Georgia coffee

Coca Cola Japan is rolling out a new canned coffee in its Georgia label. The Emerald Mountain Blend Bito uses high-quality Emerald Mountain beans and contains only a dash of sugar. 120 yen for a 190-gram can. ShareThis Ready-to-Drink Seattle's Best Coffee Canned Iced Lattes Product Requested: 0 Viewed: 214 Uploaded on: Apr 18, 2010 Product Description Seattle's Best Coffee brewed up a new line of canned iced lattes for retailers in the Western U.S. The new Seattle's Best Coffee Iced Latte drinks replicate handcrafted versions of the company's lattes crafted in its cafes, and are available in Iced Latte, Iced Vanilla Latte and Iced Mocha flavors. The drinks have a suggested retail price of $1.49 for a single can and $4.99 for a four-pack, according to the company. The new ready-to-drink coffee beverages are part of the North American Coffee Partnership (NACP), a joint venture between Starbucks Corp. and Pepsi-Cola North America Beverages.

Coffee
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the beverage. For the bean it is made from, see Coffee bean. For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation).

Coffee

A cup of black coffee Type Hot or cold beverage

Country of origin Ethiopia Introduced Color Approx. 15th century (beverage) Dark brown, beige, black, light brown

Coffee is a popular brewed drink prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. They are seeds of coffee cherries that grow on trees in over 70 countries, cultivated primarily in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Green unroasted coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.[1] Due to its caffeine content, coffee often has a stimulating effect on humans. Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide, second only to tea.[2]

The latter is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). depending on the desired flavor.[5] It was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons.[4] In East Africa and Yemen. which contain the coffee seed.[3] The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century. then to the rest of Europe. and the cultivation of coffee first expanded in the Arab world. it was used in religious ceremonies.[6] and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe.[9] The method of brewing coffee has been found to be important to its health effects. and to the Americas. An important export commodity. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004. or "bean". to Indonesia. As a result. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees. The energizing effect of the coffee bean plant is thought to have been discovered in the northeast region of Ethiopia. coffee spread to Italy. coffee berries are picked. and the 'robusta' form of the hardier Coffea canephora.[10] . are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. and dried. the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption. Once ripe. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea arabica.[3] From the Muslim world. in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen in southern Arabia.[8] Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. whether the overall effects of coffee are ultimately positive or negative has been widely disputed.Coffee has played a crucial role in many societies throughout history. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways. a ban in effect until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia.[7] and it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value in 2005. processed. Coffee berries.

3 Preparation o 4.2 Prohibition o 8.1.2 Storage o 4.4 Roast characteristics  4.2 Fair trade 6 Health and pharmacology o 6.2 Ecological effects 4 Processing o 4.3 Folklore and culture 9 See also 10 Notes o 10.1 Preparing green coffee  4.3 Grading the roasted beans  4.1 Commodity o 5.1 Production o 3.1 Roasting  4.1 Coffeehouses o 8.2 Citations 11 References 12 External links [edit] Etymology .4 Presentation 5 Sale and distribution o 5.1.5 Decaffeination o 4.1.1.Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y y y y 1 Etymology 2 Biology 3 Cultivation o 3.2 Caffeine content 7 History 8 Social and cultural aspects o 8.1.2 The roasting process  4.1 Caffeine and headaches o 6.1 Footnotes o 10.

liberica. is native to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia and the Boma Plateau in southeastern Sudan and possibly Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya. the original and most highly regarded species. and gave its etymology. signifying "to have no appetite". since the plant is indigenous to that area. usually 10±15 cm (4±6 in) long and 6 cm (2. Several alternative etymologies exist that hold that the Arab form may disguise a loanword from an Ethiopian or African source. In English and other European languages. and clusters of . mauritiana.4 in) wide.[11][12] However. Arab Italian caffè. to the verb qahiya.Illustration of Coffea arabica plant and seeds The first reference to "coffee" in the English language. They are evergreen shrubs or small trees that may grow 5 m (15 ft) tall when unpruned.[15] Less popular species are C. excelsa. qahwah. in the form chaoua. arabica. The two main species commercially cultivated are Coffea canephora (predominantly a form known as 'robusta') and C. arabica. the native name in Shoa being b n. the highland in southwestern Ethiopia as one.[11] since this beverage was thought to dull one's hunger. dates to 1598. The leaves are dark green and glossy. and racemosa. canephora is native to western and central subsaharan Africa. from Guinea to the Uganda and southern Sudan. coffee derives from the Ottoman Turkish kahve. the term used in that region for the berry and plant is bunn. via the . stenophylla. The Turkish word in turn was borrowed from the Arabic: lexicographers maintain that qahwah originally referred to a type of wine.'[11] [edit] Biology Main articles: Coffea and coffee varieties Several species of shrub of the genus Coffea produce the berries from which coffee is extracted. The flowers are axillary.[14] C.[13] C. in turn. All coffee plants are classified in the large family Rubiaceae. suggesting Kaffa.

