we should use that photo of Tina in
the brochure. She won't definitely like it.
6 Julian is bound be late - he always is.
7 No one's answering the phone at the shop. They've
probably gone home.
S I don't think Marta has gone to bed yet. I think she
must still study.
9 It's quite likely that the boss will retire in a year or two.
h Rewrite the sentences using the bold word.
Perhaps Luke has got lost. He has no sense of direction.
MIGHT
Luke might have got lost. He has no sense of direction.
I don't think he'll have time to call in and see us.
He's got a very tight schedule.
PROBABLY
He He has a very tight schedule.
2 I'm not sure she'll ever get over the break-up.
MAY
She the break-up.
3 They will probably have heard the news by now.
SHOULD
They now.
4 I'm sure I didn't leave my credit card in the
restaurant. I remember putting it in my wallet.
CAN'T
I . I remember putting it in my wallet.
5 I'm sure your sister will like the scarE It's just her style.
BOUND
Your sister . It's just her style.
6 The company director probably won't resign, despite
the disastrous sales figures.
UNLIKELY
The company director , despite the
disastrous sales figures.
7 I'm sure he was in love with her otherwise he
wouldn't have married her.
MUST
He otherwise he wouldn't have
married her.
S Are you sure you locked the back door?
DEFINITELY
Did the back door?
9 According to press reports, the couple will probably
get divorced soon.
LIKELY
According to press reports, it's soon.
. MultiROM WWVIf.QUp.comjeIVenglishfilejadvanced
1 Not only is my brother lazy, (but) he's also very selfish.
Not until you can behave like an adult will we treat you
like an adult.
Never have I heard such a ridiculous argument.
No sooner had the football match started than it began
to snow heavily.
2 Not only did you forget to shut the window, (but) you
also forgot to lock the door!
Not until you become a parent yourself do you
understand what it really means.
3 The train began to move. Only then was I able to relax.
Only when you leave home do you realize how
expensive everything is.
Hardly had I sat down when the train began to move.
Rarely have I met a more irritating person.
In formal. English, especially in writing, we. sometimes change
the normal word order to make the sentence more emphatic
or dramatic.;
1 This structure is common with negative adverbial
expressions such asNot only..., Not untiL., Never..., and
No sooner... than.(= a formal wayofsaying aS$Oon. as)
• When we use inversion after the above expressions, we
change the order of the subject and (auxiliary) verb
NOT Not only Illy blOthel is lazy....
Compare:
My brother is notonly lazy, but he's also very selfish.
(= normal word order)
Not only is mybrother lazy, .but he's also veryselfish.
(= inversion to make sentence more emphatic)
2 In the present simple and past simple tense, rather than
simply inverting the subject and verb we use do Idoes / did
+ subject + mainverb NOT Not only forgot 'OU toshUUhe
window.
3 Inversion is also used after the expressions Only then...,
Only when..., Hardly! Scarcely... when, and Rarely...
A InverSion should only be used occasionallyfor
dramatic effect. Overusing it will makeyout' English
sound unnatural.
Rewrite the sentences to make them more emphatic.
I had just sat down when the train left.
No sooner had I sat down than the train left.
I didn't realize my mistake until years later.
Not until _
2 We had never seen such magnificent scenery.
Never _
3 They not only disliked her, but they also hated her family.
Not only _
4 We only understood what he had really suffered when we read
his autobiography.
Only when _
5 We had just started to eat when we heard someone knocking at
the door.
Hardly _
6 I have rarely read such a badly written novel.
Rarely _
7 We did not put down our tools and rest until the sun set.
Not until _
8 The hotel room was not only depressing, but it was cold as well.
Not only _
9 They only lit the fire when it was unusually cold.
Only when _
10 Shortly after he had gone to sleep there was a knock on the door.
No sooner _
11 I only realized the full scale of the disaster when I watched the
six dclock news.
I watched the six dclock news. Only then _
12 I had only just destroyed the evidence when the police arrived.
Scarcely _
13 He has never regretted the decision he took on that day.
Never _
14 I spoke to the manager and the problem was sorted out.
Only when _
GmII\mI•. MultiROM
unreal uses of the past tenses
It's a difficult problem. I wish I knew the answer to it!
I wish I hadn't spoken to Jane like that - you know how
sensitive she is.
2 If only I knew the answer!
If only you hadn't forgotten the map, we'd be there by now.
3 I'd rather you left your dog outside - I'm allergic to animals.
Are you sure this is a good time to talk? Would you rather
I called back later?
4 Don't you think it's time you found a job? It's six months since
you finished university!
It's (high) time the government did something about
unemployment.
We use wish + past simple to talk about things we would like to
be different in the present / future (but which are impossible or
unlikely). . .
We use. wish + past perfect to talk about things which happened /
didn't happen in the past and which we now regret.
• We sometimes use that after wish, e.g. I wish that I knew the answer.
2 You can also use If only... instead of wish with the past simple and
past perfect. This can be used by itself (Ifonly I knew!) or with
another clause.
• If only is more emphatic than wish.
A When we wantto talkabout things we wanfto happehor.stop
happening because they annoy us, we use wish Or Ifonly +
person I thing + would + infinitive,e.g;lwish the buswould
come! If only he wouldn't keep whistling when I'm wprking!
3 We. use would rather +
• We can also use would rather +.infinitive
is no change of e.g. I'd.rather not talk. about it. Hpwever,
we cannot use this structurewhen the subject changesa.fj:erwould
rather,· e.g. I'd .ratber you didn't talk. about it NOTf'd;./atfte./ you
not tafk.about it.
4 We use the past simpleafterIt'stime +subjectJo saylhM
something has to· be done now orin the near
• We can also use It'stime+ to+ infinitivewhenwedon'twanfto
specify the subject; e.g. It's time togo now.
• We sometimes use highbefore time for empha.sis.
a Put the verbs in brackets in the right form.
I wish I hadn't lent Gary that money now. Who knows
when he'll pay it back? (not lend)
It's time the government that interest rates are
far too high. (realize)
2 My wife would rather we nearer the city
centre. (live)
3 I wish you to stay a bit longer - we're having
such a good time! (be able)
4 Would you rather we the subject now? (not
discuss)
5 I think it's time the company expecting us to
do so much overtime for no extra pay. (stop)
6 If only I a bit more when I was earning a
regular salary, I wouldn't be so hard up now. (save)
7 I'd rather you me in cash, if you don't mind.
(pay)
8 If only we the name of the shop, we could
Google it and see where it is. (know)
9 Do you wish you to university or do you think
you made the right decision to leave school and start
work? (go)
b Rewrite the sentences using the bold word(s).
The children ought to go to bed. It's nearly nine o'clock.
TIME
It's time the children went to bed. It's nearly nine o'clock.
I'd prefer you not to smoke in here, if you don't mind.
RATHER
______________, if you don't mind.
2 I would like to be able to afford to travel more.
WISH
_________________travel more.
3 We shouldn't have painted the room blue - it looks awful.
IF ONLY
_______________- it looks awful.
4 Don't you think you should start to look for a job?
TIME
Don't you think for a job?
5 He should be less tight-fisted! Then he'd enjoy life more.
IF ONLY
_____________, he'd enjoy life more.
6 Would you prefer us to come another day?
RATHER
________________another day?
7 I should have bought the maroon sweater and not the
beige one.
WISH
______________the maroon sweater
and not the beige one.
...MultiROM IIVWIIV.QUp.comjeltjenglishfilejadvanced
A I really like your shirt. Hasn't To change the direction of a
Harry got one just like it? conversation, but making a link
B Talking of Harry, did he get the with what has just been said.
job he applied for?
So let's meet at five o'clock then. By the To introduce something you
way / Incidentally, could you possibly have just thought of, or to
lend me some money until the weekend? change the subject completely.
A Did you see the match last night? To introduce additional
B No, I didn't. Actually / In fact surprising or unexpected
/ As a matter of fact I don't really information.
like football.
We didn't go away at the weekend To introduce the idea that what
because I had too much work. In any you said before is less important
case / Anyway the weather was awful, than what you are going to say.
so we didn't miss anything. To return to the main topic after
a digression.
Yes, it was a bad accident. At least To introduce a positive point
nobody was killed, though. after some negative information.
Torn's coming to the meeting, or To make what you have just said
at least he said he was. less definite.
As I was saying, if Mark gets the job To return to a previous subject, often
we'll have to reorganize the department. after you have been interrupted.
On the whole, I think that women To generalize.
make better journalists than men.
I like both flats, but all in all, I think I To say that you are taking
prefer the one next to the cathedral. everything into consideration.
I think we should buy them. After all, To introduce a strong argument
we'll never find them anywhere cheaper that the other person may not
than this. have taken into consideration.
I don't think I'll come to Nick's party. To add additional information
It will finish very late. Besides, I won't or arguments.
know many people there.
Basically, my job involves computer To introduce the most important
skills and people skills. or fundamental point.
Obviouslyyou can't get a real idea of life in To introduce a fact that is very
Japan unless you can speak the language. clear to see or understand.
She's very selfish. I mean, she never To make things clearer or give
thinks about other people at all. more details.
A lot of people booed, and some people To say something again in
even left early. In other words, it was a another way.
complete disaster.
Please try not to make a mess when To say what the result would be
you make the cake. Otherwise I'm if something did not happen or
going to have to clean the kitchen again. if the situation were different.
That's all you need to know about the
To introduce a new topic or to
travel arrangements.
announce a change of subject.
As far as accommodation is concerned,
As regards / Regarding accommodation,
the options are living with a family or
living in a hall of residence.
The government are going to help first- To introduce an explanation or
time buyers. That is to say, they are going clarification of a point you have
to make mortgages more easily available. just made.
On (the) one hand, more young people To balance contrasting facts
today carry knives. On (the) other hand, or points. On the other hand is
the total number of violent crimes has also used alone to introduce a
dropped.
contrasting fact or point.
e:tlmI!IIMultiROMWWW.oup.comjelt/englishfilejadvanced
a Circle the appropriate discourse markers in the dialogue.
A What a good film! I really enjoyed it. Didn't you?
B(4.ctuallYJ/ Incidentally, I didn't like it very much.
A Why not?
B IBasically / After all I thought it was incredibly far-fetched.
I couldn't believe in the characters at all, and the plot was
totally implausible.
A I wouldn't call it far-fetched. 2At least / In any case it wasn't
supposed to be a true story.
B I know, but it was set in a very specific historical period.
30therwise / Obviously you can't expect the dialogue to
be totally authentic, 4I mean / on the other hand nobody
knows exactly how people spoke in the 17th century, but
Sat least / anyway the period details should be right. There
was a clock in the king's palace and they didn't have clocks
until the eighteenth century! 6All in all / That is to say I
thought it was a pretty awful film.
A We'll have to agree to disagree then. 7By the way / As a
matter offact, do you know what time the last train leaves?
I don't want to miss it. 80therwise / In any case I'll have to
get a taxi home.
B 11.40. Don't worry, we've got plenty of time. 9In fact / Besides,
I think we've even got time to have something to eat. Do
you fancy a quick pizza? There's a good Italian restaurant
just round the corner.
A Yes, let's go. lOAs I was saying / Talking of Italian food I
made a wonderful risotto with mushrooms last night ...
b Complete the sentences with appropriate discourse markers.
Sometimes more than one answer may be possible.
The food was delicious and the service was excellent.
All in all the meal was a great success.
Jason is an excellent teacher, although I think
female teachers are usually better with four- and five-year-olds.
2 A Did you buy the shoes in the end?
B No, they were too expensive. And I decided
that I didn't really like them that much.
3 I really think you ought to apply for the post of head of
department. you've got nothing to lose, and
you might just get it, who knows?
4 A I've just read a brilliant book that Simon lent me.
B Simon, did you knowhe's moving to New York?
5 A How was your day?
B Fine. I finished work a bit earlier than usual. ,
did you remember to get a birthday present for your mum?
6 It was a very grey, overcast day, but it didn't rain.
7 A Do your wife's parents live near you then?
B , they live in the flat below us. It's not ideal
but it does have some advantages.
8 They've employed me as a kind of troubleshooter -
____somebody who sorts out problems whenever
they occur.
9 salary , you will paid on the 30th or
31st of each month, with a bonus in December and in July.
10 You'd better hurry up with your homework. _
you won't be able to watch TV tonight.
11 I'm not sure what the best solution is. buying our
own place would mean not having to waste money paying rent,
but I'm not sure we can really afford a mortgage.
<
4B" verb + object + infinitive or gerund
Complete the second sentence so that it means the same
as the first.
'Take special care because of the snow and ice: the police
told motorists.
The police warned motorists ill take special care because
of the snow and ice.
I don't like it when people answer their mobiles in
restaurants.
I dislike people _.__ __ in restaurants.
2 I felt uncomfortable because of the situation at work.
The situation at work made ..
3 You are going to stay with a British family. We have
made the arrangements.
We have arranged with
a British family.
4 I don't have a problem if Jane comes, but I'd rather her
boyfriend didn't.
I don't mind , but I'd rather her
boyfriend didn't.
5 Please don't think I didn't enjoy myself, because I did!
I would hate I didn't enjoy
myself, because I did!
6 You paid for everything, which wasn't what I expected.
I didn't expect .. _
everything.
7 It would be wonderful if you stayed for a few days.
I would love __.... for a few days.
8 If you get this job, you will have to travel a lot.
This job will involve ___.
9 I told Hannah not to forget to do the washing up.
I reminded the washing up.
10 Did you really use to be shy? I can't imagine it!
I can't imagine shy!
11 We were able to buy a bigger flat thanks to the money
my uncle left me.
The money my uncle left me enabled _
___a bigger flat.
12 The guards wouldn't let us cross the border.
The guards prevented .. the
border.
13 I could call back later if you're busy now.
Would you prefer later?
14 The car might break down on holiday. We don't want to
take the risk.
We don't want to risk _
while were on holiday.
;...MultiROM WWW.oup.comjeIVenglishfilejadvanced
Please let me explain!
He made me feel really guilty.
Can you help me do the washing up?
A After recommend you c<muse , _ "
- object +: to +.infmitive, e.g. He recommende,dmeto take,
some cash. " ,! "',,
- a that clause, e.g. He reco'l:l!lV;z
,You c , ret;
verb +: object +to +: infInitive
1 We expect the flight to arrive at 19.50.
It took me ages to get there.
She advised him not to travel by train.
2 I would hate you to think that I don't appreciate your offer of help....•...
I'd like you to send me the bill.
3 I'm waiting for my friend to arrive.
Weve arranged for a taxi to come at 6.30.
c<m use object +: .infinitive without to,after./et, help.,'
Help can: befollQw.e ' , 'ct . .' . o:utf,o;>
", e.g. She helpedme' (t
,:A. Wheilmake 5b, d
thi;: infi,nitive wit
every morning.
also,often 'use object:l- fnfi
love, would prefer, would hate. " \" ' ", "..' ,,'
• ,After these verbs a that clause is impossible.NOT/wottld hate
thatYOIithillk. " ,,', ",,' ",', "
After some verbsincludin.garrange, ask;: W(lJt we put fo;
, immediately after theverb re the ,to+: infmitive. '
">/); >,<:
-': .':;!:/} r,· 't':;"/ :.- " "i .'. '. -, ;,,:-'i:.:! :,:i:':;' ";:
,out 0, , "',. :.,' :;,:{ :,:', , .' <'" '
1 We often use the follow4J.g verbs' +: object -t;, to +: ask, ' "
,advise, allow, beg, cause,enaple, encQl1rage, help, intend;, '
invite, mean, order, persuaile, (time)" ' "
, teach, warn. ' '0' ,'.,' "/,,,',' ,"" ",' ",. ',:: , ' , ' " 'i'
• After advise, persuade,
'use,<m object +: that clause, e.g. lJe, advised in t I should stay off
work for two weeks. ' " , , "
-
b Complete the sentences with one word. Don't use if.
Supposing we missed the last train, how would we
get home?
My father has agreed to lend me the money
___ I pay it back by the end of the year.
2 if I had played my best, I still wouldn't
have beaten him.
3 I'll tell you exactly what happened as as
you promise not to tell anyone.
4 the rebels not surrendered, there would
have been a lot more casualties.
5 The company will only employ me on _
that I sign a two-year contract.
6 We've decided we're going to go ahead with the event
____we sell all the tickets or not.
7 I'm convinced Amy won't go back with her
boyfriend, if he apologizes.
8 You can go to the party long as you are
home by midnight at the latest.
9 we do buy a dog, who's going to take it
for walks? .
10 I'm going to make an appointment for you at the
doctor's you like it or not.
11 the plane not caught fire, there would
have been more survivors.
a Right (.I) or wrong eX)? Correct the mistakes in the
highlighted phrases.
If you hadn't been here last night, I don't know what I
would do. what I would have done
They wouldn't have made you Marketing Manager if
they didn't think you were right for the job.
2 The government would accept more refugees if the
camp isn't so crowded.
3 If you've done all your homework, you can go out this
evening.
4 We wouldn't be living in Singapore now if my
company hadn't been taken over by a multinational.
5 Hannah would be in the first team if she didn't get
injured last month.
6 If you've ever been to New York, you will know exactly
what I'm talking about.
7 They would get divorced ages ago if they didn't have
young children.
8 If the storm wasn't at night, more people would have
died.
9 If their flight hasn't been delayed, they will have
arrived by now.
1 I'll tell you what happened as long as / so long as you promise not
to tell anyone else.
Provided / Providing (that) the bank lends us all the money we need,
we're going to buy that flat we liked.
They agreed to lend us the car on condition (that) we returned it
by the weekend.
2 I'm going to sell the car whether you agree with me or not.
3 Even if I get the job, I'm going to carryon living with my parents
for a while.
4 Supposing you lost your job, what would you do?
5 Had I known that you were coming, I would have bought a bottle
of wine.
cm::rDmI MultiROM WWW.oup.comjeltjenglishfilejadvanced
I wouldn't be in this mess if I had listened to your advice.
Jane would have left Mike by now if she didn't still love him.
1 They won't get a table unless they've already booked.
Can I borrow your dictionary a moment if you're not using it?
If it stops raining, I'm going to walk into town.
2 How would you know if he wasn't telling the truth?
If we had a bit more time here, we could go on an all-day river trip.
3 I would have picked you up if I had known what time your
flight arrived.
If I'd been looking where I was going, I would've seen the hole in
the road.
This kind of conditional sentence,
present or','if
YOUCaD. USe
, ,.futqre in , '
2 e, us.ed to talkabout ypo
, /fmprol:>able' onsin t esent or fut11re.
You can\1::lsethe past tense (simple or confuiuous) in the ifclause and
would + infinitive (or could / might) in the other clause. ' ,
Type 3 tl,ilk about a hypothetical
situation in the past. ;',.' . , .. :'.1'.,:,: ". "'. ,'.:', .. ,
Y;ou can usethe pa§r " Clr:continuClus) in the ifcla.pse ",
and would have + in (or could);might have) in thepther clause.....
miXed ,. Co.;;
If we Wlnlt to refer to the tl1epast in the same sentence, we can
mix tenses from two different types ofconditional, e:g. . ..
[wouldn't be in this mess (type 2) ... ifIhad listened to your advice (type 3):
, Jane would have left Mike. by now (type 3).ifshe didn't still love him (type 2).
alternatives to lfin
permission, obligation, and necessity
GlII:I MultiROM WIIVV\I.oup.com/eIVenglishfile/advanced
-
can, must, should, ought to, had better
1 I couldn't take any photos in the gallery, so I bought some postcards ofthe paintings.
Passengers on the bus mustn't distract the driver.
We should / ought to go home on the motorway - it's much quicker.
2 We should have / ought to have gone home on the motorway - it would
have been quicker.
3 You'd better post the parcels today or they won't get there in time.
The most common modal verbs for talking about permission and obligation
are can / could, must, and should / ought to.
2 We can use should have or ought to have + past participle to talk about past
events which did not happen and which we regret.
3 Had better is stronger ahd more urgent than should / ought to and is often used
to give strong advice or a warning. It normally refers to the immediate future.
o The negative is had better not NOT hadn't bettel .
have to f have got to
1 All passengers will have to fill in an immigration form on arrival.
You don't have to tip here unless you think the service was especially good.
2 I've got to buy a birthday present for my brother.
1 We also use have to to express obligations. It can be used in any tense.
2 We can also use have got to to express obligation, but it is normally used for
specific occasions rather than repeated or general obligations.
need
1 You usually need to check in at least two hours before a flight leaves.
I don't need to take a jacket. It's going to be hot today.
2 You needn't lock the car. Nobody will steal it in this village.
3 We needn't have booked / didn't need to book a table. The restaurant is empty!
4 We had plenty of petrol so we didn't need to stop, which saved time.
1 We use need / don't need + to + infinitive to say that something is necessary /
unnecessary. You can use these forms for habitual, general, and specific necessity.
2 When we want to say that something is unnecessary on a specific occasion,
we can also use needn't + infinitive without to.
o We use don't need to (NOT neerJn!t) for habitual or general necessity,
e.g. I don't need to wear glasses. My eyesight is still good. NOT I lIeedn't weal gfasse:s.
3 When something was not necessary, but you did it, we can use either needn't
have + past participle or didn't need to + infinitive.
4 When something was not necessary, so you did not do it, you must use didn't need to
NOT We had plellty (Jfpetl 01 so we lIeedn't stopped, time.
be able to, be allowed to, be permitted to, be supposed to
1 From tomorrow we won't be able to park in this street.
You're not allowed to smoke in any public buildings in our country.
2 It is not permitted to take mobiles into the exam room.
3 We are supposed to check in at 3.30. What's the time now?
You aren't supposed to park here - it's a hospital entrance.
We often use be able to or be allowed to + infinitive to talk about what is
possible or permitted instead of can, particularly when we want to use a form
which can does not have.
2 be permitted to + infinitive is used in formal situations, e.g. notices and
announcements, to say what can / can't be done according to the law or to
rules and regulations.
A We do not use it followed by be allowed to NOT It iSIl't allowed to take
mobiles illto the exam 100m.
3 We can also use be supposed to + infinitive to say what people should or
shouldn't do, often because of rules. There is often a suggestion that the rules
are not necessarily obeyed, e.g. Students are not supposed to have guests after
12.00, but everyone does.
a Complete the second sentence so that it means
the same as the first.
We couldn't go out at night when we were at
boarding school.
We weren't allowed to go out at night when we
were at boarding school.
Officially you mustn't park here - but everyone does.
You aren't here.
2 Put that cigarette out. This is a no-smoking area.
You'd . This is a
no-smoking area.
3 I regret losing my temper last night.
I shouldn't last night.
4 You can't take flash photographs in this museum.
Flash photography is _
in this museum.
S Wearing a seat belt in the back seat of the car is
compulsory.
You in the back seat
of the car.
6 Swimming in the lake is strictly prohibited.
You aren't in the lake.
7 Wearing a tie is optional in this restaurant.
You don't in this
restaurant.
8 The best thing to do would be to get specialist advice.
You really specialist
advice.
9 I must finish the sales report by Friday.
I've by Friday.
10 You don't have to bring your car - we can go in mine.
You - we can go
in mine.
b Complete the sentences with three words.
If you don't finish your homework, you won't be
able to watch TV.
You don't to go into the art gallery.
Entrance is free.
2 Smoking anywhere on the aircraft.
Anyone caught smoking will be severely punished.
3 You'd late - you know what Jane is
like about punctuality!
4 You back before next month. I'm in
no hurry for the money.
S You you didn't like the pasta. You
know how sensitive he is about his cooking.
6 It was a difficult journey because we _
trains three times.
7 A lot of people think that governments
____more to protect young people's health.
8 You aren't your mobile phone when
you are driving.
9 We sweaters after all - it's really warm!
lOAm I a suit to the wedding or is it
quite informal?
5B verbs of the senses GRAMMAR BANK
hear,
I can hear a noise downstairs.
Can you see the blue circle at the top of the painting?
I can smell burning. Are you sure you turned the gas off?
I can feel a draught. Is there a window open?
I can't taste the garlic in the soup.
• The five basicverbs ofthe senses, hear, see, smell,feel, and taste are stative (non action) verbs.
We normally use can with these verbs to refer to something happening a.t the moment.
• We don't usually use verbs of the senses inthe continuous form NOT I am heal i/lg
a /loise. I'mfeeliltga painbehi/ld m)'eye.
• hear and see can also be dynamic verbs and used inthecontinuous form, but with
a different r n e ~ i n g :
I've beenhearinggood things about you recently. =1 have been receiving information.
I'm seeinglames tonight. = I have arranged to meet him.
see I hear + infmitive or gerund
1 I heard the girl playa piece by Chopin.
I saw the man hit his dog.
2 I heard the girl playing a piece by Chopin.
I saw the man hitting his dog.
• We often use see I hear +an object +verb in the infinitive or gerund. The meaning
is slightly different:
1 see I hear + object+.;verbin infinitivei=you saw or heard the whole action.
2 see I hear +object+verbingerund=yousaw} heard an actioninprogress or a repeatedactibn.
• The same distinction also applies to verbs after watch. and notice.
look, feel, smell, sound, taste +adjective / noun
1 You look tired. That smells delicious. This music sounds awful.
These shoes feel uncomfortable. The soup tastes a bit salty.
2 You look like your mother. It sounds like thunder. This tastes like tea, not coffee.
3 She looked as if I as though she had been crying.
It sounds as if I as though someone is trying to open the door.
4 This smells I tastes of garlic. This smells I tastes like garlic.
When wetalkabout the i
ll1
pression something or SOmeone gives us through the senses,
we use look,feel, smell,sound,andtaste.
• After these verbs we can use
1 an adjective.
2 like + a noun.
3. as ifl as though + a clause.
4 Compare smell I taste ofand smell I taste like.
It tastes / smells ofgarlic (= it has the. taste I smell of garlic).
It tastes I smells lUre garlic ( =it has a similar taste I smell. to garlic, but it probably isn't garlic).
seem
1 You seem worried. Is something wrong?
2 You seem to be a bit down today. Are you OK?
The waiter seems to have made a mistake with the bill.
3 It seemed like a good idea at the time, but in fact it wasn't.
It seems as if I as though every time I clean the car it rains.
• We use seem whe
ll
s0ll1ething I somebody gives us an impression of being or doing
something through a combination of the senses and what we know, but not purely
through one sense, e.g. the visual sense.. Compare seem and look:
You look worried. ~ I getthis impression from yourface.
You seem worried. = I get this impression from the wayybu are behaving in general,
e.g. voice, actions, etc.
• After seemwe can use
1 an adjective.
2 an. infinitive (sirnl'le orperfector continuous).
3 like+nouIlor asiflasthough +a verb phrase.
• seem is not used in the continuous form.
GI!mIMultiROM www.oup.comjelt/englishfilejadvanced
a Right (.f) or wrong (X)? Correct the
mistakes in the highlighted phrases.
I'm smelling something funny in here. What
on earth is it? X I can smell somethingfunny.
Kerry says she hasn't been feeling very well
recently - do you know what's the matter
with her?
2 We could hardly sleep at all, as we could
hear the wind howling in the trees all night.
3 I was very near where it happened.
I actually heard the bomb exploding.
4 Do you know what this piece is? It sounds
of Beethoven's 7th, but I'm not quite sure.
S I think we should send the wine back. It
tastes like vinegar.
6 They said this bag was leather, but it's
feeling more like plastic.
7 You and Raquel seemed to be getting on very
well last night. What did you think of her?
b Circle the right form. Tick if both are
possible.
The shop assistant looks ICfeems) to have
forgotten about us.
He looked I seemed very angry about
something.
2 It looks / seems as if children today are only
interested in playing with gadgets.
3 It doesn't look / seem possible that ten years
have past since we last met.
4 Jane is looking / is seeming very tired, don't
you think?
S You look / seem much more like your father
than your mother.
c Complete the sentences with one word.
The clouds are very low. It looks as if it's
going to snow.
This tastes a bit a soup my
mother used to make. What's in it?
2 I haven't met the boss yet. I've only spoken
to him on the phone. He quite
nice, though.
3 She must have gone out because I heard the
front door about five minutes ago.
4 The engine sounds as there's
something wrong with it. I think we should
stop at the next petrol station.
S My mother's favourite perfume is one that
smells roses. Apparently it's
made from thousands of petals.
6 We stopped for a moment and watched the
men on the edge of the pier, but
as they didn't seem to be catching anything,
we walked on.
7 Could you possibly speak up a bit? I
____hear you very well.
l1li

