Georgia coffee

Coca Cola Japan is rolling out a new canned coffee in its Georgia label. The Emerald Mountain Blend Bito uses high-quality Emerald Mountain beans and contains only a dash of sugar. 120 yen for a 190-gram can. ShareThis Ready-to-Drink Seattle's Best Coffee Canned Iced Lattes Product Requested: 0 Viewed: 214 Uploaded on: Apr 18, 2010 Product Description Seattle's Best Coffee brewed up a new line of canned iced lattes for retailers in the Western U.S. The new Seattle's Best Coffee Iced Latte drinks replicate handcrafted versions of the company's lattes crafted in its cafes, and are available in Iced Latte, Iced Vanilla Latte and Iced Mocha flavors. The drinks have a suggested retail price of $1.49 for a single can and $4.99 for a four-pack, according to the company. The new ready-to-drink coffee beverages are part of the North American Coffee Partnership (NACP), a joint venture between Starbucks Corp. and Pepsi-Cola North America Beverages.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the beverage. For the bean it is made from, see Coffee bean. For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation).


A cup of black coffee Type Hot or cold beverage

Country of origin Ethiopia Introduced Color Approx. 15th century (beverage) Dark brown, beige, black, light brown

Coffee is a popular brewed drink prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. They are seeds of coffee cherries that grow on trees in over 70 countries, cultivated primarily in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Green unroasted coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.[1] Due to its caffeine content, coffee often has a stimulating effect on humans. Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide, second only to tea.[2]

Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions.[10] . coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004. depending on the desired flavor.[5] It was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons.[4] In East Africa and Yemen. and the 'robusta' form of the hardier Coffea canephora. Coffee berries. or "bean". Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways.Coffee has played a crucial role in many societies throughout history. and the cultivation of coffee first expanded in the Arab world. are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The energizing effect of the coffee bean plant is thought to have been discovered in the northeast region of Ethiopia. and dried.[6] and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe.[7] and it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value in 2005. coffee berries are picked. processed. coffee spread to Italy. Once ripe.[3] The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century. The latter is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). which contain the coffee seed.[3] From the Muslim world. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees. it was used in religious ceremonies. in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen in southern Arabia. whether the overall effects of coffee are ultimately positive or negative has been widely disputed. a ban in effect until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia. then to the rest of Europe. the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee.[9] The method of brewing coffee has been found to be important to its health effects. and to the Americas.[8] Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. An important export commodity. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea arabica. to Indonesia. As a result.

2 The roasting process  4.1.2 Caffeine content 7 History 8 Social and cultural aspects o 8.4 Roast characteristics  4.Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y y y y 1 Etymology 2 Biology 3 Cultivation o 3.1.1 Production o 3.1.2 Prohibition o 8.1.1 Roasting  4.2 Storage o 4.4 Presentation 5 Sale and distribution o 5.1 Coffeehouses o 8.1 Preparing green coffee  4.2 Citations 11 References 12 External links [edit] Etymology .3 Preparation o 4.5 Decaffeination o 4.1 Commodity o 5.1.1 Footnotes o 10.3 Grading the roasted beans  4.3 Folklore and culture 9 See also 10 Notes o 10.1 Caffeine and headaches o 6.2 Fair trade 6 Health and pharmacology o 6.2 Ecological effects 4 Processing o 4.

[13] C. since the plant is indigenous to that area. In English and other European languages. The Turkish word in turn was borrowed from the Arabic: lexicographers maintain that qahwah originally referred to a type of wine. the term used in that region for the berry and plant is bunn. They are evergreen shrubs or small trees that may grow 5 m (15 ft) tall when unpruned.'[11] [edit] Biology Main articles: Coffea and coffee varieties Several species of shrub of the genus Coffea produce the berries from which coffee is extracted. suggesting Kaffa. and racemosa. The flowers are axillary.[15] Less popular species are C. in turn. via the .[11][12] However. from Guinea to the Uganda and southern Sudan. The two main species commercially cultivated are Coffea canephora (predominantly a form known as 'robusta') and C. Several alternative etymologies exist that hold that the Arab form may disguise a loanword from an Ethiopian or African source. usually 10±15 cm (4±6 in) long and 6 cm (2. the original and most highly regarded species. canephora is native to western and central subsaharan Africa. liberica. the native name in Shoa being b n. arabica. to the verb qahiya. dates to 1598. signifying "to have no appetite". mauritiana. the highland in southwestern Ethiopia as one. excelsa. All coffee plants are classified in the large family Rubiaceae. Arab Italian caffè.4 in) wide. is native to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia and the Boma Plateau in southeastern Sudan and possibly Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya. and clusters of . The leaves are dark green and glossy.[11] since this beverage was thought to dull one's hunger. in the form chaoua. arabica. qahwah.[14] C. and gave its etymology. coffee derives from the Ottoman Turkish kahve. stenophylla.Illustration of Coffea arabica plant and seeds The first reference to "coffee" in the English language.

