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12-1 ircular Post, in Compression da “, R= 3R= 4800Re— R= léoolb. da" 1.2 in. der 24in, Norma! in Part At a . Oa Ra” Faaet AIS psi e— 8) for Eqval Stresses -BrR _. oke & Ou Re = EGany = Onn I415 psi Solve for R: P, =4800b <— Alternate Selution Ph _ fiche Ooe= “he ¥ de A ae ne Gee Gu dy BeBe on RRL YI dee 12-2 Long Steel Red tm Tensions Ps900N Ls 30m oe L d= 6mm Weight. Density: ¥= 77.0" W: Weight of Rod = ¥ CYolume) 2 AL P+900N rsa, we Pee Xe z = Cte (Som) + gos = 2.3 Mee + BO MR CO F= Compressive force in Piston Red de Diemeter of Picton Rod = 022m. Equililorive ats Brake Pedal EM,= 0 F(2.0in.)- PCO.) =O Got) (Be )= 55 tb Compressive Strees_in Pitton Rod | F 55h 7 . G2 =Founpy 7 1450 pi -— | [1.2-4 ] Aluminum Tube in Compressio t Strain age © Tas 9.679 Tee = 12.334 F . TTensile_stresgeg in the wives Crs® HE = 19,700 pet — Ee S40 «10% Cie TE & 26,100 pie L= 500 mm d,= 60mm d,s SOmm Shortenin: the bar $= EL.= (640 *10%)(600mm) = 0.270 mast — (b) Compressive. Load P S240 MPa As F Laid] =F lGom* (Somes?) = 863.9 mm? P= oA =(40 MPa) (863.9 mm™) =34.6 kN +—— Use the following areas > A. outer rectangle. = (1.2m) (9m) 1.08 ma? Aut As= quarter - cirelar spandrel Appendix D, Case 12) Wires ala Free “body Diagram of Reint B AazAs = U-%) 7? = 0.019314 mt Tia Tec 235° fx 50" of Pier A=AAs-As LO414 mi? GiAverage compressive _ stress ak =aiRR = 7.20 MPae— Q)loordinaies of Centroid C From tymmetry, Y= 4 (0.9m) = 0ASm<—— 6 d= 25 wile =0.025 in. a An EE 24909 x10 mt Y x WeISh Equations of Eqpilibrivm ZFe=O ~The cos + Toe Cos 20 L£Fy20 Thu smXK +TacinB-W =O Substitute. numerical valves: ~The (0.8108) + Tic (0642.79) =O TBs @-57358) + Tee (0.76604) = [5 fo BEAL (See Chapter: 12, Sechion 12.2) for Area L: X= (2m) = 0.6m [CONT. | 12-6 CONT. For Arca 2 or 3: Ko %s= 0.9m + zeny Car_on inclined track Fige ~ body diagram of car Ww = 0.9m + 0.23299 m WeWeight ef car = 1.13294 m TaTenle fore m X= E1TKA— 22,Ag] T eksAngle: of Metine. 1 = pana LO-e-NCL0nm*) As Effective avea % 1.132% mX(0.01934 m)] of cable 0.580m <—— B,,R.=Wheel ‘ (ne Friction force between Wheels and. rails) vilibrium in the inclined direction FeO Gh ye T-Weint=0 T= Wenn Tensile. In the cable al = Num ena a Substitvre_numerical valves? WHO KN = K=Z2° AW 480 mnt 6 = Sug enGsin 2°) Gn 29) = 21 Mm Equilibrium in the inclined divection Ho—e BF A..F Misinetno Retuining wall braced by wood shores wel raced By weed Sores T= Wein Tensile stress in the cable Avorea of one Or = La Wand A=(6.0m)(6.0 im.) a = 36 nz Substitvtc numerical values: Wel@k A&=30° Asx 0471 int Or ENE) = 1a est a Cus Coss Cra lsinee Equilibrivm ZMi20 OO FSF) © Cvi2F4) +Cn 5H) =O G5 KMS fe) + Cin 30°12 f+) + Coss fr) =O 2. C2 30.83K Compressive. stress in shore. 30.83K _ J EASE 20.856 si crane with girder and cable HeLém L,=3.0m As Sa mom c u te Tron Free -body ara of girder T e- Tetensile force A A ar =I " ¢ im cable t Bom Sm P32 [Cont + 12-10 CONT] 4 ents) Cashorizontal component of C | “Tensile foree tn cable ~™*¥ e c Cer vertical component of C | Ts FRESE = GomroGemF = loz" (Average Strain in cable. LatlSm Aveffective area af} s c of Cable a: . q 12 4 Equilibrivn 2M,=0 DO Fy (B-Om) = (32 KN)A.S mm) = O a 48kN br. 3.0m 0m 6 Tas HUHP) 1 tensile Strece_in Cable. 102 KN nate ae oly ee T. oats Le length of cable LVR*=LF = 34m §astvetch of cable $= 5.1 mm $, Blmm = 1500 «107° en » << Gs? aa crane With girder and cable H=9f L=12F Lartfe An effective: aven pes moat nd +4000 Ib Free ~body diagram of due sable Pa Te tensile ' eb” Jeaocots Eqpilibrivm EMA20 PD > TiCirte) C000 te) C16 fe) =O Ty 12,000 b eb pt sh G) =(2,000 8) (3) = le,000% “Tensile force. tn Cable, Ts [TESTE « [Cems Cz conye = 20,0006 Average Tensile stress_in. cable. 200 le © 42,500 pci — aT. Bocow TK? Canine in in Le of cole LVHF4LE = ISS $+ stretch of cable §+0.382 In. eed = = 2120%10°%. 