Georgia coffee

Coca Cola Japan is rolling out a new canned coffee in its Georgia label. The Emerald Mountain Blend Bito uses high-quality Emerald Mountain beans and contains only a dash of sugar. 120 yen for a 190-gram can. ShareThis Ready-to-Drink Seattle's Best Coffee Canned Iced Lattes Product Requested: 0 Viewed: 214 Uploaded on: Apr 18, 2010 Product Description Seattle's Best Coffee brewed up a new line of canned iced lattes for retailers in the Western U.S. The new Seattle's Best Coffee Iced Latte drinks replicate handcrafted versions of the company's lattes crafted in its cafes, and are available in Iced Latte, Iced Vanilla Latte and Iced Mocha flavors. The drinks have a suggested retail price of $1.49 for a single can and $4.99 for a four-pack, according to the company. The new ready-to-drink coffee beverages are part of the North American Coffee Partnership (NACP), a joint venture between Starbucks Corp. and Pepsi-Cola North America Beverages.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the beverage. For the bean it is made from, see Coffee bean. For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation).


A cup of black coffee Type Hot or cold beverage

Country of origin Ethiopia Introduced Color Approx. 15th century (beverage) Dark brown, beige, black, light brown

Coffee is a popular brewed drink prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. They are seeds of coffee cherries that grow on trees in over 70 countries, cultivated primarily in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Green unroasted coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.[1] Due to its caffeine content, coffee often has a stimulating effect on humans. Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide, second only to tea.[2]

An important export commodity. then to the rest of Europe.[10] . and dried. to Indonesia. and to the Americas.[5] It was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons. which contain the coffee seed. and the cultivation of coffee first expanded in the Arab world. in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen in southern Arabia.Coffee has played a crucial role in many societies throughout history. the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption. Once ripe. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways. it was used in religious ceremonies. a ban in effect until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia. and the 'robusta' form of the hardier Coffea canephora. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea arabica. coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004. or "bean". coffee berries are picked.[4] In East Africa and Yemen.[6] and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe. coffee spread to Italy. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. The latter is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Coffee berries. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions. depending on the desired flavor. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees. The energizing effect of the coffee bean plant is thought to have been discovered in the northeast region of Ethiopia.[7] and it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value in 2005. are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea.[3] From the Muslim world. processed.[9] The method of brewing coffee has been found to be important to its health effects.[8] Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. whether the overall effects of coffee are ultimately positive or negative has been widely disputed. As a result.[3] The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century.

5 Decaffeination o 4.3 Folklore and culture 9 See also 10 Notes o 10.2 The roasting process  4.4 Roast characteristics  4.1 Preparing green coffee  4.1 Footnotes o 10.2 Citations 11 References 12 External links [edit] Etymology .1 Commodity o Ecological effects 4 Processing o 4.1 Coffeehouses o 8.1 Roasting  4.2 Storage o 4.4 Presentation 5 Sale and distribution o 5.3 Preparation o 4.1.2 Fair trade 6 Health and pharmacology o 6.Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y y y y 1 Etymology 2 Biology 3 Cultivation o 3.1 Production o 3.2 Caffeine content 7 History 8 Social and cultural aspects o 8.2 Prohibition o 8.3 Grading the roasted beans  4.1.1 Caffeine and headaches o 6.1.

and clusters of . signifying "to have no appetite".[15] Less popular species are C. since the plant is indigenous to that area. the original and most highly regarded species. arabica. In English and other European languages. coffee derives from the Ottoman Turkish kahve. arabica. The flowers are axillary. canephora is native to western and central subsaharan Africa. stenophylla.'[11] [edit] Biology Main articles: Coffea and coffee varieties Several species of shrub of the genus Coffea produce the berries from which coffee is extracted. the native name in Shoa being b n. suggesting Kaffa. is native to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia and the Boma Plateau in southeastern Sudan and possibly Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya. the highland in southwestern Ethiopia as one. All coffee plants are classified in the large family Rubiaceae. excelsa. to the verb qahiya. usually 10±15 cm (4±6 in) long and 6 cm (2. from Guinea to the Uganda and southern Sudan. the term used in that region for the berry and plant is bunn.[11][12] However.[11] since this beverage was thought to dull one's hunger. dates to 1598. Arab Italian caffè. They are evergreen shrubs or small trees that may grow 5 m (15 ft) tall when unpruned. in the form chaoua. The two main species commercially cultivated are Coffea canephora (predominantly a form known as 'robusta') and C. liberica. The Turkish word in turn was borrowed from the Arabic: lexicographers maintain that qahwah originally referred to a type of wine.[13] C.Illustration of Coffea arabica plant and seeds The first reference to "coffee" in the English language. Several alternative etymologies exist that hold that the Arab form may disguise a loanword from an Ethiopian or African source. qahwah. via the .[14] C. The leaves are dark green and glossy. and racemosa.4 in) wide. in turn. mauritiana. and gave its etymology.

