Air mata Diproduksi oleh sistem kelenjar air mata


1.1. Glandula lacrimalis asesorius Krause dan Wolfring (sekresi dasar) 2. Glandula lakrimalis utama mayor (sekresi refleks).

Fungsi air mata : 1. Melicinkan permukaan optik bola mata 2. Media pelepasan sel ‘desquamasi’. 3. Suplai oksigen ke kornea 4. Antimikroba 5. Lubrikasi pergesekan palpebra dan kornea 6. Mencegah pengeringan permukaan luar bola mata Lapisan air mata : 1. Lapisan lipid (atas), diproduksi oleh glandula meibom. Fungsi :

- Memperlambat menguapan air mata - Mempertahankan barier hidrofobik - Mempertahankan tear meniskus 2. Lapaisan akuous (tengah), diproduksi oleh kelejar Krause & Wolfring. Fungsi : - Suplai oksigen - Antimikroba - Meratakan permukaan kornea - Membersihkan kotoran - Mengatur fungsi sel-sel epitel kornea

Kelenjar lakrimalis terletak di puncak tepi luar dari mata kiri dan kanan dang menghasilkan air mata yang encer. Lapisan air mata, yang membasahi mata pada umumnya berstruktur kompleks yang terdiri dari 3 lapisan, yaitu:

air mata mengalir ke medial ke dalam lubang-lubang pungta tepi kelopak dan mengalir melalui kanalikuli ke dalam kantong lakrimalis dan kemudian melalui duktus nasolakrimalis menuju kehidung.a. Melapisi permukaan kornea sehingga menjadi rata dan merupakan media refraksi yang baik. Lapisan tengah. Lapisan terluar adalah lapisan berminyak yang diproduksi sebagian besar oleh kelenjar meibomi sebasea kelopok mata. b. Lapisan paling dalam adalah lapisan musin yang diproduksi oleh sel goblet yang tersebar diseluruh konjungtiva. Mencegah kerusakan epitel kornea dan konjungtiva c. Lapisan air mata berfungsi a. . c. b. Mencegah dehidrasi kornea Proses keluarnya air mata Pengeluaran air mata dapat pula dibantu dengan adanya kedipan kelopak mata secara sepontan yang berulang-ulang. merupakan lapisan air dan terbanyak. Di produksi oleh kelenjar lakrimalis utama dan kelenjar lakrimalis tembahan. Mencegah tumbuhnya mikroorganisme d. Kelenjar meibom menghasilkan substasi pelumas berminyak untuk menghambat penguapan dan kelenjar ini bermuara pada tepi palpebra.

. or crusting of the eyelids. good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine can control blepharitis. blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. using warm compresses to soak the eyelids. particularly the cornea. red and swollen eyelids. excessive tearing. What causes blepharitis? Blepharitis can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes. In many cases. missing or misdirected eyelashes. However. Blepharitis is classified into two types: 1. and doing eyelid scrubs. dry eyes. it can lead to more severe signs and symptoms such as blurring of vision. It affects people of all ages. Anterior blepharitis occurs at the outside front edge of the eyelid where the eyelashes are attached. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacterial or a skin condition such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. blepharitis causes only minor irritation and itching. Although uncomfortable. Posterior blepharitis affects the inner edge of the eyelid that comes in contact with the eyeball. itching. Individuals with blepharitis may experience a gritty or burning sensation in their eyes. various antibiotics and other medications may be prescribed along with eyelid hygiene. itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes. This includes frequent scalp and face washing. For some people. irritated.Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids causing red. 2. In cases where a bacterial infection is the cause. and inflammation of other eye tissue.

including lid structure. Posterior blepharitis can be caused by irregular oil production by the glands of the eyelids (meibomian blepharitis) which creates a favorable environment for bacterial growth. The key to treating most types of blepharitis is keeping the lids clean and free of crusts. and missing and misdirected eyelashes. Testing. skin texture and eyelash appearance. Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by matted. [back to top] How is blepharitis diagnosed? Blepharitis can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. poor quality of tears. and redness of the lining of the eyelids. [back to top] How is blepharitis treated? Treatment depends on the specific type of blepharitis. Using the information obtained from testing. It may also occur due to a combination of factors. There may also be a loss of eyelashes. the cornea. may also become inflamed. . A differentiation among the various types of blepharitis can often be made based on the appearance of the eyelid margins: • • • • Staphyloccal blepharitis patients frequently exhibit mild sticking together of the lids. base of the eyelashes and meibomian gland openings using bright light and magnification. distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. the transparent front covering of the eyeball. Meibomian blepharitis is evident by blockage of the oil glands in the eyelids. In severe cases. Seborrheic blepharitis appears as greasy flakes or scales around the base of eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelids. It can also develop as a result of other skin conditions such as acne rosacea and scalp dandruff. with special emphasis on evaluation of the eyelids and front surface of the eyeball. hard crusts around the eyelashes that when removed. leave small sores that ooze and bleed. your optometrist can determine if you have blepharitis and advise you on treatment options. Evaluation of the quantity and quality of tears for any abnormalities. may include: • • • • Patient history to determine any symptoms the patient is experiencing and the presence of any general health problems that may be contributing to the eye problem. or less commonly may be the result of allergies or an infestation of the eyelashes. thickened lid margins. External examination of the eye. Evaluation of the lid margins.Anterior blepharitis is commonly caused by bacteria (staphylococcal blepharits) or dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrheic blepharitis).

Wash your hands thoroughly. reheating the washcloth as necessary. followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyes with a mixture of water and baby shampoo or an over-the-counter lid cleansing product. Directions for an Eyelid Scrub: 1. • Warm compresses can be applied to loosen the crusts. Even with successful treatment. Artificial tear solutions or lubricating ointments may be prescribed in some cases. the eyelids may need to be massaged to clean out oil accumulated in the eyelid glands. 2. 3. 2. . as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. an antibiotic may also be prescribed. If you wear contact lenses. you may have to temporarily discontinue wearing them during treatment. Close eyes and place washcloth on eyelids for about 5 minutes. Wash your hands thoroughly. Even with successful treatment. relapses may occur. • • • • • Some cases of blepharitis may require more complex treatment plans. 4. Self-care An important part of controlling blepharitis involves treatment at home. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. If the glands in the eyelids are blocked. Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo on the scalp can help.Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup when treating blepharitis is often recommended. Mix warm water and a small amount of non-irritating (baby) shampoo or use a commercially prepared lid scrub solution recommended by your optometrist. In cases involving bacterial infection. Repeat several times daily. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. relapses may occur. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. Directions for a Warm Soak of the Eyelids: 1. Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup is often recommended. Moisten a clean washcloth with warm water.

4. Using a clean cloth (a different one for each eye) rub the solution back and forth across the eyelashes and edge of the closed eyelid. 5. .3. Repeat with the other eye. Rinse with clear water.

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