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Georgie Coffee

Georgie Coffee

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Published by: Mistere Lonley on Nov 26, 2010
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Georgia coffee

Coca Cola Japan is rolling out a new canned coffee in its Georgia label. The Emerald Mountain Blend Bito uses high-quality Emerald Mountain beans and contains only a dash of sugar. 120 yen for a 190-gram can. ShareThis Ready-to-Drink Seattle's Best Coffee Canned Iced Lattes Product Requested: 0 Viewed: 214 Uploaded on: Apr 18, 2010 Product Description Seattle's Best Coffee brewed up a new line of canned iced lattes for retailers in the Western U.S. The new Seattle's Best Coffee Iced Latte drinks replicate handcrafted versions of the company's lattes crafted in its cafes, and are available in Iced Latte, Iced Vanilla Latte and Iced Mocha flavors. The drinks have a suggested retail price of $1.49 for a single can and $4.99 for a four-pack, according to the company. The new ready-to-drink coffee beverages are part of the North American Coffee Partnership (NACP), a joint venture between Starbucks Corp. and Pepsi-Cola North America Beverages.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the beverage. For the bean it is made from, see Coffee bean. For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation).


A cup of black coffee Type Hot or cold beverage

Country of origin Ethiopia Introduced Color Approx. 15th century (beverage) Dark brown, beige, black, light brown

Coffee is a popular brewed drink prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. They are seeds of coffee cherries that grow on trees in over 70 countries, cultivated primarily in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Green unroasted coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.[1] Due to its caffeine content, coffee often has a stimulating effect on humans. Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide, second only to tea.[2]

[3] From the Muslim world. then to the rest of Europe. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea arabica.[4] In East Africa and Yemen. to Indonesia. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways. coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004. which contain the coffee seed. As a result. are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees. An important export commodity. processed. Once ripe. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee.[10] . Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions. whether the overall effects of coffee are ultimately positive or negative has been widely disputed.[3] The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century.[8] Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment.Coffee has played a crucial role in many societies throughout history. coffee berries are picked.[6] and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe. it was used in religious ceremonies. or "bean". in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen in southern Arabia.[7] and it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value in 2005. and dried. the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption. The energizing effect of the coffee bean plant is thought to have been discovered in the northeast region of Ethiopia.[9] The method of brewing coffee has been found to be important to its health effects. and the cultivation of coffee first expanded in the Arab world. coffee spread to Italy. Coffee berries. The latter is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). depending on the desired flavor. and the 'robusta' form of the hardier Coffea canephora. and to the Americas. a ban in effect until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia.[5] It was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons.

1.1 Roasting  4.3 Folklore and culture 9 See also 10 Notes o 10.1 Footnotes o 10.4 Roast characteristics  4.2 Citations 11 References 12 External links [edit] Etymology .5 Decaffeination o 4.1 Production o 3.1 Coffeehouses o 8.2 Fair trade 6 Health and pharmacology o 6.4 Presentation 5 Sale and distribution o 5.2 The roasting process  4.2 Ecological effects 4 Processing o 4.2 Prohibition o 8.1.2 Caffeine content 7 History 8 Social and cultural aspects o Caffeine and headaches o 6.1 Commodity o 5.1 Preparing green coffee  4.Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y y y y 1 Etymology 2 Biology 3 Cultivation o 3.2 Storage o 4.3 Preparation o 4.3 Grading the roasted beans  4.1.

The flowers are axillary. since the plant is indigenous to that area.[11][12] However.[11] since this beverage was thought to dull one's hunger. via the .[15] Less popular species are C. usually 10±15 cm (4±6 in) long and 6 cm (2. The leaves are dark green and glossy.[14] C. All coffee plants are classified in the large family Rubiaceae. suggesting Kaffa. the original and most highly regarded species. canephora is native to western and central subsaharan Africa. excelsa. signifying "to have no appetite". mauritiana. coffee derives from the Ottoman Turkish kahve. arabica. The Turkish word in turn was borrowed from the Arabic: lexicographers maintain that qahwah originally referred to a type of wine. and clusters of . and gave its etymology.'[11] [edit] Biology Main articles: Coffea and coffee varieties Several species of shrub of the genus Coffea produce the berries from which coffee is extracted. and racemosa. The two main species commercially cultivated are Coffea canephora (predominantly a form known as 'robusta') and C. liberica. the term used in that region for the berry and plant is bunn. They are evergreen shrubs or small trees that may grow 5 m (15 ft) tall when unpruned. is native to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia and the Boma Plateau in southeastern Sudan and possibly Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya. Arab Italian caffè.4 in) wide. the highland in southwestern Ethiopia as one. stenophylla. in turn. from Guinea to the Uganda and southern Sudan.Illustration of Coffea arabica plant and seeds The first reference to "coffee" in the English language. dates to 1598. the native name in Shoa being b n. arabica. to the verb qahiya. in the form chaoua. qahwah. In English and other European languages.[13] C. Several alternative etymologies exist that hold that the Arab form may disguise a loanword from an Ethiopian or African source.