beans. For these reasons. these are called peaberries.fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously and are followed by oval berries of about 1.[16] Green when immature. then crimson. such as corn. The robusta strain was . arabica. Coffea arabica is predominantly self-pollinating.[13] Robusta strains also contain about 40±50% more caffeine than arabica. and as a result the seedlings are generally uniform and vary little from their parents. arabica coffee (from C.[22] However. canephora). and budding are the usual methods of vegetative propagation. but 5±10% of the berries[17] have only one. robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor but better body than arabica. Each berry usually contains two seeds.[19] Cuttings.6 in). arabica and can be cultivated in lower altitudes and warmer climates where C. C. it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. This means that useful forms and hybrids must be propagated vegetatively. arabica) is generally more highly regarded than robusta coffee (from C.[21] For this reason. about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. Coffea canephora. grafting. before turning black on drying. arabica will not thrive. there is great scope for experimentation in search of potential new strains. Coffea canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. half are eliminated naturally. they ripen to yellow. liberica are self-incompatible and require outcrossing. a better foam head (known as crema).[18] Berries ripen in seven to nine months. In contrast. used in Brazil. The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season.[16] Of the two main species grown. Coffee is often intercropped with food crops.[20] On the other hand. Good quality robusta beans are used in some espresso blends to provide a fullbodied taste.[19] [edit] Cultivation Map showing areas of coffee cultivation: r:Coffea canephora m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica a:Coffea arabica Coffee is usually propagated by seeds. or rice during the first few years of cultivation. is to raise seedlings in nurseries that are then planted outside at six to twelve months. A more effective method of growing coffee. and to lower the ingredient cost.5 cm (0. excelsa and C.

and borer beetles burrow into stems and woody material. arabica is the more sensitive species to invertebrate predation overall. and managing crop environment away from conditions favouring pests. using techniques such as targeted treatment of pest outbreaks.[27] Mass spraying of insecticides has often proven disastrous.565 252.000 225. which promotes scale parasites to not only attack the scale on the fallen branches but in the plant as well.200 697. Birds and rodents sometimes eat coffee berries but their impact is minor compared to invertebrates. as the predators of the pests are more sensitive than the pests themselves.[25] In general. integrated pest management has developed.[23] In particular. Nematodes attack the roots.070 16.377 676. hastened the uptake of the resistant robusta.467 12. several snails and slugs also attack the crop.first collected in 1890 from the Lomani. Of these. Each part of the coffee plant is assailed by different animals.504 7.010 961.148 4.475 325.[26] the foliage is attacked by over 100 species of larvae (caterpillars) of butterflies and moths.906 4. the spread of the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). over a third are beetles. From Java. Branches infested with scale are often cut and left on the ground.992 36.150 4. and was conveyed from Zaire to Brussels to Java around 1900.800 288.000 268.[29] [edit] Production 2007 Top twenty green coffee producers Country Brazil Vietnam Colombia Indonesia Ethiopia[note 1] India Mexico Guatemala[note 1] Peru Tonnes[30] Bags (thousands)[31] 2.751 4.249. Coffee leaf rust is found in virtually all countries that produce coffee. a tributary of the Congo River. further breeding resulted in the establishment of robusta plantations in many countries. and over a quarter are bugs.953 . arabica is vulnerable.[28] Instead. 9 species of mites. to which C. Some 20 species of nematodes.[24] Over 900 species of insect have been recorded as pests of coffee crops worldwide.100 2.

Indonesia and Colombia.456 90. and acidity. but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing. and to some extent in Brazil.055 97.849 168.[32] Arabica coffee beans are cultivated in Latin America.660 7.842 2.951 170. throughout southeast Asia.700 968 897 604 653 117.150 3. such as Colombian.626 1.311 62. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa. Arabia.000 124.250 1.[33] These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region.791 431 1.319 Papua New Guinea[note 1] 75. body. eastern Africa.675 In 2009 Brazil was the world leader in production of green coffee.[34] Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown. followed by Vietnam. Java and Kona.Honduras Côte d'Ivoire Uganda Costa Rica Philippines El Salvador Nicaragua 217. [edit] Ecological effects .877 95.000 55. aroma.742.[13] Beans from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor.400 Venezuela Madagascar[note 2] Thailand World[note 3] 70. or Asia.909 3.

