Georgia coffee

Coca Cola Japan is rolling out a new canned coffee in its Georgia label. The Emerald Mountain Blend Bito uses high-quality Emerald Mountain beans and contains only a dash of sugar. 120 yen for a 190-gram can. ShareThis Ready-to-Drink Seattle's Best Coffee Canned Iced Lattes Product Requested: 0 Viewed: 214 Uploaded on: Apr 18, 2010 Product Description Seattle's Best Coffee brewed up a new line of canned iced lattes for retailers in the Western U.S. The new Seattle's Best Coffee Iced Latte drinks replicate handcrafted versions of the company's lattes crafted in its cafes, and are available in Iced Latte, Iced Vanilla Latte and Iced Mocha flavors. The drinks have a suggested retail price of $1.49 for a single can and $4.99 for a four-pack, according to the company. The new ready-to-drink coffee beverages are part of the North American Coffee Partnership (NACP), a joint venture between Starbucks Corp. and Pepsi-Cola North America Beverages.

Coffee
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the beverage. For the bean it is made from, see Coffee bean. For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation).

Coffee

A cup of black coffee Type Hot or cold beverage

Country of origin Ethiopia Introduced Color Approx. 15th century (beverage) Dark brown, beige, black, light brown

Coffee is a popular brewed drink prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. They are seeds of coffee cherries that grow on trees in over 70 countries, cultivated primarily in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Green unroasted coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.[1] Due to its caffeine content, coffee often has a stimulating effect on humans. Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide, second only to tea.[2]

The energizing effect of the coffee bean plant is thought to have been discovered in the northeast region of Ethiopia. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea arabica.[5] It was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons. in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen in southern Arabia. then to the rest of Europe. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees. An important export commodity.[6] and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways.Coffee has played a crucial role in many societies throughout history. coffee berries are picked. coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004.[10] . They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. it was used in religious ceremonies. to Indonesia.[7] and it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value in 2005. are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. Coffee berries. or "bean".[3] From the Muslim world. Once ripe. whether the overall effects of coffee are ultimately positive or negative has been widely disputed.[8] Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. The latter is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix).[3] The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century. depending on the desired flavor. the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption. a ban in effect until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia. and the cultivation of coffee first expanded in the Arab world. which contain the coffee seed.[9] The method of brewing coffee has been found to be important to its health effects. As a result. and the 'robusta' form of the hardier Coffea canephora. coffee spread to Italy. processed. and to the Americas.[4] In East Africa and Yemen. and dried.

2 Fair trade 6 Health and pharmacology o 6.3 Preparation o 4.3 Folklore and culture 9 See also 10 Notes o 10.2 The roasting process  4.1 Footnotes o 10.4 Roast characteristics  4.2 Ecological effects 4 Processing o 4.4 Presentation 5 Sale and distribution o 5.Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y y y y 1 Etymology 2 Biology 3 Cultivation o 3.5 Decaffeination o 4.1 Coffeehouses o 8.1.1 Preparing green coffee  4.1.1 Production o 3.2 Prohibition o 8.2 Caffeine content 7 History 8 Social and cultural aspects o 8.2 Citations 11 References 12 External links [edit] Etymology .1.1 Roasting  4.1.2 Storage o 4.1.1 Commodity o 5.3 Grading the roasted beans  4.1 Caffeine and headaches o 6.

mauritiana. The two main species commercially cultivated are Coffea canephora (predominantly a form known as 'robusta') and C. the highland in southwestern Ethiopia as one. suggesting Kaffa. arabica. In English and other European languages. to the verb qahiya. and gave its etymology. the original and most highly regarded species. the native name in Shoa being b n. and racemosa. Several alternative etymologies exist that hold that the Arab form may disguise a loanword from an Ethiopian or African source.[13] C.[11] since this beverage was thought to dull one's hunger.4 in) wide. The leaves are dark green and glossy. arabica. liberica. signifying "to have no appetite". The Turkish word in turn was borrowed from the Arabic: lexicographers maintain that qahwah originally referred to a type of wine.[15] Less popular species are C. They are evergreen shrubs or small trees that may grow 5 m (15 ft) tall when unpruned. since the plant is indigenous to that area. via the . in turn.[14] C. canephora is native to western and central subsaharan Africa. usually 10±15 cm (4±6 in) long and 6 cm (2. stenophylla. is native to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia and the Boma Plateau in southeastern Sudan and possibly Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya. All coffee plants are classified in the large family Rubiaceae.[11][12] However. excelsa. qahwah. Arab Italian caffè. The flowers are axillary.Illustration of Coffea arabica plant and seeds The first reference to "coffee" in the English language. the term used in that region for the berry and plant is bunn.'[11] [edit] Biology Main articles: Coffea and coffee varieties Several species of shrub of the genus Coffea produce the berries from which coffee is extracted. coffee derives from the Ottoman Turkish kahve. and clusters of . in the form chaoua. from Guinea to the Uganda and southern Sudan. dates to 1598.