This means that useful forms and hybrids must be propagated vegetatively.[22] However. In contrast.[20] On the other hand. and budding are the usual methods of vegetative propagation. or rice during the first few years of cultivation. Coffea canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor but better body than arabica. Coffee is often intercropped with food crops. A more effective method of growing coffee. arabica coffee (from C. is to raise seedlings in nurseries that are then planted outside at six to twelve months. Coffea canephora.[16] Of the two main species grown. The robusta strain was . grafting.[19] Cuttings. liberica are self-incompatible and require outcrossing. then crimson.6 in). arabica and can be cultivated in lower altitudes and warmer climates where C. arabica will not thrive. they ripen to yellow. Good quality robusta beans are used in some espresso blends to provide a fullbodied taste. beans.[21] For this reason. excelsa and C. there is great scope for experimentation in search of potential new strains. C. For these reasons. arabica. and to lower the ingredient cost. used in Brazil. Coffea arabica is predominantly self-pollinating.[18] Berries ripen in seven to nine months.5 cm (0.fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously and are followed by oval berries of about 1. before turning black on drying.[16] Green when immature. but 5±10% of the berries[17] have only one. these are called peaberries. The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season. about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. Each berry usually contains two seeds. and as a result the seedlings are generally uniform and vary little from their parents. canephora). a better foam head (known as crema).[19] [edit] Cultivation Map showing areas of coffee cultivation: r:Coffea canephora m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica a:Coffea arabica Coffee is usually propagated by seeds. arabica) is generally more highly regarded than robusta coffee (from C. half are eliminated naturally.[13] Robusta strains also contain about 40±50% more caffeine than arabica. such as corn.

further breeding resulted in the establishment of robusta plantations in many countries. and over a quarter are bugs. hastened the uptake of the resistant robusta. and borer beetles burrow into stems and woody material.[28] Instead. Nematodes attack the roots.100 2. which promotes scale parasites to not only attack the scale on the fallen branches but in the plant as well.[29] [edit] Production 2007 Top twenty green coffee producers Country Brazil Vietnam Colombia Indonesia Ethiopia[note 1] India Mexico Guatemala[note 1] Peru Tonnes[30] Bags (thousands)[31] 2. Branches infested with scale are often cut and left on the ground.751 4.[27] Mass spraying of insecticides has often proven disastrous. a tributary of the Congo River. the spread of the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Coffee leaf rust is found in virtually all countries that produce coffee.010 961.565 252. over a third are beetles. Of these.[26] the foliage is attacked by over 100 species of larvae (caterpillars) of butterflies and moths.992 36.148 4. using techniques such as targeted treatment of pest outbreaks. Birds and rodents sometimes eat coffee berries but their impact is minor compared to invertebrates.953 . arabica is the more sensitive species to invertebrate predation overall.first collected in 1890 from the Lomani. to which C. arabica is vulnerable.475 325.800 288.504 7. Some 20 species of nematodes.249.377 676.150 4.[24] Over 900 species of insect have been recorded as pests of coffee crops worldwide.200 697.[25] In general.000 225.000 268. as the predators of the pests are more sensitive than the pests themselves.070 16.906 4. From Java. and managing crop environment away from conditions favouring pests. several snails and slugs also attack the crop. integrated pest management has developed.[23] In particular.467 12. 9 species of mites. Each part of the coffee plant is assailed by different animals. and was conveyed from Zaire to Brussels to Java around 1900.

319 Papua New Guinea[note 1] 75.055 97.456 90. Java and Kona.311 62.[33] These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region.909 3.877 95. throughout southeast Asia.951 170.400 Venezuela Madagascar[note 2] Thailand World[note 3] 70.Honduras Côte d'Ivoire Uganda Costa Rica Philippines El Salvador Nicaragua 217.000 55.675 In 2009 Brazil was the world leader in production of green coffee. and acidity.[32] Arabica coffee beans are cultivated in Latin America. body. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa. followed by Vietnam. eastern Africa.700 968 897 604 653 117. [edit] Ecological effects . or Asia.791 431 1.849 168.660 7.626 1.250 1. but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing.[34] Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown.150 3.[13] Beans from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor. and to some extent in Brazil.842 2.000 124.742. such as Colombian. Indonesia and Colombia. aroma. Arabia.

