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1.1. Glandula lacrimalis asesorius Krause dan Wolfring (sekresi dasar) 2. Glandula lakrimalis utama mayor (sekresi refleks).
Fungsi air mata : 1. Melicinkan permukaan optik bola mata 2. Media pelepasan sel ‘desquamasi’. 3. Suplai oksigen ke kornea 4. Antimikroba 5. Lubrikasi pergesekan palpebra dan kornea 6. Mencegah pengeringan permukaan luar bola mata Lapisan air mata : 1. Lapisan lipid (atas), diproduksi oleh glandula meibom. Fungsi :
- Memperlambat menguapan air mata - Mempertahankan barier hidrofobik - Mempertahankan tear meniskus 2. Lapaisan akuous (tengah), diproduksi oleh kelejar Krause & Wolfring. Fungsi : - Suplai oksigen - Antimikroba - Meratakan permukaan kornea - Membersihkan kotoran - Mengatur fungsi sel-sel epitel kornea
Kelenjar lakrimalis terletak di puncak tepi luar dari mata kiri dan kanan dang menghasilkan air mata yang encer. Lapisan air mata, yang membasahi mata pada umumnya berstruktur kompleks yang terdiri dari 3 lapisan, yaitu:
Di produksi oleh kelenjar lakrimalis utama dan kelenjar lakrimalis tembahan. Mencegah dehidrasi kornea Proses keluarnya air mata Pengeluaran air mata dapat pula dibantu dengan adanya kedipan kelopak mata secara sepontan yang berulang-ulang. Lapisan air mata berfungsi a. b. merupakan lapisan air dan terbanyak. air mata mengalir ke medial ke dalam lubang-lubang pungta tepi kelopak dan mengalir melalui kanalikuli ke dalam kantong lakrimalis dan kemudian melalui duktus nasolakrimalis menuju kehidung. c. Mencegah kerusakan epitel kornea dan konjungtiva c. Kelenjar meibom menghasilkan substasi pelumas berminyak untuk menghambat penguapan dan kelenjar ini bermuara pada tepi palpebra. Lapisan paling dalam adalah lapisan musin yang diproduksi oleh sel goblet yang tersebar diseluruh konjungtiva. b. Lapisan tengah. Mencegah tumbuhnya mikroorganisme d.a. Melapisi permukaan kornea sehingga menjadi rata dan merupakan media refraksi yang baik. Lapisan terluar adalah lapisan berminyak yang diproduksi sebagian besar oleh kelenjar meibomi sebasea kelopok mata. .
In cases where a bacterial infection is the cause. dry eyes. In many cases. or crusting of the eyelids. .Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids causing red. and doing eyelid scrubs. excessive tearing. However. using warm compresses to soak the eyelids. and inflammation of other eye tissue. This includes frequent scalp and face washing. itching. Individuals with blepharitis may experience a gritty or burning sensation in their eyes. Although uncomfortable. Anterior blepharitis occurs at the outside front edge of the eyelid where the eyelashes are attached. irritated. red and swollen eyelids. it can lead to more severe signs and symptoms such as blurring of vision. For some people. Blepharitis is classified into two types: 1. 2. particularly the cornea. good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine can control blepharitis. itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes. What causes blepharitis? Blepharitis can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes. missing or misdirected eyelashes. blepharitis causes only minor irritation and itching. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacterial or a skin condition such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. It affects people of all ages. Posterior blepharitis affects the inner edge of the eyelid that comes in contact with the eyeball. various antibiotics and other medications may be prescribed along with eyelid hygiene.
Evaluation of the quantity and quality of tears for any abnormalities. There may also be a loss of eyelashes. skin texture and eyelash appearance. Meibomian blepharitis is evident by blockage of the oil glands in the eyelids.Anterior blepharitis is commonly caused by bacteria (staphylococcal blepharits) or dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrheic blepharitis). External examination of the eye. thickened lid margins. Using the information obtained from testing. and missing and misdirected eyelashes. It may also occur due to a combination of factors. the transparent front covering of the eyeball. poor quality of tears. hard crusts around the eyelashes that when removed. Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by matted. or less commonly may be the result of allergies or an infestation of the eyelashes. with special emphasis on evaluation of the eyelids and front surface of the eyeball. and redness of the lining of the eyelids. including lid structure. Posterior blepharitis can be caused by irregular oil production by the glands of the eyelids (meibomian blepharitis) which creates a favorable environment for bacterial growth. Seborrheic blepharitis appears as greasy flakes or scales around the base of eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelids. Evaluation of the lid margins. your optometrist can determine if you have blepharitis and advise you on treatment options. In severe cases. . It can also develop as a result of other skin conditions such as acne rosacea and scalp dandruff. distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. base of the eyelashes and meibomian gland openings using bright light and magnification. The key to treating most types of blepharitis is keeping the lids clean and free of crusts. A differentiation among the various types of blepharitis can often be made based on the appearance of the eyelid margins: • • • • Staphyloccal blepharitis patients frequently exhibit mild sticking together of the lids. may include: • • • • Patient history to determine any symptoms the patient is experiencing and the presence of any general health problems that may be contributing to the eye problem. the cornea. [back to top] How is blepharitis diagnosed? Blepharitis can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. leave small sores that ooze and bleed. Testing. [back to top] How is blepharitis treated? Treatment depends on the specific type of blepharitis. may also become inflamed.
Wash your hands thoroughly. Moisten a clean washcloth with warm water. 2. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. If you wear contact lenses. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. 4. relapses may occur. the eyelids may need to be massaged to clean out oil accumulated in the eyelid glands. Even with successful treatment. Wash your hands thoroughly. • Warm compresses can be applied to loosen the crusts. 3. Directions for a Warm Soak of the Eyelids: 1. If the glands in the eyelids are blocked. Self-care An important part of controlling blepharitis involves treatment at home. Close eyes and place washcloth on eyelids for about 5 minutes. followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyes with a mixture of water and baby shampoo or an over-the-counter lid cleansing product. relapses may occur. you may have to temporarily discontinue wearing them during treatment. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. . an antibiotic may also be prescribed. Repeat several times daily. • • • • • Some cases of blepharitis may require more complex treatment plans.Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup when treating blepharitis is often recommended. Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo on the scalp can help. Directions for an Eyelid Scrub: 1. reheating the washcloth as necessary. Artificial tear solutions or lubricating ointments may be prescribed in some cases. In cases involving bacterial infection. 2. Mix warm water and a small amount of non-irritating (baby) shampoo or use a commercially prepared lid scrub solution recommended by your optometrist. Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup is often recommended. Even with successful treatment. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult.
5. Rinse with clear water. 4. Repeat with the other eye.3. . Using a clean cloth (a different one for each eye) rub the solution back and forth across the eyelashes and edge of the closed eyelid.
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