is to raise seedlings in nurseries that are then planted outside at six to twelve months. arabica.[18] Berries ripen in seven to nine months. Each berry usually contains two seeds. and budding are the usual methods of vegetative propagation. robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor but better body than arabica. then crimson. and to lower the ingredient cost. liberica are self-incompatible and require outcrossing.[19] Cuttings. Coffea arabica is predominantly self-pollinating. For these reasons. or rice during the first few years of cultivation. This means that useful forms and hybrids must be propagated vegetatively.[21] For this reason.[13] Robusta strains also contain about 40±50% more caffeine than arabica. half are eliminated naturally. and as a result the seedlings are generally uniform and vary little from their parents. Coffee is often intercropped with food crops. In contrast. excelsa and C. arabica and can be cultivated in lower altitudes and warmer climates where C. C. there is great scope for experimentation in search of potential new strains.[19] [edit] Cultivation Map showing areas of coffee cultivation: r:Coffea canephora m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica a:Coffea arabica Coffee is usually propagated by seeds. A more effective method of growing coffee. these are called peaberries. arabica coffee (from C. arabica) is generally more highly regarded than robusta coffee (from C. Coffea canephora. such as corn. before turning black on drying. it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. but 5±10% of the berries[17] have only one. Good quality robusta beans are used in some espresso blends to provide a fullbodied taste. The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season. grafting.6 in).5 cm (0. about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. they ripen to yellow. canephora).[20] On the other hand. arabica will not thrive.fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously and are followed by oval berries of about 1.[16] Green when immature. a better foam head (known as crema). Coffea canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. beans. used in Brazil.[16] Of the two main species grown. The robusta strain was .[22] However.

010 961.800 288.000 225. 9 species of mites.150 4. Branches infested with scale are often cut and left on the ground. Each part of the coffee plant is assailed by different animals. Nematodes attack the roots.565 252. a tributary of the Congo River. and borer beetles burrow into stems and woody material.992 36.475 325.953 .200 697.751 4.467 12. Coffee leaf rust is found in virtually all countries that produce coffee.[27] Mass spraying of insecticides has often proven disastrous.100 2. which promotes scale parasites to not only attack the scale on the fallen branches but in the plant as well. and over a quarter are bugs.148 4. further breeding resulted in the establishment of robusta plantations in many countries.[23] In particular.000 268.[25] In general. arabica is the more sensitive species to invertebrate predation overall. integrated pest management has developed. the spread of the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). hastened the uptake of the resistant robusta.070 16.[26] the foliage is attacked by over 100 species of larvae (caterpillars) of butterflies and moths.249. using techniques such as targeted treatment of pest outbreaks. arabica is vulnerable. over a third are beetles. Birds and rodents sometimes eat coffee berries but their impact is minor compared to invertebrates. to which C.first collected in 1890 from the Lomani. and was conveyed from Zaire to Brussels to Java around 1900. as the predators of the pests are more sensitive than the pests themselves. Of these.906 4. From Java. Some 20 species of nematodes. several snails and slugs also attack the crop.504 7.377 676.[24] Over 900 species of insect have been recorded as pests of coffee crops worldwide.[29] [edit] Production 2007 Top twenty green coffee producers Country Brazil Vietnam Colombia Indonesia Ethiopia[note 1] India Mexico Guatemala[note 1] Peru Tonnes[30] Bags (thousands)[31] 2. and managing crop environment away from conditions favouring pests.[28] Instead.

or Asia.[33] These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region.000 124.456 90. but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing. followed by Vietnam. [edit] Ecological effects .319 Papua New Guinea[note 1] 75.675 In 2009 Brazil was the world leader in production of green coffee.000 55.742.055 97. and to some extent in Brazil. eastern Africa.909 3.Honduras Côte d'Ivoire Uganda Costa Rica Philippines El Salvador Nicaragua 217.791 431 1.150 3. throughout southeast Asia.250 1.849 168. Arabia. such as Colombian. body. Java and Kona.[32] Arabica coffee beans are cultivated in Latin America. Indonesia and Colombia.400 Venezuela Madagascar[note 2] Thailand World[note 3] 70. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa.[34] Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown.626 1.951 170.877 95.311 62.842 2. and acidity.660 7.[13] Beans from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor. aroma.700 968 897 604 653 117.

