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1.1. Glandula lacrimalis asesorius Krause dan Wolfring (sekresi dasar) 2. Glandula lakrimalis utama mayor (sekresi refleks).
Fungsi air mata : 1. Melicinkan permukaan optik bola mata 2. Media pelepasan sel ‘desquamasi’. 3. Suplai oksigen ke kornea 4. Antimikroba 5. Lubrikasi pergesekan palpebra dan kornea 6. Mencegah pengeringan permukaan luar bola mata Lapisan air mata : 1. Lapisan lipid (atas), diproduksi oleh glandula meibom. Fungsi :
- Memperlambat menguapan air mata - Mempertahankan barier hidrofobik - Mempertahankan tear meniskus 2. Lapaisan akuous (tengah), diproduksi oleh kelejar Krause & Wolfring. Fungsi : - Suplai oksigen - Antimikroba - Meratakan permukaan kornea - Membersihkan kotoran - Mengatur fungsi sel-sel epitel kornea
Kelenjar lakrimalis terletak di puncak tepi luar dari mata kiri dan kanan dang menghasilkan air mata yang encer. Lapisan air mata, yang membasahi mata pada umumnya berstruktur kompleks yang terdiri dari 3 lapisan, yaitu:
. b. Melapisi permukaan kornea sehingga menjadi rata dan merupakan media refraksi yang baik. b.a. Lapisan air mata berfungsi a. Lapisan tengah. Mencegah dehidrasi kornea Proses keluarnya air mata Pengeluaran air mata dapat pula dibantu dengan adanya kedipan kelopak mata secara sepontan yang berulang-ulang. Lapisan terluar adalah lapisan berminyak yang diproduksi sebagian besar oleh kelenjar meibomi sebasea kelopok mata. Lapisan paling dalam adalah lapisan musin yang diproduksi oleh sel goblet yang tersebar diseluruh konjungtiva. c. Di produksi oleh kelenjar lakrimalis utama dan kelenjar lakrimalis tembahan. Mencegah tumbuhnya mikroorganisme d. merupakan lapisan air dan terbanyak. Mencegah kerusakan epitel kornea dan konjungtiva c. air mata mengalir ke medial ke dalam lubang-lubang pungta tepi kelopak dan mengalir melalui kanalikuli ke dalam kantong lakrimalis dan kemudian melalui duktus nasolakrimalis menuju kehidung. Kelenjar meibom menghasilkan substasi pelumas berminyak untuk menghambat penguapan dan kelenjar ini bermuara pada tepi palpebra.
2. Individuals with blepharitis may experience a gritty or burning sensation in their eyes. excessive tearing. irritated. blepharitis causes only minor irritation and itching. In many cases. Anterior blepharitis occurs at the outside front edge of the eyelid where the eyelashes are attached. Although uncomfortable. good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine can control blepharitis. various antibiotics and other medications may be prescribed along with eyelid hygiene. using warm compresses to soak the eyelids. However. What causes blepharitis? Blepharitis can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes. and doing eyelid scrubs. and inflammation of other eye tissue. red and swollen eyelids. For some people. or crusting of the eyelids. It affects people of all ages. blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacterial or a skin condition such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. In cases where a bacterial infection is the cause. itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes. This includes frequent scalp and face washing. it can lead to more severe signs and symptoms such as blurring of vision. Posterior blepharitis affects the inner edge of the eyelid that comes in contact with the eyeball. dry eyes. itching. missing or misdirected eyelashes. particularly the cornea. .Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids causing red. Blepharitis is classified into two types: 1.
Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by matted. with special emphasis on evaluation of the eyelids and front surface of the eyeball. Posterior blepharitis can be caused by irregular oil production by the glands of the eyelids (meibomian blepharitis) which creates a favorable environment for bacterial growth. thickened lid margins. your optometrist can determine if you have blepharitis and advise you on treatment options. External examination of the eye. [back to top] How is blepharitis treated? Treatment depends on the specific type of blepharitis. skin texture and eyelash appearance. [back to top] How is blepharitis diagnosed? Blepharitis can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. may include: • • • • Patient history to determine any symptoms the patient is experiencing and the presence of any general health problems that may be contributing to the eye problem. the transparent front covering of the eyeball. Evaluation of the lid margins. Meibomian blepharitis is evident by blockage of the oil glands in the eyelids. or less commonly may be the result of allergies or an infestation of the eyelashes.Anterior blepharitis is commonly caused by bacteria (staphylococcal blepharits) or dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrheic blepharitis). Evaluation of the quantity and quality of tears for any abnormalities. . The key to treating most types of blepharitis is keeping the lids clean and free of crusts. leave small sores that ooze and bleed. and missing and misdirected eyelashes. A differentiation among the various types of blepharitis can often be made based on the appearance of the eyelid margins: • • • • Staphyloccal blepharitis patients frequently exhibit mild sticking together of the lids. poor quality of tears. distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. the cornea. including lid structure. Seborrheic blepharitis appears as greasy flakes or scales around the base of eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelids. Testing. may also become inflamed. hard crusts around the eyelashes that when removed. In severe cases. There may also be a loss of eyelashes. It can also develop as a result of other skin conditions such as acne rosacea and scalp dandruff. Using the information obtained from testing. base of the eyelashes and meibomian gland openings using bright light and magnification. It may also occur due to a combination of factors. and redness of the lining of the eyelids.
as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult.Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup when treating blepharitis is often recommended. Self-care An important part of controlling blepharitis involves treatment at home. Moisten a clean washcloth with warm water. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. • • • • • Some cases of blepharitis may require more complex treatment plans. Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup is often recommended. . Wash your hands thoroughly. relapses may occur. If the glands in the eyelids are blocked. Directions for an Eyelid Scrub: 1. followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyes with a mixture of water and baby shampoo or an over-the-counter lid cleansing product. 3. Mix warm water and a small amount of non-irritating (baby) shampoo or use a commercially prepared lid scrub solution recommended by your optometrist. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. Artificial tear solutions or lubricating ointments may be prescribed in some cases. Wash your hands thoroughly. Close eyes and place washcloth on eyelids for about 5 minutes. an antibiotic may also be prescribed. In cases involving bacterial infection. Directions for a Warm Soak of the Eyelids: 1. 2. • Warm compresses can be applied to loosen the crusts. 4. the eyelids may need to be massaged to clean out oil accumulated in the eyelid glands. Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo on the scalp can help. 2. If you wear contact lenses. Even with successful treatment. relapses may occur. you may have to temporarily discontinue wearing them during treatment. Even with successful treatment. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. reheating the washcloth as necessary. Repeat several times daily.
Repeat with the other eye. Using a clean cloth (a different one for each eye) rub the solution back and forth across the eyelashes and edge of the closed eyelid.3. 5. 4. . Rinse with clear water.
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