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1.1. Glandula lacrimalis asesorius Krause dan Wolfring (sekresi dasar) 2. Glandula lakrimalis utama mayor (sekresi refleks).
Fungsi air mata : 1. Melicinkan permukaan optik bola mata 2. Media pelepasan sel ‘desquamasi’. 3. Suplai oksigen ke kornea 4. Antimikroba 5. Lubrikasi pergesekan palpebra dan kornea 6. Mencegah pengeringan permukaan luar bola mata Lapisan air mata : 1. Lapisan lipid (atas), diproduksi oleh glandula meibom. Fungsi :
- Memperlambat menguapan air mata - Mempertahankan barier hidrofobik - Mempertahankan tear meniskus 2. Lapaisan akuous (tengah), diproduksi oleh kelejar Krause & Wolfring. Fungsi : - Suplai oksigen - Antimikroba - Meratakan permukaan kornea - Membersihkan kotoran - Mengatur fungsi sel-sel epitel kornea
Kelenjar lakrimalis terletak di puncak tepi luar dari mata kiri dan kanan dang menghasilkan air mata yang encer. Lapisan air mata, yang membasahi mata pada umumnya berstruktur kompleks yang terdiri dari 3 lapisan, yaitu:
Lapisan paling dalam adalah lapisan musin yang diproduksi oleh sel goblet yang tersebar diseluruh konjungtiva. c. Mencegah dehidrasi kornea Proses keluarnya air mata Pengeluaran air mata dapat pula dibantu dengan adanya kedipan kelopak mata secara sepontan yang berulang-ulang. b. Di produksi oleh kelenjar lakrimalis utama dan kelenjar lakrimalis tembahan. Lapisan air mata berfungsi a. Kelenjar meibom menghasilkan substasi pelumas berminyak untuk menghambat penguapan dan kelenjar ini bermuara pada tepi palpebra. Lapisan terluar adalah lapisan berminyak yang diproduksi sebagian besar oleh kelenjar meibomi sebasea kelopok mata.a. merupakan lapisan air dan terbanyak. Melapisi permukaan kornea sehingga menjadi rata dan merupakan media refraksi yang baik. Mencegah kerusakan epitel kornea dan konjungtiva c. . b. Lapisan tengah. Mencegah tumbuhnya mikroorganisme d. air mata mengalir ke medial ke dalam lubang-lubang pungta tepi kelopak dan mengalir melalui kanalikuli ke dalam kantong lakrimalis dan kemudian melalui duktus nasolakrimalis menuju kehidung.
and inflammation of other eye tissue. However. Although uncomfortable. Anterior blepharitis occurs at the outside front edge of the eyelid where the eyelashes are attached. it can lead to more severe signs and symptoms such as blurring of vision. What causes blepharitis? Blepharitis can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes. dry eyes. missing or misdirected eyelashes. good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine can control blepharitis. For some people.Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids causing red. Posterior blepharitis affects the inner edge of the eyelid that comes in contact with the eyeball. and doing eyelid scrubs. It affects people of all ages. itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes. In cases where a bacterial infection is the cause. red and swollen eyelids. excessive tearing. In many cases. irritated. or crusting of the eyelids. itching. blepharitis causes only minor irritation and itching. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacterial or a skin condition such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. 2. This includes frequent scalp and face washing. Blepharitis is classified into two types: 1. using warm compresses to soak the eyelids. particularly the cornea. . blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. various antibiotics and other medications may be prescribed along with eyelid hygiene. Individuals with blepharitis may experience a gritty or burning sensation in their eyes.
and redness of the lining of the eyelids. distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. Posterior blepharitis can be caused by irregular oil production by the glands of the eyelids (meibomian blepharitis) which creates a favorable environment for bacterial growth. the cornea. or less commonly may be the result of allergies or an infestation of the eyelashes.Anterior blepharitis is commonly caused by bacteria (staphylococcal blepharits) or dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrheic blepharitis). External examination of the eye. skin texture and eyelash appearance. Testing. Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by matted. including lid structure. It can also develop as a result of other skin conditions such as acne rosacea and scalp dandruff. base of the eyelashes and meibomian gland openings using bright light and magnification. [back to top] How is blepharitis treated? Treatment depends on the specific type of blepharitis. thickened lid margins. poor quality of tears. may include: • • • • Patient history to determine any symptoms the patient is experiencing and the presence of any general health problems that may be contributing to the eye problem. may also become inflamed. It may also occur due to a combination of factors. A differentiation among the various types of blepharitis can often be made based on the appearance of the eyelid margins: • • • • Staphyloccal blepharitis patients frequently exhibit mild sticking together of the lids. Evaluation of the lid margins. Evaluation of the quantity and quality of tears for any abnormalities. There may also be a loss of eyelashes. Meibomian blepharitis is evident by blockage of the oil glands in the eyelids. Seborrheic blepharitis appears as greasy flakes or scales around the base of eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelids. your optometrist can determine if you have blepharitis and advise you on treatment options. . with special emphasis on evaluation of the eyelids and front surface of the eyeball. leave small sores that ooze and bleed. the transparent front covering of the eyeball. and missing and misdirected eyelashes. Using the information obtained from testing. [back to top] How is blepharitis diagnosed? Blepharitis can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. The key to treating most types of blepharitis is keeping the lids clean and free of crusts. In severe cases. hard crusts around the eyelashes that when removed.
relapses may occur. 2. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. Close eyes and place washcloth on eyelids for about 5 minutes. 4. Wash your hands thoroughly. 3. Directions for an Eyelid Scrub: 1. Even with successful treatment. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. relapses may occur. Repeat several times daily. Directions for a Warm Soak of the Eyelids: 1. Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup is often recommended. Mix warm water and a small amount of non-irritating (baby) shampoo or use a commercially prepared lid scrub solution recommended by your optometrist. 2. you may have to temporarily discontinue wearing them during treatment. • Warm compresses can be applied to loosen the crusts.Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup when treating blepharitis is often recommended. Artificial tear solutions or lubricating ointments may be prescribed in some cases. reheating the washcloth as necessary. Wash your hands thoroughly. an antibiotic may also be prescribed. If the glands in the eyelids are blocked. Moisten a clean washcloth with warm water. Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo on the scalp can help. • • • • • Some cases of blepharitis may require more complex treatment plans. followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyes with a mixture of water and baby shampoo or an over-the-counter lid cleansing product. the eyelids may need to be massaged to clean out oil accumulated in the eyelid glands. If you wear contact lenses. In cases involving bacterial infection. . Self-care An important part of controlling blepharitis involves treatment at home. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. Even with successful treatment.
3. . 4. 5. Rinse with clear water. Repeat with the other eye. Using a clean cloth (a different one for each eye) rub the solution back and forth across the eyelashes and edge of the closed eyelid.
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