Opponents of sun cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation. many farmers switched their production method to sun cultivation.[39] In addition.[36] This method is commonly referred to as the traditional shaded method. and soil and water degradation are the side effects of these practices. Inga.[43][44] Another issue concerning coffee is its use of water. which damage the environment and cause health problems. in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy. habitat destruction. unshaded coffee enhanced by fertilizer use yields the highest amounts of coffee. it takes about 140 liters (37 US gal) of water to grow the coffee beans needed to produce one cup of coffee. For comparison. such as Ethiopia.[35] Originally remnant forest trees were used for this purpose.[35] The American Birding Association. Gliricidia. Albizia.A flowering Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantation Main article: Coffee and the environment Originally.[45] By using sustainable agriculture methods. They are especially appreciated by worms and acid-loving plants such as blueberries. and Leucaena. using industrial farming practices.[42] However. although unfertilized shaded crops generally yield higher than unfertilized unshaded crops² namely the response to fertilizer is much greater in full sun.[38] Although traditional coffee production causes berries to ripen more slowly and produce lower yields. the quality of the coffee is allegedly superior. but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides. Erythrina. and the coffee is often grown in countries where there is a water shortage. or "shade-grown". Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center.[41] and the Rainforest Alliance have led a campaign for "shade-grown" and organic coffees.[46] Coffee grounds may be used for composting or as a mulch.[47] Some commercial coffee shops run . but many species have been planted as well. pesticide pollution. as well as the nitrogen-fixing non-legume sheoaks of the genus Casuarina. Starting in the 1970s. This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields. the traditional shaded method provides living space for many wildlife species. and the silky oak Grevillea robusta.[37] Ultimately. According to New Scientist. and one glass of wine requires an input of 120 liters (32 US gal) of water.[40] National Arbor Day Foundation. the amount of water usage can be dramatically reduced. one serving of rice requires an input of 132 liters (35 US gal) of water. These include leguminous trees of the genera Acacia. while retaining comparable yields. which can be sustainably harvested. Cassia. while certain types of shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems. those more distant from continuous forest still compare rather poorly to undisturbed native forest in terms of habitat value for some bird species. the United States Geological Survey reports that one egg requires an input of 454 liters (120 US gal) of water. coffee farming was done in the shade of trees that provided a habitat for many animals and insects. one serving of milk requires an input of 246 liters (65 US gal) of water.

After picking. though this is generally in places where the humidity is very high. Some companies use cylinders to pump in heated air to dry the coffee beans.[49] Then they are sorted by ripeness and color and the flesh of the berry is removed. and the seeds²usually called beans²are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the bean. usually by machine.[50] [edit] The roasting process Coffee beans . Next. and then the coffee is mixed by hand. simpler and less labor intensive as the berries can be strip picked. the coffee is sorted. green coffee is processed by one of two methods²the dry process method. which incorporates fermentation into the process and yields a mild coffee. crops are strip picked. The best (but least used) method of drying coffee is using drying tables. Most African coffee is dried in this manner and certain coffee farms around the world are starting to use this traditional method.[48] [edit] Processing [edit] Roasting Main articles: Coffee processing and Coffee roasting [edit] Preparing green coffee Coffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they become the familiar roasted coffee. In this method the drying that takes place is more uniform. and labeled as green coffee. and the wet process method. and fermentation is less likely. it involves the selection of only the berries at the peak of ripeness. More commonly. In this method. which allows the air to pass on all sides of the coffee.initiatives to make better use of these grounds. which generates massive amounts of coffee wastewater. the pulped and fermented coffee is spread thinly on raised beds. the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue. where all berries are harvested simultaneously regardless of ripeness by person or machine. the seeds are dried. a labor intensive method. Berries have been traditionally selectively picked by hand. Finally. When the fermentation is finished. including Starbucks' "Grounds for your Garden" project. Another way to let the coffee beans dry is to let them sit on a concrete patio and rake over them in the sunlight.

or it can be home roasted. aromatic oils. Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state. Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. A more accurate method of discerning the degree of roast involves measuring the reflected light from roasted beans illuminated with a light source in the near infrared spectrum. medium light. During roasting. or very dark.[56] Chaff is usually removed from the beans by air movement. It can be sold roasted by the supplier. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee. then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils.The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee.[54] [edit] Grading the roasted beans Depending on the color of the roasted beans as perceived by the human eye. medium. causing it to become less dense.[52] During roasting.[52] [edit] Decaffeination Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo. and with rare exceptions all coffee is roasted before it is consumed. The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches approximately 200 °C (392 °F). caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches in the bean. but all involve either soaking the green beans in hot water (often wrongly called the "Swiss water" process) or steaming them. The bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost and increases in volume. and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry. though different varieties of beans differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates. acids weaken changing the flavor. [edit] Roast characteristics Darker roasts are generally bolder because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor.[54] Decaffeination is often done by processing companies. dark.[51] The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically.[52] One of these oils is caffeol. they will be labeled as light.[54] . though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the beans. other oils start to develop. at 205 °C (401 °F).[55] A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing. The density of the bean also influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging. changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown. created at about 200 °C (392 °F). which is largely responsible for coffee's aroma and flavor. changing the color of the bean.[53] Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. medium dark. Lighter roasts have a more complex and therefore perceived stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times. This elaborate light meter uses a process known as spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the roasted coffee's relative degree of roast or flavor development.

