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1.1. Glandula lacrimalis asesorius Krause dan Wolfring (sekresi dasar) 2. Glandula lakrimalis utama mayor (sekresi refleks).
Fungsi air mata : 1. Melicinkan permukaan optik bola mata 2. Media pelepasan sel ‘desquamasi’. 3. Suplai oksigen ke kornea 4. Antimikroba 5. Lubrikasi pergesekan palpebra dan kornea 6. Mencegah pengeringan permukaan luar bola mata Lapisan air mata : 1. Lapisan lipid (atas), diproduksi oleh glandula meibom. Fungsi :
- Memperlambat menguapan air mata - Mempertahankan barier hidrofobik - Mempertahankan tear meniskus 2. Lapaisan akuous (tengah), diproduksi oleh kelejar Krause & Wolfring. Fungsi : - Suplai oksigen - Antimikroba - Meratakan permukaan kornea - Membersihkan kotoran - Mengatur fungsi sel-sel epitel kornea
Kelenjar lakrimalis terletak di puncak tepi luar dari mata kiri dan kanan dang menghasilkan air mata yang encer. Lapisan air mata, yang membasahi mata pada umumnya berstruktur kompleks yang terdiri dari 3 lapisan, yaitu:
. Lapisan terluar adalah lapisan berminyak yang diproduksi sebagian besar oleh kelenjar meibomi sebasea kelopok mata. Mencegah kerusakan epitel kornea dan konjungtiva c.a. Lapisan paling dalam adalah lapisan musin yang diproduksi oleh sel goblet yang tersebar diseluruh konjungtiva. Di produksi oleh kelenjar lakrimalis utama dan kelenjar lakrimalis tembahan. Lapisan tengah. merupakan lapisan air dan terbanyak. b. Kelenjar meibom menghasilkan substasi pelumas berminyak untuk menghambat penguapan dan kelenjar ini bermuara pada tepi palpebra. Mencegah tumbuhnya mikroorganisme d. air mata mengalir ke medial ke dalam lubang-lubang pungta tepi kelopak dan mengalir melalui kanalikuli ke dalam kantong lakrimalis dan kemudian melalui duktus nasolakrimalis menuju kehidung. Melapisi permukaan kornea sehingga menjadi rata dan merupakan media refraksi yang baik. c. b. Lapisan air mata berfungsi a. Mencegah dehidrasi kornea Proses keluarnya air mata Pengeluaran air mata dapat pula dibantu dengan adanya kedipan kelopak mata secara sepontan yang berulang-ulang.
In cases where a bacterial infection is the cause. Individuals with blepharitis may experience a gritty or burning sensation in their eyes. 2.Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids causing red. It affects people of all ages. Although uncomfortable. In many cases. irritated. blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacterial or a skin condition such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. However. various antibiotics and other medications may be prescribed along with eyelid hygiene. This includes frequent scalp and face washing. For some people. and inflammation of other eye tissue. missing or misdirected eyelashes. dry eyes. . itching. or crusting of the eyelids. excessive tearing. good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine can control blepharitis. particularly the cornea. itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes. it can lead to more severe signs and symptoms such as blurring of vision. using warm compresses to soak the eyelids. and doing eyelid scrubs. What causes blepharitis? Blepharitis can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes. Anterior blepharitis occurs at the outside front edge of the eyelid where the eyelashes are attached. red and swollen eyelids. Blepharitis is classified into two types: 1. blepharitis causes only minor irritation and itching. Posterior blepharitis affects the inner edge of the eyelid that comes in contact with the eyeball.
Meibomian blepharitis is evident by blockage of the oil glands in the eyelids. and missing and misdirected eyelashes. skin texture and eyelash appearance. distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. There may also be a loss of eyelashes. . the cornea. Evaluation of the quantity and quality of tears for any abnormalities. thickened lid margins. with special emphasis on evaluation of the eyelids and front surface of the eyeball. Testing. poor quality of tears. Posterior blepharitis can be caused by irregular oil production by the glands of the eyelids (meibomian blepharitis) which creates a favorable environment for bacterial growth. or less commonly may be the result of allergies or an infestation of the eyelashes. may include: • • • • Patient history to determine any symptoms the patient is experiencing and the presence of any general health problems that may be contributing to the eye problem. [back to top] How is blepharitis treated? Treatment depends on the specific type of blepharitis. Using the information obtained from testing. may also become inflamed. Seborrheic blepharitis appears as greasy flakes or scales around the base of eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelids. External examination of the eye. and redness of the lining of the eyelids. A differentiation among the various types of blepharitis can often be made based on the appearance of the eyelid margins: • • • • Staphyloccal blepharitis patients frequently exhibit mild sticking together of the lids. including lid structure. Evaluation of the lid margins. the transparent front covering of the eyeball. leave small sores that ooze and bleed. [back to top] How is blepharitis diagnosed? Blepharitis can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. It may also occur due to a combination of factors. Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by matted. base of the eyelashes and meibomian gland openings using bright light and magnification. your optometrist can determine if you have blepharitis and advise you on treatment options. In severe cases. It can also develop as a result of other skin conditions such as acne rosacea and scalp dandruff. hard crusts around the eyelashes that when removed. The key to treating most types of blepharitis is keeping the lids clean and free of crusts.Anterior blepharitis is commonly caused by bacteria (staphylococcal blepharits) or dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrheic blepharitis).
. Self-care An important part of controlling blepharitis involves treatment at home. 3. Repeat several times daily. Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo on the scalp can help. Close eyes and place washcloth on eyelids for about 5 minutes. Mix warm water and a small amount of non-irritating (baby) shampoo or use a commercially prepared lid scrub solution recommended by your optometrist. 2. Even with successful treatment. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. If the glands in the eyelids are blocked. reheating the washcloth as necessary. relapses may occur. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. Artificial tear solutions or lubricating ointments may be prescribed in some cases. you may have to temporarily discontinue wearing them during treatment. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. In cases involving bacterial infection. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. • • • • • Some cases of blepharitis may require more complex treatment plans. followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyes with a mixture of water and baby shampoo or an over-the-counter lid cleansing product. the eyelids may need to be massaged to clean out oil accumulated in the eyelid glands. Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup is often recommended. Even with successful treatment. If you wear contact lenses. Directions for an Eyelid Scrub: 1. 2. relapses may occur.Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup when treating blepharitis is often recommended. an antibiotic may also be prescribed. • Warm compresses can be applied to loosen the crusts. Moisten a clean washcloth with warm water. Wash your hands thoroughly. Directions for a Warm Soak of the Eyelids: 1. Wash your hands thoroughly. 4.
. 4. Rinse with clear water.3. Repeat with the other eye. Using a clean cloth (a different one for each eye) rub the solution back and forth across the eyelashes and edge of the closed eyelid. 5.
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