Georgia coffee

Coca Cola Japan is rolling out a new canned coffee in its Georgia label. The Emerald Mountain Blend Bito uses high-quality Emerald Mountain beans and contains only a dash of sugar. 120 yen for a 190-gram can. ShareThis Ready-to-Drink Seattle's Best Coffee Canned Iced Lattes Product Requested: 0 Viewed: 214 Uploaded on: Apr 18, 2010 Product Description Seattle's Best Coffee brewed up a new line of canned iced lattes for retailers in the Western U.S. The new Seattle's Best Coffee Iced Latte drinks replicate handcrafted versions of the company's lattes crafted in its cafes, and are available in Iced Latte, Iced Vanilla Latte and Iced Mocha flavors. The drinks have a suggested retail price of $1.49 for a single can and $4.99 for a four-pack, according to the company. The new ready-to-drink coffee beverages are part of the North American Coffee Partnership (NACP), a joint venture between Starbucks Corp. and Pepsi-Cola North America Beverages.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the beverage. For the bean it is made from, see Coffee bean. For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation).


A cup of black coffee Type Hot or cold beverage

Country of origin Ethiopia Introduced Color Approx. 15th century (beverage) Dark brown, beige, black, light brown

Coffee is a popular brewed drink prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. They are seeds of coffee cherries that grow on trees in over 70 countries, cultivated primarily in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Green unroasted coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.[1] Due to its caffeine content, coffee often has a stimulating effect on humans. Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide, second only to tea.[2]

coffee berries are picked. An important export commodity.[4] In East Africa and Yemen.[7] and it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value in 2005. to Indonesia.[3] From the Muslim world. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees. Once ripe. or "bean".[3] The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century.[8] Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. and the cultivation of coffee first expanded in the Arab world. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions. then to the rest of Europe. processed. The energizing effect of the coffee bean plant is thought to have been discovered in the northeast region of Ethiopia. As a result. the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption. in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen in southern Arabia.[6] and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe.[5] It was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons.[9] The method of brewing coffee has been found to be important to its health effects. depending on the desired flavor. The latter is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea arabica.Coffee has played a crucial role in many societies throughout history. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways. and to the Americas. a ban in effect until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia. whether the overall effects of coffee are ultimately positive or negative has been widely disputed. are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. and the 'robusta' form of the hardier Coffea canephora. Coffee berries. coffee spread to Italy. coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004. it was used in religious ceremonies. and dried.[10] . which contain the coffee seed.

1 Footnotes o 10.2 The roasting process  4.3 Preparation o 4.5 Decaffeination o 4.2 Ecological effects 4 Processing o Folklore and culture 9 See also 10 Notes o 10.4 Presentation 5 Sale and distribution o 5.1 Production o 3.2 Storage o 4.Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y y y y 1 Etymology 2 Biology 3 Cultivation o 3.1.4 Roast characteristics  4.2 Citations 11 References 12 External links [edit] Etymology .2 Prohibition o 8.1.3 Grading the roasted beans  4.1 Coffeehouses o 8.1.1 Caffeine and headaches o 6.1 Preparing green coffee  4.1 Roasting  4.1 Commodity o 5.2 Caffeine content 7 History 8 Social and cultural aspects o 8.2 Fair trade 6 Health and pharmacology o 6.

and gave its etymology. via the . the native name in Shoa being b n. from Guinea to the Uganda and southern Sudan. The leaves are dark green and glossy.[15] Less popular species are C. usually 10±15 cm (4±6 in) long and 6 cm (2.[14] C. the highland in southwestern Ethiopia as one. Several alternative etymologies exist that hold that the Arab form may disguise a loanword from an Ethiopian or African source. and clusters of . Arab Italian caffè. suggesting Kaffa. qahwah. canephora is native to western and central subsaharan Africa. coffee derives from the Ottoman Turkish kahve. and racemosa. They are evergreen shrubs or small trees that may grow 5 m (15 ft) tall when unpruned.4 in) wide.[11] since this beverage was thought to dull one's hunger. The two main species commercially cultivated are Coffea canephora (predominantly a form known as 'robusta') and C. arabica. liberica.[13] C. The flowers are axillary. signifying "to have no appetite". since the plant is indigenous to that area. All coffee plants are classified in the large family Rubiaceae. stenophylla. The Turkish word in turn was borrowed from the Arabic: lexicographers maintain that qahwah originally referred to a type of wine.[11][12] However. arabica. mauritiana. the term used in that region for the berry and plant is bunn. excelsa. in turn.Illustration of Coffea arabica plant and seeds The first reference to "coffee" in the English language. in the form chaoua. to the verb qahiya. is native to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia and the Boma Plateau in southeastern Sudan and possibly Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya.'[11] [edit] Biology Main articles: Coffea and coffee varieties Several species of shrub of the genus Coffea produce the berries from which coffee is extracted. dates to 1598. the original and most highly regarded species. In English and other European languages.