Almost all methods of preparing coffee require the beans to be ground and mixed with hot water for long enough to extract the flavor. The ideal holding temperature is 79 to 85 °C (174 to 185 °F) and the ideal serving temperature is 68 to 79 °C (154 to 174 °F). and the liquid is consumed. which prevents air from entering. Folded-over bags. heat. spices). milk.[57] [edit] Preparation For more details on this topic. The roasted coffee beans may be ground at a roastery. coffee beans must be stored properly to preserve the fresh taste of the bean.[edit] Storage Once roasted. see Coffee preparation. There are many variations in the fineness of grind. but without boiling for more than an instant. . though roasted coffee beans can be ground at home immediately before consumption. with dark reddish-brown crema Coffee beans must be ground and brewed to create a beverage. boiling develops an unpleasant "cooked" flavor. and the removal of the spent grounds. Ideally. and light are the environmental factors[57] responsible for deteriorating flavor in coffee beans. in a grocery store. Finally. or in the home. the container must be airtight and kept in a cool. The criteria for choosing a method include flavor and economy. additional flavorings (sugar. dry and dark place. a common way consumers often purchase coffee. A better package contains a one-way valve. though uncommon. Most coffee is roasted and ground at a roastery and sold in packaged form. the spent grounds are removed from the liquid. In order of importance: air. the ways in which the water extracts the flavor. Espresso brewing. are generally not ideal for long-term storage because they allow air to enter. to roast raw beans at home. It is also possible. moisture.

and the spent grounds are retained in the filter. allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while extracting its oils and essences. As a result of brewing under high pressure (ideally between 9±10 atm). a burr mill is deemed superior because the grind is more even and the grind size can be adjusted. boiling water is forced into a chamber above a filter by steam pressure created by boiling. or perforated metal. This produces a strong coffee with a layer of foam on the surface and sediment (which is not meant for drinking) settling on the bottom of the cup.[60] In a percolator. The most common grinds are between the extremes. The liquid drips through the coffee and the filter into a carafe or pot. The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used. The water then seeps through the grounds. making it stronger and leaving more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic coffee machine.Coffee beans may be ground in several ways. or pressured. and a mortar and pestle crushes the beans. Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water.[60] or by a thermostat that turns off the heater when the entire pot reaches a certain temperature. Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method.[62] . A wellprepared espresso has a reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface. A circular filter which fits tightly in the cylinder fixed to a plunger is then pushed down from the top to force the grounds to the bottom. a medium grind is used in most common home coffee-brewing machines.[58] Other pressurized water methods include the Moka pot and Vacuum coffee maker. by an internal timer. Turkish grind is the finest grind. a bríki. while coffee percolator or French press are the coarsest grinds.[61] The coffee is poured from the container.[58] Coffee may be brewed by several methods: boiled. the espresso beverage is more concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the quantity of coffee to water as gravity-brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex physical and chemical constitution. plastic. Ground coffee and hot water are combined in a cylindrical vessel and left to brew for a few minutes. and the process is repeated until terminated by removing from the heat.[59] It is prepared by grinding or pounding the beans to a fine powder. then filtering. Coffee may be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press (also known as a cafetière or coffee press). the filter retains the grounds at the bottom. in Greek. Coffee may also be brewed in cold water by steeping coarsely ground beans in cold water for several hours. all the coffee oils remain in the beverage. For most brewing methods. an electric grinder smashes the beans with blunt blades moving at high speed. and Turkish coffee is an example of this method. steeped. The espresso method forces hot (but not boiling) pressurized water through ground coffee. In an automatic coffeemaker hot water drips onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter made of paper.[59] Coffee percolators and automatic coffeemakers brew coffee using gravity. then adding it to water and bringing it to the boil for no more than an instant in a pot called a cezve or. A burr mill uses revolving elements to shear the bean.

as illustrated by the common fern design layered into this latte. Drip-brewed. It may be sweetened with sugar or artificial sweetener. it is served alone as a shot or in the more watered-down style Caffè Americano²a shot or two of espresso with hot water added. Reversing the process by adding espresso to hot water preserves the crema. When served cold. percolated.[64] equal parts steamed milk and milk froth make a cappuccino. Coffee in Syria Once brewed. .[63] and a dollop of hot foamed milk on top creates a caffè macchiato. or dairy substitute (colloquially known as white coffee).[65] The use of steamed milk to form patterns such as hearts or maple leaves is referred to as latte art. or Frenchpressed/cafetière coffee may be served with a dairy product such as milk or cream. or not (black coffee).[edit] Presentation See also: List of coffee beverages Presentation can be an integral part of coffeehouse service.[63] Milk can be added in various forms to espresso: steamed milk makes a caffè latte. In its most basic form. Espresso-based coffee has a wide variety of possible presentations. it is called iced coffee. coffee may be presented in a variety of ways. and is known as a long black.

