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1.1. Glandula lacrimalis asesorius Krause dan Wolfring (sekresi dasar) 2. Glandula lakrimalis utama mayor (sekresi refleks).
Fungsi air mata : 1. Melicinkan permukaan optik bola mata 2. Media pelepasan sel ‘desquamasi’. 3. Suplai oksigen ke kornea 4. Antimikroba 5. Lubrikasi pergesekan palpebra dan kornea 6. Mencegah pengeringan permukaan luar bola mata Lapisan air mata : 1. Lapisan lipid (atas), diproduksi oleh glandula meibom. Fungsi :
- Memperlambat menguapan air mata - Mempertahankan barier hidrofobik - Mempertahankan tear meniskus 2. Lapaisan akuous (tengah), diproduksi oleh kelejar Krause & Wolfring. Fungsi : - Suplai oksigen - Antimikroba - Meratakan permukaan kornea - Membersihkan kotoran - Mengatur fungsi sel-sel epitel kornea
Kelenjar lakrimalis terletak di puncak tepi luar dari mata kiri dan kanan dang menghasilkan air mata yang encer. Lapisan air mata, yang membasahi mata pada umumnya berstruktur kompleks yang terdiri dari 3 lapisan, yaitu:
Mencegah dehidrasi kornea Proses keluarnya air mata Pengeluaran air mata dapat pula dibantu dengan adanya kedipan kelopak mata secara sepontan yang berulang-ulang. Melapisi permukaan kornea sehingga menjadi rata dan merupakan media refraksi yang baik. Mencegah kerusakan epitel kornea dan konjungtiva c. Di produksi oleh kelenjar lakrimalis utama dan kelenjar lakrimalis tembahan. Mencegah tumbuhnya mikroorganisme d. b. Lapisan paling dalam adalah lapisan musin yang diproduksi oleh sel goblet yang tersebar diseluruh konjungtiva. merupakan lapisan air dan terbanyak. . c. Kelenjar meibom menghasilkan substasi pelumas berminyak untuk menghambat penguapan dan kelenjar ini bermuara pada tepi palpebra. Lapisan tengah. Lapisan air mata berfungsi a. Lapisan terluar adalah lapisan berminyak yang diproduksi sebagian besar oleh kelenjar meibomi sebasea kelopok mata. air mata mengalir ke medial ke dalam lubang-lubang pungta tepi kelopak dan mengalir melalui kanalikuli ke dalam kantong lakrimalis dan kemudian melalui duktus nasolakrimalis menuju kehidung. b.a.
For some people. 2. Anterior blepharitis occurs at the outside front edge of the eyelid where the eyelashes are attached. Posterior blepharitis affects the inner edge of the eyelid that comes in contact with the eyeball. Individuals with blepharitis may experience a gritty or burning sensation in their eyes. red and swollen eyelids. various antibiotics and other medications may be prescribed along with eyelid hygiene. or crusting of the eyelids. and inflammation of other eye tissue. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacterial or a skin condition such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. dry eyes. In many cases. itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes. Blepharitis is classified into two types: 1. What causes blepharitis? Blepharitis can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes. This includes frequent scalp and face washing. using warm compresses to soak the eyelids. blepharitis causes only minor irritation and itching. blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. particularly the cornea. In cases where a bacterial infection is the cause. excessive tearing. and doing eyelid scrubs. It affects people of all ages. good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine can control blepharitis. it can lead to more severe signs and symptoms such as blurring of vision. . However. Although uncomfortable. itching. irritated.Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids causing red. missing or misdirected eyelashes.
Using the information obtained from testing. including lid structure. or less commonly may be the result of allergies or an infestation of the eyelashes. your optometrist can determine if you have blepharitis and advise you on treatment options. and redness of the lining of the eyelids. . Seborrheic blepharitis appears as greasy flakes or scales around the base of eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelids. Evaluation of the quantity and quality of tears for any abnormalities.Anterior blepharitis is commonly caused by bacteria (staphylococcal blepharits) or dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrheic blepharitis). Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by matted. poor quality of tears. [back to top] How is blepharitis treated? Treatment depends on the specific type of blepharitis. A differentiation among the various types of blepharitis can often be made based on the appearance of the eyelid margins: • • • • Staphyloccal blepharitis patients frequently exhibit mild sticking together of the lids. Meibomian blepharitis is evident by blockage of the oil glands in the eyelids. base of the eyelashes and meibomian gland openings using bright light and magnification. The key to treating most types of blepharitis is keeping the lids clean and free of crusts. External examination of the eye. distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. the cornea. and missing and misdirected eyelashes. There may also be a loss of eyelashes. with special emphasis on evaluation of the eyelids and front surface of the eyeball. leave small sores that ooze and bleed. thickened lid margins. Testing. skin texture and eyelash appearance. It may also occur due to a combination of factors. may also become inflamed. [back to top] How is blepharitis diagnosed? Blepharitis can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. may include: • • • • Patient history to determine any symptoms the patient is experiencing and the presence of any general health problems that may be contributing to the eye problem. hard crusts around the eyelashes that when removed. the transparent front covering of the eyeball. It can also develop as a result of other skin conditions such as acne rosacea and scalp dandruff. Posterior blepharitis can be caused by irregular oil production by the glands of the eyelids (meibomian blepharitis) which creates a favorable environment for bacterial growth. In severe cases. Evaluation of the lid margins.
Close eyes and place washcloth on eyelids for about 5 minutes. 3. an antibiotic may also be prescribed. Directions for a Warm Soak of the Eyelids: 1. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. 4. Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo on the scalp can help. If you wear contact lenses. you may have to temporarily discontinue wearing them during treatment. reheating the washcloth as necessary. the eyelids may need to be massaged to clean out oil accumulated in the eyelid glands. In cases involving bacterial infection.Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup when treating blepharitis is often recommended. relapses may occur. Wash your hands thoroughly. 2. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. Even with successful treatment. relapses may occur. Mix warm water and a small amount of non-irritating (baby) shampoo or use a commercially prepared lid scrub solution recommended by your optometrist. Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup is often recommended. If the glands in the eyelids are blocked. Wash your hands thoroughly. Artificial tear solutions or lubricating ointments may be prescribed in some cases. Even with successful treatment. . 2. followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyes with a mixture of water and baby shampoo or an over-the-counter lid cleansing product. Directions for an Eyelid Scrub: 1. Self-care An important part of controlling blepharitis involves treatment at home. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. Moisten a clean washcloth with warm water. Repeat several times daily. • Warm compresses can be applied to loosen the crusts. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. • • • • • Some cases of blepharitis may require more complex treatment plans.
4. 5.3. . Repeat with the other eye. Using a clean cloth (a different one for each eye) rub the solution back and forth across the eyelashes and edge of the closed eyelid. Rinse with clear water.
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