one serving of rice requires an input of 132 liters (35 US gal) of water. the United States Geological Survey reports that one egg requires an input of 454 liters (120 US gal) of water. They are especially appreciated by worms and acid-loving plants such as blueberries. and soil and water degradation are the side effects of these practices.[45] By using sustainable agriculture methods. and the silky oak Grevillea robusta. the quality of the coffee is allegedly superior. it takes about 140 liters (37 US gal) of water to grow the coffee beans needed to produce one cup of coffee.[46] Coffee grounds may be used for composting or as a mulch.A flowering Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantation Main article: Coffee and the environment Originally. habitat destruction. Albizia. the traditional shaded method provides living space for many wildlife species.[38] Although traditional coffee production causes berries to ripen more slowly and produce lower yields.[35] The American Birding Association. and Leucaena.[43][44] Another issue concerning coffee is its use of water.[35] Originally remnant forest trees were used for this purpose. one serving of milk requires an input of 246 liters (65 US gal) of water. Cassia. and one glass of wine requires an input of 120 liters (32 US gal) of water. Inga. pesticide pollution.[40] National Arbor Day Foundation. but many species have been planted as well.[36] This method is commonly referred to as the traditional shaded method. Erythrina. as well as the nitrogen-fixing non-legume sheoaks of the genus Casuarina. According to New Scientist.[39] In addition. although unfertilized shaded crops generally yield higher than unfertilized unshaded crops² namely the response to fertilizer is much greater in full sun. while retaining comparable yields. unshaded coffee enhanced by fertilizer use yields the highest amounts of coffee. Starting in the 1970s. those more distant from continuous forest still compare rather poorly to undisturbed native forest in terms of habitat value for some bird species. This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields.[37] Ultimately. while certain types of shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems. or "shade-grown". Gliricidia. in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy.[42] However. coffee farming was done in the shade of trees that provided a habitat for many animals and insects. which damage the environment and cause health problems.[41] and the Rainforest Alliance have led a campaign for "shade-grown" and organic coffees. which can be sustainably harvested. For comparison. Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center. such as Ethiopia. using industrial farming practices.[47] Some commercial coffee shops run . These include leguminous trees of the genera Acacia. Opponents of sun cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation. the amount of water usage can be dramatically reduced. and the coffee is often grown in countries where there is a water shortage. many farmers switched their production method to sun cultivation. but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides.

and the wet process method. including Starbucks' "Grounds for your Garden" project. usually by machine. In this method the drying that takes place is more uniform.[49] Then they are sorted by ripeness and color and the flesh of the berry is removed. and labeled as green coffee. green coffee is processed by one of two methods²the dry process method. The best (but least used) method of drying coffee is using drying tables. Most African coffee is dried in this manner and certain coffee farms around the world are starting to use this traditional method. Another way to let the coffee beans dry is to let them sit on a concrete patio and rake over them in the sunlight. which incorporates fermentation into the process and yields a mild coffee. which generates massive amounts of coffee wastewater. where all berries are harvested simultaneously regardless of ripeness by person or machine. and the seeds²usually called beans²are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the bean. When the fermentation is finished. the seeds are dried. simpler and less labor intensive as the berries can be strip picked. the coffee is sorted. Next. a labor intensive method. Berries have been traditionally selectively picked by hand. the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue. and then the coffee is mixed by hand. though this is generally in places where the humidity is very high. Finally. In this method.[48] [edit] Processing [edit] Roasting Main articles: Coffee processing and Coffee roasting [edit] Preparing green coffee Coffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they become the familiar roasted coffee. crops are strip picked.initiatives to make better use of these grounds. Some companies use cylinders to pump in heated air to dry the coffee beans.[50] [edit] The roasting process Coffee beans . which allows the air to pass on all sides of the coffee. and fermentation is less likely. it involves the selection of only the berries at the peak of ripeness. After picking. the pulped and fermented coffee is spread thinly on raised beds. More commonly.

During roasting. medium light. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee.[54] .[52] During roasting. acids weaken changing the flavor. or very dark.[56] Chaff is usually removed from the beans by air movement.[51] The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically. and with rare exceptions all coffee is roasted before it is consumed.[53] Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown. causing it to become less dense. though different varieties of beans differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates. aromatic oils. which is largely responsible for coffee's aroma and flavor. medium dark. though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the beans. and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry. then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils. or it can be home roasted. Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. Lighter roasts have a more complex and therefore perceived stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times. at 205 °C (401 °F). changing the color of the bean. other oils start to develop. dark. It can be sold roasted by the supplier. but all involve either soaking the green beans in hot water (often wrongly called the "Swiss water" process) or steaming them.[52] One of these oils is caffeol.The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee. caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches in the bean.[54] Decaffeination is often done by processing companies.[55] A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing.[54] [edit] Grading the roasted beans Depending on the color of the roasted beans as perceived by the human eye. The density of the bean also influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging.[52] [edit] Decaffeination Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo. A more accurate method of discerning the degree of roast involves measuring the reflected light from roasted beans illuminated with a light source in the near infrared spectrum. medium. The bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost and increases in volume. The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches approximately 200 °C (392 °F). [edit] Roast characteristics Darker roasts are generally bolder because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor. created at about 200 °C (392 °F). Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state. they will be labeled as light. This elaborate light meter uses a process known as spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the roasted coffee's relative degree of roast or flavor development.