[43][44] Another issue concerning coffee is its use of water. it takes about 140 liters (37 US gal) of water to grow the coffee beans needed to produce one cup of coffee. and one glass of wine requires an input of 120 liters (32 US gal) of water. Erythrina.A flowering Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantation Main article: Coffee and the environment Originally. Gliricidia. Cassia.[37] Ultimately.[41] and the Rainforest Alliance have led a campaign for "shade-grown" and organic coffees. Opponents of sun cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation. Starting in the 1970s. the amount of water usage can be dramatically reduced. while retaining comparable yields. and soil and water degradation are the side effects of these practices. For comparison. the United States Geological Survey reports that one egg requires an input of 454 liters (120 US gal) of water. although unfertilized shaded crops generally yield higher than unfertilized unshaded crops² namely the response to fertilizer is much greater in full sun. and Leucaena. and the silky oak Grevillea robusta.[42] However. one serving of milk requires an input of 246 liters (65 US gal) of water. one serving of rice requires an input of 132 liters (35 US gal) of water.[39] In addition. coffee farming was done in the shade of trees that provided a habitat for many animals and insects. They are especially appreciated by worms and acid-loving plants such as blueberries. unshaded coffee enhanced by fertilizer use yields the highest amounts of coffee. the traditional shaded method provides living space for many wildlife species. According to New Scientist. in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy. while certain types of shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems. This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields. or "shade-grown". as well as the nitrogen-fixing non-legume sheoaks of the genus Casuarina.[38] Although traditional coffee production causes berries to ripen more slowly and produce lower yields. using industrial farming practices. such as Ethiopia. which can be sustainably harvested. but many species have been planted as well. those more distant from continuous forest still compare rather poorly to undisturbed native forest in terms of habitat value for some bird species.[47] Some commercial coffee shops run . These include leguminous trees of the genera Acacia. Albizia. Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center.[46] Coffee grounds may be used for composting or as a mulch. which damage the environment and cause health problems. but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides.[35] Originally remnant forest trees were used for this purpose. Inga. the quality of the coffee is allegedly superior.[36] This method is commonly referred to as the traditional shaded method.[35] The American Birding Association.[45] By using sustainable agriculture methods. many farmers switched their production method to sun cultivation. pesticide pollution. habitat destruction. and the coffee is often grown in countries where there is a water shortage.[40] National Arbor Day Foundation.

Berries have been traditionally selectively picked by hand. Some companies use cylinders to pump in heated air to dry the coffee beans. where all berries are harvested simultaneously regardless of ripeness by person or machine. and the wet process method. though this is generally in places where the humidity is very high. which incorporates fermentation into the process and yields a mild coffee. crops are strip picked. When the fermentation is finished. Most African coffee is dried in this manner and certain coffee farms around the world are starting to use this traditional method. which generates massive amounts of coffee wastewater. usually by machine. a labor intensive method. In this method the drying that takes place is more uniform. which allows the air to pass on all sides of the coffee. it involves the selection of only the berries at the peak of ripeness. green coffee is processed by one of two methods²the dry process method. and then the coffee is mixed by hand. The best (but least used) method of drying coffee is using drying tables. the seeds are dried. simpler and less labor intensive as the berries can be strip picked. and fermentation is less likely. More commonly. Another way to let the coffee beans dry is to let them sit on a concrete patio and rake over them in the sunlight. the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue. the coffee is sorted. Finally. In this method.[49] Then they are sorted by ripeness and color and the flesh of the berry is removed. After picking. and labeled as green coffee.[48] [edit] Processing [edit] Roasting Main articles: Coffee processing and Coffee roasting [edit] Preparing green coffee Coffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they become the familiar roasted coffee.initiatives to make better use of these grounds. Next. including Starbucks' "Grounds for your Garden" project.[50] [edit] The roasting process Coffee beans . and the seeds²usually called beans²are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the bean. the pulped and fermented coffee is spread thinly on raised beds.

[52] [edit] Decaffeination Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo. causing it to become less dense. It can be sold roasted by the supplier.[56] Chaff is usually removed from the beans by air movement. or it can be home roasted. created at about 200 °C (392 °F). changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown.[54] . caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches in the bean. and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry.[54] [edit] Grading the roasted beans Depending on the color of the roasted beans as perceived by the human eye. medium. The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches approximately 200 °C (392 °F). Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. Lighter roasts have a more complex and therefore perceived stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times. Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state.[55] A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing. at 205 °C (401 °F).[52] During roasting. changing the color of the bean. dark. This elaborate light meter uses a process known as spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the roasted coffee's relative degree of roast or flavor development. The bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost and increases in volume. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee. they will be labeled as light. [edit] Roast characteristics Darker roasts are generally bolder because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor.The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee. and with rare exceptions all coffee is roasted before it is consumed.[54] Decaffeination is often done by processing companies. The density of the bean also influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging. though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the beans. aromatic oils. or very dark. which is largely responsible for coffee's aroma and flavor. other oils start to develop.[52] One of these oils is caffeol. During roasting. medium light. though different varieties of beans differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates.[51] The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically. acids weaken changing the flavor. A more accurate method of discerning the degree of roast involves measuring the reflected light from roasted beans illuminated with a light source in the near infrared spectrum. medium dark.[53] Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. but all involve either soaking the green beans in hot water (often wrongly called the "Swiss water" process) or steaming them. then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils.

