Air mata Diproduksi oleh sistem kelenjar air mata


1.1. Glandula lacrimalis asesorius Krause dan Wolfring (sekresi dasar) 2. Glandula lakrimalis utama mayor (sekresi refleks).

Fungsi air mata : 1. Melicinkan permukaan optik bola mata 2. Media pelepasan sel ‘desquamasi’. 3. Suplai oksigen ke kornea 4. Antimikroba 5. Lubrikasi pergesekan palpebra dan kornea 6. Mencegah pengeringan permukaan luar bola mata Lapisan air mata : 1. Lapisan lipid (atas), diproduksi oleh glandula meibom. Fungsi :

- Memperlambat menguapan air mata - Mempertahankan barier hidrofobik - Mempertahankan tear meniskus 2. Lapaisan akuous (tengah), diproduksi oleh kelejar Krause & Wolfring. Fungsi : - Suplai oksigen - Antimikroba - Meratakan permukaan kornea - Membersihkan kotoran - Mengatur fungsi sel-sel epitel kornea

Kelenjar lakrimalis terletak di puncak tepi luar dari mata kiri dan kanan dang menghasilkan air mata yang encer. Lapisan air mata, yang membasahi mata pada umumnya berstruktur kompleks yang terdiri dari 3 lapisan, yaitu:

c. Lapisan paling dalam adalah lapisan musin yang diproduksi oleh sel goblet yang tersebar diseluruh konjungtiva. Lapisan air mata berfungsi a. Mencegah tumbuhnya mikroorganisme d.a. . Mencegah kerusakan epitel kornea dan konjungtiva c. merupakan lapisan air dan terbanyak. air mata mengalir ke medial ke dalam lubang-lubang pungta tepi kelopak dan mengalir melalui kanalikuli ke dalam kantong lakrimalis dan kemudian melalui duktus nasolakrimalis menuju kehidung. b. Melapisi permukaan kornea sehingga menjadi rata dan merupakan media refraksi yang baik. Kelenjar meibom menghasilkan substasi pelumas berminyak untuk menghambat penguapan dan kelenjar ini bermuara pada tepi palpebra. Di produksi oleh kelenjar lakrimalis utama dan kelenjar lakrimalis tembahan. Lapisan tengah. Lapisan terluar adalah lapisan berminyak yang diproduksi sebagian besar oleh kelenjar meibomi sebasea kelopok mata. Mencegah dehidrasi kornea Proses keluarnya air mata Pengeluaran air mata dapat pula dibantu dengan adanya kedipan kelopak mata secara sepontan yang berulang-ulang. b.

It affects people of all ages. using warm compresses to soak the eyelids. various antibiotics and other medications may be prescribed along with eyelid hygiene. itching. it can lead to more severe signs and symptoms such as blurring of vision. particularly the cornea. and doing eyelid scrubs. dry eyes. . However. irritated. and inflammation of other eye tissue. or crusting of the eyelids. good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine can control blepharitis. Individuals with blepharitis may experience a gritty or burning sensation in their eyes. red and swollen eyelids. blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. In many cases. In cases where a bacterial infection is the cause. Anterior blepharitis occurs at the outside front edge of the eyelid where the eyelashes are attached. What causes blepharitis? Blepharitis can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes. blepharitis causes only minor irritation and itching. For some people. Posterior blepharitis affects the inner edge of the eyelid that comes in contact with the eyeball. Blepharitis is classified into two types: 1. excessive tearing. 2. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacterial or a skin condition such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. missing or misdirected eyelashes.Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids causing red. itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes. This includes frequent scalp and face washing. Although uncomfortable.

. poor quality of tears. distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. Meibomian blepharitis is evident by blockage of the oil glands in the eyelids. or less commonly may be the result of allergies or an infestation of the eyelashes. may also become inflamed. skin texture and eyelash appearance. Testing. [back to top] How is blepharitis treated? Treatment depends on the specific type of blepharitis. It can also develop as a result of other skin conditions such as acne rosacea and scalp dandruff. [back to top] How is blepharitis diagnosed? Blepharitis can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. including lid structure.Anterior blepharitis is commonly caused by bacteria (staphylococcal blepharits) or dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrheic blepharitis). the transparent front covering of the eyeball. and missing and misdirected eyelashes. thickened lid margins. There may also be a loss of eyelashes. A differentiation among the various types of blepharitis can often be made based on the appearance of the eyelid margins: • • • • Staphyloccal blepharitis patients frequently exhibit mild sticking together of the lids. Evaluation of the quantity and quality of tears for any abnormalities. In severe cases. Using the information obtained from testing. Evaluation of the lid margins. and redness of the lining of the eyelids. External examination of the eye. with special emphasis on evaluation of the eyelids and front surface of the eyeball. leave small sores that ooze and bleed. base of the eyelashes and meibomian gland openings using bright light and magnification. Seborrheic blepharitis appears as greasy flakes or scales around the base of eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelids. Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by matted. the cornea. Posterior blepharitis can be caused by irregular oil production by the glands of the eyelids (meibomian blepharitis) which creates a favorable environment for bacterial growth. It may also occur due to a combination of factors. may include: • • • • Patient history to determine any symptoms the patient is experiencing and the presence of any general health problems that may be contributing to the eye problem. your optometrist can determine if you have blepharitis and advise you on treatment options. hard crusts around the eyelashes that when removed. The key to treating most types of blepharitis is keeping the lids clean and free of crusts.

If you wear contact lenses. relapses may occur. Moisten a clean washcloth with warm water. you may have to temporarily discontinue wearing them during treatment. In cases involving bacterial infection. 4. reheating the washcloth as necessary.Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup when treating blepharitis is often recommended. Even with successful treatment. Directions for an Eyelid Scrub: 1. the eyelids may need to be massaged to clean out oil accumulated in the eyelid glands. relapses may occur. Mix warm water and a small amount of non-irritating (baby) shampoo or use a commercially prepared lid scrub solution recommended by your optometrist. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. Self-care An important part of controlling blepharitis involves treatment at home. an antibiotic may also be prescribed. followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyes with a mixture of water and baby shampoo or an over-the-counter lid cleansing product. Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo on the scalp can help. Artificial tear solutions or lubricating ointments may be prescribed in some cases. . If the glands in the eyelids are blocked. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. Directions for a Warm Soak of the Eyelids: 1. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. Even with successful treatment. Repeat several times daily. Wash your hands thoroughly. 3. 2. • • • • • Some cases of blepharitis may require more complex treatment plans. Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup is often recommended. Wash your hands thoroughly. • Warm compresses can be applied to loosen the crusts. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. 2. Close eyes and place washcloth on eyelids for about 5 minutes.

. Rinse with clear water. Using a clean cloth (a different one for each eye) rub the solution back and forth across the eyelashes and edge of the closed eyelid.3. Repeat with the other eye. 5. 4.

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