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1.1. Glandula lacrimalis asesorius Krause dan Wolfring (sekresi dasar) 2. Glandula lakrimalis utama mayor (sekresi refleks).
Fungsi air mata : 1. Melicinkan permukaan optik bola mata 2. Media pelepasan sel ‘desquamasi’. 3. Suplai oksigen ke kornea 4. Antimikroba 5. Lubrikasi pergesekan palpebra dan kornea 6. Mencegah pengeringan permukaan luar bola mata Lapisan air mata : 1. Lapisan lipid (atas), diproduksi oleh glandula meibom. Fungsi :
- Memperlambat menguapan air mata - Mempertahankan barier hidrofobik - Mempertahankan tear meniskus 2. Lapaisan akuous (tengah), diproduksi oleh kelejar Krause & Wolfring. Fungsi : - Suplai oksigen - Antimikroba - Meratakan permukaan kornea - Membersihkan kotoran - Mengatur fungsi sel-sel epitel kornea
Kelenjar lakrimalis terletak di puncak tepi luar dari mata kiri dan kanan dang menghasilkan air mata yang encer. Lapisan air mata, yang membasahi mata pada umumnya berstruktur kompleks yang terdiri dari 3 lapisan, yaitu:
Kelenjar meibom menghasilkan substasi pelumas berminyak untuk menghambat penguapan dan kelenjar ini bermuara pada tepi palpebra. b. Mencegah kerusakan epitel kornea dan konjungtiva c. air mata mengalir ke medial ke dalam lubang-lubang pungta tepi kelopak dan mengalir melalui kanalikuli ke dalam kantong lakrimalis dan kemudian melalui duktus nasolakrimalis menuju kehidung. Lapisan paling dalam adalah lapisan musin yang diproduksi oleh sel goblet yang tersebar diseluruh konjungtiva. Di produksi oleh kelenjar lakrimalis utama dan kelenjar lakrimalis tembahan. . Lapisan tengah. c. Mencegah tumbuhnya mikroorganisme d. merupakan lapisan air dan terbanyak. Lapisan air mata berfungsi a.a. b. Melapisi permukaan kornea sehingga menjadi rata dan merupakan media refraksi yang baik. Mencegah dehidrasi kornea Proses keluarnya air mata Pengeluaran air mata dapat pula dibantu dengan adanya kedipan kelopak mata secara sepontan yang berulang-ulang. Lapisan terluar adalah lapisan berminyak yang diproduksi sebagian besar oleh kelenjar meibomi sebasea kelopok mata.
blepharitis causes only minor irritation and itching. This includes frequent scalp and face washing. or crusting of the eyelids. It affects people of all ages. Blepharitis is classified into two types: 1. blepharitis is not contagious and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. In cases where a bacterial infection is the cause. excessive tearing. 2. Anterior blepharitis occurs at the outside front edge of the eyelid where the eyelashes are attached. and inflammation of other eye tissue. various antibiotics and other medications may be prescribed along with eyelid hygiene. and doing eyelid scrubs. Individuals with blepharitis may experience a gritty or burning sensation in their eyes. itching. . For some people. missing or misdirected eyelashes. Although uncomfortable. itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes. In many cases. using warm compresses to soak the eyelids. irritated. it can lead to more severe signs and symptoms such as blurring of vision. However. red and swollen eyelids. dry eyes.Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids causing red. Posterior blepharitis affects the inner edge of the eyelid that comes in contact with the eyeball. It is a common eye disorder caused by either bacterial or a skin condition such as dandruff of the scalp or acne rosacea. What causes blepharitis? Blepharitis can appear as greasy flakes or scales around the base of the eyelashes. good eyelid hygiene and a regular cleaning routine can control blepharitis. particularly the cornea.
thickened lid margins. Testing. or less commonly may be the result of allergies or an infestation of the eyelashes. There may also be a loss of eyelashes. hard crusts around the eyelashes that when removed. Evaluation of the lid margins.Anterior blepharitis is commonly caused by bacteria (staphylococcal blepharits) or dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrheic blepharitis). It may also occur due to a combination of factors. with special emphasis on evaluation of the eyelids and front surface of the eyeball. Ulcerative blepharitis is characterized by matted. The key to treating most types of blepharitis is keeping the lids clean and free of crusts. A differentiation among the various types of blepharitis can often be made based on the appearance of the eyelid margins: • • • • Staphyloccal blepharitis patients frequently exhibit mild sticking together of the lids. Using the information obtained from testing. In severe cases. poor quality of tears. and missing and misdirected eyelashes. leave small sores that ooze and bleed. External examination of the eye. Seborrheic blepharitis appears as greasy flakes or scales around the base of eyelashes and a mild redness of the eyelids. It can also develop as a result of other skin conditions such as acne rosacea and scalp dandruff. may also become inflamed. Meibomian blepharitis is evident by blockage of the oil glands in the eyelids. including lid structure. may include: • • • • Patient history to determine any symptoms the patient is experiencing and the presence of any general health problems that may be contributing to the eye problem. skin texture and eyelash appearance. Posterior blepharitis can be caused by irregular oil production by the glands of the eyelids (meibomian blepharitis) which creates a favorable environment for bacterial growth. the transparent front covering of the eyeball. your optometrist can determine if you have blepharitis and advise you on treatment options. the cornea. [back to top] How is blepharitis diagnosed? Blepharitis can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination. distortion of the front edges of the eyelids and chronic tearing. . [back to top] How is blepharitis treated? Treatment depends on the specific type of blepharitis. Evaluation of the quantity and quality of tears for any abnormalities. base of the eyelashes and meibomian gland openings using bright light and magnification. and redness of the lining of the eyelids.
Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup is often recommended. If the glands in the eyelids are blocked. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. 2. Repeat several times daily. Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. reheating the washcloth as necessary. 2. Self-care An important part of controlling blepharitis involves treatment at home. 4. the eyelids may need to be massaged to clean out oil accumulated in the eyelid glands. Artificial tear solutions or lubricating ointments may be prescribed in some cases. If you wear contact lenses. relapses may occur. Moisten a clean washcloth with warm water. Directions for a Warm Soak of the Eyelids: 1. Even with successful treatment.Limiting or stopping the use of eye makeup when treating blepharitis is often recommended. Close eyes and place washcloth on eyelids for about 5 minutes. Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo on the scalp can help. Even with successful treatment. Directions for an Eyelid Scrub: 1. as its use will make lid hygiene more difficult. In cases involving bacterial infection. • • • • • Some cases of blepharitis may require more complex treatment plans. relapses may occur. • Warm compresses can be applied to loosen the crusts. an antibiotic may also be prescribed. you may have to temporarily discontinue wearing them during treatment. followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyes with a mixture of water and baby shampoo or an over-the-counter lid cleansing product. . Blepharitis seldom disappears completely. Wash your hands thoroughly. 3. Wash your hands thoroughly. Mix warm water and a small amount of non-irritating (baby) shampoo or use a commercially prepared lid scrub solution recommended by your optometrist.
Rinse with clear water. Repeat with the other eye. 5. . 4. Using a clean cloth (a different one for each eye) rub the solution back and forth across the eyelashes and edge of the closed eyelid.3.
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