The robusta strain was . and to lower the ingredient cost. and budding are the usual methods of vegetative propagation. or rice during the first few years of cultivation. Good quality robusta beans are used in some espresso blends to provide a fullbodied taste.[16] Green when immature. This means that useful forms and hybrids must be propagated vegetatively. The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season. is to raise seedlings in nurseries that are then planted outside at six to twelve months. then crimson. A more effective method of growing coffee.[19] Cuttings.6 in).5 cm (0. canephora).[21] For this reason. and as a result the seedlings are generally uniform and vary little from their parents. about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. Coffea canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. Coffea arabica is predominantly self-pollinating. Coffea canephora. they ripen to yellow. liberica are self-incompatible and require outcrossing. excelsa and C. it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. arabica will not thrive.[16] Of the two main species grown. grafting. arabica) is generally more highly regarded than robusta coffee (from C.[20] On the other hand. arabica and can be cultivated in lower altitudes and warmer climates where C.[13] Robusta strains also contain about 40±50% more caffeine than arabica. Coffee is often intercropped with food crops. arabica. there is great scope for experimentation in search of potential new strains. half are eliminated naturally. these are called peaberries. arabica coffee (from C. used in Brazil. before turning black on drying.[18] Berries ripen in seven to nine months. Each berry usually contains two seeds.fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously and are followed by oval berries of about 1. For these reasons. a better foam head (known as crema). In contrast. such as corn. beans. robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor but better body than arabica. C. but 5±10% of the berries[17] have only one.[22] However.[19] [edit] Cultivation Map showing areas of coffee cultivation: r:Coffea canephora m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica a:Coffea arabica Coffee is usually propagated by seeds.

[29] [edit] Production 2007 Top twenty green coffee producers Country Brazil Vietnam Colombia Indonesia Ethiopia[note 1] India Mexico Guatemala[note 1] Peru Tonnes[30] Bags (thousands)[31] 2.[26] the foliage is attacked by over 100 species of larvae (caterpillars) of butterflies and moths.[24] Over 900 species of insect have been recorded as pests of coffee crops worldwide.010 961. Coffee leaf rust is found in virtually all countries that produce coffee.751 4.148 4. hastened the uptake of the resistant robusta.504 7. and over a quarter are bugs.992 36.[23] In particular. over a third are beetles. as the predators of the pests are more sensitive than the pests themselves.070 16.377 676. a tributary of the Congo River.467 12.475 325. Nematodes attack the roots. Birds and rodents sometimes eat coffee berries but their impact is minor compared to invertebrates.first collected in 1890 from the Lomani. Of these. which promotes scale parasites to not only attack the scale on the fallen branches but in the plant as well.000 225. Some 20 species of nematodes. and managing crop environment away from conditions favouring pests. to which C. Each part of the coffee plant is assailed by different animals. several snails and slugs also attack the crop. and borer beetles burrow into stems and woody material. the spread of the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix).[25] In general.[27] Mass spraying of insecticides has often proven disastrous.[28] Instead. integrated pest management has developed. arabica is the more sensitive species to invertebrate predation overall.000 268. further breeding resulted in the establishment of robusta plantations in many countries.800 288. 9 species of mites.150 4.953 .906 4.100 2. arabica is vulnerable. and was conveyed from Zaire to Brussels to Java around 1900. using techniques such as targeted treatment of pest outbreaks. Branches infested with scale are often cut and left on the ground.565 252.200 697.249. From Java.

throughout southeast Asia.700 968 897 604 653 117.675 In 2009 Brazil was the world leader in production of green coffee.849 168. Arabia.660 7.791 431 1.319 Papua New Guinea[note 1] 75.055 97. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa.842 2.909 3.Honduras Côte d'Ivoire Uganda Costa Rica Philippines El Salvador Nicaragua 217. and to some extent in Brazil.742. such as Colombian.877 95.000 124.[13] Beans from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor. and acidity.[32] Arabica coffee beans are cultivated in Latin America. aroma. Java and Kona.400 Venezuela Madagascar[note 2] Thailand World[note 3] 70.311 62. but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing.951 170. or Asia.150 3.000 55. eastern Africa.[34] Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown.[33] These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region. Indonesia and Colombia.626 1. followed by Vietnam.456 90.250 1. [edit] Ecological effects . body.