5C"'. gerunds and infinitives
MultiROM WWW.oup.comjeIVenglishfilejadvanced
you think?
7 We're not planning to redecorate the kitchen until
we've finished the rest of the house.
PLAN
Our until
we've finished the rest of the house.
I was really stupid (follow) my mother's
advice. She was totally wrong.
2 I'd love (be) there when you told him you
were leaving.
3 If I had a serious illness, I would prefer _
(tell) the truth.
4 It's no use (run). The train will have left by now.
5 Mark seems (work) too hard at the
moment. He looks very tired.
6 By the time I'm 55, I expect (save) enough
to be able to just work part-time.
7 The man denied (commit) the crime.
S There will be plenty of time to have something
____(eat) at the airport.
9 It's no good (phone) him because he didn't
take his mobile with him.
10 Who was the second man (walk) on the moon?
11 There wasn't enough room for us (sit down).
___ more
children?
4 It's amazing what she's managed to achieve considering
she didn't finish school.
WITHOUT
It's amazing what she's managed to achieve
b Rewrite the sentences with the bold word.
Don't get angry. That won't help.
POINT
Theres no point getting angry.
We haven't got many eggs so we can't make an omelette.
ENOUGH
We
an omelette.
2 I hate it when people wake me up from a siesta.
WOKEN
I from
a siesta.
3 Are you sorry you didn't have more children?
REGRET
5 I really wish I'd been able to go to your birthday party.
LOVE
I to your
birthday party.
6 The children look as if they're having a good time, don't
you think?
SEEM
a Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form of the
gerund or infinitive.
I hate being told (tell) what to do. I prefer to take my
own decisions.
":,;, " >:,: .. ','
other uses of gerumls and infiJ)itives..,//. " .... . •..... ._
1 It's no use worrying. There's nothing you can do.
Is there any point (in) asking him? He never has anything useful to say.
It's no good talking to my dad because he doesn't listen to me.
2 We had an agreement to share the costs. Our plan is to leave on Saturday.
3 You can't visit the Louvre in a day - there's too much to see.
There wasn't enough snow for us to ski.
4 Is there anything to eat? There's nowhere to go at night.
5 I don't know where to go or what to do. I
6 He's the youngest player ever to play for England.
complex gerunds and infinitives
1 We use the gerund after certain expressions with it or there, e.g. Its no use.
Theres no point, Its not worth, etc:
We use the infinitive witll to: ,
2 after nouns formed from verbs which take the. infinitive, e.g. agree, plan,
hope, etc. , " , '
3 after expressipllS with q\laIi' 'ug1J.; tQo'n;!l,tth, it lot, plenty of, etc.
• When we wantto nifer to " 'flnitiyeyerb;we usefor +
person or object pronoUn ,e. Tl:lls can be used before'..
any infinitive squcture,' e.g. " ,.', i', '
Its very difficult for me t9 decide. " , "",!'" , ' • ,";. i, /'
4 after something, anywhere, etc. .' .. '" , •.,
5 after question wor<;ls (except why)., ,', ..' i'
6 after Nst, secgnd,last, e.g. wllO",
to walk on the moon? ' "
1 She loves being told how pretty she is.
I'm tired of being lied to. I want the truth.
It's very difficult to get promoted in this company.
My car needs to be serviced.
2 He thanked them for having helped him.
Having studied one language before makes it easier to learn another.
How wonderful to have finished all our exams!
By the time I'm 30, I hope to have started a family.
3 I would like to have seen your face when they told you you'd won
the competition!
We would rather have stayed in a more central hotel, but they were
all full.
4 I'd like to be lying on the beach right now.
She seems to be coughing a lot - do you think she's OK?
1 We use a'passive gerund (being done) or a passive infinitive (to be done)
to describe actions which are dorie to the subject.' , .
2 We use a perfect gerunli (havingdone) ora perfect inPnitive (to have done)
if we want to emphasize that an actionis completed or in the past.
• Often there is no between usirig it simple gerund OF
infinitive and a pe.rfect e.g. .,.
He denied stealing I having ",one,y. "';" '...,.. ' '" i " , ;
It was ourfault. We were silly not tp, lock I not to h.ave lecked the ,car.
3 We use the perfect infinitive after1o?0uld like, would would hate.,
would prefer, and would rather to talk about an earlier action.
Compare: , ...."
I would like to see the Eiffe! Tower. =when I go to Paris .in the future.
1would like to have seen the Eiffel Tower. =1was in Paris, but I didiit see it.
4 We use a continuous infinitive (to be + verb + -ing) to say tha,t an
action I event is in progress around the time we talking about.
-
________________at the meeting.
agreement.
5 James will be at the meeting so I'll see him there.
SEEING
________________a new
you get me a sandwich?
4 The ministers are about to sign a new agreement.
POINT
________________. Could you
ring me back later?
2 Our head of department is going to be promoted in the
next few months.
DUE
few months.
3 Are you going to the canteen at lunchtime? If so, could you
get me a sandwich?
WILL
c Rewrite 'the sentences with the bold word.
I'm meeting Myriarn tonight.
GOING
I'm going to meet Myriam tonight.
Were going to go out in a minute. Could you ring me back later?
ABOUT
a Circle 'the right form. Tick ifbo'th are possible.
I see /(l'm seeini)some friends after class tonight.
1 The train is going to leave soon / is about to leave.
2 Don't call me between 5.00 and 6.00 as I'll be having / I'll
have a massage.
3 A What are you going to do this evening?
B I'm not sure. I'm probably going to watch / watching
the match.
4 When are you going to pay me / paying me back the money
I lent you?
5 My dad is retiring / will be retiring at the end of this year.
6 My flight is due to arrive / arrives at 6.00.
7 You'll easily recognize me. I'll be wearing / I wear a white suit.
8 The King is to open / is going to open the new gallery on
Saturday.
9 I'll be seeing / I'm going to see John at work tomorrow.
I can give him your message then.
b Look at the sentences you have ticked. Is 'there any
difference in meaning or register between the two forms?
to' 4!;1rl'flffidfil'f"