The ideal holding temperature is 79 to 85 °C (174 to 185 °F) and the ideal serving temperature is 68 to 79 °C (154 to 174 °F).[57] [edit] Preparation For more details on this topic. or in the home. Most coffee is roasted and ground at a roastery and sold in packaged form. which prevents air from entering. additional flavorings (sugar. see Coffee preparation. dry and dark place. milk. moisture. spices). Espresso brewing. the ways in which the water extracts the flavor. . The roasted coffee beans may be ground at a roastery. heat. Folded-over bags. the container must be airtight and kept in a cool. In order of importance: air. are generally not ideal for long-term storage because they allow air to enter.[edit] Storage Once roasted. though uncommon. with dark reddish-brown crema Coffee beans must be ground and brewed to create a beverage. Finally. and light are the environmental factors[57] responsible for deteriorating flavor in coffee beans. boiling develops an unpleasant "cooked" flavor. in a grocery store. The criteria for choosing a method include flavor and economy. Almost all methods of preparing coffee require the beans to be ground and mixed with hot water for long enough to extract the flavor. Ideally. There are many variations in the fineness of grind. the spent grounds are removed from the liquid. coffee beans must be stored properly to preserve the fresh taste of the bean. A better package contains a one-way valve. a common way consumers often purchase coffee. though roasted coffee beans can be ground at home immediately before consumption. It is also possible. to roast raw beans at home. and the removal of the spent grounds. and the liquid is consumed. but without boiling for more than an instant.

The water then seeps through the grounds. then filtering. The espresso method forces hot (but not boiling) pressurized water through ground coffee. while coffee percolator or French press are the coarsest grinds.[60] In a percolator. A circular filter which fits tightly in the cylinder fixed to a plunger is then pushed down from the top to force the grounds to the bottom. A burr mill uses revolving elements to shear the bean. all the coffee oils remain in the beverage. a bríki. A wellprepared espresso has a reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface.[60] or by a thermostat that turns off the heater when the entire pot reaches a certain temperature. in Greek. and the process is repeated until terminated by removing from the heat. In an automatic coffeemaker hot water drips onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter made of paper.[59] It is prepared by grinding or pounding the beans to a fine powder. Coffee may also be brewed in cold water by steeping coarsely ground beans in cold water for several hours. The liquid drips through the coffee and the filter into a carafe or pot. This produces a strong coffee with a layer of foam on the surface and sediment (which is not meant for drinking) settling on the bottom of the cup. the espresso beverage is more concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the quantity of coffee to water as gravity-brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex physical and chemical constitution. Turkish grind is the finest grind. then adding it to water and bringing it to the boil for no more than an instant in a pot called a cezve or. Coffee may be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press (also known as a cafetière or coffee press). steeped. plastic. and Turkish coffee is an example of this method. an electric grinder smashes the beans with blunt blades moving at high speed. a medium grind is used in most common home coffee-brewing machines. a burr mill is deemed superior because the grind is more even and the grind size can be adjusted. As a result of brewing under high pressure (ideally between 9±10 atm).Coffee beans may be ground in several ways. allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while extracting its oils and essences. Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method.[59] Coffee percolators and automatic coffeemakers brew coffee using gravity. The most common grinds are between the extremes. For most brewing methods. boiling water is forced into a chamber above a filter by steam pressure created by boiling. and the spent grounds are retained in the filter. The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used. making it stronger and leaving more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic coffee machine. or perforated metal. by an internal timer.[62] .[61] The coffee is poured from the container. Ground coffee and hot water are combined in a cylindrical vessel and left to brew for a few minutes. the filter retains the grounds at the bottom.[58] Coffee may be brewed by several methods: boiled.[58] Other pressurized water methods include the Moka pot and Vacuum coffee maker. or pressured. and a mortar and pestle crushes the beans. Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water.

Coffee in Syria Once brewed. coffee may be presented in a variety of ways. as illustrated by the common fern design layered into this latte. or Frenchpressed/cafetière coffee may be served with a dairy product such as milk or cream.[65] The use of steamed milk to form patterns such as hearts or maple leaves is referred to as latte art. it is called iced coffee. It may be sweetened with sugar or artificial sweetener.[edit] Presentation See also: List of coffee beverages Presentation can be an integral part of coffeehouse service. percolated. . or dairy substitute (colloquially known as white coffee).[64] equal parts steamed milk and milk froth make a cappuccino. and is known as a long black.[63] and a dollop of hot foamed milk on top creates a caffè macchiato. or not (black coffee). Drip-brewed. In its most basic form. it is served alone as a shot or in the more watered-down style Caffè Americano²a shot or two of espresso with hot water added. When served cold. Reversing the process by adding espresso to hot water preserves the crema.[63] Milk can be added in various forms to espresso: steamed milk makes a caffè latte. Espresso-based coffee has a wide variety of possible presentations.

Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States. available both hot and cold. or 1. Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta coffee.[71] Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time. with Nescafé the most popular product. particularly in China.[69] Paralleling (and complementing) the rapid rise of instant coffee was the coffee vending machine.000 if the water is preheated. [edit] Sale and distribution Brazilian coffee sacks. and Tia Maria.[70] Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years. much like brewed or percolated coffee. invented in 1947 and multiplying rapidly through the 1950s. and costs about 10¢ a cup to produce. and forms the base of alcoholic coffee liqueurs such as Kahlúa. Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze-dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water.[68] Many consumers determined that the convenience in preparing a cup of instant coffee more than made up for a perceived inferior taste. Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks.[72] Coffee can also be incorporated with alcohol in beverages²it is combined with whiskey in Irish coffee.[66] Originally invented in 1907. . The machines used can process up to 500 cups an hour. Japan.[67] it rapidly gained in popularity in many countries in the post-war period.A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee. which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk. and South Korea.

Small-sized bag of coffee beans. 24. and the forecast is a rise to seven million metric tons annually by 2010. Futures contracts for robusta coffee are traded on the London Liffe exchange and.[76] now believes. its value is directly affected by the length of time it is held). investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity. However Mark Pendergrast. coffee is bought and sold by roasters. but Vietnam tripled its exports between 1995 and 1999.000 produced worldwide) were fair trade.7 million metric tons of coffee were produced annually in 1998±2000.[75] Higher and lower grade arabica coffees are sold through other channels. began with the Max Havelaar Foundation's labeling program in the Netherlands. and became a major producer of robusta beans.[2] Worldwide. that his statement was incorrect. May. since 2007.991 metric . after further research. In 2004. 33. with contract deliveries occurring every year in March. [edit] Commodity While coffee is not technically a commodity (it is fresh produce. and December. As of 2006 green coffee was purported to be the second most traded commodity in the world.[74] Indonesia is the third-largest exporter and the largest producer of washed arabica coffee. on the New York ICE exchange. 6.[77] [edit] Fair trade Main article: Fair trade coffee The concept of fair trade labeling.[73] Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation. which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated preharvest price. Coffee futures contracts for Grade 3 washed arabicas are traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange under ticker symbol KC. Main article: Economics of coffee See also: List of countries by coffee consumption per capita Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe. July.222 metric tons (of 7. September. who originally wrote about this.050. in 2005.

[83] Since September 2009 all Starbucks Espresso beverages in UK and Ireland are made with Fairtrade and Shared Planet certified coffee.[85] a main active component of coffee Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. however. the production and consumption of fair trade coffee has grown as some local and national coffee chains started to offer fair trade alternatives. an increase from 0.[81][82] For example.[84] A 2005 study done in Belgium concluded that consumers' buying behavior is not consistent with their positive attitude toward ethical products. On average 46% of European consumers claimed to be willing to pay substantially more for ethical products. and results are similarly conflicting regarding the potentially harmful effects of coffee consumption.[80] Since the founding of organisations such as the European Fair Trade Association (1987). Starbucks decided to carry fairtrade coffee in its stores.[83] The study found that the majority of respondents were unwilling to pay the actual price premium of 27% for fair trade coffee.tons out of 6.[9] Variations in findings. Findings have been contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits. Coffee prepared using paper filters removes oily . Coffee was incorporated into the fair-trade movement in 1988. can be at least partially resolved by considering the method of preparation. in April 2000.[78][79] A number of fair trade impact studies have shown that fair trade coffee has a positive impact on the communities that grow it.51%.[83] [edit] Health and pharmacology Main article: Health effects of coffee Overview of the more common effects of caffeine. after a year-long campaign by the human rights organization Global Exchange.000 were fair trade. when the Max Havelaar mark was introduced in the Netherlands. The very first fair-trade coffee was an effort to import a Guatemalan coffee into Europe as "Indio Solidarity Coffee".685.34% to 0. including fair-trade products such as coffee.