For comparison. Erythrina.[35] Originally remnant forest trees were used for this purpose.[36] This method is commonly referred to as the traditional shaded method. those more distant from continuous forest still compare rather poorly to undisturbed native forest in terms of habitat value for some bird species. while certain types of shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems. and the coffee is often grown in countries where there is a water shortage.[35] The American Birding Association. Albizia. or "shade-grown". such as Ethiopia. but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides.[47] Some commercial coffee shops run . pesticide pollution. although unfertilized shaded crops generally yield higher than unfertilized unshaded crops² namely the response to fertilizer is much greater in full sun.[37] Ultimately.A flowering Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantation Main article: Coffee and the environment Originally. Inga. and Leucaena. the quality of the coffee is allegedly superior. habitat destruction. one serving of milk requires an input of 246 liters (65 US gal) of water. in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy. which can be sustainably harvested. Opponents of sun cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation. These include leguminous trees of the genera Acacia. and one glass of wine requires an input of 120 liters (32 US gal) of water. it takes about 140 liters (37 US gal) of water to grow the coffee beans needed to produce one cup of coffee.[40] National Arbor Day Foundation. and soil and water degradation are the side effects of these practices. According to New Scientist.[46] Coffee grounds may be used for composting or as a mulch.[43][44] Another issue concerning coffee is its use of water. using industrial farming practices. coffee farming was done in the shade of trees that provided a habitat for many animals and insects. They are especially appreciated by worms and acid-loving plants such as blueberries. Gliricidia.[41] and the Rainforest Alliance have led a campaign for "shade-grown" and organic coffees. unshaded coffee enhanced by fertilizer use yields the highest amounts of coffee.[38] Although traditional coffee production causes berries to ripen more slowly and produce lower yields. This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields. Starting in the 1970s. but many species have been planted as well.[45] By using sustainable agriculture methods.[42] However. Cassia. while retaining comparable yields. one serving of rice requires an input of 132 liters (35 US gal) of water. many farmers switched their production method to sun cultivation. the traditional shaded method provides living space for many wildlife species. the United States Geological Survey reports that one egg requires an input of 454 liters (120 US gal) of water. which damage the environment and cause health problems. the amount of water usage can be dramatically reduced. and the silky oak Grevillea robusta.[39] In addition. Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center. as well as the nitrogen-fixing non-legume sheoaks of the genus Casuarina.

which allows the air to pass on all sides of the coffee. and the seeds²usually called beans²are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the bean. the coffee is sorted.initiatives to make better use of these grounds. the pulped and fermented coffee is spread thinly on raised beds. In this method. When the fermentation is finished. including Starbucks' "Grounds for your Garden" project. crops are strip picked. and the wet process method. and then the coffee is mixed by hand. More commonly.[50] [edit] The roasting process Coffee beans . Some companies use cylinders to pump in heated air to dry the coffee beans. Most African coffee is dried in this manner and certain coffee farms around the world are starting to use this traditional method. green coffee is processed by one of two methods²the dry process method. it involves the selection of only the berries at the peak of ripeness.[48] [edit] Processing [edit] Roasting Main articles: Coffee processing and Coffee roasting [edit] Preparing green coffee Coffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they become the familiar roasted coffee. which generates massive amounts of coffee wastewater. where all berries are harvested simultaneously regardless of ripeness by person or machine.[49] Then they are sorted by ripeness and color and the flesh of the berry is removed. In this method the drying that takes place is more uniform. which incorporates fermentation into the process and yields a mild coffee. simpler and less labor intensive as the berries can be strip picked. usually by machine. though this is generally in places where the humidity is very high. Next. Another way to let the coffee beans dry is to let them sit on a concrete patio and rake over them in the sunlight. and fermentation is less likely. the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue. and labeled as green coffee. a labor intensive method. The best (but least used) method of drying coffee is using drying tables. Finally. Berries have been traditionally selectively picked by hand. the seeds are dried. After picking.

Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. but all involve either soaking the green beans in hot water (often wrongly called the "Swiss water" process) or steaming them. The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches approximately 200 °C (392 °F). at 205 °C (401 °F).[52] During roasting. and with rare exceptions all coffee is roasted before it is consumed.[52] [edit] Decaffeination Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo.[53] Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. medium light. It can be sold roasted by the supplier.The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee. though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the beans. aromatic oils. During roasting.[54] Decaffeination is often done by processing companies. changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown. caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches in the bean. Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee. causing it to become less dense.[54] [edit] Grading the roasted beans Depending on the color of the roasted beans as perceived by the human eye. medium. they will be labeled as light. then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils. Lighter roasts have a more complex and therefore perceived stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times. The bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost and increases in volume. [edit] Roast characteristics Darker roasts are generally bolder because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor.[51] The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically.[54] .[52] One of these oils is caffeol. dark. A more accurate method of discerning the degree of roast involves measuring the reflected light from roasted beans illuminated with a light source in the near infrared spectrum. or it can be home roasted. created at about 200 °C (392 °F). other oils start to develop.[55] A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing. which is largely responsible for coffee's aroma and flavor. acids weaken changing the flavor. medium dark. changing the color of the bean.[56] Chaff is usually removed from the beans by air movement. and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry. This elaborate light meter uses a process known as spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the roasted coffee's relative degree of roast or flavor development. The density of the bean also influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging. though different varieties of beans differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates. or very dark.