, ealsdtlSe
iieinjive'

•. We sometimesuseitto;eipphaslZethat we; are talm;g
sorn:etliing that will happen anYway than sOmething we
." have arranged. Compare:; . . i";. • ' , :.. ".' ".' .,' ..". .
ii, I'm seeing Sarah tomorrow. (= I h '. r ariged In: .. . :
". :' ; rlZ be seeing Sarah at the party to=It will happen ariywa , .
>. •.....•. but t afdn't arrarigek) . i ..... 'i • ,. .
. " '. ". It is ofteD:. used make nquiries about arrangements,
e.g. Will you bemeeti e a(rEort? .' .
.. '. 5' We can alsousetlie t simple to talk about future events
:which are part of a timetable or a regular schedule;'. . .... .. "{{"
" x /' t, ':: -t':'; '.:, "" :,:",:' :\i'"" ::;.',: ;:,,:: ',,'-, -f:</<":1\:>-:,:'. ::\">':':: >; )/} :',:,:'\:: <r
i
: ,<t::,;:- 'It, ". :OJ
I' .•·.·.. r _o_th_e_r_w_a....:y:-s'--. .. _
i. 1 My sister is due to arrive at 7.30. Can you meet her at the station?
··.i· •... , 2 My sister is about to have a baby, so I need to keep my mobile
switched on.
It is believed that the chancellor is on 'the point of resigning.
3 It has been announced that the Prime Minister is to visit
Malaysia next month.
1 I'm seeing Sarah tomorrow. We're having lunch together.
2 I'm going to have my hair cut tomorrow.
She's going to get the last train home.
3 I'm meeting Cathy this evening. I'm going to tell her that it's all over.
4 I'll be going to the supermarket later - do you want anything?
Will we be having dinner at the usual time? I'm going to see
a film and it starts at 8.00.
5 The train leaves in five minutes. Our classes start next Tuesday.
. ....• r.The pl'eseAtcontimiotis'is comm6:l1 way td bilk about ..
:. .·.arrangements, Le. fIXed plans for the future, when the time and
. '. place have been deCided.
2 be going to is 'the. most c
/ :', intentions,andto'im l'
" In most.case.s 0
'. butt ;is;
ellipsis: leaving out subjects and auxiliaries
He got up and (he) had a shower.
She came to the meeting but (she) didn't say anything.
We should phone him or (we should) send him an email.
We usually have dinner at 10.00, and then (we) watch TV.
2 They locked the door and windows before they left.
We'll have a look at the photos after we finish dinner.
He's stressed because he has too much work.
She was horrified when she saw the mess he had left.
1 met Sam while I was working in Italy.
1 After and, but, and or we often leave out a repeated subject or a repeated
subject and auxiliary verb, especially when the clauses are short.
• After then we can also leave out a repeated subject pronoun.
2 You cannot leave out the subject pronoun after before, after, because,
when, and while.
ellipsis: leaving out verb phrases or
Laura has never been to the States, but her sister has.
Gary thinks he's right, but he isn't.
I didn't like the film, but Mike did.
They said I would love the film, but I don't think I would.
2 I thought I would be able to come tonight, but in fact I can't.
I know you've never learned to drive, but I really think you should have.
A You must see his latest film!
B I already have.
3 I haven't been to Egypt, but I'd love to.
The students cheated in the exam, even though I told them not to.
We often leave out a repeated verb phrase or adjective, and just repeat the
auxiliary or modal verb, or the verb be, e.g. Laura has never been to the
States but her sister has beel! the! e; Gary thinks hes right, but he isn't right.
• If the verb we don't want to repeat is the present or past simple, we
substitute the verb with do / does / did.
2 We can use a different auxiliary or modal verb from that used in the
first part of the sentence.
3 We can also leave out a repeated verb phrase after the infinitive with to.
This is called a reduced infinitive, e.g. I haven't been to Egypt, but I'd
love to (go).
substitution: so and not
1 I'll have finished the work by Friday, or at least I hope so.
A Will you be working on Saturday?
B I suppose so, unless we get everything done tomorrow.
Mark loves animals, and his sister even more so.
2 A Do you think it'll rain tonight?
B I hope not.
A She's not very likely to pass, is she?
B No, I'm afraid not.
The children may be back, but I don't think so.
I know she liked the present, even though she didn't say so.
We often use so insteadofrep.eating awhole[±]dauseafter yerbs
of thinking (assume, believe,. expect,guess,hope,dmagine, presume,
suppose, also after be afraid, appear/seem and say.
2 With negative clauses we use [±] verb +not (e.g. I hope not) with be afraid,
assume, guess, hope, presume, andsuspect.
• We normally use EJ verb +so (e.g. I don't thin.kso) with believe, expect,
imagine, and think.
a Cross out the words / phrases which could be left out.
They look happy, but they aren't really happy.
Everyone else loved the hotel we stayed in, but I didn't
like it.
2 Nobody expects us to win, but you never know, we
might win.
3 I didn't take the job in the end, but now I think that
I should have taken it.
4 I got into the car and I turned the radio on.
5 A Would you like to come for dinner tomorrow night?
B I'd love to come to dinner, but I'm afraid I can't come.
6 We don't go to the theatre very often now but we used
to go before we had children.
7 I won't be able to go to the exhibition, but my wife will
be able to go.
8 We met in 2009 and then we got married in 2010.
b Complete the sentences with a modal or an auxiliary
verb in the right form.
I'd like to help you this week, but I can't.
1 I'm not vegetarian, but my wife _
2 I would love to fly a plane, but I know that I never
3 Nobody believes me when I say that I'm going to resign,
but 1 _
4 We thought that Karen would get the job, but she
5 In the end they didn't come, even though they had
promised that they _
6 If you haven't seen the film yet, you _
It's absolutely fantastic!
7 If I could help you, I would, but I'm afraid I _
8 I don't speak French, but my friend .
c Write the responses using the right form of the verb in
brackets and a reduced infinitive or adding so or not.
A Would you like to come round for dinner tomorrow?
B Ia love to. (love)
A The weather forecast said it would snow at the weekend.
B I . I was planning to do some gardening.
(hope)
2 A Do you smoke?
B I , but I gave up last month. (use)
3 A If you think she's coming down with flu, you
shouldn't send her to school tomorrow.
B I . She might infect the other children.
(suppose)
4 A Have you spoken to Martin yet?
B No, but I after the meeting. (try)
5 A Do you think we should leave early to miss the traffic?
B I , though I'm really enjoying myself. (guess)
6 A Why are you going to do a parachute jump?
B I don't know. I . (always I want)
'C!!mI!mI MultiROM WWW.QUp.comjeIVenglishfilejadvanced
emphasis (2): cleft sentences GRAMMAR BANK
2 beginning with What happens is... / What happened was...
3 beginning with The person who... , The place where... ,
The first / last time. .. , The reason why... , etc.
You do a test and then you What happens is (that) you do a
have an interview. test and then you have an interview.
We left our passports at What happened was (that) we left
home. our passports at home.
When we want to focus attention on or emphasize one part of a
sentence, we can do this by adding certain words or phrases to the
beginning of the sentence. This is sometimes called a 'cleft sentence:
More emphatic sentence
____________he cheated on her.
2 We stopped in an absolutely beautiful place for lunch.
PLACE
____________was absolutely beautiful.
3 We got stuck in an enormous traffic jam.
HAPPENED
a Complete the sentences with one word.
The last time I saw my brother was at his 40th birthday party.
1 was my father who told me not to marry him.
2 I hate about Sundays is knowing you have to
work the next day.
3 The why I want you to come early is so that we
can have some time on our own before the others arrive.
4 After you've sent in your CV, what next is that
you get called for an interview.
S It's not my fault you can't find them! I did was
tidy up your desk a bit.
6 The where we're going to have lunch is a sort of
artist's cafe near the theatre.
7 happened was that I lost the piece of paper with
my flight details on it.
S It was who told Angela about the party.
I'm terribly sorry. I didn't know you hadn't invited her.
b Rewrite the sentences with the bold word.
I only need a small piece of paper.
ALL
All I need is a small piece of paper.
She left her husband because he cheated on her.
REASON
The person (who / that) I spoke to
was the manager.
The place where we stayed was
a five-star hotel.
The last time I saw him was
on Saturday.
The reason (why / that) I bought it
was that / because it was cheap.
What I need is a coffee.
What I don't like here is the weather.
All I want is to travel.
All I did was touch it.
I last saw him on Saturday.
I spoke to the manager.
We stayed in a five-star hotel.
I bought it because it
was cheap.
I need a coffee.
I don't like the weather here.
I just want to travel.
I only touched it!
1 beginning with What or All
~ we got stuck in an
4 beginning with It
A boy in my class won
the prize.
We had the meeting last
Friday.
They charged us extra for
the wine.
It was a boy in my class who
won the prize.
It was last Friday when we had
the meeting.
It was the wine (that) they charged
us extra for.
enormous traffic jam.
4 They didn't apologize for arriving late, which really annoyed me.
WHAT
____________they didn't apologize for
arriving late.
S A girl from my town won the silver medal.
IT
_____________won the silver medal.
We.can make some kinds of sentences more emphatic by
beginning with What (= the thing) or All (= the only thing)
+ clause + be, and then the part ofthe sentence wewant to
emphasize.
2 To emphasize an eyent. or sequence of events, we can begin with
What happens is (that) ...What happenedwas (that)...
3 We can also make part of a sentence more emphatic by beginning
with an expression like The person who , The place where... , The
first / last time that... , The reason why , etc. + clause + be, with
the emphasized part of the sentence at the end.
4 We can also use It is / was+the emphasized part of the sentence
+ a relative clause.
A If the emphasized part· is a pronoun, .we normally use the
object pronounafterItis / was, e.g. It was me who paid the bill.
NOT It was J who paid the bill.
6 I only said that I didn't like her dress.
ALL
____________that I didn't like her dress.
7 I like my Aunt Emily best of all my relatives.
PERSON
____________is my Aunt Emily.
S You pick up your tickets at the box office.
HAPPENS
____________you pick up your tickets
at the box office.
9 Right now you need to sit down and put your feet up.
WHAT
____________to sit down and put
your feet up.
10 I first met Serena at a conference in Berlin.
TIME
____________at a conference in Berlin.
emmmIMultiROMwww.oup.com!elt/englishfile/advanced
"
7A nouns: compound and possessive forms
garage
woman
manager
MultiROM VVWW.oup.comjelt/englishfilejadvanced
bedroom bowls door film list
opener proposal view wedding
Alice and James bottle cats children
government marketing sea wine
I always leave the light on in the children's bedroom
- my youngest child is a bit scared of the dark.
I can't find the . It's usually in this drawer,
but it's not there now.
2 It's next week and I don't have anything to
wear yet.
3 We'd like to order something to drink. Could we see the
____________"please?
4 My husband refused to go and see Bridget Jones' Diary
with me. He said it was a .
5 Can I introduce you to Jenny White, our ___
She's been with our company for six years.
6 Don't forget to lock the when you go out.
7 We would like a room with a , if that's
possible.
S The to freeze MPs' salaries has been met
with criticism by the opposition.
9 Make sure you fill the with water every day.
b What difference, if any, is there between the two phrases
in the sentence(s) you have ticked?
c Combine a word from each list to make compound
or possessive nouns to fill the gaps, adding's or '
where necessary.
a Circle the right phrase. Tick if both are possible.
Shall I make (fhicken souj5)/ soup of chicken for
dinner tonight?
I enjoy spending time with my friend's children /
my friends' children.
2 Didn't I meet you at Jenny's / at Jenny's house one night?
3 The hero dies at the end of the film / the film's end.
4 She's the wife of my friend who lives in Australia /
my friend who lives in Australia's wife.
5 I want to introduce you to Jake. He's a colleague of my
sister's / a my sister's colleague.
6 When you go to the supermarket, can you buy me
a milk bottle / a bottle of milk?
7 The photo of the house / house's photo made me want
to buy it.
S I'm looking for a stories book / story book that would
be right for an eight-year-old.
9 We bought a beautiful table ofglass / glass table for the
living room.
10 The Tower of London is London's most popular tourist
attraction / the most popular tourist attraction in
London.
11 There's a wine glass / a glass of wine on the table.
Did you leave it there?
.'
apostrophe s
Can you remember the name of the film?
My brother lives at the end of the road.
The problems of old age are many and varied.
2 Helen is the sister of my cousin in Rome I told you about.
3 Jim is a friend of my brother's.
We normally use an a/phrase, not· 's, Withthings or abstract nouns,:;
especially when <;>J1e thing is part piano r,.;., ,}.;." .';'.
2 We use oftoexprl;ss possession with aphr:i »»".,;;;
.' e.g. :NOT.. ..' ,
3 Withfriend, we narneCpC)UI1l.+'s.
compound nouns
1 I borrowed my father's car. I trod on the eat's tail.
The company's head office is in New York.
The government's decision to raise taxes has not been well received.
Zalacain is one of Madrid's most famous restaurants.
2 It's Chris's book.
It's my friends' wedding.
That's the children's room.
The blonde girl is Alex and Maria's daughter.
3 We had dinner at Tom's last night. My mother is at the hairdresser's.
I need the tin opener. Do you know where it is?
I bought a huge flower pot in a garden centre near my house.
My brother is a company director and my sister is a history teacher.
I opened the car door, got in, and put on my seat belt.
2 There was a wine bottle on the table and two empty wine glasses.
Possessive nouns express the idea of 'having' (in a,very'general sense} "
:W-hich exists' between two Houns. ,<:'/ .. , .....•'. '.....; ......•. ' . . '.
.. 1 Wenormally use a possessive;(+ s) when somelli:ingbelongs to a
, particular person .or thirlg,e.g. a petson;ananirnal; an ization,
group ofpeople, ora lace.. " ., .'
With places we"cart;"
restailriUitsifiMadTi . '. . .
If a name (or singula '. finis hris's
book6r putan at , . '. hiis' book:'" . . .'
With plural nouns we put'the'apostrophe aftedhes, e:g. friends'.
With irregular pluralswhich don't eJ;ld ins (people, children, men, etc.)
weadds. . .. , , .
• If there are two people, we put the .'s on the second name.
3 When's refers to 'the house of' or shop oC we often omit the
word house or shop.
using of (instead of apostrophe '5) :. .
3 It was such dirty water that we couldn't drink it.
SO
the car with him.
conversation.
of their seats.
____________that the crowd were on the edge
____________that no one ever wants to go in
____________that we couldn't have a proper
____________that I don't have time to do exercise.
7 He does a lot of water sports, for example sailing and windsurfing.
SUCH
He does a lot of water sports, _
8 He's such a dangerous driver that no one ever wants to go in the car
with him.
SO
____________1 really enjoy going to work.
S It was such a gripping match that the crowd were on the edge oftheir seats.
SO
____________that we couldn't drink it.
4 My colleagues are fantastic, so I really enjoy going to work.
SUCH
____________that we couldn't play tennis.
2 I have so many things to do that I don't have time to do exercise.
SUCH
6 There was such a lot of noise that we couldn't have a proper conversation.
MUCH
b Rewrite the sentences using the bold word.
There was a lot traffic and we were late for training.
SO
There was so much traffic that we were late for training.
It was so windy that we couldn't play tennis.
SUCH
a Complete the sentences with so, so much / many, or such (a / an).
Nico is such an inspiring personal trainer that there is a waiting list
to be with him.
She eats healthily and does exercise that she
never puts on any weight.
2 The stadium is near our house you can hear the roar
of the crowd.
3 We made mistakes in the second half that we didn't
deserve to win.
4 They're both fantastic players that the final should be
a classic.
S There was snow on the pitch that the match was postponed.
6 It was shock to find out that I wasn't in the team for the
next match!
7 I'm exhausted! I don't thirik I can do any more press-ups today.
8 Squash is intensive sport that people don't usually play
for more than half an hour.
9 There are sports channels on TV now that you could be
watching sport 24 hours a day if you wanted to.
I
I
I
A We can useso + adje¢tiv verb at the beginning of a
clause fOJ;emphasis: '" we'd(lthis the subject and
verb are iriverted. ' ,." . .
So successful thefirst night that peopleflocked to see
the play.' , "., ,
This is much more formal.than saying The first night
was s6 that:.; .' , ",. .
1 It was so cold (that) we decided not to play tennis.
Agatha plays so well now (that) it's very difficult to beat her.
2 There was so much noise (that) the players couldn't
concentrate.
There were so many people outside the stadium
(that) we couldn't find each other.
I had such a lot of work / such a lot of things to do
(that) I had to stay at the office late.
3 It was such an exciting match (that) I didn't want it to end. I.'
It was such awful weather (that) the match had to be
cancelled.
They were both such great players (that) everyone
wanted to see the final.
4 It was such a lovely day!
She's so mean!
They're such nice people!
We often Use so.and suc;h followed.by a that clause to
about a consequence or an effeCt. We;often omit that in
•...., ," ,." '" '" " " ' . ' , '
1 We use so before an adjective or
2 We use so rriuchWith uncountable ?ouns and so many with
plural nouns. .
• can also use sUc;h lot ofso much / many.
3 We use sUc;h a/ an + adjective + countable noun,
and such + adjective + an unqluntabJeot plural noun.
4 We, often use"so+ adjeCtive art'(tsdch).f noun or noun
phrase ,
comparison
modifiers with as... as...
My sister's almost as tall as me / almost as tall as 1am.
She's just as bossy now as when she was a child.
Their house is nearly as big as yours.
His latest film isn't half as good as his previous one.
Our new flat is twice as big as our old one.
The holiday cost three times as much as I'd expected.
We often use the modifiers almost, just, and nearly, and half, twice, three times, etc. with as... as...
• You can use so instead of the first as in negative sentences, e.g. She's not nearly so
difficult as people say.
• After as... as we can either use a subject pronoun + auxiliary verb, or an object
pronoun, e.g. She drives as fast as I do OR She drives as fast as me.
A Twice can only be used before as... as NOT OUI nerpftat is twice biggel than ow
oM-01te-:
However three times, four times, etc. can be used with as... as or with a comparative
adjective or adverb, e.g. The holiday cost three times more than ICl expected.
modifiers with comparative adjectives or adverbs
The French wine is far more expensive than the South African one.
The play was much better than I'd expected.
He's driving a lot more carefully since he got points on his licence.
2 She earns much more money than I do.
Women today have many more opportunities than they used to.
3 She's a little better than she was yesterday.
The later train is slightly cheaper than the earlier one.
Could you two talk a bit more quietly, please? I'm trying to concentrate.
4 A Would you like some more coffee? B Just a little more, please.
We've only got a few more minutes before the show starts.
S The taxi driver drove faster and faster.
It's getting more and more difficult to make ends meet nowadays.
1 We usefar, much, or a lot (informal) + comparative adjective or adverb for a big difference.
2 When we use more + noun for big differences we use much / far / a lot more + an
uncountable noun and many / far / a lot more + a plural countable noun.
3 We use slightly, a little, or a bit (informal) +comparative adjective or adverb for a small difference.
4 When we use more + noun for 'small differences, we use a little / slightly / a bit more
+ an uncountable noun and afew / slightly / a bit more + a plural countable noun.
S We sometimes repeat a comparative adjective or adverb for emphasis. When the
comparative is formed with more, the adjective / adverb is only used after the
second more (NOT Its getting 11101 e difficult and 11101 e diffiettlt).
modifiers with superlatives
It was by far the nicest of all the hotels we stayed at.
She's much the prettiest of the three children.
That was easily the best fish I've had for ages.
I'm nearly the oldest in my class.
• We often use by far / much / easily, and nearly / almost to modify superlative adjectives
or adverbs.
the... the... + comparatives
The more dangerous a sport (is), the more exciting it is to watch.
The bigger the car (is), the more expensive it is to run.
The faster 1speak in English, the more mistakes I make.
A When do you want me to do it? B The sooner the better.
a Add one word to make the sentence correct.
My new broadband server is twice as fast
the old one.
You're terrible - the ruder the joke, more
you laugh!
2 That was far the best meal I have ever
had in any restaurant.
3 He's just good a player as he used to be.
4 The book you lent me is lot funnier than
I expected it to be.
S This morning I was almost late for work
as I was yesterday.
6 Generally speaking, the earlier you book
the flight, the cheaper is.
7 Fortunately, our new boss is far laid-back
about punctuality than our previous one.
8 Your slice is bit bigger than mine - I
don't think that's fair!
9 He's easily most intelligent in the class, in
fact maybe he should move into a more
advanced group.
b Circle the right word or phrase. Tick if
both are possible.
That hotel is much more expensive / far
more expensive than ours. .I
There are twice as many cars on the road
than / as there used to be.
2 I think our kitchen is slightly bigger / a bit
bigger than yours.
3 I think her new film was by far / by much
her best one.
4 A When do you need it by?
B The sooner better / The sooner the
better.
S Their flat cost twice as much as / twice
more than ours.
6 The harder I try the worse I do it / I do it
worse.
7 It's getting easier and easier / every time
easier to do all your shopping online.
8 We need afew more / a little more days
to think about what we're going to go.
9 There were many more / much more
people at the concert than we had
expected.
1m
We can use comparatives with the... the to say that things change or vary together.
• When the verb in the first part is be, it can be left out, e.g. The more dangerous a sport (is),
the more some people seem to be attracted to it.
• We often use more + noun in this structure, e.g. The more coffee you drink, the less well you sleep.
• When the second comparative is better, a reduced structure can be used, e.g. the bigger
the better, etc. and also in set phrases like the more the merrier.
GrJ:I:I MultiROM WWW.QUp.comjeltjenglishfilejadvanced

