Air mata Diproduksi oleh sistem kelenjar air mata


1.1. Glandula lacrimalis asesorius Krause dan Wolfring (sekresi dasar) 2. Glandula lakrimalis utama mayor (sekresi refleks).

Fungsi air mata : 1. Melicinkan permukaan optik bola mata 2. Media pelepasan sel ‘desquamasi’. 3. Suplai oksigen ke kornea 4. Antimikroba 5. Lubrikasi pergesekan palpebra dan kornea 6. Mencegah pengeringan permukaan luar bola mata Lapisan air mata : 1. Lapisan lipid (atas), diproduksi oleh glandula meibom. Fungsi :

- Memperlambat menguapan air mata - Mempertahankan barier hidrofobik - Mempertahankan tear meniskus 2. Lapaisan akuous (tengah), diproduksi oleh kelejar Krause & Wolfring. Fungsi : - Suplai oksigen - Antimikroba - Meratakan permukaan kornea - Membersihkan kotoran - Mengatur fungsi sel-sel epitel kornea

Kelenjar lakrimalis terletak di puncak tepi luar dari mata kiri dan kanan dang menghasilkan air mata yang encer. Lapisan air mata, yang membasahi mata pada umumnya berstruktur kompleks yang terdiri dari 3 lapisan, yaitu:

c. Mencegah kerusakan epitel kornea dan konjungtiva c. Lapisan tengah. Lapisan terluar adalah lapisan berminyak yang diproduksi sebagian besar oleh kelenjar meibomi sebasea kelopok mata. Lapisan air mata berfungsi a. Di produksi oleh kelenjar lakrimalis utama dan kelenjar lakrimalis tembahan.a. b. air mata mengalir ke medial ke dalam lubang-lubang pungta tepi kelopak dan mengalir melalui kanalikuli ke dalam kantong lakrimalis dan kemudian melalui duktus nasolakrimalis menuju kehidung. Mencegah tumbuhnya mikroorganisme d. Kelenjar meibom menghasilkan substasi pelumas berminyak untuk menghambat penguapan dan kelenjar ini bermuara pada tepi palpebra. Melapisi permukaan kornea sehingga menjadi rata dan merupakan media refraksi yang baik. . merupakan lapisan air dan terbanyak. Lapisan paling dalam adalah lapisan musin yang diproduksi oleh sel goblet yang tersebar diseluruh konjungtiva. Mencegah dehidrasi kornea Proses keluarnya air mata Pengeluaran air mata dapat pula dibantu dengan adanya kedipan kelopak mata secara sepontan yang berulang-ulang. b.

using warm compresses to soak the eyelids. itching. and inflammation of other eye tissue. missing or misdirected eyelashes. good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine can control blepharitis. What causes blepharitis? Blepharitis can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes. Posterior blepharitis affects the inner edge of the eyelid that comes in contact with the eyeball. blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. . it can lead to more severe signs and symptoms such as blurring of vision. In cases where a bacterial infection is the cause. Blepharitis is classified into two types: 1.Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids causing red. itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes. particularly the cornea. blepharitis causes only minor irritation and itching. However. 2. excessive tearing. red and swollen eyelids. It affects people of all ages. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacterial or a skin condition such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. Although uncomfortable. This includes frequent scalp and face washing. In many cases. dry eyes. Anterior blepharitis occurs at the outside front edge of the eyelid where the eyelashes are attached. Individuals with blepharitis may experience a gritty or burning sensation in their eyes. and doing eyelid scrubs. For some people. or crusting of the eyelids. irritated. various antibiotics and other medications may be prescribed along with eyelid hygiene.

the transparent front covering of the eyeball.Anterior blepharitis is commonly caused by bacteria (staphylococcal blepharits) or dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrheic blepharitis). distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. base of the eyelashes and meibomian gland openings using bright light and magnification. Evaluation of the quantity and quality of tears for any abnormalities. Evaluation of the lid margins. In severe cases. and redness of the lining of the eyelids. Using the information obtained from testing. There may also be a loss of eyelashes. Testing. hard crusts around the eyelashes that when removed. Meibomian blepharitis is evident by blockage of the oil glands in the eyelids. [back to top] How is blepharitis treated? Treatment depends on the specific type of blepharitis. with special emphasis on evaluation of the eyelids and front surface of the eyeball. or less commonly may be the result of allergies or an infestation of the eyelashes. may include: • • • • Patient history to determine any symptoms the patient is experiencing and the presence of any general health problems that may be contributing to the eye problem. Posterior blepharitis can be caused by irregular oil production by the glands of the eyelids (meibomian blepharitis) which creates a favorable environment for bacterial growth. and missing and misdirected eyelashes. . External examination of the eye. It may also occur due to a combination of factors. It can also develop as a result of other skin conditions such as acne rosacea and scalp dandruff. leave small sores that ooze and bleed. including lid structure. [back to top] How is blepharitis diagnosed? Blepharitis can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. A differentiation among the various types of blepharitis can often be made based on the appearance of the eyelid margins: • • • • Staphyloccal blepharitis patients frequently exhibit mild sticking together of the lids. poor quality of tears. may also become inflamed. The key to treating most types of blepharitis is keeping the lids clean and free of crusts. skin texture and eyelash appearance. thickened lid margins. the cornea. your optometrist can determine if you have blepharitis and advise you on treatment options. Seborrheic blepharitis appears as greasy flakes or scales around the base of eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelids. Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by matted.

Moisten a clean washcloth with warm water. 2. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. 4. 3. you may have to temporarily discontinue wearing them during treatment. Mix warm water and a small amount of non-irritating (baby) shampoo or use a commercially prepared lid scrub solution recommended by your optometrist. 2. Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup is often recommended. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. relapses may occur. Even with successful treatment. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. . Directions for an Eyelid Scrub: 1. Self-care An important part of controlling blepharitis involves treatment at home. • Warm compresses can be applied to loosen the crusts. Close eyes and place washcloth on eyelids for about 5 minutes. Even with successful treatment. followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyes with a mixture of water and baby shampoo or an over-the-counter lid cleansing product. If you wear contact lenses. If the glands in the eyelids are blocked. relapses may occur. the eyelids may need to be massaged to clean out oil accumulated in the eyelid glands. Artificial tear solutions or lubricating ointments may be prescribed in some cases. • • • • • Some cases of blepharitis may require more complex treatment plans. Directions for a Warm Soak of the Eyelids: 1. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. reheating the washcloth as necessary. Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo on the scalp can help. an antibiotic may also be prescribed. Wash your hands thoroughly. In cases involving bacterial infection. Repeat several times daily.Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup when treating blepharitis is often recommended. Wash your hands thoroughly.

5. 4. Using a clean cloth (a different one for each eye) rub the solution back and forth across the eyelashes and edge of the closed eyelid. . Repeat with the other eye. Rinse with clear water.3.

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