0.202 Ws) orked ¥ Le ve of st side of nite br a slale Y= Weight densi ot reinforced cb We weight of slab atte Dale = LVz Dimensions of - AB. eh chedy diagram of heok at point A Wi Tatensile force ina cable. u te of diagonal of slale ae cable. = eee od TTT Coble AB wT gh) (DD 12-12 CONT! eats, 2 Fur =O fo | WAT =O Tw (ea.2) + Combine Eqs. () & (2) 7 ae) ey ER 2 Tensile. Stress na calole ‘Aa effective ores-cecttmal area of a cable. T Oa = Ne <-— Subetivie numerical valves and cbtwin Oe! L=25m b8225 wm As190 mm* He LG o Se 24 et We YLAE = (24 HYfnd) (2.5 o)® (225 mam) =33.75 kh Or Paws = 66.2 MPa tating Bar = Avaply, speed Oo kB Azcrms~ aves! e © Xe weight density 3s Liamass density i We wish 4p find the axial force Fic bathe bar at Section D, distance % from the midpoint C. Teoh uals the inertia farce. of OTe voting Vor from Din ©. die wet CONT. erties an element of mass dM at $ from the midpoint C. The var ranges | from X to L- dM-ZA aS Tlensik tests of three materials AF «Inertia force Ceonerifogat force) of element of mass dF= Cam) (g10%) =F Auras fre {ars fF “Eawrsas =¥A iaet (-x2) Tensile stress tm bar at wpe x Orne we x4) <— (6) Maxt mum setae stress wrt — 24 Percent Le = 50mm Forcent elongation = (1) (100) €a.1) where Li is in millimeters. —_—- ou = Apcb= (00) = (-I )loo Rercent reduction in rea = Asa G00) d= Final diameter ol Hanging _wive of length L_ W= fotal weight oe mnestmadd copper wire. = wig! she ‘tes of copper X20 Ope = a 580 Uf, Bue weight density of sea water =63-BhLS rf A> cross-sectional area of wire] @) Wire hanging in air We¥eAL, Sux = ao Lowe Seat = ZEPer (144 8p,2) =6470 fr <— b) Wive hanging In sea water Fetensile force at top of wire, Fe (8-8 AL Free =F (be SL Ou we 28 a a = cig, ne) Lane = 2 =7310 f& <— do initial diamebor de = 12mm H=(4 (Ay Percent reduction in area = LI~(4)*]&100) where. dy is in mii meters (2.2) ee Dectile. Strength = to -weight ratio vitimate stress OF for each material The is obtained from, Table H-3, Appendix H, ged He weght deity 8 is ah seed From Table The strength -4o - weight ratio (feet) Ie Reses = PURE (lo! Ma Cine) =F (en10®) $= elongation of bar CD J=L3-L, =0.0653L Strain bar cd = 2 by From the ctress- Strain diagram of Fig. iz: CRA) kei on B40 MR <— Titaniom has a high Strength -te-welght Symmetrical framevorle ratio, which is why i 1S Used In space vehicles and high-performance. alrplanes. Aluminum alloy Aluminum Is much higher than order ange Steel which wukes it desirable for Eg? 0.0713 commercial aiveraft. Nylon and some P words have a higher vatto than Use, streas- strain diagram of Figure I-13 4 5 2 YY Ir length of bar BD * Lye distance BC ordinary sheet SL eoth«L (cot48") =0.4004L. Latlength of bar cd sLcecot= L (ese 46") =1L.3456! aptnin diaara Fiver 1912. mn of bar BD =Egnl CS Lelength of bar BD Ly distance BC - Leotec cL (etSo'yeossqu| bsX/Li +O eal) = (foro E rome Lye length of bare 313994 L aL ceete LleaS0") 1.50641. 1 f= clongation of barr CD e mn of bar BD= Ego §+L,-L, = 0.0538L Ew L * 0.0839L Strain in bac = & =22522L. ao.0400 Ly=distonce CE ner Ly ~ hacer Le=JT} + @ ent} = eam ot Graceny] From the sheas- strain diagram of Figure 1-13: *1.3707 L. On 32ksi <+— “Tensile tect of a plastic poten stress-strain daha given th the. iy Statement, plot thevstress ~éhain jo.00010 Jo.o0020 Stress y Jo.00100 Brita) . lc. 00166 00196 fo.00215 0.00235 lo-00270 0-c0a1s 0.00480 e005 10 00660 o-ct5> loose loo2s35 [0.05640 Strain, Oe ere Tortora leat Ort 24 IMR i lus of elasticity (slope) 22 4GRer] cn OF = yield sete ot 0.2% offset (rs) Oy = 53M% <— Material is brittle, because the Stain after the proportional limit Yexceated is nasa Srnall, <— or test of high-strength steel d,=0.505 In. Lo=Z.00 in. 0.0200 0.0400 0.0600 A= age = 0.200 in? Strain Conventional stress and sivain Enlargement of part of the stress-strain Curve: o-k 6a be 100,