A better package contains a one-way valve. Folded-over bags. boiling develops an unpleasant "cooked" flavor. There are many variations in the fineness of grind. . It is also possible. which prevents air from entering. The ideal holding temperature is 79 to 85 °C (174 to 185 °F) and the ideal serving temperature is 68 to 79 °C (154 to 174 °F). heat. the spent grounds are removed from the liquid.[57] [edit] Preparation For more details on this topic. The roasted coffee beans may be ground at a roastery. In order of importance: air. though roasted coffee beans can be ground at home immediately before consumption. to roast raw beans at home. moisture. or in the home. milk. though uncommon. Most coffee is roasted and ground at a roastery and sold in packaged form. dry and dark place. Almost all methods of preparing coffee require the beans to be ground and mixed with hot water for long enough to extract the flavor.[edit] Storage Once roasted. and the liquid is consumed. The criteria for choosing a method include flavor and economy. are generally not ideal for long-term storage because they allow air to enter. a common way consumers often purchase coffee. see Coffee preparation. coffee beans must be stored properly to preserve the fresh taste of the bean. the ways in which the water extracts the flavor. in a grocery store. additional flavorings (sugar. Ideally. and light are the environmental factors[57] responsible for deteriorating flavor in coffee beans. but without boiling for more than an instant. and the removal of the spent grounds. Finally. with dark reddish-brown crema Coffee beans must be ground and brewed to create a beverage. Espresso brewing. the container must be airtight and kept in a cool. spices).

and Turkish coffee is an example of this method.[61] The coffee is poured from the container. the filter retains the grounds at the bottom.[59] Coffee percolators and automatic coffeemakers brew coffee using gravity. A wellprepared espresso has a reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface. In an automatic coffeemaker hot water drips onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter made of paper.[58] Other pressurized water methods include the Moka pot and Vacuum coffee maker. all the coffee oils remain in the beverage. a bríki. or perforated metal. This produces a strong coffee with a layer of foam on the surface and sediment (which is not meant for drinking) settling on the bottom of the cup. The liquid drips through the coffee and the filter into a carafe or pot. The espresso method forces hot (but not boiling) pressurized water through ground coffee. making it stronger and leaving more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic coffee machine. the espresso beverage is more concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the quantity of coffee to water as gravity-brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex physical and chemical constitution. then adding it to water and bringing it to the boil for no more than an instant in a pot called a cezve or. boiling water is forced into a chamber above a filter by steam pressure created by boiling. Coffee may be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press (also known as a cafetière or coffee press).[58] Coffee may be brewed by several methods: boiled. As a result of brewing under high pressure (ideally between 9±10 atm). a medium grind is used in most common home coffee-brewing machines.[60] or by a thermostat that turns off the heater when the entire pot reaches a certain temperature. allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while extracting its oils and essences. Coffee may also be brewed in cold water by steeping coarsely ground beans in cold water for several hours. and the process is repeated until terminated by removing from the heat. steeped.[60] In a percolator.Coffee beans may be ground in several ways. and the spent grounds are retained in the filter. The most common grinds are between the extremes. then filtering. Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water. A circular filter which fits tightly in the cylinder fixed to a plunger is then pushed down from the top to force the grounds to the bottom. Ground coffee and hot water are combined in a cylindrical vessel and left to brew for a few minutes. The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used. a burr mill is deemed superior because the grind is more even and the grind size can be adjusted. while coffee percolator or French press are the coarsest grinds. Turkish grind is the finest grind. plastic. The water then seeps through the grounds. A burr mill uses revolving elements to shear the bean. and a mortar and pestle crushes the beans. in Greek.[62] . an electric grinder smashes the beans with blunt blades moving at high speed. For most brewing methods.[59] It is prepared by grinding or pounding the beans to a fine powder. by an internal timer. Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method. or pressured.

Coffee in Syria Once brewed. or not (black coffee). and is known as a long black.[65] The use of steamed milk to form patterns such as hearts or maple leaves is referred to as latte art. Reversing the process by adding espresso to hot water preserves the crema.[63] Milk can be added in various forms to espresso: steamed milk makes a caffè latte. or Frenchpressed/cafetière coffee may be served with a dairy product such as milk or cream.[64] equal parts steamed milk and milk froth make a cappuccino. Espresso-based coffee has a wide variety of possible presentations.[63] and a dollop of hot foamed milk on top creates a caffè macchiato. It may be sweetened with sugar or artificial sweetener. Drip-brewed. coffee may be presented in a variety of ways.[edit] Presentation See also: List of coffee beverages Presentation can be an integral part of coffeehouse service. percolated. . When served cold. it is served alone as a shot or in the more watered-down style Caffè Americano²a shot or two of espresso with hot water added. or dairy substitute (colloquially known as white coffee). In its most basic form. as illustrated by the common fern design layered into this latte. it is called iced coffee.