arabica) is generally more highly regarded than robusta coffee (from C. but 5±10% of the berries[17] have only one. and as a result the seedlings are generally uniform and vary little from their parents. robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor but better body than arabica. Good quality robusta beans are used in some espresso blends to provide a fullbodied taste.6 in). Coffee is often intercropped with food crops. For these reasons. beans.[16] Of the two main species grown. Each berry usually contains two seeds. Coffea arabica is predominantly self-pollinating.[19] [edit] Cultivation Map showing areas of coffee cultivation: r:Coffea canephora m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica a:Coffea arabica Coffee is usually propagated by seeds. it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends.[13] Robusta strains also contain about 40±50% more caffeine than arabica. C. arabica. a better foam head (known as crema). such as corn. Coffea canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. these are called peaberries.[20] On the other hand. arabica and can be cultivated in lower altitudes and warmer climates where C. canephora). then crimson. In contrast. and budding are the usual methods of vegetative propagation. Coffea canephora.[16] Green when immature. and to lower the ingredient cost.[21] For this reason. liberica are self-incompatible and require outcrossing.[22] However. arabica coffee (from C. is to raise seedlings in nurseries that are then planted outside at six to twelve months. The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season. about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. excelsa and C. This means that useful forms and hybrids must be propagated vegetatively. they ripen to yellow.5 cm (0.[19] Cuttings. arabica will not thrive. used in Brazil. half are eliminated naturally.[18] Berries ripen in seven to nine months. grafting.fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously and are followed by oval berries of about 1. there is great scope for experimentation in search of potential new strains. A more effective method of growing coffee. before turning black on drying. The robusta strain was . or rice during the first few years of cultivation.

100 2.751 4.249.[25] In general. a tributary of the Congo River. several snails and slugs also attack the crop. further breeding resulted in the establishment of robusta plantations in many countries.800 288.010 961. the spread of the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix).467 12. Each part of the coffee plant is assailed by different animals.504 7.906 4.992 36. 9 species of mites.565 252. Some 20 species of nematodes. Branches infested with scale are often cut and left on the ground.[27] Mass spraying of insecticides has often proven disastrous. and borer beetles burrow into stems and woody material. arabica is the more sensitive species to invertebrate predation overall.200 697. using techniques such as targeted treatment of pest outbreaks. and managing crop environment away from conditions favouring pests.148 4.475 325. and was conveyed from Zaire to Brussels to Java around 1900. to which C.953 . hastened the uptake of the resistant robusta.000 268. arabica is vulnerable. as the predators of the pests are more sensitive than the pests themselves. Nematodes attack the roots.000 225.[24] Over 900 species of insect have been recorded as pests of coffee crops worldwide.[28] Instead.[26] the foliage is attacked by over 100 species of larvae (caterpillars) of butterflies and moths.[23] In particular.377 676. Birds and rodents sometimes eat coffee berries but their impact is minor compared to invertebrates.150 4. Coffee leaf rust is found in virtually all countries that produce coffee. integrated pest management has developed. Of these. From Java. which promotes scale parasites to not only attack the scale on the fallen branches but in the plant as well.070 16. and over a quarter are bugs.[29] [edit] Production 2007 Top twenty green coffee producers Country Brazil Vietnam Colombia Indonesia Ethiopia[note 1] India Mexico Guatemala[note 1] Peru Tonnes[30] Bags (thousands)[31] 2.first collected in 1890 from the Lomani. over a third are beetles.

791 431 1.660 7.400 Venezuela Madagascar[note 2] Thailand World[note 3] 70. followed by Vietnam. such as Colombian.250 1.Honduras Côte d'Ivoire Uganda Costa Rica Philippines El Salvador Nicaragua 217.842 2.742. Arabia.311 62.[34] Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown.055 97. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa.849 168.456 90.319 Papua New Guinea[note 1] 75. [edit] Ecological effects . aroma.000 55.[13] Beans from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor.909 3. and acidity.877 95. throughout southeast Asia.000 124.[33] These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region. and to some extent in Brazil.951 170.675 In 2009 Brazil was the world leader in production of green coffee. but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing.700 968 897 604 653 117. Java and Kona. eastern Africa.[32] Arabica coffee beans are cultivated in Latin America.150 3. or Asia. Indonesia and Colombia. body.626 1.