hove
have
1 They have a large, rather dilapidated country house in Norfolk. 2 He doesn't have lunch at home. Are you having lunch? 3 They've been married for 15 years.

GRAMMAR BANK

How long has Anna been going out with James? 4 Do we really have to spend Christmas with your parents again? 5 We're going to have the kitchen repainted next week. I had my eyes tested when I got my new glasses. Use have as a main verb for possession. Have with this meaning is, a stative (non~action) verb and is not used in continuous tenses. Use auxiliaries do I did to make questions and negatives. 2 Use have + object asa main verb for actions, e.g. have a bath, a drink, a chat, etc. Have with this meaning is a dynamic (action) verb and can be used in-continuous tenses. 3 Use. have as the auxiliary verb to form the present perfect simple and continuous. Make questions by inverting have and the subject, and negatives with haven't I hasn't. o We also use have for other perfect forms, e.g. the future perfect, the perfect infinitive, etc. 4 Use have to to express obligation, especially obligation imposed by others. and rules and regulations. Have to is a main verb. 5 Use have + object + past participle to say that you ask or pay another person to do something for you. o Havehere is a main,verb, not an auxiliary verb, e.g. Where do you

a Right (.I) or wrong (X)? Correct the mistakes in the highlighted phrases. A You look exhausted. B Yes, I've been having meetings all day with the marketing people. .I 1 Are you going to have your nails done when you go to the hairdresser's? 2 A Why don't you want to come? B I haven't got any money. 3 Has your husband to work tomorrow or is he taking the day off too? 4 The staff don't have to dress formally in this company - they can wear what they like. 5 How long have you been having your flat in London? 6 What time are we having dinner tonight? 7 My parents had got many problems with my sister when she was a teenager. 8 I don't have a holiday for 18 months. I really need a break. 9 Have we got to do this exercise now, or can we do it later for homework?

b Rewrite the sentences using a form of have or have got.
I started working for Microsoft in 2001 and I still work there.

have your hair cut? have got
1 How many children have you got? I've got three, two boys and

I've been workingfor Microsoft since 2001.
She's an only child. She
2 We used to pay someone to take a family photograph

_

a girl. 2 I've got to go now - I'm meeting my girlfriend for lunch.

1 You Can also use have got for possession. The meaning is exactly the same as have. o Have here is an auxiliary verb so make questions by inverting have and the subject and ne~atives with haven't I hasn't. Have got has a present meaning. We use had for the past, NOT hr:td-gtn. o Have got is very common in informal ,spoken and written'English. 2 Use have got to to express obligation, especially in informal spoken and written English. o Have got to is normally used for a specific obligation rather than a general or repeated obligation. Compare: I've got to make a quick phone call (specific). and I have to'wear a suit to work (general). See SA permission, obligation, and necessity on page 148 for more information on have to and have got to.

evewyear. We used
3 Wearing a hard hat is obligatory for all visitors to

_

this site. All
4 He last saw his father in 2009.

~

He
5 He lacks the right qualifications for this job.

_ _ _

He
6 It's not necessary for us to do it now. We can do It later.

We
7 The sea water was amazingly clear and warm -

we swam every morning. The sea water was amazingly clear and warm we 8 When did you start to get on badly? How long

_

badly?

9 I need someone to fix the central heating. I think the thermostat is broken. I need I think the thermostat is broken.

~

'~MultiROM' '~.Oup.comfelt/englishfilefadvan~ed

-

oup.tlself. Le. 2 Can you put my case on the rack above yourself / you? 3 Marga and her sister look incredibly like each other / one another.g. They should make it compulsory for people to learn two foreign languages at school. She finds it very hard to control . must be at 4 least 35 degrees. Theralways say. 5 We often use they. One / You can often tell where people are from by the way they dress. He's very egocentric. 5 We use each other or one another for reciprocal actions. (they = the government). 2 We also use reflexive pronouns after Il10st prepositions when the complement is the same as the subject. should address people by their title and surname.comjeltjenglishfilejadvanced . not g. on your own. In most circumstances )!Q11. temperature. should be j. _ _~ should go to registration immediately. concentrate NOT lelttxyo/. They should make it compulsory. 's illegal to text from your Nowadays mobile while you're driving.g. 5 My ex-husband and I don't talk to each other any more. 1 We often use reflexive pronouns when the subject and objectofa verb are the same person. 3 We can also be used to make a general statement which includes the reader / listener. we use object pronouns.. Tick if you think both are possible.. We decorated the house ourselves (= we did it. There are three meetings this week.. 4 In informal English. My mother and sister don't understand one another at all. his or her. 3 I wouldn't stay in that hotel. 2 We also use it + be as a 'preparatory' subject before adjectives. She doesn't concentrate very well. shave. 3 There's a big crowd of people in the town centre There used to be a cinema in that street. (they = people in general). It was great to hear from you is more natural than To hear from you was great. 4 There is a total lack of communication. not professional decorators). Are they twins? 4 Anna is very unselfish . They bought each other some new shoes (= A bought some for B and Bbought some for A). There's no way I'm going to do it for you. 2 I managed to complete the crossword! I was really pleased with myself. NOT It used to be a cillema ill that stl eel. e. 3 We use there + be + noun to say if people and things are present or exist (or not). it and there 1 It's five miles to London. etc. There was a very interesting article about modern lifestyle in The Times yesterday. them. 3 How many miles is to Manchester from here? 's scorching today. 1 We use it + be to talk about time. It's 10 o'clock 2 It was great to hear that you and Martina are getting married! It used to be difficult to buy fresh pasta in the UK. You cannot use It. One is more formal than you and is rarely used in. 2 Isabel is very quick-tempered. 5 If someone goes to live in a foreign country. 2 Look. relax. 3 We can also use reflexive pronouns to emphasize the subject.. or people in authority. not reflexive pronouns. 6 Are you going to have the flat repainted or will you do it ? 7 There are loads of bookshelves in the flat. 5 's no need to hurry. quite badly when they fell off their motorbike. They don't understand at all.g.feel..pronouns generic pronouns 1 You can learn a language faster if you go to live in a country where it is spoken. 4 They always say that it's never too late to learn a new language. and theirtorefer to one person who may be male or female. 2 We can also use One + 3rd person singular of the verb to mean people in general. 2 One should never criticize without being sure of the facts. Could the person who left their bag in the library please come and see me? 1 We often use you to mean people in general. e. we also often use they tot~lk about other people in general. 's not worth buying the paper today. 5 Either Suzie or Mark has left her / their bag behind. we must not confuse this with pronunciation. and distance. reflexive and reciprocal pronouns 1 You need to look after yourself with that cold. 6 When a person goes to live abroad. and B bought some for B). it may take them / him a while to pick up the language. 3 We decorated the house ourselves. say the rooms are tiny and the service is awful. instead or using he or she.. because there's only one in the back of the car. The train doesn't leave for ages. 3 When we talk about an accent.. Do it yourself! 4 I don't feel very comfortable going to the cinema by myself. 4 By + reflexive pronoun = alone. 's a spelling mistake in this word. which is great as can never have too many! c Complete the sentences with it or there. • Compare They bought themselves some new shoes (= A bought some for A. They hurt one another /Cthemselve§. they will have to get used to a different way of life. 5 Mila gets distracted too easily. a Circle the right pronoun. If anyone has not yet paid course fees. A After prepositions of place. have been a lot of accidents caused by this.. spoken English. She put the bag next to her on the seat NOT lIext to herself.she never puts her / herself first. We don't usually use reflexive pronouns with wash. b Complete the sentence with a pronoun where necessary. here. 7 They / One say that eating tomatoes can help protect the body against certain diseases. but now you can get it everywhere. 6 ___'s absolutely nothing interesting in it. e. CDmII:I MultiROM WWW. He always talks about himself. but there isn't one any more. A does the action to Band B does the action to A.

but they 17 ~ (refuse). past continuous. My sister and I used to walk to the harbour every morning and watch the fishermen cleaning their nets.. and 15 (see) on the desk a green pen in a kind of stand. I had been reading a very scary story about a wicked witch. but she would never read them from a book . and past perfect simple or continuous. he didn't use to look / he wouldn't look at all like my father.. I imagine. 3 My uncle lived / used to live on his own because his wife died / had died several years earlier. I 8 (try) to sleep but I couldn't. my friends were always teasing me because of my red hair. Use the past continuous to set the scene (We were sleeping in my parents' bedroom) and to describe actions in progress in the past (Someb~dy was standing at the end ofm)'. Corinne and 10sed to be)/ would be very close. 3 We canaIso use alwaY$·+ pastcontinuou.bed).. Tick if both are correct. o However. but recently we've grown apart. b Put the verbs in the right form. My earliest memory When I was about four or five. used to and would: describing repeated actions in the past Every summer my family rented an old house in the South of France. a Circle the right form. and that I should have a rest too. (tell) me that she 7 (go) my grandmother 6 to have a rest. Everything was very quiet so I was convinced that my grandmother 11 (sleep). would. who was Polish. past. I will never forget the awful feeling of shame that she 23 (catch) me doing something that she 24 (forbid) me to do. my aunt sat / was sitting with her back to me. At that moment 11 8 (hear) my grandmother's voice saying 'Christina? Where are you? What are you dOing?' To my horror I 19 (realize) that my grandmother 20 (get up) (come) towards the study. we don't use would with stative verbs. On the first day. Two out of bed and 21 seconds later she 22 (open) the door. as my grandmother 3 (cook) special meals for us and 4_ _~ (take) us for lovely walks in Regent's Park. so after a while I 9 (get) up and 1O_ _~ (decide) to explore the flat.. My father had gone away on business for a few days and my brother and I were sleeping in my parents' bedroom.s for things that happened repeatedly. I opened the door and went in. The room I most 12 (want) to explore was my grandfather's study. without my brothers and sisters. especially when they were irritating habits. after lunch. A When we describe past habits or repeated past actions we tend. 2 Our grandmother always used to have / would always have a little surprise waiting for us when we visited. When she turned round.. and was immediately drawn to his large old desk. S When I was small. and we children often 1 (spend) weekends at her flat. i. I 14_ _~ (climb) onto the chair. I woke up. o We can also use used to + infinitive to talk about situations or states which have changed. was living (live) in London. but the older he gets the more he looks like him. 6 Suddenly we heard a tremendous crash and we saw that a car crashed / had crashed into a tree and petrol poured / was pouring out of the car onto the road. with a bottle of ink. My grandfather 2 (die) a couple of years earlier. One occasion that I remember really well was when I 5 (invite) to stay with her on my own. Used to and would make it clear that you are talking about something that happened regularly and often convey a sense of nostalgia. In the middle of the night I woke up with a start and saw that a figure in a dark coat was standing at the end of my bed. 4 When my brother was a child.e.comjelt/englishfilejaclvanced . 11 6 (ask) my parents for a real pen for a long time. I screamed at the top of my voice. precisely because 11 3 (tell) not to go in there. I screamed). We loved going there.g. i. c:!!mIJmI. for stylistic reasons.e.the past: narrative tenses. i. things which happened before the main events (Myfather had gone away. Use the past Simple to talk about the l11ainactions in a story (We went to bed.she would always make them up herself. foreseeing the mess that I was almost bound to make with the ink. e. my grandmother.Oup. to use a mixture of used to. I was always getting / I always used to get into trouble at school and my parents used to punish / would punish me by not letting me play with my friends at the weekend. 1 We often use usedia + infmitiveas an alternative to the past simple to talk about things that wedidrepeatedly in the past. Use the past perfect and the past perfectcontinuous to talk about the earlier past. used to and would narrative tenses: describing specific incidents in the past This happened when I was about five years old. which . I picked up the pen and then tried to open the bottle of ink. the past simple. MultiROM WWIIIf.. I could see that her eyes were rather red and I was sure that she had been crying / had cried. so I suppose she was in need of company.e. using a narrative tense or would / used to. Before we went to bed that night. When I came into the room. I used to have much longer hair when I was younger. to talk about situations or states which have changed NOT J wottld 1za~e mttch lcmgel hail whell I Was yomlgel. 2 Every night before we went to bed my mother would tell us a story. 3 When I was a teenager. was quite nearby. 2 We also use would + infinitive as an alternative to used to to talk about things that we didrepeatedlyin the. or the past Simple (with adverbs offrequency). I had been reading a story). we use narrative tenses. o GRAMMAR BANK o o o When we describe specific incidents in the past.