about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. there is great scope for experimentation in search of potential new strains. arabica coffee (from C. it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends.5 cm (0. Each berry usually contains two seeds.[16] Green when immature. Good quality robusta beans are used in some espresso blends to provide a fullbodied taste. liberica are self-incompatible and require outcrossing.[13] Robusta strains also contain about 40±50% more caffeine than arabica. Coffea canephora. such as corn. before turning black on drying. and to lower the ingredient cost. grafting.[20] On the other hand. used in Brazil. canephora). beans. then crimson.[19] [edit] Cultivation Map showing areas of coffee cultivation: r:Coffea canephora m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica a:Coffea arabica Coffee is usually propagated by seeds. The robusta strain was . a better foam head (known as crema).[18] Berries ripen in seven to nine months. half are eliminated naturally.6 in). Coffea canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. Coffee is often intercropped with food crops. For these reasons. The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season. arabica and can be cultivated in lower altitudes and warmer climates where C. arabica) is generally more highly regarded than robusta coffee (from C. arabica.[19] Cuttings. and as a result the seedlings are generally uniform and vary little from their parents. C.[22] However. and budding are the usual methods of vegetative propagation. This means that useful forms and hybrids must be propagated vegetatively. is to raise seedlings in nurseries that are then planted outside at six to twelve months. excelsa and C. but 5±10% of the berries[17] have only one. they ripen to yellow. robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor but better body than arabica. Coffea arabica is predominantly self-pollinating. In contrast. arabica will not thrive.[16] Of the two main species grown.fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously and are followed by oval berries of about 1. or rice during the first few years of cultivation.[21] For this reason. these are called peaberries. A more effective method of growing coffee.

467 12. further breeding resulted in the establishment of robusta plantations in many countries.504 7.000 225. Nematodes attack the roots.475 325. 9 species of mites. arabica is vulnerable. Some 20 species of nematodes. as the predators of the pests are more sensitive than the pests themselves.751 4.148 4.[24] Over 900 species of insect have been recorded as pests of coffee crops worldwide.800 288.[28] Instead. and borer beetles burrow into stems and woody material.565 252.953 . From Java.[23] In particular. Each part of the coffee plant is assailed by different animals. the spread of the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix).[25] In general. Birds and rodents sometimes eat coffee berries but their impact is minor compared to invertebrates. over a third are beetles.010 961. using techniques such as targeted treatment of pest outbreaks. a tributary of the Congo River. Of these.249.150 4.377 676. and was conveyed from Zaire to Brussels to Java around 1900. arabica is the more sensitive species to invertebrate predation overall. and over a quarter are bugs. integrated pest management has developed.000 268.200 697. several snails and slugs also attack the crop. Branches infested with scale are often cut and left on the ground. Coffee leaf rust is found in virtually all countries that produce coffee.070 16.100 2.[27] Mass spraying of insecticides has often proven disastrous. hastened the uptake of the resistant robusta. and managing crop environment away from conditions favouring pests.[29] [edit] Production 2007 Top twenty green coffee producers Country Brazil Vietnam Colombia Indonesia Ethiopia[note 1] India Mexico Guatemala[note 1] Peru Tonnes[30] Bags (thousands)[31] 2. to which C. which promotes scale parasites to not only attack the scale on the fallen branches but in the plant as well.906 4.992 36.[26] the foliage is attacked by over 100 species of larvae (caterpillars) of butterflies and moths.first collected in 1890 from the Lomani.

791 431 1.842 2.250 1.055 97.319 Papua New Guinea[note 1] 75.000 124. but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing.675 In 2009 Brazil was the world leader in production of green coffee. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa. or Asia. [edit] Ecological effects .311 62.400 Venezuela Madagascar[note 2] Thailand World[note 3] 70.626 1. Indonesia and Colombia. body.742. eastern Africa.Honduras Côte d'Ivoire Uganda Costa Rica Philippines El Salvador Nicaragua 217.150 3. such as Colombian. and to some extent in Brazil.877 95.660 7.700 968 897 604 653 117. aroma.000 55.[32] Arabica coffee beans are cultivated in Latin America. and acidity.[34] Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown. throughout southeast Asia. followed by Vietnam. Arabia.[13] Beans from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor.951 170. Java and Kona.849 168.456 90.[33] These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region.909 3.

