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Georgie Coffee

Georgie Coffee

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Published by: Mistere Lonley on Nov 26, 2010
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Georgia coffee

Coca Cola Japan is rolling out a new canned coffee in its Georgia label. The Emerald Mountain Blend Bito uses high-quality Emerald Mountain beans and contains only a dash of sugar. 120 yen for a 190-gram can. ShareThis Ready-to-Drink Seattle's Best Coffee Canned Iced Lattes Product Requested: 0 Viewed: 214 Uploaded on: Apr 18, 2010 Product Description Seattle's Best Coffee brewed up a new line of canned iced lattes for retailers in the Western U.S. The new Seattle's Best Coffee Iced Latte drinks replicate handcrafted versions of the company's lattes crafted in its cafes, and are available in Iced Latte, Iced Vanilla Latte and Iced Mocha flavors. The drinks have a suggested retail price of $1.49 for a single can and $4.99 for a four-pack, according to the company. The new ready-to-drink coffee beverages are part of the North American Coffee Partnership (NACP), a joint venture between Starbucks Corp. and Pepsi-Cola North America Beverages.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the beverage. For the bean it is made from, see Coffee bean. For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation).


A cup of black coffee Type Hot or cold beverage

Country of origin Ethiopia Introduced Color Approx. 15th century (beverage) Dark brown, beige, black, light brown

Coffee is a popular brewed drink prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. They are seeds of coffee cherries that grow on trees in over 70 countries, cultivated primarily in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Green unroasted coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.[1] Due to its caffeine content, coffee often has a stimulating effect on humans. Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide, second only to tea.[2]

are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea.[3] The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. it was used in religious ceremonies.[3] From the Muslim world.Coffee has played a crucial role in many societies throughout history. An important export commodity. to Indonesia. processed. whether the overall effects of coffee are ultimately positive or negative has been widely disputed. then to the rest of Europe. or "bean". and the cultivation of coffee first expanded in the Arab world. Coffee berries. and the 'robusta' form of the hardier Coffea canephora. coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004. The energizing effect of the coffee bean plant is thought to have been discovered in the northeast region of Ethiopia.[9] The method of brewing coffee has been found to be important to its health effects.[5] It was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons.[6] and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe.[7] and it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value in 2005. coffee spread to Italy.[10] . Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways. The latter is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). depending on the desired flavor. in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen in southern Arabia. which contain the coffee seed. and dried. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea arabica. the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption.[8] Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment.[4] In East Africa and Yemen. As a result. and to the Americas. a ban in effect until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia. coffee berries are picked. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions. Once ripe. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees.

1 Production o 3.Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y y y y 1 Etymology 2 Biology 3 Cultivation o 3.1 Footnotes o 10.5 Decaffeination o 4.1 Commodity o 5.2 Caffeine content 7 History 8 Social and cultural aspects o 8.2 The roasting process  4.3 Grading the roasted beans  4.1.1 Caffeine and headaches o 6.1.2 Storage o 4.1.3 Preparation o 4.1 Coffeehouses o 8.2 Fair trade 6 Health and pharmacology o 6.1 Roasting  4.2 Prohibition o 8.4 Roast characteristics  4.2 Ecological effects 4 Processing o 4.1.3 Folklore and culture 9 See also 10 Notes o 10.2 Citations 11 References 12 External links [edit] Etymology .1.4 Presentation 5 Sale and distribution o 5.1 Preparing green coffee  4.

the native name in Shoa being b n. in turn. mauritiana. stenophylla. is native to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia and the Boma Plateau in southeastern Sudan and possibly Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya. arabica. the term used in that region for the berry and plant is bunn. arabica.4 in) wide. via the .[11][12] However. In English and other European languages. and clusters of . Arab Italian caffè. liberica. Several alternative etymologies exist that hold that the Arab form may disguise a loanword from an Ethiopian or African source. signifying "to have no appetite". and racemosa.[15] Less popular species are C.'[11] [edit] Biology Main articles: Coffea and coffee varieties Several species of shrub of the genus Coffea produce the berries from which coffee is extracted. The leaves are dark green and glossy. the highland in southwestern Ethiopia as one. in the form chaoua. All coffee plants are classified in the large family Rubiaceae. canephora is native to western and central subsaharan Africa. The Turkish word in turn was borrowed from the Arabic: lexicographers maintain that qahwah originally referred to a type of wine. dates to 1598. to the verb qahiya. The two main species commercially cultivated are Coffea canephora (predominantly a form known as 'robusta') and C.[11] since this beverage was thought to dull one's hunger.Illustration of Coffea arabica plant and seeds The first reference to "coffee" in the English language. the original and most highly regarded species. The flowers are axillary.[13] C. coffee derives from the Ottoman Turkish kahve. and gave its etymology. They are evergreen shrubs or small trees that may grow 5 m (15 ft) tall when unpruned. since the plant is indigenous to that area. suggesting Kaffa.[14] C. from Guinea to the Uganda and southern Sudan. qahwah. usually 10±15 cm (4±6 in) long and 6 cm (2. excelsa.