[66] Originally invented in 1907. and costs about 10¢ a cup to produce. available both hot and cold. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta coffee.000 if the water is preheated. particularly in China. and forms the base of alcoholic coffee liqueurs such as Kahlúa. and Tia Maria.[70] Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years. Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze-dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water.A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee. and South Korea. which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk.[72] Coffee can also be incorporated with alcohol in beverages²it is combined with whiskey in Irish coffee. . Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks. much like brewed or percolated coffee.[67] it rapidly gained in popularity in many countries in the post-war period. [edit] Sale and distribution Brazilian coffee sacks. with Nescafé the most popular product.[68] Many consumers determined that the convenience in preparing a cup of instant coffee more than made up for a perceived inferior taste.[71] Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time. or 1. The machines used can process up to 500 cups an hour. Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States. invented in 1947 and multiplying rapidly through the 1950s. Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee.[69] Paralleling (and complementing) the rapid rise of instant coffee was the coffee vending machine. Japan.

222 metric tons (of 7. its value is directly affected by the length of time it is held). 6.[73] Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation. which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated preharvest price.[77] [edit] Fair trade Main article: Fair trade coffee The concept of fair trade labeling. 24. after further research. who originally wrote about this.[75] Higher and lower grade arabica coffees are sold through other channels. [edit] Commodity While coffee is not technically a commodity (it is fresh produce. with contract deliveries occurring every year in March. Main article: Economics of coffee See also: List of countries by coffee consumption per capita Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe.[2] Worldwide. in 2005. and December.991 metric . In 2004.050. and became a major producer of robusta beans.7 million metric tons of coffee were produced annually in 1998±2000. on the New York ICE exchange. investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity. that his statement was incorrect.000 produced worldwide) were fair trade. began with the Max Havelaar Foundation's labeling program in the Netherlands. September. but Vietnam tripled its exports between 1995 and 1999. May. However Mark Pendergrast. July. and the forecast is a rise to seven million metric tons annually by 2010.[74] Indonesia is the third-largest exporter and the largest producer of washed arabica coffee.Small-sized bag of coffee beans. As of 2006 green coffee was purported to be the second most traded commodity in the world. 33. Futures contracts for robusta coffee are traded on the London Liffe exchange and. Coffee futures contracts for Grade 3 washed arabicas are traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange under ticker symbol KC. coffee is bought and sold by roasters. since 2007.[76] now believes.

[80] Since the founding of organisations such as the European Fair Trade Association (1987).685. after a year-long campaign by the human rights organization Global Exchange. and results are similarly conflicting regarding the potentially harmful effects of coffee consumption. in April 2000. Starbucks decided to carry fairtrade coffee in its stores.[84] A 2005 study done in Belgium concluded that consumers' buying behavior is not consistent with their positive attitude toward ethical products.51%.[81][82] For example.[83] Since September 2009 all Starbucks Espresso beverages in UK and Ireland are made with Fairtrade and Shared Planet certified coffee.000 were fair trade.[83] [edit] Health and pharmacology Main article: Health effects of coffee Overview of the more common effects of caffeine. however. Coffee prepared using paper filters removes oily . including fair-trade products such as coffee.[9] Variations in findings. Coffee was incorporated into the fair-trade movement in 1988.[78][79] A number of fair trade impact studies have shown that fair trade coffee has a positive impact on the communities that grow it. an increase from 0. The very first fair-trade coffee was an effort to import a Guatemalan coffee into Europe as "Indio Solidarity Coffee".[85] a main active component of coffee Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions.[83] The study found that the majority of respondents were unwilling to pay the actual price premium of 27% for fair trade coffee. On average 46% of European consumers claimed to be willing to pay substantially more for ethical products. when the Max Havelaar mark was introduced in the Netherlands.34% to 0. the production and consumption of fair trade coffee has grown as some local and national coffee chains started to offer fair trade alternatives. Findings have been contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits. can be at least partially resolved by considering the method of preparation.tons out of 6.

