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1.1. Glandula lacrimalis asesorius Krause dan Wolfring (sekresi dasar) 2. Glandula lakrimalis utama mayor (sekresi refleks).
Fungsi air mata : 1. Melicinkan permukaan optik bola mata 2. Media pelepasan sel ‘desquamasi’. 3. Suplai oksigen ke kornea 4. Antimikroba 5. Lubrikasi pergesekan palpebra dan kornea 6. Mencegah pengeringan permukaan luar bola mata Lapisan air mata : 1. Lapisan lipid (atas), diproduksi oleh glandula meibom. Fungsi :
- Memperlambat menguapan air mata - Mempertahankan barier hidrofobik - Mempertahankan tear meniskus 2. Lapaisan akuous (tengah), diproduksi oleh kelejar Krause & Wolfring. Fungsi : - Suplai oksigen - Antimikroba - Meratakan permukaan kornea - Membersihkan kotoran - Mengatur fungsi sel-sel epitel kornea
Kelenjar lakrimalis terletak di puncak tepi luar dari mata kiri dan kanan dang menghasilkan air mata yang encer. Lapisan air mata, yang membasahi mata pada umumnya berstruktur kompleks yang terdiri dari 3 lapisan, yaitu:
air mata mengalir ke medial ke dalam lubang-lubang pungta tepi kelopak dan mengalir melalui kanalikuli ke dalam kantong lakrimalis dan kemudian melalui duktus nasolakrimalis menuju kehidung. Kelenjar meibom menghasilkan substasi pelumas berminyak untuk menghambat penguapan dan kelenjar ini bermuara pada tepi palpebra. b. . Di produksi oleh kelenjar lakrimalis utama dan kelenjar lakrimalis tembahan.a. Mencegah dehidrasi kornea Proses keluarnya air mata Pengeluaran air mata dapat pula dibantu dengan adanya kedipan kelopak mata secara sepontan yang berulang-ulang. Lapisan air mata berfungsi a. b. Lapisan terluar adalah lapisan berminyak yang diproduksi sebagian besar oleh kelenjar meibomi sebasea kelopok mata. Lapisan tengah. Mencegah tumbuhnya mikroorganisme d. Lapisan paling dalam adalah lapisan musin yang diproduksi oleh sel goblet yang tersebar diseluruh konjungtiva. merupakan lapisan air dan terbanyak. c. Mencegah kerusakan epitel kornea dan konjungtiva c. Melapisi permukaan kornea sehingga menjadi rata dan merupakan media refraksi yang baik.
particularly the cornea. dry eyes. red and swollen eyelids. or crusting of the eyelids. irritated. excessive tearing. However. itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes. blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. Blepharitis is classified into two types: 1. and inflammation of other eye tissue. 2. blepharitis causes only minor irritation and itching. In many cases. . This includes frequent scalp and face washing. various antibiotics and other medications may be prescribed along with eyelid hygiene.Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids causing red. It affects people of all ages. Anterior blepharitis occurs at the outside front edge of the eyelid where the eyelashes are attached. What causes blepharitis? Blepharitis can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes. In cases where a bacterial infection is the cause. it can lead to more severe signs and symptoms such as blurring of vision. Although uncomfortable. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacterial or a skin condition such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. Individuals with blepharitis may experience a gritty or burning sensation in their eyes. good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine can control blepharitis. For some people. and doing eyelid scrubs. missing or misdirected eyelashes. itching. using warm compresses to soak the eyelids. Posterior blepharitis affects the inner edge of the eyelid that comes in contact with the eyeball.
Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by matted. skin texture and eyelash appearance. poor quality of tears.Anterior blepharitis is commonly caused by bacteria (staphylococcal blepharits) or dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrheic blepharitis). . It can also develop as a result of other skin conditions such as acne rosacea and scalp dandruff. Posterior blepharitis can be caused by irregular oil production by the glands of the eyelids (meibomian blepharitis) which creates a favorable environment for bacterial growth. and redness of the lining of the eyelids. may include: • • • • Patient history to determine any symptoms the patient is experiencing and the presence of any general health problems that may be contributing to the eye problem. including lid structure. the cornea. and missing and misdirected eyelashes. may also become inflamed. External examination of the eye. Meibomian blepharitis is evident by blockage of the oil glands in the eyelids. Using the information obtained from testing. Evaluation of the lid margins. The key to treating most types of blepharitis is keeping the lids clean and free of crusts. Evaluation of the quantity and quality of tears for any abnormalities. distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. leave small sores that ooze and bleed. [back to top] How is blepharitis diagnosed? Blepharitis can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. the transparent front covering of the eyeball. A differentiation among the various types of blepharitis can often be made based on the appearance of the eyelid margins: • • • • Staphyloccal blepharitis patients frequently exhibit mild sticking together of the lids. or less commonly may be the result of allergies or an infestation of the eyelashes. There may also be a loss of eyelashes. your optometrist can determine if you have blepharitis and advise you on treatment options. with special emphasis on evaluation of the eyelids and front surface of the eyeball. In severe cases. Testing. It may also occur due to a combination of factors. thickened lid margins. Seborrheic blepharitis appears as greasy flakes or scales around the base of eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelids. hard crusts around the eyelashes that when removed. [back to top] How is blepharitis treated? Treatment depends on the specific type of blepharitis. base of the eyelashes and meibomian gland openings using bright light and magnification.
4. Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup is often recommended. an antibiotic may also be prescribed. Directions for an Eyelid Scrub: 1. Even with successful treatment. reheating the washcloth as necessary. If you wear contact lenses. In cases involving bacterial infection. you may have to temporarily discontinue wearing them during treatment. Moisten a clean washcloth with warm water. • Warm compresses can be applied to loosen the crusts. Wash your hands thoroughly. 2. relapses may occur. Mix warm water and a small amount of non-irritating (baby) shampoo or use a commercially prepared lid scrub solution recommended by your optometrist. followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyes with a mixture of water and baby shampoo or an over-the-counter lid cleansing product. relapses may occur. Repeat several times daily. Directions for a Warm Soak of the Eyelids: 1. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. Self-care An important part of controlling blepharitis involves treatment at home. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. Artificial tear solutions or lubricating ointments may be prescribed in some cases. the eyelids may need to be massaged to clean out oil accumulated in the eyelid glands. • • • • • Some cases of blepharitis may require more complex treatment plans. Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo on the scalp can help. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. . Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. 3. Wash your hands thoroughly.Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup when treating blepharitis is often recommended. Even with successful treatment. Close eyes and place washcloth on eyelids for about 5 minutes. If the glands in the eyelids are blocked. 2.
.3. Rinse with clear water. Repeat with the other eye. 4. 5. Using a clean cloth (a different one for each eye) rub the solution back and forth across the eyelashes and edge of the closed eyelid.