A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee. Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks. The machines used can process up to 500 cups an hour. invented in 1947 and multiplying rapidly through the 1950s. [edit] Sale and distribution Brazilian coffee sacks. Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze-dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water. or 1. Japan. particularly in China. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta coffee. Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States.[68] Many consumers determined that the convenience in preparing a cup of instant coffee more than made up for a perceived inferior taste.[72] Coffee can also be incorporated with alcohol in beverages²it is combined with whiskey in Irish coffee. . and costs about 10¢ a cup to produce. with Nescafé the most popular product. which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk. much like brewed or percolated coffee.000 if the water is preheated.[71] Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time.[70] Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years. and forms the base of alcoholic coffee liqueurs such as Kahlúa. and Tia Maria. and South Korea. available both hot and cold.[67] it rapidly gained in popularity in many countries in the post-war period.[69] Paralleling (and complementing) the rapid rise of instant coffee was the coffee vending machine.[66] Originally invented in 1907. Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee.

[77] [edit] Fair trade Main article: Fair trade coffee The concept of fair trade labeling. and became a major producer of robusta beans.Small-sized bag of coffee beans. and the forecast is a rise to seven million metric tons annually by 2010.991 metric . since 2007. who originally wrote about this. Futures contracts for robusta coffee are traded on the London Liffe exchange and. coffee is bought and sold by roasters. July. which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated preharvest price. 24.222 metric tons (of 7.7 million metric tons of coffee were produced annually in 1998±2000.[73] Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation.[2] Worldwide. 6. began with the Max Havelaar Foundation's labeling program in the Netherlands. after further research. and December. Main article: Economics of coffee See also: List of countries by coffee consumption per capita Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe. May. on the New York ICE exchange. 33. As of 2006 green coffee was purported to be the second most traded commodity in the world. In 2004. but Vietnam tripled its exports between 1995 and 1999.[74] Indonesia is the third-largest exporter and the largest producer of washed arabica coffee. [edit] Commodity While coffee is not technically a commodity (it is fresh produce. Coffee futures contracts for Grade 3 washed arabicas are traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange under ticker symbol KC.000 produced worldwide) were fair trade. September.050. However Mark Pendergrast. in 2005. investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity. with contract deliveries occurring every year in March. that his statement was incorrect.[76] now believes.[75] Higher and lower grade arabica coffees are sold through other channels. its value is directly affected by the length of time it is held).

The very first fair-trade coffee was an effort to import a Guatemalan coffee into Europe as "Indio Solidarity Coffee". On average 46% of European consumers claimed to be willing to pay substantially more for ethical products. in April 2000.[83] [edit] Health and pharmacology Main article: Health effects of coffee Overview of the more common effects of caffeine.000 were fair trade. after a year-long campaign by the human rights organization Global Exchange. Starbucks decided to carry fairtrade coffee in its stores. Findings have been contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits.tons out of 6.[78][79] A number of fair trade impact studies have shown that fair trade coffee has a positive impact on the communities that grow it.[9] Variations in findings.34% to 0. including fair-trade products such as coffee.[83] The study found that the majority of respondents were unwilling to pay the actual price premium of 27% for fair trade coffee.[85] a main active component of coffee Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. the production and consumption of fair trade coffee has grown as some local and national coffee chains started to offer fair trade alternatives. Coffee prepared using paper filters removes oily .[84] A 2005 study done in Belgium concluded that consumers' buying behavior is not consistent with their positive attitude toward ethical products. an increase from 0. however. Coffee was incorporated into the fair-trade movement in 1988.[81][82] For example.685.[83] Since September 2009 all Starbucks Espresso beverages in UK and Ireland are made with Fairtrade and Shared Planet certified coffee. when the Max Havelaar mark was introduced in the Netherlands. can be at least partially resolved by considering the method of preparation.[80] Since the founding of organisations such as the European Fair Trade Association (1987). and results are similarly conflicting regarding the potentially harmful effects of coffee consumption.51%.