We can use: 1 It + passive verb + that + clause. We often use seem and appear to give information without stating that we definitely know it is true. 3 There are thought to be over a thousand species in danger of extinction. 9 It is understood the minister will be resigning in the near future. 2 We can use according to to specify where information has come from. 7 _ _~ are thought to be several reasons why the species died out. Apparently. The prisoners may 3 We expect that the Prime Minister will make a statement this afternoon. but he is to be one of the wealthiest people in the country. It is said that eating garlic stops you catching colds. 5 _ _~ to some sources. might be planning to re-form and record a new album. Apparently.QUp. 3 There can also be used + passive verb. 8 The missing couple are believed _ _~ have had financial difficulties. and in this way distancing ourselves from the information. to introduce them. 1 We can use apparently (usually either at. The new head of department seems I appears to be quite friendly.. + to + infinitive.• • seem I appear distancing a Complete the sentences with one word to distance the speaker from the information. the latest research is seriously flawed. It seems I appears (that) there is a direct relation between your position in the family and your personality. There seems to be a mistake with the bill. We use it to attribute opinions to somebody else (NOT ACCOldillg to me. 4 He may not look it. suggest. 2 The company director is expected to resign in the next few days. 2 subject + passive verb + to + infinitive. The government 8 People have suggested that the painting is a fake.. Excuse me. expect. The missing couple are understood to have been living in Panama for the last five years. but that it may not be true. We can use It seems I appears + that + clause. ). 3 Dinosaurs may have died out due to extremely rapid climate change. Maurice and Yvette have separated. . according to. There _ ~ MultiROM WWW. think. It _ It is said that there are more than five million people living in poverty in this country. According _ 7 It appears that the government is intending to lower interest rates. It has been announced by a White House spokesman that the President has been taken to hospital. This is very common in informal conversation. • Verbs commonly usedin this pattern are believe. The passive with verbs of saying and reporting It is said that using a washing machine saves people on average 47 minutes a day. think. 6 Despite the fact that there will be an autopsy. or subject + seem I appear + infinitive. Sometimes there is more than one possibility. This is more formal than It seems I appears. the idea that we have to drink two litres of water a day is a myth. Have you heard anything? It that the less children sleep. may I might 1 Apparently. There are rumours that the band. the more likely they are to behave badly. who disbanded in the late 80s. say. ~ The Prime Minister is 4 The company has announced that the new drug will go on sale shortly. announce. say. 2 We use It would seem I appear + that + clause to distance us even further from the information. • Verbs commonly used in this pattern are: agree.. people who work night shifts die younger.the beginning or the end of a phrase) to mean that we have heard I read something. and understand.. Improvements in diet and lifestyle _ 6 The manual says you have to charge the phone for at least 12 hours. 3 Using may I might also suggests that something is a possibility. believe. is to use the passive form of verbs like say. and understand. his death _ _~ have been from natural causes. especially in formal written English. think. expect. It _ ~ 9 It seems that there are more cyclists around than there used to be. There are said to be more than five million people living in poverty in this country. 2 It would seem I appear (that) Mr Young had been using the company's assets to payoff his private debts. 2 According to new research. People say that eating garlic stops you catching colds.comjeIVenglishfilejadvanced . report. 3 Mark to have aged a lot over the last year. other distancing expressions: apparently. Lisa and Dani are going to get married. and to make it sound less sure. etc. hope. Another way of distancing ourselves from the facts. Compare: b Rewrite the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. 5 People believe that impovements in diet and lifestyle are responsible for the rise in life expectancy. report. but not necessarily true. It would _ _ 2 It is possible that the prisoners escaped to France. 2 It appear that someone has been stealing personal items from the changing rooms.

(my sister / babysit) 5 If you can't find your keys. I think I'm going to get a satnav. _ 10 How can I get you to change your mind? _ Get is one of the most common verbs in English andean be used in . He gets very confused at roundabouts. We need to get someone to fIx the central heating . (stop) 7 I went to the optician's yesterday to _ (eyes / test) 8 A What happened to your eye? B I by a mosquito last night. I got fined yesterday for breaking the speed limit.a passive structure. Could you get Jane to finish the report? I'm too busy to do it this afternoon. (bite) It's dark. You may need to change the form of the verbs in brackets. (my work permit / renew) 2 My husband has only been in the UK for two months and he just can't on the left.WIMIIl. 2 Do you know anywhere near here where I can get a newspaper? _ 3 Could you try to get your brother to come tonight too? 4 We had to get the roof repaired.we can get the bus. could you get me my jacket. we'll have to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. I seem to have got very forgetful recently. was My father is getting increasingly forgetful in his old age. If you're going to the post office. _ 5 I got an email out of the blue today from an old school friend. would you be able to pick me up at the station? _ 7 Do you think they'll get here in time for lunch? 8 If you're going upstairs. a Replace get with another verb so that the sentence means the same. I need to get my passport renewed .o:ianydifferent ways. He got three points on his licence. I'm used to the climate in England now. We'd better go home. _ 6 If I get the 7. b Complete the sentence with the right form of get and the word in brackets.it's not working properly. _ which is on my bed? 9 She's going to get caught if she's not careful. (used / drive) 3 Monica's fiance in a car crash. pay another person to do something for you. could you get me some stamps? When do you think we'll get to Paris? Let's not bother with a taxi . It's getting dark.30 train. They were looking for a stolen car.it runs out in a couple of months.·. 5 We can use get(+ past participle) instead of be to make. It's getting dark. Gml!DMultiROM·· . as it was damaged in the storm. He was lucky to survive. 1 Get + noun I pronoun can mean 'receive. I only just in time. Did you know Dan got sacked last week? My husband got caught driving at 150 km/h. 'bring: 'fetch: 'obtain: 'buy: or 'catch: and with to+ a place itmeans 'arrive at / in.oup. I always get lost (always / lose) when I'm driving. It was about to run out. This is more informal than using be. 2 Weuseget+a~jective or comparative adjective to mean 'become: Compare be + adjective and get + adjective. I'm getting used to the climate in England. (all the locks / change) 6 We by the police just before we crossed the bridge. 3 We can use geHobject + infinitive to mean 'make somebody do something' or 'persuade somebody to do sornething: 4 Ininformal spoken English we sometimes use get (+object + past participle) instead of have (+ object + past participle) to say that you ask or.2 3 4 5 I got an email from Marc today. See IBhave on page 137. The traffic gets worse in the city centre every day. I don't think my mother will ever get used to living on her own. I'm going to get my hair cut next week. (nearly / kill) 4 I can tomorrow night so we can go out.com!elt/englishfilejaclvanced .

It's quite likely that the boss will retire in a year or two. He's got a very tight schedule.15. He's stuck in a traffic jam. He'll probably be here around 8. 7 S A.. despite the disastrous sales figures.00.30. There's a light on in his office. 2 3 She's sure to know.you've only written 100 words. or it is likely / unlikely + that + clause. I think it's very likely that the meeting will be over by 6.g. She's worked really hard. and must have + past participle to say that we are almost sure something was true or happened in the past. Compare: . They go before a main verb and ~er ~ts:=~. That's where she said she was going. 2 We use ain't and can't / couldn't + perfect infinitive (NOT mttSt1it / must1l't hmte) to say that we are ~lmost sure that something isn't true in the present or didn't happen / wasn't true in the past. Do you think someone may / might / could have taken them? He may / might not have heard the message I left on his voicemail. We use be bound or be sure + infmitive to say that you think something is certain to be true or to happen. I'm sure I didn't leave my credit card in the restaurant. I'm not sure she'll ever get over the break-up.) 4 Use should + infinitive (or should have + participle) to describe a situation you expect to happen (or would expect to have happened in the past).he was standing right in front of you! 2 They can't be playing very well . 3 We use may / might / could and may / might / could + perfect infinitive to say that we think it's possible that something is true in the present or was true / happened in the past. He never gets home before 9. = deduction about a habitual action : = deduction about an action in progress at the moment of speaking adjectives and adverbs for speculation 1 He's bound / sure to be here in a minute. it should arrive on Friday.) He couldn't have done it.comjeIVenglishfilejadvanced . He's probably British. e. LIKELY According to press reports.they're losing 0-3. The doctors say that at his age he's unlikely to recover. 3 Definitely and probably are adverbs. 2 Likely / unlikely are also adjectives (not adverbs). but be likely to is more formal. use of the infinitive and the continuous infinitive after He must work really hard.00. He has no sense of direction. ~~:P:~d~~. He left an hour ago.m. The new coach will probably be appointed today. 4 5 6 Bound and sure are adjectives. Someone must move them. 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 h Rewrite the sentences using the bold word. 9 . I remember putting it in my wallet. She definitely won't pass the exam. A When's Jim arriving? B I'm not sure. BOUND Your sister . They're unlikely to lose three times running. Perhaps Luke has got lost. No one's answering the phone at the shop. It's just her style.~ MultiROM WWVIf. (= Maybe he didn't do it. but he won't likely be here before 7. You must have seen him . I posted the letter a week ago. It should have arrived by now. I don't think Marta has gone to bed yet. MUST He otherwise he wouldn't have married her. We can use subject + be likely / unlikely + infmitive. . A Do you know where Ann is? B She should be in the library. 2 I think she's likely to agree to our proposal . I'm sure he was in love with her otherwise he wouldn't have married her. She's an expert on the subject. A What's that noise in the garage? B I think it can be the neighbour's cat. He usually leaves work at 7.they've got an enormous house. I don't think we should use that photo of Tina in the brochure. MIGHT Luke might have got lost. The keys of the store cupboard have disappeared. 3 I haven't seen the sales manager today. a Right (. He has no sense of direction. You can't / couldn't have spent very long on this essay . The company director probably won't resign.00 p.speculation and deduction modal verbs: must / may / might / must / can't / should 1 Mel and Trudy must be very well off . He probably won't be here until about 8. SHOULD They now. we also use must + infinitive to say that we are almost sure something is true about the present. Julian is bound be late . despite the disastrous sales figures. CAN'T I . I remember putting it in my wallet.(if there is one) in [±] sentences and before the auxiliary verb in • With be they go after the verb in [±] sentences and before it in EJ sentences. X isn't likely to be here My glasses aren't in their usual place. (= It is impossible that he did it. He must still be working. it's soon. I think she must still study./) or wrong ()()? Correct the mistakes in the highlighted phrases. I'm sure your sister will like the scarE It's just her style. It's unlikely that the government will raise interest rates this year. I'm sure Barcelona will win tonight. They will probably have heard the news by now. PROBABLY He He has a very tight schedule. UNLIKELY The company director . She won't definitely like it. 1 As well as for obligation. They've probably gone home. 4 If I post the letter today.we've given her some very good reasons.QUp. She hasn't done any work at all. A. The new coach is likely to be appointed today. MAY She the break-up.he always is. be likely to and will probably are very similar in meaning. I don't think he'll have time to call in and see us. • Compare: He might not have done it. Are you sure you locked the back door? DEFINITELY Did the back door? According to press reports. He may / might / could be off sick. the couple will probably get divorced soon.00. 3 She'll definitely pass the exam. The painting definitely isn't genuine.

1 This structure is common with negative adverbial expressions such as Not only. Only when you leave home do you realize how expensive everything is. 3 The train began to move.(()i11/elflengli~flle/Cldvanced . 10 Shortly after he had gone to sleep there was a knock on the door. Never have I heard such a ridiculous argument. Not untiL. Overusing it will makeyout' English sound unnatural. No sooner _ 11 I only realized the full scale of the disaster when I watched the six dclock news. Only when. 3 Inversion is also used after the expressions Only then. English. MultiROM \WM1. (but) you also forgot to lock the door! Not until you become a parent yourself do you understand what it really means.. sometimes change the normal word order to make the sentence more emphatic or dramatic.. we.. Rarely 7 We did not put down our tools and rest until the sun set.. Not until _ _ My brother is notonly lazy. Rarely have I met a more irritating person.. . Hardly had I sat down when the train began to move. I watched the six dclock news.1 Not only is my brother lazy.. Only then _ 12 I had only just destroyed the evidence when the police arrived. and Rarely.oup.. Never 14 I spoke to the manager and the problem was sorted out. we change the order of the subject and (auxiliary) verb NOT Not only Illy blOthel is lazy. when. but he's also very selfish. Not only _ 9 They only lit the fire when it was unusually cold. 13 He has never regretted the decision he took on that day... Never _ _ 3 They not only disliked her. Scarcely _ A InverSion should only be used occasionally for dramatic effect. (= normal word order) 8 The hotel room was not only depressing... In formal.. Not only _ 4 We only understood what he had really suffered when we read his autobiography. Only when _ Not only is my brother lazy. as) • When we use inversion after the above expressions. especially in writing. Hardly! Scarcely. but it was cold as well. Only when _ _ GmII\mI•. _ Only when 5 We had just started to eat when we heard someone knocking at the door. Not until you can behave like an adult will we treat you like an adult. Never. than. but they also hated her family... (= inversion to make sentence more emphatic) 2 In the present simple and past simple tense... Not until 2 We had never seen such magnificent scenery. Compare: Rewrite the sentences to make them more emphatic. rather than simply inverting the subject and verb we use do Idoes / did + subject + main verb NOT Not only forgot 'OU toshUUhe window. No sooner had the football match started than it began to snow heavily.. Hardly _ 6 I have rarely read such a badly written novel..(= a formal way ofsaying aS$Oon. 2 Not only did you forget to shut the window. I didn't realize my mistake until years later.. No sooner had I sat down than the train left. Only then was I able to relax. (but) he's also very selfish..but he's also very selfish.. I had just sat down when the train left. and No sooner...

unreal uses of the past tenses It's a difficult problem. Are you sure this is a good time to talk? Would you rather I called back later? 4 Don't you think it's time you found a job? It's six months since you finished university! It's (high) time the government did something about unemployment.. It's time togo now.g. 2 If only I knew the answer! If only you hadn't forgotten the map. . 2 I would like to be able to afford to travel more.e. 4 Don't you think you should start to look for a job? TIME Don't you think IF ONLY for a job? 5 He should be less tight-fisted! Then he'd enjoy life more.pasttense. we could Google it and see where it is. instead of wish with the past simple and past perfect.fj:erwould rather.g.g. We use. It's nearly nine o'clock. TIME come! If only he wouldn't keep whistling when I'm wprking! 3 We. • We sometimes use that after wish. I'd . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.~e!l. I wish I hadn't lent Gary that money now.. if you don't mind."".sis.about it. I'd prefer you not to smoke in here. WISH _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ travel more.stop happening because they annoy us. We use wish + past simple to talk about things we would like to be different in the present / future (but which are impossible or unlikely).+.g. I wouldn't be so hard up now. e. • We can also use It'stime+ to+ infinitivewhenwedon'twanfto specify the subject.. we'd be there by now.lwish the buswould a Put the verbs in brackets in the right form. (stop) 6 If only I a bit more when I was earning a regular salary.· e. The children ought to go to bed.. I'd . MultiROM IIVWIIV. use would rather + subject.we're having such a good time! (be able) 4 Would you rather we the subject now? (not discuss) 5 I think it's time the company expecting us to do so much overtime for no extra pay. IF ONLY _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . he'd enjoy life more. 6 Would you prefer us to come another day? RATHER _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ another day? 7 I should have bought the maroon sweater and not the beige one. 3 We shouldn't have painted the room blue . wish + past perfect to talk about things which happened / didn't happen in the past and which we now regret. It's time the children went to bed. • We sometimes use high before time for empha. e. • We can also use would rather +. about it. (realize) 2 My wife would rather we nearer the city centre. if you don't mind. 2 You can also use If only. Hpwever. about it NOT f'd. we use wish Or Ifonly + person I thing + would + infinitive.infinitive withoutto. WISH _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the maroon sweater and not the beige one. 3 I'd rather you left your dog outside . if you don't mind. It's nearly nine o'clock.toex. RATHER _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. (know) 9 Do you wish you to university or do you think you made the right decision to leave school and start work? (go) b Rewrite the sentences using the bold word(s). • If only is more emphatic than wish. I wish that I knew the answer./atfte.it looks awful. 4 We use the past simpleafterIt'stime +subjectJo saylhM something has to· be done now orin the near futur~.aprefer~nce.you know how sensitive she is.I'm allergic to animals. (pay) 8 If only we the name of the shop. This can be used by itself (Ifonly I knew!) or with another clause.rather not talk. I wish I knew the answer to it! I wish I hadn't spoken to Jane like that . we cannot use this structurewhen the subject changesa.QUp.ratber you didn't talk. . (live) 3 I wish you to stay a bit longer . A When we wantto talkabout things we wanfto happehor.g.it looks awful./ you not tafk. Who knows when he'll pay it back? (not lend) It's time the government that interest rates are far too high. .there is no change of ~ubject~ e.comjeltjenglishfilejadvanced . . . (save) 7 I'd rather you me in cash.press.