the metabolism of caffeine depends on the state of this enzymatic system of the liver. can. caffeine is mostly broken down by the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system.[98] . exceptionally even lifethreatening adverse effects. both of which have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease via elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in blood. cause very unpleasant.components called diterpenes that are present in unfiltered coffee. Parkinson's disease.[92] A recent study showed that roast coffee. and this only if their stomach is healthy. because both decaffeinated coffee and coffee with caffeine cause heartburn.[93] In a healthy liver.[97] American scientist Yaser Dorri has suggested that the smell of coffee can restore appetite and refresh olfactory receptors. protected primary neuronal cell cultures against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. positive or negative. Moderate amounts of coffee (50±100 mg of caffeine or 5±10 g of coffee powder a day) are well tolerated by most elderly people. Coffee consumption has been shown to have minimal or no impact. heart disease. Polyphenols contained in coffee are therefore associated with decreasing the risk of liver cancer development. Two types of diterpenes are present in coffee: kahweol and cafestol.[88] and gout. Excessive amounts of coffee.[95] Coffee also interferes with the absorption of supplemental iron. A longitudinal study in 2009 showed that those who consumed a moderate amount of coffee or tea (3±5 cups per day) at midlife were less likely to develop dementia and Alzheimer's disease in late-life compared with those who drank little coffee or avoided it altogether. conflicting data regarding serving size could partially explain differences between beneficial/harmful effects of coffee consumption. The resulting metabolites are mostly paraxanthines²theobromine and theophylline²and a small amount of unchanged caffeine is excreted by urine. on the other hand. on cancer development. iron is considered a carcinogen in relation to the liver. researchers involved in an ongoing 22-year study by the Harvard School of Public Health state that "the overall balance of risks and benefits [of coffee consumption] are on the side of benefits.[90] Most of coffee's beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes are not due to its caffeine content. however.[86] Metal filters."[87] Other studies suggest coffee consumption reduces the risk of being affected by Alzheimer's disease. cirrhosis of the liver.[91] The presence of antioxidants in coffee has been shown to prevent free radicals from causing cell damage.[96] Interference with iron absorption is due to the polyphenols present in coffee. high in lipophilic antioxidants and chlorogenic acid lactones. Although the inhibition of iron absorption can cause an iron deficiency. diabetes mellitus type 2.[94] Coffee consumption can lead to iron deficiency anemia in mothers and infants. in many individuals. He suggests that people can regain their appetite after cooking by smelling coffee beans. They are recommended to take decaffeinated coffee. as the positive effects of consumption are greater in those who drink decaffeinated coffee.[10] In addition to differences in methods of preparation.[89] It increases the risk of acid reflux and associated diseases. and that this method can also be used for research animals. Therefore.[87] however. Elderly individuals with a depleted enzymatic system do not tolerate coffee with caffeine. do not remove the oily components of coffee.

It may aggravate preexisting conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease."[107] About 15% of the U.[108] [edit] Caffeine and headaches There is some controversy over whether the caffeine in coffee causes headaches or helps relieve headaches.[103] One study suggests that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory. are more likely to suffer occasional headaches than persons who have low coffee or caffeine consumption.[106] but a 2002 review of the literature criticised its methodology and concluded that "[t]he effects of caffeine withdrawal are still controversial.[100] Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls. and cause sleep disturbances. Instant coffee has a much greater amount of acrylamide than brewed coffee. by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information. general population report having stopped drinking coffee altogether.000 chemicals have been reported in roasted coffee. [109] [edit] Caffeine content . A 2009 Norwegian University of Science and Technology controlled study claims that heavy coffee drinkers. A review by de Paulis and Martin indicated a link between a decrease in suicide rates and coffee consumption.Over 1.[99] Coffee's negative health effects are often blamed on its caffeine content.[104] Caffeine has been associated with its ability to act as an antidepressant. arrhythmias. even with those who drink coffee in moderation.S.[105] A 1992 study concluded that about 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) experienced increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn. an over the counter pain killer. more than half of those tested (19/28) are rodent carcinogens.[101] Caffeinated coffee is not recommended for everybody. Illinois. four cups a day. combined with caffeine or one cup of coffee had increased effectiveness against tension headaches. migraines. In a 2000 controlled study by the Diamond Headache Clinic in Chicago. A Johns Hopkins controlled study has linked drinking coffee with addictive withdrawal headaches. revealed that adults who took ibuprofen. citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects of caffeine.[102] Coffee is no longer thought to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. and suggested that the action of caffeine in blocking the inhibitory effects of adenosine on dopamine nerves in the brain reduced feelings of depression. The study did not recommend that the caffeine and ibuprofen combination was effective against migraine headaches.

207 ml) = 115 175 mg. drip: 1 cup (7 oz. 207 ml) = 80 135 mg. the beverage was introduced into the Arab world through Egypt and Yemen. did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal.[3] However. and also on the variety of bean. 45 60 ml) = 100 mg [edit] History The following text needs to be harmonized with text in History of coffee. Am.Caffeine molecule The stimulant effect of coffee is due to its caffeine content.5 2 oz. 1979).[3] The story of Kaldi.[112] The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century. no direct evidence has been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the natives might have used it as a stimulant or even known about it. Diet.[3] From Ethiopia.[3] It was here in Arabia that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed. the 9thcentury Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee. receiving a cup of coffee from a boy Ethiopian ancestors of today's Oromo people were believed to have been the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant. earlier than the 17th century. in a similar way to how it is now . Main article: History of coffee Over the door of a Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish dress. espresso: 1 cup (1. in the Sufi monasteries around Mokha in Yemen. The caffeine content of a cup of coffee varies depending mainly on the brewing method. coffee has the following caffeine content:[111] y y y brewed: 1 cup (7 oz.[110] According to Bunker and McWilliams (J. 74:28±32.