The ideal holding temperature is 79 to 85 °C (174 to 185 °F) and the ideal serving temperature is 68 to 79 °C (154 to 174 °F). Almost all methods of preparing coffee require the beans to be ground and mixed with hot water for long enough to extract the flavor. and light are the environmental factors[57] responsible for deteriorating flavor in coffee beans. Ideally. . moisture.[edit] Storage Once roasted. are generally not ideal for long-term storage because they allow air to enter. the ways in which the water extracts the flavor. heat. A better package contains a one-way valve. Folded-over bags. though uncommon. a common way consumers often purchase coffee. spices). with dark reddish-brown crema Coffee beans must be ground and brewed to create a beverage. though roasted coffee beans can be ground at home immediately before consumption. Most coffee is roasted and ground at a roastery and sold in packaged form. and the liquid is consumed. which prevents air from entering. The roasted coffee beans may be ground at a roastery. but without boiling for more than an instant. In order of importance: air. The criteria for choosing a method include flavor and economy. see Coffee preparation. coffee beans must be stored properly to preserve the fresh taste of the bean.[57] [edit] Preparation For more details on this topic. boiling develops an unpleasant "cooked" flavor. It is also possible. the container must be airtight and kept in a cool. or in the home. Espresso brewing. milk. Finally. additional flavorings (sugar. the spent grounds are removed from the liquid. and the removal of the spent grounds. to roast raw beans at home. in a grocery store. There are many variations in the fineness of grind. dry and dark place.

all the coffee oils remain in the beverage. the filter retains the grounds at the bottom. or pressured. a bríki. Turkish grind is the finest grind. This produces a strong coffee with a layer of foam on the surface and sediment (which is not meant for drinking) settling on the bottom of the cup. In an automatic coffeemaker hot water drips onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter made of paper. As a result of brewing under high pressure (ideally between 9±10 atm). A wellprepared espresso has a reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface. The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used. A burr mill uses revolving elements to shear the bean. Coffee may be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press (also known as a cafetière or coffee press).[59] It is prepared by grinding or pounding the beans to a fine powder. while coffee percolator or French press are the coarsest grinds. allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while extracting its oils and essences. and the spent grounds are retained in the filter. then adding it to water and bringing it to the boil for no more than an instant in a pot called a cezve or. steeped. boiling water is forced into a chamber above a filter by steam pressure created by boiling. in Greek. making it stronger and leaving more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic coffee machine. Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water. Ground coffee and hot water are combined in a cylindrical vessel and left to brew for a few minutes. and Turkish coffee is an example of this method. The liquid drips through the coffee and the filter into a carafe or pot. an electric grinder smashes the beans with blunt blades moving at high speed. and a mortar and pestle crushes the beans.[58] Coffee may be brewed by several methods: boiled. The water then seeps through the grounds. the espresso beverage is more concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the quantity of coffee to water as gravity-brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex physical and chemical constitution. or perforated metal. a burr mill is deemed superior because the grind is more even and the grind size can be adjusted.[62] . plastic.[60] or by a thermostat that turns off the heater when the entire pot reaches a certain temperature. and the process is repeated until terminated by removing from the heat.[60] In a percolator.[58] Other pressurized water methods include the Moka pot and Vacuum coffee maker. For most brewing methods.[59] Coffee percolators and automatic coffeemakers brew coffee using gravity.Coffee beans may be ground in several ways. Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method. by an internal timer. The most common grinds are between the extremes.[61] The coffee is poured from the container. Coffee may also be brewed in cold water by steeping coarsely ground beans in cold water for several hours. a medium grind is used in most common home coffee-brewing machines. The espresso method forces hot (but not boiling) pressurized water through ground coffee. A circular filter which fits tightly in the cylinder fixed to a plunger is then pushed down from the top to force the grounds to the bottom. then filtering.

[65] The use of steamed milk to form patterns such as hearts or maple leaves is referred to as latte art. It may be sweetened with sugar or artificial sweetener. it is called iced coffee. .[edit] Presentation See also: List of coffee beverages Presentation can be an integral part of coffeehouse service. Drip-brewed. Espresso-based coffee has a wide variety of possible presentations. or not (black coffee). coffee may be presented in a variety of ways. Reversing the process by adding espresso to hot water preserves the crema. When served cold.[64] equal parts steamed milk and milk froth make a cappuccino. In its most basic form. as illustrated by the common fern design layered into this latte. or Frenchpressed/cafetière coffee may be served with a dairy product such as milk or cream. or dairy substitute (colloquially known as white coffee). it is served alone as a shot or in the more watered-down style Caffè Americano²a shot or two of espresso with hot water added. percolated.[63] and a dollop of hot foamed milk on top creates a caffè macchiato.[63] Milk can be added in various forms to espresso: steamed milk makes a caffè latte. Coffee in Syria Once brewed. and is known as a long black.