[18] Berries ripen in seven to nine months. Coffea canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. arabica will not thrive.[16] Green when immature. liberica are self-incompatible and require outcrossing.6 in). Coffee is often intercropped with food crops. arabica) is generally more highly regarded than robusta coffee (from C.[22] However.[16] Of the two main species grown. Coffea arabica is predominantly self-pollinating. Good quality robusta beans are used in some espresso blends to provide a fullbodied taste. then crimson. grafting. Each berry usually contains two seeds. The robusta strain was . robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor but better body than arabica. they ripen to yellow. about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. there is great scope for experimentation in search of potential new strains. Coffea canephora. and to lower the ingredient cost. arabica and can be cultivated in lower altitudes and warmer climates where C.[21] For this reason.5 cm (0. C. or rice during the first few years of cultivation. before turning black on drying. arabica. In contrast.[13] Robusta strains also contain about 40±50% more caffeine than arabica. excelsa and C. beans. and as a result the seedlings are generally uniform and vary little from their parents. these are called peaberries. a better foam head (known as crema). The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season.[19] Cuttings. but 5±10% of the berries[17] have only one. and budding are the usual methods of vegetative propagation. it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. A more effective method of growing coffee.[19] [edit] Cultivation Map showing areas of coffee cultivation: r:Coffea canephora m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica a:Coffea arabica Coffee is usually propagated by seeds.fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously and are followed by oval berries of about 1. arabica coffee (from C. This means that useful forms and hybrids must be propagated vegetatively. used in Brazil. half are eliminated naturally.[20] On the other hand. is to raise seedlings in nurseries that are then planted outside at six to twelve months. canephora). such as corn. For these reasons.

further breeding resulted in the establishment of robusta plantations in many countries.200 697.[29] [edit] Production 2007 Top twenty green coffee producers Country Brazil Vietnam Colombia Indonesia Ethiopia[note 1] India Mexico Guatemala[note 1] Peru Tonnes[30] Bags (thousands)[31] 2.148 4. Each part of the coffee plant is assailed by different animals.first collected in 1890 from the Lomani.467 12.[28] Instead. and borer beetles burrow into stems and woody material. to which C. Nematodes attack the roots. using techniques such as targeted treatment of pest outbreaks.[24] Over 900 species of insect have been recorded as pests of coffee crops worldwide. 9 species of mites.377 676.992 36.150 4. several snails and slugs also attack the crop. From Java. Birds and rodents sometimes eat coffee berries but their impact is minor compared to invertebrates.953 . and was conveyed from Zaire to Brussels to Java around 1900. over a third are beetles. Branches infested with scale are often cut and left on the ground.[23] In particular.800 288.000 225.249.751 4.[26] the foliage is attacked by over 100 species of larvae (caterpillars) of butterflies and moths. integrated pest management has developed.[25] In general. Coffee leaf rust is found in virtually all countries that produce coffee. as the predators of the pests are more sensitive than the pests themselves.565 252.010 961. Of these.504 7. a tributary of the Congo River. which promotes scale parasites to not only attack the scale on the fallen branches but in the plant as well. hastened the uptake of the resistant robusta.906 4. Some 20 species of nematodes. arabica is vulnerable.475 325. the spread of the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix).100 2. arabica is the more sensitive species to invertebrate predation overall. and over a quarter are bugs.000 268.[27] Mass spraying of insecticides has often proven disastrous.070 16. and managing crop environment away from conditions favouring pests.

[13] Beans from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor.791 431 1. [edit] Ecological effects .626 1. body. Arabia.456 90.150 3.[33] These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region.319 Papua New Guinea[note 1] 75.[34] Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown. followed by Vietnam.700 968 897 604 653 117.675 In 2009 Brazil was the world leader in production of green coffee. Indonesia and Colombia. such as Colombian.[32] Arabica coffee beans are cultivated in Latin America.909 3. and to some extent in Brazil.877 95. and acidity.849 168.951 170.742. or Asia. Java and Kona.311 62. but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing. eastern Africa.000 124.250 1.660 7.055 97.400 Venezuela Madagascar[note 2] Thailand World[note 3] 70. aroma. throughout southeast Asia.Honduras Côte d'Ivoire Uganda Costa Rica Philippines El Salvador Nicaragua 217. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa.842 2.000 55.

Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center. Erythrina. as well as the nitrogen-fixing non-legume sheoaks of the genus Casuarina.[40] National Arbor Day Foundation.[45] By using sustainable agriculture methods. although unfertilized shaded crops generally yield higher than unfertilized unshaded crops² namely the response to fertilizer is much greater in full sun.[35] Originally remnant forest trees were used for this purpose.A flowering Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantation Main article: Coffee and the environment Originally.[38] Although traditional coffee production causes berries to ripen more slowly and produce lower yields.[42] However. Inga. These include leguminous trees of the genera Acacia. and the silky oak Grevillea robusta. while certain types of shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems.[47] Some commercial coffee shops run . and soil and water degradation are the side effects of these practices.[37] Ultimately. the United States Geological Survey reports that one egg requires an input of 454 liters (120 US gal) of water.[41] and the Rainforest Alliance have led a campaign for "shade-grown" and organic coffees. the quality of the coffee is allegedly superior. such as Ethiopia. using industrial farming practices. This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields. According to New Scientist. Cassia. They are especially appreciated by worms and acid-loving plants such as blueberries.[39] In addition. and one glass of wine requires an input of 120 liters (32 US gal) of water. but many species have been planted as well. in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy.[46] Coffee grounds may be used for composting or as a mulch. many farmers switched their production method to sun cultivation. which can be sustainably harvested. while retaining comparable yields. and Leucaena. it takes about 140 liters (37 US gal) of water to grow the coffee beans needed to produce one cup of coffee. habitat destruction. but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides. those more distant from continuous forest still compare rather poorly to undisturbed native forest in terms of habitat value for some bird species. Starting in the 1970s. and the coffee is often grown in countries where there is a water shortage. which damage the environment and cause health problems. one serving of rice requires an input of 132 liters (35 US gal) of water. Opponents of sun cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation. the amount of water usage can be dramatically reduced. or "shade-grown".[35] The American Birding Association. pesticide pollution. the traditional shaded method provides living space for many wildlife species. unshaded coffee enhanced by fertilizer use yields the highest amounts of coffee. For comparison. one serving of milk requires an input of 246 liters (65 US gal) of water.[43][44] Another issue concerning coffee is its use of water. Albizia.[36] This method is commonly referred to as the traditional shaded method. coffee farming was done in the shade of trees that provided a habitat for many animals and insects. Gliricidia.

Berries have been traditionally selectively picked by hand. including Starbucks' "Grounds for your Garden" project. Next. and the wet process method. More commonly.[48] [edit] Processing [edit] Roasting Main articles: Coffee processing and Coffee roasting [edit] Preparing green coffee Coffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they become the familiar roasted coffee. crops are strip picked. which allows the air to pass on all sides of the coffee. though this is generally in places where the humidity is very high. a labor intensive method. Finally. the coffee is sorted. the pulped and fermented coffee is spread thinly on raised beds. After picking. Another way to let the coffee beans dry is to let them sit on a concrete patio and rake over them in the sunlight. it involves the selection of only the berries at the peak of ripeness. and labeled as green coffee.[49] Then they are sorted by ripeness and color and the flesh of the berry is removed. usually by machine. and fermentation is less likely. the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue. Some companies use cylinders to pump in heated air to dry the coffee beans. simpler and less labor intensive as the berries can be strip picked.initiatives to make better use of these grounds. Most African coffee is dried in this manner and certain coffee farms around the world are starting to use this traditional method. and then the coffee is mixed by hand. and the seeds²usually called beans²are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the bean. The best (but least used) method of drying coffee is using drying tables. In this method. green coffee is processed by one of two methods²the dry process method. which incorporates fermentation into the process and yields a mild coffee. In this method the drying that takes place is more uniform. When the fermentation is finished. the seeds are dried. where all berries are harvested simultaneously regardless of ripeness by person or machine.[50] [edit] The roasting process Coffee beans . which generates massive amounts of coffee wastewater.

[54] . changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown. medium light. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee. aromatic oils. acids weaken changing the flavor. During roasting. but all involve either soaking the green beans in hot water (often wrongly called the "Swiss water" process) or steaming them. The density of the bean also influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging. at 205 °C (401 °F). dark.[52] [edit] Decaffeination Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo. though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the beans. which is largely responsible for coffee's aroma and flavor. This elaborate light meter uses a process known as spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the roasted coffee's relative degree of roast or flavor development. other oils start to develop. The bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost and increases in volume. The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches approximately 200 °C (392 °F). and with rare exceptions all coffee is roasted before it is consumed. or it can be home roasted.[56] Chaff is usually removed from the beans by air movement.[55] A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing.[52] During roasting.[53] Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. medium. causing it to become less dense. or very dark.[52] One of these oils is caffeol. changing the color of the bean. A more accurate method of discerning the degree of roast involves measuring the reflected light from roasted beans illuminated with a light source in the near infrared spectrum. and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry. then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils. Lighter roasts have a more complex and therefore perceived stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times. Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state.[51] The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically. caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches in the bean. [edit] Roast characteristics Darker roasts are generally bolder because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor. they will be labeled as light. It can be sold roasted by the supplier. Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. medium dark.The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee.[54] [edit] Grading the roasted beans Depending on the color of the roasted beans as perceived by the human eye.[54] Decaffeination is often done by processing companies. created at about 200 °C (392 °F). though different varieties of beans differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates.