caffeine is mostly broken down by the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system.[95] Coffee also interferes with the absorption of supplemental iron. the metabolism of caffeine depends on the state of this enzymatic system of the liver.[98] . as the positive effects of consumption are greater in those who drink decaffeinated coffee. on the other hand. Therefore.[87] however. and this only if their stomach is healthy.[90] Most of coffee's beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes are not due to its caffeine content. because both decaffeinated coffee and coffee with caffeine cause heartburn.[89] It increases the risk of acid reflux and associated diseases. The resulting metabolites are mostly paraxanthines²theobromine and theophylline²and a small amount of unchanged caffeine is excreted by urine. do not remove the oily components of coffee. iron is considered a carcinogen in relation to the liver. positive or negative. exceptionally even lifethreatening adverse effects.[88] and gout. can. and that this method can also be used for research animals.[86] Metal filters. He suggests that people can regain their appetite after cooking by smelling coffee beans.[10] In addition to differences in methods of preparation. Elderly individuals with a depleted enzymatic system do not tolerate coffee with caffeine. diabetes mellitus type 2.[94] Coffee consumption can lead to iron deficiency anemia in mothers and infants. cirrhosis of the liver. conflicting data regarding serving size could partially explain differences between beneficial/harmful effects of coffee consumption. however.[96] Interference with iron absorption is due to the polyphenols present in coffee. researchers involved in an ongoing 22-year study by the Harvard School of Public Health state that "the overall balance of risks and benefits [of coffee consumption] are on the side of benefits. They are recommended to take decaffeinated coffee.[91] The presence of antioxidants in coffee has been shown to prevent free radicals from causing cell damage. Parkinson's disease. Two types of diterpenes are present in coffee: kahweol and cafestol. protected primary neuronal cell cultures against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. A longitudinal study in 2009 showed that those who consumed a moderate amount of coffee or tea (3±5 cups per day) at midlife were less likely to develop dementia and Alzheimer's disease in late-life compared with those who drank little coffee or avoided it altogether. Excessive amounts of coffee."[87] Other studies suggest coffee consumption reduces the risk of being affected by Alzheimer's disease. cause very unpleasant.components called diterpenes that are present in unfiltered coffee. Polyphenols contained in coffee are therefore associated with decreasing the risk of liver cancer development.[93] In a healthy liver. heart disease. on cancer development. high in lipophilic antioxidants and chlorogenic acid lactones. both of which have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease via elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in blood. Moderate amounts of coffee (50±100 mg of caffeine or 5±10 g of coffee powder a day) are well tolerated by most elderly people. Coffee consumption has been shown to have minimal or no impact.[97] American scientist Yaser Dorri has suggested that the smell of coffee can restore appetite and refresh olfactory receptors. Although the inhibition of iron absorption can cause an iron deficiency. in many individuals.[92] A recent study showed that roast coffee.

The study did not recommend that the caffeine and ibuprofen combination was effective against migraine headaches. It may aggravate preexisting conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. and cause sleep disturbances.[99] Coffee's negative health effects are often blamed on its caffeine content. Illinois. revealed that adults who took ibuprofen.Over 1. more than half of those tested (19/28) are rodent carcinogens.000 chemicals have been reported in roasted coffee. four cups a day.[101] Caffeinated coffee is not recommended for everybody.[102] Coffee is no longer thought to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. In a 2000 controlled study by the Diamond Headache Clinic in Chicago. migraines. A Johns Hopkins controlled study has linked drinking coffee with addictive withdrawal headaches. an over the counter pain killer.[105] A 1992 study concluded that about 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) experienced increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn. general population report having stopped drinking coffee altogether. Instant coffee has a much greater amount of acrylamide than brewed coffee.[100] Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls. [109] [edit] Caffeine content .[104] Caffeine has been associated with its ability to act as an antidepressant. A 2009 Norwegian University of Science and Technology controlled study claims that heavy coffee drinkers. arrhythmias."[107] About 15% of the U. and suggested that the action of caffeine in blocking the inhibitory effects of adenosine on dopamine nerves in the brain reduced feelings of depression. citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects of caffeine.S. even with those who drink coffee in moderation.[106] but a 2002 review of the literature criticised its methodology and concluded that "[t]he effects of caffeine withdrawal are still controversial. by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.[108] [edit] Caffeine and headaches There is some controversy over whether the caffeine in coffee causes headaches or helps relieve headaches. A review by de Paulis and Martin indicated a link between a decrease in suicide rates and coffee consumption.[103] One study suggests that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory. are more likely to suffer occasional headaches than persons who have low coffee or caffeine consumption. combined with caffeine or one cup of coffee had increased effectiveness against tension headaches.

receiving a cup of coffee from a boy Ethiopian ancestors of today's Oromo people were believed to have been the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant. coffee has the following caffeine content:[111] y y y brewed: 1 cup (7 oz.[112] The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century. no direct evidence has been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant or even known about it. Main article: History of coffee Over the door of a Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish dress. in a similar way to how it is now . in the Sufi monasteries around Mokha in Yemen. did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal.[3] The story of Kaldi. 1979). espresso: 1 cup (1. earlier than the 17th century.[3] However. 207 ml) = 115 175 mg.5 2 oz. 207 ml) = 80 135 mg.[3] It was here in Arabia that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed. the beverage was introduced into the Arab world through Egypt and Yemen. drip: 1 cup (7 oz. 45 60 ml) = 100 mg [edit] History The following text needs to be harmonized with text in History of coffee. The caffeine content of a cup of coffee varies depending mainly on the brewing method. Diet.[3] From Ethiopia.Caffeine molecule The stimulant effect of coffee is due to its caffeine content.[110] According to Bunker and McWilliams (J. Am. the 9thcentury Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee. 74:28±32. and also on the variety of bean.