components called diterpenes that are present in unfiltered coffee. however. exceptionally even lifethreatening adverse effects. Parkinson's disease. researchers involved in an ongoing 22-year study by the Harvard School of Public Health state that "the overall balance of risks and benefits [of coffee consumption] are on the side of benefits. Although the inhibition of iron absorption can cause an iron deficiency. positive or negative. on the other hand. conflicting data regarding serving size could partially explain differences between beneficial/harmful effects of coffee consumption.[98] . Polyphenols contained in coffee are therefore associated with decreasing the risk of liver cancer development. A longitudinal study in 2009 showed that those who consumed a moderate amount of coffee or tea (3±5 cups per day) at midlife were less likely to develop dementia and Alzheimer's disease in late-life compared with those who drank little coffee or avoided it altogether.[94] Coffee consumption can lead to iron deficiency anemia in mothers and infants.[93] In a healthy liver. can. Two types of diterpenes are present in coffee: kahweol and cafestol. caffeine is mostly broken down by the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system. iron is considered a carcinogen in relation to the liver. The resulting metabolites are mostly paraxanthines²theobromine and theophylline²and a small amount of unchanged caffeine is excreted by urine."[87] Other studies suggest coffee consumption reduces the risk of being affected by Alzheimer's disease. cirrhosis of the liver. protected primary neuronal cell cultures against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death.[88] and gout.[87] however. Therefore. and this only if their stomach is healthy.[91] The presence of antioxidants in coffee has been shown to prevent free radicals from causing cell damage.[10] In addition to differences in methods of preparation. on cancer development. Moderate amounts of coffee (50±100 mg of caffeine or 5±10 g of coffee powder a day) are well tolerated by most elderly people.[89] It increases the risk of acid reflux and associated diseases. Elderly individuals with a depleted enzymatic system do not tolerate coffee with caffeine. diabetes mellitus type 2. He suggests that people can regain their appetite after cooking by smelling coffee beans. high in lipophilic antioxidants and chlorogenic acid lactones. Coffee consumption has been shown to have minimal or no impact. in many individuals.[97] American scientist Yaser Dorri has suggested that the smell of coffee can restore appetite and refresh olfactory receptors. heart disease. both of which have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease via elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in blood. Excessive amounts of coffee. cause very unpleasant. do not remove the oily components of coffee. as the positive effects of consumption are greater in those who drink decaffeinated coffee. They are recommended to take decaffeinated coffee.[95] Coffee also interferes with the absorption of supplemental iron.[92] A recent study showed that roast coffee. the metabolism of caffeine depends on the state of this enzymatic system of the liver. because both decaffeinated coffee and coffee with caffeine cause heartburn.[90] Most of coffee's beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes are not due to its caffeine content.[86] Metal filters. and that this method can also be used for research animals.[96] Interference with iron absorption is due to the polyphenols present in coffee.

combined with caffeine or one cup of coffee had increased effectiveness against tension headaches. It may aggravate preexisting conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. The study did not recommend that the caffeine and ibuprofen combination was effective against migraine headaches.[104] Caffeine has been associated with its ability to act as an antidepressant. by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information. even with those who drink coffee in moderation. In a 2000 controlled study by the Diamond Headache Clinic in Chicago.[102] Coffee is no longer thought to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. and suggested that the action of caffeine in blocking the inhibitory effects of adenosine on dopamine nerves in the brain reduced feelings of depression.[108] [edit] Caffeine and headaches There is some controversy over whether the caffeine in coffee causes headaches or helps relieve headaches.000 chemicals have been reported in roasted coffee. A 2009 Norwegian University of Science and Technology controlled study claims that heavy coffee drinkers.[101] Caffeinated coffee is not recommended for everybody. arrhythmias. migraines. revealed that adults who took ibuprofen. are more likely to suffer occasional headaches than persons who have low coffee or caffeine consumption."[107] About 15% of the U.[106] but a 2002 review of the literature criticised its methodology and concluded that "[t]he effects of caffeine withdrawal are still controversial. A Johns Hopkins controlled study has linked drinking coffee with addictive withdrawal headaches.[99] Coffee's negative health effects are often blamed on its caffeine content. an over the counter pain killer. A review by de Paulis and Martin indicated a link between a decrease in suicide rates and coffee consumption.[103] One study suggests that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory. four cups a day. citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects of caffeine.Over 1.[100] Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls. and cause sleep disturbances.[105] A 1992 study concluded that about 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) experienced increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn. more than half of those tested (19/28) are rodent carcinogens. general population report having stopped drinking coffee altogether.S. Instant coffee has a much greater amount of acrylamide than brewed coffee. Illinois. [109] [edit] Caffeine content .

earlier than the 17th century. in the Sufi monasteries around Mokha in Yemen. 1979).[3] It was here in Arabia that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed.Caffeine molecule The stimulant effect of coffee is due to its caffeine content. Diet.[110] According to Bunker and McWilliams (J. receiving a cup of coffee from a boy Ethiopian ancestors of today's Oromo people were believed to have been the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant. the beverage was introduced into the Arab world through Egypt and Yemen.[3] The story of Kaldi. 45 60 ml) = 100 mg [edit] History The following text needs to be harmonized with text in History of coffee. in a similar way to how it is now . The caffeine content of a cup of coffee varies depending mainly on the brewing method. 207 ml) = 80 135 mg. drip: 1 cup (7 oz. no direct evidence has been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant or even known about it.[112] The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century. did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal.[3] However. and also on the variety of bean. 74:28±32. coffee has the following caffeine content:[111] y y y brewed: 1 cup (7 oz.5 2 oz. Am. the 9thcentury Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee. 207 ml) = 115 175 mg.[3] From Ethiopia. espresso: 1 cup (1. Main article: History of coffee Over the door of a Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish dress.