including coffee. to Indonesia. Persia. quite frankly. and to the rest of Europe. The thriving trade between Venice and North Africa. Oxford's Queen's Lane Coffee House. Egypt.[4] In 1583. a German physician.[4] The Dutch were the first to import coffee on a large scale. is still in existence . despite appeals to ban the "Muslim drink. and they were among the first to defy the Arab prohibition on the exportation of plants or unroasted seeds when Pieter van den Broecke smuggled seedlings from Mocha. and northern Africa. Its consumers take it in the morning. Coffee became more widely accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII in 1600. into Europe in 1616. and the Middle East brought many goods.[54] The first exports of Indonesian coffee from Java to the Netherlands occurred in 1711." The first European coffee house opened in Italy in 1645. in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful. and to the Americas. It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu. gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten-year trip to the Near East: A beverage as black as ink. Reise in die Morgenländer (in German) Pouring coffee in the Arab village Abu Ghosh (Israel) From the Muslim world. Turkey. coffee spread to Italy. coffee became popular in England as well.[114] Through the efforts of the British East India Company . to the Venetian port.prepared. Leonhard Rauwolf. it had reached the rest of the Middle East. Yemen. it was introduced to the rest of Europe.[113] The Dutch later grew the crop in Java and Ceylon. particularly those of the stomach. Coffee then spread to Italy. From Venice. By the 16th century. useful against numerous illnesses. Léonard Rauwolf. established in 1654.

[124] Coffee has become a vital cash crop for many Third World countries. the Americans' taste for coffee grew. giving way to tea during the 18th century. However. During the Revolutionary War. and Ethiopia. Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become dependent on coffee as their primary source of income.[118] The Frenchman Gabriel de Clieu brought a coffee plant to the French territory of Martinique in the Caribbean. massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from the vicinity of Rio and later São Paulo for coffee plantations.[119] The territory of San Domingo (now Haiti) saw coffee cultivated from 1734.[116] After the War of 1812. It has become the primary export and backbone for African countries like Uganda. Burundi. coups and bloody suppression of peasants. the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically. when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks.[125] as well as many Central American countries. Coffee was introduced in France in and by 1788 it supplied half the world's coffee[citation needed]. from which much of the world's cultivated arabica coffee is descended. the dreadful conditions that the slaves worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon to follow Haitian Revolution.[120] Meanwhile. and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna. The latter beverage was simpler to make. and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous people. Coffee thrived in the climate and was conveyed across the Americas. [edit] Social and cultural aspects Main article: Coffee culture . coffee consumption declined in England. and high demand during the American Civil War together with advances in brewing technology secured the position of coffee as an everyday commodity in the United States.[123] The notable exception was Costa Rica. this was also due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants. it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe as alcoholic beverages remained more popular. coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727. during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports.[117][not in citation given] Paradoxically. Harsh conditions led to many uprisings. however.[122] Cultivation was taken up by many countries in Central America in the latter half of the 19th century. The coffee industry never fully recovered there. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries. Rwanda. where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms. although its cultivation didn't gather momentum until independence in 1822. and had become cheaper with the British conquest of India and the tea industry there.[115] When coffee reached North America during the Colonial period.[121] After this time.

its uptake was facilitated by the recent popularity of both instant coffee and vending machines. and caffè for specifically Italian traditions Most widely known as coffeehouses or cafés. A plaque on the wall still commemorates this and the Cafe is now a trendy cocktail bar. Hitherto unknown in the workplace. In the 17th century. and coffeehouses were established and quickly became popular. but with no documentation. there were more than 3.000 coffeehouses in England. for Muslims between 1512 and 1524. and has become an institution of the American workplace.[126] Coffeehouses in Mecca soon became a concern as places for political gatherings to the imams who banned them. The first coffeehouses in Western Europe appeared in Venice. establishments serving prepared coffee or other hot beverages have existed for over five hundred years.[127] and not long after there were many coffee houses in Cairo.A coffeehouse in Palestine (1900) Coffee is often consumed alongside (or instead of) breakfast by many at home.[129] . and the drink. It is often served at the end of a meal. and at times with an after-dinner mint especially when consumed at a restaurant or dinner party. In 1530 the first coffee house was opened in Damascus. The first coffeehouse in England was set up in Oxford in 1650 by a Jewish man named Jacob in the building now known as "The Grand Cafe".[70] [edit] Coffeehouses See also: Coffeehouse for a social history of coffee. Aggressively promoted by the Pan-American Coffee Bureau. coffee appeared for the first time in Europe outside the Ottoman Empire. normally with a dessert.[128] By 1675. a result of the traffic between La Serenissima and the Ottomans. the very first one is recorded in 1645. Various legends involving the introduction of coffee to Istanbul at a "Kiva Han" in the late 15th century circulate in culinary tradition. the "coffee break" was first promoted in 1952.