Erythrina. Opponents of sun cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation. which can be sustainably harvested. which damage the environment and cause health problems. in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy. Albizia. Cassia. Inga. while certain types of shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems.[37] Ultimately. and soil and water degradation are the side effects of these practices.[39] In addition.A flowering Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantation Main article: Coffee and the environment Originally. it takes about 140 liters (37 US gal) of water to grow the coffee beans needed to produce one cup of coffee. unshaded coffee enhanced by fertilizer use yields the highest amounts of coffee. the traditional shaded method provides living space for many wildlife species. using industrial farming practices. those more distant from continuous forest still compare rather poorly to undisturbed native forest in terms of habitat value for some bird species. These include leguminous trees of the genera Acacia. but many species have been planted as well. They are especially appreciated by worms and acid-loving plants such as blueberries. many farmers switched their production method to sun cultivation.[46] Coffee grounds may be used for composting or as a mulch.[42] However.[38] Although traditional coffee production causes berries to ripen more slowly and produce lower yields.[40] National Arbor Day Foundation.[41] and the Rainforest Alliance have led a campaign for "shade-grown" and organic coffees.[35] The American Birding Association. although unfertilized shaded crops generally yield higher than unfertilized unshaded crops² namely the response to fertilizer is much greater in full sun. and the silky oak Grevillea robusta. but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides. For comparison. According to New Scientist. This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields. the quality of the coffee is allegedly superior. while retaining comparable yields. the amount of water usage can be dramatically reduced.[45] By using sustainable agriculture methods. Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center. pesticide pollution. coffee farming was done in the shade of trees that provided a habitat for many animals and insects. and the coffee is often grown in countries where there is a water shortage. and Leucaena.[35] Originally remnant forest trees were used for this purpose.[43][44] Another issue concerning coffee is its use of water. the United States Geological Survey reports that one egg requires an input of 454 liters (120 US gal) of water. such as Ethiopia. Gliricidia.[36] This method is commonly referred to as the traditional shaded method. as well as the nitrogen-fixing non-legume sheoaks of the genus Casuarina. Starting in the 1970s. one serving of milk requires an input of 246 liters (65 US gal) of water. one serving of rice requires an input of 132 liters (35 US gal) of water.[47] Some commercial coffee shops run . and one glass of wine requires an input of 120 liters (32 US gal) of water. habitat destruction. or "shade-grown".

the coffee is sorted. and the seeds²usually called beans²are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the bean.[48] [edit] Processing [edit] Roasting Main articles: Coffee processing and Coffee roasting [edit] Preparing green coffee Coffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they become the familiar roasted coffee. the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue. and labeled as green coffee.[49] Then they are sorted by ripeness and color and the flesh of the berry is removed. and fermentation is less likely.[50] [edit] The roasting process Coffee beans . and then the coffee is mixed by hand. After picking. Some companies use cylinders to pump in heated air to dry the coffee beans. which incorporates fermentation into the process and yields a mild coffee. it involves the selection of only the berries at the peak of ripeness. crops are strip picked. a labor intensive method. Berries have been traditionally selectively picked by hand. Another way to let the coffee beans dry is to let them sit on a concrete patio and rake over them in the sunlight. In this method. and the wet process method. where all berries are harvested simultaneously regardless of ripeness by person or machine. In this method the drying that takes place is more uniform. usually by machine. More commonly. Next. The best (but least used) method of drying coffee is using drying tables. Finally. though this is generally in places where the humidity is very high. When the fermentation is finished. simpler and less labor intensive as the berries can be strip picked. including Starbucks' "Grounds for your Garden" project.initiatives to make better use of these grounds. Most African coffee is dried in this manner and certain coffee farms around the world are starting to use this traditional method. which allows the air to pass on all sides of the coffee. green coffee is processed by one of two methods²the dry process method. the pulped and fermented coffee is spread thinly on raised beds. the seeds are dried. which generates massive amounts of coffee wastewater.

but all involve either soaking the green beans in hot water (often wrongly called the "Swiss water" process) or steaming them.[52] During roasting. It can be sold roasted by the supplier.[56] Chaff is usually removed from the beans by air movement. aromatic oils. acids weaken changing the flavor. Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. created at about 200 °C (392 °F). [edit] Roast characteristics Darker roasts are generally bolder because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor. and with rare exceptions all coffee is roasted before it is consumed. or very dark. dark. Lighter roasts have a more complex and therefore perceived stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times.[54] Decaffeination is often done by processing companies. The density of the bean also influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging.[52] One of these oils is caffeol. medium dark. then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils. causing it to become less dense. changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown. and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry.The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee. changing the color of the bean.[55] A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing. caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches in the bean.[52] [edit] Decaffeination Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo.[53] Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. The bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost and increases in volume. During roasting.[54] . Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee.[51] The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically. they will be labeled as light. A more accurate method of discerning the degree of roast involves measuring the reflected light from roasted beans illuminated with a light source in the near infrared spectrum. medium. This elaborate light meter uses a process known as spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the roasted coffee's relative degree of roast or flavor development. The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches approximately 200 °C (392 °F). Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state. medium light. other oils start to develop.[54] [edit] Grading the roasted beans Depending on the color of the roasted beans as perceived by the human eye. though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the beans. or it can be home roasted. at 205 °C (401 °F). though different varieties of beans differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates. which is largely responsible for coffee's aroma and flavor.