despite appeals to ban the "Muslim drink. a German physician. and to the rest of Europe. Yemen." The first European coffee house opened in Italy in 1645. Oxford's Queen's Lane Coffee House. to the Venetian port. including coffee.[113] The Dutch later grew the crop in Java and Ceylon. and to the Americas.prepared. is still in existence . it was introduced to the rest of Europe. gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten-year trip to the Near East: A beverage as black as ink. coffee spread to Italy. Egypt. The thriving trade between Venice and North Africa. It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu. Turkey. to Indonesia. useful against numerous illnesses. quite frankly.[4] The Dutch were the first to import coffee on a large scale. into Europe in 1616. Léonard Rauwolf. Persia. From Venice. and they were among the first to defy the Arab prohibition on the exportation of plants or unroasted seeds when Pieter van den Broecke smuggled seedlings from Mocha. particularly those of the stomach. Reise in die Morgenländer (in German) Pouring coffee in the Arab village Abu Ghosh (Israel) From the Muslim world. Coffee became more widely accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII in 1600. By the 16th century. Its consumers take it in the morning.[54] The first exports of Indonesian coffee from Java to the Netherlands occurred in 1711. Leonhard Rauwolf. Coffee then spread to Italy. and the Middle East brought many goods. and northern Africa. coffee became popular in England as well.[114] Through the efforts of the British East India Company . established in 1654. it had reached the rest of the Middle East. in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful.[4] In 1583.

coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727. and Ethiopia.[118] The Frenchman Gabriel de Clieu brought a coffee plant to the French territory of Martinique in the Caribbean. the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically. [edit] Social and cultural aspects Main article: Coffee culture .[120] Meanwhile.[119] The territory of San Domingo (now Haiti) saw coffee cultivated from 1734. and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous people. The latter beverage was simpler to make. giving way to tea during the 18th century. when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks. massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from the vicinity of Rio and later São Paulo for coffee plantations. during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports. However. It has become the primary export and backbone for African countries like Uganda. Harsh conditions led to many uprisings. and high demand during the American Civil War together with advances in brewing technology secured the position of coffee as an everyday commodity in the United States. and by 1788 it supplied half the world's coffee[citation needed]. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries. although its cultivation didn't gather momentum until independence in 1822. from which much of the world's cultivated arabica coffee is descended. it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe as alcoholic beverages remained more popular. Coffee thrived in the climate and was conveyed across the Americas.[117][not in citation given] Paradoxically.[121] After this time. coffee consumption declined in England. the dreadful conditions that the slaves worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon to follow Haitian Revolution.[122] Cultivation was taken up by many countries in Central America in the latter half of the 19th century. the Americans' taste for coffee grew.[123] The notable exception was Costa Rica. Coffee was introduced in France in 1657. and had become cheaper with the British conquest of India and the tea industry there. and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna.[125] as well as many Central American countries. where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms. Rwanda. coups and bloody suppression of peasants. however. this was also due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants. Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become dependent on coffee as their primary source of[115] When coffee reached North America during the Colonial period.[116] After the War of 1812. During the Revolutionary War.[124] Coffee has become a vital cash crop for many Third World countries. The coffee industry never fully recovered there. Burundi.

In 1530 the first coffee house was opened in Damascus. and has become an institution of the American workplace.[129] . the very first one is recorded in 1645. for Muslims between 1512 and 1524. The first coffeehouses in Western Europe appeared in Venice. and caffè for specifically Italian traditions Most widely known as coffeehouses or cafés. In the 17th century. but with no documentation. coffee appeared for the first time in Europe outside the Ottoman Empire. The first coffeehouse in England was set up in Oxford in 1650 by a Jewish man named Jacob in the building now known as "The Grand Cafe".[128] By 1675. It is often served at the end of a meal. its uptake was facilitated by the recent popularity of both instant coffee and vending machines.A coffeehouse in Palestine (1900) Coffee is often consumed alongside (or instead of) breakfast by many at home.[70] [edit] Coffeehouses See also: Coffeehouse for a social history of coffee. a result of the traffic between La Serenissima and the Ottomans. and coffeehouses were established and quickly became popular. A plaque on the wall still commemorates this and the Cafe is now a trendy cocktail bar. Various legends involving the introduction of coffee to Istanbul at a "Kiva Han" in the late 15th century circulate in culinary tradition. and at times with an after-dinner mint especially when consumed at a restaurant or dinner party.000 coffeehouses in England. Hitherto unknown in the workplace. Aggressively promoted by the Pan-American Coffee Bureau.[126] Coffeehouses in Mecca soon became a concern as places for political gatherings to the imams who banned them. there were more than 3. normally with a dessert. establishments serving prepared coffee or other hot beverages have existed for over five hundred years. and the drink.[127] and not long after there were many coffee houses in Cairo. the "coffee break" was first promoted in 1952.

