Air mata Diproduksi oleh sistem kelenjar air mata
1.1. Glandula lacrimalis asesorius Krause dan Wolfring (sekresi dasar) 2. Glandula lakrimalis utama mayor (sekresi refleks).
Fungsi air mata : 1. Melicinkan permukaan optik bola mata 2. Media pelepasan sel ‘desquamasi’. 3. Suplai oksigen ke kornea 4. Antimikroba 5. Lubrikasi pergesekan palpebra dan kornea 6. Mencegah pengeringan permukaan luar bola mata Lapisan air mata : 1. Lapisan lipid (atas), diproduksi oleh glandula meibom. Fungsi :
- Memperlambat menguapan air mata - Mempertahankan barier hidrofobik - Mempertahankan tear meniskus 2. Lapaisan akuous (tengah), diproduksi oleh kelejar Krause & Wolfring. Fungsi : - Suplai oksigen - Antimikroba - Meratakan permukaan kornea - Membersihkan kotoran - Mengatur fungsi sel-sel epitel kornea
Kelenjar lakrimalis terletak di puncak tepi luar dari mata kiri dan kanan dang menghasilkan air mata yang encer. Lapisan air mata, yang membasahi mata pada umumnya berstruktur kompleks yang terdiri dari 3 lapisan, yaitu:
Lapisan air mata berfungsi a. Kelenjar meibom menghasilkan substasi pelumas berminyak untuk menghambat penguapan dan kelenjar ini bermuara pada tepi palpebra. air mata mengalir ke medial ke dalam lubang-lubang pungta tepi kelopak dan mengalir melalui kanalikuli ke dalam kantong lakrimalis dan kemudian melalui duktus nasolakrimalis menuju kehidung.a. c. b. b. Mencegah tumbuhnya mikroorganisme d.
. Lapisan tengah. Mencegah dehidrasi kornea Proses keluarnya air mata Pengeluaran air mata dapat pula dibantu dengan adanya kedipan kelopak mata secara sepontan yang berulang-ulang. merupakan lapisan air dan terbanyak. Lapisan terluar adalah lapisan berminyak yang diproduksi sebagian besar oleh kelenjar meibomi sebasea kelopok mata. Di produksi oleh kelenjar lakrimalis utama dan kelenjar lakrimalis tembahan. Melapisi permukaan kornea sehingga menjadi rata dan merupakan media refraksi yang baik. Mencegah kerusakan epitel kornea dan konjungtiva c. Lapisan paling dalam adalah lapisan musin yang diproduksi oleh sel goblet yang tersebar diseluruh konjungtiva.
red and swollen eyelids. various antibiotics and other medications may be prescribed along with eyelid hygiene.
What causes blepharitis?
Blepharitis can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes.
Individuals with blepharitis may experience a gritty or burning sensation in their eyes. For some people.
Anterior blepharitis occurs at the outside front edge of the eyelid where the eyelashes are attached. blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. This includes frequent scalp and face washing.
. or crusting of the eyelids.
Blepharitis is classified into two types:
1. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacterial or a skin condition such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. In cases where a bacterial infection is the cause. and inflammation of other eye tissue.Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids causing red. dry eyes. particularly the cornea. it can lead to more severe signs and symptoms such as blurring of vision. blepharitis causes only minor irritation and itching.
Posterior blepharitis affects the inner edge of the eyelid that comes in contact with the eyeball. It affects people of all ages. using warm compresses to soak the eyelids. excessive tearing. and doing eyelid scrubs. Although uncomfortable. irritated.
In many cases. good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine can control blepharitis. itching. 2. However. itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes. missing or misdirected eyelashes.
Testing. Evaluation of the lid margins. Seborrheic blepharitis appears as greasy flakes or scales around the base of eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelids.
A differentiation among the various types of blepharitis can often be made based on the appearance of the eyelid margins:
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Staphyloccal blepharitis patients frequently exhibit mild sticking together of the lids. skin texture and eyelash appearance. It may also occur due to a combination of factors.
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How is blepharitis treated?
Treatment depends on the specific type of blepharitis. It can also develop as a result of other skin conditions such as acne rosacea and scalp dandruff. including lid structure. may include:
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Patient history to determine any symptoms the patient is experiencing and the presence of any general health problems that may be contributing to the eye problem. Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by matted. distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. thickened lid margins. with special emphasis on evaluation of the eyelids and front surface of the eyeball. The key to treating most types of blepharitis is keeping the lids clean and free of crusts. hard crusts around the eyelashes that when removed. External examination of the eye. In severe cases.
Using the information obtained from testing.
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How is blepharitis diagnosed?
Blepharitis can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination.Anterior blepharitis is commonly caused by bacteria (staphylococcal blepharits) or dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrheic blepharitis). Evaluation of the quantity and quality of tears for any abnormalities. leave small sores that ooze and bleed.
Posterior blepharitis can be caused by irregular oil production by the glands of the eyelids (meibomian blepharitis) which creates a favorable environment for bacterial growth. poor quality of tears. and missing and misdirected eyelashes. and redness of the lining of the eyelids. the transparent front covering of the eyeball. the cornea. Meibomian blepharitis is evident by blockage of the oil glands in the eyelids. may also become inflamed. There may also be a loss of eyelashes. your optometrist can determine if you have blepharitis and advise you on treatment options.
. base of the eyelashes and meibomian gland openings using bright light and magnification. or less commonly may be the result of allergies or an infestation of the eyelashes.
you may have to temporarily discontinue wearing them during treatment.
Moisten a clean washcloth with warm water.
2. Even with successful treatment. In cases involving bacterial infection. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup is often recommended.
Wash your hands thoroughly.
Directions for an Eyelid Scrub:
1. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult.
Close eyes and place washcloth on eyelids for about 5 minutes.
2. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult.
Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. Even with successful treatment. the eyelids may need to be massaged to clean out oil accumulated in the eyelid glands. followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyes with a mixture of water and baby shampoo or an over-the-counter lid cleansing product.
Warm compresses can be applied to loosen the crusts.
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Some cases of blepharitis may require more complex treatment plans.
An important part of controlling blepharitis involves treatment at home. Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo on the scalp can help. If the glands in the eyelids are blocked.
Wash your hands thoroughly. an antibiotic may also be prescribed.
Mix warm water and a small amount of non-irritating (baby) shampoo or use a commercially prepared lid scrub solution recommended by your optometrist.
Repeat several times daily.Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup when treating blepharitis is often recommended. relapses may occur.
Directions for a Warm Soak of the Eyelids:
1. relapses may occur.
3. Artificial tear solutions or lubricating ointments may be prescribed in some cases. If you wear contact lenses. reheating the washcloth as necessary.
Repeat with the other eye.
Using a clean cloth (a different one for each eye) rub the solution back and forth across the eyelashes and edge of the closed eyelid.
Rinse with clear water.