[72] Coffee can also be incorporated with alcohol in beverages²it is combined with whiskey in Irish coffee.[69] Paralleling (and complementing) the rapid rise of instant coffee was the coffee vending machine. and Tia Maria. and costs about 10¢ a cup to produce.[70] Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years. Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee. with Nescafé the most popular product. and forms the base of alcoholic coffee liqueurs such as Kahlúa.000 if the water is preheated.A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee. [edit] Sale and distribution Brazilian coffee sacks. much like brewed or percolated coffee. Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States. available both hot and cold.[67] it rapidly gained in popularity in many countries in the post-war period. which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta coffee. particularly in China. The machines used can process up to 500 cups an hour. invented in 1947 and multiplying rapidly through the 1950s. Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks. Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze-dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water.[68] Many consumers determined that the convenience in preparing a cup of instant coffee more than made up for a perceived inferior taste. Japan. . or 1. and South Korea.[71] Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time.[66] Originally invented in 1907.

000 produced worldwide) were fair trade. [edit] Commodity While coffee is not technically a commodity (it is fresh produce. July. in 2005. with contract deliveries occurring every year in March.991 metric . its value is directly affected by the length of time it is held). September. In 2004. began with the Max Havelaar Foundation's labeling program in the Netherlands.[74] Indonesia is the third-largest exporter and the largest producer of washed arabica coffee. after further research. 33. 24. As of 2006 green coffee was purported to be the second most traded commodity in the world.050. 6. Futures contracts for robusta coffee are traded on the London Liffe exchange and.[2] Worldwide. Coffee futures contracts for Grade 3 washed arabicas are traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange under ticker symbol KC. and December. and became a major producer of robusta beans.[75] Higher and lower grade arabica coffees are sold through other channels.Small-sized bag of coffee beans. that his statement was incorrect. May. but Vietnam tripled its exports between 1995 and 1999. Main article: Economics of coffee See also: List of countries by coffee consumption per capita Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe. which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated preharvest price.7 million metric tons of coffee were produced annually in 1998±2000. coffee is bought and sold by roasters.[77] [edit] Fair trade Main article: Fair trade coffee The concept of fair trade labeling. investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity. since 2007. who originally wrote about this.[73] Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation.[76] now believes. and the forecast is a rise to seven million metric tons annually by 2010. However Mark Pendergrast.222 metric tons (of 7. on the New York ICE exchange.

[80] Since the founding of organisations such as the European Fair Trade Association (1987). in April 2000.[85] a main active component of coffee Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions.685. Coffee prepared using paper filters removes oily .[81][82] For example. when the Max Havelaar mark was introduced in the Netherlands.34% to 0.[83] Since September 2009 all Starbucks Espresso beverages in UK and Ireland are made with Fairtrade and Shared Planet certified coffee. can be at least partially resolved by considering the method of preparation. including fair-trade products such as coffee.[83] The study found that the majority of respondents were unwilling to pay the actual price premium of 27% for fair trade coffee. however.[9] Variations in findings.51%.[78][79] A number of fair trade impact studies have shown that fair trade coffee has a positive impact on the communities that grow it. after a year-long campaign by the human rights organization Global Exchange. On average 46% of European consumers claimed to be willing to pay substantially more for ethical products.[84] A 2005 study done in Belgium concluded that consumers' buying behavior is not consistent with their positive attitude toward ethical products. Coffee was incorporated into the fair-trade movement in 1988. The very first fair-trade coffee was an effort to import a Guatemalan coffee into Europe as "Indio Solidarity Coffee".000 were fair trade. Starbucks decided to carry fairtrade coffee in its stores. an increase from 0. Findings have been contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits. and results are similarly conflicting regarding the potentially harmful effects of coffee consumption.[83] [edit] Health and pharmacology Main article: Health effects of coffee Overview of the more common effects of caffeine. the production and consumption of fair trade coffee has grown as some local and national coffee chains started to offer fair trade alternatives.tons out of 6.