and the coffee is often grown in countries where there is a water shortage.[43][44] Another issue concerning coffee is its use of water.A flowering Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantation Main article: Coffee and the environment Originally.[39] In addition. using industrial farming practices. in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy. while certain types of shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems. unshaded coffee enhanced by fertilizer use yields the highest amounts of coffee. while retaining comparable yields. and one glass of wine requires an input of 120 liters (32 US gal) of water. They are especially appreciated by worms and acid-loving plants such as blueberries. the United States Geological Survey reports that one egg requires an input of 454 liters (120 US gal) of water. Inga.[38] Although traditional coffee production causes berries to ripen more slowly and produce lower yields. as well as the nitrogen-fixing non-legume sheoaks of the genus Casuarina. pesticide pollution. Gliricidia. Albizia. many farmers switched their production method to sun cultivation.[41] and the Rainforest Alliance have led a campaign for "shade-grown" and organic coffees.[46] Coffee grounds may be used for composting or as a mulch. Starting in the 1970s. Opponents of sun cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation. although unfertilized shaded crops generally yield higher than unfertilized unshaded crops² namely the response to fertilizer is much greater in full sun. Cassia. one serving of milk requires an input of 246 liters (65 US gal) of water. which can be sustainably harvested. those more distant from continuous forest still compare rather poorly to undisturbed native forest in terms of habitat value for some bird species. For comparison.[42] However. but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides. which damage the environment and cause health problems. but many species have been planted as well.[47] Some commercial coffee shops run .[35] The American Birding Association. Erythrina. the traditional shaded method provides living space for many wildlife species. This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields.[36] This method is commonly referred to as the traditional shaded method. the quality of the coffee is allegedly superior. one serving of rice requires an input of 132 liters (35 US gal) of water. habitat destruction. such as Ethiopia.[40] National Arbor Day Foundation. it takes about 140 liters (37 US gal) of water to grow the coffee beans needed to produce one cup of coffee.[35] Originally remnant forest trees were used for this purpose. and soil and water degradation are the side effects of these practices. According to New Scientist. the amount of water usage can be dramatically reduced. coffee farming was done in the shade of trees that provided a habitat for many animals and insects.[37] Ultimately.[45] By using sustainable agriculture methods. and Leucaena. or "shade-grown". and the silky oak Grevillea robusta. These include leguminous trees of the genera Acacia. Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center.

[49] Then they are sorted by ripeness and color and the flesh of the berry is removed. and labeled as green coffee. After picking. which allows the air to pass on all sides of the coffee. which incorporates fermentation into the process and yields a mild coffee. In this method the drying that takes place is more uniform. green coffee is processed by one of two methods²the dry process method. The best (but least used) method of drying coffee is using drying tables. which generates massive amounts of coffee wastewater. the coffee is sorted. Another way to let the coffee beans dry is to let them sit on a concrete patio and rake over them in the sunlight. In this method. Most African coffee is dried in this manner and certain coffee farms around the world are starting to use this traditional method. More commonly. it involves the selection of only the berries at the peak of ripeness. usually by machine. and the seeds²usually called beans²are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the bean. Some companies use cylinders to pump in heated air to dry the coffee beans. including Starbucks' "Grounds for your Garden" project. though this is generally in places where the humidity is very high. the pulped and fermented coffee is spread thinly on raised beds. and the wet process method. Finally. simpler and less labor intensive as the berries can be strip picked. a labor intensive method. where all berries are harvested simultaneously regardless of ripeness by person or machine. the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue. the seeds are dried. Berries have been traditionally selectively picked by hand. and then the coffee is mixed by hand. and fermentation is less likely. When the fermentation is finished. crops are strip picked. Next.[48] [edit] Processing [edit] Roasting Main articles: Coffee processing and Coffee roasting [edit] Preparing green coffee Coffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they become the familiar roasted coffee.[50] [edit] The roasting process Coffee beans .initiatives to make better use of these grounds.

other oils start to develop.[54] Decaffeination is often done by processing companies. Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state. caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches in the bean. though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the beans.[52] One of these oils is caffeol.[51] The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically. or very dark.The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee. though different varieties of beans differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates.[56] Chaff is usually removed from the beans by air movement.[54] . This elaborate light meter uses a process known as spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the roasted coffee's relative degree of roast or flavor development. or it can be home roasted. dark. Lighter roasts have a more complex and therefore perceived stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times. [edit] Roast characteristics Darker roasts are generally bolder because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor. aromatic oils.[52] During roasting. The bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost and increases in volume.[52] [edit] Decaffeination Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo. and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry.[53] Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. but all involve either soaking the green beans in hot water (often wrongly called the "Swiss water" process) or steaming them. causing it to become less dense. which is largely responsible for coffee's aroma and flavor. medium.[55] A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing. The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches approximately 200 °C (392 °F). medium light.[54] [edit] Grading the roasted beans Depending on the color of the roasted beans as perceived by the human eye. Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown. A more accurate method of discerning the degree of roast involves measuring the reflected light from roasted beans illuminated with a light source in the near infrared spectrum. created at about 200 °C (392 °F). changing the color of the bean. It can be sold roasted by the supplier. medium dark. they will be labeled as light. During roasting. acids weaken changing the flavor. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee. then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils. and with rare exceptions all coffee is roasted before it is consumed. at 205 °C (401 °F). The density of the bean also influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging.