in a grocery store. heat. a common way consumers often purchase coffee. see Coffee preparation. or in the home. . boiling develops an unpleasant "cooked" flavor. dry and dark place. additional flavorings (sugar. The roasted coffee beans may be ground at a roastery. moisture. though uncommon. Finally. though roasted coffee beans can be ground at home immediately before consumption. Almost all methods of preparing coffee require the beans to be ground and mixed with hot water for long enough to extract the flavor. and light are the environmental factors[57] responsible for deteriorating flavor in coffee beans. the spent grounds are removed from the liquid. and the removal of the spent grounds. Folded-over bags. It is also possible. There are many variations in the fineness of grind. to roast raw beans at home. spices). The ideal holding temperature is 79 to 85 °C (174 to 185 °F) and the ideal serving temperature is 68 to 79 °C (154 to 174 °F). milk. the ways in which the water extracts the flavor.[57] [edit] Preparation For more details on this topic. Espresso brewing. which prevents air from entering. In order of importance: air. the container must be airtight and kept in a cool. with dark reddish-brown crema Coffee beans must be ground and brewed to create a beverage.[edit] Storage Once roasted. A better package contains a one-way valve. but without boiling for more than an instant. are generally not ideal for long-term storage because they allow air to enter. Most coffee is roasted and ground at a roastery and sold in packaged form. The criteria for choosing a method include flavor and economy. coffee beans must be stored properly to preserve the fresh taste of the bean. and the liquid is consumed. Ideally.

or pressured. For most brewing methods.[61] The coffee is poured from the container. Coffee may be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press (also known as a cafetière or coffee press). steeped. Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water. a bríki. As a result of brewing under high pressure (ideally between 9±10 atm). in Greek. Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method. all the coffee oils remain in the beverage. making it stronger and leaving more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic coffee machine. the filter retains the grounds at the bottom. and the process is repeated until terminated by removing from the heat. and a mortar and pestle crushes the beans. by an internal timer. an electric grinder smashes the beans with blunt blades moving at high speed. a medium grind is used in most common home coffee-brewing machines. the espresso beverage is more concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the quantity of coffee to water as gravity-brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex physical and chemical constitution. Ground coffee and hot water are combined in a cylindrical vessel and left to brew for a few minutes.[58] Coffee may be brewed by several methods: boiled. In an automatic coffeemaker hot water drips onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter made of paper. then filtering. then adding it to water and bringing it to the boil for no more than an instant in a pot called a cezve or. and the spent grounds are retained in the filter.Coffee beans may be ground in several ways. and Turkish coffee is an example of this method.[60] In a percolator. This produces a strong coffee with a layer of foam on the surface and sediment (which is not meant for drinking) settling on the bottom of the cup. The water then seeps through the grounds. Turkish grind is the finest grind. The most common grinds are between the extremes.[58] Other pressurized water methods include the Moka pot and Vacuum coffee maker.[60] or by a thermostat that turns off the heater when the entire pot reaches a certain temperature. A wellprepared espresso has a reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface. The liquid drips through the coffee and the filter into a carafe or pot.[62] . plastic. while coffee percolator or French press are the coarsest grinds. The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used.[59] Coffee percolators and automatic coffeemakers brew coffee using gravity. A burr mill uses revolving elements to shear the bean. The espresso method forces hot (but not boiling) pressurized water through ground coffee. A circular filter which fits tightly in the cylinder fixed to a plunger is then pushed down from the top to force the grounds to the bottom. Coffee may also be brewed in cold water by steeping coarsely ground beans in cold water for several hours. or perforated metal. a burr mill is deemed superior because the grind is more even and the grind size can be adjusted.[59] It is prepared by grinding or pounding the beans to a fine powder. boiling water is forced into a chamber above a filter by steam pressure created by boiling. allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while extracting its oils and essences.

[64] equal parts steamed milk and milk froth make a cappuccino. as illustrated by the common fern design layered into this latte. or dairy substitute (colloquially known as white coffee).[63] and a dollop of hot foamed milk on top creates a caffè macchiato. percolated. . Coffee in Syria Once brewed. It may be sweetened with sugar or artificial sweetener. and is known as a long black. it is served alone as a shot or in the more watered-down style Caffè Americano²a shot or two of espresso with hot water added. In its most basic form. it is called iced coffee.[65] The use of steamed milk to form patterns such as hearts or maple leaves is referred to as latte art. Espresso-based coffee has a wide variety of possible presentations. or not (black coffee). Drip-brewed. coffee may be presented in a variety of ways. or Frenchpressed/cafetière coffee may be served with a dairy product such as milk or cream. When served cold.[63] Milk can be added in various forms to espresso: steamed milk makes a caffè latte.[edit] Presentation See also: List of coffee beverages Presentation can be an integral part of coffeehouse service. Reversing the process by adding espresso to hot water preserves the crema.

Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze-dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water. Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks.[72] Coffee can also be incorporated with alcohol in beverages²it is combined with whiskey in Irish coffee. much like brewed or percolated coffee. which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk. The machines used can process up to 500 cups an hour. with Nescafé the most popular product. and Tia Maria. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta coffee.[67] it rapidly gained in popularity in many countries in the post-war period. Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States. Japan. available both hot and cold. [edit] Sale and distribution Brazilian coffee sacks.[68] Many consumers determined that the convenience in preparing a cup of instant coffee more than made up for a perceived inferior taste. and South Korea. particularly in China.[70] Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years. . Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee.[66] Originally invented in 1907. and forms the base of alcoholic coffee liqueurs such as Kahlúa. and costs about 10¢ a cup to produce.[69] Paralleling (and complementing) the rapid rise of instant coffee was the coffee vending machine.A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee. invented in 1947 and multiplying rapidly through the 1950s.[71] Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time. or 1.000 if the water is preheated.

[edit] Commodity While coffee is not technically a commodity (it is fresh produce. in 2005.050. but Vietnam tripled its exports between 1995 and 1999. since 2007. and became a major producer of robusta beans.[77] [edit] Fair trade Main article: Fair trade coffee The concept of fair trade labeling. 6. and December. which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated preharvest price. coffee is bought and sold by roasters. after further research.000 produced worldwide) were fair trade. September.Small-sized bag of coffee beans.7 million metric tons of coffee were produced annually in 1998±2000. began with the Max Havelaar Foundation's labeling program in the Netherlands.991 metric . who originally wrote about this. 33. its value is directly affected by the length of time it is held).[76] now believes. on the New York ICE exchange. In 2004.[75] Higher and lower grade arabica coffees are sold through other channels. However Mark Pendergrast.222 metric tons (of 7. As of 2006 green coffee was purported to be the second most traded commodity in the world. and the forecast is a rise to seven million metric tons annually by 2010. that his statement was incorrect. Main article: Economics of coffee See also: List of countries by coffee consumption per capita Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe.[74] Indonesia is the third-largest exporter and the largest producer of washed arabica coffee.[2] Worldwide.[73] Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation. investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity. with contract deliveries occurring every year in March. 24. Futures contracts for robusta coffee are traded on the London Liffe exchange and. Coffee futures contracts for Grade 3 washed arabicas are traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange under ticker symbol KC. July. May.

in April 2000. and results are similarly conflicting regarding the potentially harmful effects of coffee consumption.51%. however. after a year-long campaign by the human rights organization Global Exchange. an increase from 0. the production and consumption of fair trade coffee has grown as some local and national coffee chains started to offer fair trade alternatives.34% to 0.685. can be at least partially resolved by considering the method of preparation.[83] Since September 2009 all Starbucks Espresso beverages in UK and Ireland are made with Fairtrade and Shared Planet certified coffee. when the Max Havelaar mark was introduced in the Netherlands.[80] Since the founding of organisations such as the European Fair Trade Association (1987). On average 46% of European consumers claimed to be willing to pay substantially more for ethical products. including fair-trade products such as coffee.[78][79] A number of fair trade impact studies have shown that fair trade coffee has a positive impact on the communities that grow it. Coffee was incorporated into the fair-trade movement in 1988. The very first fair-trade coffee was an effort to import a Guatemalan coffee into Europe as "Indio Solidarity Coffee".[81][82] For example. Coffee prepared using paper filters removes oily .[84] A 2005 study done in Belgium concluded that consumers' buying behavior is not consistent with their positive attitude toward ethical products. Findings have been contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits.000 were fair trade.[9] Variations in findings. Starbucks decided to carry fairtrade coffee in its stores.[83] [edit] Health and pharmacology Main article: Health effects of coffee Overview of the more common effects of caffeine.[85] a main active component of coffee Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions.tons out of 6.[83] The study found that the majority of respondents were unwilling to pay the actual price premium of 27% for fair trade coffee.