as the positive effects of consumption are greater in those who drink decaffeinated coffee. can. and that this method can also be used for research animals. on the other hand. do not remove the oily components of coffee.[96] Interference with iron absorption is due to the polyphenols present in coffee. Two types of diterpenes are present in coffee: kahweol and cafestol. They are recommended to take decaffeinated coffee.[94] Coffee consumption can lead to iron deficiency anemia in mothers and infants. on cancer development. in many individuals. The resulting metabolites are mostly paraxanthines²theobromine and theophylline²and a small amount of unchanged caffeine is excreted by urine. positive or negative. caffeine is mostly broken down by the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system. Polyphenols contained in coffee are therefore associated with decreasing the risk of liver cancer development.[10] In addition to differences in methods of preparation. and this only if their stomach is healthy.[90] Most of coffee's beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes are not due to its caffeine content.[87] however. He suggests that people can regain their appetite after cooking by smelling coffee beans.[93] In a healthy liver. because both decaffeinated coffee and coffee with caffeine cause heartburn. Elderly individuals with a depleted enzymatic system do not tolerate coffee with caffeine.[98] . iron is considered a carcinogen in relation to the liver. exceptionally even lifethreatening adverse effects. high in lipophilic antioxidants and chlorogenic acid lactones. cause very unpleasant."[87] Other studies suggest coffee consumption reduces the risk of being affected by Alzheimer's disease.[86] Metal filters. Parkinson's disease. A longitudinal study in 2009 showed that those who consumed a moderate amount of coffee or tea (3±5 cups per day) at midlife were less likely to develop dementia and Alzheimer's disease in late-life compared with those who drank little coffee or avoided it altogether. however. the metabolism of caffeine depends on the state of this enzymatic system of the liver. heart disease.[95] Coffee also interferes with the absorption of supplemental iron.[97] American scientist Yaser Dorri has suggested that the smell of coffee can restore appetite and refresh olfactory receptors.[89] It increases the risk of acid reflux and associated diseases. Excessive amounts of coffee. researchers involved in an ongoing 22-year study by the Harvard School of Public Health state that "the overall balance of risks and benefits [of coffee consumption] are on the side of benefits.[92] A recent study showed that roast coffee.[88] and gout. both of which have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease via elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in blood. diabetes mellitus type 2. conflicting data regarding serving size could partially explain differences between beneficial/harmful effects of coffee consumption. Coffee consumption has been shown to have minimal or no impact. Although the inhibition of iron absorption can cause an iron deficiency. Moderate amounts of coffee (50±100 mg of caffeine or 5±10 g of coffee powder a day) are well tolerated by most elderly people. Therefore.components called diterpenes that are present in unfiltered coffee.[91] The presence of antioxidants in coffee has been shown to prevent free radicals from causing cell damage. protected primary neuronal cell cultures against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. cirrhosis of the liver.

[99] Coffee's negative health effects are often blamed on its caffeine content. general population report having stopped drinking coffee altogether.[106] but a 2002 review of the literature criticised its methodology and concluded that "[t]he effects of caffeine withdrawal are still controversial.000 chemicals have been reported in roasted coffee. and suggested that the action of caffeine in blocking the inhibitory effects of adenosine on dopamine nerves in the brain reduced feelings of depression. Illinois. four cups a day. A review by de Paulis and Martin indicated a link between a decrease in suicide rates and coffee consumption.[103] One study suggests that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory. more than half of those tested (19/28) are rodent carcinogens. [109] [edit] Caffeine content . arrhythmias. In a 2000 controlled study by the Diamond Headache Clinic in Chicago. It may aggravate preexisting conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease.[105] A 1992 study concluded that about 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) experienced increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn. migraines."[107] About 15% of the U.[108] [edit] Caffeine and headaches There is some controversy over whether the caffeine in coffee causes headaches or helps relieve headaches. The study did not recommend that the caffeine and ibuprofen combination was effective against migraine headaches. by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information. an over the counter pain killer. Instant coffee has a much greater amount of acrylamide than brewed coffee.[101] Caffeinated coffee is not recommended for everybody.[102] Coffee is no longer thought to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease.S. A 2009 Norwegian University of Science and Technology controlled study claims that heavy coffee drinkers. even with those who drink coffee in moderation. citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects of caffeine. revealed that adults who took ibuprofen.Over 1. combined with caffeine or one cup of coffee had increased effectiveness against tension headaches.[104] Caffeine has been associated with its ability to act as an antidepressant.[100] Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls. and cause sleep disturbances. are more likely to suffer occasional headaches than persons who have low coffee or caffeine consumption. A Johns Hopkins controlled study has linked drinking coffee with addictive withdrawal headaches.

in a similar way to how it is now . Diet.[3] The story of Kaldi. espresso: 1 cup (1. 207 ml) = 115 175 mg. Am.[3] It was here in Arabia that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed.[3] From Ethiopia.[110] According to Bunker and McWilliams (J. no direct evidence has been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant or even known about it. 45 60 ml) = 100 mg [edit] History The following text needs to be harmonized with text in History of coffee.[112] The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century. the 9thcentury Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee. Main article: History of coffee Over the door of a Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish dress.[3] However. drip: 1 cup (7 oz. receiving a cup of coffee from a boy Ethiopian ancestors of today's Oromo people were believed to have been the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant. The caffeine content of a cup of coffee varies depending mainly on the brewing method.5 2 oz.Caffeine molecule The stimulant effect of coffee is due to its caffeine content. 74:28±32. did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal. 207 ml) = 80 135 mg. 1979). coffee has the following caffeine content:[111] y y y brewed: 1 cup (7 oz. earlier than the 17th century. and also on the variety of bean. the beverage was introduced into the Arab world through Egypt and Yemen. in the Sufi monasteries around Mokha in Yemen.