The ideal holding temperature is 79 to 85 °C (174 to 185 °F) and the ideal serving temperature is 68 to 79 °C (154 to 174 °F).[57] [edit] Preparation For more details on this topic. or in the home. . the spent grounds are removed from the liquid. see Coffee preparation. with dark reddish-brown crema Coffee beans must be ground and brewed to create a beverage. Espresso brewing. There are many variations in the fineness of grind. spices). but without boiling for more than an instant. boiling develops an unpleasant "cooked" flavor. the container must be airtight and kept in a cool. and the liquid is consumed. which prevents air from entering. The roasted coffee beans may be ground at a roastery. heat. to roast raw beans at home. and the removal of the spent grounds. The criteria for choosing a method include flavor and economy. in a grocery store. dry and dark place. and light are the environmental factors[57] responsible for deteriorating flavor in coffee beans. coffee beans must be stored properly to preserve the fresh taste of the bean. milk. Ideally. Most coffee is roasted and ground at a roastery and sold in packaged form. It is also possible. though roasted coffee beans can be ground at home immediately before consumption. additional flavorings (sugar. the ways in which the water extracts the flavor. Folded-over bags. In order of importance: air.[edit] Storage Once roasted. moisture. a common way consumers often purchase coffee. Finally. A better package contains a one-way valve. are generally not ideal for long-term storage because they allow air to enter. though uncommon. Almost all methods of preparing coffee require the beans to be ground and mixed with hot water for long enough to extract the flavor.

In an automatic coffeemaker hot water drips onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter made of paper. As a result of brewing under high pressure (ideally between 9±10 atm). a medium grind is used in most common home coffee-brewing machines. while coffee percolator or French press are the coarsest grinds. making it stronger and leaving more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic coffee machine. The espresso method forces hot (but not boiling) pressurized water through ground coffee. or pressured. then filtering.[58] Other pressurized water methods include the Moka pot and Vacuum coffee maker. The liquid drips through the coffee and the filter into a carafe or pot.[60] or by a thermostat that turns off the heater when the entire pot reaches a certain temperature. Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method.[61] The coffee is poured from the container. Turkish grind is the finest grind. steeped. Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water. an electric grinder smashes the beans with blunt blades moving at high speed. boiling water is forced into a chamber above a filter by steam pressure created by boiling.[59] It is prepared by grinding or pounding the beans to a fine powder. a burr mill is deemed superior because the grind is more even and the grind size can be adjusted. allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while extracting its oils and essences. Coffee may also be brewed in cold water by steeping coarsely ground beans in cold water for several hours. For most brewing methods. all the coffee oils remain in the beverage.[58] Coffee may be brewed by several methods: boiled.[62] . The most common grinds are between the extremes. A circular filter which fits tightly in the cylinder fixed to a plunger is then pushed down from the top to force the grounds to the bottom. and the process is repeated until terminated by removing from the heat. and Turkish coffee is an example of this method. plastic. and a mortar and pestle crushes the beans. the filter retains the grounds at the bottom. the espresso beverage is more concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the quantity of coffee to water as gravity-brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex physical and chemical constitution. The water then seeps through the grounds.[59] Coffee percolators and automatic coffeemakers brew coffee using gravity.Coffee beans may be ground in several ways.[60] In a percolator. in Greek. A burr mill uses revolving elements to shear the bean. This produces a strong coffee with a layer of foam on the surface and sediment (which is not meant for drinking) settling on the bottom of the cup. A wellprepared espresso has a reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface. then adding it to water and bringing it to the boil for no more than an instant in a pot called a cezve or. Ground coffee and hot water are combined in a cylindrical vessel and left to brew for a few minutes. a bríki. Coffee may be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press (also known as a cafetière or coffee press). and the spent grounds are retained in the filter. by an internal timer. The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used. or perforated metal.

[63] and a dollop of hot foamed milk on top creates a caffè macchiato. as illustrated by the common fern design layered into this latte. Coffee in Syria Once brewed. Reversing the process by adding espresso to hot water preserves the crema. Espresso-based coffee has a wide variety of possible presentations. coffee may be presented in a variety of ways. percolated. It may be sweetened with sugar or artificial sweetener. or not (black coffee). it is called iced coffee.[64] equal parts steamed milk and milk froth make a cappuccino.[edit] Presentation See also: List of coffee beverages Presentation can be an integral part of coffeehouse service. In its most basic form.[65] The use of steamed milk to form patterns such as hearts or maple leaves is referred to as latte art. . or dairy substitute (colloquially known as white coffee).[63] Milk can be added in various forms to espresso: steamed milk makes a caffè latte. When served cold. or Frenchpressed/cafetière coffee may be served with a dairy product such as milk or cream. and is known as a long black. it is served alone as a shot or in the more watered-down style Caffè Americano²a shot or two of espresso with hot water added. Drip-brewed.