Espresso brewing. but without boiling for more than an instant. in a grocery store. or in the home. additional flavorings (sugar. A better package contains a one-way valve. the ways in which the water extracts the flavor. the spent grounds are removed from the liquid. though roasted coffee beans can be ground at home immediately before consumption. and light are the environmental factors[57] responsible for deteriorating flavor in coffee beans. spices). dry and dark place. and the liquid is consumed. Most coffee is roasted and ground at a roastery and sold in packaged form.[edit] Storage Once roasted. see Coffee preparation. Folded-over bags. milk. Finally. the container must be airtight and kept in a cool. and the removal of the spent grounds. The ideal holding temperature is 79 to 85 °C (174 to 185 °F) and the ideal serving temperature is 68 to 79 °C (154 to 174 °F). coffee beans must be stored properly to preserve the fresh taste of the bean. which prevents air from entering. boiling develops an unpleasant "cooked" flavor. to roast raw beans at home. moisture. It is also possible. heat.[57] [edit] Preparation For more details on this topic. Ideally. Almost all methods of preparing coffee require the beans to be ground and mixed with hot water for long enough to extract the flavor. are generally not ideal for long-term storage because they allow air to enter. In order of importance: air. The criteria for choosing a method include flavor and economy. . The roasted coffee beans may be ground at a roastery. a common way consumers often purchase coffee. There are many variations in the fineness of grind. with dark reddish-brown crema Coffee beans must be ground and brewed to create a beverage. though uncommon.

[62] .Coffee beans may be ground in several ways. while coffee percolator or French press are the coarsest grinds.[61] The coffee is poured from the container.[58] Other pressurized water methods include the Moka pot and Vacuum coffee maker. the espresso beverage is more concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the quantity of coffee to water as gravity-brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex physical and chemical constitution.[59] It is prepared by grinding or pounding the beans to a fine powder. Ground coffee and hot water are combined in a cylindrical vessel and left to brew for a few minutes. The espresso method forces hot (but not boiling) pressurized water through ground coffee. The most common grinds are between the extremes. Coffee may be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press (also known as a cafetière or coffee press). and the process is repeated until terminated by removing from the heat. A burr mill uses revolving elements to shear the bean. boiling water is forced into a chamber above a filter by steam pressure created by boiling. steeped. This produces a strong coffee with a layer of foam on the surface and sediment (which is not meant for drinking) settling on the bottom of the cup. A circular filter which fits tightly in the cylinder fixed to a plunger is then pushed down from the top to force the grounds to the bottom. then filtering. Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method. the filter retains the grounds at the bottom. The water then seeps through the grounds. a bríki. Turkish grind is the finest grind.[60] or by a thermostat that turns off the heater when the entire pot reaches a certain temperature.[60] In a percolator. or perforated metal. or pressured. The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used. by an internal timer. In an automatic coffeemaker hot water drips onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter made of paper. and a mortar and pestle crushes the beans. in Greek. and Turkish coffee is an example of this method. For most brewing methods. Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water.[59] Coffee percolators and automatic coffeemakers brew coffee using gravity. Coffee may also be brewed in cold water by steeping coarsely ground beans in cold water for several hours. an electric grinder smashes the beans with blunt blades moving at high speed. all the coffee oils remain in the beverage. As a result of brewing under high pressure (ideally between 9±10 atm). A wellprepared espresso has a reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface. and the spent grounds are retained in the filter. making it stronger and leaving more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic coffee machine. The liquid drips through the coffee and the filter into a carafe or pot. a burr mill is deemed superior because the grind is more even and the grind size can be adjusted. then adding it to water and bringing it to the boil for no more than an instant in a pot called a cezve or.[58] Coffee may be brewed by several methods: boiled. allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while extracting its oils and essences. plastic. a medium grind is used in most common home coffee-brewing machines.

. When served cold. Drip-brewed. Reversing the process by adding espresso to hot water preserves the crema.[63] and a dollop of hot foamed milk on top creates a caffè macchiato. it is called iced coffee.[64] equal parts steamed milk and milk froth make a cappuccino. In its most basic form. and is known as a long black. as illustrated by the common fern design layered into this latte. coffee may be presented in a variety of ways. or not (black coffee). Coffee in Syria Once brewed. Espresso-based coffee has a wide variety of possible presentations.[65] The use of steamed milk to form patterns such as hearts or maple leaves is referred to as latte art. or dairy substitute (colloquially known as white coffee).[edit] Presentation See also: List of coffee beverages Presentation can be an integral part of coffeehouse service.[63] Milk can be added in various forms to espresso: steamed milk makes a caffè latte. or Frenchpressed/cafetière coffee may be served with a dairy product such as milk or cream. percolated. it is served alone as a shot or in the more watered-down style Caffè Americano²a shot or two of espresso with hot water added. It may be sweetened with sugar or artificial sweetener.