" The first European coffee house opened in Italy in 1645.prepared. Turkey. Reise in die Morgenländer (in German) Pouring coffee in the Arab village Abu Ghosh (Israel) From the Muslim world. quite frankly. Egypt.[114] Through the efforts of the British East India Company .[4] The Dutch were the first to import coffee on a large scale. and they were among the first to defy the Arab prohibition on the exportation of plants or unroasted seeds when Pieter van den Broecke smuggled seedlings from Mocha. a German physician.[54] The first exports of Indonesian coffee from Java to the Netherlands occurred in 1711. in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful. Its consumers take it in the morning. and northern Africa. Coffee then spread to Italy. It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu. it had reached the rest of the Middle East. and the Middle East brought many goods. The thriving trade between Venice and North Africa. into Europe in 1616. From Venice. is still in existence . it was introduced to the rest of Europe. and to the Americas.[113] The Dutch later grew the crop in Java and Ceylon. including coffee.[4] In 1583. Oxford's Queen's Lane Coffee House. Leonhard Rauwolf. to the Venetian port. Léonard Rauwolf. particularly those of the stomach. to Indonesia. despite appeals to ban the "Muslim drink. and to the rest of Europe. Coffee became more widely accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII in 1600. Yemen. coffee became popular in England as well. gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten-year trip to the Near East: A beverage as black as ink. By the 16th century. Persia. coffee spread to Italy. useful against numerous illnesses. established in 1654.

[124] Coffee has become a vital cash crop for many Third World countries. and by 1788 it supplied half the world's coffee[citation needed]. the Americans' taste for coffee grew. and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna. and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous people. the dreadful conditions that the slaves worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon to follow Haitian Revolution. Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become dependent on coffee as their primary source of income.today. when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks. Burundi. Coffee was introduced in France in 1657.[118] The Frenchman Gabriel de Clieu brought a coffee plant to the French territory of Martinique in the Caribbean. Harsh conditions led to many uprisings. However. During the Revolutionary War. It has become the primary export and backbone for African countries like Uganda. coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727.[116] After the War of 1812. although its cultivation didn't gather momentum until independence in 1822. and Ethiopia. from which much of the world's cultivated arabica coffee is descended. The coffee industry never fully recovered there. and had become cheaper with the British conquest of India and the tea industry there.[122] Cultivation was taken up by many countries in Central America in the latter half of the 19th century.[123] The notable exception was Costa Rica. [edit] Social and cultural aspects Main article: Coffee culture . coups and bloody suppression of peasants. Rwanda. giving way to tea during the 18th century. however.[125] as well as many Central American countries.[117][not in citation given] Paradoxically. this was also due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants.[121] After this time. during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports. it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe as alcoholic beverages remained more popular. coffee consumption declined in England. massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from the vicinity of Rio and later São Paulo for coffee plantations. Coffee thrived in the climate and was conveyed across the Americas.[120] Meanwhile. where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms.[115] When coffee reached North America during the Colonial period. and high demand during the American Civil War together with advances in brewing technology secured the position of coffee as an everyday commodity in the United States. The latter beverage was simpler to make. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries.[119] The territory of San Domingo (now Haiti) saw coffee cultivated from 1734. the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically.

In 1530 the first coffee house was opened in Damascus. Hitherto unknown in the workplace.[127] and not long after there were many coffee houses in Cairo. normally with a dessert. and has become an institution of the American workplace. and at times with an after-dinner mint especially when consumed at a restaurant or dinner party. The first coffeehouses in Western Europe appeared in Venice.A coffeehouse in Palestine (1900) Coffee is often consumed alongside (or instead of) breakfast by many at home.[126] Coffeehouses in Mecca soon became a concern as places for political gatherings to the imams who banned them. coffee appeared for the first time in Europe outside the Ottoman Empire. its uptake was facilitated by the recent popularity of both instant coffee and vending machines.[128] By 1675. for Muslims between 1512 and 1524. a result of the traffic between La Serenissima and the Ottomans. Various legends involving the introduction of coffee to Istanbul at a "Kiva Han" in the late 15th century circulate in culinary tradition. and caffè for specifically Italian traditions Most widely known as coffeehouses or cafés.[129] . establishments serving prepared coffee or other hot beverages have existed for over five hundred years. there were more than 3. and coffeehouses were established and quickly became popular. and the drink. It is often served at the end of a meal. A plaque on the wall still commemorates this and the Cafe is now a trendy cocktail bar.000 coffeehouses in England. the very first one is recorded in 1645. The first coffeehouse in England was set up in Oxford in 1650 by a Jewish man named Jacob in the building now known as "The Grand Cafe". the "coffee break" was first promoted in 1952. In the 17th century. Aggressively promoted by the Pan-American Coffee Bureau. but with no documentation.[70] [edit] Coffeehouses See also: Coffeehouse for a social history of coffee.