They are recommended to take decaffeinated coffee.[95] Coffee also interferes with the absorption of supplemental iron. caffeine is mostly broken down by the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system. Therefore."[87] Other studies suggest coffee consumption reduces the risk of being affected by Alzheimer's disease. positive or negative. Moderate amounts of coffee (50±100 mg of caffeine or 5±10 g of coffee powder a day) are well tolerated by most elderly people. because both decaffeinated coffee and coffee with caffeine cause heartburn.[93] In a healthy liver. Parkinson's disease. can. and that this method can also be used for research animals. Coffee consumption has been shown to have minimal or no impact. and this only if their stomach is healthy. high in lipophilic antioxidants and chlorogenic acid lactones.[96] Interference with iron absorption is due to the polyphenols present in coffee. heart disease.[91] The presence of antioxidants in coffee has been shown to prevent free radicals from causing cell damage.[98] . Although the inhibition of iron absorption can cause an iron deficiency. both of which have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease via elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in blood. He suggests that people can regain their appetite after cooking by smelling coffee beans.components called diterpenes that are present in unfiltered coffee. on the other hand. cirrhosis of the liver.[94] Coffee consumption can lead to iron deficiency anemia in mothers and infants.[92] A recent study showed that roast coffee.[87] however. A longitudinal study in 2009 showed that those who consumed a moderate amount of coffee or tea (3±5 cups per day) at midlife were less likely to develop dementia and Alzheimer's disease in late-life compared with those who drank little coffee or avoided it altogether. The resulting metabolites are mostly paraxanthines²theobromine and theophylline²and a small amount of unchanged caffeine is excreted by urine.[86] Metal filters. Two types of diterpenes are present in coffee: kahweol and cafestol.[10] In addition to differences in methods of preparation.[97] American scientist Yaser Dorri has suggested that the smell of coffee can restore appetite and refresh olfactory receptors. protected primary neuronal cell cultures against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death.[90] Most of coffee's beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes are not due to its caffeine content. exceptionally even lifethreatening adverse effects. in many individuals. the metabolism of caffeine depends on the state of this enzymatic system of the liver. however. as the positive effects of consumption are greater in those who drink decaffeinated coffee.[89] It increases the risk of acid reflux and associated diseases.[88] and gout. diabetes mellitus type 2. researchers involved in an ongoing 22-year study by the Harvard School of Public Health state that "the overall balance of risks and benefits [of coffee consumption] are on the side of benefits. conflicting data regarding serving size could partially explain differences between beneficial/harmful effects of coffee consumption. cause very unpleasant. on cancer development. do not remove the oily components of coffee. Elderly individuals with a depleted enzymatic system do not tolerate coffee with caffeine. iron is considered a carcinogen in relation to the liver. Polyphenols contained in coffee are therefore associated with decreasing the risk of liver cancer development. Excessive amounts of coffee.

are more likely to suffer occasional headaches than persons who have low coffee or caffeine consumption. revealed that adults who took ibuprofen.[102] Coffee is no longer thought to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. an over the counter pain killer.[99] Coffee's negative health effects are often blamed on its caffeine content.[108] [edit] Caffeine and headaches There is some controversy over whether the caffeine in coffee causes headaches or helps relieve headaches.Over 1. Instant coffee has a much greater amount of acrylamide than brewed coffee. A review by de Paulis and Martin indicated a link between a decrease in suicide rates and coffee consumption. by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information. four cups a day. more than half of those tested (19/28) are rodent carcinogens.[104] Caffeine has been associated with its ability to act as an antidepressant. even with those who drink coffee in moderation.S. and cause sleep disturbances."[107] About 15% of the U. combined with caffeine or one cup of coffee had increased effectiveness against tension headaches. migraines. A Johns Hopkins controlled study has linked drinking coffee with addictive withdrawal headaches.[105] A 1992 study concluded that about 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) experienced increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn. arrhythmias. general population report having stopped drinking coffee altogether.[106] but a 2002 review of the literature criticised its methodology and concluded that "[t]he effects of caffeine withdrawal are still controversial. It may aggravate preexisting conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. [109] [edit] Caffeine content .[103] One study suggests that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory.[101] Caffeinated coffee is not recommended for everybody. The study did not recommend that the caffeine and ibuprofen combination was effective against migraine headaches. A 2009 Norwegian University of Science and Technology controlled study claims that heavy coffee drinkers.[100] Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.000 chemicals have been reported in roasted coffee. Illinois. In a 2000 controlled study by the Diamond Headache Clinic in Chicago. and suggested that the action of caffeine in blocking the inhibitory effects of adenosine on dopamine nerves in the brain reduced feelings of depression. citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects of caffeine.

receiving a cup of coffee from a boy Ethiopian ancestors of today's Oromo people were believed to have been the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant.[3] It was here in Arabia that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed. Diet. coffee has the following caffeine content:[111] y y y brewed: 1 cup (7 oz. did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal.5 2 oz.[3] The story of Kaldi. Main article: History of coffee Over the door of a Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish dress.[112] The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century. Am. the beverage was introduced into the Arab world through Egypt and Yemen. 74:28±32. 1979). in the Sufi monasteries around Mokha in Yemen. 207 ml) = 80 135 mg.Caffeine molecule The stimulant effect of coffee is due to its caffeine content. in a similar way to how it is now . 45 60 ml) = 100 mg [edit] History The following text needs to be harmonized with text in History of coffee. 207 ml) = 115 175 mg. espresso: 1 cup (1. and also on the variety of bean.[110] According to Bunker and McWilliams (J. drip: 1 cup (7 oz.[3] However. the 9thcentury Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee.[3] From Ethiopia. no direct evidence has been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant or even known about it. The caffeine content of a cup of coffee varies depending mainly on the brewing method. earlier than the 17th century.

