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1.1. Glandula lacrimalis asesorius Krause dan Wolfring (sekresi dasar) 2. Glandula lakrimalis utama mayor (sekresi refleks).
Fungsi air mata : 1. Melicinkan permukaan optik bola mata 2. Media pelepasan sel ‘desquamasi’. 3. Suplai oksigen ke kornea 4. Antimikroba 5. Lubrikasi pergesekan palpebra dan kornea 6. Mencegah pengeringan permukaan luar bola mata Lapisan air mata : 1. Lapisan lipid (atas), diproduksi oleh glandula meibom. Fungsi :
- Memperlambat menguapan air mata - Mempertahankan barier hidrofobik - Mempertahankan tear meniskus 2. Lapaisan akuous (tengah), diproduksi oleh kelejar Krause & Wolfring. Fungsi : - Suplai oksigen - Antimikroba - Meratakan permukaan kornea - Membersihkan kotoran - Mengatur fungsi sel-sel epitel kornea
Kelenjar lakrimalis terletak di puncak tepi luar dari mata kiri dan kanan dang menghasilkan air mata yang encer. Lapisan air mata, yang membasahi mata pada umumnya berstruktur kompleks yang terdiri dari 3 lapisan, yaitu:
Lapisan air mata berfungsi a. Kelenjar meibom menghasilkan substasi pelumas berminyak untuk menghambat penguapan dan kelenjar ini bermuara pada tepi palpebra. Mencegah kerusakan epitel kornea dan konjungtiva c. c. merupakan lapisan air dan terbanyak.a. b. air mata mengalir ke medial ke dalam lubang-lubang pungta tepi kelopak dan mengalir melalui kanalikuli ke dalam kantong lakrimalis dan kemudian melalui duktus nasolakrimalis menuju kehidung. . b. Lapisan tengah. Di produksi oleh kelenjar lakrimalis utama dan kelenjar lakrimalis tembahan. Lapisan paling dalam adalah lapisan musin yang diproduksi oleh sel goblet yang tersebar diseluruh konjungtiva. Mencegah dehidrasi kornea Proses keluarnya air mata Pengeluaran air mata dapat pula dibantu dengan adanya kedipan kelopak mata secara sepontan yang berulang-ulang. Mencegah tumbuhnya mikroorganisme d. Melapisi permukaan kornea sehingga menjadi rata dan merupakan media refraksi yang baik. Lapisan terluar adalah lapisan berminyak yang diproduksi sebagian besar oleh kelenjar meibomi sebasea kelopok mata.
using warm compresses to soak the eyelids. Posterior blepharitis affects the inner edge of the eyelid that comes in contact with the eyeball. Anterior blepharitis occurs at the outside front edge of the eyelid where the eyelashes are attached. In many cases. itching. blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. dry eyes. For some people. . excessive tearing. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacterial or a skin condition such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. red and swollen eyelids. It affects people of all ages. various antibiotics and other medications may be prescribed along with eyelid hygiene.Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids causing red. and inflammation of other eye tissue. In cases where a bacterial infection is the cause. and doing eyelid scrubs. 2. irritated. or crusting of the eyelids. itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes. it can lead to more severe signs and symptoms such as blurring of vision. Individuals with blepharitis may experience a gritty or burning sensation in their eyes. Although uncomfortable. This includes frequent scalp and face washing. blepharitis causes only minor irritation and itching. Blepharitis is classified into two types: 1. What causes blepharitis? Blepharitis can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes. good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine can control blepharitis. However. particularly the cornea. missing or misdirected eyelashes.
A differentiation among the various types of blepharitis can often be made based on the appearance of the eyelid margins: • • • • Staphyloccal blepharitis patients frequently exhibit mild sticking together of the lids. It may also occur due to a combination of factors. The key to treating most types of blepharitis is keeping the lids clean and free of crusts. Using the information obtained from testing. hard crusts around the eyelashes that when removed. [back to top] How is blepharitis treated? Treatment depends on the specific type of blepharitis. Testing.Anterior blepharitis is commonly caused by bacteria (staphylococcal blepharits) or dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrheic blepharitis). with special emphasis on evaluation of the eyelids and front surface of the eyeball. and redness of the lining of the eyelids. Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by matted. distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. Posterior blepharitis can be caused by irregular oil production by the glands of the eyelids (meibomian blepharitis) which creates a favorable environment for bacterial growth. thickened lid margins. poor quality of tears. Seborrheic blepharitis appears as greasy flakes or scales around the base of eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelids. your optometrist can determine if you have blepharitis and advise you on treatment options. or less commonly may be the result of allergies or an infestation of the eyelashes. Evaluation of the quantity and quality of tears for any abnormalities. Evaluation of the lid margins. In severe cases. Meibomian blepharitis is evident by blockage of the oil glands in the eyelids. the cornea. [back to top] How is blepharitis diagnosed? Blepharitis can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. may include: • • • • Patient history to determine any symptoms the patient is experiencing and the presence of any general health problems that may be contributing to the eye problem. skin texture and eyelash appearance. base of the eyelashes and meibomian gland openings using bright light and magnification. External examination of the eye. may also become inflamed. the transparent front covering of the eyeball. . There may also be a loss of eyelashes. and missing and misdirected eyelashes. It can also develop as a result of other skin conditions such as acne rosacea and scalp dandruff. leave small sores that ooze and bleed. including lid structure.
Moisten a clean washcloth with warm water. 2. Even with successful treatment. If the glands in the eyelids are blocked. relapses may occur. • Warm compresses can be applied to loosen the crusts. Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup is often recommended. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. • • • • • Some cases of blepharitis may require more complex treatment plans. followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyes with a mixture of water and baby shampoo or an over-the-counter lid cleansing product. 2. Artificial tear solutions or lubricating ointments may be prescribed in some cases. 3. the eyelids may need to be massaged to clean out oil accumulated in the eyelid glands. relapses may occur. Wash your hands thoroughly. Repeat several times daily.Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup when treating blepharitis is often recommended. Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo on the scalp can help. you may have to temporarily discontinue wearing them during treatment. Directions for an Eyelid Scrub: 1. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. Directions for a Warm Soak of the Eyelids: 1. If you wear contact lenses. . Self-care An important part of controlling blepharitis involves treatment at home. Even with successful treatment. 4. Mix warm water and a small amount of non-irritating (baby) shampoo or use a commercially prepared lid scrub solution recommended by your optometrist. In cases involving bacterial infection. an antibiotic may also be prescribed. Close eyes and place washcloth on eyelids for about 5 minutes. reheating the washcloth as necessary. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. Wash your hands thoroughly.
Repeat with the other eye. . Rinse with clear water.3. Using a clean cloth (a different one for each eye) rub the solution back and forth across the eyelashes and edge of the closed eyelid. 5. 4.
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