particularly in China. and Tia Maria. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta coffee. Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks. and costs about 10¢ a cup to produce. much like brewed or percolated coffee. with Nescafé the most popular product. [edit] Sale and distribution Brazilian coffee sacks.[69] Paralleling (and complementing) the rapid rise of instant coffee was the coffee vending machine. and South Korea. Japan.[72] Coffee can also be incorporated with alcohol in beverages²it is combined with whiskey in Irish coffee. Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee.[71] Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time. Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze-dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water.[68] Many consumers determined that the convenience in preparing a cup of instant coffee more than made up for a perceived inferior taste.A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee. and forms the base of alcoholic coffee liqueurs such as Kahlúa. . which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk.[70] Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years. Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States. invented in 1947 and multiplying rapidly through the 1950s.[67] it rapidly gained in popularity in many countries in the post-war period.[66] Originally invented in 1907. or 1. The machines used can process up to 500 cups an hour. available both hot and cold.000 if the water is preheated.

[74] Indonesia is the third-largest exporter and the largest producer of washed arabica coffee. that his statement was incorrect.[76] now believes. in 2005. its value is directly affected by the length of time it is held). 33. coffee is bought and sold by roasters.[75] Higher and lower grade arabica coffees are sold through other channels.7 million metric tons of coffee were produced annually in 1998±2000. but Vietnam tripled its exports between 1995 and 1999.Small-sized bag of coffee beans.991 metric . on the New York ICE exchange. Coffee futures contracts for Grade 3 washed arabicas are traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange under ticker symbol KC. after further research.[77] [edit] Fair trade Main article: Fair trade coffee The concept of fair trade labeling. with contract deliveries occurring every year in March. In 2004. since 2007. 24. As of 2006 green coffee was purported to be the second most traded commodity in the world. However Mark Pendergrast.050. and December. Main article: Economics of coffee See also: List of countries by coffee consumption per capita Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe. [edit] Commodity While coffee is not technically a commodity (it is fresh produce. 6.000 produced worldwide) were fair trade. and became a major producer of robusta beans. who originally wrote about this. July. began with the Max Havelaar Foundation's labeling program in the Netherlands. September. investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity.[2] Worldwide. which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated preharvest price.222 metric tons (of 7.[73] Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation. Futures contracts for robusta coffee are traded on the London Liffe exchange and. May. and the forecast is a rise to seven million metric tons annually by 2010.

including fair-trade products such as coffee. in April 2000.51%.[80] Since the founding of organisations such as the European Fair Trade Association (1987).[78][79] A number of fair trade impact studies have shown that fair trade coffee has a positive impact on the communities that grow it. Coffee was incorporated into the fair-trade movement in 1988.000 were fair trade.[85] a main active component of coffee Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions.[9] Variations in findings.tons out of 6. Starbucks decided to carry fairtrade coffee in its stores. the production and consumption of fair trade coffee has grown as some local and national coffee chains started to offer fair trade alternatives. Coffee prepared using paper filters removes oily . an increase from 0. after a year-long campaign by the human rights organization Global Exchange. On average 46% of European consumers claimed to be willing to pay substantially more for ethical products. can be at least partially resolved by considering the method of preparation.[83] The study found that the majority of respondents were unwilling to pay the actual price premium of 27% for fair trade coffee.34% to 0.[83] Since September 2009 all Starbucks Espresso beverages in UK and Ireland are made with Fairtrade and Shared Planet certified coffee. The very first fair-trade coffee was an effort to import a Guatemalan coffee into Europe as "Indio Solidarity Coffee".[81][82] For example.685. when the Max Havelaar mark was introduced in the Netherlands.[84] A 2005 study done in Belgium concluded that consumers' buying behavior is not consistent with their positive attitude toward ethical products. however. Findings have been contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits.[83] [edit] Health and pharmacology Main article: Health effects of coffee Overview of the more common effects of caffeine. and results are similarly conflicting regarding the potentially harmful effects of coffee consumption.