Its consumers take it in the morning.[114] Through the efforts of the British East India Company . Reise in die Morgenländer (in German) Pouring coffee in the Arab village Abu Ghosh (Israel) From the Muslim world. Egypt. particularly those of the stomach. and to the rest of Europe. Turkey. it was introduced to the rest of Europe. and northern Africa. into Europe in 1616. quite frankly. coffee spread to Italy. to Indonesia. despite appeals to ban the "Muslim drink. Leonhard Rauwolf. and to the Americas. Oxford's Queen's Lane Coffee House. Persia.[54] The first exports of Indonesian coffee from Java to the Netherlands occurred in 1711. including coffee. Yemen. and they were among the first to defy the Arab prohibition on the exportation of plants or unroasted seeds when Pieter van den Broecke smuggled seedlings from Mocha. is still in existence . By the 16th century. a German physician. Léonard Rauwolf. The thriving trade between Venice and North Africa.[4] The Dutch were the first to import coffee on a large scale.[4] In 1583. gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten-year trip to the Near East: A beverage as black as ink." The first European coffee house opened in Italy in 1645. and the Middle East brought many goods. It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu.[113] The Dutch later grew the crop in Java and Ceylon. to the Venetian port. useful against numerous illnesses.prepared. Coffee then spread to Italy. in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful. it had reached the rest of the Middle East. From Venice. coffee became popular in England as well. established in 1654. Coffee became more widely accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII in 1600.

Harsh conditions led to many uprisings. when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks. the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically. from which much of the world's cultivated arabica coffee is descended. Rwanda. however. coffee consumption declined in England. Coffee was introduced in France in 1657.[121] After this time. and by 1788 it supplied half the world's coffee[citation needed]. Coffee thrived in the climate and was conveyed across the Americas. and had become cheaper with the British conquest of India and the tea industry there. the Americans' taste for coffee grew.[119] The territory of San Domingo (now Haiti) saw coffee cultivated from 1734. Burundi.[123] The notable exception was Costa Rica. this was also due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants. coups and bloody suppression of peasants. coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727. The coffee industry never fully recovered there. where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms.[116] After the War of 1812.[125] as well as many Central American countries.[115] When coffee reached North America during the Colonial period. [edit] Social and cultural aspects Main article: Coffee culture . it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe as alcoholic beverages remained more popular. giving way to tea during the 18th century.[120] The latter beverage was simpler to make.[124] Coffee has become a vital cash crop for many Third World countries. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries. It has become the primary export and backbone for African countries like Uganda. Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become dependent on coffee as their primary source of income.[118] The Frenchman Gabriel de Clieu brought a coffee plant to the French territory of Martinique in the Caribbean. During the Revolutionary War. although its cultivation didn't gather momentum until independence in 1822. and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna.[117][not in citation given] Paradoxically. the dreadful conditions that the slaves worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon to follow Haitian Revolution. massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from the vicinity of Rio and later São Paulo for coffee plantations. during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports. and Ethiopia.[122] Cultivation was taken up by many countries in Central America in the latter half of the 19th century. and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous people. However. and high demand during the American Civil War together with advances in brewing technology secured the position of coffee as an everyday commodity in the United States.

[127] and not long after there were many coffee houses in Cairo.[126] Coffeehouses in Mecca soon became a concern as places for political gatherings to the imams who banned them. the "coffee break" was first promoted in 1952.A coffeehouse in Palestine (1900) Coffee is often consumed alongside (or instead of) breakfast by many at home. Aggressively promoted by the Pan-American Coffee Bureau. a result of the traffic between La Serenissima and the Ottomans. normally with a dessert. for Muslims between 1512 and 1524. but with no documentation. In the 17th century. and at times with an after-dinner mint especially when consumed at a restaurant or dinner party. The first coffeehouse in England was set up in Oxford in 1650 by a Jewish man named Jacob in the building now known as "The Grand Cafe". its uptake was facilitated by the recent popularity of both instant coffee and vending machines. there were more than 3. In 1530 the first coffee house was opened in Damascus. and coffeehouses were established and quickly became popular.[128] By 1675. and has become an institution of the American workplace.[129] . establishments serving prepared coffee or other hot beverages have existed for over five hundred years. coffee appeared for the first time in Europe outside the Ottoman Empire. It is often served at the end of a meal. Various legends involving the introduction of coffee to Istanbul at a "Kiva Han" in the late 15th century circulate in culinary tradition. Hitherto unknown in the workplace. and caffè for specifically Italian traditions Most widely known as coffeehouses or cafés.000 coffeehouses in England. The first coffeehouses in Western Europe appeared in Venice. and the drink. A plaque on the wall still commemorates this and the Cafe is now a trendy cocktail bar.[70] [edit] Coffeehouses See also: Coffeehouse for a social history of coffee. the very first one is recorded in 1645.