[72] Coffee can also be incorporated with alcohol in beverages²it is combined with whiskey in Irish coffee. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta coffee. invented in 1947 and multiplying rapidly through the 1950s. and South Korea.000 if the water is preheated. available both hot and cold. . much like brewed or percolated coffee.A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee.[67] it rapidly gained in popularity in many countries in the post-war period. particularly in China. which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk.[70] Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years. [edit] Sale and distribution Brazilian coffee sacks. Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee.[71] Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time. Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze-dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water. Japan.[68] Many consumers determined that the convenience in preparing a cup of instant coffee more than made up for a perceived inferior taste. The machines used can process up to 500 cups an hour.[66] Originally invented in 1907. or 1. and costs about 10¢ a cup to produce. Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks.[69] Paralleling (and complementing) the rapid rise of instant coffee was the coffee vending machine. and forms the base of alcoholic coffee liqueurs such as Kahlúa. and Tia Maria. Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States. with Nescafé the most popular product.

991 metric .[75] Higher and lower grade arabica coffees are sold through other channels.050. 24. July.7 million metric tons of coffee were produced annually in 1998±2000. However Mark Pendergrast. who originally wrote about this.[77] [edit] Fair trade Main article: Fair trade coffee The concept of fair trade labeling. In 2004. investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity. [edit] Commodity While coffee is not technically a commodity (it is fresh produce. since 2007. and became a major producer of robusta beans. September. and December. Main article: Economics of coffee See also: List of countries by coffee consumption per capita Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe. coffee is bought and sold by roasters.[73] Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation. began with the Max Havelaar Foundation's labeling program in the Netherlands. on the New York ICE exchange. but Vietnam tripled its exports between 1995 and 1999. its value is directly affected by the length of time it is held). As of 2006 green coffee was purported to be the second most traded commodity in the world. after further research. which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated preharvest price.[74] Indonesia is the third-largest exporter and the largest producer of washed arabica coffee. 33. 6. in 2005.Small-sized bag of coffee beans. and the forecast is a rise to seven million metric tons annually by 2010. Futures contracts for robusta coffee are traded on the London Liffe exchange and. May. that his statement was incorrect. with contract deliveries occurring every year in March.222 metric tons (of 7.000 produced worldwide) were fair trade.[2] Worldwide. Coffee futures contracts for Grade 3 washed arabicas are traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange under ticker symbol KC.[76] now believes.

however. the production and consumption of fair trade coffee has grown as some local and national coffee chains started to offer fair trade alternatives. when the Max Havelaar mark was introduced in the Netherlands.34% to 0.[83] Since September 2009 all Starbucks Espresso beverages in UK and Ireland are made with Fairtrade and Shared Planet certified coffee.685. Coffee prepared using paper filters removes oily .[80] Since the founding of organisations such as the European Fair Trade Association (1987).51%. Findings have been contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits. an increase from 0. The very first fair-trade coffee was an effort to import a Guatemalan coffee into Europe as "Indio Solidarity Coffee". in April 2000.[84] A 2005 study done in Belgium concluded that consumers' buying behavior is not consistent with their positive attitude toward ethical products.[9] Variations in findings.[81][82] For example.000 were fair trade. after a year-long campaign by the human rights organization Global Exchange. including fair-trade products such as coffee.[83] [edit] Health and pharmacology Main article: Health effects of coffee Overview of the more common effects of caffeine. and results are similarly conflicting regarding the potentially harmful effects of coffee consumption.tons out of 6.[85] a main active component of coffee Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. On average 46% of European consumers claimed to be willing to pay substantially more for ethical products.[83] The study found that the majority of respondents were unwilling to pay the actual price premium of 27% for fair trade coffee. Coffee was incorporated into the fair-trade movement in 1988. Starbucks decided to carry fairtrade coffee in its stores. can be at least partially resolved by considering the method of preparation.[78][79] A number of fair trade impact studies have shown that fair trade coffee has a positive impact on the communities that grow it.