He was a trainer and supplier to the founders of Starbuck¶s. The first store opened on March 30. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies.[133] The first Peet's Coffee & Tea store opened in 1966 in Berkeley. where Muslim dervishes began cultivating the shrub in their gardens. and it is arguably the birthplace of the Encyclopédie. James Otis and Paul Revere planned rebellion. It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV. Voltaire. The others were reluctant. where John Adams. At least 1. Cappucino was particularly popular among English drinkers.[140] Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca: it was accused of being a heretical substance.[131] Coffee. but Schultz opened Il Giornale in Seattle in April 1986.[6] Coffee. Gordon Bowker and Zev Siegl. At first. and there were 400 such bars in London alone by 1956. He chose to focus on roasting batches with fresher. Rousseau. the espresso craze spread. one such was the Green Dragon in Boston.[139] Coffee drinking was prohibited by jurists and scholars (ulema) meeting in Mecca in 1511 as haraam.[137] The company's name graces 16.100 years ago. the first modern encyclopedia.600 stores in over 40 countries worldwide. and pushed to sell premade espresso coffee. the chain (rebranded from Il Giornale to Starbucks) expanded to over 100 outlets. 1971.[133] Similar such cafes existed in Greenwich Village and elsewhere. An Italian named Pino Riservato opened the first espresso bar. by three college students Jerry Baldwin. and its production and consumption were briefly repressed.[135] Entrepreneur Howard Schultz joined the company in 1982 as Director of Retail Operations and Marketing. higher quality beans than was the norm at the time. the Moka Bar.[132] and from there spread across coffeehouses and restaurants across Italy and the rest of Europe and North America in the early 1950s. and Denis Diderot frequented it.[133] Similarly in the United States.[130] America had its first coffeehouse in Boston. the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries.In 1672 an Armenian named Pascal established a coffee stall in Paris that was ultimately unsuccessful and the city had to wait until 1689 for its first coffeehouse when Procopio Cutò opened the Café Procope. tea and beer were often served together in establishments which functioned both as coffeehouses and taverns. which saw Beat Generation poets such as Allen Ginsberg and Bob Kaufman alongside bemused Italian immigrants.[138] [edit] Prohibition Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. in 1676. This coffeehouse still exists today and was a major meeting place of the French Enlightenment. traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern-day Yemen).[136] He bought the other owners out in March 1987 and pushed on with plans to expand²from 1987 to the end of 1991. but the subject of whether it was intoxicating was hotly debated over the next 30 years until the ban was finally overturned in the mid 16th century. in Soho in 1952. North Beach in San Francisco saw the opening of the Caffe Trieste in 1957. followed by a second and third over the next two years. CA by Dutch native Alfred Peet. regarded as a .[134] The international coffeehouse chain Starbucks began as a modest business roasting and selling quality coffee beans in Seattle in 1971.[118] The modern espresso machine was born in Milan in 1945 by Achille Gaggia.

It does not identify coffee by name.[118] Frederick the Great banned it in Germany in 1777 for nationalistic and economic reasons." which has been interpreted to forbid both coffee and tea.[147] . other cardiovascular disease.[143] The organization holds that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee. all cardiovascular diseases combined. tobacco and alcohol by many Adventists has afforded a near unique opportunity for studies to be conducted within that population group on the health effects of coffee drinking. he sought to force the public back to consuming beer.[142] A contemporary example of religious prohibition of coffee can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.[145] [edit] Folklore and culture The Oromo people would customarily plant a coffee tree on the graves of powerful sorcerers. the Church encourages members to avoid tea and coffee and other stimulants.Muslim drink. One study was able to show a weak but statistically significant association between coffee consumption and mortality from ischemic heart disease. concerned about the price of import.[141] Lacking coffee producing colonies. Germany had to import all its coffee at a great cost. free from confounding factors. about dependence on the beverage. given in 1833 by Mormon founder Joseph Smith in a revelation called the Word of Wisdom. it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. Abstinence from coffee. but includes the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly. In its teachings. was prohibited by Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889. Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to Charles II outlawing coffeehouses from January 1676 (although the uproar created forced the monarch to back down two days before the ban was due to come into force).[144] Quite a number of members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church also avoid caffeinated drinks. and all causes of death.[144] This comes from the Mormon doctrine of health. They believed that the first coffee bush sprang up from the tears that the god of heaven shed over the corpse of a dead sorcerer.[146] Johann Sebastian Bach was inspired to pen the Coffee Cantata.

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