Otherwise I'm going to have to clean the kitchen again. 8 They've employed me as a kind of troubleshooter _ _ _ _ somebody who sorts out problems whenever they occur. To return to a previous subject. my job involves computer skills and people skills. but making a link with what has just been said. B I know. 2At least / In any case it wasn't supposed to be a true story. Sometimes more than one answer may be possible. It will finish very late.comjelt/englishfilejadvanced . 10 You'd better hurry up with your homework. 9 In fact / Besides. often after you have been interrupted. so we didn't miss anything. To make things clearer or give more details. and you might just get it. A I wouldn't call it far-fetched. B 11. The government are going to help firsttime buyers. Besides. they are going to make mortgages more easily available. I mean. Hasn't Harry got one just like it? B Talking of Harry. with a bonus in December and in July. By the way / Incidentally. On (the) other hand. To return to the main topic after a digression. the total number of violent crimes has dropped. do you know what time the last train leaves? I don't want to miss it. I think we should buy them. buying our own place would mean not having to waste money paying rent. To introduce a fact that is very clear to see or understand. they were too expensive. 2 A Did you buy the shoes in the end? I decided B No. though. I don't think I'll come to Nick's party. but Sat least / anyway the period details should be right. but it didn't rain.. B Simon. After all. 4 A I've just read a brilliant book that Simon lent me. it was a complete disaster. we've got plenty of time. 30therwise / Obviously you can't expect the dialogue to be totally authentic. In any case / Anyway the weather was awful. but all in all. That is to say. On (the) one hand. A Yes. did you remember to get a birthday present for your mum? 6 It was a very grey. or to change the subject completely. did you know he's moving to New York? 5 A How was your day? . The food was delicious and the service was excellent. We didn't go away at the weekend because I had too much work. the options are living with a family or living in a hall of residence. I couldn't believe in the characters at all. In other words. To make what you have just said less definite. All in all the meal was a great success. On the other hand is also used alone to introduce a contrasting fact or point. As regards / Regarding accommodation. they live in the flat below us. Didn't you? B (4. To balance contrasting facts or points. I didn't like it very much. I like both flats. I won't know many people there. There was a clock in the king's palace and they didn't have clocks until the eighteenth century! 6 All in all / That is to say I thought it was a pretty awful film. Basically. e:tlmI!IIMultiROMWWW. did he get the job he applied for? So let's meet at five o'clock then.A I really like your shirt. To say that you are taking everything into consideration.40. And that I didn't really like them that much. To say something again in another way. who knows? That's all you need to know about the To introduce a new topic or to travel arrangements. let's go. but I'm not sure we can really afford a mortgage. Do you fancy a quick pizza? There's a good Italian restaurant just round the corner. To introduce the most important or fundamental point. To introduce the idea that what you said before is less important than what you are going to say. and the plot was totally implausible. but it was set in a very specific historical period. To say what the result would be if something did not happen or if the situation were different. more young people today carry knives. I finished work a bit earlier than usual. 7 By the way / As a matter offact. you will paid on the 30th or 31st of each month. I think I prefer the one next to the cathedral. Torn's coming to the meeting. could you possibly lend me some money until the weekend? A Did you see the match last night? B No.and five-year-olds. 7 A Do your wife's parents live near you then? B . 80therwise / In any case I'll have to get a taxi home. To introduce a strong argument that the other person may not have taken into consideration. it was a bad accident. It's not ideal but it does have some advantages. if Mark gets the job we'll have to reorganize the department. 11 I'm not sure what the best solution is. At least nobody was killed.oup. A lot of people booed. To introduce something you have just thought of. A Why not? B IBasically / After all I thought it was incredibly far-fetched. 3 I really think you ought to apply for the post of head of department. announce a change of subject.ctuallYJ/ Incidentally. To generalize. 9 salary . To introduce an explanation or clarification of a point you have just made. I didn't. _ you won't be able to watch TV tonight. a Circle the appropriate discourse markers in the dialogue. A We'll have to agree to disagree then. overcast day. I think Jason is an excellent teacher. I think that women make better journalists than men. To introduce a positive point after some negative information. As I was saying. To add additional information or arguments. Please try not to make a mess when you make the cake. you've got nothing to lose. and some people even left early. B Fine. On the whole. Yes. To introduce additional surprising or unexpected information. She's very selfish. I think we've even got time to have something to eat. b Complete the sentences with appropriate discourse markers. or at least he said he was. Don't worry. Actually / In fact / As a matter of fact I don't really like football. A What a good film! I really enjoyed it.. Obviously you can't get a real idea of life in Japan unless you can speak the language. As far as accommodation is concerned. we'll never find them anywhere cheaper than this. 4 I mean / on the other hand nobody knows exactly how people spoke in the 17th century. To change the direction of a conversation. lOAs I was saying / Talking of Italian food I made a wonderful risotto with mushrooms last night . although female teachers are usually better with four. she never thinks about other people at all.

g. I felt uncomfortable because of the situation at work.' . allow.30.object +: to +. I reminded the washing up.after.! "'. beg.. We don't want to risk _ while were on holiday.g verbs' +: object -t.· 't':. 'ct . because I did! You paid for everything.'.. but I'd rather her boyfriend didn't.' <'" ' 8 9 Please let me explain! He made me feel really guilty.o. :':~:{J :.. 2 I would hate you to think that I don't appreciate your offer of help... lJe. encQl1rage.:! '<"'. intend. The guards wouldn't let us cross the border.nitive wit every morning. He reco'l:l!lV. 5 W~ also . I dislike people _.out 0.':. d thi. for a few days. " \" ' " . He recommende. advised in t I should stay off work for two weeks. 12 13 14 .often 'use object:l. te~l.."" ". Did you really use to be shy? I can't imagine it! I can't imagine shy! We were able to buy a bigger flat thanks to the money my uncle left me.. The police warned motorists ill take special care because of the snow and ice.: 6 7 .garrange. .dmeto take. '. We don't want to take the risk.. verb +: object +to +: infInitive 1 We expect the flight to arrive at 19. "'.:'.: infi. ~. ' " 2 3 A After recommend you c<muse .. would prefer.enaple.NOT/wottld hate thatYOIithillk.!:/} r.:{ :. but I'd rather her I don't mind boyfriend didn't.a that clause. :. 'Take special care because of the snow and ice: the police told motorists.'..:A. ___. I would love _ _."/ '~. ...infinitive without to.~d help. -. _ The money my uncle left me enabled ___ a bigger flat. She advised him not to travel by train. ". . .<: . 4 some cash. .. I could call back later if you're busy now.comjeIVenglishfilejadvanced . because I did! I would hate I didn't enjoy myself. I didn't expect . Can you help me do the washing up? c<m use object +: .g.take (time)" ' " 'i' .. e. . " . I don't have a problem if Jane comes.' 'use . Weve arranged for a taxi to come at 6. tell.:i:':..> "..:. o:utf.'.:~ " "i ~ . MultiROM WWW. would hate.You c .<m object +: that clause...fQrce. persuaile.g. ' " .: 'ldn~ ~nd W(lJt we put fo.advise..fnfi love. . I'd like you to send me the bill. ask.. cause. ' • After advise. Wheilmake 5b.: ~.. . 3 I'm waiting for my friend to arrive. . e.z .oup. We have made the arrangements. niak:e.infmitive. you will have to travel a lot. ' . which wasn't what I expected. ~<mai~o.' Help can: befollQw.:'..a~·op. . persuade.. immediately after theverb re the .•. mean.. If you get this job. Would you prefer later? The car might break down on holiday.to+: infmitive. The situation at work made You are going to stay with a British family.' ".After these verbs a that clause is impossible.. >.. " After some verbsincludin.' ". ". . This job will involve I told Hannah not to forget to do the washing up. ' .. fecomii:tend.' ". ' " . the The guards prevented border.. ' invite.:: . ' . . order. '. e. ~emind. e.' " / . to +: '0' .50. She helped me' (t 10 11 . " . I don't like it when people answer their mobiles in restaurants. ">/).' :. . .:-'i:.ec(. ret. ' -': ./et. infj. Please don't think I didn't enjoy myself.e ' .'.g. help. _ everything.__ ~__ __ in restaurants..~emin4.' • ..i~4~h.' :.4 B" < verb + object + infinitive or gerund Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. ' . _ " . It would be wonderful if you stayed for a few days.nit~Ye: ask. " 1 We often use the follow4J. It took me ages to get there. We have arranged with a British family. teach. warn.. .

and would have + in (or could). If I'd been looking where I was going..futqre in th~ ()t1:l~r . b Complete the sentences with one word. there would have been a lot more casualties. e:g.e. who's going to take it 9 for walks? .esare.:'. we're going to buy that flat we liked. . if I had played my best. .. I'm going to carryon living with my parents for a while. 7 They would get divorced ages ago if they didn't have young children.'. This kind of conditional sentence. I would have bought a bottle of wine. Provided / Providing (that) the bank lends us all the money we need. . if he apologizes. Supposing we missed the last train. Supposing you lost your job. 10 I'm going to make an appointment for you at the doctor's you like it or not.. They agreed to lend us the car on condition (that) we returned it by the weekend. 6 If you've ever been to New York. Jane would have left Mike. If you hadn't been here last night. :'.~. long as you are 8 You can go to the party home by midnight at the latest.ifshe didn't still love him (type 2). YOUCaD.:. ' a Right (. I'm going to sell the car whether you agree with me or not.1'.. I still wouldn't 2 have beaten him. I don't know what I would do.'. /fmprol:>able' onsin t esent or fut11re. Jane would have left Mike by now if she didn't still love him. 2 How would you know if he wasn't telling the truth? If we had a bit more time here. 4 the rebels not surrendered.. Y.. they will have arrived by now. more people would have died.t~J:l.' .1 They won't get a table unless they've already booked. ' . USe anYP:ri~' or' . Can I borrow your dictionary a moment if you're not using it? If it stops raining. Even if I get the job.: ".' 2 ~()n4" ". [wouldn't be in this mess (type 2) . us. alternatives to lfin conditio~alsente~c~s' 1 I'll tell you what happened as long as / so long as you promise not 2 3 4 5 to tell anyone else. there would have been more survivors.... .ou can usethe pa§r " (simp~e Clr:continuClus) in the if cla. 2 The government would accept more refugees if the camp isn't so crowded.oup. as 3 I'll tell you exactly what happened as you promise not to tell anyone. we can mix tenses from two different types ofconditional. cm::rDmI MultiROM WWW. . we do buy a dog. 3 If you've done all your homework. Type 3 conditiQnal~entenc. You can\1::lsethe past tense (simple or confuiuous) in the if clause and would + infinitive (or could / might) in the other clause. by now (type 3). 4 We wouldn't be living in Singapore now if my company hadn't been taken over by a multinational. Don't use if. 8 If the storm wasn't at night. us~dto tl. miXed condition. 7 I'm convinced Amy won't go back with her boyfriend. Co. possibl~ present if 2Typ~ . we could go on an all-day river trip.. 6 We've decided we're going to go ahead with the event _ _ _ _ we sell all the tickets or not. 5 The company will only employ me on _ that I sign a two-year contract. I wouldn't be in this mess if I had listened to your advice. what would you do? Had I known that you were coming.~s .. ifIhad listened to your advice (type 3): .comjeltjenglishfilejadvanced - . 11 the plane not caught fire.pse ". ..ed to talk about ypo . 9 If their flight hasn't been delayed. . I would've seen the hole in the road.ilk about a hypothetical situation in the past. .. e. what I would have done They wouldn't have made you Marketing Manager if they didn't think you were right for the job. I'm going to walk into town. you can go out this evening.might have) in thepther clause. If we Wlnlt to refer to the pre~entand tl1epast in the same sentence.Q... .I) or wrong eX)? Correct the mistakes in the highlighted phrases. "'. you will know exactly what I'm talking about. 5 Hannah would be in the first team if she didn't get injured last month. 3 I would have picked you up if I had known what time your flight arrived. how would we get home? My father has agreed to lend me the money _ _ _~ I pay it back by the end of the year.

4 When something was not necessary. e. o The negative is had better not NOT hadn't bettel . Anyone caught smoking will be severely punished. Officially you mustn't park here . able to watch TV. we can also use needn't + infinitive without to. e. need 1 You usually need to check in at least two hours before a flight leaves. It normally refers to the immediate future. and necessity can. S You you didn't like the pasta. be permitted to. 1 We use need / don't need + to + infinitive to say that something is necessary / unnecessary. 4 You can't take flash photographs in this museum. You don't in this restaurant. 2 You needn't lock the car.we can go in mine. You're not allowed to smoke in any public buildings in our country. I shouldn't Flash photography is in this museum. If you don't finish your homework. 6 Swimming in the lake is strictly prohibited. 2 Smoking anywhere on the aircraft. and should / ought to.oup. You in the back seat of the car. but it is normally used for 1 We also use specific occasions rather than repeated or general obligations. You aren't here. e. which saved time. but everyone does. This is a no-smoking area.g. b Complete the sentences with three words. 2 We can use should have or ought to have + past participle to talk about past events which did not happen and which we regret. general. obligation. 2 I've got to buy a birthday present for my brother. I don't need to wear glasses. You know how sensitive he is about his cooking. so you did not do it. 3 You'd late . 2 We can also use have got to to express obligation. but you did it. _ have to f have got to 1 All passengers will have to fill in an immigration form on arrival. The restaurant is empty! 4 We had plenty of petrol so we didn't need to stop. 2 Put that cigarette out. My eyesight is still good. ought to. so I bought some postcards ofthe paintings.we can go 10 You don't have to bring your car . You aren't in the lake. We weren't allowed to go out at night when we were at boarding school. and specific necessity. You really specialist advice.g.you know what Jane is like about punctuality! back before next month. You don't to go into the art gallery. 3 We can also use be supposed to + infinitive to say what people should or shouldn't do.com/eIVenglishfile/advanced . The most common modal verbs for talking about permission and obligation are can / could. to say what can / can't be done according to the law or to rules and regulations. have to to express obligations. 7 Wearing a tie is optional in this restaurant. 3 You'd better post the parcels today or they won't get there in time.it's much quicker. _ 6 It was a difficult journey because we trains three times.it's a hospital entrance. 2 We should have / ought to have gone home on the motorway . had better 1 I couldn't take any photos in the gallery. particularly when we want to use a form which can does not have. I'm in 4 You no hurry for the money. We should / ought to go home on the motorway . should. Entrance is free. last night. 7 A lot of people think that governments _ _ _ _ more to protect young people's health. you must use didn't need to NOT We had plellty (Jfpetl 01 so we lIeedn't ha~e stopped. 2 be permitted to + infinitive is used in formal situations. 3 When something was not necessary. 9 I must finish the sales report by Friday. We often use be able to or be allowed to + infinitive to talk about what is possible or permitted instead of can.permission. must. You'd no-smoking area.g. . 3 Had better is stronger ahd more urgent than should / ought to and is often used to give strong advice or a warning. a Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. must. I don't need to take a jacket. 2 It is not permitted to take mobiles into the exam room. What's the time now? You aren't supposed to park here .30. S Wearing a seat belt in the back seat of the car is compulsory. we can use either needn't have + past participle or didn't need to + infinitive. sweaters after all . Students are not supposed to have guests after 12. Passengers on the bus mustn't distract the driver. You can use these forms for habitual. 3 We are supposed to check in at 3. I've You in mine. A We do not use it followed by be allowed to NOT It iSIl't allowed to take - GlII:I MultiROM WIIVV\I. We couldn't go out at night when we were at boarding school.it would have been quicker.00. you won't be be able to. .it's really warm! 9 We lOAm I a suit to the wedding or is it quite informal? mobiles illto the exam 100m. There is often a suggestion that the rules are not necessarily obeyed. be allowed to. notices and announcements. NOT I lIeedn't weal gfasse:s. Nobody will steal it in this village. It can be used in any tense. 2 When we want to say that something is unnecessary on a specific occasion. often because of rules. by Friday.but everyone does. You don't have to tip here unless you think the service was especially good. be supposed to 1 From tomorrow we won't be able to park in this street. 8 The best thing to do would be to get specialist advice. It's going to be hot today. 3 We needn't have booked / didn't need to book a table. t~hich sa~ed time. your mobile phone when 8 You aren't you are driving. o We use don't need to (NOT neerJn!t) for habitual or general necessity. This is a 3 I regret losing my temper last night.