Although the inhibition of iron absorption can cause an iron deficiency.[90] Most of coffee's beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes are not due to its caffeine content.[89] It increases the risk of acid reflux and associated diseases.[86] Metal filters. both of which have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease via elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in blood. and this only if their stomach is healthy.components called diterpenes that are present in unfiltered coffee. on the other hand. Parkinson's disease. Moderate amounts of coffee (50±100 mg of caffeine or 5±10 g of coffee powder a day) are well tolerated by most elderly people. diabetes mellitus type 2. Coffee consumption has been shown to have minimal or no impact.[97] American scientist Yaser Dorri has suggested that the smell of coffee can restore appetite and refresh olfactory receptors. high in lipophilic antioxidants and chlorogenic acid lactones. can.[88] and gout. because both decaffeinated coffee and coffee with caffeine cause heartburn. researchers involved in an ongoing 22-year study by the Harvard School of Public Health state that "the overall balance of risks and benefits [of coffee consumption] are on the side of benefits.[91] The presence of antioxidants in coffee has been shown to prevent free radicals from causing cell damage. They are recommended to take decaffeinated coffee. cause very unpleasant. Polyphenols contained in coffee are therefore associated with decreasing the risk of liver cancer development. do not remove the oily components of coffee. as the positive effects of consumption are greater in those who drink decaffeinated coffee.[10] In addition to differences in methods of preparation. Elderly individuals with a depleted enzymatic system do not tolerate coffee with caffeine. The resulting metabolites are mostly paraxanthines²theobromine and theophylline²and a small amount of unchanged caffeine is excreted by urine. Excessive amounts of coffee. A longitudinal study in 2009 showed that those who consumed a moderate amount of coffee or tea (3±5 cups per day) at midlife were less likely to develop dementia and Alzheimer's disease in late-life compared with those who drank little coffee or avoided it altogether.[96] Interference with iron absorption is due to the polyphenols present in coffee.[92] A recent study showed that roast coffee.[93] In a healthy liver. Therefore. He suggests that people can regain their appetite after cooking by smelling coffee beans. and that this method can also be used for research animals. however. positive or negative.[87] however. Two types of diterpenes are present in coffee: kahweol and cafestol. caffeine is mostly broken down by the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system. the metabolism of caffeine depends on the state of this enzymatic system of the liver. iron is considered a carcinogen in relation to the liver.[98] . on cancer development.[94] Coffee consumption can lead to iron deficiency anemia in mothers and infants. heart disease.[95] Coffee also interferes with the absorption of supplemental iron. conflicting data regarding serving size could partially explain differences between beneficial/harmful effects of coffee consumption. in many individuals. cirrhosis of the liver. protected primary neuronal cell cultures against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. exceptionally even lifethreatening adverse effects."[87] Other studies suggest coffee consumption reduces the risk of being affected by Alzheimer's disease.

[103] One study suggests that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory. general population report having stopped drinking coffee altogether.[104] Caffeine has been associated with its ability to act as an antidepressant. four cups a day. even with those who drink coffee in moderation.[101] Caffeinated coffee is not recommended for everybody.[100] Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls. and cause sleep disturbances. migraines.[108] [edit] Caffeine and headaches There is some controversy over whether the caffeine in coffee causes headaches or helps relieve headaches. Instant coffee has a much greater amount of acrylamide than brewed coffee. A review by de Paulis and Martin indicated a link between a decrease in suicide rates and coffee consumption. In a 2000 controlled study by the Diamond Headache Clinic in Chicago.000 chemicals have been reported in roasted coffee. [109] [edit] Caffeine content . The study did not recommend that the caffeine and ibuprofen combination was effective against migraine headaches.S. combined with caffeine or one cup of coffee had increased effectiveness against tension headaches. arrhythmias.[99] Coffee's negative health effects are often blamed on its caffeine content. more than half of those tested (19/28) are rodent carcinogens. citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects of caffeine. an over the counter pain killer. It may aggravate preexisting conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease.[105] A 1992 study concluded that about 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) experienced increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn. are more likely to suffer occasional headaches than persons who have low coffee or caffeine consumption. Illinois. A Johns Hopkins controlled study has linked drinking coffee with addictive withdrawal headaches. by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information. revealed that adults who took ibuprofen."[107] About 15% of the U. and suggested that the action of caffeine in blocking the inhibitory effects of adenosine on dopamine nerves in the brain reduced feelings of depression.[106] but a 2002 review of the literature criticised its methodology and concluded that "[t]he effects of caffeine withdrawal are still controversial. A 2009 Norwegian University of Science and Technology controlled study claims that heavy coffee drinkers.[102] Coffee is no longer thought to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease.Over 1.

the 9thcentury Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee.5 2 oz. 45 60 ml) = 100 mg [edit] History The following text needs to be harmonized with text in History of coffee. Diet.[110] According to Bunker and McWilliams (J. 207 ml) = 80 135 mg.[3] It was here in Arabia that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed. 1979).[3] The story of Kaldi. 74:28±32. espresso: 1 cup (1.[3] However. Main article: History of coffee Over the door of a Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish dress. coffee has the following caffeine content:[111] y y y brewed: 1 cup (7 oz. in a similar way to how it is now .[3] From Ethiopia. Am. The caffeine content of a cup of coffee varies depending mainly on the brewing method. and also on the variety of bean.[112] The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century. no direct evidence has been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant or even known about it. receiving a cup of coffee from a boy Ethiopian ancestors of today's Oromo people were believed to have been the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant. did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal. drip: 1 cup (7 oz. earlier than the 17th century.Caffeine molecule The stimulant effect of coffee is due to its caffeine content. 207 ml) = 115 175 mg. the beverage was introduced into the Arab world through Egypt and Yemen. in the Sufi monasteries around Mokha in Yemen.