[94] Coffee consumption can lead to iron deficiency anemia in mothers and infants. Although the inhibition of iron absorption can cause an iron deficiency. Excessive amounts of coffee.[95] Coffee also interferes with the absorption of supplemental iron. He suggests that people can regain their appetite after cooking by smelling coffee beans. iron is considered a carcinogen in relation to the liver.[88] and gout. They are recommended to take decaffeinated coffee. Parkinson's disease. Two types of diterpenes are present in coffee: kahweol and cafestol.[90] Most of coffee's beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes are not due to its caffeine content. and this only if their stomach is healthy. conflicting data regarding serving size could partially explain differences between beneficial/harmful effects of coffee consumption. in many individuals.[97] American scientist Yaser Dorri has suggested that the smell of coffee can restore appetite and refresh olfactory receptors. researchers involved in an ongoing 22-year study by the Harvard School of Public Health state that "the overall balance of risks and benefits [of coffee consumption] are on the side of benefits.[10] In addition to differences in methods of preparation. heart disease.[92] A recent study showed that roast coffee. do not remove the oily components of coffee. Moderate amounts of coffee (50±100 mg of caffeine or 5±10 g of coffee powder a day) are well tolerated by most elderly people. cause very unpleasant. the metabolism of caffeine depends on the state of this enzymatic system of the liver. positive or negative. The resulting metabolites are mostly paraxanthines²theobromine and theophylline²and a small amount of unchanged caffeine is excreted by urine. on the other hand. caffeine is mostly broken down by the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system. diabetes mellitus type 2.[98] . because both decaffeinated coffee and coffee with caffeine cause heartburn. exceptionally even lifethreatening adverse effects. high in lipophilic antioxidants and chlorogenic acid lactones. A longitudinal study in 2009 showed that those who consumed a moderate amount of coffee or tea (3±5 cups per day) at midlife were less likely to develop dementia and Alzheimer's disease in late-life compared with those who drank little coffee or avoided it altogether. protected primary neuronal cell cultures against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. and that this method can also be used for research animals. both of which have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease via elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in blood.[96] Interference with iron absorption is due to the polyphenols present in coffee.[91] The presence of antioxidants in coffee has been shown to prevent free radicals from causing cell damage. however. Polyphenols contained in coffee are therefore associated with decreasing the risk of liver cancer development. Coffee consumption has been shown to have minimal or no impact.[89] It increases the risk of acid reflux and associated diseases. Elderly individuals with a depleted enzymatic system do not tolerate coffee with caffeine.[87] however. as the positive effects of consumption are greater in those who drink decaffeinated coffee. on cancer development.[86] Metal filters. cirrhosis of the liver.components called diterpenes that are present in unfiltered coffee."[87] Other studies suggest coffee consumption reduces the risk of being affected by Alzheimer's disease. Therefore.[93] In a healthy liver. can.

The study did not recommend that the caffeine and ibuprofen combination was effective against migraine headaches.000 chemicals have been reported in roasted coffee.[99] Coffee's negative health effects are often blamed on its caffeine content. and cause sleep disturbances. A 2009 Norwegian University of Science and Technology controlled study claims that heavy coffee drinkers. It may aggravate preexisting conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. general population report having stopped drinking coffee altogether. are more likely to suffer occasional headaches than persons who have low coffee or caffeine consumption.[105] A 1992 study concluded that about 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) experienced increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn."[107] About 15% of the U. citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects of caffeine.[103] One study suggests that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory. an over the counter pain killer. four cups a day.[106] but a 2002 review of the literature criticised its methodology and concluded that "[t]he effects of caffeine withdrawal are still controversial.Over 1. more than half of those tested (19/28) are rodent carcinogens.S. arrhythmias.[100] Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls. Illinois.[101] Caffeinated coffee is not recommended for everybody. A review by de Paulis and Martin indicated a link between a decrease in suicide rates and coffee consumption. revealed that adults who took ibuprofen. In a 2000 controlled study by the Diamond Headache Clinic in Chicago.[102] Coffee is no longer thought to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. even with those who drink coffee in moderation. migraines. combined with caffeine or one cup of coffee had increased effectiveness against tension headaches. Instant coffee has a much greater amount of acrylamide than brewed coffee. [109] [edit] Caffeine content . A Johns Hopkins controlled study has linked drinking coffee with addictive withdrawal headaches. and suggested that the action of caffeine in blocking the inhibitory effects of adenosine on dopamine nerves in the brain reduced feelings of depression. by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.[108] [edit] Caffeine and headaches There is some controversy over whether the caffeine in coffee causes headaches or helps relieve headaches.[104] Caffeine has been associated with its ability to act as an antidepressant.

Diet. The caffeine content of a cup of coffee varies depending mainly on the brewing method. the 9thcentury Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee.[3] From Ethiopia.[3] It was here in Arabia that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed. 207 ml) = 115 175 mg. coffee has the following caffeine content:[111] y y y brewed: 1 cup (7 oz.Caffeine molecule The stimulant effect of coffee is due to its caffeine content.[3] However.[110] According to Bunker and McWilliams (J. receiving a cup of coffee from a boy Ethiopian ancestors of today's Oromo people were believed to have been the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant. did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal. 1979). in a similar way to how it is now .5 2 oz. earlier than the 17th century. in the Sufi monasteries around Mokha in Yemen.[3] The story of Kaldi. drip: 1 cup (7 oz. and also on the variety of bean. Am. espresso: 1 cup (1. no direct evidence has been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant or even known about it.[112] The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century. 45 60 ml) = 100 mg [edit] History The following text needs to be harmonized with text in History of coffee. Main article: History of coffee Over the door of a Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish dress. the beverage was introduced into the Arab world through Egypt and Yemen. 207 ml) = 80 135 mg. 74:28±32.