From Venice. It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu. useful against numerous illnesses. Turkey. to the Venetian port. including coffee. and northern Africa. Coffee became more widely accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII in 1600.[114] Through the efforts of the British East India Company . and to the rest of Europe. The thriving trade between Venice and North Africa. is still in existence .[54] The first exports of Indonesian coffee from Java to the Netherlands occurred in 1711. quite frankly. coffee spread to Italy. Yemen. Léonard Rauwolf.prepared. By the 16th century.[4] In 1583. and they were among the first to defy the Arab prohibition on the exportation of plants or unroasted seeds when Pieter van den Broecke smuggled seedlings from Mocha. particularly those of the stomach. gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten-year trip to the Near East: A beverage as black as ink.[4] The Dutch were the first to import coffee on a large scale. Oxford's Queen's Lane Coffee House. despite appeals to ban the "Muslim drink. coffee became popular in England as well. in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful. into Europe in 1616. a German physician. to Indonesia. established in 1654. Leonhard Rauwolf." The first European coffee house opened in Italy in 1645. Coffee then spread to Italy. Egypt. Its consumers take it in the morning. Persia. it was introduced to the rest of Europe. Reise in die Morgenländer (in German) Pouring coffee in the Arab village Abu Ghosh (Israel) From the Muslim world.[113] The Dutch later grew the crop in Java and Ceylon. it had reached the rest of the Middle East. and to the Americas. and the Middle East brought many goods.

During the Revolutionary War. However. and high demand during the American Civil War together with advances in brewing technology secured the position of coffee as an everyday commodity in the United States. coups and bloody suppression of peasants. massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from the vicinity of Rio and later São Paulo for coffee plantations. during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports. The latter beverage was simpler to make.[123] The notable exception was Costa Rica. it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe as alcoholic beverages remained more popular. however. The coffee industry never fully recovered there. Burundi. Harsh conditions led to many uprisings. from which much of the world's cultivated arabica coffee is descended. and by 1788 it supplied half the world's coffee[citation needed].[121] After this time. and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous people. Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become dependent on coffee as their primary source of income. and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna. coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727.[117][not in citation given] Paradoxically. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries. where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms.[115] When coffee reached North America during the Colonial period. giving way to tea during the 18th century. [edit] Social and cultural aspects Main article: Coffee culture .[120] Meanwhile. It has become the primary export and backbone for African countries like Uganda.[116] After the War of 1812. and had become cheaper with the British conquest of India and the tea industry there. the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically. the dreadful conditions that the slaves worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon to follow Haitian Revolution.[119] The territory of San Domingo (now Haiti) saw coffee cultivated from 1734. Rwanda. the Americans' taste for coffee grew. Coffee was introduced in France in 1657. when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks.[125] as well as many Central American countries. although its cultivation didn't gather momentum until independence in 1822.[122] Cultivation was taken up by many countries in Central America in the latter half of the 19th century.[124] Coffee has become a vital cash crop for many Third World countries.today. this was also due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants.[118] The Frenchman Gabriel de Clieu brought a coffee plant to the French territory of Martinique in the Caribbean. and Ethiopia. coffee consumption declined in England. Coffee thrived in the climate and was conveyed across the Americas.

Aggressively promoted by the Pan-American Coffee Bureau. establishments serving prepared coffee or other hot beverages have existed for over five hundred years. and caffè for specifically Italian traditions Most widely known as coffeehouses or cafés. the very first one is recorded in 1645. a result of the traffic between La Serenissima and the Ottomans. the "coffee break" was first promoted in 1952. and the drink.[126] Coffeehouses in Mecca soon became a concern as places for political gatherings to the imams who banned them.[129] .[127] and not long after there were many coffee houses in Cairo.[128] By 1675. coffee appeared for the first time in Europe outside the Ottoman Empire. and coffeehouses were established and quickly became popular. The first coffeehouses in Western Europe appeared in Venice. The first coffeehouse in England was set up in Oxford in 1650 by a Jewish man named Jacob in the building now known as "The Grand Cafe". It is often served at the end of a meal. In 1530 the first coffee house was opened in Damascus. In the 17th century. but with no documentation. its uptake was facilitated by the recent popularity of both instant coffee and vending machines. A plaque on the wall still commemorates this and the Cafe is now a trendy cocktail bar. Various legends involving the introduction of coffee to Istanbul at a "Kiva Han" in the late 15th century circulate in culinary tradition. there were more than 3. and has become an institution of the American workplace. normally with a dessert. for Muslims between 1512 and 1524.A coffeehouse in Palestine (1900) Coffee is often consumed alongside (or instead of) breakfast by many at home.000 coffeehouses in England. and at times with an after-dinner mint especially when consumed at a restaurant or dinner party. Hitherto unknown in the workplace.[70] [edit] Coffeehouses See also: Coffeehouse for a social history of coffee.