Turkey.[113] The Dutch later grew the crop in Java and Ceylon. Yemen. and northern Africa. in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful. established in 1654.[4] In 1583. Reise in die Morgenländer (in German) Pouring coffee in the Arab village Abu Ghosh (Israel) From the Muslim world." The first European coffee house opened in Italy in 1645. Coffee then spread to Italy. including coffee. it had reached the rest of the Middle East. From Venice.[54] The first exports of Indonesian coffee from Java to the Netherlands occurred in 1711. It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu. useful against numerous illnesses. Coffee became more widely accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII in 1600. and to the rest of Europe. to the Venetian port. it was introduced to the rest of Europe. gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten-year trip to the Near East: A beverage as black as ink. and the Middle East brought many goods. Léonard Rauwolf. Persia. Leonhard Rauwolf. a German physician. despite appeals to ban the "Muslim drink.[4] The Dutch were the first to import coffee on a large scale. to Indonesia.prepared. Egypt. particularly those of the stomach.[114] Through the efforts of the British East India Company . and to the Americas. coffee became popular in England as well. Its consumers take it in the morning. into Europe in 1616. is still in existence . By the 16th century. The thriving trade between Venice and North Africa. and they were among the first to defy the Arab prohibition on the exportation of plants or unroasted seeds when Pieter van den Broecke smuggled seedlings from Mocha. quite frankly. coffee spread to Italy. Oxford's Queen's Lane Coffee House.

the Americans' taste for coffee grew. and by 1788 it supplied half the world's coffee[citation needed]. Burundi. this was also due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants. during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports. and had become cheaper with the British conquest of India and the tea industry there. The latter beverage was simpler to make. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries. massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from the vicinity of Rio and later São Paulo for coffee plantations. and Ethiopia. [edit] Social and cultural aspects Main article: Coffee culture .[123] The notable exception was Costa Rica.[116] After the War of 1812. from which much of the world's cultivated arabica coffee is descended.[120] Meanwhile. when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks. Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become dependent on coffee as their primary source of income. coups and bloody suppression of peasants. the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically. the dreadful conditions that the slaves worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon to follow Haitian Revolution. coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727.[124] Coffee has become a vital cash crop for many Third World countries. Coffee thrived in the climate and was conveyed across the Americas. Harsh conditions led to many uprisings. During the Revolutionary War. It has become the primary export and backbone for African countries like Uganda. and high demand during the American Civil War together with advances in brewing technology secured the position of coffee as an everyday commodity in the United States.[125] as well as many Central American countries. it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe as alcoholic beverages remained more popular.[119] The territory of San Domingo (now Haiti) saw coffee cultivated from 1734. and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna.[118] The Frenchman Gabriel de Clieu brought a coffee plant to the French territory of Martinique in the Caribbean. Rwanda. The coffee industry never fully recovered there. However.[122] Cultivation was taken up by many countries in Central America in the latter half of the 19th century.[121] After this time. giving way to tea during the 18th century.[115] When coffee reached North America during the Colonial period. Coffee was introduced in France in 1657. coffee consumption declined in England.today. although its cultivation didn't gather momentum until independence in 1822.[117][not in citation given] Paradoxically. and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous people. where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms. however.

normally with a dessert.[129] .000 coffeehouses in England. Aggressively promoted by the Pan-American Coffee Bureau. Hitherto unknown in the workplace. It is often served at the end of a meal. a result of the traffic between La Serenissima and the Ottomans. the "coffee break" was first promoted in 1952. the very first one is recorded in 1645. and coffeehouses were established and quickly became popular. and at times with an after-dinner mint especially when consumed at a restaurant or dinner party.[70] [edit] Coffeehouses See also: Coffeehouse for a social history of coffee. and caffè for specifically Italian traditions Most widely known as coffeehouses or cafés.[128] By 1675. coffee appeared for the first time in Europe outside the Ottoman Empire. there were more than 3. but with no documentation. The first coffeehouses in Western Europe appeared in Venice.A coffeehouse in Palestine (1900) Coffee is often consumed alongside (or instead of) breakfast by many at home. its uptake was facilitated by the recent popularity of both instant coffee and vending machines. establishments serving prepared coffee or other hot beverages have existed for over five hundred years. The first coffeehouse in England was set up in Oxford in 1650 by a Jewish man named Jacob in the building now known as "The Grand Cafe". and has become an institution of the American workplace. In 1530 the first coffee house was opened in Damascus. A plaque on the wall still commemorates this and the Cafe is now a trendy cocktail bar. Various legends involving the introduction of coffee to Istanbul at a "Kiva Han" in the late 15th century circulate in culinary tradition.[127] and not long after there were many coffee houses in Cairo. for Muslims between 1512 and 1524. and the drink.[126] Coffeehouses in Mecca soon became a concern as places for political gatherings to the imams who banned them. In the 17th century.