In 1672 an Armenian named Pascal established a coffee stall in Paris that was ultimately unsuccessful and the city had to wait until 1689 for its first coffeehouse when Procopio Cutò opened the Café Procope. The others were reluctant. At first.[138] [edit] Prohibition Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons.[135] Entrepreneur Howard Schultz joined the company in 1982 as Director of Retail Operations and Marketing. and there were 400 such bars in London alone by 1956. Gordon Bowker and Zev Siegl. tea and beer were often served together in establishments which functioned both as coffeehouses and taverns. The first store opened on March 30. which saw Beat Generation poets such as Allen Ginsberg and Bob Kaufman alongside bemused Italian immigrants. Voltaire.[134] The international coffeehouse chain Starbucks began as a modest business roasting and selling quality coffee beans in Seattle in 1971. but the subject of whether it was intoxicating was hotly debated over the next 30 years until the ban was finally overturned in the mid 16th century. the first modern encyclopedia. This coffeehouse still exists today and was a major meeting place of the French Enlightenment. traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern-day Yemen). At least 1. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies. the espresso craze spread. in Soho in 1952.[139] Coffee drinking was prohibited by jurists and scholars (ulema) meeting in Mecca in 1511 as haraam. where Muslim dervishes began cultivating the shrub in their gardens.[131] Coffee.[130] America had its first coffeehouse in Boston.[118] The modern espresso machine was born in Milan in 1945 by Achille Gaggia.[133] Similar such cafes existed in Greenwich Village and elsewhere. and it is arguably the birthplace of the Encyclopédie. Cappucino was particularly popular among English drinkers. where John Adams. but Schultz opened Il Giornale in Seattle in April 1986.[6] Coffee. in 1676.[140] Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca: it was accused of being a heretical substance. the chain (rebranded from Il Giornale to Starbucks) expanded to over 100 outlets. It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV. and its production and consumption were briefly repressed.[133] The first Peet's Coffee & Tea store opened in 1966 in Berkeley. and Denis Diderot frequented it. the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries. James Otis and Paul Revere planned rebellion. by three college students Jerry Baldwin. An Italian named Pino Riservato opened the first espresso bar.100 years ago. and pushed to sell premade espresso coffee. one such was the Green Dragon in Boston.600 stores in over 40 countries worldwide.[133] Similarly in the United States. CA by Dutch native Alfred Peet. He was a trainer and supplier to the founders of Starbuck¶s. the Moka Bar.[136] He bought the other owners out in March 1987 and pushed on with plans to expand²from 1987 to the end of 1991. Rousseau. North Beach in San Francisco saw the opening of the Caffe Trieste in 1957.[132] and from there spread across coffeehouses and restaurants across Italy and the rest of Europe and North America in the early 1950s.[137] The company's name graces 16. followed by a second and third over the next two years. 1971. regarded as a . higher quality beans than was the norm at the time. He chose to focus on roasting batches with fresher.

about dependence on the beverage. Germany had to import all its coffee at a great cost. other cardiovascular disease.[143] The organization holds that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee." which has been interpreted to forbid both coffee and tea.[141] Lacking coffee producing colonies. free from confounding factors. the Church encourages members to avoid tea and coffee and other stimulants. Abstinence from coffee. but includes the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly. One study was able to show a weak but statistically significant association between coffee consumption and mortality from ischemic heart disease. all cardiovascular diseases combined. given in 1833 by Mormon founder Joseph Smith in a revelation called the Word of Wisdom. tobacco and alcohol by many Adventists has afforded a near unique opportunity for studies to be conducted within that population group on the health effects of coffee drinking.Muslim drink.[145] [edit] Folklore and culture The Oromo people would customarily plant a coffee tree on the graves of powerful sorcerers.[147] . It does not identify coffee by name.[144] Quite a number of members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church also avoid caffeinated drinks. Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to Charles II outlawing coffeehouses from January 1676 (although the uproar created forced the monarch to back down two days before the ban was due to come into force). They believed that the first coffee bush sprang up from the tears that the god of heaven shed over the corpse of a dead sorcerer. and all causes of death. In its teachings.[144] This comes from the Mormon doctrine of health.[118] Frederick the Great banned it in Germany in 1777 for nationalistic and economic reasons. it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. he sought to force the public back to consuming beer. was prohibited by Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889. concerned about the price of import.[142] A contemporary example of religious prohibition of coffee can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.[146] Johann Sebastian Bach was inspired to pen the Coffee Cantata.

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