followed by a second and third over the next two years.[137] The company's name graces 16. Gordon Bowker and Zev Siegl.[6] Coffee. 1971.[135] Entrepreneur Howard Schultz joined the company in 1982 as Director of Retail Operations and Marketing. in Soho in 1952. This coffeehouse still exists today and was a major meeting place of the French Enlightenment. in 1676.[132] and from there spread across coffeehouses and restaurants across Italy and the rest of Europe and North America in the early 1950s. At first.[139] Coffee drinking was prohibited by jurists and scholars (ulema) meeting in Mecca in 1511 as haraam. He was a trainer and supplier to the founders of Starbuck¶s. the espresso craze spread. James Otis and Paul Revere planned rebellion. tea and beer were often served together in establishments which functioned both as coffeehouses and taverns.[136] He bought the other owners out in March 1987 and pushed on with plans to expand²from 1987 to the end of 1991. and its production and consumption were briefly repressed.[133] Similarly in the United States. An Italian named Pino Riservato opened the first espresso bar. The others were reluctant.[138] [edit] Prohibition Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons.[130] America had its first coffeehouse in Boston. He chose to focus on roasting batches with fresher. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies. but Schultz opened Il Giornale in Seattle in April 1986. one such was the Green Dragon in Boston. and Denis Diderot frequented it. Cappucino was particularly popular among English drinkers. and pushed to sell premade espresso coffee. the chain (rebranded from Il Giornale to Starbucks) expanded to over 100 outlets. where Muslim dervishes began cultivating the shrub in their gardens.[140] Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca: it was accused of being a heretical substance. and there were 400 such bars in London alone by 1956.[131] Coffee. Rousseau. North Beach in San Francisco saw the opening of the Caffe Trieste in 1957.100 years ago.600 stores in over 40 countries worldwide. where John Adams. Voltaire. higher quality beans than was the norm at the time. the Moka Bar. It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV. the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries. but the subject of whether it was intoxicating was hotly debated over the next 30 years until the ban was finally overturned in the mid 16th century. the first modern encyclopedia. by three college students Jerry Baldwin. which saw Beat Generation poets such as Allen Ginsberg and Bob Kaufman alongside bemused Italian immigrants.[118] The modern espresso machine was born in Milan in 1945 by Achille Gaggia. CA by Dutch native Alfred Peet. and it is arguably the birthplace of the Encyclopédie. traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern-day Yemen).[134] The international coffeehouse chain Starbucks began as a modest business roasting and selling quality coffee beans in Seattle in 1971. regarded as a .In 1672 an Armenian named Pascal established a coffee stall in Paris that was ultimately unsuccessful and the city had to wait until 1689 for its first coffeehouse when Procopio Cutò opened the Café Procope. At least 1.[133] The first Peet's Coffee & Tea store opened in 1966 in Berkeley.[133] Similar such cafes existed in Greenwich Village and elsewhere. The first store opened on March 30.

[142] A contemporary example of religious prohibition of coffee can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In its teachings. but includes the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly. concerned about the price of import. Germany had to import all its coffee at a great cost.[145] [edit] Folklore and culture The Oromo people would customarily plant a coffee tree on the graves of powerful sorcerers. the Church encourages members to avoid tea and coffee and other stimulants. all cardiovascular diseases combined. it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. One study was able to show a weak but statistically significant association between coffee consumption and mortality from ischemic heart disease. Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to Charles II outlawing coffeehouses from January 1676 (although the uproar created forced the monarch to back down two days before the ban was due to come into force).[144] This comes from the Mormon doctrine of health.Muslim drink.[141] Lacking coffee producing colonies.[118] Frederick the Great banned it in Germany in 1777 for nationalistic and economic reasons. and all causes of death.[146] Johann Sebastian Bach was inspired to pen the Coffee Cantata. other cardiovascular disease.[143] The organization holds that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee. about dependence on the beverage." which has been interpreted to forbid both coffee and tea. tobacco and alcohol by many Adventists has afforded a near unique opportunity for studies to be conducted within that population group on the health effects of coffee drinking. free from confounding factors. Abstinence from coffee. They believed that the first coffee bush sprang up from the tears that the god of heaven shed over the corpse of a dead sorcerer. It does not identify coffee by name.[144] Quite a number of members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church also avoid caffeinated drinks. was prohibited by Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889.[147] . he sought to force the public back to consuming beer. given in 1833 by Mormon founder Joseph Smith in a revelation called the Word of Wisdom.

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