Gordon Bowker and Zev Siegl.600 stores in over 40 countries worldwide. CA by Dutch native Alfred Peet.[134] The international coffeehouse chain Starbucks began as a modest business roasting and selling quality coffee beans in Seattle in 1971. tea and beer were often served together in establishments which functioned both as coffeehouses and taverns. Cappucino was particularly popular among English drinkers.[132] and from there spread across coffeehouses and restaurants across Italy and the rest of Europe and North America in the early 1950s.[133] The first Peet's Coffee & Tea store opened in 1966 in Berkeley. which saw Beat Generation poets such as Allen Ginsberg and Bob Kaufman alongside bemused Italian immigrants. James Otis and Paul Revere planned rebellion.[133] Similar such cafes existed in Greenwich Village and elsewhere. the Moka Bar. An Italian named Pino Riservato opened the first espresso bar.In 1672 an Armenian named Pascal established a coffee stall in Paris that was ultimately unsuccessful and the city had to wait until 1689 for its first coffeehouse when Procopio Cutò opened the Café Procope.[135] Entrepreneur Howard Schultz joined the company in 1982 as Director of Retail Operations and Marketing.100 years ago.[130] America had its first coffeehouse in Boston. At first. traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern-day Yemen). This coffeehouse still exists today and was a major meeting place of the French Enlightenment.[136] He bought the other owners out in March 1987 and pushed on with plans to expand²from 1987 to the end of 1991. He was a trainer and supplier to the founders of Starbuck¶s.[140] Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca: it was accused of being a heretical substance. Rousseau.[118] The modern espresso machine was born in Milan in 1945 by Achille Gaggia. the first modern encyclopedia. the chain (rebranded from Il Giornale to Starbucks) expanded to over 100 outlets. and Denis Diderot frequented it.[138] [edit] Prohibition Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. in 1676. 1971.[139] Coffee drinking was prohibited by jurists and scholars (ulema) meeting in Mecca in 1511 as haraam. the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries.[131] Coffee. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies. where Muslim dervishes began cultivating the shrub in their gardens. and there were 400 such bars in London alone by 1956. but Schultz opened Il Giornale in Seattle in April 1986.[137] The company's name graces 16. where John Adams. but the subject of whether it was intoxicating was hotly debated over the next 30 years until the ban was finally overturned in the mid 16th century. The others were reluctant. He chose to focus on roasting batches with fresher. It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV. The first store opened on March 30. and pushed to sell premade espresso coffee. followed by a second and third over the next two years. by three college students Jerry Baldwin. regarded as a . At least 1. Voltaire.[6] Coffee. in Soho in 1952.[133] Similarly in the United States. one such was the Green Dragon in Boston. North Beach in San Francisco saw the opening of the Caffe Trieste in 1957. and its production and consumption were briefly repressed. higher quality beans than was the norm at the time. and it is arguably the birthplace of the Encyclopédie. the espresso craze spread.

Abstinence from coffee. Germany had to import all its coffee at a great cost. and all causes of death. They believed that the first coffee bush sprang up from the tears that the god of heaven shed over the corpse of a dead sorcerer.[146] Johann Sebastian Bach was inspired to pen the Coffee Cantata." which has been interpreted to forbid both coffee and tea.[145] [edit] Folklore and culture The Oromo people would customarily plant a coffee tree on the graves of powerful sorcerers.[118] Frederick the Great banned it in Germany in 1777 for nationalistic and economic reasons.[141] Lacking coffee producing colonies. other cardiovascular disease. was prohibited by Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889. about dependence on the beverage.[143] The organization holds that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee.[144] This comes from the Mormon doctrine of health. the Church encourages members to avoid tea and coffee and other stimulants. It does not identify coffee by name.[147] . Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to Charles II outlawing coffeehouses from January 1676 (although the uproar created forced the monarch to back down two days before the ban was due to come into force). but includes the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly. concerned about the price of import.[142] A contemporary example of religious prohibition of coffee can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. One study was able to show a weak but statistically significant association between coffee consumption and mortality from ischemic heart disease. it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths.Muslim drink. all cardiovascular diseases combined. he sought to force the public back to consuming beer. given in 1833 by Mormon founder Joseph Smith in a revelation called the Word of Wisdom. free from confounding factors.[144] Quite a number of members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church also avoid caffeinated drinks. In its teachings. tobacco and alcohol by many Adventists has afforded a near unique opportunity for studies to be conducted within that population group on the health effects of coffee drinking.

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