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1.1. Glandula lacrimalis asesorius Krause dan Wolfring (sekresi dasar) 2. Glandula lakrimalis utama mayor (sekresi refleks).
Fungsi air mata : 1. Melicinkan permukaan optik bola mata 2. Media pelepasan sel ‘desquamasi’. 3. Suplai oksigen ke kornea 4. Antimikroba 5. Lubrikasi pergesekan palpebra dan kornea 6. Mencegah pengeringan permukaan luar bola mata Lapisan air mata : 1. Lapisan lipid (atas), diproduksi oleh glandula meibom. Fungsi :
- Memperlambat menguapan air mata - Mempertahankan barier hidrofobik - Mempertahankan tear meniskus 2. Lapaisan akuous (tengah), diproduksi oleh kelejar Krause & Wolfring. Fungsi : - Suplai oksigen - Antimikroba - Meratakan permukaan kornea - Membersihkan kotoran - Mengatur fungsi sel-sel epitel kornea
Kelenjar lakrimalis terletak di puncak tepi luar dari mata kiri dan kanan dang menghasilkan air mata yang encer. Lapisan air mata, yang membasahi mata pada umumnya berstruktur kompleks yang terdiri dari 3 lapisan, yaitu:
Lapisan paling dalam adalah lapisan musin yang diproduksi oleh sel goblet yang tersebar diseluruh konjungtiva. Lapisan tengah. Melapisi permukaan kornea sehingga menjadi rata dan merupakan media refraksi yang baik. Lapisan terluar adalah lapisan berminyak yang diproduksi sebagian besar oleh kelenjar meibomi sebasea kelopok mata. Mencegah tumbuhnya mikroorganisme d. Di produksi oleh kelenjar lakrimalis utama dan kelenjar lakrimalis tembahan. . air mata mengalir ke medial ke dalam lubang-lubang pungta tepi kelopak dan mengalir melalui kanalikuli ke dalam kantong lakrimalis dan kemudian melalui duktus nasolakrimalis menuju kehidung. b.a. Lapisan air mata berfungsi a. merupakan lapisan air dan terbanyak. Kelenjar meibom menghasilkan substasi pelumas berminyak untuk menghambat penguapan dan kelenjar ini bermuara pada tepi palpebra. b. Mencegah dehidrasi kornea Proses keluarnya air mata Pengeluaran air mata dapat pula dibantu dengan adanya kedipan kelopak mata secara sepontan yang berulang-ulang. Mencegah kerusakan epitel kornea dan konjungtiva c. c.
Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids causing red. For some people. Individuals with blepharitis may experience a gritty or burning sensation in their eyes. various antibiotics and other medications may be prescribed along with eyelid hygiene. missing or misdirected eyelashes. good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine can control blepharitis. irritated. In many cases. However. Blepharitis is classified into two types: 1. excessive tearing. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacterial or a skin condition such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. It affects people of all ages. What causes blepharitis? Blepharitis can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes. blepharitis causes only minor irritation and itching. In cases where a bacterial infection is the cause. or crusting of the eyelids. dry eyes. 2. Although uncomfortable. itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes. it can lead to more severe signs and symptoms such as blurring of vision. red and swollen eyelids. . using warm compresses to soak the eyelids. and inflammation of other eye tissue. blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. particularly the cornea. itching. Posterior blepharitis affects the inner edge of the eyelid that comes in contact with the eyeball. and doing eyelid scrubs. This includes frequent scalp and face washing. Anterior blepharitis occurs at the outside front edge of the eyelid where the eyelashes are attached.
Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by matted. There may also be a loss of eyelashes. may also become inflamed. or less commonly may be the result of allergies or an infestation of the eyelashes. Using the information obtained from testing. The key to treating most types of blepharitis is keeping the lids clean and free of crusts. hard crusts around the eyelashes that when removed. Meibomian blepharitis is evident by blockage of the oil glands in the eyelids. Evaluation of the lid margins. [back to top] How is blepharitis treated? Treatment depends on the specific type of blepharitis. [back to top] How is blepharitis diagnosed? Blepharitis can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. with special emphasis on evaluation of the eyelids and front surface of the eyeball. your optometrist can determine if you have blepharitis and advise you on treatment options. External examination of the eye. Evaluation of the quantity and quality of tears for any abnormalities. Seborrheic blepharitis appears as greasy flakes or scales around the base of eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelids.Anterior blepharitis is commonly caused by bacteria (staphylococcal blepharits) or dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrheic blepharitis). leave small sores that ooze and bleed. In severe cases. including lid structure. skin texture and eyelash appearance. the cornea. may include: • • • • Patient history to determine any symptoms the patient is experiencing and the presence of any general health problems that may be contributing to the eye problem. A differentiation among the various types of blepharitis can often be made based on the appearance of the eyelid margins: • • • • Staphyloccal blepharitis patients frequently exhibit mild sticking together of the lids. thickened lid margins. and missing and misdirected eyelashes. distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. the transparent front covering of the eyeball. poor quality of tears. base of the eyelashes and meibomian gland openings using bright light and magnification. . and redness of the lining of the eyelids. It can also develop as a result of other skin conditions such as acne rosacea and scalp dandruff. Testing. Posterior blepharitis can be caused by irregular oil production by the glands of the eyelids (meibomian blepharitis) which creates a favorable environment for bacterial growth. It may also occur due to a combination of factors.
Even with successful treatment. Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo on the scalp can help. Directions for a Warm Soak of the Eyelids: 1. Mix warm water and a small amount of non-irritating (baby) shampoo or use a commercially prepared lid scrub solution recommended by your optometrist. 3. Close eyes and place washcloth on eyelids for about 5 minutes. the eyelids may need to be massaged to clean out oil accumulated in the eyelid glands. Moisten a clean washcloth with warm water. In cases involving bacterial infection. If the glands in the eyelids are blocked. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. Repeat several times daily. you may have to temporarily discontinue wearing them during treatment. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult.Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup when treating blepharitis is often recommended. . If you wear contact lenses. followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyes with a mixture of water and baby shampoo or an over-the-counter lid cleansing product. 2. 4. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. reheating the washcloth as necessary. Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup is often recommended. Wash your hands thoroughly. relapses may occur. Self-care An important part of controlling blepharitis involves treatment at home. an antibiotic may also be prescribed. relapses may occur. Wash your hands thoroughly. • • • • • Some cases of blepharitis may require more complex treatment plans. • Warm compresses can be applied to loosen the crusts. Directions for an Eyelid Scrub: 1. Artificial tear solutions or lubricating ointments may be prescribed in some cases. 2. Even with successful treatment.
4. . Repeat with the other eye. Using a clean cloth (a different one for each eye) rub the solution back and forth across the eyelashes and edge of the closed eyelid. 5.3. Rinse with clear water.