Air mata Diproduksi oleh sistem kelenjar air mata


1.1. Glandula lacrimalis asesorius Krause dan Wolfring (sekresi dasar) 2. Glandula lakrimalis utama mayor (sekresi refleks).

Fungsi air mata : 1. Melicinkan permukaan optik bola mata 2. Media pelepasan sel ‘desquamasi’. 3. Suplai oksigen ke kornea 4. Antimikroba 5. Lubrikasi pergesekan palpebra dan kornea 6. Mencegah pengeringan permukaan luar bola mata Lapisan air mata : 1. Lapisan lipid (atas), diproduksi oleh glandula meibom. Fungsi :

- Memperlambat menguapan air mata - Mempertahankan barier hidrofobik - Mempertahankan tear meniskus 2. Lapaisan akuous (tengah), diproduksi oleh kelejar Krause & Wolfring. Fungsi : - Suplai oksigen - Antimikroba - Meratakan permukaan kornea - Membersihkan kotoran - Mengatur fungsi sel-sel epitel kornea

Kelenjar lakrimalis terletak di puncak tepi luar dari mata kiri dan kanan dang menghasilkan air mata yang encer. Lapisan air mata, yang membasahi mata pada umumnya berstruktur kompleks yang terdiri dari 3 lapisan, yaitu:

b. Lapisan air mata berfungsi a. c. Lapisan terluar adalah lapisan berminyak yang diproduksi sebagian besar oleh kelenjar meibomi sebasea kelopok mata. Lapisan tengah. Melapisi permukaan kornea sehingga menjadi rata dan merupakan media refraksi yang baik. Kelenjar meibom menghasilkan substasi pelumas berminyak untuk menghambat penguapan dan kelenjar ini bermuara pada tepi palpebra. Lapisan paling dalam adalah lapisan musin yang diproduksi oleh sel goblet yang tersebar diseluruh konjungtiva. . Mencegah kerusakan epitel kornea dan konjungtiva c. merupakan lapisan air dan terbanyak. Di produksi oleh kelenjar lakrimalis utama dan kelenjar lakrimalis tembahan. Mencegah dehidrasi kornea Proses keluarnya air mata Pengeluaran air mata dapat pula dibantu dengan adanya kedipan kelopak mata secara sepontan yang berulang-ulang. b. Mencegah tumbuhnya mikroorganisme d.a. air mata mengalir ke medial ke dalam lubang-lubang pungta tepi kelopak dan mengalir melalui kanalikuli ke dalam kantong lakrimalis dan kemudian melalui duktus nasolakrimalis menuju kehidung.

It affects people of all ages. blepharitis causes only minor irritation and itching. and doing eyelid scrubs. good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine can control blepharitis. itching. This includes frequent scalp and face washing. Posterior blepharitis affects the inner edge of the eyelid that comes in contact with the eyeball. Although uncomfortable. particularly the cornea. dry eyes. or crusting of the eyelids. Anterior blepharitis occurs at the outside front edge of the eyelid where the eyelashes are attached. In many cases. red and swollen eyelids. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacterial or a skin condition such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. Blepharitis is classified into two types: 1. blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. missing or misdirected eyelashes. it can lead to more severe signs and symptoms such as blurring of vision. Individuals with blepharitis may experience a gritty or burning sensation in their eyes. itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes. irritated. For some people. various antibiotics and other medications may be prescribed along with eyelid hygiene. In cases where a bacterial infection is the cause. What causes blepharitis? Blepharitis can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes. and inflammation of other eye tissue. excessive tearing. However. 2. .Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids causing red. using warm compresses to soak the eyelids.

Posterior blepharitis can be caused by irregular oil production by the glands of the eyelids (meibomian blepharitis) which creates a favorable environment for bacterial growth. and missing and misdirected eyelashes. may also become inflamed. or less commonly may be the result of allergies or an infestation of the eyelashes. distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. hard crusts around the eyelashes that when removed. .Anterior blepharitis is commonly caused by bacteria (staphylococcal blepharits) or dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrheic blepharitis). the transparent front covering of the eyeball. including lid structure. Meibomian blepharitis is evident by blockage of the oil glands in the eyelids. In severe cases. your optometrist can determine if you have blepharitis and advise you on treatment options. poor quality of tears. There may also be a loss of eyelashes. base of the eyelashes and meibomian gland openings using bright light and magnification. thickened lid margins. leave small sores that ooze and bleed. [back to top] How is blepharitis treated? Treatment depends on the specific type of blepharitis. It may also occur due to a combination of factors. with special emphasis on evaluation of the eyelids and front surface of the eyeball. Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by matted. may include: • • • • Patient history to determine any symptoms the patient is experiencing and the presence of any general health problems that may be contributing to the eye problem. skin texture and eyelash appearance. and redness of the lining of the eyelids. [back to top] How is blepharitis diagnosed? Blepharitis can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. Using the information obtained from testing. Evaluation of the lid margins. It can also develop as a result of other skin conditions such as acne rosacea and scalp dandruff. Testing. External examination of the eye. Evaluation of the quantity and quality of tears for any abnormalities. A differentiation among the various types of blepharitis can often be made based on the appearance of the eyelid margins: • • • • Staphyloccal blepharitis patients frequently exhibit mild sticking together of the lids. the cornea. The key to treating most types of blepharitis is keeping the lids clean and free of crusts. Seborrheic blepharitis appears as greasy flakes or scales around the base of eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelids.

2. Repeat several times daily. Even with successful treatment. the eyelids may need to be massaged to clean out oil accumulated in the eyelid glands. 2. Artificial tear solutions or lubricating ointments may be prescribed in some cases. Close eyes and place washcloth on eyelids for about 5 minutes. . Wash your hands thoroughly. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. Self-care An important part of controlling blepharitis involves treatment at home. Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo on the scalp can help. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely.Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup when treating blepharitis is often recommended. • • • • • Some cases of blepharitis may require more complex treatment plans. In cases involving bacterial infection. you may have to temporarily discontinue wearing them during treatment. Even with successful treatment. relapses may occur. followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyes with a mixture of water and baby shampoo or an over-the-counter lid cleansing product. 3. If you wear contact lenses. Mix warm water and a small amount of non-irritating (baby) shampoo or use a commercially prepared lid scrub solution recommended by your optometrist. If the glands in the eyelids are blocked. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. an antibiotic may also be prescribed. Directions for an Eyelid Scrub: 1. Wash your hands thoroughly. • Warm compresses can be applied to loosen the crusts. Moisten a clean washcloth with warm water. reheating the washcloth as necessary. relapses may occur. Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup is often recommended. 4. Directions for a Warm Soak of the Eyelids: 1.

. 5. Rinse with clear water. Using a clean cloth (a different one for each eye) rub the solution back and forth across the eyelashes and edge of the closed eyelid. 4. Repeat with the other eye.3.