Rousseau. This coffeehouse still exists today and was a major meeting place of the French Enlightenment. which saw Beat Generation poets such as Allen Ginsberg and Bob Kaufman alongside bemused Italian immigrants. tea and beer were often served together in establishments which functioned both as coffeehouses and taverns.[139] Coffee drinking was prohibited by jurists and scholars (ulema) meeting in Mecca in 1511 as haraam. An Italian named Pino Riservato opened the first espresso bar.[6] Coffee. traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern-day Yemen). Voltaire. 1971. The first store opened on March 30. higher quality beans than was the norm at the time. and Denis Diderot frequented it. one such was the Green Dragon in Boston. the first modern encyclopedia. the chain (rebranded from Il Giornale to Starbucks) expanded to over 100 outlets.[134] The international coffeehouse chain Starbucks began as a modest business roasting and selling quality coffee beans in Seattle in 1971.[135] Entrepreneur Howard Schultz joined the company in 1982 as Director of Retail Operations and Marketing.[140] Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca: it was accused of being a heretical substance.100 years ago. the espresso craze spread. where John Adams. the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries.[130] America had its first coffeehouse in Boston. followed by a second and third over the next two years. Gordon Bowker and Zev Siegl. by three college students Jerry Baldwin. He was a trainer and supplier to the founders of Starbuck¶s. James Otis and Paul Revere planned rebellion. but Schultz opened Il Giornale in Seattle in April 1986. where Muslim dervishes began cultivating the shrub in their gardens. the Moka Bar. and its production and consumption were briefly repressed.[118] The modern espresso machine was born in Milan in 1945 by Achille Gaggia.[131] Coffee. and pushed to sell premade espresso coffee. CA by Dutch native Alfred Peet.[133] The first Peet's Coffee & Tea store opened in 1966 in Berkeley. At least 1. It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies. At first. The others were reluctant. and there were 400 such bars in London alone by 1956. regarded as a . in Soho in 1952. and it is arguably the birthplace of the Encyclopédie.[132] and from there spread across coffeehouses and restaurants across Italy and the rest of Europe and North America in the early 1950s. He chose to focus on roasting batches with fresher.[137] The company's name graces 16.[138] [edit] Prohibition Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. North Beach in San Francisco saw the opening of the Caffe Trieste in 1957.[133] Similarly in the United States.[133] Similar such cafes existed in Greenwich Village and elsewhere. in 1676. Cappucino was particularly popular among English drinkers.[136] He bought the other owners out in March 1987 and pushed on with plans to expand²from 1987 to the end of 1991.600 stores in over 40 countries worldwide. but the subject of whether it was intoxicating was hotly debated over the next 30 years until the ban was finally overturned in the mid 16th century.In 1672 an Armenian named Pascal established a coffee stall in Paris that was ultimately unsuccessful and the city had to wait until 1689 for its first coffeehouse when Procopio Cutò opened the Café Procope.

was prohibited by Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889. tobacco and alcohol by many Adventists has afforded a near unique opportunity for studies to be conducted within that population group on the health effects of coffee drinking. They believed that the first coffee bush sprang up from the tears that the god of heaven shed over the corpse of a dead sorcerer.Muslim drink. One study was able to show a weak but statistically significant association between coffee consumption and mortality from ischemic heart disease.[146] Johann Sebastian Bach was inspired to pen the Coffee Cantata. given in 1833 by Mormon founder Joseph Smith in a revelation called the Word of Wisdom. he sought to force the public back to consuming beer. Abstinence from coffee.[143] The organization holds that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee. Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to Charles II outlawing coffeehouses from January 1676 (although the uproar created forced the monarch to back down two days before the ban was due to come into force).[144] Quite a number of members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church also avoid caffeinated drinks. other cardiovascular disease." which has been interpreted to forbid both coffee and tea.[118] Frederick the Great banned it in Germany in 1777 for nationalistic and economic reasons. and all causes of death. It does not identify coffee by name. the Church encourages members to avoid tea and coffee and other stimulants. In its teachings. Germany had to import all its coffee at a great cost. about dependence on the beverage.[142] A contemporary example of religious prohibition of coffee can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.[145] [edit] Folklore and culture The Oromo people would customarily plant a coffee tree on the graves of powerful sorcerers. but includes the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly.[141] Lacking coffee producing colonies. free from confounding factors.[147] . it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. concerned about the price of import. all cardiovascular diseases combined.[144] This comes from the Mormon doctrine of health.

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