Air mata Diproduksi oleh sistem kelenjar air mata


1.1. Glandula lacrimalis asesorius Krause dan Wolfring (sekresi dasar) 2. Glandula lakrimalis utama mayor (sekresi refleks).

Fungsi air mata : 1. Melicinkan permukaan optik bola mata 2. Media pelepasan sel ‘desquamasi’. 3. Suplai oksigen ke kornea 4. Antimikroba 5. Lubrikasi pergesekan palpebra dan kornea 6. Mencegah pengeringan permukaan luar bola mata Lapisan air mata : 1. Lapisan lipid (atas), diproduksi oleh glandula meibom. Fungsi :

- Memperlambat menguapan air mata - Mempertahankan barier hidrofobik - Mempertahankan tear meniskus 2. Lapaisan akuous (tengah), diproduksi oleh kelejar Krause & Wolfring. Fungsi : - Suplai oksigen - Antimikroba - Meratakan permukaan kornea - Membersihkan kotoran - Mengatur fungsi sel-sel epitel kornea

Kelenjar lakrimalis terletak di puncak tepi luar dari mata kiri dan kanan dang menghasilkan air mata yang encer. Lapisan air mata, yang membasahi mata pada umumnya berstruktur kompleks yang terdiri dari 3 lapisan, yaitu:

Lapisan air mata berfungsi a. . Kelenjar meibom menghasilkan substasi pelumas berminyak untuk menghambat penguapan dan kelenjar ini bermuara pada tepi palpebra. Melapisi permukaan kornea sehingga menjadi rata dan merupakan media refraksi yang baik. Mencegah dehidrasi kornea Proses keluarnya air mata Pengeluaran air mata dapat pula dibantu dengan adanya kedipan kelopak mata secara sepontan yang berulang-ulang.a. Mencegah tumbuhnya mikroorganisme d. Lapisan terluar adalah lapisan berminyak yang diproduksi sebagian besar oleh kelenjar meibomi sebasea kelopok mata. b. Lapisan paling dalam adalah lapisan musin yang diproduksi oleh sel goblet yang tersebar diseluruh konjungtiva. b. air mata mengalir ke medial ke dalam lubang-lubang pungta tepi kelopak dan mengalir melalui kanalikuli ke dalam kantong lakrimalis dan kemudian melalui duktus nasolakrimalis menuju kehidung. merupakan lapisan air dan terbanyak. Lapisan tengah. Di produksi oleh kelenjar lakrimalis utama dan kelenjar lakrimalis tembahan. Mencegah kerusakan epitel kornea dan konjungtiva c. c.

blepharitis causes only minor irritation and itching. irritated. particularly the cornea. red and swollen eyelids. and doing eyelid scrubs. . good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine can control blepharitis. using warm compresses to soak the eyelids. 2. or crusting of the eyelids.Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids causing red. itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes. itching. various antibiotics and other medications may be prescribed along with eyelid hygiene. Posterior blepharitis affects the inner edge of the eyelid that comes in contact with the eyeball. It affects people of all ages. blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. excessive tearing. and inflammation of other eye tissue. Although uncomfortable. In many cases. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacterial or a skin condition such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. it can lead to more severe signs and symptoms such as blurring of vision. Individuals with blepharitis may experience a gritty or burning sensation in their eyes. missing or misdirected eyelashes. dry eyes. What causes blepharitis? Blepharitis can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes. However. Blepharitis is classified into two types: 1. This includes frequent scalp and face washing. In cases where a bacterial infection is the cause. For some people. Anterior blepharitis occurs at the outside front edge of the eyelid where the eyelashes are attached.

The key to treating most types of blepharitis is keeping the lids clean and free of crusts. In severe cases. It can also develop as a result of other skin conditions such as acne rosacea and scalp dandruff. base of the eyelashes and meibomian gland openings using bright light and magnification. skin texture and eyelash appearance. including lid structure. and missing and misdirected eyelashes. Posterior blepharitis can be caused by irregular oil production by the glands of the eyelids (meibomian blepharitis) which creates a favorable environment for bacterial growth. Using the information obtained from testing. .Anterior blepharitis is commonly caused by bacteria (staphylococcal blepharits) or dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrheic blepharitis). hard crusts around the eyelashes that when removed. Meibomian blepharitis is evident by blockage of the oil glands in the eyelids. [back to top] How is blepharitis treated? Treatment depends on the specific type of blepharitis. with special emphasis on evaluation of the eyelids and front surface of the eyeball. may also become inflamed. External examination of the eye. It may also occur due to a combination of factors. distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. Evaluation of the quantity and quality of tears for any abnormalities. the cornea. Seborrheic blepharitis appears as greasy flakes or scales around the base of eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelids. Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by matted. [back to top] How is blepharitis diagnosed? Blepharitis can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. and redness of the lining of the eyelids. your optometrist can determine if you have blepharitis and advise you on treatment options. the transparent front covering of the eyeball. There may also be a loss of eyelashes. poor quality of tears. Evaluation of the lid margins. or less commonly may be the result of allergies or an infestation of the eyelashes. may include: • • • • Patient history to determine any symptoms the patient is experiencing and the presence of any general health problems that may be contributing to the eye problem. thickened lid margins. A differentiation among the various types of blepharitis can often be made based on the appearance of the eyelid margins: • • • • Staphyloccal blepharitis patients frequently exhibit mild sticking together of the lids. Testing. leave small sores that ooze and bleed.

Artificial tear solutions or lubricating ointments may be prescribed in some cases. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. you may have to temporarily discontinue wearing them during treatment. Even with successful treatment. Wash your hands thoroughly. followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyes with a mixture of water and baby shampoo or an over-the-counter lid cleansing product. Repeat several times daily. 4. 2. If you wear contact lenses.Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup when treating blepharitis is often recommended. 2. Directions for an Eyelid Scrub: 1. Close eyes and place washcloth on eyelids for about 5 minutes. Wash your hands thoroughly. 3. Mix warm water and a small amount of non-irritating (baby) shampoo or use a commercially prepared lid scrub solution recommended by your optometrist. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo on the scalp can help. the eyelids may need to be massaged to clean out oil accumulated in the eyelid glands. Self-care An important part of controlling blepharitis involves treatment at home. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. If the glands in the eyelids are blocked. In cases involving bacterial infection. . • Warm compresses can be applied to loosen the crusts. Moisten a clean washcloth with warm water. relapses may occur. relapses may occur. Directions for a Warm Soak of the Eyelids: 1. Even with successful treatment. Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup is often recommended. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. an antibiotic may also be prescribed. • • • • • Some cases of blepharitis may require more complex treatment plans. reheating the washcloth as necessary.

Using a clean cloth (a different one for each eye) rub the solution back and forth across the eyelashes and edge of the closed eyelid. 4. . Repeat with the other eye.3. Rinse with clear water. 5.

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