sound.g. The engine sounds as there's something wrong with it. It sounds as if I as though someone is trying to open the door. a Right (. He nice. taste + adjective / noun 1 You look tired. 6 They said this bag was leather..feel. but with a different rne~ing: I've been hearing good things about you recently. Tick if both are possible. 3 It doesn't look / seem possible that ten years have past since we last met. 4 Jane is looking / is seeming very tired. S 6 7 This tastes a bit a soup my mother used to make. not coffee. we walked on. = I get this impression from the wayybu are behaving in general. I saw the man hit his dog. We normally use can with these verbs to refer to something happening a. verbs of the senses GRAMMAR BANK I can hear a noise downstairs. feel. see. 4 Do you know what this piece is? It sounds of Beethoven's 7th. I actually heard the bomb exploding. and notice. The soup tastes a bit salty. Kerry says she hasn't been feeling very well recently . I'm smelling something funny in here. actions. I've only spoken quite to him on the phone. smell.5B hear. I think we should stop at the next petrol station. You seem worried. This tastes like tea. see I hear + infmitive or gerund 1 I heard the girl playa piece by Chopin. 3 like+nouIlor asiflasthough + a verb phrase. Are you sure you turned the gas off? I can feel a draught. Are you OK? The waiter seems to have made a mistake with the bill. smell.f) or wrong (X)? Correct the mistakes in the highlighted phrases. 3.. • hear and see can also be dynamic verbs and used inthecontinuous form. What's in it? I haven't met the boss yet. the visual sense. 2 see I hear + object+ verbingerund= you saw} heard actioninprogress or a repeatedactibn. Compare seem and look: You look worried. =1 have been receiving information. He looked I seemed very angry about something. • The same distinction also applies to verbs after watch. 3 I was very near where it happened. we use look. • We don't usually use verbs of the senses in the continuous form NOT I am heal i/lg a /loise. infinitive (sirnl'le orperfector continuous). This music sounds awful. as we could hear the wind howling in the trees all night. Could you possibly speak up a bit? I _ _ _ _ hear you very well. • We often use see I hear + an object + verb in the infinitive or gerund. I'm seeing lames tonight.do you know what's the matter with her? 2 We could hardly sleep at all. but I'm not quite sure. taste I smell of garlic). b Circle the right form. These shoes feel uncomfortable. It seems as if I as though every time I clean the car it rains. 2 an. hear. but not purely through one sense. but it's feeling more like plastic. • After these verbs we can use 1 an adjective. but as they didn't seem to be catching anything. When wetalk about the ill1pression something or SOmeone gives us through the senses. That smells delicious.verbin infinitive i= you saw or heard the whole action. 3 It seemed like a good idea at the time. • After seem we can use 1 an adjective. The meaning is slightly different: 1 see I hear + object+ . e. but in fact it wasn't. 2 It looks / seems as if children today are only interested in playing with gadgets. 2 You look like your mother. 4 This smells I tastes of garlic.feel. This smells I tastes like garlic.t the moment. Can you see the blue circle at the top of the painting? I can smell burning.comjelt/englishfilejadvanced l1li . Apparently it's made from thousands of petals. as ifl as though + a clause. Is there a window open? I can't taste the garlic in the soup. It tastes like vinegar. We stopped for a moment and watched the men on the edge of the pier. It sounds like thunder.g. to garlic. GI!mIMultiROM www. an look. What did you think of her? I saw the man hitting his dog. 4 Compare smell I taste ofand smell I taste like. The shop assistant looks ICfeems) to have forgotten about us. She must have gone out because I heard the front door about five minutes ago. but it probably isn't garlic). Is something wrong? 3 4 2 You seem to be a bit down today. ~I getthis impression from yourface. and taste are stative (non action) verbs. 7 You and Raquel seemed to be getting on very well last night. 2 seem 1 You seem worried. 3 She looked as if I as though she had been crying. smell. It tastes / smells ofgarlic (= it has the. etc. e. sound. • seem is not used in the continuous form. • The five basicverbs ofthe senses. I'mfeeliltga painbehi/ld m)'eye. It looks as if it's going to snow. = I have arranged to meet him. It tastes I smells lUre garlic ( = it has a similar taste I smell. voice. though. c Complete the sentences with one word. • We use seem whell s0ll1ething I somebody gives us an impression of being or doing something through a combination of the senses and what we know. What on earth is it? X I can smell somethingfunny.oup.andtaste. My mother's favourite perfume is one that smells roses. 2 I heard the girl playing a piece by Chopin. The clouds are very low. S I think we should send the wine back. 2 like + a noun. don't you think? S You look / seem much more like your father than your mother.

we use for person or object pronoUn .g. Its not worth. " ":. ' 4 It's amazing what she's managed to achieve considering she didn't finish school.last.:". (be) there when you told him you 2 I'd love were leaving. e..t an action I event is in progress around the time we ar~ talking about.e. e..g. plan. e.." '. = when I go to Paris . 1 would like to have seen the Eiffel Tower. LOVE I to your birthday party.. I want the truth. We had an agreement to share the costs. 2 He thanked them for having helped him.5C"'.there's too much to see.. infinitive.comjeIVenglishfilejadvanced . There wasn't enough snow for us to ski. ' 3 after expressipllS with q\laIi' 'ug1J..~'-':'>' It was our fault. 2 We use a perfect gerunli (having done) ora perfect inPnitive (to have done) if we want to emphasize that an action is completed or in the past. but they were all full. 3 We use the perfect infinitive after1o?0uld like.. . POINT Theres no point getting angry.!'" . plenty of. How wonderful to have finished all our exams! By the time I'm 30. '.::-::... . 9 It's no good (phone) him because he didn't take his mobile with him. secgnd.":'''. My car needs to be serviced. 4 We use a continuous infinitive (to be + verb + -ing) to say tha. • Often there is no differetlc~ between usirig it simple gerund OF infinitive and a pe.' .. 2 after nouns formed from verbs which take the. Don't get angry.ve~ would hate.' . We were silly not tp. 3 I would like to have seen your face when they told you you'd won the competition! We would rather have stayed in a more central hotel. I was really stupid (follow) my mother's advice.' 5 after question wor<. I expect (save) enough to be able to just work part-time..". Our plan is to leave on Saturday.//. I don't know where to go or what to do.ls (except why)..oup. ".rfect g~ruIld. 2 I hate it when people wake me up from a siesta. I would prefer _ (tell) the truth. I hate being told (tell) what to do. " . We haven't got many eggs so we can't make an omelette.. = 1 was in Paris. 5 I really wish I'd been able to go to your birthday party. . S There will be plenty of time to have something _ _ _ _ (eat) at the airport. I prefer to take my own decisions. would prefer. tQo'n. He denied stealing I having stol~rthe. agree.. .. 10 Who was the second man (walk) on the moon? 11 There wasn't enough room for us (sit down). " . WOKEN I from a siesta. it lot. . •. ' • .'..'~. WITHOUT It's amazing what she's managed to achieve + Its very difficult for 4 after something. any infinitive squcture.:. You can't visit the Louvre in a day .% gerunds and infinitives a Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form of the gerund or infinitive. There's nothing you can do.. I'm tired of being lied to.ave lecked the . It's very difficult to get promoted in this company. She seems to be coughing a lot . The train will have left by now. . but I didiit see it. b Rewrite the sentences with the bold word. MultiROM WWW. 3 If I had a serious illness. 3 Are you sorry you didn't have more children? REGRET ___ more children? ~ ""~ . 4 I'd like to be lying on the beach right now.g. ~.~{c: e..' e._ 1 It's no use worrying. • When we wantto nifer to " 'flnitiyeyerb. and would rather to talk about an earlier action.. "". other uses of gerumls and infiJ)itives. 6 after superlati~esand Nst. i.. 6 By the time I'm 55. 2 3 4 5 6 Is there any point (in) asking him? He never has anything useful to say. •..in the future. . . 5 Mark seems (work) too hard at the moment. PLAN Our until we've finished the rest of the house.. ENOUGH We ma~ an omelette. She was totally wrong.. etc. Tl:lls can be used before'.one. "'. 1 We use the gerund after certain expressions with it or there. /' .. would lo..g. " . .car.'" . don't you think? SEEM you think? 7 We're not planning to redecorate the kitchen until we've finished the rest of the house. lock I not to h. complex gerunds and infinitives 1 She loves being told how pretty she is...g.. 4 It's no use (run).. 7 The man denied (commit) the crime. me t9 decide." Compare: I would like to see the Eiffe! Tower. etc.' i' to walk on the moon? '" wllO". anywhere.":"". hope. i'..y.!l. " >:. . .'. Is there anything to eat? There's nowhere to go at night. That won't help.tth. etc. I He's the youngest player ever to play for England.. I hope to have started a family.. It's no good talking to my dad because he doesn't listen to me. Theres no point. Its no use. .. He looks very tired. Having studied one language before makes it easier to learn another.do you think she's OK? 1 We use a'passive gerund (being done) or a passive infinitive (to be done) to describe actions which are dorie to the subject. ' '" i " .dFinfi¢tiye. etc: We use the infinitive witll to: . 6 The children look as if they're having a good time.

ariged ". " '.:." . 3 A What are you going to do this evening? B I'm not sure._f"'--. ..e_Xp~'-re_s'-s_in. Could you ring me back later? 2 Our head of department is going to be promoted in the next few months. Tick ifbo'th are possible. place have been deCided. ..S'~".. . most c / :'. 6 My flight is due to arrive / arrives at 6. Can you meet her at the station? ~. "" :...:.:~-<~.:g::.·. . rlZ be seeing Sarah at the party It will happen ariywa .. intentions. Were going to go out in a minute. (= I h '. GOING •.. 5 The train leaves in five minutes. '_e. Compare:. . SEEING _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ at the meeting. : .. I see /(l'm seeini)some friends after class tonight. :."..r.00 and 6. but t afdn't arrarigek) ...~_n_ts_---. so I need to keep my mobile switched on.00. I'll be wearing / I wear a white suit.a 1 I'm seeing Sarah tomorrow. '. few months..::::g_em'-'2. 2 be going to is 'the.'. to= ' r In: .o .g ab~~t sorn:etliing that will happen anYway rat~er.. -f:</<":1\:>-:. i " .:t+"~~'::tt<-. ". 3 I'm meeting Cathy this evening. Could you ring me back later? ABOUT _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. . "..00 as I'll be having / I'll have a massage. ':: -t':'..:'\:: <ri:}:.·..'. 2 My sister is about to have a baby. ··.andto'im l' " In most." have arranged. r _o_th_e_r_w_a. i.The pl'eseAtcontimiotis' is the~ost comm6:l1 way td bilk about :. We're having lunch together. 1 The train is going to leave soon / is about to leave. ./:'.'. I'm probably going to watch / watching the match. b Look at the sentences you have ticked. ' .. i . Will you bemeeti nquiries about arrangements.~'-:t. than sOmething we .' . .. ". e a(rEort? . •. .i· •. I'm meeting Myriarn tonight. ealsdtlSe iieinjive' ~·usebe:· 5 James will be at the meeting so I'll see him there. are talm.s 0 '. We sometimesuseitto.:. : '. Circle 'the right form. when the time and . 4 I'll be going to the supermarket later . I'm going to meet Myriam tonight... . : ' . could you get me a sandwich? WILL you get me a sandwich? 4 The ministers are about to sign a new agreement. ...30. She's going to get the last train home. 1 My sister is due to arrive at 7. I can give him your message then. ..e'-:'-a:r'. 5' We can alsousetlie t simple to talk about future events :which are part of a timetable or a regular schedule.. 3 Are you going to the canteen at lunchtime? If so. .eipphaslZethat we. btdfi~'to' 4!. I'm seeing Sarah tomorrow.•·..:'.fu_·_tut---'-. >. 2 I'm going to have my hair cut tomorrow. Is 'there any difference in meaning or register between the two forms? c Rewrite 'the sentences with the bold word.. 2 Don't call me between 5. . Our classes start next Tuesday. butt . '.:. 4 When are you going to pay me / paying me back the money I lent you? 5 My dad is retiring / will be retiring at the end of this year.. i i .•. 8 The King is to open / is going to open the new gallery on Saturday.• r.case. fIXed plans for the future.: . .' ". 7 You'll easily recognize me..<t::. used ~o make . 9 I'll be seeing / I'm going to see John at work tomorrow.do you want anything? Will we be having dinner at the usual time? I'm going to see a film and it starts at 8. '. DUE "{{" _ -j~ :OJ I' ..' ..is. . i • . 3 It has been announced that the Prime Minister is to visit Malaysia next month.:".. .:' :\i'"" ::.arrangements.'-.~ 'It..-an_. It is ofteD:..: ::\">':':: >.'/:.1rl'flffidfil'f" ~X' POINT _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a new agreement..:y:-s'--.T' )/} :'. Le.g. I'm going to tell her that it's all over. . • ' . ":/::'~ /' e. " x '~'I t. .00. It is believed that the chancellor is on 'the point of resigning.