Its consumers take it in the morning. it was introduced to the rest of Europe. Persia. to Indonesia. it had reached the rest of the Middle East. Turkey. Yemen. Egypt. Leonhard Rauwolf. is still in existence . particularly those of the stomach. despite appeals to ban the "Muslim drink.[114] Through the efforts of the British East India Company . Reise in die Morgenländer (in German) Pouring coffee in the Arab village Abu Ghosh (Israel) From the Muslim world.[4] The Dutch were the first to import coffee on a large scale. quite frankly. coffee spread to Italy. and to the rest of Europe.[4] In 1583. Coffee then spread to Italy. The thriving trade between Venice and North Africa. and to the Americas. Oxford's Queen's Lane Coffee House. coffee became popular in England as well. useful against numerous illnesses. established in 1654. a German physician.[54] The first exports of Indonesian coffee from Java to the Netherlands occurred in 1711. Coffee became more widely accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII in 1600. and northern Africa.[113] The Dutch later grew the crop in Java and Ceylon. Léonard Rauwolf. to the Venetian port. It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu. From Venice. gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten-year trip to the Near East: A beverage as black as ink. and they were among the first to defy the Arab prohibition on the exportation of plants or unroasted seeds when Pieter van den Broecke smuggled seedlings from Mocha.prepared. in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful. By the 16th century. and the Middle East brought many goods. into Europe in 1616. including coffee." The first European coffee house opened in Italy in 1645.

the Americans' taste for coffee grew. during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports. the dreadful conditions that the slaves worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon to follow Haitian Revolution. Burundi.[124] Coffee has become a vital cash crop for many Third World countries.today.[116] After the War of 1812. Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become dependent on coffee as their primary source of income. The latter beverage was simpler to make. coups and bloody suppression of peasants. and had become cheaper with the British conquest of India and the tea industry there. However. massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from the vicinity of Rio and later São Paulo for coffee plantations.[123] The notable exception was Costa Rica. It has become the primary export and backbone for African countries like Uganda. Harsh conditions led to many uprisings. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries.[117][not in citation given] Paradoxically. and by 1788 it supplied half the world's coffee[citation needed]. and high demand during the American Civil War together with advances in brewing technology secured the position of coffee as an everyday commodity in the United States. however.[118] The Frenchman Gabriel de Clieu brought a coffee plant to the French territory of Martinique in the Caribbean. Coffee was introduced in France in 1657. although its cultivation didn't gather momentum until independence in 1822. and Ethiopia. this was also due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants.[120] Meanwhile.[122] Cultivation was taken up by many countries in Central America in the latter half of the 19th century. it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe as alcoholic beverages remained more popular. coffee consumption declined in England.[121] After this time. and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna.[115] When coffee reached North America during the Colonial period. and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous people. where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms.[119] The territory of San Domingo (now Haiti) saw coffee cultivated from 1734. [edit] Social and cultural aspects Main article: Coffee culture . coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727. During the Revolutionary War.[125] as well as many Central American countries. the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically. Coffee thrived in the climate and was conveyed across the Americas. The coffee industry never fully recovered there. Rwanda. giving way to tea during the 18th century. when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks. from which much of the world's cultivated arabica coffee is descended.

the very first one is recorded in 1645. and caffè for specifically Italian traditions Most widely known as coffeehouses or cafés. A plaque on the wall still commemorates this and the Cafe is now a trendy cocktail bar.[128] By 1675. there were more than 3. Various legends involving the introduction of coffee to Istanbul at a "Kiva Han" in the late 15th century circulate in culinary tradition.[127] and not long after there were many coffee houses in Cairo. but with no documentation. and the drink.000 coffeehouses in England. Hitherto unknown in the workplace. In 1530 the first coffee house was opened in Damascus. and coffeehouses were established and quickly became popular. and has become an institution of the American workplace. for Muslims between 1512 and 1524. The first coffeehouses in Western Europe appeared in Venice.[126] Coffeehouses in Mecca soon became a concern as places for political gatherings to the imams who banned them. the "coffee break" was first promoted in 1952. The first coffeehouse in England was set up in Oxford in 1650 by a Jewish man named Jacob in the building now known as "The Grand Cafe". coffee appeared for the first time in Europe outside the Ottoman Empire.[70] [edit] Coffeehouses See also: Coffeehouse for a social history of coffee.[129] .A coffeehouse in Palestine (1900) Coffee is often consumed alongside (or instead of) breakfast by many at home. normally with a dessert. its uptake was facilitated by the recent popularity of both instant coffee and vending machines. In the 17th century. It is often served at the end of a meal. a result of the traffic between La Serenissima and the Ottomans. Aggressively promoted by the Pan-American Coffee Bureau. and at times with an after-dinner mint especially when consumed at a restaurant or dinner party. establishments serving prepared coffee or other hot beverages have existed for over five hundred years.