and it is arguably the birthplace of the Encyclopédie. in Soho in 1952. Gordon Bowker and Zev Siegl.[136] He bought the other owners out in March 1987 and pushed on with plans to expand²from 1987 to the end of 1991.[139] Coffee drinking was prohibited by jurists and scholars (ulema) meeting in Mecca in 1511 as haraam. the first modern encyclopedia. Voltaire. Rousseau. and pushed to sell premade espresso coffee. He chose to focus on roasting batches with fresher. tea and beer were often served together in establishments which functioned both as coffeehouses and taverns. but Schultz opened Il Giornale in Seattle in April 1986.[131] Coffee. traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern-day Yemen). The others were reluctant.[133] Similarly in the United States. regarded as a .[135] Entrepreneur Howard Schultz joined the company in 1982 as Director of Retail Operations and Marketing.In 1672 an Armenian named Pascal established a coffee stall in Paris that was ultimately unsuccessful and the city had to wait until 1689 for its first coffeehouse when Procopio Cutò opened the Café Procope. which saw Beat Generation poets such as Allen Ginsberg and Bob Kaufman alongside bemused Italian immigrants. the Moka Bar.[133] The first Peet's Coffee & Tea store opened in 1966 in Berkeley.[130] America had its first coffeehouse in Boston. An Italian named Pino Riservato opened the first espresso bar. and Denis Diderot frequented it.600 stores in over 40 countries worldwide. This coffeehouse still exists today and was a major meeting place of the French Enlightenment.[140] Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca: it was accused of being a heretical substance. At first.[132] and from there spread across coffeehouses and restaurants across Italy and the rest of Europe and North America in the early 1950s. 1971. by three college students Jerry Baldwin. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies. where John Adams. followed by a second and third over the next two years.100 years ago. and its production and consumption were briefly repressed.[137] The company's name graces 16. the espresso craze spread.[118] The modern espresso machine was born in Milan in 1945 by Achille Gaggia. but the subject of whether it was intoxicating was hotly debated over the next 30 years until the ban was finally overturned in the mid 16th century. where Muslim dervishes began cultivating the shrub in their gardens. higher quality beans than was the norm at the time. It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV. one such was the Green Dragon in Boston. and there were 400 such bars in London alone by 1956. North Beach in San Francisco saw the opening of the Caffe Trieste in 1957. At least 1. James Otis and Paul Revere planned rebellion. He was a trainer and supplier to the founders of Starbuck¶s. the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries.[6] Coffee.[133] Similar such cafes existed in Greenwich Village and elsewhere. The first store opened on March 30.[134] The international coffeehouse chain Starbucks began as a modest business roasting and selling quality coffee beans in Seattle in 1971. the chain (rebranded from Il Giornale to Starbucks) expanded to over 100 outlets. Cappucino was particularly popular among English drinkers. in 1676. CA by Dutch native Alfred Peet.[138] [edit] Prohibition Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons.

[146] Johann Sebastian Bach was inspired to pen the Coffee Cantata.[142] A contemporary example of religious prohibition of coffee can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It does not identify coffee by name. about dependence on the beverage.[147] . the Church encourages members to avoid tea and coffee and other stimulants.[144] Quite a number of members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church also avoid caffeinated drinks. Abstinence from coffee. Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to Charles II outlawing coffeehouses from January 1676 (although the uproar created forced the monarch to back down two days before the ban was due to come into force).[143] The organization holds that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee. free from confounding factors. In its teachings. tobacco and alcohol by many Adventists has afforded a near unique opportunity for studies to be conducted within that population group on the health effects of coffee drinking. he sought to force the public back to consuming beer. was prohibited by Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889. and all causes of death. concerned about the price of import.[118] Frederick the Great banned it in Germany in 1777 for nationalistic and economic reasons. Germany had to import all its coffee at a great cost. other cardiovascular disease. given in 1833 by Mormon founder Joseph Smith in a revelation called the Word of Wisdom. One study was able to show a weak but statistically significant association between coffee consumption and mortality from ischemic heart disease. it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. all cardiovascular diseases combined.[145] [edit] Folklore and culture The Oromo people would customarily plant a coffee tree on the graves of powerful sorcerers.[141] Lacking coffee producing colonies.[144] This comes from the Mormon doctrine of health. They believed that the first coffee bush sprang up from the tears that the god of heaven shed over the corpse of a dead sorcerer. but includes the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly.Muslim drink." which has been interpreted to forbid both coffee and tea.