I didn't take the job in the end. Gary thinks he's right. We often leave out a repeated verb phrase or adjective. presume. ellipsis: leaving out verb phrases or adjecti~es Laura has never been to the States. but she 5 In the end they didn't come.g. I was planning to do some gardening. and his sister even more so. but I'm afraid I 8 I don't speak French. but I'm afraid I can't come. We met in 2009 and then we got married in 2010. (suppose) A Have you spoken to Martin yet? B No. We often use so instead ofrep. believe. B I . even though she didn't say so. and while. imagine. I'm afraid not. we might win. (try) A Do you think we should leave early to miss the traffic? B I . 2 We can use a different auxiliary or modal verb from that used in the first part of the sentence. but my friend . They said I would love the film. presume. We don't go to the theatre very often now but we used to go before we had children.g.00.QUp. appear/seem and say. Laura has never been to the 6 7 8 b Complete the sentences with a modal or an auxiliary verb in the right form. but I didn't like it. 2 They locked the door and windows before they left. • After then we can also leave out a repeated subject pronoun. Write the responses using the right form of the verb in brackets and a reduced infinitive or adding so or not. but I really think you should have. I know you've never learned to drive. 3 We can also leave out a repeated verb phrase after the infinitive with to. 2 3 4 5 6 'C!!mI!mI MultiROM WWW. a Cross out the words / phrases which could be left out. but Mike did. 2 With negative clauses we use [±] verb +not (e. I hope not) with be afraid. but I'd _ c love to (go). hope. He's stressed because he has too much work. suppose. but I'd love to. e. though I'm really enjoying myself. I didn't like the film. but they aren't really happy. (always I want) A Will you be working on Saturday? B I suppose so. States but her sister has beel! the! e. but I after the meeting. or the verb be.hope. but I can't. but I gave up last month. The children may be back. I'd like to help you this week. She came to the meeting but (she) didn't say anything. 2 You cannot leave out the subject pronoun after before. but I don't think I would. Nobody expects us to win. but he isn't right. but I know that I never 3 Nobody believes me when I say that I'm going to resign. even though I told them not to. but I don't think so.. The students cheated in the exam. I haven't been to Egypt. when. unless we get everything done tomorrow. guess. because.comjeIVenglishfilejadvanced . Mark loves animals. This is called a reduced infinitive. assume.g. I know she liked the present.eating awhole[±]dauseafter yerbs of thinking (assume. but. • If the verb we don't want to repeat is the present or past simple. but her sister has. and suspect.ellipsis: leaving out subjects and auxiliaries He got up and (he) had a shower. (hope) A Do you smoke? B I . but my wife _ 2 I would love to fly a plane. or at least I hope so. I got into the car and I turned the radio on. but my wife will be able to go. and or we often leave out a repeated subject or a repeated subject and auxiliary verb. but you never know. but he isn't. They look happy. • We normally use EJ verb + so (e. substitution: so and not 1 I'll have finished the work by Friday. 2 A Do you think it'll rain tonight? B I hope not. She might infect the other children. I would. A Would you like to come round for dinner tomorrow? B Ia love to. expect. B I . We usually have dinner at 10. I won't be able to go to the exhibition. I don't thin.kso) with believe. we substitute the verb with do / does / did. 1 I'm not vegetarian. A You must see his latest film! B I already have. but now I think that I should have taken it. 2 3 4 5 1 After and.g. and think. 3 I haven't been to Egypt. 2 I thought I would be able to come tonight. Everyone else loved the hotel we stayed in. A She's not very likely to pass. I .dmagine. is she? B No. She was horrified when she saw the mess he had left. A Would you like to come for dinner tomorrow night? B I'd love to come to dinner. We should phone him or (we should) send him an email. but 1 _ 4 We thought that Karen would get the job. especially when the clauses are short. 1 met Sam while I was working in Italy. after. and just repeat the auxiliary or modal verb. even though they had promised that they _ 6 If you haven't seen the film yet. thin~)and also after be afraid. We'll have a look at the photos after we finish dinner. and then (we) watch TV. Gary thinks hes right. you shouldn't send her to school tomorrow. (guess) A Why are you going to do a parachute jump? B I don't know. but in fact I can't. expect. e.guess. you _ It's absolutely fantastic! 7 If I could help you. (use) A If you think she's coming down with flu. (love) A The weather forecast said it would snow at the weekend.

PERSON _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is my Aunt Emily. It was a boy in my class who 4 They didn't apologize for arriving late.. b Rewrite the sentences with the bold word. This is sometimes called a 'cleft sentence: More emphatic sentence 1 beginning with What or All GRAMMAR BANK I need a coffee. 7 I like my Aunt Emily best of all my relatives. The first / last time.. IT _____________ won the silver medal. us extra for. What happened was (that) we left our passports at home.com!elt/englishfile/advanced . I last saw him on Saturday. We left our passports at home. 9 Right now you need to sit down and put your feet up. The first / last time that. REASON _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ he cheated on her.. + clause + be. 4 We can also use It is / was+the emphasized part of the sentence + a relative clause.. 6 I only said that I didn't like her dress. I spoke to the manager.. . What happens is (that) you do a test and then you have an interview.g. .. The last time I saw my brother was at his 40th birthday party. won the prize.What happened was (that). I don't like the weather here. 2 beginning with What happens is. etc. A If the emphasized part· is a pronoun. which really annoyed me. 2 We stopped in an absolutely beautiful place for lunch. 4 beginning with It The last time I saw him was on Saturday. The place where. I only need a small piece of paper. 3 We got stuck in an enormous traffic jam. 2 I hate about Sundays is knowing you have to work the next day. HAPPENS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ you pick up your tickets at the box office. we can do this by adding certain words or phrases to the beginning of the sentence. The place where we stayed was a five-star hotel.emphasis (2): cleft sentences When we want to focus attention on or emphasize one part of a sentence. 2 To emphasize an eyent.... . . The reason (why / that) I bought it was that / because it was cheap. 6 The where we're going to have lunch is a sort of artist's cafe near the theatre. we can begin with What happens is (that) . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ that I didn't like her dress. All I did was touch it. I only touched it! What I need is a coffee.... with the emphasized part of the sentence at the end. TIME _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ at a conference in Berlin.we normally use the object pronounafterItis / was. e. and then the part ofthe sentence we want to emphasize. 7 happened was that I lost the piece of paper with my flight details on it. S It's not my fault you can't find them! I did was tidy up your desk a bit. 3 beginning with The person who. I didn't know you hadn't invited her. What I don't like here is the weather. The reason why . 3 We can also make part of a sentence more emphatic by beginning with an expression like The person who . HAPPENED ~ we got stuck in an enormous traffic jam.can make some kinds of sentences more emphatic by beginning with What (= the thing) or All (= the only thing) + clause + be. A boy in my class won the prize. 3 The why I want you to come early is so that we can have some time on our own before the others arrive. . ALL All I need is a small piece of paper. It was me who paid the bill. etc... WHAT _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to sit down and put your feet up.oup. / What happened was. We had the meeting last Friday. a Complete the sentences with one word... emmmIMultiROMwww. You do a test and then you have an interview. NOT It was J who paid the bill. The person (who / that) I spoke to was the manager. All I want is to travel. S You pick up your tickets at the box office... . The place where. PLACE _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ was absolutely beautiful. I bought it because it was cheap.. The reason why. I'm terribly sorry..or sequence of events. 10 I first met Serena at a conference in Berlin. 1 was my father who told me not to marry him. We stayed in a five-star hotel. ALL We. S A girl from my town won the silver medal. She left her husband because he cheated on her. S It was who told Angela about the party. what you get called for an interview. It was the wine (that) they charged WHAT _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ they didn't apologize for arriving late. . They charged us extra for the wine. next is that 4 After you've sent in your CV. I just want to travel. It was last Friday when we had the meeting.

10 The Tower of London is London's most popular tourist attraction / the most popular tourist attraction in London.' .. Did you leave it there? b What difference.' . especially when <. • If there are two people.•'.. a petson. My mother is at the hairdresser's. 3 We had dinner at Tom's last night. . 9 We bought a beautiful table ofglass / glass table for the living room. . It's my friends' wedding. Withthings or abstract nouns. . S I'm looking for a stories book / story book that would be right for an eight-year-old. 3 When's refers to 'the house of' or ~the shop oC we often omit the word house or shop.. e:g. adding's or ' where necessary. '. I can't find the . 1 Wenormally use a possessive.. . . a Circle the right phrase.. is there between the two phrases in the sentence(s) you have ticked? c Combine a word from each list to make compound or possessive nouns to fill the gaps. . . Tick if both are possible. 5 I want to introduce you to Jake. That's the children's room.oup. Shall I make (fhicken souj5)/ soup of chicken for dinner tonight? I enjoy spending time with my friend's children / The company's head office is in New York. Can I introduce you to Jenny White. He said it was a . with water every day. .' With places we"cart. children. Possessive nouns express the idea of 'having' (in a. got in. friends'. We would like a room with a . using of (instead of apostrophe '5) :.. an ization. :NOT.'.>J1e thing is part piano r. 6 When you go to the supermarket. . finis hris's book6r putan apo~trl1~ at '~h'e:~~d6 . We'd like to order something to drink.'s on the second name. The government's decision to raise taxes has not been well received. 2 Helen is the sister of my cousin in Rome I told you about..<:'/ . particular person .•. 4 She's the wife of my friend who lives in Australia / my friend who lives in Australia's wife..' With plural nouns we put'the'apostrophe aftedhes. we narneCpC)UI1l. I opened the car door. He's a colleague of my sister's / a my sister's colleague. Do you know where it is? I bought a huge flower pot in a garden centre near my house. but it's not there now. . Zalacain is one of Madrid's most famous restaurants..(+ s) when somelli:ingbelongs to a ..." my friends' children.' apostrophe s 1 I borrowed my father's car.. compound nouns I need the tin opener. if that's possible. if any. 2 It's Chris's book. to buy it. Alice and James bottle cats children government marketing sea wine bedroom bowls opener proposal door view film list wedding garage woman manager Can you remember the name of the film? My brother lives at the end of the road. hiis' book:'" .. and put on my seat belt. It's next week and I don't have anything to wear yet.ld ins (people.. .my youngest child is a bit scared of the dark. »»". 2 There was a wine bottle on the table and two empty wine glasses. The problems of old age are many and varied. '.comjelt/englishfilejadvanced . The blonde girl is Alex and Maria's daughter.:.. . etc.+'s.ananirnal. " ... My brother is a company director and my sister is a history teacher. ." . .. .or thirlg.' e.ss possession with a p h r : i . 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 I always leave the light on in the children's bedroom . It's usually in this drawer. ora lace. With irregular pluralswhich don't eJ.) weadds.7A " nouns: compound and possessive forms .. 3 With friend.. . our ___ She's been with our company for six years. 2 We use oftoexprl. '.g. group ofpeople.. Make sure you fill the MultiROM VVWW. 2 Didn't I meet you at Jenny's / at Jenny's house one night? 3 The hero dies at the end of the film / the film's end. The to freeze MPs' salaries has been met with criticism by the opposition..'. We normally use an a/phrase.e. . can you buy me two a milk bottle / a bottle of milk? 7 The photo of the house / house's photo made me want restailriUitsifiMadTi If a name (or singula . '. not· 's... '.very'general sense} " :W-hich exists' between Houns... men.. we put the . . I trod on the eat's tail.}. 11 There's a wine glass / a glass of wine on the table.g... . 3 Jim is a friend of my brother's. Don't forget to lock the when you go out. . Could we see the ____________"please? My husband refused to go and see Bridget Jones' Diary with me..

and such + adjective + an unqluntabJeot plural noun.often omit that in informal~itu. .. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 really enjoy going to work.and suc.ations. . It was so windy that we couldn't play tennis. They're both fantastic players that the final should be a classic. 4 My colleagues are fantastic. 2 I have so many things to do that I don't have time to do exercise... So successful w~ the first night that people flocked to see the play. " . I. . . ~lqgJl1ar countable noun. so much / many. so I really enjoy going to work. often use"so+ adjeCtive art'(tsdch). ' . I had such a lot of work / such a lot of things to do (that) I had to stay at the office late. SUCH This is much more formal. SO _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ that no one ever wants to go in the car with him.than saying The first night was s6 succe~sfitl that:. • ~e can also use sUc. 3 It was such dirty water that we couldn't drink it. _ 8 He's such a dangerous driver that no one ever wants to go in the car with him. 6 There was such a lot of noise that we couldn't have a proper conversation. Squash is intensive sport that people don't usually play for more than half an hour. 2 We use so rriuchWith uncountable ?ouns and so many with . for example sailing and windsurfing. 4 It was such a lovely day! I She's so mean! They're such nice people! I We often Use so . S It was such a gripping match that the crowd were on the edge oftheir seats. We made mistakes in the second half that we didn't deserve to win. 7 He does a lot of water sports.. b Rewrite the sentences using the bold word. MUCH _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ that we couldn't have a proper conversation. There were so many people outside the stadium (that) we couldn't find each other.. or such (a / an). There are sports channels on TV now that you could be watching sport 24 hours a day if you wanted to.by a that clause to tal~ about a consequence an effeCt. •." '" '" " " ' . 3 We use sUc. 3 It was such an exciting match (that) I didn't want it to end. The stadium is near our house you can hear the roar of the crowd. ' 1 We use so before an adjective or ad~erb..'. . SUCH _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ that we couldn't play tennis. There was a lot traffic and we were late for training. 2 There was so much noise (that) the players couldn't concentrate. 4 We. We. ' .h followed. SO _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ that the crowd were on the edge of their seats.' . .h a/ an + adjective + ~. ". I Agatha plays so well now (that) it's very difficult to beat her.emphasis: '" verb are iriverted. It was shock to find out that I wasn't in the team for the next match! I'm exhausted! I don't thirik I can do any more press-ups today.f noun or noun phrase Withouftheth~tcIlius~frlfsexc1amations. SO There was so much traffic that we were late for training. There was snow on the pitch that the match was postponed.." . a Complete the sentences with so. A We can useso + adje¢tiv verb at the beginning of a we'd(lthis the subject and clause fOJ.. 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 or Nico is such an inspiring personal trainer that there is a waiting list to be with him.' It was such awful weather (that) the match had to be cancelled. plural nouns.h "~ lot ofin~tead of so much / many.1 It was so cold (that) we decided not to play tennis.. She eats healthily and does exercise that she never puts on any weight. They were both such great players (that) everyone wanted to see the final. SUCH He does a lot of water sports. SUCH _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ that I don't have time to do exercise.' . ". SO _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ that we couldn't drink it.

We can use comparatives with the.. and nearly. in fact maybe he should move into a more advanced group. • When the verb in the first part is be. He's just good a player as he used to be. The faster 1 speak in English. 8 We need a few more / a little more days to think about what we're going to go. the to say that things change or vary together. a reduced structure can be used. • After as. That was easily the best fish I've had for ages. 4 A When do you need it by? B The sooner better / The sooner the better.comjeltjenglishfilejadvanced . 2 When we use more + noun for big differences we use much / far / a lot more + an uncountable noun and many / far / a lot more + a plural countable noun. our new boss is far laid-back about punctuality than our previous one. Generally speaking. the bigger the better. with as. e. Women today have many more opportunities than they used to. You're terrible . 2 3 4 S 6 7 A Twice can only be used before as. the. She earns much more money than I do... She drives as fast as I do OR She drives as fast as me.. much. The taxi driver drove faster and faster.. the more some people seem to be attracted to it. She's a little better than she was yesterday. • You can use so instead of the first as in negative sentences. please.I There are twice as many cars on the road than / as there used to be. That hotel is much more expensive / far more expensive than ours. 8 9 modifiers with comparative adjectives or adverbs The French wine is far more expensive than the South African one. the more mistakes I make. can be used with as.comparison modifiers with as. Could you two talk a bit more quietly.. .. and nearly / almost to modify superlative adjectives or adverbs.. twice.. 4 When we use more + noun for 'small differences. S We sometimes repeat a comparative adjective or adverb for emphasis. more you laugh! That was far the best meal I have ever had in any restaurant.QUp. just. Our new flat is twice as big as our old one. When the comparative is formed with more.g. 2 3 4 S 1 We use far. It's getting more and more difficult to make ends meet nowadays. or a bit (informal) + comparative adjective or adverb for a small difference. we use a little / slightly / a bit more + an uncountable noun and a few / slightly / a bit more + a plural countable noun. • We often use by far / much / easily. The bigger the car (is). His latest film isn't half as good as his previous one.g.as. as NOT OUI nerpftat is twice biggel than ow oM-01te-: However three times. A Would you like some more coffee? B Just a little more... the earlier you book the flight. The holiday cost three times as much as I'd expected. Your slice is bit bigger than mine .. e. He's driving a lot more carefully since he got points on his licence. The more coffee you drink.g. the cheaper is. 2 I think our kitchen is slightly bigger / a bit bigger than yours. as we can either use a subject pronoun + auxiliary verb. • We often use more + noun in this structure. b Circle the right word or phrase. etc. the adjective / adverb is only used after the second more (NOT Its getting 11101 e difficult and 11101 e diffiettlt). e. and half.I don't think that's fair! He's easily most intelligent in the class... the more exciting it is to watch.as. 3 We use slightly. the more expensive it is to run. 6 The harder I try the worse I do it / I do it worse. She's just as bossy now as when she was a child. We often use the modifiers almost.g. My new broadband server is twice as fast the old one. a little.. 7 It's getting easier and easier / every time easier to do all your shopping online. She's much the prettiest of the three children. e. etc. 1m GrJ:I:I MultiROM WWW. e. 3 I think her new film was by far / by much her best one. modifiers with superlatives It was by far the nicest of all the hotels we stayed at. The later train is slightly cheaper than the earlier one. The more dangerous a sport (is). or an object pronoun. 9 There were many more / much more people at the concert than we had expected.g. three times. The play was much better than I'd expected. Tick if both are possible. etc. We've only got a few more minutes before the show starts.g.. and also in set phrases like the more the merrier. four times. the less well you sleep. it can be left out. S Their flat cost twice as much as / twice more than ours. e. She's not nearly so difficult as people say. • When the second comparative is better. Fortunately. + comparatives The more dangerous a sport (is). a Add one word to make the sentence correct. A When do you want me to do it? B The sooner the better. The holiday cost three times more than ICl expected. This morning I was almost late for work as I was yesterday... The book you lent me is lot funnier than I expected it to be. I'm nearly the oldest in my class. Their house is nearly as big as yours. or a lot (informal) + comparative adjective or adverb for a big difference.. the. My sister's almost as tall as me / almost as tall as 1 am. as or with a comparative adjective or adverb.the ruder the joke.. please? I'm trying to concentrate.

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