one such was the Green Dragon in Boston.[136] He bought the other owners out in March 1987 and pushed on with plans to expand²from 1987 to the end of 1991. traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern-day Yemen). North Beach in San Francisco saw the opening of the Caffe Trieste in 1957. The others were reluctant. tea and beer were often served together in establishments which functioned both as coffeehouses and taverns.[118] The modern espresso machine was born in Milan in 1945 by Achille Gaggia. and its production and consumption were briefly repressed. Voltaire.[140] Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca: it was accused of being a heretical substance. where Muslim dervishes began cultivating the shrub in their gardens. by three college students Jerry Baldwin. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies. the first modern encyclopedia. the espresso craze spread.[134] The international coffeehouse chain Starbucks began as a modest business roasting and selling quality coffee beans in Seattle in 1971. and pushed to sell premade espresso coffee.[139] Coffee drinking was prohibited by jurists and scholars (ulema) meeting in Mecca in 1511 as haraam.[133] Similar such cafes existed in Greenwich Village and elsewhere. An Italian named Pino Riservato opened the first espresso bar.[133] Similarly in the United States.In 1672 an Armenian named Pascal established a coffee stall in Paris that was ultimately unsuccessful and the city had to wait until 1689 for its first coffeehouse when Procopio Cutò opened the Café Procope.[137] The company's name graces 16.[130] America had its first coffeehouse in Boston. but Schultz opened Il Giornale in Seattle in April 1986. and Denis Diderot frequented it.100 years ago.[131] Coffee. He chose to focus on roasting batches with fresher. James Otis and Paul Revere planned rebellion. and there were 400 such bars in London alone by 1956. He was a trainer and supplier to the founders of Starbuck¶s. which saw Beat Generation poets such as Allen Ginsberg and Bob Kaufman alongside bemused Italian immigrants. The first store opened on March 30. the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries.[132] and from there spread across coffeehouses and restaurants across Italy and the rest of Europe and North America in the early 1950s. in Soho in 1952.[6] Coffee. the Moka Bar.600 stores in over 40 countries worldwide. but the subject of whether it was intoxicating was hotly debated over the next 30 years until the ban was finally overturned in the mid 16th century. and it is arguably the birthplace of the Encyclopédie. the chain (rebranded from Il Giornale to Starbucks) expanded to over 100 outlets. At least 1. CA by Dutch native Alfred Peet. This coffeehouse still exists today and was a major meeting place of the French Enlightenment.[133] The first Peet's Coffee & Tea store opened in 1966 in Berkeley. Gordon Bowker and Zev Siegl. followed by a second and third over the next two years.[138] [edit] Prohibition Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. in 1676. 1971.[135] Entrepreneur Howard Schultz joined the company in 1982 as Director of Retail Operations and Marketing. It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV. where John Adams. Cappucino was particularly popular among English drinkers. Rousseau. At first. higher quality beans than was the norm at the time. regarded as a .

[144] Quite a number of members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church also avoid caffeinated drinks. about dependence on the beverage. In its teachings. concerned about the price of import.[143] The organization holds that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee. but includes the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly.[142] A contemporary example of religious prohibition of coffee can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. They believed that the first coffee bush sprang up from the tears that the god of heaven shed over the corpse of a dead sorcerer.[144] This comes from the Mormon doctrine of health. Abstinence from coffee. the Church encourages members to avoid tea and coffee and other stimulants.[146] Johann Sebastian Bach was inspired to pen the Coffee Cantata. was prohibited by Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889. It does not identify coffee by name.[141] Lacking coffee producing colonies. he sought to force the public back to consuming beer.[118] Frederick the Great banned it in Germany in 1777 for nationalistic and economic reasons.[145] [edit] Folklore and culture The Oromo people would customarily plant a coffee tree on the graves of powerful sorcerers. it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. free from confounding factors. One study was able to show a weak but statistically significant association between coffee consumption and mortality from ischemic heart disease.Muslim drink. tobacco and alcohol by many Adventists has afforded a near unique opportunity for studies to be conducted within that population group on the health effects of coffee drinking. and all causes of death. all cardiovascular diseases combined.[147] . given in 1833 by Mormon founder Joseph Smith in a revelation called the Word of Wisdom. Germany had to import all its coffee at a great cost." which has been interpreted to forbid both coffee and tea. Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to Charles II outlawing coffeehouses from January 1676 (although the uproar created forced the monarch to back down two days before the ban was due to come into force). other cardiovascular disease.

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